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Sample records for parenchymal transection device

  1. A new technique for hepatic parenchymal transection using an articulating bipolar 5 cm radiofrequency device: results from the first 100 procedures.

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    Takahashi, Hideo; Akyuz, Muhammet; Aksoy, Erol; Aucejo, Federico; Quintini, Cristiano; Miller, Charles; Fung, John; Berber, Eren

    2018-04-13

    Parenchymal transection(PT) still remains a challenge in liver resection. The outcomes of the first experience of a novel vessel-sealer for hepatic transection were assessed. A bipolar articulating vessel-sealer (Caiman ® , Aesculap Inc., Center Valley, PA) was used in 100 liver resections through both open (OLR) and laparoscopic (LLR) approaches. All data were prospectively collected into an IRB-approved department database, and clinical, surgical and perioperative parameters were analyzed. Fifty patients underwent OLR and 50 patients underwent LLR. Eighty hepatectomies were performed for malignancy. Median number of tumors was 1, with the largest focus measuring an average of 5.1 cm. Forty-nine of the procedures were major liver resections. Parenchymal transection time was 29.9 ± 3.1 min in OLR and 29.9 ± 3.6 min in LLR. Median estimated blood loss was 300 cc (Inter-quartile range (IQR) 100-575 cc). Median hospital stay was 6 days for open and 3 days for laparoscopic procedures. Ninety-day complication rate was 8% without any mortality. Bile leak rate was 4%. Staplers were used for parenchymal transection in 16 cases. This study introduces a new multifunctional device into the armamentarium of the liver surgeon. In our experience, this device facilitated the parenchymal transection by adding speed and consolidating the amount of instrumentation used in liver resection without increasing complications. Copyright © 2018 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. What is the best technique in parenchymal transection in laparoscopic liver resection? Comprehensive review for the clinical question on the 2nd International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection.

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    Otsuka, Yuichiro; Kaneko, Hironori; Cleary, Sean P; Buell, Joseph F; Cai, Xiujun; Wakabayashi, Go

    2015-05-01

    The continuing evolution of technique and devices used in laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) has allowed successful application of this minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of liver disease. However, the type of instruments by energy sources and technique used vary among each institution. We reviewed the literature to seek the best technique for parenchymal transection, which was proposed as one of the important clinical question in the 2nd International Consensus Conference on LLR held on October 2014. While publications have described transection techniques used in LLR from 1991 to June 2014, it is difficult to specify the best technique and device for laparoscopic hepatic parenchymal transection, owing to a lack of randomized trials with only a small number of comparative studies. However, it is clear that instruments should be used in combination with others based on their functions and the depth of liver resection. Most authors have reported using staplers to secure and divide major vessels. Preparation for prevention of unexpected hemorrhaging particularly in liver cirrhosis, the Pringle's maneuver and prompt technique for hemostasis should be performed. We conclude that hepatobiliary surgeons should select techniques based on their familiarity with a concrete understanding of instruments and individualize to the procedure of LLR. © 2015 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  3. Use of bipolar radiofrequency in parenchymal transection of the liver, pancreas and kidney.

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    Pai, Madhava; Spalding, Duncan; Jiao, Long; Habib, Nagy

    2012-01-01

    Intraoperative blood loss has been shown to be an important factor correlating with increased morbidity and mortality in oncological surgery. Despite technological advances in parenchymal transection devices, bleeding remains the single most important complication. To address this, we designed and developed a bipolar radiofrequency (RF) device, the Habib 4X (Angiodynamics, Inc., Queensbury, N.Y., USA), which was initially used specifically for liver resections. A search using Medline, Embase and Google™ Scholar was performed for the period January 2001 to August 2011. The following Mesh terms were used: 'bipolar radiofrequency', 'Habib 4X', 'laparoscopic', 'liver resection', 'partial nephrectomy' and 'distal pancreatectomy'. The references of the studies included were also reviewed. Series from our centre were excluded. There were seven series published, reporting a total of 188 liver resections [113 minor (Habib 4X) device over this period. The median blood loss reported ranged from 15 to 427 ml with a transfusion rate of 0-14% In addition, five series of partial nephrectomies were also identified, reporting a total of 149 (45 open and 104 laparoscopic) cases. Hilar clamping was not used in any of the cases, and the mean blood loss reported was 100-337 ml whilst the transfusion rate ranged from 0 to 7.1%. There was only one published series of distal pancreatectomies; these were laparoscopic and included 14 patients. This review of bipolar RF-assisted liver resections, partial nephrectomies and distal pancreatectomies reported in the literature to date shows that there are significant advantages in using this device in these types of operation. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Opportunistic use of a Foley catheter to provide a common electrocautery with a water-irrigating channel for hepatic parenchymal transection.

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    Yamamoto, Yuzo; Yoshioka, Masato; Watanabe, Go; Uchinami, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    High-tech surgical energy devices that are used during a single surgery have increased in number and the expense for such disposable units is by no means negligible. We developed a handmade water-irrigating monopolar electrocautery using a Foley catheter to perform liver parenchymal transection. A commonly used 20-24 Fr Foley catheter was cut at a length of about 8 cm. The shaft of the 5 mm ball electrode measuring 13.5 cm in length was then inlaid into the urine drainage channel. The target tissues were cauterized without making an eschar, thereby preventing the adhesion of the electrode to the tissues. A ball electrode with our handmade water irrigation sheath can be made in only a few minutes at a very low cost, using common medical supplies and yielding satisfactory effects comparable to the use of specialized high-tech devices.

  5. Initial experience with a new articulating energy device for laparoscopic liver resection.

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    Berber, Eren; Akyuz, Muhammet; Aucejo, Federico; Aliyev, Shamil; Aksoy, Erol; Birsen, Onur; Taskin, Eren

    2014-03-01

    Although significant advances have been made in laparoscopic liver resection (LLR), most techniques still rely on multiple energy devices and staplers, which increase operative costs. The aim of this study was to report the initial results of a new multifunctional energy device for hepatic parenchymal transection. Fourteen patients who underwent LLR using this new device were compared to 20 patients who had LLR using current laparoscopic techniques (CL). Data were collected prospectively. The groups were similar demographics and tumor type and size. Although the type of resection was similar between the groups, the parenchymal transection time was less in the Caiman group (32 ± 5 vs. 63 ± 4 min, respectively, p = 0.0001). The operative time was similar (194 ± 21 vs. 233 ± 16 min, respectively, p = 0.158). There was reduction of the number of advanced instrumentation used in the Caiman group, including the staplers. Estimated blood loss, size of surgical margin, and hospital stay were similar. There was no mortality, and morbidity was 7 % in the Caiman and 20 % in the CL group. This initial study shows that the new device is safe and efficient for LLR. Its main advantage is shortening of hepatic parenchymal transection time. This has implications for increasing efficiency and cost saving in LLR.

  6. Pinch-off syndrome: transection of implantable central venous access device.

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    Sugimoto, Takuya; Nagata, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Ken; Kano, Nobuyasu

    2012-11-30

    As the population of people with cancer increases so does the number of patients who take chemotherapy. Majority of them are administered parentally continuously. Implantable central venous catheter device is a good choice for those patients; however, severe complication would occur concerning the devices. Pinch-off syndrome is one of the most severe complications. The authors report a severe case of pinch-off syndrome. The patient with the implantable central venous device could not take chemotherapy because the device occluded. Further examination revealed the transection of the catheter. The transected fragment of the catheter in the heart was successfully removed by using a loop snare placed through the right femoral vein.

  7. Liver resection with bipolar radiofrequency device: Habib 4X.

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    Pai, Madhava; Jiao, Long R; Khorsandi, Shirin; Canelo, Ruben; Spalding, Duncan R C; Habib, Nagy A

    2008-01-01

    Intraoperative blood loss has been shown to be an important factor correlating with morbidity and mortality in liver surgery. In spite of the technological advances in hepatic parenchymal transection devices, bleeding remains the single most important complication of liver surgery. The role of radiofrequency (RF) in liver surgery has been expanded from tumour ablation to major hepatic resections in the last decade. Habib 4X, a new bipolar RF device designed specifically for liver resection is described here. Habib 4X is a bipolar, handheld, disposable RF device and consists of two pairs of opposing electrodes which is introduced perpendicularly into the liver, along the intended transection line. It produces controlled RF energy between the electrodes and the heat produced seals even major biliary and blood vessels and enables resection of the liver parenchyma with a scalpel without blood loss or biliary leak. Three hundred and eleven patients underwent 384 liver resections from January 2002 to October 2007 with this device. There were 109 major resections and none of the patients had vascular inflow occlusion (Pringle's manoeuvre). Mean intraoperative blood loss was 305 ml (range 0-4300) ml, with less than 5% (n=18) rate of transfusion. Habib 4X is an additional device for hepatobiliary surgeons to perform liver resections with minimal blood loss and low morbidity and mortality rates.

  8. A systematic review on radiofrequency assisted laparoscopic liver resection: Challenges and window to excel.

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    Reccia, Isabella; Kumar, Jayant; Kusano, Tomokazu; Zanellato, Artur; Draz, Ahmed; Spalding, Duncan; Habib, Nagy; Pai, Madhava

    2017-09-01

    Laparoscopic liver resection has progressively gained acceptance as a safe and effective procedure in the treatment of benign and malignant liver neoplasms. However, blood loss remains the major challenge in liver surgery. Several techniques and devices have been introduced in liver surgery in order to minimize intraoperative haemorrhage during parenchymal transection. Radiofrequency (RF)-assisted liver resection has been shown to be an effective method to minimize bleeding in open and laparoscopic liver resection. A number of RF devices for parenchymal transection have been designed to assist laparoscopic liver resections. Here we have reviewed the results of various RF devices in laparoscopic liver resection. A total 15 article were considered relevant for the evaluation of technical aspects and outcomes of RF-assisted liver resections in laparoscopic procedures. In these studies, 176 patients had laparoscopic liver resection using RF-assisted parenchymal coagulation. Two monopolar and three bipolar devices were employed. Blood loss was limited in most of the studies. The need of blood transfusions was limited to two cases in all the series. Conversion was necessary due to bleeding in 3 cases. Operative and transection times varied between studies. However, RF-assisted resection with bipolar devices appeared to have taken less time in comparison to other RF devices. RF-related complications were minimum, and only one case of in-hospital death due to hepatic failure was reported. Although RF has been used in a small minority of laparoscopic liver resections, laparoscopic RF-assisted liver resection for benign and malignant disease is a safe and feasible procedure associated with reduction in blood loss, low morbidity, and lower hospital mortality rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pulmonary Hypertension in Parenchymal Lung Disease

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    Tsangaris, Iraklis; Tsaknis, Georgios; Anthi, Anastasia; Orfanos, Stylianos E.

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) has been extensively investigated, although it represents a less common form of the pulmonary hypertension (PH) family, as shown by international registries. Interestingly, in types of PH that are encountered in parenchymal lung diseases such as interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and many other diffuse parenchymal lung diseases, some of which are very common, the available data is limited. In this paper, we try to browse in the latest available data regarding the occurrence, pathogenesis, and treatment of PH in chronic parenchymal lung diseases. PMID:23094153

  10. All-In-One: Advanced preparation of Human Parenchymal and Non-Parenchymal Liver Cells.

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    Melanie Werner

    Full Text Available Liver cells are key players in innate immunity. Thus, studying primary isolated liver cells is necessary for determining their role in liver physiology and pathophysiology. In particular, the quantity and quality of isolated cells are crucial to their function. Our aim was to isolate a large quantity of high-quality human parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells from a single liver specimen.Hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, and stellate cells were isolated from liver tissues by collagenase perfusion in combination with low-speed centrifugation, density gradient centrifugation, and magnetic-activated cell sorting. The purity and functionality of cultured cell populations were controlled by determining their morphology, discriminative cell marker expression, and functional activity.Cell preparation yielded the following cell counts per gram of liver tissue: 2.0 ± 0.4 × 10(7 hepatocytes, 1.8 ± 0.5 × 10(6 Kupffer cells, 4.3 ± 1.9 × 10(5 liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, and 3.2 ± 0.5 × 10(5 stellate cells. Hepatocytes were identified by albumin (95.5 ± 1.7% and exhibited time-dependent activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes. Kupffer cells expressed CD68 (94.5 ± 1.2% and exhibited phagocytic activity, as determined with 1 μm latex beads. Endothelial cells were CD146(+ (97.8 ± 1.1% and exhibited efficient uptake of acetylated low-density lipoprotein. Hepatic stellate cells were identified by the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (97.1 ± 1.5%. These cells further exhibited retinol (vitamin A-mediated autofluorescence.Our isolation procedure for primary parenchymal and non-parenchymal liver cells resulted in cell populations of high purity and quality, with retained physiological functionality in vitro. Thus, this system may provide a valuable tool for determining liver function and disease.

  11. Imaging Characteristics of Venous Parenchymal Abnormalities.

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    Arnoux, Audrey; Triquenot-Bagan, Aude; Andriuta, Daniela; Wallon, David; Guegan-Massardier, Evelyne; Leclercq, Claire; Martinaud, Olivier; Castier-Amouyel, Mélody; Godefroy, Olivier; Bugnicourt, Jean-Marc

    2017-12-01

    There are few published data on the patterns of parenchymal imaging abnormalities in a context of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). The objectives of the present study were to describe the patterns of parenchymal lesions associated with CVT and to determine the lesion sites. We included 44 consecutively hospitalized patients with CVT and parenchymal lesions on magnetic resonance imaging. The diagnosis of CVT had been confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance venography. Magnetic resonance imaging patterns for CVT were retrospectively analyzed with regard to the lesion's type, shape, and site. The most frequent stroke subtype was hemorrhagic ischemia (in 56.8% of cases), followed by intracerebral hematoma (in 22.72% of cases) and nonhemorrhagic ischemia (in 20.45% of cases). Although there were no significant differences between these 3 groups with regard to the clinical and radiological characteristics, we observed a nonsignificant trend ( P =0.08) toward a shorter time interval between hospital admission and magnetic resonance imaging for nonhemorrhagic stroke. The CVT parenchymal abnormalities were centered on 6 main foci and were related to the site of venous occlusion: (1) the inferior parietal lobule (n=20; 44.5%), associated mainly with occlusion of the transverse sinus (n=10) or pure cortical veins (n=10); (2) the inferior and posterior temporal regions (n=10; 22.75%), associated mainly with occlusion of the transverse sinus (n=9); (3) the parasagittal frontal region (n=6; 13.6%), associated mainly with occlusion of the superior sagittal sinus (n=4) or the transverse sinus (n=4); (4) the thalamus (n=5; 11.3%) associated with occlusion of the straight sinus (n=5); (5) the cerebellar hemisphere (n=2; 4.5%), associated in both cases with occlusion of the transverse sinus; and (6) the deep hemispheric regions (n=3; 6.8%), associated with occlusion of the superior sagittal sinus in all cases. Parenchymal lesions caused by CVT display specific

  12. Relation between breast parenchymal pattern and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyeung Hee; Lee, Sung Yong; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1985-01-01

    Although the usefulness of mammography as a screening test for breast cancer is still in dispute, its use to patients over 50 years of age is valid. Since Wolfe first classified the breast parenchymal patterns of mammography into 4 patterns, many authors have adopted the criteria in studying the changes of the parenchymal patterns for certain ages and the risks for breast cancer of certain parenchymal patterns. Authors reviewed 49 cases of breast masses which diagnosed by mammography and by operation during the period from January 1978 to July 1983 at St. Mary Hospital, Catholic Medical College. The parenchymal tissue patterns were classified according to Wolfe into N1, P1, P2 and DY, Risk groups were classified into low risk group (N1, P1) and high group (P2, DY). On the basis of these criteria, benign and malignant disease were analyzed against the breast parenchymal patterns. The results and conclusions were as follows: 1. Age ranged from 16 years to 67 years with the most prevalent age being 4th and 5th decades. 2. Diagnoses were: fibroadenoma 17 cases, fibrous dysplasia 16 cases, ductal papilloma 3 cases, and cancer 13 cases. 3. Categorization of those 26 benign disease according to the Wolfe's criteria was: N1 6 cases, P1 10 cases, P2 9 cases and DY 11 cases. On the other hand, categorization of 13 cases of cancer was: N1 5 caes, P1 3 cases, P2 3 cases, and DY 2 cases. 4. Of 13 cases of cancer, 8 fell in the low risk group and remainder in the high risk group. There were no significant correlation between the parenchymal patterns and the incidence of breast cancer

  13. Frontal parenchymal atrophy measures in multiple sclerosis.

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    Locatelli, Laura; Zivadinov, Robert; Grop, Attilio; Zorzon, Marino

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether, in a cross-sectional study, the normalized measures of whole and regional brain atrophy correlate better with tests assessing the cognitive function than the absolute brain atrophy measures. The neuropsychological performances and disability have been assessed in 39 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). T1- and T2-lesion load (LL) of total brain and frontal lobes (FLs) were measured using a reproducible semiautomated technique. The whole brain volume and the regional brain parenchymal volume (RBPV) of FLs were obtained using a computerized interactive program, which incorporates semiautomated and automated segmentation processes. Normalized measures of brain atrophy, i.e., brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) and regional brain parenchymal fraction (RBPF) of FLs, were calculated. The scan-rescan, inter- and intrarater coefficient of variation (COV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) have been estimated. The RBPF of FLs showed an acceptable level of reproducibility which ranged from 1.7% for intrarater variability to 3.2% for scan-rescan variability. The mean ICC was 0.88 (CI 0.82-0.93). The RBPF of FLs demonstrated stronger magnitudes of correlation with neuropsychological functioning, disability and quantitative MRI lesion measures than RBPV. These differences were statistically significant: PColor Word Interference test, Pcognitive functions, whereas BPAV did not. The correlation analysis results were supported by the results of multiple regression analysis which showed that only the normalized brain atrophy measures were associated with tests exploring the cognitive functions. These data suggest that RBPF is a reproducible and sensitive method for measuring frontal parenchymal atrophy. The normalized measures of whole and regional brain parenchymal atrophy should be preferred to absolute measures in future studies that correlate neuropsychological performances and brain atrophy measures

  14. Primary non-transecting bulbar urethroplasty long-term success rates are similar to transecting urethroplasty.

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    Anderson, Kirk M; Blakely, Stephen A; O'Donnell, Colin I; Nikolavsky, Dmitriy; Flynn, Brian J

    2017-01-01

    To review the long-term outcomes of transecting versus non-transecting urethroplasty to repair bulbar urethral strictures. A retrospective review was conducted of 342 patients who underwent anterior urethroplasty performed by a single surgeon from 2003 to 2014. Patients were excluded from further analysis if there had been prior urethroplasty, stricture location outside the bulbous urethra, or age urethroplasty. In the non-transecting group, surgical techniques used included non-transecting anastomotic urethroplasty and dorsal and/or ventral buccal grafting. The primary endpoint was stricture resolution in transecting vs. non-transecting bulbar urethroplasty. Success was defined as freedom from secondary procedures including dilation, urethrotomy, or repeat urethroplasty. One hundred and fifty-two patients met inclusion criteria. At a mean follow-up of 65 months (range: 10-138 months), stricture-free recurrence in the transecting and non-transecting groups was similar, 83% (n = 85/102) and 82% (n = 41/50), respectively (p = 0.84). Surgical technique (p = 0.91), stricture length (p = 0.8), and etiology (p = 0.6) did not affect stricture recurrence rate on multivariate analysis. There was no difference detected in time to stricture recurrence (p = 0.21). In this retrospective series, transecting and non-transecting primary bulbar urethroplasty resulted in similar long-term stricture resolution rate. Prospective studies are needed to determine what differences may present in outcomes related to sexual function and long-term success.

  15. A brain-machine-muscle interface for restoring hindlimb locomotion after complete spinal transection in rats.

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    Monzurul Alam

    Full Text Available A brain-machine interface (BMI is a neuroprosthetic device that can restore motor function of individuals with paralysis. Although the feasibility of BMI control of upper-limb neuroprostheses has been demonstrated, a BMI for the restoration of lower-limb motor functions has not yet been developed. The objective of this study was to determine if gait-related information can be captured from neural activity recorded from the primary motor cortex of rats, and if this neural information can be used to stimulate paralysed hindlimb muscles after complete spinal cord transection. Neural activity was recorded from the hindlimb area of the primary motor cortex of six female Sprague Dawley rats during treadmill locomotion before and after mid-thoracic transection. Before spinal transection there was a strong association between neural activity and the step cycle. This association decreased after spinal transection. However, the locomotive state (standing vs. walking could still be successfully decoded from neural recordings made after spinal transection. A novel BMI device was developed that processed this neural information in real-time and used it to control electrical stimulation of paralysed hindlimb muscles. This system was able to elicit hindlimb muscle contractions that mimicked forelimb stepping. We propose this lower-limb BMI as a future neuroprosthesis for human paraplegics.

  16. Prognosis of patients with transected melanomas.

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    Martires, Kathryn J; Nandi, Tina; Honda, Kord; Cooper, Kevin D; Bordeaux, Jeremy S

    2013-04-01

    The management of melanoma is directly related to Breslow's depth. Biopsying melanomas in a fashion that transects the deep margin precludes an accurate measurement of the true depth. To examine the prognosis of melanomas transected along the deep margins, as well as cases where no residual melanoma was seen on re-excision after transection. Records from a cohort of patients at one institution were examined from 1996 through 2007. Patients were considered to have "transected" melanomas if tumor cells were present on the deep margin of the biopsy. Overall survival was determined. Seven hundred fourteen patients were examined. 171 (24%) of all melanomas were transected. 101(59%) of those lacked tumor cells on re-excision. Patients with transected melanomas were older (OR = 1.03, p < .001), and had higher Breslow's depths (OR = 1.21, p < .001) than those without transected tumors. Those with no residual melanoma after transection were younger (OR = 0.98, p = .010) and more likely to have no lymph node involvement (OR = 2.23, p = .037). Neither transection (p = .760), nor lack of residual melanoma on re-excision after transection (p = .793) influenced survival. A high number of melanomas are transected at diagnosis, many of which lack visible tumor. The original Breslow's depth of transected melanomas without residual tumor on re-excision accurately predicts survival and prognosis. © 2013 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Parenchymal abnormalities associated with developmental venous anomalies

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    San Millan Ruiz, Diego; Gailloud, Philippe [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Delavelle, Jacqueline [Geneva University Hospital, Neuroradiology Section, Department of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Geneva (Switzerland); Yilmaz, Hasan; Ruefenacht, Daniel A. [Geneva University Hospital, Section of Interventional Neuroradiology, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Geneva (Switzerland); Piovan, Enrico; Bertramello, Alberto; Pizzini, Francesca [Verona City Hospital, Service of Neuroradiology, Verona (Italy)

    2007-12-15

    To report a retrospective series of 84 cerebral developmental venous anomalies (DVAs), focusing on associated parenchymal abnormalities within the drainage territory of the DVA. DVAs were identified during routine diagnostic radiological work-up based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (60 cases), computed tomography (CT) (62 cases) or both (36 cases). Regional parenchymal modifications within the drainage territory of the DVA, such as cortical or subcortical atrophy, white matter density or signal alterations, dystrophic calcifications, presence of haemorrhage or a cavernous-like vascular malformation (CVM), were noted. A stenosis of the collecting vein of the DVA was also sought for. Brain abnormalities within the drainage territory of a DVA were encountered in 65.4% of the cases. Locoregional brain atrophy occurred in 29.7% of the cases, followed by white matter lesions in 28.3% of MRI investigations and 19.3% of CT investigations, CVMs in 13.3% of MRI investigations and dystrophic calcification in 9.6% of CT investigations. An intracranial haemorrhage possibly related to a DVA occurred in 2.4% cases, and a stenosis on the collecting vein was documented in 13.1% of cases. Parenchymal abnormalities were identified for all DVA sizes. Brain parenchymal abnormalities were associated with DVAs in close to two thirds of the cases evaluated. These abnormalities are thought to occur secondarily, likely during post-natal life, as a result of chronic venous hypertension. Outflow obstruction, progressive thickening of the walls of the DVA and their morphological organization into a venous convergence zone are thought to contribute to the development of venous hypertension in DVA. (orig.)

  18. Effect of parenchymal stiffness on canine airway size with lung inflation.

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    Robert H Brown

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Although airway patency is partially maintained by parenchymal tethering, this structural support is often ignored in many discussions of asthma. However, agonists that induce smooth muscle contraction also stiffen the parenchyma, so such parenchymal stiffening may serve as a defense mechanism to prevent airway narrowing or closure. To quantify this effect, specifically how changes in parenchymal stiffness alter airway size at different levels of lung inflation, in the present study, we devised a method to separate the effect of parenchymal stiffening from that of direct airway narrowing. Six anesthetized dogs were studied under four conditions: baseline, after whole lung aerosol histamine challenge, after local airway histamine challenge, and after complete relaxation of the airways. In each of these conditions, we used High resolution Computed Tomography to measure airway size and lung volume at five different airway pressures (0, 12, 25, 32, and 45 cm H(2O. Parenchymal stiffening had a protective effect on airway narrowing, a fact that may be important in the airway response to deep inspiration in asthma. When the parenchyma was stiffened by whole lung aerosol histamine challenge, at every lung volume above FRC, the airways were larger than when they were directly challenged with histamine to the same initial constriction. These results show for the first time that a stiff parenchyma per se minimizes the airway narrowing that occurs with histamine challenge at any lung volume. Thus in clinical asthma, it is not simply increased airway smooth muscle contraction, but perhaps a lack of homogeneous parenchymal stiffening that contributes to the symptomatic airway hyperresponsiveness.

  19. MR findings of degenerating parenchymal neurocysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yul; Chung, Eun A; Yang, Ik; Park, Hae Jung; Chung, Soo Young

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate MR imaging findings of degenerating parenchymal neurocysticercosis and to determine the characteristics which distinguish it from other brain diseases. MR imagings of 19 patients (56 lesions) of degenerating parenchymal neurocysticercosis were retrospectively evaluated, focusing on the size and location of lesions signal intensity patterns of cyst fluid and wall, the extent of the surrounding edema and features of contrast enhancement. Degenerating parenchymal neurocysticercosis was located in gray or subcortical while matter in 89.3% of 56 lesions (50/56) ; most of these (98.2%) were smaller than 2 cm in diameter. Cyst fluid signal was hyperintense relative to CSF on T1 and proton density weighted images (92.9%). A hypointense signal rim of the cyst wall was noted in the lesions on proton density (92.9%) and T2 weighted (98.2%) images, Surrounding edema was mostly mild. Peripheral rim enhancement was noted in all lesions, and this was frequently irregular and lobulated (67.9%) with a focal defect in the enhancing rim(41.1%). Findings which could be helpful in distinguishing degenerating parencymal neurocysticercosis from other brain diseases are as follows : small, superficial lesions ; hyperintense signal of the cyst fluid on T1 and proton density weighted images ; hypointense signal of the cyst wall on proton density and T2 weighted images ; relatively mild extent of surrounding edema, and peripheral rim enhancement which is frequently irregular and lobulated with a focal defect in the enhancing rim

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging in parenchymal neurocysticercosis

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    Just, M.; Higer, H.P.; Pfannenstiel, P.; Mergner, T.; Henne, W.

    1987-03-01

    MRI-findings in a case of parenchymal neurocysticercosis are presented. The changes of the lesions as a response to chemotherapy were monitored by MRI and CT. Problems of sensitivity (MRI vs. CT) and MRI differential diagnoses are discussed.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging in parenchymal neurocysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, M.; Higer, H.P.; Pfannenstiel, P.; Mergner, T.; Henne, W.

    1987-01-01

    MRI-findings in a case of parenchymal neurocysticercosis are presented. The changes of the lesions as a response to chemotherapy were monitored by MRI and CT. Problems of sensitivity (MRI vs. CT) and MRI differential diagnoses are discussed. (orig.) [de

  2. Acute pulmonary parenchymal densities in the adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.H.; Murphy, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    The thrust of the radiographic interpretation is to correlate the often non-specific appearance of any parenchymal density with its time-table of development, rate of change, distribution, and the patient's clinical status. Although this chapter contains separate sections on each major cause of acute pulmonary opacification, the intent of the chapter overall is their differential diagnosis. Before beginning to deal with acute pulmonary densities, it is stressed that acute densities can only be differentiated from chronic ones by reviewing preoperative or pre-existing studies. Without the baseline comparison film or reliable presumption of prior normalcy, the acuteness of a parenchymal density may not be apparent until later examinations reveal change or resolution. Also, as discussed is baseline pathology that is altered by the portable technique can be terribly confusing when attempting to evaluate a single isolated film in an acute clinical situation

  3. Wedge-shaped parenchymal enhancement peripheral to the hepatic hemangioma : two-phase spiral CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Won; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Ah Young; Lee, Hyun Ju; Song, Chi Sung; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2000-01-01

    To determine the incidence of hepatic hemangiomas associated with wedge-shaped parenchymal enhancements adjacent to the tumors as seen on two-phase spiral CT images obtained during the hepatic arterial phase and to characterize the two-phase spiral CT findings of those hemangiomas. One hundred and eight consecutive hepatic hemangiomas in 63 patients who underwent two-phase spiral CT scanning during an 11-month period were included in this study. Two-phase spiral CT scans were obtained during the hepatic arterial phase (30-second delay) and portal venous phase (65-second delay) after injection of 120 mL of contrast material at a rate of 3 mL/sec. We evaluated the frequency with which wedge-shaped parenchymal enhancement was adjacent to the hemangiomas during the hepatic arterial phase and divided hemangiomas into two groups according to whether or not wedge-shaped parenchymal enhancement was noted (Group A and Group B). The presence of such enhancement in hemangiomas was correlated with tumor size and the grade of intratumoral enhancement. In 24 of 108 hemangiomas, wedge-shaped parenchymal enhancement adjacent to hepatic tumors was seen on two-phase CT images obtained during the hepatic arterial phase. Mean hemangioma size was 22mm in group A and 24mm in group B. There was no statistically significant relationship between lesion size and the presence of wedge-shaped parenchymal enhancement adjacent to a hemangioma. In 91.7% and 100% of tumors in Group A, and in 9.6% and 17.8% in Group B, hemangiomas showed more than 50% intratumoral enhancement during the arterial and portal venous phase, respectively. Wedge-shaped parenchymal enhancements peripheral to hepatic hemangiomas was more frequently found in tumors showing more than 50% intratumoral enhancement during these two phases (p less than 0.01). Wedge-shaped parenchymal enhancements is not uncommonly seen adjacent to hepatic hemangiomas on two-phase spiral CT images obtained during the hepatic arterial phase. A

  4. Computerized tomography of renal parenchymal disturbance following nephrolithotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Ishizuka, Eiichi; Fukushima, Shuji.

    1983-01-01

    Staghorn calculi were removed by nephrolithotomy with the one-layer interrupted parenchymal suture method designed by Taguchi and renal parenchymal disturbance following the operation were evaluated by computerized tomography. Twenty kidneys in 17 cases were examined pre and postoperatively for changes in the incised and sutured part of the renal parenchyma. The postoperative CT scanning demonstrated the low density areas following enhancement and depression of the parenchyma. These changes were classified into the following 3 patterns: Type I-no changes were observed in the parenchyma, or a linear low density area was found (5 kidneys, 25.0%); type II-a long, narrow strip of low density area was found in accord with the excised and sutured part (5 kidneys, 25.0%); and type III-a wedge-shaped low density area or depression of the parenchyma was found (10 kidneys, 50.0%). The length of the parenchymal incision was analysed with reference to these patterns. The length of type I was significantly shorter than that of type II or III (p<0.05). Th e clamping time of the renal pedicle in type I was also shorter than that in type II and III, but the differences did not reach a statistically significant level. Type II pattern frequently was found shortly after the operation. It is, however, undeniable that type II may tramsform to type III. (J.P.N.)

  5. Pancreatic Injury Caused By A Fall From Height: Transection at the Tail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem OKTAY

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Isolated pancreatic injury due to blunt abdominal trauma is rare and may be clinically difficult to diagnose. Parenchymal injuries may not be recognized during initial evaluation. We report the case of a 30-year-old male presented to the Emergency Department (ED with the complaint of persistent abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. His medical history revealed that he fell from a height of approximately 1.5 meters 1 day ago and hit an iron block. He was presented and discharged from another hospital ED. Contrast enhanced computerized tomography (CECT of the abdomen was ordered during his second presentation and revealed pancreatic parenchymal contusion, laceration, and transection at the tail of pancreas. Our findings suggest that, when there is high index of suspicion for pancreatic injury, a CECT should always be ordered. ÖZET: Künt abdominal travmaya bağlı izole pankreas yaralanması nadirdir ve klinik olarak tanı konulması zordur. Parankimal yaralanmalar ilk değerlendirme sırasında ayırt edilemeyebilinir. Bu yazıda, devam eden karın ağrısı, bulantı ve kusma yakınması ile acil servise başvuran 30 yaşındaki bir hasta sunuldu. Hastanın öyküsünde bir gün önce 1.5 metre yükseklikten demir bir blok üzerine düştüğü ve başvurduğu başka bir hastanenin acil servisinden taburcu edildiği öğrenildi. ikinci başvurusu sırasında kontrastlı batın tomografisi çekildi ve pankreas parankiminde kontüzyon, laserasyon ve pankreas kuyruk kesiminde kopma tespit edildi. Pankreas yaralanmasına ait yüksek şüphe mevcut ise kontrastlı batın tomografisi her zaman istenmelidir. Key words: Abdominal trauma, computed tomography, pancreatic injury, Anahtar sözcükler: Karın travması, bilgisayarlı tomografi, pankreas yaralanması

  6. Bronchial Artery Embolization in the Management of Pulmonary Parenchymal Endometriosis with Hemoptysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kervancioglu, Selim; Andic, Cagatay; Bayram, Nazan; Telli, Cumali; Sarica, Akif; Sirikci, Akif

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary parenchymal endometriosis is extremely rare and usually manifests itself with a recurrent hemoptysis associated with the menstrual cycle. The therapies proposed for women with endometriosis consist of medical treatments and surgery. Bronchial artery embolization has become a well-established and minimally invasive treatment modality for hemoptysis, and to the best of our knowledge, it has not been reported in pulmonary endometriosis. We report a case of pulmonary parenchymal endometriosis treated with embolotheraphy for hemoptysis.

  7. Influence of alcohol on brain volume in social drinkers: evaluation with MR-based intracranial-parenchymal ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Joo; Lee, Kyung Kyu; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kwon, Ho Jang; Kim, Jae Kyun

    2002-01-01

    To determine, by measuring the intracranial-parenchymal ratio at MR imaging, whether alcohol induces brain damage in social drinkers. One hundred and five male adults aged 20 or over were selected for this study. They inclued 41 non-drinkers, 43 mild to moderate social drinkers, nine heavy social drinkers and 12 alcoholics. Using a workstation, the intracranial-parenchymal ratio was measured at four levels of T1-weighted MR images: the fourth, third and lateral ventricle, and the level of the centrum semiovale. The mean ratios of all four levels (I-IV) were also calculated parenchymal ratios were compared between the four groups, and correlation between the amount of alcohol ingestion and the parenchymal ratio also determined. The parenchymal ratio at levels I-IV was 80.31±3.73% in non-drinkers, 79.38±4.39% in mild to moderate social drinkers, 80.92±3.64% in heavy social drinkers and 73.48±4.42% in alcoholics, The difference between alcoholics and the other three groups was statistically significant, but between non-drinkers and social drinkers was insignificant (ANOVA). Multiple regression analysis with control of the age factor revealed a decreased parenchymal ratio in mild to moderate and heavy social drinkers compared with non-drinkers, but without statistical significance. There was significant negative correlation between parenchymal ratio and amount of alcohol ingestion (pearson correlation). There was significant brain atrophy in alcoholics, but no significant difference between non-drinkers and social drinkers. We thus conclude that social drinking dose non induce significant alcohol-related brain atrophy

  8. Multivariate analysis of diagnostic parameters derived from whole-kidney and parenchymal time-activity curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, H.; Mostbeck, A.; Samal, M.; Nimmon, C.C.; Staudenherz, A.; Dudczak, R.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: In a previous work, we have confirmed earlier reports that time-activity curves of renal cortex provide additional useful diagnostic information. The aim of this experiment was to support the finding quantitatively using multiple regression. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study, we have analyzed MAG3 renal data (90 kidneys in 57 children). Whole-kidney (WK) and parenchymal (PA) time-activity curves were extracted from 20 min pre-diuretic phase using standard WK and parenchymal fuzzy ROIs. Using multiple regression analysis, peak time, mean transit time, output efficiency, and four additional indices of residual activity in WK and PA ROIs were related to the maximum elimination rate (EM) of urine after the diuretic. The kidneys were divided into four groups according to the WK peak time (WKPT): WKPT longer than 0 (all kidneys), 5, 10, and 15 min. Results: Multiple correlation coefficients between the set of WK, PA, and WK+PA curve parameters (independent variables) and the log EM (dependent variable) for each group are summarized. Conclusions: Using pre-diuretic time-activity curves, it is possible to predict diuretic response. This can be useful when interpreting dubious results. Parenchymal curves predict diuretic response better than the whole-kidney curves. With increasing WKPT the whole-kidney curves become useless, while the parenchymal curves are still useful. Using both WK and PA curves produces the best results. This demonstrates that both WK and PA curves carry independent diagnostic information. The contribution obtained from the parenchymal curves certainly worth the difficulties and time required to draw additional ROIs. However, substantial efforts have to be given to the accurate and reproducible definition of parenchymal ROIs

  9. Pulmonary parenchymal changes in the pediatric patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, G.O. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of the pediatric chest radiograph for parenchymal pathology is similar to that of the adult. This chapter focuses primarily on the radiographic changes of certain entities presenting to the pediatric intensive care unit (ICU), including airway diseases, pneumonia, pulmonary hemorrhage, and lung trauma, as well as problems related to general anesthesia and surgery

  10. Vascular parenchymal sources of upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savastano, S.; Feltrin, G.P.; Miotto, D.; Chiesura-Corona, M.; Rubaltelli, L.; Candiani, F.

    Fourteen cases of upper gastrointenstinal bleeding (UGIB) were reviewed: 6 (group A) were caused by pancreatitis, 3 (group B) by hemobilia, and 5 (group C) by rupture of esophageal varices due to arterioportal shunts. Elective endoscopy carried out in 7 patients in groups A and B was negative; in 2 actively bleeding patients in group A emergency endoscopy could not detect the source of hemorrhage. Endoscopy was carried out in 4 patients in group C for diagnosis and sclerosis, but severe hemorrhage recurred in spite of treatment. Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) were carried out prior to angiography in 5 and 4 patients, respectively, and always suggested a parenchymal lesion. All patients underwent angiography. Transcatheter control of the hemorrhage was attempted as an emergency in 2 patients (as a presurgical step in one); elective embolization was the treatment of choice for 8 patients, with good results in 6. This study suggests the usefulness of US and CT both in the detection of parenchymal lesions causing UGIB not clarified by endoscopy, and in the selection of patients for angiographic treatment.

  11. Vascular parenchymal sources of upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savastano, S.; Feltrin, G.P.; Miotto, D.; Chiesura-Corona, M.; Rubaltelli, L.; Candiani, F.

    1989-01-01

    Fourteen cases of upper gastrointenstinal bleeding (UGIB) were reviewed: 6 (group A) were caused by pancreatitis, 3 (group B) by hemobilia, and 5 (group C) by rupture of esophageal varices due to arterioportal shunts. Elective endoscopy carried out in 7 patients in groups A and B was negative; in 2 actively bleeding patients in group A emergency endoscopy could not detect the source of hemorrhage. Endoscopy was carried out in 4 patients in group C for diagnosis and sclerosis, but severe hemorrhage recurred in spite of treatment. Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) were carried out prior to angiography in 5 and 4 patients, respectively, and always suggested a parenchymal lesion. All patients underwent angiography. Transcatheter control of the hemorrhage was attempted as an emergency in 2 patients (as a presurgical step in one); elective embolization was the treatment of choice for 8 patients, with good results in 6. This study suggests the usefulness of US and CT both in the detection of parenchymal lesions causing UGIB not clarified by endoscopy, and in the selection of patients for angiographic treatment. (orig.)

  12. Abdominal polytrauma and parenchymal organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krestan, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    The acute radiological diagnostics of polytrauma patients has become an essential part of the interdisciplinary treatment in the emergency room. The incidence of polytrauma patients with an injury severity score (ISS) > 16 is approximately 450 cases/million inhabitants/year in Europe. Injuries of the parenchymal organs are of utmost importance for the prognosis and treatment of these patients. The injury patterns are complex and a great deal of experience is necessary to be able to obtain the correct diagnosis within minutes. This review article deals with the radiological diagnostics and grading of the severity of injuries to the spleen, liver, pancreas and kidneys. The use of ultrasound for the evaluation of polytraumatized patients will be discussed. The most important trauma-associated findings for the above mentioned organs using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) will be described and illustrated by dedicated case findings. Ultrasound contrast agents can supply valuable, additional diagnostic information in the evaluation of polytraumatized patients. Computed tomography has become established as the most relevant imaging modality in severe trauma. Innovative organ-adapted and contrast application protocols improve the diagnostic performance of MDCT. The use of focused assessment sonography for trauma (FAST) scanning as a screening tool is in agreement with the other clinical disciplines of the trauma team. The use of MDCT is trauma-dependent and the classification of the severity of the different parenchymal organ injuries is ultimately decisive for further treatment and prognosis of trauma victims. (orig.) [de

  13. Breast Cancer Risk Estimation Using Parenchymal Texture Analysis in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikejimba, Lynda C.; Kontos, Despina; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2010-01-01

    Mammographic parenchymal texture has been shown to correlate with genetic markers of developing breast cancer. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a novel x-ray imaging technique in which tomographic images of the breast are reconstructed from multiple source projections acquired at different angles of the x-ray tube. Compared to digital mammography (DM), DBT eliminates breast tissue overlap, offering superior parenchymal tissue visualization. We hypothesize that texture analysis in DBT could potentially provide a better assessment of parenchymal texture and ultimately result in more accurate assessment of breast cancer risk. As a first step towards validating this hypothesis, we investigated the association between DBT parenchymal texture and breast percent density (PD), a known breast cancer risk factor, and compared it to DM. Bilateral DBT and DM images from 71 women participating in a breast cancer screening trial were analyzed. Filtered-backprojection was used to reconstruct DBT tomographic planes in 1 mm increments with 0.22 mm in-plane resolution. Corresponding DM images were acquired at 0.1 mm pixel resolution. Retroareolar regions of interest (ROIs) equivalent to 2.5 cm 3 were segmented from the DBT images and corresponding 2.5 cm 2 ROIs were segmented from the DM images. Breast PD was mammographically estimated using the Cumulus scale. Overall, DBT texture features demonstrated a stronger correlation than DM to PD. The Pearson correlation coefficients for DBT were r = 0.40 (p 2 = 0.39) compared to DM (R 2 = 0.33). We attribute these observations to the superior parenchymal tissue visualization in DBT. Our study is the first to perform DBT texture analysis in a screening population of women, showing that DBT could potentially provide better breast cancer risk assessment in the future.

  14. Evaluation of extent of UTI related renal parenchymal damage in pediatric patient population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, A.R.; Charan, S.; Silva, I.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is important cause of morbidity in childhood. UTI may lead to involvement of renal parenchyma ranging from recoverable acute inflammation, renal scarring of Reflux nephropathy, hypertension and ultimately end stage renal disease. Hence, extent of renal parenchymal involvement bears prognostic significance in pediatric population. Laboratory and clinical parameters have inherent limitations in detecting and localizing renal parenchymal involvement in the settings of UTI. Objectives: The present study has been designed with the aim to determine the frequency and degree of renal parenchymal involvement in pediatric patients having urinary tract infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From May to December 2003, 33 consecutive children (65 Kidneys, 32-paired, I-solitary) aged one month to 12 years (mean age 3 years, 20M, 13F) with positive past history and culture documented urinary tract infection were enrolled in the study. They were subjected to Renal cortical scan using Tc-99m DMSA (20-100 MBq) on Dual detectors gamma camera (e.cam) fitted with LEHR collimator in anterior, posterior and posterior oblique projections. DMSA renal scans were interpreted as per Clarke's interpretation criteria. Renal ultrasound (RUS) and cystourethrogram (MCUG) were available in all the cases. Results: As per Clarke's classification, there were 19 children with no evidence of renal cortical involvement (Type-1). Renal parenchymal involvement found to be unilateral (Type-4 to Type-6) and bilateral (Type-7 and 8) in 8 and 6 children respectively. DMSA scan was abnormal in 20 of 65 kidneys (31%). MCUG was positive for presence of VUR in 34 kidneys (Group A) and negative for VUR in remaining 31 units (Group B). In Gp A, 18 of 34 kidneys (53%) showed renal parenchymal involvement on DMSA Scan. In Gp A, presence or absence of renal parenchymal damage on DMSA scan did not show any statistically significant difference in age, sex and grade of VUR. Whereas

  15. Multidetector CT findings of bowel Transection in blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyun Suk; Woo, Ji Young; Hong, Hye Suk; Park, Mee Hyun; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Jung, Ah Young; Hwang, Ji Young; Ha, Hong Il

    2013-01-01

    Though a number of CT findings of bowel and mesenteric injuries in blunt abdominal trauma are described in literature, no studies on the specific CT signs of a transected bowel have been published. In the present study we describe the incidence and new CT signs of bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma. We investigated the incidence of bowel transection in 513 patients admitted for blunt abdominal trauma who underwent multidetector CT (MDCT). The MDCT findings of 8 patients with a surgically proven complete bowel transection were assessed retrospectively. We report novel CT signs that are unique for transection, such as complete cutoff sign (transection of bowel loop), Janus sign (abnormal dual bowel wall enhancement, both increased and decreased), and fecal spillage. The incidence of bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma was 1.56%. In eight cases of bowel transection, percentage of CT signs unique for bowel transection were as follows: complete cutoff in 8 (100%), Janus sign in 6 (100%, excluding duodenal injury), and fecal spillage in 2 (25%). The combination of complete cutoff and Janus sign were highly specific findings in patients with bowel transection. Complete cut off and Janus sign are the unique CT findings to help detect bowel transection in blunt abdominal trauma and recognition of these findings enables an accurate and prompt diagnosis for emergency laparotomy leading to reduced mortality and morbidity.

  16. Normative ultrasound values of renal parenchymal thickness among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the ultrasound normative values of renal parenchymal thickness (RPT) among adults and correlate them with age ... Methods: This was a prospective clinic based study involving 310 normal adults (135 males and 175 females) scanned at ... kidneys and subjects in which three RPT measurements.

  17. Measure of pancreas transection and postoperative pancreatic fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shinichiro; Gotohda, Naoto; Kato, Yuichiro; Konishi, Masaru

    2016-05-15

    In pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), a standard protocol for pancreas transection has not been established although the method of pancreas transection might be involved in the occurrence of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF). This study aimed to compare whether pancreas transection by ultrasonically activated shears (UAS) or that by scalpel contributed more to POPF development. A prospective database of 171 patients who underwent PD for periampullary tumor at National Cancer Center Hospital East between January 2010 and June 2013 was reviewed. Among the 171 patients, 93 patients with soft pancreas were specifically included in this study. Surgical results and background were compared between patients with pancreas transection by UAS and scalpel to evaluate the effectiveness of UAS on reducing POPF. Body mass index, main pancreatic duct diameter, or other clinicopathologic factors that have been reported as predictive factors for POPF were not significantly different between the two groups. The incidence of all grades of POPF and that of grade B were significantly lower in the scalpel group (52%, 4%) than in the UAS group (74%, 42%). Postoperative complications ≥ grade III were also significantly fewer in the scalpel group. Scalpel transection was less associated with POPF than UAS transection in patients who underwent PD for soft pancreas. The method of pancreas transection plays an important role in the prevention of clinical POPF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Action of DTPA on hepatic plutonium. II. DTPA-induced removal of monomeric plutonium from mouse liver parenchymal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Peterson, D.P.; Lindenbaum, A.

    1978-01-01

    Liver parenchymal cells were isolated 6 and 24 hr following the administration of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA, 0.25 mmole/kg) to mice previously injected with 239 Pu-citrate (4.4 μCi/kg). Isolated parenchymal cells contained 440 dpm Pu/10 6 cells at 24 hr after Pu injection, just prior to DTPA administration. The PU content decreased to 330 dpm/10 6 cells at 6 hr and 140 dpm/10 6 cells at 24 hr after DTPA administration. Thus DTPA induced a striking decrease in the Pu content of isolated liver parenchymal cells. Parenchymal cells isolated from control mice not treated with DTPA changed little in Pu content from 24 to 48 hr after Pu injection. By 24 hr after DTPA treatment, the decrease in the Pu content of isolated liver parenchymal cells could account for the DTPA-induced release of Pu from the intact liver. Thus in the liver DTPA appears to act preferentially on the Pu associated with parenchymal cells. Liver parenchymal cells isolated 6 hr after DTPA administration and containing 330 dpm Pu/10 6 cells were incubated in vitro in the absence of added DTPA. After 18 hr of incubation the cells contained 130 dpm Pu/10 6 cells. This level corresponds to the level observed in cells isolated 24 hr after DTPA administration. Cells isolated from untreated mice lost only 15% of their Pu content during a similar in vitro incubation. Thus, by 6 hr after DTPA administration to the mouse, isolated liver parenchymal cells appeared to retain their ability to release Pu in vitro with no need for additional exposure to DTPA. The physiological significance of this finding is discussed

  19. Very Low Cerebral Blood Volume Predicts Parenchymal Hematoma in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermitte, Laure; Cho, Tae-Hee; Ozenne, Brice

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Parenchymal hematoma (PH) may worsen the outcome of patients with stroke. The aim of our study was to confirm the relationship between the volume of very low cerebral blood volume (CBV) and PH using a European multicenter database (I-KNOW). A secondary objective was to exp......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Parenchymal hematoma (PH) may worsen the outcome of patients with stroke. The aim of our study was to confirm the relationship between the volume of very low cerebral blood volume (CBV) and PH using a European multicenter database (I-KNOW). A secondary objective...

  20. Clinical significance of segmental parenchymal excretion delay on Tc-99m DISIDA hepatobiliary scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, D. Y.; Ryu, J. S.; Moon, D. H.; Lee, S. K.; Kim, M. H.; Lee, H. K.

    1998-01-01

    Segmental parenchymal excretion delay on Tc-99m DISIDA scan in caused by intrahepatic bile duct obstruction. However, the diagnostic value for intrahepatic bile duct obstruction is unknown. We conducted this study to assess the positive predictive value of segmental excretion delay for the diagnosis of intrahepatic bile duct obstruction, and additional benefit over other noninvasive radiologic studies. The study population consisted of 43 patients (48 scans) who showed segmental parenchymal excretion delay on Tc-99m DISIDA scan. The results of abdominal CT or ultrasonography, which was done within 1 month of Tc-99m DISIDA scan, were compared with scintigraphic findings. The etiology of segmental parenchymal excretion delay was determined by ERC or PTC in 31 scans, and follow-up studies in 13 scans. No causes were identified in 4 scans. The positive predictive value of segmental parenchymal excretion delay for intrahepatic bile duct obstruction was 92% (44/48). On the other hand, 13% (5/38) of CT and 28% (5/18) of ultrasonography were normal. In 18% *7/38) of CT and 17% (3/18) of ultrasonography, only intrahepatic bile duct dilatation was noted without any diagnostic findings of intrahepatic bile duct obstruction. Segmental parenchymal excretion delay on Tc-99m DISIDA scan had a high positive predictive value for the diagnosis of intrahepatic bile duct obstruction. Tc-99m DISIDA scan may be useful for the diagnosis of intrahepatic bile duct obstruction, especially in patients with nondiagnostic CT or ultrasonography. The diagnostic usefulness need to be confirmed by further prospective studies

  1. A Study on the Diagnostic Significance of Hepatoscintigram with Colloidal Gold in Parenchymal Liver Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Dong Ho; Lee, Min Ho; Kim, Mok Hyun

    1982-01-01

    Hapatoscintigram has been a useful diagnostic method for the liver disease since 1953, but reasonable diagnostic criteria for parenchymal liver diseases are not yet accurately established. For the purpose of searching for more advanced diagnostic criteria for various types of live diseases by the liver scan, a retrospective study was made of 272 cases who underwent both hepatoscintigram with 198 Au colloid and liver biopsy in Hanyang University Hospital from Jan, 1978 to Dec, 1981. The results were as follows: 1. Fuzzy margin (irregular indentation of the liver margin) in the hepatoscintigram was noted in 226 cases (97.79%) 2. Of 35 cases with fuzzy margin only, 28 cases (80%)revealed mild parenchymal liver disease, such as acute hepatitis or chronic persistent hepatitis by the liver biopsy. 3. Mottling change (209 cases) was always accomplished by fuzzy margin except only one case, and 31 cases (86.1%) of fuzzy and mottling cases (36 cases) showed mild parenchymal liver disease. 4. Configuration change (193 cases) was usually accompanied with other changes and especially 104 cases had configuration changed with fuzzy and mottling changes. 73 cases (88.445) of 86 cases with severe configuration changed revealed advanced parenchymal liver disease on biopsy. If liver scan showed mild configuration change, we could not decide the type of liver disease only liver scan, and so further studies are needed. 5. Splenic uptake was noted 34 cases (40.48%) of 84 cases with advanced parenchymal liver disease, and the degree of splenic uptake was for the most part moderate or severe; whereas splenic uptake was noted in 18 cases (16.51%) of the mild parenchymal liver disease (109 cases), and the degree of splenic uptake was largely mild.

  2. Impact of leukoaraiosis on parenchymal hemorrhage in elderly patients treated with thrombolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nighoghossian, Norbert; Cho, Tae-Hee; Cottaz, Vincent; Mechtouff, Laura; Derex, Laurent [Universite Lyon 1, Department of Stroke, Neurological Hospital, Lyon (France); Abbas, Fatima; Schott, Anne Marie [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Pole Information Medicale Evaluation Recherche, Lyon (France); Geraldo, Ana Filipa; Janecek, Elie; Hermier, Marc; Tisserand, Louis Guy; Amelie, Roxana; Chamard, Leila; Berthezene, Yves [Universite Lyon 1, Department of Neuroradiology, Neurological Hospital, Bron, Lyon (France); Bischoff, Magali; El Khoury, Carlos [RESUVAL Stroke Network, Lyon (France)

    2016-10-15

    Severity of vascular damage of white matter may predict hemorrhagic transformation (HT). We assess the relationship between leukoaraiosis (LA) severity and the type of hemorrhagic transformation in elderly patients treated with thrombolysis. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data and pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 180 consecutive ischemic stroke patients aged over 75 years. LA severity was graded according to the Fazekas scale, and acute diffusion-weighted-imaging (DWI) lesion volumes were semi-automatically outlined. Predictors of hemorrhagic infarction (HI) and parenchymal hemorrhage (PH) were identified using logistic regression analysis and exact multinomial logistic analysis. HT occurred in 31 patients (17 %). Baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Score (NIHSS; p = 0.008), severe LA (p = 0.02), and diffusion lesion volume (p = 0.02) were predictors of HT in univariable logistic regression. Adjusted to lesion volume and baseline NIHSS score, exact multinomial logistic analysis showed that severe LA was the only independent predictor of parenchymal hemorrhage (p = 0.03). In elderly patients, LA severity better predicts parenchymal hemorrhage than infarct size. (orig.)

  3. Effect of the menstrual cycle on background parenchymal enhancement observed on breast MRIs in Korean women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Vivan Young Jean; KIm, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the menstrual cycle on background parenchymal enhancement observed on breast MRIs in Korean women, and to suggest an optimal period for scheduling breast MRIs. Between March and December 2012, 214 premenopausal breast cancer patients who underwent breast MRIs for preoperative evaluation were included. Levels of background parenchymal enhancement were retrospectively compared according to the menstrual cycle. There was no significant difference between levels of background parenchymal enhancement (minimal, mild, moderate, and marked) according to the weeks of the menstrual cycle. However, the 1st and 2nd week of the menstrual cycle showed a significantly higher proportion of patients with minimal background parenchymal enhancement than the 3rd and 4th week of the menstrual cycle (47.0% vs. 32.0%; p = 0.025). For screening purposes and for the follow-up of Korean breast cancer patients, breast MRIs should be performed during the 1st or 2nd week of the menstrual cycle

  4. Effect of the menstrual cycle on background parenchymal enhancement observed on breast MRIs in Korean women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Vivan Young Jean; KIm, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    To evaluate the effect of the menstrual cycle on background parenchymal enhancement observed on breast MRIs in Korean women, and to suggest an optimal period for scheduling breast MRIs. Between March and December 2012, 214 premenopausal breast cancer patients who underwent breast MRIs for preoperative evaluation were included. Levels of background parenchymal enhancement were retrospectively compared according to the menstrual cycle. There was no significant difference between levels of background parenchymal enhancement (minimal, mild, moderate, and marked) according to the weeks of the menstrual cycle. However, the 1st and 2nd week of the menstrual cycle showed a significantly higher proportion of patients with minimal background parenchymal enhancement than the 3rd and 4th week of the menstrual cycle (47.0% vs. 32.0%; p = 0.025). For screening purposes and for the follow-up of Korean breast cancer patients, breast MRIs should be performed during the 1st or 2nd week of the menstrual cycle.

  5. Pinch-off syndrome: transection of implantable central venous access device

    OpenAIRE

    Sugimoto, Takuya; Nagata, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Ken; Kano, Nobuyasu

    2012-01-01

    As the population of people with cancer increases so does the number of patients who take chemotherapy. Majority of them are administered parentally continuously. Implantable central venous catheter device is a good choice for those patients; however, severe complication would occur concerning the devices. Pinch-off syndrome is one of the most severe complications. The authors report a severe case of pinch-off syndrome. The patient with the implantable central venous device could not take che...

  6. Correction of bias in belt transect studies of immotile objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D.R.; Pospahala, R.S.

    1970-01-01

    Unless a correction is made, population estimates derived from a sample of belt transects will be biased if a fraction of, the individuals on the sample transects are not counted. An approach, useful for correcting this bias when sampling immotile populations using transects of a fixed width, is presented. The method assumes that a searcher's ability to find objects near the center of the transect is nearly perfect. The method utilizes a mathematical equation, estimated from the data, to represent the searcher's inability to find all objects at increasing distances from the center of the transect. An example of the analysis of data, formation of the equation, and application is presented using waterfowl nesting data collected in Colorado.

  7. Ancillary lung parenchymal findings at spiral CT scanning in pulmonary embolism. Relationship to chest sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reissig, Angelika; Heyne, Jens-Peter; Kroegel, Claus

    2004-01-01

    Introduction/objective: The aim of the study was to compare findings of transthoracic sonography (TS) and of spiral computed tomography (sCT) in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods and patients: Peripheral parenchymal and pleural findings of TS and sCT were compared in 62 patients (25 females, 37 males; mean age 62.2 years) with suspected PE. Results: In 39 patients PE was established, of whose pleura-based lesions could be detected by TS in 30 patients and by sCT in 31 patients. Whilst in three of the patients parenchymal lesions were exclusively detected by sonography, no peripheral abnormalities could be discovered with either technique in five patients. Among the nine patients lacking peripheral abnormalities on sonography, four revealed peripheral lesions in sCT. In 23 patients without PE, peripheral consolidations at CT were detected in six patients whereas two showed lesions on TS. With respect to the appearance, pleura-based wedge-shaped consolidations were the main parenchymal alterations (82.4% at TS, 66.1% at sCT) as compared with non-wedge-shaped consolidations (17.6% at TS, 33.9% at sCT). Peripheral lesions were located preferentially within the lower lobes. In addition, both localised and basal pleural effusion associated with PE could be demonstrated in 58.9% at TS and in 23.1% by sCT. Discussions and conclusion: The study shows that in PE parenchymal and pleural changes are detectable by TS and sCT. If parenchymal findings are present at sCT, peripheral PE should be considered, even in the absence of directly visible emboli

  8. Ancillary lung parenchymal findings at spiral CT scanning in pulmonary embolism. Relationship to chest sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reissig, Angelika E-mail: angelika.reissig@med.uni-jena.de; Heyne, Jens-Peter; Kroegel, Claus

    2004-03-01

    Introduction/objective: The aim of the study was to compare findings of transthoracic sonography (TS) and of spiral computed tomography (sCT) in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods and patients: Peripheral parenchymal and pleural findings of TS and sCT were compared in 62 patients (25 females, 37 males; mean age 62.2 years) with suspected PE. Results: In 39 patients PE was established, of whose pleura-based lesions could be detected by TS in 30 patients and by sCT in 31 patients. Whilst in three of the patients parenchymal lesions were exclusively detected by sonography, no peripheral abnormalities could be discovered with either technique in five patients. Among the nine patients lacking peripheral abnormalities on sonography, four revealed peripheral lesions in sCT. In 23 patients without PE, peripheral consolidations at CT were detected in six patients whereas two showed lesions on TS. With respect to the appearance, pleura-based wedge-shaped consolidations were the main parenchymal alterations (82.4% at TS, 66.1% at sCT) as compared with non-wedge-shaped consolidations (17.6% at TS, 33.9% at sCT). Peripheral lesions were located preferentially within the lower lobes. In addition, both localised and basal pleural effusion associated with PE could be demonstrated in 58.9% at TS and in 23.1% by sCT. Discussions and conclusion: The study shows that in PE parenchymal and pleural changes are detectable by TS and sCT. If parenchymal findings are present at sCT, peripheral PE should be considered, even in the absence of directly visible emboli.

  9. Predicting local recurrence following breast-conserving treatment: parenchymal signal enhancement ratio (SER) around the tumor on preoperative MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Young; Cho, Nariya; Koo, Hye Ryoung; Yun, Bo La; Bae, Min Sun; Moon, Woo Kyung; Chie, Eui Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Background: The level of background parenchymal enhancement around tumor is known to be associated with breast cancer risk. However, there is no study investigating predictive power of parenchymal signal enhancement ratio (SER) around tumor for ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR). Purpose: To investigate whether the breast parenchymal SER around the tumor on preoperative dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is associated with subsequent IBTR in breast cancer patients who had undergone breast-conserving treatment. Material and Methods: Nineteen consecutive women (mean age, 44 years; range, 34-63 years) with breast cancer who developed IBTR following breast-conserving treatment and 114 control women matched for age, as well as T and N stages were included. We compared the clinicopathologic features of the two groups including nuclear grade, histologic grade, hormonal receptor status, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) status, lymphovascular invasion, negative margin width, use of adjuvant therapy, and parenchymal SER around the tumor on preoperative DCE-MRI. The SER was measured on a slice showing the largest dimension of the tumor. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent factors associated with IBTR. Results: In univariate analysis, ER negativity (odds ratio [OR] = 4.7; P = 0.040), PR negativity (OR = 4.0; P = 0.013), HER-2 positivity (OR = 3.6; P = 0.026), and a parenchymal SER greater than 0.53 (OR = 23.3; P = 0.011) were associated with IBTR. In multivariate analysis, ER negativity (OR = 3.8; P = 0.015) and a parenchymal SER greater than 0.53 (OR = 13.2; P = 0.040) on preoperative MRI were independent factors associated with IBTR. Conclusion: In addition to ER negativity, a higher parenchymal SER on preoperative MRI was an independent factor associated with subsequent IBTR in patients with breast cancer who had undergone breast-conserving treatment

  10. Detection of parenchymal abnormalities in experimentally induced acute pyelonephritis in rabbits using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, CT, and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Ah; Kim, Bo Hyun; Kim, Seung Kwon; Seo, Jin Won [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Sung [Laboratory Animal Research Center, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    We evaluated the efficacy of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in detecting acute pyelonephritis (APN) using the rabbit kidney model and compared it with CT and MRI. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. In a total of 20 New Zealand White rabbits, APN was induced experimentally. CEUS, CT, and MRI were performed on the first, third, and seventh postoperative days. After imaging studies, the subjects were sacrificed and the pathological diagnosis of APN was confirmed in each animal by a pathologist. Imaging studies were obtained in eight animals, including eight CEUS, four computed tomography (CT), and four magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. CEUS depicted diffuse renal enlargement (7), diffuse heterogeneous parenchymal enhancement (6), and focal areas of decreased parenchymal enhancement (6). These findings were well correlated with the CT and MRI findings in five cases in which these studies were available. CT and MRI showed diffuse renal enlargement, diffuse heterogeneous parenchymal enhancement, focal areas of decreased parenchymal enhancement, focal contour bulging, and the finding of perinephric spread of infection. In a rabbit model, CEUS could depict the parenchymal lesions of APN similar to CT or MRI; however, it was limited in depicting the perinephric extension of inflammation.

  11. Parenchymal texture measures weighted by breast anatomy: preliminary optimization in a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastounioti, Aimilia; Keller, Brad M.; Hsieh, Meng-Kang; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2016-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests that quantitative descriptors of the parenchymal texture patterns hold a valuable role in assessing an individual woman's risk for breast cancer. In this work, we assess the hypothesis that breast cancer risk factors are not uniformly expressed in the breast parenchymal tissue and, therefore, breast-anatomy-weighted parenchymal texture descriptors, where different breasts ROIs have non uniform contributions, may enhance breast cancer risk assessment. To this end, we introduce an automated breast-anatomy-driven methodology which generates a breast atlas, which is then used to produce a weight map that reinforces the contributions of the central and upper-outer breast areas. We incorporate this methodology to our previously validated lattice-based strategy for parenchymal texture analysis. In the framework of a pilot case-control study, including digital mammograms from 424 women, our proposed breast-anatomy-weighted texture descriptors are optimized and evaluated against non weighted texture features, using regression analysis with leave-one-out cross validation. The classification performance is assessed in terms of the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic. The collective discriminatory capacity of the weighted texture features was maximized (AUC=0.87) when the central breast area was considered more important than the upperouter area, with significant performance improvement (DeLong's test, p-valuewomen's cancer risk evaluation.

  12. Diffuse parenchymal lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Tomassetti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Between September 2015 and August 2016 there were >1500 publications in the field of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs. For the Clinical Year in Review session at the European Respiratory Society Congress that was held in London, UK, in September 2016, we selected only five articles. This selection, made from the enormous number of published papers, does not include all the relevant studies that will significantly impact our knowledge in the field of DPLDs in the near future. This review article provides our personal view on the following topics: early diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, current knowledge on the multidisciplinary team diagnosis of DPLDs and the diagnostic role of transbronchial cryobiopsy in this diagnostic setting, insights on the new entity of interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features, and new therapeutic approaches for scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease.

  13. Background parenchymal enhancement on baseline screening breast MRI: impact on biopsy rate and short-interval follow-up.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hambly, Niamh M

    2011-01-01

    Background parenchymal enhancement on breast MRI refers to normal enhancement of the patient\\'s fibroglandular tissue. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of background parenchymal enhancement on short-interval follow-up, biopsy, and cancer detection rate on baseline screening MRI in a high-risk group.

  14. Smooth muscle adaptation after intestinal transection and resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J S; Quigley, E M; Adrian, T E

    1996-09-01

    Changes in motor function occur in the intestinal remnant after intestinal resection. Smooth muscle adaptation also occurs, particularly after extensive resection. The time course of these changes and their interrelationship are unclear. Our aim was to evaluate changes in canine smooth muscle structure and function during intestinal adaptation after transection and resection. Twenty-five dogs underwent either transection (N = 10), 50% distal resection (N = 10), or 50% proximal resection (N = 5). Thickness and length of the circular (CM) and longitudinal (LM) muscle layers were measured four and 12 weeks after resection. In vitro length-tension properties and response to a cholinergic agonist were studied in mid-jejunum and mid-ileum. Transection alone caused increased CM length in the jejunum proximal to the transection but did not affect LM length or muscle thickness. A 50% resection resulted in increased length of CM throughout the intestine and thickening of CM and LM near the anastomosis. Active tension of jejunal CM increased transiently four weeks after resection. Active tension in jejunal LM was decreased 12 weeks after transection and resection. Sensitivity of CM to carbachol was similar after transection and resection. It is concluded that: (1) Structural adaptation of both circular and longitudinal muscle occurs after intestinal resection. (2) This process is influenced by the site of the intestinal remnant. (3) Only minor and transient changes occur in smooth muscle function after resection. (4) Factors other than muscle adaptation are likely involved in the changes in motor function seen following massive bowel resection.

  15. Integrated Genomic Characterization of a Pineal Parenchymal Tumor of Intermediate Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yun Jee; Bi, Wenya Linda; Dubuc, Adrian M; Martineau, Louine; Ligon, Azra H; Berkowitz, Aaron L; Aizer, Ayal A; Lee, Eudocia Q; Ligon, Keith L; Ramkissoon, Shakti H; Dunn, Ian F

    2016-01-01

    Pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation (PPTIDs) are rare lesions. The differential diagnosis and management strategy for PPTIDs can be challenging because of the variable prognostic and pathologic characteristics of these tumors. A 24-year-old man presented with progressive headaches, gait abnormalities, and abulia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large T1-hypointense, T2-isointense, contrast-enhancing, partially cystic mass of the pineal and tectal region. Near-total resection was achieved in a 2-stage operation followed by focal and craniospinal irradiation and adjuvant chemotherapy. Immunohistochemical analysis including use of pineal lineage marker confirmed a diagnosis of PPTID. Targeted exome sequencing showed mutations in TSC1(L388P) and IKZF3(F206C), whereas high-resolution array cytogenetics revealed losses in chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 8, 10, 11, 17, and 20, leading to single-copy loss of PTEN and TP53. Pineal parenchymal tumors reflect a broad spectrum of malignancy potential and prognoses, which mandate better understanding of the disease mechanism for rational therapeutic strategies. We present a case of PPTID and report several mutations and chromosomal abnormalities previously unrecognized in this tumor subtype. Review of the literature highlights a need for surgical resection followed by adjuvant chemoradiation. Further investigation of these novel variants may improve understanding of the pathogenesis underlying pineal parenchymal tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Likelihood-based inference for clustered line transect data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge; Schweder, Tore

    The uncertainty in estimation of spatial animal density from line transect surveys depends on the degree of spatial clustering in the animal population. To quantify the clustering we model line transect data as independent thinnings of spatial shot-noise Cox processes. Likelihood-based inference...

