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Sample records for parchita passiflora edulis

  1. Morfoanatomia de folhas e caules de Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae

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    Josseara Beraldo

    Full Text Available Passiflora edulis Sims, espécie vegetal empregada na medicina popular e amplamente cultivada no território nacional, tem suas folhas e seus caules, muitas vezes utilizados como adulterante de amostras comerciais da droga vegetal oficializada no país também conhecida como maracujá, Passiflora alata Curtis. Caracteres morfoanatômicos de folhas e de caules de P. edulis, foram descritos e documentados. Dentre os caracteres auxiliares na distinção entre a droga oficial e os órgãos aéreos de P. edulis podem-se destacar o contorno da lâmina foliar, a forma da nervura mediana em secção transversal, o número e a localização de nectários extraflorais e, o indumento

  2. Cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci developed for Passiflora edulis Sims. in related Passiflora Species

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    Gilmara Alvarenga Fachardo Oliveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the selected 41 SSR markers developed for yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Sims. for their transferability to 11 different Passiflora species. Twenty-one SSR were successfully amplified in 10 wild species of passion fruit producing 101 bands. All the markers were amplifiable for at least one species. The mean transferability was 68,8%, ranging from 15,4% (primer PE11 to 100 % (PE13, PE18, PE37, PE41 and PE88. Transferability was higher for the species from the Passiflora subgenus than for those from the Decaloba and Dysosmia subgenus. The results indicated a high level of nucleotide sequence conservation of the primer regions in the species evaluated, and consequently, they could potentially be used for the establishment of molecular strategies for use in passion fruit breeding and genetics.

  3. Caracterización molecular de materiales cultivados de gulupa (Passiflora edulis f. edulis

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    Jairo Hernán Moreno-Osorio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular characterization of cultivated materials of gulupa (Passiflora edulis f. edulis. Objective. To evaluate through RAM(Random Amplified Microsatellites molecular markers the genetic diversity of cultivated materials of gulupa (Passiflora edulis f. edulis,collected in the departments of Boyacá, Cundinamarca and Huila. Materials and methods. Young and healthy leaves were collected fromcrop fields of gulupa for DNA extraction and characterization through RAM molecular markers, according to Hantula’s protocol (1996.Binary data of the type presence/absence were collected from the electrophoretic profiles. Data were analyzed with NTSYS- pc- 2.0statistical package, obtaining a similarity matrix using the Dice coefficient. Results. RAM markers were efficient in detecting polymorphismin this species. Four universal primers were used that produced 88.8% of polymorphism. In general terms, with the RAM molecularmarkers a high genetic diversity was detected in the areas where gulupa is cultivated in Colombia. In the present study no geographicalrelatedness was found with the accessions evaluated for department or locality. Conclusions. The materials of gulupa evaluated in thisstudy showed a high genetic diversity (0.291-1, probably due to the propagation method, its diverse provenances and the short time ofestablishment of the culture in Colombia.

  4. Initial development of passion fruit trees (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa, P. edulis f. edulis and P. alata grafted onto Passiflora cincinnata

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    Valdir Zucareli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to evaluate the initial growth and leaf mineral levels in passion fruit trees (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg., P. edulis f. edulis Sims. and P. alata Dryander grafted onto Passiflora cincinnata. To obtain seedlings, seeds were sown in plastic bags (500 mL and hypocotyl grafting was performed when seedlings reached the stage of two fully expanded leaves. Fifteen days after grafting, plants were transplanted to 10L pots filled with previously limed and fertilized soil. Each pot contained two plants and corresponded to one plot. For each commercial species studied as rootstock, experimental design was completely randomized, in 3x5 (plant type x time of harvest factorial arrangement, with four replicates of two plants per plot and five destructive harvests. Plant types were ungrafted P. cincinnata, ungrafted commercial passion fruit tree and commercial passion fruit tree grafted onto P. cincinnata. The first harvest was performed at 15 days after transplanting and the remaining ones at 14-day intervals (60, 74, 88, 102 and 116 DAS. At each harvest, the number of leaves per plant was counted, and leaf area, stem length, and stem, root, leaf and total dry matter were estimated. At the last harvest, the mineral composition (macro and micronutrients of plants was analyzed. In general, it was observed that grafting onto P. cincinnata did not interfere negatively with the initial development and mineral levels of commercial passion fruit trees, and this interference varied according to the used canopy.

  5. The Effects of Syzygium samarangense, Passiflora edulis and Solanum muricatum on Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury

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    Yu-Jie Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that fruits have different effects on alcohol metabolism and alcohol-induced liver injury. The present work selected three fruits and aimed at studying the effects of Syzygium samarangense, Passiflora edulis and Solanum muricatum on alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. The animals were treated daily with alcohol and fruit juices for fifteen days. Chronic treatment with alcohol increased the levels of aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, total bilirubin (TBIL, triglyceride (TG, malondialdehyde (MDA, and decreased total protein (TP. Histopathological evaluation also showed that ethanol induced extensive fat droplets in hepatocyte cytoplasm. Syzygium samarangense and Passiflora edulis normalized various biochemical parameters. Solanum muricatum increased the level of ALT and induced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the liver. These results strongly suggest that treatment with Syzygium samarangense and Passiflora edulis could protect liver from the injury of alcohol, while Solanum muricatum could aggravate the damage.

  6. Microsatellite marker development by partial sequencing of the sour passion fruit genome (Passiflora edulis Sims).

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    Araya, Susan; Martins, Alexandre M; Junqueira, Nilton T V; Costa, Ana Maria; Faleiro, Fábio G; Ferreira, Márcio E

    2017-07-21

    The Passiflora genus comprises hundreds of wild and cultivated species of passion fruit used for food, industrial, ornamental and medicinal purposes. Efforts to develop genomic tools for genetic analysis of P. edulis, the most important commercial Passiflora species, are still incipient. In spite of many recognized applications of microsatellite markers in genetics and breeding, their availability for passion fruit research remains restricted. Microsatellite markers in P. edulis are usually limited in number, show reduced polymorphism, and are mostly based on compound or imperfect repeats. Furthermore, they are confined to only a few Passiflora species. We describe the use of NGS technology to partially assemble the P. edulis genome in order to develop hundreds of new microsatellite markers. A total of 14.11 Gbp of Illumina paired-end sequence reads were analyzed to detect simple sequence repeat sites in the sour passion fruit genome. A sample of 1300 contigs containing perfect repeat microsatellite sequences was selected for PCR primer development. Panels of di- and tri-nucleotide repeat markers were then tested in P. edulis germplasm accessions for validation. DNA polymorphism was detected in 74% of the markers (PIC = 0.16 to 0.77; number of alleles/locus = 2 to 7). A core panel of highly polymorphic markers (PIC = 0.46 to 0.77) was used to cross-amplify PCR products in 79 species of Passiflora (including P. edulis), belonging to four subgenera (Astrophea, Decaloba, Distephana and Passiflora). Approximately 71% of the marker/species combinations resulted in positive amplicons in all species tested. DNA polymorphism was detected in germplasm accessions of six closely related Passiflora species (P. edulis, P. alata, P. maliformis, P. nitida, P. quadrangularis and P. setacea) and the data used for accession discrimination and species assignment. A database of P. edulis DNA sequences obtained by NGS technology was examined to identify microsatellite repeats in

