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Sample records for parenchymal cells evidence

  1. Cytotoxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloid in human hepatic parenchymal and sinusoidal endothelial cells: Firm evidence for the reactive metabolites mediated pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mengbi; Ruan, Jianqing; Fu, Peter P; Lin, Ge

    2016-01-05

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) widely distribute in plants and can cause hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS), which typically presents as a primary sinusoidal endothelial cell damage. It is well-recognized that after ingestion, PAs undergo hepatic cytochromes P450 (CYPs)-mediated metabolic activation to generate dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids (DHPAs), which are hydrolyzed to dehydroretronecine (DHR). DHPAs and DHR are reactive metabolites having same core pyrrole moiety, and can bind proteins to form pyrrole-protein adducts, which are believed as the primary cause for PA-induced HSOS. However, to date, the direct evidences supporting the toxicity of DHPAs and DHR in the liver, in particular in the sinusoidal endothelial cells, are lacking. Using human hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSEC) and HepG2 (representing hepatic parenchymal cells), cells that lack CYPs activity, this study determined the direct cytotoxicity of dehydromonocrotaline, a representative DHPA, and DHR, but no cytotoxicity of the intact PA (monocrotaline) in both cell lines, confirming that reactive metabolites mediate PA intoxication. Comparing with HepG2, HSEC had significantly lower basal glutathione (GSH) level, and was significantly more susceptible to the reactive metabolites with severer GSH depletion and pyrrole-protein adducts formation. The toxic potency of two reactive metabolites was also compared. DHPA was more reactive than DHR, leading to severer toxicity. In conclusion, our results unambiguously provided the first direct evidence for the critical role of DHPA and DHR in the reactive metabolites-mediated PA-induced hepatotoxicity, which occurs predominantly in HSEC due to severe GSH depletion and the significant formation of pyrrole-protein adducts in HSEC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. All-In-One: Advanced preparation of Human Parenchymal and Non-Parenchymal Liver Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Werner

    Full Text Available Liver cells are key players in innate immunity. Thus, studying primary isolated liver cells is necessary for determining their role in liver physiology and pathophysiology. In particular, the quantity and quality of isolated cells are crucial to their function. Our aim was to isolate a large quantity of high-quality human parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells from a single liver specimen.Hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, and stellate cells were isolated from liver tissues by collagenase perfusion in combination with low-speed centrifugation, density gradient centrifugation, and magnetic-activated cell sorting. The purity and functionality of cultured cell populations were controlled by determining their morphology, discriminative cell marker expression, and functional activity.Cell preparation yielded the following cell counts per gram of liver tissue: 2.0 ± 0.4 × 10(7 hepatocytes, 1.8 ± 0.5 × 10(6 Kupffer cells, 4.3 ± 1.9 × 10(5 liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, and 3.2 ± 0.5 × 10(5 stellate cells. Hepatocytes were identified by albumin (95.5 ± 1.7% and exhibited time-dependent activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes. Kupffer cells expressed CD68 (94.5 ± 1.2% and exhibited phagocytic activity, as determined with 1 μm latex beads. Endothelial cells were CD146(+ (97.8 ± 1.1% and exhibited efficient uptake of acetylated low-density lipoprotein. Hepatic stellate cells were identified by the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (97.1 ± 1.5%. These cells further exhibited retinol (vitamin A-mediated autofluorescence.Our isolation procedure for primary parenchymal and non-parenchymal liver cells resulted in cell populations of high purity and quality, with retained physiological functionality in vitro. Thus, this system may provide a valuable tool for determining liver function and disease.

  3. Dexamethasone-induced haptoglobin release by calf liver parenchymal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, H; Katoh, N; Miyamoto, T; Uchida, E; Yuasa, A; Takahashi, K

    1994-08-01

    Parenchymal cells were isolated from the liver of male calves, and monolayer cultures formed were treated with glucocorticoids to examine whether haptoglobin, appearance of which is associated with hepatic lipidosis (fatty liver) in cattle, is induced by steroid hormones. Without addition of dexamethasone, only trace amounts of haptoglobin were detected in culture medium. With addition of dexamethasone (10(-12) to 10(-4) M), considerable amounts of haptoglobin were released into the medium. Maximal release was observed at concentrations of 10(-8) to 10(-6) M dexamethasone. Haptoglobin release was similarly induced by cortisol, although the effect was less potent than that of dexamethasone. Actinomycin D (a known protein synthesis inhibitor) dose-dependently reduced amounts of haptoglobin released in response to 10(-8) M dexamethasone. Dexamethasone also induced annexin I, which is known to be synthesized in response to glucocorticoids. Dexamethasone treatment resulted in reduced protein kinase C activity in the cell cytosol, which has been shown to be an early event in dexamethasone-treated cells. Other than glucocorticoids, estradiol induced haptoglobin release, whereas progesterone was less effective. The association of haptoglobin with hepatic lipidosis can be reasonably explained by the fact that haptoglobin production by the liver is induced by glucocorticoids and estradiol, and these steroid hormones are triggers for development of hepatic lipidosis in cattle.

  4. Propranolol inhibits the in vitro conversion of thyroxine into triiodothyronine by isolated rat liver parenchymal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, C. J.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Touber, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    A model for the in vitro study of the conversion of thyroxine into triiodothyronine using isolated rat liver parenchymal cells is described. Isolated liver cells (mean protein content 18 mg/ml) convert approximately 0.8% of 1.3 microM exogenously added T4 into T3 during thirty minutes incubation.

  5. Copper uptake and retention in liver parenchymal cells isolated from nutritionally copper-deficient rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den G.J.; de Goeij, J.J.M.; Bock, I.; Gijbels, M.J.J.; Brouwer, A.; Lei, K.Y.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Copper uptake and retention were studied in primary cultures of liver parenchymal cells isolated from copper-deficient rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a copper-deficient diet (<1 mg Cu/kg) for 10 wk. Copper-deficient rats were characterized by low copper concentrations in plasma and liver,

  6. Copper uptake and retention in liver parenchymal cells isolated from nutritionally copper-deficient rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, G.J. van den; Goeij, J.J.M. de; Bock, I.; Gijbels, M.J.J.; Brouwer, A.; Lei, K.Y.; Hendruiks, H.F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Copper uptake and retention were studied in primary cultures of liver parenchymal cells isolated from copper-deficient rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a copper-deficient diet (< 1 mg Cu/kg) for 10 wk. Copper-deficient rats were characterized by low copper concentrations in plasma and liver,

  7. Action of DTPA on hepatic plutonium. II. DTPA-induced removal of monomeric plutonium from mouse liver parenchymal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Peterson, D.P.; Lindenbaum, A.

    1978-01-01

    Liver parenchymal cells were isolated 6 and 24 hr following the administration of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA, 0.25 mmole/kg) to mice previously injected with 239 Pu-citrate (4.4 μCi/kg). Isolated parenchymal cells contained 440 dpm Pu/10 6 cells at 24 hr after Pu injection, just prior to DTPA administration. The PU content decreased to 330 dpm/10 6 cells at 6 hr and 140 dpm/10 6 cells at 24 hr after DTPA administration. Thus DTPA induced a striking decrease in the Pu content of isolated liver parenchymal cells. Parenchymal cells isolated from control mice not treated with DTPA changed little in Pu content from 24 to 48 hr after Pu injection. By 24 hr after DTPA treatment, the decrease in the Pu content of isolated liver parenchymal cells could account for the DTPA-induced release of Pu from the intact liver. Thus in the liver DTPA appears to act preferentially on the Pu associated with parenchymal cells. Liver parenchymal cells isolated 6 hr after DTPA administration and containing 330 dpm Pu/10 6 cells were incubated in vitro in the absence of added DTPA. After 18 hr of incubation the cells contained 130 dpm Pu/10 6 cells. This level corresponds to the level observed in cells isolated 24 hr after DTPA administration. Cells isolated from untreated mice lost only 15% of their Pu content during a similar in vitro incubation. Thus, by 6 hr after DTPA administration to the mouse, isolated liver parenchymal cells appeared to retain their ability to release Pu in vitro with no need for additional exposure to DTPA. The physiological significance of this finding is discussed

  8. MR angiographic and parenchymal evaluation of cerebral infaraction in sickle cell anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaryk, T.J.; Masaryk, A.M.; Ross, J.S.; Modic, M.T.; Wiznitzer, M.; Berman, B.

    1989-01-01

    Cerebral infarction is an important complication of sickle cell anemia, believed to be related to large-vessel stenoses/occlusion and/or capillary/venous sickling resulting in thrombosis. Identification of these complications (especially large-vessel arterial disease) is important in selecting patients for transfusion therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the suitability of combined three-dimensional Fourier transform time-of-flight MR angiographic and parenchymal T2-weighted spin-echo examinations for evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) complications of sickle cell anemia. Seven patients (age range, 5-14 years) were evaluated. Five had documented strokes while two had symptoms resembling those of transient ischemic attack. The preliminary data indicate that combined MR angiographic and parenchymal studies are capable of identifying those patients with sickle cell anemia complicated by large-vessel CNS occlusive disease and cerebral infarction and can be used as a noninvasive guide to therapy

  9. Enriched Endogenous Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Mice Ameliorate Parenchymal Cell Death After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Huixia; Yang, Zhen; Luo, Chuanming; Zeng, Haitao; Li, Peng; Kang, Jing X; Wan, Jian-Bo; He, Chengwei; Su, Huanxing

    2017-07-01

    Currently no effective therapies are available for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Early intervention that specifically provides neuroprotection is of most importance which profoundly influences the outcome of TBI. In the present study, we adopted a closed-skull mild TBI model to investigate potential roles of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) in protecting against TBI. Using two-photon laser scanning microscopy (2PLSM), parenchymal cell death and reactive oxidative species (ROS) expression were directly observed and recorded after TBI through a thinned skull bone window. Fat-1 mice with high endogenous ω-3 PUFAs significantly inhibited ROS expression and attenuated parenchymal cell death after compression injury during the early injury phase. Elevated generation of glutathione (GSH) and neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1) in the parenchyma of fat-1 mice could be the contributor to the beneficial role of ω-3 PUFAs in TBI. The results of the study suggest that ω-3 PUFAs is an effective neuroprotectant as an early pharmacological intervention for TBI and the information derived from this study may help guide dietary advice for those who are susceptible to repetitive mild TBI.

  10. Carbon-14 tracer studies in the metabolism of isolated rat-liver parenchymal cells under conditions of gluconeogenesis from lactate and pyruvate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muellhofer, G.; Mueller, C.; Stetten, C. von; Gruber, E.

    1977-01-01

    In rat liver perfusion experiments under conditions of gluconeogenesis from lactate and pyruvate, 14 C-labeling patterns of metabolites with (1- 14 C)-labeled and (2- 14 C)-labeled lactate or pyruvate. [ 14 C]bicarbonate and [1- 14 C]octanoate as tracers have been obtained which do not agree with generally assumed reaction schemes. The experiments have been repeated with incubations of isolated rat-liver parenchymal cells. The results demonstrate that the discrepancies between expected and analysed 14 C-labeling patterns of metabolites were still existent. From this observation, it may be concluded that 14 C-labelling patterns of metabolites are indicative for the existence of still unknown metabolic relationships in liver parenchymal cells. Furthermore, the results of our experiments prove that conclusions based on the exclusive analysis of metabolite levels are of limited value for studying intracellular events, because of uncharacterized compartmentations, which become evident in 14 C-tracer studies. It cannot be answered by our studies whether the apparent existence of differently labelled species of citrate, oxoglutarate, or acetyl-CoA represent intracellular compartmentation, or whether it is the result of metabolic heterogeneity of liver parenchym cells. (orig.) [de

  11. Pathogenesis of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: Interactions between Liver Parenchymal and Nonparenchymal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Magee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common type of chronic liver disease in the Western countries, affecting up to 25% of the general population and becoming a major health concern in both adults and children. NAFLD encompasses the entire spectrum of fatty liver disease in individuals without significant alcohol consumption, ranging from nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and cirrhosis. NASH is a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and hepatic disorders with the presence of steatosis, hepatocyte injury (ballooning, inflammation, and, in some patients, progressive fibrosis leading to cirrhosis. The pathogenesis of NASH is a complex process and implicates cell interactions between liver parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells as well as crosstalk between various immune cell populations in liver. Lipotoxicity appears to be the central driver of hepatic cellular injury via oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. This review focuses on the contributions of hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells to NASH, assessing their potential applications to the development of novel therapeutic agents. Currently, there are limited pharmacological treatments for NASH; therefore, an increased understanding of NASH pathogenesis is pertinent to improve disease interventions in the future.

  12. Featured Article: Isolation, characterization, and cultivation of human hepatocytes and non-parenchymal liver cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Elisa; Kegel, Victoria; Zeilinger, Katrin; Hengstler, Jan G; Nüssler, Andreas K; Seehofer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Primary human hepatocytes (PHH) are considered to be the gold standard for in vitro testing of xenobiotic metabolism and hepatotoxicity. However, PHH cultivation in 2D mono-cultures leads to dedifferentiation and a loss of function. It is well known that hepatic non-parenchymal cells (NPC), such as Kupffer cells (KC), liver endothelial cells (LEC), and hepatic stellate cells (HSC), play a central role in the maintenance of PHH functions. The aims of the present study were to establish a protocol for the simultaneous isolation of human PHH and NPC from the same tissue specimen and to test their suitability for in vitro co-culture. Human PHH and NPC were isolated from tissue obtained by partial liver resection by a two-step EDTA/collagenase perfusion technique. The obtained cell fractions were purified by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. KC, LEC, and HSC contained in the NPC fraction were separated using specific adherence properties and magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS®). Identified NPC revealed a yield of 1.9 × 106 KC, 2.7 × 105 LEC and 4.7 × 105 HSC per gram liver tissue, showing viabilities >90%. Characterization of these NPC showed that all populations went through an activation process, which influenced the cell fate. The activation of KC strongly depended on the tissue quality and donor anamnesis. KC became activated in culture in association with a loss of viability within 4–5 days. LEC lost specific features during culture, while HSC went through a transformation process into myofibroblasts. The testing of different culture conditions for HSC demonstrated that they can attenuate, but not prevent dedifferentiation in vitro. In conclusion, the method described allows the isolation and separation of PHH and NPC in high quality and quantity from the same donor. PMID:25394621

  13. DMPD: Functions of anaphylatoxin C5a in rat liver: direct and indirect actions onnonparenchymal and parenchymal cells. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nnonparenchymal and parenchymal cells. Schieferdecker HL, Schlaf G, Jungermann K, Gotze O. Int Immunopharmac...chymal cells. Authors Schieferdecker HL, Schlaf G, Jungermann K, Gotze O. Publication Int Immunopharmacol. 2

  14. Perforin-2 is essential for intracellular defense of parenchymal cells and phagocytes against pathogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Ryan M; de Armas, Lesley R; Shiratsuchi, Motoaki; Fiorentino, Desiree G; Olsson, Melissa L; Lichtenheld, Mathias G; Morales, Alejo; Lyapichev, Kirill; Gonzalez, Louis E; Strbo, Natasa; Sukumar, Neelima; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Plano, Gregory V; Munson, George P; Tomic-Canic, Marjana; Kirsner, Robert S; Russell, David G; Podack, Eckhard R

    2015-01-01

    Perforin-2 (MPEG1) is a pore-forming, antibacterial protein with broad-spectrum activity. Perforin-2 is expressed constitutively in phagocytes and inducibly in parenchymal, tissue-forming cells. In vitro, Perforin-2 prevents the intracellular replication and proliferation of bacterial pathogens in these cells. Perforin-2 knockout mice are unable to control the systemic dissemination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or Salmonella typhimurium and perish shortly after epicutaneous or orogastric infection respectively. In contrast, Perforin-2-sufficient littermates clear the infection. Perforin-2 is a transmembrane protein of cytosolic vesicles -derived from multiple organelles- that translocate to and fuse with bacterium containing vesicles. Subsequently, Perforin-2 polymerizes and forms large clusters of 100 Å pores in the bacterial surface with Perforin-2 cleavage products present in bacteria. Perforin-2 is also required for the bactericidal activity of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and hydrolytic enzymes. Perforin-2 constitutes a novel and apparently essential bactericidal effector molecule of the innate immune system. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06508.001 PMID:26402460

  15. Retinol and retinyl esters in parenchymal and nonparenchymal rat liver cell fractions after long-term administration of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, M.; Blomhoff, R.; Helgerud, P.; Solberg, L.A.; Berg, T.; Norum, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption reduces the liver retinoid store in man and rat. We have studied the effect of ethanol on some aspects of retinoid metabolism in parenchymal and nonparenchymal liver cells. Rats fed 36% of total energy intake as ethanol for 5-6 weeks had the liver retinoid concentration reduced to about one-third, as compared to pair-fed controls. The reduction in liver retinoid affected both the parenchymal and the nonparenchymal cell fractions. Plasma retinol level was normal. Liver uptake of injected chylomicron [3H]retinyl ester was similar in the experimental and control group. The transport of retinoid from the parenchymal to the nonparenchymal cells was not found to be significantly retarded in the ethanol-fed rats. Despite the reduction in total retinoid level in liver, the concentrations of unesterified retinol and retinyl oleate were increased in the ethanol fed rats. Hepatic retinol esterification was not significantly affected in the ethanol-fed rats. Since our study has demonstrated that liver uptake of chylomicron retinyl ester is not impaired in the ethanol-fed rat, we suggest that liver retinoid metabolism may be increased

  16. Impaired virus control and severe CD8+ T-cell-mediated immunopathology in chimeric mice deficient in gamma interferon receptor expression on both parenchymal and hematopoietic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichsen, Pernille; Bartholdy, Christina; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard

    2005-01-01

    be capable of responding to IFN-gamma, but expression of the relevant receptor on non-T cells could be experimentally controlled. Only when the IFN-gamma receptor is absent on both radioresistant parenchymal and bone marrow-derived cells will chimeric mice challenged with a highly invasive, noncytolytic...

  17. Protocol for Isolation of Primary Human Hepatocytes and Corresponding Major Populations of Non-parenchymal Liver Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Elisa; Zeilinger, Katrin; Seehofer, Daniel; Damm, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Beside parenchymal hepatocytes, the liver consists of non-parenchymal cells (NPC) namely Kupffer cells (KC), liver endothelial cells (LEC) and hepatic Stellate cells (HSC). Two-dimensional (2D) culture of primary human hepatocyte (PHH) is still considered as the "gold standard" for in vitro testing of drug metabolism and hepatotoxicity. It is well-known that the 2D monoculture of PHH suffers from dedifferentiation and loss of function. Recently it was shown that hepatic NPC play a central role in liver (patho-) physiology and the maintenance of PHH functions. Current research focuses on the reconstruction of in vivo tissue architecture by 3D- and co-culture models to overcome the limitations of 2D monocultures. Previously we published a method to isolate human liver cells and investigated the suitability of these cells for their use in cell cultures in Experimental Biology and Medicine1. Based on the broad interest in this technique the aim of this article was to provide a more detailed protocol for the liver cell isolation process including a video, which will allow an easy reproduction of this technique. Human liver cells were isolated from human liver tissue samples of surgical interventions by a two-step EGTA/collagenase P perfusion technique. PHH were separated from the NPC by an initial centrifugation at 50 x g. Density gradient centrifugation steps were used for removal of dead cells. Individual liver cell populations were isolated from the enriched NPC fraction using specific cell properties and cell sorting procedures. Beside the PHH isolation we were able to separate KC, LEC and HSC for further cultivation. Taken together, the presented protocol allows the isolation of PHH and NPC in high quality and quantity from one donor tissue sample. The access to purified liver cell populations could allow the creation of in vivo like human liver models. PMID:27077489

  18. Micropatterned co-culture of hepatocyte spheroids layered on non-parenchymal cells to understand heterotypic cellular interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Hidenori; Sasaki, Kohei; Okimura, Saya; Nagamura, Masako; Nakasone, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Microfabrication and micropatterning techniques in tissue engineering offer great potential for creating and controlling cellular microenvironments including cell–matrix interactions, soluble stimuli and cell–cell interactions. Here, we present a novel approach to generate layered patterning of hepatocyte spheroids on micropatterned non-parenchymal feeder cells using microfabricated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels. Micropatterned PEG-hydrogel-treated substrates with two-dimensional arrays of gelatin circular domains (ϕ = 100 μm) were prepared by photolithographic method. Only on the critical structure of PEG hydrogel with perfect protein rejection, hepatocytes were co-cultured with non-parenchymal cells to be led to enhanced hepatocyte functions. Then, we investigated the mechanism of the functional enhancement in co-culture with respect to the contributions of soluble factors and direct cell–cell interactions. In particular, to elucidate the influence of soluble factors on hepatocyte function, hepatocyte spheroids underlaid with fibroblasts (NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts) or endothelial cells (BAECs: bovine aortic endothelial cells) were compared with physically separated co-culture of hepatocyte monospheroids with NIH3T3 or BAEC using trans-well culture systems. Our results suggested that direct heterotypic cell-to-cell contact and soluble factors, both of these between hepatocytes and fibroblasts, significantly enhanced hepatocyte functions. In contrast, direct heterotypic cell-to-cell contact between hepatocytes and endothelial cells only contributed to enhance hepatocyte functions. This patterning technique can be a useful experimental tool for applications in basic science, drug screening and tissue engineering, as well as in the design of artificial liver devices. (paper)

  19. The Relationship Between Intestinal Iron Absorption and Hepatic Parenchymal Cell Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mok Hyun; Hahn, Shin Suck [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1971-09-15

    more, or the liver was irradiated with a single dose of 12,000 rads or more. The results of liver function tests which done simultaneously remained within normal limit except SGOT and SGPR which were somewhat increased. 3. In each case, there has been good correlation between the extent of liver cell damage and degree of increased iron absorption rate or serum iron level. 4. The method of liver damage appeared to make no obvious difference in the pattern of iron deposit in liver. This may be partly due to the fact that tissue specimens were obtained too late, for by this time the elevated serum iron level had returned within normal range and the pathological changes were almost healed. 5. The possible factors and relationship between intestinal iron absorption and hepatic parenchymal cell damage has been discussed.

  20. The Relationship Between Intestinal Iron Absorption and Hepatic Parenchymal Cell Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mok Hyun; Hahn, Shin Suck

    1971-01-01

    more, or the liver was irradiated with a single dose of 12,000 rads or more. The results of liver function tests which done simultaneously remained within normal limit except SGOT and SGPR which were somewhat increased. 3. In each case, there has been good correlation between the extent of liver cell damage and degree of increased iron absorption rate or serum iron level. 4. The method of liver damage appeared to make no obvious difference in the pattern of iron deposit in liver. This may be partly due to the fact that tissue specimens were obtained too late, for by this time the elevated serum iron level had returned within normal range and the pathological changes were almost healed. 5. The possible factors and relationship between intestinal iron absorption and hepatic parenchymal cell damage has been discussed.

  1. Enhanced iron removal from liver parenchymal cells in experimental iron overload: liposome encapsulation of HBED and phenobarbital administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Y.E.; Cerny, E.A.; Lau, E.H.; Carnes, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    The effectiveness of N,N'-bis[2-hydroxybenzyl]-ethylene-diamine-N,N'-diacetic acid (HBED) in removing radioiron introduced into the parenchymal cells of mouse liver as 59 Fe-ferritin has been investigated. The effectiveness of HBED, an iron chelator of low water solubility, has also been compared with that of desferrioxamine (DF), an iron chelator of high water solubility and currently in clinical use for treatment of transfusional iron overload. Using the 59 Fe excretion as the measure of effectiveness of chelation therapy and a standardized single chelator dose of 25 mg/kg, they have found that: (1) a saline suspension of HBED, prepared by sonication and given intraperitoneally to mice, promotes a small but significant increase in excretion of radioiron compared to the untreated controls, whereas DF, in its free form, is ineffective; (2) HBED encapsulated in lipid bilayers of liposomes and given intravenously is superior to nonencapsulated HBED; (3) DF encapsulated in small unilamellar liposomes is ineffective in removing iron given in the form of ferritin; (4) administration of phenobarbital in drinking water, at a concentration of 1 g/liter, induces a 30%-55% increase of iron excretion from untreated control mice and also from mice given HBED either in liposome-encapsulated or nonencapsulated form. HBED is superior to DF for removal of storage iron from liver parenchymal cells and liposomes are useful carriers for iron chelators of low water solubility

  2. Intrapancreatic Parenchymal Injection of Cells as a Useful Tool for Allowing a Small Number of Proliferative Cells to Grow In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Sato

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In vivo inoculation of cells such as tumor cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS/embryonic stem (ES cells into immunocompromised mice has been considered as a powerful technique to evaluate their potential to proliferate or differentiate into various cell types originating from three germ cell layers. Subcutaneous grafting and grafting under the kidney capsule have been widely used for this purpose, but there are some demerits such as the requirement of a large number of tumor cells for inoculation and frequent failure of tumorigenesis. Therefore, grafting into other sites has been explored, including intratesticular or intramuscular grafting as well as grafting into the cochleae, liver, or salivary glands. In this study, we found that intrapancreatic parenchymal injection of cells is useful for allowing a small number of cells (~15 × 103 cells or ~30 cell clumps μL−1·site−1 to proliferate and sometimes differentiate into various types of cells. It requires only surgical exposure of the pancreas over the dorsal skin and subsequent injection of cells towards the pancreatic parenchyma under dissecting microscope-based observation using a mouthpiece-controlled glass micropipette. We now name this technology “intrapancreatic parenchymal cell transplantation (IPPCT”, which will be useful, especially when only a small number of cells or colonies are available.

  3. In vivo regulation of scavenger receptor BI and the selective uptake of high density lipoprotein cholesteryl esters in rat liver parenchymal and Kupffer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluiter, K.; van der Westhuijzen, D. R.; van Berkel, T. J.

    1998-01-01

    High density lipoprotein cholesteryl esters (HDL-CE) are selectively taken up by liver parenchymal cells without parallel apolipoprotein uptake. This selective uptake route forms an important step in the so-called reverse cholesterol transport. Scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) is the only known HDL

  4. Treatment of initial parenchymal central nervous system involvement in systemic aggressive B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijland, Marcel; Jansen, Anne; Doorduijn, Jeanette K; Enting, Roelien H; Bromberg, Jacoline E C; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C

    2017-09-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in systemic B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) at diagnosis (sysCNS) is rare. We investigated the outcome of 21 patients with sysCNS, most commonly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, treated with high dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) and R-CHOP. The median number of cycles of HD-MTX and R-CHOP was 4 (range 1-8) and 6 (range 0-8), respectively. Consolidative whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) was given to 33% (7/21) patients. With a median follow-up of 44 months the 3-year progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 45% (95%CI 34-56%) and 49% (95%CI 38-60%), respectively. Over 90% of patients had an unfavorable international prognostic index score, reflected by treatment-related mortality of 19% (4/21) and relapse-related mortality of 28% (6/21). The outcome of these patients was, however, unexpectedly good when compared to secondary CNS relapses. Prospective studies are needed to define the optimal treatment for patients with sysCNS, but its rarity might be challenging.

  5. The effect of vanadate on receptor-mediated endocytosis of asialoorosomucoid in rat liver parenchymal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindberg, G.M.; Gudmundsen, O.; Berg, T.

    1990-01-01

    Vanadate is a phosphate analogue that inhibits enzymes involved in phosphate release and transfer reactions. Since such reactions may play important roles in endocytosis, we studied the effects of vanadate on various steps in receptor-mediated endocytosis of asialoorosomucoid labeled with 125I-tyramine-cellobiose (125I-TC-AOM). The labeled degradation products formed from 125I-TC-AOM are trapped in the lysosomes and may therefore serve as lysosomal markers in subcellular fractionation studies. Vanadate reduced the amount of active surface asialoglycoprotein receptors approximately 70%, but had no effect on the rate of internalization and retroendocytosis of ligand. The amount of surface asialoglycoprotein receptors can be reduced by lowering the incubation temperature gradually from 37 to 15 degrees C; vanadate affected only the temperature--sensitive receptors. Vanadate inhibited degradation of 125I-TC-AOM 70-80%. Degradation was much more sensitive to vanadate than binding; half-maximal effects were seen at approximately 1 mM vanadate for binding and approximately 0.1 mM vanadate for degradation. By subcellular fractionation in sucrose and Nycodenz gradients, it was shown that vanadate completely prevented the transfer of 125I-TC-AOM from endosomes to lysosomes. Therefore, the inhibition of degradation by vanadate was indirect; in the presence of vanadate, ligand did not gain access to the lysosomes. The limited degradation in the presence of vanadate took place in a prelysosomal compartment. Vanadate did not affect cell viability and ATP content

  6. Design-based stereological analysis of the lung parenchymal architecture and alveolar type II cells in surfactant protein A and D double deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, A; Allen, L; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2005-01-01

    Alveolar epithelial type II cells synthesize and secrete surfactant. The surfactant-associated proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D), members of the collectin protein family, participate in pulmonary immune defense, modulation of inflammation, and surfactant metabolism. Both proteins are known to have......, but the mean volume of a single lamellar body remains constant. These results demonstrate that chronic deficiency of SP-A and SP-D in mice leads to parenchymal remodeling, type II cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and disturbed intracellular surfactant metabolism. The design-based stereological approach...

  7. Regulation of CTL responses to MHC-restricted class I peptide of the gp70 tumour antigen by splenic parenchymal CD4+ T cells in mice failing immunotherapy with DISC-mGM-CSF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Murrium; Rees, Robert C; McArdle, Stephanie E; Li, Geng; Mian, Shahid; Entwisle, Claire; Loudon, Peter; Ali, Selman A

    2005-07-20

    Direct intratumour injection of the disabled infectious single-cycle-herpes simplex virus-encoding murine granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (DISC-HSV-mGM-CSF) into established colon carcinoma CT26 tumours induced complete tumour rejection in up to 70% of treated animals (regressors), while the remaining mice developed progressive tumours (progressors). This murine Balb/c model was used to dissect the cellular mechanisms involved in tumour regression or progression following immunotherapy. CTLs were generated by coculturing lymphocytes and parenchymal cells from the same spleens of individual regressor or progressor animals in the presence of the relevant AH-1 peptide derived from the gp70 tumour-associated antigens expressed by CT26 tumours. Tumour regression was correlated with potent CTL responses, spleen weight and cytokine (IFN-gamma) production. Conversely, progressor splenocytes exhibited weak to no CTL activity and poor IFN-gamma production, concomitant with the presence of a suppressor cell population in the progressor splenic parenchymal cell fraction. Further fractionation of this parenchymal subpopulation demonstrated that cells inhibitory to the activation of AH-1-specific CTLs, restimulated in vitro with peptide, were present in the nonadherent parenchymal fraction. In vitro depletion of progressor parenchymal CD3+/CD4+ T cells restored the CTL response of the cocultured splenocytes (regressor lymphocytes and progressor parenchymal cells) and decreased the production of IL-10, suggesting that CD3+CD4+ T lymphocytes present in the parenchymal fraction regulated the CTL response to AH-1. We examined the cellular responses associated with tumour rejection and progression, identifying regulatory pathways associated with failure to respond to immunotherapy. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Recent advances in 2D and 3D in vitro systems using primary hepatocytes, alternative hepatocyte sources and non-parenchymal liver cells and their use in investigating mechanisms of hepatotoxicity, cell signaling and ADME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godoy, Patricio; Hewitt, Nicola J.; Albrecht, Ute; Andersen, Melvin E.; Ansari, Nariman; Bhattacharya, Sudin; Bode, Johannes Georg; Bolleyn, Jennifer; Borner, Christoph; Boettger, Jan; Braeuning, Albert; Budinsky, Robert A.; Burkhardt, Britta; Cameron, Neil R.; Camussi, Giovanni; Cho, Chong-Su; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Rowlands, J. Craig; Dahmen, Uta; Damm, Georg; Dirsch, Olaf; Teresa Donato, Maria; Dong, Jian; Dooley, Steven; Drasdo, Dirk; Eakins, Rowena; Ferreira, Karine Sa; Fonsato, Valentina; Fraczek, Joanna; Gebhardt, Rolf; Gibson, Andrew; Glanemann, Matthias; Goldring, Chris E. P.; Jose Gomez-Lechon, Maria; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Gustavsson, Lena; Guyot, Christelle; Hallifax, David; Hammad, Seddik; Hayward, Adam; Haeussinger, Dieter; Hellerbrand, Claus; Hewitt, Philip; Hoehme, Stefan; Holzhuetter, Hermann-Georg; Houston, J. Brian; Hrach, Jens; Ito, Kiyomi; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Keitel, Verena; Kelm, Jens M.; Park, B. Kevin; Kordes, Claus; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A.; LeCluyse, Edward L.; Lu, Peng; Luebke-Wheeler, Jennifer; Lutz, Anna; Maltman, Daniel J.; Matz-Soja, Madlen; McMullen, Patrick; Merfort, Irmgard; Messner, Simon; Meyer, Christoph; Mwinyi, Jessica; Naisbitt, Dean J.; Nussler, Andreas K.; Olinga, Peter; Pampaloni, Francesco; Pi, Jingbo; Pluta, Linda; Przyborski, Stefan A.; Ramachandran, Anup; Rogiers, Vera; Rowe, Cliff; Schelcher, Celine; Schmich, Kathrin; Schwarz, Michael; Singh, Bijay; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.; Stieger, Bruno; Stoeber, Regina; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Tetta, Ciro; Thasler, Wolfgang E.; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Vinken, Mathieu; Weiss, Thomas S.; Widera, Agata; Woods, Courtney G.; Xu, Jinghai James; Yarborough, Kathy M.; Hengstler, Jan G.

    This review encompasses the most important advances in liver functions and hepatotoxicity and analyzes which mechanisms can be studied in vitro. In a complex architecture of nested, zonated lobules, the liver consists of approximately 80 % hepatocytes and 20 % non-parenchymal cells, the latter being

  9. Effect of insulin on albumin production and incorporation of 14C-leucine into proteins in isolated parenchymal liver cells from normal rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, J; Gluud, C N

    1975-01-01

    the immunologically determined increment in the incubation medium was 1.7 +/- 0.2 mug albumin/min per g liver wet wt. This is about 30% of the rate of production in the perfused liver. Addition of insulin (10(-6)-10(-10) M) enhanced albumin production (50-17%), and incorporation of 14C-leucine both into albumin (50......Parenchymal rat liver cells were isolated by a modification of the collagenase method of Quistorff, Bondesen and Grunnet. The cells secreted albumin into the medium and incorporated 14C-leucine both into cell proteins and proteins secreted into the medium. Albumin production measured from......-8%), secreted proteins (40-9%) and cell proteins (20-8%). Insulin does not increase the production of albumin by depleting the cells. The effect of insulin on albumin production is compatible with an effect on the rate of synthesis as the specific activity of albumin is unaffected by addition of insulin....

  10. Diffuse parenchymal lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Tomassetti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Between September 2015 and August 2016 there were >1500 publications in the field of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs. For the Clinical Year in Review session at the European Respiratory Society Congress that was held in London, UK, in September 2016, we selected only five articles. This selection, made from the enormous number of published papers, does not include all the relevant studies that will significantly impact our knowledge in the field of DPLDs in the near future. This review article provides our personal view on the following topics: early diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, current knowledge on the multidisciplinary team diagnosis of DPLDs and the diagnostic role of transbronchial cryobiopsy in this diagnostic setting, insights on the new entity of interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features, and new therapeutic approaches for scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease.

  11. Nestin- and doublecortin-positive cells reside in adult spinal cord meninges and participate in injury-induced parenchymal reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decimo, Ilaria; Bifari, Francesco; Rodriguez, Francisco Javier; Malpeli, Giorgio; Dolci, Sissi; Lavarini, Valentina; Pretto, Silvia; Vasquez, Sandra; Sciancalepore, Marina; Montalbano, Alberto; Berton, Valeria; Krampera, Mauro; Fumagalli, Guido

    2011-12-01

    Adult spinal cord has little regenerative potential, thus limiting patient recovery following injury. In this study, we describe a new population of cells resident in the adult rat spinal cord meninges that express the neural stem/precursor markers nestin and doublecortin. Furthermore, from dissociated meningeal tissue a neural stem cell population was cultured in vitro and subsequently shown to differentiate into functional neurons or mature oligodendrocytes. Proliferation rate and number of nestin- and doublecortin-positive cells increased in vivo in meninges following spinal cord injury. By using a lentivirus-labeling approach, we show that meningeal cells, including nestin- and doublecortin-positive cells, migrate in the spinal cord parenchyma and contribute to the glial scar formation. Our data emphasize the multiple roles of meninges in the reaction of the parenchyma to trauma and indicate for the first time that spinal cord meninges are potential niches harboring stem/precursor cells that can be activated by injury. Meninges may be considered as a new source of adult stem/precursor cells to be further tested for use in regenerative medicine applied to neurological disorders, including repair from spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2011 AlphaMed Press.

  12. Generation of Hepatocyte-like Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) Cells By Co-culturing Embryoid Body Cells with Liver Non-parenchymal Cell Line TWNT-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, M. S.; Yaqoob, N.; Iwamuro, M.; Kobayashi, N.; Fujiwara, T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To generate a homogeneous population of patient-specific hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) from human iPS cells those show the morphologic and phenotypic properties of primary human hepatocytes. Study Design: An experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Surgery, Okayama University, Graduate School of Medicine, Japan, from April to December 2011. Methodology: Human iPS cells were generated and maintained on ES qualified matrigel coated plates supplemented with mTeSR medium or alternatively on mitotically inactivated MEF feeder layer in DMEM/F12 medium containing 20% KOSR, 4ng/ml bFGF-2, 1 x 10-4 M 2-mercaptoethanol, 1 mmol/L NEAA, 2mM L-glutamine and 1% penicillin-streptomycin. iPS cells were differentiated to HLCs by sequential culture using a four step differentiation protocol: (I) Generation of embryoid bodies (EBs) in suspension culture; (II) Induction of definitive endoderm (DE) from 2 days old EBs by growth in human activin-A (100 ng/ml) and basic fibroblasts growth factor (bFGF2) (100 ng/ml) on matrigel coated plates; (III) Induction of hepatic progenitors by co-culture with non-parenchymal human hepatic stellate cell line (TWNT-1); and (IV) Maturation by culture in dexamethasone. Characterization was performed by RT-PCR and functional assays. Results: The generated HLCs showed microscopically morphological phenotype of human hepatocytes, expressed liver specific genes (ASGPR, Albumin, AFP, Sox17, Fox A2), secreted human liver-specific proteins such as albumin, synthesized urea and metabolized ammonia. Conclusion: Functional HLCs were generated from human iPS cells, which could be used for autologus hepatocyte transplantation for liver failure and as in vitro model for determining the metabolic and toxicological properties of drug compounds. (author)

  13. Abdominal polytrauma and parenchymal organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krestan, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    The acute radiological diagnostics of polytrauma patients has become an essential part of the interdisciplinary treatment in the emergency room. The incidence of polytrauma patients with an injury severity score (ISS) > 16 is approximately 450 cases/million inhabitants/year in Europe. Injuries of the parenchymal organs are of utmost importance for the prognosis and treatment of these patients. The injury patterns are complex and a great deal of experience is necessary to be able to obtain the correct diagnosis within minutes. This review article deals with the radiological diagnostics and grading of the severity of injuries to the spleen, liver, pancreas and kidneys. The use of ultrasound for the evaluation of polytraumatized patients will be discussed. The most important trauma-associated findings for the above mentioned organs using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) will be described and illustrated by dedicated case findings. Ultrasound contrast agents can supply valuable, additional diagnostic information in the evaluation of polytraumatized patients. Computed tomography has become established as the most relevant imaging modality in severe trauma. Innovative organ-adapted and contrast application protocols improve the diagnostic performance of MDCT. The use of focused assessment sonography for trauma (FAST) scanning as a screening tool is in agreement with the other clinical disciplines of the trauma team. The use of MDCT is trauma-dependent and the classification of the severity of the different parenchymal organ injuries is ultimately decisive for further treatment and prognosis of trauma victims. (orig.) [de

  14. Pulmonary Hypertension in Parenchymal Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaris, Iraklis; Tsaknis, Georgios; Anthi, Anastasia; Orfanos, Stylianos E.

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) has been extensively investigated, although it represents a less common form of the pulmonary hypertension (PH) family, as shown by international registries. Interestingly, in types of PH that are encountered in parenchymal lung diseases such as interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and many other diffuse parenchymal lung diseases, some of which are very common, the available data is limited. In this paper, we try to browse in the latest available data regarding the occurrence, pathogenesis, and treatment of PH in chronic parenchymal lung diseases. PMID:23094153

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging in parenchymal neurocysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Just, M.; Higer, H.P.; Pfannenstiel, P.; Mergner, T.; Henne, W.

    1987-03-01

    MRI-findings in a case of parenchymal neurocysticercosis are presented. The changes of the lesions as a response to chemotherapy were monitored by MRI and CT. Problems of sensitivity (MRI vs. CT) and MRI differential diagnoses are discussed.

  16. Pulmonary parenchymal changes in the pediatric patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, G.O. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of the pediatric chest radiograph for parenchymal pathology is similar to that of the adult. This chapter focuses primarily on the radiographic changes of certain entities presenting to the pediatric intensive care unit (ICU), including airway diseases, pneumonia, pulmonary hemorrhage, and lung trauma, as well as problems related to general anesthesia and surgery

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging in parenchymal neurocysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, M.; Higer, H.P.; Pfannenstiel, P.; Mergner, T.; Henne, W.

    1987-01-01

    MRI-findings in a case of parenchymal neurocysticercosis are presented. The changes of the lesions as a response to chemotherapy were monitored by MRI and CT. Problems of sensitivity (MRI vs. CT) and MRI differential diagnoses are discussed. (orig.) [de

  18. Effect of glucagon on cyclic AMP, albumin metabolism and incorporation of 14C-leucine into proteins in isolated parenchymal rat liver cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, J; Gluud, C N

    1976-01-01

    wet wt. This is about the rate found in the perfused liver, Glucagon (10(-8-10(-6) M) inhibited albumin secretion and the incorporation of 14C-leucine into albumin, into total proteins in the medium and into total proteins in the cell suspension. The effect of glucagon on albumin secretion...... is compatible with an effect on the rate of synthesis. A positive correlation existed between the maximal level of cyclic AMP after glucagon administration and the inhibition of both albumin secretion and the incorporation of 149leucine....

  19. Frontal parenchymal atrophy measures in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Laura; Zivadinov, Robert; Grop, Attilio; Zorzon, Marino

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether, in a cross-sectional study, the normalized measures of whole and regional brain atrophy correlate better with tests assessing the cognitive function than the absolute brain atrophy measures. The neuropsychological performances and disability have been assessed in 39 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). T1- and T2-lesion load (LL) of total brain and frontal lobes (FLs) were measured using a reproducible semiautomated technique. The whole brain volume and the regional brain parenchymal volume (RBPV) of FLs were obtained using a computerized interactive program, which incorporates semiautomated and automated segmentation processes. Normalized measures of brain atrophy, i.e., brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) and regional brain parenchymal fraction (RBPF) of FLs, were calculated. The scan-rescan, inter- and intrarater coefficient of variation (COV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) have been estimated. The RBPF of FLs showed an acceptable level of reproducibility which ranged from 1.7% for intrarater variability to 3.2% for scan-rescan variability. The mean ICC was 0.88 (CI 0.82-0.93). The RBPF of FLs demonstrated stronger magnitudes of correlation with neuropsychological functioning, disability and quantitative MRI lesion measures than RBPV. These differences were statistically significant: PColor Word Interference test, Pcognitive functions, whereas BPAV did not. The correlation analysis results were supported by the results of multiple regression analysis which showed that only the normalized brain atrophy measures were associated with tests exploring the cognitive functions. These data suggest that RBPF is a reproducible and sensitive method for measuring frontal parenchymal atrophy. The normalized measures of whole and regional brain parenchymal atrophy should be preferred to absolute measures in future studies that correlate neuropsychological performances and brain atrophy measures

  20. Acute pulmonary parenchymal densities in the adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.H.; Murphy, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    The thrust of the radiographic interpretation is to correlate the often non-specific appearance of any parenchymal density with its time-table of development, rate of change, distribution, and the patient's clinical status. Although this chapter contains separate sections on each major cause of acute pulmonary opacification, the intent of the chapter overall is their differential diagnosis. Before beginning to deal with acute pulmonary densities, it is stressed that acute densities can only be differentiated from chronic ones by reviewing preoperative or pre-existing studies. Without the baseline comparison film or reliable presumption of prior normalcy, the acuteness of a parenchymal density may not be apparent until later examinations reveal change or resolution. Also, as discussed is baseline pathology that is altered by the portable technique can be terribly confusing when attempting to evaluate a single isolated film in an acute clinical situation

  1. Parenchymal abnormalities associated with developmental venous anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Millan Ruiz, Diego; Gailloud, Philippe [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Delavelle, Jacqueline [Geneva University Hospital, Neuroradiology Section, Department of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Geneva (Switzerland); Yilmaz, Hasan; Ruefenacht, Daniel A. [Geneva University Hospital, Section of Interventional Neuroradiology, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Geneva (Switzerland); Piovan, Enrico; Bertramello, Alberto; Pizzini, Francesca [Verona City Hospital, Service of Neuroradiology, Verona (Italy)

    2007-12-15

    To report a retrospective series of 84 cerebral developmental venous anomalies (DVAs), focusing on associated parenchymal abnormalities within the drainage territory of the DVA. DVAs were identified during routine diagnostic radiological work-up based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (60 cases), computed tomography (CT) (62 cases) or both (36 cases). Regional parenchymal modifications within the drainage territory of the DVA, such as cortical or subcortical atrophy, white matter density or signal alterations, dystrophic calcifications, presence of haemorrhage or a cavernous-like vascular malformation (CVM), were noted. A stenosis of the collecting vein of the DVA was also sought for. Brain abnormalities within the drainage territory of a DVA were encountered in 65.4% of the cases. Locoregional brain atrophy occurred in 29.7% of the cases, followed by white matter lesions in 28.3% of MRI investigations and 19.3% of CT investigations, CVMs in 13.3% of MRI investigations and dystrophic calcification in 9.6% of CT investigations. An intracranial haemorrhage possibly related to a DVA occurred in 2.4% cases, and a stenosis on the collecting vein was documented in 13.1% of cases. Parenchymal abnormalities were identified for all DVA sizes. Brain parenchymal abnormalities were associated with DVAs in close to two thirds of the cases evaluated. These abnormalities are thought to occur secondarily, likely during post-natal life, as a result of chronic venous hypertension. Outflow obstruction, progressive thickening of the walls of the DVA and their morphological organization into a venous convergence zone are thought to contribute to the development of venous hypertension in DVA. (orig.)

  2. MR findings of degenerating parenchymal neurocysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yul; Chung, Eun A; Yang, Ik; Park, Hae Jung; Chung, Soo Young

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate MR imaging findings of degenerating parenchymal neurocysticercosis and to determine the characteristics which distinguish it from other brain diseases. MR imagings of 19 patients (56 lesions) of degenerating parenchymal neurocysticercosis were retrospectively evaluated, focusing on the size and location of lesions signal intensity patterns of cyst fluid and wall, the extent of the surrounding edema and features of contrast enhancement. Degenerating parenchymal neurocysticercosis was located in gray or subcortical while matter in 89.3% of 56 lesions (50/56) ; most of these (98.2%) were smaller than 2 cm in diameter. Cyst fluid signal was hyperintense relative to CSF on T1 and proton density weighted images (92.9%). A hypointense signal rim of the cyst wall was noted in the lesions on proton density (92.9%) and T2 weighted (98.2%) images, Surrounding edema was mostly mild. Peripheral rim enhancement was noted in all lesions, and this was frequently irregular and lobulated (67.9%) with a focal defect in the enhancing rim(41.1%). Findings which could be helpful in distinguishing degenerating parencymal neurocysticercosis from other brain diseases are as follows : small, superficial lesions ; hyperintense signal of the cyst fluid on T1 and proton density weighted images ; hypointense signal of the cyst wall on proton density and T2 weighted images ; relatively mild extent of surrounding edema, and peripheral rim enhancement which is frequently irregular and lobulated with a focal defect in the enhancing rim

  3. Imaging Characteristics of Venous Parenchymal Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoux, Audrey; Triquenot-Bagan, Aude; Andriuta, Daniela; Wallon, David; Guegan-Massardier, Evelyne; Leclercq, Claire; Martinaud, Olivier; Castier-Amouyel, Mélody; Godefroy, Olivier; Bugnicourt, Jean-Marc

    2017-12-01

    There are few published data on the patterns of parenchymal imaging abnormalities in a context of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). The objectives of the present study were to describe the patterns of parenchymal lesions associated with CVT and to determine the lesion sites. We included 44 consecutively hospitalized patients with CVT and parenchymal lesions on magnetic resonance imaging. The diagnosis of CVT had been confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance venography. Magnetic resonance imaging patterns for CVT were retrospectively analyzed with regard to the lesion's type, shape, and site. The most frequent stroke subtype was hemorrhagic ischemia (in 56.8% of cases), followed by intracerebral hematoma (in 22.72% of cases) and nonhemorrhagic ischemia (in 20.45% of cases). Although there were no significant differences between these 3 groups with regard to the clinical and radiological characteristics, we observed a nonsignificant trend ( P =0.08) toward a shorter time interval between hospital admission and magnetic resonance imaging for nonhemorrhagic stroke. The CVT parenchymal abnormalities were centered on 6 main foci and were related to the site of venous occlusion: (1) the inferior parietal lobule (n=20; 44.5%), associated mainly with occlusion of the transverse sinus (n=10) or pure cortical veins (n=10); (2) the inferior and posterior temporal regions (n=10; 22.75%), associated mainly with occlusion of the transverse sinus (n=9); (3) the parasagittal frontal region (n=6; 13.6%), associated mainly with occlusion of the superior sagittal sinus (n=4) or the transverse sinus (n=4); (4) the thalamus (n=5; 11.3%) associated with occlusion of the straight sinus (n=5); (5) the cerebellar hemisphere (n=2; 4.5%), associated in both cases with occlusion of the transverse sinus; and (6) the deep hemispheric regions (n=3; 6.8%), associated with occlusion of the superior sagittal sinus in all cases. Parenchymal lesions caused by CVT display specific

  4. Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy for Centrally Located Early Stage or Isolated Parenchymal Recurrences of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: How to Fly in a “No Fly Zone”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Joe Y., E-mail: jychang@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Li, Qiao-Qiao; Xu, Qing-Yong; Allen, Pamela K.; Rebueno, Neal; Gomez, Daniel R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Balter, Peter [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mehran, Reza; Swisher, Stephen G.; Roth, Jack A. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: We extended our previous experience with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR; 50 Gy in 4 fractions) for centrally located non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); explored the use of 70 Gy in 10 fractions for cases in which dose-volume constraints could not be met with the previous regimen; and suggested modified dose-volume constraints. Methods and Materials: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT)-based volumetric image-guided SABR was used for 100 patients with biopsy-proven, central T1-T2N0M0 (n=81) or isolated parenchymal recurrence of NSCLC (n=19). All disease was staged with positron emission tomography/CT; all tumors were within 2 cm of the bronchial tree, trachea, major vessels, esophagus, heart, pericardium, brachial plexus, or vertebral body. Endpoints were toxicity, overall survival (OS), local and regional control, and distant metastasis. Results: At a median follow-up time of 30.6 months, median OS time was 55.6 months, and the 3-year OS rate was 70.5%. Three-year cumulative actuarial local, regional, and distant control rates were 96.5%, 87.9%, and 77.2%, respectively. The most common toxicities were chest-wall pain (18% grade 1, 13% grade 2) and radiation pneumonitis (11% grade 2 and 1% grade 3). No patient experienced grade 4 or 5 toxicity. Among the 82 patients receiving 50 Gy in 4 fractions, multivariate analyses showed mean total lung dose >6 Gy, V{sub 20} >12%, or ipsilateral lung V{sub 30} >15% to independently predict radiation pneumonitis; and 3 of 9 patients with brachial plexus D{sub max} >35 Gy experienced brachial neuropathy versus none of 73 patients with brachial D{sub max} <35 Gy (P=.001). Other toxicities were analyzed and new dose-volume constraints are proposed. Conclusions: SABR for centrally located lesions produces clinical outcomes similar to those for peripheral lesions when normal tissue constraints are respected.

  5. Clinical availability of cholescintigraphy in evaluating diffuse liver parenchymal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hisao; Shimono, Reiko; Hamamoto, Ken; Ohshima, Kanji; Akamatsu, Koichi

    1988-01-01

    Technetium-99m N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan (PMT) cholescintigraphy has been performed in 46 consecutive patients with diffuse liver parenchymal diseases, including acute hepatitis (9), chronic hepatitis (17), and liver cirrhosis (20), and 18 controls. Blood clearance rate, liver uptake rate, liver excretion rate, and half time (T1/2) were determined from cardiac and hepatic time-activity curves. Regarding the four parameters, there were statistically significant differences between the control group and the groups of acute hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. Both blood clearance rate and liver uptake rate were well correlated with ICG-k values (r = 0.874 and r = 0.791, respectively). Liver excretion rate was most highly correlated with total serum bilirubin levels (r = 0.763), followed by ICG-k values. T1/2 was well correlated as well with total serum bilirubin levels. During the process where liver excretory ability was lowered in association with elevated serum bilirubin levels, threshold values for liver excretion rate appeared to be established. Cholescintigraphy may be of value in evaluating the pathophysiology of diffuse liver parenchymal diseases in that it is capable of quantitatively determining excretory function of hepatic cells. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Quantitative stratification of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushravya Raghunath

    Full Text Available Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs are characterized by widespread pathological changes within the pulmonary tissue that impair the elasticity and gas exchange properties of the lungs. Clinical-radiological diagnosis of these diseases remains challenging and their clinical course is characterized by variable disease progression. These challenges have hindered the introduction of robust objective biomarkers for patient-specific prediction based on specific phenotypes in clinical practice for patients with DPLD. Therefore, strategies facilitating individualized clinical management, staging and identification of specific phenotypes linked to clinical disease outcomes or therapeutic responses are urgently needed. A classification schema consistently reflecting the radiological, clinical (lung function and clinical outcomes and pathological features of a disease represents a critical need in modern pulmonary medicine. Herein, we report a quantitative stratification paradigm to identify subsets of DPLD patients with characteristic radiologic patterns in an unsupervised manner and demonstrate significant correlation of these self-organized disease groups with clinically accepted surrogate endpoints. The proposed consistent and reproducible technique could potentially transform diagnostic staging, clinical management and prognostication of DPLD patients as well as facilitate patient selection for clinical trials beyond the ability of current radiological tools. In addition, the sequential quantitative stratification of the type and extent of parenchymal process may allow standardized and objective monitoring of disease, early assessment of treatment response and mortality prediction for DPLD patients.

  7. Quantitative Stratification of Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Sushravya; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Maldonado, Fabien; Peikert, Tobias; Moua, Teng; Ryu, Jay H.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs) are characterized by widespread pathological changes within the pulmonary tissue that impair the elasticity and gas exchange properties of the lungs. Clinical-radiological diagnosis of these diseases remains challenging and their clinical course is characterized by variable disease progression. These challenges have hindered the introduction of robust objective biomarkers for patient-specific prediction based on specific phenotypes in clinical practice for patients with DPLD. Therefore, strategies facilitating individualized clinical management, staging and identification of specific phenotypes linked to clinical disease outcomes or therapeutic responses are urgently needed. A classification schema consistently reflecting the radiological, clinical (lung function and clinical outcomes) and pathological features of a disease represents a critical need in modern pulmonary medicine. Herein, we report a quantitative stratification paradigm to identify subsets of DPLD patients with characteristic radiologic patterns in an unsupervised manner and demonstrate significant correlation of these self-organized disease groups with clinically accepted surrogate endpoints. The proposed consistent and reproducible technique could potentially transform diagnostic staging, clinical management and prognostication of DPLD patients as well as facilitate patient selection for clinical trials beyond the ability of current radiological tools. In addition, the sequential quantitative stratification of the type and extent of parenchymal process may allow standardized and objective monitoring of disease, early assessment of treatment response and mortality prediction for DPLD patients. PMID:24676019

  8. Vascular parenchymal sources of upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savastano, S.; Feltrin, G.P.; Miotto, D.; Chiesura-Corona, M.; Rubaltelli, L.; Candiani, F.

    Fourteen cases of upper gastrointenstinal bleeding (UGIB) were reviewed: 6 (group A) were caused by pancreatitis, 3 (group B) by hemobilia, and 5 (group C) by rupture of esophageal varices due to arterioportal shunts. Elective endoscopy carried out in 7 patients in groups A and B was negative; in 2 actively bleeding patients in group A emergency endoscopy could not detect the source of hemorrhage. Endoscopy was carried out in 4 patients in group C for diagnosis and sclerosis, but severe hemorrhage recurred in spite of treatment. Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) were carried out prior to angiography in 5 and 4 patients, respectively, and always suggested a parenchymal lesion. All patients underwent angiography. Transcatheter control of the hemorrhage was attempted as an emergency in 2 patients (as a presurgical step in one); elective embolization was the treatment of choice for 8 patients, with good results in 6. This study suggests the usefulness of US and CT both in the detection of parenchymal lesions causing UGIB not clarified by endoscopy, and in the selection of patients for angiographic treatment.

  9. Vascular parenchymal sources of upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savastano, S.; Feltrin, G.P.; Miotto, D.; Chiesura-Corona, M.; Rubaltelli, L.; Candiani, F.

    1989-01-01

    Fourteen cases of upper gastrointenstinal bleeding (UGIB) were reviewed: 6 (group A) were caused by pancreatitis, 3 (group B) by hemobilia, and 5 (group C) by rupture of esophageal varices due to arterioportal shunts. Elective endoscopy carried out in 7 patients in groups A and B was negative; in 2 actively bleeding patients in group A emergency endoscopy could not detect the source of hemorrhage. Endoscopy was carried out in 4 patients in group C for diagnosis and sclerosis, but severe hemorrhage recurred in spite of treatment. Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) were carried out prior to angiography in 5 and 4 patients, respectively, and always suggested a parenchymal lesion. All patients underwent angiography. Transcatheter control of the hemorrhage was attempted as an emergency in 2 patients (as a presurgical step in one); elective embolization was the treatment of choice for 8 patients, with good results in 6. This study suggests the usefulness of US and CT both in the detection of parenchymal lesions causing UGIB not clarified by endoscopy, and in the selection of patients for angiographic treatment. (orig.)

  10. Parenchymal texture measures weighted by breast anatomy: preliminary optimization in a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastounioti, Aimilia; Keller, Brad M.; Hsieh, Meng-Kang; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2016-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests that quantitative descriptors of the parenchymal texture patterns hold a valuable role in assessing an individual woman's risk for breast cancer. In this work, we assess the hypothesis that breast cancer risk factors are not uniformly expressed in the breast parenchymal tissue and, therefore, breast-anatomy-weighted parenchymal texture descriptors, where different breasts ROIs have non uniform contributions, may enhance breast cancer risk assessment. To this end, we introduce an automated breast-anatomy-driven methodology which generates a breast atlas, which is then used to produce a weight map that reinforces the contributions of the central and upper-outer breast areas. We incorporate this methodology to our previously validated lattice-based strategy for parenchymal texture analysis. In the framework of a pilot case-control study, including digital mammograms from 424 women, our proposed breast-anatomy-weighted texture descriptors are optimized and evaluated against non weighted texture features, using regression analysis with leave-one-out cross validation. The classification performance is assessed in terms of the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic. The collective discriminatory capacity of the weighted texture features was maximized (AUC=0.87) when the central breast area was considered more important than the upperouter area, with significant performance improvement (DeLong's test, p-valuewomen's cancer risk evaluation.

  11. Evaluation of extent of UTI related renal parenchymal damage in pediatric patient population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, A.R.; Charan, S.; Silva, I.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is important cause of morbidity in childhood. UTI may lead to involvement of renal parenchyma ranging from recoverable acute inflammation, renal scarring of Reflux nephropathy, hypertension and ultimately end stage renal disease. Hence, extent of renal parenchymal involvement bears prognostic significance in pediatric population. Laboratory and clinical parameters have inherent limitations in detecting and localizing renal parenchymal involvement in the settings of UTI. Objectives: The present study has been designed with the aim to determine the frequency and degree of renal parenchymal involvement in pediatric patients having urinary tract infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From May to December 2003, 33 consecutive children (65 Kidneys, 32-paired, I-solitary) aged one month to 12 years (mean age 3 years, 20M, 13F) with positive past history and culture documented urinary tract infection were enrolled in the study. They were subjected to Renal cortical scan using Tc-99m DMSA (20-100 MBq) on Dual detectors gamma camera (e.cam) fitted with LEHR collimator in anterior, posterior and posterior oblique projections. DMSA renal scans were interpreted as per Clarke's interpretation criteria. Renal ultrasound (RUS) and cystourethrogram (MCUG) were available in all the cases. Results: As per Clarke's classification, there were 19 children with no evidence of renal cortical involvement (Type-1). Renal parenchymal involvement found to be unilateral (Type-4 to Type-6) and bilateral (Type-7 and 8) in 8 and 6 children respectively. DMSA scan was abnormal in 20 of 65 kidneys (31%). MCUG was positive for presence of VUR in 34 kidneys (Group A) and negative for VUR in remaining 31 units (Group B). In Gp A, 18 of 34 kidneys (53%) showed renal parenchymal involvement on DMSA Scan. In Gp A, presence or absence of renal parenchymal damage on DMSA scan did not show any statistically significant difference in age, sex and grade of VUR. Whereas

  12. Background parenchymal enhancement in preoperative breast MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, Satoko; Ishigaki, Satoko; Satake, Hiroko; Kawamura, Akiko; Kawai, Hisashi; Kikumori, Toyone; Naganawa, Shinji

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to assess the influence of background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on surgical planning performed using preoperative MRI for breast cancer evaluation. Between January 2009 and December 2010, 91 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients (mean age, 55.5 years; range, 30-88 years) who underwent preoperative bilateral breast MRI followed by planned breast conservation therapy were retrospectively enrolled. MRI was performed to assess the tumor extent in addition to mammography and breast ultrasonography. BPE in the contralateral normal breast MRI at the early dynamic phase was visually classified as follows: minimal (n=49), mild (n=27), moderate (n=7), and marked (n=8). The correlations between the BPE grade and age, menopausal status, index tumor size, changes in surgical management based on MRI results, positive predictive value (PPV) of MRI, and surgical margins were assessed. Patients in the strong BPE groups were significantly younger (p=0.002) and generally premenopausal (p<0.001). Surgical treatment was not changed in 67 cases (73.6%), while extended excision and mastectomy were performed in 12 cases (13.2%), each based on additional lesions on MRI. Six of 79 (7.6%) patients who underwent breast conservation therapy had tumor-positive resection margins. In cases where surgical management was changed, the PPV for MRI-detected foci was high in the minimal (91.7%) and mild groups (66.7%), and 0% in the moderate and marked groups (p=0.002). Strong BPE causes false-positive MRI findings and may lead to overly extensive surgery, whereas MRI may be beneficial in select patients with weak BPE.

  13. Hilar Parenchymal Oversew: a novel technique for robotic partial nephrectomy hilar tumor renorrhaphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavali, Jaya Sai S; Nelson, Ryan; Maurice, Matthew J; Kara, Onder; Mouracade, Pascal; Dagenais, Julien; Reese, Jeremy; Bayona, Pilar; Haber, Georges-Pascal; Stein, Robert J

    2018-01-01

    A renorrhaphy technique which is effective for hemostasis but does not place undue tension on the branch vessels of the renal sinus remains one of the challenging steps after hilar tumor resection during robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN). The published V-hilar suture (VHS) technique is one option for reconstruction after an RPN involving the hilum. The objective of this video is to show a novel renorrhaphy technique, Hilar Parenchymal Oversew that has been effective for such cases. We present two cases of RPN for renal hilar tumors. The first case depicts use of the VHS renorrhaphy technique for a tumor that abuts the renal hilum along 20% of its diameter. The second case demonstrates tumor resection and reconstruction for a tumor that has >50% involvement of the hilum along its diameter. After tumor resection, individual sinus vessels can be selectively oversewn with 2-0 Vicryl suture on SH needle. The remaining exposed parenchyma is controlled using the Hilar Parenchymal Oversew technique with a #0 Vicryl on CT-1 needle. For the Hilar Parenchymal Oversew surgery operative time was 225 min, estimated blood loss was 140 ml, warm ischemia time was 19 minutes, and there were no intraoperative complications. Pathology was consistent with clear cell renal cancer with negative margins. Robotic partial nephrectomy with the Hilar Parenchymal Oversew technique is a good alternative to VHS renorrhaphy in the management of renal hilar tumors "bulging" into the renal sinus with >50% of the tumor diameter abutting the hilum. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  14. Relation between breast parenchymal pattern and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyeung Hee; Lee, Sung Yong; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1985-01-01

    Although the usefulness of mammography as a screening test for breast cancer is still in dispute, its use to patients over 50 years of age is valid. Since Wolfe first classified the breast parenchymal patterns of mammography into 4 patterns, many authors have adopted the criteria in studying the changes of the parenchymal patterns for certain ages and the risks for breast cancer of certain parenchymal patterns. Authors reviewed 49 cases of breast masses which diagnosed by mammography and by operation during the period from January 1978 to July 1983 at St. Mary Hospital, Catholic Medical College. The parenchymal tissue patterns were classified according to Wolfe into N1, P1, P2 and DY, Risk groups were classified into low risk group (N1, P1) and high group (P2, DY). On the basis of these criteria, benign and malignant disease were analyzed against the breast parenchymal patterns. The results and conclusions were as follows: 1. Age ranged from 16 years to 67 years with the most prevalent age being 4th and 5th decades. 2. Diagnoses were: fibroadenoma 17 cases, fibrous dysplasia 16 cases, ductal papilloma 3 cases, and cancer 13 cases. 3. Categorization of those 26 benign disease according to the Wolfe's criteria was: N1 6 cases, P1 10 cases, P2 9 cases and DY 11 cases. On the other hand, categorization of 13 cases of cancer was: N1 5 caes, P1 3 cases, P2 3 cases, and DY 2 cases. 4. Of 13 cases of cancer, 8 fell in the low risk group and remainder in the high risk group. There were no significant correlation between the parenchymal patterns and the incidence of breast cancer

  15. Lung Parenchymal Assessment in Primary and Secondary Pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintcliffe, Oliver J; Edey, Anthony J; Armstrong, Lynne; Negus, Ian S; Maskell, Nick A

    2016-03-01

    The definition of primary spontaneous pneumothorax excludes patients with known lung disease; however, the assumption that the underlying lung is normal in these patients is increasingly contentious. The purpose of this study was to assess lung structure and compare the extent of emphysema in patients with primary versus secondary spontaneous pneumothorax and to patients with no pneumothorax in an otherwise comparable control group. We identified patients treated for pneumothorax by screening inpatient and outpatient medical records at one medical center in the United Kingdom. From this group, 20 patients had no clinically apparent underlying lung disease and were classified as having a primary spontaneous pneumothorax, and 20 patients were classified as having a secondary spontaneous pneumothorax. We assembled a control group composed of 40 subjects matched for age and smoking history who had a unilateral pleural effusion or were suspected to have a thoracic malignancy and had a chest computed tomography scan suitable for quantitative analysis. Demographics and smoking histories were collected. Quantitative evaluation of low-attenuation areas of the lung on computed tomography imaging was performed using semiautomated software, and the extent of emphysema-like destruction was assessed visually. The extent of emphysema and percentage of low-attenuation areas was greater for patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax than for control subjects matched for age and smoking history (median, 0.25 vs. 0.00%; P = 0.019) and was also higher for patients with secondary pneumothorax than those with primary spontaneous pneumothorax (16.15 vs. 0.25%, P pneumothorax who smoked had significantly greater low-attenuation area than patients with primary pneumothorax who were nonsmokers (0.7 vs. 0.1%, P = 0.034). The majority of patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax had quantifiable evidence of parenchymal destruction and emphysema. The exclusion of patients

  16. Local recurrences after laparoscopic resections for renal parenchymal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. G. Alyaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Renal cancer constitutes 2–3 % of all tumors of the human body. Annually worldwide renal cancer morbidity increases by 2 %, about 90 % of cases are localized in the parenchyma.  Currently, treatment of localized forms of kidney cancer increasingly  incorporates kidney-preserving technologies.The objective is to evaluate the rate and causes of local renal cancer recurrence after laparoscopic resections of the organ for treatment of localized renal parenchymal cancer.Materials and methods. Retrospective analysis of 459 laparoscopic resections performed between June of 2011 to May of 2017 at the R. M. Fronstein Urology Clinic of the I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of Russia was performed.Results. Of 459 patients who underwent endoscopic surgical kidney resections with video, 399 patients were diagnosed with renal cancer during planned histological examination, among them 3 (0.75 %  patients had local recurrence. All patients were operated on with  laparoscopic access, in 1 case the surgery was complicated by  intraoperative bleeding which required conversion to nephrectomy. At the time of primary surgery, all patients with cancer recurrence were diagnosed with stage Т1b. Clear cell renal cell  carcinoma was verified in all patients by morphological examination,  and malignancy grade (nuclear differentiation per the Furman  grading system was 2 (in 2 patients and 3 (in 1 patient. In 2  patients, local recurrence was diagnosed 6 months after the surgery, in 1 patient – 12 months after the surgery. One case of local  recurrence in the area of previous resection was detected, in 1 case  dissemination of the process through paranephric tissue (apart from local recurrence was observed, and 1 case of recurrence in the bed of the removed kidney was diagnosed. All patients underwent repeat surgery in the clinic: 2 patients were operated on laparoscopically, 1  patient

  17. A Comparative Study of Peripheral Immune Responses to Taenia solium in Individuals with Parenchymal and Subarachnoid Neurocysticercosis.

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    Iskra Tuero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Taenia solium to modulate the immune system likely contributes to their longevity in the human host. We tested the hypothesis that the nature of the immune response is related to the location of parasite and clinical manifestations of infection.Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were obtained from untreated patients with neurocysticercosis (NCC, categorized as having parenchymal or subarachnoid infection by the presence of cysts exclusively within the parenchyma or in subarachnoid spaces of the brain, and from uninfected (control individuals matched by age and gender to each patient. Using multiplex detection technology, sera from NCC patients and controls and cytokine production by PBMC after T. solium antigen (TsAg stimulation were assayed for levels of inflammatory and regulatory cytokines. PBMC were phenotyped by flow cytometry ex vivo and following in vitro stimulation with TsAg.Sera from patients with parenchymal NCC demonstrated significantly higher Th1 (IFN-γ/IL-12 and Th2 (IL-4/IL-13 cytokine responses and trends towards higher levels of IL-1β/IL-8/IL-5 than those obtained from patients with subarachnoid NCC. Also higher in vitro antigen-driven TNF-β secretion was detected in PBMC supernatants from parenchymal than in subarachnoid NCC. In contrast, there was a significantly higher IL-10 response to TsAg stimulation in patients with subarachnoid NCC compared to parenchymal NCC. Although no differences in regulatory T cells (Tregs frequencies were found ex vivo, there was a trend towards greater expansion of Tregs upon TsAg stimulation in subarachnoid than in parenchymal NCC when data were normalized for the corresponding controls.T. solium infection of the subarachnoid space is associated with an enhanced regulatory immune response compared to infection in the parenchyma. The resulting anti-inflammatory milieu may represent a parasite strategy to maintain a permissive environment in the host or diminish

  18. Normative ultrasound values of renal parenchymal thickness among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the ultrasound normative values of renal parenchymal thickness (RPT) among adults and correlate them with age ... Methods: This was a prospective clinic based study involving 310 normal adults (135 males and 175 females) scanned at ... kidneys and subjects in which three RPT measurements.

  19. Diagnostic utility of medical thoracoscopy in peripheral parenchymal pulmonary lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hatata

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: Among patients with peripheral parenchymal pulmonary lesions remaining undiagnosed after usual initial investigation and even transthoracic needle biopsies, thoracoscopy done under local anaesthesia is a rapid, safe, and well-tolerated procedure with an excellent diagnostic yield that is equivalent to that of thoracotomy.

  20. Computerized tomography of renal parenchymal disturbance following nephrolithotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Ishizuka, Eiichi; Fukushima, Shuji.