  17. Likelihood-based inference for clustered line transect data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Schweder, Tore

    2006-01-01

    The uncertainty in estimation of spatial animal density from line transect surveys depends on the degree of spatial clustering in the animal population. To quantify the clustering we model line transect data as independent thinnings of spatial shot-noise Cox processes. Likelihood-based inference...

  18. Quantitative stratification of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushravya Raghunath

    Full Text Available Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs are characterized by widespread pathological changes within the pulmonary tissue that impair the elasticity and gas exchange properties of the lungs. Clinical-radiological diagnosis of these diseases remains challenging and their clinical course is characterized by variable disease progression. These challenges have hindered the introduction of robust objective biomarkers for patient-specific prediction based on specific phenotypes in clinical practice for patients with DPLD. Therefore, strategies facilitating individualized clinical management, staging and identification of specific phenotypes linked to clinical disease outcomes or therapeutic responses are urgently needed. A classification schema consistently reflecting the radiological, clinical (lung function and clinical outcomes and pathological features of a disease represents a critical need in modern pulmonary medicine. Herein, we report a quantitative stratification paradigm to identify subsets of DPLD patients with characteristic radiologic patterns in an unsupervised manner and demonstrate significant correlation of these self-organized disease groups with clinically accepted surrogate endpoints. The proposed consistent and reproducible technique could potentially transform diagnostic staging, clinical management and prognostication of DPLD patients as well as facilitate patient selection for clinical trials beyond the ability of current radiological tools. In addition, the sequential quantitative stratification of the type and extent of parenchymal process may allow standardized and objective monitoring of disease, early assessment of treatment response and mortality prediction for DPLD patients.

  19. Quantitative Stratification of Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Sushravya; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Maldonado, Fabien; Peikert, Tobias; Moua, Teng; Ryu, Jay H.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs) are characterized by widespread pathological changes within the pulmonary tissue that impair the elasticity and gas exchange properties of the lungs. Clinical-radiological diagnosis of these diseases remains challenging and their clinical course is characterized by variable disease progression. These challenges have hindered the introduction of robust objective biomarkers for patient-specific prediction based on specific phenotypes in clinical practice for patients with DPLD. Therefore, strategies facilitating individualized clinical management, staging and identification of specific phenotypes linked to clinical disease outcomes or therapeutic responses are urgently needed. A classification schema consistently reflecting the radiological, clinical (lung function and clinical outcomes) and pathological features of a disease represents a critical need in modern pulmonary medicine. Herein, we report a quantitative stratification paradigm to identify subsets of DPLD patients with characteristic radiologic patterns in an unsupervised manner and demonstrate significant correlation of these self-organized disease groups with clinically accepted surrogate endpoints. The proposed consistent and reproducible technique could potentially transform diagnostic staging, clinical management and prognostication of DPLD patients as well as facilitate patient selection for clinical trials beyond the ability of current radiological tools. In addition, the sequential quantitative stratification of the type and extent of parenchymal process may allow standardized and objective monitoring of disease, early assessment of treatment response and mortality prediction for DPLD patients. PMID:24676019

  20. Hilar Parenchymal Oversew: a novel technique for robotic partial nephrectomy hilar tumor renorrhaphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavali, Jaya Sai S; Nelson, Ryan; Maurice, Matthew J; Kara, Onder; Mouracade, Pascal; Dagenais, Julien; Reese, Jeremy; Bayona, Pilar; Haber, Georges-Pascal; Stein, Robert J

    2018-01-01

    A renorrhaphy technique which is effective for hemostasis but does not place undue tension on the branch vessels of the renal sinus remains one of the challenging steps after hilar tumor resection during robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN). The published V-hilar suture (VHS) technique is one option for reconstruction after an RPN involving the hilum. The objective of this video is to show a novel renorrhaphy technique, Hilar Parenchymal Oversew that has been effective for such cases. We present two cases of RPN for renal hilar tumors. The first case depicts use of the VHS renorrhaphy technique for a tumor that abuts the renal hilum along 20% of its diameter. The second case demonstrates tumor resection and reconstruction for a tumor that has >50% involvement of the hilum along its diameter. After tumor resection, individual sinus vessels can be selectively oversewn with 2-0 Vicryl suture on SH needle. The remaining exposed parenchyma is controlled using the Hilar Parenchymal Oversew technique with a #0 Vicryl on CT-1 needle. For the Hilar Parenchymal Oversew surgery operative time was 225 min, estimated blood loss was 140 ml, warm ischemia time was 19 minutes, and there were no intraoperative complications. Pathology was consistent with clear cell renal cancer with negative margins. Robotic partial nephrectomy with the Hilar Parenchymal Oversew technique is a good alternative to VHS renorrhaphy in the management of renal hilar tumors "bulging" into the renal sinus with >50% of the tumor diameter abutting the hilum. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  1. Background parenchymal enhancement in breast MRIs of breast cancer patients: Impact on tumor size estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Ji Eun; Kim, Sung Hun; Lee, Ah Won

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether the degree of background parenchymal enhancement affects the accuracy of tumor size estimation based on breast MRI. Methods: Three hundred and twenty-two patients who had known breast cancer and underwent breast MRIs were recruited in our study. The total number of breast cancer cases was 339. All images were assessed retrospectively for the level of background parenchymal enhancement based on the BI-RADS criteria. Maximal lesion diameters were measured on the MRIs, and tumor types (mass vs. non-mass) were assessed. Tumor size differences between the MRI-based estimates and estimates based on pathological examinations were analyzed. The relationship between accuracy and tumor types and clinicopathologic features were also evaluated. Results: The cases included minimal (47.5%), mild (28.9%), moderate (12.4%) and marked background parenchymal enhancement (11.2%). The tumors of patients with minimal or mild background parenchymal enhancement were more accurately estimated than those of patients with moderate or marked enhancement (72.1% vs. 56.8%; p = 0.003). The tumors of women with mass type lesions were significantly more accurately estimated than those of the women with non-mass type lesions (81.6% vs. 28.6%; p < 0.001). The tumor of women negative for HER2 was more accurately estimated than those of women positive for HER2 (72.2% vs. 51.6%; p = 0.047). Conclusion: Moderate and marked background parenchymal enhancement is related to the inaccurate estimation of tumor size based on MRI. Non-mass type breast cancer and HER2-positive breast cancer are other factors that may cause inaccurate assessment of tumor size

  2. Diagnostic utility of medical thoracoscopy in peripheral parenchymal pulmonary lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hatata

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: Among patients with peripheral parenchymal pulmonary lesions remaining undiagnosed after usual initial investigation and even transthoracic needle biopsies, thoracoscopy done under local anaesthesia is a rapid, safe, and well-tolerated procedure with an excellent diagnostic yield that is equivalent to that of thoracotomy.

  3. Fibrocystic change of breast : relation with parenchymal pattern on mammogram and fibroadenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Yeol; Cha, In Ho; Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Jung Hyuk

    1996-01-01

    To determine the relationship between fibrocystic change and parenchymal pattern and fibroadenoma on mammogram. Mammograms of 135 patients with histologically- diagnosed fibrocystic disease after excisional biopsy were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with pathologic specimens. Classification of the parenchymal pattern was based on Wolfe's method. On mammogram, we observed abnormality in 88 out of the 135 cases;these latter consisted of 70 cases of DY, 30 of P2, 20 of P1, and 15 of Nl, following Wolfe's parenchymal patterns. Among the 88 abnormal cases we obseved 37 cases of mass with clear boundaries, five cases of mass with unclear boundaries, 22 with clustered microcalcifications, six with macrocalcifications and 18 with asymmetric dense breast. Histologic examination revealed a varying composition of stromal fibrosis, epithelial hyperplasia,cyst formation, apocrine metaplasia, etc. Histologically fibroadenomatoid change in 18 cases was appeared as a radiopaque mass on mammogram, especially in those cases where the change was well-defined, which were all except three. Fibrocystic disease was prevalent in Wolfe's P2 and DY patterns(about 80%). About 40% of fibrocystic change appearing as a well defined mass on mammogram showed fibroadenomatoid chage histologically and was difficult to differentiate from fibroadenoma. Fibrocystic disease should therefore be included in the differential diagnosis of a mass which on mammogram is well-defined

  4. Smoking and high-risk mammographic parenchymal patterns: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sala, Evis; Warren, Ruth; McCann, Jenny; Duffy, Stephen; Luben, Robert; Day, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    Current smoking was strongly and inversely associated with high-risk patterns, after adjustment for concomitant risk factors. Relative to never smokers, current smokers were significantly less likely to have a high-risk pattern. Similar results were obtained when the analysis was confined to postmenopausal women. Past smoking was not related to the mammographic parenchymal patterns. The overall effect in postmenopausal women lost its significance when adjusted for other risk factors for P2/DY patterns that were found to be significant in the present study, although the results are still strongly suggestive. The present data indicate that adjustment for current smoking status is important when evaluating the relationship between mammographic parenchymal pattern and breast cancer risk. They also indicate that smoking is a prominent potential confounder when analyzing effects of other risk factors such as obesity-related variables. It appears that parenchymal patterns may act as an informative biomarker of the effect of cigarette smoking on breast cancer risk. Overall, epidemiological studies [1,2,3,4] have reported no substantial association between cigarette smoking and the risk of breast cancer. Some studies [5,6,7] reported a significant increase of breast cancer risk among smokers. In recent studies that addressed the association between breast cancer and cigarette smoking, however, there was some suggestion of a decreased risk [8,9,10], especially among current smokers, ranging from approximately 10 to 30% [9,10]. Brunet et al [11] reported that smoking might reduce the risk of breast cancer by 44% in carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutations. Wolfe [12] described four different mammographic patterns created by variations in the relative amounts of fat, epithelial and connective tissue in the breast, designated N1, P1, P2 and DY. Women with either P2 or DY pattern are considered at greater risk for breast cancer than those with N1 or P1 pattern [12

  5. Size, node status and grade of breast tumours: association with mammographic parenchymal patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sala, E.; Solomon, L.; McCann, J. [Department of Community Medicine, Strangeways Research Laboratory, Worts Causeway, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Warren, R. [Cambridge and Huntingdon Breast Screening Service, Rosie Maternity Hospital, Robinson Way, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Duffy, S. [MRC-Biostatistics Unit, Institute of Public Health, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Luben, R. [Department of Clinical Gerontology, Strangeways Research Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Day, N. [Department of Community Medicine, Institute of Public Health, Robinson Way, Cambridge, CB2 2SR (United Kingdom)

    2000-01-01

    A case-control study was designed to assess the association of mammographic parenchymal patterns with the risk of in-situ and invasive breast cancer. In addition, the relationship between tumour characteristics and mammographic patterns were also investigated. A total of 875 patients with breast cancer were selected and matched with 2601 controls. Mammographic parenchymal patterns of breast tissue were assessed according to Wolfe's classification, and statistical analysis was by conditional logistic regression. Relative to the N1 pattern, the odds ratios of having an invasive breast cancer associated with the P2 and DY patterns were 1.8 and 1.4, respectively. In addition, the odd ratios of having an invasive grade 3 breast cancer associated with the P2 and DY patterns were 2.8 and 3.9, respectively. Relative to the combined N1/P1 pattern, the odd ratios of having a breast cancer smaller than 14 mm, 15-29 mm, or larger than 30 mm associated with the combined high-risk P2/DY pattern (P2 + DY) were 1.2, 1.6, and 2.0, respectively. Finally, women with the P2/DY pattern were twice as likely to have a breast cancer which had already spread to the axillary nodes, compared to women with women with the N1/P1 pattern (odds ratios of 2.1 and 1.4, respectively). Our results confirm previous findings suggesting that mammographic parenchymal patterns may serve as indicators of risk for breast cancer. Our results also suggest that mammographic parenchymal patterns are associated with the stage at which breast cancer is detected. (orig.)

  6. Size, node status and grade of breast tumours: association with mammographic parenchymal patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sala, E.; Solomon, L.; McCann, J.; Warren, R.; Duffy, S.; Luben, R.; Day, N.

    2000-01-01

    A case-control study was designed to assess the association of mammographic parenchymal patterns with the risk of in-situ and invasive breast cancer. In addition, the relationship between tumour characteristics and mammographic patterns were also investigated. A total of 875 patients with breast cancer were selected and matched with 2601 controls. Mammographic parenchymal patterns of breast tissue were assessed according to Wolfe's classification, and statistical analysis was by conditional logistic regression. Relative to the N1 pattern, the odds ratios of having an invasive breast cancer associated with the P2 and DY patterns were 1.8 and 1.4, respectively. In addition, the odd ratios of having an invasive grade 3 breast cancer associated with the P2 and DY patterns were 2.8 and 3.9, respectively. Relative to the combined N1/P1 pattern, the odd ratios of having a breast cancer smaller than 14 mm, 15-29 mm, or larger than 30 mm associated with the combined high-risk P2/DY pattern (P2 + DY) were 1.2, 1.6, and 2.0, respectively. Finally, women with the P2/DY pattern were twice as likely to have a breast cancer which had already spread to the axillary nodes, compared to women with women with the N1/P1 pattern (odds ratios of 2.1 and 1.4, respectively). Our results confirm previous findings suggesting that mammographic parenchymal patterns may serve as indicators of risk for breast cancer. Our results also suggest that mammographic parenchymal patterns are associated with the stage at which breast cancer is detected. (orig.)

  7. Gas Transfer in Cellularized Collagen-Membrane Gas Exchange Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Justin H; Bassett, Erik K; Penson, Elliot J N; Hoganson, David M; Vacanti, Joseph P

    2015-08-01

    Chronic lower respiratory disease is highly prevalent in the United States, and there remains a need for alternatives to lung transplant for patients who progress to end-stage lung disease. Portable or implantable gas oxygenators based on microfluidic technologies can address this need, provided they operate both efficiently and biocompatibly. Incorporating biomimetic materials into such devices can help replicate native gas exchange function and additionally support cellular components. In this work, we have developed microfluidic devices that enable blood gas exchange across ultra-thin collagen membranes (as thin as 2 μm). Endothelial, stromal, and parenchymal cells readily adhere to these membranes, and long-term culture with cellular components results in remodeling, reflected by reduced membrane thickness. Functionally, acellular collagen-membrane lung devices can mediate effective gas exchange up to ∼288 mL/min/m(2) of oxygen and ∼685 mL/min/m(2) of carbon dioxide, approaching the gas exchange efficiency noted in the native lung. Testing several configurations of lung devices to explore various physical parameters of the device design, we concluded that thinner membranes and longer gas exchange distances result in improved hemoglobin saturation and increases in pO2. However, in the design space tested, these effects are relatively small compared to the improvement in overall oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer by increasing the blood flow rate. Finally, devices cultured with endothelial and parenchymal cells achieved similar gas exchange rates compared with acellular devices. Biomimetic blood oxygenator design opens the possibility of creating portable or implantable microfluidic devices that achieve efficient gas transfer while also maintaining physiologic conditions.

  8. Fibrocystic change of breast : relation with parenchymal pattern on mammogram and fibroadenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki Yeol; Cha, In Ho; Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Jung Hyuk [Korea Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    To determine the relationship between fibrocystic change and parenchymal pattern and fibroadenoma on mammogram. Mammograms of 135 patients with histologically- diagnosed fibrocystic disease after excisional biopsy were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with pathologic specimens. Classification of the parenchymal pattern was based on Wolfe's method. On mammogram, we observed abnormality in 88 out of the 135 cases;these latter consisted of 70 cases of DY, 30 of P2, 20 of P1, and 15 of Nl, following Wolfe's parenchymal patterns. Among the 88 abnormal cases we obseved 37 cases of mass with clear boundaries, five cases of mass with unclear boundaries, 22 with clustered microcalcifications, six with macrocalcifications and 18 with asymmetric dense breast. Histologic examination revealed a varying composition of stromal fibrosis, epithelial hyperplasia,cyst formation, apocrine metaplasia, etc. Histologically fibroadenomatoid change in 18 cases was appeared as a radiopaque mass on mammogram, especially in those cases where the change was well-defined, which were all except three. Fibrocystic disease was prevalent in Wolfe's P2 and DY patterns(about 80%). About 40% of fibrocystic change appearing as a well defined mass on mammogram showed fibroadenomatoid chage histologically and was difficult to differentiate from fibroadenoma. Fibrocystic disease should therefore be included in the differential diagnosis of a mass which on mammogram is well-defined.

  9. Normal parenchymal enhancement patterns in women undergoing MR screening of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Sanaz A.; Lin, Vicky C.; Giger, Maryellen L.; Li, Hui; Karczmar, Gregory S.; Newstead, Gillian M.

    2011-01-01

    To characterize the kinetic and morphological presentation of normal breast tissue on DCE-MRI in a large cohort of asymptomatic women, and to relate these characteristics to breast tissue density. 335 consecutive breast MR examinations in 229 asymptomatic women undergoing high-risk screening evaluations based on recommendations from the American Cancer Society including strong family history and genetic predisposition were selected for IRB-approved review (average age 49.2 ± 10.5 years). Breast tissue density was assessed on precontrast T 2 -weighted images. Parenchymal enhancement pattern (PEP) was qualitatively classified as minimal, homogeneous, heterogeneous or nodular. Quantitative analysis of parenchymal enhancement kinetics (PEK) was performed, including calculation of initial and peak enhancement percentages (E 1 , E peak ), the time to peak enhancement (T peak ) and the signal enhancement ratio (SER). 41.8% of examinations were classified as minimal, 13.7% homogeneous, 23.9% heterogeneous and 21.2% nodular PEP. Women with heterogeneously or extremely dense breasts exhibited a higher proportion of nodular PEP (44.2% (27/61)) and significantly higher E 1 , and E peak (p < 0.003) compared with those with less dense breasts. Qualitative and quantitative parenchymal enhancement characteristics vary by breast tissue density. In future work, the association between image-derived MR features of the normal breast and breast cancer risk should be explored. (orig.)

  10. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Severely Impairs Brain Parenchymal Cerebrospinal Fluid Circulation in Nonhuman Primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulay, Romain; Flament, Julien; Gauberti, Maxime; Naveau, Michael; Pasquet, Nolwenn; Gakuba, Clement; Emery, Evelyne; Hantraye, Philippe; Vivien, Denis; Aron-Badin, Romina; Gaberel, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating form of stroke with neurological outcomes dependent on the occurrence of delayed cerebral ischemia. It has been shown in rodents that some of the mechanisms leading to delayed cerebral ischemia are related to a decreased circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain parenchyma. Here, we evaluated the cerebral circulation of the CSF in a nonhuman primate in physiological condition and after SAH. We first evaluated in physiological condition the circulation of the brain CSF in Macaca facicularis , using magnetic resonance imaging of the temporal DOTA-Gd distribution after its injection into the CSF. Then, animals were subjected to a minimally invasive SAH before an MRI evaluation of the impact of SAH on the brain parenchymal CSF circulation. We first demonstrate that the CSF actively penetrates the brain parenchyma. Two hours after injection, almost the entire brain is labeled by DOTA-Gd. We also show that our model of SAH in nonhuman primate displays the characteristics of SAH in humans and leads to a dramatic impairment of the brain parenchymal circulation of the CSF. The CSF actively penetrates within the brain parenchyma in the gyrencephalic brain, as described for the glymphatic system in rodent. This parenchymal CSF circulation is severely impaired by SAH. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Welfare assessment in broiler farms: transect walks versus individual scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, J; Watanabe, T T N; Ferrante, V; Estevez, I

    2013-10-01

    Current scientific approaches to welfare assessment in broilers are based on individual sampling that can be time consuming under field conditions. On the other hand, farmers conduct routine checks based on walks through the house to screen birds' health condition. We adapted the walks through following line transect methodology used in wildlife studies to explore their feasibility as a welfare assessment tool. The aim of this study was to compare broiler welfare assessed by individual sampling and transect walks. We evaluated 6 identically managed flocks. For individual sampling, we collected measures on 150 birds, including weight, breast dirtiness, hock and footpad dermatitis, lameness, and immobility. Transect observations were conducted by slowly walking on randomized paths within each house recording: immobility, lameness, back dirtiness, sickness, agony, and dead. Transect walks allowed detection of small variations (P < 0.003) in the prevalence of most welfare indicators considered with consistency in interobserver reliability (P ≥ 0.05). In addition, assessments across transects were highly consistent (P ≥ 0.05). Individual sampling was also sensitive to differences across houses (P < 0.01) with the exception of immobility (P = 0.783). No differences were found across sampling locations (P ≥ 0.05). However, both methods differed greatly in the frequency of the incidence of the parameters considered. For example, immobility varied from 0.2 ± 0.02% for transect walks to 4 ± 2.3% for individual sampling, whereas lameness varied between 0.8 ± 0.07% and 24.2 ± 4.7% for transect and samplings, respectively. It is possible that the transect approach may have overlooked walking deficiencies because a large number of birds were scored, although if this was the case, the consistency obtained in the scoring across observers and transects would be surprising. Differences may also be related to possibly biased individual sampling procedures, where less mobile

  12. Studies of renal parenchymal impairments with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) by diagnostic imaging methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohishi, Yukihiko; Machida, Toyohei; Tashiro, Kazuya; Wada, Tetsuro; Mochizuki, Atsushi; Torii, Shinichiro; Yoshigoe, Fukuo; Kawashima, Yoshio; Asano, Koji (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-05-01

    Renal parenchymal impairments with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) were studied by diagnostic imaging methods. The subjects were 25 patients with renal stones, and EDAP LT-01 (piezoelectric system) was used for the equipment of ESWL. The examination by MRI, X-ray CT and /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA scintigraphy using SPECT were performed before and after ESWL. To the 24 kidneys of 12 adult dogs, shock waves were fired in order to examine the experimental renal parenchymal impairments. After the treatment with ESWL, renal abnormal findings were obtained with MRI in 6 patients out of 11 (54.5%), with X-ray CT in 1 patient out of 12 (8.3%), and with the /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in 4 patients out of 6 (66.7%). In the inspections with X-ray CT and renal scintigraphy conducted in 4 weeks, it was noted that the conditions of patients were recovered to the states before ESWL was performed. Using the therapeutic doses of shock wave for humans, the renal parenchymal impairments in the kidney in dogs were normalized in 7 days. Although it has been considered that the degree of renal parenchymal impairments with ESWL treatment may be influenced by the kind of the equipment, frequency of shock waves and their strength, the extent of impairments were rather mild, and it was presumed that the impairments might be recovered on the images in 3 to 4 weeks at the latest. (author).

  13. Studies of renal parenchymal impairments with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) by diagnostic imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohishi, Yukihiko; Machida, Toyohei; Tashiro, Kazuya; Wada, Tetsuro; Mochizuki, Atsushi; Torii, Shinichiro; Yoshigoe, Fukuo; Kawashima, Yoshio; Asano, Koji

    1989-01-01

    Renal parenchymal impairments with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) were studied by diagnostic imaging methods. The subjects were 25 patients with renal stones, and EDAP LT-01 (piezoelectric system) was used for the equipment of ESWL. The examination by MRI, X-ray CT and 99m Tc-DMSA scintigraphy using SPECT were performed before and after ESWL. To the 24 kidneys of 12 adult dogs, shock waves were fired in order to examine the experimental renal parenchymal impairments. After the treatment with ESWL, renal abnormal findings were obtained with MRI in 6 patients out of 11 (54.5%), with X-ray CT in 1 patient out of 12 (8.3%), and with the 99m Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in 4 patients out of 6 (66.7%). In the inspections with X-ray CT and renal scintigraphy conducted in 4 weeks, it was noted that the conditions of patients were recovered to the states before ESWL was performed. Using the therapeutic doses of shock wave for humans, the renal parenchymal impairments in the kidney in dogs were normalized in 7 days. Although it has been considered that the degree of renal parenchymal impairments with ESWL treatment may be influenced by the kind of the equipment, frequency of shock waves and their strength, the extent of impairments were rather mild, and it was presumed that the impairments might be recovered on the images in 3 to 4 weeks at the latest. (author)

  14. Biomechanical implications of lumbar spinal ligament transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Forell, Gregory A; Bowden, Anton E

    2014-11-01

    Many lumbar spine surgeries either intentionally or inadvertently damage or transect spinal ligaments. The purpose of this work was to quantify the previously unknown biomechanical consequences of isolated spinal ligament transection on the remaining spinal ligaments (stress transfer), vertebrae (bone remodelling stimulus) and intervertebral discs (disc pressure) of the lumbar spine. A finite element model of the full lumbar spine was developed and validated against experimental data and tested in the primary modes of spinal motion in the intact condition. Once a ligament was removed, stress increased in the remaining spinal ligaments and changes occurred in vertebral strain energy, but disc pressure remained similar. All major biomechanical changes occurred at the same spinal level as the transected ligament, with minor changes at adjacent levels. This work demonstrates that iatrogenic damage to spinal ligaments disturbs the load sharing within the spinal ligament network and may induce significant clinically relevant changes in the spinal motion segment.

  15. Changes of renal sinus fat and renal parenchymal fat during an 18-month randomized weight loss trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelicha, Hila; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Shelef, Ilan; Gepner, Yftach; Tsaban, Gal; Tene, Lilac; Yaskolka Meir, Anat; Bilitzky, Avital; Komy, Oded; Cohen, Noa; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Sarusi, Benjamin; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Haviv, Yosef S; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2018-08-01

    Data regarding the role of kidney adiposity, its clinical implications, and its dynamics during weight-loss are sparse. We investigated the effect of long-term weight-loss induced intervention diets on dynamics of renal-sinus-fat, an ectopic fat depot, and %renal-parenchymal-fat, lipid accumulation within the renal parenchyma. We randomized 278 participants with abdominal obesity/dyslipidemia to low-fat or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate diets, with or without exercise. We quantified renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat by whole body magnetic-resonance-imaging. Participants (age = 48 years; 89% men; body-mass-index = 31 kg/m 2 ) had 86% retention to the trial after 18 months. Both increased renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat were directly associated with hypertension, and with higher abdominal deep-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue and visceral-adipose-tissue (p of trend vs. baseline) but not %renal-parenchymal-fat (-1.7%; p = 0.13 vs. baseline) significantly decreased, and similarly across the intervention groups. Renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat changes were correlated with weight-loss per-se (p < 0.05). In a model adjusted for age, sex, and visceral-adipose-tissue changes, 18 months reduction in renal-sinus-fat associated with decreased pancreatic, hepatic and cardiac fats (p < 0.05 for all) and with decreased cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) (β = 0.13; p = 0.05), triglycerides/HDL-c (β = 0.13; p = 0.05), insulin (β = 0.12; p = 0.05) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (β = 0.24; p = 0.001), but not with improved renal function parameters or blood pressure. Decreased intake of sodium was associated with a reduction in %renal-parenchymal-fat, after adjustment for 18 months weight-loss (β = 0.15; p = 0.026) and hypertension (β = 0.14; p = 0.04). Renal-sinus-fat and renal-parenchymal-fat are fairly related to weight-loss. Decreased renal-sinus-fat is associated with improved hepatic

  16. Spinal cord transection before scoliosis correction in myelomeningocele may improve bladder function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linthorst, Josephine I.; Veenboer, Paul W.; Dik, Pieter; Pruijs, Hans E. H.; Han, Sen K. S.; de Kort, Laetitia M. O.; de Jong, Tom P. V. M.

    2014-01-01

    In patients with myelomeningocele (MMC) and coexistent scoliosis, a spinal cord transection (SC-transection) is sometimes performed before scoliosis correction to prevent traction on the myelum after stretching the spinal column. Performing a SC-transection may have positive effects on bladder

  17. Changes in the structural properties of peripheral nerves after transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toby, E B; Meyer, B M; Schwappach, J; Alvine, G

    1996-11-01

    Changes in peripheral nerve structural properties after transection were measured weekly for 5 weeks in the distal stump of the sciatic nerve in 50 Sprague-Dawley rats. Each week after transection, the distal stump of the transected nerve showed increased stiffness when compared to intact nerves. Linear elastic stiffness reached a maximum at weeks 1 and 2 after transection, when the transected nerves were 15% stiffer than the contralateral control sides. Toughness was also increased and reached a maximum at week 4 with a 50% difference between values for experimental and control sides. Overall failure load was between 21% and 27% greater, peaking at week 3. An increase in stiffness of the distal stump would result in increased tension at the suture line, as the nerve gap is overcome when performing a delayed neurorraphy. These data suggest, with respect to structural properties, that an end-to-end repair should be carried out at the time of injury; after only 1 week, significant stiffness in the distal segment of the nerve developed, which should result in an increase in tension at the repair site.

  18. Micropatterned co-culture of hepatocyte spheroids layered on non-parenchymal cells to understand heterotypic cellular interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Hidenori; Sasaki, Kohei; Okimura, Saya; Nagamura, Masako; Nakasone, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Microfabrication and micropatterning techniques in tissue engineering offer great potential for creating and controlling cellular microenvironments including cell–matrix interactions, soluble stimuli and cell–cell interactions. Here, we present a novel approach to generate layered patterning of hepatocyte spheroids on micropatterned non-parenchymal feeder cells using microfabricated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels. Micropatterned PEG-hydrogel-treated substrates with two-dimensional arrays of gelatin circular domains (ϕ = 100 μm) were prepared by photolithographic method. Only on the critical structure of PEG hydrogel with perfect protein rejection, hepatocytes were co-cultured with non-parenchymal cells to be led to enhanced hepatocyte functions. Then, we investigated the mechanism of the functional enhancement in co-culture with respect to the contributions of soluble factors and direct cell–cell interactions. In particular, to elucidate the influence of soluble factors on hepatocyte function, hepatocyte spheroids underlaid with fibroblasts (NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts) or endothelial cells (BAECs: bovine aortic endothelial cells) were compared with physically separated co-culture of hepatocyte monospheroids with NIH3T3 or BAEC using trans-well culture systems. Our results suggested that direct heterotypic cell-to-cell contact and soluble factors, both of these between hepatocytes and fibroblasts, significantly enhanced hepatocyte functions. In contrast, direct heterotypic cell-to-cell contact between hepatocytes and endothelial cells only contributed to enhance hepatocyte functions. This patterning technique can be a useful experimental tool for applications in basic science, drug screening and tissue engineering, as well as in the design of artificial liver devices. (paper)

  19. Renal parenchymal function evaluated by scintillation camera renography before and after pyeloplasty for hydronephrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlgren, G.; Maansson, W.; White, T.

    1992-01-01

    Scintillation camera renography with Tc-DTPA was performed before and after pyeloplasty on 16 kidneys with urographic signs of pelviureteric obstruction causing hydronephrosis. Regional parenchymal renograms were generated, and the passage of Tc-DTPA through the parenchyma was measured and correlated to the change in separate glomerular filtration rate. Preoperative parenchymal passage of DTPA was significantly slower in kidneys with improved glomerular filtration rate after pyeloplasty than in those without such improvement. Postoperative passage of DTPA in parenchyma was almost identical with that in a reference series. This method seems to be clinically useful for evaluating cases of hydronephrosis and for predicting the outcome of pyeloplasty. (au)

  20. Pacific Equatorial Transect

    OpenAIRE

    Pälike, Heiko; Nishi, Hiroshi; Lyle, Mitch; Raffi, Isabella; Klaus, Adam; Gamage, Kusali

    2009-01-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 320/321, "Pacific Equatorial Age Transect" (Sites U1331–U1338), was designed to recover a continuous Cenozoic record of the paleoequatorial Pacific by coring above the paleoposition of the Equator at successive crustal ages on the Pacific plate. These sediments record the evolution of the paleoequatorial climate system throughout the Cenozoic. As we gained more information about the past movement of plates and when in Earth's history "critical" cli...

  1. MR angiographic and parenchymal evaluation of cerebral infaraction in sickle cell anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaryk, T.J.; Masaryk, A.M.; Ross, J.S.; Modic, M.T.; Wiznitzer, M.; Berman, B.

    1989-01-01

    Cerebral infarction is an important complication of sickle cell anemia, believed to be related to large-vessel stenoses/occlusion and/or capillary/venous sickling resulting in thrombosis. Identification of these complications (especially large-vessel arterial disease) is important in selecting patients for transfusion therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the suitability of combined three-dimensional Fourier transform time-of-flight MR angiographic and parenchymal T2-weighted spin-echo examinations for evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) complications of sickle cell anemia. Seven patients (age range, 5-14 years) were evaluated. Five had documented strokes while two had symptoms resembling those of transient ischemic attack. The preliminary data indicate that combined MR angiographic and parenchymal studies are capable of identifying those patients with sickle cell anemia complicated by large-vessel CNS occlusive disease and cerebral infarction and can be used as a noninvasive guide to therapy

  2. Pure laparoscopic right hepatectomy for giant hemangioma using anterior approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seok-Hwan; Kim, Ki-Hun; Kirchner, Varvara A; Lee, Sang-Kyung

    2017-05-01

    Laparoscopic major hepatectomy remains a challenging procedure [1, 2]. In the case of giant tumors in the right liver, conventional approach (complete mobilization of the right liver before parenchymal transection) could be dangerous during mobilization because of large volume and weight [3, 4]. We present the case of a pure laparoscopic right hepatectomy for a giant hemangioma using an anterior approach. We achieved the informed consent with this patient and approved by the Ethics Committee of the Asan Medical Center. Giant hemangioma (13 × 11 × 14 cm) was located in right liver. After glissonean approach [5], Pringle maneuver was performed during the hepatic parenchymal transection. For the transection, the Cavitron Ultrasonic Surgical Aspirator was used. Small hepatic vein branches along the middle hepatic vein and small glissonean pedicles were sealed and divided with a THUNDERBEATTM (Olympus), which is the device with integration of both bipolar and ultrasonic energies delivered simultaneously. iDriveTM Ultra Powered Stapling device (Medtronic) was used for division of right glissonean pedicle and large hepatic veins. Hemangioma was removed through the lower abdominal transverse incision using the endo-bag. This technique has the advantage of avoiding excessive bleeding caused by avulsion of the hepatic vein and caval branches, iatrogenic tumor rupture [3]. By means of the anterior approach, pure laparoscopic right hepatectomy was performed successfully without intraoperative complications and transfusions. The operation time was 202 min, and the estimated blood loss was less than 150 ml. On postoperative day 3, computed tomographic scan showed no pathological findings. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 5 without complications. Laparoscopic approach has good results because of the view with magnification enabling meticulous hemostasis and the small wounds that give patients less pain [6, 7]. The authors recommend that the laparoscopic

  3. Clinical availability of cholescintigraphy in evaluating diffuse liver parenchymal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hisao; Shimono, Reiko; Hamamoto, Ken; Ohshima, Kanji; Akamatsu, Koichi

    1988-01-01

    Technetium-99m N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan (PMT) cholescintigraphy has been performed in 46 consecutive patients with diffuse liver parenchymal diseases, including acute hepatitis (9), chronic hepatitis (17), and liver cirrhosis (20), and 18 controls. Blood clearance rate, liver uptake rate, liver excretion rate, and half time (T1/2) were determined from cardiac and hepatic time-activity curves. Regarding the four parameters, there were statistically significant differences between the control group and the groups of acute hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. Both blood clearance rate and liver uptake rate were well correlated with ICG-k values (r = 0.874 and r = 0.791, respectively). Liver excretion rate was most highly correlated with total serum bilirubin levels (r = 0.763), followed by ICG-k values. T1/2 was well correlated as well with total serum bilirubin levels. During the process where liver excretory ability was lowered in association with elevated serum bilirubin levels, threshold values for liver excretion rate appeared to be established. Cholescintigraphy may be of value in evaluating the pathophysiology of diffuse liver parenchymal diseases in that it is capable of quantitatively determining excretory function of hepatic cells. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Can roads be used as transects for primate population surveys?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilário, Renato R; Rodrigues, Flávio H G; Chiarello, Adriano G; Mourthé, Italo

    2012-01-01

    Line transect distance sampling (LTDS) can be applied to either trails or roads. However, it is likely that sampling along roads might result in biased density estimates. In this paper, we compared the results obtained with LTDS applied on trails and roads for two primate species (Callithrix penicillata and Callicebus nigrifrons) to clarify whether roads are appropriate transects to estimate densities. We performed standard LTDS surveys in two nature reserves in south-eastern Brazil. Effective strip width and population density were different between trails and roads for C. penicillata, but not for C. nigrifrons. The results suggest that roads are not appropriate for use as transects in primate surveys, at least for some species. Further work is required to fully understand this issue, but in the meantime we recommend that researchers avoid using roads as transects or treat roads and trails as covariates when sampling on roads is unavoidable. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Effect of stifle angle on the magnitude of the tibial plateau angle measurement in dogs with intact and transected cranial cruciate ligament. A cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulakh, K S; Harper, T A M; Lanz, O I; Daniel, G B; Werre, S R

    2011-01-01

    To determine the effect of stifle angle on the magnitude of the radiographic tibial plateau angle (TPA) in normal and cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) -deficient stifles. Three pairs of canine cadaver hindlimbs from three skeletally mature dogs were positioned in a custom-made positioning device. A lateral radiograph of each specimen was obtained before and after transection of the CCL at four stifle angles (90°, 110°, 135° and 140-150° [i.e. maximum extension]), based on goniometric measurements. Four observers determined the radiographic TPA twice for each radiograph with a minimum of two days between each measurement. The radiographic TPA measurements in all specimens at different stifle angles with intact CCL and transected CCL were compared with mixed-model ANOVA. The effect of stifle angle, CCL transection, and interaction between the two on observer TPA measurement variability was also determined using the coefficient of variation. Tibial plateau angle was not statistically different in the stifle angles for either the intact or transected CCL. There was also no statistical difference for TPA between intact and transected CCL groups at each of the stifle angles. Stifle angle, CCL transection and interaction between the two did not have any significant effect for intra-observer and inter-observer variation. The angle of the stifle during radiography does not influence the magnitude of the TPA measurement as determined on true lateral radiographs of the stifle and tibia in cadaveric canine limbs.

  6. CT evaluation of pulmonary parenchymal injury due to blunt chest trauma and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimi, Hiroshi

    1990-01-01

    The CT findings of pulmonary parenchymal injury due to blunt chest trauma in 73 patients and their clinical significance were analyzed. CT was obtained within 6 hours after trauma. Findings were analyzed according to the number of injured segments and severity which was classified into three grades. A correlation was also made with arterial blood PaO 2 and thoracic complications. Pulmonary parenchymal injury was identified in multisegmental portions bilaterally in most cases. It was most frequently observed in the posterior portion of the lung such as segment 6. More than 50% of lesions were classified as Grade 1. Pulmonary laceration, defined as patchy density with the cavitary lesion (Grade 3), was noted in 9.2%. There was a good correlation between extent of pulmonary injury and degree of hypoxia. The correlation of pneumothorax was also found with extensive lesion and frequency of Grade 3 lesion. Cases with pulmonary laceration tend to have extensive injury, and be related to the degree of hypoxia. In conclusion, CT evaluation of pulmonary parenchymal injury is valuable not only for morphological evaluation but also for estimation of hypoxia. (author)

  7. CT evaluation of pulmonary parenchymal injury due to blunt chest trauma and its clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimi, Hiroshi (St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1990-10-01

    The CT findings of pulmonary parenchymal injury due to blunt chest trauma in 73 patients and their clinical significance were analyzed. CT was obtained within 6 hours after trauma. Findings were analyzed according to the number of injured segments and severity which was classified into three grades. A correlation was also made with arterial blood PaO{sub 2} and thoracic complications. Pulmonary parenchymal injury was identified in multisegmental portions bilaterally in most cases. It was most frequently observed in the posterior portion of the lung such as segment 6. More than 50% of lesions were classified as Grade 1. Pulmonary laceration, defined as patchy density with the cavitary lesion (Grade 3), was noted in 9.2%. There was a good correlation between extent of pulmonary injury and degree of hypoxia. The correlation of pneumothorax was also found with extensive lesion and frequency of Grade 3 lesion. Cases with pulmonary laceration tend to have extensive injury, and be related to the degree of hypoxia. In conclusion, CT evaluation of pulmonary parenchymal injury is valuable not only for morphological evaluation but also for estimation of hypoxia. (author).

  8. Design unbiased estimation in line intersect sampling using segmented transects

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L.R. Affleck; Timothy G. Gregoire; Harry T. Valentine; Harry T. Valentine

    2005-01-01

    In many applications of line intersect sampling. transects consist of multiple, connected segments in a prescribed configuration. The relationship between the transect configuration and the selection probability of a population element is illustrated and a consistent sampling protocol, applicable to populations composed of arbitrarily shaped elements, is proposed. It...

  9. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Swains Atoll, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 8 sites at Swains Atoll in...

  10. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Saipan Island, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 5 sites at Saipan in the...

  11. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Surveys at Johnston Island, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Johnston Island in...

  12. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Rota Island, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at Rota in the...

  13. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Surveys at Kure Atoll 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Kure Atoll in October,...

  14. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Tatsumi Reef, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 2 sites at Tatsumi Reef in the...

  15. Composition and diversity of tree species in transects of location lowland evergreen forest of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Caranqui A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 9 transects 1000m2 of lowland evergreen forest, located in two locations on the coast and one in eastern Ecuador. It was to contribute to knowledge of the diversity and composition of woody plants over 10 cm diameter at breast height (DBH plus infer the state of conservation of forests based on the composition, the number of species, indices diversity and importance value (IV, found in 9 transects of 1000 m² of forest: 156 species, 107 genera and 39 families distributed in 9 transects, in each one the Simpson diversity index is of 0.92 to 0.95, in this case are diversity because all approaches 1. Most were found species aren´t present in all transects, the index value in each transect does not exceed 40%. Grouping transects match three locations exception made to transect 5 and 8 were conducted in disturbed sites, the most transects are intermediate disturbance that their high levels of diversity.

  16. Recovery of bimodal locomotion in the spinal-transected salamander, Pleurodeles waltlii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, Stéphanie; Landry, Marc; Nagy, Frédéric; Cabelguen, Jean-Marie

    2004-10-01

    Electromyographic (EMG) analysis was used to provide an assessment of the recovery of locomotion in spinal-transected adult salamanders (Pleurodeles waltlii). EMG recordings were performed during swimming and overground stepping in the same animal before and at various times (up to 500 days) after a mid-trunk spinalization. Two-three weeks after spinalization, locomotor EMG activity was limited to the forelimbs and the body rostral to the transection. Thereafter, there was a return of the locomotor EMG activity at progressively more caudal levels below the transection. The animals reached stable locomotor patterns 3-4 months post-transection. Several locomotor parameters (cycle duration, burst duration, burst proportion, intersegmental phase lag, interlimb coupling) measured at various recovery times after spinalization were compared with those in intact animals. These comparisons revealed transient and long-term alterations in the locomotor parameters both above and below the transection site. These alterations were much more pronounced for swimming than for stepping and revealed differences in adaptive plasticity between the two locomotor networks. Recovered locomotor activity was immediately abolished by retransection at the site of the original spinalization, suggesting that the spinal cord caudal to the transection was reinnervated by descending brain and/or propriospinal axons, and that this regeneration contributed to the restoration of locomotor activity. Anatomical studies conducted in parallel further demonstrated that some of the regenerated axons came from glutamatergic and serotoninergic immunoreactive cells within the reticular formation.

  17. A Comparative Study of Peripheral Immune Responses to Taenia solium in Individuals with Parenchymal and Subarachnoid Neurocysticercosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskra Tuero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Taenia solium to modulate the immune system likely contributes to their longevity in the human host. We tested the hypothesis that the nature of the immune response is related to the location of parasite and clinical manifestations of infection.Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were obtained from untreated patients with neurocysticercosis (NCC, categorized as having parenchymal or subarachnoid infection by the presence of cysts exclusively within the parenchyma or in subarachnoid spaces of the brain, and from uninfected (control individuals matched by age and gender to each patient. Using multiplex detection technology, sera from NCC patients and controls and cytokine production by PBMC after T. solium antigen (TsAg stimulation were assayed for levels of inflammatory and regulatory cytokines. PBMC were phenotyped by flow cytometry ex vivo and following in vitro stimulation with TsAg.Sera from patients with parenchymal NCC demonstrated significantly higher Th1 (IFN-γ/IL-12 and Th2 (IL-4/IL-13 cytokine responses and trends towards higher levels of IL-1β/IL-8/IL-5 than those obtained from patients with subarachnoid NCC. Also higher in vitro antigen-driven TNF-β secretion was detected in PBMC supernatants from parenchymal than in subarachnoid NCC. In contrast, there was a significantly higher IL-10 response to TsAg stimulation in patients with subarachnoid NCC compared to parenchymal NCC. Although no differences in regulatory T cells (Tregs frequencies were found ex vivo, there was a trend towards greater expansion of Tregs upon TsAg stimulation in subarachnoid than in parenchymal NCC when data were normalized for the corresponding controls.T. solium infection of the subarachnoid space is associated with an enhanced regulatory immune response compared to infection in the parenchyma. The resulting anti-inflammatory milieu may represent a parasite strategy to maintain a permissive environment in the host or diminish

  18. Location and description of transects for ecological studies in floodplain forests of the lower Suwannee River, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, L.J.; Light, H.M.; Darst, M.R.

    2001-01-01

    Twelve transects were established in floodplain forests along the lower Suwannee River, Florida, as the principal data collection sites for a comprehensive study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Suwannee River Water Management District from 1996 to 2001. Data collected along the 12 transects included hydrologic conditions, land-surface elevations, soils, and vegetation of floodplain forests in relation to river flow. Transect locations are marked in the field with permanent markers at approximately 30 meter intervals. Detailed descriptions of the 12 transects and their locations are provided so that they can be used for future ecological studies. Descriptions of the transects include contact information necessary for access to the property on which the transects are located, maps showing transect locations and routes from the nearest city or major road, small scale maps of each transect showing marker locations, latitude and longitude of each marker, compass bearings of each transect line and graphs showing land-surface elevations of the transect with marker locations.

  19. Correlation between computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of parenchymal lung diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Miriam Menna; Rafful, Patricia Piazza [Department of Radiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rodrigues, Rosana Souza [Department of Radiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); D’Or Institute for Research and Education, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zanetti, Gláucia [Department of Radiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Hochhegger, Bruno [Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Souza, Arthur Soares [Department of Radiology, Medical School of Rio Preto (FAMERP) and Ultra X, São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Guimarães, Marcos Duarte [Department of Imaging, Hospital AC Camargo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Computed tomography (CT) is considered to be the gold standard method for the assessment of morphological changes in the pulmonary parenchyma. Although its spatial resolution is lower than that of CT, MRI offers the advantage of characterizing different aspects of tissue based on the degree of contrast on T1-weighted image (WI) and T2-WI. In this article, we describe and correlate the MRI and CT features of several common patterns of parenchymal lung disease (air trapping, atelectasis, bronchiectasis, cavitation, consolidation, emphysema, ground-glass opacities, halo sign, interlobular septal thickening, masses, mycetoma, nodules, progressive massive fibrosis, reverse halo sign and tree-in-bud pattern). MRI may be an alternative modality for the collection of morphological and functional information useful for the management of parenchymal lung disease, which would help reduce the number of chest CT scans and radiation exposure required in patients with a variety of conditions.

  20. The lung parenchymal strip as a model of peripheral airway responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, C L; Black, J L; Berend, N

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-four patients scheduled for surgery for carcinoma of the lung were challenged with inhaled methacholine. A greater than 20% fall in the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) was recorded in nine of these patients. The PD20 (dose of methacholine producing a 20% fall in FEV1) values ranged from 0.6 to 5.6 mumol methacholine. Following surgery, lung tissue was prepared as lung parenchymal strips for in vitro studies. There was no correlation between in vivo airway responsiveness to methacholine (PD20) and in vitro sensitivity as measured by the EC50 (the concentration of agonist producing half the maximal tension [Tmax]) for carbachol (r = -0.17; n = 16) or histamine (r = 0.23; n = 24). The variation in in vivo and in vitro responsiveness was not due to the presence of inflammatory cells in the peripheral lung tissue. Of the 38 lung parenchymal strips studied with histamine, 17 demonstrated a variable relaxation response at low concentrations followed by contraction at higher concentrations. The presence or absence of this relaxation response could not be explained in terms of variable proportions of airway or vascular smooth muscle.

  1. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Alamagan, Marianas Archipelago, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at Alamagan in the...

  2. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Sarigan Island, CNMI, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at Sarigan in the...

  3. Focal parenchymal lesions in community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults: a clinico-radiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katchanov, Juri; Siebert, Eberhard; Klingebiel, Randolf; Endres, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Here, we analyzed the frequency, morphological pattern, and imaging characteristics of focal lesions as a consequence of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We hypothesized that diffusion-weighted imaging combined with contrast-enhanced imaging, serial scanning, and multimodal vascular studies would provide further insight into the pathological basis of such parenchymal lesions in bacterial meningitis. We reviewed clinical and imaging data (i.e., magnetic resonance tomography, magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomography angiography, digital subtraction angiography) of 68 adult patients admitted to our neurological intensive care unit between March 1998 and February 2009 with the diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We identified seven patients with parenchymal lesions. These lesions could be attributed to four morphological patterns: (1) territorial cerebral ischemia, (2) perforating vessels ischemia, (3) ischemia of presumed cardiac origin, and (4) isolated cortical lesions. Whereas the patterns (1) and (2) were associated with vasculopathy of large- and medium-sized vessels (as shown by cerebral vascular imaging), vessel imaging in (3) and (4) did not show abnormal findings. Our study implies that parenchymal lesions in acute bacterial meningitis are mainly ischemic and due to involvement of large-, medium-, and small-sized arteries of the brain. Diffusion-weighted imaging combined with conventional, CT-, or MR-based cerebral angiography revealed the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in the majority of patients. Furthermore, we detected two patients with isolated bilateral cortical involvement and normal vessel imaging. These lesions might represent ischemia due to the involvement of small pial and intracortical arteries. (orig.)

  4. Focal parenchymal lesions in community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults: a clinico-radiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katchanov, Juri [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); University Hospital Charite, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Siebert, Eberhard; Klingebiel, Randolf [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neuroradiology, Berlin (Germany); Endres, Matthias [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Center for Stroke Research Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Here, we analyzed the frequency, morphological pattern, and imaging characteristics of focal lesions as a consequence of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We hypothesized that diffusion-weighted imaging combined with contrast-enhanced imaging, serial scanning, and multimodal vascular studies would provide further insight into the pathological basis of such parenchymal lesions in bacterial meningitis. We reviewed clinical and imaging data (i.e., magnetic resonance tomography, magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomography angiography, digital subtraction angiography) of 68 adult patients admitted to our neurological intensive care unit between March 1998 and February 2009 with the diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We identified seven patients with parenchymal lesions. These lesions could be attributed to four morphological patterns: (1) territorial cerebral ischemia, (2) perforating vessels ischemia, (3) ischemia of presumed cardiac origin, and (4) isolated cortical lesions. Whereas the patterns (1) and (2) were associated with vasculopathy of large- and medium-sized vessels (as shown by cerebral vascular imaging), vessel imaging in (3) and (4) did not show abnormal findings. Our study implies that parenchymal lesions in acute bacterial meningitis are mainly ischemic and due to involvement of large-, medium-, and small-sized arteries of the brain. Diffusion-weighted imaging combined with conventional, CT-, or MR-based cerebral angiography revealed the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in the majority of patients. Furthermore, we detected two patients with isolated bilateral cortical involvement and normal vessel imaging. These lesions might represent ischemia due to the involvement of small pial and intracortical arteries. (orig.)

  5. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Guam, Marianas Archipelago, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 10 sites at Guam in the Marianas...

  6. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Rota, Marianas Archipelago, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at Rota in the Marianas...

  7. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Saipan, Marianas Archipelago, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 8 sites at Saipan in the Marianas...

  8. Separation of Hepatic parenchymal and Intrahepatic bile duct isotope activity: Studies of parenchymal function and bile duct flow using dynamic Tc-99m HIDA SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, E.; Naslund, E.; Freedman, J.; Hultcrantz, R.; Slezak, P.; Jacobsson, H.

    2003-01-01

    Currently used liver function tests have several shortcomings. Most of them are either insensitive or non-specific. The ultimate liver function test is probably a dynamic study, using a test substance with exclusive hepatic elimination and bile excretion, detected by means of a non?invasive method enabling sampling from all relevant compartments. In this paper we describe a method which enables measurements of parenchymal function and bile flow in different liver segments. The study was performed on 20 healthy volunteers. Tc-99m HIDA was used as test substrate and repeated Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) registrations as sampling method. Following injection of 120 MBq of Tc-99m HIDA, twelve liver SPECT examinations were performed at 6-minute intervals. Duct-representing peaks on images were detected by cranio-caudal activity scanning. Sampling from parenchyma and bile ducts in liver segments 2 to 8 was performed on consecutive examinations, creating time-activity graphs for parenchyma and ducts. Quantitative analysis of parenchymal and duct curves was performed and the results obtained from the left and right-sided liver segments were compared. Maximum counts/voxel (C max ) of left-sided segments (mean=33.2) were significantly lower than the values from right-sided segments (mean=24.7) and flow of isotope from parenchyma to bile ducts was significantly slower on the left. Furthermore, bile flow in ducts draining left-sided segments was slower than flow on the right side as reflected in significantly longer excretion t 1/2 (28.9 compared to 25.2 minutes) and delayed t max . (21.7 compared to 17.0 minutes). It has been concluded that the new method could provide a differential analysis of tracer flow in the hepatic parenchyma and the bile ducts. This pilot study on normal subjects has revealed interesting differences in both parenchymal accumulation as well as biliary excretion between left and right-sided segments. However, the value of the method

  9. Understanding the Lung Abscess Microbiome: Outcomes of Percutaneous Lung Parenchymal Abscess Drainage with Microbiologic Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Christopher; Nadolski, Gregory J; Gade, Terence; Hunt, Stephen

    2017-06-01

    Lung parenchymal abscesses represent an uncommon pathology with high mortality if untreated. Although most respond well to antibiotics, the optimal therapy for persistent abscesses is unknown. The purpose of this study was to review the outcomes of percutaneous lung parenchymal abscess catheter drainage after broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy failure and correlate with patient microbiologic samples. Retrospective review of patients who underwent percutaneous lung abscess drainage at a tertiary hospital system from 2005 to 2015 was performed. In total, 19 procedures were identified on 16 different patients; six females and ten males. Mean patient age was 55 years (range 22-81). Median follow-up time was 7 months (range abscess cavity in 58% (11/19) or with non-draining abscess cavities in 21% (4/19) for a clinical success rate of 79%. Blood cultures demonstrated no growth in all cases, while 21% (4/19) of sputum or bronchoscopic cultures demonstrated growth. In comparison, the specimens from initial catheter placement isolated a causative organism in 95% (18/19) of case (p lung abscess after broad-spectrum antibiotics, percutaneous abscess drainage is highly sensitive for microbiologic sampling compared to sputum/bronchoscopic or blood cultures. Additionally, percutaneous drainage of lung parenchymal abscess cavities may promote resolution of the abscess with high rates of therapeutic success and low complications.

  10. Preliminary clinical study on non-transecting anastomotic bulbomembranous urethroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Wei; Li, Chao; Zhang, Jinfu; Wu, Denglong; Liu, Bo

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of non-transecting anastomotic urethroplasty for treatment of posterior urethral stricture. A total of 23 patients with traumatic posterior urethral stricture were enrolled and then divided into two groups. In one group, 12 patients underwent non-transecting anastomotic urethroplasty. In the other group, 11 patients underwent conventional posterior urethra end-to-end anastomosis. The effect of operation was evaluated using the following parameters: the bleeding amount during operation, operation time, IIEF-5 scores after operation, maximum flow rate (Qmax), and rating scale of quality of life (QoL). The comparison between the conventional posterior urethra end-to-end anastomosis group and the non-transecting anastomotic urethroplasty group showed no significant difference with regard to average operation time. However, a significant difference was observed between the groups with regard to the bleeding amount during operation. The patients in the group of non-transecting anastomotic urethroplasty urinated smoothly after the removal of catheter. Meanwhile, one patient from the group of conventional posterior urethra end-to-end anastomosis had difficulty urinating after the removal of catheter. Furthermore, significant differences in the operation time, bleeding amount during operation, IIEF-5 scores after operation, and rating scale of QoL were observed, whereas no significant difference was observed between urine flow rates of the two groups after operation. Overall, nontransecting anastomotic urethroplasty is effective for posterior urethra reconstruction, and it can reduce the occurrence rate of erectile dysfunction after operation.

  11. Isolated unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia with accompanying pulmonary parenchymal findings on CT: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Surin; Cha, Yoon Ki; Kim, Jeung Sook; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Jeong, Yun Jeong [Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia or agenesis without congenital cardiovascular anomalies is rare in adults. We report a case of a 36-year-old man with isolated left unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia with recurrent hemoptysis. On computed tomography (CT), the left pulmonary artery showed hypoplasia with multiple collateral vessels seen in the mediastinum and the left hemithorax. Also, parenchymal bands and peripheral linear opacities were seen in the affected lung, which were probably due to chronic infarction induced by unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia. There are only a few reports focusing on the radiologic findings in the pulmonary parenchyma induced by unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia, such as parenchymal bands and peripheral linear opacities. Therefore we report this case, which focused on the CT findings in the pulmonary parenchyma due to isolated unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia.

  12. Isolated unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia with accompanying pulmonary parenchymal findings on CT: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Surin; Cha, Yoon Ki; Kim, Jeung Sook; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Jeong, Yun Jeong; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia or agenesis without congenital cardiovascular anomalies is rare in adults. We report a case of a 36-year-old man with isolated left unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia with recurrent hemoptysis. On computed tomography (CT), the left pulmonary artery showed hypoplasia with multiple collateral vessels seen in the mediastinum and the left hemithorax. Also, parenchymal bands and peripheral linear opacities were seen in the affected lung, which were probably due to chronic infarction induced by unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia. There are only a few reports focusing on the radiologic findings in the pulmonary parenchyma induced by unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia, such as parenchymal bands and peripheral linear opacities. Therefore we report this case, which focused on the CT findings in the pulmonary parenchyma due to isolated unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia

  13. Duodenal Transection without Pancreatic Injury following Blunt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    following blunt abdominal trauma and its clinical picture is often ... Here we report a case of complete duodenal ... Key words: Duodenal injury, peritonitis, transection. Department of ... When our patient was brought to the emergency room, he.

  14. Environment, vegetation and greenness (NDVI) along the North America and Eurasia Arctic transects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D A; Raynolds, M K; Kuss, P; Kade, A N; Epstein, H E; Frost, G V; Kopecky, M A; Daniëls, F J A; Leibman, M O; Moskalenko, N G; Khomutov, A V; Matyshak, G V; Khitun, O V; Forbes, B C; Bhatt, U S; Vonlanthen, C M; Tichý, L

    2012-01-01

    Satellite-based measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI; an index of vegetation greenness and photosynthetic capacity) indicate that tundra environments are generally greening and becoming more productive as climates warm in the Arctic. The greening, however, varies and is even negative in some parts of the Arctic. To help interpret the space-based observations, the International Polar Year (IPY) Greening of the Arctic project conducted ground-based surveys along two >1500 km transects that span all five Arctic bioclimate subzones. Here we summarize the climate, soil, vegetation, biomass, and spectral information collected from the North America Arctic transect (NAAT), which has a more continental climate, and the Eurasia Arctic transect (EAT), which has a more oceanic climate. The transects have broadly similar summer temperature regimes and overall vegetation physiognomy, but strong differences in precipitation, especially winter precipitation, soil texture and pH, disturbance regimes, and plant species composition and structure. The results indicate that summer warmth and NDVI increased more strongly along the more continental transect. (letter)

  15. Pathophysiology of Pulmonary Hypertension in Chronic Parenchymal Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Inderjit; Ma, Kevin Cong; Berlin, David Adam

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary hypertension commonly complicates chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial lung disease. The association of chronic lung disease and pulmonary hypertension portends a worse prognosis. The pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension differs in the presence or absence of lung disease. We describe the physiological determinants of the normal pulmonary circulation to better understand the pathophysiological factors implicated in chronic parenchymal lung disease-associated pulmonary hypertension. This review will focus on the pathophysiology of 3 forms of chronic lung disease-associated pulmonary hypertension: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and sarcoidosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Motor Axonal Regeneration After Partial and Complete Spinal Cord Transection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Paul; Blesch, Armin; Graham, Lori; Wang, Yaozhi; Samara, Ramsey; Banos, Karla; Haringer, Verena; Havton, Leif; Weishaupt, Nina; Bennett, David; Fouad, Karim; Tuszynski, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    We subjected rats to either partial mid-cervical or complete upper thoracic spinal cord transections and examined whether combinatorial treatments support motor axonal regeneration into and beyond the lesion. Subjects received cAMP injections into brainstem reticular motor neurons to stimulate their endogenous growth state, bone marrow stromal cell grafts in lesion sites to provide permissive matrices for axonal growth, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gradients beyond the lesion to stimulate distal growth of motor axons. Findings were compared to several control groups. Combinatorial treatment generated motor axon regeneration beyond both C5 hemisection and complete transection sites. Yet despite formation of synapses with neurons below the lesion, motor outcomes worsened after partial cervical lesions and spasticity worsened after complete transection. These findings highlight the complexity of spinal cord repair, and the need for additional control and shaping of axonal regeneration. PMID:22699902

  17. [Parenchymal complications of the transplanted kidney: the role of color-Doppler imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Antonio; Clementi, Silvia; Clementi, Anna; Di Pietro, Fabio; Scarfia, Viviana R; Insalaco, Monica; Aucella, Filippo; Prencipe, Michele; Fiorini, Fulvio; Sicurezza, Elvia

    2012-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease, given the better quality of life of transplanted patients when compared to patients on maintenance dialysis. In spite of surgical improvements and new immunosuppressive regimens, part of the transplanted grafts still develop chronic dysfunction. Ultrasonography, both in B-mode and with Doppler ultrasound, is an important diagnostic tool in case of clinical conditions which might impair kidney function. Even though ultrasonography is considered fundamental in the diagnosis of vascular and surgical complications of the transplanted kidney, its role is not fully understood in case of parenchymal complications of the graft. The specificity of Doppler ultrasound is low both in case of acute complications such as acute tubular necrosis, drug toxicity and acute rejection, and in case of chronic conditions such as chronic allograft nephropathy. Single determinations of resistance indices present low diagnostic accuracy, which is higher in case of successive measurements performed during the follow-up of the graft. Modern techniques including tissue pulsatility index, maximal fractional area and contrast-enhanced ultrasound increase the diagnostic power of ultrasonography in case of parenchymal complications of the transplanted kidney.

  18. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Niihau, Main Hawaiian Islands, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at Niihau in the Main...

  19. Bronchoscopic cryobiopsy for the diagnosis of diffuse parenchymal lung disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Kropski

    Full Text Available Although in some cases clinical and radiographic features may be sufficient to establish a diagnosis of diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD, surgical lung biopsy is frequently required. Recently a new technique for bronchoscopic lung biopsy has been developed using flexible cryo-probes. In this study we describe our clinical experience using bronchoscopic cryobiopsy for diagnosis of diffuse lung disease.A retrospective study of subjects who had undergone bronchoscopic cryobiopsy for evaluation of DPLD at an academic tertiary care center from January 1, 2012 through January 15, 2013 was performed. The procedure was performed using a flexible bronchoscope to acquire biopsies of lung parenchyma. H&E stained biopsies were reviewed by an expert lung pathologist.Twenty-five eligible subjects were identified. With a mean area of 64.2 mm(2, cryobiopsies were larger than that typically encountered with traditional transbronchial forceps biopsy. In 19 of the 25 subjects, a specific diagnosis was obtained. In one additional subject, biopsies demonstrating normal parenchyma were felt sufficient to exclude diffuse lung disease as a cause of dyspnea. The overall diagnostic yield of bronchoscopic cryobiopsy was 80% (20/25. The most frequent diagnosis was usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP (n = 7. Three of the 25 subjects ultimately required surgical lung biopsy. There were no significant complications.In patients with suspected diffuse parenchymal lung disease, bronchoscopic cryobiopsy is a promising and minimally invasive approach to obtain lung tissue with high diagnostic yield.

  20. Non-transecting anastomotic urethroplasty (surgical atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-transecting anastomotic urethroplasty – is three types of urethroplasty, which are united on the principle resection of bulbar urethra with sparing of corpus spongiosum and antegrade blood flow through it. The article describes the surgical technique of urethroplasty: dorsal strictureplasty by Heineke–Mikulicz; strictureplasty by Mundy; vessel-sparing anastomotic urethroplasty by Jordan. Obligatory conditions of the non-transecting anastomotic urethroplasty are a non traumatic etiology, length of the stricture not more than 1–1.5 cm, and its localization in the proximal bulbar urethra. Strictureplasty by Heineke–Mikulicz is a dorsal longitudinal incision of the urethra on the area of stricture and subsequent suturing the defect transversely. Strictureplasty by Mundy is a dorsal longitudinal urethrotomy, excision of the affected mucosa inside the lumen of the urethra and transversely urethral closure according to Heineke–Mikulicz, s principle. Vessel-sparing anastomotic urethroplasty by Jordan is circular excision of the urethral mucosa without crossing of corpus spongiosum and incoming into it bulbar arteries and thereby preserving the antegrade blood flow through the urethra.

  1. Segmentation of brain parenchymal regions into gray matter and white matter with Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Chiaki; Yoshiura, Takashi; Yamashita, Yasuo; Magome, Taiki; Honda, Hiroshi; Arimura, Hidetaka; Toyofuku, Fukai; Ohki, Masafumi

    2010-01-01

    It is very difficult and time consuming for neuroradiologists to estimate the degree of cerebral atrophy based on the volume of cortical regions etc. Our purpose of this study was to develop an automated segmentation of the brain parenchyma into gray and white matter regions with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted MR images. Our proposed method consisted of extraction of a brain parenchymal region based on a brain model matching and segmentation of the brain parenchyma into gray and white matter regions based on a fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm. We applied our proposed method to MR images of the whole brains obtained from 9 cases, including 4 clinically AD cases and 5 control cases. The mean volume percentage of a cortical region (41.7%) to a brain parenchymal region in AD patients was smaller than that (45.2%) in the control subjects (p=0.000462). (author)

  2. Non-transecting bulbar urethroplasty using buccal mucosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. Bugeja

    S. Ivaz, A.V. Frost, D.E. Andrich, A.R. Mundy. University College London Hospital, Reconstructive Urology Unit, UK. Received 6 September 2015; accepted 30 September 2015. Available online 2 December 2015. KEYWORDS. Urethral stricture;. Bulbar urethroplasty;. Non-transecting;. Buccal mucosal graft. Abstract.

  3. Image-guided ureteral reconstruction using rendezvous technique for complex ureteric transection after gunshot injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Mohammad; Mat'hami, Abdulaziz; Said, Mohammad T; Bulbul, Muhammad; Haddad, Maurice; Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad

    2016-01-01

    Management of complex ureteric transection poses a significant clinical challenge, particularly after gunshot injuries due to marked distortion of anatomy and associated tissue loss. We report two cases of total ureteric transection due to gunshot injury successfully repaired using fluoroscopy-guided rendezvous procedure and double J stent placement. This minimally invasive approach may offer a safe and effective technique to repair complete ureteral transection and obviate the need for complex surgical procedures.

  4. Retinol and retinyl esters in parenchymal and nonparenchymal rat liver cell fractions after long-term administration of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, M.; Blomhoff, R.; Helgerud, P.; Solberg, L.A.; Berg, T.; Norum, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption reduces the liver retinoid store in man and rat. We have studied the effect of ethanol on some aspects of retinoid metabolism in parenchymal and nonparenchymal liver cells. Rats fed 36% of total energy intake as ethanol for 5-6 weeks had the liver retinoid concentration reduced to about one-third, as compared to pair-fed controls. The reduction in liver retinoid affected both the parenchymal and the nonparenchymal cell fractions. Plasma retinol level was normal. Liver uptake of injected chylomicron [3H]retinyl ester was similar in the experimental and control group. The transport of retinoid from the parenchymal to the nonparenchymal cells was not found to be significantly retarded in the ethanol-fed rats. Despite the reduction in total retinoid level in liver, the concentrations of unesterified retinol and retinyl oleate were increased in the ethanol fed rats. Hepatic retinol esterification was not significantly affected in the ethanol-fed rats. Since our study has demonstrated that liver uptake of chylomicron retinyl ester is not impaired in the ethanol-fed rat, we suggest that liver retinoid metabolism may be increased

  5. Copper uptake and retention in liver parenchymal cells isolated from nutritionally copper-deficient rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den G.J.; de Goeij, J.J.M.; Bock, I.; Gijbels, M.J.J.; Brouwer, A.; Lei, K.Y.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Copper uptake and retention were studied in primary cultures of liver parenchymal cells isolated from copper-deficient rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a copper-deficient diet (<1 mg Cu/kg) for 10 wk. Copper-deficient rats were characterized by low copper concentrations in plasma and liver,

  6. Copper uptake and retention in liver parenchymal cells isolated from nutritionally copper-deficient rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, G.J. van den; Goeij, J.J.M. de; Bock, I.; Gijbels, M.J.J.; Brouwer, A.; Lei, K.Y.; Hendruiks, H.F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Copper uptake and retention were studied in primary cultures of liver parenchymal cells isolated from copper-deficient rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a copper-deficient diet (< 1 mg Cu/kg) for 10 wk. Copper-deficient rats were characterized by low copper concentrations in plasma and liver,

  7. The traveling transect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie; Diedrich, Lisa; Lee, Gini

    2013-01-01

    , when working with the more unpredictable qualities of sites as in water-made landscapes, designers often lack mapping and representational tools capable of capturing and expressing ephemeral qualities - dynamics, relationships and atmospheres. These abstract qualities, that exist over physical site...... in everyday practice, the Canarysect project negotiates testing and capture of the dynamic, relational and atmospheric qualities encountered along lines of transect across island lands and waters. Individual sketching, photography and modelling gestures merge into a common archipelago of thinking around......The practice of landscape architecture is most often a cultivation of open space alongside an open-ended dialogue with the presence and complexities of the cultural and natural features of places, usually resulting in projects generating site resolution rather than pure invention ex nihilo. However...