  7. Cycloartane triterpenoid saponins from water soluble of Passiflora edulis Sims and their antidepressant-like effects.

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    Wang, Cong; Xu, Feng-Qing; Shang, Jian-Hua; Xiao, Huai; Fan, Wei-Wei; Dong, Fa-Wu; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Zhou, Jun

    2013-07-30

    Various species of genus Passiflora have been used as traditional folk medicines owing to their sedative and anti-hypertensive properties. Passiflora edulis Sims most widely grown in the warm temperate for their fragrant fruits and their twigs and leaves are used as a folk medicine for treating both anxiety and nervousness in American countries. The present study was to evaluate the antidepressant-like effect and the active components of this plant. The alcohol extracts of the stems (PES, 10 and 2 g/kg of the plant materials) and leaves (PEL, 10 and 2 g/kg of the plant materials) of Passiflora edulis Sims were orally administered to mice for 7 day. The animals were tested in the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). After behavioral assay of ethanol extract, phytochemical research of the stems and leaves (5.7 kg) of Passiflora edulis Sims were developed and further bioactive verification of monomeric compounds were conducted. There are mainly cycloartane triterpenoids and their saponins isolated from this plant, including two new cycloartane triterpenoid saponins named cyclopassifloside ХII (1) and ХIII (2), together with six known cycloartane triterpenoids, cyclopassifloic acids B and E, cyclopassiflosides II, VI, IX and XI. The ethanol extract of Passiflora edulis Sims together with isolated compounds cyclopassiflosides IX and XI may possess antidepressant-like effect. Cycloartane triterpenoid was one of the main compositions of Passiflora edulis Sims and possess antidepressant-like activity. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of altitudinal variation on pollination in purple passion fruit crops (passiflora edulis f. edulis)

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    Medina Gutierrez, Julian; Ospina Torres, Rodulfo; Nates Parra, Guiomar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study in two crops of purple passion fruit Passiflora edulis f. edulis harvested at different altitudes (2225 m.a.s.l. and 1657 m.a.s.l.) in the municipality of Buenavista - Boyaca, located in the eastern Mountain range of Colombia, in order to familiarize with visitors and pollinators. This study reveals that in both crops there were differences found in composition, the number of visitors and pollinators. In the crop at 2225 m.a.s.l., 7 species were registered, while 18 species were recorded at the 1657 m.a.s.l. crop. In order to achieve this, collected material by the visitors and the floral structures with which they approach, were observed; at the same time four experiments took place: passive pollination, natural pollination, manual pollination and pollinator's efficiency. These experiments established that pollinator species are: in C1 Apis mellifera, and in C2 and Xylocopa frontalis, Xylocopa lachnea and Epicharis sp.

  9. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma sudamericanum' a novel taxon from diseased passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.)

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    Symptoms of abnormal proliferation of shoots resulting in formation of witches’ broom growths were observed in diseased plants of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.) in Brazil. RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified in polymerase chain reactions containing template DNAs...

  10. Expression patterns of Passiflora edulis APETALA1/FRUITFULL homologues shed light onto tendril and corona identities

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    Livia C. T. Scorza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passiflora (passionflowers makes an excellent model for studying plant evolutionary development. They are mostly perennial climbers that display axillary tendrils, which are believed to be modifications of the inflorescence. Passionflowers are also recognized by their unique flower features, such as the extra whorls of floral organs composed of corona filaments and membranes enclosing the nectary. Although some work on Passiflora organ ontogeny has been done, the developmental identity of both Passiflora tendrils and the corona is still controversial. Here, we combined ultrastructural analysis and expression patterns of the flower meristem and floral organ identity genes of the MADS-box AP1/FUL clade to reveal a possible role for these genes in the generation of evolutionary novelties in Passiflora. Results We followed the development of structures arising from the axillary meristem from juvenile to adult phase in P. edulis. We further assessed the expression pattern of P. edulis AP1/FUL homologues (PeAP1 and PeFUL, by RT-qPCR and in situ hybridization in several tissues, correlating it with the developmental stages of P. edulis. PeAP1 is expressed only in the reproductive stage, and it is highly expressed in tendrils and in flower meristems from the onset of their development. PeAP1 is also expressed in sepals, petals and in corona filaments, suggesting a novel role for PeAP1 in floral organ diversification. PeFUL presented a broad expression pattern in both vegetative and reproductive tissues, and it is also expressed in fruits. Conclusions Our results provide new molecular insights into the morphological diversity in the genus Passiflora. Here, we bring new evidence that tendrils are part of the Passiflora inflorescence. This points to the convergence of similar developmental processes involving the recruitment of genes related to flower identity in the origin of tendrils in different plant families. The data obtained also

  11. Cinética de la degradación del ácido ascórbico en jugo de parchita

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    Páez, Gisela; Freay, Jenny; Moreno, Mónica; Mármol, Zulay; Araujo, Karelen; Rincón, Marisela

    2008-01-01

    Se evaluó la cinética de la degradación del ácido ascórbico en el jugo de parchita maracuyá (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) fresco y pasteurizado a diferentes temperaturas de almacenamiento (0 ºC, 10 ºC, 25 ºC, 40 ºC, 60 ºC).El jugo se caracterizó en términos de pH, acidez titulable,sólidos solubles totales, relación grados Brix acidez y azucares totales. Las muestras de jugo fresco y pasteurizado se almacenaron a temperaturas de 0 ºC y 10 ºC durante un periodo de 60 y 15 días respectivamen...