    1983-01-01

    Staghorn calculi were removed by nephrolithotomy with the one-layer interrupted parenchymal suture method designed by Taguchi and renal parenchymal disturbance following the operation were evaluated by computerized tomography. Twenty kidneys in 17 cases were examined pre and postoperatively for changes in the incised and sutured part of the renal parenchyma. The postoperative CT scanning demonstrated the low density areas following enhancement and depression of the parenchyma. These changes were classified into the following 3 patterns: Type I-no changes were observed in the parenchyma, or a linear low density area was found (5 kidneys, 25.0%); type II-a long, narrow strip of low density area was found in accord with the excised and sutured part (5 kidneys, 25.0%); and type III-a wedge-shaped low density area or depression of the parenchyma was found (10 kidneys, 50.0%). The length of the parenchymal incision was analysed with reference to these patterns. The length of type I was significantly shorter than that of type II or III (p<0.05). Th e clamping time of the renal pedicle in type I was also shorter than that in type II and III, but the differences did not reach a statistically significant level. Type II pattern frequently was found shortly after the operation. It is, however, undeniable that type II may tramsform to type III. (J.P.N.)

  1. The lung parenchymal strip as a model of peripheral airway responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, C L; Black, J L; Berend, N

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-four patients scheduled for surgery for carcinoma of the lung were challenged with inhaled methacholine. A greater than 20% fall in the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) was recorded in nine of these patients. The PD20 (dose of methacholine producing a 20% fall in FEV1) values ranged from 0.6 to 5.6 mumol methacholine. Following surgery, lung tissue was prepared as lung parenchymal strips for in vitro studies. There was no correlation between in vivo airway responsiveness to methacholine (PD20) and in vitro sensitivity as measured by the EC50 (the concentration of agonist producing half the maximal tension [Tmax]) for carbachol (r = -0.17; n = 16) or histamine (r = 0.23; n = 24). The variation in in vivo and in vitro responsiveness was not due to the presence of inflammatory cells in the peripheral lung tissue. Of the 38 lung parenchymal strips studied with histamine, 17 demonstrated a variable relaxation response at low concentrations followed by contraction at higher concentrations. The presence or absence of this relaxation response could not be explained in terms of variable proportions of airway or vascular smooth muscle.

  2. Potent spinal parenchymal AAV9-mediated gene delivery by subpial injection in adult rats and pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Miyanohara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective in vivo use of adeno-associated virus (AAV-based vectors to achieve gene-specific silencing or upregulation in the central nervous system has been limited by the inability to provide more than limited deep parenchymal expression in adult animals using delivery routes with the most clinical relevance (intravenous or intrathecal. Here, we demonstrate that the spinal pia membrane represents the primary barrier limiting effective AAV9 penetration into the spinal parenchyma after intrathecal AAV9 delivery. We develop a novel subpial AAV9 delivery technique and AAV9-dextran formulation. We use these in adult rats and pigs to show (i potent spinal parenchymal transgene expression in white and gray matter including neurons, glial and endothelial cells after single bolus subpial AAV9 delivery; (ii delivery to almost all apparent descending motor axons throughout the length of the spinal cord after cervical or thoracic subpial AAV9 injection; (iii potent retrograde transgene expression in brain motor centers (motor cortex and brain stem; and (iv the relative safety of this approach by defining normal neurological function for up to 6 months after AAV9 delivery. Thus, subpial delivery of AAV9 enables gene-based therapies with a wide range of potential experimental and clinical utilizations in adult animals and human patients.

  3. Pathophysiology of Pulmonary Hypertension in Chronic Parenchymal Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Inderjit; Ma, Kevin Cong; Berlin, David Adam

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary hypertension commonly complicates chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial lung disease. The association of chronic lung disease and pulmonary hypertension portends a worse prognosis. The pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension differs in the presence or absence of lung disease. We describe the physiological determinants of the normal pulmonary circulation to better understand the pathophysiological factors implicated in chronic parenchymal lung disease-associated pulmonary hypertension. This review will focus on the pathophysiology of 3 forms of chronic lung disease-associated pulmonary hypertension: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and sarcoidosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bronchoscopic cryobiopsy for the diagnosis of diffuse parenchymal lung disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Kropski

    Full Text Available Although in some cases clinical and radiographic features may be sufficient to establish a diagnosis of diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD, surgical lung biopsy is frequently required. Recently a new technique for bronchoscopic lung biopsy has been developed using flexible cryo-probes. In this study we describe our clinical experience using bronchoscopic cryobiopsy for diagnosis of diffuse lung disease.A retrospective study of subjects who had undergone bronchoscopic cryobiopsy for evaluation of DPLD at an academic tertiary care center from January 1, 2012 through January 15, 2013 was performed. The procedure was performed using a flexible bronchoscope to acquire biopsies of lung parenchyma. H&E stained biopsies were reviewed by an expert lung pathologist.Twenty-five eligible subjects were identified. With a mean area of 64.2 mm(2, cryobiopsies were larger than that typically encountered with traditional transbronchial forceps biopsy. In 19 of the 25 subjects, a specific diagnosis was obtained. In one additional subject, biopsies demonstrating normal parenchyma were felt sufficient to exclude diffuse lung disease as a cause of dyspnea. The overall diagnostic yield of bronchoscopic cryobiopsy was 80% (20/25. The most frequent diagnosis was usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP (n = 7. Three of the 25 subjects ultimately required surgical lung biopsy. There were no significant complications.In patients with suspected diffuse parenchymal lung disease, bronchoscopic cryobiopsy is a promising and minimally invasive approach to obtain lung tissue with high diagnostic yield.

  5. Effect of hepatocyte growth factor on radiation response of HeLa, V79, CHO and primary cultured parenchymal hepatocyte in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hideya; Inoue, Takehiro; Nose, Takayuki; Murayama, Shigeyuki; Teshima, Teruki; Ozeki, Syuji; Koizumi, Masahiko; Inoue, Toshihiko.

    1996-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a multipotent cytokine enhancing regeneration of injured organs as liver, kidney and lung after injury. HGF enhances proliferation of various type of cells, inhibits proliferation of carcinoma cells, enhances motility of epithelial cells. We examined three cell lines (CHO, HeLa, V79) and primary cultured normal rat parenchymal hepatocytes to determine the effect of HGF on radiation response. HGF diminished survival of CHO and V79 cells determined by colony formation assay, whereas no significant change of survival was found in HeLa cells. No synergistic changes of survival were found when these three cell lines were irradiated with the addition of HGF. Thus, HGF did not enhance the radiation effect. We also analyzed the impact of irradiation with HGF on primary cultured normal rat parenchymal hepatocytes. At first, the release of glutamic-oxaloacetic amino-transaminase (GOT) in the supernatant was estimated. Irradiation (40 Gy) with or without HGF did not change GOT release in acute phase by 4 days after irradiation compared with the unirradiated control. Second, the DNA synthesis of rat parenchymal hepatocytes was analyzed using radioactive iodine-labeled deoxyuridine incorporation. HGF counteracted the suppression of DNA synthesis induced by irradiation. Thus, HGF may act as a mitogen even for irradiation-damaged normal cells. (author)

  6. A syndrome of severe idiopathic pulmonary parenchymal disease with pulmonary hypertension in Pekingese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Köster LS

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Liza S Köster,1 Robert M Kirberger2 1Section of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Integrative Mammalian Research (IMR Center, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine (RUSVM, Basseterre, St Kitts, West Indies; 2Diagnostic Imaging Section, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa Abstract: This paper describes 35 Pekingese dogs with a syndrome characterized by dyspnea, cyanosis, episodic syncope, soft pulmonary “Velcro” crackles, pulmonary hypertension (PH, and computed tomography and radiographic changes consistent with pulmonary parenchymal disease. The medical data base was searched with the criteria “Pekingese” and “syncope” or “dyspnea” or “tachypnea” or “pulmonary hypertension”, over a 36-month period. Inclusion criteria were echocardiographic changes consistent with noninvasive diagnosis of PH, either subjectively by B-mode or objectively by Doppler. Dogs were excluded (n=106 if there were insufficient or poor-quality radiographic or echocardiographic records or if diseases other than chronic pulmonary disease were found to be the etiology. The records of 35 dogs met these criteria and presented with a respiratory crises preceded by a history of chronic exercise intolerance and episodic syncope. The average age was 14.5 years (range: 7–19 years, with 21 males and 14 females. Most of the dogs had an interstitial lung pattern with radiographic evidence of right heart enlargement. There was a 77% (n=27 mortality and a median survival of 60 days (interquartile range: 9–210 days. This study highlights a cor pulmonale syndrome from PH due to chronic pulmonary parenchymal disease, with a grave prognosis, in middle-aged to geriatric population of Hong Kong Pekingese. Keywords: computed tomography, interstitial lung disease, dog, syncope

  7. Evidence for differentiation of cell wall poles in Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenfeld, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    Previous data have suggested that the chromosome of Bacillus subtilis was found to the cell surface at polar regions. A significant corollary of DNA attachment to cell poles is the role of the cell wall in chromosome segregation. This project was mainly concerned with visualizing the DNA-cell wall association through autoradiography. The origin and terminus of replication were labelled with ( 3 H)-thymidine using a temperature-sensitive DNA initiation mutant. It was found that most of the radioactivity was associated with cell poles. Ultrastructural analyses of cell walls stained with dilute cationized ferritin showed that the polar area contained a site of dense electronegativity. It is not immediately apparent why cell wall poles would contain an area with a high concentration of negative charge. This finding may be related to the cell pole functioning as the site of chromosome attachment. An additional observation encountered in this study was that cell wall exhibited asymmetry with regard to negative charge, the outside surface being more electronegative than the inside. A significant consequence of this finding is that both teichoic acid and muramyl peptides are situated perpendicularly to the cell surface. This favored arrangement may facilitate cell separation during the division process due to opposition of like charges at septa. The results of this work provide further convincing evidence that the cell wall of B. subtilis is differentiated

  8. Parenchymal signal intensity in 3-T body MRI of dogs with hematopoietic neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Daniel A; Sharkey, Leslie C; Steward, Susan M; Bahr, Katherine L; Henson, Michael S; Ito, Daisuke; O'Brien, Timothy D; Jessen, Carl R; Husbands, Brian D; Borgatti, Antonella; Modiano, Jaime F

    2013-04-01

    We performed a preliminary study involving 10 dogs to assess the applicability of body MRI for staging of canine diffuse hematopoietic neoplasia. T1-weighted (before and after intravenous gadolinium), T2-weighted, in-phase, out-of-phase, and short tau inversion recovery pulse sequences were used. By using digital region of interest (ROI) and visual comparison techniques, relative parenchymal organ (medial iliac lymph nodes, liver, spleen, kidney cortex, and kidney medulla) signal intensity was quantified as less than, equal to, or greater than that of skeletal muscle in 2 clinically normal young adult dogs and 10 dogs affected with either B-cell lymphoma (n = 7) or myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 3). Falciform fat and urinary bladder were evaluated to provide additional perspective regarding signal intensity from the pulse sequences. Dogs with nonfocal disease could be distinguished from normal dogs according to both the visual and ROI signal-intensity relationships. In normal dogs, liver signal intensity on the T2-weighted sequence was greater than that of skeletal muscle by using either the visual or ROI approach. However in affected dogs, T2-weighted liver signal intensity was less than that of skeletal muscle by using either the ROI approach (10 of 10 dogs) or the visual approach (9 of 10 dogs). These findings suggest that the comparison of relative signal intensity among organs may have merit as a research model for infiltrative parenchymal disease (ROI approach) or metabolic effects of disease; this comparison may have practical clinical applicability (visual comparison approach) as well.

  9. Intraoperative ultrasound in determining the extent of resection of parenchymal brain tumors - a comparative study with computed tomography and histopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacko, A.G.; Rajshekhar, V.; Kumar, N.K.S.; Athyal, R.; Chacko, G.

    2003-01-01

    Radical excision of parenchymal brain tumours is generally associated with a better long-term outcome; however, it is difficult to ascertain the extent of resection at surgery. We used intra-operative ultrasound [IOUS] to help detect residual tumour and define the tumour-brain interface. Thirty-five patients with parenchymal brain lesions including 11 low-grade and 22 high-grade tumours and 2 inflammatory granulomata were included in the study. The IOUS was used to localize tumours not seen on the surface, define their margins and assess the extent of resection at the end of surgery. Multiple samples from the tumour-brain interface which were reported as tumour or normal tissue an IOUS were submitted to histopathology. The IOUS findings were compared with a postoperative contrast enhanced computed tomogram [CT] and with histopathology. All tumours irrespective of histology were hyperechoic an IOUS. IOUS was useful in localizing those tumours not seen on the surface of the brain. In 71.4 % of cases IOUS was useful in defining their margins, however in the remaining cases the margins were ill-defined. The tumour margins were ill-defined in those treated previously by radiation. With regard to the extent of excision, after excluding the cases who were irradiated, it was found that in the 28 patients who had parenchymal neoplasms, there was concordance between the ultrasound findings and the postoperative CT scan in 23 cases. Of the 79 samples taken from the tumor-brain interface which were reported as tumour on ultrasound, 66 had histopathological evidence of tumour while 13 samples were negative for tumour. On the other hand, in the tissue sent from 17 sites where the IOUS showed no residual tumour, 2 were positive for tumour on histopathology while 15 were negative. In conclusion, IOUS is a cheap and useful real-time tool for localizing tumours not seen on the brain surface, for defining their margins and for determining the extent of resection. (author)

  10. Abdominal polytrauma and parenchymal organs; Abdominelles Polytrauma und Parenchymorgane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krestan, C.R. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien AKH, Abteilung fuer Allgemeine Radiologie und Kinderradiologie, Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    The acute radiological diagnostics of polytrauma patients has become an essential part of the interdisciplinary treatment in the emergency room. The incidence of polytrauma patients with an injury severity score (ISS) > 16 is approximately 450 cases/million inhabitants/year in Europe. Injuries of the parenchymal organs are of utmost importance for the prognosis and treatment of these patients. The injury patterns are complex and a great deal of experience is necessary to be able to obtain the correct diagnosis within minutes. This review article deals with the radiological diagnostics and grading of the severity of injuries to the spleen, liver, pancreas and kidneys. The use of ultrasound for the evaluation of polytraumatized patients will be discussed. The most important trauma-associated findings for the above mentioned organs using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) will be described and illustrated by dedicated case findings. Ultrasound contrast agents can supply valuable, additional diagnostic information in the evaluation of polytraumatized patients. Computed tomography has become established as the most relevant imaging modality in severe trauma. Innovative organ-adapted and contrast application protocols improve the diagnostic performance of MDCT. The use of focused assessment sonography for trauma (FAST) scanning as a screening tool is in agreement with the other clinical disciplines of the trauma team. The use of MDCT is trauma-dependent and the classification of the severity of the different parenchymal organ injuries is ultimately decisive for further treatment and prognosis of trauma victims. (orig.) [German] Die akute radiologische Diagnostik bei Polytraumapatienten ist in den letzten Jahren unerlaesslicher Bestandteil der interdisziplinaeren Versorgung im Schockraum geworden. Die Inzidenz von Polytraumata mit einem Injury Severity Score (ISS) > 16 betraegt in Europa ca. 450/Mio. Einwohner/Jahr. Verletzungen abdomineller Parenchymorgane sind von

  11. Renal parenchymal damage on DMSA-scintigraphy in pelviureteric obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kullendorff, C.M.; Evander, E.

    1989-01-01

    During a 1.5 year period 21 children were investigated with 99-m-technetium dimercaptosuccini acid (DMSA) before operation for hydronephrosis due to pelviureteric obstruction. The age at investigation was 0.2-11.5 years. Fourty-two kidneys were examined. Hydronephrosis existed on the right side in 8 cases, left side in 9 and bilateral in 4 cases. Seventeen kidneys had no obstruction. The scintigraphy was interpreted as normal in 19 kidneys. Decreased isotope uptake was found in 23 kidneys and localized to the upper pole area in 19 kidneys. middle-lateral part in 7, lower pole area in 15 and the middle-medial part in 12 kidneys. There were no predominance for any part of the kidney to be affected by parenchymal damage. In 8 children investigated before the age of 1 year, 4 of 10 hydronephrotic kidneys revealed normal DMSA scintigram. DMSA scintigraphy delineates functioning renal parenchyma. It can be recommended as a routine method for evaluation of the renal parenchyma before surgery and for follow up studies in all ages of childhood

  12. Effect of the menstrual cycle on background parenchymal enhancement observed on breast MRIs in Korean women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Vivan Young Jean; KIm, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the menstrual cycle on background parenchymal enhancement observed on breast MRIs in Korean women, and to suggest an optimal period for scheduling breast MRIs. Between March and December 2012, 214 premenopausal breast cancer patients who underwent breast MRIs for preoperative evaluation were included. Levels of background parenchymal enhancement were retrospectively compared according to the menstrual cycle. There was no significant difference between levels of background parenchymal enhancement (minimal, mild, moderate, and marked) according to the weeks of the menstrual cycle. However, the 1st and 2nd week of the menstrual cycle showed a significantly higher proportion of patients with minimal background parenchymal enhancement than the 3rd and 4th week of the menstrual cycle (47.0% vs. 32.0%; p = 0.025). For screening purposes and for the follow-up of Korean breast cancer patients, breast MRIs should be performed during the 1st or 2nd week of the menstrual cycle

  13. Effect of the menstrual cycle on background parenchymal enhancement observed on breast MRIs in Korean women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Vivan Young Jean; KIm, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    To evaluate the effect of the menstrual cycle on background parenchymal enhancement observed on breast MRIs in Korean women, and to suggest an optimal period for scheduling breast MRIs. Between March and December 2012, 214 premenopausal breast cancer patients who underwent breast MRIs for preoperative evaluation were included. Levels of background parenchymal enhancement were retrospectively compared according to the menstrual cycle. There was no significant difference between levels of background parenchymal enhancement (minimal, mild, moderate, and marked) according to the weeks of the menstrual cycle. However, the 1st and 2nd week of the menstrual cycle showed a significantly higher proportion of patients with minimal background parenchymal enhancement than the 3rd and 4th week of the menstrual cycle (47.0% vs. 32.0%; p = 0.025). For screening purposes and for the follow-up of Korean breast cancer patients, breast MRIs should be performed during the 1st or 2nd week of the menstrual cycle.

  14. Bronchial Artery Embolization in the Management of Pulmonary Parenchymal Endometriosis with Hemoptysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kervancioglu, Selim; Andic, Cagatay; Bayram, Nazan; Telli, Cumali; Sarica, Akif; Sirikci, Akif

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary parenchymal endometriosis is extremely rare and usually manifests itself with a recurrent hemoptysis associated with the menstrual cycle. The therapies proposed for women with endometriosis consist of medical treatments and surgery. Bronchial artery embolization has become a well-established and minimally invasive treatment modality for hemoptysis, and to the best of our knowledge, it has not been reported in pulmonary endometriosis. We report a case of pulmonary parenchymal endometriosis treated with embolotheraphy for hemoptysis.

  15. Applications of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of parenchymal kidney disease in cats: 24 cases (1981-1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, P.A.; Johnston, G.R.; Feeney, D.A.; O'Brien, T.D.

    1988-01-01

    Renal sonograms from 24 cats with confirmed parenchymal kidney disease and from 1 cat with radiographic and palpable evidence of renal enlargement (but without identifiable histologic abnormalities) were evaluated to describe the ultrasonographic appearance of feline renal diseases and to determine the role of ultrasonographic examination in the clinical evaluation of these cases. In all cats with radiographic evidence of abnormal renal size or contour and when poor intraabdominal radiographic contrast precluded visualization of the kidneys, ultrasonography provided complementary information pertaining to location (cortical/medullary), extent, and distribution (focal/multifocal/diffuse) of disease. Ultrasonography also characterized these lesions as cystic (cavitating) or solid. The echo patterns were most specific for renal cysts. Infiltrative diseases did not have consistent patterns. Multifocal hypoechoic nodules, diffuse cortical hyper-echogenicity, and normal-appearing parenchyma were identified. In these instances, however, ultrasonography did define the extent of disease and narrowed the spectrum of differential considerations

  16. Effect of denoising on supervised lung parenchymal clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayamani, Padmapriya; Raghunath, Sushravya; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2012-03-01

    Denoising is a critical preconditioning step for quantitative analysis of medical images. Despite promises for more consistent diagnosis, denoising techniques are seldom explored in clinical settings. While this may be attributed to the esoteric nature of the parameter sensitve algorithms, lack of quantitative measures on their ecacy to enhance the clinical decision making is a primary cause of physician apathy. This paper addresses this issue by exploring the eect of denoising on the integrity of supervised lung parenchymal clusters. Multiple Volumes of Interests (VOIs) were selected across multiple high resolution CT scans to represent samples of dierent patterns (normal, emphysema, ground glass, honey combing and reticular). The VOIs were labeled through consensus of four radiologists. The original datasets were ltered by multiple denoising techniques (median ltering, anisotropic diusion, bilateral ltering and non-local means) and the corresponding ltered VOIs were extracted. Plurality of cluster indices based on multiple histogram-based pair-wise similarity measures were used to assess the quality of supervised clusters in the original and ltered space. The resultant rank orders were analyzed using the Borda criteria to nd the denoising-similarity measure combination that has the best cluster quality. Our exhaustive analyis reveals (a) for a number of similarity measures, the cluster quality is inferior in the ltered space; and (b) for measures that benet from denoising, a simple median ltering outperforms non-local means and bilateral ltering. Our study suggests the need to judiciously choose, if required, a denoising technique that does not deteriorate the integrity of supervised clusters.

  17. Parenchymal neurocysticercosis: follow-up and staging by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, J.L.; Visy, J.M.; Belin, C.; Gaston, A.; Goldlust, D.; Dumas, M.

    1997-01-01

    We describe the evolution of parenchymal cerebral cysticerci on MRI, to assess signs of early cyst degeneration. We studied 15 lesions in four treated and one untreated patient. MRI was performed before therapy and repeated in the 1st month after each course of anticysticercus drugs, every 4 months during the 1st year and then annually; the follow-up period was 8-48 months. Lesions were classified according to changes in four features: cyst content and capsule signal, gadolinium enhancement and oedema signal. We were able to recognise each of the pathological phases; five MRI stages were identified. Stage 1 showed oedema and/or nodular gadolinium enhancement in the tissue invasion phase; stage 2 was cerebrospinal fluid-like signal within a cyst in the vesicular phase; stage 3 showed a thick capsule with an impure liquid content signal and surrounding oedema, in the cystic phase; stage 4 showed the disappearance of the cyst fluid content signal in the degenerative phase; stage 5 showed a calcified lesion in the residual phase. Stage 1 lesions disappeared after therapy; the other progressed from one stage to another. Stage 4 indicated the end of viability of the parasite and determined the point after which treatment was useless. On T2-weighted images changes in the cyst content differed according to the history of the lesion; nodular low intensity followed the natural degeneration of the parasite and a mixed fluid signal with punctate low signal seemed to represent the specific result of therapy. MRI staging can help in the evaluation of indications for treatment and facilitate clinical therapeutic trials. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. Relevance analysis of mammographic parenchymal patterns and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Rendong; Lv Xiangyang; Li Shaolin; Gao Ming; Miao Liqiong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Discussing the relativity of Mammographic parenchymal patterns and breast cancer, implementing the intervention treatment and regularly traces to the breast high dangerous crowd, in order to reduce the occurrence rate of beast cancer and the mortality rate. Methods: Mammary gland type was marked according to X ray on 500 breast cancer subjects and 1000 control subjects. Peri-cancer histological sections of the subtypes of the breast cancer group and histological section of the subtypes of the control group were studied contrastively to analyze the breast cancer risk index in every subtype and the occurrence rate in every age group. The types and the occurrence rates were counted. Results: (1)The lowest risk group: the subtypes with OR 0.3 and the cancer incidence rate ranging from 5% to 10% were IV b, II b, III b. (4)High-risk group: the subtypes with OR> 1 and the cancer incidence rate above 10% were III c, IV c. High dangerous age sections of breast cancer: 35 to 55 years old in IVc and IIIc (the age section of IIIc may lengthen to 60 years old), 31 to 50 years old in IVb, 50 to 60 years old in IIIb and IIb. Conclusion: IIIc and IVc belong to the high dangerous subtypes. People of these subtypes reach 67.4% of all breast cancer examples, so these people are the main subjects of the mammary gland general survey and tracing. Patient aged from 35 to 55 should be reexamined once a year. When necessary, the intervention treatment may be carried out to prevent breast cancer and to reduce the occurrence rate of beast cancer. Discovery and treatment in early phase can improve the breast cancer's survival quality, and reduce the mortality rate. (authors)

  19. Evaluation of breast parenchymal density with QUANTRA software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahwa, Shivani; Hari, Smriti; Thulkar, Sanjay; Angraal, Suveen

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate breast parenchymal density using QUANTRA software and to correlate numerical breast density values obtained from QUANTRA with ACR BI-RADS breast density categories. Two-view digital mammograms of 545 consecutive women (mean age - 47.7 years) were categorized visually by three independent radiologists into one of the four ACR BI-RADS categories (D1-D4). Numerical breast density values as obtained by QUANTRA software were then used to establish the cutoff values for each category using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis. Numerical breast density values obtained by QUANTRA (range - 7-42%) were systematically lower than visual estimates. QUANTRA breast density value of less than 14.5% could accurately differentiate category D1 from the categories D2, D3, and D4 [area under curve (AUC) on ROC analysis - 94.09%, sensitivity - 85.71%, specificity - 84.21%]. QUANTRA density values of <19.5% accurately differentiated categories D1 and D2 from D3 and D4 (AUC - 94.4%, sensitivity - 87.50%, specificity - 84.60%); QUANTRA density values of <26.5% accurately differentiated categories D1, D2, and D3 from category D4 (AUC - 90.75%, sensitivity - 88.89%, specificity - 88.621%). Breast density values obtained by QUANTRA software can be used to obtain objective cutoff values for each ACR BI-RADS breast density category. Although the numerical density values obtained by QUANTRA are lower than visual estimates, they correlate well with the BI-RADS breast density categories assigned visually to the mammograms

  20. MRI Background Parenchymal Enhancement Is Not Associated with Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bennani-Baiti

    Full Text Available Previously, a strong positive association between background parenchymal enhancement (BPE at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and breast cancer was reported in high-risk populations. We sought to determine, whether this was also true for non-high-risk patients.540 consecutive patients underwent breast MRI for assessment of breast findings (BI-RADS 0-5, non-high-risk screening (no familial history of breast cancer, no known genetic mutation, no prior chest irradiation, or previous breast cancer diagnosis and subsequent histological work-up. For this IRB-approved study, BPE and fibroglandular tissue FGT were retrospectively assessed by two experienced radiologists according to the BI-RADS lexicon. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to explore associations between BPE, FGT, age and final diagnosis of breast cancer. Subsequently, multivariate logistic regression analysis, considering covariate colinearities, was performed, using final diagnosis as the target variable and BPE, FGT and age as covariates.Age showed a moderate negative correlation with FGT (r = -0.43, p<0.001 and a weak negative correlation with BPE (r = -0.28, p<0.001. FGT and BPE correlated moderately (r = 0.35, p<0.001. Final diagnosis of breast cancer displayed very weak negative correlations with FGT (r = -0.09, p = 0.046 and BPE (r = -0.156, p<0.001 and weak positive correlation with age (r = 0.353, p<0.001. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, the only independent covariate for prediction of breast cancer was age (OR 1.032, p<0.001.Based on our data, neither BPE nor FGT independently correlate with breast cancer risk in non-high-risk patients at MRI. Our model retained only age as an independent risk factor for breast cancer in this setting.

  1. Parenchymal neurocysticercosis: follow-up and staging by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumas, J.L. [Dept. of Radiology, Hopital Avicenne, Bobigny (France)]|[Inst. of Tropical Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Limoges (France); Visy, J.M. [Dept. of Neurology, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris (France); Belin, C. [Dept. of Neurology, Hopital Avicenne, Bobigny (France); Gaston, A. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Hopital Henri-Mondor, Creteil (France); Goldlust, D. [Dept. of Radiology, Hopital Avicenne, Bobigny (France); Dumas, M. [Inst. of Tropical Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Limoges (France)

    1997-01-01

    We describe the evolution of parenchymal cerebral cysticerci on MRI, to assess signs of early cyst degeneration. We studied 15 lesions in four treated and one untreated patient. MRI was performed before therapy and repeated in the 1st month after each course of anticysticercus drugs, every 4 months during the 1st year and then annually; the follow-up period was 8-48 months. Lesions were classified according to changes in four features: cyst content and capsule signal, gadolinium enhancement and oedema signal. We were able to recognise each of the pathological phases; five MRI stages were identified. Stage 1 showed oedema and/or nodular gadolinium enhancement in the tissue invasion phase; stage 2 was cerebrospinal fluid-like signal within a cyst in the vesicular phase; stage 3 showed a thick capsule with an impure liquid content signal and surrounding oedema, in the cystic phase; stage 4 showed the disappearance of the cyst fluid content signal in the degenerative phase; stage 5 showed a calcified lesion in the residual phase. Stage 1 lesions disappeared after therapy; the other progressed from one stage to another. Stage 4 indicated the end of viability of the parasite and determined the point after which treatment was useless. On T2-weighted images changes in the cyst content differed according to the history of the lesion; nodular low intensity followed the natural degeneration of the parasite and a mixed fluid signal with punctate low signal seemed to represent the specific result of therapy. MRI staging can help in the evaluation of indications for treatment and facilitate clinical therapeutic trials. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Emerging Evidence for Platelets as Immune and Inflammatory Effector Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Thomas Rondina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While traditionally recognized for their roles in hemostatic pathways, emerging evidence demonstrates that platelets have previously unrecognized, dynamic roles that span the immune continuum. These newly-recognized platelet functions, including the secretion of immune mediators, interactions with endothelial cells, monocytes, and neutrophils, toll-like receptor (TLR mediated responses, and induction of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET formation, bridge thrombotic and inflammatory pathways and contribute to host defense mechanisms against invading pathogens. In this focused review, we highlight several of these emerging aspects of platelet biology and their implications in clinical infectious syndromes.

  3. Tc-99m erythromycin lactobionate inhalation scintigraphy in parenchymal lung diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durak, Hatice E-mail: hdurak@kordon.deu.edu.tr; Aktogu, Serir; Degirmenci, Berna; Sayit, Elvan; Ertay, Tuerkan; Dereli, Sevket

    1999-08-01

    We have investigated Technetium 99m erythromycin lactobionate (Tc 99m EL) clearance from the lungs after inhalation, in the presence of an alveolitis. Eighteen patients (6 sarcoidosis, 7 idiopathic fibrosis, and 5 miliary tuberculosis) were imaged after the patients inhaled 1,110 MBq of Tc 99m EL. Clearance half time for the first 45 min, for 24 h, and retention at 24 h correlated with percentage of lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) (r=.729, r=.883, and r=.826, respectively). There was a positive correlation between peripheral penetration (PP) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) (r=.806) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (r=.781). Retention was more marked in sarcoidosis compared with tuberculosis (0.025parenchymal lung diseases. Retention of Tc 99m EL may be related to number of BAL cells or presence of a lymphocytic alveolitis. Long residency time of Tc 99m EL in the lungs implies that erythromycin can also be administered by inhalation for therapeutic purposes.

  4. Endothelial Mineralocorticoid Receptor Mediates Parenchymal Arteriole and Posterior Cerebral Artery Remodeling During Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Otero, Janice M; Fisher, Courtney; Downs, Kelsey; Moss, M Elizabeth; Jaffe, Iris Z; Jackson, William F; Dorrance, Anne M

    2017-12-01

    The brain is highly susceptible to injury caused by hypertension because the increased blood pressure causes artery remodeling that can limit cerebral perfusion. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonism prevents hypertensive cerebral artery remodeling, but the vascular cell types involved have not been defined. In the periphery, the endothelial MR mediates hypertension-induced vascular injury, but cerebral and peripheral arteries are anatomically distinct; thus, these findings cannot be extrapolated to the brain. The parenchymal arterioles determine cerebrovascular resistance. Determining the effects of hypertension and MR signaling on these arterioles could lead to a better understanding of cerebral small vessel disease. We hypothesized that endothelial MR signaling mediates inward cerebral artery remodeling and reduced cerebral perfusion during angiotensin II (AngII) hypertension. The biomechanics of the parenchymal arterioles and posterior cerebral arteries were studied in male C57Bl/6 and endothelial cell-specific MR knockout mice and their appropriate controls using pressure myography. AngII increased plasma aldosterone and decreased cerebral perfusion in C57Bl/6 and MR-intact littermates. Endothelial cell MR deletion improved cerebral perfusion in AngII-treated mice. AngII hypertension resulted in inward hypotrophic remodeling; this was prevented by MR antagonism and endothelial MR deletion. Our studies suggest that endothelial cell MR mediates hypertensive remodeling in the cerebral microcirculation and large pial arteries. AngII-induced inward remodeling of cerebral arteries and arterioles was associated with a reduction in cerebral perfusion that could worsen the outcome of stroke or contribute to vascular dementia. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Isolation of Kupffer Cells and Hepatocytes from a Single Mouse Liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aparicio-Vergara, Marcela; Tencerova, Michaela; Morgantini, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Liver perfusion is a common technique used to isolate parenchymal and non-parenchymal liver cells for in vitro experiments. This method allows hepatic cells to be separated based on their size and weight, by centrifugation using a density gradient. To date, other methods allow the isolation of only...... one viable hepatic cellular fraction from a single mouse; either parenchymal (hepatocytes) or non-parenchymal cells (i.e., Kupffer cells or hepatic stellate cells). Here, we describe a method to isolate both hepatocytes and Kupffer cells from a single mouse liver, thereby providing the unique...... advantage of studying different liver cell types that have been isolated from the same organism....

  6. Multivariate analysis of diagnostic parameters derived from whole-kidney and parenchymal time-activity curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, H.; Mostbeck, A.; Samal, M.; Nimmon, C.C.; Staudenherz, A.; Dudczak, R.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: In a previous work, we have confirmed earlier reports that time-activity curves of renal cortex provide additional useful diagnostic information. The aim of this experiment was to support the finding quantitatively using multiple regression. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study, we have analyzed MAG3 renal data (90 kidneys in 57 children). Whole-kidney (WK) and parenchymal (PA) time-activity curves were extracted from 20 min pre-diuretic phase using standard WK and parenchymal fuzzy ROIs. Using multiple regression analysis, peak time, mean transit time, output efficiency, and four additional indices of residual activity in WK and PA ROIs were related to the maximum elimination rate (EM) of urine after the diuretic. The kidneys were divided into four groups according to the WK peak time (WKPT): WKPT longer than 0 (all kidneys), 5, 10, and 15 min. Results: Multiple correlation coefficients between the set of WK, PA, and WK+PA curve parameters (independent variables) and the log EM (dependent variable) for each group are summarized. Conclusions: Using pre-diuretic time-activity curves, it is possible to predict diuretic response. This can be useful when interpreting dubious results. Parenchymal curves predict diuretic response better than the whole-kidney curves. With increasing WKPT the whole-kidney curves become useless, while the parenchymal curves are still useful. Using both WK and PA curves produces the best results. This demonstrates that both WK and PA curves carry independent diagnostic information. The contribution obtained from the parenchymal curves certainly worth the difficulties and time required to draw additional ROIs. However, substantial efforts have to be given to the accurate and reproducible definition of parenchymal ROIs

  7. A Study on the Diagnostic Significance of Hepatoscintigram with Colloidal Gold in Parenchymal Liver Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Dong Ho; Lee, Min Ho; Kim, Mok Hyun

    1982-01-01

    Hapatoscintigram has been a useful diagnostic method for the liver disease since 1953, but reasonable diagnostic criteria for parenchymal liver diseases are not yet accurately established. For the purpose of searching for more advanced diagnostic criteria for various types of live diseases by the liver scan, a retrospective study was made of 272 cases who underwent both hepatoscintigram with 198 Au colloid and liver biopsy in Hanyang University Hospital from Jan, 1978 to Dec, 1981. The results were as follows: 1. Fuzzy margin (irregular indentation of the liver margin) in the hepatoscintigram was noted in 226 cases (97.79%) 2. Of 35 cases with fuzzy margin only, 28 cases (80%)revealed mild parenchymal liver disease, such as acute hepatitis or chronic persistent hepatitis by the liver biopsy. 3. Mottling change (209 cases) was always accomplished by fuzzy margin except only one case, and 31 cases (86.1%) of fuzzy and mottling cases (36 cases) showed mild parenchymal liver disease. 4. Configuration change (193 cases) was usually accompanied with other changes and especially 104 cases had configuration changed with fuzzy and mottling changes. 73 cases (88.445) of 86 cases with severe configuration changed revealed advanced parenchymal liver disease on biopsy. If liver scan showed mild configuration change, we could not decide the type of liver disease only liver scan, and so further studies are needed. 5. Splenic uptake was noted 34 cases (40.48%) of 84 cases with advanced parenchymal liver disease, and the degree of splenic uptake was for the most part moderate or severe; whereas splenic uptake was noted in 18 cases (16.51%) of the mild parenchymal liver disease (109 cases), and the degree of splenic uptake was largely mild.

  8. Effect of parenchymal stiffness on canine airway size with lung inflation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H Brown

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Although airway patency is partially maintained by parenchymal tethering, this structural support is often ignored in many discussions of asthma. However, agonists that induce smooth muscle contraction also stiffen the parenchyma, so such parenchymal stiffening may serve as a defense mechanism to prevent airway narrowing or closure. To quantify this effect, specifically how changes in parenchymal stiffness alter airway size at different levels of lung inflation, in the present study, we devised a method to separate the effect of parenchymal stiffening from that of direct airway narrowing. Six anesthetized dogs were studied under four conditions: baseline, after whole lung aerosol histamine challenge, after local airway histamine challenge, and after complete relaxation of the airways. In each of these conditions, we used High resolution Computed Tomography to measure airway size and lung volume at five different airway pressures (0, 12, 25, 32, and 45 cm H(2O. Parenchymal stiffening had a protective effect on airway narrowing, a fact that may be important in the airway response to deep inspiration in asthma. When the parenchyma was stiffened by whole lung aerosol histamine challenge, at every lung volume above FRC, the airways were larger than when they were directly challenged with histamine to the same initial constriction. These results show for the first time that a stiff parenchyma per se minimizes the airway narrowing that occurs with histamine challenge at any lung volume. Thus in clinical asthma, it is not simply increased airway smooth muscle contraction, but perhaps a lack of homogeneous parenchymal stiffening that contributes to the symptomatic airway hyperresponsiveness.

  9. Novel sex cells and evidence for sex pheromones in diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shinya; Beakes, Gordon; Idei, Masahiko; Nagumo, Tamotsu; Mann, David G

    2011-01-01

    Diatoms belong to the stramenopiles, one of the largest groups of eukaryotes, which are primarily characterized by a presence of an anterior flagellum with tubular mastigonemes and usually a second, smooth flagellum. Based on cell wall morphology, diatoms have historically been divided into centrics and pennates, of which only the former have flagella and only on the sperm. Molecular phylogenies show the pennates to have evolved from among the centrics. However, the timing of flagellum loss--whether before the evolution of the pennate lineage or after--is unknown, because sexual reproduction has been so little studied in the 'araphid' basal pennate lineages, to which Pseudostaurosira belongs. Sexual reproduction of an araphid pennate, Pseudostaurosira trainorii, was studied with light microscopy (including time lapse observations and immunofluorescence staining observed under confocal scanning laser microscopy) and SEM. We show that the species produces motile male gametes. Motility is mostly associated with the extrusion and retrieval of microtubule-based 'threads', which are structures hitherto unknown in stramenopiles, their number varying from one to three per cell. We also report experimental evidence for sex pheromones that reciprocally stimulate sexualization of compatible clones and orientate motility of the male gametes after an initial 'random walk'. The threads superficially resemble flagella, in that both are produced by male gametes and contain microtubules. However, one striking difference is that threads cannot beat or undulate and have no motility of their own, and they do not bear mastigonemes. Threads are sticky and catch and draw objects, including eggs. The motility conferred by the threads is probably crucial for sexual reproduction of P. trainorii, because this diatom is non-motile in its vegetative stage but obligately outbreeding. Our pheromone experiments are the first studies in which gametogenesis has been induced in diatoms by cell

  10. Novel sex cells and evidence for sex pheromones in diatoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Sato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diatoms belong to the stramenopiles, one of the largest groups of eukaryotes, which are primarily characterized by a presence of an anterior flagellum with tubular mastigonemes and usually a second, smooth flagellum. Based on cell wall morphology, diatoms have historically been divided into centrics and pennates, of which only the former have flagella and only on the sperm. Molecular phylogenies show the pennates to have evolved from among the centrics. However, the timing of flagellum loss--whether before the evolution of the pennate lineage or after--is unknown, because sexual reproduction has been so little studied in the 'araphid' basal pennate lineages, to which Pseudostaurosira belongs. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Sexual reproduction of an araphid pennate, Pseudostaurosira trainorii, was studied with light microscopy (including time lapse observations and immunofluorescence staining observed under confocal scanning laser microscopy and SEM. We show that the species produces motile male gametes. Motility is mostly associated with the extrusion and retrieval of microtubule-based 'threads', which are structures hitherto unknown in stramenopiles, their number varying from one to three per cell. We also report experimental evidence for sex pheromones that reciprocally stimulate sexualization of compatible clones and orientate motility of the male gametes after an initial 'random walk'. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The threads superficially resemble flagella, in that both are produced by male gametes and contain microtubules. However, one striking difference is that threads cannot beat or undulate and have no motility of their own, and they do not bear mastigonemes. Threads are sticky and catch and draw objects, including eggs. The motility conferred by the threads is probably crucial for sexual reproduction of P. trainorii, because this diatom is non-motile in its vegetative stage but obligately outbreeding. Our pheromone experiments

  11. Wedge-shaped parenchymal enhancement peripheral to the hepatic hemangioma : two-phase spiral CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Won; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Ah Young; Lee, Hyun Ju; Song, Chi Sung; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2000-01-01

    To determine the incidence of hepatic hemangiomas associated with wedge-shaped parenchymal enhancements adjacent to the tumors as seen on two-phase spiral CT images obtained during the hepatic arterial phase and to characterize the two-phase spiral CT findings of those hemangiomas. One hundred and eight consecutive hepatic hemangiomas in 63 patients who underwent two-phase spiral CT scanning during an 11-month period were included in this study. Two-phase spiral CT scans were obtained during the hepatic arterial phase (30-second delay) and portal venous phase (65-second delay) after injection of 120 mL of contrast material at a rate of 3 mL/sec. We evaluated the frequency with which wedge-shaped parenchymal enhancement was adjacent to the hemangiomas during the hepatic arterial phase and divided hemangiomas into two groups according to whether or not wedge-shaped parenchymal enhancement was noted (Group A and Group B). The presence of such enhancement in hemangiomas was correlated with tumor size and the grade of intratumoral enhancement. In 24 of 108 hemangiomas, wedge-shaped parenchymal enhancement adjacent to hepatic tumors was seen on two-phase CT images obtained during the hepatic arterial phase. Mean hemangioma size was 22mm in group A and 24mm in group B. There was no statistically significant relationship between lesion size and the presence of wedge-shaped parenchymal enhancement adjacent to a hemangioma. In 91.7% and 100% of tumors in Group A, and in 9.6% and 17.8% in Group B, hemangiomas showed more than 50% intratumoral enhancement during the arterial and portal venous phase, respectively. Wedge-shaped parenchymal enhancements peripheral to hepatic hemangiomas was more frequently found in tumors showing more than 50% intratumoral enhancement during these two phases (p less than 0.01). Wedge-shaped parenchymal enhancements is not uncommonly seen adjacent to hepatic hemangiomas on two-phase spiral CT images obtained during the hepatic arterial phase. A

  12. Renal parenchymal function evaluated by scintillation camera renography before and after pyeloplasty for hydronephrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlgren, G.; Maansson, W.; White, T.

    1992-01-01

    Scintillation camera renography with Tc-DTPA was performed before and after pyeloplasty on 16 kidneys with urographic signs of pelviureteric obstruction causing hydronephrosis. Regional parenchymal renograms were generated, and the passage of Tc-DTPA through the parenchyma was measured and correlated to the change in separate glomerular filtration rate. Preoperative parenchymal passage of DTPA was significantly slower in kidneys with improved glomerular filtration rate after pyeloplasty than in those without such improvement. Postoperative passage of DTPA in parenchyma was almost identical with that in a reference series. This method seems to be clinically useful for evaluating cases of hydronephrosis and for predicting the outcome of pyeloplasty. (au)

  13. Very Low Cerebral Blood Volume Predicts Parenchymal Hematoma in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermitte, Laure; Cho, Tae-Hee; Ozenne, Brice

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Parenchymal hematoma (PH) may worsen the outcome of patients with stroke. The aim of our study was to confirm the relationship between the volume of very low cerebral blood volume (CBV) and PH using a European multicenter database (I-KNOW). A secondary objective was to exp......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Parenchymal hematoma (PH) may worsen the outcome of patients with stroke. The aim of our study was to confirm the relationship between the volume of very low cerebral blood volume (CBV) and PH using a European multicenter database (I-KNOW). A secondary objective...

  14. Effects of enalapril on urinary protein excretion of essential and renal parenchymal hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzucca, N.; Falciani, C.; Morini, V.; Bigazzi, R.; Paparatto, P.; Setti, G.P.; Bianchi, S.; Baldari, G.; Valteriani, C.; Chiapponi, I.

    1988-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibiting drugs are able to reduce urinary protein excretion in experimental hypertension and in hypertensive patients with diabetes. Fifteen essential (group I) and six renal parenchymal (group II) mild or moderate hypertensive patients were treated with the ACE inhibitor Enalapril in monotherapy or in combination with a diuretic. Twenty-four hour urinary protein excretion was measured by means of colorimetric and RIA methods. All patients of group I had a significant decrease of arterial pressure with Enalapril alone and this reduction was dosage dependent. Three out of six patients of group II required the addition of diuretic to achieve a good pressure control. Serum creatinine values were stable in group I, while one patient of group II, who already had high baseline creatinine levels, showed an impairment of renal function requiring discontinuation of therapy. Twenty-four hour urinary protein excretion did not change in group I, while after two months of therapy a significant decrease was observed in group II (P<0.05), which was even more evident after 4 months (P<0.03). In this group a good correlation between MAP and proteinuria was observed. Finally, compared to the colorimetric method, RIA method seems to be more sensitive to assess the variations under Enalapril treatment. In conclusion, Enalapril is an effective drug in patients with moderate or mild hypertension. Caution must be exercised in administering Enalapril to patients with severe renal failure. Also in hypertensive patients with mild renal failure ACE inhibition appears to induce an antiproteinuric effect during long term therapy. This fact could be related to an improved hemodynamic intraglomerular status due to the renal effects of the drug. Finally urinary albumin RIA method seems to be more sensitive than colorimetric evaluation to follow-up the variations of proteinuria under Enalapril treatment

  15. Background parenchymal enhancement on baseline screening breast MRI: impact on biopsy rate and short-interval follow-up.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hambly, Niamh M

    2011-01-01

    Background parenchymal enhancement on breast MRI refers to normal enhancement of the patient\\'s fibroglandular tissue. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of background parenchymal enhancement on short-interval follow-up, biopsy, and cancer detection rate on baseline screening MRI in a high-risk group.

  16. Evidences Suggesting Involvement of Viruses in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kanupriya; Metgud, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers and it constitutes a major health problem particularly in developing countries. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) represents the most frequent of all oral neoplasms. Several risk factors have been well characterized to be associated with OSCC with substantial evidences. The etiology of OSCC is complex and involves many factors. The most clearly defined potential factors are smoking and alcohol, which substantially increase the risk of OSCC. However, despite this clear association, a substantial proportion of patients develop OSCC without exposure to them, emphasizing the role of other risk factors such as genetic susceptibility and oncogenic viruses. Some viruses are strongly associated with OSCC while the association of others is less frequent and may depend on cofactors for their carcinogenic effects. Therefore, the exact role of viruses must be evaluated with care in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of OSCC. Although a viral association within a subset of OSCC has been shown, the molecular and histopathological characteristics of these tumors have yet to be clearly defined. PMID:24455418

  17. Evidences Suggesting Involvement of Viruses in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanupriya Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers and it constitutes a major health problem particularly in developing countries. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC represents the most frequent of all oral neoplasms. Several risk factors have been well characterized to be associated with OSCC with substantial evidences. The etiology of OSCC is complex and involves many factors. The most clearly defined potential factors are smoking and alcohol, which substantially increase the risk of OSCC. However, despite this clear association, a substantial proportion of patients develop OSCC without exposure to them, emphasizing the role of other risk factors such as genetic susceptibility and oncogenic viruses. Some viruses are strongly associated with OSCC while the association of others is less frequent and may depend on cofactors for their carcinogenic effects. Therefore, the exact role of viruses must be evaluated with care in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of OSCC. Although a viral association within a subset of OSCC has been shown, the molecular and histopathological characteristics of these tumors have yet to be clearly defined.

  18. Bone marrow-derived versus parenchymal sources of inducible nitric oxide synthase in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zehntner, Simone P; Bourbonniere, Lyne; Hassan-Zahraee, Mina

    2004-01-01

    . These discrepancies may reflect balance between immunoregulatory and neurocytopathologic roles for NO. We investigated selective effects of bone marrow-derived versus CNS parenchymal sources of iNOS in EAE in chimeric mice. Chimeras that selectively expressed or ablated iNOS in leukocytes both showed significant...

  19. Studies of renal parenchymal impairments with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) by diagnostic imaging methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohishi, Yukihiko; Machida, Toyohei; Tashiro, Kazuya; Wada, Tetsuro; Mochizuki, Atsushi; Torii, Shinichiro; Yoshigoe, Fukuo; Kawashima, Yoshio; Asano, Koji (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-05-01

    Renal parenchymal impairments with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) were studied by diagnostic imaging methods. The subjects were 25 patients with renal stones, and EDAP LT-01 (piezoelectric system) was used for the equipment of ESWL. The examination by MRI, X-ray CT and /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA scintigraphy using SPECT were performed before and after ESWL. To the 24 kidneys of 12 adult dogs, shock waves were fired in order to examine the experimental renal parenchymal impairments. After the treatment with ESWL, renal abnormal findings were obtained with MRI in 6 patients out of 11 (54.5%), with X-ray CT in 1 patient out of 12 (8.3%), and with the /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in 4 patients out of 6 (66.7%). In the inspections with X-ray CT and renal scintigraphy conducted in 4 weeks, it was noted that the conditions of patients were recovered to the states before ESWL was performed. Using the therapeutic doses of shock wave for humans, the renal parenchymal impairments in the kidney in dogs were normalized in 7 days. Although it has been considered that the degree of renal parenchymal impairments with ESWL treatment may be influenced by the kind of the equipment, frequency of shock waves and their strength, the extent of impairments were rather mild, and it was presumed that the impairments might be recovered on the images in 3 to 4 weeks at the latest. (author).

  20. Studies of renal parenchymal impairments with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) by diagnostic imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohishi, Yukihiko; Machida, Toyohei; Tashiro, Kazuya; Wada, Tetsuro; Mochizuki, Atsushi; Torii, Shinichiro; Yoshigoe, Fukuo; Kawashima, Yoshio; Asano, Koji

    1989-01-01

    Renal parenchymal impairments with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) were studied by diagnostic imaging methods. The subjects were 25 patients with renal stones, and EDAP LT-01 (piezoelectric system) was used for the equipment of ESWL. The examination by MRI, X-ray CT and 99m Tc-DMSA scintigraphy using SPECT were performed before and after ESWL. To the 24 kidneys of 12 adult dogs, shock waves were fired in order to examine the experimental renal parenchymal impairments. After the treatment with ESWL, renal abnormal findings were obtained with MRI in 6 patients out of 11 (54.5%), with X-ray CT in 1 patient out of 12 (8.3%), and with the 99m Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in 4 patients out of 6 (66.7%). In the inspections with X-ray CT and renal scintigraphy conducted in 4 weeks, it was noted that the conditions of patients were recovered to the states before ESWL was performed. Using the therapeutic doses of shock wave for humans, the renal parenchymal impairments in the kidney in dogs were normalized in 7 days. Although it has been considered that the degree of renal parenchymal impairments with ESWL treatment may be influenced by the kind of the equipment, frequency of shock waves and their strength, the extent of impairments were rather mild, and it was presumed that the impairments might be recovered on the images in 3 to 4 weeks at the latest. (author)

  1. Ancillary lung parenchymal findings at spiral CT scanning in pulmonary embolism. Relationship to chest sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reissig, Angelika; Heyne, Jens-Peter; Kroegel, Claus

    2004-01-01

    Introduction/objective: The aim of the study was to compare findings of transthoracic sonography (TS) and of spiral computed tomography (sCT) in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods and patients: Peripheral parenchymal and pleural findings of TS and sCT were compared in 62 patients (25 females, 37 males; mean age 62.2 years) with suspected PE. Results: In 39 patients PE was established, of whose pleura-based lesions could be detected by TS in 30 patients and by sCT in 31 patients. Whilst in three of the patients parenchymal lesions were exclusively detected by sonography, no peripheral abnormalities could be discovered with either technique in five patients. Among the nine patients lacking peripheral abnormalities on sonography, four revealed peripheral lesions in sCT. In 23 patients without PE, peripheral consolidations at CT were detected in six patients whereas two showed lesions on TS. With respect to the appearance, pleura-based wedge-shaped consolidations were the main parenchymal alterations (82.4% at TS, 66.1% at sCT) as compared with non-wedge-shaped consolidations (17.6% at TS, 33.9% at sCT). Peripheral lesions were located preferentially within the lower lobes. In addition, both localised and basal pleural effusion associated with PE could be demonstrated in 58.9% at TS and in 23.1% by sCT. Discussions and conclusion: The study shows that in PE parenchymal and pleural changes are detectable by TS and sCT. If parenchymal findings are present at sCT, peripheral PE should be considered, even in the absence of directly visible emboli

  2. Background parenchymal enhancement in breast MRIs of breast cancer patients: Impact on tumor size estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Ji Eun; Kim, Sung Hun; Lee, Ah Won

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether the degree of background parenchymal enhancement affects the accuracy of tumor size estimation based on breast MRI. Methods: Three hundred and twenty-two patients who had known breast cancer and underwent breast MRIs were recruited in our study. The total number of breast cancer cases was 339. All images were assessed retrospectively for the level of background parenchymal enhancement based on the BI-RADS criteria. Maximal lesion diameters were measured on the MRIs, and tumor types (mass vs. non-mass) were assessed. Tumor size differences between the MRI-based estimates and estimates based on pathological examinations were analyzed. The relationship between accuracy and tumor types and clinicopathologic features were also evaluated. Results: The cases included minimal (47.5%), mild (28.9%), moderate (12.4%) and marked background parenchymal enhancement (11.2%). The tumors of patients with minimal or mild background parenchymal enhancement were more accurately estimated than those of patients with moderate or marked enhancement (72.1% vs. 56.8%; p = 0.003). The tumors of women with mass type lesions were significantly more accurately estimated than those of the women with non-mass type lesions (81.6% vs. 28.6%; p < 0.001). The tumor of women negative for HER2 was more accurately estimated than those of women positive for HER2 (72.2% vs. 51.6%; p = 0.047). Conclusion: Moderate and marked background parenchymal enhancement is related to the inaccurate estimation of tumor size based on MRI. Non-mass type breast cancer and HER2-positive breast cancer are other factors that may cause inaccurate assessment of tumor size

  3. Breast Cancer Risk Estimation Using Parenchymal Texture Analysis in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikejimba, Lynda C.; Kontos, Despina; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2010-01-01

    Mammographic parenchymal texture has been shown to correlate with genetic markers of developing breast cancer. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a novel x-ray imaging technique in which tomographic images of the breast are reconstructed from multiple source projections acquired at different angles of the x-ray tube. Compared to digital mammography (DM), DBT eliminates breast tissue overlap, offering superior parenchymal tissue visualization. We hypothesize that texture analysis in DBT could potentially provide a better assessment of parenchymal texture and ultimately result in more accurate assessment of breast cancer risk. As a first step towards validating this hypothesis, we investigated the association between DBT parenchymal texture and breast percent density (PD), a known breast cancer risk factor, and compared it to DM. Bilateral DBT and DM images from 71 women participating in a breast cancer screening trial were analyzed. Filtered-backprojection was used to reconstruct DBT tomographic planes in 1 mm increments with 0.22 mm in-plane resolution. Corresponding DM images were acquired at 0.1 mm pixel resolution. Retroareolar regions of interest (ROIs) equivalent to 2.5 cm 3 were segmented from the DBT images and corresponding 2.5 cm 2 ROIs were segmented from the DM images. Breast PD was mammographically estimated using the Cumulus scale. Overall, DBT texture features demonstrated a stronger correlation than DM to PD. The Pearson correlation coefficients for DBT were r = 0.40 (p 2 = 0.39) compared to DM (R 2 = 0.33). We attribute these observations to the superior parenchymal tissue visualization in DBT. Our study is the first to perform DBT texture analysis in a screening population of women, showing that DBT could potentially provide better breast cancer risk assessment in the future.

  4. Clinical significance of segmental parenchymal excretion delay on Tc-99m DISIDA hepatobiliary scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, D. Y.; Ryu, J. S.; Moon, D. H.; Lee, S. K.; Kim, M. H.; Lee, H. K.

    1998-01-01

    Segmental parenchymal excretion delay on Tc-99m DISIDA scan in caused by intrahepatic bile duct obstruction. However, the diagnostic value for intrahepatic bile duct obstruction is unknown. We conducted this study to assess the positive predictive value of segmental excretion delay for the diagnosis of intrahepatic bile duct obstruction, and additional benefit over other noninvasive radiologic studies. The study population consisted of 43 patients (48 scans) who showed segmental parenchymal excretion delay on Tc-99m DISIDA scan. The results of abdominal CT or ultrasonography, which was done within 1 month of Tc-99m DISIDA scan, were compared with scintigraphic findings. The etiology of segmental parenchymal excretion delay was determined by ERC or PTC in 31 scans, and follow-up studies in 13 scans. No causes were identified in 4 scans. The positive predictive value of segmental parenchymal excretion delay for intrahepatic bile duct obstruction was 92% (44/48). On the other hand, 13% (5/38) of CT and 28% (5/18) of ultrasonography were normal. In 18% *7/38) of CT and 17% (3/18) of ultrasonography, only intrahepatic bile duct dilatation was noted without any diagnostic findings of intrahepatic bile duct obstruction. Segmental parenchymal excretion delay on Tc-99m DISIDA scan had a high positive predictive value for the diagnosis of intrahepatic bile duct obstruction. Tc-99m DISIDA scan may be useful for the diagnosis of intrahepatic bile duct obstruction, especially in patients with nondiagnostic CT or ultrasonography. The diagnostic usefulness need to be confirmed by further prospective studies

  5. Ancillary lung parenchymal findings at spiral CT scanning in pulmonary embolism. Relationship to chest sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reissig, Angelika E-mail: angelika.reissig@med.uni-jena.de; Heyne, Jens-Peter; Kroegel, Claus

    2004-03-01

    Introduction/objective: The aim of the study was to compare findings of transthoracic sonography (TS) and of spiral computed tomography (sCT) in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods and patients: Peripheral parenchymal and pleural findings of TS and sCT were compared in 62 patients (25 females, 37 males; mean age 62.2 years) with suspected PE. Results: In 39 patients PE was established, of whose pleura-based lesions could be detected by TS in 30 patients and by sCT in 31 patients. Whilst in three of the patients parenchymal lesions were exclusively detected by sonography, no peripheral abnormalities could be discovered with either technique in five patients. Among the nine patients lacking peripheral abnormalities on sonography, four revealed peripheral lesions in sCT. In 23 patients without PE, peripheral consolidations at CT were detected in six patients whereas two showed lesions on TS. With respect to the appearance, pleura-based wedge-shaped consolidations were the main parenchymal alterations (82.4% at TS, 66.1% at sCT) as compared with non-wedge-shaped consolidations (17.6% at TS, 33.9% at sCT). Peripheral lesions were located preferentially within the lower lobes. In addition, both localised and basal pleural effusion associated with PE could be demonstrated in 58.9% at TS and in 23.1% by sCT. Discussions and conclusion: The study shows that in PE parenchymal and pleural changes are detectable by TS and sCT. If parenchymal findings are present at sCT, peripheral PE should be considered, even in the absence of directly visible emboli.

  6. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  7. Correlation between computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of parenchymal lung diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Miriam Menna; Rafful, Patricia Piazza [Department of Radiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rodrigues, Rosana Souza [Department of Radiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); D’Or Institute for Research and Education, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zanetti, Gláucia [Department of Radiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Hochhegger, Bruno [Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Souza, Arthur Soares [Department of Radiology, Medical School of Rio Preto (FAMERP) and Ultra X, São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Guimarães, Marcos Duarte [Department of Imaging, Hospital AC Camargo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Computed tomography (CT) is considered to be the gold standard method for the assessment of morphological changes in the pulmonary parenchyma. Although its spatial resolution is lower than that of CT, MRI offers the advantage of characterizing different aspects of tissue based on the degree of contrast on T1-weighted image (WI) and T2-WI. In this article, we describe and correlate the MRI and CT features of several common patterns of parenchymal lung disease (air trapping, atelectasis, bronchiectasis, cavitation, consolidation, emphysema, ground-glass opacities, halo sign, interlobular septal thickening, masses, mycetoma, nodules, progressive massive fibrosis, reverse halo sign and tree-in-bud pattern). MRI may be an alternative modality for the collection of morphological and functional information useful for the management of parenchymal lung disease, which would help reduce the number of chest CT scans and radiation exposure required in patients with a variety of conditions.

  8. Isolated unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia with accompanying pulmonary parenchymal findings on CT: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Surin; Cha, Yoon Ki; Kim, Jeung Sook; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Jeong, Yun Jeong [Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia or agenesis without congenital cardiovascular anomalies is rare in adults. We report a case of a 36-year-old man with isolated left unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia with recurrent hemoptysis. On computed tomography (CT), the left pulmonary artery showed hypoplasia with multiple collateral vessels seen in the mediastinum and the left hemithorax. Also, parenchymal bands and peripheral linear opacities were seen in the affected lung, which were probably due to chronic infarction induced by unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia. There are only a few reports focusing on the radiologic findings in the pulmonary parenchyma induced by unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia, such as parenchymal bands and peripheral linear opacities. Therefore we report this case, which focused on the CT findings in the pulmonary parenchyma due to isolated unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia.

  9. Isolated unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia with accompanying pulmonary parenchymal findings on CT: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Surin; Cha, Yoon Ki; Kim, Jeung Sook; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Jeong, Yun Jeong; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia or agenesis without congenital cardiovascular anomalies is rare in adults. We report a case of a 36-year-old man with isolated left unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia with recurrent hemoptysis. On computed tomography (CT), the left pulmonary artery showed hypoplasia with multiple collateral vessels seen in the mediastinum and the left hemithorax. Also, parenchymal bands and peripheral linear opacities were seen in the affected lung, which were probably due to chronic infarction induced by unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia. There are only a few reports focusing on the radiologic findings in the pulmonary parenchyma induced by unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia, such as parenchymal bands and peripheral linear opacities. Therefore we report this case, which focused on the CT findings in the pulmonary parenchyma due to isolated unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia

  10. Segmentation of brain parenchymal regions into gray matter and white matter with Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Chiaki; Yoshiura, Takashi; Yamashita, Yasuo; Magome, Taiki; Honda, Hiroshi; Arimura, Hidetaka; Toyofuku, Fukai; Ohki, Masafumi

    2010-01-01

    It is very difficult and time consuming for neuroradiologists to estimate the degree of cerebral atrophy based on the volume of cortical regions etc. Our purpose of this study was to develop an automated segmentation of the brain parenchyma into gray and white matter regions with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted MR images. Our proposed method consisted of extraction of a brain parenchymal region based on a brain model matching and segmentation of the brain parenchyma into gray and white matter regions based on a fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm. We applied our proposed method to MR images of the whole brains obtained from 9 cases, including 4 clinically AD cases and 5 control cases. The mean volume percentage of a cortical region (41.7%) to a brain parenchymal region in AD patients was smaller than that (45.2%) in the control subjects (p=0.000462). (author)

  11. Size, node status and grade of breast tumours: association with mammographic parenchymal patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sala, E.; Solomon, L.; McCann, J. [Department of Community Medicine, Strangeways Research Laboratory, Worts Causeway, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Warren, R. [Cambridge and Huntingdon Breast Screening Service, Rosie Maternity Hospital, Robinson Way, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Duffy, S. [MRC-Biostatistics Unit, Institute of Public Health, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Luben, R. [Department of Clinical Gerontology, Strangeways Research Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Day, N. [Department of Community Medicine, Institute of Public Health, Robinson Way, Cambridge, CB2 2SR (United Kingdom)

    2000-01-01

    A case-control study was designed to assess the association of mammographic parenchymal patterns with the risk of in-situ and invasive breast cancer. In addition, the relationship between tumour characteristics and mammographic patterns were also investigated. A total of 875 patients with breast cancer were selected and matched with 2601 controls. Mammographic parenchymal patterns of breast tissue were assessed according to Wolfe's classification, and statistical analysis was by conditional logistic regression. Relative to the N1 pattern, the odds ratios of having an invasive breast cancer associated with the P2 and DY patterns were 1.8 and 1.4, respectively. In addition, the odd ratios of having an invasive grade 3 breast cancer associated with the P2 and DY patterns were 2.8 and 3.9, respectively. Relative to the combined N1/P1 pattern, the odd ratios of having a breast cancer smaller than 14 mm, 15-29 mm, or larger than 30 mm associated with the combined high-risk P2/DY pattern (P2 + DY) were 1.2, 1.6, and 2.0, respectively. Finally, women with the P2/DY pattern were twice as likely to have a breast cancer which had already spread to the axillary nodes, compared to women with women with the N1/P1 pattern (odds ratios of 2.1 and 1.4, respectively). Our results confirm previous findings suggesting that mammographic parenchymal patterns may serve as indicators of risk for breast cancer. Our results also suggest that mammographic parenchymal patterns are associated with the stage at which breast cancer is detected. (orig.)

  12. Size, node status and grade of breast tumours: association with mammographic parenchymal patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sala, E.; Solomon, L.; McCann, J.; Warren, R.; Duffy, S.; Luben, R.; Day, N.

    2000-01-01

    A case-control study was designed to assess the association of mammographic parenchymal patterns with the risk of in-situ and invasive breast cancer. In addition, the relationship between tumour characteristics and mammographic patterns were also investigated. A total of 875 patients with breast cancer were selected and matched with 2601 controls. Mammographic parenchymal patterns of breast tissue were assessed according to Wolfe's classification, and statistical analysis was by conditional logistic regression. Relative to the N1 pattern, the odds ratios of having an invasive breast cancer associated with the P2 and DY patterns were 1.8 and 1.4, respectively. In addition, the odd ratios of having an invasive grade 3 breast cancer associated with the P2 and DY patterns were 2.8 and 3.9, respectively. Relative to the combined N1/P1 pattern, the odd ratios of having a breast cancer smaller than 14 mm, 15-29 mm, or larger than 30 mm associated with the combined high-risk P2/DY pattern (P2 + DY) were 1.2, 1.6, and 2.0, respectively. Finally, women with the P2/DY pattern were twice as likely to have a breast cancer which had already spread to the axillary nodes, compared to women with women with the N1/P1 pattern (odds ratios of 2.1 and 1.4, respectively). Our results confirm previous findings suggesting that mammographic parenchymal patterns may serve as indicators of risk for breast cancer. Our results also suggest that mammographic parenchymal patterns are associated with the stage at which breast cancer is detected. (orig.)

  13. Evidence That Androgens Modulate Human Thymic T Cell Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Nancy J.; Kovacs, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The thymus has long been recognized as a target for the actions of androgenic hormones, but it has only been recently recognized that alterations in circulating levels of gonadal steroids might affect thymic output of T cells. We had the opportunity to examine parameters of thymic cellular output in several hypogonadal men undergoing androgen replacement therapy. Methods Circulating naive (CD4+CD45RA+) T cells were quantitated by flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Cells bearing T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) were quantitated using real-time PCR amplification of DNA isolated from PBMCs from normal men and from hypogonadal men before and after testosterone replacement therapy. Results CD4+CD45+ (“naïve”) T cells comprised 10.5% of lymphocytes in normal males; this proportion was greatly increased in two hypogonadal men (35.5% and 44.4%). One man was studied sequentially during treatment with physiologic doses of testosterone. CD4+CD45RA+ cells fell from 37.36% to 20.05% after one month and to 12.51% after 7 months of normalized androgen levels. In two hypogonadal patients TREC levels fell by 83% and 78% after androgen replacement therapy. Conclusions Our observations indicate that the hypogonadal state is associated with increased thymic output of T cells and that this increase in recent thymic emigrants in peripheral blood is reversed by androgen replacement. PMID:21218609

  14. Focal parenchymal lesions in community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults: a clinico-radiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katchanov, Juri; Siebert, Eberhard; Klingebiel, Randolf; Endres, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Here, we analyzed the frequency, morphological pattern, and imaging characteristics of focal lesions as a consequence of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We hypothesized that diffusion-weighted imaging combined with contrast-enhanced imaging, serial scanning, and multimodal vascular studies would provide further insight into the pathological basis of such parenchymal lesions in bacterial meningitis. We reviewed clinical and imaging data (i.e., magnetic resonance tomography, magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomography angiography, digital subtraction angiography) of 68 adult patients admitted to our neurological intensive care unit between March 1998 and February 2009 with the diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We identified seven patients with parenchymal lesions. These lesions could be attributed to four morphological patterns: (1) territorial cerebral ischemia, (2) perforating vessels ischemia, (3) ischemia of presumed cardiac origin, and (4) isolated cortical lesions. Whereas the patterns (1) and (2) were associated with vasculopathy of large- and medium-sized vessels (as shown by cerebral vascular imaging), vessel imaging in (3) and (4) did not show abnormal findings. Our study implies that parenchymal lesions in acute bacterial meningitis are mainly ischemic and due to involvement of large-, medium-, and small-sized arteries of the brain. Diffusion-weighted imaging combined with conventional, CT-, or MR-based cerebral angiography revealed the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in the majority of patients. Furthermore, we detected two patients with isolated bilateral cortical involvement and normal vessel imaging. These lesions might represent ischemia due to the involvement of small pial and intracortical arteries. (orig.)

  15. Fibrocystic change of breast : relation with parenchymal pattern on mammogram and fibroadenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki Yeol; Cha, In Ho; Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Jung Hyuk [Korea Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    To determine the relationship between fibrocystic change and parenchymal pattern and fibroadenoma on mammogram. Mammograms of 135 patients with histologically- diagnosed fibrocystic disease after excisional biopsy were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with pathologic specimens. Classification of the parenchymal pattern was based on Wolfe's method. On mammogram, we observed abnormality in 88 out of the 135 cases;these latter consisted of 70 cases of DY, 30 of P2, 20 of P1, and 15 of Nl, following Wolfe's parenchymal patterns. Among the 88 abnormal cases we obseved 37 cases of mass with clear boundaries, five cases of mass with unclear boundaries, 22 with clustered microcalcifications, six with macrocalcifications and 18 with asymmetric dense breast. Histologic examination revealed a varying composition of stromal fibrosis, epithelial hyperplasia,cyst formation, apocrine metaplasia, etc. Histologically fibroadenomatoid change in 18 cases was appeared as a radiopaque mass on mammogram, especially in those cases where the change was well-defined, which were all except three. Fibrocystic disease was prevalent in Wolfe's P2 and DY patterns(about 80%). About 40% of fibrocystic change appearing as a well defined mass on mammogram showed fibroadenomatoid chage histologically and was difficult to differentiate from fibroadenoma. Fibrocystic disease should therefore be included in the differential diagnosis of a mass which on mammogram is well-defined.