  8. Transection of the innominate artery for tracheomalacia caused by persistent opisthotonus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugawa, Chikara; Ono, Yasuyuki; Nishijima, Eiji; Takamizawa, Shigeru; Satoh, Shiiki; Muraji, Toshihiro

    2004-01-01

    Patients with cerebral palsy often develop opisthotonus. The trachea may be pinched between the innominate artery and the cervical spine. This compartmentalized thoracic inlet results in severe tracheomalacia. We successfully released tracheal compression by transection of the innominate artery. In case 1, a 4-year-old girl with cerebral palsy and opisthotonus was admitted due to respiratory distress. Bronchoscopy revealed severe tracheomalacia 2 cm above the carina. An endotracheal stent was placed through a tracheostomy. Two months later, she developed tracheal bleeding and bronchoscopy demonstrated a trachea-innominate artery fistula. Magnetic resonance brain angiography showed the presence of Willis' circle, and transection of the innominate artery was justified. This was done through a low cervical skin incision. In case 2, a 6-year-old boy with cerebral palsy and opisthotonus had long-standing respiratory distress. Ventilatory support did not resolve the symptoms. The innominate artery was transected in the same fashion as in the first case. Case 1 has been free from respiratory distress for 4 months and case 2 for 3 years. Our experience suggests that the combination of tracheomalacia, opisthotonus causes severe respiratory distress. Transection of the innominate artery is a useful therapeutic strategy to release airway obstruction in this condition.

  9. Parenchymal abnormalities in cerebral venous thrombosis: findings of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Clecia Santos; Pellini, Marcos; Boasquevisque, Edson; Souza, Luis Alberto M. de

    2006-01-01

    Objective: to determine the frequency and localization of parenchymal abnormalities in cerebral venous thrombosis on magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography as well as their correlation with the territory and affected venous drainage. Materials and methods: retrospective analysis (1996 to 2004) of 21 patients (3 male and 18 female) age range between 3 and 82 years (mean 40 years, median 36 years) with clinical and radiological diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis on magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography in 2D PC, 3D PC and contrast-enhanced 3D TOF sequences. The statistical analysis was performed with the qui-square test. Four patients had follow-up exams and three patients underwent digital subtraction angiography. Results: main predisposing factors were: infection, use of oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy and collagenosis. Predominant symptoms included: focal deficit, headache, alteration of consciousness level and seizures. Most frequent parenchymal manifestations were: cortical/subcortical edema or infarct, venous congestion and collateral circulation, meningeal enhancement and thalamic and basal ganglia edema or infarct. Occlusion occurred mainly in superior sagittal, left transverse, left sigmoid and straight sinuses. Cavernous sinus and cortical veins thrombosis are uncommon events. Conclusion: cerebral venous thrombosis is an uncommon cause of stroke, with favorable prognosis because of its reversibility. Diagnosis is highly dependent on the radiologist capacity to recognize the presentations of this disease, principally in cases where the diagnosis is suggested by parenchymal abnormalities rather than necessarily by visualization of the thrombus itself. An accurate and rapid diagnosis allows an immediate treatment, reducing the morbidity and mortality rates. (author)

  10. Spatial patterns of preconsolidation pressure and soil moisture along transects in two directions under coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivoney Gontijo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Information on the spatial structure of soil physical and structural properties is needed to evaluate the soil quality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the spatial behavior of preconsolidation pressure and soil moisture in six transects, three selected along and three across coffee rows, at three different sites under different tillage management systems. The study was carried out on a farm, in Patrocinio, state of Minas Gerais, in the Southeast of Brazil (18 º 59 ' 15 '' S; 46 º 56 ' 47 '' W; 934 m asl. The soil type is a typic dystrophic Red Latosol (Acrustox and consists of 780 g kg-1 clay; 110 g kg-1 silt and 110 g kg-1 sand, with an average slope of 3 %. Undisturbed soil cores were sampled at a depth of 0.10-0.13 m, at three different points within the coffee plantation: (a from under the wheel track, where equipment used in farm operations passes; (b in - between tracks and (c under the coffee canopy. Six linear transects were established in the experimental area: three transects along and three across the coffee rows. This way, 161 samples were collected in the transect across the coffee rows, from the three locations, while 117 samples were collected in the direction along the row. The shortest sampling distance in the transect across the row was 4 m, and 0.5 m for the transect along the row. No clear patterns of the preconsolidation pressure values were observed in the 200 m transect. The results of the semivariograms for both variables indicated a high nugget value and short range for the studied parameters of all transects. A cyclic pattern of the parameters was observed for the across-rows transect. An inverse relationship between preconsolidation pressure and soil moisture was clearly observed in the samples from under the track, in both directions.

  11. Bone marrow-derived versus parenchymal sources of inducible nitric oxide synthase in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zehntner, Simone P; Bourbonniere, Lyne; Hassan-Zahraee, Mina

    2004-01-01

    . These discrepancies may reflect balance between immunoregulatory and neurocytopathologic roles for NO. We investigated selective effects of bone marrow-derived versus CNS parenchymal sources of iNOS in EAE in chimeric mice. Chimeras that selectively expressed or ablated iNOS in leukocytes both showed significant...

  12. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Baker, Pacific Remote Island Areas, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Baker in the Pacific...

  13. Laparoscopic Habib 4X: a bipolar radiofrequency device for bloodless laparoscopic liver resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, M; Navarra, G; Ayav, A; Sommerville, C; Khorsandi, S K; Damrah, O; Jiao, L R; Habib, N A

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the progress of laparoscopic procedures and the development of new and dedicated technologies have made laparoscopic hepatic surgery feasible and safe. In spite of this laparoscopic liver resection remains a surgical procedure of great challenge because of the risk of massive bleeding during liver transection and the complicated biliary and vascular anatomy in the liver. A new laparoscopic device is reported here to assist liver resection laparoscopically. The laparoscopic Habib 4X is a bipolar radiofrequency device consisting of a 2 x 2 array of needles arranged in a rectangle. It is introduced perpendicularly into the liver, along the intended transection line. It produces coagulative necrosis of the liver parenchyma sealing biliary radicals and blood vessels and enables bloodless transection of the liver parenchyma. Twenty-four Laparoscopic liver resections were performed with LH4X out of a total of 28 attempted resections over 12 months. Pringle manoeuvre was not used in any of the patients. None of the patients required intraoperative transfusion of red cells or blood products. Laparoscopic liver resection can be safely performed with laparoscopic Habib 4X with a significantly low risk of intraoperative bleeding or postoperative complications.

  14. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Maro Reef, NW Hawaiian Islands, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Maro Reef in the NW...

  15. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis with pulmonary parenchymal spread - report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Neto, Cesar Augusto de; Campos, Rubia Mara Correia; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes Santos

    2002-01-01

    The authors report the cases of two adolescent patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis with pulmonary parenchymal spread. Both patients presented very similar initial symptoms and clinical evolution. The patients developed larynx papillomas in childhood causing obstruction to airflow and required permanent tracheostomy after several resection and recurrence episodes. Long time after they developed recurrent pulmonary infections. In both cases the disease was diagnosed through clinical history and high resolution computed tomography that revealed papillomas in the trachea and solid or cavitary nodules in the lungs. (author)

  16. Effects of spinal transection on presynaptic markers for glutamatergic neurons in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, H.S.; Coyle, J.T.; Frangia, J.; Price, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    To evaluate the hypothesis that glutamic acid may be the neurotransmitter of descending, excitatory supraspinal pathways, the uptake and release of L-[3H] glutamate and the levels of endogenous glutamate were measured in preparations from rat lumbar spinal cord following complete mid-thoracic transection. Following transection, the activity of the synaptosomal high-affinity glutamate uptake process was increased in both dorsal and ventral halves of lumbar cord between 1 and 14 days after transection and returned to control levels by 21 days posttransection. At 7 days, the increased activity of the uptake process for L-[3H]glutamate resulted in elevation of Vmax with no significant alteration in KT as compared to age-matched controls. Depolarization-induced release of L-[3H]glutamate from prelabeled slices did not differ significantly from control in the lesioned rat except at 21 days after lesion when the amount of tritium release was significantly greater in the transected preparations than in control. Amino acid analysis of the lumbar cord from control and transected rats indicated only a 10% decrease in the level of endogenous glutamate and no alterations in the concentration of GABA and glycine 7 days after lesion. These findings do not support the hypothesis that glutamate serves as a major excitatory neurotransmitter in supraspinal pathways innervating the lumbar cord of the rat

  17. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Ke; Yang, Juan-Mei; Huang, Yi-Bo; Ren, Dong-Dong; Chi, Fang-Lu

    2015-06-01

    The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of recovery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantified and compared among groups. No significant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased significantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds.

  18. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-ke Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of recovery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantified and compared among groups. No significant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased significantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds.

  19. Understanding the Lung Abscess Microbiome: Outcomes of Percutaneous Lung Parenchymal Abscess Drainage with Microbiologic Correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, Christopher; Nadolski, Gregory J.; Gade, Terence; Hunt, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    IntroductionLung parenchymal abscesses represent an uncommon pathology with high mortality if untreated. Although most respond well to antibiotics, the optimal therapy for persistent abscesses is unknown. The purpose of this study was to review the outcomes of percutaneous lung parenchymal abscess catheter drainage after broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy failure and correlate with patient microbiologic samples.Materials and MethodsRetrospective review of patients who underwent percutaneous lung abscess drainage at a tertiary hospital system from 2005 to 2015 was performed. In total, 19 procedures were identified on 16 different patients; six females and ten males. Mean patient age was 55 years (range 22–81). Median follow-up time was 7 months (range <1–78).ResultsTechnical success was 100%. There was one major complication, a pneumothorax. Follow-up was until tube removal or death in 100% of patients. Catheters were removed with resolution of the abscess cavity in 58% (11/19) or with non-draining abscess cavities in 21% (4/19) for a clinical success rate of 79%. Blood cultures demonstrated no growth in all cases, while 21% (4/19) of sputum or bronchoscopic cultures demonstrated growth. In comparison, the specimens from initial catheter placement isolated a causative organism in 95% (18/19) of case (p < 0.0001).ConclusionIn cases of persistent lung abscess after broad-spectrum antibiotics, percutaneous abscess drainage is highly sensitive for microbiologic sampling compared to sputum/bronchoscopic or blood cultures. Additionally, percutaneous drainage of lung parenchymal abscess cavities may promote resolution of the abscess with high rates of therapeutic success and low complications.

  20. Understanding the Lung Abscess Microbiome: Outcomes of Percutaneous Lung Parenchymal Abscess Drainage with Microbiologic Correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Christopher; Nadolski, Gregory J.; Gade, Terence; Hunt, Stephen, E-mail: Stephen.hunt@uphs.upenn.edu [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2017-06-15

    IntroductionLung parenchymal abscesses represent an uncommon pathology with high mortality if untreated. Although most respond well to antibiotics, the optimal therapy for persistent abscesses is unknown. The purpose of this study was to review the outcomes of percutaneous lung parenchymal abscess catheter drainage after broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy failure and correlate with patient microbiologic samples.Materials and MethodsRetrospective review of patients who underwent percutaneous lung abscess drainage at a tertiary hospital system from 2005 to 2015 was performed. In total, 19 procedures were identified on 16 different patients; six females and ten males. Mean patient age was 55 years (range 22–81). Median follow-up time was 7 months (range <1–78).ResultsTechnical success was 100%. There was one major complication, a pneumothorax. Follow-up was until tube removal or death in 100% of patients. Catheters were removed with resolution of the abscess cavity in 58% (11/19) or with non-draining abscess cavities in 21% (4/19) for a clinical success rate of 79%. Blood cultures demonstrated no growth in all cases, while 21% (4/19) of sputum or bronchoscopic cultures demonstrated growth. In comparison, the specimens from initial catheter placement isolated a causative organism in 95% (18/19) of case (p < 0.0001).ConclusionIn cases of persistent lung abscess after broad-spectrum antibiotics, percutaneous abscess drainage is highly sensitive for microbiologic sampling compared to sputum/bronchoscopic or blood cultures. Additionally, percutaneous drainage of lung parenchymal abscess cavities may promote resolution of the abscess with high rates of therapeutic success and low complications.

  1. Proton MR spectroscopic features according to change of hepatic parenchymal iron content after SPIO injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Chang Hae; Cho, Soon Gu; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Mi Young; Lee, Kyung Hee; Kim, Hyung Jin

    2001-01-01

    To determine the effect of iron on proton MR spectra ( 1 H-MRS) by evaluating changes in 1 H-MRS of the liver according to changes in hepatic parenchymal iron content. We evaluated serial changes in 1 H-MRS of the liver after intravenous infusion of SPIO in 40 rabbits. These were divided into eight groups of five, and in each group, respectively, 1 H-MRS and T2WI MR images were acquired prior to SPIO infusion, just after infusion, and at 15 minutes and 1, 2, 4, 24 and 96 hours after infusion. MR spectra were evaluated with particular attention ot the curve pattern observed at specific times after the infusion of SPIO, and the results were correlated with the signal intensity observed on T2WI images and the histologic giade of iron content of samples of resected liver parenchyma. As observed on T2WI, the mean signal intensity of rabbit liver in tis pre-SPIO infusion state, just after infusion, at 15 minutes, and at 1, 2, 4 and 96 hours after SPIO infusion was 121.3±15.5, 41.5±12.7, 30.3±7.9, 31.3±3.5, 33.6±9.4, 45.5±10.9, 80.3±15.7 and 110.4±22.9, respectively (p<0.05). Mean standard deviation of the ratio of the area of the peak (3.9-4.1 ppm)/lipid peak (1.3 ppm) peak at each of the above times except for the pre-infusion state was 1.10±0.13, 1.86±0.21, 1.80±0.30, 1.76±0.27, 1.74±0.20, 0.07±0.02 and 0.03±0.01, respectively (p<0.05). The hepatic parenchymal iron content increased rapidly from just after SPIO infusion, reaching its maximal level (as revealed by histologic specimens) at 15 minutes, sustaining this for up to 4 hours, and then decreasing gradually over periods of 24 and 96 hours. These results show that serial changes in patterns of MR spectra and the signal intensity seen on T2WI images correlate closely with changes in hepatic parenchymal iron content. Elevated hepatic parenchymal iron content leads to increases in the relative intensity of unknown peaks at around 4.0 ppm and decreases in the relative intensity of lipid peaks

  2. Identifying Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Using Background Parenchymal Enhancement Heterogeneity on Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI: A Pilot Radiomics Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Wang

    Full Text Available To determine the added discriminative value of detailed quantitative characterization of background parenchymal enhancement in addition to the tumor itself on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE MRI at 3.0 Tesla in identifying "triple-negative" breast cancers.In this Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective study, DCE-MRI of 84 women presenting 88 invasive carcinomas were evaluated by a radiologist and analyzed using quantitative computer-aided techniques. Each tumor and its surrounding parenchyma were segmented semi-automatically in 3-D. A total of 85 imaging features were extracted from the two regions, including morphologic, densitometric, and statistical texture measures of enhancement. A small subset of optimal features was selected using an efficient sequential forward floating search algorithm. To distinguish triple-negative cancers from other subtypes, we built predictive models based on support vector machines. Their classification performance was assessed with the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC using cross-validation.Imaging features based on the tumor region achieved an AUC of 0.782 in differentiating triple-negative cancers from others, in line with the current state of the art. When background parenchymal enhancement features were included, the AUC increased significantly to 0.878 (p<0.01. Similar improvements were seen in nearly all subtype classification tasks undertaken. Notably, amongst the most discriminating features for predicting triple-negative cancers were textures of background parenchymal enhancement.Considering the tumor as well as its surrounding parenchyma on DCE-MRI for radiomic image phenotyping provides useful information for identifying triple-negative breast cancers. Heterogeneity of background parenchymal enhancement, characterized by quantitative texture features on DCE-MRI, adds value to such differentiation models as they are strongly associated with the triple-negative subtype

  3. The "Tracked Roaming Transect" and distance sampling methods increase the efficiency of underwater visual censuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo J Irigoyen

    Full Text Available Underwater visual census (UVC is the most common approach for estimating diversity, abundance and size of reef fishes in shallow and clear waters. Abundance estimation through UVC is particularly problematic in species occurring at low densities and/or highly aggregated because of their high variability at both spatial and temporal scales. The statistical power of experiments involving UVC techniques may be increased by augmenting the number of replicates or the area surveyed. In this work we present and test the efficiency of an UVC method based on diver towed GPS, the Tracked Roaming Transect (TRT, designed to maximize transect length (and thus the surveyed area with respect to diving time invested in monitoring, as compared to Conventional Strip Transects (CST. Additionally, we analyze the effect of increasing transect width and length on the precision of density estimates by comparing TRT vs. CST methods using different fixed widths of 6 and 20 m (FW3 and FW10, respectively and the Distance Sampling (DS method, in which perpendicular distance of each fish or group of fishes to the transect line is estimated by divers up to 20 m from the transect line. The TRT was 74% more time and cost efficient than the CST (all transect widths considered together and, for a given time, the use of TRT and/or increasing the transect width increased the precision of density estimates. In addition, since with the DS method distances of fishes to the transect line have to be estimated, and not measured directly as in terrestrial environments, errors in estimations of perpendicular distances can seriously affect DS density estimations. To assess the occurrence of distance estimation errors and their dependence on the observer's experience, a field experiment using wooden fish models was performed. We tested the precision and accuracy of density estimators based on fixed widths and the DS method. The accuracy of the estimates was measured comparing the actual

  4. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Howland, Pacific Remote Island Areas (PRIAS), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at Howland in the Pacific...

  5. Plotting of bathythermograph transect data on a printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, James B.; McLain, Douglas R.

    1971-01-01

    A program for plotting bathythermograph transect data on a computer (IBM 1130) printer is available from the Great Lakes Fishery Laboratory. Temperature values are printed in positions proportional to their depths and distances from shore. Contour lines are drawn manually through the plotted points.

  6. Vascular and parenchymal amyloid pathology in an Alzheimer disease knock-in mouse model: interplay with cerebral blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmei; Guo, Qinxi; Inoue, Taeko; Polito, Vinicia A; Tabuchi, Katsuhiko; Hammer, Robert E; Pautler, Robia G; Taffet, George E; Zheng, Hui

    2014-08-09

    Accumulation and deposition of β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) in the brain is a central event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Besides the parenchymal pathology, Aβ is known to undergo active transport across the blood-brain barrier and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a prominent feature in the majority of AD. Although impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been implicated in faulty Aβ transport and clearance, and cerebral hypoperfusion can exist in the pre-clinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD), it is still unclear whether it is one of the causal factors for AD pathogenesis, or an early consequence of a multi-factor condition that would lead to AD at late stage. To study the potential interaction between faulty CBF and amyloid accumulation in clinical-relevant situation, we generated a new amyloid precursor protein (APP) knock-in allele that expresses humanized Aβ and a Dutch mutation in addition to Swedish/London mutations and compared this line with an equivalent knock-in line but in the absence of the Dutch mutation, both crossed onto the PS1M146V knock-in background. Introduction of the Dutch mutation results in robust CAA and parenchymal Aβ pathology, age-dependent reduction of spatial learning and memory deficits, and CBF reduction as detected by fMRI. Direct manipulation of CBF by transverse aortic constriction surgery on the left common carotid artery caused differential changes in CBF in the anterior and middle region of the cortex, where it is reduced on the left side and increased on the right side. However these perturbations in CBF resulted in the same effect: both significantly exacerbate CAA and amyloid pathology. Our study reveals a direct and positive link between vascular and parenchymal Aβ; both can be modulated by CBF. The new APP knock-in mouse model recapitulates many symptoms of AD including progressive vascular and parenchymal Aβ pathology and behavioral deficits in the absence of APP overexpression.

  7. Vitamin A deficiency alters the pulmonary parenchymal elastic modulus and elastic fiber concentration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes Amey J

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bronchial hyperreactivity is influenced by properties of the conducting airways and the surrounding pulmonary parenchyma, which is tethered to the conducting airways. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is associated with an increase in airway hyperreactivity in rats and a decrease in the volume density of alveoli and alveolar ducts. To better define the effects of VAD on the mechanical properties of the pulmonary parenchyma, we have studied the elastic modulus, elastic fibers and elastin gene-expression in rats with VAD, which were supplemented with retinoic acid (RA or remained unsupplemented. Methods Parenchymal mechanics were assessed before and after the administration of carbamylcholine (CCh by determining the bulk and shear moduli of lungs that that had been removed from rats which were vitamin A deficient or received a control diet. Elastin mRNA and insoluble elastin were quantified and elastic fibers were enumerated using morphometric methods. Additional morphometric studies were performed to assess airway contraction and alveolar distortion. Results VAD produced an approximately 2-fold augmentation in the CCh-mediated increase of the bulk modulus and a significant dampening of the increase in shear modulus after CCh, compared to vitamin A sufficient (VAS rats. RA-supplementation for up to 21 days did not reverse the effects of VAD on the elastic modulus. VAD was also associated with a decrease in the concentration of parenchymal elastic fibers, which was restored and was accompanied by an increase in tropoelastin mRNA after 12 days of RA-treatment. Lung elastin, which was resistant to 0.1 N NaOH at 98°, decreased in VAD and was not restored after 21 days of RA-treatment. Conclusion Alterations in parenchymal mechanics and structure contribute to bronchial hyperreactivity in VAD but they are not reversed by RA-treatment, in contrast to the VAD-related alterations in the airways.

  8. Mammographic parenchymal patterns: value as a predictor of hormone dependency and survival in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, C.P.; Roebuck, E.J.; Williams, M.R.; Blamey, R.W.; Glaves, J.; Nicholson, R.I.; Griffiths, K.

    1985-01-01

    The relation between the parenchymal pattern of the breasts as demonstrated on a mammogram and the estrogen-receptor status of the primary tumor in 337 patients with operable invasive breast cancer has been studied. These factors have also been correlated with the response to endocrine therapy in 92 patients who subsequently developed secondary disease. It has been shown that patients with a DY pattern are more likely to develop tumors that are estrogen-receptor (ER) positive. Patients with secondary disease who have a DY pattern are more likely to respond to endocrine therapy. The DY pattern has been shown to be at least as good an indicator of the probability of response to endocrine therapy as the estrogen-receptor status, and a combination of the two factors better than either taken singly. In a series of 141 postmenopausal women, the DY pattern, as determined at the time of mastectomy, was associated with significantly improved survival. Mammographic parenchymal pattern could form the basis for selecting patients for endocrine therapy where no estrogen-receptor assay is available

  9. Transhepatic Hilar Approach for Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma: Significance of Early Judgment of Resectability and Safe Vascular Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Naohisa; Isaji, Shuji; Tanemura, Akihiro; Iizawa, Yusuke; Kato, Hiroyuki; Murata, Yasuhiro; Azumi, Yoshinori; Kishiwada, Masashi; Mizuno, Shugo; Usui, Masanobu; Sakurai, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-01

    In the most common surgical procedure for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma, the margin status of the proximal bile duct is determined at the final step. Our procedure, the transhepatic hilar approach, confirms a cancer-negative margin status of the proximal bile duct first. We first performed a partial hepatic parenchymal transection to expose the hilar plate, and then transected the proximal bile duct to confirm margin status. Then, divisions of the hepatic artery and portal vein of the future resected liver are performed, followed by the residual hepatic parenchymal transection. The transhepatic hilar approach offers a wide surgical field for safe resection and reconstruction of the portal vein in the middle of the hepatectomy. We reviewed 23 patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma who underwent major hepatectomy using our procedure from 2011 to 2015. A combined vascular resection and reconstruction was carried out in 14 patients (60.9%). R0 resection was achieved in 17 patients (73.9%), and the overall 3-year survival rate was 52.9% (median survival time 52.4 months). The transhepatic hilar approach is useful and practicable regardless of local tumor extension, enabling us to determine tumor resectability and perform safe resection and reconstruction of the portal vein early in the operation.

  10. Hand-assisted laparoscopic liver resection using Habib's technique: early experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vávra, Petr; Ihnat, Peter; Vavrova, Michaela; Martinek, Lubomir; Dostalik, Jan; Habib, Nagy

    2012-03-01

    Hand-assisted laparoscopic liver surgery, a newly developed technique based on an innovative concept, has proved useful and safe for a variety of less invasive hepatectomies. Radiofrequency-assisted hepatic resection has been reported to be safe, associated with minimal morbidity and mortality and decreased intraoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements. We describe how we perform hand-assisted laparoscopic radiofrequency-assisted hepatic resection using a bipolar radiofrequency device. The use of the hand port has allowed the surgeon to use his hand in direct liver manipulation, mobilization, and retraction. It was also useful for tactile tumour localization. Radiofrequency-assisted hepatic parenchymal transection was performed on 15 patients using a bipolar device (Habib 4X) with minimal blood loss (74 ml), and very decent operative and resection times (92 min, 33 min respectively). This combined procedure offers a safe, effective and rapid liver resection technique. This might encourage surgeons to perform a minimally invasive approach for liver resection more frequently.

  11. Seasonality of runoff and precipitation regimes along transects in Peru and Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudry Maria M. Cárdenas; Gutknecht Dieter; Parajka Juraj; Perdigão Rui A.P.; Blöschl Günter

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the seasonalities of runoff and precipitation and their controls along two transects in Peru and one transect in Austria. The analysis is based on daily precipitation data at 111 and 61 stations in Peru and Austria, respectively, and daily discharge data at 51 and 110 stations. The maximum Pardé coefficient is used to quantify the strength of the seasonalities of monthly precipitation and runoff. Circular statistics are used to quantify the seasonalities...

  12. Multi-detector CT urography: effect of oral hydration and contrast medium volume on renal parenchymal enhancement and urinary tract opacification - a quantitative and qualitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szolar, Dieter H.; Tillich, Manfred; Preidler, Klaus W.

    2010-01-01

    To assess the effect of oral hydration and contrast-medium volume on renal enhancement and urinary tract opacification in multi-detector CT urography. A total of 192 patients were assigned to different protocols with varying doses of contrast agent with and without oral hydration. The attenuation was measured in the renal parenchyma in the unenhanced, nephrographic and excretory phase, and in the urinary tract in excretory phase imaging, respectively. Opacification of the urinary tract was graded on volume rendered images. Oral hydration did not significantly alter renal parenchymal enhancement in both the nephrographic and the excretory phase (p > 0.001), but significantly decreased mean attenuation of the urinary tract in the excretory phase (p ≤ 0.001), and improved continuous opacification of all ureter segments (p < 0.01). Higher volumes of contrast medium improved renal parenchymal enhancement (p ≤ 0.001) and continuous opacification of the urinary tract (p ≤ 0.01). Oral hydration leads to lower attenuation values in the urinary tract but improves the continuous opacification of the tract. Increase in contrast medium volume leads to higher renal parenchymal enhancement as well as to an increased continuous opacification of the urinary tract. Decrease in contrast medium volume cannot be compensated for by oral hydration in terms of parenchymal enhancement. (orig.)

  13. Propranolol inhibits the in vitro conversion of thyroxine into triiodothyronine by isolated rat liver parenchymal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, C. J.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Touber, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    A model for the in vitro study of the conversion of thyroxine into triiodothyronine using isolated rat liver parenchymal cells is described. Isolated liver cells (mean protein content 18 mg/ml) convert approximately 0.8% of 1.3 microM exogenously added T4 into T3 during thirty minutes incubation.

  14. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pain or discomfort. While most BLTs can ... of this study was to assess the spectrum of hepatic resections for BLTs in an ... Demographic data, operative management and morbidity and mortality using the ..... Royal Infirmary in Edinburgh.21. As in other .... tools and techniques for parenchymal liver transection. S Afr J. Surg.

  15. Review: Non-transecting bulbar urethroplasty using buccal mucosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review: Non-transecting bulbar urethroplasty using buccal mucosa. S Bugeja, S Ivaz, AV Frost, DE Andrich, AR Mundy. Abstract. Augmentation urethroplasty using oral mucosal graft has become the standard surgical treatment of long bulbar strictures. In very tight strictures the urethral plate is narrowed to the extent that an ...

  16. Regulation of CTL responses to MHC-restricted class I peptide of the gp70 tumour antigen by splenic parenchymal CD4+ T cells in mice failing immunotherapy with DISC-mGM-CSF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Murrium; Rees, Robert C; McArdle, Stephanie E; Li, Geng; Mian, Shahid; Entwisle, Claire; Loudon, Peter; Ali, Selman A

    2005-07-20

    Direct intratumour injection of the disabled infectious single-cycle-herpes simplex virus-encoding murine granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (DISC-HSV-mGM-CSF) into established colon carcinoma CT26 tumours induced complete tumour rejection in up to 70% of treated animals (regressors), while the remaining mice developed progressive tumours (progressors). This murine Balb/c model was used to dissect the cellular mechanisms involved in tumour regression or progression following immunotherapy. CTLs were generated by coculturing lymphocytes and parenchymal cells from the same spleens of individual regressor or progressor animals in the presence of the relevant AH-1 peptide derived from the gp70 tumour-associated antigens expressed by CT26 tumours. Tumour regression was correlated with potent CTL responses, spleen weight and cytokine (IFN-gamma) production. Conversely, progressor splenocytes exhibited weak to no CTL activity and poor IFN-gamma production, concomitant with the presence of a suppressor cell population in the progressor splenic parenchymal cell fraction. Further fractionation of this parenchymal subpopulation demonstrated that cells inhibitory to the activation of AH-1-specific CTLs, restimulated in vitro with peptide, were present in the nonadherent parenchymal fraction. In vitro depletion of progressor parenchymal CD3+/CD4+ T cells restored the CTL response of the cocultured splenocytes (regressor lymphocytes and progressor parenchymal cells) and decreased the production of IL-10, suggesting that CD3+CD4+ T lymphocytes present in the parenchymal fraction regulated the CTL response to AH-1. We examined the cellular responses associated with tumour rejection and progression, identifying regulatory pathways associated with failure to respond to immunotherapy. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Carbon-14 tracer studies in the metabolism of isolated rat-liver parenchymal cells under conditions of gluconeogenesis from lactate and pyruvate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muellhofer, G.; Mueller, C.; Stetten, C. von; Gruber, E.

    1977-01-01

    In rat liver perfusion experiments under conditions of gluconeogenesis from lactate and pyruvate, 14 C-labeling patterns of metabolites with (1- 14 C)-labeled and (2- 14 C)-labeled lactate or pyruvate. [ 14 C]bicarbonate and [1- 14 C]octanoate as tracers have been obtained which do not agree with generally assumed reaction schemes. The experiments have been repeated with incubations of isolated rat-liver parenchymal cells. The results demonstrate that the discrepancies between expected and analysed 14 C-labeling patterns of metabolites were still existent. From this observation, it may be concluded that 14 C-labelling patterns of metabolites are indicative for the existence of still unknown metabolic relationships in liver parenchymal cells. Furthermore, the results of our experiments prove that conclusions based on the exclusive analysis of metabolite levels are of limited value for studying intracellular events, because of uncharacterized compartmentations, which become evident in 14 C-tracer studies. It cannot be answered by our studies whether the apparent existence of differently labelled species of citrate, oxoglutarate, or acetyl-CoA represent intracellular compartmentation, or whether it is the result of metabolic heterogeneity of liver parenchym cells. (orig.) [de

  18. Fractured cervical spine and aortic transection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Griffin, M J

    2012-02-03

    A 17-year-old victim of a road traffic accident presented. Following investigation diagnoses of fractured first cervical vertebra, aortic transection, diffuse cerebral oedema, fractured right ribs 2-4 and pubic rami were made. Management of this case presented a number of anaesthetic dilemmas: management of the airway, use of cross-clamp vs. shunting or heparinization and bypass, cardiovascular and neurological monitoring, maintenance of cardiovascular stability during and post cross-clamp, minimizing the risk of post-operative renal and neurological dysfunction.

  19. The assessment of renal cortex and parenchymal volume using automated CT volumetry for predicting renal function after donor nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Yosuke; Sadahira, Takuya; Araki, Motoo; Wada, Koichiro; Tanimoto, Ryuta; Ariyoshi, Yuichi; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Masami; Watanabe, Toyohiko; Nasu, Yasutomo

    2018-04-01

    Contrast-enhanced CT is necessary before donor nephrectomy and is usually combined with a Tc-99m-mercapto-acetyltriglycine (MAG3) scan to check split renal function (SRF). However, all transplant programs do not use MAG3 because of its high cost and exposure to radiation. We examined whether CT volumetry of the kidney can be a new tool for evaluating SRF. Sixty-three patients underwent live donor nephrectomy. Patients without a 1.0 mm slice CT or follow-up for volumetry was analyzed at 1, 3, and 12 months post nephrectomy. Strong correlations were observed preoperatively in a Bland-Altman plot between SRF measured by MAG3 and either CT cortex or parenchymal volumetry. In addition, eGFR after donation correlated with SRF measured by MAG3 or CT volumetry. The correlation coefficients (R) for eGFR Mag3 split were 0.755, 0.615, and 0.763 at 1, 3 and 12 months, respectively. The corresponding R values for cortex volume split were 0.679, 0.638, and 0.747. Those for parenchymal volume split were 0.806, 0.592, and 0.764. Measuring kidney by CT volumetry is a cost-effective alternative to MAG3 for evaluating SRF and predicting postoperative donor renal function. Both cortex and parenchymal volumetry were similarly effective.

  20. The longitudinal epineural incision and complete nerve transection method for modeling sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-long Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury severity, operative technique and nerve regeneration are important factors to consider when constructing a model of peripheral nerve injury. Here, we present a novel peripheral nerve injury model and compare it with the complete sciatic nerve transection method. In the experimental group, under a microscope, a 3-mm longitudinal incision was made in the epineurium of the sciatic nerve to reveal the nerve fibers, which were then transected. The small, longitudinal incision in the epineurium was then sutured closed, requiring no stump anastomosis. In the control group, the sciatic nerve was completely transected, and the epineurium was repaired by anastomosis. At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, Wallerian degeneration was observed in both groups. In the experimental group, at 8 and 12 weeks after surgery, distinct medullary nerve fibers and axons were observed in the injured sciatic nerve. Regular, dense myelin sheaths were visible, as well as some scarring. By 12 weeks, the myelin sheaths were normal and intact, and a tight lamellar structure was observed. Functionally, limb movement and nerve conduction recovered in the injured region between 4 and 12 weeks. The present results demonstrate that longitudinal epineural incision with nerve transection can stably replicate a model of Sunderland grade IV peripheral nerve injury. Compared with the complete sciatic nerve transection model, our method reduced the difficulties of micromanipulation and surgery time, and resulted in good stump restoration, nerve regeneration, and functional recovery.

  1. Effect of Chorda Tympani Nerve Transection on Salt Taste Perception in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwatari, Yutaka; Theodorides, Maria L.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of gustatory nerve transection on salt taste have been studied extensively in rats and hamsters but have not been well explored in the mouse. We examined the effects of chorda tympani (CT) nerve transection on NaCl taste preferences and thresholds in outbred CD-1 mice using a high-throughput phenotyping method developed in our laboratory. To measure taste thresholds, mice were conditioned by oral self-administration of LiCl or NaCl and then presented with NaCl concentration series in 2-bottle preference tests. LiCl-conditioned and control NaCl-exposed mice were given bilateral transections of the CT nerve (LiCl-CTX, NaCl-CTX) or were left intact as controls (LiCl-CNT, NaCl-CNT). After recovery from surgery, mice received a concentration series of NaCl (0–300 mM) in 48-h 2-bottle tests. CT transection increased NaCl taste thresholds in LiCl-conditioned mice and eliminated avoidance of concentrated NaCl in control NaCl-exposed mice. This demonstrates that in mice, the CT nerve is important for detection and recognition of NaCl taste and is necessary for the normal avoidance of high concentrations of NaCl. The results of this experiment also show that the method of high-throughput phenotyping of salt taste thresholds is suitable for detecting changes in the taste periphery in mouse genetic studies. PMID:21743094

  2. Evaluation of Meniscal Mechanics and Proteoglycan Content in a Modified Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischenich, Kristine M.; Coatney, Garrett A.; Haverkamp, John H.; Button, Keith D.; DeCamp, Charlie; Haut, Roger C.; Haut Donahue, Tammy L.

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) develops as a result of traumatic loading that causes tears of the soft tissues in the knee. A modified transection model, where the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and both menisci were transected, was used on skeletally mature Flemish Giant rabbits. Gross morphological assessments, elastic moduli, and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) coverage of the menisci were determined to quantify the amount of tissue damage 12 weeks post injury. This study is one of the first to monitor meniscal changes after inducing combined meniscal and ACL transections. A decrease in elastic moduli as well as a decrease in GAG coverage was seen. PMID:24749144

  3. Bilateral Traumatic Globe Luxation with Optic Nerve Transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Tok

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to document clinical findings and management of a patient with bilateral globe luxation and optic nerve transection. Materials and Methods: A 25-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department with bilateral traumatic globe luxation following a motor vehicle accident. Results: Visual acuity testing showed no light perception. The right pupil was dilated and bilaterally did not react to light. The globes were bilaterally intact. A computed tomography scan revealed Le Fort type II fractures, bilateral optic nerve transection and disruption of all extraocular muscles. The globes of the patient were bilaterally reduced into the orbit. However, the patient developed phthisis bulbi in the right eye at month 3. Conclusion: Globe luxation presents a dramatic clinical picture, and may lead to the development of severe complications due to the concomitance of complete optic nerve dissection and multiple traumas. Even if the luxated globe is repositioned into the orbit, there is still an increased risk of the development of phthisis due to ischemia.

  4. Bilateral Traumatic Globe Luxation with Optic Nerve Transection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tok, Levent; Tok, Ozlem Yalcin; Argun, Tugba Cakmak; Yilmaz, Omer; Gunes, Alime; Unlu, Elif Nisa; Sezer, Sezgin; Ibisoglu, Seda; Argun, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to document clinical findings and management of a patient with bilateral globe luxation and optic nerve transection. Materials and Methods A 25-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department with bilateral traumatic globe luxation following a motor vehicle accident. Results Visual acuity testing showed no light perception. The right pupil was dilated and bilaterally did not react to light. The globes were bilaterally intact. A computed tomography scan revealed Le Fort type II fractures, bilateral optic nerve transection and disruption of all extraocular muscles. The globes of the patient were bilaterally reduced into the orbit. However, the patient developed phthisis bulbi in the right eye at month 3. Conclusion Globe luxation presents a dramatic clinical picture, and may lead to the development of severe complications due to the concomitance of complete optic nerve dissection and multiple traumas. Even if the luxated globe is repositioned into the orbit, there is still an increased risk of the development of phthisis due to ischemia. PMID:25606034

  5. Differentation of mammographic parenchymal patterns and their relationship to cancer risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franken, T.; Boldt, I.

    1982-12-01

    A retrospective study of the mammograms of 11,020 womens was carried out; amongst these, 490 had carcinomas, including 51 so-called interval carcinomas. An attempt was made to test the suggestion advanced by Wolfe that certain dense types of parenchymal pattern on the mammogram are associated with a significantly increased carcinoma risk. We were unable to confirm Wolfe's suggestion. There is a slightly higher risk for pattern P2-DY, which cannot be used as the basis for future management of the patients. Attention is drawn to the risk of missing many carcinomas of the breast, if the suggestions made by Wolfe are followed.

  6. Transected sciatic nerve repair by diode laser protein soldering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekrazad, Reza; Mortezai, Omid; Pedram, MirSepehr; Kalhori, Katayoun Am; Joharchi, Khojasteh; Mansoori, Korosh; Ebrahimi, Roja; Mashhadiabbas, Fatemeh

    2017-08-01

    Despite advances in microsurgical techniques, repair of peripheral nerve injuries (PNI) is still a major challenge in regenerative medicine. The standard treatment for PNI includes suturing and anasthomosis of the transected nerve. The objective of this study was to compare neurorraphy (nerve repair) using standard suturingto diode laser protein soldering on the functional recovery of transected sciatic nerves. Thirty adult male Fischer-344 Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups: 1. The control group, no repair, 2. the standard of care suture group, and 3. The laser/protein solder group. For all three groups, the sciatic nerve was transected and the repair was done immediately. For the suture repair group, 10.0 prolene suture was used and for the laser/protein solder group a diode laser (500mW output power) in combination with bovine serum albumen and indocyanine green dye was used. Behavioral assessment by sciatic functional index was done on all rats biweekly. At 12weeks post-surgery, EMG recordings were done on all the rats and the rats were euthanized for histological evaluation of the sciatic nerves. The one-way ANOVA test was used for statistical analysis. The average time required to perform the surgery was significantly shorter for the laser-assisted nerve repair group compared to the suture group. The EMG evaluation revealed no difference between the two groups. Based on the sciatic function index the laser group was significantly better than the suture group after 12weeks (pneurorraphy using standard suturing methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. SAFARI 2000 PAR Measurements, Kalahari Transect, Botswana, Wet Season 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ceptometer data from a Decagon AccuPAR (Model PAR-80) were collected at four sites in Botswana during the SAFARI 2000 Kalahari Transect Wet Season Campaign (March,...

  8. Relative spatial soil geochemical variability along two transects across the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    To support the development of protocols for the proposed North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes project, whose objective is to establish baselines for the geochemistry of North American soils, two continental-scale transects across the United States and Canada were sampled in 2004. The sampling employed a spatially stratified random sampling design in order to estimate the variability between 40-km linear sampling units, within them, at sample sites, and due to sample preparation and analytical chemical procedures. The 40-km scale was chosen to be consistent with the density proposed for the continental-scale project. The two transects, north–south (N–S) from northern Manitoba to the USA–Mexico border near El Paso, Texas, and east–west (E–W) from the Virginia shore north of Washington, DC, to north of San Francisco, California, closely following the 38th parallel, have been studied individually. The purpose of this study was to determine if statistically significant systematic spatial variation occurred along the transects. Data for 38 major, minor and trace elements in A- and C-horizon soils where less than 5% of the data were below the detection limit were investigated by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). A total of 15 elements (K, Na, As, Ba, Be, Ce, La, Mn, Nb, P, Rb, Sb, Th, Tl and W) demonstrated statistically significant (p<0.05) variability at the between-40-km scale for both horizons along both transects. Only Cu failed to demonstrate significant variability at the between-40-km scale for both soil horizons along both transects.

  9. Gas hydrate drilling transect across northern Cascadia margin - IODP Expedition 311

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, M.; Collett, T.; Malone, M.J.; Collett, T.S.; Mitchell, M.; Guerin, G.; Akiba, F.; Blanc-Valleron, M.; Ellis, M.; Hashimoto, Y.; Heuer, V.; Higashi, Y.; Holland, M.; Jackson, P.D.; Kaneko, M.; Kastner, M.; Kim, J.-H.; Kitajima, H.; Long, P.E.; Malinverno, A.; Myers, Gwen E.; Palekar, L.D.; Pohlman, J.; Schultheiss, P.; Teichert, B.; Torres, M.E.; Trehu, A.M.; Wang, Jingyuan; Worthmann, U.G.; Yoshioka, H.

    2009-01-01

    A transect of four sites (U1325, U1326, U1327 and U1329) across the northern Cascadia margin was established during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 311 to study the occurrence and formation of gas hydrate in accretionary complexes. In addition to the transect sites, a fifth site (U1328) was established at a cold vent with active fluid flow. The four transect sites represent different typical geological environments of gas hydrate occurrence across the northern Cascadia margin from the earliest occurrence on the westernmost first accreted ridge (Site U1326) to the eastward limit of the gas hydrate occurrence in shallower water (Site U1329). Expedition 311 complements previous gas hydrate studies along the Cascadia accretionary complex, especially ODP Leg 146 and Leg 204 by extending the aperture of the transect sampled and introducing new tools to systematically quantify the gas hydrate content of the sediments. Among the most significant findings of the expedition was the occurrence of up to 20 m thick sand-rich turbidite intervals with gas hydrate concentrations locally exceeding 50% of the pore space at Sites U1326 and U1327. Moreover, these anomalous gas hydrate intervals occur at unexpectedly shallow depths of 50-120 metres below seafloor, which is the opposite of what was expected from previous models of gas hydrate formation in accretionary complexes, where gas hydrate was predicted to be more concentrated near the base of the gas hydrate stability zone just above the bottom-simulating reflector. Gas hydrate appears to be mainly concentrated in turbidite sand layers. During Expedition 311, the visual correlation of gas hydrate with sand layers was clearly and repeatedly documented, strongly supporting the importance of grain size in controlling gas hydrate occurrence. The results from the transect sites provide evidence for a structurally complex, lithology-controlled gas hydrate environment on the northern Cascadia margin. Local shallow

  10. Relation between small airways disease and parenchymal destruction in surgical lung specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, L N; Kramps, J A; Stijnen, T; Sterk, P J; Weening, J J; Dijkman, J H

    1990-01-01

    The relation between small airways disease and parenchymal destruction was investigated in lungs and lobes removed at surgery from 27 patients aged 15-70 years. Eight of the 27 patients were life-long non-smokers. The degree of small airways disease was assessed by semi-quantitative grading (SAD score) and by measuring diameter and wall thickness of membranous bronchioles. Parenchymal destruction was measured in three ways. Firstly, the number of alveolar attachments on membranous bronchioles per millimetre of circumference (AA/mm) was counted; the number of broken attachments was subtracted from the total AA/mm to give the numbers of intact attachments (normal AA/mm). Secondly, a point counting technique was used to give a destructive index (DI). Thirdly, the mean linear intercept (Lm) was determined. Total and normal AA/mm correlated negatively with the SAD score of membranous bronchioles (rs = -0.48 and -0.51) and with wall thickness (rs = -0.37 and -0.45) and DI correlated with wall thickness (rs = 0.5) and with the SAD score of respiratory bronchioles (rs = 0.53). Lm did not correlate with indices of small airway disease and total and normal AA/mm did not correlate with diameter. Multiple regression analyses showed that the correlation of total AA/mm with the SAD score of membranous and respiratory bronchioles and with wall thickness were not confounded by age or smoking. It is concluded that small airways disease is related to destruction of peribronchiolar alveoli, and it is postulated that small airways disease has a direct role in the causation of centrilobular emphysema. PMID:2315880

  11. Effect of hepatocyte growth factor on radiation response of HeLa, V79, CHO and primary cultured parenchymal hepatocyte in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hideya; Inoue, Takehiro; Nose, Takayuki; Murayama, Shigeyuki; Teshima, Teruki; Ozeki, Syuji; Koizumi, Masahiko; Inoue, Toshihiko.

    1996-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a multipotent cytokine enhancing regeneration of injured organs as liver, kidney and lung after injury. HGF enhances proliferation of various type of cells, inhibits proliferation of carcinoma cells, enhances motility of epithelial cells. We examined three cell lines (CHO, HeLa, V79) and primary cultured normal rat parenchymal hepatocytes to determine the effect of HGF on radiation response. HGF diminished survival of CHO and V79 cells determined by colony formation assay, whereas no significant change of survival was found in HeLa cells. No synergistic changes of survival were found when these three cell lines were irradiated with the addition of HGF. Thus, HGF did not enhance the radiation effect. We also analyzed the impact of irradiation with HGF on primary cultured normal rat parenchymal hepatocytes. At first, the release of glutamic-oxaloacetic amino-transaminase (GOT) in the supernatant was estimated. Irradiation (40 Gy) with or without HGF did not change GOT release in acute phase by 4 days after irradiation compared with the unirradiated control. Second, the DNA synthesis of rat parenchymal hepatocytes was analyzed using radioactive iodine-labeled deoxyuridine incorporation. HGF counteracted the suppression of DNA synthesis induced by irradiation. Thus, HGF may act as a mitogen even for irradiation-damaged normal cells. (author)

  12. Terrestrial transect study on driving mechanism of vegetation changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In terms of Chinese climate-vegetation model based on the classification of plant functional types, to- gether with climatic data from 1951 to 1980 and two future climatic scenarios (SRES-A2 and SRES-B2) in China from the highest and the lowest emission scenarios of greenhouse gases, the distribution patterns of vegetation types and their changes along the Northeast China Transect (NECT) and the North-South Transect of Eastern China (NSTEC) were simulated in order to understand the driving mechanisms of vegetation changes under climatic change. The results indicated that the vegetation distribution patterns would change significantly under future climate, and the major factors driving the vegetation changes were water and heat. However, the responses of various vegetation types to the changes in water and heat factors were obviously different. The vegetation changes were more sensi- tive to heat factors than to water factors. Thus, in the future climate warming will significantly affect vegetation distribution patterns.

  13. Inter-observer agreement according to three methods of evaluating mammographic density and parenchymal pattern in a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Rikke Rass; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Nielsen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    , Tabár's PIV and PV and the upper two quartiles (within density range) of PMD. The relative risk of breast cancer was estimated using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, which were compared between the two readers. RESULTS: Substantial inter-observer agreement was seen......, respectively. Inter-reader variability showed different impact on the relative risk of breast cancer estimated by the two readers on a multiple-category scale, however, not on a high/low-risk scale. Tabár's pattern IV demonstrated the highest ORs of all density patterns investigated. CONCLUSIONS: Our study......BACKGROUND: Mammographic breast density and parenchymal patterns are well-established risk factors for breast cancer. We aimed to report inter-observer agreement on three different subjective ways of assessing mammographic density and parenchymal pattern, and secondarily to examine what potential...

  14. Adult opossums (Didelphis virginiana) demonstrate near normal locomotion after spinal cord transection as neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X M; Basso, D M; Terman, J R; Bresnahan, J C; Martin, G F

    1998-05-01

    When the thoracic spinal cord of the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is transected on postnatal day (PD) 5, the site of injury becomes bridged by histologically recognizable spinal cord and axons which form major long tracts grow through the lesion. In the present study we asked whether opossums lesioned on PD5 have normal use of the hindlimbs as adults and, if so, whether that use is dependent upon axons which grow through the lesion site. The thoracic spinal cord was transected on PD5 and 6 months later, hindlimb function was evaluated using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor scale. All animals supported their weight with the hindlimbs and used their hindlimbs normally during overground locomotion. In some cases, the spinal cord was retransected at the original lesion site or just caudal to it 6 months after the original transection and paralysis of the hindlimbs ensued. Surprisingly, however, these animals gradually recovered some ability to support their weight and to step with the hindlimbs. Similar recovery was not seen in animals transected only as adults. In order to verify that descending axons which grew through the lesion during development were still present in the adult animal, opossums subjected to transection of the thoracic cord on PD5 were reoperated and Fast blue was injected several segments caudal to the lesion. In all cases, neurons were labeled rostral to the lesion in each of the spinal and supraspinal nuclei labeled by comparable injections in unlesioned, age-matched controls. The results of orthograde tracing studies indicated that axons which grew through the lesion innervated areas that were appropriate for them. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  15. Transect width and missed observations in counting muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus from fixed-wing aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Aastrup

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available While conductioning muskox-censuses (Ovibos moschatus in winter in Jameson Land, NE Greenland, from a fixed-wing aircraft, we examined the width of transects covered. We used a laser range-finder binocular for measuring the distance to observed groups. We found that 1000 m was a reasonable limit for observing a high proportion of the muskoxen present even though it was possible to observe muskoxen from 4000 m or even more. Using two observers on the right side of the aircraft each speaking into a tape recorder with an automatic time signal, we recorded observations and performed a double-observer experiment. By matching the group sizes and perpendicular distances with times of observation we could compare observations of the two observers. We found that both observers missed up to 25% of muskoxen within a 2000 m transect width. The main reasons for missing animals is difficulty in obtaining reference points in snow covered landscape and fatigue of the observers. Calibration of estimated distances using read-outs from the laser-range finder is an adequate method of obtaining distance data for line transect calculations. Our double-observer experiment demonstrated that even groups close to the transect are easily missed.

  16. Quantitative consensus of supervised learners for diffuse lung parenchymal HRCT patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Sushravya; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2013-03-01

    Automated lung parenchymal classification usually relies on supervised learning of expert chosen regions representative of the visually differentiable HRCT patterns specific to different pathologies (eg. emphysema, ground glass, honey combing, reticular and normal). Considering the elusiveness of a single most discriminating similarity measure, a plurality of weak learners can be combined to improve the machine learnability. Though a number of quantitative combination strategies exist, their efficacy is data and domain dependent. In this paper, we investigate multiple (N=12) quantitative consensus approaches to combine the clusters obtained with multiple (n=33) probability density-based similarity measures. Our study shows that hypergraph based meta-clustering and probabilistic clustering provides optimal expert-metric agreement.

  17. 238 series isotopes at different soil depths and disequilibrium over various geology and soil classifications along transects in selected parts of Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAulay, I.R.; Hayes, A.

    1996-01-01

    Sampling of soils was carried out along linear transects in selected regions of the country, a technique known as Transect Sampling. This was a controlled rather than a random sampling technique. The transects were located in regions which were previously known to contain high levels of the 226 Ra isotope, from the 238 U series. The soil sampling was carried out at selected sites along these transects. At each transect site, two different soil depths were examined and the soil samples collected were identified as the top and bottom soil samples. This transect data set, consisting of the isotope activity levels and the influencing variables transect geology and soil types, provided a data base for investigation. Comparisons were made between the soil isotope activity levels measured at different soil depths. An examination of the 238 U decay series showed the existence of disequilibrium. Relationships between the disequilibrium data and the associated geology and soil types were investigated. (author)

  18. Accuracy Assessment Transects (2013) in the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the location of 399 underwater photos and video transects taken between 3/18 - 3/28/2013 in Fish Bay and Coral Bay, St. John and the St....

  19. Development of regenerative peripheral nerve interfaces for motor control of neuroprosthetic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Stephen W. P.; Urbanchek, Melanie G.; Irwin, Zachary T.; Chestek, Cynthia A.; Cederna, Paul S.

    2017-05-01

    Traumatic peripheral nerve injuries suffered during amputation commonly results in debilitating neuropathic pain in the affected limb. Modern prosthetic technologies allow for intuitive, simultaneous control of multiple degrees of freedom. However, these state-of-the-art devices require separate, independent control signals for each degree of freedom, which is currently not possible. As a result, amputees reject up to 75% of myoelectric devices preferring instead to use body-powered artificial limbs which offer subtle sensory feedback. Without meaningful and intuitive sensory feedback, even the most advanced myoelectric prostheses remain insensate, burdensome, and are associated with enormous cognitive demand and mental fatigue. The ideal prosthetic device is one which is capable of providing intuitive somatosensory feedback essential for interaction with the environment. Critical to the design of such a bioprosthetic device is the development of a reliable biologic interface between human and machine. This ideal patient-prosthetic interface allows for transmission of both afferent somatosensory information and efferent motor signals for a closed-loop feedback system of neural control. Our lab has developed the Regenerative Peripheral Nerve Interface (RPNI) as a biologic nerve interface designed for stable integration of a prosthetic device with transected peripheral nerves in a residual limb. The RPNI is constructed by surgically implanting the distal end of a transected peripheral nerve into an autogenous muscle graft. Animal experiments in our lab have shown recording of motor signals from RPNI's implanted into both rodents and monkeys. Here, we achieve high amplitude EMG signals with a high signal to noise (SNR) ratio.

  20. Multifractal analyis of soil invertebrates along a transect under different land uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado Siqueira, Glécio; Alves Silva, Raimunda; Vidal-Vázquez, Eva; Paz-González, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Soil fauna play a central role in many essential ecosystem processes. Land use and management can have a dramatic effect upon soil invertebrate community. Indices based on soil invertebrates abundance and diversity are fundamental for soil quality assessment. Many soil properties and attributes have been shown to exhibit spatial variabilityThe aim of this study was to analyze the scaling heterogeneity of the soil invertebrate community sampled using pitfall traps across a transect. The field study was conducted at Mata Roma municipality, Maranhão State, Brazil. Transects were marked under seven different agricultural/forestry land uses (millet, soybean, maize, eucalyptus, pasture, secondary savannah and native savannah). Native vegetation was considered as a reference, whereas the agricultural fields showed a range of soil use intensities. Along these transects 130 pitfall per land use were installed. First, differences in community assemblages and composition under different land use systems were evaluated using classical indices. Then, the spatial distribution of soil fauna trapped by pitfall techniques, characterized through generalized dimension, Dq, and singularity spectra, f(α) - α, showed a well-defined multifractal structure. Differences in scaling heterogeneity and other multifractal characteristics were examined in relation to land use intensification.

  1. A west-east vegetation transect through Africa south of the Tropic of Capricorn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Coetzee

    1975-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes in predominant vegetation physiognomy, prominent species and physiography along the route following an I 800 km transect across southern Africa near the Tropic of Capricorn, are described. Eleven main discontinuities in the structure and Holistic composition of the vegetation along the transect are related to a climatic gradient across the Continent. Floristic variation within the main structural types is largely related to rainfall, severity of frost, soil conditions, exposure, slope and aspect. The main vegetation classes distinguished coincide largely with major differences in carrying capacity of the vegetation.

  2. Enriched Endogenous Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Mice Ameliorate Parenchymal Cell Death After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Huixia; Yang, Zhen; Luo, Chuanming; Zeng, Haitao; Li, Peng; Kang, Jing X; Wan, Jian-Bo; He, Chengwei; Su, Huanxing

    2017-07-01

    Currently no effective therapies are available for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Early intervention that specifically provides neuroprotection is of most importance which profoundly influences the outcome of TBI. In the present study, we adopted a closed-skull mild TBI model to investigate potential roles of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) in protecting against TBI. Using two-photon laser scanning microscopy (2PLSM), parenchymal cell death and reactive oxidative species (ROS) expression were directly observed and recorded after TBI through a thinned skull bone window. Fat-1 mice with high endogenous ω-3 PUFAs significantly inhibited ROS expression and attenuated parenchymal cell death after compression injury during the early injury phase. Elevated generation of glutathione (GSH) and neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1) in the parenchyma of fat-1 mice could be the contributor to the beneficial role of ω-3 PUFAs in TBI. The results of the study suggest that ω-3 PUFAs is an effective neuroprotectant as an early pharmacological intervention for TBI and the information derived from this study may help guide dietary advice for those who are susceptible to repetitive mild TBI.

  3. Accounting for subgroup structure in line-transect abundance estimates of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens in Hawaiian waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Bradford

    Full Text Available For biological populations that form aggregations (or clusters of individuals, cluster size is an important parameter in line-transect abundance estimation and should be accurately measured. Cluster size in cetaceans has traditionally been represented as the total number of individuals in a group, but group size may be underestimated if group members are spatially diffuse. Groups of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens can comprise numerous subgroups that are dispersed over tens of kilometers, leading to a spatial mismatch between a detected group and the theoretical framework of line-transect analysis. Three stocks of false killer whales are found within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone of the Hawaiian Islands (Hawaiian EEZ: an insular main Hawaiian Islands stock, a pelagic stock, and a Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI stock. A ship-based line-transect survey of the Hawaiian EEZ was conducted in the summer and fall of 2010, resulting in six systematic-effort visual sightings of pelagic (n = 5 and NWHI (n = 1 false killer whale groups. The maximum number and spatial extent of subgroups per sighting was 18 subgroups and 35 km, respectively. These sightings were combined with data from similar previous surveys and analyzed within the conventional line-transect estimation framework. The detection function, mean cluster size, and encounter rate were estimated separately to appropriately incorporate data collected using different methods. Unlike previous line-transect analyses of cetaceans, subgroups were treated as the analytical cluster instead of groups because subgroups better conform to the specifications of line-transect theory. Bootstrap values (n = 5,000 of the line-transect parameters were randomly combined to estimate the variance of stock-specific abundance estimates. Hawai'i pelagic and NWHI false killer whales were estimated to number 1,552 (CV = 0.66; 95% CI = 479-5,030 and 552 (CV = 1.09; 95% CI = 97

  4. Spontaneous recovery of locomotion induced by remaining fibers after spinal cord transection in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Si-Wei; Chen, Bing-Yao; Liu, Hui-Ling; Lang, Bing; Xia, Jie-Lai; Jiao, Xi-Ying; Ju, Gong

    2003-01-01

    A major issue in analysis of experimental results after spinal cord injury is spontaneous functional recovery induced by remaining nerve fibers. The authors investigated the relationship between the degree of locomotor recovery and the percentage and location of the fibers that spared spinal cord transection. The spinal cords of 12 adult rats were transected at T9 with a razor blade, which often resulted in sparing of nerve fibers in the ventral spinal cord. The incompletely-transected animals were used to study the degree of spontaneous recovery of hindlimb locomotion, evaluated with the BBB rating scale, in correlation to the extent and location of the remaining fibers. Incomplete transection was found in the ventral spinal cord in 42% of the animals. The degree of locomotor recovery was highly correlated with the percentage of the remaining fibers in the ventral and ventrolateral funiculi. In one of the rats, 4.82% of remaining fibers in unilateral ventrolateral funiculus were able to sustain a certain recovery of locomotion. Less than 5% of remaining ventrolateral white matter is sufficient for an unequivocal motor recovery after incomplete spinal cord injury. Therefore, for studies with spinal cord transection, the completeness of sectioning should be carefully checked before any conclusion can be reached. The fact that the degree of locomotor recovery is correlated with the percentage of remaining fibers in the ventrolateral spinal cord, exclusive of most of the descending motor tracts, may imply an essential role of propriospinal connections in the initiation of spontaneous locomotor recovery.

  5. Assessment of the relationship between lung parenchymal destruction and impaired pulmonary perfusion on a lobar level in patients with emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia; Ley, Sebastian; Eberhardt, Ralf; Weinheimer, Oliver; Fink, Christian; Puderbach, Michael; Eichinger, Monika; Herth, Felix; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the relationship between lung parenchymal destruction and impaired pulmonary perfusion on a lobar level using CT and MRI in patients with emphysema. Material and methods: Forty-five patients with severe emphysema (GOLD III and IV) underwent inspiratory 3D-HRCT and contrast-enhanced MR-perfusion (1.5T; 3.5 mm x 1.9 mm x 4 mm). 3D-HRCT data was analyzed using a software for detection and visualization of emphysema. Emphysema was categorized in four clusters with different volumes and presented as overlay on the CT. CT and lung perfusion were visually analyzed for three lobes on each side using a four-point-score to grade the abnormalities on CT (1: predominantly small emphysema-clusters to 4: >75% large emphysema-clusters) and MRI (1: normal perfusion to 4: no perfusion). Results: A total of 270 lobes were evaluated. At CT, the score was 1 for 9 lobes, 2 for 43, 3 for 77, and 4 for 141 lobes. At MRI, the score was 1 for 13 lobes, 2 for 45, 3 for 92, and 4 for 120 lobes. Matching of lung parenchymal destruction and reduced perfusion was found in 213 lobes (weighted kappa = 0.8). The score was higher on CT in 44, and higher on MRI in 13 lobes. Conclusion: 3D-HRCT and 3D MR-perfusion show a high lobar agreement between parenchymal destruction and reduction of perfusion in patients with severe emphysema

  6. Transection of Nasolacrimal Duct in Endoscopic Medial Maxillectomy: Implication on Epiphora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imre, Abdulkadir; Imre, Seher Saritepe; Pinar, Ercan; Ozkul, Yilmaz; Songu, Murat; Ece, Ahmet Ata; Aladag, Ibrahim

    2015-10-01

    Management of the nasolacrimal system is usually recommended during medial maxillectomy via external approach because of reported higher rates of postoperative epiphora. Association of the endoscopic medial maxillectomy (EMM) with epiphora, however, is not clearly stated. In this study, we attempted to evaluate whether patients develop epiphora after simple transection of the nasolacrimal duct during EMM. Medical records of 26 patients who underwent endoscopic tumor resection for inverted papilloma (IP) were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who underwent EMM with nasolacrimal canal transection were included and recalled for lacrimal system evaluation. Twelve patients were eligible for inclusion and fluorescein dye disappearance test (FDDT) was performed for each patient. Patient demographics, tumor data, surgical procedures, and follow-up time were recorded. Of the 12 patients included in the study, 6 underwent canine fossa transantral approach concurrently with EMM. The mean duration of follow-up was 21.1 months (range, 6-84 months). Eight patients were graded as 0, whereas 4 patients were graded as 1 according to FDDT. All test results were interpreted as negative for epiphora. All patients were completely symptom free of epiphora. Epiphora after EMM with nasolacrimal canal transection among patients with sinonasal tumors appears to be uncommon. Therefore, prophylactic concurrent management of nasolacrimal system including stenting, dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR), or postoperative lacrimal lavage are not mandatory for all patients.

  7. Polyethylene glycol restores axonal conduction after corpus callosum transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Bamba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG has been shown to restore axonal continuity after peripheral nerve transection in animal models. We hypothesized that PEG can also restore axonal continuity in the central nervous system. In this current experiment, coronal sectioning of the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats was performed after animal sacrifice. 3Brain high-resolution microelectrode arrays (MEA were used to measure mean firing rate (MFR and peak amplitude across the corpus callosum of the ex-vivo brain slices. The corpus callosum was subsequently transected and repeated measurements were performed. The cut ends of the corpus callosum were still apposite at this time. A PEG solution was applied to the injury site and repeated measurements were performed. MEA measurements showed that PEG was capable of restoring electrophysiology signaling after transection of central nerves. Before injury, the average MFRs at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum were 0.76, 0.66, and 0.65 spikes/second, respectively, and the average peak amplitudes were 69.79, 58.68, and 49.60 μV, respectively. After injury, the average MFRs were 0.71, 0.14, and 0.25 spikes/second, respectively and peak amplitudes were 52.11, 8.98, and 16.09 μV, respectively. After application of PEG, there were spikes in MFR and peak amplitude at the injury site and contralaterally. The average MFRs were 0.75, 0.55, and 0.47 spikes/second at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum, respectively and peak amplitudes were 59.44, 45.33, 40.02 μV, respectively. There were statistically differences in the average MFRs and peak amplitudes between the midline and non-midline corpus callosum groups (P < 0.01, P < 0.05. These findings suggest that PEG restores axonal conduction between severed central nerves, potentially representing axonal fusion.

  8. Polyethylene glycol restores axonal conduction after corpus callosum transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Ravinder; Riley, D Colton; Boyer, Richard B; Pollins, Alonda C; Shack, R Bruce; Thayer, Wesley P

    2017-05-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been shown to restore axonal continuity after peripheral nerve transection in animal models. We hypothesized that PEG can also restore axonal continuity in the central nervous system. In this current experiment, coronal sectioning of the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats was performed after animal sacrifice. 3Brain high-resolution microelectrode arrays (MEA) were used to measure mean firing rate (MFR) and peak amplitude across the corpus callosum of the ex-vivo brain slices. The corpus callosum was subsequently transected and repeated measurements were performed. The cut ends of the corpus callosum were still apposite at this time. A PEG solution was applied to the injury site and repeated measurements were performed. MEA measurements showed that PEG was capable of restoring electrophysiology signaling after transection of central nerves. Before injury, the average MFRs at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum were 0.76, 0.66, and 0.65 spikes/second, respectively, and the average peak amplitudes were 69.79, 58.68, and 49.60 μV, respectively. After injury, the average MFRs were 0.71, 0.14, and 0.25 spikes/second, respectively and peak amplitudes were 52.11, 8.98, and 16.09 μV, respectively. After application of PEG, there were spikes in MFR and peak amplitude at the injury site and contralaterally. The average MFRs were 0.75, 0.55, and 0.47 spikes/second at the ipsilateral, midline, and contralateral corpus callosum, respectively and peak amplitudes were 59.44, 45.33, 40.02 μV, respectively. There were statistically differences in the average MFRs and peak amplitudes between the midline and non-midline corpus callosum groups ( P < 0.01, P < 0.05). These findings suggest that PEG restores axonal conduction between severed central nerves, potentially representing axonal fusion.

  9. Parenchymal signal intensity in 3-T body MRI of dogs with hematopoietic neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Daniel A; Sharkey, Leslie C; Steward, Susan M; Bahr, Katherine L; Henson, Michael S; Ito, Daisuke; O'Brien, Timothy D; Jessen, Carl R; Husbands, Brian D; Borgatti, Antonella; Modiano, Jaime F

    2013-04-01

    We performed a preliminary study involving 10 dogs to assess the applicability of body MRI for staging of canine diffuse hematopoietic neoplasia. T1-weighted (before and after intravenous gadolinium), T2-weighted, in-phase, out-of-phase, and short tau inversion recovery pulse sequences were used. By using digital region of interest (ROI) and visual comparison techniques, relative parenchymal organ (medial iliac lymph nodes, liver, spleen, kidney cortex, and kidney medulla) signal intensity was quantified as less than, equal to, or greater than that of skeletal muscle in 2 clinically normal young adult dogs and 10 dogs affected with either B-cell lymphoma (n = 7) or myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 3). Falciform fat and urinary bladder were evaluated to provide additional perspective regarding signal intensity from the pulse sequences. Dogs with nonfocal disease could be distinguished from normal dogs according to both the visual and ROI signal-intensity relationships. In normal dogs, liver signal intensity on the T2-weighted sequence was greater than that of skeletal muscle by using either the visual or ROI approach. However in affected dogs, T2-weighted liver signal intensity was less than that of skeletal muscle by using either the ROI approach (10 of 10 dogs) or the visual approach (9 of 10 dogs). These findings suggest that the comparison of relative signal intensity among organs may have merit as a research model for infiltrative parenchymal disease (ROI approach) or metabolic effects of disease; this comparison may have practical clinical applicability (visual comparison approach) as well.

  10. Mobile acoustic transects miss rare bat species: implications of survey method and spatio-temporal sampling for monitoring bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun de Torrez, Elizabeth C; Wallrichs, Megan A; Ober, Holly K; McCleery, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    Due to increasing threats facing bats, long-term monitoring protocols are needed to inform conservation strategies. Effective monitoring should be easily repeatable while capturing spatio-temporal variation. Mobile acoustic driving transect surveys ('mobile transects') have been touted as a robust, cost-effective method to monitor bats; however, it is not clear how well mobile transects represent dynamic bat communities, especially when used as the sole survey approach. To assist biologists who must select a single survey method due to resource limitations, we assessed the effectiveness of three acoustic survey methods at detecting species richness in a vast protected area (Everglades National Park): (1) mobile transects, (2) stationary surveys that were strategically located by sources of open water and (3) stationary surveys that were replicated spatially across the landscape. We found that mobile transects underrepresented bat species richness compared to stationary surveys across all major vegetation communities and in two distinct seasons (dry/cool and wet/warm). Most critically, mobile transects failed to detect three rare bat species, one of which is federally endangered. Spatially replicated stationary surveys did not estimate higher species richness than strategically located stationary surveys, but increased the rate at which species were detected in one vegetation community. The survey strategy that detected maximum species richness and the highest mean nightly species richness with minimal effort was a strategically located stationary detector in each of two major vegetation communities during the wet/warm season.