  12. Analysis of passion fruit rinds (Passiflora edulis: isoorientin quantification by HPTLC and evaluation of antioxidant (radical scavenging capacity

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    Maria Luiza Zeraik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of isoorientin in passion fruit rinds (Passiflora edulis fo. flavicarpa O. Degener was determined by HPTLC (high performance thin layer chromatography with densitometric analysis. The results revealed a higher amount of isoorientin in healthy rinds of P. edulis (92.275 ± 0.610 mg L-1 than in rinds with typical symptoms of PWV (Passion fruit Woodiness Virus infection (28.931 ± 0.346 mg L-1. The HPTLC data, allied to assays of radical scavenging activity, suggest the potential of P. edulis rinds as a natural source of flavonoids or as a possible functional food.

  13. Effects of bark flour of Passiflora edulis on food intake, body weight and behavioral response of rats

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    Dandara A.F. Figueiredo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Effects of treatment with the bark flour of Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, were evaluated. Adult male Wistar rats were treated for 30 days (130 mg/kg, p.o. with the albedo flour, flavedo and full bark of P. edulis, corresponding to albedo associated with flavedo. Behavioral response observed after treatment with bark flour P. edulis showed sedative effects by the reduction of exploratory activity and increased duration of immobility in the open field test for the group of animals that received the albedo flour associated with the flavedo. Sedative effects were observed in the absence of motor incoordination or muscle relaxation. Food intake of experimental animals was not changed, but the weight gain was decreased both in animals that received only albedo flour, and in those who received the full bark flour. The full bark flour of Passiflora showed sedative effects, without anxiolytic effect detectable and muscle relaxation or motor incoordination, and reduces body weight gain.

  14. Utilization of Passion fruit hulls (Passiflora edulis Sims f. edulis Deg as component of complete feed for growing Kacang goats

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    Kiston Simanihuruk

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Processing of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. edulis Deg to produce passion fruit juice produce passion fruit hulls that is potential for feedstuff. Twenty male kacang goats (average initial body weight 17±1.24 kg were used in an experiment to study the effect of utilization of passion fruit hulls as feed component in the complete pellet ration on their growth. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design consisting of 4 diets and 5 replications. Animal were randomly allocated into 4 diets (0, 15, 30, 45% level of passion fruit hulls. Each diet contained 14% crude protein and 2550 Kcal kg-1 metabolism energy. The ration was offered at 3.8% of body weight based on dry matter. The result of the experiment showed that all variables observed were not affected by level of passion fruit hulls (P>0.05. Average daily gain and feed efficiency tended to decrease with the increase level of passion fruit hulls. The highest dry matter, organic matter and N intake (768,78 g h-1 d-1; 687,37 g h-1 d-1 and 17,22 g h-1 d-1 respectively were found from R1 treatment (15% level of passion fruit hulls. It was concluded that passion fruit hulls can be used till 45% level in the diet of Kacang goat.

  15. Yellow passion fruit seed oil (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa: physical and chemical characteristics

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    Cassia Roberta Malacrida

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition -physico-chemical properties, fatty acid and tocopherol compositions and total phenolic compounds -and evaluate the radical-scavenging activity of crude oil extracted from passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa seeds, aiming to use the agro-industrial by-products. The oil seed extraction was performed by Soxhlet method and the oil yield from the seeds was 30.39%. The oil showed high levels of unsaturated fatty acids (87.59%, including mainly linoleic (73.14% and oleic (13.83% acids, tocopherol (499.30 mg/kg and phenolic compounds (1,314.13 mg GAE/kg. The physico-chemical characteristics were similar to those of other edible oils and the oil showed significant antioxidant activity. Therefore, the potential utilization of the passion fruit seed oil as a raw material for food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries could be favorable.

  16. Estudos anatômicos e ultraestruturais de sistemas de regeneração in vitro de Passiflora cincinnata Masters e Passiflora edulis Sims (Passifloraceae)

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    Rocha, Diego Ismael

    2011-01-01

    O presente estudo teve como objetivo descrever, através de análises anatômicas e ultraestruturais, o processo de regeneração in vitro de Passiflora cincinnata Masters, via embriogênese somática, a partir de embriões zigóticos e de Passiflora edulis Sims, via organogênese, a partir de explantes radiculares. Embriões zigóticos maduros de P. cincinnata foram colocados em meio de indução MS suplementado com 18,1 μM de 2,4-D e 4,4 μM de BAP. Embriões somáticos originaram-se a partir de z...

  17. Expressão do gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1) em explantes radiculares de Passiflora edulis Sims e organogênese in vitro em Passiflora setacea D.C. (Passifloraceae)

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    Vieira, Lorena Melo

    2011-01-01

    O presente estudo teve como objetivos caracterizar a expressão do gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1), via hibridização in situ, durante a regeneração in vitro de segmentos radiculares de Passiflora edulis Sims, espécie comercialmente cultivada, e estabelecer um protocolo reproduzível via organogênese in vitro em Passiflora setacea, espécie silvestre. Explantes radiculares de P. edulis foram cultivados em meio MS, para indução de organogênese de ramos, suplementado com 2,35 μM de BA. Para dete...

  18. Ethanolic extract of Passiflora edulis Sims leaves inhibits protein glycation and restores the oxidative burst in diabetic rat macrophages after Candida albicans exposure

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    Carolina Fernandes Ribas Martins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available abstract This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the ethanolic extract of Passiflora edulis leaves on blood glucose, protein glycation, NADPH oxidase activity and macrophage phagocytic capacity after Candida albicans exposure in diabetic rats. The Passiflora edulis Sims leaves were dried to 40°C, powdered, extracted by maceration in 70% ethanol, evaporated under reduced pressure and lyophilised. The biochemical tests performed were total phenolic content (TP as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, trapping potential DPPH assay and total iron-reducing potential. Diabetes was induced by alloxan injection. Protein glycation was determined by AGE and fructosamine serum concentrations. Extract-treated diabetic animals demonstrated lower fructosamine concentrations compared with the diabetic group. Our results suggest that ethanolic Passiflora edulis Sims leaf extraction may have beneficial effects on diabetes and may improve glycaemic control in diabetic rats.

  19. Molecular identification of a new begomovirus infecting yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) in Colombia.