  16. Fibrocystic change of breast : relation with parenchymal pattern on mammogram and fibroadenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Yeol; Cha, In Ho; Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Jung Hyuk

    1996-01-01

    To determine the relationship between fibrocystic change and parenchymal pattern and fibroadenoma on mammogram. Mammograms of 135 patients with histologically- diagnosed fibrocystic disease after excisional biopsy were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with pathologic specimens. Classification of the parenchymal pattern was based on Wolfe's method. On mammogram, we observed abnormality in 88 out of the 135 cases;these latter consisted of 70 cases of DY, 30 of P2, 20 of P1, and 15 of Nl, following Wolfe's parenchymal patterns. Among the 88 abnormal cases we obseved 37 cases of mass with clear boundaries, five cases of mass with unclear boundaries, 22 with clustered microcalcifications, six with macrocalcifications and 18 with asymmetric dense breast. Histologic examination revealed a varying composition of stromal fibrosis, epithelial hyperplasia,cyst formation, apocrine metaplasia, etc. Histologically fibroadenomatoid change in 18 cases was appeared as a radiopaque mass on mammogram, especially in those cases where the change was well-defined, which were all except three. Fibrocystic disease was prevalent in Wolfe's P2 and DY patterns(about 80%). About 40% of fibrocystic change appearing as a well defined mass on mammogram showed fibroadenomatoid chage histologically and was difficult to differentiate from fibroadenoma. Fibrocystic disease should therefore be included in the differential diagnosis of a mass which on mammogram is well-defined

  17. Understanding the Lung Abscess Microbiome: Outcomes of Percutaneous Lung Parenchymal Abscess Drainage with Microbiologic Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Christopher; Nadolski, Gregory J; Gade, Terence; Hunt, Stephen

    2017-06-01

    Lung parenchymal abscesses represent an uncommon pathology with high mortality if untreated. Although most respond well to antibiotics, the optimal therapy for persistent abscesses is unknown. The purpose of this study was to review the outcomes of percutaneous lung parenchymal abscess catheter drainage after broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy failure and correlate with patient microbiologic samples. Retrospective review of patients who underwent percutaneous lung abscess drainage at a tertiary hospital system from 2005 to 2015 was performed. In total, 19 procedures were identified on 16 different patients; six females and ten males. Mean patient age was 55 years (range 22-81). Median follow-up time was 7 months (range abscess cavity in 58% (11/19) or with non-draining abscess cavities in 21% (4/19) for a clinical success rate of 79%. Blood cultures demonstrated no growth in all cases, while 21% (4/19) of sputum or bronchoscopic cultures demonstrated growth. In comparison, the specimens from initial catheter placement isolated a causative organism in 95% (18/19) of case (p lung abscess after broad-spectrum antibiotics, percutaneous abscess drainage is highly sensitive for microbiologic sampling compared to sputum/bronchoscopic or blood cultures. Additionally, percutaneous drainage of lung parenchymal abscess cavities may promote resolution of the abscess with high rates of therapeutic success and low complications.

  18. Normal parenchymal enhancement patterns in women undergoing MR screening of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Sanaz A.; Lin, Vicky C.; Giger, Maryellen L.; Li, Hui; Karczmar, Gregory S.; Newstead, Gillian M.

    2011-01-01

    To characterize the kinetic and morphological presentation of normal breast tissue on DCE-MRI in a large cohort of asymptomatic women, and to relate these characteristics to breast tissue density. 335 consecutive breast MR examinations in 229 asymptomatic women undergoing high-risk screening evaluations based on recommendations from the American Cancer Society including strong family history and genetic predisposition were selected for IRB-approved review (average age 49.2 ± 10.5 years). Breast tissue density was assessed on precontrast T 2 -weighted images. Parenchymal enhancement pattern (PEP) was qualitatively classified as minimal, homogeneous, heterogeneous or nodular. Quantitative analysis of parenchymal enhancement kinetics (PEK) was performed, including calculation of initial and peak enhancement percentages (E 1 , E peak ), the time to peak enhancement (T peak ) and the signal enhancement ratio (SER). 41.8% of examinations were classified as minimal, 13.7% homogeneous, 23.9% heterogeneous and 21.2% nodular PEP. Women with heterogeneously or extremely dense breasts exhibited a higher proportion of nodular PEP (44.2% (27/61)) and significantly higher E 1 , and E peak (p < 0.003) compared with those with less dense breasts. Qualitative and quantitative parenchymal enhancement characteristics vary by breast tissue density. In future work, the association between image-derived MR features of the normal breast and breast cancer risk should be explored. (orig.)

  19. Integrated Genomic Characterization of a Pineal Parenchymal Tumor of Intermediate Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yun Jee; Bi, Wenya Linda; Dubuc, Adrian M; Martineau, Louine; Ligon, Azra H; Berkowitz, Aaron L; Aizer, Ayal A; Lee, Eudocia Q; Ligon, Keith L; Ramkissoon, Shakti H; Dunn, Ian F

    2016-01-01

    Pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation (PPTIDs) are rare lesions. The differential diagnosis and management strategy for PPTIDs can be challenging because of the variable prognostic and pathologic characteristics of these tumors. A 24-year-old man presented with progressive headaches, gait abnormalities, and abulia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large T1-hypointense, T2-isointense, contrast-enhancing, partially cystic mass of the pineal and tectal region. Near-total resection was achieved in a 2-stage operation followed by focal and craniospinal irradiation and adjuvant chemotherapy. Immunohistochemical analysis including use of pineal lineage marker confirmed a diagnosis of PPTID. Targeted exome sequencing showed mutations in TSC1(L388P) and IKZF3(F206C), whereas high-resolution array cytogenetics revealed losses in chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 8, 10, 11, 17, and 20, leading to single-copy loss of PTEN and TP53. Pineal parenchymal tumors reflect a broad spectrum of malignancy potential and prognoses, which mandate better understanding of the disease mechanism for rational therapeutic strategies. We present a case of PPTID and report several mutations and chromosomal abnormalities previously unrecognized in this tumor subtype. Review of the literature highlights a need for surgical resection followed by adjuvant chemoradiation. Further investigation of these novel variants may improve understanding of the pathogenesis underlying pineal parenchymal tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of leukoaraiosis on parenchymal hemorrhage in elderly patients treated with thrombolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nighoghossian, Norbert; Cho, Tae-Hee; Cottaz, Vincent; Mechtouff, Laura; Derex, Laurent [Universite Lyon 1, Department of Stroke, Neurological Hospital, Lyon (France); Abbas, Fatima; Schott, Anne Marie [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Pole Information Medicale Evaluation Recherche, Lyon (France); Geraldo, Ana Filipa; Janecek, Elie; Hermier, Marc; Tisserand, Louis Guy; Amelie, Roxana; Chamard, Leila; Berthezene, Yves [Universite Lyon 1, Department of Neuroradiology, Neurological Hospital, Bron, Lyon (France); Bischoff, Magali; El Khoury, Carlos [RESUVAL Stroke Network, Lyon (France)

    2016-10-15

    Severity of vascular damage of white matter may predict hemorrhagic transformation (HT). We assess the relationship between leukoaraiosis (LA) severity and the type of hemorrhagic transformation in elderly patients treated with thrombolysis. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data and pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 180 consecutive ischemic stroke patients aged over 75 years. LA severity was graded according to the Fazekas scale, and acute diffusion-weighted-imaging (DWI) lesion volumes were semi-automatically outlined. Predictors of hemorrhagic infarction (HI) and parenchymal hemorrhage (PH) were identified using logistic regression analysis and exact multinomial logistic analysis. HT occurred in 31 patients (17 %). Baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Score (NIHSS; p = 0.008), severe LA (p = 0.02), and diffusion lesion volume (p = 0.02) were predictors of HT in univariable logistic regression. Adjusted to lesion volume and baseline NIHSS score, exact multinomial logistic analysis showed that severe LA was the only independent predictor of parenchymal hemorrhage (p = 0.03). In elderly patients, LA severity better predicts parenchymal hemorrhage than infarct size. (orig.)

  1. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Severely Impairs Brain Parenchymal Cerebrospinal Fluid Circulation in Nonhuman Primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulay, Romain; Flament, Julien; Gauberti, Maxime; Naveau, Michael; Pasquet, Nolwenn; Gakuba, Clement; Emery, Evelyne; Hantraye, Philippe; Vivien, Denis; Aron-Badin, Romina; Gaberel, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating form of stroke with neurological outcomes dependent on the occurrence of delayed cerebral ischemia. It has been shown in rodents that some of the mechanisms leading to delayed cerebral ischemia are related to a decreased circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain parenchyma. Here, we evaluated the cerebral circulation of the CSF in a nonhuman primate in physiological condition and after SAH. We first evaluated in physiological condition the circulation of the brain CSF in Macaca facicularis , using magnetic resonance imaging of the temporal DOTA-Gd distribution after its injection into the CSF. Then, animals were subjected to a minimally invasive SAH before an MRI evaluation of the impact of SAH on the brain parenchymal CSF circulation. We first demonstrate that the CSF actively penetrates the brain parenchyma. Two hours after injection, almost the entire brain is labeled by DOTA-Gd. We also show that our model of SAH in nonhuman primate displays the characteristics of SAH in humans and leads to a dramatic impairment of the brain parenchymal circulation of the CSF. The CSF actively penetrates within the brain parenchyma in the gyrencephalic brain, as described for the glymphatic system in rodent. This parenchymal CSF circulation is severely impaired by SAH. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. CT evaluation of pulmonary parenchymal injury due to blunt chest trauma and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimi, Hiroshi

    1990-01-01

    The CT findings of pulmonary parenchymal injury due to blunt chest trauma in 73 patients and their clinical significance were analyzed. CT was obtained within 6 hours after trauma. Findings were analyzed according to the number of injured segments and severity which was classified into three grades. A correlation was also made with arterial blood PaO 2 and thoracic complications. Pulmonary parenchymal injury was identified in multisegmental portions bilaterally in most cases. It was most frequently observed in the posterior portion of the lung such as segment 6. More than 50% of lesions were classified as Grade 1. Pulmonary laceration, defined as patchy density with the cavitary lesion (Grade 3), was noted in 9.2%. There was a good correlation between extent of pulmonary injury and degree of hypoxia. The correlation of pneumothorax was also found with extensive lesion and frequency of Grade 3 lesion. Cases with pulmonary laceration tend to have extensive injury, and be related to the degree of hypoxia. In conclusion, CT evaluation of pulmonary parenchymal injury is valuable not only for morphological evaluation but also for estimation of hypoxia. (author)

  3. CT evaluation of pulmonary parenchymal injury due to blunt chest trauma and its clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimi, Hiroshi (St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1990-10-01

    The CT findings of pulmonary parenchymal injury due to blunt chest trauma in 73 patients and their clinical significance were analyzed. CT was obtained within 6 hours after trauma. Findings were analyzed according to the number of injured segments and severity which was classified into three grades. A correlation was also made with arterial blood PaO{sub 2} and thoracic complications. Pulmonary parenchymal injury was identified in multisegmental portions bilaterally in most cases. It was most frequently observed in the posterior portion of the lung such as segment 6. More than 50% of lesions were classified as Grade 1. Pulmonary laceration, defined as patchy density with the cavitary lesion (Grade 3), was noted in 9.2%. There was a good correlation between extent of pulmonary injury and degree of hypoxia. The correlation of pneumothorax was also found with extensive lesion and frequency of Grade 3 lesion. Cases with pulmonary laceration tend to have extensive injury, and be related to the degree of hypoxia. In conclusion, CT evaluation of pulmonary parenchymal injury is valuable not only for morphological evaluation but also for estimation of hypoxia. (author).

  4. Focal parenchymal lesions in community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults: a clinico-radiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katchanov, Juri [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); University Hospital Charite, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Siebert, Eberhard; Klingebiel, Randolf [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neuroradiology, Berlin (Germany); Endres, Matthias [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Center for Stroke Research Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Here, we analyzed the frequency, morphological pattern, and imaging characteristics of focal lesions as a consequence of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We hypothesized that diffusion-weighted imaging combined with contrast-enhanced imaging, serial scanning, and multimodal vascular studies would provide further insight into the pathological basis of such parenchymal lesions in bacterial meningitis. We reviewed clinical and imaging data (i.e., magnetic resonance tomography, magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomography angiography, digital subtraction angiography) of 68 adult patients admitted to our neurological intensive care unit between March 1998 and February 2009 with the diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We identified seven patients with parenchymal lesions. These lesions could be attributed to four morphological patterns: (1) territorial cerebral ischemia, (2) perforating vessels ischemia, (3) ischemia of presumed cardiac origin, and (4) isolated cortical lesions. Whereas the patterns (1) and (2) were associated with vasculopathy of large- and medium-sized vessels (as shown by cerebral vascular imaging), vessel imaging in (3) and (4) did not show abnormal findings. Our study implies that parenchymal lesions in acute bacterial meningitis are mainly ischemic and due to involvement of large-, medium-, and small-sized arteries of the brain. Diffusion-weighted imaging combined with conventional, CT-, or MR-based cerebral angiography revealed the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in the majority of patients. Furthermore, we detected two patients with isolated bilateral cortical involvement and normal vessel imaging. These lesions might represent ischemia due to the involvement of small pial and intracortical arteries. (orig.)

  5. Separation of Hepatic parenchymal and Intrahepatic bile duct isotope activity: Studies of parenchymal function and bile duct flow using dynamic Tc-99m HIDA SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, E.; Naslund, E.; Freedman, J.; Hultcrantz, R.; Slezak, P.; Jacobsson, H.

    2003-01-01

    Currently used liver function tests have several shortcomings. Most of them are either insensitive or non-specific. The ultimate liver function test is probably a dynamic study, using a test substance with exclusive hepatic elimination and bile excretion, detected by means of a non?invasive method enabling sampling from all relevant compartments. In this paper we describe a method which enables measurements of parenchymal function and bile flow in different liver segments. The study was performed on 20 healthy volunteers. Tc-99m HIDA was used as test substrate and repeated Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) registrations as sampling method. Following injection of 120 MBq of Tc-99m HIDA, twelve liver SPECT examinations were performed at 6-minute intervals. Duct-representing peaks on images were detected by cranio-caudal activity scanning. Sampling from parenchyma and bile ducts in liver segments 2 to 8 was performed on consecutive examinations, creating time-activity graphs for parenchyma and ducts. Quantitative analysis of parenchymal and duct curves was performed and the results obtained from the left and right-sided liver segments were compared. Maximum counts/voxel (C max ) of left-sided segments (mean=33.2) were significantly lower than the values from right-sided segments (mean=24.7) and flow of isotope from parenchyma to bile ducts was significantly slower on the left. Furthermore, bile flow in ducts draining left-sided segments was slower than flow on the right side as reflected in significantly longer excretion t 1/2 (28.9 compared to 25.2 minutes) and delayed t max . (21.7 compared to 17.0 minutes). It has been concluded that the new method could provide a differential analysis of tracer flow in the hepatic parenchyma and the bile ducts. This pilot study on normal subjects has revealed interesting differences in both parenchymal accumulation as well as biliary excretion between left and right-sided segments. However, the value of the method

  6. Caliceal clubbing and adjacent parenchymal scarring (always reflux nephropathy) as a cause of end-stage renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, H.S.; Dorph, S.; Copenhagen Univ., Herlev

    1986-01-01

    Various clinical and laboratory aspects in 15 kidney transplanted patients with urographic evidence of caliceal clubbing and adjacent parenchymal scarring in their native kidneys are reported. These lesions were found in 16 per cent of our series of kidney transplantations; below 35 years of age it was the second most frequent disease. In 9 of these patients severe vesicoureteral reflux had been demonstrated. In the remaining 6 patients reflux nephropathy was only a tentative diagnosis based on a striking similarity in the radiographs and in several clinical findings. Nine patients had symptoms (mainly related to urinary tract infection) from 1 to 17 years before diagnosis/urography, in 5 as early as the first year of life. Recurrent urinary tract infection and renal impairment were the most frequent disorders leading to the diagnosis. Replacement therapy was initiated at an average age of 32.7 years. Following renal transplantation urinary tract infection was documented in 37 per cent of patients whether the patient had been bilaterally nephrectomized or not. (orig)

  7. Sporadic meningioangiomatosis-associated atypical meningioma mimicking parenchymal invasion of brain: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Bo-ning

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Meningioangiomatosis is a rare hamartomatous lesion or meningiovascular malformation in brain. In extremely rare condition, meningioma may occur together with meningioangiomatosis, and only 19 cases have been described in English literature until now. We now report a case of meningioangiomatosis-associated meningioma with atypical and clear cell variant. A 34-year-old man presented a 3-month history of progressive numbness and weakness of his left lower extremity. He had no stigmata of neurofibromatosis type 2. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed multifocal lesions in the right frontoparietal lobe. The lesions were totally removed. Microscopically, parts of lesions were atypical and clear cell meningioma corresponding to WHO grade II. The adjacent brain parenchyma showed the histological features of meningioangiomatosis. Neoplastic cells in atypical meningioma area were immunoreactive to epithelial membrane antigen (EMA with high MIB-1 index of up to 20%. However, the spindle cells in meningioangiomatosis area were negative for EMA with low MIB-1 index of up to 1%. The diagnosis of atypical meningioma associated with sporadic meningioangiomatosis was made. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a meningioangiomatosis-associated meningioma with atypical and clear cell variant component to be described. The patient had been followed-up for 11 months without adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy. No tumor recurrence was found during this period. Meningioangiomatosis-associated meningioma is more likely to occur in younger patients and histologically to mimic parenchymal invasion of brain. We suggest that postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy should be given careful consideration to avoid over-treatment due to erroneously interpret as malignant meningioma.

  8. Mast cells are important modifiers of autoimmune disease: With so much evidence, why is there controversy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Ann Brown

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is abundant evidence that mast cells are active participants in events that mediate tissue damage in autoimmune disease. Disease-associated increases in mast cell numbers accompanied by mast cell degranulation and elaboration of numerous mast cell mediators at sites of inflammation are commonly observed in many human autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and bullous pemphigoid. In animal models, treatment with mast cell stabilizing drugs or mast cell ablation can result in diminished disease. A variety of receptors including those engaged by antibody, complement, pathogens and intrinsic danger signals are implicated in mast cell activation in disease. Similar to their role as first responders in infection settings, mast cells likely orchestrate early recruitment of immune cells, including neutrophils, to the sites of autoimmune destruction. This co-localization promotes cellular crosstalk and activation and results in the amplification of the local inflammatory response thereby promoting and sustaining tissue damage. Despite the evidence, there is still a debate regarding the relative role of mast cells in these processes. However, by definition, mast cells can only act as accessory cells to the self-reactive T and/or antibody driven autoimmune responses. Thus, when evaluating mast cell involvement using existing and somewhat imperfect animal models of disease, their importance is sometimes obscured. However, these potent immune cells are undoubtedly major contributors to autoimmunity and should be considered as important targets for therapeutic disease intervention.

  9. Smoking and high-risk mammographic parenchymal patterns: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sala, Evis; Warren, Ruth; McCann, Jenny; Duffy, Stephen; Luben, Robert; Day, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    Current smoking was strongly and inversely associated with high-risk patterns, after adjustment for concomitant risk factors. Relative to never smokers, current smokers were significantly less likely to have a high-risk pattern. Similar results were obtained when the analysis was confined to postmenopausal women. Past smoking was not related to the mammographic parenchymal patterns. The overall effect in postmenopausal women lost its significance when adjusted for other risk factors for P2/DY patterns that were found to be significant in the present study, although the results are still strongly suggestive. The present data indicate that adjustment for current smoking status is important when evaluating the relationship between mammographic parenchymal pattern and breast cancer risk. They also indicate that smoking is a prominent potential confounder when analyzing effects of other risk factors such as obesity-related variables. It appears that parenchymal patterns may act as an informative biomarker of the effect of cigarette smoking on breast cancer risk. Overall, epidemiological studies [1,2,3,4] have reported no substantial association between cigarette smoking and the risk of breast cancer. Some studies [5,6,7] reported a significant increase of breast cancer risk among smokers. In recent studies that addressed the association between breast cancer and cigarette smoking, however, there was some suggestion of a decreased risk [8,9,10], especially among current smokers, ranging from approximately 10 to 30% [9,10]. Brunet et al [11] reported that smoking might reduce the risk of breast cancer by 44% in carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutations. Wolfe [12] described four different mammographic patterns created by variations in the relative amounts of fat, epithelial and connective tissue in the breast, designated N1, P1, P2 and DY. Women with either P2 or DY pattern are considered at greater risk for breast cancer than those with N1 or P1 pattern [12

  10. Iron content and acid phosphatase activity in hepatic parenchymal lysosomes of patients with hemochromatosis before and after phlebotomy treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleton, M.I.; de Bruijn, W.C.; van Blokland, W.T.; Marx, J.J.; Roelofs, J.M.; Rademakers, L.H.

    1988-01-01

    Lysosomal structures in liver parenchymal cells of 3 patients with iron overload and of 3 subjects without iron-storage disorders were investigated. A combination of enzyme cytochemistry--with cerium as a captive ion to demonstrate lysosomal acid phosphatase activity--and electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) was used. We were able (1) to define and quantify lysosomal structures as lysosomes, siderosomes, or residual bodies, (2) to quantify the amount of iron and cerium simultaneously in these structures, and (3) to evaluate a possible relation between iron storage and enzyme activity. With histopathologically increased iron storage, the number of siderosomes had increased at the cost of lysosomes, with a corresponding increase in acid phosphatase activity in both organelles. In histopahtologically severe iron overload, however, acid phosphatase activity was low or not detectable and most of the iron was stored in residual bodies. After phlebotomy treatment, the number of siderosomes had decreased in favor of the lysosomes, approaching values obtained in control subjects, and acid phosphatase activity was present in all iron-containing structures. In this way a relationship between iron storage and enzyme activity was established. The iron content of the individual lysosomal structures per unit area had increased with histopathologically increased iron storage and had decreased after phlebotomy treatment. From this observation, it is concluded that the iron status of the patient is not only reflected by the amount of iron-containing hepatocytes but, as well, by the iron content lysosomal unit area

  11. Biochemical and microscopic evidence for the internalization and degradation of heparin-containing mast cell granules by bovine endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, F.M.; Friedman, M.M.; Metcalfe, D.D.

    1985-01-01

    Incubation of [ 35 S]heparin-containing mast cell granules with cultured bovine endothelial cells was followed by the appearance of 35 S-granule-associated radioactivity within the endothelial cells and a decrease in radioactivity in the extracellular fluid. These changes occurred during the first 24 hours of incubation and suggested ingestion of the mast cell granules by the endothelial cells. Periodic electron microscopic examination of the monolayers confirmed this hypothesis by demonstrating apposition of the granules to the plasmalemma of endothelial cells, which was followed by the engulfment of the granules by cytoplasmic projections. Under light microscopic examination, mast cell granules within endothelial cells then appeared to undergo degradation. The degradation of [ 35 S]heparin in mast cell granules was demonstrated by a decrease in the amount of intracellular [ 35 S]heparin proteoglycan after 24 hours and the appearance of free [ 35 S]sulfate in the extracellular compartment. Intact endothelial cells were more efficient at degrading [ 35 S]heparin than were cell lysates or cell supernatants. These data provide evidence of the ability of endothelial cells to ingest mast cell granules and degrade native heparin that is presented as a part of the mast cell granule

  12. Influence of alcohol on brain volume in social drinkers: evaluation with MR-based intracranial-parenchymal ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Joo; Lee, Kyung Kyu; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kwon, Ho Jang; Kim, Jae Kyun

    2002-01-01

    To determine, by measuring the intracranial-parenchymal ratio at MR imaging, whether alcohol induces brain damage in social drinkers. One hundred and five male adults aged 20 or over were selected for this study. They inclued 41 non-drinkers, 43 mild to moderate social drinkers, nine heavy social drinkers and 12 alcoholics. Using a workstation, the intracranial-parenchymal ratio was measured at four levels of T1-weighted MR images: the fourth, third and lateral ventricle, and the level of the centrum semiovale. The mean ratios of all four levels (I-IV) were also calculated parenchymal ratios were compared between the four groups, and correlation between the amount of alcohol ingestion and the parenchymal ratio also determined. The parenchymal ratio at levels I-IV was 80.31±3.73% in non-drinkers, 79.38±4.39% in mild to moderate social drinkers, 80.92±3.64% in heavy social drinkers and 73.48±4.42% in alcoholics, The difference between alcoholics and the other three groups was statistically significant, but between non-drinkers and social drinkers was insignificant (ANOVA). Multiple regression analysis with control of the age factor revealed a decreased parenchymal ratio in mild to moderate and heavy social drinkers compared with non-drinkers, but without statistical significance. There was significant negative correlation between parenchymal ratio and amount of alcohol ingestion (pearson correlation). There was significant brain atrophy in alcoholics, but no significant difference between non-drinkers and social drinkers. We thus conclude that social drinking dose non induce significant alcohol-related brain atrophy

  13. Predicting local recurrence following breast-conserving treatment: parenchymal signal enhancement ratio (SER) around the tumor on preoperative MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Young; Cho, Nariya; Koo, Hye Ryoung; Yun, Bo La; Bae, Min Sun; Moon, Woo Kyung; Chie, Eui Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Background: The level of background parenchymal enhancement around tumor is known to be associated with breast cancer risk. However, there is no study investigating predictive power of parenchymal signal enhancement ratio (SER) around tumor for ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR). Purpose: To investigate whether the breast parenchymal SER around the tumor on preoperative dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is associated with subsequent IBTR in breast cancer patients who had undergone breast-conserving treatment. Material and Methods: Nineteen consecutive women (mean age, 44 years; range, 34-63 years) with breast cancer who developed IBTR following breast-conserving treatment and 114 control women matched for age, as well as T and N stages were included. We compared the clinicopathologic features of the two groups including nuclear grade, histologic grade, hormonal receptor status, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) status, lymphovascular invasion, negative margin width, use of adjuvant therapy, and parenchymal SER around the tumor on preoperative DCE-MRI. The SER was measured on a slice showing the largest dimension of the tumor. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent factors associated with IBTR. Results: In univariate analysis, ER negativity (odds ratio [OR] = 4.7; P = 0.040), PR negativity (OR = 4.0; P = 0.013), HER-2 positivity (OR = 3.6; P = 0.026), and a parenchymal SER greater than 0.53 (OR = 23.3; P = 0.011) were associated with IBTR. In multivariate analysis, ER negativity (OR = 3.8; P = 0.015) and a parenchymal SER greater than 0.53 (OR = 13.2; P = 0.040) on preoperative MRI were independent factors associated with IBTR. Conclusion: In addition to ER negativity, a higher parenchymal SER on preoperative MRI was an independent factor associated with subsequent IBTR in patients with breast cancer who had undergone breast-conserving treatment

  14. Evidence for tension-based regulation of Drosophila MAL and SRF during invasive cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Kálmán; Rørth, Pernille

    2004-07-01

    Cells migrating through a tissue exert force via their cytoskeleton and are themselves subject to tension, but the effects of physical forces on cell behavior in vivo are poorly understood. Border cell migration during Drosophila oogenesis is a useful model for invasive cell movement. We report that this migration requires the activity of the transcriptional factor serum response factor (SRF) and its cofactor MAL-D and present evidence that nuclear accumulation of MAL-D is induced by cell stretching. Border cells that cannot migrate lack nuclear MAL-D but can accumulate it if they are pulled by other migrating cells. Like mammalian MAL, MAL-D also responds to activated Diaphanous, which affects actin dynamics. MAL-D/SRF activity is required to build a robust actin cytoskeleton in the migrating cells; mutant cells break apart when initiating migration. Thus, tension-induced MAL-D activity may provide a feedback mechanism for enhancing cytoskeletal strength during invasive migration.

  15. Vitamin A deficiency alters the pulmonary parenchymal elastic modulus and elastic fiber concentration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes Amey J

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bronchial hyperreactivity is influenced by properties of the conducting airways and the surrounding pulmonary parenchyma, which is tethered to the conducting airways. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is associated with an increase in airway hyperreactivity in rats and a decrease in the volume density of alveoli and alveolar ducts. To better define the effects of VAD on the mechanical properties of the pulmonary parenchyma, we have studied the elastic modulus, elastic fibers and elastin gene-expression in rats with VAD, which were supplemented with retinoic acid (RA or remained unsupplemented. Methods Parenchymal mechanics were assessed before and after the administration of carbamylcholine (CCh by determining the bulk and shear moduli of lungs that that had been removed from rats which were vitamin A deficient or received a control diet. Elastin mRNA and insoluble elastin were quantified and elastic fibers were enumerated using morphometric methods. Additional morphometric studies were performed to assess airway contraction and alveolar distortion. Results VAD produced an approximately 2-fold augmentation in the CCh-mediated increase of the bulk modulus and a significant dampening of the increase in shear modulus after CCh, compared to vitamin A sufficient (VAS rats. RA-supplementation for up to 21 days did not reverse the effects of VAD on the elastic modulus. VAD was also associated with a decrease in the concentration of parenchymal elastic fibers, which was restored and was accompanied by an increase in tropoelastin mRNA after 12 days of RA-treatment. Lung elastin, which was resistant to 0.1 N NaOH at 98°, decreased in VAD and was not restored after 21 days of RA-treatment. Conclusion Alterations in parenchymal mechanics and structure contribute to bronchial hyperreactivity in VAD but they are not reversed by RA-treatment, in contrast to the VAD-related alterations in the airways.

  16. Understanding the Lung Abscess Microbiome: Outcomes of Percutaneous Lung Parenchymal Abscess Drainage with Microbiologic Correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, Christopher; Nadolski, Gregory J.; Gade, Terence; Hunt, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    IntroductionLung parenchymal abscesses represent an uncommon pathology with high mortality if untreated. Although most respond well to antibiotics, the optimal therapy for persistent abscesses is unknown. The purpose of this study was to review the outcomes of percutaneous lung parenchymal abscess catheter drainage after broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy failure and correlate with patient microbiologic samples.Materials and MethodsRetrospective review of patients who underwent percutaneous lung abscess drainage at a tertiary hospital system from 2005 to 2015 was performed. In total, 19 procedures were identified on 16 different patients; six females and ten males. Mean patient age was 55 years (range 22–81). Median follow-up time was 7 months (range <1–78).ResultsTechnical success was 100%. There was one major complication, a pneumothorax. Follow-up was until tube removal or death in 100% of patients. Catheters were removed with resolution of the abscess cavity in 58% (11/19) or with non-draining abscess cavities in 21% (4/19) for a clinical success rate of 79%. Blood cultures demonstrated no growth in all cases, while 21% (4/19) of sputum or bronchoscopic cultures demonstrated growth. In comparison, the specimens from initial catheter placement isolated a causative organism in 95% (18/19) of case (p < 0.0001).ConclusionIn cases of persistent lung abscess after broad-spectrum antibiotics, percutaneous abscess drainage is highly sensitive for microbiologic sampling compared to sputum/bronchoscopic or blood cultures. Additionally, percutaneous drainage of lung parenchymal abscess cavities may promote resolution of the abscess with high rates of therapeutic success and low complications.

  17. Parenchymal abnormalities in cerebral venous thrombosis: findings of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Clecia Santos; Pellini, Marcos; Boasquevisque, Edson; Souza, Luis Alberto M. de

    2006-01-01

    Objective: to determine the frequency and localization of parenchymal abnormalities in cerebral venous thrombosis on magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography as well as their correlation with the territory and affected venous drainage. Materials and methods: retrospective analysis (1996 to 2004) of 21 patients (3 male and 18 female) age range between 3 and 82 years (mean 40 years, median 36 years) with clinical and radiological diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis on magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography in 2D PC, 3D PC and contrast-enhanced 3D TOF sequences. The statistical analysis was performed with the qui-square test. Four patients had follow-up exams and three patients underwent digital subtraction angiography. Results: main predisposing factors were: infection, use of oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy and collagenosis. Predominant symptoms included: focal deficit, headache, alteration of consciousness level and seizures. Most frequent parenchymal manifestations were: cortical/subcortical edema or infarct, venous congestion and collateral circulation, meningeal enhancement and thalamic and basal ganglia edema or infarct. Occlusion occurred mainly in superior sagittal, left transverse, left sigmoid and straight sinuses. Cavernous sinus and cortical veins thrombosis are uncommon events. Conclusion: cerebral venous thrombosis is an uncommon cause of stroke, with favorable prognosis because of its reversibility. Diagnosis is highly dependent on the radiologist capacity to recognize the presentations of this disease, principally in cases where the diagnosis is suggested by parenchymal abnormalities rather than necessarily by visualization of the thrombus itself. An accurate and rapid diagnosis allows an immediate treatment, reducing the morbidity and mortality rates. (author)

  18. Understanding the Lung Abscess Microbiome: Outcomes of Percutaneous Lung Parenchymal Abscess Drainage with Microbiologic Correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Christopher; Nadolski, Gregory J.; Gade, Terence; Hunt, Stephen, E-mail: Stephen.hunt@uphs.upenn.edu [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2017-06-15

    IntroductionLung parenchymal abscesses represent an uncommon pathology with high mortality if untreated. Although most respond well to antibiotics, the optimal therapy for persistent abscesses is unknown. The purpose of this study was to review the outcomes of percutaneous lung parenchymal abscess catheter drainage after broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy failure and correlate with patient microbiologic samples.Materials and MethodsRetrospective review of patients who underwent percutaneous lung abscess drainage at a tertiary hospital system from 2005 to 2015 was performed. In total, 19 procedures were identified on 16 different patients; six females and ten males. Mean patient age was 55 years (range 22–81). Median follow-up time was 7 months (range <1–78).ResultsTechnical success was 100%. There was one major complication, a pneumothorax. Follow-up was until tube removal or death in 100% of patients. Catheters were removed with resolution of the abscess cavity in 58% (11/19) or with non-draining abscess cavities in 21% (4/19) for a clinical success rate of 79%. Blood cultures demonstrated no growth in all cases, while 21% (4/19) of sputum or bronchoscopic cultures demonstrated growth. In comparison, the specimens from initial catheter placement isolated a causative organism in 95% (18/19) of case (p < 0.0001).ConclusionIn cases of persistent lung abscess after broad-spectrum antibiotics, percutaneous abscess drainage is highly sensitive for microbiologic sampling compared to sputum/bronchoscopic or blood cultures. Additionally, percutaneous drainage of lung parenchymal abscess cavities may promote resolution of the abscess with high rates of therapeutic success and low complications.

  19. No evidence for the use of stem cell therapy for tendon disorders : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, Haiko I M F L; Moen, Maarten H; Haisma, Hidde J; Winters, Marinus

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stem cells have emerged as a new treatment option for tendon disorders. We systematically reviewed the current evidence for stem cell therapy in tendon disorders. METHODS: Randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, cohort studies and case series with a minimum of 5 cases were

  20. A probabilistic approach for the interpretation of RNA profiles as cell type evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zoete, J.; Curran, J.; Sjerps, M.

    2016-01-01

    DNA profiles can be used as evidence to distinguish between possible donors of a crime stain. In some cases, both the prosecution and the defence claim that the cell material was left by the suspect but they dispute which cell type was left behind. For example, in sexual offense cases the

  1. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis with pulmonary parenchymal spread - report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Neto, Cesar Augusto de; Campos, Rubia Mara Correia; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes Santos

    2002-01-01

    The authors report the cases of two adolescent patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis with pulmonary parenchymal spread. Both patients presented very similar initial symptoms and clinical evolution. The patients developed larynx papillomas in childhood causing obstruction to airflow and required permanent tracheostomy after several resection and recurrence episodes. Long time after they developed recurrent pulmonary infections. In both cases the disease was diagnosed through clinical history and high resolution computed tomography that revealed papillomas in the trachea and solid or cavitary nodules in the lungs. (author)

  2. Carcinoma of the so-called empty breast and its relation to the Wolfe's parenchymal classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, E.; Eiter, H.; Taxer, F.

    1983-01-01

    Carcinoma in the ''empty breast'' in our experience is so common that we doubt Wolfe's conclusions in his classification of parenchymal patterns. Amongst patients over 60 years, almost 70% of carcinomas were situated in an ''empty'' parenchyma and they did not develop in a parechymal group above P1. Mammographically, the ''empty breast'' is the structureless fatty breast of older women after the menopause. Some authors believe that there is a lower incidence of carcinomas in this type of breast than in other types of parenchyma, such as those showing mastopathies. Our experience concerning carcinomas in involuted breasts is described. (orig.) [de

  3. Proton MR spectroscopic features according to change of hepatic parenchymal iron content after SPIO injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Chang Hae; Cho, Soon Gu; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Mi Young; Lee, Kyung Hee; Kim, Hyung Jin

    2001-01-01

    To determine the effect of iron on proton MR spectra ( 1 H-MRS) by evaluating changes in 1 H-MRS of the liver according to changes in hepatic parenchymal iron content. We evaluated serial changes in 1 H-MRS of the liver after intravenous infusion of SPIO in 40 rabbits. These were divided into eight groups of five, and in each group, respectively, 1 H-MRS and T2WI MR images were acquired prior to SPIO infusion, just after infusion, and at 15 minutes and 1, 2, 4, 24 and 96 hours after infusion. MR spectra were evaluated with particular attention ot the curve pattern observed at specific times after the infusion of SPIO, and the results were correlated with the signal intensity observed on T2WI images and the histologic giade of iron content of samples of resected liver parenchyma. As observed on T2WI, the mean signal intensity of rabbit liver in tis pre-SPIO infusion state, just after infusion, at 15 minutes, and at 1, 2, 4 and 96 hours after SPIO infusion was 121.3±15.5, 41.5±12.7, 30.3±7.9, 31.3±3.5, 33.6±9.4, 45.5±10.9, 80.3±15.7 and 110.4±22.9, respectively (p<0.05). Mean standard deviation of the ratio of the area of the peak (3.9-4.1 ppm)/lipid peak (1.3 ppm) peak at each of the above times except for the pre-infusion state was 1.10±0.13, 1.86±0.21, 1.80±0.30, 1.76±0.27, 1.74±0.20, 0.07±0.02 and 0.03±0.01, respectively (p<0.05). The hepatic parenchymal iron content increased rapidly from just after SPIO infusion, reaching its maximal level (as revealed by histologic specimens) at 15 minutes, sustaining this for up to 4 hours, and then decreasing gradually over periods of 24 and 96 hours. These results show that serial changes in patterns of MR spectra and the signal intensity seen on T2WI images correlate closely with changes in hepatic parenchymal iron content. Elevated hepatic parenchymal iron content leads to increases in the relative intensity of unknown peaks at around 4.0 ppm and decreases in the relative intensity of lipid peaks

  4. Differentation of mammographic parenchymal patterns and their relationship to cancer risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franken, T.; Boldt, I.

    1982-12-01

    A retrospective study of the mammograms of 11,020 womens was carried out; amongst these, 490 had carcinomas, including 51 so-called interval carcinomas. An attempt was made to test the suggestion advanced by Wolfe that certain dense types of parenchymal pattern on the mammogram are associated with a significantly increased carcinoma risk. We were unable to confirm Wolfe's suggestion. There is a slightly higher risk for pattern P2-DY, which cannot be used as the basis for future management of the patients. Attention is drawn to the risk of missing many carcinomas of the breast, if the suggestions made by Wolfe are followed.

  5. Evidence for Differential Glycosylation of Trophoblast Cell Types*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiushi; Pang, Poh-Choo; Cohen, Marie E.; Longtine, Mark S.; Schust, Danny J.; Haslam, Stuart M.; Blois, Sandra M.; Dell, Anne; Clark, Gary F.

    2016-01-01

    Human placental villi are surfaced by the syncytiotrophoblast (STB), with a layer of cytotrophoblasts (CTB) positioned just beneath the STB. STB in normal term pregnancies is exposed to maternal immune cells in the placental intervillous space. Extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVT) invade the decidua and spiral arteries, where they act in conjunction with natural killer (NK) cells to convert the spiral arteries into flaccid conduits for maternal blood that support a 3–4 fold increase in the rate of maternal blood flow into the placental intervillous space. The functional roles of these distinct trophoblast subtypes during pregnancy suggested that they could be differentially glycosylated. Glycomic analysis of these trophoblasts has revealed the expression of elevated levels of biantennary N-glycans in STB and CTB, with the majority of them bearing a bisecting GlcNAc. N-glycans terminated with polylactosamine extensions were also detected at low levels. A subset of the N-glycans linked to these trophoblasts were sialylated, primarily with terminal NeuAcα2–3Gal sequences. EVT were decorated with the same N-glycans as STB and CTB, except in different proportions. The level of bisecting type N-glycans was reduced, but the level of N-glycans decorated with polylactosamine sequences were substantially elevated compared with the other types of trophoblasts. The level of triantennary and tetraantennary N-glycans was also elevated in EVT. The sialylated N-glycans derived from EVT were completely susceptible to an α2–3 specific neuraminidase (sialidase S). The possibility exists that the N-glycans associated with these different trophoblast subpopulations could act as functional groups. These potential relationships will be considered. PMID:26929217

  6. Evidence for Differential Glycosylation of Trophoblast Cell Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiushi; Pang, Poh-Choo; Cohen, Marie E; Longtine, Mark S; Schust, Danny J; Haslam, Stuart M; Blois, Sandra M; Dell, Anne; Clark, Gary F

    2016-06-01

    Human placental villi are surfaced by the syncytiotrophoblast (STB), with a layer of cytotrophoblasts (CTB) positioned just beneath the STB. STB in normal term pregnancies is exposed to maternal immune cells in the placental intervillous space. Extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVT) invade the decidua and spiral arteries, where they act in conjunction with natural killer (NK) cells to convert the spiral arteries into flaccid conduits for maternal blood that support a 3-4 fold increase in the rate of maternal blood flow into the placental intervillous space. The functional roles of these distinct trophoblast subtypes during pregnancy suggested that they could be differentially glycosylated. Glycomic analysis of these trophoblasts has revealed the expression of elevated levels of biantennary N-glycans in STB and CTB, with the majority of them bearing a bisecting GlcNAc. N-glycans terminated with polylactosamine extensions were also detected at low levels. A subset of the N-glycans linked to these trophoblasts were sialylated, primarily with terminal NeuAcα2-3Gal sequences. EVT were decorated with the same N-glycans as STB and CTB, except in different proportions. The level of bisecting type N-glycans was reduced, but the level of N-glycans decorated with polylactosamine sequences were substantially elevated compared with the other types of trophoblasts. The level of triantennary and tetraantennary N-glycans was also elevated in EVT. The sialylated N-glycans derived from EVT were completely susceptible to an α2-3 specific neuraminidase (sialidase S). The possibility exists that the N-glycans associated with these different trophoblast subpopulations could act as functional groups. These potential relationships will be considered. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Evidence for a stepwise program of extrathymic T cell development within the human tonsil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClory, Susan; Hughes, Tiffany; Freud, Aharon G.; Briercheck, Edward L.; Martin, Chelsea; Trimboli, Anthony J.; Yu, Jianhua; Zhang, Xiaoli; Leone, Gustavo; Nuovo, Gerard; Caligiuri, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The development of a broad repertoire of T cells, which is essential for effective immune function, occurs in the thymus. Although some data suggest that T cell development can occur extrathymically, many researchers remain skeptical that extrathymic T cell development has an important role in generating the T cell repertoire in healthy individuals. However, it may be important in the setting of poor thymic function or congenital deficit and in the context of autoimmunity, cancer, or regenerative medicine. Here, we report evidence that a stepwise program of T cell development occurs within the human tonsil. We identified 5 tonsillar T cell developmental intermediates: (a) CD34+CD38dimLin– cells, which resemble multipotent progenitors in the bone marrow and thymus; (b) more mature CD34+CD38brightLin– cells; (c) CD34+CD1a+CD11c– cells, which resemble committed T cell lineage precursors in the thymus; (d) CD34–CD1a+CD3–CD11c– cells, which resemble CD4+CD8+ double-positive T cells in the thymus; and (e) CD34–CD1a+CD3+CD11c– cells. The phenotype of each subset closely resembled that of its thymic counterpart. The last 4 populations expressed RAG1 and PTCRA, genes required for TCR rearrangement, and all 5 subsets were capable of ex vivo T cell differentiation. TdT+ cells found within the tonsillar fibrous scaffold expressed CD34 and/or CD1a, indicating that this distinct anatomic region contributes to pre–T cell development, as does the subcapsular region of the thymus. Thus, we provide evidence of a role for the human tonsil in a comprehensive program of extrathymic T cell development. PMID:22378041

  8. Detection of parenchymal abnormalities in experimentally induced acute pyelonephritis in rabbits using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, CT, and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Ah; Kim, Bo Hyun; Kim, Seung Kwon; Seo, Jin Won [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Sung [Laboratory Animal Research Center, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    We evaluated the efficacy of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in detecting acute pyelonephritis (APN) using the rabbit kidney model and compared it with CT and MRI. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. In a total of 20 New Zealand White rabbits, APN was induced experimentally. CEUS, CT, and MRI were performed on the first, third, and seventh postoperative days. After imaging studies, the subjects were sacrificed and the pathological diagnosis of APN was confirmed in each animal by a pathologist. Imaging studies were obtained in eight animals, including eight CEUS, four computed tomography (CT), and four magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. CEUS depicted diffuse renal enlargement (7), diffuse heterogeneous parenchymal enhancement (6), and focal areas of decreased parenchymal enhancement (6). These findings were well correlated with the CT and MRI findings in five cases in which these studies were available. CT and MRI showed diffuse renal enlargement, diffuse heterogeneous parenchymal enhancement, focal areas of decreased parenchymal enhancement, focal contour bulging, and the finding of perinephric spread of infection. In a rabbit model, CEUS could depict the parenchymal lesions of APN similar to CT or MRI; however, it was limited in depicting the perinephric extension of inflammation.

  9. [Parenchymal complications of the transplanted kidney: the role of color-Doppler imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Antonio; Clementi, Silvia; Clementi, Anna; Di Pietro, Fabio; Scarfia, Viviana R; Insalaco, Monica; Aucella, Filippo; Prencipe, Michele; Fiorini, Fulvio; Sicurezza, Elvia

    2012-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease, given the better quality of life of transplanted patients when compared to patients on maintenance dialysis. In spite of surgical improvements and new immunosuppressive regimens, part of the transplanted grafts still develop chronic dysfunction. Ultrasonography, both in B-mode and with Doppler ultrasound, is an important diagnostic tool in case of clinical conditions which might impair kidney function. Even though ultrasonography is considered fundamental in the diagnosis of vascular and surgical complications of the transplanted kidney, its role is not fully understood in case of parenchymal complications of the graft. The specificity of Doppler ultrasound is low both in case of acute complications such as acute tubular necrosis, drug toxicity and acute rejection, and in case of chronic conditions such as chronic allograft nephropathy. Single determinations of resistance indices present low diagnostic accuracy, which is higher in case of successive measurements performed during the follow-up of the graft. Modern techniques including tissue pulsatility index, maximal fractional area and contrast-enhanced ultrasound increase the diagnostic power of ultrasonography in case of parenchymal complications of the transplanted kidney.

  10. Mammographic parenchymal patterns: value as a predictor of hormone dependency and survival in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, C.P.; Roebuck, E.J.; Williams, M.R.; Blamey, R.W.; Glaves, J.; Nicholson, R.I.; Griffiths, K.

    1985-01-01

    The relation between the parenchymal pattern of the breasts as demonstrated on a mammogram and the estrogen-receptor status of the primary tumor in 337 patients with operable invasive breast cancer has been studied. These factors have also been correlated with the response to endocrine therapy in 92 patients who subsequently developed secondary disease. It has been shown that patients with a DY pattern are more likely to develop tumors that are estrogen-receptor (ER) positive. Patients with secondary disease who have a DY pattern are more likely to respond to endocrine therapy. The DY pattern has been shown to be at least as good an indicator of the probability of response to endocrine therapy as the estrogen-receptor status, and a combination of the two factors better than either taken singly. In a series of 141 postmenopausal women, the DY pattern, as determined at the time of mastectomy, was associated with significantly improved survival. Mammographic parenchymal pattern could form the basis for selecting patients for endocrine therapy where no estrogen-receptor assay is available

  11. New evidence for the origin of intracranial germ cell tumours from primordial germ cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, C E; Sehested, A; Juhler, M

    2006-01-01

    that it is not required for the initiation of malignant germ cell transformation. The expression of genes associated with embryonic stem cell pluripotency in CNS germ cell tumours strongly suggests that these tumours are derived from cells that retain, at least partially, an embryonic stem cell-like phenotype, which...... germ cell tumours and analysed expression of a wide panel of stem cell-related proteins (C-KIT, OCT-3/4 (POU5F1), AP-2gamma (TFAP2C), and NANOG) and developmentally regulated germ cell-specific proteins (including MAGE-A4, NY-ESO-1, and TSPY). Expression at the protein level was analysed in 21 children...... and young adults with intracranial germinomas and non-germinomas, contributing to a careful description of these unusual tumours and adding to the understanding of pathogenesis. Stem cell related proteins were highly expressed in intracranial germ cell tumours, and many similarities were detected...

  12. Single cells for forensic DNA analysis--from evidence material to test tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Simon; Evers, Heidrun; Heidorn, Frank; Müller, Ute; Kilper, Roland; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a method that, while providing morphological quality control, allows single cells to be obtained from the surfaces of various evidence materials and be made available for DNA analysis in cases where only small amounts of cell material are present or where only mixed traces are found. With the SteREO Lumar.V12 stereomicroscope and UV unit from Zeiss, it was possible to detect and assess single epithelial cells on the surfaces of various objects (e.g., glass, plastic, metal). A digitally operated micromanipulator developed by aura optik was used to lift a single cell from the surface of evidence material and to transfer it to a conventional PCR tube or to an AmpliGrid(®) from Advalytix. The actual lifting of the cells was performed with microglobes that acted as carriers. The microglobes were held with microtweezers and were transferred to the DNA analysis receptacles along with the adhering cells. In a next step, the PCR can be carried out in this receptacle without removing the microglobe. Our method allows a single cell to be isolated directly from evidence material and be made available for forensic DNA analysis. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Evidence Supporting Intralesional Stem Cell Therapy to Improve Equine Flexor Tendon Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmitha Durgam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical bottom lineCurrent experimental evidence suggests that intralesional stem cell administration improves the histological characteristics and matrix organisation of healing equine superficial digital flexor tendons (SDFT; however, the clinical relevance of these findings are not clear. Current case-based evidence suggests that cell-based therapies improve the quality of tendon healing and reduce the recurrence rates of SDFT injuries but the lack of any randomised, controlled prospective studies with function-based outcomes is still concerning, given the widespread advocacy for and use of ‘stem cell’ therapies for the treatment of equine tendon injuries. 

  14. A critical examination of the numerology of antigen-binding cells: evidence for multiple receptor specificities on single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A

    1977-01-01

    The data available from other laboratories as well as our own on the frequency of cells recognizing major histocompatibility antigens or conventional protein and hapten antigens is critically evaluated. The frequency of specific binding for a large number of antigens is sufficiently high to support the idea that at least part of the antigen-binding cell population must have multiple specificities. Our results suggest that these multiple specific cells result from single cells synthesizing and displaying as many as 50-100 species of receptor, each at a frequency of 10(4) per cell. A model involving gene expansion of constant-region genes is suggested and some auxilliary evidence consistent with such C-gene expansion is presented.

  15. Evidence for Transfer of Membranes from Mesenchymal Stem Cells to HL-1 Cardiac Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomsma, Robert A; Geenen, David L

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the interaction of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) with cardiac HL-1 cells during coculture by fluorescent dye labeling and then flow cytometry. MSC were layered onto confluent HL-1 cell cultures in a 1 : 4 ratio. MSC gained gap junction permeant calcein from HL-1 cells after 4 hours which was partially reduced by oleamide. After 20 hours, 99% MSC gained calcein, unaffected by oleamide. Double-labeling HL-1 cells with calcein and the membrane dye DiO resulted in transfer of both calcein and DiO to MSC. When HL-1 cells were labeled with calcein and MSC with DiO, MSC gained calcein while HL-1 cells gained DiO. Very little fusion was observed since more than 90% Sca-1 positive MSC gained DiO from HL-1 cells while less than 9% gained gap junction impermeant CMFDA after 20 hours with no Sca-1 transfer to HL-1 cells. Time dependent transfer of membrane DiD was observed from HL-1 cells to MSC (100%) and vice versa (50%) after 20 hours with more limited transfer of CMFDA. These results demonstrate that MSC and HL-1 cells exchange membrane components which may account for some of the beneficial effect of MSC in the heart after myocardial infarction.

  16. Transbronchial Lung Cryobiopsy and Video-assisted Thoracoscopic Lung Biopsy in the Diagnosis of Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Disease. A Meta-analysis of Diagnostic Test Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftikhar, Imran H; Alghothani, Lana; Sardi, Alejandro; Berkowitz, David; Musani, Ali I

    2017-07-01

    Transbronchial lung cryobiopsy is increasingly being used for the assessment of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. Several studies have shown larger biopsy samples and higher yields compared with conventional transbronchial biopsies. However, the higher risk of bleeding and other complications has raised concerns for widespread use of this modality. To study the diagnostic accuracy and safety profile of transbronchial lung cryobiopsy and compare with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) by reviewing available evidence from the literature. Medline and PubMed were searched from inception until December 2016. Data on diagnostic performance were abstracted by constructing two-by-two contingency tables for each study. Data on a priori selected safety outcomes were collected. Risk of bias was assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool. Random effects meta-analyses were performed to obtain summary estimates of the diagnostic accuracy. The pooled diagnostic yield, pooled sensitivity, and pooled specificity of transbronchial lung cryobiopsy were 83.7% (76.9-88.8%), 87% (85-89%), and 57% (40-73%), respectively. The pooled diagnostic yield, pooled sensitivity, and pooled specificity of VATS were 92.7% (87.6-95.8%), 91.0% (89-92%), and 58% (31-81%), respectively. The incidence of grade 2 (moderate to severe) endobronchial bleeding after transbronchial lung cryobiopsy and of post-procedural pneumothorax was 4.9% (2.2-10.7%) and 9.5% (5.9-14.9%), respectively. Although the diagnostic test accuracy measures of transbronchial lung cryobiopsy lag behind those of VATS, with an acceptable safety profile and potential cost savings, the former could be considered as an alternative in the evaluation of patients with diffuse parenchymal lung diseases.

  17. Evaluation of the process of recycling and renal parenchymal injury after eswl with metabolites excreted in the urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Cavit; Dogan, Serkan; Saydam, Gulsevim; Kocak, Mehmet Zait; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan

    2013-01-01

    To show renal parenchymal injury depending on extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). The patients with one renal stone and in whom ESWL is planned among the patients in whom renal stone was determined. Their 24-h urine samples were collected just before and after the ESWL treatment. Cit (citrate), UrA (uric acid), RBP (retinol-binding protein), NAG (N-acetyl-β-Đ-glucosaminidase), Cr (creatinine), Na (sodium), K (potassium), P (phosphor), Ca (calcium), and Cl (chlorine) metabolites excreted in urine were evaluated after urine samples were taken on the study day. Changes in the metabolites excreted; the number, frequency, and duration of ESWL shock wave; the energy; and the body mass index were recorded. The results for p ESWL were applied to a total of 20 patients. When metabolites excreted in the urine before (B1E) and after (A1E) the first session of ESWL, and before (B2E) and after (A2E) the second session of ESWL, were evaluated, no statistically significant result for Ca and Cl excretion was noted. For NAG and Cr, a significant difference was observed in terms of metabolite excretion between B1E and B2E. For other metabolites, we saw that there is no difference between B1E and B2E. While a significant metabolite change was observed for RBP, NAG, Cr, and Na as long as A1E and A2E ESWL session number increases, other metabolites were not significant. Shock waves induce significant damage to the renal and adjacent tissues as indicated by a significant increase in cell-escaped enzymes and electrolytes and the extent of damage depends on the energy and the number of shock wave exposure.

  18. Evidence that pulsed electric field treatment enhances the cell wall porosity of yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeva, Valentina; Galutzov, Bojidar; Teissie, Justin

    2014-02-01

    The application of rectangular electric pulses, with 0.1-2 ms duration and field intensity of 2.5-4.5 kV/cm, to yeast suspension mediates liberation of cytoplasmic proteins without cell lysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pulsed electric field with similar parameters on cell wall porosity of different yeast species. We found that electrically treated cells become more susceptible to lyticase digestion. In dependence on the strain and the electrical conditions, cell lysis was obtained at 2-8 times lower enzyme concentration in comparison with control untreated cells. The increase of the maximal lysis rate was between two and nine times. Furthermore, when applied at low concentration (1 U/ml), the lyticase enhanced the rate of protein liberation from electropermeabilized cells without provoking cell lysis. Significant differences in the cell surface of control and electrically treated cells were revealed by scanning electron microscopy. Data presented in this study allow us to conclude that electric field pulses provoke not only plasma membrane permeabilization, but also changes in the cell wall structure, leading to increased wall porosity.

  19. C-arm flat detector computed tomography parenchymal blood volume imaging: the nature of parenchymal blood volume parameter and the feasibility of parenchymal blood volume imaging in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamran, Mudassar; Byrne, James V.

    2015-01-01

    C-arm flat detector computed tomography (FDCT) parenchymal blood volume (PBV) measurements allow assessment of cerebral haemodynamics in the neurointerventional suite. This paper explores the feasibility of C-arm computed tomography (CT) PBV imaging and the relationship between the C-arm CT PBV and the MR-PWI-derived cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) parameters in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) patients developing delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Twenty-six patients with DCI following aneurysmal SAH underwent a research C-arm CT PBV scan using a biplane angiography system and contemporaneous MR-PWI scan as part of a prospective study. Quantitative whole-brain atlas-based volume-of-interest analysis in conjunction with Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman tests was performed to explore the agreement between C-arm CT PBV and MR-derived CBV and CBF measurements. All patients received medical management, while eight patients (31 %) underwent selective intra-arterial chemical angioplasty. Colour-coded C-arm CT PBV maps were 91 % sensitive and 100 % specific in detecting the perfusion abnormalities. C-arm CT rPBV demonstrated good agreement and strong correlation with both MR-rCBV and MR-rCBF measurements; the agreement and correlation were stronger for MR-rCBF relative to MR-rCBV and improved for C-arm CT PBV versus the geometric mean of MR-rCBV and MR-rCBF. Analysis of weighted means showed that the C-arm CT PBV has a preferential blood flow weighting (∼60 % blood flow and ∼40 % blood volume weighting). C-arm CT PBV imaging is feasible in DCI following aneurysmal SAH. PBV is a composite perfusion parameter incorporating both blood flow and blood volume weightings. That PBV has preferential (∼60 %) blood flow weighting is an important finding, which is of clinical significance when interpreting the C-arm CT PBV maps, particularly in the setting of acute brain ischemia. (orig.)

  20. C-arm flat detector computed tomography parenchymal blood volume imaging: the nature of parenchymal blood volume parameter and the feasibility of parenchymal blood volume imaging in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamran, Mudassar; Byrne, James V. [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    C-arm flat detector computed tomography (FDCT) parenchymal blood volume (PBV) measurements allow assessment of cerebral haemodynamics in the neurointerventional suite. This paper explores the feasibility of C-arm computed tomography (CT) PBV imaging and the relationship between the C-arm CT PBV and the MR-PWI-derived cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) parameters in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) patients developing delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Twenty-six patients with DCI following aneurysmal SAH underwent a research C-arm CT PBV scan using a biplane angiography system and contemporaneous MR-PWI scan as part of a prospective study. Quantitative whole-brain atlas-based volume-of-interest analysis in conjunction with Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman tests was performed to explore the agreement between C-arm CT PBV and MR-derived CBV and CBF measurements. All patients received medical management, while eight patients (31 %) underwent selective intra-arterial chemical angioplasty. Colour-coded C-arm CT PBV maps were 91 % sensitive and 100 % specific in detecting the perfusion abnormalities. C-arm CT rPBV demonstrated good agreement and strong correlation with both MR-rCBV and MR-rCBF measurements; the agreement and correlation were stronger for MR-rCBF relative to MR-rCBV and improved for C-arm CT PBV versus the geometric mean of MR-rCBV and MR-rCBF. Analysis of weighted means showed that the C-arm CT PBV has a preferential blood flow weighting (∼60 % blood flow and ∼40 % blood volume weighting). C-arm CT PBV imaging is feasible in DCI following aneurysmal SAH. PBV is a composite perfusion parameter incorporating both blood flow and blood volume weightings. That PBV has preferential (∼60 %) blood flow weighting is an important finding, which is of clinical significance when interpreting the C-arm CT PBV maps, particularly in the setting of acute brain ischemia. (orig.)

  1. Preliminary report on digitalization of renal microangiograms used in analysing renal parenchymal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, M; Kaneko, M

    1983-01-01

    Glomerulography is a useful method for the angiographic diagnosis of various renal parenchymal diseases. A new system for digitalization of the glomerulogram has been developed using a high resolution television camera and a CT computer. We describe the fundamental procedures involved in the clinical application of digital glomerulography by applying this method to a renal microangiogram of a cow. This new method aids a clearer understanding of the detailed microvasculatures by providing better magnification and storage and allowing for further processing of the original analogue images. With a computer printout of any part of the glomerulogram also possible, an estimation of the glomerular counts and their distribution can now be given for any unit of cross-sectional area of the renal cortex.

  2. Quantifying parenchymal tethering in a finite element simulation of a human lung slice under bronchoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Barbara J; Donovan, Graham M; Sneyd, James; Tawhai, Merryn H

    2012-08-15

    Airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), a hallmark of asthma, is a highly complex phenomenon characterised by multiple processes manifesting over a large range of length and time scales. Multiscale computational models have been derived to embody the experimental understanding of AHR. While current models differ in their derivation, a common assumption is that the increase in parenchymal tethering pressure P(teth) during airway constriction can be described using the model proposed by Lai-Fook (1979), which is based on intact lung experimental data for elastic moduli over a range of inflation pressures. Here we reexamine this relationship for consistency with a nonlinear elastic material law that has been parameterised to the pressure-volume behaviour of the intact lung. We show that the nonlinear law and Lai-Fook's relationship are consistent for small constrictions, but diverge when the constriction becomes large. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative consensus of supervised learners for diffuse lung parenchymal HRCT patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Sushravya; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2013-03-01

    Automated lung parenchymal classification usually relies on supervised learning of expert chosen regions representative of the visually differentiable HRCT patterns specific to different pathologies (eg. emphysema, ground glass, honey combing, reticular and normal). Considering the elusiveness of a single most discriminating similarity measure, a plurality of weak learners can be combined to improve the machine learnability. Though a number of quantitative combination strategies exist, their efficacy is data and domain dependent. In this paper, we investigate multiple (N=12) quantitative consensus approaches to combine the clusters obtained with multiple (n=33) probability density-based similarity measures. Our study shows that hypergraph based meta-clustering and probabilistic clustering provides optimal expert-metric agreement.

  4. MR imaging assessment of cerebral vascular disease: A combination of angiographic and parenchymal techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaryk, T.J.; Modic, M.T.; Ross, J.S.; Ruggieri, P.; Laub, G.; Haacke, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    This study tested the accuracy and clinical utility of a three-dimensional MR angiographic technique of the cervical carotids in combination with a routine spin-echo examination of the brain as a screening examination for cerebrovascular disease in 23 patients. The technique used a fast low-angle shot sequence with a reduced echo time and voxel size, gradient refocusing, and time of flight effects to minimize signal loss secondary to phase dispersion and maximize vessel contrast. Subsequent multiplanar three-dimensional reconstructions were obtained at 5 0 increments about the z-axis via ray-tracing linear thresholding algorithms. Examinations were compared with IV/IA-digital subtraction angiography or Doppler US as the objective of accuracy. Results of this ongoing study indicate that an MR angiographic screening examination can be coupled with routine brain MR imaging with only a 10-14 minute extension of examination time, providing both a vascular and a parenchymal evaluation

  5. Categorical methods for the interpretation of RNA profiles as cell type evidence and their limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zoete, J.; Curran, J.; Sjerps, M.

    2015-01-01

    Existing methods for the interpretation of RNA profiles as evidence for the presence of certain cell types aim for making categorical statements. Such statements limit the possibility to report the associated uncertainty. From a statistical point of view, a probabilistic approach is a preferable

  6. Late lung parenchymal changes on HRCT in children with mycoplasma pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soo Hyeon; Kim, Joung Sook; Yoon, Jung Hee; Hur, Gham; Kim, Chang Gun [Inje Univ. Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    To evaluate late lung parenchymal change, as seen on high-resolution CT(HRCT) in children with mycoplasma pneumonia. Twenty-three patients [15 boys and 8 girls aged two to 13 (mean, 6) years] with mycoplasma pneumonia underwent HRCT four to 39 (mean, 10) months after initial infection. Using increased mycoplasma antibody titer( > 1;640) mycoplasma pneumonia was diagnosed, and patients were divided into two groups : high titer group (antibody titer > 1:5120), and lower titer group ( < 1:5120). CT scans were performed using 2mm collimation and 5-10mm interval from apex to diaphragm. In seven patients who were cooperative, both inspiratory scans were obtained at a window width of 1600 HU and level of 700. HRCT findings of mosaic low attenuations and changes in bronchioles and bronchial walls were assessed by three radiologists and correlated with initial chest radiographic findings. On HRCT, 17 of 23 patients (74%) demonstrated abnormal findings. These included mosaic attenuation of lung density alone in 11 of 17 patients (65%), mosaic attenuation associated with bronchiectasis in five(29%), and bronchiectasis only in one(6%). Mosaic attenuation was more accentuated on expiratory scans than on inspiratory. These findings were obtained in 10 of 12 high titer group and in 7 of 11 in the lower titer group. In 15 of 23 patients(65%), involved areas seen on HRCT exactly corresponded with initially involved areas seen on chest radiographs (CXR). Two patients in whom findings on initial CXR were normal showed mosaic attenuation on HRCT. Six patients in whom such findings were abnormal showed normal findings on HRCT, a fact which reflected their complete recovery. The most common late parenchymal change in mycoplasma pneumonia, as seen on HRCT, was mosaic attenuation of lung density followed by bronchiectasis. The latter is presumably due to bronchiolitis obliterans, a well-known complication. We believe that HRCT is very useful for the evaluation of long-term sequelae of

  7. Late lung parenchymal changes on HRCT in children with mycoplasma pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo Hyeon; Kim, Joung Sook; Yoon, Jung Hee; Hur, Gham; Kim, Chang Gun

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate late lung parenchymal change, as seen on high-resolution CT(HRCT) in children with mycoplasma pneumonia. Twenty-three patients [15 boys and 8 girls aged two to 13 (mean, 6) years] with mycoplasma pneumonia underwent HRCT four to 39 (mean, 10) months after initial infection. Using increased mycoplasma antibody titer( > 1;640) mycoplasma pneumonia was diagnosed, and patients were divided into two groups : high titer group (antibody titer > 1:5120), and lower titer group ( < 1:5120). CT scans were performed using 2mm collimation and 5-10mm interval from apex to diaphragm. In seven patients who were cooperative, both inspiratory scans were obtained at a window width of 1600 HU and level of 700. HRCT findings of mosaic low attenuations and changes in bronchioles and bronchial walls were assessed by three radiologists and correlated with initial chest radiographic findings. On HRCT, 17 of 23 patients (74%) demonstrated abnormal findings. These included mosaic attenuation of lung density alone in 11 of 17 patients (65%), mosaic attenuation associated with bronchiectasis in five(29%), and bronchiectasis only in one(6%). Mosaic attenuation was more accentuated on expiratory scans than on inspiratory. These findings were obtained in 10 of 12 high titer group and in 7 of 11 in the lower titer group. In 15 of 23 patients(65%), involved areas seen on HRCT exactly corresponded with initially involved areas seen on chest radiographs (CXR). Two patients in whom findings on initial CXR were normal showed mosaic attenuation on HRCT. Six patients in whom such findings were abnormal showed normal findings on HRCT, a fact which reflected their complete recovery. The most common late parenchymal change in mycoplasma pneumonia, as seen on HRCT, was mosaic attenuation of lung density followed by bronchiectasis. The latter is presumably due to bronchiolitis obliterans, a well-known complication. We believe that HRCT is very useful for the evaluation of long-term sequelae of

  8. Relation between small airways disease and parenchymal destruction in surgical lung specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, L N; Kramps, J A; Stijnen, T; Sterk, P J; Weening, J J; Dijkman, J H

    1990-01-01

    The relation between small airways disease and parenchymal destruction was investigated in lungs and lobes removed at surgery from 27 patients aged 15-70 years. Eight of the 27 patients were life-long non-smokers. The degree of small airways disease was assessed by semi-quantitative grading (SAD score) and by measuring diameter and wall thickness of membranous bronchioles. Parenchymal destruction was measured in three ways. Firstly, the number of alveolar attachments on membranous bronchioles per millimetre of circumference (AA/mm) was counted; the number of broken attachments was subtracted from the total AA/mm to give the numbers of intact attachments (normal AA/mm). Secondly, a point counting technique was used to give a destructive index (DI). Thirdly, the mean linear intercept (Lm) was determined. Total and normal AA/mm correlated negatively with the SAD score of membranous bronchioles (rs = -0.48 and -0.51) and with wall thickness (rs = -0.37 and -0.45) and DI correlated with wall thickness (rs = 0.5) and with the SAD score of respiratory bronchioles (rs = 0.53). Lm did not correlate with indices of small airway disease and total and normal AA/mm did not correlate with diameter. Multiple regression analyses showed that the correlation of total AA/mm with the SAD score of membranous and respiratory bronchioles and with wall thickness were not confounded by age or smoking. It is concluded that small airways disease is related to destruction of peribronchiolar alveoli, and it is postulated that small airways disease has a direct role in the causation of centrilobular emphysema. PMID:2315880

  9. Emerging Evidence for MicroRNAs as Regulators of Cancer Stem Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, Aisha [Department of Pathology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Sholl, Lynette M., E-mail: lmsholl@partners.org [Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2011-10-24

    Cancer stem cells are defined as a subpopulation of cells within a tumor that are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into the heterogeneous cell lineages that comprise the tumor. Many studies indicate that cancer stem cells may be responsible for treatment failure and relapse in cancer patients. The factors that regulate cancer stem cells are not well defined. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate translational repression and transcript degradation. miRNAs play a critical role in embryonic and inducible pluripotent stem cell regulation and emerging evidence supports their role in cancer stem cell evolution. To date, miRNAs have been shown to act either as tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes in driving critical gene expression pathways in cancer stem cells in a wide range of human malignancies, including hematopoietic and epithelial tumors and sarcomas. miRNAs involved in cancer stem cell regulation provide attractive, novel therapeutic targets for cancer treatment. This review attempts to summarize progress to date in defining the role of miRNAs in cancer stem cells.

  10. Emerging Evidence for MicroRNAs as Regulators of Cancer Stem Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, Aisha; Sholl, Lynette M.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer stem cells are defined as a subpopulation of cells within a tumor that are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into the heterogeneous cell lineages that comprise the tumor. Many studies indicate that cancer stem cells may be responsible for treatment failure and relapse in cancer patients. The factors that regulate cancer stem cells are not well defined. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate translational repression and transcript degradation. miRNAs play a critical role in embryonic and inducible pluripotent stem cell regulation and emerging evidence supports their role in cancer stem cell evolution. To date, miRNAs have been shown to act either as tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes in driving critical gene expression pathways in cancer stem cells in a wide range of human malignancies, including hematopoietic and epithelial tumors and sarcomas. miRNAs involved in cancer stem cell regulation provide attractive, novel therapeutic targets for cancer treatment. This review attempts to summarize progress to date in defining the role of miRNAs in cancer stem cells

  11. Evidence that Meningeal Mast Cells Can Worsen Stroke Pathology in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arac, Ahmet; Grimbaldeston, Michele A.; Nepomuceno, Andrew R.B.; Olayiwola, Oluwatobi; Pereira, Marta P.; Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Tsykin, Anna; Goodall, Gregory J.; Schlecht, Ulrich; Vogel, Hannes; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.; Bliss, Tonya M.; Steinberg, Gary K.

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability and the fourth most common cause of death in the United States. Inflammation is thought to play an important role in stroke pathology, but the factors that promote inflammation in this setting remain to be fully defined. An understudied but important factor is the role of meningeal-located immune cells in modulating brain pathology. Although different immune cells traffic through meningeal vessels en route to the brain, mature mast cells do not circulate but are resident in the meninges. With the use of genetic and cell transfer approaches in mice, we identified evidence that meningeal mast cells can importantly contribute to the key features of stroke pathology, including infiltration of granulocytes and activated macrophages, brain swelling, and infarct size. We also obtained evidence that two mast cell-derived products, interleukin-6 and, to a lesser extent, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7, can contribute to stroke pathology. These findings indicate a novel role for mast cells in the meninges, the membranes that envelop the brain, as potential gatekeepers for modulating brain inflammation and pathology after stroke. PMID:25134760

  12. Primary immune system responders to nucleus pulposus cells: evidence for immune response in disc herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Murai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although intervertebral disc herniation and associated sciatica is a common disease, its molecular pathogenesis is not well understood. Immune responses are thought to be involved. This study provides direct evidence that even non-degenerated nucleus pulposus (NP cells elicit immune responses. An in vitro colony forming inhibition assay demonstrated the suppressive effects of autologous spleen cells on NP cells and an in vitro cytotoxicity assay showed the positive cytotoxic effects of natural killer (NK cells and macrophages on NP cells. Non-degenerated rat NP tissues transplanted into wild type rats and immune-deficient mice demonstrated a significantly higher NP cell survival rate in immune-deficient mice. Immunohistochemical staining showed the presence of macrophages and NK cells in the transplanted NP tissues. These results suggest that even non-degenerated autologous NP cells are recognized by macrophages and NK cells, which may have an immunological function in the early phase of disc herniation. These findings contribute to understanding resorption and the inflammatory reaction to disc herniation.