  11. Endovascular stent graft treatment of acute thoracic aortic transections due to blunt force trauma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bjurlin, Marc A

    2012-02-01

    Endovascular stent graft treatment of acute thoracic aortic transections is an encouraging minimally invasive alternative to open surgical repair. Between 2006 and 2008, 16 patients with acute thoracic aortic transections underwent evaluation at our institution. Seven patients who were treated with an endovascular stent graft were reviewed. The mean Glasgow Coma Score was 13.0, probability of survival was .89, and median injury severity score was 32. The mean number of intensive care unit days was 7.7, mean number of ventilator support days was 5.4, and hospital length of stay was 10 days. Mean blood loss was 285 mL, and operative time was 143 minutes. Overall mortality was 14%. Procedure complications were a bleeding arteriotomy site and an endoleak. Endovascular treatment of traumatic thoracic aortic transections appears to demonstrate superior results with respect to mortality, blood loss, operative time, paraplegia, and procedure-related complications when compared with open surgical repair literature.

  12. Spatial distribution of phytoplankton in Spring 2004 along a transect in the eastern part of the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaloud, P.; Rezacova, M.; Ellegaard, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    were analyzed by multivariate statistics. Only distance from the coast was found to be a significant factor for algal distribution along the transect. Three main areas of the transect were found: the coastal, middle and oceanic areas. Diatoms, mainly the centric ones, were the most abundant group......, although the species composition was different. Some species were found to prefer coastal waters, other species were characterized as oceanic, and several species were found at all stations. Porosira glacialis showed an atypical distribution along the transect, with highest abundances at both coastal...... and oceanic stations....

  13. Case of pituitary stalk transection syndrome ascertained after breech delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuta, Kaori; Hidaka, Takao; Ono, Yosuke; Kochi, Keiko; Yasoshima, Kuniaki; Arai, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Pituitary stalk transection syndrome (PSTS) is a rare complication that can accompany breech delivery. Early diagnosis of this syndrome is difficult, and it may cause a serious delay in the diagnosis. We present a case of PSTS ascertained after breech delivery. A 20-year-old woman presented with primary amenorrhea. The patient was born by breech delivery and had a history of treatment for pituitary dwarfism. Her laboratory findings showed pituitary hypothyroidism, and hormone replacement therapy was initiated. At 28 years old, she became pregnant and had a normal delivery at 38 weeks' gestation. One year after delivery, her thyroid hormone level changed. Laboratory test showed adrenocortical insufficiency, and magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland showed transection of the pituitary stalk and development of an ectopic posterior lobe. These findings were compatible with PSTS. When a patient who has been born by breech delivery presents with symptoms of pituitary deficiency, PSTS should be considered in the differential diagnosis. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. North European Transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korja, Annakaisa; Heikkinen, Pekka J.; Roslov, Yuri; Ivanova, Nina; Verba, Marc; Sakoulina, Tamara

    2010-05-01

    A nearly continuous, 3600 km long, NE-running North European Transect (NET) is combined from the existing deep seismic reflection data sets in the Baltic Sea (BABEL, 1600 km), Northern Finland (FIRE 4-4A, 580 km) and Barents Sea (1-AR, 1440 km;). The reflective image of the deep crust is highly dependent on the thickness of the sedimentary cover. The cover is few hundred meters in the Baltic sea, few tens of meters in the land areas and few kilometers in the Barents Sea area. In the Barents Sea area, the seismic image is dominated by the layered structure of the sedimentary basins and the middle and lower crust are poorly imaged. Therefore the Moho boundary in the Barents Sea has been determined from wide-angle reflections. Geologically the transect covers the transition from Phanerozoic Europe to Precambrian Europe and back to the Phanerozoic Barents Sea Shelf. It displays how Northern Europe grew around Baltica in several tectonic episodes involving the formation and destruction of Columbia/Hudsonland, Rodinia and Pangea supercontinents. The paleo plateboundaries are traversed by subvertical transparent zones suggesting transpressional and trantensional environments. The BABEL lines image how the core of Baltica was formed by sequential accretion of microcontinents and arc terranes at the old continental margin during the Svecofennian Orogeny ~1.9-1.8 Ga .When Baltica joined the Columbia supercontinent, new terranes were added to its southern edge in the Sveocbaltic Orogeny (~1.8 Ga). During the dispersal of the Columbia, the Baltic Sea failed rift was formed, rapakivi granitoids were intruded and sedimentary basins were developed. An extended plate margin structure has been imposed on the Rodinian (Sveconorwegian) and Pangean additions (Variscan-Caledonian). Major crustal thinning takes place along a series of subvertical faults across the Trans-European Suture Zone marking the transition from Phanerozoic to Proterozoic Europe. The FIRE lines in Northen Finland

  15. Potent spinal parenchymal AAV9-mediated gene delivery by subpial injection in adult rats and pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Miyanohara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective in vivo use of adeno-associated virus (AAV-based vectors to achieve gene-specific silencing or upregulation in the central nervous system has been limited by the inability to provide more than limited deep parenchymal expression in adult animals using delivery routes with the most clinical relevance (intravenous or intrathecal. Here, we demonstrate that the spinal pia membrane represents the primary barrier limiting effective AAV9 penetration into the spinal parenchyma after intrathecal AAV9 delivery. We develop a novel subpial AAV9 delivery technique and AAV9-dextran formulation. We use these in adult rats and pigs to show (i potent spinal parenchymal transgene expression in white and gray matter including neurons, glial and endothelial cells after single bolus subpial AAV9 delivery; (ii delivery to almost all apparent descending motor axons throughout the length of the spinal cord after cervical or thoracic subpial AAV9 injection; (iii potent retrograde transgene expression in brain motor centers (motor cortex and brain stem; and (iv the relative safety of this approach by defining normal neurological function for up to 6 months after AAV9 delivery. Thus, subpial delivery of AAV9 enables gene-based therapies with a wide range of potential experimental and clinical utilizations in adult animals and human patients.

  16. Effects of different delayed exercise regimens on cognitive performance in fimbria‑fornix transected rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wogensen, Elise; Marschner, Linda; Gram, Marie Gajhede

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that exercise can positively influence cognitive performance after brain injury. This study investigated the effects of different exercise regimens on allocentric place learning after fimbria‑fornix (FF) transection. One hundred and sixteen pre‑shaped rats were subjected either...... to a mechanical transection of the FF or control sham surgery and divided into following groups: i) no exercise (NE), ii) voluntary exercise in a running wheel (RW), iii) forced swimming exercise administered as interval training of short (3x5 min) duration (FS‑SI), iv) forced swimming exercise administered...

  17. Late lung parenchymal changes on HRCT in children with mycoplasma pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soo Hyeon; Kim, Joung Sook; Yoon, Jung Hee; Hur, Gham; Kim, Chang Gun [Inje Univ. Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    To evaluate late lung parenchymal change, as seen on high-resolution CT(HRCT) in children with mycoplasma pneumonia. Twenty-three patients [15 boys and 8 girls aged two to 13 (mean, 6) years] with mycoplasma pneumonia underwent HRCT four to 39 (mean, 10) months after initial infection. Using increased mycoplasma antibody titer( > 1;640) mycoplasma pneumonia was diagnosed, and patients were divided into two groups : high titer group (antibody titer > 1:5120), and lower titer group ( < 1:5120). CT scans were performed using 2mm collimation and 5-10mm interval from apex to diaphragm. In seven patients who were cooperative, both inspiratory scans were obtained at a window width of 1600 HU and level of 700. HRCT findings of mosaic low attenuations and changes in bronchioles and bronchial walls were assessed by three radiologists and correlated with initial chest radiographic findings. On HRCT, 17 of 23 patients (74%) demonstrated abnormal findings. These included mosaic attenuation of lung density alone in 11 of 17 patients (65%), mosaic attenuation associated with bronchiectasis in five(29%), and bronchiectasis only in one(6%). Mosaic attenuation was more accentuated on expiratory scans than on inspiratory. These findings were obtained in 10 of 12 high titer group and in 7 of 11 in the lower titer group. In 15 of 23 patients(65%), involved areas seen on HRCT exactly corresponded with initially involved areas seen on chest radiographs (CXR). Two patients in whom findings on initial CXR were normal showed mosaic attenuation on HRCT. Six patients in whom such findings were abnormal showed normal findings on HRCT, a fact which reflected their complete recovery. The most common late parenchymal change in mycoplasma pneumonia, as seen on HRCT, was mosaic attenuation of lung density followed by bronchiectasis. The latter is presumably due to bronchiolitis obliterans, a well-known complication. We believe that HRCT is very useful for the evaluation of long-term sequelae of

  18. Late lung parenchymal changes on HRCT in children with mycoplasma pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo Hyeon; Kim, Joung Sook; Yoon, Jung Hee; Hur, Gham; Kim, Chang Gun

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate late lung parenchymal change, as seen on high-resolution CT(HRCT) in children with mycoplasma pneumonia. Twenty-three patients [15 boys and 8 girls aged two to 13 (mean, 6) years] with mycoplasma pneumonia underwent HRCT four to 39 (mean, 10) months after initial infection. Using increased mycoplasma antibody titer( > 1;640) mycoplasma pneumonia was diagnosed, and patients were divided into two groups : high titer group (antibody titer > 1:5120), and lower titer group ( < 1:5120). CT scans were performed using 2mm collimation and 5-10mm interval from apex to diaphragm. In seven patients who were cooperative, both inspiratory scans were obtained at a window width of 1600 HU and level of 700. HRCT findings of mosaic low attenuations and changes in bronchioles and bronchial walls were assessed by three radiologists and correlated with initial chest radiographic findings. On HRCT, 17 of 23 patients (74%) demonstrated abnormal findings. These included mosaic attenuation of lung density alone in 11 of 17 patients (65%), mosaic attenuation associated with bronchiectasis in five(29%), and bronchiectasis only in one(6%). Mosaic attenuation was more accentuated on expiratory scans than on inspiratory. These findings were obtained in 10 of 12 high titer group and in 7 of 11 in the lower titer group. In 15 of 23 patients(65%), involved areas seen on HRCT exactly corresponded with initially involved areas seen on chest radiographs (CXR). Two patients in whom findings on initial CXR were normal showed mosaic attenuation on HRCT. Six patients in whom such findings were abnormal showed normal findings on HRCT, a fact which reflected their complete recovery. The most common late parenchymal change in mycoplasma pneumonia, as seen on HRCT, was mosaic attenuation of lung density followed by bronchiectasis. The latter is presumably due to bronchiolitis obliterans, a well-known complication. We believe that HRCT is very useful for the evaluation of long-term sequelae of

  19. Microbial characteristics of soils on a latitudinal transect in Siberia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šantrůčková, Hana; Bird, M. I.; Kalaschnikov, Y. N.; Grund, M.; Elhottová, Dana; Šimek, Miloslav; Grigoryev, S.; Gleixner, G.; Arneth, A.; Schulze, E.D.; Lloyd, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 9, - (2003), s. 1106-1117 ISSN 1354-1013 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/99/P033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : latitudial transect * microbial net growth rate * soil microbial activity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.152, year: 2003

  20. Sleeve resection for delayed presentation of traumatic bronchial transection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohamed, H Y

    2010-02-01

    Tracheobronchial disruption is uncommon in blunt chest trauma. Many of these patients die before reaching the hospital. In the majority of survivors diagnosis is occasionally delayed resulting in complications like airway stenosis and lung collapse. Thus it is important to have radiological follow up after severe thoracic trauma. Sleeve resection can be an excellent option to conserve lung tissue in delayed presentation of bronchial transection.

  1. Renal parenchymal damage on DMSA-scintigraphy in pelviureteric obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kullendorff, C.M.; Evander, E.

    1989-01-01

    During a 1.5 year period 21 children were investigated with 99-m-technetium dimercaptosuccini acid (DMSA) before operation for hydronephrosis due to pelviureteric obstruction. The age at investigation was 0.2-11.5 years. Fourty-two kidneys were examined. Hydronephrosis existed on the right side in 8 cases, left side in 9 and bilateral in 4 cases. Seventeen kidneys had no obstruction. The scintigraphy was interpreted as normal in 19 kidneys. Decreased isotope uptake was found in 23 kidneys and localized to the upper pole area in 19 kidneys. middle-lateral part in 7, lower pole area in 15 and the middle-medial part in 12 kidneys. There were no predominance for any part of the kidney to be affected by parenchymal damage. In 8 children investigated before the age of 1 year, 4 of 10 hydronephrotic kidneys revealed normal DMSA scintigram. DMSA scintigraphy delineates functioning renal parenchyma. It can be recommended as a routine method for evaluation of the renal parenchyma before surgery and for follow up studies in all ages of childhood

  2. DMPD: Functions of anaphylatoxin C5a in rat liver: direct and indirect actions onnonparenchymal and parenchymal cells. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nnonparenchymal and parenchymal cells. Schieferdecker HL, Schlaf G, Jungermann K, Gotze O. Int Immunopharmac...chymal cells. Authors Schieferdecker HL, Schlaf G, Jungermann K, Gotze O. Publication Int Immunopharmacol. 2

  3. Factors controlling floc settling velocity along a longitudinal estuarine transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, A.J.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    A 147 km longitudinal transect of flocculated cohesive sediment properties in San Francisco Bay (SFB) was conducted on June 17th, 2008. Our aim was to determine the factors that control floc settling velocity along the longitudinal axis of the estuary. The INSSEV-LF video system was used to measure floc diameters and settling velocities at 30 stations at a distance of 0.7 m above the estuary bed. Floc sizes (D) ranged from 22 μm to 639 μm and settling velocities (Ws) ranged between 0.04 mm·s− 1 and 15.8 mm·s− 1 during the longitudinal transect. Nearbed turbulent shear stresses throughout the transect duration were within the 0.2–0.5 Pa range which typically stimulates flocculation growth. The individual D–Ws–floc density plots suggest the suspended sediments encountered throughout SFB were composed of both muddy cohesive sediment and mixed sediments flocs. Mass-weighted population mean settling velocity (Wsmass) ranged from 0.5 mm·s− 1 to 10 mm·s− 1. The macrofloc and microfloc (demarcation at 160 μm) sub-populations demonstrated parameterised settling velocities which spanned nearly double the range of the sample mean settling velocities (Wsmean). The macroflocs tended to dominate the suspended mass (up to 77% of the ambient suspended solid concentration; SSC) from San Pablo Bay to Carquinez Strait (the vicinity of the turbidity maximum zone). Microfloc mass was particularly significant (typically 60–100% of the SSC) in the northern section of South Bay and most of Central Bay. The transect took eleven hours to complete and was not fully synoptic. During slack tide, larger and faster settling flocs deposited, accounting for most of the longitudinal variability. The best single predictor of settling velocity was water velocity 39 min prior to sampling, not suspended-sediment concentration or salinity. Resuspension and settling lags are likely responsible for the lagged response of settling velocity to water velocity. The distribution of

  4. Pituitary stalk transection syndrome: Comparison of clinico-radiological features in adults and children with review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, Chinmay; Moorthy, Srikanth; Pullara, Sreekumar K; Rajeshkannan, R; Unnikrishnan, Ambika G

    2012-01-01

    Hypo-pituitarism results from impaired production of one or more of anterior pituitary trophic hormones. A rare cause of hypo-pituitarism is pituitary stalk transection syndrome. The MRI features of this condition in children and its association with hormonal deficiencies have been reported earlier. Reports on adults with this disorder are scarce, with only one small case series published in the recent literature. We studied the hormonal deficiency pattern and MRI findings of 12 patients with pituitary stalk transection syndrome who presented to our department between 2004 and 2011. Six patients were children and six were adults (≥18 years). This article compares the adult clinico-radiological phenotype of pituitary transection syndrome with the pediatric group of patients with same condition

  5. Primary Angiitis of the Central Nervous System: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Spectrum of Parenchymal, Meningeal, and Vascular Lesions at Baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulouis, Grégoire; de Boysson, Hubert; Zuber, Mathieu; Guillevin, Loïc; Meary, Eric; Costalat, Vincent; Pagnoux, Christian; Naggara, Olivier

    2017-05-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system remains challenging. To report an overview and pictorial review of brain magnetic resonance imaging findings in adult primary angiitis of the central nervous system and to determine the distribution of parenchymal, meningeal, and vascular lesions in a large multicentric cohort. Adult patients from the French COVAC cohort (Cohort of Patients With Primary Vasculitis of the Central Nervous System), with biopsy or angiographically proven primary angiitis of the central nervous system and brain magnetic resonance imaging available at the time of diagnosis were included. A systematic imaging review was performed blinded to clinical data. Sixty patients met inclusion criteria. Mean age was 45 years (±12.9). Patients initially presented focal deficit(s) (83%), headaches (53%), cognitive disorder (40%), and seizures (38.3%). The most common magnetic resonance imaging finding observed in 42% of patients was multiterritorial, bilateral, distal acute stroke lesions after small to medium artery distribution, with a predominant carotid circulation distribution. Hemorrhagic infarctions and parenchymal hemorrhages were also frequently found in the cohort (55%). Acute convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage was found in 26% of patients and 42% demonstrated pre-eminent leptomeningeal enhancement, which is found to be significantly more prevalent in biopsy-proven patients (60% versus 28%; P =0.04). Seven patients had tumor-like presentations. Seventy-seven percent of magnetic resonance angiographic studies were abnormal, revealing proximal/distal stenoses in 57% and 61% of patients, respectively. Adult primary angiitis of the central nervous system is a heterogenous disease, with multiterritorial, distal, and bilateral acute stroke being the most common pattern of parenchymal lesions found on magnetic resonance imaging. Our findings suggest a higher than previously thought prevalence of hemorrhagic transformation and other hemorrhagic

  6. Can MRI replace DMSA in the detection of renal parenchymal defects in children with urinary tract infections?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavanagh, Eoin C.; Ryan, Stephanie; McCourbrey, Siobhan; O' Connor, Rachel; Donoghue, Veronica [Children' s University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland); Awan, Atif [Children' s University Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Dublin (Ireland)

    2005-03-01

    Renal parenchymal defects may be a consequence of urinary tract infections (UTI) in childhood. MRI is a non-radiation imaging modality compared with DMSA scanning. To compare DMSA with MRI for the detection of renal parenchymal defects in children presenting for radiological investigation after a first UTI. Both DMSA and MRI were performed at the same appointment in 37 children (aged 4 months-13 years; mean 4.5 years) with a history of UTI. Both planar and SPECT DMSA were performed. MRI of the kidneys employed axial and coronal T1-, T2- and fat-saturated T1-weighted (T1-W) sequences. Some children had imaging after IV contrast medium. The coronal fat-saturated T1-W sequence was the best sequence and it detected all the findings on MRI. MRI had a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 87% for the detection of a scarred kidney using DMSA as the gold standard. MRI diagnosed pyelonephritis in two children that had been interpreted as scarring on DMSA. Renal MRI using a single, coronal, fat-saturated T1-W sequence is a rapid, accurate and minimally invasive technique for the detection of renal scarring that does not employ ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  7. Can MRI replace DMSA in the detection of renal parenchymal defects in children with urinary tract infections?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavanagh, Eoin C.; Ryan, Stephanie; McCourbrey, Siobhan; O'Connor, Rachel; Donoghue, Veronica; Awan, Atif

    2005-01-01

    Renal parenchymal defects may be a consequence of urinary tract infections (UTI) in childhood. MRI is a non-radiation imaging modality compared with DMSA scanning. To compare DMSA with MRI for the detection of renal parenchymal defects in children presenting for radiological investigation after a first UTI. Both DMSA and MRI were performed at the same appointment in 37 children (aged 4 months-13 years; mean 4.5 years) with a history of UTI. Both planar and SPECT DMSA were performed. MRI of the kidneys employed axial and coronal T1-, T2- and fat-saturated T1-weighted (T1-W) sequences. Some children had imaging after IV contrast medium. The coronal fat-saturated T1-W sequence was the best sequence and it detected all the findings on MRI. MRI had a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 87% for the detection of a scarred kidney using DMSA as the gold standard. MRI diagnosed pyelonephritis in two children that had been interpreted as scarring on DMSA. Renal MRI using a single, coronal, fat-saturated T1-W sequence is a rapid, accurate and minimally invasive technique for the detection of renal scarring that does not employ ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  8. The transect method: a novel approach to on-farm welfare assessment of commercial turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Joanna; Estevez, Inma; Vezzoli, Giuseppe; Ferrante, Valentina; Makagon, Maja M

    2015-01-01

    Currently, no animal-based protocol for on-farm welfare assessment of commercial turkeys is available. The birds' size and flighty nature make obtaining a representative sample using traditional methods difficult. The transect walks (TW) approach provides a potential alternative for on-farm assessments of turkey welfare. We compared the TW approach with a traditional method, and data collected as the birds were moved out of the house during the load out process (L). Ten commercial 19- to 20-week-old Hybrid turkey flocks were evaluated (1 flock/house/farm). Half of the flocks were housed on farms deemed as "faring well" by the company, the other half were on "suboptimal" farms. Each house was subdivided longitudinally into 4 transects. Two observers walked the transects in random order, recording the total number of birds per transect that were immobile; lame; aggressive towards a mate; interacting with humans; with visible head, vent, or back wounds; engaging in mounting behaviors; small; featherless; dirty; sick; terminal; or dead. Flocks were re-evaluated on the same day using the individual sampling method (S), where randomly selected birds were scored as they took 10 steps. Flocks were re-assessed within 48 h of the transect evaluation, as birds were funneled out of the house during load out. Using ANOVAs we determined the effects of observers, method, management, and their interactions on proportions of turkeys per house within each category. Outcome parameters were not affected by management (P>0.05 for all) or observer (P>0.05 for most), but an assessment method effect was detected (P<0.05). S differed from the 2 other methods (P<0.05) for most parameters except aggression towards a mate, back wounds, dirty, sick, and vent wounds. Differences were not detected between data collected using TW and during L, except for dead (P=0.0007) and immobile (P=0.007). Results suggest that the TW method is a promising tool for on-farm turkey welfare assessment as it

  9. A syndrome of severe idiopathic pulmonary parenchymal disease with pulmonary hypertension in Pekingese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Köster LS

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Liza S Köster,1 Robert M Kirberger2 1Section of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Integrative Mammalian Research (IMR Center, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine (RUSVM, Basseterre, St Kitts, West Indies; 2Diagnostic Imaging Section, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa Abstract: This paper describes 35 Pekingese dogs with a syndrome characterized by dyspnea, cyanosis, episodic syncope, soft pulmonary “Velcro” crackles, pulmonary hypertension (PH, and computed tomography and radiographic changes consistent with pulmonary parenchymal disease. The medical data base was searched with the criteria “Pekingese” and “syncope” or “dyspnea” or “tachypnea” or “pulmonary hypertension”, over a 36-month period. Inclusion criteria were echocardiographic changes consistent with noninvasive diagnosis of PH, either subjectively by B-mode or objectively by Doppler. Dogs were excluded (n=106 if there were insufficient or poor-quality radiographic or echocardiographic records or if diseases other than chronic pulmonary disease were found to be the etiology. The records of 35 dogs met these criteria and presented with a respiratory crises preceded by a history of chronic exercise intolerance and episodic syncope. The average age was 14.5 years (range: 7–19 years, with 21 males and 14 females. Most of the dogs had an interstitial lung pattern with radiographic evidence of right heart enlargement. There was a 77% (n=27 mortality and a median survival of 60 days (interquartile range: 9–210 days. This study highlights a cor pulmonale syndrome from PH due to chronic pulmonary parenchymal disease, with a grave prognosis, in middle-aged to geriatric population of Hong Kong Pekingese. Keywords: computed tomography, interstitial lung disease, dog, syncope

  10. Seismic structure from multi-channel seismic reflection and wide-angle data of Transect 0E in the Southern Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramo, P.; Holbrook, W.; Brown, H.; Lizarralde, D.; Fletcher, J.; Umhoefer, P.; Kent, G.; Harding, A.; Gonzalez, A.; Axen, G.

    2005-12-01

    We present a velocity model from wide-angle data along with coincident prestack depth migration sections from seismic reflection data collected in the southern Gulf of California. Transect 0E runs NE to SW from the hills of Sierra Madre in mainland Mexico near Mazatlan to approximately 115 km into Gulf of California waters. Wide-angle data were recorded by 9 ocean bottom seismometers, deployed by the R/V New Horizon and 10 Reftek seismometers located along onshore extension of the transect. The average spacing for the OBS and Refteks is ~12 km and shots were fired from the R/V Maurice Ewing at 150 m intervals. Transect 0E crosses what it is believed to be extended continental crust and lies in the initial direction of extension characteristic of the proto-gulf. Preliminary results from the velocity model show upper crustal velocities of 6.1-6.3 km/s and lower crustal velocities of 6.7-7.0 km/s along the entire transect. Seismic velocities and crustal thicknesses observed along transect 0E are characteristic of non-volcanic margins.

  11. Mobile acoustic transects miss rare bat species: implications of survey method and spatio-temporal sampling for monitoring bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C. Braun de Torrez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing threats facing bats, long-term monitoring protocols are needed to inform conservation strategies. Effective monitoring should be easily repeatable while capturing spatio-temporal variation. Mobile acoustic driving transect surveys (‘mobile transects’ have been touted as a robust, cost-effective method to monitor bats; however, it is not clear how well mobile transects represent dynamic bat communities, especially when used as the sole survey approach. To assist biologists who must select a single survey method due to resource limitations, we assessed the effectiveness of three acoustic survey methods at detecting species richness in a vast protected area (Everglades National Park: (1 mobile transects, (2 stationary surveys that were strategically located by sources of open water and (3 stationary surveys that were replicated spatially across the landscape. We found that mobile transects underrepresented bat species richness compared to stationary surveys across all major vegetation communities and in two distinct seasons (dry/cool and wet/warm. Most critically, mobile transects failed to detect three rare bat species, one of which is federally endangered. Spatially replicated stationary surveys did not estimate higher species richness than strategically located stationary surveys, but increased the rate at which species were detected in one vegetation community. The survey strategy that detected maximum species richness and the highest mean nightly species richness with minimal effort was a strategically located stationary detector in each of two major vegetation communities during the wet/warm season.

  12. Combined pancreatic and duodenal transection injury: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Mungazi, Simbarashe Gift; Mbanje, Chenesa; Chihaka, Onesai; Madziva, Noah

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Combined pancreatic-duodenal injuries in blunt abdominal trauma are rare. These injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and their emergent management is a challenge. Case presentation: We report a case of combined complete pancreatic (through the neck) and duodenal (first part) transections in a 24-year-old male secondary to blunt abdominal trauma following a motor vehicle crash. The duodenal stumps were closed separately and a gastrojejunostomy performed f...

  13. Cross-continental comparison of the functional composition and carbon allocation of two altitudinal forest transects in Ecuador and Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeeck, Hans; Bauters, Marijn; Bruneel, Stijn; Demol, Miro; Taveirne, Cys; Van Der Heyden, Dries; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Cizungu, Landry; Boeckx, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    Tropical forests are key actors in the global carbon cycle. Predicting future responses of these forests to global change is challenging, but important for global climate models. However, our current understanding of such responses is limited, due to the complexity of forest ecosystems and the slow dynamics that inherently form these systems. Our understanding of ecosystem ecology and functioning could greatly benefit from experimental setups including strong environmental gradients in the tropics, as found on altitudinal transects. We setup two such transects in both South-America and Central Africa, focussing on shifts in carbon allocation, forest structure, nutrient cycling and functional composition. The Ecuadorian transect has 16 plots (40 by 40 m) and ranges from 400 to 3000 m.a.s.l., and the Rwandan transect has 20 plots (40 by 40 m) from 1500 to 3000 m.a.s.l. All plots were inventoried and canopy, litter and soil were extensively sampled. By a cross-continental comparison of both transects, we will gain insight in how different or alike both tropical forests biomes are in their responses, and how universal the observed altitudinal adaption mechanisms are. This could provide us with vital information of the ecological responses of both biomes to future global change scenarios. Additionally, comparison of nutrient shifts and trait-based functional composition allows us to compare the biogeochemical cycles of African and South-American tropical forests.

  14. Fungiform taste bud degeneration in C57BL/6J mice following chorda-lingual nerve transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guagliardo, Nick A; Hill, David L

    2007-09-10

    Taste buds are dependent on innervation for normal morphology and function. Fungiform taste bud degeneration after chorda tympani nerve injury has been well documented in rats, hamsters, and gerbils. The current study examines fungiform taste bud distribution and structure in adult C57BL/6J mice from both intact taste systems and after unilateral chorda-lingual nerve transection. Fungiform taste buds were visualized and measured with the aid of cytokeratin 8. In control mice, taste buds were smaller and more abundant on the anterior tip (taste buds were smaller and fewer on the side of the tongue ipsilateral to the transection and continued to decrease in both size and number until 15 days posttransection. Degenerating fungiform taste buds were smaller due to a loss of taste bud cells rather than changes in taste bud morphology. While almost all taste buds disappeared in more posterior fungiform papillae by 15 days posttransection, the anterior tip of the tongue retained nearly half of its taste buds compared to intact mice. Surviving taste buds could not be explained by an apparent innervation from the remaining intact nerves. Contralateral effects of nerve transection were also observed; taste buds were larger due to an increase in the number of taste bud cells. These data are the first to characterize adult mouse fungiform taste buds and subsequent degeneration after unilateral nerve transection. They provide the basis for more mechanistic studies in which genetically engineered mice can be used. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Fine-needle percutaneous transhepatic parenchymal portal venography by using carbon dioxide: a pilot study in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Fei; Hernandez, Javier; Crisostomo, Veronica; Pineda, Luis-Fernando; Lima, Juan Rafael; Uson, Jesus; Maynar, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in fine-needle percutaneous transhepatic parenchymal portal venography and its potential clinical applications. Three Belgian landrace pigs received fine-needle percutaneous transhepatic parenchymal portal venography by using CO 2 as a contrast agent. Under fluoroscopic and B-mode ultrasonic guidance, right or left lobe of liver was punctured with a 22-G Chiba needle, through which CO 2 was injected with a dedicated CO 2 injector at injection rate of 20 ml/s for 20 ml, 40 ml/s for 40 ml, 40 ml/s for 60 ml, and 40 ml/s for 80 ml, respectively. The portal venograms were obtained by use of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) system with animal in supine position. In one pig transarterial portal venography was performed, in addition, using iodinated contrast agent. The portal vein was visualized in each run of venography. Optimal images of portal tree structure up to four-order branches were obtained in all those with CO 2 injection rate of 40 ml/s, which appeared much better in quality than those obtained by cranial mesenteric arteriography with iodinated contrast agent. No extravasation of CO 2 , liver laceration, or any other complication occurred during the procedures. The technique we proposed demonstrated optimal portography, which appeared to be safe, minimally invasive, less time-consuming, cost-effective, and easy to perform, with great potential in clinical applications. (orig.)

  16. Carcinoma of the so-called empty breast and its relation to the Wolfe's parenchymal classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, E.; Eiter, H.; Taxer, F.

    1983-01-01

    Carcinoma in the ''empty breast'' in our experience is so common that we doubt Wolfe's conclusions in his classification of parenchymal patterns. Amongst patients over 60 years, almost 70% of carcinomas were situated in an ''empty'' parenchyma and they did not develop in a parechymal group above P1. Mammographically, the ''empty breast'' is the structureless fatty breast of older women after the menopause. Some authors believe that there is a lower incidence of carcinomas in this type of breast than in other types of parenchyma, such as those showing mastopathies. Our experience concerning carcinomas in involuted breasts is described. (orig.) [de

  17. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of renal parenchymal damage by 99mTc-DMSA planar and SPECT scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kazuo; Yamashita, Tetsufumi; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Nonomura, Katsuya; Furudate, Masayori; Koyanagi, Tomohiko

    1995-01-01

    The initial 99m Tc-DMSA studies carried out over a four year period in 229 patients with various heterogenic causes of lower urinary tract abnormalities were reviewed. Anatomical damage to the renal parenchyma was graded by means of planar and SPECT studies into a six group classification proposed by Monsour et al.: grade 0 (normal), I (equivocal), II (single defect), III (more than 2 defects), IV (contracted or small) and V (no visualization). Parenchymal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA was quantitated from planar images at 2 hours postinjection by a computer assisted gamma camera method. SPECT studies could enhance the pick-up rate for parenchymal uptake defects by a factor of 1.5 in comparison with planar imaging. The incidence of anatomical damage to the renal parenchyma increased with a high radiological grade for VUR, and renal uptake per injection dose of 99m Tc-DMSA by the individual kidney significantly decreased in grades III and IV of the anatomical classification. These data revealed that 99m Tc-DMSA planar is still useful for evaluating gross structural damage and for quantitative evaluation of the kidney with computer assistance. SPECT scintigraphy is more effective in disclosing anatomical damage to the renal parenchyma than planar, although it needs further discussion as to whether SPECT may increase sensitivity with minimal or no adverse affect on specificity. (author)

  18. Convolutional neural network approach for enhanced capture of breast parenchymal complexity patterns associated with breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oustimov, Andrew; Gastounioti, Aimilia; Hsieh, Meng-Kang; Pantalone, Lauren; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2017-03-01

    We assess the feasibility of a parenchymal texture feature fusion approach, utilizing a convolutional neural network (ConvNet) architecture, to benefit breast cancer risk assessment. Hypothesizing that by capturing sparse, subtle interactions between localized motifs present in two-dimensional texture feature maps derived from mammographic images, a multitude of texture feature descriptors can be optimally reduced to five meta-features capable of serving as a basis on which a linear classifier, such as logistic regression, can efficiently assess breast cancer risk. We combine this methodology with our previously validated lattice-based strategy for parenchymal texture analysis and we evaluate the feasibility of this approach in a case-control study with 424 digital mammograms. In a randomized split-sample setting, we optimize our framework in training/validation sets (N=300) and evaluate its descriminatory performance in an independent test set (N=124). The discriminatory capacity is assessed in terms of the the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operator characteristic (ROC). The resulting meta-features exhibited strong classification capability in the test dataset (AUC = 0.90), outperforming conventional, non-fused, texture analysis which previously resulted in an AUC=0.85 on the same case-control dataset. Our results suggest that informative interactions between localized motifs exist and can be extracted and summarized via a fairly simple ConvNet architecture.

  19. Preliminary report on digitalization of renal microangiograms used in analysing renal parenchymal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, M; Kaneko, M

    1983-01-01

    Glomerulography is a useful method for the angiographic diagnosis of various renal parenchymal diseases. A new system for digitalization of the glomerulogram has been developed using a high resolution television camera and a CT computer. We describe the fundamental procedures involved in the clinical application of digital glomerulography by applying this method to a renal microangiogram of a cow. This new method aids a clearer understanding of the detailed microvasculatures by providing better magnification and storage and allowing for further processing of the original analogue images. With a computer printout of any part of the glomerulogram also possible, an estimation of the glomerular counts and their distribution can now be given for any unit of cross-sectional area of the renal cortex.

  20. Abdominal polytrauma and parenchymal organs; Abdominelles Polytrauma und Parenchymorgane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krestan, C.R. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien AKH, Abteilung fuer Allgemeine Radiologie und Kinderradiologie, Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    The acute radiological diagnostics of polytrauma patients has become an essential part of the interdisciplinary treatment in the emergency room. The incidence of polytrauma patients with an injury severity score (ISS) > 16 is approximately 450 cases/million inhabitants/year in Europe. Injuries of the parenchymal organs are of utmost importance for the prognosis and treatment of these patients. The injury patterns are complex and a great deal of experience is necessary to be able to obtain the correct diagnosis within minutes. This review article deals with the radiological diagnostics and grading of the severity of injuries to the spleen, liver, pancreas and kidneys. The use of ultrasound for the evaluation of polytraumatized patients will be discussed. The most important trauma-associated findings for the above mentioned organs using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) will be described and illustrated by dedicated case findings. Ultrasound contrast agents can supply valuable, additional diagnostic information in the evaluation of polytraumatized patients. Computed tomography has become established as the most relevant imaging modality in severe trauma. Innovative organ-adapted and contrast application protocols improve the diagnostic performance of MDCT. The use of focused assessment sonography for trauma (FAST) scanning as a screening tool is in agreement with the other clinical disciplines of the trauma team. The use of MDCT is trauma-dependent and the classification of the severity of the different parenchymal organ injuries is ultimately decisive for further treatment and prognosis of trauma victims. (orig.) [German] Die akute radiologische Diagnostik bei Polytraumapatienten ist in den letzten Jahren unerlaesslicher Bestandteil der interdisziplinaeren Versorgung im Schockraum geworden. Die Inzidenz von Polytraumata mit einem Injury Severity Score (ISS) > 16 betraegt in Europa ca. 450/Mio. Einwohner/Jahr. Verletzungen abdomineller Parenchymorgane sind von

  1. Duodenal Transection without Pancreatic Injury following Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Bankar, Sanket Subhash; Gosavi, Vikas S.; Hamid, Mohd.

    2014-01-01

    With the inventions of faster cars and even more faster motorbikes there is a worldwide increase in road traffic accidents, which has increased the incidence of blunt abdominal trauma but still duodenal injury following a blunt abdominal trauma is uncommon and can pose a formidable challenge to the surgeon and failure to manage it properly can result in devastating results. It may typically occur in isolation or with pancreatic injury. Here, we report a case of an isolated transection of the ...

  2. Background parenchymal enhancement in preoperative breast MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, Satoko; Ishigaki, Satoko; Satake, Hiroko; Kawamura, Akiko; Kawai, Hisashi; Kikumori, Toyone; Naganawa, Shinji

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to assess the influence of background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on surgical planning performed using preoperative MRI for breast cancer evaluation. Between January 2009 and December 2010, 91 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients (mean age, 55.5 years; range, 30-88 years) who underwent preoperative bilateral breast MRI followed by planned breast conservation therapy were retrospectively enrolled. MRI was performed to assess the tumor extent in addition to mammography and breast ultrasonography. BPE in the contralateral normal breast MRI at the early dynamic phase was visually classified as follows: minimal (n=49), mild (n=27), moderate (n=7), and marked (n=8). The correlations between the BPE grade and age, menopausal status, index tumor size, changes in surgical management based on MRI results, positive predictive value (PPV) of MRI, and surgical margins were assessed. Patients in the strong BPE groups were significantly younger (p=0.002) and generally premenopausal (p<0.001). Surgical treatment was not changed in 67 cases (73.6%), while extended excision and mastectomy were performed in 12 cases (13.2%), each based on additional lesions on MRI. Six of 79 (7.6%) patients who underwent breast conservation therapy had tumor-positive resection margins. In cases where surgical management was changed, the PPV for MRI-detected foci was high in the minimal (91.7%) and mild groups (66.7%), and 0% in the moderate and marked groups (p=0.002). Strong BPE causes false-positive MRI findings and may lead to overly extensive surgery, whereas MRI may be beneficial in select patients with weak BPE.

  3. Postoperative Airway Emergency following Accidental Flexometallic Tube Transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Habib MR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Endotracheal intubation using flexometallic tubes are often required in anaesthesia practice for a variety of reasons. It is preferred in the head and neck region surgeries due to its relative resistance to kinking forces. At times, these patients postoperatively may need to be shifted to ICU or HDU without extubation for further stabilization/management and extubation after adequate recovery. We present an unusual accident where a new flexometallic endotracheal tube was permanently tapered, transected and migrated proximally due to patient’s bite on tube leading to airway emergency in post-operative recovery period.

  4. Diffuse parenchymal lung disease in a case of chronic arsenic exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Bhattacharya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old housewife, the resident of rural part of West Bengal, presented with gradually progressive exertional dyspnea associated with a dry cough for last 3 years clinical features were suggestive of diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD. Her chest X-ray posteroanterior view and high resolution computed tomography scan of the thorax showed bilateral patchy ground glass opacities and reticulonodular pattern. Search for the etiology revealed classical skin findings of chronic arsenic exposure in the form of generalized darkening and thickening of skin and keratotic lesions over the palms and soles and classical raindrop pigmentation over leg which was present for last 7 years subsequently her bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, hair, nail, and drinking water showed significant amount of arsenic contamination. By exclusion of all known causes of DPLD, we concluded that it was a case of DPLD due to chronic arsenic exposure. To the best of our knowledge, only few case report of DPLD in chronic arsenicosis has been reported till date.

  5. Twenty-one years of mass balance observations along the K-transect, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. W. van de Wal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A 21-yr record is presented of surface mass balance measurements along the K-transect. The series covers the period 1990–2011. Data are available at eight sites along a transect over an altitude range of 380–1850 m at approximately 67° N in West Greenland. The surface mass balance gradient is on average 3.8 × 10−3 m w.e. m−1, and the mean equilibrium line altitude is 1553 m a.s.l. Only the lower three sites within 10 km of the margin up to an elevation of 700 m experience a significant increasing trend in the ablation over the entire period. Data are available at: doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.779181.

  6. Renal Parenchymal Hypoxia in Young Children in the Period of Complete Remission of Acute Uncomplicated Pyelonephritis without Renal Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Lukianenko

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions. To predict the formation and for the purpose of early diagnosis of renal parenchymal hypoxia and the processes of nephrothelial membrane destruction in young children with pyelonephritis, it is recommended to use such markers, as indicators of urine ability to prevent crystal formation, daily excretion of salts, excretion of lipid peroxidation products and polar lipids in the urine. It is recommended to apply the methods to correct these changes.

  7. Non-neoplastic parenchymal changes in kidney cancer and post-partial nephrectomy recovery of renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Wassim M; Chen, Ling Y; Cordon, Billy H; Mashni, Joseph; Sjoberg, Daniel D; Bernstein, Melanie; Russo, Paul

    2015-09-01

    To explore the association of non-neoplastic parenchymal changes (nNPC) with patients' health and renal function recovery after partial nephrectomy (PN). This retrospective review identified 800 pT1a patients who underwent PN at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center from 2007 to 2012. Pathology reports were reviewed for nNPC graded as mild or severe: vascular sclerosis (VS), glomerulosclerosis (GS), and fibrosis/scarring. Correlations between nNPC and known preoperative predictors of renal function [age, sex, African-American race, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, body mass index, coronary artery disease, and hypertension (HTN)] were assessed using Spearman's rank correlation (ρ). Multivariable linear regression, adjusted for the described known preoperative risk predictors, was performed to evaluate whether the parenchymal features were able to predict 6-month postoperative eGFR. In this study, 46 % of tumors had benign surrounding parenchyma. We noted statistically significant yet weak associations of VS with age (ρ = 0.19; p < 0.001), ASA (ρ = 0.09; p < 0.001), preoperative eGFR (ρ = -0.14; p < 0.001), and HTN (ρ = 0.14; p < 0.001). GS also significantly correlated with HTN, but the correlation was again small (ρ = 0.12; p < 0.001). After adjusting for known risk predictors, only GS was a significant predictor of 6-month postoperative eGFR. When compared with no GS, mild and severe GS were negatively associated with a decrease of 4.9 and 10.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in 6-month postoperative eGFR, respectively. Presence of VS and GS correlated with patients' baseline health, and presence of GS predicted postoperative renal function recovery.

  8. Conduction of impulses by axons regenerated in a Schwann cell graft in the transected adult rat thoracic spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon, A; Calancie, B; Oudega, M; Noga, B R

    2001-06-01

    Central nervous system axons regenerate into a Schwann cell implant placed in the transected thoracic spinal cord of an adult rat. The present study was designed to test whether these regenerated axons are capable of conducting action potentials. Following the transection and removal of a 4- to 5-mm segment of the thoracic spinal cord (T8-T9), a polymer guidance channel filled with a mixture of adult rat Schwann cells and Matrigel was grafted into a 4- to 5-mm-long gap in the transected thoracic spinal cord. The two cut ends of the spinal cord were eased into the guidance channel openings. Transected control animals received a channel containing Matrigel only. Three months after implantation, electrophysiological studies were performed. Tungsten microelectrodes were used for monopolar stimulation of regenerated axons within the Schwann cell graft. Glass microelectrodes were used to record responses in the spinal cord rostral to the stimulation site. Evoked responses to electrical stimulation of the axon cable were found in two out of nine Schwann cell-grafted animals. These responses had approximate latencies in the range of those of myelinated axons. No responses were seen in any of the Matrigel-grafted animals. Histological analysis revealed that the two cases that showed evoked potentials had the largest number of myelinated axons present in the cable. This study demonstrates that axons regenerating through Schwann cell grafts in the complete transected spinal cord can produce measurable evoked responses following electrical stimulation. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Endothelial Mineralocorticoid Receptor Mediates Parenchymal Arteriole and Posterior Cerebral Artery Remodeling During Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Otero, Janice M; Fisher, Courtney; Downs, Kelsey; Moss, M Elizabeth; Jaffe, Iris Z; Jackson, William F; Dorrance, Anne M

    2017-12-01

    The brain is highly susceptible to injury caused by hypertension because the increased blood pressure causes artery remodeling that can limit cerebral perfusion. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonism prevents hypertensive cerebral artery remodeling, but the vascular cell types involved have not been defined. In the periphery, the endothelial MR mediates hypertension-induced vascular injury, but cerebral and peripheral arteries are anatomically distinct; thus, these findings cannot be extrapolated to the brain. The parenchymal arterioles determine cerebrovascular resistance. Determining the effects of hypertension and MR signaling on these arterioles could lead to a better understanding of cerebral small vessel disease. We hypothesized that endothelial MR signaling mediates inward cerebral artery remodeling and reduced cerebral perfusion during angiotensin II (AngII) hypertension. The biomechanics of the parenchymal arterioles and posterior cerebral arteries were studied in male C57Bl/6 and endothelial cell-specific MR knockout mice and their appropriate controls using pressure myography. AngII increased plasma aldosterone and decreased cerebral perfusion in C57Bl/6 and MR-intact littermates. Endothelial cell MR deletion improved cerebral perfusion in AngII-treated mice. AngII hypertension resulted in inward hypotrophic remodeling; this was prevented by MR antagonism and endothelial MR deletion. Our studies suggest that endothelial cell MR mediates hypertensive remodeling in the cerebral microcirculation and large pial arteries. AngII-induced inward remodeling of cerebral arteries and arterioles was associated with a reduction in cerebral perfusion that could worsen the outcome of stroke or contribute to vascular dementia. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Intraoperative ultrasound in determining the extent of resection of parenchymal brain tumors - a comparative study with computed tomography and histopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacko, A.G.; Rajshekhar, V.; Kumar, N.K.S.; Athyal, R.; Chacko, G.

    2003-01-01

    Radical excision of parenchymal brain tumours is generally associated with a better long-term outcome; however, it is difficult to ascertain the extent of resection at surgery. We used intra-operative ultrasound [IOUS] to help detect residual tumour and define the tumour-brain interface. Thirty-five patients with parenchymal brain lesions including 11 low-grade and 22 high-grade tumours and 2 inflammatory granulomata were included in the study. The IOUS was used to localize tumours not seen on the surface, define their margins and assess the extent of resection at the end of surgery. Multiple samples from the tumour-brain interface which were reported as tumour or normal tissue an IOUS were submitted to histopathology. The IOUS findings were compared with a postoperative contrast enhanced computed tomogram [CT] and with histopathology. All tumours irrespective of histology were hyperechoic an IOUS. IOUS was useful in localizing those tumours not seen on the surface of the brain. In 71.4 % of cases IOUS was useful in defining their margins, however in the remaining cases the margins were ill-defined. The tumour margins were ill-defined in those treated previously by radiation. With regard to the extent of excision, after excluding the cases who were irradiated, it was found that in the 28 patients who had parenchymal neoplasms, there was concordance between the ultrasound findings and the postoperative CT scan in 23 cases. Of the 79 samples taken from the tumor-brain interface which were reported as tumour on ultrasound, 66 had histopathological evidence of tumour while 13 samples were negative for tumour. On the other hand, in the tissue sent from 17 sites where the IOUS showed no residual tumour, 2 were positive for tumour on histopathology while 15 were negative. In conclusion, IOUS is a cheap and useful real-time tool for localizing tumours not seen on the brain surface, for defining their margins and for determining the extent of resection. (author)

  11. Liver trauma and transection of the inferior vena cava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radin, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    CT of a child with severe liver trauma due to a seat belt injury demonstrated avulsion of a portion of the lateral segment of the left lobe of the liver. The location of nondependent extravasated contrast material aided in identification of the visceral fracture site (the sentinel contrast sign). Associated transection of the inferior vena cava was evidenced by hypoatenuating zones adjacent to all the major hepatic veins and vena cava (hepatic perivenous tracking). Recognition of these two signs is important so that the radiologist can help the surgeon select the optimal operative approach. (orig.)

  12. Transection of the inferior vena cava from blunt thoracic trauma: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzman, A B; Udekwu, A O; Pevec, W; Albrink, M

    1989-04-01

    Blunt thoracic trauma is a frequent cause of death in multiple trauma victims. Myocardial rupture may occur in up to 65% of patients who die with thoracic injuries. Two cases are presented with intrapericardial transection of the inferior vena cava, pericardial rupture, and myocardial rupture from blunt thoracic trauma. Both patients died.

  13. Influence of Electrical and Electromagnetic Stimulation on Nerve Regeneration in the Transected Mouse Sciatic Nerve : An Electron Microscopic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ogata, Akiko; Matsumoto, Tomoko; Matsubara, Takako; Miki, Akinori

    2001-01-01

    Influence of electrical and electromagnetic stimulation on nerve regeneration was electron microscopically examined in the transected mouse sciatic nerve. Two days after the transection, several thin regenerating axons (daughter axons) were observed between the myelin sheath and basal lamina of Schwann cells in the proximal stump. Growth cones of the daughter axons contained several small round vesicles and mitochondria, and the shaft of them, neurofilaments, neurotubules and profiles of smoo...

  14. Repair of the transected spinal cord at different stages of development in the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terman, J R; Wang, X M; Martin, G F

    2000-12-01

    When the thoracic spinal cord is transected on postnatal day (PD) 5 in the North American opossum, descending and ascending axons grow through the lesion site. When the lesion is made on PD20, comparable growth is limited to a subset of descending axons. To better understand the mechanisms underlying these differences, we analyzed the transection site at different times after lesioning at both ages. Axons which crossed the lesion site could be identified using silver impregnation and immunostaining for neurofilament. Nissl stains revealed that abnormal appearing grey matter was also present in some of the PD5 cases. In many PD5 cases, however, and in all of the animals transected at PD20, grey matter was not present at the lesion site. Immunostaining with a neuron specific antibody supported that conclusion. However, immunostaining with phenotypic specific antibodies revealed that glial cells were present in all cases. Immunostaining for Schwann cells was negative. Fibronectin-positive cells were also present at the lesion site after transection of the thoracic cord at PD20, but their identity was uncertain. When injections of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), a thymidine analog, were made at different times after lesioning and the pups were sacrificed for BrdU immunohistochemistry up to 40 days later, labeled cells were found in the tissue which bridged the lesion site indicating that cell proliferation contributed to reconstruction at the lesion site.

  15. In vivo regulation of scavenger receptor BI and the selective uptake of high density lipoprotein cholesteryl esters in rat liver parenchymal and Kupffer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluiter, K.; van der Westhuijzen, D. R.; van Berkel, T. J.

    1998-01-01

    High density lipoprotein cholesteryl esters (HDL-CE) are selectively taken up by liver parenchymal cells without parallel apolipoprotein uptake. This selective uptake route forms an important step in the so-called reverse cholesterol transport. Scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) is the only known HDL

  16. Local recurrences after laparoscopic resections for renal parenchymal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. G. Alyaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Renal cancer constitutes 2–3 % of all tumors of the human body. Annually worldwide renal cancer morbidity increases by 2 %, about 90 % of cases are localized in the parenchyma.  Currently, treatment of localized forms of kidney cancer increasingly  incorporates kidney-preserving technologies.The objective is to evaluate the rate and causes of local renal cancer recurrence after laparoscopic resections of the organ for treatment of localized renal parenchymal cancer.Materials and methods. Retrospective analysis of 459 laparoscopic resections performed between June of 2011 to May of 2017 at the R. M. Fronstein Urology Clinic of the I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of Russia was performed.Results. Of 459 patients who underwent endoscopic surgical kidney resections with video, 399 patients were diagnosed with renal cancer during planned histological examination, among them 3 (0.75 %  patients had local recurrence. All patients were operated on with  laparoscopic access, in 1 case the surgery was complicated by  intraoperative bleeding which required conversion to nephrectomy. At the time of primary surgery, all patients with cancer recurrence were diagnosed with stage Т1b. Clear cell renal cell  carcinoma was verified in all patients by morphological examination,  and malignancy grade (nuclear differentiation per the Furman  grading system was 2 (in 2 patients and 3 (in 1 patient. In 2  patients, local recurrence was diagnosed 6 months after the surgery, in 1 patient – 12 months after the surgery. One case of local  recurrence in the area of previous resection was detected, in 1 case  dissemination of the process through paranephric tissue (apart from local recurrence was observed, and 1 case of recurrence in the bed of the removed kidney was diagnosed. All patients underwent repeat surgery in the clinic: 2 patients were operated on laparoscopically, 1  patient

  17. Structural remodeling of the heart and its premotor cardioinhibitory vagal neurons following T(5) spinal cord transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Heidi L; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E

    2014-05-01

    Midthoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with enhanced cardiac sympathetic activity and reduced cardiac parasympathetic activity. The enhanced cardiac sympathetic activity is associated with sympathetic structural plasticity within the stellate ganglia, spinal cord segments T1-T4, and heart. However, changes to cardiac parasympathetic centers rostral to an experimental SCI are relatively unknown. Importantly, reduced vagal activity is a predictor of high mortality. Furthermore, this autonomic dysregulation promotes progressive left ventricular (LV) structural remodeling. Accordingly, we hypothesized that midthoracic spinal cord injury is associated with structural plasticity in premotor (preganglionic parasympathetic neurons) cardioinhibitory vagal neurons located within the nucleus ambiguus as well as LV structural remodeling. To test this hypothesis, dendritic arborization and morphology (cholera toxin B immunohistochemistry and Sholl analysis) of cardiac projecting premotor cardioinhibitory vagal neurons located within the nucleus ambiguus were determined in intact (sham transected) and thoracic level 5 transected (T5X) rats. In addition, LV chamber size, wall thickness, and collagen content (Masson trichrome stain and structural analysis) were determined. Midthoracic SCI was associated with structural changes within the nucleus ambiguus and heart. Specifically, following T5 spinal cord transection, there was a significant increase in cardiac parasympathetic preganglionic neuron dendritic arborization, soma area, maximum dendritic length, and number of intersections/animal. This parasympathetic structural remodeling was associated with a profound LV structural remodeling. Specifically, T5 spinal cord transection increased LV chamber area, reduced LV wall thickness, and increased collagen content. Accordingly, results document a dynamic interaction between the heart and its parasympathetic innervation.

  18. Accelerated axon outgrowth, guidance, and target reinnervation across nerve transection gaps following a brief electrical stimulation paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhagat; Xu, Qing-Gui; Franz, Colin K; Zhang, Rumi; Dalton, Colin; Gordon, Tessa; Verge, Valerie M K; Midha, Rajiv; Zochodne, Douglas W

    2012-03-01

    Regeneration of peripheral nerves is remarkably restrained across transection injuries, limiting recovery of function. Strategies to reverse this common and unfortunate outcome are limited. Remarkably, however, new evidence suggests that a brief extracellular electrical stimulation (ES), delivered at the time of injury, improves the regrowth of motor and sensory axons. In this work, the authors explored and tested this ES paradigm, which was applied proximal to transected sciatic nerves in mice, and identified several novel and compelling impacts of the approach. Using thy-1 yellow fluorescent protein mice with fluorescent axons that allow serial in vivo tracking of regeneration, the morphological, electrophysiological, and behavioral indices of nerve regrowth were measured. The authors show that ES is associated with a 30%-50% improvement in several indices of regeneration: regrowth of axons and their partnered Schwann cells across transection sites, maturation of regenerated fibers in gaps spanning transection zones, and entry of axons into their muscle and cutaneous target zones. In parallel studies, the authors analyzed adult sensory neurons and their response to extracellular ES while plated on a novel microelectrode array construct designed to deliver the identical ES paradigm used in vivo. The ES accelerated neurite outgrowth, supporting the concept of a neuron-autonomous mechanism of action. Taken together, these results support a robust role for brief ES following peripheral nerve injuries in promoting regeneration. Electrical stimulation has a wider repertoire of impact than previously recognized, and its impact in vitro supports the hypothesis that a neuron-specific reprogrammed injury response is recruited by the ES protocol.

  19. Radiation-induced changes in production of prostaglandins Fsub(2α), E, and thromboxane B2 in guinea pig parenchymal lung tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steel, L.K.; Catravas, G.N.

    1982-01-01

    At 1 hour to 4 days after unilateral exposure of guinea pigs to a single dose (0.5, 1.5, or 3.0 Gy) of gamma-radiation, changes were detected in prostaglandin and thromboxane concentrations in parenchymal lung tissues. At 1-3 hours after exposure, tissue levels of PGFsub(2α), PGE, and thromboxane B 2 were significantly elevated in animals receiving 3.0 Gy, with the magnitude of alteration revealing a radiation dose effect. By 24 hours, tissue prostaglandin and thromboxane levels returned to near control values. Lung tissue synthesis of prostaglandins in response to H-1 receptor stimulation by the exogenous addition of histamine revealed similar radiation dose effects. The carboxylic acid ionophore A23187, exogenously applied to lung tissues, revealed a transient peak of increased sensitivity to ionophore stimulation for TxB 2 synthesis at 24 hours and for PGFsub(2α) at 72 hours post-irradiation. The data suggest that significant alterations in prostaglandin and thromboxane concentrations in parenchymal lung tissues occur following irradiation, in a dose-dependent manner, and that altered responsiveness to H-1 receptor stimulation and divalent cation transport also occur

  20. Tc-99m erythromycin lactobionate inhalation scintigraphy in parenchymal lung diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durak, Hatice E-mail: hdurak@kordon.deu.edu.tr; Aktogu, Serir; Degirmenci, Berna; Sayit, Elvan; Ertay, Tuerkan; Dereli, Sevket

    1999-08-01

    We have investigated Technetium 99m erythromycin lactobionate (Tc 99m EL) clearance from the lungs after inhalation, in the presence of an alveolitis. Eighteen patients (6 sarcoidosis, 7 idiopathic fibrosis, and 5 miliary tuberculosis) were imaged after the patients inhaled 1,110 MBq of Tc 99m EL. Clearance half time for the first 45 min, for 24 h, and retention at 24 h correlated with percentage of lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) (r=.729, r=.883, and r=.826, respectively). There was a positive correlation between peripheral penetration (PP) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) (r=.806) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (r=.781). Retention was more marked in sarcoidosis compared with tuberculosis (0.025parenchymal lung diseases. Retention of Tc 99m EL may be related to number of BAL cells or presence of a lymphocytic alveolitis. Long residency time of Tc 99m EL in the lungs implies that erythromycin can also be administered by inhalation for therapeutic purposes.

  1. Combined pancreatic and duodenal transection injury: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungazi, Simbarashe Gift; Mbanje, Chenesa; Chihaka, Onesai; Madziva, Noah

    2017-01-01

    Combined pancreatic-duodenal injuries in blunt abdominal trauma are rare. These injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and their emergent management is a challenge. We report a case of combined complete pancreatic (through the neck) and duodenal (first part) transections in a 24-year-old male secondary to blunt abdominal trauma following a motor vehicle crash. The duodenal stumps were closed separately and a gastrojejunostomy performed for intestinal continuity. The transacted head of pancreas main duct was suture ligated and parenchyma was over sewn and buttressed with omentum. The edge of the body and tail pancreatic segment was freshened and an end to side pancreatico-jejunostomy was fashioned. A drain was left in situ. Post operatively the patient developed a pancreatic fistula which resolved with conservative management. After ten months of follow up the patient was well and showed no signs and symptoms of pancreatic insufficiency. Lengthy, complex procedures in pancreatic injuries have been associated with poor outcomes. Distal pancreatectomy or Whipple's procedure for trauma are viable options for complete pancreatic transections. But when there is concern that the residual proximal pancreatic tissue is inadequate to provide endocrine or exocrine function, preservation of the pancreatic tissue distal to the injury becomes an option. Combined pancreatic and duodenal injuries are rare and often fatal. Early identification, resuscitation and surgical intervention is warranted. Because of the large number of possible combinations of injuries to the pancreas and duodenum, no one form of therapy is appropriate for all patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Electroacupuncture and Acupuncture Promote the Rat’s Transected Median Nerve Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, C. Y.; Yao, C. H.; Chen, W. C.; Shen, W. C.; Bau, D. T.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments of damaged nerves may aid nerve regeneration related to hindlimb function, but the effects on the forelimb-related median nerve were not known. Methods. A gap was made in the median nerve of each rat by suturing the stumps into silicone rubber tubes. The influences of acupuncture and electroacupuncture treatments on transected median nerve regeneration were evaluated from morphological, electrophysiological, and functional angles. Resu...

  3. The Sidi Ifni transect across the rifted margin of Morocco (Central Atlantic): Vertical movements constrained by low-temperature thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charton, Rémi; Bertotti, Giovanni; Arantegui, Angel; Bulot, Luc

    2018-05-01

    The occurrence of km-scale exhumations during syn- and post-rift stages has been documented along Atlantic continental margins, which are also characterised by basins undergoing substantial subsidence. The relationship between the exhuming and subsiding domains is poorly understood. In this study, we reconstruct the evolution of a 50 km long transect across the Moroccan rifted margin from the western Anti-Atlas to the Atlantic basin offshore the city of Sidi Ifni. Low-temperature thermochronology data from the Sidi Ifni area document a ca. 8 km exhumation between the Permian and the Early/Middle Jurassic. The related erosion fed sediments to the subsiding Mesozoic basin to the NW. Basement rocks along the transect were subsequently buried by 1-2 km between the Late Jurassic and the Early Cretaceous. From late Early/Late Cretaceous onwards, rocks present along the transect were exhumed to their present-day position.

  4. Dexamethasone-induced haptoglobin release by calf liver parenchymal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, H; Katoh, N; Miyamoto, T; Uchida, E; Yuasa, A; Takahashi, K

    1994-08-01

    Parenchymal cells were isolated from the liver of male calves, and monolayer cultures formed were treated with glucocorticoids to examine whether haptoglobin, appearance of which is associated with hepatic lipidosis (fatty liver) in cattle, is induced by steroid hormones. Without addition of dexamethasone, only trace amounts of haptoglobin were detected in culture medium. With addition of dexamethasone (10(-12) to 10(-4) M), considerable amounts of haptoglobin were released into the medium. Maximal release was observed at concentrations of 10(-8) to 10(-6) M dexamethasone. Haptoglobin release was similarly induced by cortisol, although the effect was less potent than that of dexamethasone. Actinomycin D (a known protein synthesis inhibitor) dose-dependently reduced amounts of haptoglobin released in response to 10(-8) M dexamethasone. Dexamethasone also induced annexin I, which is known to be synthesized in response to glucocorticoids. Dexamethasone treatment resulted in reduced protein kinase C activity in the cell cytosol, which has been shown to be an early event in dexamethasone-treated cells. Other than glucocorticoids, estradiol induced haptoglobin release, whereas progesterone was less effective. The association of haptoglobin with hepatic lipidosis can be reasonably explained by the fact that haptoglobin production by the liver is induced by glucocorticoids and estradiol, and these steroid hormones are triggers for development of hepatic lipidosis in cattle.

  5. A chronology for glacial Lake Agassiz shorelines along Upham's namesake transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepper, Kenneth; Buell, Alex W.; Fisher, Timothy G.; Lowell, Thomas V.

    2013-07-01

    Four traditionally recognized strandline complexes in the southern basin of glacial Lake Agassiz are the Herman, Norcross, Tintah and Campbell, whose names correspond to towns in west-central Minnesota that lie on a linear transect defined by the Great Northern railroad grade; the active corridor for commerce at the time when Warren Upham was mapping and naming the shorelines of Lake Agassiz (ca.1880-1895). Because shorelines represent static water planes, their extension around the lake margin establishes time-synchronous lake levels. Transitions between shoreline positions represent significant water-level fluctuations. However, geologic ages have never been obtained from sites near the namesake towns in the vicinity of the southern outlet. Here we report the first geologic ages for Lake Agassiz shorelines obtained at field sites along the namesake transect, and evaluate the emerging chronology in light of other paleoclimate records. Our current work from 11 sampling sites has yielded 16 independent ages. These results combined with a growing OSL age data set for Lake Agassiz's southern basin provide robust age constraints for the Herman, Norcross and Campbell strandlines with averages and standard deviations of 14.1 ± 0.3 ka, 13.6 ± 0.2 ka, and 10.5 ± 0.3 ka, respectively.

  6. Enhanced iron removal from liver parenchymal cells in experimental iron overload: liposome encapsulation of HBED and phenobarbital administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Y.E.; Cerny, E.A.; Lau, E.H.; Carnes, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    The effectiveness of N,N'-bis[2-hydroxybenzyl]-ethylene-diamine-N,N'-diacetic acid (HBED) in removing radioiron introduced into the parenchymal cells of mouse liver as 59 Fe-ferritin has been investigated. The effectiveness of HBED, an iron chelator of low water solubility, has also been compared with that of desferrioxamine (DF), an iron chelator of high water solubility and currently in clinical use for treatment of transfusional iron overload. Using the 59 Fe excretion as the measure of effectiveness of chelation therapy and a standardized single chelator dose of 25 mg/kg, they have found that: (1) a saline suspension of HBED, prepared by sonication and given intraperitoneally to mice, promotes a small but significant increase in excretion of radioiron compared to the untreated controls, whereas DF, in its free form, is ineffective; (2) HBED encapsulated in lipid bilayers of liposomes and given intravenously is superior to nonencapsulated HBED; (3) DF encapsulated in small unilamellar liposomes is ineffective in removing iron given in the form of ferritin; (4) administration of phenobarbital in drinking water, at a concentration of 1 g/liter, induces a 30%-55% increase of iron excretion from untreated control mice and also from mice given HBED either in liposome-encapsulated or nonencapsulated form. HBED is superior to DF for removal of storage iron from liver parenchymal cells and liposomes are useful carriers for iron chelators of low water solubility

  7. Benthic data from rapid assessment transects, 2001-2004, in the Hawaiian Islands (NODC Accession 0002464)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of CRAMP Rapid Assessment Transect surveys taken in 2001-2004 and includes quantitative estimates of substrate type and species. The types and...

  8. Postherniotomy dysejaculation: successful treatment with mesh removal and nerve transection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Kehlet, H.

    2008-01-01

    Dysejaculation following groin hernia repair can occur in about 1-2% of patients, resulting in impairment of sexual function. We report a case of chronic postherniotomy dysejaculation treated with transection of the ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerves and decompression of vas deferens...... that was embedded and twisted in shrunken mesh and scar tissue. At three months follow-up, there was reduced overall pain and no dysejaculation, and quantitative sensory testing showed reversal of sensory abnormalities, except for sensory loss, compared with preoperative values Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12...

  9. Effect of denoising on supervised lung parenchymal clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayamani, Padmapriya; Raghunath, Sushravya; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2012-03-01

    Denoising is a critical preconditioning step for quantitative analysis of medical images. Despite promises for more consistent diagnosis, denoising techniques are seldom explored in clinical settings. While this may be attributed to the esoteric nature of the parameter sensitve algorithms, lack of quantitative measures on their ecacy to enhance the clinical decision making is a primary cause of physician apathy. This paper addresses this issue by exploring the eect of denoising on the integrity of supervised lung parenchymal clusters. Multiple Volumes of Interests (VOIs) were selected across multiple high resolution CT scans to represent samples of dierent patterns (normal, emphysema, ground glass, honey combing and reticular). The VOIs were labeled through consensus of four radiologists. The original datasets were ltered by multiple denoising techniques (median ltering, anisotropic diusion, bilateral ltering and non-local means) and the corresponding ltered VOIs were extracted. Plurality of cluster indices based on multiple histogram-based pair-wise similarity measures were used to assess the quality of supervised clusters in the original and ltered space. The resultant rank orders were analyzed using the Borda criteria to nd the denoising-similarity measure combination that has the best cluster quality. Our exhaustive analyis reveals (a) for a number of similarity measures, the cluster quality is inferior in the ltered space; and (b) for measures that benet from denoising, a simple median ltering outperforms non-local means and bilateral ltering. Our study suggests the need to judiciously choose, if required, a denoising technique that does not deteriorate the integrity of supervised clusters.

  10. Evaluation of breast parenchymal density with QUANTRA software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahwa, Shivani; Hari, Smriti; Thulkar, Sanjay; Angraal, Suveen

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate breast parenchymal density using QUANTRA software and to correlate numerical breast density values obtained from QUANTRA with ACR BI-RADS breast density categories. Two-view digital mammograms of 545 consecutive women (mean age - 47.7 years) were categorized visually by three independent radiologists into one of the four ACR BI-RADS categories (D1-D4). Numerical breast density values as obtained by QUANTRA software were then used to establish the cutoff values for each category using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis. Numerical breast density values obtained by QUANTRA (range - 7-42%) were systematically lower than visual estimates. QUANTRA breast density value of less than 14.5% could accurately differentiate category D1 from the categories D2, D3, and D4 [area under curve (AUC) on ROC analysis - 94.09%, sensitivity - 85.71%, specificity - 84.21%]. QUANTRA density values of <19.5% accurately differentiated categories D1 and D2 from D3 and D4 (AUC - 94.4%, sensitivity - 87.50%, specificity - 84.60%); QUANTRA density values of <26.5% accurately differentiated categories D1, D2, and D3 from category D4 (AUC - 90.75%, sensitivity - 88.89%, specificity - 88.621%). Breast density values obtained by QUANTRA software can be used to obtain objective cutoff values for each ACR BI-RADS breast density category. Although the numerical density values obtained by QUANTRA are lower than visual estimates, they correlate well with the BI-RADS breast density categories assigned visually to the mammograms

  11. Paleo-Productivity across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, Walvis Ridge Transect (ODP Sites 1262, 1263, and 1266)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, C. O.; Delaney, M. L.; Zachos, J. C.