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    Vaca-Vaca, Juan Carlos; Carrasco-Lozano, Emerson Clovis; López-López, Karina

    2017-02-01

    The complete genome sequence of a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) infecting yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) in the state of Valle del Cauca (Colombia) has been determined. The complete DNA-A and DNA-B components were determined to be 2600 and 2572 nt in length, respectively. The DNA-A showed the highest nucleotide sequence identity (87.2 %) to bean dwarf mosaic virus (M88179), a begomovirus found in common bean crops in Colombia, and only 77.4 % identity to passion fruit severe leaf distortion virus (FJ972767), a begomovirus identified infecting passion fruit in Brazil. Based on its sequence identity to all other begomoviruses known to date and in accordance with the ICTV species demarcation criterion for the genus Begomovirus (≥91 % sequence identity for the complete DNA-A), the name passion fruit leaf distortion virus is proposed for this new begomovirus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a bipartite begomovirus affecting passion fruit in Colombia and the second report of a geminivirus affecting this crop worldwide.

  20. The protective effects of piceatannol from passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) seeds in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes.

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    Maruki-Uchida, Hiroko; Kurita, Ikuko; Sugiyama, Kenkichi; Sai, Masahiko; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Ito, Tatsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    The use of naturally occurring botanicals with substantial antioxidant activity to prevent photoageing is receiving increasing attention. We have previously identified piceatannol and scirpusin B, which is a dimer of piceatannol, as strong antioxidants that are present in passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) seeds. In the present study, the effects of passion fruit seed extract, piceatannol, and scirpusin B on human keratinocytes were investigated. The passion fruit seed extract and piceatannol upregulated the glutathione (GSH) levels in keratinocytes in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that piceatannol is an active component of the passion fruit seed extract in keratinocytes. The pretreatment with piceatannol also suppressed the UVB-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the keratinocytes. In addition, the transfer of the medium from the UVB-irradiated keratinocytes to non-irradiated fibroblasts enhanced matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 activity, and this MMP-1 induction was reduced when the keratinocytes were pretreated with piceatannol. These results suggest that piceatannol attenuates the UVB-induced activity of MMP-1 along with a reduction of ROS generation in keratinocytes. Thus, piceatannol and passion fruit seed extract containing high amounts of piceatannol are potential anti-photoageing cosmetic ingredients.

  1. Extraction of pectin from passion fruit rind (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa Degener) for edible coating

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    Inayati, Puspita, Rifka Intan; Fajrin, Vika Latifiana

    2018-02-01

    One of fruit preservation method is by applying the edible coating. Rind of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa Degener), which is kind of waste, can be utilized as edible coating through pectin extraction process. The purposes of this work were to determine the suitable solvent for the pectin extraction and techniques for applying the produced edible coating on strawberry, to produce edible coating from the pectin, and the test the performance of the edible coating which was applied to strawberries. Pectin from passion fruit rind was collected through conventional extraction method using two types of solvent, i.e. acetic acid solution and hydrochloric acid solution with concentration of 0.01 N, 0.015 N, 0.02 N, 0.025 N, and 0.03 N. The results showed that chloric acid solution was more suitable for the pectin extraction from passion fruit. Maximum yield of 30.78% was obtained at hydrochloric acid concentration of 0.02 N. Obtained pectin from the extraction was then processed into the edible coating by adding plasticizers and calcium chloride dihydrate. Storability of the coated strawberry was observed to measure the performance of the edible coating

  2. Embryo sac development in yellow passion fruit Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa (Passifloraceae

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    Margarete Magalhães de Souza

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The yellow passion fruit, Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa, is one of the most important Brazilian fruit crops. It is an allogamous, diploid, and self-incompatible species. It has hermaphrodite, solitary flowers, located in the leaf axils and protected by leaf bracts. The flower has an androgynophore, which is a straight stalk supporting its reproductive parts. There are usually five anthers, located at the tip of each of the five filaments. The ovary is borne just above the filaments, at the top of the androgynophore; there are three styles that are united at their base, and at the top there are three stigmas. The objective of this research was to observe embryo sac development in yellow passion flowers. Ovaries at different stages of development were fixed in FAA (formalin, acetic acid and alcohol solution, hydrated, stained with Mayer’s hemalum, and dehydrated. Ovules were cleared by using methyl salicylate, mounted on slides, and observed through a confocal scanning laser microscope. The yellow passion fruit ovule is bitegmic, crassinucellate, and anatropous, and its gametophyte development is of the Polygonum type. After meiosis, functional megaspores under go three successive mitotic divisions, resulting in an eight-nucleate megagametophyte: the egg apparatus at the micropylar end, two polar nuclei at the cell center, and three antipodals at the chalazal end. The egg apparatus is formed by an egg cell and two synergids, each with a filiform apparatus. The mature embryo sac has an egg cell, two synergids, two polar nuclei, and three antipodes, as has been described for most angiosperms.

  3. Estimating fruitpulp carotenoid content from shell color in gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims

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    Germán Franco

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims es un fruto aceptado en mercados europeos; pero, su corta vida en poscosecha limita la comercialización. Por lo tanto, es necesario, caracterizar algunos atributos de la maduración, para que el fruto mantenga las mejores condiciones de calidad. La investigación tuvo como objetivo estimar, a partir de los cambios de color del fruto y de su edad, la evolución de los carotenoides, mediante el uso de modelos que predijeran esta relación. Se utilizaron frutos con edad conocida para determinar el color con base en el espacio CIE L*, a* y b*. La colorimetría confirmó que hay evolución apreciable a partir de los 84 días después de floración (DDF, con color morado oscuro hacia los 98 DDF y púrpura muy oscuro a los 105 DDF. En frutos madurados en la planta, se apreció disminución en la luminosidad (L*, mientras que en las coordenadas a* el valor aumentó y el b* disminuyó, cambios que definen el color del fruto. Se observó una tendencia similar en frutos cosechados a partir de los 91 DDF. Tanto en los frutos madurados en la planta como en los cosechados, el contenido de carotenoides se incrementó a medida que la senescencia del fruto avanzaba. Modelos de regresión permitieron estimar el contenido de carotenoides: uno múltiple, con las coordenadas de color como predictoras y el otro polinomial, basado en la edad del fruto.