  13. A probabilistic approach for the interpretation of RNA profiles as cell type evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zoete, Jacob; Curran, James; Sjerps, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    DNA profiles can be used as evidence to distinguish between possible donors of a crime stain. In some cases, both the prosecution and the defence claim that the cell material was left by the suspect but they dispute which cell type was left behind. For example, in sexual offense cases the prosecution could claim that the sample contains semen cells where the defence argues that the sample contains skin cells. In these cases, traditional methods (e.g. a phosphatase test) can be used to examine the cell type contained in the sample. However, there are some drawbacks when using these methods. For instance, many of these techniques need to be carried out separately for each cell type and each of them requires part of the available sample, which reduces the amount that can be used for DNA analysis. Another option is messenger RNA (mRNA) evidence. mRNA expression levels vary among cell types and can be used to make (probability) statements about the cell type(s) present in a sample. Existing methods for the interpretation of RNA profiles as evidence for the presence of certain cell types aim at making categorical statements. Such statements limit the possibility to report the associated uncertainty. Some of these existing methods will be discussed. Most notably, a method based on a 'n/2' scoring rule (Lindenbergh et al.) and a method using marker values and cell type scoring thresholds (Roeder et al.). From a statistical point of view, a probabilistic approach is the most obvious choice. Two approaches (multinomial logistic regression and naïve Bayes') are suggested. All methods are compared, using two different datasets and several criteria regarding their ability to assess the evidential value of RNA profiles. We conclude that both the naïve Bayes' method and a method based on multinomial logistic regression, that produces a probabilistic statement as measure of the evidential value, are an important improvement of the existing methods. Besides a better performance

  14. Evidence of endothelial inflammation, T cell activation, and T cell reallocation in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elhassan, I M; Hviid, L; Satti, G

    1994-01-01

    endothelium. We measured plasma levels of soluble markers of endothelial inflammation and T cell activation in 32 patients suffering from acute, uncomplication P. falciparum malaria, as well as in 10 healthy, aparasitemic control donors. All donors were residents of a malaria-endemic area of Eastern State...... Sudan. In addition, we measured the T cell surface expression of the interleukin-2 receptor (CD25) and the lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA-1; CD11a/CD18). We found that the plasma levels of all inflammation and activation markers were significantly increased in the malaria patients compared...... with the control donors. In addition, we found a disease-induced depletion of T cells with high expression of the LFA-1 antigen, particularly in the CD4+ subset. The results obtained provide further support for the hypothesis of T cell reallocation to inflamed endothelium in acute P. falciparum malaria....

  15. Reviewing the current evidence supporting early B-cells as the cellular origin of Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, C M; Haugg, A M; Chteinberg, E; Rennspiess, D; Winnepenninckx, V; Speel, E-J; Becker, J C; Kurz, A K; Zur Hausen, A

    2017-08-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a highly malignant skin cancer characterized by early metastases and poor survival. Although MCC is a rare malignancy, its incidence is rapidly increasing in the U.S. and Europe. The discovery of the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) has enormously impacted our understanding of its etiopathogenesis and biology. MCCs are characterized by trilinear differentiation, comprising the expression of neuroendocrine, epithelial and B-lymphoid lineage markers. To date, it is generally accepted that the initial assumption of MCC originating from Merkel cells (MCs) is unlikely. This is owed to their post-mitotic character, absence of MCPyV in MCs and discrepant protein expression pattern in comparison to MCC. Evidence from mouse models suggests that epidermal/dermal stem cells might be of cellular origin in MCC. The recently formulated hypothesis of MCC originating from early B-cells is based on morphology, the consistent expression of early B-cell lineage markers and the finding of clonal immunoglobulin chain rearrangement in MCC cells. In this review we elaborate on the cellular ancestry of MCC, the identification of which could pave the way for novel and more effective therapeutic regimens. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Improved parenchymal liver enhancement with extended delay on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI in patients with parenchymal liver disease: associated clinical and imaging factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esterson, Y.B.; Flusberg, M.; Oh, S.; Mazzariol, F.; Rozenblit, A.M.; Chernyak, V.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To establish the effect of prolonged hepatobiliary phase (HBP) delay time on hepatic enhancement in patients with parenchymal liver disease (PLD). Materials and methods: Gadoxetate disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations with HBP were obtained after 20- (HBP-20) and 30-minute (HBP-30) delays in patients with PLD. For each patient, the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, total and direct bilirubin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), prothrombin time (PT), and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) were recorded. Signal intensities of the liver, main portal vein, and spleen on pre-contrast, HBP-20, and HBP-30 were documented. Signal intensities were used to calculate liver relative enhancement (LRE), liver–spleen index (LSI), and liver–portal vein index (LPI) for HBP-20 and HBP-30. Improved hepatic enhancement was considered if two or more indices were higher on HBP-30 than HBP-20. A logistic regression model was constructed with improved hepatic enhancement as the outcome. Results: One hundred and twenty-nine patients underwent 142 MRIs. Mean LRE, LSI, and LPI each increased from HBP-20 to HBP-30 (p = 0.004, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). Seventy-two point five percent of cases demonstrated improved hepatic enhancement. The odds ratios for improved hepatic enhancement were 0.85 for MELD score (p = 0.02) and 3.2 for the 3 T scanner (p = 0.02), adjusted for age and sex. Conclusion: Increasing HBP delay to 30 minutes improves hepatic enhancement in patients with PLD, particularly if using a 3 T scanner. This effect is attenuated with higher MELD scores. -- Highlights: •Increasing hepatobiliary phase delay improves hepatic enhancement in liver disease. •This effect is enhanced if using a 3T scanner. •This effect is attenuated with higher MELD scores

  17. Lysosomal membrane permeabilization in cell death: new evidence and implications for health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Puebla, Ana; Boya, Patricia

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that, in addition to their central role in cellular catabolic reactions, lysosomes are implicated in many cellular processes, including metabolism, membrane repair, and cell death. Lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) has emerged as a pathway by which cell demise is regulated under physiological conditions and contributes to cell death in many pathological situations. Here, we review the latest evidence on LMP-mediated cell death, the upstream and downstream signals involved, and the role of LMP in the normal physiology of organisms. We also discuss the contributions of lysosomal damage and LMP to the pathogenic features of several disease states, such as lysosomal storage disorders and other neurodegenerative conditions. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Cell phone use and parotid salivary gland alterations: no molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fabrício T A; Correia-Silva, Jeane F; Ferreira, Efigênia F; Siqueira, Elisa C; Duarte, Alessandra P; Gomez, Marcus Vinícius; Gomez, Ricardo S; Gomes, Carolina C

    2014-07-01

    The association between cell phone use and the development of parotid tumors is controversial. Because there is unequivocal evidence that the microenvironment is important for tumor formation, we investigated in the parotid glands whether cell phone use alters the expression of gene products related to cellular stress. We used the saliva produced by the parotid glands of 62 individuals to assess molecular alterations compatible with cellular stress, comparing the saliva from the gland exposed to cell phone radiation (ipsilateral) to the saliva from the opposite, unexposed parotid gland (contralateral) of each individual. We compared salivary flow, total protein concentration, p53, p21, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and salivary levels of glutathione (GSH), heat shock proteins 27 and 70, and IgA between the ipsilateral and contralateral parotids. No difference was found for any of these parameters, even when grouping individuals by period of cell phone use in years or by monthly average calls in minutes. We provide molecular evidence that the exposure of parotid glands to cell phone use does not alter parotid salivary flow, protein concentration, or levels of proteins of genes that are directly or indirectly affected by heat-induced cellular stress. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Multiple origins of spontaneously arising micronuclei in HeLa cells: Direct evidence from long-term live cell imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Xiaotang; Zhang Yingyin; Yi Qiyi; Hou Heli; Xu Bo; Chu Liang; Huang Yun; Zhang Wenrui; Fenech, Michael; Shi Qinghua

    2008-01-01

    Although micronuclei (MNi) are extensively used to evaluate genotoxic effects and chromosome instability, the most basic issue regarding their origins has not been completely addressed due to limitations of traditional methods. Recently, long-term live cell imaging was developed to monitor the dynamics of single cell in a real-time and high-throughput manner. In the present study, this state-of-the-art technique was employed to examine spontaneous micronucleus (MN) formation in untreated HeLa cells. We demonstrate that spontaneous MNi are derived from incorrectly aligned chromosomes in metaphase (displaced chromosomes, DCs), lagging chromosomes (LCs) and broken chromosome bridges (CBs) in later mitotic stages, but not nuclear buds in S phase. However, most of bipolar mitoses with DCs (91.29%), LCs (73.11%) and broken CBs (88.93%) did not give rise to MNi. Our data also show directly, for the first time, that MNi could originate spontaneously from (1) MNi already presented in the mother cells; (2) nuclear fragments that appeared during mitosis with CB; and (3) chromosomes being extruded into a minicell which fused with one of the daughter cells later. Quantitatively, most of MNi originated from LCs (63.66%), DCs (10.97%) and broken CBs (9.25%). Taken together, these direct evidences show that there are multiple origins for spontaneously arising MNi in HeLa cells and each mechanism contributes to overall MN formation to different extents

  20. Multiple origins of spontaneously arising micronuclei in HeLa cells: Direct evidence from long-term live cell imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao Xiaotang; Zhang Yingyin; Yi Qiyi; Hou Heli; Xu Bo; Chu Liang; Huang Yun; Zhang Wenrui [Laboratory of Molecular and Cell Genetics, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Fenech, Michael [CSIRO Human Nutrition, PO Box 10041, Adelaide BC, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); Shi Qinghua [Laboratory of Molecular and Cell Genetics, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China)], E-mail: qshi@ustc.edu.cn

    2008-11-10

    Although micronuclei (MNi) are extensively used to evaluate genotoxic effects and chromosome instability, the most basic issue regarding their origins has not been completely addressed due to limitations of traditional methods. Recently, long-term live cell imaging was developed to monitor the dynamics of single cell in a real-time and high-throughput manner. In the present study, this state-of-the-art technique was employed to examine spontaneous micronucleus (MN) formation in untreated HeLa cells. We demonstrate that spontaneous MNi are derived from incorrectly aligned chromosomes in metaphase (displaced chromosomes, DCs), lagging chromosomes (LCs) and broken chromosome bridges (CBs) in later mitotic stages, but not nuclear buds in S phase. However, most of bipolar mitoses with DCs (91.29%), LCs (73.11%) and broken CBs (88.93%) did not give rise to MNi. Our data also show directly, for the first time, that MNi could originate spontaneously from (1) MNi already presented in the mother cells; (2) nuclear fragments that appeared during mitosis with CB; and (3) chromosomes being extruded into a minicell which fused with one of the daughter cells later. Quantitatively, most of MNi originated from LCs (63.66%), DCs (10.97%) and broken CBs (9.25%). Taken together, these direct evidences show that there are multiple origins for spontaneously arising MNi in HeLa cells and each mechanism contributes to overall MN formation to different extents.

  1. Evidence review of hydroxyurea for the prevention of sickle cell complications in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulaku, Mercy; Opiyo, Newton; Karumbi, Jamlick; Kitonyi, Grace; Thoithi, Grace; English, Mike

    2013-11-01

    Hydroxyurea is widely used in high-income countries for the management of sickle cell disease (SCD) in children. In Kenyan clinical guidelines, hydroxyurea is only recommended for adults with SCD. Yet many deaths from SCD occur in early childhood, deaths that might be prevented by an effective, disease modifying intervention. The aim of this review was to summarise the available evidence on the efficacy, effectiveness and safety of hydroxyurea in the management of SCD in children below 5 years of age to support guideline development in Kenya. We undertook a systematic review and used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system to appraise the quality of identified evidence. Overall, available evidence from 1 systematic review (n=26 studies), 2 randomised controlled trials (n=354 children), 14 observational studies and 2 National Institute of Health reports suggest that hydroxyurea may be associated with improved fetal haemoglobin levels, reduced rates of hospitalisation, reduced episodes of acute chest syndrome and decreased frequency of pain events in children with SCD. However, it is associated with adverse events (eg, neutropenia) when high to maximum tolerated doses are used. Evidence is lacking on whether hydroxyurea improves survival if given to young children. Majority of the included studies were of low quality and mainly from high-income countries. Overall, available limited evidence suggests that hydroxyurea may improve morbidity and haematological outcomes in SCD in children aged below 5 years and appears safe in settings able to provide consistent haematological monitoring.

  2. Comparison of parenchymal phase of hepatobiliary gammagraphy with radiocolloid liver gammagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimacek, J; Stupakova, E; Takacs, J

    1985-08-01

    A comparison was performed of the parenchymal phase of hepatobiliary gammagraphy (HBG) with radiocolloid gammagraphy (RCG) in 148 patients to assess the importance of both methods depending on the nature of the liver disease. Gammagraphic changes were mostly identical (43.9%), changes notable in HBG rather than RCG were more frequent (29.1%) than changes more marked in RCG (17.6%). Changes appearing only in HBG or only in RCG had the same frequency (4.7% each). The same results in both kinds of examination (identical findings) in all patients occurred only in metastases of malignant tumours of the liver, i.e., in these cases both examinations had the same diagnostic value. In HBG of hepatocellular carcinoma the defect found in RCG was supplemented in 1/4 of the patients, which shows high specificity in combination of both types of examination from the point of view of differential diagnosis. In mechanical jaundice and chronic hepatitis HBG is of greater importance and should be preferred to RCG. In acute hepatitis and further undifferentiated chronic hepatopathies most changes were identical for both HBG and RCG, but the relatively higher incidence of more notable changes with HBG made it preferrable to RCG. In liver cirrhosis RCG was more important.

  3. Diffuse parenchymal lung disease in a case of chronic arsenic exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Bhattacharya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old housewife, the resident of rural part of West Bengal, presented with gradually progressive exertional dyspnea associated with a dry cough for last 3 years clinical features were suggestive of diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD. Her chest X-ray posteroanterior view and high resolution computed tomography scan of the thorax showed bilateral patchy ground glass opacities and reticulonodular pattern. Search for the etiology revealed classical skin findings of chronic arsenic exposure in the form of generalized darkening and thickening of skin and keratotic lesions over the palms and soles and classical raindrop pigmentation over leg which was present for last 7 years subsequently her bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, hair, nail, and drinking water showed significant amount of arsenic contamination. By exclusion of all known causes of DPLD, we concluded that it was a case of DPLD due to chronic arsenic exposure. To the best of our knowledge, only few case report of DPLD in chronic arsenicosis has been reported till date.

  4. Impact of menopausal status on background parenchymal enhancement and fibroglandular tissue on breast MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Valencia; Gu, Yajia; Kaplan, Jennifer B.; Morris, Elizabeth A.; Brooks, Jennifer D.; Pike, Malcolm C.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of menopausal status on the background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) on breast MRI. Retrospective review identified 1,130 women who underwent screening breast MRI between July and November 2010. In 28 of these women, breast MRI was performed both at one time point while pre- and one time point while post-menopausal (median interval 49 months). Two independent readers blinded to menopausal status used categorical scales to rate BPE (minimal/mild/moderate/marked) and FGT (fatty/scattered/heterogeneously dense/dense). Consensus was reached when there was disagreement. The sign test was used to assess changes in rating categories, and the Spearman rank and Fisher's exact tests were used to measure correlations and associations between variables. Significant proportions of women demonstrated decreases in BPE and FGT on post-menopausal breast MRI (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0009). BPE category was unchanged in 39 % (11/28) and decreased in 61 % (17/28) of women. FGT category was unchanged in 61 % (17/28) and decreased in 39 % (11/28) of women. Age, reason for menopause, or interval between MRIs had no significant impact on changes in BPE and FGT. On MRI, BPE, and FGT decrease after menopause in significant proportions of women; BPE decreases more than FGT. (orig.)

  5. Breast MRI background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) correlates with the risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telegrafo, Michele; Rella, Leonarda; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Angelelli, Giuseppe; Moschetta, Marco

    2016-02-01

    To investigate whether background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and breast cancer would correlate searching for any significant difference of BPE pattern distribution in case of benign or malignant lesions. 386 patients, including 180 pre-menopausal (group 1) and 206 post-menopausal (group 2), underwent MR examination. Two radiologists evaluated MR images classifying normal BPE as minimal, mild, moderate or marked. The two groups of patients were subdivided into 3 categories based on MRI findings (negative, benign and malignant lesions). The distribution of BPE patterns within the two groups and within the three MR categories was calculated. The χ2 test was used to evaluate BPE type distribution in the three patient categories and any statistically significant correlation of BPE with lesion type was calculated. The Student t test was applied to search for any statistically significant difference between BPE type rates in group 1 and 2. The χ2 test demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the distribution of BPE types in negative patients and benign lesions as compared with malignant ones (p0.05). Normal BPE could correlate with the risk of breast cancer being such BPE patterns as moderate and marked associated with patients with malignant lesions in both pre and post-menopausal women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of background parenchymal enhancement on breast cancer detection with magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telegrafo, M; Rella, L; Stabile Ianora, A A; Angelelli, G; Moschetta, M

    2016-03-01

    To investigate whether background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) may influence the sensitivity of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (DCE-MR) imaging in breast cancer detection. A total of 180 consecutive women with 194 breast cancers underwent MR imaging examination. Women were assigned to two different groups depending on the degree of BPE. Group 1 consisted of women with minimal or mild BPE and group 2 of women with moderate or marked BPE. The distributions of histotypes of tumors within the two groups were compared using the χ(2) test. Difference in sensitivities of DCE-MR imaging for tumor detection between the two groups was searched for using the Student t-test. No differences in terms of distributions of histotypes of tumors between the two groups of women were found (P=0.5). The 11% difference in sensitivity of DCE-MR imaging for tumor detection between group 1 (91/92; 99%; 95% CI: 94-100%) and group 2 (90/102; 88%; 95% CI: 80-94%) was statistically significant (P=0.0058). The sensitivity of DCE-MR imaging is significantly lower in women with moderate and marked BPE as compared with women with minimal and mild BPE regardless of cancer histotype. BPE could represent a limitation for breast MR imaging interpretation and should be indicated in MR imaging reports. Copyright © 2015 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Background parenchymal enhancement in breast MRI before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: correlation with tumour response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preibsch, H.; Wanner, L.; Bahrs, S.D.; Wietek, B.M.; Nikolaou, K.; Wiesinger, B. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Siegmann-Luz, K.C. [Diagnostic Center for Breast Cancer and Screening Mammography Brandenburg Ost, Koenigs Wusterhausen (Germany); Oberlecher, E.; Hahn, M. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tuebingen (Germany); Staebler, A. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Institute of Pathology and Neuropathology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    To correlate the decrease in background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and tumour response measured with MRI in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). One hundred and forty-six MRI examinations of 73 patients with 80 biopsy-proven breast cancers who underwent breast MRI before and after NAC were retrospectively analysed. All images were reviewed by two blinded readers, who classified BPE into categories (BEC; 1 = minimal, 2 = mild, 3 = moderate, 4 = marked) before and after NAC. Histopathological and morphological tumour responses were analysed and compared. The distribution of BEC 1/2/3/4 was 25/46/18/11 % before and 78/20/2/0 % after NAC. On average, BPE decreased by 0.87 BEC. Cohen's kappa showed substantial agreement (k = 0.73-0.77) before and moderate agreement (k = 0.43-0.60) after NAC and moderate agreement (k = 0.62-0.60) concerning the change in BEC. Correlating the change in BPE with tumour response, the average decrease in BEC was 1.3 in cases of complete remission, 0.83 in cases with partial response, 0.85 in cases with stable disease and 0.40 in cases with progressive disease. Correlation analysis showed a significant correlation between the decrease in BEC and tumour response (r = -0.24, p = 0.03). BPE decreased by, on average, 0.87 BEC following NAC for breast cancer. The degree of BPE reduction seemed to correlate with tumour response. (orig.)

  8. Procalcitonin for the early prediction of renal parenchymal involvement in children with UTI: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotoula, Aggeliki; Gardikis, Stefanos; Tsalkidis, Aggelos; Mantadakis, Elpis; Zissimopoulos, Athanassios; Kambouri, Katerina; Deftereos, Savvas; Tripsianis, Gregorios; Manolas, Konstantinos; Chatzimichael, Athanassios; Vaos, George

    2009-01-01

    In order to establish the most reliable marker for distinguishing urinary tract infections (UTI) with and without renal parenchymal involvement (RPI), we recorded the clinical features and admission leukocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and serum procalcitonin (PCT) in 57 children (including 43 girls) aged 2-108 months admitted with a first episode of UTI. RPI was evaluated by Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy within 7 days of admission. To establish cut-off points for ESR, CRP, and PCT, we used receiver operating characteristics curves and compared the area under the curve for ESR, CRP, and PCT. Twenty-seven children were diagnosed as having RPI based on positive renal scintigraphy. A body temperature of >38 degrees C, a history of diarrhea, and poor oral intake were more common in patients with RPI. ESR, CRP, and PCT, but not leukocyte count, were significantly higher in patients with RPI (P UTI than ESR and CRP. Using a cut-off value of 0.85 ng/ml, PCT had the best performance, with sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 89%, 97%, 96%, and 91% respectively. Serum PCT is a better marker than ESR, CRP, and leukocyte count for the early prediction of RPI in children with a first episode of UTI.

  9. Slice simulation from a model of the parenchymous vascularization to evaluate texture features: work in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Y; Bézy-Wendling, J; Duvauferrier, R; Coatrieux, J L

    1999-03-01

    To demonstrate the usefulness of a model of the parenchymous vascularization to evaluate texture analysis methods. Slices with thickness varying from 1 to 4 mm were reformatted from a 3D vascular model corresponding to either normal tissue perfusion or local hypervascularization. Parameters of statistical methods were measured on 16128x128 regions of interest, and mean values and standard deviation were calculated. For each parameter, the performances (discrimination power and stability) were evaluated. Among 11 calculated statistical parameters, three (homogeneity, entropy, mean of gradients) were found to have a good discriminating power to differentiate normal perfusion from hypervascularization, but only the gradient mean was found to have a good stability with respect to the thickness. Five parameters (run percentage, run length distribution, long run emphasis, contrast, and gray level distribution) were found to have intermediate results. In the remaining three, curtosis and correlation was found to have little discrimination power, skewness none. This 3D vascular model, which allows the generation of various examples of vascular textures, is a powerful tool to assess the performance of texture analysis methods. This improves our knowledge of the methods and should contribute to their a priori choice when designing clinical studies.

  10. Role of Transbronchial Lung Cryobiopsies in Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Diseases: Interest of a Sequential Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Bondue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Transbronchial lung cryobiopsies (TBLCs are a promising diagnostic tool in the setting of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs. However, no comparison with surgical lung biopsy (SLB in the same patient is available. Methods. The diagnostic yield and safety data of TBLCs, as well as the result of SLB performed after TBLCs, were analysed in a multicentric Belgian study. A SLB was performed after TBLCs in absence of a definite pathological diagnosis or if a NSIP pattern was observed without related condition identified following multidisciplinary discussion. Results. Between April 2015 and November 2016, 30 patients were included. Frequent complications included pneumothorax (20% and bleeding (severe 7%, moderate 33%, and mild 53%. There was no mortality. The overall diagnostic yield was 80%. A SLB was performed in six patients (three without definite histological pattern and three with an NSIP. The surgical biopsy changed the pathological diagnosis into a UIP pattern in five patients and confirmed a NSIP pattern in one patient. Conclusion. TBLCs are useful in the diagnostic work-up of DPLDs avoiding a SLB in 80% of the patients. However, surgical biopsies, performed as a second step after TBLCs because of an indefinite diagnosis or a NSIP pattern, provide additional information supporting the interest of a sequential approach in these patients.

  11. Renal artery and parenchymal changes after renal denervation: assessment by magnetic resonance angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, Margreet F.; Vink, Eva E.; Blankestijn, Peter J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Doormaal, Pieter Jan van; Habets, Jesse; Vonken, Evert-Jan; Leiner, Tim [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Beeftink, Martine M.A.; Verloop, Willemien L.; Voskuil, Michiel [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Cardiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bots, Michiel L. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Fadl Elmula, Fadl Elmula M. [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine and Department of Cardiology, Ullevaal, Oslo (Norway); Hammer, Frank [Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Hoffmann, Pavel [Oslo University Hospital, Section for Interventional Cardiology, Department of Cardiology, Ullevaal, Oslo (Norway); Jacobs, Lotte; Staessen, Jan A. [University of Leuven, Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Leuven (Belgium); Mark, Patrick B.; Taylor, Alison H. [University of Glasgow, Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Persu, Alexandre; Renkin, Jean [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Pole of Cardiovascular Research, Institut de Recherche Experimentale et Clinique, Brussels (Belgium); Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Cardiology Department, Brussels (Belgium); Roditi, Giles [Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Spiering, Wilko [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Vascular Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Collaboration: on behalf of the European Network COordinating research on Renal Denervation (ENCOReD) Consortium

    2017-09-15

    Relatively little is known about the incidence of long-term renal damage after renal denervation (RDN), a potential new treatment for hypertension. In this study the incidence of renal artery and parenchymal changes, assessed with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) after RDN, is investigated. This study is an initiative of ENCOReD, a collaboration of hypertension expert centres. Patients in whom an MRA was performed before and after RDN were included. Scans were evaluated by two independent, blinded radiologists. Primary outcome was the change in renal artery morphology and parenchyma. MRAs from 96 patients were analysed. Before RDN, 41 renal anomalies were observed, of which 29 mostly mild renal artery stenoses. After a median time of 366 days post RDN, MRA showed a new stenosis (25-49% lumen reduction) in two patients and progression of pre-existing lumen reduction in a single patient. No other renal changes were observed and renal function remained stable. We observed new or progressed renal artery stenosis in three out of 96 patients, after a median time of 12 months post RDN (3.1%). Procedural angiographies showed that ablations were applied near the observed stenosis in only one of the three patients. (orig.)

  12. Brain parenchymal damage in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder - A multimodal MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pache, F.; Paul, F. [Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine and Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center and Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Zimmermann, H.; Lacheta, A.; Papazoglou, S.; Kuchling, J.; Wuerfel, J.; Brandt, A.U. [Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine and Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center and Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Finke, C. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Berlin (Germany); Hamm, B. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Ruprecht, K. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Scheel, M. [Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine and Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center and Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    To investigate different brain regions for grey (GM) and white matter (WM) damage in a well-defined cohort of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) patients and compare advanced MRI techniques (VBM, Subcortical and cortical analyses (Freesurfer), and DTI) for their ability to detect damage in NMOSD. We analyzed 21 NMOSD patients and 21 age and gender matched control subjects. VBM (GW/WM) and DTI whole brain (TBSS) analyses were performed at different statistical thresholds to reflect different statistical approaches in previous studies. In an automated atlas-based approach, Freesurfer and DTI results were compared between NMOSD and controls. DTI TBSS and DTI atlas based analysis demonstrated microstructural impairment only within the optic radiation or in regions associated with the optic radiation (posterior thalamic radiation p < 0.001, 6.9 % reduction of fractional anisotropy). VBM demonstrated widespread brain GM and WM reduction, but only at exploratory statistical thresholds, with no differences remaining after correction for multiple comparisons. Freesurfer analysis demonstrated no group differences. NMOSD specific parenchymal brain damage is predominantly located in the optic radiation, likely due to a secondary degeneration caused by ON. In comparison, DTI appears to be the most reliable and sensitive technique for brain damage detection in NMOSD. (orig.)

  13. Impact of menopausal status on background parenchymal enhancement and fibroglandular tissue on breast MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Valencia [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Breast Imaging Section, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Gu, Yajia [Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Fudan University, Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai (China); Kaplan, Jennifer B.; Morris, Elizabeth A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Breast Imaging Section, New York, NY (United States); Brooks, Jennifer D.; Pike, Malcolm C. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-12-15

    To evaluate the effect of menopausal status on the background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) on breast MRI. Retrospective review identified 1,130 women who underwent screening breast MRI between July and November 2010. In 28 of these women, breast MRI was performed both at one time point while pre- and one time point while post-menopausal (median interval 49 months). Two independent readers blinded to menopausal status used categorical scales to rate BPE (minimal/mild/moderate/marked) and FGT (fatty/scattered/heterogeneously dense/dense). Consensus was reached when there was disagreement. The sign test was used to assess changes in rating categories, and the Spearman rank and Fisher's exact tests were used to measure correlations and associations between variables. Significant proportions of women demonstrated decreases in BPE and FGT on post-menopausal breast MRI (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0009). BPE category was unchanged in 39 % (11/28) and decreased in 61 % (17/28) of women. FGT category was unchanged in 61 % (17/28) and decreased in 39 % (11/28) of women. Age, reason for menopause, or interval between MRIs had no significant impact on changes in BPE and FGT. On MRI, BPE, and FGT decrease after menopause in significant proportions of women; BPE decreases more than FGT. (orig.)

  14. Brain parenchymal damage in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder - A multimodal MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pache, F.; Paul, F.; Zimmermann, H.; Lacheta, A.; Papazoglou, S.; Kuchling, J.; Wuerfel, J.; Brandt, A.U.; Finke, C.; Hamm, B.; Ruprecht, K.; Scheel, M.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate different brain regions for grey (GM) and white matter (WM) damage in a well-defined cohort of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) patients and compare advanced MRI techniques (VBM, Subcortical and cortical analyses (Freesurfer), and DTI) for their ability to detect damage in NMOSD. We analyzed 21 NMOSD patients and 21 age and gender matched control subjects. VBM (GW/WM) and DTI whole brain (TBSS) analyses were performed at different statistical thresholds to reflect different statistical approaches in previous studies. In an automated atlas-based approach, Freesurfer and DTI results were compared between NMOSD and controls. DTI TBSS and DTI atlas based analysis demonstrated microstructural impairment only within the optic radiation or in regions associated with the optic radiation (posterior thalamic radiation p < 0.001, 6.9 % reduction of fractional anisotropy). VBM demonstrated widespread brain GM and WM reduction, but only at exploratory statistical thresholds, with no differences remaining after correction for multiple comparisons. Freesurfer analysis demonstrated no group differences. NMOSD specific parenchymal brain damage is predominantly located in the optic radiation, likely due to a secondary degeneration caused by ON. In comparison, DTI appears to be the most reliable and sensitive technique for brain damage detection in NMOSD. (orig.)

  15. Uterine epithelial cell proliferation and endometrial hyperplasia: evidence from a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Li, Shu; Li, Qinglei

    2014-08-01

    In the uterus, epithelial cell proliferation changes during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Uncontrolled epithelial cell proliferation results in implantation failure and/or cancer development. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling is a fundamental regulator of diverse biological processes and is indispensable for multiple reproductive functions. However, the in vivo role of TGF-β signaling in uterine epithelial cells remains poorly defined. We have shown that in the uterus, conditional deletion of the Type 1 receptor for TGF-β (Tgfbr1) using anti-Müllerian hormone receptor type 2 (Amhr2) Cre leads to myometrial defects. Here, we describe enhanced epithelial cell proliferation by immunostaining of Ki67 in the uteri of these mice. The aberration culminated in endometrial hyperplasia in aged females. To exclude the potential influence of ovarian steroid hormones, the proliferative status of uterine epithelial cells was assessed following ovariectomy. Increased uterine epithelial cell proliferation was also revealed in ovariectomized Tgfbr1 Amhr2-Cre conditional knockout mice. We further demonstrated that transcript levels for fibroblast growth factor 10 (Fgf10) were markedly up-regulated in Tgfbr1 Amhr2-Cre conditional knockout uteri. Consistently, treatment of primary uterine stromal cells with TGF-β1 significantly reduced Fgf10 mRNA expression. Thus, our findings suggest a potential involvement of TGFBR1-mediated signaling in the regulation of uterine epithelial cell proliferation, and provide genetic evidence supporting the role of uterine epithelial cell proliferation in the pathogenesis of endometrial hyperplasia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Inter-observer agreement according to three methods of evaluating mammographic density and parenchymal pattern in a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Rikke Rass; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Nielsen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    , Tabár's PIV and PV and the upper two quartiles (within density range) of PMD. The relative risk of breast cancer was estimated using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, which were compared between the two readers. RESULTS: Substantial inter-observer agreement was seen......, respectively. Inter-reader variability showed different impact on the relative risk of breast cancer estimated by the two readers on a multiple-category scale, however, not on a high/low-risk scale. Tabár's pattern IV demonstrated the highest ORs of all density patterns investigated. CONCLUSIONS: Our study......BACKGROUND: Mammographic breast density and parenchymal patterns are well-established risk factors for breast cancer. We aimed to report inter-observer agreement on three different subjective ways of assessing mammographic density and parenchymal pattern, and secondarily to examine what potential...

  17. Evidence against the involvement of ionically bound cell wall proteins in pea epicotyl growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melan, M. A.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    Ionically bound cell wall proteins were extracted from 7 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska) epicotyls with 3 molar LiCl. Polyclonal antiserum was raised in rabbits against the cell wall proteins. Growth assays showed that treatment of growing region segments (5-7 millimeters) of peas with either dialyzed serum, serum globulin fraction, affinity purified immunoglobulin, or papain-cleaved antibody fragments had no effect on growth. Immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed antibody binding to cell walls and penetration of the antibodies into the tissues. Western blot analysis, immunoassay results, and affinity chromatography utilizing Sepharose-bound antibodies confirmed recognition of the protein preparation by the antibodies. Experiments employing in vitro extension as a screening measure indicated no effect upon extension by antibodies, by 50 millimolar LiCl perfusion of the apoplast or by 3 molar LiCl extraction. Addition of cell wall protein to protease pretreated segments did not restore extension nor did addition of cell wall protein to untreated segments increase extension. It is concluded that, although evidence suggests that protein is responsible for the process of extension, the class(es) of proteins which are extracted from pea cell walls with 3 molar LiCl are probably not involved in this process.

  18. Renal Parenchymal Hypoxia in Young Children in the Period of Complete Remission of Acute Uncomplicated Pyelonephritis without Renal Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Lukianenko

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions. To predict the formation and for the purpose of early diagnosis of renal parenchymal hypoxia and the processes of nephrothelial membrane destruction in young children with pyelonephritis, it is recommended to use such markers, as indicators of urine ability to prevent crystal formation, daily excretion of salts, excretion of lipid peroxidation products and polar lipids in the urine. It is recommended to apply the methods to correct these changes.

  19. Vascular and parenchymal amyloid pathology in an Alzheimer disease knock-in mouse model: interplay with cerebral blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmei; Guo, Qinxi; Inoue, Taeko; Polito, Vinicia A; Tabuchi, Katsuhiko; Hammer, Robert E; Pautler, Robia G; Taffet, George E; Zheng, Hui

    2014-08-09

    Accumulation and deposition of β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) in the brain is a central event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Besides the parenchymal pathology, Aβ is known to undergo active transport across the blood-brain barrier and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a prominent feature in the majority of AD. Although impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been implicated in faulty Aβ transport and clearance, and cerebral hypoperfusion can exist in the pre-clinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD), it is still unclear whether it is one of the causal factors for AD pathogenesis, or an early consequence of a multi-factor condition that would lead to AD at late stage. To study the potential interaction between faulty CBF and amyloid accumulation in clinical-relevant situation, we generated a new amyloid precursor protein (APP) knock-in allele that expresses humanized Aβ and a Dutch mutation in addition to Swedish/London mutations and compared this line with an equivalent knock-in line but in the absence of the Dutch mutation, both crossed onto the PS1M146V knock-in background. Introduction of the Dutch mutation results in robust CAA and parenchymal Aβ pathology, age-dependent reduction of spatial learning and memory deficits, and CBF reduction as detected by fMRI. Direct manipulation of CBF by transverse aortic constriction surgery on the left common carotid artery caused differential changes in CBF in the anterior and middle region of the cortex, where it is reduced on the left side and increased on the right side. However these perturbations in CBF resulted in the same effect: both significantly exacerbate CAA and amyloid pathology. Our study reveals a direct and positive link between vascular and parenchymal Aβ; both can be modulated by CBF. The new APP knock-in mouse model recapitulates many symptoms of AD including progressive vascular and parenchymal Aβ pathology and behavioral deficits in the absence of APP overexpression.

  20. Assessment of the relationship between lung parenchymal destruction and impaired pulmonary perfusion on a lobar level in patients with emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia; Ley, Sebastian; Eberhardt, Ralf; Weinheimer, Oliver; Fink, Christian; Puderbach, Michael; Eichinger, Monika; Herth, Felix; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the relationship between lung parenchymal destruction and impaired pulmonary perfusion on a lobar level using CT and MRI in patients with emphysema. Material and methods: Forty-five patients with severe emphysema (GOLD III and IV) underwent inspiratory 3D-HRCT and contrast-enhanced MR-perfusion (1.5T; 3.5 mm x 1.9 mm x 4 mm). 3D-HRCT data was analyzed using a software for detection and visualization of emphysema. Emphysema was categorized in four clusters with different volumes and presented as overlay on the CT. CT and lung perfusion were visually analyzed for three lobes on each side using a four-point-score to grade the abnormalities on CT (1: predominantly small emphysema-clusters to 4: >75% large emphysema-clusters) and MRI (1: normal perfusion to 4: no perfusion). Results: A total of 270 lobes were evaluated. At CT, the score was 1 for 9 lobes, 2 for 43, 3 for 77, and 4 for 141 lobes. At MRI, the score was 1 for 13 lobes, 2 for 45, 3 for 92, and 4 for 120 lobes. Matching of lung parenchymal destruction and reduced perfusion was found in 213 lobes (weighted kappa = 0.8). The score was higher on CT in 44, and higher on MRI in 13 lobes. Conclusion: 3D-HRCT and 3D MR-perfusion show a high lobar agreement between parenchymal destruction and reduction of perfusion in patients with severe emphysema

  1. The assessment of renal cortex and parenchymal volume using automated CT volumetry for predicting renal function after donor nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Yosuke; Sadahira, Takuya; Araki, Motoo; Wada, Koichiro; Tanimoto, Ryuta; Ariyoshi, Yuichi; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Masami; Watanabe, Toyohiko; Nasu, Yasutomo

    2018-04-01

    Contrast-enhanced CT is necessary before donor nephrectomy and is usually combined with a Tc-99m-mercapto-acetyltriglycine (MAG3) scan to check split renal function (SRF). However, all transplant programs do not use MAG3 because of its high cost and exposure to radiation. We examined whether CT volumetry of the kidney can be a new tool for evaluating SRF. Sixty-three patients underwent live donor nephrectomy. Patients without a 1.0 mm slice CT or follow-up for volumetry was analyzed at 1, 3, and 12 months post nephrectomy. Strong correlations were observed preoperatively in a Bland-Altman plot between SRF measured by MAG3 and either CT cortex or parenchymal volumetry. In addition, eGFR after donation correlated with SRF measured by MAG3 or CT volumetry. The correlation coefficients (R) for eGFR Mag3 split were 0.755, 0.615, and 0.763 at 1, 3 and 12 months, respectively. The corresponding R values for cortex volume split were 0.679, 0.638, and 0.747. Those for parenchymal volume split were 0.806, 0.592, and 0.764. Measuring kidney by CT volumetry is a cost-effective alternative to MAG3 for evaluating SRF and predicting postoperative donor renal function. Both cortex and parenchymal volumetry were similarly effective.

  2. Cell-based Therapy for Acute Organ Injury: Preclinical Evidence and On-going Clinical Trials Using Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsel, Antoine; Zhu, Ying-gang; Gennai, Stephane; Hao, Qi; Liu, Jia; Lee, Jae W.

    2014-01-01

    Critically ill patients often suffer from multiple organ failures involving lung, kidney, liver or brain. Genomic, proteomic and metabolomic approaches highlight common injury mechanisms leading to acute organ failure. This underlines the need to focus on therapeutic strategies affecting multiple injury pathways. The use of adult stem cells such as mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSC) may represent a promising new therapeutic approach as increasing evidence shows that MSC can exert protective effects following injury through the release of pro-mitotic, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory soluble factors. Furthermore, they can mitigate metabolomic and oxidative stress imbalance. In this work, we review the biological capabilities of MSC and the results of clinical trials using MSC as therapy in acute organ injuries. Although preliminary results are encouraging, more studies concerning safety and efficacy of MSC therapy are needed to determine their optimal clinical use. PMID:25211170

  3. WD40-repeat proteins in plant cell wall formation: current evidence and research prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gea eGuerriero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic complexity of living organisms relies on supramolecular protein structures which ensure vital processes, such as signal transduction, transcription, translation and cell wall synthesis. In eukaryotes WD40-repeat (WDR proteins often function as molecular hubs mediating supramolecular interactions. WDR proteins may display a variety of interacting partners and participate in the assembly of complexes involved in distinct cellular functions. In plants, the formation of lignocellulosic biomass involves extensive synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides, a process that requires the assembly of large transmembrane enzyme complexes, intensive vesicle trafficking, interactions with the cytoskeleton, and coordinated gene expression. Because of their function as supramolecular hubs, WDR proteins could participate in each or any of these steps, although to date only few WDR proteins have been linked to the cell wall by experimental evidence. Nevertheless, several potential cell wall-related WDR proteins were recently identified using in silico aproaches, such as analyses of co-expression, interactome and conserved gene neighbourhood. Notably, some WDR genes are frequently genomic neighbours of genes coding for GT2-family polysaccharide synthases in eukaryotes, and this WDR-GT2 collinear microsynteny is detected in diverse taxa. In angiosperms, two WDR genes are collinear to cellulose synthase genes, CESAs, whereas in ascomycetous fungi several WDR genes are adjacent to chitin synthase genes, chs. In this Perspective we summarize and discuss experimental and in silico studies on the possible involvement of WDR proteins in plant cell wall formation. The prospects of biotechnological engineering for enhanced biomass production are discussed.

  4. Lack of association between parenchymal neurocysticercosis and HLA Class I and Class II antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Picchioni Bompeixe

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis, caused by encysted larvae of the tapeworm Taenia solium, is the most common infection of the central nervous system and a major public health problem in many countries. Prevalence in the region of Curitiba, located in the southern Brazilian State of Paraná, is one of the highest in the world. The genetics of host susceptibility to neurocysticercosis (NCC is still obscure. To investigate if major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes influence individual susceptibility to NCC, we performed a case-control association analysis. Fifty-two Caucasoid patients and 149 matched controls were typed for antigens of the HLA-A, B, C, DR and DQ loci. All patients had computerized tomography and clinical features compatible with parenchymal NCC. Indirect immunofluorescence of cerebrospinal fluid showed that 19 (37% of the patients presented anti-cysticercus antibodies at titers ³ 1:10. Frequencies of HLA specificities in the whole group of patients and in the subgroup with antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid were compared to those of the control group. No significant difference was found. These results do not support the hypothesis of HLA gene participation in susceptibility to parenchymal neurocysticercosis.A neurocisticercose, causada pelo cisticerco, a larva do cestóide Taenia solium, é a infecção mais comum do sistema nervoso central e constitui importante problema de saúde pública em muitos países. A sua prevalência na região de Curitiba, localizada no Estado do Paraná, foi estimada em 9%, situando-se entre as mais elevadas do mundo. Os aspectos genéticos de suscetibilidade à neurocisticercose (NCC ainda são pouco conhecidos. Com o objetivo de investigar se genes do MHC influenciam a suscetibilidade individual à NCC, realizamos uma análise de associação caso-controle. Cinqüenta e dois pacientes caucasóides e 149 indivíduos-controle pareados foram tipados para antígenos dos locos HLA-A, B, C, DR e DQ. Todos os

  5. Impact of fibroglandular tissue and background parenchymal enhancement on diffusion weighted imaging of breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iacconi, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.iacconi@tin.it [Breast Unit, USL1 Massa-Carrara, Piazza Monzoni 2, Carrara 54033 (Italy); Thakur, Sunitha B., E-mail: thakurs@mskcc.org [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Dershaw, David D., E-mail: dershawd@mskcc.org [Department of Radiology – Breast Imaging Center, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Brooks, Jennifer, E-mail: brooksj@mskcc.org [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 307 East 63rd Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Fry, Charles W., E-mail: charles_fry@nymc.edu [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Morris, Elizabeth A., E-mail: morrise@mskcc.org [Department of Radiology – Breast Imaging Center, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Aim of the paper is to evaluate if the amount of fibroglandular breast tissue (FGT) and the background enhancement(BPE) influence the detection of lesions and their quantitative analysis in diffusion weighted imaging(DWI) • The structure of the breast, including both FGT and BPE, as well as the menopausal status of the patient are not a relevant factor for lesion identification in DWI. • Quantitative analysis of normal breast is not uniform and is influenced by the amount of fibroglandular tissue,while there is no influence of background parenchymal enhancement. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the influence of the amount of fibroglandular breast tissue (FGT) and background-parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on lesion detection, quantitative analysis of normal breast tissue and of breast lesions on DWI. Materials and methods: IRB approved this retrospective study on focal findings at contrast-enhanced (CE) breast MR and DWI performed during July–December 2011. Patients with cysts, previous irradiation, silicone implants and current chemotherapy were excluded. DWI with fat suppression was acquired before dynamic acquisition (b factors: 0.1000 s/mm{sup 2}) using 1.5 and 3 T scanners. Using correlation with dynamic and T2 images, ROIs were drawn free-hand within the borders of any visible lesion and in contralateral normal breast. Fisher's exact test to evaluate visibility and Wilcoxon-rank-sum test for comparison of ADC values were used. The amount of FGT and BPE was visually assessed by concurrent MRI. Analysis was stratified by menopausal status. Results: 25/127 (20%) lesions were excluded for technical reasons. 65/102 (64%) lesions were visible on DWI (median diameter: 1.85 cm). Mass lesions (M) were more visible (43/60 = 72%) than non-mass enhancement (NME) (22/42 = 52%) and malignant lesions were more visible (55/72 = 76%) than benign (10/30 = 33%). BPE and FGT did not influence visibility of M (p = 0.35 and p = 0.57 respectively) as well

  6. Changes of renal sinus fat and renal parenchymal fat during an 18-month randomized weight loss trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelicha, Hila; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Shelef, Ilan; Gepner, Yftach; Tsaban, Gal; Tene, Lilac; Yaskolka Meir, Anat; Bilitzky, Avital; Komy, Oded; Cohen, Noa; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Sarusi, Benjamin; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Haviv, Yosef S; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2018-08-01

    Data regarding the role of kidney adiposity, its clinical implications, and its dynamics during weight-loss are sparse. We investigated the effect of long-term weight-loss induced intervention diets on dynamics of renal-sinus-fat, an ectopic fat depot, and %renal-parenchymal-fat, lipid accumulation within the renal parenchyma. We randomized 278 participants with abdominal obesity/dyslipidemia to low-fat or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate diets, with or without exercise. We quantified renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat by whole body magnetic-resonance-imaging. Participants (age = 48 years; 89% men; body-mass-index = 31 kg/m 2 ) had 86% retention to the trial after 18 months. Both increased renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat were directly associated with hypertension, and with higher abdominal deep-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue and visceral-adipose-tissue (p of trend vs. baseline) but not %renal-parenchymal-fat (-1.7%; p = 0.13 vs. baseline) significantly decreased, and similarly across the intervention groups. Renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat changes were correlated with weight-loss per-se (p < 0.05). In a model adjusted for age, sex, and visceral-adipose-tissue changes, 18 months reduction in renal-sinus-fat associated with decreased pancreatic, hepatic and cardiac fats (p < 0.05 for all) and with decreased cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) (β = 0.13; p = 0.05), triglycerides/HDL-c (β = 0.13; p = 0.05), insulin (β = 0.12; p = 0.05) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (β = 0.24; p = 0.001), but not with improved renal function parameters or blood pressure. Decreased intake of sodium was associated with a reduction in %renal-parenchymal-fat, after adjustment for 18 months weight-loss (β = 0.15; p = 0.026) and hypertension (β = 0.14; p = 0.04). Renal-sinus-fat and renal-parenchymal-fat are fairly related to weight-loss. Decreased renal-sinus-fat is associated with improved hepatic

  7. Relationship between Background Parenchymal Enhancement on High-risk Screening MRI and Future Breast Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Lars J; Saha, Ashirbani; Ghate, Sujata V; Kim, Connie; Soo, Mary Scott; Yoon, Sora C; Mazurowski, Maciej A

    2018-03-27

    To determine if background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on screening breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in high-risk women correlates with future cancer. All screening breast MRIs (n = 1039) in high-risk women at our institution from August 1, 2004, to July 30, 2013, were identified. Sixty-one patients who subsequently developed breast cancer were matched 1:2 by age and high-risk indication with patients who did not develop breast cancer (n = 122). Five fellowship-trained breast radiologists independently recorded the BPE. The median reader BPE for each case was calculated and compared between the cancer and control cohorts. Cancer cohort patients were high-risk because of a history of radiation therapy (10%, 6 of 61), high-risk lesion (18%, 11 of 61), or breast cancer (30%, 18 of 61); BRCA mutation (18%, 11 of 61); or family history (25%, 15 of 61). Subsequent malignancies were invasive ductal carcinoma (64%, 39 of 61), ductal carcinoma in situ (30%, 18 of 61) and invasive lobular carcinoma (7%, 4of 61). BPE was significantly higher in the cancer cohort than in the control cohort (P = 0.01). Women with mild, moderate, or marked BPE were 2.5 times more likely to develop breast cancer than women with minimal BPE (odds ratio = 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-4.8, P = .005). There was fair interreader agreement (κ = 0.39). High-risk women with greater than minimal BPE at screening MRI have increased risk of future breast cancer. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of Background Parenchymal Enhancement at Contrast-enhanced Spectral Mammography and Breast MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogani, Julie; Morris, Elizabeth A; Kaplan, Jennifer B; D'Alessio, Donna; Goldman, Debra; Moskowitz, Chaya S; Jochelson, Maxine S

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To assess the extent of background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) at contrast material-enhanced (CE) spectral mammography and breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, to evaluate interreader agreement in BPE assessment, and to examine the relationships between clinical factors and BPE. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective, institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant study. Two hundred seventy-eight women from 25 to 76 years of age with increased breast cancer risk who underwent CE spectral mammography and MR imaging for screening or staging from 2010 through 2014 were included. Three readers independently rated BPE on CE spectral mammographic and MR images with the ordinal scale: minimal, mild, moderate, or marked. To assess pairwise agreement between BPE levels on CE spectral mammographic and MR images and among readers, weighted κ coefficients with quadratic weights were calculated. For overall agreement, mean κ values and bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The univariate and multivariate associations between BPE and clinical factors were examined by using generalized estimating equations separately for CE spectral mammography and MR imaging. Results Most women had minimal or mild BPE at both CE spectral mammography (68%-76%) and MR imaging (69%-76%). Between CE spectral mammography and MR imaging, the intrareader agreement ranged from moderate to substantial (κ = 0.55-0.67). Overall agreement on BPE levels between CE spectral mammography and MR imaging and among readers was substantial (κ = 0.66; 95% confidence interval: 0.61, 0.70). With both modalities, BPE demonstrated significant association with menopausal status, prior breast radiation therapy, hormonal treatment, breast density on CE spectral mammographic images, and amount of fibroglandular tissue on MR images (P spectral mammographic and MR images. © RSNA, 2016.

  9. A comparison of deconvolution and the Rutland-Patlak plot in parenchymal renal uptake rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shakhrah, Issa A

    2012-07-01

    Deconvolution and the Rutland-Patlak (R-P) plot are two of the most commonly used methods for analyzing dynamic radionuclide renography. Both methods allow estimation of absolute and relative renal uptake of radiopharmaceutical and of its rate of transit through the kidney. Seventeen patients (32 kidneys) were referred for further evaluation by renal scanning. All patients were positioned supine with their backs to the scintillation gamma camera, so that the kidneys and the heart are both in the field of view. Approximately 5-7 mCi of (99m)Tc-DTPA (diethylinetriamine penta-acetic acid) in about 0.5 ml of saline is injected intravenously and sequential 20 s frames were acquired, the study on each patient lasts for approximately 20 min. The time-activity curves of the parenchymal region of interest of each kidney, as well as the heart were obtained for analysis. The data were then analyzed with deconvolution and the R-P plot. A strong positive association (n = 32; r = 0.83; R (2) = 0.68) was found between the values that obtained by applying the two methods. Bland-Altman statistical analysis demonstrated that ninety seven percent of the values in the study (31 cases from 32 cases, 97% of the cases) were within limits of agreement (mean ± 1.96 standard deviation). We believe that R-P analysis method is expected to be more reproducible than iterative deconvolution method, because the deconvolution technique (the iterative method) relies heavily on the accuracy of the first point analyzed, as any errors are carried forward into the calculations of all the subsequent points, whereas R-P technique is based on an initial analysis of the data by means of the R-P plot, and it can be considered as an alternative technique to find and calculate the renal uptake rate.

  10. MR elastography in primary sclerosing cholangitis: correlating liver stiffness with bile duct strictures and parenchymal changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookwalter, Candice A; Venkatesh, Sudhakar K; Eaton, John E; Smyrk, Thomas D; Ehman, Richard L

    2018-04-07

    To determine correlation of liver stiffness measured by MR Elastography (MRE) with biliary abnormalities on MR Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and MRI parenchymal features in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Fifty-five patients with PSC who underwent MRI of the liver with MRCP and MRE were retrospectively evaluated. Two board-certified abdominal radiologists in agreement reviewed the MRI, MRCP, and MRE images. The biliary tree was evaluated for stricture, dilatation, wall enhancement, and thickening at segmental duct, right main duct, left main duct, and common bile duct levels. Liver parenchyma features including signal intensity on T2W and DWI, and hyperenhancement in arterial, portal venous, and delayed phase were evaluated in nine Couinaud liver segments. Atrophy or hypertrophy of segments, cirrhotic morphology, varices, and splenomegaly were scored as present or absent. Regions of interest were placed in each of the nine segments on stiffness maps wherever available and liver stiffness (LS) was recorded. Mean segmental LS, right lobar (V-VIII), left lobar (I-III, and IVA, IVB), and global LS (average of all segments) were calculated. Spearman rank correlation analysis was performed for significant correlation. Features with significant correlation were then analyzed for significant differences in mean LS. Multiple regression analysis of MRI and MRCP features was performed for significant correlation with elevated LS. A total of 439/495 segments were evaluated and 56 segments not included in MRE slices were excluded for correlation analysis. Mean segmental LS correlated with the presence of strictures (r = 0.18, p duct strictures. Segments with increased LS show T2 hyperintensity, DWI hyperintensity, and post-contrast hyperenhancement. Global liver stiffness shows a moderate correlation with number of segmental strictures and significantly correlates with spleen stiffness, splenomegaly, and varices.

  11. Parameter optimization of parenchymal texture analysis for prediction of false-positive recalls from screening mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Shonket; Keller, Brad M.; Chen, Jinbo; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2016-03-01

    This work details a methodology to obtain optimal parameter values for a locally-adaptive texture analysis algorithm that extracts mammographic texture features representative of breast parenchymal complexity for predicting falsepositive (FP) recalls from breast cancer screening with digital mammography. The algorithm has two components: (1) adaptive selection of localized regions of interest (ROIs) and (2) Haralick texture feature extraction via Gray- Level Co-Occurrence Matrices (GLCM). The following parameters were systematically varied: mammographic views used, upper limit of the ROI window size used for adaptive ROI selection, GLCM distance offsets, and gray levels (binning) used for feature extraction. Each iteration per parameter set had logistic regression with stepwise feature selection performed on a clinical screening cohort of 474 non-recalled women and 68 FP recalled women; FP recall prediction was evaluated using area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and associations between the extracted features and FP recall were assessed via odds ratios (OR). A default instance of mediolateral (MLO) view, upper ROI size limit of 143.36 mm (2048 pixels2), GLCM distance offset combination range of 0.07 to 0.84 mm (1 to 12 pixels) and 16 GLCM gray levels was set. The highest ROC performance value of AUC=0.77 [95% confidence intervals: 0.71-0.83] was obtained at three specific instances: the default instance, upper ROI window equal to 17.92 mm (256 pixels2), and gray levels set to 128. The texture feature of sum average was chosen as a statistically significant (p<0.05) predictor and associated with higher odds of FP recall for 12 out of 14 total instances.

  12. Association between mammogram density and background parenchymal enhancement of breast MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei, Faranak; Danala, Gopichandh; Wang, Yunzhi; Zarafshani, Ali; Qian, Wei; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2018-02-01

    Breast density has been widely considered as an important risk factor for breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between mammogram density results and background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) of breast MRI. A dataset involving breast MR images was acquired from 65 high-risk women. Based on mammography density (BIRADS) results, the dataset was divided into two groups of low and high breast density cases. The Low-Density group has 15 cases with mammographic density (BIRADS 1 and 2), while the High-density group includes 50 cases, which were rated by radiologists as mammographic density BIRADS 3 and 4. A computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme was applied to segment and register breast regions depicted on sequential images of breast MRI scans. CAD scheme computed 20 global BPE features from the entire two breast regions, separately from the left and right breast region, as well as from the bilateral difference between left and right breast regions. An image feature selection method namely, CFS method, was applied to remove the most redundant features and select optimal features from the initial feature pool. Then, a logistic regression classifier was built using the optimal features to predict the mammogram density from the BPE features. Using a leave-one-case-out validation method, the classifier yields the accuracy of 82% and area under ROC curve, AUC=0.81+/-0.09. Also, the box-plot based analysis shows a negative association between mammogram density results and BPE features in the MRI images. This study demonstrated a negative association between mammogram density and BPE of breast MRI images.

  13. A fully automated system for quantification of background parenchymal enhancement in breast DCE-MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufuk Dalmiş, Mehmet; Gubern-Mérida, Albert; Borelli, Cristina; Vreemann, Suzan; Mann, Ritse M.; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2016-03-01

    Background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) observed in breast dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has been identified as an important biomarker associated with risk for developing breast cancer. In this study, we present a fully automated framework for quantification of BPE. We initially segmented fibroglandular tissue (FGT) of the breasts using an improved version of an existing method. Subsequently, we computed BPEabs (volume of the enhancing tissue), BPErf (BPEabs divided by FGT volume) and BPErb (BPEabs divided by breast volume), using different relative enhancement threshold values between 1% and 100%. To evaluate and compare the previous and improved FGT segmentation methods, we used 20 breast DCE-MRI scans and we computed Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) values with respect to manual segmentations. For evaluation of the BPE quantification, we used a dataset of 95 breast DCE-MRI scans. Two radiologists, in individual reading sessions, visually analyzed the dataset and categorized each breast into minimal, mild, moderate and marked BPE. To measure the correlation between automated BPE values to the radiologists' assessments, we converted these values into ordinal categories and we used Spearman's rho as a measure of correlation. According to our results, the new segmentation method obtained an average DSC of 0.81 0.09, which was significantly higher (p<0.001) compared to the previous method (0.76 0.10). The highest correlation values between automated BPE categories and radiologists' assessments were obtained with the BPErf measurement (r=0.55, r=0.49, p<0.001 for both), while the correlation between the scores given by the two radiologists was 0.82 (p<0.001). The presented framework can be used to systematically investigate the correlation between BPE and risk in large screening cohorts.

  14. Early fibrinogen degradation coagulopathy: a predictive factor of parenchymal hematomas in cerebral rt-PA thrombolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuhong; Berthiller, Julien; Trouillas, Paul; Derex, Laurent; Diallo, Laho; Hanss, Michel

    2015-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to systematically determine the correlations between the post-thrombolytic changes of hemostasis parameters and the occurrence of early intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In 72 consecutive patients with cerebral infarcts treated with rt-PA, plasma levels of fibrinogen, plasminogen, alpha2-antiplasmin, factor XIII, fibrin(ogen) degradation products (FDPs) and d-Dimers were measured at baseline, 2 and 24h after thrombolysis. Correlations were studied between the hemostasis events and early (less than 24h) hemorrhagic infarcts (HIs) or parenchymatous hematomas (PH). Of 72 patients, 6 patients (8.3%) had early PHs, 11 (15.3%) had early HIs, and 55 (76.4%) had no bleeding. Early HIs were not linked to any hemostasis parameter at any time. Univariate comparison of patients having early PHs with non-bleeding patients showed hemostasis abnormalities at 2h: high FDP (p=0.01), high Log FDP (p=0.01), low fibrinogen (p=0.01), and low Log fibrinogen (p=0.01). Logistic regression adjusted for age, NIHSS and diabetes confirmed these 2hour predictors: Log FDP (OR: 7.50; CI: 1.26 to 44.61, p=0.03), and Log fibrinogen (OR: 19.32; CI: 1.81 to 205.98, p=0.01). The decrease in fibrinogen less than 2g/L multiplies the odds of early PH by a factor 12.82. An early fibrinogen degradation coagulopathy involving an increase of FDP and a massive consumption of circulating fibrinogen is predictive of early parenchymal hematomas, indicating the occurrence of a particularly intense lysis of circulating fibrinogen. These results, if confirmed by future studies, suggest that early assays of fibrinogen and FDP may be useful in predicting the risk of post-thrombolytic intracerebral hematoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Background parenchymal enhancement over exam time in patients with and without breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsaether, Amy; Pujara, Akshat C; Elias, Kristin; Pysarenko, Kristine; Gudi, Anjali; Dodelzon, Katerina; Babb, James S; Gao, Yiming; Moy, Linda

    2017-01-01

    To compare background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) over time in patients with and without breast cancer. This retrospective Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant study included 116 women (25-84 years, mean 54 years) with breast cancer who underwent breast magnetic resonance imaging at 3T between 1/2/2009 and 12/29/2009 and 116 age and date-of-exam-matched women without breast cancer (23-84 years, mean 51 years). Two independent, blinded readers (R1, R2) recorded BPE (minimal, mild, moderate, marked) at three times (100, 210, and 320 seconds postcontrast). Subsequent cancers were diagnosed in 9/96 control patients with follow up (12.6-93.0 months, mean 63.6 months). Exact Mann-Whitney, Fisher's exact, and McNemar tests were performed. Mean BPE was not found to be different between patients with and without breast cancer at any time (P = 0.36-0.64). At time 2 as compared with time 1, there were significantly more patients, both with and without breast cancer, with BPE >minimal (R1: 90 vs. 41 [P mild (R1: 59 vs. 10 [P breast cancer were significant only for R2 and ranged up to 7.67 (1.49, 39.5; P mild at time 2. BPE changes between the first and second postcontrast scans and stabilizes thereafter in most patients. Further investigation into the most clinically relevant timepoint for BPE assessment is warranted. 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:74-83. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  16. Use of bipolar radiofrequency in parenchymal transection of the liver, pancreas and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Madhava; Spalding, Duncan; Jiao, Long; Habib, Nagy

    2012-01-01

    Intraoperative blood loss has been shown to be an important factor correlating with increased morbidity and mortality in oncological surgery. Despite technological advances in parenchymal transection devices, bleeding remains the single most important complication. To address this, we designed and developed a bipolar radiofrequency (RF) device, the Habib 4X (Angiodynamics, Inc., Queensbury, N.Y., USA), which was initially used specifically for liver resections. A search using Medline, Embase and Google™ Scholar was performed for the period January 2001 to August 2011. The following Mesh terms were used: 'bipolar radiofrequency', 'Habib 4X', 'laparoscopic', 'liver resection', 'partial nephrectomy' and 'distal pancreatectomy'. The references of the studies included were also reviewed. Series from our centre were excluded. There were seven series published, reporting a total of 188 liver resections [113 minor (Habib 4X) device over this period. The median blood loss reported ranged from 15 to 427 ml with a transfusion rate of 0-14% In addition, five series of partial nephrectomies were also identified, reporting a total of 149 (45 open and 104 laparoscopic) cases. Hilar clamping was not used in any of the cases, and the mean blood loss reported was 100-337 ml whilst the transfusion rate ranged from 0 to 7.1%. There was only one published series of distal pancreatectomies; these were laparoscopic and included 14 patients. This review of bipolar RF-assisted liver resections, partial nephrectomies and distal pancreatectomies reported in the literature to date shows that there are significant advantages in using this device in these types of operation. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Quantitative CT scans of lung parenchymal pathology in premature infants ages 0-6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, David R; Walkup, Laura L; Stein, Jill M; Crotty, Eric J; Rattan, Mantosh S; Hossain, Md Monir; Brody, Alan S; Woods, Jason C

    2018-03-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common, heterogeneous disease in premature infants. We hypothesized that quantitative CT techniques could assess lung parenchymal heterogeneity in BPD patients across a broad age range and demonstrate how pathologies change over time. A cross-sectional, retrospective study of children age 0-6 years with non-contrast chest CT scans was conducted. BPD subjects met NICHD/NHLBI diagnostic criteria for BPD and were excluded for congenital lung/airway abnormalities or other known/suspected pulmonary diagnoses; control subjects were not premature and had normal CT scan findings. Radiologic opacities, lucencies, and spatial heterogeneity were quantified via: 1) thresholding using CT-attenuation (HU); 2) manual segmentation; and 3) Ochiai reader-scoring system. Clinical outcomes included BPD severity by NICHD/NHLBI criteria, respiratory support at NICU discharge, wheezing, and respiratory exacerbations. Heterogeneity (standard deviation) of lung attenuation in BPD was significantly greater than in controls (difference 36.4 HU [26.1-46.7 HU], P < 0.001); the difference between the groups decreased 0.58 HU per month of age (0.08-1.07 HU per month, P = 0.02). BPD patients had greater amounts of opacities and lucencies than controls except with automated quantification of lucencies. Cross-sectionally, lucencies per Ochiai score and opacities per manual segmentation decreased with time. No approach measured a statistically significant relationship to BPD clinical severity. Opacities, lucencies, and overall heterogeneity of lungs via quantitative CT can distinguish BPD patients from healthy controls, and these abnormalities decrease with age across BPD patients. Defining BPD severity by clinical outcomes such as respiratory support at several time points (vs a single time point, per current guidelines) may be meaningful. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The relationships between clinical variables and renal parenchymal disease in pediatric clinically suspected urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Lim Byun

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the significance of clinical signs and laboratory findings as predictors of renal parenchymal lesions and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR in childhood urinary tract infection (UTI. Methods : From July 2005 to July 2008, 180 patients admitted with a first febrile UTI at the Pediatric Department of Konkuk University Hospital were included in this study. The following were the clinical variables: leukocytosis, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP, positive urine nitrite, positive urine culture, and fever duration both before and after treatment. We evaluated the relationships between clinical variables and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA scan and voiding cystourethrography (VCUG results. Results : VCUG was performed in 148 patients; of them, 37 (25.0% had VUR: 18 (12.2% had low-grade (I-II VUR, and 19 (10.5% had high-grade (III-V VUR. Of the 95 patients who underwent DMSA scanning, 29 (30.5% had cortical defects, of which 21 (63.6% had VUR: 10 (30.3%, low-grade (I-II VUR; and 11 (33.3%, high-grade VUR. Of the 57 patients who were normal on DMSA scan, 8 (14.0% had low-grade VUR and 6 (10.5% had high-grade VUR. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the DMSA scan in predicting high-grade VUR were 64.7%, 69.9%, 33.3%, and 89.5%, respectively. Leukocytosis, elevated CRP, and prolonged fever (?#243;6 hours after treatment were significantly correlated with the cortical defects on DMSA scans and high-grade VUR. Conclusion : Clinical signs, including prolonged fever after treatment, elevated CRP, and leukocytosis, are positive predictors of acute pyelonephritis and high-grade VUR.

  19. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Cutaneous Wound Healing: Current Evidence and Future Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Isakson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human skin is a remarkable organ that sustains insult and injury throughout life. The ability of skin to expeditiously repair wounds is paramount to survival. With an aging global population, coupled with a rise in the prevalence of conditions such as diabetes, chronic wounds represent a significant biomedical burden. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, a progenitor cell population of the mesoderm lineage, have been shown to be significant mediators in inflammatory environments. Preclinical studies of MSC in various animal wound healing models point towards a putative therapy. This review examines the body of evidence suggesting that MSC accelerate wound healing in both clinical and preclinical studies and also the possible mechanisms controlling its efficacy. The delivery of a cellular therapy to the masses presents many challenges from a safety, ethical, and regulatory point of view. Some of the issues surrounding the introduction of MSC as a medicinal product are also delineated in this review.

  20. Evidence for an evolutionarily conserved interaction between cell wall biosynthesis and flowering in maize and sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Karen J

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors that affect flowering vary among different plant species, and in the grasses in particular the exact mechanism behind this transition is not fully understood. The brown midrib (bm mutants of maize (Zea mays L., which have altered cell wall composition, have different flowering dynamics compared to their wild-type counterparts. This is indicative of a link between cell wall biogenesis and flowering. In order to test whether this relationship also exists in other grasses, the flowering dynamics in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench were investigated. Sorghum is evolutionarily closely related to maize, and a set of brown midrib (bmr mutants similar to the maize bm mutants is available, making sorghum a suitable choice for study in this context. Results We compared the flowering time (time to half-bloom of several different bmr sorghum lines and their wild-type counterparts. This revealed that the relationship between cell wall composition and flowering was conserved in sorghum. Specifically, the mutant bmr7 flowered significantly earlier than the corresponding wild-type control, whereas the mutants bmr2, bmr4, bmr6, bmr12, and bmr19 flowered later than their wild-type controls. Conclusion The change in flowering dynamics in several of the brown midrib sorghum lines provides evidence for an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that links cell wall biosynthesis to flowering dynamics. The availability of the sorghum bmr mutants expands the germplasm available to investigate this relationship in further detail.

  1. Evidence of heterogeneity within bovine satellite cells isolated from young and adult animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Gonzalez, J M; Walker, D K; Hersom, M J; Ealy, A D; Johnson, S E

    2011-06-01

    Satellite cells are a heterogeneous population of myogenic precursors responsible for muscle growth and repair in mammals. The objectives of the experiment were to examine the growth rates and degree of heterogeneity within bovine satellite cells (BSC) isolated from young and adult animals. The BSC were harvested from the semimembranosus of young (4.3 ± 0.5 d) and adult (estimated 24 to 27 mo) cattle and cultured en masse. Young animal BSC re-enter the cell cycle sooner and reach maximal 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation earlier (P animals after 3, 4, and 5 d in culture. These results indicate that BSC from young animals activate, proliferate, and differentiate sooner than isolates from adult animals. Lineage heterogeneity within BSC was examined using antibodies specific for Pax7 and Myf5, lineage markers of satellite cells, and myoblasts. Immunocytochemistry revealed the majority of Pax7-expressing BSC also express Myf5; a minor population (~5%) fails to exhibit Myf5 immunoreactivity. The percentage of Pax7:Myf5 BSC from young animals decreases sooner (P cell clones were established and analyzed after 10 d. Colonies segregated into 2 groups based upon population doubling time. Immunostaining of the slow-growing colonies (population doubling time ≥ 3 d) revealed that a portion exhibited asymmetric distribution of the lineage markers Pax7 and Myf5, similar to self-renewable mouse muscle stem cells. In summary, these results offer insight into the heterogeneity of BSC and provide evidence for subtle differences between rodent and bovine myogenic precursors.