    2005-12-01

    Walvis Ridge transect (Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 208) provides the first high-resolution depth-transect of deep-sea sediments recovered from the south Atlantic across the P/E boundary. A geographically restricted depth transect (~ 2.2 km, water depths between 2500 and 4770 m) allows us to constrain the surface waters by assuming marine productivity conditions in the overlying water column are similar across all sites. The sediment record will reveal variations for processes that are water-depth dependent. We use the geochemical tracers; biogenic barium, phosphorus, calcium carbonate, and the redox sensitive trace elements manganese and uranium, to reconstruct nutrient burial, paleoproductivity, and bottom water redox chemistry across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). We calculate our concentrations on a calcium carbonate-free basis to account for dilution by non-carbonate sediments. Trace metal enrichment factors (EFs) are calculated relative to bulk crustal averages. We chose three sites from the depth transect: the shallowest (Site 1263, 2717 m water depth), an intermediate site (Site 1266, 3798 m water depth), and the deepest site (Site 1262, 4755 m water depth). We sampled each site at a sample resolution of ~ 1-2 kyr for 5 m.y. centered at 55 Ma. Uranium EFs at the shallow site exhibits values ~ 5 pre-event and drop to values near crustal averages during and after the carbon isotope excursion (CIE). No dramatic changes in U EFs across the P/E boundary are recorded at the deep and intermediate sites. Mn EFs range between 2.9 -8.6 prior to the event across all three sites, suggesting an oxygenated depositional environment. At the boundary, Mn EFs drop to crustal averages at all sites, then gradually return to pre-event values, indicating more reducing environments during the CIE, a possible explanation for the benthic extinction event (BEE) observed across this transect. Ba excess and reactive phosphorus exhibit decreased concentrations during

  12. Geological controls on soil parent material geochemistry along a northern Manitoba-North Dakota transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    As a pilot study for mapping the geochemistry of North American soils, samples were collected along two continental transects extending east–west from Virginia to California, and north–south from northern Manitoba to the US–Mexican border and subjected to geochemical and mineralogical analyses. For the northern Manitoba–North Dakota segment of the north–south transect, X-ray diffraction analysis and bivariate relations indicate that geochemical properties of soil parent materials may be interpreted in terms of minerals derived from Shield and clastic sedimentary bedrock, and carbonate sedimentary bedrock terranes. The elements Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and Ti occur primarily in silicate minerals decomposed by aqua regia, likely phyllosilicates, that preferentially concentrate in clay-sized fractions; Cr and Ti also occur in minerals decomposed only by stronger acid. Physical glacial processes affecting the distribution and concentration of carbonate minerals are significant controls on the variation of trace metal background concentrations.

  13. Geological controls on soil parent material geochemistry along a northern Manitoba-North Dakota transect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    As a pilot study for mapping the geochemistry of North American soils, samples were collected along two continental transects extending east-west from Virginia to California, and north-south from northern Manitoba to the US-Mexican border and subjected to geochemical and mineralogical analyses. For the northern Manitoba-North Dakota segment of the north-south transect, X-ray diffraction analysis and bivariate relations indicate that geochemical properties of soil parent materials may be interpreted in terms of minerals derived from Shield and clastic sedimentary bedrock, and carbonate sedimentary bedrock terranes. The elements Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and Ti occur primarily in silicate minerals decomposed by aqua regia, likely phyllosilicates, that preferentially concentrate in clay-sized fractions; Cr and Ti also occur in minerals decomposed only by stronger acid. Physical glacial processes affecting the distribution and concentration of carbonate minerals are significant controls on the variation of trace metal background concentrations.

  14. [Urethroplasty with transection of urethral orifice and preservation and lengthening of urethral plate: highly applicable to the treatment of hypospadias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Min; Qiu, Wei-Feng; Qian, Chong

    2010-07-01

    To explore the feasibility of urethroplasty with transection of the urethral orifice and preservation and lengthening of the urethral plate in the treatment of hypospadias. Forty-eight patients with hypospadias (18 of the coronal type, 21 the penile type, 8 the penoscrotal type and 1 the perineal type) underwent urethroplasty with transection of the urethral orifice and preservation and lengthening of the urethral plate. The surgical effects were observed by following up the patients for 3-27 months. One-stage surgical success was achieved in 44 of the cases, with satisfactory functional and cosmetic results but no complications. Two cases developed urinary fistula and another 2 urethral stricture, but all cured by the second surgery. Urethroplasty with transection of the urethral orifice and preservation and lengthening of the urethral plate is a simple, safe and effective surgical procedure for the treatment of hypospadias.

  15. Double-observer line transect surveys with Markov-modulated Poisson process models for animal availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, D L; Langrock, R

    2015-12-01

    We develop maximum likelihood methods for line transect surveys in which animals go undetected at distance zero, either because they are stochastically unavailable while within view or because they are missed when they are available. These incorporate a Markov-modulated Poisson process model for animal availability, allowing more clustered availability events than is possible with Poisson availability models. They include a mark-recapture component arising from the independent-observer survey, leading to more accurate estimation of detection probability given availability. We develop models for situations in which (a) multiple detections of the same individual are possible and (b) some or all of the availability process parameters are estimated from the line transect survey itself, rather than from independent data. We investigate estimator performance by simulation, and compare the multiple-detection estimators with estimators that use only initial detections of individuals, and with a single-observer estimator. Simultaneous estimation of detection function parameters and availability model parameters is shown to be feasible from the line transect survey alone with multiple detections and double-observer data but not with single-observer data. Recording multiple detections of individuals improves estimator precision substantially when estimating the availability model parameters from survey data, and we recommend that these data be gathered. We apply the methods to estimate detection probability from a double-observer survey of North Atlantic minke whales, and find that double-observer data greatly improve estimator precision here too. © 2015 The Authors Biometrics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Biometric Society.

  16. Importance of designated thoracic trauma surgeons in the management of traumatic aortic transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrink, M H; Rodriguez, E; England, G J; McKeown, P P; Hurst, J M; Rosemurgy, A S

    1994-04-01

    The medical literature is replete with reports on traumatic aortic transection. These reports have delineated many factors regarding the morbidity and high mortality of this ominous injury. Most reports are reviews of the collective experience of a single institution over a period of years. It is likely that many authors writing on the subject of traumatic aortic transection have no experience with operative repair of the lesion. There has been debate about the various techniques of primary repair versus graft insertion, as well as the question of whether cardiopulmonary bypass is superior to the "clamp and sew" methods. No studies have directly examined the skills of individual surgeons with respect to outcome. We present the results of a study from a university-affiliated level I trauma center in which the outcomes from various groups of surgeons were compared over a 5-year period. The information in this study strongly suggests that designated thoracic trauma surgeons who are promptly available and have dedicated interests in trauma patients achieve better results.

  17. Changes of amino acid concentrations in the rat vestibular nuclei after inferior cerebellar peduncle transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yizhe; Godfrey, Donald A; Godfrey, Timothy G; Rubin, Allan M

    2007-02-15

    Although there is a close relationship between the vestibular nuclear complex (VNC) and the cerebellum, little is known about the contribution of cerebellar inputs to amino acid neurotransmission in the VNC. Microdissection of freeze-dried brain sections and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were combined to measure changes of amino acid concentrations within the VNC of rats following transection of the cerebellovestibular connections in the inferior cerebellar peduncle. Distributions of 12 amino acids within the VNC at 2, 4, 7, and 30 days after surgery were compared with those for control and sham-lesioned rats. Concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) decreased by 2 days after unilateral peduncle transection in nearly all VNC regions on the lesioned side and to lesser extents on the unlesioned side and showed partial recovery up to 30 days postsurgery. Asymmetries between the two sides of the VNC were maintained through 30 days. Glutamate concentrations were reduced bilaterally in virtually all regions of the VNC by 2 days and showed complete recovery in most VNC regions by 30 days. Glutamine concentrations increased, starting 2 days after surgery, especially on the lesioned side, so that there was asymmetry generally opposite that of glutamate. Concentrations of taurine, aspartate, and glycine also underwent partially reversible changes after peduncle transection. The results suggest that GABA and glutamate are prominent neurotransmitters in bilateral projections from the cerebellum to the VNC and that amino acid metabolism in the VNC is strongly influenced by its cerebellar connections.

  18. Protocol for Isolation of Primary Human Hepatocytes and Corresponding Major Populations of Non-parenchymal Liver Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Elisa; Zeilinger, Katrin; Seehofer, Daniel; Damm, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Beside parenchymal hepatocytes, the liver consists of non-parenchymal cells (NPC) namely Kupffer cells (KC), liver endothelial cells (LEC) and hepatic Stellate cells (HSC). Two-dimensional (2D) culture of primary human hepatocyte (PHH) is still considered as the "gold standard" for in vitro testing of drug metabolism and hepatotoxicity. It is well-known that the 2D monoculture of PHH suffers from dedifferentiation and loss of function. Recently it was shown that hepatic NPC play a central role in liver (patho-) physiology and the maintenance of PHH functions. Current research focuses on the reconstruction of in vivo tissue architecture by 3D- and co-culture models to overcome the limitations of 2D monocultures. Previously we published a method to isolate human liver cells and investigated the suitability of these cells for their use in cell cultures in Experimental Biology and Medicine1. Based on the broad interest in this technique the aim of this article was to provide a more detailed protocol for the liver cell isolation process including a video, which will allow an easy reproduction of this technique. Human liver cells were isolated from human liver tissue samples of surgical interventions by a two-step EGTA/collagenase P perfusion technique. PHH were separated from the NPC by an initial centrifugation at 50 x g. Density gradient centrifugation steps were used for removal of dead cells. Individual liver cell populations were isolated from the enriched NPC fraction using specific cell properties and cell sorting procedures. Beside the PHH isolation we were able to separate KC, LEC and HSC for further cultivation. Taken together, the presented protocol allows the isolation of PHH and NPC in high quality and quantity from one donor tissue sample. The access to purified liver cell populations could allow the creation of in vivo like human liver models. PMID:27077489

  19. Simulating forest productivity along a neotropical elevational transect: temperature variation and carbon use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marthews, T.; Malhi, Y.; Girardin, C.; Silva-Espejo, J.; Aragão, L.; Metcalfe, D.; Rapp, J.; Mercado, L.; Fisher, R.; Galbraith, D.; Fisher, J.; Salinas-Revilla, N.; Friend, A.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Williams, R.

    2012-04-01

    A better understanding of the mechanisms controlling the magnitude and sign of carbon components in tropical forest ecosystems is important for reliable estimation of this important regional component of the global carbon cycle. We used the JULES vegetation model to simulate all components of the carbon balance at six sites along an Andes-Amazon transect across Peru and Brazil and compared the results to published field measurements. In the upper montane zone the model predicted a vegetation dieback, indicating a need for better parameterisation of cloud forest vegetation. In the lower montane and lowland zones simulated ecosystem productivity and respiration were predicted with reasonable accuracy, although not always within the error bounds of the observations. Model-predicted carbon use efficiency in this transect surprisingly did not increase with elevation, but remained close to the 'temperate' value 0.5. This may be explained by elevational changes in the balance between growth and maintenance respiration within the forest canopy, as controlled by both temperature- and pressure-mediated processes.

  20. Intrapancreatic Parenchymal Injection of Cells as a Useful Tool for Allowing a Small Number of Proliferative Cells to Grow In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Sato

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In vivo inoculation of cells such as tumor cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS/embryonic stem (ES cells into immunocompromised mice has been considered as a powerful technique to evaluate their potential to proliferate or differentiate into various cell types originating from three germ cell layers. Subcutaneous grafting and grafting under the kidney capsule have been widely used for this purpose, but there are some demerits such as the requirement of a large number of tumor cells for inoculation and frequent failure of tumorigenesis. Therefore, grafting into other sites has been explored, including intratesticular or intramuscular grafting as well as grafting into the cochleae, liver, or salivary glands. In this study, we found that intrapancreatic parenchymal injection of cells is useful for allowing a small number of cells (~15 × 103 cells or ~30 cell clumps μL−1·site−1 to proliferate and sometimes differentiate into various types of cells. It requires only surgical exposure of the pancreas over the dorsal skin and subsequent injection of cells towards the pancreatic parenchyma under dissecting microscope-based observation using a mouthpiece-controlled glass micropipette. We now name this technology “intrapancreatic parenchymal cell transplantation (IPPCT”, which will be useful, especially when only a small number of cells or colonies are available.

  1. Ureteric transection secondary to penetrating handlebar injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P. Debbink

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ureteric trauma is rare, occurring in <1% of all traumas. We present a unique case of a 13 year old female who sustained a penetrating abdominal injury from a bicycle handlebar. Upon initial examination there was herniation of bowel through the abdominal wound, so exploratory laparotomy was performed. A serosal injury of the colon and bleeding mesenteric veins were encountered; the retroperitoneum was not explored at that time. Postoperative course was remarkable for a doubling of the serum creatinine, increasing abdominal distention and pain. Computed tomography on postoperative day five demonstrated a large amount of intra-abdominal fluid. The patient was taken for re-exploration. The left ureter was found to be completely transected. It was repaired over a double-J stent. This case demonstrates the need for a high index of suspicion in the diagnosis of ureteric injury. Keywords: Ureter, Bicycle, Handlebar, Penetrating

  2. A novel conduit-based coaptation device for primary nerve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Ravinder; Riley, D Colton; Kelm, Nathaniel D; Cardwell, Nancy; Pollins, Alonda C; Afshari, Ashkan; Nguyen, Lyly; Dortch, Richard D; Thayer, Wesley P

    2018-06-01

    Conduit-based nerve repairs are commonly used for small nerve gaps, whereas primary repair may be performed if there is no tension on nerve endings. We hypothesize that a conduit-based nerve coaptation device will improve nerve repair outcomes by avoiding sutures at the nerve repair site and utilizing the advantages of a conduit-based repair. The left sciatic nerves of female Sprague-Dawley rats were transected and repaired using a novel conduit-based device. The conduit-based device group was compared to a control group of rats that underwent a standard end-to-end microsurgical repair of the sciatic nerve. Animals underwent behavioral assessments at weekly intervals post-operatively using the sciatic functional index (SFI) test. Animals were sacrificed at four weeks to obtain motor axon counts from immunohistochemistry. A sub-group of animals were sacrificed immediately post repair to obtain MRI images. SFI scores were superior in rats which received conduit-based repairs compared to the control group. Motor axon counts distal to the injury in the device group at four weeks were statistically superior to the control group. MRI tractography was used to demonstrate repair of two nerves using the novel conduit device. A conduit-based nerve coaptation device avoids sutures at the nerve repair site and leads to improved outcomes in a rat model. Conduit-based nerve repair devices have the potential to standardize nerve repairs while improving outcomes.

  3. First Case of Autonomic Dysreflexia Following Elective Lower Thoracic Spinal Cord Transection in a Spina Bifida Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Juanita; Mathkour, Mansour; Scullen, Tyler; Kahn, Lora; Biro, Erin; Pham, Alex; Sulaiman, Olawale A R; Smith, Roger; Bui, Cuong J

    2017-12-01

    Spinal cord transection is a radical but effective treatment for highly selective cases of symptomatic spinal retethering in paraplegic spina bifida patients. Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a potentially life-threatening syndrome involving a dysregulated sympathetic discharge reflex commonly seen following cervical and high thoracic spinal cord injury, leading to a disconnect between autonomic pathways above and below the lesion that can lead to severe complications including uncontrolled hypertension, bradycardia, stroke, and potentially death. Herein we present a case in which a paraplegic spina bifida patient presenting with symptomatic spinal retethering experienced autonomic dysreflexia following an elective spinal cord transection. A 51-year-old male with a history of complex spina bifida presented with an active cerebrospinal fluid leak. Physical examination revealed a thin covering of abnormal epidermis over the large placode. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large myelomeningocele defect with posterior element defects spanning from L2 to the sacrum with evidence of tethering. The patient underwent an intradural transection of the spinal cord with a "blind-pouch" closure of the dura at the level of T12/L1. Postoperatively, the patient developed intermittent episodes of hypertension, bradycardia, headaches, altered mental status, severe perspiration, and red flushing of the upper torso, face, and arms. The diagnosis of AD was made clinically and managed with a positive response to a combination of beta- and alpha-blockade along with patient education on avoidance of common AD triggers. At 5-year follow-up the patient has continued to do well on medication. This case highlights a potential major side effect from elective transection of the spinal cord. If unrecognized and untreated, AD can cause significant distress and morbidity. We hope this first case report serves to supplement existing data and aid in future surgical and medical decision

  4. Pathogenesis of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: Interactions between Liver Parenchymal and Nonparenchymal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Magee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common type of chronic liver disease in the Western countries, affecting up to 25% of the general population and becoming a major health concern in both adults and children. NAFLD encompasses the entire spectrum of fatty liver disease in individuals without significant alcohol consumption, ranging from nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and cirrhosis. NASH is a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and hepatic disorders with the presence of steatosis, hepatocyte injury (ballooning, inflammation, and, in some patients, progressive fibrosis leading to cirrhosis. The pathogenesis of NASH is a complex process and implicates cell interactions between liver parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells as well as crosstalk between various immune cell populations in liver. Lipotoxicity appears to be the central driver of hepatic cellular injury via oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. This review focuses on the contributions of hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells to NASH, assessing their potential applications to the development of novel therapeutic agents. Currently, there are limited pharmacological treatments for NASH; therefore, an increased understanding of NASH pathogenesis is pertinent to improve disease interventions in the future.

  5. Quantitative US Elastography Can Be Used to Quantify Mechanical and Histologic Tendon Healing in a Rabbit Model of Achilles Tendon Transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yohei; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Sasho, Takahisa; Fukawa, Taisuke; Akatsu, Yorikazu; Akagi, Ryuichiro; Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Takahashi, Kenji; Nagashima, Kengo; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2017-05-01

    Purpose To determine the time-dependent change in strain ratios (SRs) at the healing site of an Achilles tendon rupture in a rabbit model of tendon transection and to assess the correlation between SRs and the mechanical and histologic properties of the healing tissue. Materials and Methods Experimental methods were approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. The Achilles tendons of 24 New Zealand white rabbits (48 limbs) were surgically transected. The SRs of Achilles tendons were calculated by using compression-based quantitative ultrasonographic elastography measurements obtained 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after transection. After in vivo elastography, the left Achilles tendon was harvested for mechanical testing of ultimate load, ultimate stress, elastic modulus, and linear stiffness, and the right tendons were harvested for tissue histologic analysis with the Bonar scale. Time-dependent changes in SRs, mechanical parameters, and Bonar scale scores were evaluated by using repeated-measures analysis of variance. The correlation between SRs and each measured variable was evaluated by using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results Mean SRs and Bonar scale values decreased as a function of time after transection, whereas mechanical parameters increased (P tendon. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  6. Histological characteristics of ligament healing after bio-enhanced repair of the transected goat ACL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, D. Tan; Dellbrügge, Sietske; Tak, Paul P.; Woo, Savio L.-Y.; Blankevoort, Leendert; van Dijk, Niek C.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, healing of a ruptured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is reconsidered. In a previous study, we have shown that the transected ACL can heal after treatment with the triple X locking suture alone or combined with small intestine submucosa (SIS). The first research question of this study was

  7. Impaired virus control and severe CD8+ T-cell-mediated immunopathology in chimeric mice deficient in gamma interferon receptor expression on both parenchymal and hematopoietic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichsen, Pernille; Bartholdy, Christina; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard

    2005-01-01

    be capable of responding to IFN-gamma, but expression of the relevant receptor on non-T cells could be experimentally controlled. Only when the IFN-gamma receptor is absent on both radioresistant parenchymal and bone marrow-derived cells will chimeric mice challenged with a highly invasive, noncytolytic...

  8. Diversity and distribution of hyperiid amphipods along a latitudinal transect in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, Alice K.; Tump, Marloes; Vonk, Ronald; Goetze, Erica; Peijnenburg, Katja T. C. A.

    2017-11-01

    As commensals and parasitoids of gelatinous plankton, hyperiid amphipods play unique and important ecological roles in pelagic food webs. Because the diversity and biogeography of this group in oceanic waters is poorly known, we examined diversity and distribution patterns of hyperiids along a basin-scale meridional transect in the Atlantic Ocean (Atlantic Meridional Transect cruise 22). Hyperiids were collected from epipelagic and upper mesopelagic depths at 27 stations between 39°N and 45°S. A total of 70 species in 36 genera and 17 families were identified, the majority of which belonged to the epipelagic Physocephalata infraorder. We observed maximum species and genus richness in the equatorial upwelling region (up to 35 species, 27 genera per station; 7°N-8°S), which appeared largely driven by increased diversity in the superfamily Platysceloidea, as well as a significant and positive relationship between species richness and sea surface temperature. Cluster analyses of hyperiid species assemblages along the transect broadly supported a division into gyral, equatorial, transitional, and subantarctic assemblages, congruent with Longhurst's biogeochemical provinces. Steepest transitions in hyperiid species composition occurred at the southern subtropical convergence zone (34-38°S). The majority of zooplankton groups show maximal diversity in subtropical waters, and our observations of equatorial maxima in species and genus richness for hyperiids suggest that the mechanisms controlling diversity in this group are distinct from other zooplanktonic taxa. These patterns may be driven by the distribution and diversity of gelatinous hosts for hyperiids, which remain poorly characterized at ocean basin scales. The data reported here provide new distributional records for epipelagic and upper mesopelagic hyperiids across six major oceanic provinces in the Atlantic Ocean.

  9. Parenchymal neurocysticercosis: follow-up and staging by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, J.L.; Visy, J.M.; Belin, C.; Gaston, A.; Goldlust, D.; Dumas, M.

    1997-01-01

    We describe the evolution of parenchymal cerebral cysticerci on MRI, to assess signs of early cyst degeneration. We studied 15 lesions in four treated and one untreated patient. MRI was performed before therapy and repeated in the 1st month after each course of anticysticercus drugs, every 4 months during the 1st year and then annually; the follow-up period was 8-48 months. Lesions were classified according to changes in four features: cyst content and capsule signal, gadolinium enhancement and oedema signal. We were able to recognise each of the pathological phases; five MRI stages were identified. Stage 1 showed oedema and/or nodular gadolinium enhancement in the tissue invasion phase; stage 2 was cerebrospinal fluid-like signal within a cyst in the vesicular phase; stage 3 showed a thick capsule with an impure liquid content signal and surrounding oedema, in the cystic phase; stage 4 showed the disappearance of the cyst fluid content signal in the degenerative phase; stage 5 showed a calcified lesion in the residual phase. Stage 1 lesions disappeared after therapy; the other progressed from one stage to another. Stage 4 indicated the end of viability of the parasite and determined the point after which treatment was useless. On T2-weighted images changes in the cyst content differed according to the history of the lesion; nodular low intensity followed the natural degeneration of the parasite and a mixed fluid signal with punctate low signal seemed to represent the specific result of therapy. MRI staging can help in the evaluation of indications for treatment and facilitate clinical therapeutic trials. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab

  10. Parenchymal neurocysticercosis: follow-up and staging by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumas, J.L. [Dept. of Radiology, Hopital Avicenne, Bobigny (France)]|[Inst. of Tropical Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Limoges (France); Visy, J.M. [Dept. of Neurology, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris (France); Belin, C. [Dept. of Neurology, Hopital Avicenne, Bobigny (France); Gaston, A. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Hopital Henri-Mondor, Creteil (France); Goldlust, D. [Dept. of Radiology, Hopital Avicenne, Bobigny (France); Dumas, M. [Inst. of Tropical Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Limoges (France)

    1997-01-01

    We describe the evolution of parenchymal cerebral cysticerci on MRI, to assess signs of early cyst degeneration. We studied 15 lesions in four treated and one untreated patient. MRI was performed before therapy and repeated in the 1st month after each course of anticysticercus drugs, every 4 months during the 1st year and then annually; the follow-up period was 8-48 months. Lesions were classified according to changes in four features: cyst content and capsule signal, gadolinium enhancement and oedema signal. We were able to recognise each of the pathological phases; five MRI stages were identified. Stage 1 showed oedema and/or nodular gadolinium enhancement in the tissue invasion phase; stage 2 was cerebrospinal fluid-like signal within a cyst in the vesicular phase; stage 3 showed a thick capsule with an impure liquid content signal and surrounding oedema, in the cystic phase; stage 4 showed the disappearance of the cyst fluid content signal in the degenerative phase; stage 5 showed a calcified lesion in the residual phase. Stage 1 lesions disappeared after therapy; the other progressed from one stage to another. Stage 4 indicated the end of viability of the parasite and determined the point after which treatment was useless. On T2-weighted images changes in the cyst content differed according to the history of the lesion; nodular low intensity followed the natural degeneration of the parasite and a mixed fluid signal with punctate low signal seemed to represent the specific result of therapy. MRI staging can help in the evaluation of indications for treatment and facilitate clinical therapeutic trials. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Retinal glutamate transporter changes in experimental glaucoma and after optic nerve transection in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Keith R G; Levkovitch-Verbin, Hana; Valenta, Danielle; Baumrind, Lisa; Pease, Mary Ellen; Quigley, Harry A

    2002-07-01

    High levels of glutamate can be toxic to retinal ganglion cells. Effective buffering of extracellular glutamate by retinal glutamate transporters is therefore important. This study was conducted to investigate whether glutamate transporter changes occur with two models of optic nerve injury in the rat. Glaucoma was induced in one eye of 35 adult Wistar rats by translimbal diode laser treatment to the trabecular meshwork. Twenty-five more rats underwent unilateral optic nerve transection. Two glutamate transporters, GLAST (EAAT-1) and GLT-1 (EAAT-2), were studied by immunohistochemistry and quantitative Western blot analysis. Treated and control eyes were compared 3 days and 1, 4, and 6 weeks after injury. Optic nerve damage was assessed semiquantitatively in epoxy-embedded optic nerve cross sections. Trabecular laser treatment resulted in moderate intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in all animals. After 1 to 6 weeks of experimental glaucoma, all treated eyes had significant optic nerve damage. Glutamate transporter changes were not detected by immunohistochemistry. Western blot analysis demonstrated significantly reduced GLT-1 in glaucomatous eyes compared with control eyes at 3 days (29.3% +/- 6.7%, P = 0.01), 1 week (55.5% +/- 13.6%, P = 0.02), 4 weeks (27.2% +/- 10.1%, P = 0.05), and 6 weeks (38.1% +/- 7.9%, P = 0.01; mean reduction +/- SEM, paired t-tests, n = 5 animals per group, four duplicate Western blot analyses per eye). The magnitude of the reduction in GLT-1 correlated significantly with mean IOP in the glaucomatous eye (r(2) = 0.31, P = 0.01, linear regression). GLAST was significantly reduced (33.8% +/- 8.1%, mean +/- SEM) after 4 weeks of elevated IOP (P = 0.01, paired t-test, n = 5 animals per group). In contrast to glaucoma, optic nerve transection resulted in an increase in GLT-1 compared with the control eye (P = 0.01, paired t-test, n = 15 animals). There was no significant change in GLAST after transection. GLT-1 and GLAST were significantly

  12. C-arm flat detector computed tomography parenchymal blood volume imaging: the nature of parenchymal blood volume parameter and the feasibility of parenchymal blood volume imaging in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamran, Mudassar; Byrne, James V. [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    C-arm flat detector computed tomography (FDCT) parenchymal blood volume (PBV) measurements allow assessment of cerebral haemodynamics in the neurointerventional suite. This paper explores the feasibility of C-arm computed tomography (CT) PBV imaging and the relationship between the C-arm CT PBV and the MR-PWI-derived cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) parameters in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) patients developing delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Twenty-six patients with DCI following aneurysmal SAH underwent a research C-arm CT PBV scan using a biplane angiography system and contemporaneous MR-PWI scan as part of a prospective study. Quantitative whole-brain atlas-based volume-of-interest analysis in conjunction with Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman tests was performed to explore the agreement between C-arm CT PBV and MR-derived CBV and CBF measurements. All patients received medical management, while eight patients (31 %) underwent selective intra-arterial chemical angioplasty. Colour-coded C-arm CT PBV maps were 91 % sensitive and 100 % specific in detecting the perfusion abnormalities. C-arm CT rPBV demonstrated good agreement and strong correlation with both MR-rCBV and MR-rCBF measurements; the agreement and correlation were stronger for MR-rCBF relative to MR-rCBV and improved for C-arm CT PBV versus the geometric mean of MR-rCBV and MR-rCBF. Analysis of weighted means showed that the C-arm CT PBV has a preferential blood flow weighting (∼60 % blood flow and ∼40 % blood volume weighting). C-arm CT PBV imaging is feasible in DCI following aneurysmal SAH. PBV is a composite perfusion parameter incorporating both blood flow and blood volume weightings. That PBV has preferential (∼60 %) blood flow weighting is an important finding, which is of clinical significance when interpreting the C-arm CT PBV maps, particularly in the setting of acute brain ischemia. (orig.)

  13. C-arm flat detector computed tomography parenchymal blood volume imaging: the nature of parenchymal blood volume parameter and the feasibility of parenchymal blood volume imaging in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamran, Mudassar; Byrne, James V.

    2015-01-01

    C-arm flat detector computed tomography (FDCT) parenchymal blood volume (PBV) measurements allow assessment of cerebral haemodynamics in the neurointerventional suite. This paper explores the feasibility of C-arm computed tomography (CT) PBV imaging and the relationship between the C-arm CT PBV and the MR-PWI-derived cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) parameters in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) patients developing delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Twenty-six patients with DCI following aneurysmal SAH underwent a research C-arm CT PBV scan using a biplane angiography system and contemporaneous MR-PWI scan as part of a prospective study. Quantitative whole-brain atlas-based volume-of-interest analysis in conjunction with Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman tests was performed to explore the agreement between C-arm CT PBV and MR-derived CBV and CBF measurements. All patients received medical management, while eight patients (31 %) underwent selective intra-arterial chemical angioplasty. Colour-coded C-arm CT PBV maps were 91 % sensitive and 100 % specific in detecting the perfusion abnormalities. C-arm CT rPBV demonstrated good agreement and strong correlation with both MR-rCBV and MR-rCBF measurements; the agreement and correlation were stronger for MR-rCBF relative to MR-rCBV and improved for C-arm CT PBV versus the geometric mean of MR-rCBV and MR-rCBF. Analysis of weighted means showed that the C-arm CT PBV has a preferential blood flow weighting (∼60 % blood flow and ∼40 % blood volume weighting). C-arm CT PBV imaging is feasible in DCI following aneurysmal SAH. PBV is a composite perfusion parameter incorporating both blood flow and blood volume weightings. That PBV has preferential (∼60 %) blood flow weighting is an important finding, which is of clinical significance when interpreting the C-arm CT PBV maps, particularly in the setting of acute brain ischemia. (orig.)

  14. Sialendoscope-assisted transoral removal of hilo-parenchymal sub-mandibular stones: surgical results and subjective scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaccio, P; Gaffuri, M; Rossi, V; Pignataro, L

    2017-04-01

    It has been suggested that a conservative trans-oral approach to proximal and hilo-parenchymal submandibular stones (HPSMS) is a valid alternative to the more frequently used sialadenectomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical, ultrasonographic and patients' subjective outcomes of results of the trans-oral removal of HPSMS. Between January 2003 and September 2015, sialendoscope-assisted trans-oral surgery was used to remove symptomatic, large (> 7 mm), fixed and palpable HPSMS from 479 patients under general anaesthesia. All patients were followed clinically and ultrasonographically to investigate symptom relief and recurrence of stones, and were telephonically interviewed to assess saliva-related subjective outcomes with a questionnaire. Stones were successfully removed from 472 patients (98.5%); the seven failures (1.5%) concerned pure parenchymal stones. One year after the procedure, 408 patients (85.1%) were symptom free, 59 (12.3%) had recurrent obstructive symptoms and 12 (2.6%) had recurrent infections. Of the 54 patients who developed a recurrent stone (11.2%), 52 underwent a second procedure: 29 interventional sialendoscopies, two sialendoscope-assisted intra-corporeal pneumatic lithotripsy, eight secondary transoral surgery to remove residual stones, six a cycle of extra-corporeal lithotripsy and seven submandibular sialadenectomy. Most patients (75.2%) reported mild surgery-related pain. The symptoms of 454 patients (94.8%) improved after adjunctive treatment and, at the end of follow-up, the affected gland was preserved in 98.5% of patients. A sialendoscope-assisted trans-oral removal of large HPSMS is a safe, effective, conservative surgical procedure, and functional preservation of the main duct and parenchyma of the obstructed gland allows sialendoscopic access through the natural ostium in case of recurrence. Combining a trans-oral approach with other minimally invasive, conservative procedures ensures symptomatic relief and salivary

  15. Radiation-induced changes in production of prostaglandins Fsub(2. cap alpha. ), E, and thromboxane B/sub 2/ in guinea pig parenchymal lung tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steel, L K; Catravas, G N [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (USA)

    1982-11-01

    At 1 hour to 4 days after unilateral exposure of guinea pigs to a single dose (0.5, 1.5, or 3.0 Gy) of gamma-radiation, changes were detected in prostaglandin and thromboxane concentrations in parenchymal lung tissues. At 1-3 hours after exposure, tissue levels of PGFsub(2..cap alpha..), PGE, and thromboxane B/sub 2/ were significantly elevated in animals receiving 3.0 Gy, with the magnitude of alteration revealing a radiation dose effect. By 24 hours, tissue prostaglandin and thromboxane levels returned to near control values. Lung tissue synthesis of prostaglandins in response to H-1 receptor stimulation by the exogenous addition of histamine revealed similar radiation dose effects. The carboxylic acid ionophore A23187, exogenously applied to lung tissues, revealed a transient peak of increased sensitivity to ionophore stimulation for TxB/sub 2/ synthesis at 24 hours and for PGFsub(2..cap alpha..) at 72 hours post-irradiation. The data suggest that significant alterations in prostaglandin and thromboxane concentrations in parenchymal lung tissues occur following irradiation, in a dose-dependent manner, and that altered responsiveness to H-1 receptor stimulation and divalent cation transport also occur.

  16. Utility of Glissonean Pedicle Transection for Surgical Treatment of Severe Liver Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Koizumi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The most common initial strategy for treatment of severe liver trauma is damage control in which hemostasis is achieved by perihepatic gauze packing and/or vascular embolization. However, we encounter patients in whom this strategy alone is not adequate. We have applied the principles of Glissonean pedicle transection, a technique that was originally devised to ensure safe and quick performance of planned hepatectomy for liver cancer, to 3 cases of severe liver trauma. We performed Glissonean pedicle ligation during damage control surgery in 2 patients and Glissonean pedicle transection during the definitive surgery in 1 patient. We describe the approaches and our experience with them, including operation times and outcomes. From our experience thus far, it seems that 8–12 h after the damage control procedure is appropriate for performing the definitive surgery. Although there are some problems posed by this strategy and cases to which it will not be applicable, the method seems to be particularly useful for cases of severe liver trauma in which the damage is extensive and involves the Glissonean pedicles near the hepatic hilus. We describe our 3 cases in detail and review our experience in light of the available literature.

  17. Major- and trace-element concentrations in soils from two continental-scale transects of the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David B.; Cannon, William F.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Garrett, Robert G.; Klassen, Rodney; Kilburn, James E.; Horton, John D.; King, Harley D.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Morrison, Jean M.

    2005-01-01

    This report contains major- and trace-element concentration data for soil samples collected from 265 sites along two continental-scale transects in North America. One of the transects extends from northern Manitoba to the United States-Mexico border near El Paso, Tex. and consists of 105 sites. The other transect approximately follows the 38th parallel from the Pacific coast of the United States near San Francisco, Calif., to the Atlantic coast along the Maryland shore and consists of 160 sites. Sampling sites were defined by first dividing each transect into approximately 40-km segments. For each segment, a 1-km-wide latitudinal strip was randomly selected; within each strip, a potential sample site was selected from the most representative landscape within the most common soil type. At one in four sites, duplicate samples were collected 10 meters apart to estimate local spatial variability. At each site, up to four separate soil samples were collected as follows: (1) material from 0-5 cm depth; (2) O horizon, if present; (3) a composite of the A horizon; and (4) C horizon. Each sample collected was analyzed for total major- and trace-element composition by the following methods: (1) inductively coupled plasmamass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICPAES) for aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gallium, indium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, phosphorus, potassium, rubidium, scandium, silver, sodium, strontium, sulfur, tellurium, thallium, thorium, tin, titanium, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, yttrium, and zinc; (2) cold vapor- atomic absorption spectrometry for mercury; (3) hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry for antimony and selenium; (4) coulometric titration for carbonate carbon; and (5) combustion for total carbon and total sulfur.

  18. Computerized analysis of mammographic parenchymal patterns for assessing breast cancer risk: Effect of ROI size and location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hui; Giger, Maryellen L.; Huo Zhimin; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Lan Li; Weber, Barbara L.; Bonta, Ioana

    2004-01-01

    The long-term goal of our research is to develop computerized radiographic markers for assessing breast density and parenchymal patterns that may be used together with clinical measures for determining the risk of breast cancer and assessing the response to preventive treatment. In our earlier studies, we found that women at high risk tended to have dense breasts with mammographic patterns that were coarse and low in contrast. With our method, computerized texture analysis is performed on a region of interest (ROI) within the mammographic image. In our current study, we investigate the effect of ROI size and ROI location on the computerized texture features obtained from 90 subjects (30 BRCA1/BRCA2 gene-mutation carriers and 60 age-matched women deemed to be at low risk for breast cancer). Mammograms were digitized at 0.1 mm pixel size and various ROI sizes were extracted from different breast regions in the craniocaudal (CC) view. Seventeen features, which characterize the density and texture of the parenchymal patterns, were extracted from the ROIs on these digitized mammograms. Stepwise feature selection and linear discriminant analysis were applied to identify features that differentiate between the low-risk women and the BRCA1/BRCA2 gene-mutation carriers. ROC analysis was used to assess the performance of the features in the task of distinguishing between these two groups. Our results show that there was a statistically significant decrease in the performance of the computerized texture features, as the ROI location was varied from the central region behind the nipple. However, we failed to show a statistically significant decrease in the performance of the computerized texture features with decreasing ROI size for the range studied

  19. Relation between Mammographic Parenchymal Patterns and Breast Cancer Risk: Considering BMI, Compressed Breast Thickness and Age of Women in Tabriz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnati, Parinaz; Alizadeh, Hamed; Hoda, Haleh

    2016-01-01

    Mammographic density determined according paranchymal patterns is a risk factor for breast cancer and its relationships with body and other breast characteristics of women is important. The purpose of the present study was to correlate breast parenchymal patterns and mammography abnormality findings with women's BMI, compressed breast thickness (CBT) and age in Tabriz city, Iran. From 1,100 mammograms interpreted by radiologists, breast parenchymal was classified into four categories from Types 1 (mostly fatty) through 4 (mostly fibroglandular tissue). Age, BMI, and CBT were recorded and their relation with risk for the development of breast abnormalities in mammograms was analyzed. In women with a mean age of 45.8±8.63 years 17.7% were in the high density group (Type 3 and 4). A comparison of four types of breast paranchymal with BMI, CBT and age showed inverse relations to breast density. Abnormal mammographic findings were 25.8% of all reported mammograms with a circular mass (12.7%) as the most common abnormality. About 21% abnormal cases were in less than 40 years. Increasing of BMI had significant relation with breast abnormality but in CBT was not observed. Measurement of women's body characteristics is useful for assistance in mammography diagnosis as well as selection of imaging instrument by high sensitivity for following patient in future. The effects of age, CBT and BMI groups on the breast paranchymal were significant.

  20. Groundwater Dynamics along Forest-Marsh-Tidal Creek Transects in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1994-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — Ground water level elevations were collected every 10 to 15 days from piezometers stationed along three forest-marsh-tidal creek transects (B, C, and D) across the...

  1. Lung Parenchymal Assessment in Primary and Secondary Pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintcliffe, Oliver J; Edey, Anthony J; Armstrong, Lynne; Negus, Ian S; Maskell, Nick A

    2016-03-01

    The definition of primary spontaneous pneumothorax excludes patients with known lung disease; however, the assumption that the underlying lung is normal in these patients is increasingly contentious. The purpose of this study was to assess lung structure and compare the extent of emphysema in patients with primary versus secondary spontaneous pneumothorax and to patients with no pneumothorax in an otherwise comparable control group. We identified patients treated for pneumothorax by screening inpatient and outpatient medical records at one medical center in the United Kingdom. From this group, 20 patients had no clinically apparent underlying lung disease and were classified as having a primary spontaneous pneumothorax, and 20 patients were classified as having a secondary spontaneous pneumothorax. We assembled a control group composed of 40 subjects matched for age and smoking history who had a unilateral pleural effusion or were suspected to have a thoracic malignancy and had a chest computed tomography scan suitable for quantitative analysis. Demographics and smoking histories were collected. Quantitative evaluation of low-attenuation areas of the lung on computed tomography imaging was performed using semiautomated software, and the extent of emphysema-like destruction was assessed visually. The extent of emphysema and percentage of low-attenuation areas was greater for patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax than for control subjects matched for age and smoking history (median, 0.25 vs. 0.00%; P = 0.019) and was also higher for patients with secondary pneumothorax than those with primary spontaneous pneumothorax (16.15 vs. 0.25%, P pneumothorax who smoked had significantly greater low-attenuation area than patients with primary pneumothorax who were nonsmokers (0.7 vs. 0.1%, P = 0.034). The majority of patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax had quantifiable evidence of parenchymal destruction and emphysema. The exclusion of patients

  2. Parenchymal abnormalities in cerebral venous thrombosis: findings of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography; Alteracoes parenquimatosas na trombose venosa cerebral: aspectos da ressonancia magnetica e da angiorressonancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Clecia Santos; Pellini, Marcos [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: csferreira@superig.com.br; Boasquevisque, Edson [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Patologia; Souza, Luis Alberto M. de [Hospital da Beneficencia Portuguesa do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Imagem. Setor de Ressonancia Magnetica

    2006-09-15

    Objective: to determine the frequency and localization of parenchymal abnormalities in cerebral venous thrombosis on magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography as well as their correlation with the territory and affected venous drainage. Materials and methods: retrospective analysis (1996 to 2004) of 21 patients (3 male and 18 female) age range between 3 and 82 years (mean 40 years, median 36 years) with clinical and radiological diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis on magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography in 2D PC, 3D PC and contrast-enhanced 3D TOF sequences. The statistical analysis was performed with the qui-square test. Four patients had follow-up exams and three patients underwent digital subtraction angiography. Results: main predisposing factors were: infection, use of oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy and collagenosis. Predominant symptoms included: focal deficit, headache, alteration of consciousness level and seizures. Most frequent parenchymal manifestations were: cortical/subcortical edema or infarct, venous congestion and collateral circulation, meningeal enhancement and thalamic and basal ganglia edema or infarct. Occlusion occurred mainly in superior sagittal, left transverse, left sigmoid and straight sinuses. Cavernous sinus and cortical veins thrombosis are uncommon events. Conclusion: cerebral venous thrombosis is an uncommon cause of stroke, with favorable prognosis because of its reversibility. Diagnosis is highly dependent on the radiologist capacity to recognize the presentations of this disease, principally in cases where the diagnosis is suggested by parenchymal abnormalities rather than necessarily by visualization of the thrombus itself. An accurate and rapid diagnosis allows an immediate treatment, reducing the morbidity and mortality rates. (author)

  3. Line Transect Surveys Underdetect Terrestrial Mammals: Implications for the Sustainability of Subsistence Hunting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Taal; Oliveira, Luiz F. B.; Luzar, Jeffrey B.; Overman, Han; Read, Jane M.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of Neotropical game species must take into account the livelihood and food security needs of local human populations. Hunting management decisions should therefore rely on abundance and distribution data that are as representative as possible of true population sizes and dynamics. We simultaneously applied a commonly used encounter-based method and an infrequently used sign-based method to estimate hunted vertebrate abundance in a 48,000-km2 indigenous landscape in southern Guyana. Diurnal direct encounter data collected during three years along 216, four-kilometer -long transects consistently under-detected many diurnal and nocturnal mammal species readily detected through sign. Of 32 species analyzed, 31 were detected by both methods; however, encounters did not detect one and under-detected another 12 of the most heavily hunted species relative to sign, while sign under-detected 12 never or rarely collected species relative to encounters. The six most important game animals in the region, all ungulates, were not encountered at 11–40% of village and control sites or on 29–72% of transects where they were detected by sign. Using the sign methodology, we find that tapirs, one of the terrestrial vertebrates considered most sensitive to overexploitation, are present at many sites where they were never visually detected during distance sampling. We find that this is true for many other species as well. These high rates of under-detection suggest that behavioral changes in hunted populations may affect apparent occurrence and abundance of these populations. Accumulation curves (detection of species on transects) were much steeper for sign for 12 of 16 hunted species than for encounters, but that pattern was reversed for 12 of 16 species unhunted in our area. We conclude that collection of sign data is an efficient and effective method of monitoring hunted vertebrate populations that complements encounter and camera-trapping methods in areas impacted by

  4. Marked longevity of human lung parenchymal elastic fibers deduced from prevalence of D-aspartate and nuclear weapons-related radiocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.D.; Endicott, S.K.; Province, M.A.; Pierce, J.A.; Campbell, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    Normal structure and function of the lung parenchyma depend upon elastic fibers. Amorphous elastin is biochemically stable in vitro, and may provide a metabolically stable structural framework for the lung parenchyma. To test the metabolic stability of elastin in the normal human lung parenchyma, we have (a) estimated the time elapsed since the synthesis of the protein through measurement of aspartic acid racemization and (b) modeled the elastin turnover through measurement of the prevalence of nuclear weapons-related 14 C. Elastin purified by a new technique from normal lung parenchyma was hydrolyzed; then the prevalences of D-aspartate and 14 C were measured by gas chromatography and accelerator-mass spectrometry, respectively. D-aspartate increased linearly with age; Kasp (1.76 x 10 - 3 yr - 1 ) was similar to that previously found for extraordinarily stable human tissues, indicating that the age of lung parenchymal elastin corresponded with the age of the subject. Radiocarbon prevalence data also were consistent with extraordinary metabolic stability of elastin; the calculated mean carbon residence time in elastin was 74 yr (95% confidence limits, 40-174 yr). These results indicate that airspace enlargement characteristic of 'aging lung' is not associated with appreciable new synthesis of lung parenchymal elastin. The present study provides the first tissue-specific evaluation of turnover of an extracellular matrix component in humans and underscores the potential importance of elastin for maintenance of normal lung structure. Most importantly, the present work provides a foundation for strategies to directly evaluate extracellular matrix injury and repair in diseases of lung (especially pulmonary emphysema), vascular tissue, and skin

  5. Internal vacuum-assisted closure device in the swine model of severe liver injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everett Christopher B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The authors present a novel approach to nonresectional therapy in major hepatic trauma utilizing intraabdominal perihepatic vacuum assisted closure (VAC therapy in the porcine model of Grade V liver injury. Methods A Grade V injury was created in the right lobe of the liver in a healthy pig. A Pringle maneuver was applied (4.5 minutes total clamp time and a vacuum assisted closure device was placed over the injured lobe and connected to suction. The device consisted of a perforated plastic bag placed over the liver, followed by a 15 cm by 15cm VAC sponge covered with a nonperforated plastic bag. The abdomen was closed temporarily. Blood loss, cardiopulmonary parameters and bladder pressures were measured over a one-hour period. The device was then removed and the animal was euthanized. Results Feasibility of device placement was demonstrated by maintenance of adequate vacuum suction pressures and seal. VAC placement presented no major technical challenges. Successful control of ongoing liver hemorrhage was achieved with the VAC. Total blood loss was 625 ml (20ml/kg. This corresponds to class II hemorrhagic shock in humans and compares favorably to previously reported estimated blood losses with similar grade liver injuries in the swine model. No post-injury cardiopulmonary compromise or elevated abdominal compartment pressures were encountered, while hepatic parenchymal perfusion was maintained. Conclusion These data demonstrate the feasibility and utility of a perihepatic negative pressure device for the treatment of hemorrhage from severe liver injury in the porcine model.

  6. The distribution of mercury in a forest floor transect across the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Michael C. Amacher; William Cannon; Randall K. Kolka; Laurel Woodruff

    2009-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) stored in soil organic matter may be released when the forest floor is consumed by fire. Our objective is to document the spatial distribution of forest floor Hg for a transect crossing the central United States. Samples collected by the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Inventory and Analysis Soil Quality Indicator were tested...

  7. Three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MRI using an intravascular contrast agent for detection of traumatic intra-abdominal hemorrhage and abdominal parenchymal injuries: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weishaupt, D.; Ruehm, S.G.; Patak, M.A.; Schmidt, M.; Debatin, J.F.; Hetzer, F.H.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of 3D MRI in conjunction with an intravascular contrast agent to spiral contrast-enhanced CT, regarding the detection of abdominal parenchymal injuries as well as peritoneal hemorrhage in an animal model. Liver and kidney injuries were created surgically in six female pigs under general anesthesia. All pigs underwent contrast-enhanced spiral CT and 3D MR imaging following administration of an intravascular contrast agent (NC100150 Injection). Two readers rated their confidence independently on MR and CT data sets using a five-point scale for the presence of organ injury and hemoperitoneum. Autopsy findings served as standard of reference. Sensitivity and specificity for MR in detecting hepatic and renal injuries as well as hemoperitoneum was 100 %. Computed tomography was less accurate with sensitivity and specificity values of 90 and 94 %, respectively. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis revealed a higher confidence when interpretation was based on MR images. In an animal model 3D MR imaging in conjunction with an intravascular contrast agent proved highly accurate in detecting and localizing parenchymal injuries to the upper abdomen as well as in detecting intraperitoneal blood collections. (orig.)

  8. Comparison of parenchymal phase of hepatobiliary gammagraphy with radiocolloid liver gammagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimacek, J; Stupakova, E; Takacs, J

    1985-08-01

    A comparison was performed of the parenchymal phase of hepatobiliary gammagraphy (HBG) with radiocolloid gammagraphy (RCG) in 148 patients to assess the importance of both methods depending on the nature of the liver disease. Gammagraphic changes were mostly identical (43.9%), changes notable in HBG rather than RCG were more frequent (29.1%) than changes more marked in RCG (17.6%). Changes appearing only in HBG or only in RCG had the same frequency (4.7% each). The same results in both kinds of examination (identical findings) in all patients occurred only in metastases of malignant tumours of the liver, i.e., in these cases both examinations had the same diagnostic value. In HBG of hepatocellular carcinoma the defect found in RCG was supplemented in 1/4 of the patients, which shows high specificity in combination of both types of examination from the point of view of differential diagnosis. In mechanical jaundice and chronic hepatitis HBG is of greater importance and should be preferred to RCG. In acute hepatitis and further undifferentiated chronic hepatopathies most changes were identical for both HBG and RCG, but the relatively higher incidence of more notable changes with HBG made it preferrable to RCG. In liver cirrhosis RCG was more important.

  9. Ground and surface water quality along a dambo transect in Chihota smallholder farming area, Marondera district, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuta, M.; Nyamadzawo, G.; Mlambo, J.; Nyamugafata, P.

    2016-04-01

    In many smallholder farms in sub-Saharan Africa dambos are used for grazing and crop production especially horticultural crops. Increased use of dambos especially for crop production can result in ground and surface water pollution. Ground and surface water quality along a dambo transect in Chihota, Zimbabwe, was investigated between October 2013 and February 2014. The transect was divided into; upland (control), dambo gardens (mid-slope) and the river (valley bottom). Water samples for quality assessment were collected in October 2013 (peak of dry season) and February 2014 (peak of rainy season). The collected water samples were analysed for pH, faecal coliforms, total nitrogen, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), and some selected nutrients (P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Zn, and Cu). Water pH was 7.0, 6.4 and 6.1 for river water, garden and upland wells respectively. During the wet season total nitrogen (TN) concentrations were 233 mg/L for uplands, 242 mg/L for gardens and 141 mg/L for the river. During the dry season, TN concentrations were all below 20 mg/L, and were not significantly different among sampling stations along the dambo transect. Dry season faecal coliform units (fcu) were significantly different and were 37.2, 30.0 and 5.0 for upland wells, garden wells and river respectively. Wet season faecal coliforms were also significantly different and were 428.5, 258.0 and 479.4 fcu for upland wells, garden wells and river respectively. The other measured physico-chemical parameters also varied with sampling position along the transect. It was concluded that TN and fcu in sampled water varied with season and that wet season concentrations were significantly higher than dry season concentrations. High concentrations of faecal coliforms and total N during the wet season was attributed to increased water movement. Water from upland wells, garden wells and river was not suitable for human consumption according to WHO standards during both the dry and

  10. Blunt traumatic bronchial transection in a 28-month-old child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Mi Hwang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracheobronchial injury is uncommon in children, but may result in life-threatening conditions. We present a case of transection of the right intermediate bronchus, right middle lobe bronchus and right lower lobe bronchus in a 28-month-old child with blunt chest injury. The gold standard for diagnosis is tracheobronchoscopy, however, the bronchoscopy may not always be available for little children. For diagnosis in similar cases, a high index of suspicion should be needed based on symptoms, chest X-ray and computed tomography findings. In addition, anesthesiologists should be aware of this dangerous condition and must be fully prepared for rapid and appropriate management during operation.

  11. Histological Changes in the Proximal and Distal Tendon Stumps Following Transection of Achilles Tendon in the Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M; Mawlana, Ola Helmi; Mohammed Ahmed, Raeesa Abdel-Twab; Hawary, Khalid

    2016-05-01

    To determine tendon stump changes following unrepaired Achilles tendon lacerations in an animal model. An experimental study. King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from October 2013 to January 2014. Arabbit model was developed and studied tendon retraction and histological changes in the proximal and distal stumps following transection of the Achilles tendon. Over a period of 12 weeks, retraction of the distal tendon stump was minimal (2 - 3 mm). In contrast, retraction of the proximal tendon stump peaked to reach 6 mm at 4 weeks post-injury and plateaued to reach 7 - 8 mm at the 12-week interval. Following complete transection of the Achilles tendon, tendon retraction correlated with the density of myofibroblast expression within the tendon stump. Further research is needed to investigate the pathophysiology of these findings.

  12. Erythropoietin improves place learning in fimbria-fornix-transected rats and modifies the search pattern of normal rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    2004-01-01

    administration of EPO significantly improves the posttraumatic functional recovery of the presently studied place learning task after transections of the fimbria-fornix. Additionally, administration of EPO influences the strategy, although not quality, of task solution in normal (sham-operated) rats.......The acquisition of a water-maze-based allocentric place learning task was studied in four groups of rats: two groups subjected to bilateral transections of the fimbria-fornix and two groups undergoing a sham control operation. At the moment of surgery all animals were given one systemic......-associated impairment. The two sham-operated groups did not differ with respect to the proficiency of task acquisition. But administration of EPO to intact animals caused a significant modification of swim patterns-apparently reflecting a somewhat modified strategy of task solution. It is concluded that systemic...

  13. Vegetation Cover based on Eagleson's Ecohydrological Optimality in Northeast China Transect (NECT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Z.; Mo, K.; Qinshu, L.; Zhang, L.

    2016-12-01

    Vegetation is considered as the indicator of climate, thus the study of vegetation growth and distribution is of great importance to cognize the ecosystem construction and functions. Vegetation cover is used as an important index to describe vegetation conditions. In Eagleson's ecohydrological optimality, the theoretical optimal vegetation cover M* can be estimated by solving water balance equations. In this study, the theory is applied in the Northeast China Transect (NECT), one of International Geosphere-Biosphere Programs (IGBP) terrestrial transects. The spatial distribution of actual vegetation cover M, which is derived from Normalized Vegetation Index (NDVI) from Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), shows that there is a significant gradient ranging from 1 in the east forests to 0 in the west desert. The result indicates that the theoretical M* fits the actual M well (for forest, M* = 0.822 while M = 0.826; for grassland, M* = 0.353 while M = 0.352; the correlation coefficient between M and M* is 0.81). The reasonable calculated proportion of water balance components further demonstrates the applicability of the ecohydrological optimality theory. M* increases with the increase of LAI, leaf angle, stem fraction and temperature, and decreases with the increase of precipitation amount. This method offers the possibility to analyze the impacts of climate change to vegetation cover quantitatively, thus providing advices for eco-restoration projects.

  14. Evaluating patterns of a white-band disease (WBD outbreak in Acropora palmata using spatial analysis: a comparison of transect and colony clustering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Lentz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite being one of the first documented, there is little known of the causative agent or environmental stressors that promote white-band disease (WBD, a major disease of Caribbean Acropora palmata. Likewise, there is little known about the spatiality of outbreaks. We examined the spatial patterns of WBD during a 2004 outbreak at Buck Island Reef National Monument in the US Virgin Islands. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ripley's K statistic was used to measure spatial dependence of WBD across scales. Localized clusters of WBD were identified using the DMAP spatial filtering technique. Statistics were calculated for colony- (number of A. palmata colonies with and without WBD within each transect and transect-level (presence/absence of WBD within transects data to evaluate differences in spatial patterns at each resolution of coral sampling. The Ripley's K plots suggest WBD does cluster within the study area, and approached statistical significance (p = 0.1 at spatial scales of 1100 m or less. Comparisons of DMAP results suggest the transect-level overestimated the prevalence and spatial extent of the outbreak. In contrast, more realistic prevalence estimates and spatial patterns were found by weighting each transect by the number of individual A. palmata colonies with and without WBD. CONCLUSIONS: As the search for causation continues, surveillance and proper documentation of the spatial patterns may inform etiology, and at the same time assist reef managers in allocating resources to tracking the disease. Our results indicate that the spatial scale of data collected can drastically affect the calculation of prevalence and spatial distribution of WBD outbreaks. Specifically, we illustrate that higher resolution sampling resulted in more realistic disease estimates. This should assist in selecting appropriate sampling designs for future outbreak investigations. The spatial techniques used here can be used to facilitate other

  15. Evaluating patterns of a white-band disease (WBD) outbreak in Acropora palmata using spatial analysis: a comparison of transect and colony clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Jennifer A; Blackburn, Jason K; Curtis, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Despite being one of the first documented, there is little known of the causative agent or environmental stressors that promote white-band disease (WBD), a major disease of Caribbean Acropora palmata. Likewise, there is little known about the spatiality of outbreaks. We examined the spatial patterns of WBD during a 2004 outbreak at Buck Island Reef National Monument in the US Virgin Islands. Ripley's K statistic was used to measure spatial dependence of WBD across scales. Localized clusters of WBD were identified using the DMAP spatial filtering technique. Statistics were calculated for colony- (number of A. palmata colonies with and without WBD within each transect) and transect-level (presence/absence of WBD within transects) data to evaluate differences in spatial patterns at each resolution of coral sampling. The Ripley's K plots suggest WBD does cluster within the study area, and approached statistical significance (p = 0.1) at spatial scales of 1100 m or less. Comparisons of DMAP results suggest the transect-level overestimated the prevalence and spatial extent of the outbreak. In contrast, more realistic prevalence estimates and spatial patterns were found by weighting each transect by the number of individual A. palmata colonies with and without WBD. As the search for causation continues, surveillance and proper documentation of the spatial patterns may inform etiology, and at the same time assist reef managers in allocating resources to tracking the disease. Our results indicate that the spatial scale of data collected can drastically affect the calculation of prevalence and spatial distribution of WBD outbreaks. Specifically, we illustrate that higher resolution sampling resulted in more realistic disease estimates. This should assist in selecting appropriate sampling designs for future outbreak investigations. The spatial techniques used here can be used to facilitate other coral disease studies, as well as, improve reef conservation and management.

  16. AFSC/NMML: Cetacean line-transect survey in the eastern Bering Sea shelf; 1999, 2000, 2002, and 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visual surveys for cetaceans were conducted on the eastern Bering Sea shelf along transect lines, in association with the AFSC.s echo integration trawl surveys for...

  17. Robust upregulation of serotonin 2A receptors after chronic spinal transection of rats: An immunohistochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Xiang-Yu; Wienecke, Jacob; Hultborn, Hans

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that spinal motoneurons below a spinal transection become supersensitive to a systemic administration of serotonin (5-HT) precursors, such as 5-hydroxytryptophan. This supersensitivity has been implicated in both the process of functional recovery following chronic lesions, and a...

  18. Tracing variability in the iodine isotopes and species along surface water transect from the North Sea to the Canary Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng He; Ala Aldahan; Uppsala University, Uppsala; Xiaolin Hou; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an; Possnert, Goran

    2016-01-01

    A complete transect of surface water samples from the North Sea to the Canary Islands was collected during a continuous period in 2010. The samples were analyzed for total 129 I and 127 I isotopes and their iodide and iodate species. The results indicate a large variability in the total 129 I and its species along the transect, whereas less change and variation are observed for the total 127 I and its species. Transport of 129 I from the western English Channel via Biscay Bay is the main source of 129 I in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. (author)

  19. Relationships (II) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with ventilatory functions indices for parenchymal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Taro; Suganuma, Narufumi; Hering, Kurt G; Vehmas, Tapio; Itoh, Harumi; Akira, Masanori; Takashima, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Harukazu; Kusaka, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) is used to screen and diagnose respiratory illnesses. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we investigated the relationship between subject characteristics and parenchymal abnormalities according to ICOERD, and the results of ventilatory function tests (VFT). Thirty-five patients with and 27 controls without mineral-dust exposure underwent VFT and HRCT. We recorded all subjects' occupational history for mineral dust exposure and smoking history. Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities (Items) grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). High-resolution computed tomography showed that 11 patients had RO; 15 patients, IR; and 19 patients, EM. According to the multiple regression model, age and height had significant associations with many indices ventilatory functions such as vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). The EM summed grades on the upper, middle, and lower zones of the right and left lungs also had significant associations with FEV1 and the maximum mid-expiratory flow rate. The results suggest the ICOERD notation is adequate based on the good and significant multiple regression modeling of ventilatory function with the EM summed grades.

  20. MR imaging assessment of cerebral vascular disease: A combination of angiographic and parenchymal techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaryk, T.J.; Modic, M.T.; Ross, J.S.; Ruggieri, P.; Laub, G.; Haacke, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    This study tested the accuracy and clinical utility of a three-dimensional MR angiographic technique of the cervical carotids in combination with a routine spin-echo examination of the brain as a screening examination for cerebrovascular disease in 23 patients. The technique used a fast low-angle shot sequence with a reduced echo time and voxel size, gradient refocusing, and time of flight effects to minimize signal loss secondary to phase dispersion and maximize vessel contrast. Subsequent multiplanar three-dimensional reconstructions were obtained at 5 0 increments about the z-axis via ray-tracing linear thresholding algorithms. Examinations were compared with IV/IA-digital subtraction angiography or Doppler US as the objective of accuracy. Results of this ongoing study indicate that an MR angiographic screening examination can be coupled with routine brain MR imaging with only a 10-14 minute extension of examination time, providing both a vascular and a parenchymal evaluation

  1. Video Transect Images (1999) from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP) (NODC Accession 0000671)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (JPEG files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 1999 at 26 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  2. Yeast and bacterial diversity along a transect in an acidic, As-Fe rich environment revealed by cultural approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavat, François; Lett, Marie-Claire; Lièvremont, Didier

    2013-10-01

    Acid mine drainages (AMDs) are often thought to harbour low biodiversity, yet little is known about the diversity distribution along the drainages. Using culture-dependent approaches, the microbial diversity from the Carnoulès AMD sediment was investigated for the first time along a transect showing progressive environmental stringency decrease. In total, 20 bacterial genera were detected, highlighting a higher bacterial diversity than previously thought. Moreover, this approach led to the discovery of 16 yeast species, demonstrating for the first time the presence of this important phylogenetic group in this AMD. All in all, the location of the microbes along the transect helps to better understand their distribution in a pollution gradient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis with pulmonary parenchymal spread - report of two cases; Papilomatose respiratoria recorrente com disseminacao pulmonar - relato de dois casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Neto, Cesar Augusto de; Campos, Rubia Mara Correia [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: rubiacampos@ig.com.br; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes Santos [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Pneumologia

    2002-04-01

    The authors report the cases of two adolescent patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis with pulmonary parenchymal spread. Both patients presented very similar initial symptoms and clinical evolution. The patients developed larynx papillomas in childhood causing obstruction to airflow and required permanent tracheostomy after several resection and recurrence episodes. Long time after they developed recurrent pulmonary infections. In both cases the disease was diagnosed through clinical history and high resolution computed tomography that revealed papillomas in the trachea and solid or cavitary nodules in the lungs. (author)

  4. Transection of the pituitary stalk: evaluation of two cases by computerized tomography and magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, L.L.F. do; Mendonca, R.A.; Natal, M.R.C.

    1992-01-01

    The authors present two cases of pituitary dwarfism where the study by high resolution computed tomography and by magnetic resonance imaging show transection of the pituitary stalk as the cause of the endocrine disturb. The importance of these methods on the investigation of disturbs of the hypothalamus-hypophyseal axis is stressed. (author)

  5. A free vein graft cap influences neuroma formation after nerve transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Mariarosaria; Manasseri, Benedetto; Risitano, Giovanni; Geuna, Stefano; Di Scipio, Federica; La Rosa, Paola; Delia, Gabriele; D'Alcontres, Francesco Stagno; Colonna, Michele R

    2009-01-01

    : Neuroma formation is a major problem in nerve surgery and consensus about its prevention has not been reached. It has been suggested that vein covering can reduce neuroma formation in transected nerves. In this article, the Authors propose an easy and novel method of covering by nerve stump capping with a free vein graft. : Neuroma-like lesions were created on the rat thigh sectioning the femoral nerve above its division in 16 animals. The proximal nerve stump was invaginated into the lumen of a 1.5 cm long femoral free vein graft on the right side, and the vein was closed on itself by microsurgical sutures to form a cap for the nerve stump. On the left side acting as the control neuroma, the nerve was cut and left uncovered. Histological and immunohistochemical assessment was used to quantify the degree of neuroma formation. : Significant differences were found in both neuroma size and axon-glia organization between the treated and control sides indicating that free vein graft capping reduced neuroma formation in comparison to uncovered nerve stumps. : Our results confirm that vein-covering of a transected nerve stump can be effective in reducing neuroma formation. Moreover, unlike previous works that buried the nerve into an adjacent vein left in place, our experiments showed that also the use of a free vein graft cap can hinder neuroma formation. Although translation of rat experiments to the clinics should be dealt with caution, our data suggest a careful clinical use of the technique. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2009.

  6. Regeneration of supraspinal axons after transection of the thoracic spinal cord in the developing opossum, Didelphis virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X M; Terman, J R; Martin, G F

    1998-08-17

    When the thoracic spinal cord of the North American opossum is transected early in development, supraspinal axons grow through the lesion. In the experiments reported here, we asked whether regeneration of cut axons contributes to such growth. Fast Blue (FB) was injected into the lumbar cord on postnatal day (PD)5, 8, 15, or 20. Five days later, FB was removed by gentle suction, and the spinal cord was transected at thoracic levels. Fourteen days later, rhodamine B dextran was injected between the site of the FB injection and the lesion. The pups were maintained for an additional 7-10 days before killing and perfusion. We assumed that supraspinal neurons that contained FB survived axotomy and those that contained both FB and rhodamine B dextran supported regenerating axons. In the PD5 group (lesioned at PD10), regenerative growth was documented for axons originating in all of the supraspinal nuclei that innervate the lumbar cord by PD10. When the injections were made at the later ages, however, neurons that supported regenerative growth were fewer in number and regionally restricted. In some cases, they were limited primarily to the red nucleus, the medullary raphe, and the adjacent reticular formation. Our results show that regeneration of cut axons contributes to growth of supraspinal axons through the lesion after transection of the thoracic cord in developing opossums and that the critical period for regenerative growth is not the same for all axons.

  7. Histological Changes in the Proximal and Distal Tendon Stumps Following Transection of Achilles Tendon in the Rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Qattan, M. M.; Hawary, K.; Mawlana, O. H.; Ahmed, R. A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine tendon stump changes following unrepaired Achilles tendon lacerations in an animal model. Study Design: An experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from October 2013 to January 2014. Methodology: Arabbit model was developed and studied tendon retraction and histological changes in the proximal and distal stumps following transection of the Achilles tendon. Result: Over a period of 12 weeks, retraction of the distal tendon stump was minimal (2 - 3 mm). In contrast, retraction of the proximal tendon stump peaked to reach 6 mm at 4 weeks post-injury and plateaued to reach 7 - 8 mm at the 12-week interval. Conclusion: Following complete transection of the Achilles tendon, tendon retraction correlated with the density of myofibroblast expression within the tendon stump. Further research is needed to investigate the pathophysiology of these findings. (author)

  8. Mercury distribution and transport in the North Atlantic Ocean along the GEOTRACES-GA01 transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossa, Daniel; Heimbürger, Lars-Eric; Pérez, Fiz F.; García-Ibáñez, Maribel I.; Sonke, Jeroen E.; Planquette, Hélène; Lherminier, Pascale; Boutorh, Julia; Cheize, Marie; Lukas Menzel Barraqueta, Jan; Shelley, Rachel; Sarthou, Géraldine

    2018-04-01

    We report here the results of total mercury (HgT) determinations along the 2014 Geotraces Geovide cruise (GA01 transect) in the North Atlantic Ocean (NA) from Lisbon (Portugal) to the coast of Labrador (Canada). HgT concentrations in unfiltered samples (HgTUNF) were log-normally distributed and ranged between 0.16 and 1.54 pmol L-1, with a geometric mean of 0.51 pmol L-1 for the 535 samples analysed. The dissolved fraction (waters. The HgTUNF concentrations were similarly low in the subpolar gyre waters ( ˜ 0.45 pmol L-1), whereas they exceeded 0.60 pmol L-1 in the subtropical gyre waters. The HgTUNF distribution mirrored that of dissolved oxygen concentration, with highest concentration levels associated with oxygen-depleted zones. The relationship between HgTF and the apparent oxygen utilization confirms the nutrient-like behaviour of Hg in the NA. An extended optimum multiparameter analysis allowed us to characterize HgTUNF concentrations in the different source water types (SWTs) present along the transect. The distribution pattern of HgTUNF, modelled by the mixing of SWTs, show Hg enrichment in Mediterranean waters and North East Atlantic Deep Water and low concentrations in young waters formed in the subpolar gyre and Nordic seas. The change in anthropogenic Hg concentrations in the Labrador Sea Water during its eastward journey suggests a continuous decrease in Hg content in this water mass over the last decades. Calculation of the water transport driven by the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation across the Portugal-Greenland transect indicates northward Hg transport within the upper limb and southward Hg transport within the lower limb, with resulting net northward transport of about 97.2 kmol yr-1.