  4. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing in Passiflora edulis Sims to Identify Genes and Signaling Pathways Involved in Cold Tolerance

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    Sian Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims, also known as the purple granadilla, is widely cultivated as the new darling of the fruit market throughout southern China. This exotic and perennial climber is adapted to warm and humid climates, and thus is generally intolerant of cold. There is limited information about gene regulation and signaling pathways related to the cold stress response in this species. In this study, two transcriptome libraries (KEDU_AP vs. GX_AP were constructed from the aerial parts of cold-tolerant and cold-susceptible varieties of P. edulis, respectively. Overall, 126,284,018 clean reads were obtained, and 86,880 unigenes with a mean size of 1449 bp were assembled. Of these, there were 64,067 (73.74% unigenes with significant similarity to publicly available plant protein sequences. Expression profiles were generated, and 3045 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed between the KEDU_AP and GX_AP libraries, including 1075 (35.3% up-regulated and 1970 (64.7% down-regulated. These included 36 genes in enriched pathways of plant hormone signal transduction, and 56 genes encoding putative transcription factors. Six genes involved in the ICE1–CBF–COR pathway were induced in the cold-tolerant variety, and their expression levels were further verified using quantitative real-time PCR. This report is the first to identify genes and signaling pathways involved in cold tolerance using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing in P. edulis. These findings may provide useful insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating cold tolerance and genetic breeding in Passiflora spp.

  5. Comparative central effects of the aqueous leaf extract of two populations of Passiflora edulis

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    Adriana S.F.S.J. Ayres

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPassiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, has been used in Brazilian traditional folk medicine to the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. P. edulis is commonly known for its economic interests in Brazil. This species exhibits significant variability in the fruit rind color, then two subpopulations has been described (P. edulis fo. flavicarpa O. Deg. (PEF; P. edulis fo. edulis (PEE. This study compared phytochemical profile and biological actions of aqueous leaf extract of PEE and PEF. HPLC analysis showed marked distinct chromatograms to the P. edulisvarieties. However, in both extracts the major compounds observed were flavonoids C-glycosides. Behavioral studies showed that PEE (300 mg/kg, p.o. and PEF (100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o. reduced anxiety in the elevated plus maze test. PEE (300 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o. and PEF (1000 mg/kg, p.o. also induced antidepressant-like actions in the forced swimming test. PEE 1000 mg/kg significantly reduced distance moved, thus suggesting sedation. No alterations in sleeping time were observed with PEE and PEF extracts. In conclusion, despite the similarities between the biological actions observed for both P. edulis varieties, quite different phytochemical profile was herein reported. These data suggest that the anxiolytic and antidepressant actions are not due to a specific phytochemical component.

  6. Hunter color dimensions, sugar content and volatile compounds in pasteurized yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa during storage

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    Delcio Sandi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in Hunter L, a and b values, glucose, fructose and sucrose contents, concentration of four volatile compounds (ethyl butirate, ethyl caproate, hexyl butirate and hexyl caproate and furfural, were studied in yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa pasteurized at 75ºC/60s, 80ºC/41s or 85ºC/27s, during storage at room temperature (25±5ºC and refrigeration (5±1ºC for 120 days. While the sucrose content decreased, the glucose and fructose contents increased significantly over storage time. The Hunter L and b values behaved similarly, with a tendency to decrease over time, inversely to Hunter a value. Volatile compound concentrations also decreased over time, inversely to the furfural content. Pasteurization at 85ºC/27s resulted minimum changes in the studied passion fruit characteristics, while that at 75ºC/60s was the most harmful. Storage under refrigeration tended to keep the best quality characteristics of the juice.Foi estudada a variação dos valores "L", "a" e "b" do sistema de Hunter, dos teores de glucose, frutose e sacarose, e da concentração de quatro compostos voláteis (butirato de etila, caproato de etila, butirato de hexila e caproato de hexila e furfural, em suco de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa submetido à pasteurização (75ºC/60 s, 80ºC/41 s e 85ºC/27 s, durante o armazenamento a temperatura ambiente (25±5ºC e refrigerada (5±1ºC por 120 dias. Enquanto os teores de sacarose diminuíram, aqueles de glucose e frutose aumentaram significativamente. Os valores "L" e "b" apresentaram comportamento semelhante, com tendência a diminuir ao longo do tempo, inversamente ao valor "a". As concentrações dos compostos voláteis também diminuíram, exceto para o furfural. A pasteurização a 85ºC/27 s proporcionou as menores alterações nas características estudadas, enquanto aquela à 75ºC/60 s foi a mais prejudicial. O armazenamento sob refrigeração apresentou

  7. Identifikasi Penyebab Penyakit Layu pada Tanaman Markisa (Passiflora edulis Sims.) di Kecamatan Tiga Panah Kabupaten Karo

    OpenAIRE

    Karosekali, Relly

    2012-01-01

    Identification Caused of Wilt Disease on Passion Fruit (Passiflora edutis simm) in some Main area at Karo regency. Fusarium wilt disease is a main constraint in passion fruit productivity that spread in Indonesia, especially in some main area at Karo Regency, Nort Sumatera. Attacking of wilt disease caused plant died. Therefore, the interest of farmer to study about plantation of passion fruit is be lessen. The objectives of this research were : (1) to find out some fusarium species that caus...

  8. ANTAGONISMO IN VITRO DE Trichoderma harzianum Rifai SOBRE Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp passiflorae EN MARACUYÁ (Passiflora edulis Sims var. Flavicarpa DEL MUNICIPIO ZONA BANANERA COLOMBIANA ANTAGONISM IN VITRO OF Trichoderma harzianum Rifai AGAINST Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp passiflorae IN PASSION FRUIT (Passiflora edulis Sims var. Flavicarpa FROM COLOMBIAN BANANERA ZONE MUNICIPALITY

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    Reinel José Fernández Barbosa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp passiflorae causa la marchitez del maracuyá (Passiflora edulis Sims var. Flavicarpa, afectando su rendimiento. En la búsqueda de alternativas para su control se realizó la presente investigación con el objetivo de determinar la capacidad antagónica de 6 aislamientos de Trichoderma harzianum sobre dicho patógeno. Se evaluaron 3 aislamientos comerciales (TCC-001, TCC-005 y TCC-006 y 3 aislamientos nativos de suelo cultivado con palma de aceite en el Centro de Investigación Caribia de Corpoica (TCN-009, TCN-010, TCN-014. Se hizo la prueba in vitro empleando la técnica de cultivo dual en platos Petri con Agar Sabouraud. Se evaluó competencia por nutrientes y espacio, micoparasitismo y porcentaje de inhibición del crecimiento radial (PICR, por 10 días a 28 ºC. Se estableció un diseño completamente aleatorio, con 13 tratamientos y 3 repeticiones. Todos los aislamientos de T. harzianum superaron en crecimiento a F. oxysporum con radios de de 7,42 cm en cultivo dual. Mientras que el patógeno mostró un radio de 1,99 cm. TCN-009 y TCC-006 expresaron los mejores radios al crecer 4 veces mas rápido que F. oxysporum y reducir 3 veces menos el RCP con respecto al testigo, sin diferencias significativas entre estos tratamientos (P=0,0001; además, produjeron el mayor PICR a los 10 días con valores de 64,61 y 65,91%, respectivamente. No hubo diferencias significativas al comparar los aislamientos comerciales y nativos; sin embargo, por la naturaleza autóctona TCN-009, resulta ser a nivel in vitro, el aislamiento mas promisorio en el biocontrol de F. oxysporum por hallarse en condiciones agroclimáticas similares en la Zona Bananera Colombiana.Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp passiflorae cause withering of the passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims var. Flavicarpa, affecting their performance. In the search of alternatives for its control was carried out the present investigation with the objective of

  9. Produção de etileno e atividade da enzima ACCoxidase em frutos de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. Ethylene production and ACCoxidase activity in passion fruits (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.