  2. Metastatic non-small cell lung cancer Current treatment based on evidence (ONCOL Group)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Carlos; Cardona, Andres Felipe; Reveiz, Ludovic; Serrano, Silvia Juliana; Carranza, Hernan; Vargas, Carlos Alberto; Reguart, Noemi; Campo, Felipe; Ospina, Edgar Guillermo; Sanchez, Oswaldo; Torres, Diana; Otero, Jorge Miguel

    2010-01-01

    to perform a review of evidence about the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Source of data: the information was obtained from searches conducted in Medline, CCTR, Biosis, Embase, Lilacs and CINHAL. We also collected the most representative references presented during the last five years at Asco, ESMO and IASLC. Data extraction: data were extracted by associate members to the ONCOL Group. The collection of information did not follow a uniform strategy. Results of data synthesis: therapy for NSCLC can prolong survival and improve quality of life, but the majority of advanced stage patients dies due to disease progression within 2 years, meaning that there is room for improvement. The standard chemotherapy for NSCLC involves one of a number of platinum-based doublets that have been shown to improve survival when compared with single agents or best supportive care. These doublets are generally comparable in terms of efficacy, differing primarily in their toxicity profiles. However, encouraging new options may be approaching, including therapies targeted to specific patient subpopulations, and the use of combinations of current and new drugs to produce synergistic effects. This review present a detailed analysis of current evidence regarding the treatment of NSCLC based on a representative case series. This review didn't conduct a systematic evaluation of the evidence. Conclusion: medical therapy for NSCLC produces positive changes in main outcomes, including quality of life

  3. Evidence for a specific glutamate/H+ cotransport in isolated mesophyll cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCutcheon, S.L.; Bown, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    Mechanically isolated Asparagus sprengeri Regel mesophyll cells were suspended in 1 millimolar CaSO 4 . Immediate alkalinization of the medium occurred on the addition of 1 millimolar concentrations of L-glutamate (Glu) and its analog L-methionine-D,L-sulfoximine (L-MSO). D-Glu and the L isomers of the protein amino acids did not elicit alkalinization. L-Glu dependent alkalinization was transient and acidification resumed after approximately 30 to 45 minutes. At pH 6.0, 5 millimolar L-Glu stimulated initial rates of alkalinization that varied between 1.3 to 4.1 nmol H + /10 6 cells minute. L-Glu dependent alkalinization was saturable, increased with decreasing pH, was inhibited by carbonyl cyanide-p-trichloromethoxyphenyl hydrazone (CCCP), and was not stimulated by light. Uptake of L-[U- 14 C]glutamate increased as the pH decreased from 6.5 to 5.5, and was inhibited by L-MSO. L-Glu had no influence on K + efflux. Although evidence for multiple amino acid/proton cotransport systems has been found in other tissues, the present report indicates that a highly specific L-Glu/proton uptake process is present in Asparagus mesophyll cells

  4. Sonographic assessment of normal renal parenchymal and medullary pyramid thicknesses among children in Enugu, Southeast, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eze, C.U.; Akpan, V.P.; Nwadike, I.U.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Renal parenchymal thickness (RPT) and renal medullary pyramid thickness (MPT) are important renal size parameters. This study was aimed at establishing normograms for RPT and MPT with respect to age and somatometric parameters among children. Methods: This was a cross sectional study done in Enugu, Nigeria between May 2013 and April 2014. The subjects were 512 children aged 1–17 years scanned with ultrasound equipment with 3.5 MHz and 5 MHz curvilinear transducers. The RPT was measured perpendicularly to the long axis of the kidney from the medullary papilla to the renal capsule and MPT was measured from the apex to the base of the medullary pyramid on the same plane. The age and somatometric parameters of the subjects were recorded. Results: The mean ± SD of RPT and MPT for the right kidney were 12.62 ± 1.67 mm and 7.10 ± 0.92 mm and the left kidney were 12.81 ± 1.7 and 7.23 ± 0.94 mm respectively. There was a significant difference between the right and left RPT and MPT (p < 0.05). The right and left RPT correlated strongly with age, body surface area (BSA), height, and weight but moderately with body mass index (BMI). A moderate positive correlation was observed between MPT and age, BSA, height, and weight. However, a weak correlation was observed between MPT and BMI. Conclusion: Normograms of RPT and MPT in relation to age could be useful for grading hydronephrosis in children. - Highlights: • Sonography of RPT and MPT at the anterior longitudinal axis of the kidney is simple. • RPT and MPT Measurements are reliable within and between experienced sonographers. • No significant gender differences in RPT and MPT values exist in this study. • Significant differences exist between the right and left RPT and MPT measurements. • Normative values of RPT and MPT in relation to age in children are useful.

  5. Background parenchymal enhancement on breast MRI and mammographic breast density: correlation with tumour characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.Y.; Choi, N.; Yang, J.-H.; Yoo, Y.B.; Park, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationship between mammographic breast density (MGD) and background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) at breast MRI and histopathological features of invasive breast cancers. Materials and methods: A total of 178 women with unilateral invasive breast cancer who preoperatively underwent mammography and breast MRI were included in the study. Two radiologists rated MGD and BPE according to BI-RADS criteria in consensus. The relationship between MGD and BPE was investigated, and compared with histopathological features of invasive breast cancers according to the level of MGD and BPE. Results: At MRI, there is no significant difference in the distribution of MGD and BPE of the contralateral breast in women with invasive breast cancer according to menopausal status (p=0.226, 0.384). Women with high MGD (>50% glandular) were more likely to have oestrogen-receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer (p=0.045) and progesterone receptor (PR)-positive breast cancer (p=0.020). With regard to BPE, PR positivity correlated with moderate or marked BPE with borderline significance (p=0.054). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that women with high MGD were less likely to have triple-negative (i.e., a cancer that is ER negative, PR negative, and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 [HER2] negative) breast cancer compared with ER (+)/HER2 (−) cancer (OR=0.231, 95% CI: 0.070, 0.760; p=0.016). No association between the histological tumour characteristics and BPE was observed. Conclusion: In women with invasive breast cancer, high MGD is associated with ER positivity of the invasive breast cancer. However, at MRI, BPE of the contralateral breast seems to be independent of tumour characteristics. -- Highlights: •There is no difference in distribution of MGD and BPE of contralateral breast on MRI. •High MGD is associated with ER positivity of the invasive breast cancer. •BPE of the contralateral breast on MRI is independent of tumor

  6. Quantification of neonatal lung parenchymal density via ultrashort echo time MRI with comparison to CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higano, Nara S; Fleck, Robert J; Spielberg, David R; Walkup, Laura L; Hahn, Andrew D; Thomen, Robert P; Merhar, Stephanie L; Kingma, Paul S; Tkach, Jean A; Fain, Sean B; Woods, Jason C

    2017-10-01

    To demonstrate that ultrashort echo time (UTE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can achieve computed tomography (CT)-like quantification of lung parenchyma in free-breathing, non-sedated neonates. Because infant CTs are used sparingly, parenchymal disease evaluation via UTE MRI has potential for translational impact. Two neonatal control cohorts without suspected pulmonary morbidities underwent either a research UTE MRI (n = 5; 1.5T) or a clinically-ordered CT (n = 9). Whole-lung means and anterior-posterior gradients of UTE-measured image intensity (arbitrary units, au, normalized to muscle) and CT-measured density (g/cm 3 ) were compared (Mann-Whitney U-test). Separately, a diseased neonatal cohort (n = 5) with various pulmonary morbidities underwent both UTE MRI and CT. UTE intensity and CT density were compared with Spearman correlations within ∼33 anatomically matched regions of interest (ROIs) in each diseased subject, spanning low- to high-density tissues. Radiological classifications were evaluated in all ROIs, with mean UTE intensities and CT densities compared in each classification. In control subjects, whole-lung UTE intensities (0.51 ± 0.04 au) were similar to CT densities (0.44 ± 0.09 g/cm 3 ) (P = 0.062), as were UTE (0.021 ± 0.020 au/cm) and CT (0.034 ± 0.024 [g/cm 3 ]/cm) anterior-posterior gradients (P = 0.351). In diseased subjects' ROIs, significant correlations were observed between UTE and CT (P ≤0.007 in each case). Relative differences between UTE and CT were small in all classifications (4-25%). These results demonstrate a strong association between UTE image intensity and CT density, both between whole-lung tissue in control patients and regional radiological pathologies in diseased patients. This indicates the potential for UTE MRI to longitudinally evaluate neonatal pulmonary disease and to provide visualization of pathologies similar to CT, without sedation/anesthesia or ionizing radiation

  7. Primary Angiitis of the Central Nervous System: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Spectrum of Parenchymal, Meningeal, and Vascular Lesions at Baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulouis, Grégoire; de Boysson, Hubert; Zuber, Mathieu; Guillevin, Loïc; Meary, Eric; Costalat, Vincent; Pagnoux, Christian; Naggara, Olivier

    2017-05-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system remains challenging. To report an overview and pictorial review of brain magnetic resonance imaging findings in adult primary angiitis of the central nervous system and to determine the distribution of parenchymal, meningeal, and vascular lesions in a large multicentric cohort. Adult patients from the French COVAC cohort (Cohort of Patients With Primary Vasculitis of the Central Nervous System), with biopsy or angiographically proven primary angiitis of the central nervous system and brain magnetic resonance imaging available at the time of diagnosis were included. A systematic imaging review was performed blinded to clinical data. Sixty patients met inclusion criteria. Mean age was 45 years (±12.9). Patients initially presented focal deficit(s) (83%), headaches (53%), cognitive disorder (40%), and seizures (38.3%). The most common magnetic resonance imaging finding observed in 42% of patients was multiterritorial, bilateral, distal acute stroke lesions after small to medium artery distribution, with a predominant carotid circulation distribution. Hemorrhagic infarctions and parenchymal hemorrhages were also frequently found in the cohort (55%). Acute convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage was found in 26% of patients and 42% demonstrated pre-eminent leptomeningeal enhancement, which is found to be significantly more prevalent in biopsy-proven patients (60% versus 28%; P =0.04). Seven patients had tumor-like presentations. Seventy-seven percent of magnetic resonance angiographic studies were abnormal, revealing proximal/distal stenoses in 57% and 61% of patients, respectively. Adult primary angiitis of the central nervous system is a heterogenous disease, with multiterritorial, distal, and bilateral acute stroke being the most common pattern of parenchymal lesions found on magnetic resonance imaging. Our findings suggest a higher than previously thought prevalence of hemorrhagic transformation and other hemorrhagic

  8. TWEAK induces liver progenitor cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Aniela; Ambrose, Christine; Parr, Michael; Lincecum, John M.; Wang, Monica Z.; Zheng, Timothy S.; Browning, Beth; Michaelson, Jennifer S.; Baestcher, Manfred; Wang, Bruce; Bissell, D. Montgomery; Burkly, Linda C.

    2005-01-01

    Progenitor (“oval”) cell expansion accompanies many forms of liver injury, including alcohol toxicity and submassive parenchymal necrosis as well as experimental injury models featuring blocked hepatocyte replication. Oval cells can potentially become either hepatocytes or biliary epithelial cells and may be critical to liver regeneration, particularly when hepatocyte replication is impaired. The regulation of oval cell proliferation is incompletely understood. Herein we present evidence that a TNF family member called TWEAK (TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis) stimulates oval cell proliferation in mouse liver through its receptor Fn14. TWEAK has no effect on mature hepatocytes and thus appears to be selective for oval cells. Transgenic mice overexpressing TWEAK in hepatocytes exhibit periportal oval cell hyperplasia. A similar phenotype was obtained in adult wild-type mice, but not Fn14-null mice, by administering TWEAK-expressing adenovirus. Oval cell expansion induced by 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) was significantly reduced in Fn14-null mice as well as in adult wild-type mice with a blocking anti-TWEAK mAb. Importantly, TWEAK stimulated the proliferation of an oval cell culture model. Finally, we show increased Fn14 expression in chronic hepatitis C and other human liver diseases relative to its expression in normal liver, which suggests a role for the TWEAK/Fn14 pathway in human liver injury. We conclude that TWEAK has a selective mitogenic effect for liver oval cells that distinguishes it from other previously described growth factors. PMID:16110324

  9. Evidence-based radiation oncology in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corvo, Renzo

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Historically, radiation therapy (RT) has been an available treatment option for patients with early resectable head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and the sole therapy for those with unresectable or inoperable disease. Recently, four noteworthy strategies have emerged for the improvement of therapeutic outcome in the curative treatment of HNSCC: they include the development of altered fractionation radiotherapy, integration of chemotherapy with radiotherapy, incorporation of intensity-modulated radiotherapy and the introduction of targeted biological therapy. These strategies are briefly reviewed in an effort to help interpret evidence-based data and to facilitate clinical-decision making in a clinical context. Materials and methods: For patients with early stage HNSCC no level 1 study exists in which radiation therapy is compared with conservative surgery for the evaluation of local control or survival. Only evidence from prospective and retrospective cohort studies is available to evaluate the role external radiotherapy and/or brachytherapy currently play in limited disease. For patients with locally advanced HNSCC the recommendations to address the questions about better treatment in resectable and unresectable tumors are based on more than 100 randomized Phase III trials included in six meta-analyses on chemo-radiotherapy and/or altered fractionation. Data from phase II trials and cohort studies help interpret the advances in intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Results: External radiotherapy and/or brachytherapy are crucial treatment options in patients with early stage HNSCC. For patients with locally advanced HNSCC, where outcome with conventional radiotherapy is poor, meta-analyses and collective data showed that loco-regional control may be improved at high level of evidence by altered fractionation radiotherapy, chemo-radiotherapy with concomitant approach or association of selected hypoxic cell radiosensitizer with

  10. Casein Hydrolysate with Glycemic Control Properties: Evidence from Cells, Animal Models, and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Elaine; Flynn, Sarah; Whelan, Helena; Nongonierma, Alice B; Holton, Thérèse A; Robinson, Aisling; Egan, Thelma; Cagney, Gerard; Shields, Denis C; Gibney, Eileen R; Newsholme, Philip; Gaudel, Celine; Jacquier, Jean-Christophe; Noronha, Nessa; FitzGerald, Richard J; Brennan, Lorraine

    2018-05-02

    Evidence exists to support the role of dairy derived proteins whey and casein in glycemic management. The objective of the present study was to use a cell screening method to identify a suitable casein hydrolysate and to examine its ability to impact glycemia related parameters in an animal model and in humans. Following screening for the ability to stimulate insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells, a casein hydrolysate was selected and further studied in the ob/ob mouse model. An acute postprandial study was performed in 62 overweight and obese adults. Acute and long-term supplementation with the casein hydrolysate in in vivo studies in mice revealed a glucose lowering effect and a lipid reducing effect of the hydrolysate (43% reduction in overall liver fat). The postprandial human study revealed a significant increase in insulin secretion ( p = 0.04) concomitant with a reduction in glucose ( p = 0.03). The area under the curve for the change in glucose decreased from 181.84 ± 14.6 to 153.87 ± 13.02 ( p = 0.009). Overall, the data supports further work on the hydrolysate to develop into a functional food product.

  11. DETECTION OF EQUATORWARD MERIDIONAL FLOW AND EVIDENCE OF DOUBLE-CELL MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION INSIDE THE SUN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Junwei; Bogart, R. S.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Hartlep, Thomas; Duvall, T. L. Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Meridional flow in the solar interior plays an important role in redistributing angular momentum and transporting magnetic flux inside the Sun. Although it has long been recognized that the meridional flow is predominantly poleward at the Sun's surface and in its shallow interior, the location of the equatorward return flow and the meridional flow profile in the deeper interior remain unclear. Using the first 2 yr of continuous helioseismology observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic Magnetic Imager, we analyze travel times of acoustic waves that propagate through different depths of the solar interior carrying information about the solar interior dynamics. After removing a systematic center-to-limb effect in the helioseismic measurements and performing inversions for flow speed, we find that the poleward meridional flow of a speed of 15 m s –1 extends in depth from the photosphere to about 0.91 R ☉ . An equatorward flow of a speed of 10 m s –1 is found between 0.82 and 0.91 R ☉ in the middle of the convection zone. Our analysis also shows evidence of that the meridional flow turns poleward again below 0.82 R ☉ , indicating an existence of a second meridional circulation cell below the shallower one. This double-cell meridional circulation profile with an equatorward flow shallower than previously thought suggests a rethinking of how magnetic field is generated and redistributed inside the Sun

  12. DETECTION OF EQUATORWARD MERIDIONAL FLOW AND EVIDENCE OF DOUBLE-CELL MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION INSIDE THE SUN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Junwei; Bogart, R. S.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Hartlep, Thomas [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Duvall, T. L. Jr. [Solar Physics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-09-10

    Meridional flow in the solar interior plays an important role in redistributing angular momentum and transporting magnetic flux inside the Sun. Although it has long been recognized that the meridional flow is predominantly poleward at the Sun's surface and in its shallow interior, the location of the equatorward return flow and the meridional flow profile in the deeper interior remain unclear. Using the first 2 yr of continuous helioseismology observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic Magnetic Imager, we analyze travel times of acoustic waves that propagate through different depths of the solar interior carrying information about the solar interior dynamics. After removing a systematic center-to-limb effect in the helioseismic measurements and performing inversions for flow speed, we find that the poleward meridional flow of a speed of 15 m s{sup -1} extends in depth from the photosphere to about 0.91 R{sub Sun }. An equatorward flow of a speed of 10 m s{sup -1} is found between 0.82 and 0.91 R{sub Sun} in the middle of the convection zone. Our analysis also shows evidence of that the meridional flow turns poleward again below 0.82 R{sub Sun }, indicating an existence of a second meridional circulation cell below the shallower one. This double-cell meridional circulation profile with an equatorward flow shallower than previously thought suggests a rethinking of how magnetic field is generated and redistributed inside the Sun.

  13. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of renal parenchymal damage by 99mTc-DMSA planar and SPECT scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kazuo; Yamashita, Tetsufumi; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Nonomura, Katsuya; Furudate, Masayori; Koyanagi, Tomohiko

    1995-01-01

    The initial 99m Tc-DMSA studies carried out over a four year period in 229 patients with various heterogenic causes of lower urinary tract abnormalities were reviewed. Anatomical damage to the renal parenchyma was graded by means of planar and SPECT studies into a six group classification proposed by Monsour et al.: grade 0 (normal), I (equivocal), II (single defect), III (more than 2 defects), IV (contracted or small) and V (no visualization). Parenchymal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA was quantitated from planar images at 2 hours postinjection by a computer assisted gamma camera method. SPECT studies could enhance the pick-up rate for parenchymal uptake defects by a factor of 1.5 in comparison with planar imaging. The incidence of anatomical damage to the renal parenchyma increased with a high radiological grade for VUR, and renal uptake per injection dose of 99m Tc-DMSA by the individual kidney significantly decreased in grades III and IV of the anatomical classification. These data revealed that 99m Tc-DMSA planar is still useful for evaluating gross structural damage and for quantitative evaluation of the kidney with computer assistance. SPECT scintigraphy is more effective in disclosing anatomical damage to the renal parenchyma than planar, although it needs further discussion as to whether SPECT may increase sensitivity with minimal or no adverse affect on specificity. (author)

  14. Convolutional neural network approach for enhanced capture of breast parenchymal complexity patterns associated with breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oustimov, Andrew; Gastounioti, Aimilia; Hsieh, Meng-Kang; Pantalone, Lauren; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2017-03-01

    We assess the feasibility of a parenchymal texture feature fusion approach, utilizing a convolutional neural network (ConvNet) architecture, to benefit breast cancer risk assessment. Hypothesizing that by capturing sparse, subtle interactions between localized motifs present in two-dimensional texture feature maps derived from mammographic images, a multitude of texture feature descriptors can be optimally reduced to five meta-features capable of serving as a basis on which a linear classifier, such as logistic regression, can efficiently assess breast cancer risk. We combine this methodology with our previously validated lattice-based strategy for parenchymal texture analysis and we evaluate the feasibility of this approach in a case-control study with 424 digital mammograms. In a randomized split-sample setting, we optimize our framework in training/validation sets (N=300) and evaluate its descriminatory performance in an independent test set (N=124). The discriminatory capacity is assessed in terms of the the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operator characteristic (ROC). The resulting meta-features exhibited strong classification capability in the test dataset (AUC = 0.90), outperforming conventional, non-fused, texture analysis which previously resulted in an AUC=0.85 on the same case-control dataset. Our results suggest that informative interactions between localized motifs exist and can be extracted and summarized via a fairly simple ConvNet architecture.

  15. Can MRI replace DMSA in the detection of renal parenchymal defects in children with urinary tract infections?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavanagh, Eoin C.; Ryan, Stephanie; McCourbrey, Siobhan; O' Connor, Rachel; Donoghue, Veronica [Children' s University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland); Awan, Atif [Children' s University Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Dublin (Ireland)

    2005-03-01

    Renal parenchymal defects may be a consequence of urinary tract infections (UTI) in childhood. MRI is a non-radiation imaging modality compared with DMSA scanning. To compare DMSA with MRI for the detection of renal parenchymal defects in children presenting for radiological investigation after a first UTI. Both DMSA and MRI were performed at the same appointment in 37 children (aged 4 months-13 years; mean 4.5 years) with a history of UTI. Both planar and SPECT DMSA were performed. MRI of the kidneys employed axial and coronal T1-, T2- and fat-saturated T1-weighted (T1-W) sequences. Some children had imaging after IV contrast medium. The coronal fat-saturated T1-W sequence was the best sequence and it detected all the findings on MRI. MRI had a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 87% for the detection of a scarred kidney using DMSA as the gold standard. MRI diagnosed pyelonephritis in two children that had been interpreted as scarring on DMSA. Renal MRI using a single, coronal, fat-saturated T1-W sequence is a rapid, accurate and minimally invasive technique for the detection of renal scarring that does not employ ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  16. Fine-needle percutaneous transhepatic parenchymal portal venography by using carbon dioxide: a pilot study in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Fei; Hernandez, Javier; Crisostomo, Veronica; Pineda, Luis-Fernando; Lima, Juan Rafael; Uson, Jesus; Maynar, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in fine-needle percutaneous transhepatic parenchymal portal venography and its potential clinical applications. Three Belgian landrace pigs received fine-needle percutaneous transhepatic parenchymal portal venography by using CO 2 as a contrast agent. Under fluoroscopic and B-mode ultrasonic guidance, right or left lobe of liver was punctured with a 22-G Chiba needle, through which CO 2 was injected with a dedicated CO 2 injector at injection rate of 20 ml/s for 20 ml, 40 ml/s for 40 ml, 40 ml/s for 60 ml, and 40 ml/s for 80 ml, respectively. The portal venograms were obtained by use of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) system with animal in supine position. In one pig transarterial portal venography was performed, in addition, using iodinated contrast agent. The portal vein was visualized in each run of venography. Optimal images of portal tree structure up to four-order branches were obtained in all those with CO 2 injection rate of 40 ml/s, which appeared much better in quality than those obtained by cranial mesenteric arteriography with iodinated contrast agent. No extravasation of CO 2 , liver laceration, or any other complication occurred during the procedures. The technique we proposed demonstrated optimal portography, which appeared to be safe, minimally invasive, less time-consuming, cost-effective, and easy to perform, with great potential in clinical applications. (orig.)

  17. Can MRI replace DMSA in the detection of renal parenchymal defects in children with urinary tract infections?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavanagh, Eoin C.; Ryan, Stephanie; McCourbrey, Siobhan; O'Connor, Rachel; Donoghue, Veronica; Awan, Atif

    2005-01-01

    Renal parenchymal defects may be a consequence of urinary tract infections (UTI) in childhood. MRI is a non-radiation imaging modality compared with DMSA scanning. To compare DMSA with MRI for the detection of renal parenchymal defects in children presenting for radiological investigation after a first UTI. Both DMSA and MRI were performed at the same appointment in 37 children (aged 4 months-13 years; mean 4.5 years) with a history of UTI. Both planar and SPECT DMSA were performed. MRI of the kidneys employed axial and coronal T1-, T2- and fat-saturated T1-weighted (T1-W) sequences. Some children had imaging after IV contrast medium. The coronal fat-saturated T1-W sequence was the best sequence and it detected all the findings on MRI. MRI had a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 87% for the detection of a scarred kidney using DMSA as the gold standard. MRI diagnosed pyelonephritis in two children that had been interpreted as scarring on DMSA. Renal MRI using a single, coronal, fat-saturated T1-W sequence is a rapid, accurate and minimally invasive technique for the detection of renal scarring that does not employ ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  18. Experimental evidence for negative turgor pressure in small leaf cells of Robinia pseudoacacia L versus large cells of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et W.C.Cheng. 1. Evidence from pressure-volume curve analysis of dead tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongmei; Pan, Shaoan; Ding, Yiting; Tyree, Melvin T

    2017-03-01

    This paper provides a mini-review of evidence for negative turgor pressure in leaf cells starting with experimental evidence in the late 1950s and ending with biomechanical models published in 2014. In the present study, biomechanical models were used to predict how negative turgor pressure might be manifested in dead tissue, and experiments were conducted to test the predictions. The main findings were as follows: (i) Tissues killed by heating to 60 or 80 °C or by freezing in liquid nitrogen all became equally leaky to cell sap solutes and all seemed to pass freely through the cell walls. (ii) Once cell sap solutes could freely pass the cell walls, the shape of pressure-volume curves was dramatically altered between living and dead cells. (iii) Pressure-volume curves of dead tissue seem to measure negative turgor defined as negative when inside minus outside pressure is negative. (iv) Robinia pseudoacacia leaves with small palisade cells had more negative turgor than Metasequoia glyptostroboides with large cells. (v) The absolute difference in negative turgor between R. pseudoacacia and M. glyptostroboides approached as much as 1.0 MPa in some cases. The differences in the manifestation of negative turgor in living versus dead tissue are discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Identification of dendritic cells, B cell and T cell subsets in Tasmanian devil lymphoid tissue; evidence for poor immune cell infiltration into devil facial tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howson, Lauren J; Morris, Katrina M; Kobayashi, Takumi; Tovar, Cesar; Kreiss, Alexandre; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Corcoran, Lynn; Belov, Katherine; Woods, Gregory M

    2014-05-01

    The Tasmanian devil is under threat of extinction due to the transmissible devil facial tumor disease (DFTD). This fatal tumor is an allograft that does not induce an immune response, raising questions about the activity of Tasmanian devil immune cells. T and B cell analysis has been limited by a lack of antibodies, hence the need to produce such reagents. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that CD4, CD8, IgM, and IgG were closely related to other marsupials. Monoclonal antibodies were produced against CD4, CD8, IgM, and IgG by generating bacterial fusion proteins. These, and commercial antibodies against CD1a and CD83, identified T cells, B cells and dendritic cells by immunohistochemistry. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were identified in pouch young thymus, adult lymph nodes, spleen, bronchus- and gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Their anatomical distribution was characteristic of mammalian lymphoid tissues with more CD4(+) than CD8(+) cells in lymph nodes and splenic white pulp. IgM(+) and IgG(+) B cells were identified in adult lymph nodes, spleen, bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue and gut-associated lymphoid tissue, with more IgM(+) than IgG(+) cells. Dendritic cells were identified in lymph node, spleen and skin. This distribution is consistent with eutherian mammals and other marsupials, indicating they have the immune cell subsets for an anti-tumor immunity. Devil facial tumor disease tumors contained more CD8(+) than CD4(+) cells, but in low numbers. There were also low numbers of CD1a(+) and MHC class II(+) cells, but no CD83(+) IgM(+) or IgG(+) B cells, consistent with poor immune cell infiltration. © 2014 The Authors. The Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Evidence that cell surface charge reduction modifes capillary red cell velocity-flux relationships in hamster cremaster muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, H.; Wieringa, P. A.; Spaan, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    1. From capillary red cell velocity (V)-flux (F) relationships of hamster cremaster muscle a yield velocity (VF = 0) can be derived at which red cell flux is zero. Red cell velocity becomes intermittent and/or red blood cells come to a complete standstill for velocities close to this yield velocity,

  1. Functional and phenotypic evidence for a selective loss of memory T cells in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-infected men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noesel, C. J.; Gruters, R. A.; Terpstra, F. G.; Schellekens, P. T.; van Lier, R. A.; Miedema, F.

    1990-01-01

    In addition to a well-documented depletion of CD4+ T helper cells in later stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, evidence has been provided for a specific unresponsiveness to triggering either by specific antigen in the context of autologous major histocompatibility molecules (self

  2. Lack of direct evidence for a functional role of voltage-operated calcium channels in juxtaglomerular cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtz, A; Skott, O; Chegini, S

    1990-01-01

    in patch-clamped nor in intact Furaester-loaded cells. Moreover, basal renin secretion from a preparation enriched in mouse juxtaglomerular cells and from rat glomeruli with attached juxtaglomerular cells was not inhibited when extracellular potassium was isoosmotically increased to 56 mmol/l. In mouse...... kidney slices, however, depolarizing potassium concentrations caused a delayed inhibition at 56 mmol/l and a delayed stimulation of renin secretion at 110 mmol/l. Taken together, our study does not provide direct evidence for a role of voltage-activated calcium channels in the regulation of calcium...

  3. Evidence of functional cell-mediated immune responses to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in otitis-prone children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppanen, Elke; Tan, Dino; Corscadden, Karli J.; Currie, Andrew J.; Richmond, Peter C.; Thornton, Ruth B.

    2018-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) remains a common paediatric disease, despite advances in vaccinology. Susceptibility to recurrent acute OM (rAOM) has been postulated to involve defective cell-mediated immune responses to common otopathogenic bacteria. We compared the composition of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 20 children with a history of rAOM (otitis-prone) and 20 healthy non-otitis-prone controls, and assessed innate and cell-mediated immune responses to the major otopathogen nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). NTHi was a potent stimulator of inflammatory cytokine secretion from PBMC within 4 hours, with no difference in cytokine levels produced between PBMC from cases or controls. In the absence of antigen stimulation, otitis-prone children had more circulating Natural Killer (NK) cells (potitis-prone and non-otitis-prone children (potitis-prone children are functional and respond to NTHi. CD8+ T cells and NK cells from both cases and controls produced IFNγ in response to polyclonal stimulus (Staphylococcal enterotoxin B; SEB), with more IFNγ+ CD8+ T cells present in cases than controls (pOtitis-prone children had more circulating IFNγ-producing NK cells (potitis-prone children mounted innate and T cell-mediated responses to NTHi challenge that were comparable to healthy children. These data provide evidence that otitis-prone children do not have impaired functional cell mediated immunity. PMID:29621281

  4. A review of scientific topics and literature in abdominal radiology in Germany. Pt. 2. Abdominal parenchymal organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenacher, L. [Diagnostik Muenchen-Diagnostic Imaging Centre (Germany); Juchems, M.S. [Konstanz Hospital (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Holzapfel, K. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Kinner, S.; Lauenstein, T.C. [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Wessling, J. [Clemens Hospital Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Schreyer, A.G. [University Hospital Regenburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2016-03-15

    The working group for abdominal and gastrointestinal diagnosis is a group of the German Radiological Society (DRG) focusing clinically and scientifically on the diagnosis and treatment of the gastrointestinal tract as well as the parenchymal abdominal organs. In this article we give an up-to-date literature review of scientific radiological topics especially covered by German radiologists. The working group experts cover the most recent relevant studies concerning liver-specific contrast media with an emphasis on a new classification system for liver adenomas. Additionally studies regarding selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) are reviewed. For the pancreas the most important tumors are described followed by an introduction to the most recently introduced functional imaging techniques. The manuscript concludes with some remarks on recent studies and concerning chronic pancreatitis as well as autoimmune pancreatitis.

  5. Evidence for deterministic chaos in aperiodic oscillations of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells in long-term culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrou, George I.; Chatziioannou, Aristotelis; Vlahopoulos, Spiros; Moschovi, Maria; Chrousos, George P.

    Biological systems are dynamic and possess properties that depend on two key elements: initial conditions and the response of the system over time. Conceptualizing this on tumor models will influence conclusions drawn with regard to disease initiation and progression. Alterations in initial conditions dynamically reshape the properties of proliferating tumor cells. The present work aims to test the hypothesis of Wolfrom et al., that proliferation shows evidence for deterministic chaos in a manner such that subtle differences in the initial conditions give rise to non-linear response behavior of the system. Their hypothesis, tested on adherent Fao rat hepatoma cells, provides evidence that these cells manifest aperiodic oscillations in their proliferation rate. We have tested this hypothesis with some modifications to the proposed experimental setup. We have used the acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line CCRF-CEM, as it provides an excellent substrate for modeling proliferation dynamics. Measurements were taken at time points varying from 24h to 48h, extending the assayed populations beyond that of previous published reports that dealt with the complex dynamic behavior of animal cell populations. We conducted flow cytometry studies to examine the apoptotic and necrotic rate of the system, as well as DNA content changes of the cells over time. The cells exhibited a proliferation rate of nonlinear nature, as this rate presented oscillatory behavior. The obtained data have been fit in known models of growth, such as logistic and Gompertzian growth.

  6. Inhibition of erythroid cell growth by allogeneic murine lymphocytes. Evidence for a synergism between lymph node cells and thymocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, H.; Jacobsson, H.

    1974-01-01

    Murine lymphoid cells from thymus and lymph nodes were tested for synergistic response in a graft-vs-host test. The test is based on the principle that allogeneic lymphocytes inhibit erythroid cell proliferation in the spleens of irradiated mice infused with syngeneic bone marrow cells. Mixtures of thymocytes and lymph node cells from the same parental strain yielded graft-vs-host responses in irradiated F 1 -hybrids higher than expected by summing the responses of the two cell populations tested separately. A similar synergistic response was obtained using mixtures of thymocytes and lymph node cells obtained from the two parental strains of the hybrid, whereas such an effect was not detected using mixtures of lymph node cells or mixtures of thymocytes from the two parental strains. Nor could synergy be demonstrated between parental strain lymph node cells and thymocytes syngeneic with the bone marrow target cells. Thymocytes obtained from one parental strain which was injected into its irradiated F 1 -hybrid transformed into a population of sensitized cells in the spleens of the recipients. This transformation was suppressed by the simultaneous injection of lymph node cells from the second parental strain. Since there is a synergistic immune response by such cell mixtures it is concluded that thymocytes may enhance the graft-vs-host response of lymph node cells. Parental strain thymocytes and lymph node cells, the latter being specifically immunologically tolerant to the bone marrow target cells, failed to give a synergistic response indicating that thymocytes do not transform unresponsive lymphocytes into responsive, but rather enhance the reactivity of existing, specifically responsive cells. The results thus show that thymocytes may enhance the response of lymph node cells in this specific graft-vs-host assay

  7. Computerized analysis of mammographic parenchymal patterns for assessing breast cancer risk: Effect of ROI size and location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hui; Giger, Maryellen L.; Huo Zhimin; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Lan Li; Weber, Barbara L.; Bonta, Ioana

    2004-01-01

    The long-term goal of our research is to develop computerized radiographic markers for assessing breast density and parenchymal patterns that may be used together with clinical measures for determining the risk of breast cancer and assessing the response to preventive treatment. In our earlier studies, we found that women at high risk tended to have dense breasts with mammographic patterns that were coarse and low in contrast. With our method, computerized texture analysis is performed on a region of interest (ROI) within the mammographic image. In our current study, we investigate the effect of ROI size and ROI location on the computerized texture features obtained from 90 subjects (30 BRCA1/BRCA2 gene-mutation carriers and 60 age-matched women deemed to be at low risk for breast cancer). Mammograms were digitized at 0.1 mm pixel size and various ROI sizes were extracted from different breast regions in the craniocaudal (CC) view. Seventeen features, which characterize the density and texture of the parenchymal patterns, were extracted from the ROIs on these digitized mammograms. Stepwise feature selection and linear discriminant analysis were applied to identify features that differentiate between the low-risk women and the BRCA1/BRCA2 gene-mutation carriers. ROC analysis was used to assess the performance of the features in the task of distinguishing between these two groups. Our results show that there was a statistically significant decrease in the performance of the computerized texture features, as the ROI location was varied from the central region behind the nipple. However, we failed to show a statistically significant decrease in the performance of the computerized texture features with decreasing ROI size for the range studied

  8. Objective Assessment of the Severity of Patients Suffering from Fall from Height with Combined Injuries of the Abdominal Parenchymal Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdukhakim Khadjibaev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, fall from a height (FFH has been a relatively frequent cause of injury and death in the urban environment. The purpose of this study was to optimize the risk stratification of FFH victims with combined injuries of the abdominal organs by using Injury Severity Score (ISS scale. The study included 111 patients (aged between 15 and 80 years injured by FFH. All the falls were accidental and occurred mainly among males (82%. The height of the fall ranged from 2 to 5 meters. Combined injuries were found in 98 patients and isolated injuries in 13 patients. The combination of the 6 injured body regions was identified in 5 patients, 5 regions in 17, 4 in 35, 3 in 23, and 2 in 18. The abdomen trauma was most commonly associated with the following injured body regions: head and neck-chest-extremities and pelvis (13.3%, head and neck-chest-extremities (12.2%, and head and neck-chest-pelvis (9.2%. Among the combined injuries of the abdomen, ruptures of parenchymal organs (liver, spleen and kidneys were predominant. To assess the severity of the injury, the ISS scale was applied. The injuries of abdominal parenchymal organs were evaluated according to the AAST (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma classification. Comparative analysis of the assessment of the severity of a patient's condition according to the traditional scale and the ISS scale showed that the ISS scale promotes the active and timely detection of the extremely severe and terminal condition in patients with injuries due to FFH with combined trauma of the abdominal organs. Objective assessment of the severity of trauma and the dominant injury region allows determining the optimal treatment algorithm and predicting the outcome of the injury.

  9. Non-neoplastic parenchymal changes in kidney cancer and post-partial nephrectomy recovery of renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Wassim M; Chen, Ling Y; Cordon, Billy H; Mashni, Joseph; Sjoberg, Daniel D; Bernstein, Melanie; Russo, Paul

    2015-09-01

    To explore the association of non-neoplastic parenchymal changes (nNPC) with patients' health and renal function recovery after partial nephrectomy (PN). This retrospective review identified 800 pT1a patients who underwent PN at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center from 2007 to 2012. Pathology reports were reviewed for nNPC graded as mild or severe: vascular sclerosis (VS), glomerulosclerosis (GS), and fibrosis/scarring. Correlations between nNPC and known preoperative predictors of renal function [age, sex, African-American race, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, body mass index, coronary artery disease, and hypertension (HTN)] were assessed using Spearman's rank correlation (ρ). Multivariable linear regression, adjusted for the described known preoperative risk predictors, was performed to evaluate whether the parenchymal features were able to predict 6-month postoperative eGFR. In this study, 46 % of tumors had benign surrounding parenchyma. We noted statistically significant yet weak associations of VS with age (ρ = 0.19; p < 0.001), ASA (ρ = 0.09; p < 0.001), preoperative eGFR (ρ = -0.14; p < 0.001), and HTN (ρ = 0.14; p < 0.001). GS also significantly correlated with HTN, but the correlation was again small (ρ = 0.12; p < 0.001). After adjusting for known risk predictors, only GS was a significant predictor of 6-month postoperative eGFR. When compared with no GS, mild and severe GS were negatively associated with a decrease of 4.9 and 10.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in 6-month postoperative eGFR, respectively. Presence of VS and GS correlated with patients' baseline health, and presence of GS predicted postoperative renal function recovery.

  10. Multi-detector CT urography: effect of oral hydration and contrast medium volume on renal parenchymal enhancement and urinary tract opacification - a quantitative and qualitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szolar, Dieter H.; Tillich, Manfred; Preidler, Klaus W.

    2010-01-01

    To assess the effect of oral hydration and contrast-medium volume on renal enhancement and urinary tract opacification in multi-detector CT urography. A total of 192 patients were assigned to different protocols with varying doses of contrast agent with and without oral hydration. The attenuation was measured in the renal parenchyma in the unenhanced, nephrographic and excretory phase, and in the urinary tract in excretory phase imaging, respectively. Opacification of the urinary tract was graded on volume rendered images. Oral hydration did not significantly alter renal parenchymal enhancement in both the nephrographic and the excretory phase (p > 0.001), but significantly decreased mean attenuation of the urinary tract in the excretory phase (p ≤ 0.001), and improved continuous opacification of all ureter segments (p < 0.01). Higher volumes of contrast medium improved renal parenchymal enhancement (p ≤ 0.001) and continuous opacification of the urinary tract (p ≤ 0.01). Oral hydration leads to lower attenuation values in the urinary tract but improves the continuous opacification of the tract. Increase in contrast medium volume leads to higher renal parenchymal enhancement as well as to an increased continuous opacification of the urinary tract. Decrease in contrast medium volume cannot be compensated for by oral hydration in terms of parenchymal enhancement. (orig.)

  11. Enhanced micronucleus formation in the descendants of {gamma}-ray-irradiated tobacco cells: Evidence for radiation-induced genomic instability in plant cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Yuichiro, E-mail: yokota.yuichiro@jaea.go.jp [Life Science and Biotechnology Division, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Funayama, Tomoo; Hase, Yoshihiro [Life Science and Biotechnology Division, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Hamada, Nobuyuki [Radiation Safety Research Center, Nuclear Technology Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-11-1 Iwado-kita, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Tanaka, Atsushi; Narumi, Issay [Life Science and Biotechnology Division, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2010-09-10

    Ionizing radiation-induced genomic instability has been documented in various end points such as chromosomal aberrations and mutations, which arises in the descendants of irradiated mammalian or yeast cells many generations after the initial insult. This study aimed at addressing radiation-induced genomic instability in higher plant tobacco cells. We thus investigated micronucleus (MN) formation and cell proliferation in tobacco cells irradiated with {gamma}-rays and their descendants. In {gamma}-irradiated cells, cell cycle was arrested at G{sub 2}/M phase at around 24 h post-irradiation but released afterward. In contrast, MN frequency peaked at 48 h post-irradiation. Almost half of 40 Gy-irradiated cells had MN at 48 h post-irradiation, but proliferated as actively as sham-irradiated cells up to 120 h post-irradiation. Moreover, the descendants that have undergone at least 22 generations after irradiation still showed a two-fold MN frequency compared to sham-irradiated cells. This is the direct evidence for radiation-induced genomic instability in tobacco cells.

  12. Evidence for a stem cell hierarchy in the adult human breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, René; Fridriksdottir, Agla J; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone

    2007-01-01

    Cellular pathways that contribute to adult human mammary gland architecture and lineages have not been previously described. In this study, we identify a candidate stem cell niche in ducts and zones containing progenitor cells in lobules. Putative stem cells residing in ducts were essentially...... in laminin-rich extracellular matrix gels. Staining for the lineage markers keratins K14 and K19 further revealed multipotent cells in the stem cell zone and three lineage-restricted cell types outside this zone. Multiparameter cell sorting and functional characterization with reference to anatomical sites...

  13. Analysis of DNA evidence recovered from epithelial cells in penile swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnic, Katja

    2003-06-01

    In the rape case presented here, no semen, hair, or other biological evidence were left by the perpetuator at the crime scene or on the victim. The alleged assailant was arrested soon after the crime. A classical stain recovery technique using cotton swab moistened with sterile water was taken for recovering potential female epithelial cells and leukocytes deposited on the alleged assailant's penis during sexual assault. The organic method used for DNA extraction was quantified according to the slot-blot procedure and amplified at 9 and 15 polymorphic loci. Penile swab revealed a DNA profile of mixed origin. In addition to the suspect's DNA profile, DNA contribution from the victim was identified as a minor component in the mixture. Frequency of the profile resulted in a value of 5 x 10(-14) for the multiplex systems AmpFlSTR Plus and 2.5 x 10(-18) for the multiplex system PowerPlex 16, taking into account only non-overlapping alleles between the suspect and the victim from the minor component in the DNA mixture. Moreover, three additional alleles were observed at D21S11 locus by use of PowerPlex and STR SGM plus primers, which could not belong to the suspect. The victim's DNA profile showed the same three-banded genotype at this locus. The same pattern was detected when the victim's saliva or blood were used as reference samples. Our laboratory finding was consistent with the police report that the victim was a person with Down syndrome, a human genetic disease mainly resulting from trisomy (triplication) of the 21 chromosome.

  14. An evidence for adhesion-mediated acquisition of acute myeloid leukemic stem cell-like immaturities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funayama, Keiji; Shimane, Miyuki; Nomura, Hitoshi; Asano, Shigetaka

    2010-01-01

    For long-term survival in vitro and in vivo of acute myeloid leukemia cells, their adhesion to bone marrow stromal cells is indispensable. However, it is still unknown if these events are uniquely induced by the leukemic stem cells. Here we show that TF-1 human leukemia cells, once they have formed a cobblestone area by adhering to mouse bone marrow-derived MS-5 cells, can acquire some leukemic stem cell like properties in association with a change in the CD44 isoform-expression pattern and with an increase in a set of related microRNAs. These findings strongly suggest that at least some leukemia cells can acquire leukemic stem cell like properties in an adhesion-mediated stochastic fashion.

  15. An evidence for adhesion-mediated acquisition of acute myeloid leukemic stem cell-like immaturities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funayama, Keiji; Shimane, Miyuki; Nomura, Hitoshi [Department of Integrative Bioscience and Biomedical Engineering, Waseda University, 4-3-1 Ohkubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Asano, Shigetaka, E-mail: asgtkmd@waseda.jp [Department of Integrative Bioscience and Biomedical Engineering, Waseda University, 4-3-1 Ohkubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2010-02-12

    For long-term survival in vitro and in vivo of acute myeloid leukemia cells, their adhesion to bone marrow stromal cells is indispensable. However, it is still unknown if these events are uniquely induced by the leukemic stem cells. Here we show that TF-1 human leukemia cells, once they have formed a cobblestone area by adhering to mouse bone marrow-derived MS-5 cells, can acquire some leukemic stem cell like properties in association with a change in the CD44 isoform-expression pattern and with an increase in a set of related microRNAs. These findings strongly suggest that at least some leukemia cells can acquire leukemic stem cell like properties in an adhesion-mediated stochastic fashion.

  16. Evidence for P-Glycoprotein Involvement in Cell Volume Regulation Using Coulter Sizing in Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Pasquier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of cell volume is an essential function that is coupled to a variety of physiological processes such as receptor recycling, excitability and contraction, cell proliferation, migration, and programmed cell death. Under stress, cells undergo emergency swelling and respond to such a phenomenon with a regulatory volume decrease (RVD where they release cellular ions, and other osmolytes as well as a concomitant loss of water. The link between P-glycoprotein, a transmembrane transporter, and cell volume regulation is controversial, and changes in cells volume are measured using microscopy or electrophysiology. For instance, by using the patch-clamp method, our team demonstrated that chloride currents activated in the RVD were more intense and rapid in a breast cancer cell line overexpressing the P-glycoprotein (P-gp. The Cell Lab Quanta SC is a flow cytometry system that simultaneously measures electronic volume, side scatter and three fluorescent colors; altogether this provides unsurpassed population resolution and accurate cell counting. Therefore, here we propose a novel method to follow cellular volume. By using the Coulter-type channel of the cytometer Cell Lab Quanta SC MPL (multi-platform loading, we demonstrated a role for the P-gp during different osmotic treatments, but also a differential activity of the P-gp through the cell cycle. Altogether, our data strongly suggests a role of P-gp in cell volume regulation.

  17. Evidence of heritable lethal mutations in progeny of X-irradiated CHO cells by micronucleus count in clon-cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, G.; Kreczik, A.; Treichel, M.

    1996-01-01

    Low doses of ionizing radiation reduce the growth rates of clones following irradiation of the progenitor cells. Such reductions of clone growth have been proven by means of measurements of clone size distributions. The medians of such distributions can be used to quantify the radiation damage. Prolongations of generation times and cell death as result of heritable lethal mutations have been discussed as causes for the reduction of clone growth. The cell number of a clone of hypotetraploid CHO-cells was compared to the frequency of micronucleated binucleated cells in the same clone using the cytokinesis-block-micronucleus method. The dose dependent reduction of clone sizes is measured by the difference of the medians (after log transformation) of the clone size distributions. At cytochalasin-B concentrations of 1 μg/ml and after an incubation time of 16 h a yield of binucleated cells of about 50% was obtained. Median clone size differences as a measure of clonal radiation damage increased linearly with incubation times of 76, 100, 124, and 240 h following irradiation with 3, 5, 7, and 12 Gy. The frequency of binucleated clone cells with micronuclei strongly increased with decreasing clone size by a factor up to 20 following irradiation with 3, 5, and 7 Gy. The frequency of micronucleated binucleated clone cells was found to be independent of incubation time after irradiation. Radiation induced clone size reductions result from cell losses caused by intraclonal expression of micronuclei which have its origin in heritable lethal mutations. Measurements of clone size distributions can be done automatically. They can serve as predictive test for determination of median cell loss rates of surviving cell clones. (orig./MG) [de

  18. An immune basis for lung parenchymal destruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Grumelli

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema are a frequent result of long-term smoking, but the exact mechanisms, specifically which types of cells are associated with the lung destruction, are unclear.We studied different subsets of lymphocytes taken from portions of human lungs removed surgically to find out which lymphocytes were the most frequent, which cell-surface markers these lymphocytes expressed, and whether the lymphocytes secreted any specific factors that could be associated with disease. We found that loss of lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema was associated with a high percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes that expressed chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR3 (both markers of T helper 1 cells, but not CCR3 or CCR4 (markers of T helper 2 cells. Lung lymphocytes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema secrete more interferon gamma--often associated with T helper 1 cells--and interferon-inducible protein 10 and monokine induced by interferon, both of which bind to CXCR3 and are involved in attracting T helper 1 cells. In response to interferon-inducible protein 10 and monokine induced by interferon, but not interferon gamma, lung macrophages secreted macrophage metalloelastase (matrix metalloproteinase-12, a potent elastin-degrading enzyme that causes tissue destruction and which has been linked to emphysema.These data suggest that Th1 lymphoctytes in the lungs of people with smoking-related damage drive progression of emphysema through CXCR3 ligands, interferon-inducible protein 10, and monokine induced by interferon.

  19. Human embryonic stem cell derived islet progenitors mature inside an encapsulation device without evidence of increased biomass or cell escape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Kaitlyn; Hao, Ergeng; Lahmy, Reyhaneh; Itkin-Ansari, Pamela

    2014-05-01

    There are several challenges to successful implementation of a cell therapy for insulin dependent diabetes derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Among these are development of functional insulin producing cells, a clinical delivery method that eliminates the need for chronic immunosuppression, and assurance that hESC derived tumors do not form in the patient. We and others have shown that encapsulation of cells in a bilaminar device (TheraCyte) provides immunoprotection in rodents and primates. Here we monitored human insulin secretion and employed bioluminescent imaging (BLI) to evaluate the maturation, growth, and containment of encapsulated islet progenitors derived from CyT49 hESC, transplanted into mice. Human insulin was detectable by 7 weeks post-transplant and increased 17-fold over the course of 8 weeks, yet during this period the biomass of encapsulated cells remained constant. Remarkably, by 20 weeks post-transplant encapsulated cells secreted sufficient levels of human insulin to ameliorate alloxan induced diabetes. Further, bioluminescent imaging revealed for the first time that hESCs remained fully contained in encapsulation devices for up to 150 days, the longest period tested. Collectively, the data suggest that encapsulated hESC derived islet progenitors hold great promise as an effective and safe cell replacement therapy for insulin dependent diabetes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Spontaneous focal activation of invariant natural killer T (iNKT cells in mouse liver and kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Jia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invariant natural killer T (iNKT cells differ from other T cells by their hyperactive effector T-cell status, in addition to the expression of NK lineage receptors and semi-invariant T-cell receptors. It is generally agreed that the immune phenotype of iNKT cells is maintained by repeated activation in peripheral tissues although no explicit evidence for such iNKT cell activity in vivo has so far been reported. Results We used an interferon (IFN-γ-inducible cytoplasmic protein, Irga6, as a histological marker for local IFN-γ production. Irga6 was intensely expressed in small foci of liver parenchymal cells and kidney tubular epithelium. Focal Irga6 expression was unaffected by germ-free status or loss of TLR signalling and was totally dependent on IFN-γ secreted by T cells in the centres of expression foci. These were shown to be iNKT cells by diagnostic T cell receptor usage and their activity was lost in both CD1 d and Jα-deficient mice. Conclusions This is the first report that supplies direct evidence for explicit activation events of NKT cells in vivo and raises issues about the triggering mechanism and consequences for immune functions in liver and kidney.

  1. Concise Review: Mesenchymal Stem (Stromal) Cells: Biology and Preclinical Evidence for Therapeutic Potential for Organ Dysfunction Following Trauma or Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthay, Michael A; Pati, Shibani; Lee, Jae-Woo

    2017-02-01

    Several experimental studies have provided evidence that bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells (MSC) may be effective in treating critically ill surgical patients who develop traumatic brain injury, acute renal failure, or the acute respiratory distress syndrome. There is also preclinical evidence that MSC may be effective in treating sepsis-induced organ failure, including evidence that MSC have antimicrobial properties. This review considers preclinical studies with direct relevance to organ failure following trauma, sepsis or major infections that apply to critically ill patients. Progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of benefit, including MSC release of paracrine factors, transfer of mitochondria, and elaboration of exosomes and microvesicles. Regardless of how well they are designed, preclinical studies have limitations in modeling the complexity of clinical syndromes, especially in patients who are critically ill. In order to facilitate translation of the preclinical studies of MSC to critically ill patients, there will need to be more standardization regarding MSC production with a focus on culture methods and cell characterization. Finally, well designed clinical trials will be needed in critically ill patient to assess safety and efficacy. Stem Cells 2017;35:316-324. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  2. Evidence of homing of each fraction of bone marrow cells after scheduled transplantation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Suping; Cai Jianming; Xiang Yingsong; Huang Dingde; Zhao Fang; Gao Jianguo; Yang Rujun

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify homing of bone marrow cells after every fractionation during scheduled transplantation. Methods: The recipient mice were transplanted with homologous (H-2K d ) and allogeneic (H-2K b ) mouse bone marrow cells after lethal irradiation, and the homing status of allogeneic bone marrow cells in host bone marrow and spleen was observed. Results: A quantity of allogeneic homed cells were observed in host bone marrow, and the percentage of homing cells in second fraction was the highest in all groups (P<0.01). The allogeneic homed cells in spleen declined along with increase of the number of fraction, suggesting that regulation of homing to spleen was different from that to bone marrow. Conclusion: In scheduled bone marrow transplantation niche may be more effectively utilized and thus transplantation efficiency be enhanced

  3. Volume-controlled histographic analysis of pulmonary parenchyma in normal and diffuse parenchymal lung disease: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyo Yong; Lee, Jongmin; Kim, Jong Seob; Won, Chyl Ho; Kang, Duk Sik; Kim, Myoung Nam

    2000-01-01

    located in an area of higher density. Using a home-made histographic analysis system which included a lung volume controller, patients with diffuse parenchymal lung disease could be distinguished from normal contros. The method may be useful for the diagnosis and follow up of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. (author)

  4. Volume-controlled histographic analysis of pulmonary parenchyma in normal and diffuse parenchymal lung disease: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyo Yong; Lee, Jongmin; Kim, Jong Seob; Won, Chyl Ho; Kang, Duk Sik [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myoung Nam [The University of Iowa (United States)

    2000-06-01

    located in an area of higher density. Using a home-made histographic analysis system which included a lung volume controller, patients with diffuse parenchymal lung disease could be distinguished from normal contros. The method may be useful for the diagnosis and follow up of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. (author)

  5. Role of digital tomosynthesis and dual energy subtraction digital radiography in detection of parenchymal lesions in active pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Madhurima; Sandhu, Manavjit Singh; Gorsi, Ujjwal; Gupta, Dheeraj; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Digital tomosynthesis and dual energy subtraction digital radiography are modifications of digital radiography. • These modalities perform better than digital radiography in detection of parenchymal lesions in active pulmonary tuberculosis. • Digital tomosynthesis has a sensitivity of 100% in detection of cavities. • Centrilobular nodules seen on CT in active pulmonary tuberculosis, were also demonstrated on digital tomosynthesis in our study. • Digital tomosynthesis can be used for diagnosis and follow up of patients in pulmonary tuberculosis, thereby reducing the number of CT examinations. - Abstract: Objective: To assess the role of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) and dual energy subtraction digital radiography (DES-DR) in detection of parenchymal lesions in active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and to compare them with digital radiography (DR). Materials and methods: This prospective study was approved by our institutional review committee. DTS and DES-DR were performed in 62 patients with active pulmonary TB within one week of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) study. Findings of active pulmonary TB, that is consolidation, cavitation and nodules were noted on digital radiography (DR), DTS and DES-DR in all patients. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of all 3 modalities was calculated with MDCT as reference standard. In addition presence of centrilobular nodules was also noted on DTS. Results: Our study comprised of 62 patients (33 males, 29 females with age range 18–82 years). Sensitivity and specificity of DTS for detection of nodules and cavitation was better than DR and DES-DR. Sensitivity and specificity of DTS for detection of consolidation was comparable to DR and DES-DR. DES-DR performed better than DR in detection of nodules and cavitation. DTS was also able to detect centrilobular nodules with sensitivity and specificity of 57.4% and 86.5% respectively. Conclusion: DTS and DES-DR perform better

  6. Role of digital tomosynthesis and dual energy subtraction digital radiography in detection of parenchymal lesions in active pulmonary tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Madhurima, E-mail: madhurimashrm88@gmail.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, PGIMER, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Sandhu, Manavjit Singh, E-mail: manavjitsandhu@yahoo.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, PGIMER, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Gorsi, Ujjwal, E-mail: ujjwalgorsi@gmail.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, PGIMER, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Gupta, Dheeraj, E-mail: dheeraj1910@gmail.com [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, PGIMER, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Khandelwal, Niranjan, E-mail: khandelwaln@hotmail.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, PGIMER, Chandigarh 160012 (India)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Digital tomosynthesis and dual energy subtraction digital radiography are modifications of digital radiography. • These modalities perform better than digital radiography in detection of parenchymal lesions in active pulmonary tuberculosis. • Digital tomosynthesis has a sensitivity of 100% in detection of cavities. • Centrilobular nodules seen on CT in active pulmonary tuberculosis, were also demonstrated on digital tomosynthesis in our study. • Digital tomosynthesis can be used for diagnosis and follow up of patients in pulmonary tuberculosis, thereby reducing the number of CT examinations. - Abstract: Objective: To assess the role of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) and dual energy subtraction digital radiography (DES-DR) in detection of parenchymal lesions in active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and to compare them with digital radiography (DR). Materials and methods: This prospective study was approved by our institutional review committee. DTS and DES-DR were performed in 62 patients with active pulmonary TB within one week of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) study. Findings of active pulmonary TB, that is consolidation, cavitation and nodules were noted on digital radiography (DR), DTS and DES-DR in all patients. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of all 3 modalities was calculated with MDCT as reference standard. In addition presence of centrilobular nodules was also noted on DTS. Results: Our study comprised of 62 patients (33 males, 29 females with age range 18–82 years). Sensitivity and specificity of DTS for detection of nodules and cavitation was better than DR and DES-DR. Sensitivity and specificity of DTS for detection of consolidation was comparable to DR and DES-DR. DES-DR performed better than DR in detection of nodules and cavitation. DTS was also able to detect centrilobular nodules with sensitivity and specificity of 57.4% and 86.5% respectively. Conclusion: DTS and DES-DR perform better

  7. Sialendoscope-assisted transoral removal of hilo-parenchymal sub-mandibular stones: surgical results and subjective scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaccio, P; Gaffuri, M; Rossi, V; Pignataro, L

    2017-04-01

    It has been suggested that a conservative trans-oral approach to proximal and hilo-parenchymal submandibular stones (HPSMS) is a valid alternative to the more frequently used sialadenectomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical, ultrasonographic and patients' subjective outcomes of results of the trans-oral removal of HPSMS. Between January 2003 and September 2015, sialendoscope-assisted trans-oral surgery was used to remove symptomatic, large (> 7 mm), fixed and palpable HPSMS from 479 patients under general anaesthesia. All patients were followed clinically and ultrasonographically to investigate symptom relief and recurrence of stones, and were telephonically interviewed to assess saliva-related subjective outcomes with a questionnaire. Stones were successfully removed from 472 patients (98.5%); the seven failures (1.5%) concerned pure parenchymal stones. One year after the procedure, 408 patients (85.1%) were symptom free, 59 (12.3%) had recurrent obstructive symptoms and 12 (2.6%) had recurrent infections. Of the 54 patients who developed a recurrent stone (11.2%), 52 underwent a second procedure: 29 interventional sialendoscopies, two sialendoscope-assisted intra-corporeal pneumatic lithotripsy, eight secondary transoral surgery to remove residual stones, six a cycle of extra-corporeal lithotripsy and seven submandibular sialadenectomy. Most patients (75.2%) reported mild surgery-related pain. The symptoms of 454 patients (94.8%) improved after adjunctive treatment and, at the end of follow-up, the affected gland was preserved in 98.5% of patients. A sialendoscope-assisted trans-oral removal of large HPSMS is a safe, effective, conservative surgical procedure, and functional preservation of the main duct and parenchyma of the obstructed gland allows sialendoscopic access through the natural ostium in case of recurrence. Combining a trans-oral approach with other minimally invasive, conservative procedures ensures symptomatic relief and salivary

  8. Survival of parenchymal hepatocytes exposed to 14.3-MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirtle, R.L.; Gould, M.N.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents the results of the measurement of a dose survival curve and RBE values for rat hepatic cells irradiated in vivo with 14.3 MeV neutrons. The purpose was to determine the RBE for neutrons as a function of dose, and whether hepatocytes exposed to neutrons are as efficient at repairing potentially lethal damage as they are after exposure to low LET radiation

  9. Spontaneous chromosome aberrations in cancer cells. Evidence of existence of hidden genetic lesions in genetic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poryadkova-Luchnik, N.A.; Kuz'mina, E.G.

    1996-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations spontaneously observed in cancer cells were quantitively studied under the effect of non-mutagenic (suboptimal temperature, low content of propilgallate and caffeine) and mutagenic (ionizing radiation) factors. Human larynx cancer cells during several years or gamma-irradiation were used to carry out experiments. The experiments linked with cloning of the initial population and investigation into chromosome aberrations in 22 clones demonstrated persuasively the occurrence of latent genetic lesions in cancer cells

  10. Characterization of two distinct liver progenitor cell subpopulations of hematopoietic and hepatic origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcelle, V.; Stieger, B.; Gjinovci, A.; Wollheim, C.B.; Gauthier, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    Despite extensive studies, the hematopoietic versus hepatic origin of liver progenitor oval cells remains controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the origin of such cells after liver injury and to establish an oval cell line. Rat liver injury was induced by subcutaneous insertion of 2-AAF pellets for 7 days with subsequent injection of CCl 4 . Livers were removed 9 to 13 days post-CCl 4 treatment. Immunohistochemistry was performed using anti-c-kit, OV6, Thy1, CK19, AFP, vWF and Rab3b. Isolated non-parenchymal cells were grown on mouse embryonic fibroblast, and their gene expression profile was characterized by RT-PCR. We identified a subpopulation of OV6/CK19/Rab3b-expressing cells that was activated in the periportal region of traumatized livers. We also characterized a second subpopulation that expressed the HSCs marker c-kit but not Thy1. Although we successfully isolated both cell types, OV6/CK19/Rab3b + cells fail to propagate while c-kit + -HSCs appeared to proliferate for up to 7 weeks. Cells formed clusters which expressed c-kit, Thy1 and albumin. Our results indicate that a bona fide oval progenitor cell population resides within the liver and is distinct from c-kit + -HSCs. Oval cells require the hepatic niche to proliferate, while cells mobilized from the circulation proliferate and transdifferentiate into hepatocytes without evidence of cell fusion

  11. Evidence for alternative pathways of granulosa cell death in healthy and slightly atretic bovine antral follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wezel, I L; Dharmarajan, A M; Lavranos, T C; Rodgers, R J

    1999-06-01

    Granulosa cell death is an early feature of atresia; however, there are many apparent contradictions in the literature concerning the mode of granulosa cell death. We have therefore examined this process in bovine healthy and atretic antral follicles, using a variety of established techniques. Light and electron microscopic observations indicated the presence of pyknotic or shrunken nuclei in both the membrana granulosa and the antrum. In the membrana granulosa, these nuclei were frequently crescent shaped and uniformly electron dense and were approximately the same size as healthy nuclei, all of which are typical of early apoptosis. However, these nuclei were within the membranes of a healthy granulosa cell, suggesting that phagocytosis by a neighboring granulosa cell is an unusually early event in the apoptotic pathway of granulosa cells. In the membrana granulosa, pyknotic nuclei stained intensely with hematoxylin but weakly with the DNA-intercalating stain propidium iodide. A percentage of these pyknotic nuclei stained by TUNEL (terminal deoxy-UTP nick end-labeling). However, in the antrum, the pyknotic nuclei and larger globules of DNA stained intensely with both hematoxylin and propidium iodide, but were not TUNEL positive. The comet assay of cell death produced a streak tail of randomly nicked DNA, rather than the plume of low mol wt apoptotic DNA. Globules collected from fresh follicular fluid stained intensely with propidium iodide and were shown by PAGE to contain DNA, the majority of which was high mol wt. In conclusion, granulosa cells within the membrana granulosa die by apoptosis, with phagocytosis by a neighboring cell preceding any potential budding of the nucleus or cell itself. Granulosa cells near the antrum are sloughed off into the antrum, and their death has features more consistent with that of other cell types that undergo death as a result of terminal differentiation.

  12. Evidence for alteration of the membrane-bound ribosomes in Micrococcus luteus cells exposed to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrow, W; Himmel, M; Squire, P G; Tornabene, T G

    1978-01-01

    Micrococcus luteus cells exposed to Pb(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ contained cytosol ribosomal particles and disaggregated membranal ribosomal particles as determined by ultracentrifugation and spectral studies. Approximately 60% of the membrane ribosome fraction from lead exposed cells had a sedimentation value of 8.4S. Cytosol ribosome from lead exposed cells as well as membranal and cytosol ribosomes from control cells were comparable by their contents of predominantly the 70S type with the 50S and 100S present in relatively small amounts. The lead content of the 8.4S components was more than 200 times higher than the components with higher sedimentation coefficients from lead exposed cells and approximately 650 times more than that of control cell ribosomes. The cells exposed to lead, however, showed no adverse effects from the lead in respect to their growth rates and cellular yields. These results indicate that lead is interacting only at specific sites of the membrane and is inducing events initiated only in strategic cellular regions. These data further substantiate that subtle changes do occur in lead exposed cells that show no obvious effects. It is assumed that these minor alterations are, in toto, biologically significant. 24 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  13. Evidence for multiple repair pathways of double-strand DNA breaks in Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaccia, A.J.; Weistein, R.; Stamato, T.D.; Roosa, R.

    1984-01-01

    XR-1 is a mutant of the Chinese hamster cell (CHO-K1) which is abnormally sensitive to killing by gamma rays in G/sub 1/ (D37 = 27 rads vs. 318 for parent) and early S phases of the cell cycle but has near normal resistance in late S and early G/sub 2/ (Somatic Cell Genetics, 9:165-173, 1983). Complementation studies between XR-1 and its parent indicate that this sensitivity to gamma rays is a recessive phenotype. Both the XR-1 and its parent cell are able to repair single strand DNA breaks. However, in comparison to its parental cell, the XR-1 cell is markedly deficient in the repair of double strand DNA breaks introduced by gamma irradiation during the sensitive G/sub 1/-early S period, while in the late S-G/sub 2/ resistant period the repair is similar in both cells. This correlation suggests that an unrepaired double strand DNA break is the lethal lesion and that at least two pathways for the repair of these lesions exist in mammalian cells

  14. Urokinase and the intestinal mucosa: evidence for a role in epithelial cell turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, P; Birchall, I; Rosella, O; Albert, V; Finch, C; Barkla, D; Young, G

    1998-01-01

    Background—The functions of urokinase in intestinal epithelia are unknown. 
Aims—To determine the relation of urokinase expressed by intestinal epithelial cells to their position in the crypt-villus/surface axis and of mucosal urokinase activity to epithelial proliferative kinetics in the distal colon. 
Methods—Urokinase expression was examined immunohistochemically in human intestinal mucosa. Urokinase activity was measured colorimetrically in epithelial cells isolated sequentially from the crypt-villus axis of the rat small intestine. In separate experiments, urokinase activity and epithelial kinetics (measured stathmokinetically) were measured in homogenates of distal colonic mucosa of 14 groups of eight rats fed diets known to alter epithelial turnover. 
Results—From the crypt base, an ascending gradient of expression and activity of urokinase was associated with the epithelial cells. Median mucosal urokinase activities in each of the dietary groups of rats correlated positively with autologous median number of metaphase arrests per crypt (r=0.68; p<0.005) and per 100 crypt cells (r=0.75; p<0.001), but not with crypt column height. 
Conclusions—Localisation of an enzyme capable of leading to digestion of cell substratum in the region where cells are loosely attached to their basement membrane, and the association of its activity with indexes of cell turnover, suggest a role for urokinase in facilitating epithelial cell loss in the intestine. 

 Keywords: urokinase; intestinal epithelium; colon; epithelial proliferation PMID:9824347

  15. Pharmacoeconomics of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization : An Overview of Current Evidence and Gaps in the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shaughnessy, Paul; Chao, Nelson; Shapiro, Jamie; Walters, Kent; McCarty, John; Abhyankar, Sunil; Shayani, Sepideh; Helmons, Pieter; Leather, Helen; Pazzalia, Amy; Pickard, Simon

    Adequate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) mobilization and collection is required prior to proceeding with high dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Cytokines such as G-CSF, GM-CSF, and peg-filgrastim, alone or in combination with plerixafor, and after chemotherapy have

  16. Genetic and proteomic evidences support the localization of yeast enolase in the cell surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Villar, Elena; Monteoliva, Lucía; Larsen, Martin Røssel

    2006-01-01

    Although enolase, other glycolytic enzymes, and a variety of cytoplasmic proteins lacking an N-terminal secretion signal have been widely described as located at the cell surface in yeast and in mammalian cells, their presence in this external location is still controversial. Here, we report that...

  17. Evidence from Human and Animal Studies: Pathological Roles of CD8(+) T Cells in Autoimmune Peripheral Neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mu; Peyret, Corentin; Shi, Xiang Qun; Siron, Nicolas; Jang, Jeong Ho; Wu, Sonia; Fournier, Sylvie; Zhang, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune peripheral neuropathies such as Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) affect millions of people worldwide. Despite significant advances in understanding the pathology, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of immune-mediated neuropathies remain elusive. T lymphocytes definitely play an important role in disease pathogenesis and CD4(+) T cells have been the main area of research for decades. This is partly due to the fact that the most frequent animal model to study autoimmune peripheral neuropathy is experimental allergic neuritis (EAN). As it is induced commonly by immunization with peripheral nerve proteins, EAN is driven mainly by CD4(+) T cells. However, similarly to what has been reported for patients suffering from multiple sclerosis, a significant body of evidence indicates that CD8(+) T cells may play a pathogenic role in GBS and CIDP disease development and/or progression. Here, we summarize clinical studies pertaining to the presence and potential role of CD8(+) T cells in autoimmune peripheral neuropathies. We also discuss the findings from our most recent studies using a transgenic mouse line (L31 mice) in which the T cell co-stimulator molecule B7.2 (CD86) is constitutively expressed in antigen presenting cells of the nervous tissues. L31 mice spontaneously develop peripheral neuropathy, and CD8(+) T cells are found accumulating in peripheral nerves of symptomatic animals. Interestingly, depletion of CD4(+) T cells accelerates disease onset and increases disease prevalence. Finally, we point out some unanswered questions for future research to dissect the critical roles of CD8(+) T cells in autoimmune peripheral neuropathies.

  18. Evidence from Human and Animal Studies: Pathological Roles of CD8+ T Cells in Autoimmune Peripheral Neuropathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mu; Peyret, Corentin; Shi, Xiang Qun; Siron, Nicolas; Jang, Jeong Ho; Wu, Sonia; Fournier, Sylvie; Zhang, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune peripheral neuropathies such as Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) affect millions of people worldwide. Despite significant advances in understanding the pathology, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of immune-mediated neuropathies remain elusive. T lymphocytes definitely play an important role in disease pathogenesis and CD4+ T cells have been the main area of research for decades. This is partly due to the fact that the most frequent animal model to study autoimmune peripheral neuropathy is experimental allergic neuritis (EAN). As it is induced commonly by immunization with peripheral nerve proteins, EAN is driven mainly by CD4+ T cells. However, similarly to what has been reported for patients suffering from multiple sclerosis, a significant body of evidence indicates that CD8+ T cells may play a pathogenic role in GBS and CIDP disease development and/or progression. Here, we summarize clinical studies pertaining to the presence and potential role of CD8+ T cells in autoimmune peripheral neuropathies. We also discuss the findings from our most recent studies using a transgenic mouse line (L31 mice) in which the T cell co-stimulator molecule B7.2 (CD86) is constitutively expressed in antigen presenting cells of the nervous tissues. L31 mice spontaneously develop peripheral neuropathy, and CD8+ T cells are found accumulating in peripheral nerves of symptomatic animals. Interestingly, depletion of CD4+ T cells accelerates disease onset and increases disease prevalence. Finally, we point out some unanswered questions for future research to dissect the critical roles of CD8+ T cells in autoimmune peripheral neuropathies. PMID:26528293

  19. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Treatment of Articular Cartilage: A Systematic Review on Preclinical and Clinical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Perdisa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the current therapeutic approaches for the regeneration of damaged articular cartilage, none has yet proven to offer results comparable to those of native hyaline cartilage. Recently, it has been claimed that the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs provides greater regenerative potential than differentiated cells, such as chondrocytes. Among the different kinds of MSCs available, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs are emerging due to their abundancy and easiness to harvest. However, their mechanism of action and potential for cartilage regeneration are still under investigation, and many other aspects still need to be clarified. The aim of this systematic review is to give an overview of in vivo studies dealing with ADSCs, by summarizing the main evidence for the treatment of cartilage disease of the knee.