  9. Quantifying parenchymal tethering in a finite element simulation of a human lung slice under bronchoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Barbara J; Donovan, Graham M; Sneyd, James; Tawhai, Merryn H

    2012-08-15

    Airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), a hallmark of asthma, is a highly complex phenomenon characterised by multiple processes manifesting over a large range of length and time scales. Multiscale computational models have been derived to embody the experimental understanding of AHR. While current models differ in their derivation, a common assumption is that the increase in parenchymal tethering pressure P(teth) during airway constriction can be described using the model proposed by Lai-Fook (1979), which is based on intact lung experimental data for elastic moduli over a range of inflation pressures. Here we reexamine this relationship for consistency with a nonlinear elastic material law that has been parameterised to the pressure-volume behaviour of the intact lung. We show that the nonlinear law and Lai-Fook's relationship are consistent for small constrictions, but diverge when the constriction becomes large. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Measurement of amino acid levels in the vitreous humor of rats after chronic intraocular pressure elevation or optic nerve transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkovitch-Verbin, Hana; Martin, Keith R G; Quigley, Harry A; Baumrind, Lisa A; Pease, Mary Ellen; Valenta, Danielle

    2002-10-01

    To investigate whether the levels of free amino acids and protein in the vitreous of rat eyes are altered with chronic intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation or after optic nerve transection. The concentrations of 20 amino acids in the vitreous humor were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in both eyes of 41 rats with unilateral IOP elevation induced by translimbal photocoagulation. Eyes were studied 1 day and 1, 2, 4, and 9 weeks after initial IOP elevation. The same amino acids were measured in 41 rats 1 day and 2, 4, and 9 weeks after unilateral transection of the orbital optic nerve. The intravitreal protein level was assayed in additional 22 rats with IOP elevation and 12 rats after nerve transection. Two masked observers evaluated the amount of optic nerve damage with a semiquantitative, light-microscopic technique. In rats with experimental glaucoma, amino acid concentrations were unchanged 1 day after treatment. At 1 week, 4 of 20 amino acids (aspartate, proline, alanine, and lysine) were higher than in control eyes ( 0.05). Vitreous protein level was significantly higher in glaucomatous eyes than their paired controls at 1 day ( 0.01).

  11. Long-term air monitoring of organochlorine pesticides using Semi Permeable Membrane Devices (SPMDs) in the Alps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, W.; Henkelmann, B.; Pfister, G.; Bernhoeft, S.; Kirchner, M.; Jakobi, G. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Bassan, R. [Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention and Protection of Veneto, Via Matteotti 27, 35137 Padova (Italy); Kraeuchi, N. [WSL-Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Zuercherstrasse 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Schramm, K.-W., E-mail: schramm@helmholtz-muenchen.d [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); TUM-Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department fuer Biowissenschaftliche Grundlagen Weihenstephaner Steig 23, D-85350 Freising (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    Atmospheric sampling of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was conducted using Semi Permeable Membrane Devices (SPMDs) deployed in the Alps at different altitudinal transects for two consecutive exposure periods of half a year and a third simultaneous year-long period. Along all the altitude profiles, the sequestered amounts of OCPs increased in general with altitude. SPMDs were still working as kinetic samplers after half a year for the majority of the OCPs. However, compounds with the lowest octanol-air partition coefficient (K{sub oa}), reached equilibrium within six months. This change in the SPMD uptake was determined for the temperature gradient along the altitude profile influencing K{sub oa}, OCPs availability in the gaseous phase, and SPMD performance. In sum, it seems two effects are working in parallel along the altitude profiles: the change in SPMD performance and the different availability of OCPs along the altitudinal transects determined by their compound properties and concentrations in air. - SPMDs were in different uptake stages regarding OCPs, as they were influenced by the temperature (season, triolein state, and altitude) and K{sub oa}.

  12. Behaviour of nickel, copper, zinc and cadmium in the upper 300 m of a transect in the Southern Ocean (57°-62°S, 49°W)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolting, R.F.; Baar, H.J.W. de

    1994-01-01

    The distributions of Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd in relation to phosphate, nitrate and silicate in the upper 300 m of a transect in the Southern Ocean were studied. This transect covers the Scotia Sea, the Confluence and the Weddell Sea. These three watermasses are clearly separated by their temperature and

  13. Contribution of the climatic transect approach application to the study of soil degradation in South of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Sinoga, José D.; Gabarrón-Galeote, Miguel A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.

    2014-05-01

    Since 1990s, the climatic transect approach has been widely applied to Mediterranean mountainous areas where climatic conditions are modified in few kilometres, from semiarid to humid conditions. The target in most of the cases was to evaluate the climatic change effect on the spatial variability of eco-geomorphological system, runoff and erosion and soil degradation processes, especially, in abandoned fields and Mediterranean rangeland. The Physical Geography and Land Management Research Group from the University of Málaga is applying this experimental approach since 2001. The study area corresponded to the Mediterranean Cordillera Bética in South of Spain, from the Strait of Gibraltar to Cabo de Gata, where a longitudinal climatic transect can be observed: from humid Mediterranean climate in the West (>1,500 mm/y) to nearly arid Mediterranean climate in the East (200 mm/y). More specifically, the investigations were focussed on the spatial and temporal variability of eco-geomorphological system (vegetation, soil and water relationship), runoff and erosion processes and controlling factors affecting to abandoned fields located in steep hillslopes of metamorphic and acid bedrocks (phyllites, schists and mica-schists) but differing in climatic conditions (humid, subhumid, dry and semiarid Mediterranean climate). The aim of this contribution is to share our findings and challenges from the last 13 years being some of the most important ones: i) Mediterranean summer drought homogenise the functioning of eco-geomorphological system independently of the geographical location along the climatic transect; ii) drought period affects more dramatically to humid and subhumid Mediterranean areas, especially, to the vegetation cover and pattern; iii) areas characterised by dry-Mediterranean climate are found as threshold areas and in risk of aridification due to Climate Change; iv) runoff and erosion processes can be similar in humid and semiarid abandoned lands as it has to

  14. Chemical element concentrations in four lichens on a transect entering Voyageurs National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J.; Wetmore, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    A three factor transect study was conducted to test the hypothesis that chemical elements from air emissions in the vicinity of International Falls, Minnesota could not be detected in lichens along a 24 km transect reaching into Voyageurs National Park. It was hypothesized that element concentrations in lichens would decline exponentially downwind and would reach background values at a distance before the park boundary. Four species (Cladina rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Hypogymnia physodes, and Parmelia sulcata) were sampled at ten sites for 3 years and 17 chemical elements were measured. The most notable result was a curvilinear geographic trend for many elements, which decreased from International Falls and then increased towards the park. This trend was significant for many anthropogenic elements, including S, Hg, Cd, and Cr, and for all four species. This type of distribution pattern has been observed in Hypogymnia physodes in other studies downwind of a steel mill and an oil refinery. Cladina, a ground-dwelling lichen, generally had lower tissue concentrations of the elements than the three epiphytic species. Tissue concentrations over the 3 years of sampling declined an average of 12%. Sufficient evidence exists to conclude that lichen tissue element concentrations in the vicinity of International Falls may be related to local air emissions, and that an exponential decline of element concentrations downwind of the sources does not apply to this situation.

  15. Brain parenchymal damage in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder - A multimodal MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pache, F.; Paul, F. [Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine and Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center and Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Zimmermann, H.; Lacheta, A.; Papazoglou, S.; Kuchling, J.; Wuerfel, J.; Brandt, A.U. [Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine and Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center and Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Finke, C. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Berlin (Germany); Hamm, B. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Ruprecht, K. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Scheel, M. [Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine and Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center and Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    To investigate different brain regions for grey (GM) and white matter (WM) damage in a well-defined cohort of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) patients and compare advanced MRI techniques (VBM, Subcortical and cortical analyses (Freesurfer), and DTI) for their ability to detect damage in NMOSD. We analyzed 21 NMOSD patients and 21 age and gender matched control subjects. VBM (GW/WM) and DTI whole brain (TBSS) analyses were performed at different statistical thresholds to reflect different statistical approaches in previous studies. In an automated atlas-based approach, Freesurfer and DTI results were compared between NMOSD and controls. DTI TBSS and DTI atlas based analysis demonstrated microstructural impairment only within the optic radiation or in regions associated with the optic radiation (posterior thalamic radiation p < 0.001, 6.9 % reduction of fractional anisotropy). VBM demonstrated widespread brain GM and WM reduction, but only at exploratory statistical thresholds, with no differences remaining after correction for multiple comparisons. Freesurfer analysis demonstrated no group differences. NMOSD specific parenchymal brain damage is predominantly located in the optic radiation, likely due to a secondary degeneration caused by ON. In comparison, DTI appears to be the most reliable and sensitive technique for brain damage detection in NMOSD. (orig.)

  16. Brain parenchymal damage in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder - A multimodal MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pache, F.; Paul, F.; Zimmermann, H.; Lacheta, A.; Papazoglou, S.; Kuchling, J.; Wuerfel, J.; Brandt, A.U.; Finke, C.; Hamm, B.; Ruprecht, K.; Scheel, M.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate different brain regions for grey (GM) and white matter (WM) damage in a well-defined cohort of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) patients and compare advanced MRI techniques (VBM, Subcortical and cortical analyses (Freesurfer), and DTI) for their ability to detect damage in NMOSD. We analyzed 21 NMOSD patients and 21 age and gender matched control subjects. VBM (GW/WM) and DTI whole brain (TBSS) analyses were performed at different statistical thresholds to reflect different statistical approaches in previous studies. In an automated atlas-based approach, Freesurfer and DTI results were compared between NMOSD and controls. DTI TBSS and DTI atlas based analysis demonstrated microstructural impairment only within the optic radiation or in regions associated with the optic radiation (posterior thalamic radiation p < 0.001, 6.9 % reduction of fractional anisotropy). VBM demonstrated widespread brain GM and WM reduction, but only at exploratory statistical thresholds, with no differences remaining after correction for multiple comparisons. Freesurfer analysis demonstrated no group differences. NMOSD specific parenchymal brain damage is predominantly located in the optic radiation, likely due to a secondary degeneration caused by ON. In comparison, DTI appears to be the most reliable and sensitive technique for brain damage detection in NMOSD. (orig.)

  17. A review of scientific topics and literature in abdominal radiology in Germany. Pt. 2. Abdominal parenchymal organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenacher, L. [Diagnostik Muenchen-Diagnostic Imaging Centre (Germany); Juchems, M.S. [Konstanz Hospital (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Holzapfel, K. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Kinner, S.; Lauenstein, T.C. [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Wessling, J. [Clemens Hospital Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Schreyer, A.G. [University Hospital Regenburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2016-03-15

    The working group for abdominal and gastrointestinal diagnosis is a group of the German Radiological Society (DRG) focusing clinically and scientifically on the diagnosis and treatment of the gastrointestinal tract as well as the parenchymal abdominal organs. In this article we give an up-to-date literature review of scientific radiological topics especially covered by German radiologists. The working group experts cover the most recent relevant studies concerning liver-specific contrast media with an emphasis on a new classification system for liver adenomas. Additionally studies regarding selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) are reviewed. For the pancreas the most important tumors are described followed by an introduction to the most recently introduced functional imaging techniques. The manuscript concludes with some remarks on recent studies and concerning chronic pancreatitis as well as autoimmune pancreatitis.

  18. Relevance analysis of mammographic parenchymal patterns and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Rendong; Lv Xiangyang; Li Shaolin; Gao Ming; Miao Liqiong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Discussing the relativity of Mammographic parenchymal patterns and breast cancer, implementing the intervention treatment and regularly traces to the breast high dangerous crowd, in order to reduce the occurrence rate of beast cancer and the mortality rate. Methods: Mammary gland type was marked according to X ray on 500 breast cancer subjects and 1000 control subjects. Peri-cancer histological sections of the subtypes of the breast cancer group and histological section of the subtypes of the control group were studied contrastively to analyze the breast cancer risk index in every subtype and the occurrence rate in every age group. The types and the occurrence rates were counted. Results: (1)The lowest risk group: the subtypes with OR 0.3 and the cancer incidence rate ranging from 5% to 10% were IV b, II b, III b. (4)High-risk group: the subtypes with OR> 1 and the cancer incidence rate above 10% were III c, IV c. High dangerous age sections of breast cancer: 35 to 55 years old in IVc and IIIc (the age section of IIIc may lengthen to 60 years old), 31 to 50 years old in IVb, 50 to 60 years old in IIIb and IIb. Conclusion: IIIc and IVc belong to the high dangerous subtypes. People of these subtypes reach 67.4% of all breast cancer examples, so these people are the main subjects of the mammary gland general survey and tracing. Patient aged from 35 to 55 should be reexamined once a year. When necessary, the intervention treatment may be carried out to prevent breast cancer and to reduce the occurrence rate of beast cancer. Discovery and treatment in early phase can improve the breast cancer's survival quality, and reduce the mortality rate. (authors)

  19. Geochemistry of soils along a transect from Central Mexico to the Pacific Coast: a pilot study for continental-scale geochemical mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiprés, J.A.; de la Calleja,; Tellez, J.I.; Jiménez, F.; Cruz, Carlos; Guerrero, E.G.; Castro, J.; Monroy, M.G.; Salinas, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Mexican Geological Survey (SGM), the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics (INEGI) and the Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi (UASLP) have established a multidisciplinary team with the objective of creating a national program of geochemical mapping of soils in Mexico. This is being done as part of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project in partnership with the US Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada. As the first step, a pilot study was conducted over a transect that extends from the Mexico–US border near Ciudad Juarez in the north to the Pacific Ocean in the south. This pilot transect was conducted in two phases, and this paper presents results from the first phase, which sampled soils at about a 40-km spacing along a 730-km transect beginning in Central Mexico and ending at the Pacific Coast. Samples were collected from the A and C horizons at each site and 60 elements were analyzed. This pilot study demonstrates that geochemical mapping based on a 40-km spacing is adequate to identify broad-scale geochemical patterns. Geologic influence (i.e., soil parent material) was the most important factor influencing the distribution of elements along the transect, followed by the influence of regional mineralization. The study also showed that influence by human activities over the transect is minimal except possibly in large mining districts. A comparison of element abundance in the A horizon with the environmental soil guidelines in Mexico showed that the natural concentrations of the studied soils were lower than the established threshold for soil restoration with the exception of V and As. The former had a median value (75 mg/kg) approximately equal to the value established in Mexico for soil restoration in agricultural and residential lands (78 mg/kg), and the latter had three values higher than the 22 mg/kg threshold for soil restoration in agricultural and residential lands. These cases demonstrate

  20. Quantifying the Spatiotemporal Patterns of Urbanization along Urban-Rural Gradient with a Roadscape Transect Approach: A Case Study in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghao Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the landscape pattern change can effectively demonstrate the ecological progresses and the consequences of urbanization. Based on remotely sensed land cover data in 1994, 2000, 2006 and a gradient analysis with landscape metrics at landscape- and class- level, we attempted to characterize the individual and entire landscape patterns of Shanghai metropolitan during the rapid urbanization. We highlighted that a roadscape transect approach that combined the buffer zone method and the transect-based approach was introduced to describe the urban-rural patterns of agricultural, residential, green, industrial, and public facilities land along the railway route. Our results of landscape metrics showed significant spatiotemporal patterns and gradient variations along the transect. The urban growth pattern in two time spans conform to the hypothesis for diffusion–coalescence processes, implying that the railway is adaptive as a gradient element to analyze the landscape patterns with urbanization. As the natural landscape was replaced by urban landscape gradually, the desakota region expanded its extent widely. Suburb areas witnessed the continual transformation from the predominantly rural landscape to peri-urban landscape. Furthermore, the gap between urban and rural areas remained large especially in public service. More reasonable urban plans and land use policies should push to make more efforts to transition from the urban-rural separation to coordinated urban-rural development. This study is a meaningful trial in demonstrating a new form of urban–rural transects to study the landscape change of large cities. By combining gradient analysis with landscape metrics, we addressed the process of urbanization both spatially and temporally, and provided a more quantitative approach to urban studies.

  1. Renal artery and parenchymal changes after renal denervation: assessment by magnetic resonance angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, Margreet F.; Vink, Eva E.; Blankestijn, Peter J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Doormaal, Pieter Jan van; Habets, Jesse; Vonken, Evert-Jan; Leiner, Tim [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Beeftink, Martine M.A.; Verloop, Willemien L.; Voskuil, Michiel [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Cardiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bots, Michiel L. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Fadl Elmula, Fadl Elmula M. [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine and Department of Cardiology, Ullevaal, Oslo (Norway); Hammer, Frank [Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Hoffmann, Pavel [Oslo University Hospital, Section for Interventional Cardiology, Department of Cardiology, Ullevaal, Oslo (Norway); Jacobs, Lotte; Staessen, Jan A. [University of Leuven, Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Leuven (Belgium); Mark, Patrick B.; Taylor, Alison H. [University of Glasgow, Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Persu, Alexandre; Renkin, Jean [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Pole of Cardiovascular Research, Institut de Recherche Experimentale et Clinique, Brussels (Belgium); Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Cardiology Department, Brussels (Belgium); Roditi, Giles [Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Spiering, Wilko [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Vascular Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Collaboration: on behalf of the European Network COordinating research on Renal Denervation (ENCOReD) Consortium

    2017-09-15

    Relatively little is known about the incidence of long-term renal damage after renal denervation (RDN), a potential new treatment for hypertension. In this study the incidence of renal artery and parenchymal changes, assessed with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) after RDN, is investigated. This study is an initiative of ENCOReD, a collaboration of hypertension expert centres. Patients in whom an MRA was performed before and after RDN were included. Scans were evaluated by two independent, blinded radiologists. Primary outcome was the change in renal artery morphology and parenchyma. MRAs from 96 patients were analysed. Before RDN, 41 renal anomalies were observed, of which 29 mostly mild renal artery stenoses. After a median time of 366 days post RDN, MRA showed a new stenosis (25-49% lumen reduction) in two patients and progression of pre-existing lumen reduction in a single patient. No other renal changes were observed and renal function remained stable. We observed new or progressed renal artery stenosis in three out of 96 patients, after a median time of 12 months post RDN (3.1%). Procedural angiographies showed that ablations were applied near the observed stenosis in only one of the three patients. (orig.)

  2. A survey of the occurrence of Bacillus anthracis in North American soils over two long-range transects and within post-Katrina New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale W.; Petrosky, Terry; Morman, Suzette A.; Luna, Vicki A.

    2009-01-01

    Soil samples were collected along a north-south transect extending from Manitoba, Canada, to the US-Mexico border near El Paso, Texas in 2004 (104 samples), a group of sites within New Orleans, Louisiana following Hurricane Katrina in 2005 (19 samples), and a Gulf Coast transect extending from Sulphur, Louisiana, to DeFuniak Springs, Florida, in 2007 (38 samples). Samples were collected from the top 40 cm of soil and were screened for the presence of total Bacillus species and Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), specifically using multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using an assay with a sensitivity of ~170 equivalent colony-forming units (CFU) g-1 field moist soil, the prevalence rate of Bacillus sp./B. anthracis in the north-south transect and the 2005 New Orleans post-Katrina sample set were 20/5% and 26/26%, respectively. Prevalence in the 2007 Gulf Coast sample set using an assay with a sensitivity of ~4 CFU g-1 of soil was 63/0%. Individual transect-set data indicate a positive relation between occurrences of species and soil moisture or soil constituents (i.e., Zn and Cu content). The 2005 New Orleans post-Katrina data indicated that B. anthracis is readily detectable in Gulf Coast soils following flood events. The data also indicated that occurrence, as it relates to soil chemistry, may be confounded by flood-induced dissemination of germinated cells and the mixing of soil constituents for short temporal periods following an event.

  3. Positive effects of bFGF modified rat amniotic epithelial cells transplantation on transected rat optic nerve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Xin Xie

    Full Text Available Effective therapy for visual loss caused by optic nerve injury or diseases has not been achieved even though the optic nerve has the regeneration potential after injury. This study was designed to modify amniotic epithelial cells (AECs with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF gene, preliminarily investigating its effect on transected optic nerve.A human bFGF gene segment was delivered into rat AECs (AECs/hbFGF by lentiviral vector, and the gene expression was examined by RT-PCR and ELISA. The AECs/hbFGF and untransfected rat AECs were transplanted into the transected site of the rat optic nerve. At 28 days post transplantation, the survival and migration of the transplanted cells was observed by tracking labeled cells; meanwhile retinal ganglion cells (RGCs were observed and counted by employing biotin dextran amine (BDA and Nissl staining. Furthermore, the expression of growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43 within the injury site was examined with immunohistochemical staining.The AECs/hbFGF was proven to express bFGF gene and secrete bFGF peptide. Both AECs/hbFGF and AECs could survive and migrate after transplantation. RGCs counting implicated that RGCs numbers of the cell transplantation groups were significantly higher than that of the control group, and the AECs/hbFGF group was significantly higher than that of the AECs group. Moreover GAP-43 integral optical density value in the control group was significantly lower than that of the cell transplantation groups, and the value in the AECs/hbFGF group was significantly higher than that of the AECs group.AECs modified with bFGF could reduce RGCs loss and promote expression of GAP-43 in the rat optic nerve transected model, facilitating the process of neural restoration following injury.

  4. Dynamics of vegetation and soils of oak/saw palmetto scrub after fire: Observations from permanent transects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, G. Ross

    1991-01-01

    Ten permanent 15 m transects previously established in two oak/saw palmetto scrub stands burned in December 1986, while two transects remained unburned. Vegetation in the greater than 0.5 m and the less than 0.5 m layers on these transects was sampled at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months postburn and determined structural features of the vegetation (height, percent bare ground, total cover). The vegetation data were analyzed from each sampling by height layer using detrended correspondence analysis ordination. Vegetation data for the greater than 0.5 m layer for the entire time sequence were combined and analyzed using detrended correspondence analysis ordination. Soils were sampled at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postburn and analyzed for pH, conductivity, organic matter, exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, K, Na), NO3-N, NH4-N, Al, available metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn), and PO4-P. Shrub species recovered at different rates postfire with saw palmetto reestablishing cover greater than 0.5 m within one year, but the scrub oaks had not returned to preburn cover greater than 0.5 m in 3 years after the fire. These differences in growth rates resulted in dominance shifts after the fire with saw palmetto increasing relative to the scrub oaks. Overall changes in species richness were minor, although changes occurred in species richness by height layers due to different growth rates. Soils of well drained and poorly drained sites differed markedly. Soil responses to the fire appeared minor. Soil pH increased at 6 and 12 months postfire; calcium increased at 6 months postburn. Nitrate-nitrogen increased at 12 months postburn. Low values of conductivity, PO4-P, Mg, K, Na, and Fe at 12 months postburn may be related to heavy rainfall the preceding month. Seasonal variability in some soil parameters appeared to occur.

  5. Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Benthic Data from Rapid Assessment Transects 2001-2004 (NODC Accession 0002464)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of CRAMP Rapid Assessment Transect surveys taken in 2001-2004 and includes quantitative estimates of substrate type and species. The types and...

  6. Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Benthic Data from Rapid Assessment Transects Maui 2006 (NODC Accession 0039383)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of CRAMP Rapid Assessment Transect surveys taken in 2006 and includes quantitative estimates of substrate type and species. In 2006, there were...

  7. Applications of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of parenchymal kidney disease in cats: 24 cases (1981-1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, P.A.; Johnston, G.R.; Feeney, D.A.; O'Brien, T.D.

    1988-01-01

    Renal sonograms from 24 cats with confirmed parenchymal kidney disease and from 1 cat with radiographic and palpable evidence of renal enlargement (but without identifiable histologic abnormalities) were evaluated to describe the ultrasonographic appearance of feline renal diseases and to determine the role of ultrasonographic examination in the clinical evaluation of these cases. In all cats with radiographic evidence of abnormal renal size or contour and when poor intraabdominal radiographic contrast precluded visualization of the kidneys, ultrasonography provided complementary information pertaining to location (cortical/medullary), extent, and distribution (focal/multifocal/diffuse) of disease. Ultrasonography also characterized these lesions as cystic (cavitating) or solid. The echo patterns were most specific for renal cysts. Infiltrative diseases did not have consistent patterns. Multifocal hypoechoic nodules, diffuse cortical hyper-echogenicity, and normal-appearing parenchyma were identified. In these instances, however, ultrasonography did define the extent of disease and narrowed the spectrum of differential considerations

  8. Place Mapping – transect walks in Arctic urban landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hemmersam

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates how experimental forms of urban mapping can reveal the particularity of places in non-standard urban situations with the intention of moving beyond the reductivism of still-dominant modernist modes of mapping and associated forms of planning. In order to do so, it reports on the emergence of a methodology involving transect walks, with the purpose of mapping the peculiarities of cultural landscapes. The study is located in cities and communities in the Arctic that are undergoing rapid transformation and are in urgent need of new conceptual approaches capable of enabling future thinking and strategic action. The article specifically asks how such a methodology works to includes the ephemeral and emergent, but also digital, dimensions of urban landscapes, and results in a complex reflexive method of critically reading and writing, of moving and locating, of seeing and picturing place mapping.

  9. Measurement of the apparent diffusion coefficient in paediatric mitochondrial encephalopathy cases and a comparison of parenchymal changes associated with the disease using follow-up diffusion coefficient measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uysal, Fatma, E-mail: afatmauysal@gmail.com [Dokuz Eylül University, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Izmir (Turkey); Çakmakçı, Handan, E-mail: handan.cakmakci@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylül University, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Izmir (Turkey); Yiş, Uluç, E-mail: ulucyis@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylül University, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Izmir (Turkey); Ellidokuz, Hülya, E-mail: hulyaellidokuz@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylül University, Department of Medical Statistics, Izmir (Turkey); Hız, Ayşe Semra, E-mail: aysesemrahiz@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylül University, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Izmir (Turkey)

    2014-01-15

    Objectives: To reveal the contribution of MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to the diagnosis of mitochondrial encephalopathy (ME) and to evaluate the parenchymal changes associated with this disease in the involved parenchymal areas using the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) parameter. Methods: Ten patients who had undergone MRI and DWI analysis with a pre-diagnosis of neurometabolic disease, and who were subsequently diagnosed with ME in laboratory and/or genetic studies, were included in our study. ADC values were compared with a control group composed of 20 patients of similar age with normal brains. Evaluations involved measurements made in 20 different areas determined on the ADC map. The dominance or contribution of ADC coefficient measurements to the conventional sequences was compared with the controls. Results: In the first examination, an increase in both diffusion and ADC values was detected in six cases and diffusion restriction and a decrease in ADC values in three patients. While an increase in both diffusion and ADC values was demonstrated in four cases, there was diffusion restriction and a decrease in ADC values in three cases in the control examinations. Conclusions: DWI provides information that complements conventional MRI sequences in the diagnosis of ME.

  10. An open-label, randomized, controlled, 4-week comparative clinical trial of barnidipine hydrochloride, a calcium-channel blocker, and benazepril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, in Chinese patients with renal parenchymal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Zheng, F; Chen, P; Tang, L; Wei, R; Yu, Y; Su, Y; Kikkawa, T; Yamamoto, M

    2006-01-01

    This study compared barnidipine, a calcium-channel blocker, and benazepril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, in 85 Chinese patients with renal parenchymal hypertension (diastolic blood pressure range 95 - 110 mmHg). Patients were randomly assigned to receive either 10 mg barnidipine or 10 mg benazepril orally daily for 4 weeks. In patients with diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg after 2 weeks of treatment, the dose of barnidipine or benazepril was increased by 5 or 10 mg, respectively. Both the barnidipine-treated group (n = 43) and the benazepril-treated group (n = 42) showed significant mean reductions from baseline in sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The decrease in diastolic blood pressure with benazepril was significantly greater than with barnidipine treatment. Sitting heart rate was not changed by either drug. There was no significant difference in adverse events between the two groups. Barnidipine is similar to benazepril for the treatment of renal parenchymal hypertension.

  11. Nerve transection repair using laser-activated chitosan in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Neel K; Khan, Taleef R; Mejias, Christopher; Paniello, Randal C

    2017-08-01

    Cranial nerve transection during head and neck surgery is conventionally repaired with microsuture. Previous studies have demonstrated recovery with laser nerve welding (LNW), a novel alternative to microsuture. LNW has been reported to have poorer tensile strength, however. Laser-activated chitosan, an adhesive biopolymer, may promote nerve recovery while enhancing the tensile strength of the repair. Using a rat posterior tibial nerve injury model, we compared four different methods of nerve repair in this pilot study. Animal study. Animals underwent unilateral posterior tibial nerve transection. The injury was repaired by potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser alone (n = 20), KTP + chitosan (n = 12), microsuture + chitosan (n = 12), and chitosan alone (n = 14). Weekly walking tracks were conducted to measure functional recovery (FR). Tensile strength (TS) was measured at 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, KTP laser alone had the best recovery (FR = 93.4% ± 8.3%). Microsuture + chitosan, KTP + chitosan, and chitosan alone all showed good FR (87.4% ± 13.5%, 84.6% ± 13.0%, and 84.1% ± 10.0%, respectively). One-way analysis of variance was performed (F(3,56) = 2.6, P = .061). A TS threshold of 3.8 N was selected as a control mean recovery. Three groups-KTP alone, KTP + chitosan, and microsuture + chitosan-were found to meet threshold 60% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 23.1%-88.3%), 75% (95% CI: 46.8%-91.1%), and 100% (95% CI: 75.8%-100.0%), respectively. In the posterior tibial nerve model, all repair methods promoted nerve recovery. Laser-activated chitosan as a biopolymer anchor provided good TS and appears to be a novel alternative to microsuture. This repair method may have surgical utility following cranial nerve injury during head and neck surgery. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E253-E257, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Video Transect Images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Data from 2002 (NODC Accession 0000961)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (TIF files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2002 at 23 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  13. Video Transect Images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP):Data from 2003 (NODC Accession 0001732)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (TIF files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2003 at 15 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  14. Video Transect Images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Data from 2003 (NODC Accession 0001732)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (TIF files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2003 at 15 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  15. Video transect images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): data from 2002 (NODC Accession 0000961)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (TIF files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2002 at 23 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  16. Video Transect Images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Data from 2000 (NODC Accession 0000728)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (TIF files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2000 at 23 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  17. Lack of association between parenchymal neurocysticercosis and HLA Class I and Class II antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Picchioni Bompeixe

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis, caused by encysted larvae of the tapeworm Taenia solium, is the most common infection of the central nervous system and a major public health problem in many countries. Prevalence in the region of Curitiba, located in the southern Brazilian State of Paraná, is one of the highest in the world. The genetics of host susceptibility to neurocysticercosis (NCC is still obscure. To investigate if major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes influence individual susceptibility to NCC, we performed a case-control association analysis. Fifty-two Caucasoid patients and 149 matched controls were typed for antigens of the HLA-A, B, C, DR and DQ loci. All patients had computerized tomography and clinical features compatible with parenchymal NCC. Indirect immunofluorescence of cerebrospinal fluid showed that 19 (37% of the patients presented anti-cysticercus antibodies at titers ³ 1:10. Frequencies of HLA specificities in the whole group of patients and in the subgroup with antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid were compared to those of the control group. No significant difference was found. These results do not support the hypothesis of HLA gene participation in susceptibility to parenchymal neurocysticercosis.A neurocisticercose, causada pelo cisticerco, a larva do cestóide Taenia solium, é a infecção mais comum do sistema nervoso central e constitui importante problema de saúde pública em muitos países. A sua prevalência na região de Curitiba, localizada no Estado do Paraná, foi estimada em 9%, situando-se entre as mais elevadas do mundo. Os aspectos genéticos de suscetibilidade à neurocisticercose (NCC ainda são pouco conhecidos. Com o objetivo de investigar se genes do MHC influenciam a suscetibilidade individual à NCC, realizamos uma análise de associação caso-controle. Cinqüenta e dois pacientes caucasóides e 149 indivíduos-controle pareados foram tipados para antígenos dos locos HLA-A, B, C, DR e DQ. Todos os

  18. Digital Still Transect Images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP) Maui 2006 (NODC Accession 0039627)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of digital still transect images (JPG files) from CRAMP surveys taken on Maui in 2006 at 8 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Surveys...

  19. Humidification of the Arctic: Effects of more open ocean water on land temperatures and tundra productivity along continental and maritime bioclimate transects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, U. S.; Walker, D. A.; Raynolds, M. K.; Epstein, H. E.

    2017-12-01

    Amplified Arctic warming linked to declining sea-ice extent led to generally enhanced productivity of the tundra biome during the period 1982-2008. After about 2002, coinciding with a recent precipitous decline in sea ice, large areas of the Arctic began showing reversals of previous positive productivity trends. To better understand these recent vegetation productivity declines and whether they are associated with differences in a general humidification of portions of the Arctic, we focus analysis on two transects with ground information: the more continental North America Arctic Transect (NAAT) and the more maritime Eurasia Arctic Transect (EAT). We compare ground information with satellite-derived trends in open water, summer terrestrial temperatures, and vegetation greenness and changes in continentality of the two transects, as indicated by the differences in the annual maximum and minimum mean monthly temperatures. Areas adjacent to perennial sea ice along in the northern parts of the NAAT exhibit climates with positive trends in summer warmth, but negative greening trends, possibly due to soil drying. Southern parts of the NAAT in the vicinity of more open water show positive greenness trends. Along the EAT, cooling midsummer conditions and reduced greenness appear to be caused by cloudier conditions, and possibly later snow melt during the period of maximum potential photosynthesis. Ground-based environmental and vegetation data indicate that biomass, particularly moss biomass is much greater along the more maritime EAT, indicating a buffering effect of the vegetation that will act to damp productivity as humidification of the Arctic proceeds. This multi-scale analysis is one step in the direction of understanding the drivers of tundra vegetation productivity in the Arctic.

  20. FBSAD Recruit Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2005 (NODC Accession 0046935)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 8-13 m depths at 3 longshore sites on the leeward coast (North and South Kohala districts) of the Big Island (Hawaii...

  1. Dentate gyrus and hilus transection blocks seizure propagation and granule cell dispersion in a mouse model for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallud, Johan; Häussler, Ute; Langlois, Mélanie; Hamelin, Sophie; Devaux, Bertrand; Deransart, Colin; Depaulis, Antoine

    2011-03-01

    Epilepsy-associated changes of the anatomical organization of the dentate gyrus and hilus may play a critical role in the initiation and propagation of seizures in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). This study evaluated the role of longitudinal projections in the propagation of hippocampal paroxysmal discharges (HPD) in dorsal hippocampus by performing a selective transection in a mouse model for MTLE obtained by a single unilateral intrahippocampal injection of kainic acid (KA). Full transections of the dentate gyrus and hilus were performed in the transverse axis at 22 days after KA injection when spontaneous HPD were fully developed. They: (i) significantly reduced the occurrence of HPD; (ii) increased their duration at the KA injection site; (iii) abolished their spread along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampal formation and; (iv) limited granule cell dispersion (GCD) of the dentate gyrus posterior to the transection. These data suggest that: (i) longitudinal projections through the dentate gyrus and hilus are involved in HPD spread; (ii) distant hippocampal circuits participate in the generation and cessation of HPD and; (iii) GCD requires continuous HPD to develop, even when seizures are established. Our data reveal a critical role for longitudinal projections in the generation and spread of hippocampal seizures. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. A novel device for studying weight supported, quadrupedal overground locomotion in spinal cord injured rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Marvin; Traughber, Terence; Reinkensmeyer, David J; de Leon, Ray D

    2015-05-15

    Providing weight support facilitates locomotion in spinal cord injured animals. To control weight support, robotic systems have been developed for treadmill stepping and more recently for overground walking. We developed a novel device, the body weight supported ambulatory rodent trainer (i.e. BART). It has a small pneumatic cylinder that moves along a linear track above the rat. When air is supplied to the cylinder, the rats are lifted as they perform overground walking. We tested the BART device in rats that received a moderate spinal cord contusion injury and in normal rats. Locomotor training with the BART device was not performed. All of the rats learned to walk in the BART device. In the contused rats, significantly greater paw dragging and dorsal stepping occurred in the hindlimbs compared to normal. Providing weight support significantly raised hip position and significantly reduced locomotor deficits. Hindlimb stepping was tightly coupled to forelimb stepping but only when the contused rats stepped without weight support. Three weeks after the contused rats received a complete spinal cord transection, significantly fewer hindlimb steps were performed. Relative to rodent robotic systems, the BART device is a simpler system for studying overground locomotion. The BART device lacks sophisticated control and sensing capability, but it can be assembled relatively easily and cheaply. These findings suggest that the BART device is a useful tool for assessing quadrupedal, overground locomotion which is a more natural form of locomotion relative to treadmill locomotion. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Design-based stereological analysis of the lung parenchymal architecture and alveolar type II cells in surfactant protein A and D double deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, A; Allen, L; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2005-01-01

    Alveolar epithelial type II cells synthesize and secrete surfactant. The surfactant-associated proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D), members of the collectin protein family, participate in pulmonary immune defense, modulation of inflammation, and surfactant metabolism. Both proteins are known to have......, but the mean volume of a single lamellar body remains constant. These results demonstrate that chronic deficiency of SP-A and SP-D in mice leads to parenchymal remodeling, type II cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and disturbed intracellular surfactant metabolism. The design-based stereological approach...

  4. FBSAB RECRUIT Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2009 (NODC Accession 0073870)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 1 to ~ 5 m depths at a total two (2) sites on the leeward coast (South Kohala district) of the Big Island (Hawaii...

  5. Objective Assessment of the Severity of Patients Suffering from Fall from Height with Combined Injuries of the Abdominal Parenchymal Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdukhakim Khadjibaev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, fall from a height (FFH has been a relatively frequent cause of injury and death in the urban environment. The purpose of this study was to optimize the risk stratification of FFH victims with combined injuries of the abdominal organs by using Injury Severity Score (ISS scale. The study included 111 patients (aged between 15 and 80 years injured by FFH. All the falls were accidental and occurred mainly among males (82%. The height of the fall ranged from 2 to 5 meters. Combined injuries were found in 98 patients and isolated injuries in 13 patients. The combination of the 6 injured body regions was identified in 5 patients, 5 regions in 17, 4 in 35, 3 in 23, and 2 in 18. The abdomen trauma was most commonly associated with the following injured body regions: head and neck-chest-extremities and pelvis (13.3%, head and neck-chest-extremities (12.2%, and head and neck-chest-pelvis (9.2%. Among the combined injuries of the abdomen, ruptures of parenchymal organs (liver, spleen and kidneys were predominant. To assess the severity of the injury, the ISS scale was applied. The injuries of abdominal parenchymal organs were evaluated according to the AAST (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma classification. Comparative analysis of the assessment of the severity of a patient's condition according to the traditional scale and the ISS scale showed that the ISS scale promotes the active and timely detection of the extremely severe and terminal condition in patients with injuries due to FFH with combined trauma of the abdominal organs. Objective assessment of the severity of trauma and the dominant injury region allows determining the optimal treatment algorithm and predicting the outcome of the injury.

  6. FBSAB PREDATOR Reef Fish Belt Transect Surveys at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2009 (NODC Accession 0073870)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 1 to ~5 m depths at a total two (2) sites: at 2 longshore sites on the leeward coast (South Kohala district) of the Big...

  7. Breast MRI background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) correlates with the risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telegrafo, Michele; Rella, Leonarda; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Angelelli, Giuseppe; Moschetta, Marco

    2016-02-01

    To investigate whether background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and breast cancer would correlate searching for any significant difference of BPE pattern distribution in case of benign or malignant lesions. 386 patients, including 180 pre-menopausal (group 1) and 206 post-menopausal (group 2), underwent MR examination. Two radiologists evaluated MR images classifying normal BPE as minimal, mild, moderate or marked. The two groups of patients were subdivided into 3 categories based on MRI findings (negative, benign and malignant lesions). The distribution of BPE patterns within the two groups and within the three MR categories was calculated. The χ2 test was used to evaluate BPE type distribution in the three patient categories and any statistically significant correlation of BPE with lesion type was calculated. The Student t test was applied to search for any statistically significant difference between BPE type rates in group 1 and 2. The χ2 test demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the distribution of BPE types in negative patients and benign lesions as compared with malignant ones (p0.05). Normal BPE could correlate with the risk of breast cancer being such BPE patterns as moderate and marked associated with patients with malignant lesions in both pre and post-menopausal women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Perforin-2 is essential for intracellular defense of parenchymal cells and phagocytes against pathogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Ryan M; de Armas, Lesley R; Shiratsuchi, Motoaki; Fiorentino, Desiree G; Olsson, Melissa L; Lichtenheld, Mathias G; Morales, Alejo; Lyapichev, Kirill; Gonzalez, Louis E; Strbo, Natasa; Sukumar, Neelima; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Plano, Gregory V; Munson, George P; Tomic-Canic, Marjana; Kirsner, Robert S; Russell, David G; Podack, Eckhard R

    2015-01-01

    Perforin-2 (MPEG1) is a pore-forming, antibacterial protein with broad-spectrum activity. Perforin-2 is expressed constitutively in phagocytes and inducibly in parenchymal, tissue-forming cells. In vitro, Perforin-2 prevents the intracellular replication and proliferation of bacterial pathogens in these cells. Perforin-2 knockout mice are unable to control the systemic dissemination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or Salmonella typhimurium and perish shortly after epicutaneous or orogastric infection respectively. In contrast, Perforin-2-sufficient littermates clear the infection. Perforin-2 is a transmembrane protein of cytosolic vesicles -derived from multiple organelles- that translocate to and fuse with bacterium containing vesicles. Subsequently, Perforin-2 polymerizes and forms large clusters of 100 Å pores in the bacterial surface with Perforin-2 cleavage products present in bacteria. Perforin-2 is also required for the bactericidal activity of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and hydrolytic enzymes. Perforin-2 constitutes a novel and apparently essential bactericidal effector molecule of the innate immune system. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06508.001 PMID:26402460

  9. Volume-controlled histographic analysis of pulmonary parenchyma in normal and diffuse parenchymal lung disease: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyo Yong; Lee, Jongmin; Kim, Jong Seob; Won, Chyl Ho; Kang, Duk Sik; Kim, Myoung Nam

    2000-01-01

    located in an area of higher density. Using a home-made histographic analysis system which included a lung volume controller, patients with diffuse parenchymal lung disease could be distinguished from normal contros. The method may be useful for the diagnosis and follow up of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. (author)

  10. Volume-controlled histographic analysis of pulmonary parenchyma in normal and diffuse parenchymal lung disease: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyo Yong; Lee, Jongmin; Kim, Jong Seob; Won, Chyl Ho; Kang, Duk Sik [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myoung Nam [The University of Iowa (United States)

    2000-06-01

    located in an area of higher density. Using a home-made histographic analysis system which included a lung volume controller, patients with diffuse parenchymal lung disease could be distinguished from normal contros. The method may be useful for the diagnosis and follow up of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. (author)

  11. Meltwater retention in a transect across the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Carl Egede; Forsberg, René; Reeh, Niels

    2005-01-01

    by different physical mechanisms, their potential magnitude can be estimated, which has been done in a transect at 66 degrees N. Results show that SI declines from west to east and inversely correlates with accumulation. From the total retention capacity, theoretical lowest-runoff lines were determined......Meltwater retention by freezing is a highly climate-sensitive term in the mass budget since the cold content is directly controlled by winter climate, which is expected to change most in an anthropogenic-driven climate change. Meltwater released at the surface percolates into dry snow in a pattern...... with alternating horizontal and vertical water-flow directions, where the processes of pore refreezing (RF) (vertical flow) and superimposed ice (SI) formation (horizontal flow) occur. The flow cannot be forecasted and quantified when water first enters cold, dry snow. However, because the two processes are driven...

  12. Outcome of prolonged acute vena cava occlusion after iatrogenic transection and repair in a dog

    OpenAIRE

    Halwagi, Marie-Chantal; Crawford, Evan; Hoddinott, Katie; Oblak, Michelle L.

    2017-01-01

    A 12-year-old castrated male Airedale terrier dog was diagnosed with a hepatocellular carcinoma in the right medial liver lobe. During tumor resection, inadvertent stapling and transection of the caudal vena cava occurred. Complete caval occlusion was required for 18 minutes and primary anastomosis was completed. The dog received 2 blood transfusions and developed mild pelvic limb edema after surgery. Computed tomography evaluation 9 months after surgery showed collateral circulation and susp...

  13. Video transect images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): data from year 1999 (NODC Accession 0000671)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (JPEG files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 1999 at 26 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Estimates of substrate...

  14. Digital Still Transect Images from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Data from 2004 (NODC Accession 0037908)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of video transect images (JPG files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2004 at 6 sites, some of which had multiple depths. Digital images are...

  15. Evaluation of changes in vertical ground reaction forces as indicators of meniscal damage after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumble, Troy N; Billinghurst, R Clark; Bendele, Alison M; McIlwraith, C Wayne

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether decreases in peak vertical force of the hind limb after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) would be indicative of medial meniscal damage in dogs. 39 purpose-bred adult male Walker Hounds. The right CrCL was transected arthroscopically. Force plate measurements of the right hind limb were made prior to and 2, 4, 10, and 18 weeks after transection of the CrCL. Only dogs with > or =10% decreases in peak vertical force after week 2 were considered to have potential meniscal damage. Dogs that did not have > or =10% decreases in peak vertical force at any time point after week 2 were assigned to group 1. Group 2 dogs had > or =10% decreases in peak vertical force from weeks 2 to 4 only. Group 3 and 4 dogs had > or =10% decreases in peak vertical force from weeks 4 to 10 only or from weeks 10 to 18 only, respectively. Damage to menisci and articular cartilage was graded at week 18, and grades for groups 2 to 4 were compared with those of group 1. The percentage change in peak vertical force and impulse area was significantly different in groups 2 (n = 4), 3 (4), and 4 (4) at the end of each measurement period (weeks 4, 10, and 18, respectively) than in group 1 (27). The meniscal grade for groups 2 to 4 was significantly higher than for group 1. A > or =10% decrease in peak vertical force had sensitivity of 52% and accuracy of 72% for identifying dogs with moderate to severe medial meniscal damage. In dogs with transected or ruptured CrCLs, force plate analysis can detect acute exacerbation of lameness, which may be the result of secondary meniscal damage, and provide an objective noninvasive technique that delineates the temporal pattern of medial meniscal injury.

  16. Wet nitrogen deposition across the urban-intensive agricultural-rural transect of a small urban area in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ouping; Zhang, Shirong; Deng, Liangji; Zhang, Chunlong; Fei, Jianbo

    2018-03-01

    Understanding of the spatial and temporal variation of the flux of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is essential for assessment of its impact on ecosystems. However, little attention has been paid to the variability of N deposition across urban-intensive agricultural-rural transects. A continuous 2-year observational study (from January 2015 to December 2016) was conducted to determine wet N deposition across the urban-intensive agricultural-rural transect of a small urban area in southwest China. Significantly spatial and temporal variations were found in the research area. Along the urban-intensive agricultural-rural transect, the TN and NH 4 + -N deposition first increased and then decreased, and the NO 3 - -N and dissolved organic N (DON) deposition decreased continuously. Wet N deposition was mainly affected by the districts of agro-facilities, roads and build up lands. Wet NH 4 + -N deposition had non-seasonal emission sources including industrial emissions and urban excretory wastes in urban districts and seasonal emission sources such as fertilizer and manure volatilization in the other districts. However, wet NO 3 - -N deposition had seasonal emission sources such as industrial emissions and fireworks in urban district and non-seasonal emission sources such as transportation in the other districts. Deposition of DON was likely to have had similar sources to NO 3 - -N deposition in rural district, and high-temperature-dependent sources in urban and intensive agricultural districts. Considering the annual wet TN deposition in the intensive agricultural district was about 11.1% of the annual N fertilizer input, N fertilizer rates of crops should be reduced in this region to avoid the excessive application, and the risk of N emissions to the environment.

  17. Neurogenesis and growth factors expression after complete spinal cord transection in Pleurodeles waltlii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Z Zaky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Following spinal lesion, connections between the supra-spinal centers and spinal neuronal networks can be disturbed, which causes the deterioration or even the complete absence of sublesional locomotor activity. In Mammals, possibilities of locomotion restoration are much reduced since descending tracts either have very poor regenerative ability or do not regenerate at all. However, in lower Vertebrates, there is spontaneous locomotion recuperation after complete spinal cord transection at the mid-trunk level. This phenomenon depends on a translesional descending axon re-growth originating from the brainstem. On the other hand, cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying spinal cord regeneration and in parallel, locomotion restoration of the animal, are not well known. FGF-2 plays an important role in different processes such as neural induction, neuronal progenitor proliferation and their differentiation. Studies had shown an over expression of this growth factor after tail amputation. Nestin, a protein specific for intermediate filaments, is considered as an early marker for neuronal precursors. It has been recently shown that its expression increases after tail transection in Urodeles. Using this marker and western blots, our results show that the increase in the number of FGF-2 and FGFR2 mRNAs is correlated with an increase in neurogenesis especially in the central canal lining cells immediately after lesion. This study also confirms that spinal cord re-growth through the lesion site initially follows a rostrocaudal direction. In addition to its role known in neuronal differentiation, FGF-2 could be implicated in the differentiation of ependymal cells into neuronal progenitors.

  18. Potential of Gdgts as Temperature Proxies Along Altitudinal Transects in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffinet, Sarah; Huguet, Arnaud; Omuombo, Christine; Williamson, David; Fosse, Céline; Anquetil, Christine; Derenne, Sylvie

    2014-05-01

    Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are lipids of high molecular weight and include the isoprenoid GDGTs (iGDGTs) produced by Archaea and the branched GDGTs (brGDGTs) produced by unknown bacteria. Several indices were developed to describe the relationship between GDGT distribution and environmental parameters: the TEX86 (tetraether index of tetraethers consisting of 86 carbons), based on the relative abundances of iGDGTs in sediments, and the MBT (methylation index of branched tetraethers) and CBT (cyclisation ratio of branched tetraethers), based on the relative abundance of brGDGTs in soils. The TEX86 was shown to correlate well with water surface temperature, and the MBT and CBT with mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and soil pH. The GDGTs are increasingly used as temperature proxies. In this study, 41 surface soils were sampled along two altitudinal transects, from 500 to 2800 meters in Mount Rungwe (South western, Tanzania) and from 1897 to 3268 meters in Mount Kenya (Central Kenya). MAAT was reconstructed along the two transects using the MBT/CBT proxies. A linear correlation between the MBT/CBT-derived temperatures and the altitude (R2=0.83) was obtained by combining results of the two transects. The reconstructed temperature lapse rate (0.5 ° C/100 m) was consistent with the one determined from temperature measurements at six altitudes. These results show that the MBT/CBT is a suitable and robust temperature proxy in East Africa. In Mt. Rungwe soil samples, the TEX86 index, which was mainly used to reconstruct water surface temperatures until now, was found to vary linearly with altitude (R2=0.50). Such a relationship between TEX86 and altitude in organic soils has also been recently noticed in Mt. Xiangpi, China (Liu et al., 2013; R2=0.68). The adiabatic cooling of air with altitude could explain the TEX86 variation with altitude. If such a relationship is confirmed, the use of the TEX86 as a temperature proxy could be extended to soil

  19. Quantitative Assessment of Tendon Healing by Using MR T2 Mapping in a Rabbit Achilles Tendon Transection Model Treated with Platelet-rich Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukawa, Taisuke; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Atsuya; Sasho, Takahisa; Akagi, Ryuichiro; Muramatsu, Yuta; Akatsu, Yorikazu; Katsuragi, Joe; Endo, Jun; Osone, Fumio; Sato, Yasunori; Okubo, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2015-09-01

    To determine if magnetic resonance (MR) imaging T2 mapping can be used to quantify histologic tendon healing by using a rabbit Achilles tendon transection model treated with platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Experiments were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. The Achilles tendons of 24 New Zealand white rabbits (48 limbs) were surgically transected, and PRP (in the test group) or saline (in the control group) was injected into the transection site. The rabbits were sacrificed 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after surgery. Thereafter, T2 mapping and histologic evaluations were performed by using the Bonar scale. A mixed-model multivariate analysis of variance was used to test the effects of time and PRP treatment on the T2 value and Bonar grade, respectively. The correlation between the T2 value and Bonar grade was also assessed by using the Spearman correlation coefficient. The Bonar scale values decreased in both groups during tendon healing. The T2 value also shortened over time (P tendon healing. While T2 and Bonar grade were lower at all time points in tendons treated with PRP, there was no significant difference between the treatment and control tendons.

  20. Evaluation of Partial Transection versus Synovial Debridement of the ACL as Novel Canine Models for Management of ACL Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozynski, Chantelle C; Kuroki, Keiichi; Stannard, James P; Smith, Patrick A; Stoker, Aaron M; Cook, Cristi R; Cook, James L

    2015-10-01

    A major hurdle in investigating important clinical questions in knee ligament treatment is a lack of valid translational animal models. This study characterizes the effects of partial transection versus synovial debridement of the anterior (cranial) cruciate ligament (ACL) in dogs. A total of 27 adult purpose-bred research hounds underwent surgery and were assessed over the following 8 weeks. Dogs were randomized into the following three ACL status groups: sham control (n = 9), intact ACL with synovial debridement (exposed ACL) (n = 9), and partial transection of the ACL (partial tear ACL) (n = 9). Dogs in the exposed ACL group and partial tear ACL group had significantly (p < 0.05) more severe lameness, pain, effusion, reduced function, and reduced comfortable range of motion compared with controls, with the partial tear ACL group being most severely affected. More severe ACL and whole-joint pathology, and radiographic scores for osteoarthritis were present in the partial tear ACL group compared with exposed and/or sham control group. On the basis of these findings, biologic components of ACL injury (exposed ACL) played a role in whole-joint inflammation, but the clinical and pathological effects were more severe when both biologic and biomechanical components were present (i.e., partial tear ACL). These novel canine models were successfully developed to evaluate partial transection versus synovial debridement of the ACL and these models will be used to evaluate treatment options for acute management of ACL injuries. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. MRI Background Parenchymal Enhancement Is Not Associated with Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bennani-Baiti

    Full Text Available Previously, a strong positive association between background parenchymal enhancement (BPE at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and breast cancer was reported in high-risk populations. We sought to determine, whether this was also true for non-high-risk patients.540 consecutive patients underwent breast MRI for assessment of breast findings (BI-RADS 0-5, non-high-risk screening (no familial history of breast cancer, no known genetic mutation, no prior chest irradiation, or previous breast cancer diagnosis and subsequent histological work-up. For this IRB-approved study, BPE and fibroglandular tissue FGT were retrospectively assessed by two experienced radiologists according to the BI-RADS lexicon. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to explore associations between BPE, FGT, age and final diagnosis of breast cancer. Subsequently, multivariate logistic regression analysis, considering covariate colinearities, was performed, using final diagnosis as the target variable and BPE, FGT and age as covariates.Age showed a moderate negative correlation with FGT (r = -0.43, p<0.001 and a weak negative correlation with BPE (r = -0.28, p<0.001. FGT and BPE correlated moderately (r = 0.35, p<0.001. Final diagnosis of breast cancer displayed very weak negative correlations with FGT (r = -0.09, p = 0.046 and BPE (r = -0.156, p<0.001 and weak positive correlation with age (r = 0.353, p<0.001. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, the only independent covariate for prediction of breast cancer was age (OR 1.032, p<0.001.Based on our data, neither BPE nor FGT independently correlate with breast cancer risk in non-high-risk patients at MRI. Our model retained only age as an independent risk factor for breast cancer in this setting.

  2. Recent advances in 2D and 3D in vitro systems using primary hepatocytes, alternative hepatocyte sources and non-parenchymal liver cells and their use in investigating mechanisms of hepatotoxicity, cell signaling and ADME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godoy, Patricio; Hewitt, Nicola J.; Albrecht, Ute; Andersen, Melvin E.; Ansari, Nariman; Bhattacharya, Sudin; Bode, Johannes Georg; Bolleyn, Jennifer; Borner, Christoph; Boettger, Jan; Braeuning, Albert; Budinsky, Robert A.; Burkhardt, Britta; Cameron, Neil R.; Camussi, Giovanni; Cho, Chong-Su; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Rowlands, J. Craig; Dahmen, Uta; Damm, Georg; Dirsch, Olaf; Teresa Donato, Maria; Dong, Jian; Dooley, Steven; Drasdo, Dirk; Eakins, Rowena; Ferreira, Karine Sa; Fonsato, Valentina; Fraczek, Joanna; Gebhardt, Rolf; Gibson, Andrew; Glanemann, Matthias; Goldring, Chris E. P.; Jose Gomez-Lechon, Maria; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Gustavsson, Lena; Guyot, Christelle; Hallifax, David; Hammad, Seddik; Hayward, Adam; Haeussinger, Dieter; Hellerbrand, Claus; Hewitt, Philip; Hoehme, Stefan; Holzhuetter, Hermann-Georg; Houston, J. Brian; Hrach, Jens; Ito, Kiyomi; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Keitel, Verena; Kelm, Jens M.; Park, B. Kevin; Kordes, Claus; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A.; LeCluyse, Edward L.; Lu, Peng; Luebke-Wheeler, Jennifer; Lutz, Anna; Maltman, Daniel J.; Matz-Soja, Madlen; McMullen, Patrick; Merfort, Irmgard; Messner, Simon; Meyer, Christoph; Mwinyi, Jessica; Naisbitt, Dean J.; Nussler, Andreas K.; Olinga, Peter; Pampaloni, Francesco; Pi, Jingbo; Pluta, Linda; Przyborski, Stefan A.; Ramachandran, Anup; Rogiers, Vera; Rowe, Cliff; Schelcher, Celine; Schmich, Kathrin; Schwarz, Michael; Singh, Bijay; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.; Stieger, Bruno; Stoeber, Regina; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Tetta, Ciro; Thasler, Wolfgang E.; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Vinken, Mathieu; Weiss, Thomas S.; Widera, Agata; Woods, Courtney G.; Xu, Jinghai James; Yarborough, Kathy M.; Hengstler, Jan G.

    This review encompasses the most important advances in liver functions and hepatotoxicity and analyzes which mechanisms can be studied in vitro. In a complex architecture of nested, zonated lobules, the liver consists of approximately 80 % hepatocytes and 20 % non-parenchymal cells, the latter being

  3. Mercury distribution and transport in the North Atlantic Ocean along the GEOTRACES-GA01 transect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cossa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We report here the results of total mercury (HgT determinations along the 2014 Geotraces Geovide cruise (GA01 transect in the North Atlantic Ocean (NA from Lisbon (Portugal to the coast of Labrador (Canada. HgT concentrations in unfiltered samples (HgTUNF were log-normally distributed and ranged between 0.16 and 1.54 pmol L−1, with a geometric mean of 0.51 pmol L−1 for the 535 samples analysed. The dissolved fraction (< 0.45 µm of HgT (HgTF, determined on 141 samples, averaged 78 % of the HgTUNF for the entire data set, 84 % for open seawaters (below 100 m and 91 % if the Labrador Sea data are excluded, where the primary production was high (with a winter convection down to 1400 m. HgTUNF concentrations increased eastwards and with depth from Greenland to Europe and from subsurface to bottom waters. The HgTUNF concentrations were similarly low in the subpolar gyre waters ( ∼  0.45 pmol L−1, whereas they exceeded 0.60 pmol L−1 in the subtropical gyre waters. The HgTUNF distribution mirrored that of dissolved oxygen concentration, with highest concentration levels associated with oxygen-depleted zones. The relationship between HgTF and the apparent oxygen utilization confirms the nutrient-like behaviour of Hg in the NA. An extended optimum multiparameter analysis allowed us to characterize HgTUNF concentrations in the different source water types (SWTs present along the transect. The distribution pattern of HgTUNF, modelled by the mixing of SWTs, show Hg enrichment in Mediterranean waters and North East Atlantic Deep Water and low concentrations in young waters formed in the subpolar gyre and Nordic seas. The change in anthropogenic Hg concentrations in the Labrador Sea Water during its eastward journey suggests a continuous decrease in Hg content in this water mass over the last decades. Calculation of the water transport driven by the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation across the Portugal

  4. Soil Biogeochemical and Microbial Feedbacks along a Snowmelt-Dominated Hillslope-to-Floodplain Transect in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, P.; Beller, H. R.; Bill, M.; Bouskill, N.; Brodie, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Conrad, M. E.; Karaoz, U.; Polussa, A.; Steltzer, H.; Wang, S.; Williams, K. H.; Wilmer, C.; Wu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrogen export from mountainous watersheds is a product of multiple interactions among hydrological processes and soil-microbial-plant feedbacks along the continuum from terrestrial to aquatic environments. In snow-dominated systems, like the East River Watershed (CO), seasonal processes such as snowmelt exert significant influence on the annual hydrologic cycle and may also link spatially distinct catchment subsystems, such as hillslope and adjoining riparian floodplains. Further, snowmelt is occurring earlier each year and this is predicted to result in a temporal asynchrony between historically coupled microbial nutrient release and plant nutrient demand in spring, with the potential to increase N export from the East River Watershed. Here we summarize biogeochemical data collected along a hillslope-to-riparian floodplain transect at the East River site. Starting in Fall 2016, we sampled soils at 3 depths and measured dissolved pools of soil nutrients (e.g., NH4+, NO3-, DOC, P), microbial biomass CN, and microbial community composition over a seasonal time course, through periods of snow accumulation, snowmelt, and plant senescence. Soil moisture content in the top 5 cm of floodplain soils was nearly 4X greater across sampling dates, coinciding with 2X greater microbial biomass C, larger extractable pools of NH4+, and smaller pools of NO3- in floodplain vs. hillslope soils. These results suggest that microbially mediated redox processes played an important role in N cycling along the transect. Hillslope vs. floodplain location also appeared to be a key factor that differentiated soil microbial communities (e.g., a more important factor than seasonality or soil depth or type). Snow accumulation and snowmelt exerted substantial influence on soil biogeochemistry. For example, microbial biomass accumulation increased about 2X beneath the winter snowpack. Snowmelt resulted in a precipitous crash in the microbial population, with 2.5X reductions in floodplain and 2X

  5. Upper Cretaceous molluscan record along a transect from Virden, New Mexico, to Del Rio, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobban, W.A.; Hook, S.C.; McKinney, K.C.

    2008-01-01

    Updated age assignments and new collections of molluscan fossils from lower Cenomanian through upper Campanian strata in Texas permit a much refined biostratigraphic correlation with the rocks of New Mexico and the Western Interior. Generic names of many Late Cretaceous ammonites and inoceramid bivalves from Texas are updated to permit this correlation. Strata correlated in the west-to-east transect include the lower Cenomanian Beartooth Quartzite and Sarten Sandstone of southwest New Mexico, and the Eagle Mountains Formation, Del Rio Clay, Buda Limestone, and. basal beds of the Chispa Summit, Ojinaga, and Boquillas Formations of the Texas-Mexico border area. Middle Cenomanian strata are lacking in southwestern New Mexico but are present in the lower parts of the Chispa Summit and Boquillas Formations in southwest Texas. Upper Cenomanian and lower Turonian rocks are present at many localities in New Mexico and Texas in the Mancos Shale and Chispa Summit, Ojinaga, and Boquillas Formations. Middle Turonian and younger rocks seem to be entirely nonmarine in southwestern New Mexico, but they are marine in the Rio Grande area in the Chispa. Summit, Ojinaga, and Boquillas Formations. The upper part of the Chispa Summit and Boquillas contain late Turonian fossils. Rocks of Coniacian and Santonian age are present high in the Chispa Summit, Ojinaga, and Boquillas Formations, and in the lower part of the Austin. The San Carlos, Aguja, Pen, and Austin Formations contain fossils of Campanian age. Fossils representing at least 38 Upper Cretaceous ammonite zones are present along the transect. Collections made in recent years in southwestern New Mexico and at Sierra de Cristo Rey just west of downtown El Paso, Texas, have been well treated and do not need revision. Taxonomic names and zonations published in the pre-1970 literature on the Rio Grande area of Texas have been updated. New fossil collections from the Big Bend National Park, Texas, allow for a much refined correlation

  6. A transect through a clastic-swamp to peat swamp ecotone in the Springifled Coal, Middle Pennsylvanian age of Indiana, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, T.L.; DiMichele, W.A. [University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Plant Biology

    1998-04-01

    Permineralized fossil plants in coal balls were collected along a kilometer transect through an organic-rich shale in the Springifled Coal in southwestern Indiana. The organic shale is an upper bench of the Springfield Coal in an area where the coal is split into an upper and lower bench by a complex system of clastics that originated as a splay. The clastic wedge, described as the Folsomville Member/Leslie Cemetery paleochannel, is up to 6 km wide and 15 m thick. The transect being approximately 100 m from the edge of the clastic wedge that splits the coal seam and follows the upper bench of coal over and toward the center of the clastic wedge. The dominant elements of the vegetation were the lycopsid tree Paralycopodites brevifolius and several species of medullosan pteridosperms. This report confirms the ecotonal habitats of this vegetation.

  7. Evaluation of Scat Deposition Transects versus Radio Telemetry for Developing a Species Distribution Model for a Rare Desert Carnivore, the Kit Fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Steven J; Gese, Eric M; Kluever, Bryan M; Lonsinger, Robert C; Waits, Lisette P

    2015-01-01

    Development and evaluation of noninvasive methods for monitoring species distribution and abundance is a growing area of ecological research. While noninvasive methods have the advantage of reduced risk of negative factors associated with capture, comparisons to methods using more traditional invasive sampling is lacking. Historically kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis) occupied the desert and semi-arid regions of southwestern North America. Once the most abundant carnivore in the Great Basin Desert of Utah, the species is now considered rare. In recent decades, attempts have been made to model the environmental variables influencing kit fox distribution. Using noninvasive scat deposition surveys for determination of kit fox presence, we modeled resource selection functions to predict kit fox distribution using three popular techniques (Maxent, fixed-effects, and mixed-effects generalized linear models) and compared these with similar models developed from invasive sampling (telemetry locations from radio-collared foxes). Resource selection functions were developed using a combination of landscape variables including elevation, slope, aspect, vegetation height, and soil type. All models were tested against subsequent scat collections as a method of model validation. We demonstrate the importance of comparing multiple model types for development of resource selection functions used to predict a species distribution, and evaluating the importance of environmental variables on species distribution. All models we examined showed a large effect of elevation on kit fox presence, followed by slope and vegetation height. However, the invasive sampling method (i.e., radio-telemetry) appeared to be better at determining resource selection, and therefore may be more robust in predicting kit fox distribution. In contrast, the distribution maps created from the noninvasive sampling (i.e., scat transects) were significantly different than the invasive method, thus scat transects may be

  8. Impact of fibroglandular tissue and background parenchymal enhancement on diffusion weighted imaging of breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iacconi, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.iacconi@tin.it [Breast Unit, USL1 Massa-Carrara, Piazza Monzoni 2, Carrara 54033 (Italy); Thakur, Sunitha B., E-mail: thakurs@mskcc.org [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Dershaw, David D., E-mail: dershawd@mskcc.org [Department of Radiology – Breast Imaging Center, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Brooks, Jennifer, E-mail: brooksj@mskcc.org [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 307 East 63rd Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Fry, Charles W., E-mail: charles_fry@nymc.edu [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Morris, Elizabeth A., E-mail: morrise@mskcc.org [Department of Radiology – Breast Imaging Center, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Aim of the paper is to evaluate if the amount of fibroglandular breast tissue (FGT) and the background enhancement(BPE) influence the detection of lesions and their quantitative analysis in diffusion weighted imaging(DWI) • The structure of the breast, including both FGT and BPE, as well as the menopausal status of the patient are not a relevant factor for lesion identification in DWI. • Quantitative analysis of normal breast is not uniform and is influenced by the amount of fibroglandular tissue,while there is no influence of background parenchymal enhancement. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the influence of the amount of fibroglandular breast tissue (FGT) and background-parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on lesion detection, quantitative analysis of normal breast tissue and of breast lesions on DWI. Materials and methods: IRB approved this retrospective study on focal findings at contrast-enhanced (CE) breast MR and DWI performed during July–December 2011. Patients with cysts, previous irradiation, silicone implants and current chemotherapy were excluded. DWI with fat suppression was acquired before dynamic acquisition (b factors: 0.1000 s/mm{sup 2}) using 1.5 and 3 T scanners. Using correlation with dynamic and T2 images, ROIs were drawn free-hand within the borders of any visible lesion and in contralateral normal breast. Fisher's exact test to evaluate visibility and Wilcoxon-rank-sum test for comparison of ADC values were used. The amount of FGT and BPE was visually assessed by concurrent MRI. Analysis was stratified by menopausal status. Results: 25/127 (20%) lesions were excluded for technical reasons. 65/102 (64%) lesions were visible on DWI (median diameter: 1.85 cm). Mass lesions (M) were more visible (43/60 = 72%) than non-mass enhancement (NME) (22/42 = 52%) and malignant lesions were more visible (55/72 = 76%) than benign (10/30 = 33%). BPE and FGT did not influence visibility of M (p = 0.35 and p = 0.57 respectively) as well

  9. Transection of inferior orbital fissure contents for improved access and visibility in orbital surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Sophie; Chew, Hall F; Sunderland, Ian R P; Kiss, Alex; Fialkov, Jeffrey A

    2014-03-01

    Selective inferior orbital fissure (IOF) content transection for the purpose of surgical access to the posterior orbital floor is a technique that facilitates visualization of the posterior bony ledges of traumatic orbital floor defects. It also has potential advantages in achieving stable placement of reconstructive materials. Although not new, the surgical technique has not yet been described, and the morbidity of the technique has not been quantified. This article describes the procedure and assesses the morbidity specific to the division of related neural structures. The technique and surgical anatomy are described and illustrated with intraoperative photographs. Postoperative assessment of neural structures relevant to the division of IOF contents is performed. These values are compared with the nonoperated side to evaluate the morbidity of the technique. The technique, which is consistently used by the senior author in the repair of orbital floor defects with very small posterior ledges or which extend to and involve the IOF, facilitates better visualization of the posterior ledge and posterolateral ledge in such cases. Surgical outcomes including facial sensation and lacrimal function on the operated side remain within the reference range and are not significantly different when compared with the contralateral nonoperated side. Selective IOF transection aids in the direct visualization of the posterior bony ledges in the repair of posterior orbital floor defects. It therefore may facilitate the placement of reconstructive materials on bony ledges circumferentially, providing stable reconstruction, potentially reducing implant-related complications without causing increased morbidity.