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    Larissa Macedo Winkler

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. é uma das principais espécies cultivadas do gênero Passiflora. Seus frutos são ricos em minerais, vitaminas e apresentam aroma e sabor agradáveis. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos determinar a produção de etileno e atividade enzimática da ACCoxidase (ACCO em maracujá-amarelo colhido em diferentes estádios de maturação. A determinação do estádio de maturação foi realizada com o auxílio de um colorímetro, que, por meio da radiação ultravioleta, estabeleceu valores absolutos da cor dos frutos de cada um dos grupos (I, II e III. A produção de etileno e a atividade da ACCoxidase foram realizadas por cromatografia gasosa. Os frutos do grupo I são predominantemente verdes, de acordo com os valores absolutos da cor obtidos. Os frutos do grupo II são predominantemente, coloridos, ou seja, em um estádio de maturação intermediário, e os frutos do grupo III, totalmente coloridos, apresentando-se, portanto, em início da senescência. Os frutos do grupo I apresentaram atividade da ACCO predominantemente mais elevada do que os frutos do grupo III, ocorrendo também o mesmo comportamento com a produção de etileno, com um valor médio de 7,25 nL. g-1. h-1, bem acima do nível máximo estabelecido para espécies classificadas como fracamente produtoras de etileno (0,5 nL. g-1. h-1. Assim, o maracujá-amarelo difere quanto à produção de etileno e atividade da enzima ACCO, de acordo com o estádio de maturação. A espécie foi considerada, em comparação com outras espécies, como produtora intermediária de etileno. A atividade enzimática da ACCO é mais elevada em frutos predominantemente verdes, mas ela é limitada e necessita de co-fatores enzimáticos para sua atividade máxima.Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. is one of the main cultivated species of Passiflora genus. Its fruits are rich in mineral salts and vitamins and to present

  10. MISTURAS VITAMÍNICAS NA REGENERAÇÃO DO MARACUJAZEIRO AMARELO (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.

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    Ribas Alessandra Ferreira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotilédones obtidos a partir de sementes germinadas in vitro foram usados como explantes com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de dois complexos vitamínicos e de duas concentrações de 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP na organogênese direta do maracujá amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.. Empregou-se o meio Murashige & Skoog (1962 suplementado com as vitaminas MS ou B5 (vitaminas de GAMBORG et al., 1968 e 1 ou 2 mg. -1 de BAP. Foram testados quatro tratamentos, sendo cada um constituído de 60 explantes. O experimento foi inteiramente casualizado, com dez repetições. Os dados, analisados pelo teste de Tukey, demonstraram que os meios de cultura suplementados com o complexo vitamínico B5 induziram gemas em mais de 70% dos explantes, obtendo-se até 8 brotos por explante, com um enraizamento superior a 90%. A análise de ploidia das plantas regeneradas indicou um número aparentemente normal de cromossomos típicos dessa espécie (2n=18

  11. An Improved Micropropagation Protocol by Ex Vitro Rooting of Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Deg. through Nodal Segment Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, Mahipal S; Manokari, M; Ravindran, C P

    2015-01-01

    A procedure for rapid clonal propagation of Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Deg. (Passifloraceae) has been developed in this study. Nodal explants were sterilized with 0.1% HgCl2 and inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium. The addition of 2.0 mgL(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) to MS medium caused an extensive proliferation of multiple shoots (8.21 ± 1.13) primordial from the nodal meristems. Subculturing of these multiple shoots on the MS medium augmented with 1.0 mgL(-1) of each BAP and Kinetin (Kin) was successful for the multiplication of the shoots in vitro with maximum numbers of shoots (25.73 ± 0.06) within four weeks of incubation. Shoots were rooted best (7.13 ± 0.56 roots/shoots) on half strength MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mgL(-1) indole-3 butyric acid (IBA). All in vitro regenerated shoots were rooted by ex vitro method, and this has achieved 6-7 roots per shoot by pulsing of cut ends of the shoots using 200 as well as 300 mgL(-1) IBA. The plantlets were hardened in the greenhouse for 4-5 weeks. The hardened plantlets were shifted to manure containing nursery polybags after five weeks and then transferred to a sand bed for another four weeks for acclimatization before field planting with 88% survival rate.

  12. Low Dose Gamma Irradiation Does Not Affect the Quality or Total Ascorbic Acid Concentration of "Sweetheart" Passionfruit (Passiflora edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, John B; Blades, Barbara L; Satyan, Shashirekha; Spohr, Lorraine J; Harris, Anne; Jessup, Andrew J; Archer, John R; Davies, Justin B; Banos, Connie

    2015-08-26

    Passionfruit ( Passiflora edulis , Sims, cultivar "Sweetheart") were subject to gamma irradiation at levels suitable for phytosanitary purposes (0, 150, 400 and 1000 Gy) then stored at 8 °C and assessed for fruit quality and total ascorbic acid concentration after one and fourteen days. Irradiation at any dose (≤1000 Gy) did not affect passionfruit quality (overall fruit quality, colour, firmness, fruit shrivel, stem condition, weight loss, total soluble solids level (TSS), titratable acidity (TA) level, TSS/TA ratio, juice pH and rot development), nor the total ascorbic acid concentration. The length of time in storage affected some fruit quality parameters and total ascorbic acid concentration, with longer storage periods resulting in lower quality fruit and lower total ascorbic acid concentration, irrespective of irradiation. There was no interaction between irradiation treatment and storage time, indicating that irradiation did not influence the effect of storage on passionfruit quality. The results showed that the application of 150, 400 and 1000 Gy gamma irradiation to "Sweetheart" purple passionfruit did not produce any deleterious effects on fruit quality or total ascorbic acid concentration during cold storage, thus supporting the use of low dose irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests in purple passionfruit.