  20. Evidence for paracrine/autocrine regulation of GLP-1-producing cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappe, Camilla; Zhang, Qimin; Holst, Jens Juul

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), secreted from gut L cells upon nutrient intake, forms the basis for novel drugs against type 2 diabetes (T2D). Secretion of GLP-1 has been suggested to be impaired in T2D and in conditions associated with hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance. Further, recent...... studies support lipotoxicity of GLP-1-producing cells in vitro. However, little is known about the regulation of L-cell viability/function, the effects of insulin signaling, or the potential effects of stable GLP-1 analogs and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. We determined effects of insulin...... as well as possible autocrine action of GLP-1 on viability/apoptosis of GLP-1-secreting cells in the presence/absence of palmitate, while also assessing direct effects on function. The studies were performed using the GLP-1-secreting cell line GLUTag, and palmitate was used to simulate hyperlipidemia. Our...

  1. Evidence for land plant cell wall biosynthetic mechanisms in charophyte green algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Harholt, Jesper; Ulvskov, Peter

    2014-01-01

    in CGA is currently unknown, as no genomes are available, so this study sought to give insight into the evolution of the biosynthetic machinery of CGA through an analysis of available transcriptomes. METHODS: Available CGA transcriptomes were mined for cell wall biosynthesis GTs and compared with GTs...... to colonize land. These cell walls provide support and protection, are a source of signalling molecules, and provide developmental cues for cell differentiation and elongation. The cell wall of land plants is a highly complex fibre composite, characterized by cellulose cross-linked by non......-cellulosic polysaccharides, such as xyloglucan, embedded in a matrix of pectic polysaccharides. How the land plant cell wall evolved is currently unknown: early-divergent chlorophyte and prasinophyte algae genomes contain a low number of glycosyl transferases (GTs), while land plants contain hundreds. The number of GTs...

  2. Synthesis of alkyl-ether glycerophospholipids in rat glomerular mesangial cells: evidence for alkyldihydroxyacetone phosphate synthase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanglis, A.; Lianos, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    We studied the ability of rat glomerular mesangial cells and their microsomal fractions to incorporate 1-[ 14 C]hexadecanol to glycerophospholipids via an O-alkyl ether linkage and assessed the presence and activity of the required enzyme: alkyl-dihydroxy acetone phosphate synthase. Suspensions of cultured mesangial cells incorporated 1-[ 14 C]hexadecanol to the phosphatidyl ethanolamine and phosphatidyl choline lipid pools, via a bond resistant to acid and base hydrolysis. When cell homogenates or microsomal fractions were incubated with palmitoyl-DHAP and 1-[ 14 C]hexadecanol, alkyl-DHAP and 1-O-alkyl glycerol were formed (alkyl:hexadecyl). The activity of the enzyme responsible for the O-alkyl product formation was calculated to be 2.5 +/- 0.3 and 544 +/- 50 pmoles/min/mg protein for mesangial cell homogenates and mesangial cell microsomes, respectively. These observations provide evidence that mesangial cells may elaborate either linked lipid precursors de novo for the biosynthesis of O-alkyl glycerophospholipids

  3. Evidence against suppressor cell involvement in naturally acquired tolerance of a minor histocompatibility antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis was investigated that suppressor cells may be responsible for maintenance of immunologic tolerance of a minor H3 antigen in mice that express the antigen naturally. Lymphoid cell populations from B6.C-H-24c (HW54) mice, a congenic-resistant strain histoincompatible with H-24b-expressing C57BL/6 (B6) mice only with respect to the H-24 locus, were examined in cell-transfer experiments to see if they contained naturally arising H-24c-specific suppressor cells. The H-24 antigen was chosen for these studies because, unlike most other minor and major histocompatibility (H) antigens, it is not detectable on mature lymphoid cells by any of several functional criteria. Thus transfer of HW54 lymphoid cells to B6 hosts could be done without the complication of inducing hyporesponsiveness de novo in the host, as occurs with other minor H antigens that are expressed on lymphocytes. B6 hosts were given HW54 skin grafts along with HW54 lymphoid cells to assess their tolerance of the H-24c-encoded antigen. The hosts were either (1) normal, nonimmune B6 mice; (2) B6 mice rendered immunodeficient by thymectomy and irradiation (TxB) and repopulated with H-24c-immune B6 lymphocytes; or (3) TxB B6 hosts repopulated with nonimmune B6 lymphocytes. In each case it was found that the additionally infused HW54 lymphoid cells did not suppress the ability of these hosts to reject HW54 skin grafts. In other words, HW54 lymphoid cells appear not to possess suppressive activity specific for the H-24c antigen that might maintain antigen-specific natural tolerance. Additional experiments were performed to determine whether HW54 lymphoid cells can inhibit the ability of sublethally irradiated B6 mice to regain the capacity to reject HW54 skin

  4. A Putative Role of Apolipoprotein L1 Polymorphism in Renal Parenchymal Scarring Following Febrile Urinary Tract Infection in Nigerian Under-Five Children: Proposal for a Case-Control Association Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anigilaje, Emmanuel Ademola

    2018-06-14

    Although urinary tract infection (UTI) resolves with prompt treatment in a majority of children, some children, especially those aged less than 5 years, also develop renal parenchymal scarring (RPS). RPS causes high blood pressure that may lead to severe chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Although the risk of UTI is higher in white children than in black children, it is unknown whether RPS is more common in white children than in black children as data are scarce in this regard. A common genetic predisposition to kidney disease in African Americans and the sub-Saharan African blacks is the possession of apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1). APOL1 risk variants regulate the production of APOL1. APOL1 circulates in the blood, and it is also found in the kidney tissue. While circulating, APOL1 kills the trypanosome parasites; an increased APOL1 in kidney tissues, under the right environmental conditions, can also result in the death of kidney tissue (vascular endothelium, the podocytes, proximal tubules, and arterial cells), which, ultimately, is replaced by fibrous tissue. APOL1 may influence the development of RPS, as evidence affirms that its expression is increased in kidney tissue following UTI caused by bacteria. Thus, UTI may be a putative environmental risk factor responsible for APOL1-induced kidney injury. The aim of this proposal was to outline a study that seeks to determine if the possession of two copies of either G1 or G2 APOL1 variant increases the risk of having RPS, 6 months following a febrile UTI among Nigerian under-five children. This case-control association study seeks to determine whether the risk of RPS from febrile UTI is conditional on having 2 APOL1 risk alleles (either G1 or G2). Cases will be children with a confirmed RPS following a febrile UTI. Controls will be age-, gender-, and ethnic-matched children with a febrile UTI but without RPS. Children with vesicoureteral reflux and other congenital anomalies of the urinary

  5. The effects of hemorrhagic parenchymal infarction on the establishment of sensori-motor structural and functional connectivity in early infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arichi, T.; Edwards, A.D.; Counsell, S.J.; Mondi, V.; Tusor, N.; Merchant, N.; Allievi, A.G.; Burdet, E.; Chew, A.T.; Martinez-Biarge, M.; Cowan, F.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize alterations of structural and functional connectivity within the developing sensori-motor system in infants with focal perinatal brain injury and at high risk of cerebral palsy. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were used to study the developing functional and structural connectivity framework in six infants born prematurely at term equivalent age. This was first characterised in three infants without focal pathology, which was then compared to that derived from three infants with unilateral haemorrhagic parenchymal infarction and a subsequent focal periventricular white matter lesion who developed later haemiparesis. Functional responses to passive hand movement were in the contralateral perirolandic cortex, regardless of focal pathology. In infants with unilateral periventricular injury, afferent thalamo-cortical tracts appeared to have developed compensatory trajectories which circumvented areas of damage. In contrast, efferent corticospinal tracts showed marked asymmetry at term equivalent age following focal brain injury. Sensori-motor network analysis suggested that inter-hemispheric functional connectivity is largely preserved despite pathology and that impairment may be associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Following focal perinatal brain injury, altered structural and functional connectivity is already present and can be characterized with MRI at term equivalent age. The results of this small case series suggest that these techniques may provide valuable new information about prognosis and the pathophysiology underlying cerebral palsy. (orig.)

  6. The effects of hemorrhagic parenchymal infarction on the establishment of sensori-motor structural and functional connectivity in early infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arichi, T.; Edwards, A.D. [Kings College London, St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Perinatal Imaging and Health, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College London, Department of Bioengineering, London (United Kingdom); Counsell, S.J.; Mondi, V.; Tusor, N.; Merchant, N. [Kings College London, St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Perinatal Imaging and Health, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Allievi, A.G.; Burdet, E. [Imperial College London, Department of Bioengineering, London (United Kingdom); Chew, A.T. [Kings College London, St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Perinatal Imaging and Health, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Paediatrics, London (United Kingdom); Martinez-Biarge, M.; Cowan, F.M. [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Paediatrics, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    The objective of the study was to characterize alterations of structural and functional connectivity within the developing sensori-motor system in infants with focal perinatal brain injury and at high risk of cerebral palsy. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were used to study the developing functional and structural connectivity framework in six infants born prematurely at term equivalent age. This was first characterised in three infants without focal pathology, which was then compared to that derived from three infants with unilateral haemorrhagic parenchymal infarction and a subsequent focal periventricular white matter lesion who developed later haemiparesis. Functional responses to passive hand movement were in the contralateral perirolandic cortex, regardless of focal pathology. In infants with unilateral periventricular injury, afferent thalamo-cortical tracts appeared to have developed compensatory trajectories which circumvented areas of damage. In contrast, efferent corticospinal tracts showed marked asymmetry at term equivalent age following focal brain injury. Sensori-motor network analysis suggested that inter-hemispheric functional connectivity is largely preserved despite pathology and that impairment may be associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Following focal perinatal brain injury, altered structural and functional connectivity is already present and can be characterized with MRI at term equivalent age. The results of this small case series suggest that these techniques may provide valuable new information about prognosis and the pathophysiology underlying cerebral palsy. (orig.)

  7. Severe cerebral hypovolemia on perfusion CT and lower body weight are associated with parenchymal haemorrhage after thrombolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsetsou, S.; Eskandari, A.; Michel, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne CHUV, Department of Neurology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Amiguet, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Lausanne (Switzerland); Meuli, R.; Maeder, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Jiang, B.; Wintermark, M. [Stanford University and Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Haemorrhagic transformation of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and particularly parenchymal haemorrhage (PH) remains a feared complication of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). We aimed to identify clinical and perfusion CT (PCT) variables which are independently associated with PHs. In this observational cohort study, based on the Acute Stroke Registry Analysis of Lausanne (ASTRAL) from 2003 to December 2013, we selected patients with AIS involving the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory who were thrombolysed within 4.5 h of symptoms' onset and who had a good quality baseline PCT at the beginning of IVT. In addition to demographic, clinical, laboratory and non-contrast CT data, volumes of salvageable tissue and ischemic core on PCT, as well as absolute CBF and CBV values within the ischemic regions were compared in patients with and without PH in multivariate analysis. Of the 190 included patients, 24 (12.6%) presented a PH (11 had PH1 and 13 had PH2). In multivariate analysis of the clinical and radiological variables, the lowest CBV in the core and lower body weight was both significantly associated with PH (p = 0.009 and p = 0.024, respectively). In thrombolysed MCA strokes, maximal hypoperfusion severity depicted by lowest CBV values in the core region and lower body weight are independently correlated with PH. This information, if confirmed in other case series, may add to the stratification of revascularisation decisions in patients with a perceived high PH risk. (orig.)

  8. Repeated surgeries in invasive lobular breast cancer with preoperative MRI: Role of additional carcinoma in situ and background parenchymal enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preibsch, H; Richter, V; Bahrs, S D; Hattermann, V; Wietek, B M; Bier, G; Kloth, C; Blumenstock, G; Hahn, M; Staebler, A; Nikolaou, K; Wiesinger, B

    2017-05-01

    Analysing the influence of additional carcinoma in situ (CIS) and background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) in preoperative MRI on repeated surgeries in patients with invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) of the breast. Retrospective analysis of 106 patients (mean age 58.6±9.9years) with 108 ILC. Preoperative tumour size as assessed by MRI, mammography and sonography was recorded and compared to histopathology. In contrast-enhanced MRI, the degree of BPE was categorised by two readers. The influence of additionally detected CIS and BPE on the rate of repeated surgeries was analysed. Additional CIS was present in 45.4% of the cases (49/108). The degree of BPE was minimal or mild in 80% of the cases and moderate or marked in 20% of the cases. In 17 cases (15.7%) at least one repeated surgery was performed. In n=15 of these cases, repeated surgery was performed after BCT (n=9 re-excisions, n=6 conversions to mastectomy), in n=2 cases after initial mastectomy. The initial surgical procedure (p=0.008) and additional CIS (p=0.046) significantly influenced the rate of repeated surgeries, while tumour size, patient age and BPE did not (p=ns). Additional CIS was associated with a higher rate of repeated surgeries, whereas BPE had no influence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Histological examination of pancreatic parenchymal changes induced by an experimental fractionated local exposition to X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, L [Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Budapest. Orvosradiologiai Kutato Csoport

    1976-11-01

    After exposition to a total dose of 8,000 R delivered with 16 fractions, the pancreatic parenchymal changes in rats were investigated using histological and histochemical techniques. The observations were performed from the first to the 150th day following the last fraction. During the period of acute changes (1st to 15th day), the most part of the acini is morphologically intact, many smaller or greater necrotic foci, however, are to be seen. This is partly due to the enzymes with cytolytic effects, coming from the damaged smaller ducts and from glandular acini. The formation of the other part of the necrobiotic foci originates not only from direct radiation injury, but also from the capillary lesion by radiation. The injury to the wall of greater ducts induces edema, inflammations, dilatation of efferent ductules and stasis, all this leading consequently to an atrophy of the acini associated with the efferent ducts. During the period of chronical changes (50th to 150th day), the number of capillaries diminishes, the necrobiotic foci are multiplied especially in places where no capillaries are visible. This clearly emphasizes the role of the pathological reasons for capillary lesions. The regenerative phenomena occur only to a lesser extent, being confined to the efferent ducts. The extension of the necrotic zones together with the insignificant regeneration leads to a gradual destruction of the tissular substance. It is concluded that the radiosensitivity of the organ can only be determined, if its acute and chronical changes are known.

  10. Evidence that transferrin supports cell proliferation by supplying iron for DNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskey, J.; Webb, I.; Schulman, H.M.; Ponka, P.

    1988-01-01

    Transferrin is essential for cell proliferation and it was suggested that it may trigger a proliferative response following its interaction with receptors, serving as a growth factor. However, since the only clearly defined function of transferrin is iron transport, it may merely serve as an iron donor. To further clarify this issue, the authors took advantage of an iron chelate, ferric salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (Fe-SIH), which they developed and previously demonstrated to efficiently supply iron to cells without using physiological transferrin receptor pathway. As expected, they observed that blocking monoclonal antibodies against transferrin receptors inhibited proliferation of both Raji and murine erythroleukemia cells. This inhibited cell growth was rescued upon the addition of Fe-SIH which was also shown to deliver iron to Raji cells in the presence of blocking anti-transferrin receptor antibodies. Moreover, blocking anti-transferrin receptor antibodies inhibited [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation into DNA and this inhibition could be overcome by added Fe-SIH. In addition, Fe-SIH slightly stimulated, while SIH (an iron chelator) significantly inhibited, DNA synthesis in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes. Taken together, these results indicate that the only function of transferrin supporting cell proliferation is to supply cells with iron

  11. Cellular Evidence of Telocytes as Novel Interstitial Cells Within the Magnum of Chicken Oviduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Zhu, Xudong; Wang, Lingling; Ahmed, Nisar; Huang, Yufei; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Qian; Ullah, Shakeeb; Liu, Tengfei; Guo, Dawei; Brohi, Sarfaraz Ahmed; Chen, Qiusheng

    2017-01-24

    Telocytes are a novel type of interstitial cell that has been identified in many organs of mammals, but there is little information available on these cells in avian species. This study shows the latest findings associated with telocytes in the muscular layer and lamina propria of the magnum of chicken oviduct analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Telocytes are characterized by telopodes, which are thin and long prolongations, and a small amount of cytoplasm rich with mitochondria. Spindle- or triangular-shaped telocytes were detected at various locations in the magnum. In the muscular layer, telocytes have direct connection with smooth muscle cells. The cell body of telocytes along with their long telopodes mainly exists in the interstitial space between the smooth muscle bundles, whereas large numbers of short telopodes are scattered in between the smooth muscle cells. In the lamina propria, extremely long telopodes are twisting around each other and are usually collagen embedded. Both in the lamina propria and muscular layer, telocytes have a close relationship with other cell types, such as immune cells and blood vessels. Telopodes appear with dichotomous branching alternating between the podom and podomer, forming a 3D network structure with complex homo- and heterocellular junctions. In addition, a distinctive size of the vesicles is visible around the telopodes and may be released from telopodes because of the close relation between the vesicle and telopode. All characteristics of telocytes in the magnum indicate that telocytes may play a potential, but important, role in the pathogenesis of oviduct diseases.

  12. Imatinib mesylate inhibits Leydig cell tumor growth: evidence for in vitro and in vivo activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basciani, Sabrina; Brama, Marina; Mariani, Stefania; De Luca, Gabriele; Arizzi, Mario; Vesci, Loredana; Pisano, Claudio; Dolci, Susanna; Spera, Giovanni; Gnessi, Lucio

    2005-03-01

    Leydig cell tumors are usually benign tumors of the male gonad. However, if the tumor is malignant, no effective treatments are currently available. Leydig cell tumors express platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), kit ligand and their respective receptors, PDGFR and c-kit. We therefore evaluated the effects of imatinib mesylate (imatinib), a selective inhibitor of the c-kit and PDGFR tyrosine kinases, on the growth of rodent Leydig tumor cell lines in vivo and in vitro, and examined, in human Leydig cell tumor samples, the expression of activated PDGFR and c-kit and the mutations in exons of the c-kit gene commonly associated with solid tumors. Imatinib caused concentration-dependent decreases in the viability of Leydig tumor cell lines, which coincided with apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation and ligand-stimulated phosphorylation of c-kit and PDGFRs. Mice bearing s.c. allografts of a Leydig tumor cell line treated with imatinib p.o., had an almost complete inhibition of tumor growth, less tumor cell proliferation, increased apoptosis, and a lesser amount of tumor-associated mean vessel density compared with controls. No drug-resistant tumors appeared during imatinib treatment but tumors regrew after drug withdrawal. Human Leydig cell tumors showed an intense expression of the phosphorylated form of c-kit and a less intense expression of phosphorylated PDGFRs. No activating mutations in common regions of mutation of the c-kit gene were found. Our studies suggest that Leydig cell tumors might be a potential target for imatinib therapy.

  13. Single cell migration in oral squamous cell carcinoma - possible evidence of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, David H; Reibel, Jesper; Mackenzie, Ian C

    2015-01-01

    carcinomas, their relationship has not been examined in detail. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded tissues from 28 patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas were stained with antibodies to cytokeratin, α-SMA, vimentin, E-cadherin, N-cadherin and Twist and evaluated for their expression in relation to invasive...

  14. T cell telomere length in HIV-1 infection: no evidence for increased CD4+ T cell turnover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthers, K. C.; Bea, G.; Wisman, A.; Otto, S. A.; de Roda Husman, A. M.; Schaft, N.; de Wolf, F.; Goudsmit, J.; Coutinho, R. A.; van der Zee, A. G.; Meyaard, L.; Miedema, F.

    1996-01-01

    Progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been related to exhaustion of the regenerative capacity of the immune system resulting from high T cell turnover. Analysis of telomeric terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length, a marker for cellular replicative history, showed that

  15. A new technique for hepatic parenchymal transection using an articulating bipolar 5 cm radiofrequency device: results from the first 100 procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hideo; Akyuz, Muhammet; Aksoy, Erol; Aucejo, Federico; Quintini, Cristiano; Miller, Charles; Fung, John; Berber, Eren

    2018-04-13

    Parenchymal transection(PT) still remains a challenge in liver resection. The outcomes of the first experience of a novel vessel-sealer for hepatic transection were assessed. A bipolar articulating vessel-sealer (Caiman ® , Aesculap Inc., Center Valley, PA) was used in 100 liver resections through both open (OLR) and laparoscopic (LLR) approaches. All data were prospectively collected into an IRB-approved department database, and clinical, surgical and perioperative parameters were analyzed. Fifty patients underwent OLR and 50 patients underwent LLR. Eighty hepatectomies were performed for malignancy. Median number of tumors was 1, with the largest focus measuring an average of 5.1 cm. Forty-nine of the procedures were major liver resections. Parenchymal transection time was 29.9 ± 3.1 min in OLR and 29.9 ± 3.6 min in LLR. Median estimated blood loss was 300 cc (Inter-quartile range (IQR) 100-575 cc). Median hospital stay was 6 days for open and 3 days for laparoscopic procedures. Ninety-day complication rate was 8% without any mortality. Bile leak rate was 4%. Staplers were used for parenchymal transection in 16 cases. This study introduces a new multifunctional device into the armamentarium of the liver surgeon. In our experience, this device facilitated the parenchymal transection by adding speed and consolidating the amount of instrumentation used in liver resection without increasing complications. Copyright © 2018 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Identifying Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Using Background Parenchymal Enhancement Heterogeneity on Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI: A Pilot Radiomics Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Wang

    Full Text Available To determine the added discriminative value of detailed quantitative characterization of background parenchymal enhancement in addition to the tumor itself on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE MRI at 3.0 Tesla in identifying "triple-negative" breast cancers.In this Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective study, DCE-MRI of 84 women presenting 88 invasive carcinomas were evaluated by a radiologist and analyzed using quantitative computer-aided techniques. Each tumor and its surrounding parenchyma were segmented semi-automatically in 3-D. A total of 85 imaging features were extracted from the two regions, including morphologic, densitometric, and statistical texture measures of enhancement. A small subset of optimal features was selected using an efficient sequential forward floating search algorithm. To distinguish triple-negative cancers from other subtypes, we built predictive models based on support vector machines. Their classification performance was assessed with the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC using cross-validation.Imaging features based on the tumor region achieved an AUC of 0.782 in differentiating triple-negative cancers from others, in line with the current state of the art. When background parenchymal enhancement features were included, the AUC increased significantly to 0.878 (p<0.01. Similar improvements were seen in nearly all subtype classification tasks undertaken. Notably, amongst the most discriminating features for predicting triple-negative cancers were textures of background parenchymal enhancement.Considering the tumor as well as its surrounding parenchyma on DCE-MRI for radiomic image phenotyping provides useful information for identifying triple-negative breast cancers. Heterogeneity of background parenchymal enhancement, characterized by quantitative texture features on DCE-MRI, adds value to such differentiation models as they are strongly associated with the triple-negative subtype

  17. Histological evidence of testicular dysgenesis in contralateral biopsies from 218 patients with testicular germ cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Holm, Mette; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    This study was prompted by a hypothesis that testicular germ cell cancer may be aetiologically linked to other male reproductive abnormalities as a part of the so-called 'testicular dysgenesis syndrome' (TDS). To corroborate the hypothesis of a common association of germ cell cancer with testicular...... dysgenesis, microscopic dysgenetic features were quantified in contralateral testicular biopsies in patients with a testicular germ cell tumour. Two hundred and eighty consecutive contralateral testicular biopsies from Danish patients with testicular cancer diagnosed in 1998-2001 were evaluated...... presenting with testicular germ cell neoplasms of the adolescent and young type. The findings therefore support the hypothesis that this cancer is part of a testicular dysgenesis syndrome. The presence of contralateral carcinoma in situ was higher in the present study than previously reported....

  18. Urokinase and the intestinal mucosa: evidence for a role in epithelial cell turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, P; Birchall, I; Rosella, O; Albert, V; Finch, C; Barkla, D; Young, G

    1998-01-01

    Background—The functions of urokinase in intestinal epithelia are unknown. 
Aims—To determine the relation of urokinase expressed by intestinal epithelial cells to their position in the crypt-villus/surface axis and of mucosal urokinase activity to epithelial proliferative kinetics in the distal colon. 
Methods—Urokinase expression was examined immunohistochemically in human intestinal mucosa. Urokinase activity was measured colorimetrically in epithelial cells isolated sequ...

  19. Evidence implicating the Ras pathway in multiple CD28 costimulatory functions in CD4+ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit V Janardhan

    Full Text Available CD28 costimulation is a critical event in the full activation of CD4(+ T cells that augments cytokine gene transcription, promotes cytokine mRNA stability, prevents induction of anergy, increases cellular metabolism, and increases cell survival. However, despite extensive biochemical analysis of the signaling events downstream of CD28, molecular pathways sufficient to functionally replace the diverse aspects of CD28-mediated costimulation in normal T cells have not been identified. Ras/MAPK signaling is a critical pathway downstream of T cell receptor stimulation, but its role in CD28-mediated costimulation has been controversial. We observed that physiologic CD28 costimulation caused a relocalization of the RasGEF RasGRP to the T cell-APC interface by confocal microscopy. In whole cell biochemical analysis, CD28 cross-linking with either anti-CD28 antibody or B7.1-Ig augmented TCR-induced Ras activation. To determine whether Ras signaling was sufficient to functionally mimic CD28 costimulation, we utilized an adenoviral vector encoding constitutively active H-Ras (61L to transduce normal, Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptor (CAR transgenic CD4(+ T cells. Like costimulation via CD28, active Ras induced AKT, JNK and ERK phosphorylation. In addition, constitutive Ras signaling mimicked the ability of CD28 to costimulate IL-2 protein secretion, prevent anergy induction, increase glucose uptake, and promote cell survival. Importantly, we also found that active Ras mimicked the mechanism by which CD28 costimulates IL-2 production: by increasing IL-2 gene transcription, and promoting IL-2 mRNA stability. Finally, active Ras was able to induce IL-2 production when combined with ionomycin stimulation in a MEK-1-dependent fashion. Our results are consistent with a central role for Ras signaling in CD28-mediated costimulation.

  20. Therapeutic iodine 125 for hyperthyroidism: evidence for a special radiobiological effect on the follicular cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, H.W.; Greig, W.R.; Gillespie, F.C.; Western Regional Hospital Board, Glasgow

    1982-01-01

    An IV perchlorate test was used qualitatively to detect a functional abnormality of the colloid-follicular cell interface in patients given 131 I or 125 I for hyperthyroidism. Radiation damage, manifest as abnormal iodide organification, was more prolonged after 125 I and more often accompanied by unremitting hyperthyroidism than after 131 I. These results conform with theoretical and laboratory data which predict a gradient of deposited radiation across the human follicular cell after therapeutic 125 I. (author)

  1. Evidence of In Vitro Preservation of Human Nephrogenesis at the Single-Cell Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Pode-Shakked

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available During nephrogenesis, stem/progenitor cells differentiate and give rise to early nephron structures that segment to proximal and distal nephron cell types. Previously, we prospectively isolated progenitors from human fetal kidney (hFK utilizing a combination of surface markers. However, upon culture nephron progenitors differentiated and could not be robustly maintained in vitro. Here, by culturing hFK in a modified medium used for in vitro growth of mouse nephron progenitors, and by dissection of NCAM+/CD133− progenitor cells according to EpCAM expression (NCAM+/CD133−/EpCAM−, NCAM+/CD133−/EpCAMdim, NCAM+/CD133−/EpCAMbright, we show at single-cell resolution a preservation of uninduced and induced cap mesenchyme as well as a transitioning mesenchymal-epithelial state. Concomitantly, differentiating and differentiated epithelial lineages are also maintained. In vitro expansion of discrete stages of early human nephrogenesis in nephron stem cell cultures may be used for drug screening on a full repertoire of developing kidney cells and for prospective isolation of mesenchymal or epithelial renal lineages for regenerative medicine.

  2. Evidence for the involvement of cofilin in Aspergillus fumigatus internalization into type II alveolar epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zhiyao; Han, Xuelin; Chen, Fangyan; Jia, Xiaodong; Zhao, Jingya; Zhang, Changjian; Yong, Chen; Tian, Shuguang; Zhou, Xin; Han, Li

    2015-08-13

    The internalization of Aspergillus fumigatus into alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) is tightly controlled by host cellular actin dynamics, which require close modulation of the ADF (actin depolymerizing factor)/cofilin family. However, the role of cofilin in A. fumigatus internalization into AECs remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that germinated A. fumigatus conidia were able to induce phosphorylation of cofilin in A549 cells during the early stage of internalization. The modulation of cofilin activity by overexpression, knockdown, or mutation of the cofilin gene in A549 cells decreased the efficacy of A. fumigatus internalization. Reducing the phosphorylation status of cofilin with BMS-5 (LIM kinase inhibitor) or overexpression of the slingshot phosphatases also impeded A. fumigatus internalization. Both the C. botulimun C3 transferase (a specific RhoA inhibitor) and Y27632 (a specific ROCK inhibitor) reduced the internalization of A. fumigatus and the level of phosphorylated cofilin. β-1,3-glucan (the major component of the conidial cell wall) and its host cell receptor dectin-1 did not seem to be associated with cofilin phosphorylation during A. fumigatus infection. These results indicated that cofilin might be involved in the modulation of A. fumigatus internalization into type II alveolar epithelial cells through the RhoA-ROCK-LIM kinase pathway.

  3. Functional and anatomical evidence of cerebral tissue hypoxia in young sickle cell anemia mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Lindsay S; Gazdzinski, Lisa M; Tsui, Albert Ky; Zhou, Yu-Qing; Portnoy, Sharon; Liu, Elaine; Mazer, C David; Hare, Gregory Mt; Kassner, Andrea; Sled, John G

    2017-03-01

    Cerebral ischemia is a significant source of morbidity in children with sickle cell anemia; however, the mechanism of injury is poorly understood. Increased cerebral blood flow and low hemoglobin levels in children with sickle cell anemia are associated with increased stroke risk, suggesting that anemia-induced tissue hypoxia may be an important factor contributing to subsequent morbidity. To better understand the pathophysiology of brain injury, brain physiology and morphology were characterized in a transgenic mouse model, the Townes sickle cell model. Relative to age-matched controls, sickle cell anemia mice demonstrated: (1) decreased brain tissue pO 2 and increased expression of hypoxia signaling protein in the perivascular regions of the cerebral cortex; (2) elevated basal cerebral blood flow , consistent with adaptation to anemia-induced tissue hypoxia; (3) significant reduction in cerebrovascular blood flow reactivity to a hypercapnic challenge; (4) increased diameter of the carotid artery; and (5) significant volume changes in white and gray matter regions in the brain, as assessed by ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that brain tissue hypoxia contributes to adaptive physiological and anatomic changes in Townes sickle cell mice. These findings may help define the pathophysiology for stroke in children with sickle cell anemia.

  4. Characterization of endothelin receptors on a human neuroblastoma cell line: evidence for the ETA subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, L C; Boarder, M R

    1991-11-01

    1. Specific binding sites for synthetic endothelin (ET) isoforms were studied on intact cells of the SK-N-MC cell line, derived from a human neuroblastoma. 2. [125I]-ET-1 (2.5 x 10(-11) M) specifically bound to a single class of binding sites on these cells (Hill coefficient of 1.06 +/- 0.04, n = 3) with an apparent Kd of 1.4 +/- 0.3 x 10(-9) M and a Bmax of 3.1 +/- 1.0 pmol mg-1 protein. [125I]-ET-3 (2.5 x 10(-11) M), did not specifically bind to SK-N-MC cells. 3. The binding of [125I]-ET-1 was competitively inhibited by other ET isoforms, the order of potency being ET-1 greater than sarafotoxin S6b greater than ET-3. 4. Association of 1 nM [125I]-ET-1 at 37 degrees C reached apparent equilibrium at 60-80 min, with half-maximal binding being achieved at 12 min. 5. Dissociation was measured after both 10 min and 60 min of association with 64% and 30% respectively of specifically bound [125I]-ET-1 dissociating. The actual amounts of [125I]-ET-1 dissociated were similar in both cases. 6. Incubation of [125I]-ET-3 with SK-N-MC cells at 37 degrees C for 60 min did not result in significant degradation of this peptide. However, [125I]-ET-1 was broken down by incubation with SK-N-MC cells, the pattern of degradation of dissociable [125I]-ET-1 (and that found in the supernatant) being different from that of non-dissociable [125I]-ET-1. 7. ET-1 concentration-dependently induced an increase in total inositol phosphate accumulation in subconfluent (but not in confluent) cultures of SK-N-MC cells (EC50 = 6.43 +/- 1.9 x 1010M). ET-3 was without effect. 8. These results show that ET-1 specifically binds to SK-N-MC cells with the characteristics of an ETA receptor. Our earlier finding that adrenal chromaffin cells express an ETB receptor indicates the existence of multiple ET receptor types on neuronal cells.

  5. Mesenchymal stromal cells of osteosarcoma patients do not show evidence of neoplastic changes during long-term culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddingh, Emilie P; Ruslan, S Eriaty N; Reijnders, Christianne M A; Szuhai, Karoly; Kuijjer, Marieke L; Roelofs, Helene; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Maarten Egeler, R; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Lankester, Arjan C

    2015-01-01

    In vitro expanded mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are increasingly used as experimental cellular therapy. However, there have been concerns regarding the safety of their use, particularly with regard to possible oncogenic transformation. MSCs are the hypothesized precursor cells of high-grade osteosarcoma, a tumor with often complex karyotypes occurring mainly in adolescents and young adults. To determine if MSCs from osteosarcoma patients could be predisposed to malignant transformation we cultured MSCs of nine osteosarcoma patients and five healthy donors for an average of 649 days (range 601-679 days). Also, we compared MSCs derived from osteosarcoma patients at diagnosis and from healthy donors using genome wide gene expression profiling. Upon increasing passage, increasing frequencies of binucleate cells were detected, but no increase in proliferation suggestive of malignant transformation occurred in MSCs from either patients or donors. Hematopoietic cell specific Lyn substrate 1 (HLCS1) was differentially expressed (fold change 0.25, P value 0.0005) between MSCs of osteosarcoma patients (n = 14) and healthy donors (n = 9). This study shows that although HCLS1 expression was downregulated in MSCs of osteosarcoma patients and binucleate cells were present in both patient and donor derived MSCs, there was no evidence of neoplastic changes to occur during long-term culture.

  6. SV40-transformed human fibroblasts: evidence for cellular aging in pre-crisis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, G H

    1985-10-01

    Pre-crisis SV40-transformed human diploid fibroblast (HDF) cultures have a finite proliferative lifespan, but they do not enter a viable senescent state at end of lifespan. Little is known about either the mechanism for this finite lifespan in SV40-transformed HDF or its relationship to finite lifespan in normal HDF. Recently we proposed that in normal HDF the phenomena of finite lifespan and arrest in a viable senescent state depend on two separate processes: 1) an age-related decrease in the ability of the cells to recognize or respond to serum and/or other mitogens such that the cells become functionally mitogen-deprived at the end of lifespan; and 2) the ability of the cells to enter a viable, G1-arrested state whenever they experience mitogen deprivation. In this paper, data are presented that suggest that pre-crisis SV40-transformed HDF retain the first process described above, but lack the second process. It is shown that SV40-transformed HDF have a progressively decreasing ability to respond to serum as they age, but they continue to traverse the cell cycle at the end of lifespan. Concomitantly, the rate of cell death increases steadily toward the end of lifespan, thereby causing the total population to cease growing and ultimately to decline. Previous studies have shown that when SV40-transformed HDF are environmentally serum deprived, they likewise exhibit continued cell cycle traverse coupled with increased cell death. Thus, these results support the hypothesis that pre-crisis SV40-transformed HDF still undergo the same aging process as do normal HDF, but they end their lifespan in crisis rather than in the normal G1-arrested senescent state because they have lost their ability to enter a viable, G1-arrested state in response to mitogen deprivation.

  7. Evidence for evoked release of adenosine and glutamate from cultured cerebellar granule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schousboe, A.; Frandsen, A.; Drejer, J.

    1989-01-01

    Evoked release of [ 3 H]-D-aspartate which labels the neurotransmitter glutamate pool in cultured cerebellar granule cells was compared with evoked release of adenosine from similar cultures. It was found that both adenosine and [3H]-D-aspartate could be released from the neurons in a calcium dependent manner after depolarization of the cells with either 10-100 microM glutamate or 50 mM KCl. Cultures of cerebellar granule cells treated with 50 microM kainate to eliminate GABAergic neurons behaved in the same way. This together with the observation that cultured astrocytes did not exhibit a calcium dependent, potassium stimulated adenosine release strongly suggest that cerebellar granule cells release adenosine in a neurotransmitter-like fashion together with glutamate which is the classical neurotransmitter of these neurons. Studies of the metabolism of adenosine showed that in the granule cells adenosine is rapidly metabolized to ATP, ADP, and AMP, but in spite of this, adenosine was found to be released preferential to ATP

  8. The treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer in the elderly: an evidence-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Dawe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An increasing proportion of patients with advanced NSCLC are over 70 years old, raising unique challenges for treatment decision-making. While these patients are underrepresented in clinical trials, there is an emerging body of evidence associated with this group. The lesson of comprehensive geriatric assessment is that chronological age does not always correlate with physiological age and a variety of important comorbidities and geriatric syndromes can go undetected in a typical history and physical. These comorbidities and expected physiologic changes due to aging complicate decision-making around appropriate treatment. This review discusses geriatric assessment in elderly cancer patients and evaluates the current evidence for chemotherapy and targeted therapy for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer aged ≥70 years.

  9. Degranulating mast cells in fibrotic regions of human tumors and evidence that mast cell heparin interferes with the growth of tumor cells through a mechanism involving fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samoszuk, Michael; Kanakubo, Emi; Chan, John K

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mast cells that are present in fibrotic regions of cancer can suppress the growth of tumor cells through an indirect mechanism involving peri-tumoral fibroblasts. We first immunostained a wide variety of human cancers for the presence of degranulated mast cells. In a subsequent series of controlled in vitro experiments, we then co-cultured UACC-812 human breast cancer cells with normal fibroblasts in the presence or absence of different combinations and doses of mast cell tryptase, mast cell heparin, a lysate of the human mast cell line HMC-1, and fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7), a powerful, heparin-binding growth factor for breast epithelial cells. Degranulating mast cells were localized predominantly in the fibrous tissue of every case of breast cancer, head and neck cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and Hodgkin's disease that we examined. Mast cell tryptase and HMC-1 lysate had no significant effect on the clonogenic growth of cancer cells co-cultured with fibroblasts. By contrast, mast cell heparin at multiple doses significantly reduced the size and number of colonies of tumor cells co-cultured with fibroblasts, especially in the presence of FGF-7. Neither heparin nor FGF-7, individually or in combination, produced any significant effect on the clonogenic growth of breast cancer cells cultured without fibroblasts. Degranulating mast cells are restricted to peri-tumoral fibrous tissue, and mast cell heparin is a powerful inhibitor of clonogenic growth of tumor cells co-cultured with fibroblasts. These results may help to explain the well-known ability of heparin to inhibit the growth of primary and metastatic tumors

  10. Degranulating mast cells in fibrotic regions of human tumors and evidence that mast cell heparin interferes with the growth of tumor cells through a mechanism involving fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanakubo Emi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mast cells that are present in fibrotic regions of cancer can suppress the growth of tumor cells through an indirect mechanism involving peri-tumoral fibroblasts. Methods We first immunostained a wide variety of human cancers for the presence of degranulated mast cells. In a subsequent series of controlled in vitro experiments, we then co-cultured UACC-812 human breast cancer cells with normal fibroblasts in the presence or absence of different combinations and doses of mast cell tryptase, mast cell heparin, a lysate of the human mast cell line HMC-1, and fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7, a powerful, heparin-binding growth factor for breast epithelial cells. Results Degranulating mast cells were localized predominantly in the fibrous tissue of every case of breast cancer, head and neck cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and Hodgkin's disease that we examined. Mast cell tryptase and HMC-1 lysate had no significant effect on the clonogenic growth of cancer cells co-cultured with fibroblasts. By contrast, mast cell heparin at multiple doses significantly reduced the size and number of colonies of tumor cells co-cultured with fibroblasts, especially in the presence of FGF-7. Neither heparin nor FGF-7, individually or in combination, produced any significant effect on the clonogenic growth of breast cancer cells cultured without fibroblasts. Conclusion Degranulating mast cells are restricted to peri-tumoral fibrous tissue, and mast cell heparin is a powerful inhibitor of clonogenic growth of tumor cells co-cultured with fibroblasts. These results may help to explain the well-known ability of heparin to inhibit the growth of primary and metastatic tumors.

  11. Status of T- and B-cell cooperation in radiation chimeras: evidence for a suppressor effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gengozian, N.; Urso, P.

    1976-01-01

    Absolute tolerance may not be in operation in the allogeneic bone marrow chimera, but rather a dynamic state involving interaction not only between the donor and host but also among the donor-lymphoid cells themselves may exist. Whether this observation made in one allogeneic chimera, CD2F 1 → C3BF 1 , will be true for other chimeras (different strain combinations, species) remains to be shown. Thus, the tempo, mode, and requirement for the generation of suppressor T cells are factors that may vary for any specific allogeneic bone marrow transplant. Finally, the manner and degree to which the tolerance-inducing mechanism may affect T- and B-cell functions of the chimera with respect to third-party antigens are yet to be determined

  12. Programmed cell death in Leishmania: biochemical evidence and role in parasite infectivity

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    Sreenivas eGannavaram

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Demonstration of features of a programmed cell death (PCD pathway in protozoan parasites initiated a great deal of interest and debate in the field of molecular parasitology. Several of the markers typical of mammalian apoptosis have been shown in Leishmania which suggested the existence of an apoptosis like death in these organisms. However studies to elucidate the down stream events associated with phosphotidyl serine exposure, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release and caspase-like activities in cells undergoing such cell death remain an ongoing challenge. Recent advances in genome sequencing, chemical biology should help solve some of these challenges. Leishmania genetic mutants that lack putative regulators/effectors of PCD pathway should not only help demonstrate the mechanisms of PCD but also provide tools to better understand the putative role for this pathway in population control and in the establishment of a successful infection of the host.

  13. Cells, Biomarkers, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Evidence for Peripheral Involvement in a Central Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    oxide production in patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis . Clin. Exp. Rheumatol. 27, 452–458. Gotovac K., Sabioncello A., Rabatic S., Berki T. and...Evidence of successful pharmaceutical inhibition of PBMC/microglia function was reported in an animal model of blast-induced TBI (Moochhala et al...related mild traumatic brain injury: mechanisms of injury and impact on clinical care . Mt Sinai J. Med. 76, 111–118. Fagelson M. A. (2007) The

  14. Hepatic parenchymal changes following transcatheter embolization and chemoembolization in a rabbit tumor model.

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    Yong Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE with transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE on liver function, hepatic damage, and hepatic fibrogenesis in a rabbit tumor model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine New Zealand white rabbits implanted with VX2 tumors in the left liver lobes were randomly divided into three groups: TAE, TACE, and control group. In the TAE group (n = 15, polyvinyl alcohol particles (PVAs were used for left hepatic artery embolization. In the TACE group (n = 15, the tumors were treated with left hepatic arterial infusions of a suspension of 10-hydroxycamptothecin and lipiodol, followed by embolization with PVAs. In the control group (n = 9, the animals received sham treatment with distilled water. Serum and liver samples were collected at 6 hours, 3 days and 7 days after treatment. Liver damage was measured using a liver function test and histological analyses. Liver fibrogenesis and hepatic stellate cell (HSC activation were evaluated using Sirius Red and anti-alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA immunohistochemical stains. RESULTS: TACE caused liver injury with greater increases in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels on day 3 (P<0.05. Histological analyses revealed increased hepatic necrosis in adjacent non-tumorous liver tissue from day 3 compared to the TAE group (Suzuki score of 2.33±1.29 versus 1.13±1.18, P = 0.001. HSC activation and proliferation were significantly increased in the TACE group compared to the control group at 3 and 7 days after treatment (0.074±0.014 vs. 0.010±0.006, and 0.088±0.023 vs. 0.017±0.009, P<0.05. Sirius Red staining demonstrated a statistically significant increase in collagen deposition in the livers in the TACE group 7 days after embolization compared to the control group (0.118±0.012 vs. 0.060±0.017, P = 0.05. CONCLUSION: The results of this animal study revealed that TACE induced

  15. Stem-cell treatment in disc degeneration: What is the evidence?

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    Manuela Peletti-Figueiró

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To review the potential role of stem cells in treating degenerative disc disease of the intervertebral disc (IVD. A review was performed of articles from the Medline database concerning stem cells and degenerative disc disease (DDD. To discuss the data, the papers were classified as: review, in vitro, experimental, and clinical. The currently available treatments were basically for symptom reduction, not to revert the IVD degenerative process. The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC is being proposed as an option of treatment for DDD. In vitro studies have shown that the MSC are able to differentiate into NP cells and that the MSC also reduce the inflammatory levels of the degenerated IVD. Besides, experimental studies demonstrated that the MSC remained viable when injected into the IVD, and that they were able to regenerate partially from the degenerated IVD and its structure. The few clinical studies found in the literature presented diverging results. The use of MSC is being widely studied and shows promising results for the treatment of DDD. Although many advances are being achieved in studies in vitro and experimental, there is a lack of clinical studies to prove the role of MSC in DDD management.

  16. Evidence for the presence of a retinoic acid receptor in rat osteosarcoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, K.B.; Beitz, D.C.; Horst, R.L.; Reinhardt, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Research has shown that ROS 17/2.8 cells respond to retinoic acid (RA) and do not express the cellular binding protein (CRABP) for RA. Initial experiments indicated the presence of a cytosolic and nuclear RA-binding activity. Both cytosolic and nuclear extracts were centrifuged (230,000g), and the supernatants labeled with [ 3 H]-RA±100-fold excess RA. Sucrose gradient analysis of the nuclear extract showed a specific RA-binding activity sedimenting at 3.3S. Scatchard analysis of the nuclear extract showed a single binding component with an apparent K d of 10 -9 M and an estimate of 1,700-3,000 copies/cell. The molecular weight of putative RAR was estimated to be 51KD by gel filtration. The cytosolic RA-binding activity co-sediments (2.0S) on a sucrose gradient with the cytosolic RA-binding activity from rat testis. Scatchard analysis resulted in an apparent Kd of 10 -8 M with an estimated 60,000 copies of CRABP/cell. These data indicate ROS 17/2.8 cells express both RAR and CRABP

  17. No evidence of genome editing activity from Natronobacterium gregoryi Argonaute (NgAgo) in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi-Parsijani, Parisa; Niu, Guoguang; Davis, Meghan; Lu, Pin; Atala, Anthony; Lu, Baisong

    2017-01-01

    The argonaute protein from the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus shows DNA-guided DNA interfering activity at high temperatures, complicating its application in mammalian cells. A recent work reported that the argonaute protein from Natronobacterium gregoryi (NgAgo) had DNA-guided genome editing activity in mammalian cells. We compared the genome editing activities of NgAgo and Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9) in human HEK293T cells side by side. EGFP reporter assays and DNA sequencing consistently revealed high genome editing activity from SaCas9. However, these assays did not demonstrate genome editing activity by NgAgo. We confirmed that the conditions allowed simultaneous transfection of the NgAgo expressing plasmid DNA and DNA guides, as well as heterologous expression of NgAgo in the HEK293T cells. Our data show that NgAgo is not a robust genome editing tool, although it may have such activity under other conditions.

  18. Evidence for an intracellular niche for Bordetella pertussis in broncho-alveolar lavage cells of mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellwig, SMM; Hazenbos, WLW; van de Winkel, JGJ; Mooi, FR

    1999-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis can attach, invade and survive intracellularly in human macrophages in vitro. To study the significance of this bacterial feature in vivo, we analyzed the presence of viable bacteria in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) cells of mice infected with B, pertussis. We found B. pertussis

  19. Evidence that glutamate mediates axon-to-Schwann cell signaling in the squid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, E M; Abbott, N J; Hassan, S

    1989-01-01

    High-frequency stimulation (100 Hz) of isolated giant axons of the small squid Alloteuthis subulata and the large squid Loligo forbesi caused the periaxonal Schwann cell resting potential (Em = -40 mV) to hyperpolarize up to 11 mV in direct proportion to train duration and action potential amplitude. In both species, the Schwann cell also hyperpolarized up to 17 mV with the application of L-glutamate (10(-9) to 10(-6) M), in a dose-dependent manner. By contrast, in the presence of 10(-8) M d-tubocurarine (d-TC) to block the cholinergic component of the Schwann cell response, Schwann cells depolarized 8-9 mV during electrical stimulation of the axon or application of L-glutamate. In the presence of 10(-5) M 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (2-APB), the hyperpolarization to glutamate and to axon stimulation was blocked, whereas the cholinergic (carbachol-induced) hyperpolarization was unaffected. In experiments with Alloteuthis, L-aspartate (10(-7) M) also caused a Schwann cell hyperpolarization, but this was not blocked by 2-APB. In tests with glutamate receptor agonists and antagonists, quisqualate (10(-5) M) produced a hyperpolarization blocked by 10(-4) M L-glutamic acid diethylester (GDEE), which also blocked the response to axonal stimulation. Kainic acid (10(-4) M) also caused a hyperpolarization, but n-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA; 10(-4) M), ibotenate (10(-5) M), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole proprionate (AMPA; (10(-4) M), and isethionate (10(-5) M) had no effect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Autoradiographic evidence of 2-methylindole covalent binding to pulmonary epithelial cells in the goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.M.; Breeze, R.G.; Carlson, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    3-Methylindole (3MI), the main ruminal fermentation product of L-tryptophan, causes acute pulmonary edema and interstitial emphysema in ruminants. Intravenous infusion of 3MI in goats causes necrosis and sloughing of pneumocytes and bronchial epithelial cells. Previous studies indicate that a reactive metabolite or metabolites of 3MI bind covalently to tissue macromolecules in the lung and this binding is associated with the pneumotoxicity of 3MI. We undertook this autoradiographic study of 3MI covalent binding to test the hypothesis that reactive 3MI metabolite(s) bind to the lung cells susceptible to 3MI-induced injury. We infused goats with ( 3 H)3MI and killed them either 0.5, 2 or 6 h after start of the infusion. Sections of fixed lung were extensively washed, alcohol dehydrated and embedded in plastic. Only covalently bound radioactivity remained. Silver grains were quantitated per area in the developed autoradiographs. There was a 2:1 ratio of binding to the small airway epithelium compared to the interalveolar septa in all the goats. Both ciliated and non-ciliated bronchiolar cells were labelled, as were both types I and II pneumocytes. Normal goat lung slices incubated in vitro with ( 3 H)3MI were labeled in the same pattern. Inclusion of either of the inhibitors of cytochrome P-450, SKF-525-A or piperonyl butoxide significantly reduced this binding to both the pneumocytes and the bronchiolar cells. We consider these results supportive of our hypothesis that 3MI is metabolized to reactive intermediates by the epithelial cells of the lung, where they bind to macromolecules, which may cause cellular damage. (author)

  1. Meninges: from protective membrane to stem cell niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decimo, Ilaria; Fumagalli, Guido; Berton, Valeria; Krampera, Mauro; Bifari, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Meninges are a three tissue membrane primarily known as coverings of the brain. More in depth studies on meningeal function and ultrastructure have recently changed the view of meninges as a merely protective membrane. Accurate evaluation of the anatomical distribution in the CNS reveals that meninges largely penetrate inside the neural tissue. Meninges enter the CNS by projecting between structures, in the stroma of choroid plexus and form the perivascular space (Virchow-Robin) of every parenchymal vessel. Thus, meninges may modulate most of the physiological and pathological events of the CNS throughout the life. Meninges are present since the very early embryonic stages of cortical development and appear to be necessary for normal corticogenesis and brain structures formation. In adulthood meninges contribute to neural tissue homeostasis by secreting several trophic factors including FGF2 and SDF-1. Recently, for the first time, we have identified the presence of a stem cell population with neural differentiation potential in meninges. In addition, we and other groups have further described the presence in meninges of injury responsive neural precursors. In this review we will give a comprehensive view of meninges and their multiple roles in the context of a functional network with the neural tissue. We will highlight the current literature on the developmental feature of meninges and their role in cortical development. Moreover, we will elucidate the anatomical distribution of the meninges and their trophic properties in adult CNS. Finally, we will emphasize recent evidences suggesting the potential role of meninges as stem cell niche harbouring endogenous precursors that can be activated by injury and are able to contribute to CNS parenchymal reaction.

  2. Utility of the whole-kidney and parenchymal time-activity curves for a prediction of diuretic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samal, M.; Mostbeck, A.; Bergmann, H.; Nimmon, C.C.; Staudenherz, A.; Dudczak, R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In a retrospective study, MAG3 dynamic renal data (90 kidneys in 57 children) have been analyzed with the aim to test a prediction of diuretic response. Whole-kidney (WK) and parenchymal (PA) curves were extracted from 20 min pre-diuretic phase using standard and fuzzy ROIs. Peak time (PT), half time (HT), ratio of the curve value in 20th min to the curve maximum (RM), mean transit time (TT), and output efficiency (OE) were calculated for each curve. With PA curves, also the transit time index (PI) was calculated. The curve parameters were compared with the maximum elimination rate of urine after diuretic (EM) using paired correlation and Fisher's linear discriminate function. The highest correlation was found between ln EM and OE-PA (0.61), RM-PA (-0.58), TT-PA (-0.57), and PI (-0.57). Best diagnostic accuracy in prediction of EM ≤ 7 % (a sign of obstruction) was obtained with OE-PA (87 %), PI (87 %), and both PT-PA and RM-PA (83 %). Parameters of WK curves had higher sensitivity, those of PA curves higher specificity. Most parameters had a high predictive value of negative result (NPV > 90 %) but low predictive value of positive result (PPV < 50 %). Best discrimination of low EM was obtained with a combination of both WK and PA parameters (diagnostic accuracy of 90 %). Using PA curves in kidneys with late PT-WK made possible to increase the diagnostic accuracy from 70 - 80 % (with WK parameters only) to 95 %. Our results demonstrate that PA curves carry additional clinical information and may help to predict and Interpret a diuretic response especially in kidneys with late peak of the WK curves. (author)

  3. Visualization of morphological parenchymal changes in emphysema: Comparison of different MRI sequences to 3D-HRCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia; Ley, Sebastian; Eberhardt, Ralf; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Heussel, Claus Peter

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Thin-section CT is the modality of choice for morphological imaging the lung parenchyma, while proton-MRI might be used for functional assessment. However, the capability of MRI to visualize morphological parenchymal alterations in emphysema is undetermined. Thus, the aim of the study was to compare different MRI sequences with CT. Materials and methods: 22 patients suffering from emphysema underwent thin-section MSCT serving as a reference. MRI (1.5 T) was performed using three different sequences: T2-HASTE in coronal and axial orientation, T1-GRE (VIBE) in axial orientation before and after application of contrast media (ce). All datasets were evaluated by four chest radiologists in consensus for each sequence separately independent from CT. The severity of emphysema, leading type, bronchial wall thickening, fibrotic changes and nodules was analyzed visually on a lobar level. Results: The sensitivity for correct categorization of emphysema severity was 44%, 48% and 41% and the leading type of emphysema was identical to CT in 68%, 55% and 60%, for T2-HASTE, T1-VIBE and T1-ce-VIBE respectively. A bronchial wall thickening was found in 43 lobes in CT and was correctly seen in MRI in 42%, 33% and 26%. Of those 74 lobes presented with fibrotic changes in CT were correctly identified by MRI in 39%, 35% and 58%. Small nodules were mostly underdiagnosed in MRI. Conclusion: MRI matched the CT severity classification and leading type of emphysema in half of the cases. All sequences showed a similar diagnostic performance, however a combination of HASTE and ce-VIBE should be recommended.

  4. Genetic polymorphisms in Toll-like receptors among pediatric patients with renal parenchymal infections of different clinical severities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hui Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although several studies have suggested single gene defects or variations in the genes associated with host immune response could confer differences in susceptibility to urinary pathogen invasion, no studies have examined the genetic polymorphisms in various toll-like receptors (TLRs that activate innate immune responses in pediatric renal parenchymal infections of different clinical severities, namely acute pyelonephritis and the clinically more severe disease, acute lobar nephronia. METHODOLOGY: Patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for acute pyelonephritis (APN and acute lobar nephronia (ALN without underlying diseases or structural anomalies, except for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR, were enrolled. Genotyping of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the genes encoding TLR-1, TLR-2, TLR-4, TLR-5, and TLR-6 was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight-based mini-sequencing analysis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 16 SNPs were selected for genotyping. Analysis of 96 normal and 48 patients' samples revealed that only four SNPs had heterozygosity rates >0.01. These SNPs were selected for further investigation. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was satisfied for the observed genotype frequencies. Statistically significant differences in the genotype frequency of TLR-2 (rs3804100, T1350C between controls and ALN or (APN+ALN combined group were identified using the recessive model with the correction for multiple-SNP testing. Further genotype pattern frequency analysis in TLR-2 SNPs (rs3804099 and rs3804100 showed significantly reduced occurrence of the rare allele homozygote (CC+CC in the no-VUR subgroup of APN and ALN cases. CONCLUSIONS: As the inflammatory responses in ALN patients are more severe than those in APN patients (higher CRP levels, longer duration of fever after antibiotic treatment, these findings suggest that the genetic variant in TLR-2 (rs3804100, T1350C may protect the host from

  5. Radiogenic responses of normal cells induced by fractionated irradiation -a simulation study. Pt. 2. Late responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duechting, W.; Ulmer, W.; Ginsberg, T.; Kikhounga-N'Got, O.; Saile, C.

    1995-01-01

    Based on controlled theory, a computed simulation model has been constructed which describes the time course of slowly responding normal cells after irradiation exposure. Subsequently, different clinical irradiation schemes are compared in regard to their delayed radiogenic responses referred to as late effects in radiological terminology. A cybernetic model of a paraenchymal tissue consisting of dominantly resting functional cells has been developed and transferred into a computer model. The radiation effects are considered by characteristic cell parameters as well as by the linear-quadratic model. Three kinds of tissue (brain and lung parenchym of the mouse, liver parenchym of rat) have been irradiated in the model according to standard-, super-, hyperfractionation and a single high dose per week. The simulation studies indicate that the late reaction of brain parenchym to hyperfractionation (3 x 1.5 Gy per day) and of lung parenchym tissue with regard to all fractionation schemes applied is particularly severe. The behavior of liver parenchym is not unique. A comparison of the simulation results basing to the survival of cell numbers with clinical experience and practice shows that the clinical reality can qualitatively be represented by the model. This opens the door for connecting side effects to normal tissue with the corresponding tumor efficacy (discussed in previous papers). The model is open to further refinement and to discussions referring to the phenomenon of late effects. (orig.) [de

  6. Evidence that the respiratory syncytial virus polymerase complex associates with lipid rafts in virus-infected cells: a proteomic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Terence P.; Pitt, Andrew R.; Brown, Gaie; Rixon, Helen W. McL.; Sugrue, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    The interaction between the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) polymerase complex and lipid rafts was examined in HEp2 cells. Lipid-raft membranes were prepared from virus-infected cells and their protein content was analysed by Western blotting and mass spectrometry. This analysis revealed the presence of the N, P, L, M2-1 and M proteins. However, these proteins appeared to differ from one another in their association with these structures, with the M2-1 protein showing a greater partitioning into raft membranes compared to that of the N, P or M proteins. Determination of the polymerase activity profile of the gradient fractions revealed that 95% of the detectable viral enzyme activity was associated with lipid-raft membranes. Furthermore, analysis of virus-infected cells by confocal microscopy suggested an association between these proteins and the raft-lipid, GM1. Together, these results provide evidence that the RSV polymerase complex is able to associate with lipid rafts in virus-infected cells

  7. Automated detection of residual cells after sex-mismatched stem-cell transplantation – evidence for presence of disease-marker negative residual cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Tilman

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new chimerism analysis based on automated interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH evaluation was established to detect residual cells after allogene sex-mismatched bone marrow or blood stem-cell transplantation. Cells of 58 patients were characterized as disease-associated due to presence of a bcr/abl-gene-fusion or a trisomy 8 and/or a simultaneous hybridization of gonosome-specific centromeric probes. The automatic slide scanning platform Metafer with its module MetaCyte was used to analyse 3,000 cells per sample. Results Overall 454 assays of 58 patients were analyzed. 13 of 58 patients showed residual recipient cells at one stage of more than 4% and 12 of 58 showed residual recipient cells less than 4%, respectively. As to be expected, patients of the latter group were associated with a higher survival rate (48 vs. 34 month. In only two of seven patients with disease-marker positive residual cells between 0.1–1.3% a relapse was observed. Besides, disease-marker negative residual cells were found in two patients without relapse at a rate of 2.8% and 3.3%, respectively. Conclusion The definite origin and meaning of disease-marker negative residual cells is still unclear. Overall, with the presented automatic chimerism analysis of interphase FISH slides, a sensitive method for detection of disease-marker positive residual cells is on hand.

  8. In Vitro Evidence of the Presence of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Cervical Cancer and Their Role in Protecting Cancer Cells from Cytotoxic T Cell Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesinos, Juan J.; Mora-García, María de L.; Mayani, Héctor; Flores-Figueroa, Eugenia; García-Rocha, Rosario; Fajardo-Orduña, Guadalupe R.; Castro-Manrreza, Marta E.; Weiss-Steider, Benny

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been isolated from different tumors and it has been suggested that they support tumor growth through immunosuppression processes that favor tumor cell evasion from the immune system. To date, however, the presence of MSCs in cervical cancer (CeCa) and their possible role in tumor growth remains unknown. Herein we report on the presence of MSCs in cervical tissue, both in normal conditions (NCx-MSCs) and in CeCa (CeCa-MSCs), and described several biological properties of such cells. Our study showed similar patterns of cell surface antigen expression, but distinct differentiation potentials, when we compared both cervical MSC populations to MSCs from normal bone marrow (BM-MSCs, the gold standard). Interestingly, CeCa-MSCs were negative for the presence of human papiloma virus, indicating that these cells are not infected by such a viral agent. Also, interestingly, and in contrast to NCx-MSCs, CeCa-MSCs induced significant downregulation of surface HLA class I molecules (HLA-A*0201) on CaSki cells and other CeCa cell lines. We further observed that CeCa-MSCs inhibited antigen-specific T cell recognition of CaSki cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). HLA class I downregulation on CeCa cells correlated with the production of IL-10 in cell cocultures. Importantly, this cytokine strongly suppressed recognition of CeCa cells by CTLs. In summary, this study demonstrates the presence of MSCs in CeCa and suggests that tumor-derived MSCs may provide immune protection to tumor cells by inducing downregulation of HLA class I molecules. This mechanism may have important implications in tumor growth. PMID:23656504

  9. Molecular evidence and functional expression of multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP) in rabbit corneal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karla, Pradeep K; Pal, Dananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2007-01-01

    Multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP) is a major family of efflux transporters involved in drug efflux leading to drug resistance. The objective of this study was to explore physical barriers for ocular drug absorption and to verify if the role of efflux transporters. MRP-2 is a major homologue of MRP family and found to express on the apical side of cell membrane. Cultured Rabbit Corneal Epithelial Cells (rCEC) were selected as an in vitro model for corneal epithelium. [14C]-erythromycin which is a proven substrate for MRP-2 was selected as a model drug for functional expression studies. MK-571, a known specific and potent inhibitor for MRP-2 was added to inhibit MRP mediated efflux. Membrane fraction of rCEC was used for western blot analysis. Polarized transport of [14C]-erythromycin was observed in rCEC and transport from B-->A was significantly high than from A-->B. Permeability's increased significantly from A-->B in the presence of MK-571 and ketoconozole. Uptake of [14C]-erythromycin in the presence of MK-571 was significantly higher than control in rCEC. RT-PCR analysis indicated a unique and distinct band at approximately 498 bp corresponding to MRP-2 in rCEC and MDCK11-MRP-2 cells. Immunoprecipitation followed by Western Blot analysis indicated a specific band at approximately 190 kDa in membrane fraction of rCEC and MDCK11-MRP-2 cells. For the first time we have demonstrated high expression of MRP-2 in rabbit corneal epithelium and its functional activity causing drug efflux. RT-PCR, immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis further confirms the result.

  10. Evidence for Nuclear Tensor Polarization of Deuterium Molecules in Storage Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van den Brand, J.; Bulten, H.; Zhou, Z.; Unal, O.; van den Brand, J.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Botto, T.; Bouwhuis, M.; Heimberg, P.; de Jager, C.; de Lange, D.; Nooren, G.; Papadakis, N.; Passchier, I.; Poolman, H.; Steijger, J.; Vodinas, N.; de Vries, H.; van den Brand, J.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Lang, J.; Alarcon, R.; Dolfini, S.; Ent, R.; Higinbotham, D.

    1997-01-01

    Deuterium molecules were obtained by recombination, on a copper surface, of deuterium atoms prepared in specific hyperfine states. The molecules were stored for about 5ms in an open-ended cylindrical cell, placed in a 23mT magnetic field, and their tensor polarization was measured by elastic scattering of 704MeV electrons. The results of the measurements are consistent with the deuterium molecules retaining the tensor polarization of the initial atoms. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. Evidence that CFTR is expressed in rat tracheal smooth muscle cells and contributes to bronchodilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mettey Yvette

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The airway functions are profoundly affected in many diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and cystic fibrosis (CF. CF the most common lethal autosomal recessive genetic disease is caused by mutations of the CFTR gene, which normally encodes a multifunctional and integral membrane protein, the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR expressed in airway epithelial cells. Methods To demonstrate that CFTR is also expressed in tracheal smooth muscle cells (TSMC, we used iodide efflux assay to analyse the chloride transports in organ culture of rat TSMC, immunofluorescence study to localize CFTR proteins and isometric contraction measurement on isolated tracheal rings to observe the implication of CFTR in the bronchodilation. Results We characterized three different pathways stimulated by the cAMP agonist forskolin and the isoflavone agent genistein, by the calcium ionophore A23187 and by hypo-osmotic challenge. The pharmacology of the cAMP-dependent iodide efflux was investigated in detail. We demonstrated in rat TSMC that it is remarkably similar to that of the epithelial CFTR, both for activation (using three benzo [c]quinolizinium derivatives and for inhibition (glibenclamide, DPC and CFTRinh-172. Using rat tracheal rings, we observed that the activation of CFTR by benzoquinolizinium derivatives in TSMC leads to CFTRinh-172-sensitive bronchodilation after constriction with carbachol. An immunolocalisation study confirmed expression of CFTR in tracheal myocytes. Conclusion Altogether, these observations revealed that CFTR in the airways of rat is expressed not only in the epithelial cells but also in tracheal smooth muscle cells leading to the hypothesis that this ionic channel could contribute to bronchodilation.

  12. Evidence that a glycolipid tail anchors antigen 117 to the plasma membrane of Dictyostelium discoideum cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, H.; Da Silva, A.M.; Klein, C.

    1988-01-01

    The authors describe the biochemical features of the putative cell cohesion molecule antigen 117, indicating that it is anchored to the plasma membrane by a glycolipid tail. Antigen 117 can be radiolabeled with [ 3 H]myristate, [ 3 H]palmitate, and [ 14 C]ethanolamine. The fatty acid label is removed by periodate oxidation and nitrous acid deamination, indicating that the fatty acid is attached to the protein by a structure containing carbohydrate and an unsubstituted glucosamine. As cells develop aggregation competence, the antigen is released from the cell surface in a soluble form that can still be radiolabeled with [ 14 C]ethanolamine but not with [ 3 H]myristate of [ 3 H]-palmitate. The molecular weight of the released antigen is similar to that found in the plasma membrane, but it preferentially partitions in Triton X-114 as a hydrophilic, as opposed to a hydrophobic, protein. Plasma membranes contain the enzyme activity responsible for the release of the antigen in a soluble form

  13. Hematopoietic cell transplantation in Fanconi anemia: current evidence, challenges and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebens, Christen L; MacMillan, Margaret L; Wagner, John E

    2017-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation for Fanconi Anemia (FA) has improved dramatically over the past 40 years. With an enhanced understanding of the intrinsic DNA-repair defect and pathophysiology of hematopoietic failure and leukemogenesis, sequential changes to conditioning and graft engineering have significantly improved the expectation of survival after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) with incidence of graft failure decreased from 35% to 40% to <10%. Today, five-year overall survival exceeds 90% in younger FA patients with bone marrow failure but remains about 50% in those with hematologic malignancy. Areas covered: We review the evolution of alloHCT contributing to decreased rates of transplant related complications; highlight current challenges including poorer outcomes in cases of clonal hematologic disorders, alloHCT impact on endocrine function and intrinsic FA risk of epithelial malignancies; and describe investigational therapies for prevention and treatment of the hematologic manifestations of FA. Expert commentary: Current methods allow for excellent survival following alloHCT for FA associated BMF irrespective of donor hematopoietic cell source. Alternative curative approaches, such as gene therapy, are being explored to eliminate the risks of GVHD and minimize therapy-related adverse effects.

  14. Dose-rate evidence for two kinds of radiation damage in stationary-phase mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metting, N.F.; Braby, L.A.; Roesch, W.C.; Nelson, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Survival based on colony formation was measured for starved plateau-phase Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells exposed to 250 kVp X rays at dose rates of 0.0031, 0.025, 0.18, 0.31, and 1.00 Gy/min. A large dose-rate effect was demonstrated. Delayed plating experiments and dose response experiments following a conditioning dose, both using a dose rate of 1.00 Gy/min and plating delays of up to 48 hr, were also used to investigate the alternative repair hypotheses. There is clearly a greater change in survival in dose-rate experiments than in the other experiments. Thus the authors believe that a process which depends on the square of the concentration of initial damage, and which alters the effect of initial damage on cell survival is being observed. They have applied the damage accumulation model to separate the single-event damage from this concentration-dependent form and estimate the repair rate for the latter type to be 70 min for their CHO cells

  15. Raman Microspectroscopic Evidence for the Metabolism of a Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, Neratinib, in Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljakouch, Karim; Lechtonen, Tatjana; Yosef, Hesham K; Hammoud, Mohamad K; Alsaidi, Wissam; Kötting, Carsten; Mügge, Carolin; Kourist, Robert; El-Mashtoly, Samir F; Gerwert, Klaus

    2018-06-11

    Tyrosine kinase receptors are one of the main targets in cancer therapy. They play an essential role in the modulation of growth factor signaling and thereby inducing cell proliferation and growth. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as neratinib bind to EGFR and HER2 receptors and exhibit antitumor activity. However, little is known about their detailed cellular uptake and metabolism. Here, we report for the first time the intracellular spatial distribution and metabolism of neratinib in different cancer cells using label-free Raman imaging. Two new neratinib metabolites were detected and fluorescence imaging of the same cells indicate that neratinib accumulates in lysosomes. The results also suggest that both EGFR and HER2 follow the classical endosome lysosomal pathway for degradation. A combination of Raman microscopy, DFT calculations, and LC-MS was used to identify the chemical structure of neratinib metabolites. These results show the potential of Raman microscopy to study drug pharmacokinetics. © 2018 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  16. Evidence for a Rad18-independent frameshift mutagenesis pathway in human cell-free extracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régine Janel-Bintz

    Full Text Available Bypass of replication blocks by specialized DNA polymerases is crucial for cell survival but may promote mutagenesis and genome instability. To gain insight into mutagenic sub-pathways that coexist in mammalian cells, we examined N-2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF-induced frameshift mutagenesis by means of SV40-based shuttle vectors containing a single adduct. We found that in mammalian cells, as previously observed in E. coli, modification of the third guanine of two target sequences, 5'-GGG-3' (3G and 5'-GGCGCC-3' (NarI site, induces -1 and -2 frameshift mutations, respectively. Using an in vitro assay for translesion synthesis, we investigated the biochemical control of these events. We showed that Pol eta, but neither Pol iota nor Pol zeta, plays a major role in the frameshift bypass of the AAF adduct located in the 3G sequence. By complementing PCNA-depleted extracts with either a wild-type or a non-ubiquitinatable form of PCNA, we found that this Pol eta-mediated pathway requires Rad18 and ubiquitination of PCNA. In contrast, when the AAF adduct is located within the NarI site, TLS is only partially dependent upon Pol eta and Rad18, unravelling the existence of alternative pathways that concurrently bypass this lesion.