  10. Increased Parenchymal Damage and Steatohepatitis in Caucasian Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients with Common IL1B and IL6 Polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, James E.; Handa, Priya; Aouizerat, Bradley; Wilson, Laura; Vemulakonda, L Akhila; Yeh, Matthew M.; Kowdley, Kris V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a complex, multifactorial disease affected by diet, lifestyle and genetics. Proinflammatory cytokines like IL-1β and IL-6 have been shown to be elevated in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between IL1B and IL6 gene polymorphisms and histologic features of NAFLD in the NASH CRN cohort. Methods 604 adult (≥18 yrs) non-Hispanic Caucasians with biopsy-proven NAFLD were genotyped for the following SNPs: IL1B, rs16944, rs1143634; IL6, rs1800795, rs10499563. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between genotype and a definitive diagnosis and advanced histological features of NASH after controlling for the following variables selected a priori: age, sex, diabetes, obesity and HOMA-IR level. Results The IL6 rs10499563 C allele was independently associated with the presence of definitive NASH, and increased ballooning and Mallory bodies. The IL1B rs1143634 TT genotype was associated with advanced fibrosis and increased Mallory bodies. The IL6 rs1800795 C allele was associated with increased risk for severe steatosis, >66% but also decreased risk for advanced fibrosis and lobular inflammation and Mallory body formation. Conclusions These results suggest that common variants in the IL6 and IL1B genes may increase susceptibility for NASH and confer a higher risk of hepatic parenchymal damage including increased ballooning, increased Mallory bodies, and bridging fibrosis or cirrhosis. In contrast, the IL6 rs1800795 C allele may confer a higher risk for steatosis, but less parenchymal damage. Our findings support the development of therapeutics aimed at IL-1β and IL-6 suppression. PMID:27730688

  11. Multivariate analysis of the geochemistry and mineralogy of soils along two continental-scale transects in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, L.J.; Grunsky, E.C.; Sutphin, D.M.; Woodruff, L.G.

    2010-01-01

    Soils collected in 2004 along two North American continental-scale transects were subjected to geochemical and mineralogical analyses. In previous interpretations of these analyses, data were expressed in weight percent and parts per million, and thus were subject to the effect of the constant-sum phenomenon. In a new approach to the data, this effect was removed by using centered log-ratio transformations to 'open' the mineralogical and geochemical arrays. Multivariate analyses, including principal component and linear discriminant analyses, of the centered log-ratio data reveal the effects of soil-forming processes, including soil parent material, weathering, and soil age, at the continental-scale of the data arrays that were not readily apparent in the more conventionally presented data. Linear discriminant analysis of the data arrays indicates that the majority of the soil samples collected along the transects can be more successfully classified with Level 1 ecological regional-scale classification by the soil geochemistry than soil mineralogy. A primary objective of this study is to discover and describe, in a parsimonious way, geochemical processes that are both independent and inter-dependent and manifested through compositional data including estimates of the elements and corresponding mineralogy. ?? 2010.

  12. Association between mammogram density and background parenchymal enhancement of breast MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei, Faranak; Danala, Gopichandh; Wang, Yunzhi; Zarafshani, Ali; Qian, Wei; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2018-02-01

    Breast density has been widely considered as an important risk factor for breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between mammogram density results and background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) of breast MRI. A dataset involving breast MR images was acquired from 65 high-risk women. Based on mammography density (BIRADS) results, the dataset was divided into two groups of low and high breast density cases. The Low-Density group has 15 cases with mammographic density (BIRADS 1 and 2), while the High-density group includes 50 cases, which were rated by radiologists as mammographic density BIRADS 3 and 4. A computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme was applied to segment and register breast regions depicted on sequential images of breast MRI scans. CAD scheme computed 20 global BPE features from the entire two breast regions, separately from the left and right breast region, as well as from the bilateral difference between left and right breast regions. An image feature selection method namely, CFS method, was applied to remove the most redundant features and select optimal features from the initial feature pool. Then, a logistic regression classifier was built using the optimal features to predict the mammogram density from the BPE features. Using a leave-one-case-out validation method, the classifier yields the accuracy of 82% and area under ROC curve, AUC=0.81+/-0.09. Also, the box-plot based analysis shows a negative association between mammogram density results and BPE features in the MRI images. This study demonstrated a negative association between mammogram density and BPE of breast MRI images.

  13. Potentially toxic metals in ombrotrophic peat along a 400 km English-Scottish transect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Lancaster), Lancaster Environment Centre, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Hughes, S. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Bangor), Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UP (United Kingdom); Lawlor, A.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Lancaster), Lancaster Environment Centre, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Lofts, S. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Lancaster), Lancaster Environment Centre, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Simon, B.M. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Lancaster), Lancaster Environment Centre, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Stevens, P.A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Bangor), Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UP (United Kingdom); Stidson, R.T. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Lancaster), Lancaster Environment Centre, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Tipping, E. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Lancaster), Lancaster Environment Centre, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: et@ceh.ac.uk; Vincent, C.D. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Lancaster), Lancaster Environment Centre, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-15

    Four samples of ombrotrophic peat were collected from each of 10 upland locations in a transect from the southern Pennines to the Highland Boundary Fault, a total distance of ca. 400 km. Bulk compositions and other properties were determined. Total contents of Al and heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) were determined following digestion with hydrofluoric acid, and concentrations of metals extractable with dilute nitric acid were also measured. Supernatants obtained from aqueous extractions of the peat samples were analysed for pH, major cations and anions, dissolved organic carbon and dissolved metals, and concentrations of free metal ions (Al{sup 3+}, Ni{sup 2+}, etc.) were estimated by applying a chemical speciation model. Both total and HNO{sub 3}-extractable metal concentrations varied along the transect, the highest values being found at locations close to industrial and former mining areas. The HNO{sub 3}-extractable soil metal contents of Ni, Cu and Cd were appreciably lower than lowest-observed-effect-concentrations (LOEC) for toxicity towards microorganisms in acid, organic rich soils. However, the contents of Zn at two locations, and of Pb at five locations exceeded LOECs, suggesting that they may be exerting toxic effects in the peats. Soil solution concentrations of free heavy metal ions (Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}) were substantially lower than LOECs for toxicity towards vascular plants, whereas concentrations of Al{sup 3+} were near to toxic levels at two locations. - P eat metal contents depend upon proximity to industrial and mining areas; the metals may be exerting toxic effects in some places.

  14. The Effect of a Third Generation Hemostatic Dressing in a Subclavian Artery and Vein Transection Porcine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    small skin incision. The exposed subclavian vessels were treated with lidocaine , transected and allowed to free bleed for thirty seconds prior to...achieve hemorrhage control (Butler & Blackbourne, 2012) is typically ineffective in this region because pressure over the clavicle will not be...cavity depth, and cavity volume. The subclavian vessels were then immersed in 30 mL of 2% lidocaine (Phoenix Pharmaceuticals, St. Joseph, MO) for 10

  15. Impact of menopausal status on background parenchymal enhancement and fibroglandular tissue on breast MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Valencia; Gu, Yajia; Kaplan, Jennifer B.; Morris, Elizabeth A.; Brooks, Jennifer D.; Pike, Malcolm C.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of menopausal status on the background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) on breast MRI. Retrospective review identified 1,130 women who underwent screening breast MRI between July and November 2010. In 28 of these women, breast MRI was performed both at one time point while pre- and one time point while post-menopausal (median interval 49 months). Two independent readers blinded to menopausal status used categorical scales to rate BPE (minimal/mild/moderate/marked) and FGT (fatty/scattered/heterogeneously dense/dense). Consensus was reached when there was disagreement. The sign test was used to assess changes in rating categories, and the Spearman rank and Fisher's exact tests were used to measure correlations and associations between variables. Significant proportions of women demonstrated decreases in BPE and FGT on post-menopausal breast MRI (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0009). BPE category was unchanged in 39 % (11/28) and decreased in 61 % (17/28) of women. FGT category was unchanged in 61 % (17/28) and decreased in 39 % (11/28) of women. Age, reason for menopause, or interval between MRIs had no significant impact on changes in BPE and FGT. On MRI, BPE, and FGT decrease after menopause in significant proportions of women; BPE decreases more than FGT. (orig.)

  16. Improved parenchymal liver enhancement with extended delay on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI in patients with parenchymal liver disease: associated clinical and imaging factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esterson, Y.B.; Flusberg, M.; Oh, S.; Mazzariol, F.; Rozenblit, A.M.; Chernyak, V.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To establish the effect of prolonged hepatobiliary phase (HBP) delay time on hepatic enhancement in patients with parenchymal liver disease (PLD). Materials and methods: Gadoxetate disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations with HBP were obtained after 20- (HBP-20) and 30-minute (HBP-30) delays in patients with PLD. For each patient, the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, total and direct bilirubin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), prothrombin time (PT), and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) were recorded. Signal intensities of the liver, main portal vein, and spleen on pre-contrast, HBP-20, and HBP-30 were documented. Signal intensities were used to calculate liver relative enhancement (LRE), liver–spleen index (LSI), and liver–portal vein index (LPI) for HBP-20 and HBP-30. Improved hepatic enhancement was considered if two or more indices were higher on HBP-30 than HBP-20. A logistic regression model was constructed with improved hepatic enhancement as the outcome. Results: One hundred and twenty-nine patients underwent 142 MRIs. Mean LRE, LSI, and LPI each increased from HBP-20 to HBP-30 (p = 0.004, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). Seventy-two point five percent of cases demonstrated improved hepatic enhancement. The odds ratios for improved hepatic enhancement were 0.85 for MELD score (p = 0.02) and 3.2 for the 3 T scanner (p = 0.02), adjusted for age and sex. Conclusion: Increasing HBP delay to 30 minutes improves hepatic enhancement in patients with PLD, particularly if using a 3 T scanner. This effect is attenuated with higher MELD scores. -- Highlights: •Increasing hepatobiliary phase delay improves hepatic enhancement in liver disease. •This effect is enhanced if using a 3T scanner. •This effect is attenuated with higher MELD scores

  17. Phytoplankton, Bacteria and Heterotrophic Nanoflagellate studies using ship and OCM-2 data along a coastal transect in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Basu, S.; Parab, S.G.; Pednekar, S.; Niyati Hede, N.; Dwivedi, R.M.; Raman, M.; Babu, K.N.; Shukla, A; Shirdhankar, M.M.

    by the riverine discharge of fresh-water. The impacts of fresh-water on the components of the food chain were studied. A total of 40 stations distributed over 3 transects were sampled off the coast of Goa, off Ratnagiri and off Dabhol. Physical conditions like...

  18. Increased parenchymal damage and steatohepatitis in Caucasian non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients with common IL1B and IL6 polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J E; Handa, P; Aouizerat, B; Wilson, L; Vemulakonda, L A; Yeh, M M; Kowdley, K V

    2016-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a complex, multifactorial disease affected by diet, lifestyle and genetics. Proinflammatory cytokines like IL-1β and IL-6 have been shown to be elevated in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). To investigate the relationship between IL1B and IL6 gene polymorphisms and histological features of NAFLD in the NASH CRN cohort. A total of 604 adult (≥18 years) non-Hispanic Caucasians with biopsy-proven NAFLD were genotyped for the following SNPs: IL1B, rs16944, rs1143634; IL6, rs1800795, rs10499563. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between genotype and a definitive diagnosis and advanced histological features of NASH after controlling for the following variables selected a priori: age, sex, diabetes, obesity and HOMA-IR level. The IL6 rs10499563 C allele was independently associated with the presence of definitive NASH, and increased ballooning and Mallory bodies. The IL1B rs1143634 TT genotype was associated with advanced fibrosis and increased Mallory bodies. The IL6 rs1800795 C allele was associated with not only increased risk for severe steatosis, >66% but also decreased risk for advanced fibrosis and lobular inflammation and Mallory body formation. These results suggest that common variants in the IL6 and IL1B genes may increase susceptibility for NASH and confer a higher risk of hepatic parenchymal damage including increased ballooning, increased Mallory bodies, and bridging fibrosis or cirrhosis. In contrast, the IL6 rs1800795 C allele may confer a higher risk for steatosis, but less parenchymal damage. Our findings support the development of therapeutics aimed at IL-1β and IL-6 suppression. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yi-ke; Yang, Juan-mei; Huang, Yi-bo; Ren, Dong-dong; Chi, Fang-lu

    2015-01-01

    The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: co...

  20. Fungiform Taste Bud Degeneration in C57BL/6J Mice Following Chorda-Lingual Nerve Transection

    OpenAIRE

    Guagliardo, Nick A.; Hill, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Taste buds are dependent on innervation for normal morphology and function. Fungiform taste bud degeneration after chorda tympani nerve injury has been well documented in rats, hamsters, and gerbils. The current study examines fungiform taste bud distribution and structure in adult C57BL/6J mice from both intact taste systems and after unilateral chorda-lingual nerve transection. Fungiform taste buds were visualized and measured with the aid of cytokeratin 8. In control mice, taste buds were ...

  1. Passive immunization of fetal rats with antiserum to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) or transection of the central roots of the nervus terminalis does not affect rat pups' preference for home nest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanzel-Fukuda, M; Pfaff, D W

    1987-01-01

    Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) is found immunocytochemically in cell bodies and fibers of the nervus terminalis, a cranial nerve which courses from the nasal septum through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone (medial to the olfactory and vomeronasal nerves) and enters the forebrain, caudal to the olfactory bulbs. Immunoreactive LHRH is first detected in the nervus terminalis of the fetal rat at 15 days of gestation, preceding its detection by immunocytochemistry in any other area of the brain, including the median eminence, and preceding detection of immunoreactive luteinizing hormone (LH) in the anterior pituitary. During development of the rat fetus, the nervus terminalis is the principal source of LHRH in the nervous system from days 15 through 19 of a 21 day gestation period. We tested the notion that the LHRH system of the nervus terminalis is important for olfactory performance by examining the effects of administration of antisera to LHRH during fetal development (versus saline controls), or medial olfactory peduncle transections, in the neonatal rat, which would sever the central projections of the nervus terminalis (versus lateral peduncle transection, complete transection of the olfactory peduncles and the central nervus terminalis or controls) on preferences of rat pups for home nest. The hypothesis that LHRH is important for this chemosensory response was not confirmed. Neither antisera to LHRH nor medical olfactory peduncle transection disrupted preference for home shavings. Only complete olfactory peduncle transection had a significant effect compared to unoperated and sham-operated controls.

  2. Potential of human dental stem cells in repairing the complete transection of rat spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Li, Xinghan; Sun, Liang; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

    2017-04-01

    Objective. The adult spinal cord of mammals contains a certain amount of neural precursor cells, but these endogenous cells have a limited capacity for replacement of lost cells after spinal cord injury. The exogenous stem cells transplantation has become a therapeutic strategy for spinal cord repairing because of their immunomodulatory and differentiation capacity. In addition, dental stem cells originating from the cranial neural crest might be candidate cell sources for neural engineering. Approach. Human dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs), stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were isolated and identified in vitro, then green GFP-labeled stem cells with pellets were transplanted into completely transected spinal cord. The functional recovery of rats and multiple neuro-regenerative mechanisms were explored. Main results. The dental stem cells, especially DFSCs, demonstrated the potential in repairing the completely transected spinal cord and promote functional recovery after injury. The major involved mechanisms were speculated below: First, dental stem cells inhibited the expression of interleukin-1β to reduce the inflammatory response; second, they inhibited the expression of ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) to promote neurite regeneration; third, they inhibited the sulfonylurea receptor1 (SUR-1) expression to reduce progressive hemorrhagic necrosis; lastly, parts of the transplanted cells survived and differentiated into mature neurons and oligodendrocytes but not astrocyte, which is beneficial for promoting axons growth. Significance. Dental stem cells presented remarkable tissue regenerative capability after spinal cord injury through immunomodulatory, differentiation and protection capacity.

  3. Integration of donor mesenchymal stem cell-derived neuron-like cells into host neural network after rat spinal cord transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiang; Qiu, Xue-Cheng; Ma, Yuan-Huan; Duan, Jing-Jing; Chen, Yuan-Feng; Gu, Huai-Yu; Wang, Jun-Mei; Ling, Eng-Ang; Wu, Jin-Lang; Wu, Wutian; Zeng, Yuan-Shan

    2015-06-01

    Functional deficits following spinal cord injury (SCI) primarily attribute to loss of neural connectivity. We therefore tested if novel tissue engineering approaches could enable neural network repair that facilitates functional recovery after spinal cord transection (SCT). Rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), genetically engineered to overexpress TrkC, receptor of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), were pre-differentiated into cells carrying neuronal features via co-culture with NT-3 overproducing Schwann cells in 3-dimensional gelatin sponge (GS) scaffold for 14 days in vitro. Intra-GS formation of MSC assemblies emulating neural network (MSC-GS) were verified morphologically via electron microscopy (EM) and functionally by whole-cell patch clamp recording of spontaneous post-synaptic currents. The differentiated MSCs still partially maintained prototypic property with the expression of some mesodermal cytokines. MSC-GS or GS was then grafted acutely into a 2 mm-wide transection gap in the T9-T10 spinal cord segments of adult rats. Eight weeks later, hindlimb function of the MSC-GS-treated SCT rats was significantly improved relative to controls receiving the GS or lesion only as indicated by BBB score. The MSC-GS transplantation also significantly recovered cortical motor evoked potential (CMEP). Histologically, MSC-derived neuron-like cells maintained their synapse-like structures in vivo; they additionally formed similar connections with host neurites (i.e., mostly serotonergic fibers plus a few corticospinal axons; validated by double-labeled immuno-EM). Moreover, motor cortex electrical stimulation triggered c-fos expression in the grafted and lumbar spinal cord cells of the treated rats only. Our data suggest that MSC-derived neuron-like cells resulting from NT-3-TrkC-induced differentiation can partially integrate into transected spinal cord and this strategy should be further investigated for reconstructing disrupted neural circuits. Copyright

  4. The Atlantic Meridional Transect: Spatially Extensive Calibration and Validation of Optical Properties and Remotely Sensed Measurements of Ocean Colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, James; Hooker, Stanford

    1997-01-01

    Twice a year, the Royal Research Ship (RRS) James Clark Ross (JCR) steams a meridional transect of the atlantic Ocean between Grimsly (UK) and Stanley (Falkland Islands) with a port call in Montevideo (Uruguay), as part of the annual research activities of the British Antarctic Survey (BAS). In September, the JCR sails from the UK, and the following April it makes the return trip. The ship is operated by the BAS for the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). The Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT) Program exploits the passage of the JCR from approximately 50 deg. N to 50 deg. S with a primary objective to investigate physical and biological processes, as well as to measure the mesi-to-basin-scale bio-optical properties of the atlantic Ocean. The calibration and validation of remotely sensed observations of ocean colour is an inherent objective of these studies: first, by relating in situ measurements of water leaving radiance to satellite measurement, and second, by measuring the bio-optically active constituents of the water.

  5. Delayed Presentation of Isolated Complete Pancreatic Transection as a Result of Sport-Related Blunt Trauma to the Abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Healey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Blunt abdominal trauma is a rare but well-recognized cause of pancreatic transection. A delayed presentation of pancreatic fracture following sport-related blunt trauma with the coexisting diagnostic pitfalls is presented. Case Report: A 17-year-old rugby player was referred to our specialist unit after having been diagnosed with traumatic pancreatic transection, having presented 24 h after a sporting injury. Despite haemodynamic stability, at laparotomy he was found to have a diffuse mesenteric hematoma involving the large and small bowel mesentery, extending down to the sigmoid colon from the splenic flexure, and a large retroperitoneal hematoma arising from the pancreas. The pancreas was completely severed with the superior border of the distal segment remaining attached to the splenic vein that was intact. A distal pancreatectomy with spleen preservation and evacuation of the retroperitoneal hematoma was performed. Discussion/Conclusion: Blunt pancreatic trauma is a serious condition. Diagnosis and treatment may often be delayed, which in turn may drastically increase morbidity and mortality. Diagnostic difficulties apply to both paraclinical and radiological diagnostic methods. A high index of suspicion should be maintained in such cases, with a multi-modality diagnostic approach and prompt surgical intervention as required.

  6. Improved healing of transected rabbit Achilles tendon after a single injection of cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund, Carina; Aspenberg, Per

    2003-01-01

    Achilles tendon ruptures in humans might be treated more efficiently with the help of a growth factor. Cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-2 has been shown to induce formation of tendon-like tissue. Cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-2 has a positive effect on mechanical parameters for tendon healing in a rabbit model with Achilles tendon transection. Controlled laboratory study. The right Achilles tendon of 40 rabbits was transected without tendon suture. Cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-2 (10 micro g) or vehicle control (acetate buffer) was injected locally 2 hours postoperatively. All tendons were tested biomechanically at 8 and 14 days, and treated tendons were histologically and radiographically evaluated at 56 days. At 14 days, both failure load and stiffness of treated tendons were increased by 35%. The treated tendons had significantly larger callus size at 8 and 14 days. Histologic and radiographic examination showed no signs of ossification in the treated tendons after 56 days. A single injection of cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-2 led to a stronger and stiffer tendon callus than that in the controls without inducing bone formation. Similar results from a larger animal model would suggest a possible future use of cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-2 in the treatment of human Achilles tendon ruptures.

  7. Spinal cord transection-induced allodynia in rats--behavioral, physiopathological and pharmacological characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saïd M'Dahoma

    Full Text Available In humans, spinal cord lesions induce not only major motor and neurovegetative deficits but also severe neuropathic pain which is mostly resistant to classical analgesics. Better treatments can be expected from precise characterization of underlying physiopathological mechanisms. This led us to thoroughly investigate (i mechanical and thermal sensory alterations, (ii responses to acute treatments with drugs having patent or potential anti-allodynic properties and (iii the spinal/ganglion expression of transcripts encoding markers of neuronal injury, microglia and astrocyte activation in rats that underwent complete spinal cord transection (SCT. SCT was performed at thoracic T8-T9 level under deep isoflurane anaesthesia, and SCT rats were examined for up to two months post surgery. SCT induced a marked hyper-reflexia at hindpaws and strong mechanical and cold allodynia in a limited (6 cm2 cutaneous territory just rostral to the lesion site. At this level, pressure threshold value to trigger nocifensive reactions to locally applied von Frey filaments was 100-fold lower in SCT- versus sham-operated rats. A marked up-regulation of mRNAs encoding ATF3 (neuronal injury and glial activation markers (OX-42, GFAP, P2×4, P2×7, TLR4 was observed in spinal cord and/or dorsal root ganglia at T6-T11 levels from day 2 up to day 60 post surgery. Transcripts encoding the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were also markedly but differentially up-regulated at T6-T11 levels in SCT rats. Acute treatment with ketamine (50 mg/kg i.p., morphine (3-10 mg/kg s.c. and tapentadol (10-20 mg/kg i.p. significantly increased pressure threshold to trigger nocifensive reaction in the von Frey filaments test, whereas amitriptyline, pregabalin, gabapentin and clonazepam were ineffective. Because all SCT rats developed long lasting, reproducible and stable allodynia, which could be alleviated by drugs effective in humans, thoracic cord transection might be a

  8. Effect of background parenchymal enhancement on breast cancer detection with magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telegrafo, M; Rella, L; Stabile Ianora, A A; Angelelli, G; Moschetta, M

    2016-03-01

    To investigate whether background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) may influence the sensitivity of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (DCE-MR) imaging in breast cancer detection. A total of 180 consecutive women with 194 breast cancers underwent MR imaging examination. Women were assigned to two different groups depending on the degree of BPE. Group 1 consisted of women with minimal or mild BPE and group 2 of women with moderate or marked BPE. The distributions of histotypes of tumors within the two groups were compared using the χ(2) test. Difference in sensitivities of DCE-MR imaging for tumor detection between the two groups was searched for using the Student t-test. No differences in terms of distributions of histotypes of tumors between the two groups of women were found (P=0.5). The 11% difference in sensitivity of DCE-MR imaging for tumor detection between group 1 (91/92; 99%; 95% CI: 94-100%) and group 2 (90/102; 88%; 95% CI: 80-94%) was statistically significant (P=0.0058). The sensitivity of DCE-MR imaging is significantly lower in women with moderate and marked BPE as compared with women with minimal and mild BPE regardless of cancer histotype. BPE could represent a limitation for breast MR imaging interpretation and should be indicated in MR imaging reports. Copyright © 2015 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationships (I) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses for parenchymal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Taro; Suganuma, Narufumi; Hering, Kurt G; Vehmas, Tapio; Itoh, Harumi; Akira, Masanori; Takashima, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Harukazu; Kusaka, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) has been developed for the screening, diagnosis, and epidemiological reporting of respiratory diseases caused by occupational hazards. This study aimed to establish a correlation between readings of HRCT (according to the ICOERD) and those of chest radiography (CXR) pneumoconiotic parenchymal opacities (according to the International Labor Organization Classification/International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses [ILO/ICRP]). Forty-six patients with and 28 controls without mineral dust exposure underwent posterior-anterior CXR and HRCT. We recorded all subjects' exposure and smoking history. Experts independently read CXRs (using ILO/ICRP). Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). The correlation between the ICOERD summed grades and ILO/ICRP profusions was evaluated using Spearman's rank-order correlation. Twenty-three patients had small opacities on CXR. HRCT showed that 21 patients had RO; 20 patients, IR opacities; and 23 patients, EM. The correlation between ILO/ICRP profusions and the ICOERD grades was 0.844 for rounded opacities (p<0.01). ICOERD readings from HRCT scans correlated well with previously validated ILO/ICRP criteria. The ICOERD adequately detects pneumoconiotic micronodules and can be used for the interpretation of pneumoconiosis.

  10. Characterization of dendritic morphology and neurotransmitter phenotype of thoracic descending propriospinal neurons after complete spinal cord transection and GDNF treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lingxiao; Ruan, Yiwen; Chen, Chen; Frye, Christian Corbin; Xiong, Wenhui; Jin, Xiaoming; Jones, Kathryn; Sengelaub, Dale; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    After spinal cord injury (SCI), poor regeneration of damaged axons of the central nervous system (CNS) causes limited functional recovery. This limited spontaneous functional recovery has been attributed, to a large extent, to the plasticity of propriospinal neurons, especially the descending propriospinal neurons (dPSNs). Compared with the supraspinal counterparts, dPSNs have displayed significantly greater regenerative capacity, which can be further enhanced by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). In the present study, we applied a G-mutated rabies virus (G-Rabies) co-expressing green fluorescence protein (GFP) to reveal Golgi-like dendritic morphology of dPSNs. We also investigated the neurotransmitters expressed by dPSNs after labeling with a retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG). dPSNs were examined in animals with sham injuries or complete spinal transections with or without GDNF treatment. Bilateral injections of G-Rabies and FG were made into the 2nd lumbar (L2) spinal cord at 3 days prior to a spinal cord transection performed at the 11th thoracic level (T11). The lesion gap was filled with Gelfoam containing either saline or GDNF in the injury groups. Four days post-injury, the rats were sacrificed for analysis. For those animals receiving G-rabies injection, the GFP signal in the T7–9 spinal cord was visualized via 2-photon microscopy. Dendritic morphology from stack images was traced and analyzed using a Neurolucida software. We found that dPSNs in sham injured animals had a predominantly dorsal-ventral distribution of dendrites. Transection injury resulted in alterations in the dendritic distribution with dorsal-ventral retraction and lateral-medial extension. Treatment with GDNF significantly increased the terminal dendritic length of dPSNs. The density of spine-like structures was increased after injury, and treatment with GDNF enhanced this effect. For the group receiving FG injections, immunohistochemistry for glutamate, choline

  11. Role of digital tomosynthesis and dual energy subtraction digital radiography in detection of parenchymal lesions in active pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Madhurima; Sandhu, Manavjit Singh; Gorsi, Ujjwal; Gupta, Dheeraj; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Digital tomosynthesis and dual energy subtraction digital radiography are modifications of digital radiography. • These modalities perform better than digital radiography in detection of parenchymal lesions in active pulmonary tuberculosis. • Digital tomosynthesis has a sensitivity of 100% in detection of cavities. • Centrilobular nodules seen on CT in active pulmonary tuberculosis, were also demonstrated on digital tomosynthesis in our study. • Digital tomosynthesis can be used for diagnosis and follow up of patients in pulmonary tuberculosis, thereby reducing the number of CT examinations. - Abstract: Objective: To assess the role of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) and dual energy subtraction digital radiography (DES-DR) in detection of parenchymal lesions in active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and to compare them with digital radiography (DR). Materials and methods: This prospective study was approved by our institutional review committee. DTS and DES-DR were performed in 62 patients with active pulmonary TB within one week of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) study. Findings of active pulmonary TB, that is consolidation, cavitation and nodules were noted on digital radiography (DR), DTS and DES-DR in all patients. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of all 3 modalities was calculated with MDCT as reference standard. In addition presence of centrilobular nodules was also noted on DTS. Results: Our study comprised of 62 patients (33 males, 29 females with age range 18–82 years). Sensitivity and specificity of DTS for detection of nodules and cavitation was better than DR and DES-DR. Sensitivity and specificity of DTS for detection of consolidation was comparable to DR and DES-DR. DES-DR performed better than DR in detection of nodules and cavitation. DTS was also able to detect centrilobular nodules with sensitivity and specificity of 57.4% and 86.5% respectively. Conclusion: DTS and DES-DR perform better

  12. Role of digital tomosynthesis and dual energy subtraction digital radiography in detection of parenchymal lesions in active pulmonary tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Madhurima, E-mail: madhurimashrm88@gmail.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, PGIMER, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Sandhu, Manavjit Singh, E-mail: manavjitsandhu@yahoo.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, PGIMER, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Gorsi, Ujjwal, E-mail: ujjwalgorsi@gmail.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, PGIMER, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Gupta, Dheeraj, E-mail: dheeraj1910@gmail.com [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, PGIMER, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Khandelwal, Niranjan, E-mail: khandelwaln@hotmail.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, PGIMER, Chandigarh 160012 (India)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Digital tomosynthesis and dual energy subtraction digital radiography are modifications of digital radiography. • These modalities perform better than digital radiography in detection of parenchymal lesions in active pulmonary tuberculosis. • Digital tomosynthesis has a sensitivity of 100% in detection of cavities. • Centrilobular nodules seen on CT in active pulmonary tuberculosis, were also demonstrated on digital tomosynthesis in our study. • Digital tomosynthesis can be used for diagnosis and follow up of patients in pulmonary tuberculosis, thereby reducing the number of CT examinations. - Abstract: Objective: To assess the role of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) and dual energy subtraction digital radiography (DES-DR) in detection of parenchymal lesions in active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and to compare them with digital radiography (DR). Materials and methods: This prospective study was approved by our institutional review committee. DTS and DES-DR were performed in 62 patients with active pulmonary TB within one week of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) study. Findings of active pulmonary TB, that is consolidation, cavitation and nodules were noted on digital radiography (DR), DTS and DES-DR in all patients. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of all 3 modalities was calculated with MDCT as reference standard. In addition presence of centrilobular nodules was also noted on DTS. Results: Our study comprised of 62 patients (33 males, 29 females with age range 18–82 years). Sensitivity and specificity of DTS for detection of nodules and cavitation was better than DR and DES-DR. Sensitivity and specificity of DTS for detection of consolidation was comparable to DR and DES-DR. DES-DR performed better than DR in detection of nodules and cavitation. DTS was also able to detect centrilobular nodules with sensitivity and specificity of 57.4% and 86.5% respectively. Conclusion: DTS and DES-DR perform better

  13. A Summary of Results From the IPOD Transects Across the Japan, Mariana, and Middle-America Convergent Margins

    OpenAIRE

    Von Huene, R; Uyeda, S

    1981-01-01

    Investigations of convergent margins along the IPOD transects support the concept of ocean floor spreading in back-arc basins and the concept of tectonically accreted sediment at the front of convergent margins. However, not all convergent margins have large accreted complexes, and other less frequently used concepts are required in the interpretations of these convergent margins. If the present rates of plate convergence are accepted, then much sediment that entered the trenches studied is p...

  14. Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): digital still images from transects on Maui, Molokai, and Kauai, 2007 (NODC Accession 0056791)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of digital still transect images (JPG files) from CRAMP surveys taken in 2007 from 9 sites on Maui, 3 sites on Molokai, and 1 site on Kauai....

  15. Transbronchial Lung Cryobiopsy and Video-assisted Thoracoscopic Lung Biopsy in the Diagnosis of Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Disease. A Meta-analysis of Diagnostic Test Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftikhar, Imran H; Alghothani, Lana; Sardi, Alejandro; Berkowitz, David; Musani, Ali I

    2017-07-01

    Transbronchial lung cryobiopsy is increasingly being used for the assessment of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. Several studies have shown larger biopsy samples and higher yields compared with conventional transbronchial biopsies. However, the higher risk of bleeding and other complications has raised concerns for widespread use of this modality. To study the diagnostic accuracy and safety profile of transbronchial lung cryobiopsy and compare with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) by reviewing available evidence from the literature. Medline and PubMed were searched from inception until December 2016. Data on diagnostic performance were abstracted by constructing two-by-two contingency tables for each study. Data on a priori selected safety outcomes were collected. Risk of bias was assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool. Random effects meta-analyses were performed to obtain summary estimates of the diagnostic accuracy. The pooled diagnostic yield, pooled sensitivity, and pooled specificity of transbronchial lung cryobiopsy were 83.7% (76.9-88.8%), 87% (85-89%), and 57% (40-73%), respectively. The pooled diagnostic yield, pooled sensitivity, and pooled specificity of VATS were 92.7% (87.6-95.8%), 91.0% (89-92%), and 58% (31-81%), respectively. The incidence of grade 2 (moderate to severe) endobronchial bleeding after transbronchial lung cryobiopsy and of post-procedural pneumothorax was 4.9% (2.2-10.7%) and 9.5% (5.9-14.9%), respectively. Although the diagnostic test accuracy measures of transbronchial lung cryobiopsy lag behind those of VATS, with an acceptable safety profile and potential cost savings, the former could be considered as an alternative in the evaluation of patients with diffuse parenchymal lung diseases.

  16. Global coverage of cetacean line-transect surveys: status quo, data gaps and future challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Kaschner

    Full Text Available Knowledge of abundance, trends and distribution of cetacean populations is needed to inform marine conservation efforts, ecosystem models and spatial planning. We compiled a geo-spatial database of published data on cetacean abundance from dedicated visual line-transect surveys and encoded >1100 abundance estimates for 47 species from 430 surveys conducted worldwide from 1975-2005. Our subsequent analyses revealed large spatial, temporal and taxonomic variability and gaps in survey coverage. With the exception of Antarctic waters, survey coverage was biased toward the northern hemisphere, especially US and northern European waters. Overall, <25% of the world's ocean surface was surveyed and only 6% had been covered frequently enough (≥ 5 times to allow trend estimation. Almost half the global survey effort, defined as total area (km(2 covered by all survey study areas across time, was concentrated in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP. Neither the number of surveys conducted nor the survey effort had increased in recent years. Across species, an average of 10% of a species' predicted range had been covered by at least one survey, but there was considerable variation among species. With the exception of three delphinid species, <1% of all species' ranges had been covered frequently enough for trend analysis. Sperm whales emerged from our analyses as a relatively data-rich species. This is a notoriously difficult species to survey visually, and we use this as an example to illustrate the challenges of using available data from line-transect surveys for the detection of trends or for spatial planning. We propose field and analytical methods to fill in data gaps to improve cetacean conservation efforts.

  17. Line transect estimates of Irrawaddy dolphin abundance along the eastern Gulf Coast of Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen eHines

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective conservation of coastal marine mammals is largely dependent on reliable knowledge of their abundance, as well as the ecological and human factors driving their distribution. In developing countries, lack of resources and capacity frequently impedes research needed to estimate abundance and to determine the ecological requirements of coastal marine mammals and the impact of threats related to coastal development and fisheries. Over the course of five years, we developed practical research methods and trained local scientists in Thailand to use accepted line transect distance sampling methods for abundance assessment. The study focused on a little-known coastal and freshwater species found throughout Southeast Asia, namely the Irrawaddy dolphin, which has been sighted regularly along the coast of the eastern Gulf of Thailand. During five years of line transect boat surveys in Trat Province, the eastern-most province in Thailand, we found an average of 423 dolphins distributed within 12km of the coast. Compared to other abundance estimates of coastal Irrawaddy dolphins in Southeast Asia, this is a relatively large number. This population could extend into the northern coast of Cambodia, where surveys are currently being planned. The Thai government has begun talks with Cambodia about a transboundary marine protected area that would include areas in both countries where coastal Irrawaddy dolphins are found. Other analyses include photo-identification, modeling environmental factors that determine presence, determination of fresh vs. salt water foraging using stable isotopes, and an assessment of threats. Collaboration between scientists in Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam is further needed to determine dolphin movement and habitat use across borders.

  18. Caliceal clubbing and adjacent parenchymal scarring (always reflux nephropathy) as a cause of end-stage renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, H.S.; Dorph, S.; Copenhagen Univ., Herlev

    1986-01-01

    Various clinical and laboratory aspects in 15 kidney transplanted patients with urographic evidence of caliceal clubbing and adjacent parenchymal scarring in their native kidneys are reported. These lesions were found in 16 per cent of our series of kidney transplantations; below 35 years of age it was the second most frequent disease. In 9 of these patients severe vesicoureteral reflux had been demonstrated. In the remaining 6 patients reflux nephropathy was only a tentative diagnosis based on a striking similarity in the radiographs and in several clinical findings. Nine patients had symptoms (mainly related to urinary tract infection) from 1 to 17 years before diagnosis/urography, in 5 as early as the first year of life. Recurrent urinary tract infection and renal impairment were the most frequent disorders leading to the diagnosis. Replacement therapy was initiated at an average age of 32.7 years. Following renal transplantation urinary tract infection was documented in 37 per cent of patients whether the patient had been bilaterally nephrectomized or not. (orig)

  19. Impact of menopausal status on background parenchymal enhancement and fibroglandular tissue on breast MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Valencia [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Breast Imaging Section, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Gu, Yajia [Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Fudan University, Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai (China); Kaplan, Jennifer B.; Morris, Elizabeth A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Breast Imaging Section, New York, NY (United States); Brooks, Jennifer D.; Pike, Malcolm C. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-12-15

    To evaluate the effect of menopausal status on the background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) on breast MRI. Retrospective review identified 1,130 women who underwent screening breast MRI between July and November 2010. In 28 of these women, breast MRI was performed both at one time point while pre- and one time point while post-menopausal (median interval 49 months). Two independent readers blinded to menopausal status used categorical scales to rate BPE (minimal/mild/moderate/marked) and FGT (fatty/scattered/heterogeneously dense/dense). Consensus was reached when there was disagreement. The sign test was used to assess changes in rating categories, and the Spearman rank and Fisher's exact tests were used to measure correlations and associations between variables. Significant proportions of women demonstrated decreases in BPE and FGT on post-menopausal breast MRI (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0009). BPE category was unchanged in 39 % (11/28) and decreased in 61 % (17/28) of women. FGT category was unchanged in 61 % (17/28) and decreased in 39 % (11/28) of women. Age, reason for menopause, or interval between MRIs had no significant impact on changes in BPE and FGT. On MRI, BPE, and FGT decrease after menopause in significant proportions of women; BPE decreases more than FGT. (orig.)

  20. Slice simulation from a model of the parenchymous vascularization to evaluate texture features: work in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Y; Bézy-Wendling, J; Duvauferrier, R; Coatrieux, J L

    1999-03-01

    To demonstrate the usefulness of a model of the parenchymous vascularization to evaluate texture analysis methods. Slices with thickness varying from 1 to 4 mm were reformatted from a 3D vascular model corresponding to either normal tissue perfusion or local hypervascularization. Parameters of statistical methods were measured on 16128x128 regions of interest, and mean values and standard deviation were calculated. For each parameter, the performances (discrimination power and stability) were evaluated. Among 11 calculated statistical parameters, three (homogeneity, entropy, mean of gradients) were found to have a good discriminating power to differentiate normal perfusion from hypervascularization, but only the gradient mean was found to have a good stability with respect to the thickness. Five parameters (run percentage, run length distribution, long run emphasis, contrast, and gray level distribution) were found to have intermediate results. In the remaining three, curtosis and correlation was found to have little discrimination power, skewness none. This 3D vascular model, which allows the generation of various examples of vascular textures, is a powerful tool to assess the performance of texture analysis methods. This improves our knowledge of the methods and should contribute to their a priori choice when designing clinical studies.

  1. Role of Transbronchial Lung Cryobiopsies in Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Diseases: Interest of a Sequential Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Bondue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Transbronchial lung cryobiopsies (TBLCs are a promising diagnostic tool in the setting of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs. However, no comparison with surgical lung biopsy (SLB in the same patient is available. Methods. The diagnostic yield and safety data of TBLCs, as well as the result of SLB performed after TBLCs, were analysed in a multicentric Belgian study. A SLB was performed after TBLCs in absence of a definite pathological diagnosis or if a NSIP pattern was observed without related condition identified following multidisciplinary discussion. Results. Between April 2015 and November 2016, 30 patients were included. Frequent complications included pneumothorax (20% and bleeding (severe 7%, moderate 33%, and mild 53%. There was no mortality. The overall diagnostic yield was 80%. A SLB was performed in six patients (three without definite histological pattern and three with an NSIP. The surgical biopsy changed the pathological diagnosis into a UIP pattern in five patients and confirmed a NSIP pattern in one patient. Conclusion. TBLCs are useful in the diagnostic work-up of DPLDs avoiding a SLB in 80% of the patients. However, surgical biopsies, performed as a second step after TBLCs because of an indefinite diagnosis or a NSIP pattern, provide additional information supporting the interest of a sequential approach in these patients.

  2. Fisheries Biology and Stock Assessment Division (FBSAD) Recruit and Predator Reef Fish Belt Transect and Habitat Quadrat Surveys at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2008; and Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), 2008 (NODC Accession 0067519)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted and habitat quadrats were surveyed using transects at 1 to ~ 5 m depths at a total four (4) sites: at (1-2) 2 longshore...

  3. Tracing variability in the iodine isotopes and species along surface water transect from the North Sea to the Canary Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Peng; Aldahan, Ala; Hou, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    A complete transect of surface water samples from the North Sea to the Canary Islands was collected during a continuous period in 2010. The samples were analyzed for total 129I and 127I isotopes and their iodide and iodate species. The results indicate a large variability in the total 129I and its...

  4. Outcome of prolonged acute vena cava occlusion after iatrogenic transection and repair in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halwagi, Marie-Chantal; Crawford, Evan; Hoddinott, Katie; Oblak, Michelle L

    2017-08-01

    A 12-year-old castrated male Airedale terrier dog was diagnosed with a hepatocellular carcinoma in the right medial liver lobe. During tumor resection, inadvertent stapling and transection of the caudal vena cava occurred. Complete caval occlusion was required for 18 minutes and primary anastomosis was completed. The dog received 2 blood transfusions and developed mild pelvic limb edema after surgery. Computed tomography evaluation 9 months after surgery showed collateral circulation and suspected stricture of the vena cava with an absence of clinical effect. The dog remained alive and asymptomatic more than 1 year after surgery.

  5. Results from an onshore/offshore seismic transect of southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, K. D.; van Avendonk, H. J.; Wu, F. T.; Okaya, D. A.; Wang, C.

    2010-12-01

    The TAIGER project is a large research program focused on the processes and dynamics of arc-continent collision. As part of the project we recorded marine and onshore-offshore seismic data in summer 2009 using the R/V Langseth, ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) from the U.S. OBS instrument pool and from National Taiwan Ocean University, and land instruments from PASSCAL and Taiwan. Because the region from north of Luzon to northern Taiwan encompasses a multiphase transition from oceanic subduction to arc-continent collision, the TAIGER data sets along with state of the art geodynamic modeling are starting to provide fundamental insights into this complex process. This presentation focuses on initial results of an onshore/offshore seismic transect across southern Taiwan. One of the keys to success in studying the arc-continent collision in Taiwan is to document the crustal structure in the developing collision zone of southern Taiwan. This is where we hope to be able to view the transition from what looks like subduction to the south, to the more complex collision zone to the north. In this area we acquired an ~east-west seismic transect using 4 OBSs west of Taiwan, 40 portable land seismometers crossing the island from near Kaohsiung (W) to near Taitung (E) , and 14 OBSs east of Taiwan. As expected, data quality is extremely variable due to local geology at each station and, for land instruments, the level of cultural noise near each station. In fact, some of the land stations show no usable signals from seismic source pulses either east or west of Taiwan. However, other more fortuitously located instrument show clear arrivals at offsets of up to 280 km. As expected, all the best stations are located in mountainous areas where there is a minimum of unconsolidated material and less cultural noise. The land station data include primarily Pg and Pn arrivals, while the OBS data include a full range of reflected and refracted arrivals. The marine wide-angle data will also

  6. Valproic Acid Promotes Survival of Facial Motor Neurons in Adult Rats After Facial Nerve Transection: a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Fan, Zhaomin; Han, Yuechen; Xu, Lei; Liu, Wenwen; Bai, Xiaohui; Zhou, Meijuan; Li, Jianfeng; Wang, Haibo

    2018-04-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), a medication primarily used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder, has been applied to the repair of central and peripheral nervous system injury. The present study investigated the effect of VPA on functional recovery, survival of facial motor neurons (FMNs), and expression of proteins in rats after facial nerve trunk transection by functional measurement, Nissl staining, TUNEL, immunofluorescence, and Western blot. Following facial nerve injury, all rats in group VPA showed a better functional recovery, which was significant at the given time, compared with group NS. The Nissl staining results demonstrated that the number of FMNs survival in group VPA was higher than that in group normal saline (NS). TUNEL staining showed that axonal injury of facial nerve could lead to neuronal apoptosis of FMNs. But treatment of VPA significantly reduced cell apoptosis by decreasing the expression of Bax protein and increased neuronal survival by upregulating the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) expression in injured FMNs compared with group NS. Overall, our findings suggest that VPA may advance functional recovery, reduce lesion-induced apoptosis, and promote neuron survival after facial nerve transection in rats. This study provides an experimental evidence for better understanding the mechanism of injury and repair of peripheral facial paralysis.

  7. Background parenchymal enhancement over exam time in patients with and without breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsaether, Amy; Pujara, Akshat C; Elias, Kristin; Pysarenko, Kristine; Gudi, Anjali; Dodelzon, Katerina; Babb, James S; Gao, Yiming; Moy, Linda

    2017-01-01

    To compare background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) over time in patients with and without breast cancer. This retrospective Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant study included 116 women (25-84 years, mean 54 years) with breast cancer who underwent breast magnetic resonance imaging at 3T between 1/2/2009 and 12/29/2009 and 116 age and date-of-exam-matched women without breast cancer (23-84 years, mean 51 years). Two independent, blinded readers (R1, R2) recorded BPE (minimal, mild, moderate, marked) at three times (100, 210, and 320 seconds postcontrast). Subsequent cancers were diagnosed in 9/96 control patients with follow up (12.6-93.0 months, mean 63.6 months). Exact Mann-Whitney, Fisher's exact, and McNemar tests were performed. Mean BPE was not found to be different between patients with and without breast cancer at any time (P = 0.36-0.64). At time 2 as compared with time 1, there were significantly more patients, both with and without breast cancer, with BPE >minimal (R1: 90 vs. 41 [P mild (R1: 59 vs. 10 [P breast cancer were significant only for R2 and ranged up to 7.67 (1.49, 39.5; P mild at time 2. BPE changes between the first and second postcontrast scans and stabilizes thereafter in most patients. Further investigation into the most clinically relevant timepoint for BPE assessment is warranted. 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:74-83. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. NOAA Polyline Shapefile - ROV transect points, US Caribbean - North East Reserve, Puerto Rico - M-I907-NF-12 (2012), UTM 20N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the transect points of the underwater video and photos that were collected by NOAA scientists using a Spectrum Phantom S2 ROV (remotely...

  9. NOAA Polyline Shapefile - ROV transect Lines, US Caribbean - North East Reserve, Puerto Rico - M-I907-NF-12 (2012), UTM 20N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the transect lines of the underwater video and photos that were collected by NOAA scientists using a Spectrum Phantom S2 ROV (remotely...

  10. NOAA Polyline Shapefile - ROV transect Points, US Caribbean - North East Reserve, Puerto Rico - M-I907-NF-13 (2013), UTM 20N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the transect points of the underwater video and photos that were collected by NOAA scientists using a Spectrum Phantom S2 ROV (remotely...

  11. NOAA Polyline Shapefile - ROV transect Lines, US Caribbean - North East Reserve, Puerto Rico - M-I907-NF-13 (2013), UTM 20N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the transect lines of the underwater video and photos that were collected by NOAA scientists using a Spectrum Phantom S2 ROV (remotely...

  12. Complex thrusting at the toe of the Nankai accretionary prism, NanTroSEIZE Kumano transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G. F.; Park, J.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Seismic reflection data collected over the past 10 years by the Institute for Research on Earth Evolution (IFREE) of Japan Agency for Marine Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) image a zone of complex thrusting at the toe of the Nankai accretionary prism south of Kii Peninsula, Honshu, Japan. The frontal part of the Nankai prism west of Shionomisaki Canyon (SC) at ~136° E, including the Muroto and Ashizuri Transects off Shikoku, is generally formed of imbricate thrusts with spacing of ~ 1-3 km that dip ~25-35° landward and sole into a prominent décollement. Out-of-sequence thrusts (OOSTs) are usually restricted to the landward margin of this imbricate thrust zone. East of SC, in the Kumano Transect area, the imbricate thrust zone is bounded on its seaward edge by a frontal thrust block that is ~5-6 km wide and consists of several OOSTs. The frontal thrust dips ~5-10° under this ~2-4 km thick block, emplacing this thrust sheet over the trench floor. The number and character of thrusts within the frontal thrust block vary laterally along strike. The 2006 Kumano 3D seismic data set images details of one segment of this complex frontal thrust block. Out-of-sequence faulting has led to underplating of several smaller thrust slices and movement along oblique ramps has led to a complex pattern of faulting that cannot be recognized in even closely-spaced 2D seismic lines. The frontal thrust block is further modified by subduction of seamounts and ridges that have caused large slumps of material from the block.

  13. The influence of surgical transection and anastomosis on the rate of cell proliferation in the colonic epithelium of normal and DMH-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, D H; Tutton, P M

    1983-10-01

    Normal and DMH-treated male rats aged 18-20 weeks underwent surgical transection and anastomosis of the transverse colon. Animals were subsequently killed at intervals of 14, 30 and 72 days. Three hours prior to sacrifice animals were injected with vinblastine sulphate and mitotic indices were subsequently estimated in histological sections. Possible differences between experimental and control groups were tested using a Student's t-test. The results show that the accumulated mitotic indices in normal and DMH-treated colon are statistically similar. The results also show that transection and anastomosis stimulates cell division in both normal and DMH-treated colon and that the increase is of greater amplitude and more prolonged duration in the DMH-treated rats. Carcinomas developed close to the line of anastomosis in DMH-treated but not in control rats. The results support the hypothesis that non-specific injury to hyperplastic colonic epithelium promotes carcinogenesis.

  14. NOAA Line Shapefile- Locations of Phantom S2 ROV Underwater Video Transects, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20N WGS84

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a line shapefile showing the trackline of various Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) underwater video transects in the US Virgin Islands.NOAA's...

  15. Genome flux and stasis in a five millennium transect of European prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamba, Cristina; Jones, Eppie R; Teasdale, Matthew D; McLaughlin, Russell L; Gonzalez-Fortes, Gloria; Mattiangeli, Valeria; Domboróczki, László; Kővári, Ivett; Pap, Ildikó; Anders, Alexandra; Whittle, Alasdair; Dani, János; Raczky, Pál; Higham, Thomas F G; Hofreiter, Michael; Bradley, Daniel G; Pinhasi, Ron

    2014-10-21

    The Great Hungarian Plain was a crossroads of cultural transformations that have shaped European prehistory. Here we analyse a 5,000-year transect of human genomes, sampled from petrous bones giving consistently excellent endogenous DNA yields, from 13 Hungarian Neolithic, Copper, Bronze and Iron Age burials including two to high (~22 × ) and seven to ~1 × coverage, to investigate the impact of these on Europe's genetic landscape. These data suggest genomic shifts with the advent of the Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages, with interleaved periods of genome stability. The earliest Neolithic context genome shows a European hunter-gatherer genetic signature and a restricted ancestral population size, suggesting direct contact between cultures after the arrival of the first farmers into Europe. The latest, Iron Age, sample reveals an eastern genomic influence concordant with introduced Steppe burial rites. We observe transition towards lighter pigmentation and surprisingly, no Neolithic presence of lactase persistence.

  16. Extended hepatectomy using the bipolar tissue sealer: an experimental model of small-for-size syndrome in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Antonios; Kontos, Michael; Pikoulis, Emmanouil; Griniatsos, John; Papalois, Apostolos; Spartalis, Eleftherios; Moris, Demetrios; Felekouras, Evangelos; Liakakos, Theodoros

    2016-01-01

    After liver transplantation with a small-for-size liver graft or after extensive hepatectomy for liver malignancies or other non malignant conditions with an insufficient liver volume, the survival of patients depends on liver regeneration. This study was carried out in order to create a new porcine model for the study of small-for-size syndrome (SFSS) after extensive hepatectomy. In the present study we used 23 domestic Landrace pigs weighing 28.3±3 kg and aged 19-21 weeks. We describe our detailed surgical procedure for 75% partial hepatectomy a in porcine model, using the saline-coupled bipolar sealing device (Aquamantys®) for hepatectomy. The Aquamantis 2.3 bipolar sealer was connected to the Aquamantis generator and was adjusted to produce 150 watts at a medium flow rate of 20 ml/min. The device temperature was programmed to remain at approximately 100° C and, as a consequence, it produced a tissue ablation without charring. The mean operating time was 153.8 min and the mean blood loss 81.9 ml. The estimated residual liver weight (ERL) was 177 g, whereas the mean proportion of ERL was 24.5%. There was no perioperative mortality. A large animal model, such as pig, is extremely useful in order to reproduce and understand the SFSS. Our simple technique for successful resection of 75% of the liver in pigs, using the Aquamantys system, achieves effective and safe liver parenchymal transection with significant decrease of intraoperative blood loss and can provide useful information for researchers.

  17. Electro-acupuncture promotes survival, differentiation of the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells as well as functional recovery in the spinal cord-transected rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ying; Yan, Qing; Ruan, Jing-Wen; Zhang, Yan-Qing; Li, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Yu-Jiao; Li, Yan; Dong, Hongxin; Zeng, Yuan-Shan

    2009-01-01

    Background Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of the potential tools for treatment of the spinal cord injury; however, the survival and differentiation of MSCs in an injured spinal cord still need to be improved. In the present study, we investigated whether Governor Vessel electro-acupuncture (EA) could efficiently promote bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) survival and differentiation, axonal regeneration and finally, functional recovery in the transected spinal cord. Results The spinal cords of adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were completely transected at T10, five experimental groups were performed: 1. sham operated control (Sham-control); 2. operated control (Op-control); 3. electro-acupuncture treatment (EA); 4. MSCs transplantation (MSCs); and 5. MSCs transplantation combined with electro-acupuncture (MSCs+EA). After 2-8 weeks of MSCs transplantation plus EA treatment, we found that the neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), cAMP level, the differentiation of MSCs, the 5-HT positive and CGRP positive nerve fibers in the lesion site and nearby tissue of injured spinal cord were significantly increased in the MSCs+EA group as compared to the group of the MSCs transplantation or the EA treated alone. Furthermore, behavioral test and spinal cord evoked potentials detection demonstrated a significantly functional recovery in the MSCs +EA group. Conclusion These results suggest that EA treatment may promote grafted MSCs survival and differentiation; MSCs transplantation combined with EA treatment could promote axonal regeneration and partial locomotor functional recovery in the transected spinal cord in rats and indicate a promising avenue of treatment of spinal cord injury. PMID:19374777

  18. Oxygen isotope records of Globigerina bulloides across a north-south transect in the south-western Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khare, N.; Chaturvedi, S.K.; Saraswat, R

    , Washington, D.C). Lutjeharms, J.R.E., N.M. Walters and B.R. Allanson. 1985. Oceanic frontal systems and biologicalenhancement. p.11-21. In: Antarctic Nutrient Cycles and Food Webs. ed. by W.R. Siegfried et al., Springer-Verlag, NewYork. Matsumoto, K., J...: Ocean Sci. J.: 44(2); 2009; 117-123 OXYGEN ISOTOPE RECORDS OF GLOBIGERINA BULLOIDES ACROSS A NORTH-SOUTH TRANSECT IN THE SOUTH-WESTERN INDIAN OCEAN N. Khare 1* , S. K. Chaturvedi 2 and R. Saraswat 3 1. Ministry of Earth Sciences, Block...

  19. Procalcitonin for the early prediction of renal parenchymal involvement in children with UTI: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotoula, Aggeliki; Gardikis, Stefanos; Tsalkidis, Aggelos; Mantadakis, Elpis; Zissimopoulos, Athanassios; Kambouri, Katerina; Deftereos, Savvas; Tripsianis, Gregorios; Manolas, Konstantinos; Chatzimichael, Athanassios; Vaos, George

    2009-01-01

    In order to establish the most reliable marker for distinguishing urinary tract infections (UTI) with and without renal parenchymal involvement (RPI), we recorded the clinical features and admission leukocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and serum procalcitonin (PCT) in 57 children (including 43 girls) aged 2-108 months admitted with a first episode of UTI. RPI was evaluated by Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy within 7 days of admission. To establish cut-off points for ESR, CRP, and PCT, we used receiver operating characteristics curves and compared the area under the curve for ESR, CRP, and PCT. Twenty-seven children were diagnosed as having RPI based on positive renal scintigraphy. A body temperature of >38 degrees C, a history of diarrhea, and poor oral intake were more common in patients with RPI. ESR, CRP, and PCT, but not leukocyte count, were significantly higher in patients with RPI (P UTI than ESR and CRP. Using a cut-off value of 0.85 ng/ml, PCT had the best performance, with sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 89%, 97%, 96%, and 91% respectively. Serum PCT is a better marker than ESR, CRP, and leukocyte count for the early prediction of RPI in children with a first episode of UTI.

  20. Quantitative anatomical and behavioral analyses of regeneration and collateral sprouting following spinal cord transection in the nurse shark (ginglymostoma cirratum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderd, J B

    1979-01-01

    The spinal cord was transected at the mid-thoracic level in 32 nurse sharks. Four animals per group were sacrificed at intervals of 10, 20, 30, 40, 60 and 90 days postoperative. Two groups of fish underwent a subsequent spinla1 cord retransection at the same site at 90 days and were sacrificed 10 and 20 days later. Three sections of spinal cord were removed from each shark for histological analysis. Behaviorally, timed trials for swimming speed and a strength test for axial musculature contraction caudal to the lesion site were performed at 5 day postoperative intervals. Histological analysis showed little regeneration (9-13 percent) of two descending tracts 90 days following the lesion and no return of rostrally controlled movements caudal to the lesion. However, synaptic readjustment did occur caudal to the lesion. This phenomenon was attributed to local segmental sprouting of adjacent, intact nerve fibers. A close correlation was shown between this synaptic readjustment and the strength of uncontrollable undulatory movements seen caudal to the lesion site following spinal cord transection. The relationship of regeneration and collateral sprouting to quantitative behavioral changes is discussed.

  1. Healing of periodontal defects and calcitonin gene related peptide expression following inferior alveolar nerve transection in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Linlin; Wang, Yanzhi; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ting; Li, Shu

    2014-06-01

    The roles of nerve and neuropeptides in the process of bone formation and remolding have been studied previously. However, the effects of nervous system and neuropeptide on periodontal alveolar bone formation remained unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of innervation on regeneration of alveolar bone and expression levels of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) in periodontal tissues of rats, so as to have a better understanding of the effect of nerve and its related neuropeptide on periodontal tissue regeneration. Rats received transection of the left inferior alveolar nerve and a surgery to produce bilateral periodontal defect, then the alveolar tissue was obtained from animals of each group at week 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after operation, respectively. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, and Masson staining were performed to evaluate the ability to restore and repair periodontal tissues at 4, 6 and 8 after surgery. Then new bone formation area and mineralized area were quantified using imagepro-plus6.0 software after pictures were taken under the microscope and SPSS17.0 was used for statistical analysis. Immunohistochemical staining was applied to investigate the expression of CGRP at 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks. Rats received transection of the left inferior alveolar nerve surgery and were then sacrificed at day 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 after the operation. The change of CGRP expression in periodontal tissue was detected using immunohistochemical methods. The results showed that the volume of new bone formation was not significantly difference between the experimental and control groups, but the mineralized new bone area between the two groups was statistically significant. The level of CGRP expression was lower than normal at week 1, and then it began to rise in the next stage. The plateau, at higher than normal level, was reached at 6 weeks post-surgery. Results of transection of the left inferior alveolar nerve demonstrated the expression of CGRP

  2. Land-Air Interactions over Urban-Rural Transects Using Satellite Observations: Analysis over Delhi, India from 1991–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Jain

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past four decades Delhi, India, has witnessed rapid urbanization and change in land use land cover (LULC pattern, with most of the cultivable areas and wasteland being converted into built-up areas. Presently around 40% land is under built-up area, a drastic rise of 30% from 1977. The effect of changing LULC, at a local scale, on various variables-land surface temperature (LST, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, emissivity, albedo, evaporation, Bowen ratio, and planetary boundary layer (PBL height, from 1991–2016, is investigated. To assess the spatio-temporal dynamics of land-air interactions, we select two different 100 km transects covering the NE-SW and NW-SE expanse of Delhi and its adjoining areas. High NDVI and emissivity is found for regions with green cover and drastic reduction is noted in built-up area clusters. In both of the transects, land surface variations manifest itself in patterns of LST variation. Parametric and non-parametric correlations are able to statistically establish the land-air interactions in the city. NDVI, an indirect indicator for LULC classes, significantly helps in understanding the modifications in LST and ultimately air temperature. Significant, strong positive relationships exist between skin temperature and evaporation, skin temperature and PBL height, and PBL height and evaporation, providing insights into the meteorological changes that are associated with urbanization.

  3. The effect of high mesencephalic transection (cerveau isolé) and pentobarbital on basal forebrain mechanisms of EEG synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obál, F; Benedek, G; Szikszay, M; Obál, F

    1979-01-01

    A study was made of the effects of high mesencephalic transection (cerveau isolé) and low doses of pentobarbital on the cortical synchronizations elicited in acute immobilized cats by (a) low frequency stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus (HL) and nucleus ventralis anterior thalami (VA) and (b) by low and high frequency stimulation of the laterobasal preoptic region (RPO) and olfactory tubercle (TbOf). The results obtained were as follows: (1) The synchronizations induced by basal forebrain stimulations were found to survive in acute cerveau isolé cats, moreover, even a facilitation of the synchronizing effect were observed. (2) A gradual facilitation was observed upon TbOf and RPO stimulation, while in the case of VA and HL stimulations, the facilitation appeared immediately after the transection. (3) Low doses of pentobarbital depressed the cortical effects of TbOf stimulation, while an increase of the synchronizing effect of low frequency VA and HL stimulation was found. The observations suggested that (i) the synchronizing mechanism in the ventral part of the basal forebrain (RPO and TbOf) differs from that of the thalamus and HL; (ii) the basal forebrain synchronizing mechanism is effective without the contribution of the brain stem; (iii) the mechanism responsible for the synchronizing effect of low frequency HL stimulation is similar as that described for the thalamus.

  4. Liver parenchyma transection-first approach in hemihepatectomy with en bloc caudate lobectomy for hilar cholangiocarcinoma: A safe technique to secure favorable surgical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yasunari; Hayashi, Hikota; Yano, Seiji; Tajima, Yoshitsugu

    2017-06-01

    Although hemihepatectomy with total caudate lobectomy (hemiHx-tc) is essential for the surgical treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma, the advantage of an anterior approach for hemiHx-tc has not been fully discussed technically; the significance of an anterior approach without liver mobilization for preventing infectious complications also remains unknown. The liver parenchyma transection-first approach (Hp-first) technique is an early transection of the hepatic parenchyma without mobilization of the liver that utilizes a modified liver-hanging maneuver to avoid damaging the future remnant liver. Between May 2010 and August 2016, a total of 40 consecutive patients underwent surgery for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Of these, 19 patients underwent a conventional hemihepatectomy with total caudate lobectomy (cHx), while 21 patients received a Hp-first. The patients in the Hp-first group had significantly less intraoperative blood loss (P hilar cholangiocarcinoma because it resulted in improved surgical outcomes as compared with the conventional approach. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Iron content and solubility in dust from high-alpine snow along a north-south transect of High Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Guangjian; Zhang, Chenglong; Li, Zhongqin; Zhang, Xuelei; Gao, Shaopeng

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the dissolved and insoluble iron fraction of dust (mineral aerosol) in high-alpine snow samples collected along a north-south transect across High Asia (Eastern Tien Shan, Qilian Shan, and Southern Tibetan Plateau). This dust provides the basic chemical properties of mid- and high-level tropospheric Asian dust that can supply the limiting iron nutrient for phytoplankton growth in the North Pacific. The iron content in Asian dust averages 4.95% in Eastern Tien Shan, 3.38–5...

  6. Human dental pulp-derived stem cells promote locomotor recovery after complete transection of the rat spinal cord by multiple neuro-regenerative mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Akihito; Matsubara, Kohki; Nakamura, Shoko; Naruse, Mami; Yamagata, Mari; Sakamoto, Kazuma; Tauchi, Ryoji; Wakao, Norimitsu; Imagama, Shiro; Hibi, Hideharu; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Ishiguro, Naoki; Ueda, Minoru

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) often leads to persistent functional deficits due to loss of neurons and glia and to limited axonal regeneration after injury. Here we report that transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells into the completely transected adult rat spinal cord resulted in marked recovery of hind limb locomotor functions. Transplantation of human bone marrow stromal cells or skin-derived fibroblasts led to substantially less recovery of locomotor function. The human dental pulp stem cells exhibited three major neuroregenerative activities. First, they inhibited the SCI-induced apoptosis of neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, which improved the preservation of neuronal filaments and myelin sheaths. Second, they promoted the regeneration of transected axons by directly inhibiting multiple axon growth inhibitors, including chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and myelin-associated glycoprotein, via paracrine mechanisms. Last, they replaced lost cells by differentiating into mature oligodendrocytes under the extreme conditions of SCI. Our data demonstrate that tooth-derived stem cells may provide therapeutic benefits for treating SCI through both cell-autonomous and paracrine neuroregenerative activities.

  7. Safety and efficacy of cervical laminoplasty using a piezosurgery device compared with a high-speed drill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kunpeng; Zhang, Wen; Li, Bin; Xu, Hui; Li, Zhong; Luo, Dawei; Zhang, Jingtao; Ma, Jinzhu

    2016-09-01

    Piezosurgery is a relatively new osteotomy technique using microvibrations of scalpels at ultrasonic frequencies to perform safe and effective osteotomies without damage to adjacent soft tissue, which is widely used in spinal, oral, and maxillofacial surgery. We hypothesized that such a device could also be useful in cervical laminoplasty. The purpose of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of a piezosurgery device with those of a highspeed drill in cervical laminoplasty. A prospectively randomized clinical study was designed. Forty-two consecutive patients were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent modified expansive open-door laminoplasty and were randomly divided into 2 groups according to the instrument for transection of the lamina, using high-speed drill (drill group) or piezosurgery device (piezosurgery group). The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative drainage were recorded. Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score and visual analogue scale (VAS) as clinical assessments were quantified. No significant difference was observed in the operation time between the 2 groups. In the piezosurgery group, there were less loss of the intraoperative blood and postoperative drainage compared with the drill group. However, clinical results (VAS and JOA scores) showed no significant difference between both groups during the all follow-up periods. The piezosurgery is a useful instrument and at least as safe and efficacious as the conventional high-speed drill in cervical laminoplasty.

  8. Molecular changes in articular cartilage and subchondral bone in the rat anterior cruciate ligament transection and meniscectomized models of osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuo Ya; Hayami Tadashi; Pickarski Maureen; Duong Le T

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating, progressive joint disease. Methods Similar to the disease progression in humans, sequential events of early cartilage degradation, subchondral osteopenia followed by sclerosis, and late osteophyte formation were demonstrated in the anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) or ACLT with partial medial meniscectomy (ACLT + MMx) rat OA models. We describe a reliable and consistent method to examine the time dependent changes in the g...

  9. A case report of a Wada test after dominant hemisphere multiple hippocampal transections: Pathophysiology of confusion after amobarbital injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Landazuri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dialepsis is defined as a predominant alteration of consciousness with preservation of motor tone and the ability to perform movements. While dialepsis is a common feature of both focal and generalized epilepsies, its precise symptomatogenic zone and pathogenesis remain undefined. This case report describes a patient who underwent intracarotid amobarbital procedures before and after dominant hemisphere multiple hippocampal transections. From our observations, we propose a possible pathogenesis for the generation of dialeptic seizures.