  13. Composição de carotenóides de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa in natura

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    Silva Sandra Regina da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A composição de carotenóides de maracujá-amarelo in natura (Passiflora edulis comercializado em Campinas, Brasil, foi avaliada utilizando-se cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Em todas as amostras foram encontrados os seguintes carotenóides: beta-criptoxantina, prolicopeno, cis-zeta-caroteno, zeta-caroteno, beta-caroteno e 13-cis-beta-caroteno, além de neurosporeno e gama-caroteno em alguns lotes. Em geral, os teores de carotenóides nos diversos lotes foram significativamente diferentes. Em dois dos cinco lotes analisados, o z-caroteno foi o carotenóide principal, contribuindo com 41 e 62% do total de carotenóides, enquanto que em outros dois lotes, o beta-caroteno foi o majoritário, com 55 e 74% do total e em um dos lotes o cis-zeta-caroteno esteve presente em maior concentração, com 29%. Este tipo de inversão entre os carotenóides majoritários não é comumente encontrado em frutas e vegetais.

  14. Avaliação do efeito de polietilenoglicóis no perfil de extratos de Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, e Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae Evaluation of PEG effects on the extracts obtaining from Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, and Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae

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    Jorge de Medeiros

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Os polietilenoglicóis (PEG são polímeros hidrossolúveis capazes de reduzir a constante dielétrica de solventes como a água, e assim são utilizados como cossolventes para solubilização de diferentes fármacos. Atualmente, o PEG tem sido empregado satisfatoriamente na obtenção de extratos de matérias-primas vegetais por favorecer a extração de substâncias com polaridades semelhantes às extraídas pelos solventes hidroetanólicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da concentração e da massa molar de PEG (400 e 4000 g/mol sobre a extração de flavonoides totais a partir de Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, (maracujá e de cumarina a partir da Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, (guaco. Este estudo revelou que o aumento da concentração de PEG promoveu um aumento na capacidade extrativa de flavonoides totais e cumarina a partir da Passiflora edulis e Mikania glomerata respectivamente, comportamento atribuído a alterações da constante dielétrica. Apesar de elevar a capacidade extrativa, os líquidos extratores contendo PEG exigiram elevada relação planta:solvente para alcançar teores extrativos semelhante ao solvente hidroetanólico utilizado, com exceção da extração de flavonoides totais com PEG 4000 g/mol a partir da Passilfora edulis.Polyethylene glycols (PEG are hydrosoluble polymers able to reducing dielectric constant of solvents like water and thus are used as cosolvents to enhance the aqueous solubility of several drugs. Actually, the PEG have been successful applied to obtain extracts of plant raw material once can facilitate the extraction of substances with polarities similar to those extracted by hydroethanol solvents. In this study, the objective was to evaluate the effect of PEG concentration and molecular weight (400 and 4000 g/mol on the extraction of total flavonoids from Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, and coumarin from Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae. The results

  15. Pre and Postharvest Enzymatic Activity in Gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims Fruits from the Colombian Lower Montane Rain Forest / Actividad Enzimática Precosecha y Poscosecha en Frutos de Gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims, en Condiciones del Bosque Húmedo Mo

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    Germán Franco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available “High-Andean fruits” are deemed important because oftheir potential for domestic consumption and exportation. Among them, gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims is an exotic fruit of good acceptance in European markets. However, the technological support associated with the crop is incipient and its short shelf life leads to rapid deterioration of the product. This fact makes it necessary to investigate the physical, physiological and biochemical processes that characterize fruit ripening, in order to take actions to ensure that it arrives in its best possible condition to the consumer. In this context, the current study aimed at identifying enzymatic activity in gulupa fruits during pre and postharvest. Plant materialfrom the Colombian Gene Bank (administered by Corpoica was used. Fruits of known age were periodically harvested to determine the activity of the enzymes α-amylase, polygalacturonase (PG, pectinmethylesterase (PME and polyphenol oxidase (PPO through destructive samplings. It was found that α-amylase and PG are linked to the increase of soluble solids, which favors the sweet taste of the fruit. In turn, the low activity of PPO enables agroindustrial processing without severe fruit browning. / Los “frutales alto-andinos”, se consideran importantes por su potencial de consumo nacional y exportación. Entre ellos está la gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims, reconocida como un frutal exótico de buena aceptación en mercados europeos. Sin embargo, el respaldo tecnológico asociado al cultivo, es incipiente y su corta vida poscosecha conduce al rápido deterioro del producto. Esto hace necesario plantear estudios de los procesos físicos, fisiológicos y bioquímicos que caracterizan la maduración, con el fin de procurar que el fruto llegue en las mejores condiciones de calidad a los consumidores. El estudio tuvo como objetivo conocer la actividad enzimática en los frutos de gulupa en precosecha y en poscosecha, con el

  16. Quantification of phytoprostanes - bioactive oxylipins - and phenolic compounds of Passiflora edulis Sims shell using UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS and LC-IT-DAD-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Sonia; Collado-González, Jacinta; Ferreres, Federico; Londoño-Londoño, Julián; Jiménez-Cartagena, Claudio; Guy, Alexandre; Durand, Thierry; Galano, Jean-Marie; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel

    2017-08-15

    The genus Passiflora, comprising about 500 species, is the largest in the Passion flower family. Passiflora edulis Sims f. edulis (gulupa) is one of the most important fruits cultivated in Colombia. In recent years and due to its organoleptic and bioactive properties, its exports have significantly increased. In this work, six new bioactive oxylipins -phytoprostanes - were detected in gulupa shell by a UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS method: F 1t -phytoprostanes and D 1t -phytoprostanes were the predominant and minor classes, respectively. Moreover, the polyphenol profile of the shell was investigated and we were able to detect and quantify phenolic compounds that have not been described previously, like luteolin-8-C-(2-O-rhamnosyl)hexoside and quercetin-3-O-(6″-acetyl)glucosyl-2″-sinapic acid. Consequently, this study provides new insights into the importance of gulupa shell as a valuable option in the design of new beverages rich in antioxidant phytochemicals, as part of a well-balanced diet, and in the process and quality control of such products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Passiflora edulis flavicarpa on the radiolabeling of blood constituents, morphology of red blood cells and on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebello, B.M.; Moreno, S.R.F.; Godinho, C.R.; Neves, R.F.; Fonseca, A.S.; Bernardo-Filho, M.; Medeiros, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate possible effects of Passiflora edulis flavicarpa (P. flavicarpa) extract on the labeling of blood constituents with 99m Tc, on the morphology of red blood cells, and on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate (sodium 99m Tc). Male Wistar rats were treated with either P. flavicarpa extract or 0.9% NaCl. After that, radiolabeling of blood constituents, morphological analysis of red blood cells and biodistribution of sodium 99m Tc was evaluated. Radiolabeling of blood constituents and shape of red blood cells were not modified, but a significant (p 99m Tc was observed after treatment with P. flavicarpa extract. Although our results were obtained with animals, they could contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in nuclear medicine