  17. Evidence of a generalized defect of acinar cell function in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormon, Michael O; Ip, Wan F; Ellis, Lynda; Schibli, Susanne; Rommens, Johanna M; Durie, Peter R

    2010-07-01

    : Because the acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas in patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) are severely depleted, we hypothesized that a similar deficiency may be present in acinar cells of the parotid gland. : We determined serum pancreatic isoamylase and parotid amylase activities in 16 patients with SDS, 13 healthy controls, and 13 disease controls (cystic fibrosis or fibrosing pancreatitis). Parotid amylase and electrolyte concentrations were measured in stimulated parotid gland secretions. Starch digestion was assessed by breath hydrogen testing in patients with SDS (with and without enzyme supplements) and healthy controls. : Serum pancreatic and parotid isoamylase values were lower in the patients with SDS than in the healthy controls (P gland amylase concentration (units per milligram of protein) in patients with SDS was lower than that in the healthy controls (P = 0.04), whereas the disease controls were comparable to the healthy subjects (P = 0.09). Secreted parotid chloride concentration was inversely correlated with amylase concentration in the patients with SDS (P = 0.01), but no correlation was seen in the healthy controls or disease controls. When patients with SDS ingested starch without enzyme supplementation, their breath hydrogen excretion was significantly higher than that in the healthy controls (P = 0.009). Following starch ingestion with enzymes, breath hydrogen in the patients with SDS was lower (P functional abnormality of exocrine acinar cells.

  18. Laminin in the anterior pituitary gland of the rat. Laminin in the gonadotrophic cells correlates with their functional state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Albrechtsen, R; Wewer, U M

    1987-01-01

    The distribution pattern of laminin in the rat anterior pituitary gland under physiological and hormonally altered conditions was studied immunohistochemically. Intense immunoreactivity of the capillaries and of the basement membranes surrounding parenchymal cells was found. Five to 10......% of the parenchymal cells of normal adult rat pituitary gland exhibited also intense positive cytoplasmic staining. These were identified as gonadotrophic cells on the basis of their topographic distribution and typical 700-nm light bodies. By immunoelectron microscopy it was shown that the light bodies contain...... laminin and the number of light bodies reflects the hormonal activity of the gonadotrophic cells of the rat pituitary gland....

  19. Immune Homeostasis in Epithelial Cells: Evidence and Role of Inflammasome Signaling Reviewed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Paul M; Wouters, Emiel F; Reynaert, Niki L

    2015-01-01

    The epithelium regulates the interaction between the noxious xenogenous, as well as the microbial environment and the immune system, not only by providing a barrier but also by expressing a number of immunoregulatory membrane receptors, and intracellular danger sensors and their downstream effectors. Amongst these are a number of inflammasome sensor subtypes, which have been initially characterized in myeloid cells and described to be activated upon assembly into multiprotein complexes by microbial and environmental triggers. This review compiles a vast amount of literature that supports a pivotal role for inflammasomes in the various epithelial barriers of the human body as essential factors maintaining immune signaling and homeostasis.

  20. From the Earliest Evidence of Life to Complex Single-cell Organisms: The First 3 Gyr on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buick, Roger

    2006-12-01

    Life has probably been present on Earth since the time of the oldest sedimentary rock record 3.8 Gyr ago, as indicated by graphite with light carbon isotope ratios consistent with derivation from organic matter. But certain evidence for life appears only at 3.52 Gyr, in the form of kerogen (insoluble organic matter) in sedimentary carbonate showing a -25‰ carbon isotope fractionation identical to that imparted by biological carbon fixation. Soon after, at 3.48 Gyr, the first visible evidence for life appears as stromatolites (sediment mounds constructed by microbes), as well as the first evidence for a specific metabolism (large negative sulfur isotope fractionations indicating microbial sulfate reduction). By 2.7 Gyr ago, molecular biomarkers (hydrocarbons derived from biomolecules with distinctive carbon skeletons such as steroids) indicate that all 3 Domains of life: bacteria, eukaryotes (organisms with compartmentalized cells like us) and archaea (bacteria-like organisms with different biochemistry, often inhabiting extreme environments); had evolved. The first multicellular eukaryotes appeared by 1.84 Gyr in the form of fossilized filamentous algae, after the atmosphere changed from anoxic to moderately oxygenated at 2.4 Gyr and following a series of extreme “Snowball Earth” glaciations between 2.4-2.2 Gyr. Planktonic algae diversified thereafter and modern algal groups arose 1.2 Gyr ago, apparently at the end of a prolonged period of ocean anoxia when the deep sea was sulfidic and presumably toxic. Animal evolution was delayed until 0.65 Gyr ago when biomarkers for sponges first appear in the record, evidently after a further rise in atmospheric oxygen to modern levels but surprisingly pre-dating the last of another series of “Snowball Earth” glaciations. These sponges co-existed with an enigmatic extinct group of large flat marine organisms called “Ediacaran fossils” that may have been ancestral to modern animal groups but might also have been

  1. Evidence for nuclear internalization of exogenous DNA into mammalian sperm cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francolini, M.; Lavitrano, M.; Lamia, C.L.; French, D.; Frati, L.; Cotelli, F.; Spadafora, C.

    1993-01-01

    Mature sperm cells have the spontaneous capacity to take up exogenous DNA. Such DNA specifically interacts with the subacrosomal segment of the sperm head corresponding to the nuclear area. Part of the sperm-bound foreign DNA is further internalized into nuclei. Using end-labelled plasmid DNA we have found that 15-22% of the total sperm bound DNA is associated with nuclei as determined on isolated nuclei. On the basis of autoradiographic analysis, nuclear permeability to exogenous DNA seems to be a wide phenomenon involving the majority of the sperm nuclei. In fact, the foreign DNA, incubated with sperm cells for different lengths of time, is found in 45% (10 min) to 65% (2 hr) of the sperm nuclei. Ultrastructural autoradiography on thin sections of mammalian spermatozoa, preincubated with end-labelled plasmid DNA, shows that the exogenous DNA is internalized into the nucleus. This conclusion is further supported by ultrastructural autoradiographic analysis on thin sections of nuclei isolated from spermatozoa preincubated with end-labelled DNA

  2. Experimental evidence for the physiological role of bacterial luciferase in the protection of cells against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpilewska, Hanna; Czyz, Agata; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz

    2003-11-01

    The origin and function of bioluminescence was considered a problematic question of the Charles Darwin theory. Early evolution of bacterial luminescence and its current physiological importance seem to be especially mysterious. Recently, it was proposed that stimulation of DNA repair may be a physiological role for production of light by bacterial cells. On the other hand, it was also proposed that primary role of luminescent systems could be detoxification of the deleterious oxygen derivatives. Although some previous results might suggest that this hypothesis can be correct, until now experimental evidence for such a mechanism operating in bacterial cells and having physiological importance was generally lacking. Here we demonstrate that in the presence of various oxidants (hydrogen peroxide, cumene hydroperoxide, t-butyl hydroperoxide, and ferrous ions) at certain concentrations in the culture medium, growth of Vibrio harveyi mutants luxA and luxB, but not of the mutant luxD, is severely impaired relative to wild-type bacteria. This deleterious effect of oxidants on the mutants luxA and luxB could be significantly reduced by addition of the antioxidants A-TEMPO or 40H-TEMPO. We conclude that bacterial luciferase may indeed play a physiological role in the protection of cells against oxidative stress.

  3. H-2 restriction of the T cell response to chemically induced tumors: evidence from F1 → parent chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannin, D.R.; Yu, S.; McKhann, C.F.

    1982-01-01

    It has been well established that T cells that react to tumor antigen on virus-induced tumors must share H-2D or H-2K specificities with the tumor. It has been impossible to perform similar studies with chemically induced tumors because each chemically induced tumor expresses a unique tumor antigen that cannot be studied in association with other H-2 types. This study provies evidence that H-2 recognition is also necessary for recognition of chemically induced tumors. We have found that F 1 → parent chimeras preferentially recognize chemically induced tumors of parental H-2 type. C3H/HeJ and C57BL/6 mice were lethally irradiated and restored with (C3H x C57BL/6) F 1 hybrid bone marrow. The F 1 → C3H chimera but not the F 1 → C57BL/6 chimera was able to respond to a C3H fibrosarcoma in mixed lymphocyte-tumor cell culture and also to neutralize the tumor in an in vivo tumor neutralization assay. On the other hand, the F 1 → C57BL/6 chimera but not the F 1 → C3H chimera was able to kill the C57BL/6 lymphoma EL4 in an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. Both chimeras were tolerant to C3H and C57BL/6 alloantigens but could respond normally to Con A and to BALB/c spleen cells in mixed lymphocyte cultures and cytotoxicity assay

  4. Proton Beam Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Current Clinical Evidence and Future Directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, Abigail T.; James, Sara St.; Rengan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cancer cause of death in the United States. Radiotherapy is an essential component of the definitive treatment of early-stage and locally-advanced lung cancer, and the palliative treatment of metastatic lung cancer. Proton beam therapy (PBT), through its characteristic Bragg peak, has the potential to decrease the toxicity of radiotherapy, and, subsequently improve the therapeutic ratio. Herein, we provide a primer on the physics of proton beam therapy for lung cancer, present the existing data in early-stage and locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as well as in special situations such as re-irradiation and post-operative radiation therapy. We then present the technical challenges, such as anatomic changes and motion management, and future directions for PBT in lung cancer, including pencil beam scanning

  5. Experimental evidence of hot carriers solar cell operation in multi-quantum wells heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodière, Jean; Lombez, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.lombez@chimie-paristech.fr [IRDEP, Institute of R and D on Photovoltaic Energy, UMR 7174, CNRS-EDF-Chimie ParisTech, 6 Quai Watier-BP 49, 78401 Chatou Cedex (France); Le Corre, Alain; Durand, Olivier [INSA, FOTON-OHM, UMR 6082, F-35708 Rennes (France); Guillemoles, Jean-François [IRDEP, Institute of R and D on Photovoltaic Energy, UMR 7174, CNRS-EDF-Chimie ParisTech, 6 Quai Watier-BP 49, 78401 Chatou Cedex (France); NextPV, LIA CNRS-RCAST/U. Tokyo-U. Bordeaux, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan)

    2015-05-04

    We investigated a semiconductor heterostructure based on InGaAsP multi quantum wells (QWs) using optical characterizations and demonstrate its potential to work as a hot carrier cell absorber. By analyzing photoluminescence spectra, the quasi Fermi level splitting Δμ and the carrier temperature are quantitatively measured as a function of the excitation power. Moreover, both thermodynamics values are measured at the QWs and the barrier emission energy. High values of Δμ are found for both transition, and high carrier temperature values in the QWs. Remarkably, the quasi Fermi level splitting measured at the barrier energy exceeds the absorption threshold of the QWs. This indicates a working condition beyond the classical Shockley-Queisser limit.

  6. Proton Beam Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Current Clinical Evidence and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail T. Berman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cancer cause of death in the United States. Radiotherapy is an essential component of the definitive treatment of early-stage and locally-advanced lung cancer, and the palliative treatment of metastatic lung cancer. Proton beam therapy (PBT, through its characteristic Bragg peak, has the potential to decrease the toxicity of radiotherapy, and, subsequently improve the therapeutic ratio. Herein, we provide a primer on the physics of proton beam therapy for lung cancer, present the existing data in early-stage and locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, as well as in special situations such as re-irradiation and post-operative radiation therapy. We then present the technical challenges, such as anatomic changes and motion management, and future directions for PBT in lung cancer, including pencil beam scanning.

  7. Histological evidence of testicular dysgenesis in contralateral biopsies from 218 patients with testicular germ cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Holm, Mette; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    dysgenesis, microscopic dysgenetic features were quantified in contralateral testicular biopsies in patients with a testicular germ cell tumour. Two hundred and eighty consecutive contralateral testicular biopsies from Danish patients with testicular cancer diagnosed in 1998-2001 were evaluated...... retrospectively. Two hundred and eighteen specimens were subsequently included in this study, after 63 patients who did not meet inclusion criteria had to be excluded. The presence of carcinoma in situ (which is believed to originate from transformed gonocytes) was detected in 8.7% of biopsies. The incidence...... patients, areas with immature and morphologically distorted tubules were also noted. Spermatogenesis was qualitatively normal in 51.4%, whereas 11.5% had very poor or absent spermatogenesis. It is concluded that microscopic testicular dysgenesis is a frequent feature in contralateral biopsies from patients...

  8. Evidence of active transport of cadmium complexing dithiocarbamates into renal and hepatic cells in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, G.R.; Smith, A.B.; Jones, M.M.; Singh, P.K.

    1992-01-01

    A study was made of the effects of certain inhibitors of transport systems on the actions of four cadmium (Cd) complexing N,N-disubstituted dithiocarbamates (DTCs) in mobilizing murine renal and hepatic Cd in vivo. Probenecid, the prototypical antagonist of organic anion transport in the kidney, when given 1 hr prior to each DTC, sharply suppressed the DTC-induced reduction of renal Cd but was virtually without effect on mobilization of Cd from liver. Sulfinpyrazone, which blocks tubular reabsorption of uric acid and also inhibits transport of a variety of organic acids, inhibited markedly the mobilization of both renal and hepatic Cd by DTCs. Phlorizin, an inhibitor of tubular sugar reabsorption, did not affect the Cd mobilizing actions of DTCs in any consistent fashion. We propose that the high degree of selectivity of DTCs in mobilizing renal hepatic Cd is dependent, at lest in part, upon active transport of DTCs into these tissues via the organic anion transport systems. This report presents the first evidence that compounds of the (R) 2 NCSS - class may gain access to intracellular space by an active, carrier-mediated process. (au)

  9. Quantitative background parenchymal uptake on molecular breast imaging and breast cancer risk: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Carrie B; Geske, Jennifer R; Swanson, Tiffinee N; Mammel, Alyssa N; Lake, David S; Manduca, Armando; Conners, Amy Lynn; Whaley, Dana H; Scott, Christopher G; Carter, Rickey E; Rhodes, Deborah J; O'Connor, Michael K; Vachon, Celine M

    2018-06-05

    Background parenchymal uptake (BPU), which refers to the level of Tc-99m sestamibi uptake within normal fibroglandular tissue on molecular breast imaging (MBI), has been identified as a breast cancer risk factor, independent of mammographic density. Prior analyses have used subjective categories to describe BPU. We evaluate a new quantitative method for assessing BPU by testing its reproducibility, comparing quantitative results with previously established subjective BPU categories, and determining the association of quantitative BPU with breast cancer risk. Two nonradiologist operators independently performed region-of-interest analysis on MBI images viewed in conjunction with corresponding digital mammograms. Quantitative BPU was defined as a unitless ratio of the average pixel intensity (counts/pixel) within the fibroglandular tissue versus the average pixel intensity in fat. Operator agreement and the correlation of quantitative BPU measures with subjective BPU categories assessed by expert radiologists were determined. Percent density on mammograms was estimated using Cumulus. The association of quantitative BPU with breast cancer (per one unit BPU) was examined within an established case-control study of 62 incident breast cancer cases and 177 matched controls. Quantitative BPU ranged from 0.4 to 3.2 across all subjects and was on average higher in cases compared to controls (1.4 versus 1.2, p Quantitative BPU was strongly correlated with subjective BPU categories (Spearman's r = 0.59 to 0.69, p quantitative BPU measure, assessed by intraclass correlation, was 0.92 and 0.98, respectively. Quantitative BPU measures showed either no correlation or weak negative correlation with mammographic percent density. In a model adjusted for body mass index and percent density, higher quantitative BPU was associated with increased risk of breast cancer for both operators (OR = 4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-10.1, and 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.7). Quantitative

  10. Background parenchymal uptake on molecular breast imaging as a breast cancer risk factor: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Carrie B; Scott, Christopher G; Conners, Amy Lynn; Whaley, Dana H; Rhodes, Deborah J; Carter, Rickey E; O'Connor, Michael K; Hunt, Katie N; Brandt, Kathleen R; Vachon, Celine M

    2016-04-26

    Molecular breast imaging (MBI) is a functional test used for supplemental screening of women with mammographically dense breasts. Additionally, MBI depicts variable levels of background parenchymal uptake (BPU) within nonmalignant, dense fibroglandular tissue. We investigated whether BPU is a risk factor for breast cancer. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of 3027 eligible women who had undergone MBI between February 2004 and February 2014. Sixty-two incident breast cancer cases were identified. A total of 179 controls were matched on age, menopausal status, and MBI year. Two radiologists blinded to case status independently assessed BPU as one of four categories: photopenic, minimal to mild, moderate, or marked. Conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the associations (OR) of BPU categories (moderate or marked vs. minimal to mild or photopenic) and breast cancer risk, adjusted for other risk factors. The median age was 60.2 years (range 38-86 years) for cases vs. 60.2 years (range 38-88 years) for controls (p = 0.88). Women with moderate or marked BPU had a 3.4-fold (95 % CI 1.6-7.3) and 4.8-fold (95 % CI 2.1-10.8) increased risk of breast cancer, respectively, compared with women with photopenic or minimal to mild BPU, for two radiologists. The results were similar after adjustment for BI-RADS density (OR 3.3 [95 % CI 1.6-7.2] and OR 4.6 [95 % CI 2.1-10.5]) or postmenopausal hormone use (OR 3.6 [95 % CI 1.7-7.7] and OR 5.0 [95 % CI 2.2-11.4]). The association of BPU with breast cancer remained in analyses limited to postmenopausal women only (OR 3.8 [95 % CI 1.5-9.3] and OR 4.1 [95 % CI 1.6-10.2]) and invasive breast cancer cases only (OR 3.6 [95 % CI 1.5-8.8] and OR 4.4 [95 % CI 1.7-11.1]). Variable BPU was observed among women with similar mammographic density; the distribution of BPU categories differed across density categories (p factor for breast cancer. Among women with dense breasts, who comprise

  11. Parenchymal abnormalities in cerebral venous thrombosis: findings of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography; Alteracoes parenquimatosas na trombose venosa cerebral: aspectos da ressonancia magnetica e da angiorressonancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Clecia Santos; Pellini, Marcos [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: csferreira@superig.com.br; Boasquevisque, Edson [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Patologia; Souza, Luis Alberto M. de [Hospital da Beneficencia Portuguesa do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Imagem. Setor de Ressonancia Magnetica

    2006-09-15

    Objective: to determine the frequency and localization of parenchymal abnormalities in cerebral venous thrombosis on magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography as well as their correlation with the territory and affected venous drainage. Materials and methods: retrospective analysis (1996 to 2004) of 21 patients (3 male and 18 female) age range between 3 and 82 years (mean 40 years, median 36 years) with clinical and radiological diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis on magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography in 2D PC, 3D PC and contrast-enhanced 3D TOF sequences. The statistical analysis was performed with the qui-square test. Four patients had follow-up exams and three patients underwent digital subtraction angiography. Results: main predisposing factors were: infection, use of oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy and collagenosis. Predominant symptoms included: focal deficit, headache, alteration of consciousness level and seizures. Most frequent parenchymal manifestations were: cortical/subcortical edema or infarct, venous congestion and collateral circulation, meningeal enhancement and thalamic and basal ganglia edema or infarct. Occlusion occurred mainly in superior sagittal, left transverse, left sigmoid and straight sinuses. Cavernous sinus and cortical veins thrombosis are uncommon events. Conclusion: cerebral venous thrombosis is an uncommon cause of stroke, with favorable prognosis because of its reversibility. Diagnosis is highly dependent on the radiologist capacity to recognize the presentations of this disease, principally in cases where the diagnosis is suggested by parenchymal abnormalities rather than necessarily by visualization of the thrombus itself. An accurate and rapid diagnosis allows an immediate treatment, reducing the morbidity and mortality rates. (author)

  12. Cell cycle- and cancer-associated gene networks activated by Dsg2: evidence of cystatin A deregulation and a potential role in cell-cell adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilasha Gupta

    Full Text Available Cell-cell adhesion is paramount in providing and maintaining multicellular structure and signal transmission between cells. In the skin, disruption to desmosomal regulated intercellular connectivity may lead to disorders of keratinization and hyperproliferative disease including cancer. Recently we showed transgenic mice overexpressing desmoglein 2 (Dsg2 in the epidermis develop hyperplasia. Following microarray and gene network analysis, we demonstrate that Dsg2 caused a profound change in the transcriptome of keratinocytes in vivo and altered a number of genes important in epithelial dysplasia including: calcium-binding proteins (S100A8 and S100A9, members of the cyclin protein family, and the cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin A (CSTA. CSTA is deregulated in several skin cancers, including squamous cell carcinomas (SCC and loss of function mutations lead to recessive skin fragility disorders. The microarray results were confirmed by qPCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry. CSTA was detected at high level throughout the newborn mouse epidermis but dramatically decreased with development and was detected predominantly in the differentiated layers. In human keratinocytes, knockdown of Dsg2 by siRNA or shRNA reduced CSTA expression. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of CSTA resulted in cytoplasmic localization of Dsg2, perturbed cytokeratin 14 staining and reduced levels of desmoplakin in response to mechanical stretching. Both knockdown of either Dsg2 or CSTA induced loss of cell adhesion in a dispase-based assay and the effect was synergistic. Our findings here offer a novel pathway of CSTA regulation involving Dsg2 and a potential crosstalk between Dsg2 and CSTA that modulates cell adhesion. These results further support the recent human genetic findings that loss of function mutations in the CSTA gene result in skin fragility due to impaired cell-cell adhesion: autosomal-recessive exfoliative ichthyosis or acral peeling skin syndrome.

  13. Disseminated Tumor Cells in Prostate Cancer Patients after Radical Prostatectomy and without Evidence of Disease Predicts Biochemical Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Todd M.; Lange, Paul H.; Porter, Michael P.; Lin, Daniel W.; Ellis, William J.; Gallaher, Ian S.; Vessella, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Men with apparently localized prostate cancer often relapse years after radical prostatectomy (RP). We sought to determine if epithelial-like cells identified from bone marrow (BM) in patients after RP (commonly called disseminated tumor cells, DTC) were associated with biochemical recurrence (BR). Experimental Design We obtained BM aspirates from 569 men prior to RP and from 34 healthy men with PSA<2.5 ng/ml to establish a comparison group. Additionally, an analytic cohort consisting of 98 patients after RP with no evidence of disease (NED) was established to evaluate the relationship between DTC and BR. Epithelial cells in the BM were detected by magnetic bead enrichment with antibodies to CD45 and CD61 (negative selection) followed by antibodies to human epithelial antigen (positive selection) and confirmation with FITC-labeled anti-BerEP4 antibody. Results DTC were present in 72% (408/569) of patients prior to RP. There was no correlation with pathologic stage, Gleason grade, or pre-operative PSA. Three of 34 controls (8.8%) had DTC present. In patients NED post-RP, DTC were present in 56/98 (57%). DTC were detected in 12/14 (86%) NED patients post-RP who subsequently suffered BR. Presence of DTC in NED patients was an independent predictor of recurrence (HR 6.9, CI 1.03–45.9). Conclusions Approximately 70% of men undergoing RP had DTC detected in their BM prior to surgery, suggesting that these cells escape early in the disease. Though pre-operative DTC status does not correlate with pathologic risk factors, persistence of DTC after RP in NED patients was an independent predictor of recurrence. PMID:19147774

  14. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis with pulmonary parenchymal spread - report of two cases; Papilomatose respiratoria recorrente com disseminacao pulmonar - relato de dois casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Neto, Cesar Augusto de; Campos, Rubia Mara Correia [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: rubiacampos@ig.com.br; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes Santos [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Pneumologia

    2002-04-01

    The authors report the cases of two adolescent patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis with pulmonary parenchymal spread. Both patients presented very similar initial symptoms and clinical evolution. The patients developed larynx papillomas in childhood causing obstruction to airflow and required permanent tracheostomy after several resection and recurrence episodes. Long time after they developed recurrent pulmonary infections. In both cases the disease was diagnosed through clinical history and high resolution computed tomography that revealed papillomas in the trachea and solid or cavitary nodules in the lungs. (author)

  15. Evidence for thermally assisted threshold switching behavior in nanoscale phase-change memory cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gallo, Manuel; Athmanathan, Aravinthan; Krebs, Daniel; Sebastian, Abu

    2016-01-01

    In spite of decades of research, the details of electrical transport in phase-change materials are still debated. In particular, the so-called threshold switching phenomenon that allows the current density to increase steeply when a sufficiently high voltage is applied is still not well understood, even though there is wide consensus that threshold switching is solely of electronic origin. However, the high thermal efficiency and fast thermal dynamics associated with nanoscale phase-change memory (PCM) devices motivate us to reassess a thermally assisted threshold switching mechanism, at least in these devices. The time/temperature dependence of the threshold switching voltage and current in doped Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 nanoscale PCM cells was measured over 6 decades in time at temperatures ranging from 40 °C to 160 °C. We observe a nearly constant threshold switching power across this wide range of operating conditions. We also measured the transient dynamics associated with threshold switching as a function of the applied voltage. By using a field- and temperature-dependent description of the electrical transport combined with a thermal feedback, quantitative agreement with experimental data of the threshold switching dynamics was obtained using realistic physical parameters

  16. No Evidence of Human Papilloma Virus Infection in Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahidi, Yalda; Meibodi, Naser Tayyebi; Meshkat, Zahra; Esmaili, Habibollah; Jahanfakhr, Samaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer among whites, and several risk factors have been discussed in itsdevelopment and progress. Detection of human papilloma virus (HPV) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) BCCs in some studies suggests that the virus may play a role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Several molecular studies showed conflicting reports. Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between HPV and BCC using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Materials and Methods: HPV DNA detection was done for 42 paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of BCC and 42 normal skin samples around the lesions by PCR using GP5+/GP6+ primers. Results: HPV DNA was not found in any of the 42 samples of BCC, and only one normal skin sample around the lesions was positive for HPV DNA by PCR. Conclusion: In this study, no statistically significant difference was seen between the presence of HPV DNA in BCC and normal skin around the lesion, and HPV is not likely to have an important role in pathogenesis of BCC. PMID:26288402

  17. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and breast implants: breaking down the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xuan; Shokrollahi, Kayvan; Rozen, Warren M; Conyers, Rachel; Wright, Penny; Kenner, Lukas; Turner, Suzanne D; Whitaker, Iain S

    2014-01-01

    Systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a distinct disease classification provisionally sub-divided into ALCL, Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK)(+) and ALCL, ALK(-) entities. More recently, another category of ALCL has been increasingly reported in the literature and is associated with the presence of breast implants. A comprehensive review of the 71 reported cases of breast implant associated ALCL (iALCL) is presented indicating the apparent risk factors and main characteristics of this rare cancer. The average patient is 50 years of age and most cases present in the capsule surrounding the implant as part of the periprosthetic fluid or the capsule itself on average at 10 years post-surgery suggesting that iALCL is a late complication. The absolute risk is low ranging from 1:500,000 to 1:3,000,000 patients with breast implants per year. The majority of cases are ALK-negative, yet are associated with silicone-coated implants suggestive of the mechanism of tumorigenesis which is discussed in relation to chronic inflammation, immunogenicity of the implants and sub-clinical infection. In particular, capsulotomy alone seems to be sufficient for the treatment of many cases suggesting the implants provide the biological stimulus whereas others require further treatment including chemo- and radiotherapy although reported cases remain too low to recommend a therapeutic approach. However, CD30-based therapeutics might be a future option. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Red blood cell distribution width: Genetic evidence for aging pathways in 116,666 volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke C Pilling

    Full Text Available Variability in red blood cell volumes (distribution width, RDW increases with age and is strongly predictive of mortality, incident coronary heart disease and cancer. We investigated inherited genetic variation associated with RDW in 116,666 UK Biobank human volunteers.A large proportion RDW is explained by genetic variants (29%, especially in the older group (60+ year olds, 33.8%, <50 year olds, 28.4%. RDW was associated with 194 independent genetic signals; 71 are known for conditions including autoimmune disease, certain cancers, BMI, Alzheimer's disease, longevity, age at menopause, bone density, myositis, Parkinson's disease, and age-related macular degeneration. Exclusion of anemic participants did not affect the overall findings. Pathways analysis showed enrichment for telomere maintenance, ribosomal RNA, and apoptosis. The majority of RDW-associated signals were intronic (119 of 194, including SNP rs6602909 located in an intron of oncogene GAS6, an eQTL in whole blood.Although increased RDW is predictive of cardiovascular outcomes, this was not explained by known CVD or related lipid genetic risks, and a RDW genetic score was not predictive of incident disease. The predictive value of RDW for a range of negative health outcomes may in part be due to variants influencing fundamental pathways of aging.

  19. Inactivation of Ricin Toxin by Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Including Evidences from Cell and Animal Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kai; Li, Wei; Gao, Shan; Ji, Bin; Zang, Yating; Su, Bo; Wang, Kaile; Yao, Maosheng; Zhang, Jue; Wang, Jinglin

    2016-01-01

    Ricin is one of the most toxic and easily produced plant protein toxin extracted from the castor oil plant, and it has been classified as a chemical warfare agent. Here, nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) at 30 kV/cm (pulse durations: 10 ns, 100 ns, and 300 ns) were applied to inactivating ricin up to 4.2 μg/mL. To investigate the efficacy, cells and mice were tested against the ricin treated by the nsPEFs via direct intraperitoneal injection and inhalation exposure. Results showed that nsPEFs treatments can effectively reduce the toxicity of the ricin. Without the nsPEFs treatment, 100% of mice were killed upon the 4 μg ricin injection on the first day, however 40% of the mice survived the ricin treated by the nsPEFs. Compared to injection, inhalation exposure even with higher ricin dose required longer time to observe mice fatality. Pathological observations revealed damages to heart, lung, kidney, and stomach after the ricin exposure, more pronounced for lung and kidney including severe bleeding. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(SDS-PAGE) and circular dichroism (CD) analyses revealed that although the primary structure of ricin was not altered, its secondary structures (beta-sheet and beta-turn) underwent transition upon the nsPEFs treatment. PMID:26728251

  20. Evidence that the [3H]estradiol-binding protein in pancreas is localized in exocrine cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, A.; Richardson, S.B.; Altszuler, N.; Lane, B.

    1985-01-01

    Extracts of rat pancreas contain significant amounts of an [ 3 H]estradiol-binding protein. The amount of steroid-binding activity that could be measured varied considerably depending on the tonicity of the homogenizing medium. High speed supernatants of homogenates initially prepared in isotonic buffer contained about 10% of the binding activity as homogenates prepared in hypotonic buffer. Extraction with hypotonic buffer of pellets obtained by the isotonic procedure yielded most of the remaining [ 3 H]estradiol-binding activity. In an attempt to avoid errors resulting from incomplete homogenization and to detect possible changes in intracellular distribution of [ 3 H]estradiol-binding activity, pancreata were initially homogenized in isotonic buffer and centrifuged at high speed (100,000 X g; 1 hr). The pellet was then extracted with hypotonic buffer and centrifuged again at high speed, and both supernatants were analyzed for [ 3 H]estradiol-binding and amylase activities. Two or 14 days after treatment of male rats with streptozotocin, no apparent decline or redistribution of [ 3 H]estradiol-binding activity to the cytosol was noted despite extensive alteration of beta-islet cells, as determined by electron microscopic examination of sections of these pancreata and significant loss of insulin, as measured by RIA. Amylase activity was unaffected 2 days after streptozotocin treatment, but was depressed to about 1% of control levels at 14 days. Administration of insulin to the latter group of animals resulted in return of amylase to normal levels and a modest increase (approximately 50%) in [ 3 H]estradiol-binding activity

  1. Evidence for induction of DNA double strand breaks in the bystander response to targeted soft X-rays in repair deficient CHO cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashino, Genro; Suzuki, Keiji; Prise, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that irradiated cells produce some signals which interact with non-exposed cells in the same population. Here, we analysed the mechanism of such a bystander effect from targeted cells to non-targeted cells. Firstly, in order to investigate the bystander effect in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines we irradiated a single cell within a population and scored the formation of micronuclei. When a single nucleus in the population, of double strand break repair deficient xrs5 cells, was targeted with 1 Gy of Al-K soft X-rays, elevated numbers of micronuclei were induced in the neighbouring unirradiated cells. The induction of micronuclei was also observed when conditioned medium was transferred from irradiated to non-irradiated xrs5 cells. These results suggest that DNA double strand breaks are caused by factors secreted in the medium from irradiated cells. To clarify the involvements of radical species in the bystander response, cells were treated with 0.5%DMSO 1 hour before irradiation and then bystander effects were estimated in xrs5 cells. The results showed clearly that DMSO treatment during X-irradiation suppress the induction of micronuclei in bystander xrs5 cells, when conditioned medium was transferred from irradiated xrs5 cells. Therefore, it is suggested that radical species induced by ionizing radiation are important for producing bystander signals. (author)

  2. Evidence for the involvement of tetrahydrofolate in the demethylation of nicotine by Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cell-suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesnard, François; Roscher, Albrecht; Garlick, Andrew P; Girard, Sandrine; Baguet, Evelyne; Arroo, Randolf R J; Lebreton, Jacques; Robins, Richard J; Ratcliffe, GeorgeR

    2002-04-01

    The conversion of nicotine to nornicotine by Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv. cells was investigated by analysing the redistribution of label during feeding experiments with (R,S)-[2H- methyl]nicotine, (R,S)-[13C- methyl]nicotine and (R,S)-[14C- methyl]nicotine, and the results show that the N-methyl group of nicotine can be recycled into primary metabolism. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of ethanolic extracts of cells grown in the presence of (R,S)-[13C- methyl]nicotine, using 1H-13C correlation spectroscopy (HMQC, HMBC), revealed the presence of [3-13C]serine and [13C- methyl]methionine. Label was also identified in a cysteinyl derivative and in several methoxylated compounds, but no evidence was obtained with either NMR or ion-trap mass spectrometry for the presence of any intermediate between nicotine and nornicotine. However, experiments with (R,S)-[14C- methyl]nicotine indicated that 70-75% of the metabolised label was released as carbon dioxide. These results are consistent with a pathway in which the oxidative hydrolysis of the nicotine methyl produces an unstable intermediate, N'-hydroxymethylnornicotine, that breaks down spontaneously to nornicotine and formaldehyde, with the formaldehyde being metabolised either directly to formate and carbon dioxide, or through the tetrahydrofolate-mediated pathways of one-carbon metabolism. However since the key intermediate, N-hydroxymethylnornicotine, could not be detected, the possibility of a direct methyl group transfer to tetrahydrofolate cannot be excluded.

  3. Acute pain in children and adults with sickle cell disease: management in the absence of evidence-based guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Joshua J; Knight-Perry, Jessica E; Debaun, Michael R

    2009-05-01

    Acute, vaso-occlusive pain is the most characteristic complication of sickle cell disease (SCD). Although there has been rigorous work examining the pathogenesis of vaso-occlusion, fewer studies have focused on approaches to the clinical management of acute pain. In this review, we will examine the epidemiology and management strategies of acute pain events and we will identify limitations in the best available studies. Most acute pain events in adults with SCD are managed at home without physician contact. Prior descriptions of the natural history of pain episodes from the Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease relied on physician contact, limiting the generalizability of these findings to current practice. Patient-controlled analgesia has replaced on-demand therapy to become the standard for management of severe pain events in children and adults with SCD requiring hospital admission. Unfortunately, most clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute pain are not based on randomized clinical trials. As a result, our practice of pain management is primarily limited to expert opinion and inferences from observational studies. Additional clinical trials in management of acute pain in children and adults with SCD are critical for the development of evidence-based guidelines.

  4. Measurement of the apparent diffusion coefficient in paediatric mitochondrial encephalopathy cases and a comparison of parenchymal changes associated with the disease using follow-up diffusion coefficient measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uysal, Fatma, E-mail: afatmauysal@gmail.com [Dokuz Eylül University, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Izmir (Turkey); Çakmakçı, Handan, E-mail: handan.cakmakci@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylül University, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Izmir (Turkey); Yiş, Uluç, E-mail: ulucyis@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylül University, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Izmir (Turkey); Ellidokuz, Hülya, E-mail: hulyaellidokuz@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylül University, Department of Medical Statistics, Izmir (Turkey); Hız, Ayşe Semra, E-mail: aysesemrahiz@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylül University, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Izmir (Turkey)

    2014-01-15

    Objectives: To reveal the contribution of MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to the diagnosis of mitochondrial encephalopathy (ME) and to evaluate the parenchymal changes associated with this disease in the involved parenchymal areas using the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) parameter. Methods: Ten patients who had undergone MRI and DWI analysis with a pre-diagnosis of neurometabolic disease, and who were subsequently diagnosed with ME in laboratory and/or genetic studies, were included in our study. ADC values were compared with a control group composed of 20 patients of similar age with normal brains. Evaluations involved measurements made in 20 different areas determined on the ADC map. The dominance or contribution of ADC coefficient measurements to the conventional sequences was compared with the controls. Results: In the first examination, an increase in both diffusion and ADC values was detected in six cases and diffusion restriction and a decrease in ADC values in three patients. While an increase in both diffusion and ADC values was demonstrated in four cases, there was diffusion restriction and a decrease in ADC values in three cases in the control examinations. Conclusions: DWI provides information that complements conventional MRI sequences in the diagnosis of ME.

  5. Three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MRI using an intravascular contrast agent for detection of traumatic intra-abdominal hemorrhage and abdominal parenchymal injuries: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weishaupt, D.; Ruehm, S.G.; Patak, M.A.; Schmidt, M.; Debatin, J.F.; Hetzer, F.H.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of 3D MRI in conjunction with an intravascular contrast agent to spiral contrast-enhanced CT, regarding the detection of abdominal parenchymal injuries as well as peritoneal hemorrhage in an animal model. Liver and kidney injuries were created surgically in six female pigs under general anesthesia. All pigs underwent contrast-enhanced spiral CT and 3D MR imaging following administration of an intravascular contrast agent (NC100150 Injection). Two readers rated their confidence independently on MR and CT data sets using a five-point scale for the presence of organ injury and hemoperitoneum. Autopsy findings served as standard of reference. Sensitivity and specificity for MR in detecting hepatic and renal injuries as well as hemoperitoneum was 100 %. Computed tomography was less accurate with sensitivity and specificity values of 90 and 94 %, respectively. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis revealed a higher confidence when interpretation was based on MR images. In an animal model 3D MR imaging in conjunction with an intravascular contrast agent proved highly accurate in detecting and localizing parenchymal injuries to the upper abdomen as well as in detecting intraperitoneal blood collections. (orig.)

  6. Radiation-induced changes in production of prostaglandins Fsub(2α), E, and thromboxane B2 in guinea pig parenchymal lung tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steel, L.K.; Catravas, G.N.

    1982-01-01

    At 1 hour to 4 days after unilateral exposure of guinea pigs to a single dose (0.5, 1.5, or 3.0 Gy) of gamma-radiation, changes were detected in prostaglandin and thromboxane concentrations in parenchymal lung tissues. At 1-3 hours after exposure, tissue levels of PGFsub(2α), PGE, and thromboxane B 2 were significantly elevated in animals receiving 3.0 Gy, with the magnitude of alteration revealing a radiation dose effect. By 24 hours, tissue prostaglandin and thromboxane levels returned to near control values. Lung tissue synthesis of prostaglandins in response to H-1 receptor stimulation by the exogenous addition of histamine revealed similar radiation dose effects. The carboxylic acid ionophore A23187, exogenously applied to lung tissues, revealed a transient peak of increased sensitivity to ionophore stimulation for TxB 2 synthesis at 24 hours and for PGFsub(2α) at 72 hours post-irradiation. The data suggest that significant alterations in prostaglandin and thromboxane concentrations in parenchymal lung tissues occur following irradiation, in a dose-dependent manner, and that altered responsiveness to H-1 receptor stimulation and divalent cation transport also occur

  7. Radiation-induced changes in production of prostaglandins Fsub(2. cap alpha. ), E, and thromboxane B/sub 2/ in guinea pig parenchymal lung tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steel, L K; Catravas, G N [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (USA)

    1982-11-01

    At 1 hour to 4 days after unilateral exposure of guinea pigs to a single dose (0.5, 1.5, or 3.0 Gy) of gamma-radiation, changes were detected in prostaglandin and thromboxane concentrations in parenchymal lung tissues. At 1-3 hours after exposure, tissue levels of PGFsub(2..cap alpha..), PGE, and thromboxane B/sub 2/ were significantly elevated in animals receiving 3.0 Gy, with the magnitude of alteration revealing a radiation dose effect. By 24 hours, tissue prostaglandin and thromboxane levels returned to near control values. Lung tissue synthesis of prostaglandins in response to H-1 receptor stimulation by the exogenous addition of histamine revealed similar radiation dose effects. The carboxylic acid ionophore A23187, exogenously applied to lung tissues, revealed a transient peak of increased sensitivity to ionophore stimulation for TxB/sub 2/ synthesis at 24 hours and for PGFsub(2..cap alpha..) at 72 hours post-irradiation. The data suggest that significant alterations in prostaglandin and thromboxane concentrations in parenchymal lung tissues occur following irradiation, in a dose-dependent manner, and that altered responsiveness to H-1 receptor stimulation and divalent cation transport also occur.

  8. Relationships (II) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with ventilatory functions indices for parenchymal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Taro; Suganuma, Narufumi; Hering, Kurt G; Vehmas, Tapio; Itoh, Harumi; Akira, Masanori; Takashima, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Harukazu; Kusaka, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) is used to screen and diagnose respiratory illnesses. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we investigated the relationship between subject characteristics and parenchymal abnormalities according to ICOERD, and the results of ventilatory function tests (VFT). Thirty-five patients with and 27 controls without mineral-dust exposure underwent VFT and HRCT. We recorded all subjects' occupational history for mineral dust exposure and smoking history. Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities (Items) grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). High-resolution computed tomography showed that 11 patients had RO; 15 patients, IR; and 19 patients, EM. According to the multiple regression model, age and height had significant associations with many indices ventilatory functions such as vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). The EM summed grades on the upper, middle, and lower zones of the right and left lungs also had significant associations with FEV1 and the maximum mid-expiratory flow rate. The results suggest the ICOERD notation is adequate based on the good and significant multiple regression modeling of ventilatory function with the EM summed grades.

  9. Relation between Mammographic Parenchymal Patterns and Breast Cancer Risk: Considering BMI, Compressed Breast Thickness and Age of Women in Tabriz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnati, Parinaz; Alizadeh, Hamed; Hoda, Haleh

    2016-01-01

    Mammographic density determined according paranchymal patterns is a risk factor for breast cancer and its relationships with body and other breast characteristics of women is important. The purpose of the present study was to correlate breast parenchymal patterns and mammography abnormality findings with women's BMI, compressed breast thickness (CBT) and age in Tabriz city, Iran. From 1,100 mammograms interpreted by radiologists, breast parenchymal was classified into four categories from Types 1 (mostly fatty) through 4 (mostly fibroglandular tissue). Age, BMI, and CBT were recorded and their relation with risk for the development of breast abnormalities in mammograms was analyzed. In women with a mean age of 45.8±8.63 years 17.7% were in the high density group (Type 3 and 4). A comparison of four types of breast paranchymal with BMI, CBT and age showed inverse relations to breast density. Abnormal mammographic findings were 25.8% of all reported mammograms with a circular mass (12.7%) as the most common abnormality. About 21% abnormal cases were in less than 40 years. Increasing of BMI had significant relation with breast abnormality but in CBT was not observed. Measurement of women's body characteristics is useful for assistance in mammography diagnosis as well as selection of imaging instrument by high sensitivity for following patient in future. The effects of age, CBT and BMI groups on the breast paranchymal were significant.

  10. Forodesine in the treatment of relapsed/refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma: an evidence-based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makita S

    2018-04-01

    . However, it is necessary to appropriately manage opportunistic infections and secondary lymphomas possibly associated with long-lasting lymphocytopenia caused by forodesine. In this manuscript, we have summarized the currently available evidence for forodesine and discussed the clinical implications for PTCL treatment. Keywords: forodesine, PTCL, T-cell lymphoma, new agents, lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, PNP, purine nucleoside phosphorylase

  11. In vitro evidence of glucose-induced toxicity in GnRH secreting neurons: high glucose concentrations influence GnRH secretion, impair cell viability, and induce apoptosis in the GT1-1 neuronal cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Lubna; Chu, Hsiao-Pai; Shu, Jun; Topalli, Ilir; Santoro, Nanette; Karkanias, George

    2007-10-01

    To evaluate for direct toxic effects of high glucose concentrations on cellular physiology in GnRH secreting immortalized GT1-1 neurons. Prospective experimental design. In vitro experimental model using a cell culture system. GT1-1 cells were cultured in replicates in media with two different glucose concentrations (450 mg/dL and 100 mg/dL, respectively) for varying time intervals (24, 48, and 72 hours). Effects of glucose concentrations on GnRH secretion by the GT1-1 neurons were evaluated using a static culture model. Cell viability, cellular apoptosis, and cell cycle events in GT1-1 neurons maintained in two different glucose concentrations were assessed by flow cytometry (fluorescence-activated cell sorter) using Annexin V-PI staining. Adverse influences of high glucose concentrations on GnRH secretion and cell viability were noted in cultures maintained in high glucose concentration (450 mg/dL) culture medium for varying time intervals. A significantly higher percentage of cells maintained in high glucose concentration medium demonstrated evidence of apoptosis by a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. We provide in vitro evidence of glucose-induced cellular toxicity in GnRH secreting GT1-1 neurons. Significant alterations in GnRH secretion, reduced cell viability, and a higher percentage of apoptotic cells were observed in GT1-1 cells maintained in high (450 mg/dL) compared with low (100 mg/dL) glucose concentration culture medium.

  12. Secondary Circulating Prostate Cells Predict Biochemical Failure in Prostate Cancer Patients after Radical Prostatectomy and without Evidence of Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel P. Murray

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although 90% of prostate cancer is considered to be localized, 20%–30% of patients will experience biochemical failure (BF, defined as serum PSA >0.2 ng/mL, after radical prostatectomy (RP. The presence of circulating prostate cells (CPCs in men without evidence of BF may be useful to predict patients at risk for BF. We describe the frequency of CPCs detected after RP, relation with clinicopathological parameters, and association with biochemical failure. Methods and Patients. Serial blood samples were taken during followup after RP, mononuclear cells were obtained by differential gel centrifugation, and CPCs identified using standard immunocytochemistry using anti-PSA monoclonal antibodies. Age, pathological stage (organ confined, nonorgan confined, pathological grade, margin status (positive, negative, extracapsular extension, perineural, vascular, and lymphatic infiltration (positive, negative were compared with the presence/absence of CPCs and with and without biochemical failure. Kaplan Meier methods were used to compare the unadjusted biochemical failure free survival of patients with and without CPCs. Results. 114 men participated, and secondary CPCs were detected more frequently in patients with positive margins, extracapsular extension, and vascular and lymphatic infiltration and were associated with biochemical failure independent of these clinicopathological variables, and with a shorter time to BF. Conclusions. Secondary CPCs are an independent risk factor associated with increased BF in men with a PSA <0.2 ng/mL after radical prostatectomy, but do not determine if the recurrence is due to local or systemic disease. These results warrant larger studies to confirm the findings.

  13. B7-H3 is a potent inhibitor of human T cell activation: No evidence for B7-H3 and TREML2 interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Judith; Klauser, Christoph; Pickl, Winfried F.; Stöckl, Johannes; Majdic, Otto; Bardet, Anaïs F.; Kreil, David P.; Dong, Chen; Yamazaki, Tomohide; Zlabinger, Gerhard; Pfistershammer, Katharina; Steinberger, Peter

    2010-01-01

    B7-H3 belongs to the B7 superfamily, a group of molecules that costimulate or down-modulate T cell responses. Although it was shown that B7-H3 can inhibit T cell responses, several studies - most of them performed in murine systems - found B7-H3 to act in a costimulatory manner. In this study we have specifically addressed a potential functional dualism of human B7-H3 by assessing the effect of this molecule under varying experimental conditions as well as on different T cell subsets. We show that B7-H3 does not costimulate human T cells. In presence of strong activating signals, B7-H3 potently and consistently down-modulated human T cell responses. This inhibitory effect was evident when analyzing proliferation and cytokine production and affected naïve as well as pre-activated T cells. We furthermore demonstrate that B7-H3 - T cell interaction is characterized by an early suppression of IL-2 and that T cell inhibition can be reverted by exogenous IL-2. Since TREML2 has been recently described as costimulatory receptor of murine B7-H3 we have extensively analysed interaction of human B7-H3 with TREML2 (TLT2). In these experiments we found no evidence for such an interaction. Furthermore our data do not point to a role for murine TREML2 as a receptor for murine B7-H3. PMID:19544488

  14. Anti EGFR therapy in the treatment of non-metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: The current evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rony Benson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC accounts for a large oncologic burden in the developing countries. In patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer multimodality treatment is warranted. Radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy has long been considered the standard for patients with disease involving the oropharynx, larynx and hypopharynx. However, addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy increases treatment related toxicity by many folds and compliance rates decrease. In this context a systemic therapy, which when used concurrent with radiation with favorable toxicity profile is of great importance for improving disease control in locally advanced HNSCC. Anti-epithelial growth factor receptor targeted therapy emerged as a potential treatment option. In recent years many trials were conducted to find the optimum treatment option with the combination of these targeted agents. The initial trials showed excellent results with minimal morbidity and led to great enthusiasm across the globe to incorporate these regimens as a standard of care. However, subsequently many trials failed to maintain such results and now there is little agreement to the initial results achieved with these drugs. Based on the current evidence we cannot recommend the replacement of cisplatin with targeted therapy in concurrent setting. It may be considered in patients with altered renal parameters, hypersensitivity or intolerance to cisplatin. The addition of targeted therapy in addition to chemotherapy in the concurrent setting can’t also be recommended as the benefit is doubtful and is associated with a significant increase in toxicity.

  15. E-cadherin expression and prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: evidence from 19 published investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren X

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Xusheng Ren,1,2 Jianning Wang,2 Xuefen Lin,1,3 Xuxia Wang1,3 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Stomatological Hospital of Shandong University, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Jinan Stomatological Hospital, 3Shandong Province Key Laboratory of Oral Tissue Regeneration, Stomatological Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China Objective: The objective of this study was to review the published literature and investigate whether E-cadherin gene is a prognostic factor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma by conducting a meta-analysis.Methods: Studies were identified from the databases Embase, Medline, and Cochrane Library by using the keywords “E-cadherin gene” and “head and neck cancer”. Overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS were the primary outcome measurements.Results: Our literature review identified 1,458 articles; 19 studies with a total number of 2,012 cases were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The hazard ratio (HR for OS of patients with decreased expression of E-cadherin gene was 0.57 (95% CI =0.37, 0.89; P=0.000. However, statistical heterogeneity was unacceptably high (I2=74.5%, P=0.000. After sensitivity analysis, heterogeneity became acceptable, and the effect measure was still significant (I2=7.0%; HR =0.52; 95% CI =0.40, 0.66; P=0.000. The HR for DFS was 0.53 (95% CI =0.42, 0.67; P=0.000.Conclusion: This meta-analysis showed clear evidence that high E-cadherin gene expression is a positive prognostic factor of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, resulting in better OS and DFS. However, this conclusion must be interpreted with caution due to a few limitations. Keywords: E-cadherin gene, prognosis, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, immunohistochemistry 

  16. In vivo evidence for CD4+ and CD8+ suppressor T cells in vaccination-induced suppression of murine experimental autoimmune thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.C.; Kong, Y.C.

    1991-01-01

    In several experimental autoimmune diseases, including experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT), vaccination with attenuated autoantigen-specific T cells has provided protection against subsequent induction of disease. However, the mechanism(s) of vaccination-induced suppression remains to be clarified. Since the authors have previously shown that suppression generated by pretreatment with mouse thyroglobulin (MTg) or thyroid-stimulating hormone in EAT is mediated by CD4+, not CD8+, suppressor T cells, they examined the role of T cell subsets in vaccination-induced suppression of EAT. Mice were vaccinated with irradiated, MTg-primed, and MTg-activated spleen cells and then challenged. Pretreatment with these cells suppressed EAT induced by immunization with MTg and adjuvant, but not by adoptive transfer of thyroiditogenic cells, suggesting a mechanism of afferent suppression. The activation of suppressor mechanisms did not require CD8+ cells, since mice depleted of CD8+ cells before vaccination showed reduced EAT comparable to control vaccinated mice. Furthermore, depletion of either the CD4+ or the CD8+ subset after vaccination did not significantly abrogate suppression. However, suppression was eliminated by the depletion of both CD4+ and CD8+ cells in vaccinated mice. These results provide evidence for the cooperative effects of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in vaccination-induced suppression of EAT

  17. Relationship between loss in parenchymal elastic recoil pressure and maximal airway narrowing in subjects with alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, D.; Schot, R.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Zagers, H.; Dijkman, J. H.; Sterk, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    Airway hyperresponsiveness is characterized by an increase in sensitivity and excessive airway narrowing to inhaled bronchoconstrictor stimuli. There is experimental evidence that maximal airway narrowing is related to lung elasticity in normal and asthmatic subjects. We hypothesized that reduced

  18. Evidence-Based Treatment Options in Recurrent and/or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios Argiris

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The major development of the past decade in the first-line treatment of recurrent and/or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (R/M SCCHN was the introduction of cetuximab in combination with platinum plus 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy (CT, followed by maintenance cetuximab (the “EXTREME” regimen. This regimen is supported by a phase 3 randomized trial and subsequent observational studies, and it confers well-documented survival benefits, with median survival ranging between approximately 10 and 14 months, overall response rates between 36 and 44%, and disease control rates of over 80%. Furthermore, as indicated by patient-reported outcome measures, the addition of cetuximab to platinum-based CT leads to a significant reduction in pain and problems with social eating and speech. Conversely, until very recently, there has been a lack of evidence-based second-line treatment options, and the therapies that have been available have shown low response rates and poor survival outcomes. Presently, a promising new treatment option in R/M SCCHN has emerged: immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs, which have demonstrated favorable results in second-line clinical trials. Nivolumab and pembrolizumab are the first two ICIs that were approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. We note that the trials that showed benefit with ICIs included not only patients who previously received ≥1 platinum-based regimens for R/M SCCHN but also patients who experienced recurrence within 6 months after combined modality therapy with a platinum agent for locally advanced disease. In this review, we outline the available clinical and observational evidence for the EXTREME regimen and the initial results from clinical trials for ICIs in patients with R/M SCCHN. We propose that these treatment options can be integrated into a new continuum of care paradigm, with first-line EXTREME regimen followed by second-line ICIs. A number of ongoing clinical trials

  19. MR-imaging of the breast at 0.5 Tesla: menstrual-cycle dependency of parenchymal contrast enhancement in healthy volunteers with oral contraceptive use?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, J.; Welger, J.; Krupski, G.; Adam, G.; Lisboa, B.W.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: To evaluate changes of contrast medium enhancement of the breast parenchyma due to menstrual cycle in healthy volunteers with oral contraceptive use in MR-imaging of the breast. Material and Methods: 15 healthy volunteers (age: 22 - 36, mean 28,2) without breast disease were examined two times during one menstrual cycle (days 7 - 14 and days 21 - 2). Two volunteers were examined only in the second part of the cycle (days 21 - 2). All volunteers used oral contraceptives for more than 6 month continuously. Examinations were performed with a 0,5 T magnet (dynamic 3D-gradient echo protocol with subtraction postprocessing). We evaluated the number of enhancing foci and the parenchymal contrast medium enhancement during the different phases of the cycle by region of interest. Results: Only a total of two enhancing foci were found in 2 of 17 volunteers. Time/signal intensity diagrams in these both cases were not suspicious ( [de

  20. Un caso de infeccion humana por cisticerco racemoso cerebral de localizacion parenquimatosa en Valdivia, Chile A case of human cerebral infection by parenchymal racemose cysticercus in Valdivia, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ortega

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso clínico de infección por cisticerco racemoso cerebral de localización parenquimatosa en un paciente de la ciudad de Valdivia (Chile cuyo diagnóstico definitivo se efectuó a través del estudio morfológico del parásito. Se discute brevemente la escasa frecuencia de la localización parenquimatosa del cisticerco racemoso, así como su diagnóstico diferencial con otros estados larvarios de cestodos que desarrollan en el sistema nervioso.A clinical case of cerebral infection by parenchymal racemose cysticercus, diagnosed by means of morphological characteristics in a patient of Valdivia city is described. The rare frequency of parenquimal location of racemose cysticercus as well as its differential diagnosis with other larval stages of cestodes that develop in the brain and its treatment are discussed.

  1. Opportunistic use of a Foley catheter to provide a common electrocautery with a water-irrigating channel for hepatic parenchymal transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuzo; Yoshioka, Masato; Watanabe, Go; Uchinami, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    High-tech surgical energy devices that are used during a single surgery have increased in number and the expense for such disposable units is by no means negligible. We developed a handmade water-irrigating monopolar electrocautery using a Foley catheter to perform liver parenchymal transection. A commonly used 20-24 Fr Foley catheter was cut at a length of about 8 cm. The shaft of the 5 mm ball electrode measuring 13.5 cm in length was then inlaid into the urine drainage channel. The target tissues were cauterized without making an eschar, thereby preventing the adhesion of the electrode to the tissues. A ball electrode with our handmade water irrigation sheath can be made in only a few minutes at a very low cost, using common medical supplies and yielding satisfactory effects comparable to the use of specialized high-tech devices.

  2. Endogenous chloride channels of insect sf9 cells. Evidence for coordinated activity of small elementary channel units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Gabriel, S. E.; Stutts, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    The endogenous Cl- conductance of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells was studied 20-35 h after plating out of either uninfected cells or cells infected by a baculovirus vector carrying the cloned beta-galactosidase gene (beta-Gal cells). With the cation Tris+ in the pipette and Na+ in the bath...

  3. Increased Parenchymal Damage and Steatohepatitis in Caucasian Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients with Common IL1B and IL6 Polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, James E.; Handa, Priya; Aouizerat, Bradley; Wilson, Laura; Vemulakonda, L Akhila; Yeh, Matthew M.; Kowdley, Kris V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a complex, multifactorial disease affected by diet, lifestyle and genetics. Proinflammatory cytokines like IL-1β and IL-6 have been shown to be elevated in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between IL1B and IL6 gene polymorphisms and histologic features of NAFLD in the NASH CRN cohort. Methods 604 adult (≥18 yrs) non-Hispanic Caucasians with biopsy-proven NAFLD were genotyped for the following SNPs: IL1B, rs16944, rs1143634; IL6, rs1800795, rs10499563. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between genotype and a definitive diagnosis and advanced histological features of NASH after controlling for the following variables selected a priori: age, sex, diabetes, obesity and HOMA-IR level. Results The IL6 rs10499563 C allele was independently associated with the presence of definitive NASH, and increased ballooning and Mallory bodies. The IL1B rs1143634 TT genotype was associated with advanced fibrosis and increased Mallory bodies. The IL6 rs1800795 C allele was associated with increased risk for severe steatosis, >66% but also decreased risk for advanced fibrosis and lobular inflammation and Mallory body formation. Conclusions These results suggest that common variants in the IL6 and IL1B genes may increase susceptibility for NASH and confer a higher risk of hepatic parenchymal damage including increased ballooning, increased Mallory bodies, and bridging fibrosis or cirrhosis. In contrast, the IL6 rs1800795 C allele may confer a higher risk for steatosis, but less parenchymal damage. Our findings support the development of therapeutics aimed at IL-1β and IL-6 suppression. PMID:27730688

  4. Increased parenchymal damage and steatohepatitis in Caucasian non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients with common IL1B and IL6 polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J E; Handa, P; Aouizerat, B; Wilson, L; Vemulakonda, L A; Yeh, M M; Kowdley, K V

    2016-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a complex, multifactorial disease affected by diet, lifestyle and genetics. Proinflammatory cytokines like IL-1β and IL-6 have been shown to be elevated in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). To investigate the relationship between IL1B and IL6 gene polymorphisms and histological features of NAFLD in the NASH CRN cohort. A total of 604 adult (≥18 years) non-Hispanic Caucasians with biopsy-proven NAFLD were genotyped for the following SNPs: IL1B, rs16944, rs1143634; IL6, rs1800795, rs10499563. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between genotype and a definitive diagnosis and advanced histological features of NASH after controlling for the following variables selected a priori: age, sex, diabetes, obesity and HOMA-IR level. The IL6 rs10499563 C allele was independently associated with the presence of definitive NASH, and increased ballooning and Mallory bodies. The IL1B rs1143634 TT genotype was associated with advanced fibrosis and increased Mallory bodies. The IL6 rs1800795 C allele was associated with not only increased risk for severe steatosis, >66% but also decreased risk for advanced fibrosis and lobular inflammation and Mallory body formation. These results suggest that common variants in the IL6 and IL1B genes may increase susceptibility for NASH and confer a higher risk of hepatic parenchymal damage including increased ballooning, increased Mallory bodies, and bridging fibrosis or cirrhosis. In contrast, the IL6 rs1800795 C allele may confer a higher risk for steatosis, but less parenchymal damage. Our findings support the development of therapeutics aimed at IL-1β and IL-6 suppression. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Marked longevity of human lung parenchymal elastic fibers deduced from prevalence of D-aspartate and nuclear weapons-related radiocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.D.; Endicott, S.K.; Province, M.A.; Pierce, J.A.; Campbell, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    Normal structure and function of the lung parenchyma depend upon elastic fibers. Amorphous elastin is biochemically stable in vitro, and may provide a metabolically stable structural framework for the lung parenchyma. To test the metabolic stability of elastin in the normal human lung parenchyma, we have (a) estimated the time elapsed since the synthesis of the protein through measurement of aspartic acid racemization and (b) modeled the elastin turnover through measurement of the prevalence of nuclear weapons-related 14 C. Elastin purified by a new technique from normal lung parenchyma was hydrolyzed; then the prevalences of D-aspartate and 14 C were measured by gas chromatography and accelerator-mass spectrometry, respectively. D-aspartate increased linearly with age; Kasp (1.76 x 10 - 3 yr - 1 ) was similar to that previously found for extraordinarily stable human tissues, indicating that the age of lung parenchymal elastin corresponded with the age of the subject. Radiocarbon prevalence data also were consistent with extraordinary metabolic stability of elastin; the calculated mean carbon residence time in elastin was 74 yr (95% confidence limits, 40-174 yr). These results indicate that airspace enlargement characteristic of 'aging lung' is not associated with appreciable new synthesis of lung parenchymal elastin. The present study provides the first tissue-specific evaluation of turnover of an extracellular matrix component in humans and underscores the potential importance of elastin for maintenance of normal lung structure. Most importantly, the present work provides a foundation for strategies to directly evaluate extracellular matrix injury and repair in diseases of lung (especially pulmonary emphysema), vascular tissue, and skin

  6. Characterization of focal cortical dysplasia with balloon cells by layer-specific markers: Evidence for differential vulnerability of interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Julia M; Donkels, Catharina; Fauser, Susanne; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Prinz, Marco; Zentner, Josef; Haas, Carola A

    2017-04-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a major cause of pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy. Little is known about the pathomechanisms underlying the characteristic cytoarchitectural abnormalities associated with FCD. In the present study, a broad panel of markers identifying layer-specific neuron subpopulations was applied to characterize dyslamination and structural alterations in FCD with balloon cells (FCD 2b). Pan-neuronal neuronal nuclei (NeuN) and layer-specific protein expression (Reelin, Calbindin, Calretinin, SMI32 (nonphosphorylated neurofilament H), Parvalbumin, transducin-like enhancer protein 4 (TLE4), and Vimentin) was studied by immunohistochemistry on paraffin sections of FCD2b cases (n = 22) and was compared to two control groups with (n = 7) or without epilepsy (n = 4 postmortem cases). Total and layer-specific neuron densities were systematically quantified by cell counting considering age at surgery and brain region. We show that in FCD2b total neuron densities across all six cortical layers were not significantly different from controls. In addition, we present evidence that a basic laminar arrangement of layer-specific neuron subtypes was preserved despite the severe disturbance of cortical structure. SMI32-positive pyramidal neurons showed no significant difference in total numbers, but a reduction in layers III and V. The densities of supragranular Calbindin- and Calretinin-positive interneurons in layers II and III were not different from controls, whereas Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons, primarily located in layer IV, were significantly reduced in numbers when compared to control cases without epilepsy. In layer VI, the density of TLE4-positive projection neurons was significantly increased. Altogether, these data show that changes in cellular composition mainly affect deep cortical layers in FCD2b. The application of a broad panel of markers defining layer-specific neuronal subpopulations revealed that in FCD2b neuronal diversity and a basic

  7. No evidence for dualism in function and receptors: PD-L2/B7-DC is an inhibitory regulator of human T cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfistershammer, Katharina; Klauser, Christoph; Pickl, Winfried F; Stöckl, Johannes; Leitner, Judith; Zlabinger, Gerhard; Majdic, Otto; Steinberger, Peter

    2006-05-01

    The B7 family member programmed-death-1-ligand 2 (PD-L2/B7-DC) is a ligand for programmed-death-receptor 1 (PD-1), a receptor involved in negative regulation of T cell activation. Several independent studies have reported that PD-L2, however, can also potently costimulate murine T cells via an additional yet unidentified receptor. In this study, we evaluated the contribution of PD-L2 to the activation of human T cells using a novel system of engineered T cell stimulators that expresses membrane-bound anti-CD3 antibodies. Analyzing early activation markers, cytokine production and proliferation, we found PD-L2 to consistently inhibit T cell activation. PD-L2 inhibition affected CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and was not abrogated by costimulation via CD28. Blocking PD-1 reverted the inhibitory effect of PD-L2, demonstrating involvement of this pathway. In human T cells, we found no evidence for any of the costimulatory effects described for PD-L2 in murine systems. In line with our functional data that do not point to stimulatory PD-L2-ligands, we show that binding of PD-L2-immunoglobulin to activated human T cells is abrogated by PD-1 antibodies. Our results demonstrate that PD-L2 negatively regulates human T cell activation and thus might be a candidate molecule for immunotherapeutic approaches aimed to attenuate pathological immune responses.

  8. Seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 antibodies and evidence of viremia among Nigerian patients with sickle cell anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwalokun, Bamidele Abiodun; Iwalokun, Senapon Olusola; Hodonu, Semande Olufunmilayo

    2013-01-01

    Clinical, biochemical and molecular evidence for the sickle cell anemia (SCA) crisis in Nigerian patients arising from parvovirus b19 infection remains inadequate. This study determined the prevalence and correlates of anti-parvovirus b19 antibodies in a population of SCA patients and non-SCA healthy controls in Lagos, Nigeria. In this prospective cross-sectional study, we enrolled 73 confirmed SCA patients from 5 district hospitals in Lagos and 81 sex and age-matched non-SCA healthy controls. Serum sample from each study participant was screened for anti-parvovirus b19 by ELISA and PCR techniques. Standard biomedical assays were also done. Anti-parvovirus b19 IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in 22 (14.3%) and 97 (62.9%) of the 154 sera screened, 13 (17.8%) and 45 (61.6%) in SCA patients; 9 (11.1%) and 52 (64.2%) in non-SCA controls. The overall seronegativity rate was 19.5%. Parvovirus B19 DNA was found in 2 (11.1%) of the 18 IgM seropositive SCA serum samples screened. On the whole, parvovirus b19 infection was more commonly asymptomatic in non-SCA controls but caused significant elevation in liver enzymes in infected SCA patients (P parvovirus b19 infection increased 65 times during unsteady state among the SCA patients. Although no deaths of infected patients were recorded during the study, age below 12 years, hospitalization and overcrowded environment were risk factors for infection. We conclude that parvovirus b19 is common in SCA patients, incurring greater susceptibility to infections. PMID:23885266

  9. An evidence-based stress management intervention for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant caregivers: development, feasibility and acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneau, Teresa L; Kilbourn, Kristin; Spradley, Janet; Laudenslager, Mark L

    2017-08-01

    Caregivers of cancer patients face challenges impacting their physical, psychological and social well-being that need attention in the form of well-designed and tested interventions. We created an eight-session individual stress management intervention for caregivers of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (Allo-HSCT) recipients. This intervention, tested by randomized control trial, proved effective in decreasing distress. Herein, we describe the intervention including theoretical framework, development, and elements of fidelity. Implementation challenges along with recommendations for refinement in future studies are discussed with the goal of replication and dissemination. Seventy-four of 148 caregivers received stress management training following randomization. The intervention occurred during the 100-day post-transplant period when caregivers are required. The training provided integrated cognitive behavioral strategies, psychoeducation, and problem-solving skills building as well as use of a biofeedback device. Seventy percent of caregivers completed all eight sessions indicating good acceptability for the in-person intervention; however, most caregivers did not reliably use the biofeedback device. The most common reason for drop-out was their patient becoming gravely ill or patient death. Few caregivers dropped out because of study demands. The need for flexibility in providing intervention sessions was key to retention. Our evidence-based stress management intervention for Allo-HSCT caregivers was feasible. Variability in acceptability and challenges in implementation are discussed and suggestions for refinement of the intervention are outlined. Dissemination efforts could improve by using alternative methods for providing caregiver support such as telephone or video chat to accommodate caregivers who are unable to attend in-person sessions.

  10. Seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 antibodies and evidence of viremia among Nigerian patients with sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwalokun, Bamidele Abiodun; Iwalokun, Senapon Olusola; Hodonu, Semande Olufunmilayo

    2013-07-01

    Clinical, biochemical and molecular evidence for the sickle cell anemia (SCA) crisis in Nigerian patients arising from parvovirus b19 infection remains inadequate. This study determined the prevalence and correlates of anti-parvovirus b19 antibodies in a population of SCA patients and non-SCA healthy controls in Lagos, Nigeria. In this prospective cross-sectional study, we enrolled 73 confirmed SCA patients from 5 district hospitals in Lagos and 81 sex and age-matched non-SCA healthy controls. Serum sample from each study participant was screened for anti-parvovirus b19 by ELISA and PCR techniques. Standard biomedical assays were also done. Anti-parvovirus b19 IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in 22 (14.3%) and 97 (62.9%) of the 154 sera screened, 13 (17.8%) and 45 (61.6%) in SCA patients; 9 (11.1%) and 52 (64.2%) in non-SCA controls. The overall seronegativity rate was 19.5%. Parvovirus B19 DNA was found in 2 (11.1%) of the 18 IgM seropositive SCA serum samples screened. On the whole, parvovirus b19 infection was more commonly asymptomatic in non-SCA controls but caused significant elevation in liver enzymes in infected SCA patients (P parvovirus b19 infection increased 65 times during unsteady state among the SCA patients. Although no deaths of infected patients were recorded during the study, age below 12 years, hospitalization and overcrowded environment were risk factors for infection. We conclude that parvovirus b19 is common in SCA patients, incurring greater susceptibility to infections.

  11. Antigen Presenting Cells and Stromal Cells Trigger Human Natural Killer Lymphocytes to Autoreactivity: Evidence for the Involvement of Natural Cytotoxicity Receptors (NCR and NKG2D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Poggi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Human natural killer (NK lymphocytes should not damage autologous cells due to the engagement of inhibitory receptor superfamily (IRS members by HLA-I. Nevertheless, NK cells kill self cells expressing low levels or lacking HLA-I, as it may occur during viral infections (missing-self hypothesis. Herein, we show that human NK cells can be activated upon binding with self antigen presenting cells or stromal cells despite the expression of HLA-I. Indeed, NK cells can kill and produce pro-inflammatory and regulating cytokines as IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL10 during interaction with autologous dendritic cells or bone marrow stromal cells or skin fibroblasts. The killing of antigen presenting and stromal cells is dependent on LFA1/ICAM1 interaction. Further, the natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCR NKp30 and NKp46 are responsible for the delivery of lethal hit to DC, whereas NKG2D activating receptor, the ligand of the MHC-related molecule MIC-A and the UL16 binding protein, is involved in stromal cell killing. These findings indicate that different activating receptors are involved in cell to self cell interaction. Finally, NK cells can revert the veto effect of stromal cells on mixed lymphocyte reaction further supporting the idea that NK cells may alter the interaction between T lymphocytes and microenvironment leading to autoreactivity.

  12. Lysosomal and endosomal heterogeneity in the liver: A comparison of the intracellular pathways of endocytosis in rat liver cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindberg, G.M.; Tolleshaug, H.; Gjoen, T.; Berg, T.