  10. Background parenchymal enhancement in breast MRI before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: correlation with tumour response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preibsch, H.; Wanner, L.; Bahrs, S.D.; Wietek, B.M.; Nikolaou, K.; Wiesinger, B. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Siegmann-Luz, K.C. [Diagnostic Center for Breast Cancer and Screening Mammography Brandenburg Ost, Koenigs Wusterhausen (Germany); Oberlecher, E.; Hahn, M. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tuebingen (Germany); Staebler, A. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Institute of Pathology and Neuropathology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    To correlate the decrease in background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and tumour response measured with MRI in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). One hundred and forty-six MRI examinations of 73 patients with 80 biopsy-proven breast cancers who underwent breast MRI before and after NAC were retrospectively analysed. All images were reviewed by two blinded readers, who classified BPE into categories (BEC; 1 = minimal, 2 = mild, 3 = moderate, 4 = marked) before and after NAC. Histopathological and morphological tumour responses were analysed and compared. The distribution of BEC 1/2/3/4 was 25/46/18/11 % before and 78/20/2/0 % after NAC. On average, BPE decreased by 0.87 BEC. Cohen's kappa showed substantial agreement (k = 0.73-0.77) before and moderate agreement (k = 0.43-0.60) after NAC and moderate agreement (k = 0.62-0.60) concerning the change in BEC. Correlating the change in BPE with tumour response, the average decrease in BEC was 1.3 in cases of complete remission, 0.83 in cases with partial response, 0.85 in cases with stable disease and 0.40 in cases with progressive disease. Correlation analysis showed a significant correlation between the decrease in BEC and tumour response (r = -0.24, p = 0.03). BPE decreased by, on average, 0.87 BEC following NAC for breast cancer. The degree of BPE reduction seemed to correlate with tumour response. (orig.)

  11. Early hemi-diaphragmatic plication following intraoperative phrenic nerve transection during complete AV canal repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamad Alowayshiq

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral diaphragmatic palsy reduces pulmonary function by about 25% in older children and usually it is well tolerated; however, it causes severe respiratory distress in infants and young children. Diaphragmatic plication performed later than 10 days after cardiac surgery for patients under 1 year of age was associated with higher incidence of pneumonia and mortality. The management of the diaphragmatic paralysis due to phrenic nerve injury aiming mainly to preserve the respiratory function. Until now, the optimal management of diaphragmatic palsy in children who have undergone cardiac surgery remains controversial and consists of prolonged ventilation or diaphragmatic plication. In our case, many factors supported early diaphragmatic plication, the age of the patient, post-operative AV canal repair with severe pulmonary hypertension, and clear transection of the left phrenic nerve diagnosed intraoperatively.

  12. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Rapid Ecological Assessments of Fish Belt Transect Surveys (BLT) at Coral Reef Sites across the Pacific Ocean from 2000 to 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects (BLT) is one of the non-invasive underwater-survey methods to enumerate the diverse components of diurnally active shallow-water reef fish...

  13. Quantitative histological grading methods to assess subchondral bone and synovium changes subsequent to medial meniscus transection in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloefkorn, Heidi E; Allen, Kyle D

    The importance of the medial meniscus to knee health is demonstrated by studies which show meniscus injuries significantly increase the likelihood of developing osteoarthritis (OA), and knee OA can be modeled in rodents using simulated meniscus injuries. Traditionally, histological assessments of OA in these models have focused on damage to the articular cartilage; however, OA is now viewed as a disease of the entire joint as an organ system. The aim of this study was to develop quantitative histological measures of bone and synovial changes in a rat medial meniscus injury model of knee OA. To initiate OA, a medial meniscus transection (MMT) and a medial collateral ligament transection (MCLT) were performed in 32 male Lewis rats (MMT group). MCLT alone served as the sham procedure in 32 additional rats (MCLT sham group). At weeks 1, 2, 4, and 6 post-surgery, histological assessment of subchondral bone and synovium was performed (n = 8 per group per time point). Trabecular bone area and the ossification width at the osteochondral interface increased in both the MMT and MCLT groups. Subintimal synovial cell morphology also changed in MMT and MCLT groups relative to naïve animals. OA affects the joint as an organ system, and quantifying changes throughout an entire joint can improve our understanding of the relationship between joint destruction and painful OA symptoms following meniscus injury.

  14. Restoration of anatomical continuity after spinal cord transection depends on Wnt/β-catenin signaling in larval zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wehner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains descriptive and experimental data on spinal cord regeneration in larval zebrafish and its dependence on Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Analyzing spread of intraspinally injected fluorescent dextran showed that anatomical continuity is rapidly restored after complete spinal cord transection. Pharmacological interference with Wnt/β-catenin signaling (IWR-1 impaired restoration of spinal continuity. For further details and experimental findings please refer to the research article by Wehner et al. Wnt signaling controls pro-regenerative Collagen XII in functional spinal cord regeneration in zebrafish (Wehner et al., 2017 [1]. Keywords: Wnt, Beta-catenin, Regeneration, Spinal cord, Zebrafish

  15. Studies on Colombian cryptogams XX. A transect analysis of the bryophyte vegetation along an altitudinal gradient on the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reenen, van G.B.A.; Gradstein, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    Along an altitudinal transect on the northern slope of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, 500-4100 m, five altitudinal bryophyte zones are distinguished – four forest zones and one páramo zone – based on ecosystem relevé analysis concerning species presence, substrate preference and

  16. The transect of happiness and community’s capability in urbanizing Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, RWD

    2018-03-01

    The idea of this paper is that happy-friendly city is it that able to support capability. In addition to factors affixed to an individual, an important element determining someone’s happiness is the quality of a place. This research tries to explain the role of quality of place formed by urbanization process by taking Yogyakarta case as the sample. The importance of variation of particular area caused by urbanization is revealed using transect method. This method showed the shifting gradation from the very center of the city that first experienced urbanization up to the peripheral that experienced it last. The initial result of this clustered-multistage random sampling shows a gradation in capability. It also describes the similar tendency regarding self-evaluation against happiness although not very clear. Further analysis is conducted to define influencing factors. They consist of 40 capability assets that belong to Individual Tangible Asset, Public Tangible Asset, Individual Intangible Asset, Social Institutional Asset, and Economic Institutional Asset. However, the focus of analysis will be on variables included in Public Tangible Asset, Social Institutional Asset, and Economic Institutional Asset called as place-attached assets.

  17. NOAA Polyline Shapefile - ROV transect Lines, US Caribbean - North East Reserve, Puerto Rico - M-I907-NF-12 (2012), UTM 20N NAD83 (NCEI Accession 0131856)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the transect lines of the underwater video and photos that were collected by NOAA scientists using a Spectrum Phantom S2 ROV (remotely...

  18. NOAA Polyline Shapefile - ROV transect points, US Caribbean - North East Reserve, Puerto Rico - M-I907-NF-12 (2012), UTM 20N NAD83 (NCEI Accession 0131856)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the transect points of the underwater video and photos that were collected by NOAA scientists using a Spectrum Phantom S2 ROV (remotely...

  19. Correlation of prostaglandin E2 concentrations in synovial fluid with ground reaction forces and clinical variables for pain or inflammation in dogs with osteoarthritis induced by transection of the cranial cruciate ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumble, Troy N; Billinghurst, R Clark; McIlwraith, C Wayne

    2004-09-01

    To evaluate the temporal pattern of prostaglandin (PG) E2 concentrations in synovial fluid after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) in dogs and to correlate PGE2 concentrations with ground reaction forces and subjective clinical variables for lameness or pain. 19 purpose-bred adult male Walker Hounds. Force plate measurements, subjective clinical analysis of pain or lameness, and samples of synovial fluid were obtained before (baseline) and at various time points after arthroscopic transection of the right CCL. Concentrations of PGE2 were measured in synovial fluid samples, and the PGE2 concentrations were correlated with ground reaction forces and clinical variables. The PGE2 concentration increased significantly above the baseline value throughout the entire study, peaking 14 days after transection. Peak vertical force and vertical impulse significantly decreased by day 14 after transection, followed by an increase over time without returning to baseline values. All clinical variables (eg, lameness, degree of weight bearing, joint extension, cumulative pain score, effusion score, and total protein content of synovial fluid, except for WBC count in synovial fluid) increased significantly above baseline values. Significant negative correlations were detected between PGE2 concentrations and peak vertical force (r, -0.5720) and vertical impulse (r, -0.4618), and significant positive correlations were detected between PGE2 concentrations and the subjective lameness score (r, 0.5016) and effusion score (r, 0.6817). Assessment of the acute inflammatory process by measurement of PGE2 concentrations in synovial fluid may be correlated with the amount of pain or lameness in dogs.

  20. Single-Use Energy Sources and Operating Room Time for Laparoscopic Hysterectomy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloran-Schwartz, M Brigid; Gavard, Jeffrey A; Martin, Jared C; Blaskiewicz, Robert J; Yeung, Patrick P

    2016-01-01

    To compare the intraoperative direct costs of a single-use energy device with reusable energy devices during laparoscopic hysterectomy. A randomized controlled trial (Canadian Task Force Classification I). An academic hospital. Forty-six women who underwent laparoscopic hysterectomy from March 2013 to September 2013. Each patient served as her own control. One side of the uterine attachments was desiccated and transected with the single-use device (Ligasure 5-mm Blunt Tip LF1537 with the Force Triad generator). The other side was desiccated and transected with reusable bipolar forceps (RoBi 5 mm), and transected with monopolar scissors using the same Covidien Force Triad generator. The instrument approach used was randomized to the attending physician who was always on the patient's left side. Resident physicians always operated on the patient's right side and used the converse instruments of the attending physician. Start time was recorded at the utero-ovarian pedicle and end time was recorded after transection of the uterine artery on the same side. Costs included the single-use device; amortized costs of the generator, reusable instruments, and cords; cleaning and packaging of reusable instruments; and disposal of the single-use device. Operating room time was $94.14/min. We estimated that our single use-device cost $630.14 and had a total time savings of 6.7 min per case, or 3.35 min per side, which could justify the expense of the device. The single-use energy device had significant median time savings (-4.7 min per side, p energy device that both desiccates and cuts significantly reduced operating room time to justify its own cost, and it also reduced total intraoperative direct costs during laparoscopic hysterectomy in our institution. Operating room cost per minute varies between institutions and must be considered before generalizing our results. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Seasonal variability and geostrophic circulation in the eastern Mediterranean as revealed through a repeated XBT transect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zervakis

    Full Text Available The evolution of the upper thermocline on a section across the eastern Mediterranean was recorded bi-weekly through a series of XBT transects from Piraeus, Greece to Alexandria, Egypt, extending from October 1999 to October 2000 on board Voluntary Observing Ships in the framework of the Mediterranean Forecasting System Pilot Project. The data acquired provided valuable information on the seasonal variability of the upper ocean thermal structure at three different regions of the eastern Mediterranean: the Myrtoan, Cretan and Levantine Seas. Furthermore, the horizontal distance (~12 miles between successive profiles provides enough spatial resolution to analyze mesoscale features, while the temporal distance between successive expeditions (2–4 weeks allows us to study their evolution. Sub-basin scale features are identified using contemporaneous sea surface temperature satellite images. The cross-transect geostrophic velocity field and corresponding volume fluxes for several sub-basin scale features of the Levantine Sea are estimated by exploiting monthly q / S diagrams from operational runs of the Princeton Ocean Model in use at NCMR. A southwestward transport in the proximity of the southeast tip of Crete was estimated between 1–3 Sv. The transport increases after the winter formation of dense intermediate water in the Cretan Sea strengthens the pressure gradient across the Cretan Straits. The Mersah-Matruh anticyclone was identified as a closed gyre carrying about 2–6 Sv. This feature was stable throughout the stratified period and disappeared from our records in March 2000. Finally, our data reveal the existence of an eastward-flowing coastal current along the North African coast, transporting a minimum of 1–2 Sv.

    Key words. Oceanography: physical (eddies and mesoscale processes; currents; marginal and semi-closed seas

  2. Toward Development of a Field-Deployable Imaging Device for TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    5] J.M. Seelig, D.P. Becker, J.D. Miller, R.P. Greenberg, J.D. Ward, S.C. Choi, Traumatic acute subdural hematoma : major mortality reduction in...the field. This results in a delay in quantifi- cation of the type and extent of TBI – epidural, subdural , versus intra-parenchymal bleeds; diffuse...example, surgical evacuation of epidural and subdural bleeds within hours of TBI immediately reduces the chance of exposure of brain to blood products

  3. Phytoplankton community structure in relation to hydrographic features along a coast-to-offshore transect on the SW Atlantic Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islabão, C. A.; Mendes, C. R. B.; Detoni, A. M. S.; Odebrecht, C.

    2017-12-01

    The continental shelf in Southern Brazil is characterized by high biological productivity associated with horizontal and vertical density gradients due to the mixing of distinct water masses. Phytoplankton biomass and composition were evaluated in summer 2013 along an on-offshore transect off the mouth of the Patos Lagoon (Lat. 32°12S). Photosynthetic active radiation, temperature, salinity and fluorescence vertical profiles were carried out and Brünt-Väisäla frequency was estimated. Three water bodies were identified: the Subtropical Shelf Water along the entire transect, the Plata Plume Water on the middle shelf surface and the Tropical Water farther offshore. The water was sampled (N = 40) for the analyses of dissolved inorganic nutrients, phytoplankton cell density and composition. Phytoplankton present in the water was identified and quantified by the classical microscope sedimentation technique, complemented with CHEMTAX analysis of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) pigment data. From the results obtained, chlorophyll a concentration was higher at both coastal stations (1.6-2.0 mg m-3) where the water column was homogeneous and diatoms dominated the stations. This group was replaced by dinoflagellates in stratified conditions on the shelf and farther offshore. Along the onshore-offshore gradient, two types of dinoflagellates were found: the peridinin-containing dinoflagellates Prorocentrum and Scrippsiella with a small contribution at the coastal stations, and the fucoxantin-containing small Gymnodiniales cells (< 15 μm) with more than 50% of the total chlorophyll a at the stations on the continental shelf, especially associated with the chlorophyll maximum at the base of the euphotic zone. The positive (negative) relationship between the biomass of dinoflagellates (diatoms) with the Brünt-Väisäla frequency, respectively, support the hypothesis that stratification is the most important environmental factor that determines the biomass of

  4. A fully-automated software pipeline for integrating breast density and parenchymal texture analysis for digital mammograms: parameter optimization in a case-control breast cancer risk assessment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuanjie; Wang, Yan; Keller, Brad M.; Conant, Emily; Gee, James C.; Kontos, Despina

    2013-02-01

    Estimating a woman's risk of breast cancer is becoming increasingly important in clinical practice. Mammographic density, estimated as the percent of dense (PD) tissue area within the breast, has been shown to be a strong risk factor. Studies also support a relationship between mammographic texture and breast cancer risk. We have developed a fullyautomated software pipeline for computerized analysis of digital mammography parenchymal patterns by quantitatively measuring both breast density and texture properties. Our pipeline combines advanced computer algorithms of pattern recognition, computer vision, and machine learning and offers a standardized tool for breast cancer risk assessment studies. Different from many existing methods performing parenchymal texture analysis within specific breast subregions, our pipeline extracts texture descriptors for points on a spatial regular lattice and from a surrounding window of each lattice point, to characterize the local mammographic appearance throughout the whole breast. To demonstrate the utility of our pipeline, and optimize its parameters, we perform a case-control study by retrospectively analyzing a total of 472 digital mammography studies. Specifically, we investigate the window size, which is a lattice related parameter, and compare the performance of texture features to that of breast PD in classifying case-control status. Our results suggest that different window sizes may be optimal for raw (12.7mm2) versus vendor post-processed images (6.3mm2). We also show that the combination of PD and texture features outperforms PD alone. The improvement is significant (p=0.03) when raw images and window size of 12.7mm2 are used, having an ROC AUC of 0.66. The combination of PD and our texture features computed from post-processed images with a window size of 6.3 mm2 achieves an ROC AUC of 0.75.

  5. NOAA Line Shapefile- Locations of Phantom S2 ROV Underwater Video Transects, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20N WGS84 (NCEI Accession 0131860)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a line shapefile showing the trackline of various Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) underwater video transects in the US Virgin Islands.NOAA's...

  6. Using hidden Markov models to deal with availability bias on line transect surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, D L; Zucchini, W; Heide-Jørgensen, M P; Cañadas, A; Langrock, R

    2013-09-01

    We develop estimators for line transect surveys of animals that are stochastically unavailable for detection while within detection range. The detection process is formulated as a hidden Markov model with a binary state-dependent observation model that depends on both perpendicular and forward distances. This provides a parametric method of dealing with availability bias when estimates of availability process parameters are available even if series of availability events themselves are not. We apply the estimators to an aerial and a shipboard survey of whales, and investigate their properties by simulation. They are shown to be more general and more flexible than existing estimators based on parametric models of the availability process. We also find that methods using availability correction factors can be very biased when surveys are not close to being instantaneous, as can estimators that assume temporal independence in availability when there is temporal dependence. © 2013, The International Biometric Society.

  7. Delayed presentation of popliteal artery transection following undisplaced lateral condyle fracture of tibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature suggests that vascular damage occurring with orthopedic injury of the lower extremity is rare and uncommon. We present a case of a young adult male who presented to the emergency room with a history of road traffic accident with complaints of pain in the right ankle diagnosed as medial malleolus fracture and pain in the left knee diagnosed as undisplaced lateral tibial condyle fracture. At the time of presentation, the left leg appeared normal and was stabilized with a knee brace, which on the next day developed severe swelling with absence of distal pulses. Doppler revealed no blood flow distal to popliteal artery with severe soft tissue edema. The patient was posted for emergency basis vascular exploration where popliteal artery was surprisingly found transected and was repaired followed by timely fasciotomy. This case report has also been prepared to stress the importance of secondary survey in patients after high energy trauma as it can prevent the important injuries from being missed.

  8. Effect of insulin on albumin production and incorporation of 14C-leucine into proteins in isolated parenchymal liver cells from normal rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, J; Gluud, C N

    1975-01-01

    the immunologically determined increment in the incubation medium was 1.7 +/- 0.2 mug albumin/min per g liver wet wt. This is about 30% of the rate of production in the perfused liver. Addition of insulin (10(-6)-10(-10) M) enhanced albumin production (50-17%), and incorporation of 14C-leucine both into albumin (50......Parenchymal rat liver cells were isolated by a modification of the collagenase method of Quistorff, Bondesen and Grunnet. The cells secreted albumin into the medium and incorporated 14C-leucine both into cell proteins and proteins secreted into the medium. Albumin production measured from......-8%), secreted proteins (40-9%) and cell proteins (20-8%). Insulin does not increase the production of albumin by depleting the cells. The effect of insulin on albumin production is compatible with an effect on the rate of synthesis as the specific activity of albumin is unaffected by addition of insulin....

  9. FBSAD PREDATOR Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2008; and Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), 2008 (NODC Accession 0067519)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 1 to ~5 m depths at a total four (4) sites: at (1-2) 2 longshore sites on the leeward coast (South Kohala district) of...

  10. FBSAD RECRUIT Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2008; and Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), 2008 (NODC Accession 0067519)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 1 to ~ 5 m depths at a total four (4) sites: at (1-2) 2 longshore sites on the leeward coast (South Kohala district) of...

  11. Spatial variability of detrended soil plow layer penetrometer resistance transect in a sugarcane field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Luis D.; Cumbrera, Ramiro; Mato, Juan; Millán, Humberto; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial variability of soil properties is relevant for identifying those zones with physical degradation. In this sense, one has to face the problem of identifying the origin and distribution of spatial variability patterns (Brouder et al., 2001; Millán et al., 2012). The objective of the present work was to quantify the spatial structure of soil penetrometer resistance (PR) collected from a transect data consisted of 221 points equidistant. In each sampling, readings were obtained from 0 cm till 70 cm of depth, with an interval of 5 cm (Pérez, 2012). The study was conducted on a Vertisol (Typic Hapludert) dedicated to sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) production during the last sixty years (Pérez et al., 2010). Recently, scaling approach has been applied on the determination of the scaling data properties (Tarquis et al., 2008; Millán et al., 2012; Pérez, 2012). We focus in the Hurst analysis to characterize the data variability for each depth. Previously a detrended analysis was conducted in order to better study de intrinsic variability of the series. The Hurst exponent (H) for each depth was estimated showing a characteristic pattern and differentiating PR evolution in depth. References Brouder, S., Hofmann, B., Reetz, H.F., 2001. Evaluating spatial variability of soil parameters for input management. Better Crops 85, 8-11. Millán, H; AM Tarquís, Luís D. Pérez, Juan Mato, Mario González-Posada, 2012. Spatial variability patterns of some Vertisol properties at a field scale using standardized data. Soil and Tillage Research, 120, 76-84. Pérez, Luís D. 2012. Influencia de la maquinaria agrícola sobre la variabilidad espacial de la compactación del suelo. Aplicación de la metodología geoestadística-fractal. PhD thesis, UPM (In Spanish). Pérez, Luís D., Humberto Millán, Mario González-Posada 2010. Spatial complexity of soil plow layer penetrometer resistance as influenced by sugarcane harvesting: A prefractal approach. Soil and Tillage

  12. Fishery Biology and Stock Assessment Division (FBSAD) Recruit Reef Fish Belt Transect and Habitat Quadrat Surveys at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2005 (NODC Accession 0046935)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 8-13 m depths at 3 longshore sites on the leeward coast (North and South Kohala districts) of the Big Island (Hawaii...

  13. A comparison of deconvolution and the Rutland-Patlak plot in parenchymal renal uptake rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shakhrah, Issa A

    2012-07-01

    Deconvolution and the Rutland-Patlak (R-P) plot are two of the most commonly used methods for analyzing dynamic radionuclide renography. Both methods allow estimation of absolute and relative renal uptake of radiopharmaceutical and of its rate of transit through the kidney. Seventeen patients (32 kidneys) were referred for further evaluation by renal scanning. All patients were positioned supine with their backs to the scintillation gamma camera, so that the kidneys and the heart are both in the field of view. Approximately 5-7 mCi of (99m)Tc-DTPA (diethylinetriamine penta-acetic acid) in about 0.5 ml of saline is injected intravenously and sequential 20 s frames were acquired, the study on each patient lasts for approximately 20 min. The time-activity curves of the parenchymal region of interest of each kidney, as well as the heart were obtained for analysis. The data were then analyzed with deconvolution and the R-P plot. A strong positive association (n = 32; r = 0.83; R (2) = 0.68) was found between the values that obtained by applying the two methods. Bland-Altman statistical analysis demonstrated that ninety seven percent of the values in the study (31 cases from 32 cases, 97% of the cases) were within limits of agreement (mean ± 1.96 standard deviation). We believe that R-P analysis method is expected to be more reproducible than iterative deconvolution method, because the deconvolution technique (the iterative method) relies heavily on the accuracy of the first point analyzed, as any errors are carried forward into the calculations of all the subsequent points, whereas R-P technique is based on an initial analysis of the data by means of the R-P plot, and it can be considered as an alternative technique to find and calculate the renal uptake rate.

  14. Comparison of Background Parenchymal Enhancement at Contrast-enhanced Spectral Mammography and Breast MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogani, Julie; Morris, Elizabeth A; Kaplan, Jennifer B; D'Alessio, Donna; Goldman, Debra; Moskowitz, Chaya S; Jochelson, Maxine S

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To assess the extent of background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) at contrast material-enhanced (CE) spectral mammography and breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, to evaluate interreader agreement in BPE assessment, and to examine the relationships between clinical factors and BPE. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective, institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant study. Two hundred seventy-eight women from 25 to 76 years of age with increased breast cancer risk who underwent CE spectral mammography and MR imaging for screening or staging from 2010 through 2014 were included. Three readers independently rated BPE on CE spectral mammographic and MR images with the ordinal scale: minimal, mild, moderate, or marked. To assess pairwise agreement between BPE levels on CE spectral mammographic and MR images and among readers, weighted κ coefficients with quadratic weights were calculated. For overall agreement, mean κ values and bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The univariate and multivariate associations between BPE and clinical factors were examined by using generalized estimating equations separately for CE spectral mammography and MR imaging. Results Most women had minimal or mild BPE at both CE spectral mammography (68%-76%) and MR imaging (69%-76%). Between CE spectral mammography and MR imaging, the intrareader agreement ranged from moderate to substantial (κ = 0.55-0.67). Overall agreement on BPE levels between CE spectral mammography and MR imaging and among readers was substantial (κ = 0.66; 95% confidence interval: 0.61, 0.70). With both modalities, BPE demonstrated significant association with menopausal status, prior breast radiation therapy, hormonal treatment, breast density on CE spectral mammographic images, and amount of fibroglandular tissue on MR images (P spectral mammographic and MR images. © RSNA, 2016.

  15. A fully automated system for quantification of background parenchymal enhancement in breast DCE-MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufuk Dalmiş, Mehmet; Gubern-Mérida, Albert; Borelli, Cristina; Vreemann, Suzan; Mann, Ritse M.; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2016-03-01

    Background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) observed in breast dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has been identified as an important biomarker associated with risk for developing breast cancer. In this study, we present a fully automated framework for quantification of BPE. We initially segmented fibroglandular tissue (FGT) of the breasts using an improved version of an existing method. Subsequently, we computed BPEabs (volume of the enhancing tissue), BPErf (BPEabs divided by FGT volume) and BPErb (BPEabs divided by breast volume), using different relative enhancement threshold values between 1% and 100%. To evaluate and compare the previous and improved FGT segmentation methods, we used 20 breast DCE-MRI scans and we computed Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) values with respect to manual segmentations. For evaluation of the BPE quantification, we used a dataset of 95 breast DCE-MRI scans. Two radiologists, in individual reading sessions, visually analyzed the dataset and categorized each breast into minimal, mild, moderate and marked BPE. To measure the correlation between automated BPE values to the radiologists' assessments, we converted these values into ordinal categories and we used Spearman's rho as a measure of correlation. According to our results, the new segmentation method obtained an average DSC of 0.81 0.09, which was significantly higher (p<0.001) compared to the previous method (0.76 0.10). The highest correlation values between automated BPE categories and radiologists' assessments were obtained with the BPErf measurement (r=0.55, r=0.49, p<0.001 for both), while the correlation between the scores given by the two radiologists was 0.82 (p<0.001). The presented framework can be used to systematically investigate the correlation between BPE and risk in large screening cohorts.

  16. Quantitative CT scans of lung parenchymal pathology in premature infants ages 0-6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, David R; Walkup, Laura L; Stein, Jill M; Crotty, Eric J; Rattan, Mantosh S; Hossain, Md Monir; Brody, Alan S; Woods, Jason C

    2018-03-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common, heterogeneous disease in premature infants. We hypothesized that quantitative CT techniques could assess lung parenchymal heterogeneity in BPD patients across a broad age range and demonstrate how pathologies change over time. A cross-sectional, retrospective study of children age 0-6 years with non-contrast chest CT scans was conducted. BPD subjects met NICHD/NHLBI diagnostic criteria for BPD and were excluded for congenital lung/airway abnormalities or other known/suspected pulmonary diagnoses; control subjects were not premature and had normal CT scan findings. Radiologic opacities, lucencies, and spatial heterogeneity were quantified via: 1) thresholding using CT-attenuation (HU); 2) manual segmentation; and 3) Ochiai reader-scoring system. Clinical outcomes included BPD severity by NICHD/NHLBI criteria, respiratory support at NICU discharge, wheezing, and respiratory exacerbations. Heterogeneity (standard deviation) of lung attenuation in BPD was significantly greater than in controls (difference 36.4 HU [26.1-46.7 HU], P < 0.001); the difference between the groups decreased 0.58 HU per month of age (0.08-1.07 HU per month, P = 0.02). BPD patients had greater amounts of opacities and lucencies than controls except with automated quantification of lucencies. Cross-sectionally, lucencies per Ochiai score and opacities per manual segmentation decreased with time. No approach measured a statistically significant relationship to BPD clinical severity. Opacities, lucencies, and overall heterogeneity of lungs via quantitative CT can distinguish BPD patients from healthy controls, and these abnormalities decrease with age across BPD patients. Defining BPD severity by clinical outcomes such as respiratory support at several time points (vs a single time point, per current guidelines) may be meaningful. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Featured Article: Isolation, characterization, and cultivation of human hepatocytes and non-parenchymal liver cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Elisa; Kegel, Victoria; Zeilinger, Katrin; Hengstler, Jan G; Nüssler, Andreas K; Seehofer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Primary human hepatocytes (PHH) are considered to be the gold standard for in vitro testing of xenobiotic metabolism and hepatotoxicity. However, PHH cultivation in 2D mono-cultures leads to dedifferentiation and a loss of function. It is well known that hepatic non-parenchymal cells (NPC), such as Kupffer cells (KC), liver endothelial cells (LEC), and hepatic stellate cells (HSC), play a central role in the maintenance of PHH functions. The aims of the present study were to establish a protocol for the simultaneous isolation of human PHH and NPC from the same tissue specimen and to test their suitability for in vitro co-culture. Human PHH and NPC were isolated from tissue obtained by partial liver resection by a two-step EDTA/collagenase perfusion technique. The obtained cell fractions were purified by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. KC, LEC, and HSC contained in the NPC fraction were separated using specific adherence properties and magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS®). Identified NPC revealed a yield of 1.9 × 106 KC, 2.7 × 105 LEC and 4.7 × 105 HSC per gram liver tissue, showing viabilities >90%. Characterization of these NPC showed that all populations went through an activation process, which influenced the cell fate. The activation of KC strongly depended on the tissue quality and donor anamnesis. KC became activated in culture in association with a loss of viability within 4–5 days. LEC lost specific features during culture, while HSC went through a transformation process into myofibroblasts. The testing of different culture conditions for HSC demonstrated that they can attenuate, but not prevent dedifferentiation in vitro. In conclusion, the method described allows the isolation and separation of PHH and NPC in high quality and quantity from the same donor. PMID:25394621

  18. Effects of enalapril on urinary protein excretion of essential and renal parenchymal hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzucca, N.; Falciani, C.; Morini, V.; Bigazzi, R.; Paparatto, P.; Setti, G.P.; Bianchi, S.; Baldari, G.; Valteriani, C.; Chiapponi, I.

    1988-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibiting drugs are able to reduce urinary protein excretion in experimental hypertension and in hypertensive patients with diabetes. Fifteen essential (group I) and six renal parenchymal (group II) mild or moderate hypertensive patients were treated with the ACE inhibitor Enalapril in monotherapy or in combination with a diuretic. Twenty-four hour urinary protein excretion was measured by means of colorimetric and RIA methods. All patients of group I had a significant decrease of arterial pressure with Enalapril alone and this reduction was dosage dependent. Three out of six patients of group II required the addition of diuretic to achieve a good pressure control. Serum creatinine values were stable in group I, while one patient of group II, who already had high baseline creatinine levels, showed an impairment of renal function requiring discontinuation of therapy. Twenty-four hour urinary protein excretion did not change in group I, while after two months of therapy a significant decrease was observed in group II (P<0.05), which was even more evident after 4 months (P<0.03). In this group a good correlation between MAP and proteinuria was observed. Finally, compared to the colorimetric method, RIA method seems to be more sensitive to assess the variations under Enalapril treatment. In conclusion, Enalapril is an effective drug in patients with moderate or mild hypertension. Caution must be exercised in administering Enalapril to patients with severe renal failure. Also in hypertensive patients with mild renal failure ACE inhibition appears to induce an antiproteinuric effect during long term therapy. This fact could be related to an improved hemodynamic intraglomerular status due to the renal effects of the drug. Finally urinary albumin RIA method seems to be more sensitive than colorimetric evaluation to follow-up the variations of proteinuria under Enalapril treatment

  19. Beyond the transect: An alternative microchemical imaging method for fine scale analysis of trace elements in fish otoliths during early life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, Nicole; Fowler, Ashley M.; Parkinson, Kerryn; Bishop, David P.; Ganio, Katherine; Doble, Philip A.; Booth, David J.; Hare, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    Microchemical analysis of otolith (calcified ‘ear stones’ used for balance and orientation) of fishes is an important tool for studying their environmental history and management. However, the spatial resolution achieved is often too coarse to examine short-term events occurring in early life. Current methods rely on single points or transects across the otolith surface, which may provide a limited view of elemental distributions, a matter that has not previously been investigated. Imaging by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) permits microchemical analyses of short-term events in early life with high (< 10 μm) resolution, two-dimensional (2D) visualization of elemental distributions. To demonstrate the potential of this method, we mapped the concentrations of Sr and Ba, two key trace elements, in a small number of juvenile otoliths of neon damselfish (Pomacentrus coelestis) using an 8 μm beam diameter (laser fluence of 13.8 ± 3.5 J cm −2 ). Quantification was performed using the established method by Longerich et al. (1996), which is applied to 2D imaging of a biological matrix here for the first time. Accuracy of > 97% was achieved using a multi-point non matrix-matched calibration of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 610 and 612 (trace elements in glass) using Longerich's calculation method against the matrix-matched standard FEBS-1 (powdered red snapper [Lutjanus campechanus] otolith). The spatial resolution achieved in the otolith corresponded to a time period of 2 ± 1 days during the larval phase, and 4 ± 1 days during the post-settlement juvenile phase. This method has the potential to improve interpretations of early life-history events at scales corresponding to specific events. While the images showed gradients in Sr and Ba across the larval settlement zone more clearly than single transects, the method proved sample homogeneity throughout the structure; demonstrating that 2D

  20. Beyond the transect: An alternative microchemical imaging method for fine scale analysis of trace elements in fish otoliths during early life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, Nicole [Elemental Bio-imaging Facility, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); CCFS ARC Centre of Excellence, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney (Australia); Fowler, Ashley M.; Parkinson, Kerryn [Fish Ecology Laboratory, School of the Environment, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Bishop, David P. [Elemental Bio-imaging Facility, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Ganio, Katherine [Florey Department of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Doble, Philip A. [Elemental Bio-imaging Facility, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Booth, David J. [Fish Ecology Laboratory, School of the Environment, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Hare, Dominic J., E-mail: dominic.hare@uts.edu.au [Elemental Bio-imaging Facility, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Florey Department of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2014-10-01

    Microchemical analysis of otolith (calcified ‘ear stones’ used for balance and orientation) of fishes is an important tool for studying their environmental history and management. However, the spatial resolution achieved is often too coarse to examine short-term events occurring in early life. Current methods rely on single points or transects across the otolith surface, which may provide a limited view of elemental distributions, a matter that has not previously been investigated. Imaging by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) permits microchemical analyses of short-term events in early life with high (< 10 μm) resolution, two-dimensional (2D) visualization of elemental distributions. To demonstrate the potential of this method, we mapped the concentrations of Sr and Ba, two key trace elements, in a small number of juvenile otoliths of neon damselfish (Pomacentrus coelestis) using an 8 μm beam diameter (laser fluence of 13.8 ± 3.5 J cm{sup −2}). Quantification was performed using the established method by Longerich et al. (1996), which is applied to 2D imaging of a biological matrix here for the first time. Accuracy of > 97% was achieved using a multi-point non matrix-matched calibration of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 610 and 612 (trace elements in glass) using Longerich's calculation method against the matrix-matched standard FEBS-1 (powdered red snapper [Lutjanus campechanus] otolith). The spatial resolution achieved in the otolith corresponded to a time period of 2 ± 1 days during the larval phase, and 4 ± 1 days during the post-settlement juvenile phase. This method has the potential to improve interpretations of early life-history events at scales corresponding to specific events. While the images showed gradients in Sr and Ba across the larval settlement zone more clearly than single transects, the method proved sample homogeneity throughout the structure; demonstrating that 2D

  1. Quantitative analysis of background parenchymal enhancement in whole breast on MRI: Influence of menstrual cycle and comparison with a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yongsik; Jeong, Seong Kyun; Kang, Doo Kyoung; Moon, Yeorae; Kim, Tae Hee

    2018-06-01

    We quantitatively analyzed background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) in whole breast according to menstrual cycle and compared it with a qualitative analysis method. A data set of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from 273 breast cancer patients was used. For quantitative analysis, we used semiautomated in-house software with MATLAB. From each voxel of whole breast, the software calculated BPE using following equation: [(signal intensity [SI] at 1 min 30 s after contrast injection - baseline SI)/baseline SI] × 100%. In total, 53 patients had minimal, 108 mild, 87 moderate, and 25 marked BPE. On quantitative analysis, mean BPE values were 33.1% in the minimal, 42.1% in the mild, 59.1% in the moderate, and 81.9% in the marked BPE group showing significant difference (p = .009 for minimal vs. mild, p quantitative BPE (r = 0.63, p Quantitative analysis of BPE correlated well with the qualitative BPE grade. Quantitative BPE values were lowest in the second week and highest in the fourth week. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Spinal cord injury below-level neuropathic pain relief with dorsal root entry zone microcoagulation performed caudal to level of complete spinal cord transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falci, Scott; Indeck, Charlotte; Barnkow, Dave

    2018-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Surgically created lesions of the spinal cord dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) to relieve central pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) have historically been performed at and cephalad to, but not below, the level of SCI. This study was initiated to investigate the validity of 3 proposed concepts regarding the DREZ in SCI central pain: 1) The spinal cord DREZ caudal to the level of SCI can be a primary generator of SCI below-level central pain. 2) Neuronal transmission from a DREZ that generates SCI below-level central pain to brain pain centers can be primarily through sympathetic nervous system (SNS) pathways. 3) Perceived SCI below-level central pain follows a unique somatotopic map of DREZ pain-generators. METHODS Three unique patients with both intractable SCI below-level central pain and complete spinal cord transection at the level of SCI were identified. All 3 patients had previously undergone surgical intervention to their spinal cords-only cephalad to the level of spinal cord transection-with either DREZ microcoagulation or cyst shunting, in failed attempts to relieve their SCI below-level central pain. Subsequent to these surgeries, DREZ lesioning of the spinal cord solely caudal to the level of complete spinal cord transection was performed using electrical intramedullary guidance. The follow-up period ranged from 1 1/2 to 11 years. RESULTS All 3 patients in this study had complete or near-complete relief of all below-level neuropathic pain. The analyzed electrical data confirmed and enhanced a previously proposed somatotopic map of SCI below-level DREZ pain generators. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study support the following hypotheses. 1) The spinal cord DREZ caudal to the level of SCI can be a primary generator of SCI below-level central pain. 2) Neuronal transmission from a DREZ that generates SCI below-level central pain to brain pain centers can be primarily through SNS pathways. 3) Perceived SCI below-level central pain follows a unique

  3. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Rapid Ecological Assessments of Fish Belt Transect Surveys (BLT) in the Pacific Ocean from 2000-09-09 to 2009-05-05 (NCEI Accession 0162462)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects (BLT) are a non-invasive underwater-survey method that enumerates the diverse components of diurnally active shallow-water reef fish assemblages. At...

  4. Relationship between Background Parenchymal Enhancement on High-risk Screening MRI and Future Breast Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Lars J; Saha, Ashirbani; Ghate, Sujata V; Kim, Connie; Soo, Mary Scott; Yoon, Sora C; Mazurowski, Maciej A

    2018-03-27

    To determine if background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on screening breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in high-risk women correlates with future cancer. All screening breast MRIs (n = 1039) in high-risk women at our institution from August 1, 2004, to July 30, 2013, were identified. Sixty-one patients who subsequently developed breast cancer were matched 1:2 by age and high-risk indication with patients who did not develop breast cancer (n = 122). Five fellowship-trained breast radiologists independently recorded the BPE. The median reader BPE for each case was calculated and compared between the cancer and control cohorts. Cancer cohort patients were high-risk because of a history of radiation therapy (10%, 6 of 61), high-risk lesion (18%, 11 of 61), or breast cancer (30%, 18 of 61); BRCA mutation (18%, 11 of 61); or family history (25%, 15 of 61). Subsequent malignancies were invasive ductal carcinoma (64%, 39 of 61), ductal carcinoma in situ (30%, 18 of 61) and invasive lobular carcinoma (7%, 4of 61). BPE was significantly higher in the cancer cohort than in the control cohort (P = 0.01). Women with mild, moderate, or marked BPE were 2.5 times more likely to develop breast cancer than women with minimal BPE (odds ratio = 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-4.8, P = .005). There was fair interreader agreement (κ = 0.39). High-risk women with greater than minimal BPE at screening MRI have increased risk of future breast cancer. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Parameter optimization of parenchymal texture analysis for prediction of false-positive recalls from screening mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Shonket; Keller, Brad M.; Chen, Jinbo; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2016-03-01

    This work details a methodology to obtain optimal parameter values for a locally-adaptive texture analysis algorithm that extracts mammographic texture features representative of breast parenchymal complexity for predicting falsepositive (FP) recalls from breast cancer screening with digital mammography. The algorithm has two components: (1) adaptive selection of localized regions of interest (ROIs) and (2) Haralick texture feature extraction via Gray- Level Co-Occurrence Matrices (GLCM). The following parameters were systematically varied: mammographic views used, upper limit of the ROI window size used for adaptive ROI selection, GLCM distance offsets, and gray levels (binning) used for feature extraction. Each iteration per parameter set had logistic regression with stepwise feature selection performed on a clinical screening cohort of 474 non-recalled women and 68 FP recalled women; FP recall prediction was evaluated using area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and associations between the extracted features and FP recall were assessed via odds ratios (OR). A default instance of mediolateral (MLO) view, upper ROI size limit of 143.36 mm (2048 pixels2), GLCM distance offset combination range of 0.07 to 0.84 mm (1 to 12 pixels) and 16 GLCM gray levels was set. The highest ROC performance value of AUC=0.77 [95% confidence intervals: 0.71-0.83] was obtained at three specific instances: the default instance, upper ROI window equal to 17.92 mm (256 pixels2), and gray levels set to 128. The texture feature of sum average was chosen as a statistically significant (p<0.05) predictor and associated with higher odds of FP recall for 12 out of 14 total instances.

  6. MR-imaging of the breast at 0.5 Tesla: menstrual-cycle dependency of parenchymal contrast enhancement in healthy volunteers with oral contraceptive use?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, J.; Welger, J.; Krupski, G.; Adam, G.; Lisboa, B.W.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: To evaluate changes of contrast medium enhancement of the breast parenchyma due to menstrual cycle in healthy volunteers with oral contraceptive use in MR-imaging of the breast. Material and Methods: 15 healthy volunteers (age: 22 - 36, mean 28,2) without breast disease were examined two times during one menstrual cycle (days 7 - 14 and days 21 - 2). Two volunteers were examined only in the second part of the cycle (days 21 - 2). All volunteers used oral contraceptives for more than 6 month continuously. Examinations were performed with a 0,5 T magnet (dynamic 3D-gradient echo protocol with subtraction postprocessing). We evaluated the number of enhancing foci and the parenchymal contrast medium enhancement during the different phases of the cycle by region of interest. Results: Only a total of two enhancing foci were found in 2 of 17 volunteers. Time/signal intensity diagrams in these both cases were not suspicious ( [de

  7. Microbial processes and communities in sediment samples along a transect across the Lusi mud volcano, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Martin; Straaten, Nontje; Mazzini, Adriano

    2015-04-01

    The Lusi eruption represents one of the largest ongoing sedimentary hosted geothermal systems. This eruption started in 2006 following to a 6.3 M earthquake that stroke Java Island. Since then it has been spewing boiling mud from a central crater with peaks reaching 180.000 m3 per day. Today an area of about 8 km2 is covered by locally dried mud breccia where a network of hundreds of satellite seeping pools is active. Numerous investigations focused on the study of offshore microbial colonies that commonly thrive at offshore methane seeps and mud volcanoes, however very little has been done for onshore seeping structures. Lusi represents a unique opportunity to complete a comprehensive study of onshore microbial communities fed by the seepage of CH4 and CO2 as well as of heavier liquid hydrocarbons originating from several km below the surface. We conducted a sampling campaign at the Lusi site collecting samples of fresh mud close to the erupting crater using a remote controlled drone. In addition we completed a transect towards outer parts of the crater to collect older, weathered samples for comparison. In all samples active microorganisms were present. The highest activities for CO2 and CH4 production as well as for CH4 oxidation and hydrocarbon degradation were observed in medium-age mud samples collected roughly in the middle of the transect. Rates for aerobic methane oxidation were high, as was the potential of the microbial communities to degrade hydrocarbons (oils, alkanes, BTEX tested). The data suggests a transition of microbial populations from an anaerobic, hydrocarbon-driven metabolism in fresher samples from center or from small seeps to more generalistic, aerobic microbial communities in older, more consolidated sediments. Currently, the microbial communities in the different sediment samples are analyzed using quantitative PCR and T-RFLP combined with MiSeq sequencing. This study represents an initial step to better understand onshore seepage

  8. Histological examination of pancreatic parenchymal changes induced by an experimental fractionated local exposition to X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, L [Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Budapest. Orvosradiologiai Kutato Csoport

    1976-11-01

    After exposition to a total dose of 8,000 R delivered with 16 fractions, the pancreatic parenchymal changes in rats were investigated using histological and histochemical techniques. The observations were performed from the first to the 150th day following the last fraction. During the period of acute changes (1st to 15th day), the most part of the acini is morphologically intact, many smaller or greater necrotic foci, however, are to be seen. This is partly due to the enzymes with cytolytic effects, coming from the damaged smaller ducts and from glandular acini. The formation of the other part of the necrobiotic foci originates not only from direct radiation injury, but also from the capillary lesion by radiation. The injury to the wall of greater ducts induces edema, inflammations, dilatation of efferent ductules and stasis, all this leading consequently to an atrophy of the acini associated with the efferent ducts. During the period of chronical changes (50th to 150th day), the number of capillaries diminishes, the necrobiotic foci are multiplied especially in places where no capillaries are visible. This clearly emphasizes the role of the pathological reasons for capillary lesions. The regenerative phenomena occur only to a lesser extent, being confined to the efferent ducts. The extension of the necrotic zones together with the insignificant regeneration leads to a gradual destruction of the tissular substance. It is concluded that the radiosensitivity of the organ can only be determined, if its acute and chronical changes are known.

  9. Teratoma arising from hepato duodenal ligament in the newborn with transection of portal vein, hepatic artery and common bile duct: A surgical challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V R Ravikumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-day-old neonate presented with a large intra-abdominal mass adherent to the hilum of the liver encasing the portal triad. During excision, the portal vein, hepatic artery, and common bile duct were injured. The repair was done promptly and needed massive blood transfusion. Histopathology revealed immature teratoma Grade III. Survival in neonate following total transection of portal triad is rare and has not been reported.

  10. Effects of climate and geochemistry on soil organic matter stabilization and greenhouse gas emissions along altitudinal transects in different mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griepentrog, Marco; Bodé, Samuel; Boudin, Mathieu; Dercon, Gerd; Doetterl, Sebastian; Matulanya, Machibya; Msigwa, Anna; Vermeir, Pieter; Boeckx, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are strongly influenced by climate change and soils are key compartments of the global carbon (C) cycle in terms of their potential to store or release significant amounts of C. This study is part of the interregional IAEA Technical Cooperation Project ``Assessing the Impact of Climate Change and its Effects on Soil and Water Resources in Polar and Mountainous Regions (INT5153)'' aiming to improve the understanding of climate change impacts on soil organic carbon (SOC) in fragile polar and high mountainous ecosystems at local and global scale for their better management and conservation. The project includes 13 benchmark sites situated around the world. Here we present novel data from altitudinal transects of three different mountain regions (Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania; Mount Gongga, China; Cordillera Blanca, Peru). All altitudinal transects cover a wide range of natural ecosystems under different climates and soil geochemistry. Bulk soil samples (four field replicates per ecosystem) were subjected to a combination of aggregate and particle-size fractionation followed by organic C, total nitrogen, stable isotope (13C, 15N) and radiocarbon (14C) analyses of all fractions. Bulk soils were further characterized for their geochemistry (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn, Si, P) and incubated for 63 days to assess greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, NO, N2O). Further, stable C isotopic signature of CO2 was measured to determine the isotopic signature of soil respiration (using Keeling plots) and to estimate potential respiration sources. The following four ecosystems were sampled at an altitudinal transect on the (wet) southern slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro: savannah (920m), lower montane rain forests with angiosperm trees (2020m), upper montane cloud forest with gymnosperm trees (2680m), subalpine heathlands (3660m). Both forests showed highest C contents followed by subalpine and savannah. The largest part of SOC was found in particulate organic matter

  11. Severe cerebral hypovolemia on perfusion CT and lower body weight are associated with parenchymal haemorrhage after thrombolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsetsou, S.; Eskandari, A.; Michel, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne CHUV, Department of Neurology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Amiguet, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Lausanne (Switzerland); Meuli, R.; Maeder, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Jiang, B.; Wintermark, M. [Stanford University and Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Haemorrhagic transformation of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and particularly parenchymal haemorrhage (PH) remains a feared complication of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). We aimed to identify clinical and perfusion CT (PCT) variables which are independently associated with PHs. In this observational cohort study, based on the Acute Stroke Registry Analysis of Lausanne (ASTRAL) from 2003 to December 2013, we selected patients with AIS involving the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory who were thrombolysed within 4.5 h of symptoms' onset and who had a good quality baseline PCT at the beginning of IVT. In addition to demographic, clinical, laboratory and non-contrast CT data, volumes of salvageable tissue and ischemic core on PCT, as well as absolute CBF and CBV values within the ischemic regions were compared in patients with and without PH in multivariate analysis. Of the 190 included patients, 24 (12.6%) presented a PH (11 had PH1 and 13 had PH2). In multivariate analysis of the clinical and radiological variables, the lowest CBV in the core and lower body weight was both significantly associated with PH (p = 0.009 and p = 0.024, respectively). In thrombolysed MCA strokes, maximal hypoperfusion severity depicted by lowest CBV values in the core region and lower body weight are independently correlated with PH. This information, if confirmed in other case series, may add to the stratification of revascularisation decisions in patients with a perceived high PH risk. (orig.)

  12. Fisheries Biology and Stock Assessment Division (FBSAD) Recruit and Predator Reef Fish Belt Transect and Habitat Surveys at Big Island (Hawaii Island) in May-June 2009 (NODC Accession 0073870)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 1 to ~ 5 m depths at a total two (2) sites: at 2 longshore sites on the leeward coast (South Kohala district) of the Big...

  13. Bionomics of Anopheline species and malaria transmission dynamics along an altitudinal transect in Western Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toto Jean-Claude

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highland areas of Africa are mostly malaria hypoendemic, due to climate which is not appropriate for anophelines development and their reproductive fitness. In view of designing a malaria control strategy in Western Cameroon highlands, baseline data on anopheline species bionomics were collected. Methods Longitudinal entomological surveys were conducted in three localities at different altitudinal levels. Mosquitoes were captured when landing on human volunteers and by pyrethrum spray catches. Sampled Anopheles were tested for the presence of Plasmodium circumsporozoite proteins and their blood meal origin with ELISA. Entomological parameters of malaria epidemiology were assessed using Mac Donald's formula. Results Anopheline species diversity and density decreased globally from lowland to highland. The most aggressive species along the altitudinal transect was Anopheles gambiae s.s. of S molecular form, followed in the lowland and on the plateau by An. funestus, but uphill by An. hancocki. An. gambiae and An. ziemanni exhibited similar seasonal biting patterns at the different levels, whereas different features were observed for An. funestus. Only indoor resting species could be captured uphill; it is therefore likely that endophilic behaviour is necessary for anophelines to climb above a certain threshold. Of the ten species collected along the transect, only An. gambiae and An. funestus were responsible for malaria transmission, with entomological inoculation rates (EIR of 90.5, 62.8 and zero infective bites/human/year in the lowland, on the plateau and uphill respectively. The duration of gonotrophic cycle was consistently one day shorter for An. gambiae as compared to An. funestus at equal altitude. Altitudinal climate variations had no effect on the survivorship and the subsequent life expectancy of the adult stage of these malaria vectors, but most probably on aquatic stages. On the contrary increasing altitude

  14. Protection device for a thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Shuichi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To exactly detect the void coefficients of coolants even under high magnetic fields thereby detect the overheat of a thermonuclear device at an early stage. Constitution: The protecting device of this invention comprises a laser beam generation device, a laser beam detection device and an accident detection device. The laser generation device always generates laser beams, which are permeated through coolants and detected by the laser beam detection device, the optical amount of which is transmitted to the accident detection device. The accident detection device judges the excess or insufficiency of the detected optical amount with respect to the optical amount of the laser beams under the stationary state as a reference and issues an accident signal. Since only the optical cables that do not undergo the effect of the magnetic fields are exposed to high magnetic fields in the protection device of this invention, a high reliability can be maintained. (Kamimura, M.)

  15. Digital still images from Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP) Rapid Assessment Transect surveys from 2006 in the coastal waters of Hawaii, 22 June - 12 December 2006 (NODC Accession 0039627)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of digital still images taken during CRAMP Rapid Assessment Transect surveys taken in 2006 and includes images of substrate type and species....

  16. The PLOT (Paleolimnological Transect) Project in the Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromig, R.; Andreev, A.; Baumer, M.; Bolshiyanov, D.; Fedorov, G.; Frolova, L.; Krastel, S.; Lebas, E.; Ludikova, A.; Melles, M.; Meyer, H.; Nazarova, L.; Pestryakova, L.; Savelieva, L.; Shumilovskikh, L.; Subetto, D.; Wagner, B.; Wennrich, V.

    2017-12-01

    The joint Russian- German project 'PLOT - Paleolimnological Transec' aims to recover lake sediment sequences along a >6000 km long longitudinal transect across the Eurasian Arctic in order to investigate the Late Quaternary climatic and environmental history. The climate history of the Arctic is of particular interest since it is the region, which is experiencing major impact of the current climate change. The project is funded for three years (2015-2018) by the Russian and German Ministries of Research. Since 2013 extensive fieldwork, including seismic surveys, coring, and hydrological investigations, was carried out at lakes Ladoga (NW Russia, pilot study), Bolshoye Shuchye (Polar Urals), Emanda (Verkhoyansk Range, field campaign planned for August 2017), Levinson-Lessing and Taymyr (Taymyr Peninsula). Fieldwork at lakes Bolshoye Shuchye, Levinson-Lessing and Taymyr was conducted in collaboration with the Russian-Norwegian CHASE (Climate History along the Arctic Seaboard of Eurasia) project. A major objective of the PLOT project was to recover preglacial sediments. A multiproxy approach was applied to the analytical work of all cores, including (bio-)geochemical, sedimentological, geophysical, and biological analyses. First data implies the presence of preglacial sediments in the cores from all lakes so far visited. Age-depth models, based on radiocarbon dating, OSL dating, paleomagnetic measurements, identification of cryptotephra, and varve counting (where applicable), are in progress. Climate variability in the records shall be compared to that recorded at Lake Eĺgygytgyn (NE Russia), which represents the master record for the Siberian Arctic. The outcome of the PLOT project will be a better understanding of the temporal and spatial variability and development of the Arctic climate. Here, we present the major results and first key interpretations of the PLOT project, along with an outlook on the future strategy and foci. First results from lakes Ladoga

  17. Early fibrinogen degradation coagulopathy: a predictive factor of parenchymal hematomas in cerebral rt-PA thrombolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuhong; Berthiller, Julien; Trouillas, Paul; Derex, Laurent; Diallo, Laho; Hanss, Michel

    2015-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to systematically determine the correlations between the post-thrombolytic changes of hemostasis parameters and the occurrence of early intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In 72 consecutive patients with cerebral infarcts treated with rt-PA, plasma levels of fibrinogen, plasminogen, alpha2-antiplasmin, factor XIII, fibrin(ogen) degradation products (FDPs) and d-Dimers were measured at baseline, 2 and 24h after thrombolysis. Correlations were studied between the hemostasis events and early (less than 24h) hemorrhagic infarcts (HIs) or parenchymatous hematomas (PH). Of 72 patients, 6 patients (8.3%) had early PHs, 11 (15.3%) had early HIs, and 55 (76.4%) had no bleeding. Early HIs were not linked to any hemostasis parameter at any time. Univariate comparison of patients having early PHs with non-bleeding patients showed hemostasis abnormalities at 2h: high FDP (p=0.01), high Log FDP (p=0.01), low fibrinogen (p=0.01), and low Log fibrinogen (p=0.01). Logistic regression adjusted for age, NIHSS and diabetes confirmed these 2hour predictors: Log FDP (OR: 7.50; CI: 1.26 to 44.61, p=0.03), and Log fibrinogen (OR: 19.32; CI: 1.81 to 205.98, p=0.01). The decrease in fibrinogen less than 2g/L multiplies the odds of early PH by a factor 12.82. An early fibrinogen degradation coagulopathy involving an increase of FDP and a massive consumption of circulating fibrinogen is predictive of early parenchymal hematomas, indicating the occurrence of a particularly intense lysis of circulating fibrinogen. These results, if confirmed by future studies, suggest that early assays of fibrinogen and FDP may be useful in predicting the risk of post-thrombolytic intracerebral hematoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Up-regulation of serotonergic binding sites labeled by (3H) WB4101 following fimbrial transection and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine-induced lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrow, A.L.; Norman, A.B.; Battaglia, G.; Loy, R.; Creese, I.

    1985-01-01

    Lesions of the serotonergic afferents to the hippocampus, by fimbrial transection or by 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine treatment, produce an increase in the Bmax of ( 3 H)WB4101 to its nanomolar affinity binding site, with no effect on its picomolar affinity binding site or on ( 3 H)prazosin binding. The nanomolar site is serotonergic as the serotonergic agonists, serotonin and 8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetraline (8-OH-DPAT) have nanomolar affinity for ( 3 H)WB4101 binding when studied in the presence of a prazosin mask (30nM) of the alpha-1 component of ( 3 H)WB4101 binding. The serotonin receptor antagonists metergoline, lysergic acid diethylamide and lisuride also have high nanomolar affinities while ketanserin, yohimbine, prazosin and noradrenergic agonists have affinities in the micromolar range. Fimbrial transection or 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine injections produced 32% and 44% increases in the Bmax of ( 3 H)WB4101 binding in the presence of a prazosin mask. Serotonin competition for ( 3 H)WB4101 binding was identical in control and experimental tissues from each lesion experiment. Although specific binding of ( 3 H)WB4101 was increased, there was no change in the affinities or the percentages of the two binding components for serotonin competition with ( 3 H)WB4101. These data suggest that removal of the serotonergic input to the hippocampus produces an increase in the Bmax of serotonin receptor binding sites labeled by ( 3 H)WB4101. 33 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  19. PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF SPIROTOME® DEVICE FOR LIVER BIOPSY IN GREEN IGUANAS (IGUANA IGUANA): A PILOT STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Giordano; Origgi, Francesco C; Leopardi, Stefania; Zaghini, Anna; Saunders, Jimmy H; Vignoli, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a large-core manual biopsy device (Spirotome(®), Medinvents, 3500 Hasselt, Belgium) for liver sampling and histologic diagnosis in green iguanas (Iguana iguana). The study included eight green iguanas, and two ultrasound-guided biopsies were collected for each lizard, for 16 biopsies in total. The procedure was carried out under general anesthesia induced by intravenous injection of propofol (10 mg/kg) maintained with a mixture of 2.0% isoflurane and 0.8-1.2 L/min oxygen after tracheal intubation. Fourteen (87.5%) of the 16 biopsies were considered diagnostic. Liver biopsy quality was assessed according to sample size and tissue preservation. In particular, mean length (16.2 ± 4.5 mm), width (2.2 ± 0.5 mm), area (34.8 ± 6.9 mm(2)), and number of portal areas (9.4 ± 3.9) of each biopsy were recorded for all green iguanas. The total available surface of the sections obtained from the biopsies and their grade of preservation enabled a satisfactory evaluation of the parenchymal architecture. One of the green iguanas in the study died the day after the procedure due to severe hemocoeloma. Risk assessment evaluation suggested that small green iguanas may not be suitable for this biopsy procedure.

  20. Design of a factorial experiment with randomization restrictions to assess medical device performance on vascular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diestelkamp, Wiebke S; Krane, Carissa M; Pinnell, Margaret F

    2011-05-20

    Energy-based surgical scalpels are designed to efficiently transect and seal blood vessels using thermal energy to promote protein denaturation and coagulation. Assessment and design improvement of ultrasonic scalpel performance relies on both in vivo and ex vivo testing. The objective of this work was to design and implement a robust, experimental test matrix with randomization restrictions and predictive statistical power, which allowed for identification of those experimental variables that may affect the quality of the seal obtained ex vivo. The design of the experiment included three factors: temperature (two levels); the type of solution used to perfuse the artery during transection (three types); and artery type (two types) resulting in a total of twelve possible treatment combinations. Burst pressures of porcine carotid and renal arteries sealed ex vivo were assigned as the response variable. The experimental test matrix was designed and carried out as a split-plot experiment in order to assess the contributions of several variables and their interactions while accounting for randomization restrictions present in the experimental setup. The statistical software package SAS was utilized and PROC MIXED was used to account for the randomization restrictions in the split-plot design. The combination of temperature, solution, and vessel type had a statistically significant impact on seal quality. The design and implementation of a split-plot experimental test-matrix provided a mechanism for addressing the existing technical randomization restrictions of ex vivo ultrasonic scalpel performance testing, while preserving the ability to examine the potential effects of independent factors or variables. This method for generating the experimental design and the statistical analyses of the resulting data are adaptable to a wide variety of experimental problems involving large-scale tissue-based studies of medical or experimental device efficacy and performance.

  1. Engraftment, neuroglial transdifferentiation and behavioral recovery after complete spinal cord transection in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Luzzi; Maria, Crovace Alberto; Luca, Lacitignola; Valerio, Valentini; Edda, Francioso; Giacomo, Rossi; Gloria, Invernici; Juan, Galzio Renato; Antonio, Crovace

    2018-01-01

    Proof of the efficacy and safety of a xenogeneic mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) transplant for spinal cord injury (SCI) may theoretically widen the spectrum of possible grafts for neuroregeneration. Twenty rats were submitted to complete spinal cord transection. Ovine bone marrow MSCs, retrovirally transfected with red fluorescent protein and not previously induced for neuroglial differentiation, were applied in 10 study rats (MSCG). Fibrin glue was injected in 10 control rats (FGG). All rats were evaluated on a weekly basis and scored using the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor scale for 10 weeks, when the collected data were statistically analyzed. The spinal cords were then harvested and analyzed with light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Ovine MSCs culture showed positivity for Nestin. MSCG had a significant and durable recovery of motor functions ( P <.001). Red fluorescence was found at the injury sites in MSCG. Positivity for Nestin, tubulin βIII, NG2 glia, neuron-specific enolase, vimentin, and 200 kD neurofilament were also found at the same sites. Xenogeneic ovine bone marrow MSCs proved capable of engrafting into the injured rat spinal cord. Transdifferentiation into a neuroglial phenotype was able to support partial functional recovery.

  2. Substrate and species data from Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP) Rapid Assessment Transect surveys from 2006 in the coastal waters of Hawaii, 22 June - 12 December 2006 (NODC Accession 0039383)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of CRAMP Rapid Assessment Transect surveys taken in 2006 and includes quantitative estimates of substrate type and species. In 2006, there were...

  3. Visualization of morphological parenchymal changes in emphysema: Comparison of different MRI sequences to 3D-HRCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia; Ley, Sebastian; Eberhardt, Ralf; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Heussel, Claus Peter

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Thin-section CT is the modality of choice for morphological imaging the lung parenchyma, while proton-MRI might be used for functional assessment. However, the capability of MRI to visualize morphological parenchymal alterations in emphysema is undetermined. Thus, the aim of the study was to compare different MRI sequences with CT. Materials and methods: 22 patients suffering from emphysema underwent thin-section MSCT serving as a reference. MRI (1.5 T) was performed using three different sequences: T2-HASTE in coronal and axial orientation, T1-GRE (VIBE) in axial orientation before and after application of contrast media (ce). All datasets were evaluated by four chest radiologists in consensus for each sequence separately independent from CT. The severity of emphysema, leading type, bronchial wall thickening, fibrotic changes and nodules was analyzed visually on a lobar level. Results: The sensitivity for correct categorization of emphysema severity was 44%, 48% and 41% and the leading type of emphysema was identical to CT in 68%, 55% and 60%, for T2-HASTE, T1-VIBE and T1-ce-VIBE respectively. A bronchial wall thickening was found in 43 lobes in CT and was correctly seen in MRI in 42%, 33% and 26%. Of those 74 lobes presented with fibrotic changes in CT were correctly identified by MRI in 39%, 35% and 58%. Small nodules were mostly underdiagnosed in MRI. Conclusion: MRI matched the CT severity classification and leading type of emphysema in half of the cases. All sequences showed a similar diagnostic performance, however a combination of HASTE and ce-VIBE should be recommended.

  4. The relationships between clinical variables and renal parenchymal disease in pediatric clinically suspected urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Lim Byun

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the significance of clinical signs and laboratory findings as predictors of renal parenchymal lesions and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR in childhood urinary tract infection (UTI. Methods : From July 2005 to July 2008, 180 patients admitted with a first febrile UTI at the Pediatric Department of Konkuk University Hospital were included in this study. The following were the clinical variables: leukocytosis, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP, positive urine nitrite, positive urine culture, and fever duration both before and after treatment. We evaluated the relationships between clinical variables and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA scan and voiding cystourethrography (VCUG results. Results : VCUG was performed in 148 patients; of them, 37 (25.0% had VUR: 18 (12.2% had low-grade (I-II VUR, and 19 (10.5% had high-grade (III-V VUR. Of the 95 patients who underwent DMSA scanning, 29 (30.5% had cortical defects, of which 21 (63.6% had VUR: 10 (30.3%, low-grade (I-II VUR; and 11 (33.3%, high-grade VUR. Of the 57 patients who were normal on DMSA scan, 8 (14.0% had low-grade VUR and 6 (10.5% had high-grade VUR. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the DMSA scan in predicting high-grade VUR were 64.7%, 69.9%, 33.3%, and 89.5%, respectively. Leukocytosis, elevated CRP, and prolonged fever (?#243;6 hours after treatment were significantly correlated with the cortical defects on DMSA scans and high-grade VUR. Conclusion : Clinical signs, including prolonged fever after treatment, elevated CRP, and leukocytosis, are positive predictors of acute pyelonephritis and high-grade VUR.

  5. Background parenchymal enhancement on breast MRI and mammographic breast density: correlation with tumour characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.Y.; Choi, N.; Yang, J.-H.; Yoo, Y.B.; Park, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationship between mammographic breast density (MGD) and background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) at breast MRI and histopathological features of invasive breast cancers. Materials and methods: A total of 178 women with unilateral invasive breast cancer who preoperatively underwent mammography and breast MRI were included in the study. Two radiologists rated MGD and BPE according to BI-RADS criteria in consensus. The relationship between MGD and BPE was investigated, and compared with histopathological features of invasive breast cancers according to the level of MGD and BPE. Results: At MRI, there is no significant difference in the distribution of MGD and BPE of the contralateral breast in women with invasive breast cancer according to menopausal status (p=0.226, 0.384). Women with high MGD (>50% glandular) were more likely to have oestrogen-receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer (p=0.045) and progesterone receptor (PR)-positive breast cancer (p=0.020). With regard to BPE, PR positivity correlated with moderate or marked BPE with borderline significance (p=0.054). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that women with high MGD were less likely to have triple-negative (i.e., a cancer that is ER negative, PR negative, and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 [HER2] negative) breast cancer compared with ER (+)/HER2 (−) cancer (OR=0.231, 95% CI: 0.070, 0.760; p=0.016). No association between the histological tumour characteristics and BPE was observed. Conclusion: In women with invasive breast cancer, high MGD is associated with ER positivity of the invasive breast cancer. However, at MRI, BPE of the contralateral breast seems to be independent of tumour characteristics. -- Highlights: •There is no difference in distribution of MGD and BPE of contralateral breast on MRI. •High MGD is associated with ER positivity of the invasive breast cancer. •BPE of the contralateral breast on MRI is independent of tumor

  6. Device-Centric Monitoring for Mobile Device Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Chircop

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquity of computing devices has led to an increased need to ensure not only that the applications deployed on them are correct with respect to their specifications, but also that the devices are used in an appropriate manner, especially in situations where the device is provided by a party other than the actual user. Much work which has been done on runtime verification for mobile devices and operating systems is mostly application-centric, resulting in global, device-centric properties (e.g. the user may not send more than 100 messages per day across all applications being difficult or impossible to verify. In this paper we present a device-centric approach to runtime verify the device behaviour against a device policy with the different applications acting as independent components contributing to the overall behaviour of the device. We also present an implementation for Android devices, and evaluate it on a number of device-centric policies, reporting the empirical results obtained.

  7. Chemistry of surface sediment along a north-south transect across the equator in the Central Indian Basin: An assessment of biogenic and detrital influences on elemental burial on the seafloor

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Parthiban, G.; Pattan, J.N.; Jauhari, P.

    indicator of productivity as it has shown a close relationship with carbonate north of equator and opal south of the equator, and its similar proportion in the bulk Al along the transect is comparable with nearly similar primary productivity in the region...

  8. Natural Surfactant Enrichments in the Atlantic Ocean Between 50°N and 50°S: Data from the Atlantic Meridional Transect, Oct-Nov 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbaghzadeh, B.; Upstill-Goddard, R. C.; Nightingale, P. D.; Beale, R.

    2016-02-01

    Surfactants that decrease air-sea gas exchange by suppressing the gas transfer velocity (kw) show variable enrichments in the sea surface microlayer (SML) relative to the underlying water. This reflects variability in the rates of surfactant production and consumption. Total surfactant activity (SA: equivalent to Triton-X-100, mgL -1) was determined daily between the UK and the Falkland Islands, during cruise 24 of the Atlantic Meridional Transect programme (AMT 24). Samples were simultaneously obtained from the SML (Garrett screen), from the ship's underway system (inlet at 7m) and in hydrocasts to 500m. SA analysis was by hanging mercury drop electrode polarography (Metrohm 797 VA Computrace). SA enrichment factors (EF: SML SA / underlying water SA) >1 were observed at most locations, showing the SML to be consistently SA-enriched along the entire cruise transect. The persistence of these enrichments up to wind speeds 12m s-¹ support previous conclusions regarding the stability of the SML under high winds. More specifically, SA in the SML was up to four-fold higher in the Atlantic Northern Hemisphere than in the Atlantic Southern Hemisphere. Even so, EF values were not significantly different between the two hemispheres (p >0.05). These various findings have potentially important implications for kw variability across ocean basin scales.

  9. COMPLETE RESOLUTION OF LARGE RETINAL FOLD AFTER TRANSECTION OF RETROLENTAL MEMBRANE DURING LENS-SPARING VITRECTOMY FOR RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY: A 15-YEAR FOLLOW-UP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Benjamin J; Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Trese, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    To describe the long-term anatomical and visual outcomes of a patient with retinopathy of prematurity characterized by a prominent retinal fold adherent to the posterior lens capsule, treated by lens-sparing vitrectomy with