    1991-01-01

    Air-filled albumin microspheres, asialoorosomucoid and formaldehyde-treated serum albumin are selectively taken up by endocytosis in rat liver Kupffer cells, parenchymal cells and endothelial cells, respectively. Intracellular transport and degradation of endocytosed material were studied by subcellular fractionation in sucrose and Nycodenz gradients after intravenous injection of the ligand. By using ligands labeled with 125I-tyramine-cellobiose, the subcellular distribution of labeled degradation products can be studied because they are trapped at the site of formation. The results show that the kinetics of intracellular transport are different in hepatic parenchymal, endothelial and Kupffer cells. In endothelial cells, the ligand is associated with two types of endosomes during the first minutes after internalization and then is transferred rapidly to the lysosomes. In parenchymal cells, 125I-tyramine-cellobiose-asialoorosomucoid was located in a relatively slowly sedimenting vesicle during the first minute after internalization and subsequently in denser endosomes. Degradation of 125I-tyramine-cellobiose-asialoorosomucoid in parenchymal cells started later than that of 125I-tyramine-cellobiose-formaldehyde-treated serum albumin in endothelial cells. Furthermore, the ligand seemed to be transferred relatively slowly from endosomes to lysosomes, and most of the undegraded ligand was in the endosomes. The rate-limiting step of proteolysis in parenchymal cells is probably the transport from endosomes to lysosomes. In Kupffer cells, most 125I-tyramine-cellobiose-microspheres are found as undegraded material in very dense endosomes up to 3 hr after injection. After 20 hr, most of the ligand is degraded in lysosomes distributed at a lower density than the endosomes in Nycodenz and sucrose gradients

  13. Direct in vivo evidence for increased proliferation of CLL cells in lymph nodes compared to bone marrow and peripheral blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herndon, Thomas M; Chen, Shih-Ann; Saba, Nakhle S

    2017-01-01

    of active cell proliferation remains to be definitively determined. Based on findings that CLL cells in LNs have increased expression of B-cell activation genes, we tested the hypothesis that the fraction of 'newly born' cells would be highest in the LNs. Using a deuterium oxide ((2)H) in vivo labeling...... method in which patients consumed deuterated (heavy) water ((2)H2O), we determined CLL cell kinetics in concurrently obtained samples from LN, PB and BM. The LN was identified as the anatomical site harboring the largest fraction of newly born cells, compared to PB and BM. In fact, the calculated birth...

  14. Evidence for ovarian granulosa stem cells: telomerase activity and localization of the telomerase ribonucleic acid component in bovine ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavranos, T C; Mathis, J M; Latham, S E; Kalionis, B; Shay, J W; Rodgers, R J

    1999-08-01

    We have previously postulated that granulosa cells of developing follicles arise from a population of stem cells. Stem cells and cancer cells can divide indefinitely partly because they express telomerase. Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that repairs the ends of telomeres that otherwise shorten progressively upon each successive cell division. In this study we carried out cell cycle analyses and examined telomerase expression to examine our hypothesis. Preantral (60-100 microm) and small (1 mm) follicles, as well as granulosa cells from medium-sized (3 mm) and large (6-8 mm) follicles, were isolated. Cell cycle analyses and expression of Ki-67, a cell cycle-related protein, were undertaken on follicles of each size (n = 3) by flow cytometry; 12% to 16% of granulosa cells in all follicles were in the S phase, and less than 2% were in the G(2)/M phase. Telomerase activity (n = 3) was highest in the small preantral follicles, declining at the 1-mm stage and even further at the 3-mm stage. In situ hybridization histochemistry was carried out on bovine ovaries, and telomerase RNA was detected in the granulosa cells of growing follicles but not primordial follicles. Two major patterns of staining were observed in the membrana granulosa of antral follicles: staining in the middle and antral layers, and staining in the middle and basal layers. No staining was detected in oocytes. Our results strongly support our hypothesis that granulosa cells arise from a population of stem cells.

  15. Electrophysiological evidence for an ATP-gated ion channel in the principal cells of the frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodin, Birger; Nielsen, Robert

    2000-01-01

    P2X receptor, Na+ absorption, Short circuit current, Cell potential, Microelectrodes, Frog skin, Cytosolic Ca2+......P2X receptor, Na+ absorption, Short circuit current, Cell potential, Microelectrodes, Frog skin, Cytosolic Ca2+...

  16. Invasion of melanoma cells into dermal connective tissue in vitro: evidence for an important role of cysteine proteases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dennhofer, R.; Kurschat, P.; Zigrino, P.; Klose, A.; Bosserhoff, A.; Muijen, G.N.P. van; Krieg, T.; Mauch, C.; Hunzelmann, N.

    2003-01-01

    Invasion of melanoma cells into the dermal connective tissue is a major characteristic in the complex process of metastasis. Proteases play an important role in tumor cell invasion as these enzymes are able to degrade most components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), and thus enable cells to

  17. An orthotopic glioblastoma mouse model maintaining brain parenchymal physical constraints and suitable for intravital two-photon microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, Clément; Stanchi, Fabio; Rougon, Geneviève; Debarbieux, Franck

    2014-04-21

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive form of brain tumors with no curative treatments available to date. Murine models of this pathology rely on the injection of a suspension of glioma cells into the brain parenchyma following incision of the dura-mater. Whereas the cells have to be injected superficially to be accessible to intravital two-photon microscopy, superficial injections fail to recapitulate the physiopathological conditions. Indeed, escaping through the injection tract most tumor cells reach the extra-dural space where they expand abnormally fast in absence of mechanical constraints from the parenchyma. Our improvements consist not only in focally implanting a glioma spheroid rather than injecting a suspension of glioma cells in the superficial layers of the cerebral cortex but also in clogging the injection site by a cross-linked dextran gel hemi-bead that is glued to the surrounding parenchyma and sealed to dura-mater with cyanoacrylate. Altogether these measures enforce the physiological expansion and infiltration of the tumor cells inside the brain parenchyma. Craniotomy was finally closed with a glass window cemented to the skull to allow chronic imaging over weeks in absence of scar tissue development. Taking advantage of fluorescent transgenic animals grafted with fluorescent tumor cells we have shown that the dynamics of interactions occurring between glioma cells, neurons (e.g. Thy1-CFP mice) and vasculature (highlighted by an intravenous injection of a fluorescent dye) can be visualized by intravital two-photon microscopy during the progression of the disease. The possibility to image a tumor at microscopic resolution in a minimally compromised cerebral environment represents an improvement of current GBM animal models which should benefit the field of neuro-oncology and drug testing.

  18. Studies Using an in Vitro Model Show Evidence of Involvement of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Human Endometrial Epithelial Cells in Human Embryo Implantation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Tetsuo; Nishikawa-Uchida, Sayaka; Oda, Hideyuki; Miyazaki, Kaoru; Yamasaki, Akiko; Yoshimura, Yasunori

    2012-01-01

    Human embryo implantation is a critical multistep process consisting of embryo apposition/adhesion, followed by penetration and invasion. Through embryo penetration, the endometrial epithelial cell barrier is disrupted and remodeled by an unknown mechanism. We have previously developed an in vitro model for human embryo implantation employing the human choriocarcinoma cell line JAR and the human endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line Ishikawa. Using this model we have shown that stimulation with ovarian steroid hormones (17β-estradiol and progesterone, E2P4) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, enhances the attachment and adhesion of JAR spheroids to Ishikawa. In the present study we showed that the attachment and adhesion of JAR spheroids and treatment with E2P4 or SAHA individually induce the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in Ishikawa cells. This was evident by up-regulation of N-cadherin and vimentin, a mesenchymal cell marker, and concomitant down-regulation of E-cadherin in Ishikawa cells. Stimulation with E2P4 or SAHA accelerated Ishikawa cell motility, increased JAR spheroid outgrowth, and enhanced the unique redistribution of N-cadherin, which was most prominent in proximity to the adhered spheroids. Moreover, an N-cadherin functional blocking antibody attenuated all events but not JAR spheroid adhesion. These results collectively provide evidence suggesting that E2P4- and implanting embryo-induced EMT of endometrial epithelial cells may play a pivotal role in the subsequent processes of human embryo implantation with functional control of N-cadherin. PMID:22174415

  19. Evidence that a recombinationless strain, rad 51, of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacks the budding cell resistance to γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hama-Inaba, Hiroko; Saeki, Tetsuya

    1975-01-01

    The radiosensitivities of a wild-type and x-ray sensitive mutant, rad 51 (defective in genetic recombination) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to γ-rays were compared, using non-synchronized and partially synchronized cultures. The rad 51 cells, either haploid or diploid, showed only very small changes in radiosensitivity during cell growth, whereas the wild-type cells, especially haploid, showed the well-known budding resistance. The heterozygous (wild/rad 51) diploid cells showed in a survival curve a remarkable budding resistance and sigmoidal inactivation kinetics similar to those of wild-type homozygous diploid cells. (author)

  20. Evidence for a role of Collapsin response mediator protein-2 in signaling pathways that regulate the proliferation of non-neuronal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahimic, Candice Ginn T.; Tomimatsu, Nozomi; Nishigaki, Ryuichi; Fukuhara, Akiko; Toda, Tosifusa; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Shiota, Goshi; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Kurimasa, Akihiro

    2006-01-01

    Collapsin response mediator protein-2 or Crmp-2 plays a critical role in the establishment of neuronal polarity. In this study, we present evidence that apart from its functions in neurodevelopment, Crmp-2 is also involved in pathways that regulate the proliferation of non-neuronal cells through its phosphorylation by regulatory proteins. We show that Crmp-2 undergoes dynamic phosphorylation changes in response to contact inhibition-induced quiescence and that hyperphosphorylation of Crmp-2 occurs in a tumor. We further suggest that de-regulation of Crmp-2 phosphorylation levels at certain amino acid residues may lead to aberrant cell proliferation and consequently, tumorigenesis

  1. Isolation of hemopoietic stem cell subsets from murine bone marrow: II. Evidence for an early precursor of day-12 CFU-S and cells associated with radioprotective ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploemacher, R.E.; Brons, N.H.

    1988-01-01

    Counterflow centrifugal elutriation (CCE) in combination with plastic adherence and fluorescence-activated cell sorting were used consecutively to enrich functionally different subpopulations of pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells (HSC) from mouse bone marrow. The nonadherent CCE fractions were labeled with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and sorted according to differences in fluorescence within various windows on the basis of forward (FLS) and perpendicular (PLS) light scatter. The sorted cells were then assayed for their (1) in vivo colony-forming ability (day-7 and day-12 spleen colony-forming units [CFU-S]), (2) radioprotective ability (RPA; 30-day survival), and (3) their ability to repopulate the bone marrow or spleen over a 13-day period with day-12 CFU-S, granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM), nucleated cells, or cells associated with RPA. The highest incidence of day-12 CFU-S and cells with RPA was obtained by sorting the most WGA-positive cells with relatively high PLS (enrichment, 50- to 200-fold), lowering the effective dose (ED 50/30) to an average of 80 cells. The separative procedure enabled hemopoietic stem cells that repopulate both bone marrow and spleen with secondary RPA cells, CFU-S-12, and CFU-GM to be enriched and separated from part of the RPA cells, CFU-S-12, and cells that reconstitute the cellularity of bone marrow and spleen. These data suggest that cells generating both day-12 CFU-S and RPA cells differ from day-12 CFU-S and RPA cells themselves on the basis of PLS characteristics and affinity for WGA. Such early stem cells have also been detected in sorted fractions meeting the FLS/PLS characteristics of lymphocytes

  2. Selection of restriction specificities of virus-specific cytotoxic T cells in the thymus: no evidence for a crucial role of antigen-presenting cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkernagel, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    The proposal was tested that (P1 X P2) F1 leads to P1 irradiation bone marrow chimeras expressed predominantly P1-restricted T cells because donor derived stem cells were exposed to recipient derived antigen-presenting cells in the thymus. Because P1 recipient-derived antigen-presenting cells are replaced only slowly after 6-8 wk by (P1 X P2) donor-derived antigen-presenting cells in the thymus and because replenished pools of mature T cells may by then prevent substantial numbers of P2-restricted T cells to be generated, a large portion of thymus cells and mature T cells were eliminated using the following treatments of 12-20-wk-old (P1 X P2) F1 leads to P1 irradiation bone marrow chimeras: (a) cortisone plus antilymphocyte serum, (b) Cytoxan, (c) three doses of sublethal irradiation (300 rad) 2d apart, and (d) lethal irradiation (850 rad) and reconstitution with T cell-depleted (P1 X P2) F1 stem cells. 12-20 wk after this second treatment, (P1 X P2) leads to P1 chimeras were infected with vaccinia-virus. Virus-specific cytotoxic T cell reactivity was expressed by chimeric T cells of (P1 X P[2) F1 origin and was restricted predominantly to P1. Virus-specific cytotoxic T cells, therefore, do not seem to be selected to measurable extent by the immigrating donor-derived antigen-presenting cells in the thymus; their selection depends apparently from the recipient-derived radioresistant thymus cells

  3. Evidence for idiotypic- and antiidiotypic B-B cellular interaction with the use of cloned antiidiotypic B cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitoh, S; Fujimoto, S; Yamamoto, H

    1990-03-15

    Immunization of BALB/c mice with MOPC104E myeloma protein induces antiidiotypic B lymphocytes that have Id-specific enhancing activity on antibody production. The B-B cell interaction was restricted to both Igh and class II MHC. However, anti-Thy-1 and C-treated splenic B cells were maintained for more than 1 y in a mixture of Con A-stimulated splenocyte culture supernatant and synthetic medium. In applying the long term culture method, we have established a cloned B cell line named B19-1d, B19-1d cells are specific to MOPC104E or J558 cross-reactive Id and they express surface mu, lambda but no Ly-1. B19-1d do not spontaneously secrete Ig but produce them upon stimulation with bacterial LPS. The effect of B19-1d cell line on idiotypic antibody production was tested. Addition of only 10 to 100 B19-1d cells into dextran-immune B cell culture greatly enhanced the Id+ antidextran antibody responses. On the contrary, the antidextran antibody production was suppressed by the higher doses of B19-1d cells. The effective cooperation between dextran-immune B cells and B19-1d cloned B cells was restricted to class II MHC. The role of idiotypic- and antiidiotypic B-B cell interaction in immune regulation and repertoire generation was suggested.

  4. Suppression of in vitro primary immune response by L1210 cells and their culture supernatant: evidence for cytotoxic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huget, R.P.; Flad, H.D.; Opitz, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    L1210 cells and their culture supernatants were found to inhibit the generation of PFC in the in vitro primary immune response of spleen cells to SRBC. As few as 1 percent of L1210 cells and 1 percent of culture fluid were inhibitory. Inhibition of DNA or protein synthesis of L1210 cells did not abolish their immunosuppressive activity, excluding exhaustion of culture medium as a possible mechanism of inhibition of PFC. Heating of the supernatant completely abrogated the suppressive effect and resulted in a marked increase of PFC. Daily evaluation of cell viability in the cultures revealed that, in the presence of L1210 and supernatants, the fraction of surviving cells is markedly reduced. We conclude that a direct cytotoxic effect on splenic lymphocytes and macrophages is the predominant immunosuppressive mechanism of L1210 cells and their culture supernatants

  5. Eighteen-Year Cryopreservation Does Not Negatively Affect the Pluripotency of Human Embryos: Evidence from Embryonic Stem Cell Derivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungsiwiwut, Ruttachuk; Numchaisrika, Pranee; Ahnonkitpanit, Vichuda; Isarasena, Nipan; Virutamasen, Pramuan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Human embryonic stem (hES) cells are considered to be a potential source for the therapy of human diseases, drug screening, and the study of developmental biology. In the present study, we successfully derived hES cell lines from blastocysts developed from frozen and fresh embryos. Seventeen- to eighteen-year-old frozen embryos were thawed, cultured to the blastocyst stage, and induced to form hES cells using human foreskin fibroblasts. The Chula2.hES cell line and the Chula4.hES and Chula5.hES cell lines were derived from blastocysts developed from frozen and fresh embryos, respectively. The cell lines expressed pluripotent markers, including alkaline phosphatase (AP), Oct3/4, stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-4, and tumor recognition antigen (TRA)-1-60 and TRA-1-81 as detected with immunocytochemistry. The real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed that the cell lines expressed pluripotent genes, including OCT3/4, SOX2, NANOG, UTF, LIN28, REX1, NODAL, and E-Cadherin. In addition, the telomerase activities of the cell lines were higher than in the fibroblast cells. Moreover, the cell lines differentiated into all three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo. The cell lines had distinct identities, as revealed with DNA fingerprinting, and maintained their normal karyotype after a long-term culture. This study is the first to report the successful derivation of hES cell lines in Thailand and that frozen embryos maintained their pluripotency similar to fresh embryos, as shown by the success of hES cell derivation, even after years of cryopreservation. Therefore, embryos from prolonged cryopreservation could be an alternative source for embryonic stem cell research. PMID:23514952

  6. Apoptosis following interleukin-2 withdrawal from T cells: evidence for a regulatory role of CD18 (beta 2-integrin) molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röpke, C; Gladstone, P; Nielsen, M

    1996-01-01

    , these findings suggest that CD18 molecules (beta 2-integrins) play a regulatory role in the apoptotic response following cytokine withdrawal, and that the regulation is mediated, at least partly, through T-T cell interactions. Thus, apoptotic death following IL-2 deprivation appears to be under "social" control...... activated T cells. Thus, removal of IL-2 from proliferating T cells not only induces growth arrest, but triggers a massive cell death due to apoptosis. While the apoptotic response involves a series of well-described events, it remains less clear how apoptosis is regulated following IL-2 withdrawal. Here...... molecules (CD28, CD29, CD49d, CD80, CD86) did not. Secondly, IL-2 withdrawal resulted in a retarded apoptotic response in LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) negative T cells obtained from a leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) patient, as compared to LFA-1 positive T cell lines. Thirdly, co-culture of LFA-1 positive...

  7. Evidence for inhibition of steroid hormone secretion by arginine vasotocin (AVT) in tissue culture of isolated ovarian follicular cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoklosowa, S.; Gregoraszczuk, E.; Galas, J. [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland); Rzasa, J. [Akademia Rolnicza, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Two follicular compartments, granulosa (G) and theca interna (T) cells isolated from porcine ovaries were cultured alone or in co-culture (GT). Cells were grown as monolayers in a control medium without hormone and in a media supplemented with arginine-vasotocin (AVT) at a concentration of either 10{sup -7} M or 2x10{sup -7} M. Progesterone (P4), estrogen (E2) and androgen (A) concentrations in the culture media were taken as measures of the effect of AVT on the function of follicular cells. Steroids were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. AVT action in this culture system was expressed as a decrease in progesterone secretion by cultures of granulosa cells alone, and specially as a change in the pattern of estradiol and androgen secretion by co-cultures. Control T and G cells cultured alone secreted small amounts of A (238.0 pg/10{sup 5} cells, respectively), and E2 (272.5 pg/10{sup 5} cells, 10.6 pg/10{sup 5} cells, respectively) while in co-culture these two cell types interacted and the result of this positive interaction was a significant increase in secretion of these two steroids (941.0 pg/10{sup 5} cell androgen secretion and 854.1 pg/10{sup 5} cells estradiol secretion). This phenomenon is similar to that observed in the intact follicle `in vivo`. AVT introduced to the culture medium impaired the effect of this positive interaction of mixed G and T cells on the production of high levels of E2 and A by untreated co-cultures. (author). 37 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab.

  8. Evidence for inhibition of steroid hormone secretion by arginine vasotocin (AVT) in tissue culture of isolated ovarian follicular cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoklosowa, S.; Gregoraszczuk, E.; Galas, J.; Rzasa, J.

    1994-01-01

    Two follicular compartments, granulosa (G) and theca interna (T) cells isolated from porcine ovaries were cultured alone or in co-culture (GT). Cells were grown as monolayers in a control medium without hormone and in a media supplemented with arginine-vasotocin (AVT) at a concentration of either 10 -7 M or 2x10 -7 M. Progesterone (P4), estrogen (E2) and androgen (A) concentrations in the culture media were taken as measures of the effect of AVT on the function of follicular cells. Steroids were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. AVT action in this culture system was expressed as a decrease in progesterone secretion by cultures of granulosa cells alone, and specially as a change in the pattern of estradiol and androgen secretion by co-cultures. Control T and G cells cultured alone secreted small amounts of A (238.0 pg/10 5 cells, respectively), and E2 272.5 pg/10 5 cells, 10.6 pg/10 5 cells, respectively) while in co-culture these two cell types interacted and the result of this positive interaction was a significant increase in secretion of these two steroids (941.0 pg/10 5 cell androgen secretion and 854.1 pg/10 5 cells estradiol secretion). This phenomenon is similar to that observed in the intact follicle 'in vivo'. AVT introduced to the culture medium impaired the effect of this positive interaction of mixed G and T cells on the production of high levels of E2 and A by untreated co-cultures. (author). 37 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  9. Evidence that active demethylation mechanisms maintain the genome of carcinoma in situ cells hypomethylated in the adult testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, D G; Nielsen, J E; Jørgensen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    cells were assessed by quantitative measurements. The expression of TET1, TET2, APOBEC1, MBD4, APEX1, PARP1, DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B and DNMT3L in adult testis specimens with CIS and in human fetal testis was investigated by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence.Results:DNA from micro-dissected CIS...... cells contained very low levels of 5hmC produced by ten eleven translocation (TET) enzymes. CIS cells and fetal germ cells expressed the suggested initiator of active demethylation, APOBEC1, and the base excision repair proteins MBD4, APEX1 and PARP1, whereas TETs - the alternative initiators were...

  10. Type, Frequency, and Spatial Distribution of Immune Cell Infiltrates in CNS Germinomas: Evidence for Inflammatory and Immunosuppressive Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapka, Pia; Dörner, Evelyn; Dreschmann, Verena; Sakamato, Noriaki; Kristiansen, Glen; Calaminus, Gabriele; Vokuhl, Christian; Leuschner, Ivo; Pietsch, Torsten

    2018-02-01

    Central nervous system germinomas are characterized by a massive immune cell infiltrate. We systematically characterized these immune cells in 28 germinomas by immunophenotyping and image analysis. mRNA expression was analyzed by Nanostring technology and in situ RNA hybridization. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were composed of 61.8% ± 3.1% (mean ± SE) CD3-positive T cells, including 45.2% ± 3.5% of CD4-positive T-helper cells, 23.4% ± 1.5% of CD8-positive cytotoxic T cells, 5.5% ± 0.9% of FoxP3-positive regulatory T cells, and 11.9% ±1.3% PD-1-positive TILs. B cells accounted for 35.8% ± 2.9% of TILs and plasma cells for 9.3% ± 1.6%. Tumor-associated macrophages consisted of clusters of activated PD-L1-positive macrophages and interspersed anti-inflammatory macrophages expressing CD163. Germinoma cells did not express PD-L1. Expression of genes encoding immune cell markers and cytokines was high and comparable to mRNA levels in lymph node tissue. IFNG and IL10 mRNA was detected in subfractions of TILs and in PD-L1-positive macrophages. Taken together, the strong immune reaction observed in germinomas involves inflammatory as well as various suppressive mechanisms. Expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 and infiltration of cytotoxic T cells are biomarkers predictive of response to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapies, constituting a rationale for possible novel treatment approaches. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Immune Cell-Mediated Protection against Vaginal Candidiasis: Evidence for a Major Role of Vaginal CD4+ T Cells and Possible Participation of Other Local Lymphocyte Effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, Giorgio; Boccanera, Maria; Adriani, Daniela; Lucciarini, Roberta; Amantini, Consuelo; Morrone, Stefania; Cassone, Antonio; De Bernardis, Flavia

    2002-01-01

    The protective roles of different lymphocyte subsets were investigated in a rat vaginal candidiasis model by adoptive transfer of vaginal lymphocytes (VL) or sorted, purified CD3+ T cells, CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, or CD3− CD5+ B cells from the vaginas of naïve or immune rats following three rounds of Candida albicans infection. The adoptive transfer of total VL from nonimmune animals did not alter the course of vaginal candidiasis of the recipient rats. In contrast, the animals receiving total VL or CD3+ T cells from immune rats showed a highly significant acceleration of fungus clearance compared with animals which received nonimmune VL. The animals with vaginal CD3− CD5+ B cells transferred from immune rats also had fewer Candida CFU than the controls, but fungal clearance was significantly retarded with respect to the animals administered immune T cells. Sorted, purified CD4+ and CD8+ vaginal T cells from immune rats were also adoptively transferred to naïve animals. Although both populations were seen to accelerate the clearance of the fungus from the vagina, CD4+ T cells were much more effective than CD8+ T cells. Overall, there was no difference between the antifungal effects of immune vaginal CD4+ T cells and those achievable with the transfer of whole, immune VL. Histological observations of the vaginal tissues of rats with adoptively transferred immune T cells demonstrated a remarkable accumulation of lymphocytes in the subepithelial lamina propria and also infiltrating the mucosal epithelium. These results strongly suggest that distinct vaginal lymphocyte subsets participate in the adaptive anti-Candida immunity at the vaginal level, with the vaginal CD4+ T cells probably playing a major role. PMID:12183521

  12. Evidence for a single stem cell to reconstitute nearly one half of the total blood T cells in two A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Y.; Nakano, M.; Itho, M.; Ohtaki, K.; Kusunoki, Y.; Nakamura, N.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Recently, we have encountered two A-bomb survivors who had identical chromosome aberrations in their lymphocytes with very high frequencies; one survivor bore the same translocations in 40% of blood lymphocytes (case 1, estimated dose= 1.06 Sv) and the other had identical inversions and deletions in 30% of the lymphocytes (case 2, estimated dose 3.54 Sv). In case 1, the same abnormality was frequently observed in CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, and EBV-transformed B cells as well, suggesting the origin in a bone marrow stem cell. Although it is generally thought that the clonal aberrations observed in A-bomb survivors were induced by A-bomb radiation, the results did not allow us to distinguish if the clone preexisted (i.e., as a mosaic individual) or was induced following radiation exposure. To discriminate these two possibilities, we applied 24-color FISH to detect additional non-clonal aberrations among the clonal cells. As these survivors bore various non-clonal translocations in about 30% (case 1) or 50% (case 2) of the lymphocytes that do not carry the clonal aberration, the rational is straightforward; if the clonal cells preexisted, we expected 30% or 50% of additional but non-clonal aberrations among the clonal cells. By contrast, if the clone emerged following the A-bomb radiation exposure, we expected a minimum frequency of additional aberrations among the clonal cells (i.e., close to the background aberration frequency observed in non-exposed people). The results showed that the frequency of additional translocations among the clonal cells was only 3% (3/101 cells) in case 1 and 1% (1/100) in case 2. Thus, the results clearly demonstrated that the clonal cells did not preexist and were produced as a result of extensive proliferation of a single stem cell following radiation exposure, which gave rise to comprise nearly one half of the total lymphocytes

  13. Embryonic stem cell-derived microvesicles reprogram hematopoietic progenitors: evidence for horizontal transfer of mRNA and protein delivery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ratajczak, J.; Miekus, K.; Kucia, M.; Zhang, J.; Reca, R.; Dvořák, Petr; Rtajczak, M.Z.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 20, - (2006), s. 847-856 ISSN 0887-6924 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/03/1122 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Microvesicles * Embryonic stem cells * Stem cell expansion Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.146, year: 2006

  14. Cell cycle age dependence for radiation-induced G2 arrest: evidence for time-dependent repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, R.

    1985-01-01

    Exponentially growing eucaryotic cells, irradiated in interphase, are delayed in progression to mitosis chiefly by arrest in G 2 . The sensitivity of Chinese hamster ovary cells to G 2 arrest induction by X rays increases through the cell cycle, up to the X-ray transition point (TP) in G 2 . This age response can be explained by cell cycle age-dependent changes in susceptibility of the target(s) for G 2 arrest and/or by changes in capability for postirradiation recovery from G 2 arrest damage. Discrimination between sensitivity changes and repair phenomena is possible only if the level of G 2 arrest-causing damage sustained by a cell at the time of irradiation and the level ultimately expressed as arrest can be determined. The ability of caffeine to ameliorate radiation-induced G 2 arrest, while inhibiting repair of G 2 arrest-causing damage makes such an analysis possible. In the presence of caffeine, progression of irradiated cells was relatively unperturbed, but on caffeine removal, G 2 arrest was expressed. The duration of G 2 arrest was independent of the length of the prior caffeine exposure. This finding indicates that the target for G 2 arrest induction is present throughout the cell cycle and that the level of G 2 arrest damage incurred is initially constant for all cell cycle phases. The data are consistent with the existence of a time-dependent recovery mechanism to explain the age dependence for radiation induction of G 2 arrest

  15. In vitro evidence for participation of DEC-205 expressed by thymic cortical epithelial cells in clearance of apoptotic thymocytes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Small, M; Kraal, G.

    2003-01-01

    Binding of apoptotic cells was compared after incubation of thymocytes with two clones of murine thymic stromal cells to which CD4(+)/CD8(+) thymocytes attach. With the BA/10, but not the BA/2, clone, thymocytes with apoptotic morphology were bound irreversibly. These tightly bound thymocytes were

  16. Evidence from a mouse model that epithelial cell migration and mesenchymal-epithelial transition contribute to rapid restoration of uterine tissue integrity during menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Fiona L; Murray, Alison; Esnal, Arantza; Gibson, Douglas A; Critchley, Hilary O D; Saunders, Philippa T K

    2014-01-01

    In women dynamic changes in uterine tissue architecture occur during each menstrual cycle. Menses, characterised by the shedding of the upper functional layer of the endometrium, is the culmination of a cascade of irreversible changes in tissue function including stromal decidualisation, inflammation and production of degradative enzymes. The molecular mechanisms that contribute to the rapid restoration of tissue homeostasis at time of menses are poorly understood. A modified mouse model of menses was developed to focus on the events occurring within the uterine lining during endometrial shedding/repair. Decidualisation, vaginal bleeding, tissue architecture and cell proliferation were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after progesterone (P4) withdrawal; mice received a single injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) 90 mins before culling. Expression of genes implicated in the regulation of mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) was determined using a RT2 PCR profiler array, qRTPCR and bioinformatic analysis. Mice exhibited vaginal bleeding between 4 and 12 hours after P4 withdrawal, concomitant with detachment of the decidualised cell mass from the basal portion of the endometrial lining. Immunostaining for BrdU and pan cytokeratin revealed evidence of epithelial cell proliferation and migration. Cells that appeared to be in transition from a mesenchymal to an epithelial cell identity were identified within the stromal compartment. Analysis of mRNAs encoding genes expressed exclusively in the epithelial or stromal compartments, or implicated in MET, revealed dynamic changes in expression, consistent with a role for reprogramming of mesenchymal cells so that they could contribute to re-epithelialisation. These studies have provided novel insights into the cellular processes that contribute to re-epithelialisation post-menses implicating both epithelial cell migration and mesenchymal cell differentiation in restoration of an intact epithelial cell layer. These

  17. Nervus terminalis ganglion of the bonnethead shark (Sphyrna tiburo): evidence for cholinergic and catecholaminergic influence on two cell types distinguished by peptide immunocytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J; Meredith, M

    1995-01-16

    The nervus terminalis is a ganglionated vertebrate cranial nerve of unknown function that connects the brain and the peripheral nasal structures. To investigate its function, we have studied nervus terminalis ganglion morphology and physiology in the bonnethead shark (Sphyrna tiburo), where the nerve is particularly prominent. Immunocytochemistry for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and Leu-Pro-Leu-Arg-Phe-NH2 (LPLRFamide) revealed two distinct populations of cells. Both were acetylcholinesterase positive, but LPLR-Famide-immunoreactive cells consistently stained more darkly for acetylcholinesterase activity. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunocytochemistry revealed fibers and terminal-like puncta in the ganglion, primarily in areas containing GnRH-immunoreactive cells. Consistent with the anatomy, in vitro electrophysiological recordings provided evidence for cholinergic and catecholaminergic actions. In extracellular recordings, acetylcholine had a variable effect on baseline ganglion cell activity, whereas norepinephrine consistently reduced activity. Electrical stimulation of the nerve trunks suppressed ganglion activity, as did impulses from the brain in vivo. During electrical suppression, acetylcholine consistently increased activity, and norepinephrine decreased activity. Muscarinic and, to a lesser extent, alpha-adrenergic antagonists both increased activity during the electrical suppression, suggesting involvement of both systems. Intracellular recordings revealed two types of ganglion cells that were distinguishable pharmacologically and physiologically. Some cells were hyperpolarized by cholinergic agonists and unaffected by norepinephrine; these cells did not depolarize with peripheral nerve trunk stimulation. Another group of cells did depolarize with peripheral trunk stimulation; a representative of this group was depolarized by carbachol and hyperpolarized by norepinephrine. These and other data suggest that the bonnethead nervus terminalis ganglion

  18. Cell-mediated immunity to Plasmodium falciparum infection: evidence against the involvement of cytotoxic lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theander, T G; Andersen, B J; Pedersen, B K

    1988-01-01

    stimulated PBMC from malaria-immune donors by SPag and purified protein derivative (PPD) in culture for 7 days. The PBMC were then co-incubated with P. falciparum for 48 h, and parasitaemia was determined by microscopy. Parasite growth was only significantly impaired after incubation with PBMC stimulated...... by either SPag or PPD in the presence of immune serum. Studies on subpopulations of PBMC indicated that the inhibitory cells resided among the adherent cell fraction. Furthermore we tested PBMC for cytotoxic activity against P. falciparum-infected autologous or heterologous erythrocytes. Experiments were...... done both in the absence and the presence of immune serum. Neither fresh PBMC nor PBMC activated by SPag or PPD for 7 days prior to assay were cytotoxic, indicating that cytotoxic T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and K cells did not possess cytotoxic activity directed against parasitized...

  19. Evidence for autocrine and paracrine regulation of allergen-induced mast cell mediator release in the guinea pig airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Liu, Qi; Canning, Brendan J

    2018-03-05

    Mast cells play an essential role in immediate type hypersensitivity reactions and in chronic allergic diseases of the airways, including asthma. Mast cell mediator release can be modulated by locally released autacoids and circulating hormones, but surprisingly little is known about the autocrine effects of mediators released upon mast cell activation. We thus set out to characterize the autocrine and paracrine effects of mast cell mediators on mast cell activation in the guinea pig airways. By direct measures of histamine, cysteinyl-leukotriene and thromboxane release and with studies of allergen-evoked contractions of airway smooth muscle, we describe a complex interplay amongst these autacoids. Notably, we observed an autocrine effect of the cysteinyl-leukotrienes acting through cysLT 1 receptors on mast cell leukotriene release. We confirmed the results of previous studies demonstrating a marked enhancement of mast cell mediator release following cyclooxygenase inhibition, but we have extended these results by showing that COX-2 derived eicosanoids inhibit cysteinyl-leukotriene release and yet are without effect on histamine release. Given the prominent role of COX-1 inhibition in aspirin-sensitive asthma, these data implicate preformed mediators stored in granules as the initial drivers of these adverse reactions. Finally, we describe the paracrine signaling cascade leading to thromboxane synthesis in the guinea pig airways following allergen challenge, which occurs indirectly, secondary to cysLT 1 receptor activation on structural cells and/ or leukocytes within the airway wall, and a COX-2 dependent synthesis of the eicosanoid. The results highlight the importance of cell-cell and autocrine interactions in regulating allergic responses in the airways. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Production of transforming growth factor α in human pancreatic cancer cells: evidence for a superagonist autocrine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.J.; Derynck, R.; Korc, M.

    1987-01-01

    Previous work showed that cultured human pancreatic cancer cells overexpress the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. In the present study, the authors sought to determine whether some of these cell lines produce transforming growth factor α (TGF-α). Utilizing a radiolabeled TGF-α cDNA in hybridization experiments, they determined that ASPC-1, T 3 M 4 , PANC-1, COLO-357, and MIA PaCa-2 cell lines expressed TGF-α mRNA. Serum-free medium conditioned by T 3 M 4 and ASPC-1 cells contained significant amounts of TGF-α protein. Although unlabeled TGF-α readily competed with 125 I-labeled EGF for binding, each cell line exhibited lower surface binding and internalization of 125 I-labeled TGF-α as compared to 125 I-labeled EGF. Both TGF-α and EGF significantly enhanced the anchorage-independent growth of PANC-1, T 3 M 4 , and ASPC-1 cells. However, TGF-α was 10- to 100-fold more potent than EGF. These findings suggest that the concomitant overexpression of EGF receptors and production of TGF-α may represent an efficient mechanism for certain cancer cells to obtain a growth advantage

  1. Evidence for a transketolase-mediated metabolic checkpoint governing biotrophic growth in rice cells by the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Fernandez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae threatens global food security through the widespread destruction of cultivated rice. Foliar infection requires a specialized cell called an appressorium that generates turgor to force a thin penetration hypha through the rice cuticle and into the underlying epidermal cells, where the fungus grows for the first days of infection as a symptomless biotroph. Understanding what controls biotrophic growth could open new avenues for developing sustainable blast intervention programs. Here, using molecular genetics and live-cell imaging, we dismantled M. oryzae glucose-metabolizing pathways to reveal that the transketolase enzyme, encoded by TKL1, plays an essential role in facilitating host colonization during rice blast disease. In the absence of transketolase, Δtkl1 mutant strains formed functional appressoria that penetrated rice cuticles successfully and developed invasive hyphae (IH in rice cells from primary hyphae. However, Δtkl1 could not undertake sustained biotrophic growth or cell-to-cell movement. Transcript data and observations using fluorescently labeled histone H1:RFP fusion proteins indicated Δtkl1 mutant strains were alive in host cells but were delayed in mitosis. Mitotic delay could be reversed and IH growth restored by the addition of exogenous ATP, a metabolite depleted in Δtkl1 mutant strains. We show that ATP might act via the TOR signaling pathway, and TOR is likely a downstream target of activation for TKL1. TKL1 is also involved in controlling the migration of appressorial nuclei into primary hyphae in host cells. When taken together, our results indicate transketolase has a novel role in mediating--via ATP and TOR signaling--an in planta-specific metabolic checkpoint that controls nuclear migration from appressoria into primary hyphae, prevents mitotic delay in early IH and promotes biotrophic growth. This work thus provides new information about the metabolic strategies employed by M

  2. Evidence for mouse Th1- and Th2-like helper T cells in vivo. Selective reduction of Th1-like cells after total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, H.; Mosmann, T.; Strober, S.

    1989-01-01

    Purified CD4+ BALB/c spleen T cells obtained 4-6 wk after total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) helped normal syngeneic B cells to produce a vigorous antibody response to TNP keyhole limpet hemocyanin in adoptive cell transfer experiments. However, the same cells failed to transfer delayed-type hypersensitivity to the adoptive hosts as measured by a foot pad swelling assay. In addition, purified CD4+ cells from TLI-treated mice were unable to induce graft vs. host disease in lethally irradiated allogeneic C57BL/Ka recipient mice. In response to mitogen stimulation, unfractionated spleen cells obtained from TLI mice secreted normal levels of IL-4 and IL-5, but markedly reduced levels of IL-2 and INF-gamma. A total of 229 CD4+ clones from spleen cells of both normal and TLI-treated mice were established, and the cytokine secretion pattern from each clone was analyzed. The results demonstrate that the ratio of Th1- and Th2-like clones in the spleens of normal BALB/c mice is 1:0.6, whereas the ratio in TLI mice is approximately 1:7. These results suggest that Th2-like cells recover rapidly (at approximately 4-6 wk) after TLI treatment and account for the early return of antibody helper activity and secretion of IL-4 and IL-5, but Th1-like cells recover more slowly (in approximately 3 mo) after irradiation, and this accounts for the deficit in cell-mediated immunity and the reduced amount of IL-2 and IFN-gamma secretion

  3. Genetic and biochemical evidence that haploinsufficiency of the Nf1 tumor suppressor gene modulates melanocyte and mast cell fates in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, D A; Yang, F C; Travers, J B; Wenning, M J; Hiatt, K; New, S; Hood, A; Shannon, K; Williams, D A; Clapp, D W

    2000-01-03

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by cutaneous neurofibromas infiltrated with large numbers of mast cells, melanocyte hyperplasia, and a predisposition to develop malignant neoplasms. NF1 encodes a GTPase activating protein (GAP) for Ras. Consistent with Knudson's "two hit" model of tumor suppressor genes, leukemias and malignant solid tumors in NF1 patients frequently demonstrate somatic loss of the normal NF1 allele. However, the phenotypic and biochemical consequences of heterozygous inactivation of Nf1 are largely unknown. Recently neurofibromin, the protein encoded by NF1, was shown to negatively regulate Ras activity in Nf1-/- murine myeloid hematopoietic cells in vitro through the c-kit receptor tyrosine kinase (dominant white spotting, W). Since the W and Nf1 locus appear to function along a common developmental pathway, we generated mice with mutations at both loci to examine potential interactions in vivo. Here, we show that haploinsufficiency at Nf1 perturbs cell fates in mast cells in vivo, and partially rescues coat color and mast cell defects in W(41) mice. Haploinsufficiency at Nf1 also increased mast cell proliferation, survival, and colony formation in response to Steel factor, the ligand for c-kit. Furthermore, haploinsufficiency was associated with enhanced Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase activity, a major downstream effector of Ras, via wild-type and mutant (W(41)) c-kit receptors. These observations identify a novel interaction between c-kit and neurofibromin in vivo, and offer experimental evidence that haploinsufficiency of Nf1 alters both cellular and biochemical phenotypes in two cell lineages that are affected in individuals with NF1. Collectively, these data support the emerging concept that heterozygous inactivation of tumor suppressor genes may have profound biological effects in multiple cell types.

  4. Long term outcome of adolescent and adult patients with pineal parenchymal tumors treated with fractionated radiotherapy between 1982 and 2003 -- a single institution's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiber, Eva Maria; Schaible, Benjamin; Herfarth, Klaus; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela; Huber, Peter E; Debus, Jürgen; Oertel, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effectivity of fractionated radiotherapy in adolescent and adult patients with pineal parenchymal tumors (PPT). Between 1982 and 2003, 14 patients with PPTs were treated with fractionated radiotherapy. 4 patients had a pineocytoma (PC), one a PPT with intermediate differentiation (PPTID) and 9 patients a pineoblastoma (PB), 2 of which were recurrences. All patients underwent radiotherapy on the primary tumor site with a median total dose of 54 Gy. In 9 patients with primary PB treatment included whole brain irradiation (3 patients) or irradiation of the craniospinal axis (6 patients) with a median total dose of 35 Gy. Median follow-up was 123 months in the PC patients and 109 months in the patients with primary PB. 7 patients were free from relapse at the end of follow-up. One PC patient died from spinal seeding. Among 5 PB patients treated with radiotherapy without chemotherapy, 3 developed local or spinal tumor recurrence. Both patients treated for PB recurrences died. The patient with PPTID is free of disease 7 years after radiotherapy. Local radiotherapy seems to be effective in patients with PC and some PPTIDs. Diagnosis and treatment of patients with more aggressive variants of PPTIDs as well as treatment of PB needs to be further improved, since local and spinal failure even despite craniospinal irradiation (CSI) is common. As PPT are very rare tumors, treatment within multi-institutional trials remains necessary

  5. Quantitative analysis of background parenchymal enhancement in whole breast on MRI: Influence of menstrual cycle and comparison with a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yongsik; Jeong, Seong Kyun; Kang, Doo Kyoung; Moon, Yeorae; Kim, Tae Hee

    2018-06-01

    We quantitatively analyzed background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) in whole breast according to menstrual cycle and compared it with a qualitative analysis method. A data set of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from 273 breast cancer patients was used. For quantitative analysis, we used semiautomated in-house software with MATLAB. From each voxel of whole breast, the software calculated BPE using following equation: [(signal intensity [SI] at 1 min 30 s after contrast injection - baseline SI)/baseline SI] × 100%. In total, 53 patients had minimal, 108 mild, 87 moderate, and 25 marked BPE. On quantitative analysis, mean BPE values were 33.1% in the minimal, 42.1% in the mild, 59.1% in the moderate, and 81.9% in the marked BPE group showing significant difference (p = .009 for minimal vs. mild, p quantitative BPE (r = 0.63, p Quantitative analysis of BPE correlated well with the qualitative BPE grade. Quantitative BPE values were lowest in the second week and highest in the fourth week. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 64-section multidetector CT of the upper abdomen: optimization of a saline chaser injection protocol for improved vascular and parenchymal contrast enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, Daniele [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); University of Rome Sapienza, Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Nelson, Rendon C. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Guerrisi, Antonino; Passariello, Roberto; Catalano, Carlo [University of Rome Sapienza, Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Barnhart, Huiman [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Durham, NC (United States); Schindera, Sebastian T. [University Hospital of Bern, Institute for Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, Bern (Switzerland)

    2011-09-15

    To prospectively investigate the effect of varying the injection flow rates of a saline chaser on vascular and parenchymal contrast enhancement during abdominal MDCT. 100 consecutive patients were randomly assigned to four injection protocols. A fixed dose of contrast medium was administered followed by no saline (Protocol A) or 50 mL of saline at 2, 4, or 8 mL/s (Protocols B, C, and D). Peak, time-to-peak, and duration of 90% peak enhancement were determined for aorta, pancreas, and liver. Aortic peak enhancement was significantly higher for Protocol D (369.5 HU) compared with Protocols A and B (332.9 HU and 326.0 HU, respectively; P < 0.05). Pancreatic peak enhancement was significantly higher for Protocols C and D (110.6 HU and 110.9 HU, respectively) compared to Protocol A (92.5 HU; P < 0.05). Aortic and pancreatic time-to-peak enhancement occurred significantly later for Protocol D compared with Protocol A (42.8 s vs. 36.1 s [P < 0.001] and 49.7 s vs. 45.3 s [P = 0.003]). Injecting a saline chaser at high flow rates yields significantly higher peak aortic and pancreatic enhancement, with a slight longer time-to-peak enhancement. (orig.)

  7. Background {sup 99m}Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile uptake of breast-specific gamma imaging in relation to background parenchymal enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hai-Jeon; Kim, Bom Sahn [Ewha Womans University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Yangchun-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yemi [Ewha Womans University, Clinical Research Institute and Department of Conservative Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jee Eun [Ewha Womans University, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    This study investigated factors that could affect background uptake of {sup 99m}Tc- methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) on normal breast by breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI). In addition, the impact of background {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI uptake on the diagnostic performance of BSGI was further investigated. One hundred forty-five women with unilateral breast cancer who underwent BSGI, MRI, and mammography were retrospectively enrolled. Background uptake on BSGI was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. Patients were classified into non-dense and dense breast groups according to mammographic breast density. Background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) was rated according to BI-RADS classification. The relationship of age, menopausal status, mammographic breast density, and BPE with background {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI uptake was analyzed. Heterogeneous texture and high background uptake ratio on BSGI were significantly correlated with younger age (p < 0.001, respectively), premenopausal status (p < 0.001 and p = 0.003), dense breast (p < 0.001, respectively), and marked BPE (p < 0.001, respectively). On multivariate analysis, only BPE remained a significant factor for background MIBI uptake (p < 0.001).There was a significant reduction in positive predictive value (p = 0.024 and p = 0.002) as background MIBI uptake and BPE grade increased. BPE on MRI was the most important factor for background MIBI uptake on BSGI. High background MIBI uptake or marked BPE can diminish the diagnostic performance of BSGI. (orig.)

  8. Evidence for a intimate relationship between mast cells and nerve fibers in the tongue of the frog, Rana esculenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chieffi Baccari, Gabriella; Minucci, Sergio [Naples, II Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisiologia Umana e Funzioni Biologiche Integrate `Filippo Bottazzi`

    1997-12-31

    Morphological and ultrastructural association of mast cells and nerve fibers were studied in the tongue of the frog Rana esculenta. The number of mast cells in the tongue (253 {+-} 45 / mm{sup 2}) is far the highest of the frog tissue as far as people know. They are distributed throughout the connective tissue among the muscular fibers, near arterioles and venules but predominantly in close association and within the nerves. They are often embedded in the endoneurium within a nerve bundle near to myelinic or unmyelinic fibers and in membrane-to-membrane contact with axonlike processes. Just for the richness of mast cells, the tongue of the frog could represent an useful model to study the relationship between these cells and the peripheral nervous system.

  9. Evidence for a intimate relationship between mast cells and nerve fibers in the tongue of the frog, Rana esculenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chieffi Baccari, Gabriella; Minucci, Sergio [Naples, II Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisiologia Umana e Funzioni Biologiche Integrate ` Filippo Bottazzi`

    1998-12-31

    Morphological and ultrastructural association of mast cells and nerve fibers were studied in the tongue of the frog Rana esculenta. The number of mast cells in the tongue (253 {+-} 45 / mm{sup 2}) is far the highest of the frog tissue as far as people know. They are distributed throughout the connective tissue among the muscular fibers, near arterioles and venules but predominantly in close association and within the nerves. They are often embedded in the endoneurium within a nerve bundle near to myelinic or unmyelinic fibers and in membrane-to-membrane contact with axonlike processes. Just for the richness of mast cells, the tongue of the frog could represent an useful model to study the relationship between these cells and the peripheral nervous system.

  10. An open-label, randomized, controlled, 4-week comparative clinical trial of barnidipine hydrochloride, a calcium-channel blocker, and benazepril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, in Chinese patients with renal parenchymal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Zheng, F; Chen, P; Tang, L; Wei, R; Yu, Y; Su, Y; Kikkawa, T; Yamamoto, M

    2006-01-01

    This study compared barnidipine, a calcium-channel blocker, and benazepril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, in 85 Chinese patients with renal parenchymal hypertension (diastolic blood pressure range 95 - 110 mmHg). Patients were randomly assigned to receive either 10 mg barnidipine or 10 mg benazepril orally daily for 4 weeks. In patients with diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg after 2 weeks of treatment, the dose of barnidipine or benazepril was increased by 5 or 10 mg, respectively. Both the barnidipine-treated group (n = 43) and the benazepril-treated group (n = 42) showed significant mean reductions from baseline in sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The decrease in diastolic blood pressure with benazepril was significantly greater than with barnidipine treatment. Sitting heart rate was not changed by either drug. There was no significant difference in adverse events between the two groups. Barnidipine is similar to benazepril for the treatment of renal parenchymal hypertension.

  11. A Case of Successful Remission of Extensive Primary Gastric Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma: Radiologic, Endoscopic and Pathologic Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike M. Bismar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Though rare amongst stomach neoplasms, primary gastric diffuse large B cell lymphoma is one of the commonest extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas. If left untreated, it can have a devastating progression and life-threatening consequences. We present the case of a successfully treated large antral ulcer confirmed to be large B cell lymphoma as evidenced by radiologic, endoscopic and histopathologic findings. A brief discussion about the types of gastric lymphoma, their Helicobacter pylori relation and therapeutic modalities follows.

  12. Dimethoxycurcumin-induced cell death in human breast carcinoma MCF7 cells: evidence for pro-oxidant activity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, A; Jayakumar, S; Srivastava, A K; Priyadarsini, K I

    2012-04-01

    The factors responsible for the induction of cell death by dimethoxycurcumin (Dimc), a synthetic analog of curcumin, were assessed in human breast carcinoma MCF7 cells. Initial cytotoxic studies with both curcumin and Dimc using MTT assay indicated their comparable effects. Further, the mechanism of action was explored in terms of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and modulation in the expression of proteins involved in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. Dimc (5-50 μM) caused generation of reactive oxygen species, reduction in glutathione level, and induction of DNA damage. The mitochondrial dysfunction induced by Dimc was evidenced by the reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential and decrease in cellular energy status (ATP/ADP) monitored by HPLC analysis. The observed decrease in ATP was also supported by the significant suppression of different (α, β, γ, and ε) subunits of ATP synthase. The cytotoxic effect of Dimc was further characterized in terms of induction of S-phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and their relative contribution was found to vary with the treatment concentration of Dimc. The S-phase arrest and apoptosis could also be correlated with the changes in the expressions of cell cycle proteins like p53, p21, CDK4, and cyclin-D1 and apoptotic markers like Bax and Bcl-2. Overall, the results demonstrated that Dimc induced cell death in MCF7 cells through S-phase arrest and apoptosis.

  13. Evidence for epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer stem-like cells derived from carcinoma cell lines of the cervix uteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiaying; Liu, Xishi; Ding, Ding

    2015-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) paradigm is one possible way to understand the genesis of cancer, and cervical cancer in particular. We quantified and enriched ALDH1(+) cells within cervical cancer cell lines and subsequently characterized their phenotypical and functional properties like invasion capacity and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). ALDH1 expression in spheroid-derived cells (SDC) and the parental monolayer-derived cell (MDC) line was compared by flow-cytometry. Invasion capability was evaluated by Matrigel assay and expression of EMT-related genes Twist 1, Twist 2, Snail 1, Snail 2, Vimentin and E-cadherin by real-time PCR. ALDH1 expression was significantly higher in SDC. ALDH1(+) cells showed increased colony-formation. SDC expressed lower levels of E-cadherin and elevated levels of Twist 1, Twist 2, Snail 1, Snail 2 and Vimentin compared to MDC. Cervical cancer cell lines harbor potential CSC, characterized by ALDH1 expression as well as properties like invasiveness, colony-forming ability, and EMT. CSC can be enriched by anchorage-independent culture techniques, which may be important for the investigation of their contribution to therapy resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis.

  14. Fluorescent CSC models evidence that targeted nanomedicines improve treatment sensitivity of breast and colon cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gener, Petra; Gouveia, Luis Pleno; Sabat, Guillem Romero; de Sousa Rafael, Diana Fernandes; Fort, Núria Bergadà; Arranja, Alexandra; Fernández, Yolanda; Prieto, Rafael Miñana; Ortega, Joan Sayos; Arango, Diego; Abasolo, Ibane; Videira, Mafalda; Schwartz, Simo

    2015-11-01

    To be able to study the efficacy of targeted nanomedicines in marginal population of highly aggressive cancer stem cells (CSC), we have developed a novel in vitro fluorescent CSC model that allows us to visualize these cells in heterogeneous population and to monitor CSC biological performance after therapy. In this model tdTomato reporter gene is driven by CSC specific (ALDH1A1) promoter and contrary to other similar models, CSC differentiation and un-differentiation processes are not restrained and longitudinal studies are feasible. We used this model for preclinical validation of poly[(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-co-PEG] (PLGA-co-PEG) micelles loaded with paclitaxel. Further, active targeting against CD44 and EGFR receptors was validated in breast and colon cancer cell lines. Accordingly, specific active targeting toward surface receptors enhances the performance of nanomedicines and sensitizes CSC to paclitaxel based chemotherapy. Many current cancer therapies fail because of the failure to target cancer stem cells. This surviving population soon proliferates and differentiates into more cancer cells. In this interesting article, the authors designed an in vitro cancer stem cell model to study the effects of active targeting using antibody-labeled micelles containing chemotherapeutic agent. This new model should allow future testing of various drug/carrier platforms before the clinical phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Phosphatidylserine biosynthesis in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells. III. Genetic evidence for utilization of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine as precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuge, O.; Nishijima, M.; Akamatsu, Y.

    1986-01-01

    We reported that Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells contain two different serine-exchange enzymes (I and II) which catalyze the base-exchange reaction of phospholipid(s) with serine and that a phosphatidylserine-requiring mutant (strain PSA-3) of CHO cells is defective in serine-exchange enzyme I and lacks the ability to synthesize phosphatidylserine. In this study, we examined precursor phospholipids for phosphatidylserine biosynthesis in CHO cells. When mutant PSA-3 and parent (CHO-K1) cells were cultured with [ 32 P]phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine in the parent accumulated radioactivity while that in the mutant was not labeled significantly. On the contrary, when cultured with [ 32 P]phosphatidylethanolamine, the mutant incorporated the label into phosphatidylserine more efficiently than the parent. Furthermore, we found that mutant PSA-3 grew normally in growth medium supplemented with 30 microM phosphatidylethanolamine as well as phosphatidylserine and that the biosynthesis of phosphatidylserine in the mutant was normal when cells were cultured in the presence of exogenous phosphatidylethanolamine. The simplest interpretation of these findings is that phosphatidylserine in CHO cells is biosynthesized through the following sequential reactions: phosphatidylcholine----phosphatidylserine----phosphatidylethanolamine--- - phosphatidylserine. The three reactions are catalyzed by serine-exchange enzyme I, phosphatidylserine decarboxylase, and serine-exchange enzyme II, respectively

  16. How necessary is the vasculature in the life of neural stem and progenitor cells? Evidence from evolution, development and the adult nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOS eKOUTSAKIS

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Augmenting evidence suggests that such is the functional dependence of neural stem cells (NSCs on the vasculature that they normally reside in perivascular niches. Two examples are the neurovascular and the oligovascular niches of the adult brain, specialized microenvironments where NSCs or oligodendrocyte progenitor cells survive and remain mitotically active in close proximity to blood vessels. In addition, the often observed co-ordination of angiogenesis and neurogenesis led to these processes being described as coupled. Here, we adopt an evo-devo approach to argue that some stages in the life of a NSC, such as specification and commitment, are independent of the vasculature, while stages such as proliferation and migration are largely dependent on blood vessels. We also explore available evidence on the possible involvement of the vasculature in other phenomena such as the diversification of NSCs during evolution and we provide original data on the senescence of NSCs in the subependymal zone stem cell niche. Finally, we will comment on the other side of the story; on how much is the vasculature dependent on NSCs and their progeny.

  17. Incorporation of radioactivity from [14C]lactate into the glycogen of cultured mouse astroglial cells. Evidence for gluconeogenesis in brain cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dringen, R; Schmoll, D; Cesar, M; Hamprecht, B

    1993-05-01

    A pure population of astroglial cells was selected from heterogeneous astroglia-rich primary cultures in a medium containing sorbitol instead of glucose. It was shown that astroglial cells synthesize glycogen when they are returned to a glucose-containing medium, and that when [14C]lactate is also present the synthesized glycogen is radioactively labelled. Compared with the degree of incorporation of radioactivity in the presence of tritiated glucose, the incorporation of radioactivity from lactate was small but significant. After incubation of astroglial cells with radioactively labelled lactate, the glycogen was isolated and enzymatically hydrolysed to glucose, which was found to be radioactively labelled. Astrocytes are therefore able to convert lactate to glucosyl residues, a metabolic pathway known as gluconeogenesis. It is proposed that astrocytic gluconeogenesis may consume lactic acid formed in neighboring cells such as neurons, during anaerobic glycolysis at times of high energy demand.

  18. First evidence of SGPL1 expression in the cell membrane silencing the extracellular S1P siren in mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Nadja; Adamus, Anna; Frank, Marcus; Kraft, Karin; Kühn, Juliane; Müller, Petra; Nebe, Barbara; Kasten, Annika; Seitz, Guido

    2018-01-01

    The bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a main regulator of cell survival, proliferation, motility, and platelet aggregation, and it is essential for angiogenesis and lymphocyte trafficking. In that S1P acts as a second messenger intra- and extracellularly, it might promote cancer progression. The main cause is found in the high S1P concentration in the blood, which encourage cancer cells to migrate through the endothelial barrier into the blood vessels. The irreversible degradation of S1P is solely caused by the sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (SGPL1). SGPL1 overexpression reduces cancer cell migration and therefore silences the endogenous S1P siren, which promotes cancer cell attraction-the main reason for metastasis. Since our previous metabolomics studies revealed an increased SGPL1 activity in association with successful breast cancer cell treatment in vitro, we further investigated expression and localization of SGPL1. Expression analyses confirmed a very low SGPL1 expression in all breast cancer samples, regardless of their subtype. Additionally, we were able to prove a novel SGPL expression in the cytoplasm membrane of non-tumorigenic breast cells by fusing three independent methods. The general SGPL1 downregulation and the loss of the plasma membrane expression resulted in S1P dependent stimulation of migration in the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and BT-20. Not only S1P stimulated migration could be repressed by overexpressing the natural SGPL1 variant not but also more general migratory activity was significantly reduced. Here, for the first time, we report on the SGPL1 plasma membrane location in human, non-malignant breast epithelial cell lines silencing the extracellular S1P siren in vitro, and thereby regulating pivotal cellular functions. Loss of this plasma membrane distribution as well as low SGPL1 expression levels could be a potential prognostic marker and a viable target for therapy. Therefore, the precise role of SGPL1 for cancer

  19. Direct evidence that FK506 inhibition of FcepsilonRI-mediated exocytosis from RBL mast cells involves calcineurin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultsch, T; Brand, P; Lohmann, S; Saloga, J; Kincaid, R L; Knop, J

    1998-05-01

    FcepsilonRI-mediated exocytosis of preformed mediators from mast cells and basophils (e.g. histamine, serotonin, beta-hexosaminidase) is sensitive to the immunosuppressants cyclosporin A and FK506 (IC50 200 and 4 nM, respectively) but not rapamycin. The mechanism of inhibition does not appear to involve tyrosine phosphorylation, hydrolysis of inositol phosphates or calcium flux. Here we report experiments using a molecular approach to assess the role of calcineurin, a serine/threonine phosphatase thought to be the primary pharmacological target of these drugs. Calcineurin's activity requires association of its catalytic (A) subunit with an intrinsic regulatory (B) subunit. We hypothesized that calcineurin-sensitive signalling events should be affected by the depletion of calcineurin B subunits, thereby reducing the number of active A:B complexes. We therefore transfected rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells with an inhibitory (dominant negative) form of the calcineurin A subunit, which binds the calcineurin B subunit with high affinity but does not possess catalytic activity (B subunit knock-out, BKO). In these transfected cells, the dose-response curve for the inhibition of FcepsilonRI-mediated exocytosis by FK506 was shifted to the left, indicating an increased drug sensitivity of BKO-transfected cells. We conclude that FK506 inhibition of FcepsilonRI-mediated exocytosis in mast cells specifically targets calcineurin activity.

  20. Immunohistochemical evidences showing the presence of thymulin containing cells located in involuted thymus and in peripheral lymphoid organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Folch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymulin is a well-characterized thymic hormone that exists as a nonapeptide coupled to equimolar amounts of Zn2+. Thymulin is known to have multiple biological roles, including T cell differentiation, immune regulation, and analgesic functions. It has been shown that thymulin is produced by the reticulo-epithelial cells of the thymus, and it circulates in the blood from the moment of birth, maintain its serum level until puberty diminishing thereafter in life. To study the localization of this hormone, we prepared polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against the commercial peptide and utilized immunocytochemical techniques for visualization. The results indicate that thymulin stains the thymic reticular cells, the outer layers of Hassall's corpuscles and a large round cellular type, which is keratin-negative and does not show affinity for the common leukocyte antigen (CD-45. In mice, this thymulin-positive cell remains in the thymus throughout life and even appears in relatively increased numbers in old involuted thymi. It also appears in thymus-dependent areas of the spleen and lymph nodes, demonstrating that at least one of the thymus cells containing this peptide can be found in peripheral lymphoid tissue.

  1. Binding of [125I]iodipine to parathyroid cell membranes: Evidence of a dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.I.; Fitzpatrick, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    The parathyroid cell is unusual, in that an increase in extracellular calcium concentrations inhibits PTH release. Calcium channels are glycoproteins that span cell membranes and allow entry of extracellular calcium into cells. We have demonstrated that the calcium channel agonist (+)202-791, which opens calcium channels, inhibits PTH release and that the antagonist (-)202-791, which closes calcium channels, stimulates PTH release. To identify the calcium channels responsible for these effects, we used a radioligand that specifically binds to calcium channels. Bovine parathyroid cell membranes were prepared and incubated under reduced lighting with [125I] iodipine (SA, 2000 Ci/mmol), which recognizes 1,4-dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels. Bound ligand was separated from free ligand by rapid filtration through Whatman GF/B filters. Nonspecific binding was measured by the inclusion of nifedipine at 10 microM. Specific binding represented approximately 40% of the total binding. The optimal temperature for [125I] iodipine binding was 4 C, and binding reached equilibrium by 30 min. The equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) was approximately 550 pM, and the maximum number of binding sites was 780 fmol/mg protein. Both the calcium channel agonist (+)202-791 and antagonist (-)202-791 competitively inhibited [125I] iodipine binding, with 50% inhibition concentrations of 20 and 300 nM, respectively. These data indicate the presence of dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels on parathyroid cell membranes

  2. Evidence for eosinophil recruitment, leukotriene B4 production and mast cell hyperplasia following Toxocara canis infection in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Carlos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that eosinophilia is a key pathogenetic component of toxocariasis. The objective of the present study was to determine if there is an association between peritoneal and blood eosinophil influx, mast cell hyperplasia and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 production after Toxocara canis infection. Oral inoculation of 56-day-old Wistar rats (N = 5-7 per group with 1000 embryonated eggs containing third-stage (L3 T. canis larvae led to a robust accumulation of total leukocytes in blood beginning on day 3 and peaking on day 18, mainly characterized by eosinophils and accompanied by higher serum LTB4 levels. At that time, we also noted increased eosinophil numbers in the peritoneal cavity. In addition, we observed increased peritoneal mast cell number in the peritoneal cavity, which correlated with the time course of eosinophilia during toxocariasis. We also demonstrated that mast cell hyperplasia in the intestines and lungs began soon after the T. canis larvae migrated to these compartments, reaching maximal levels on day 24, which correlated with the complete elimination of the parasite. Therefore, mast cells appear to be involved in peritoneal and blood eosinophil infiltration through an LTB4-dependent mechanism following T. canis infection in rats. Our data also demonstrate a tight association between larval migratory stages and intestinal and pulmonary mast cell hyperplasia in the toxocariasis model.

  3. Cholinergic stimulation prevents the development of autoimmune diabetes: Evidence for the modulation of Th17 effector cells via an IFNgamma-dependent mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junu George

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Type I diabetes (T1D results from T cell-mediated damage of pancreatic β-cells and loss of insulin production. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway represents a physiological link connecting the central nervous and immune systems via vagus nerve, and functions to control the release of proinflammatory cytokines. Using the multiple-low-dose streptozotocin (MLD-STZ model to induce experimental autoimmune diabetes, we investigated the potential of regulating the development of hyperglycemia through administration of paraoxon, a highly specific acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI. We demonstrate that pretreatment with paraoxon prevented hyperglycemia in STZ-treated C57BL/6 mice. This correlated with a reduction in T cell infiltration into pancreatic islets and preservation of the structure and functionality of β-cells. Gene expression analysis of pancreatic tissue revealed that increased peripheral cholinergic activity prevented STZ-mediated loss of insulin production, this being associated with a reduction in IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-17 proinflammatory cytokines. Intracellular cytokine analysis in splenic T cells demonstrated that inhibition of AChE led to a shift in STZ-induced immune response from a predominantly disease-causing IL-17-expressing Th17 cells to IFNγ-positive Th1 cells. Consistent with this conclusion, inhibition of AChE failed to prevent STZ-induced hyperglycemia in IFNγ-deficient mice. Our results provide mechanistic evidence for the prevention of murine T1D by inhibition of AChE and suggest a promising strategy for modulating disease severity.

  4. The gene expression profile of non-cultured, highly purified human adipose tissue pericytes: Transcriptomic evidence that pericytes are stem cells in human adipose tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Meirelles, Lindolfo da, E-mail: lindolfomeirelles@gmail.com [Center for Cell-Based Therapy (CEPID/FAPESP), Regional Center for Hemotherapy of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Rua Tenente Catão Roxo 2501, 14051-140 Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Laboratory for Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering, PPGBioSaúde, Lutheran University of Brazil, Av. Farroupilha 8001, 92425-900 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Deus Wagatsuma, Virgínia Mara de; Malta, Tathiane Maistro; Bonini Palma, Patrícia Viana [Center for Cell-Based Therapy (CEPID/FAPESP), Regional Center for Hemotherapy of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Rua Tenente Catão Roxo 2501, 14051-140 Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Araújo, Amélia Goes; Panepucci, Rodrigo Alexandre [Laboratory of Large-Scale Functional Biology (LLSFBio), Regional Center for Hemotherapy of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Rua Tenente Catão Roxo 2501, 14051-140 Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); and others

    2016-12-10

    Pericytes (PCs) are a subset of perivascular cells that can give rise to mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) when culture-expanded, and are postulated to give rise to MSC-like cells during tissue repair in vivo. PCs have been suggested to behave as stem cells (SCs) in situ in animal models, although evidence for this role in humans is lacking. Here, we analyzed the transcriptomes of highly purified, non-cultured adipose tissue (AT)-derived PCs (ATPCs) to detect gene expression changes that occur as they acquire MSC characteristics in vitro, and evaluated the hypothesis that human ATPCs exhibit a gene expression profile compatible with an AT SC phenotype. The results showed ATPCs are non-proliferative and express genes characteristic not only of PCs, but also of AT stem/progenitor cells. Additional analyses defined a gene expression signature for ATPCs, and revealed putative novel ATPC markers. Almost all AT stem/progenitor cell genes differentially expressed by ATPCs were not expressed by ATMSCs or culture-expanded ATPCs. Genes expressed by ATMSCs but not by ATPCs were also identified. These findings strengthen the hypothesis that PCs are SCs in vascularized tissues, highlight gene expression changes they undergo as they assume an MSC phenotype, and provide new insights into PC biology. - Highlights: • Non-cultured adipose tissue-derived human pericytes (ncATPCs) exhibit a distinctive gene expression signature. • ncATPCs express key adipose tissue stem cell genes previously described in vivo in mice. • ncATPCs express message for anti-proliferative and antiangiogenic molecules. • Most ncATPC-specific transcripts are absent in culture-expanded pericytes or ATMSCs • Gene expression changes ncATPCs undergo as they acquire a cultured ATMSC phenotype are pointed out.

  5. The gene expression profile of non-cultured, highly purified human adipose tissue pericytes: Transcriptomic evidence that pericytes are stem cells in human adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Meirelles, Lindolfo da; Deus Wagatsuma, Virgínia Mara de; Malta, Tathiane Maistro; Bonini Palma, Patrícia Viana; Araújo, Amélia Goes; Panepucci, Rodrigo Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Pericytes (PCs) are a subset of perivascular cells that can give rise to mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) when culture-expanded, and are postulated to give rise to MSC-like cells during tissue repair in vivo. PCs have been suggested to behave as stem cells (SCs) in situ in animal models, although evidence for this role in humans is lacking. Here, we analyzed the transcriptomes of highly purified, non-cultured adipose tissue (AT)-derived PCs (ATPCs) to detect gene expression changes that occur as they acquire MSC characteristics in vitro, and evaluated the hypothesis that human ATPCs exhibit a gene expression profile compatible with an AT SC phenotype. The results showed ATPCs are non-proliferative and express genes characteristic not only of PCs, but also of AT stem/progenitor cells. Additional analyses defined a gene expression signature for ATPCs, and revealed putative novel ATPC markers. Almost all AT stem/progenitor cell genes differentially expressed by ATPCs were not expressed by ATMSCs or culture-expanded ATPCs. Genes expressed by ATMSCs but not by ATPCs were also identified. These findings strengthen the hypothesis that PCs are SCs in vascularized tissues, highlight gene expression changes they undergo as they assume an MSC phenotype, and provide new insights into PC biology. - Highlights: • Non-cultured adipose tissue-derived human pericytes (ncATPCs) exhibit a distinctive gene expression signature. • ncATPCs express key adipose tissue stem cell genes previously described in vivo in mice. • ncATPCs express message for anti-proliferative and antiangiogenic molecules. • Most ncATPC-specific transcripts are absent in culture-expanded pericytes or ATMSCs • Gene expression changes ncATPCs undergo as they acquire a cultured ATMSC phenotype are pointed out.

  6. In vivo activation of STAT3 in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Evidence for an antiapoptotic function of STAT3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, V H; Clemmensen, O J; Nielsen, O

    2004-01-01

    in the epidermal Pautrier abscesses associated with early stages of MF did not express activated STAT3. To address the role of STAT3 in survival/apoptosis, CTCL tumor cells from an advanced skin tumor were transfected with either wild-type STAT3 (STAT3wt) or dominant-negative STAT3 (STAT3D). Forced inducible...... expression of STAT3D triggered a significant increase in tumor cells undergoing apoptosis, whereas forced expression of STAT3wt or empty vector had no effect. In conclusion, a profound in vivo activation of STAT3 is observed in MF tumors but not in the early stages of MF. Moreover, STAT3 protects tumor cells...

  7. Revisited microanatomy of the corneal endothelial periphery: new evidence for continuous centripetal migration of endothelial cells in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiguo; Campolmi, Nelly; Gain, Philippe; Ha Thi, Binh Minh; Dumollard, Jean-Marc; Duband, Sébastien; Peoc'h, Michel; Piselli, Simone; Garraud, Olivier; Thuret, Gilles

    2012-11-01

    The control of corneal transparency depends on the integrity of its endothelial monolayer, which is considered nonregenerative in adult humans. In pathological situations, endothelial cell (EC) loss, not offset by mitosis, can lead to irreversible corneal edema and blindness. However, the hypothesis of a slow, clinically insufficient regeneration starting from the corneal periphery remains debatable. The authors have re-evaluated the microanatomy of the endothelium in order to identify structures likely to support this homeostasis model. Whole endothelia of 88 human corneas (not stored, and stored in organ culture) with mean don