  18. No time for candy: passionfruit (Passiflora edulis) plants down-regulate damage-induced extra floral nectar production in response to light signals of competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaguirre, Miriam M; Mazza, Carlos A; Astigueta, María S; Ciarla, Ana M; Ballaré, Carlos L

    2013-09-01

    Plant fitness is often defined by the combined effects of herbivory and competition, and plants must strike a delicate balance between their ability to capture limiting resources and defend against herbivore attack. Many plants use indirect defenses, such as volatile compounds and extra floral nectaries (EFN), to attract canopy arthropods that are natural enemies of herbivorous organisms. While recent evidence suggests that upon perception of low red to far-red (R:FR) ratios, which signal the proximity of competitors, plants down-regulate resource allocation to direct chemical defenses, it is unknown if a similar phytochrome-mediated response occurs for indirect defenses. We evaluated the interactive effects of R:FR ratio and simulated herbivory on nectar production by EFNs of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa). The activity of petiolar EFNs dramatically increased in response to simulated herbivory and hormonal treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Low R:FR ratios, which induced a classic "shade-avoidance" repertoire of increased stem elongation in P. edulis, strongly suppressed the EFN response triggered by simulated herbivory or MeJA application. Strikingly, the EFN response to wounding and light quality was localized to the branches that received the treatments. In vines like P. edulis, a local response would allow the plants to precisely adjust their light harvesting and defense phenotypes to the local conditions encountered by individual branches when foraging for resources in patchy canopies. Consistent with the emerging paradigm that phytochrome regulation of jasmonate signaling is a central modulator of adaptive phenotypic plasticity, our results demonstrate that light quality is a strong regulator of indirect defenses.

  19. Passiflora edulis Sims

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tânia Jacinto

    Article Number: FA03D5752866. ISSN 1684-5315 ... To this end, a number of protein extraction protocols .... target plate and allowed to dry at room temperature. The MS/MS ... spectrum of angiotensin I. The Mascot MS/MS Ion Search.

  20. Número floral, clima, densidad poblacional de Xylocopa spp. (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae y polinización del maracuyá (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa

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    airon M Da Silva

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available La influencia del número de flores en la antesis del maracuyá (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. y de los factores climáticos sobre la actividad polinizadora y densidad poblacional de las abejas del género Xylocopa fue estudiada en condiciones de campo. El menor porcentaje de formación de frutos (14.3% se observó cuando había menos de 0.8 flores en la antesis/m linear de "soporte". Entre 0.8 y 1.2 flores en antesis/m linear de "soporte" se observó aumento en el porcentaje de frutos formados y en el número de visitas por parte de la abeja. Con más de 1.2 flores en la antesis/m linear de "soporte", hubo menor porcentaje de frutos formados en función del número de visitas de la abeja. La mayor densidad de Xylocopa spp. (49 abejas/ha/hora se observó entre las 14: 00 y 15: 00 hr cuando los factores climáticos como la temperatura, la humedad relativa del aire y la insolación obtuvieron valores en torno de 26 °C, 55% y 0.56, respectivamente. Temperatura y humedad relativa del aire arriba de esos valores redujeron la densidad de Xylocopa spp., mientras que con mayor insolación fue verificado aumento en la misma.The relationship of weather conditions, passion fruit vines (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa flower number, density of carpenter bees (Xylocopa spp., Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae and effective pollinization was studied in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Low levels of viable fruits (14.3% were observed when there were less flowers/ row (< 0.8 flowers in anthesis/ linear meter. When densities of flowers in anthesis were between 0.8 and 1.2, there was a higher proportion of viable flowers and more visits by Xylocopa spp. (maximum: seven visits/ flower. Above 1.2 flowers in anthesis/ linear meter there was a linear increase in the proportion of viable fruits and visits by Xylocopa spp. However; numbers were lower than in days with 0.8-1.2 flowers in anthesis/ linear meter. The highest bee density (ca. 49 bees/ ha/ hr was between 2

  1. Comparação da eficiência de métodos de inoculação na avaliação da patogenicidade de isolados de colletotrichum gloeosporioides em frutos de maracujá (Passiflora Edulis Comparison of inoculation methods efficiency for evaluation of colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates pathogenicity on passion fruits (Passiflora Edulis

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    José de Ribamar de Sousa Rocha

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Eight inoculation methods were studied to evaluate the pathogenicity among six isolates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, agent of anthracnose on passion fruits (Passiflora edulis. The isolates were selected by micelial growth and sporulation. The inoculations were made through suspension (1x10(6 conidia/ml and micelial-agar discs (4mm in diameter. After 6 days of inoculation, the diameter of necrotic area was measure on the fruit epiderm. The most efficient inoculation method was the micelial-agar disc on the fruit wounded epiderm. All isolates caused necrosis by this method, but it showed low efficiency using intact epiderm, where only one isolate was active. One isolate from stem showed greater pathogenicity than the others, and the necrosis in the area was ten times larger than the less pathogenic isolates. The results showed that more than two inoculation methods must be used for the isolate evaluation.

  2. Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi extract and linoleic acid from Passiflora edulis synergistically decrease melanin synthesis in B16 cells and reconstituted epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, A T S; Arroteia, K F; Santos, I A; Andres, E; Medina, S P H; Ferrari, C R; Lourenço, C B; Biaggio, R M T T; Moreira, P L

    2012-10-01

    Several treatments for skin whitening are available today, but few of them are completely adequate, especially owing to the carcinogenic potential attributed to classical drugs like hydroquinone, arbutin and kojic acid. To provide an alternative and safer technology for whitening, we developed two botanical compounds originated from Brazilian biodiversity, an extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi and a linoleic acid fraction isolated from Passiflora edulis oil. The whitening effect of these compounds was assessed using biochemical assays and in vitro models including cellular assays and equivalent skin. The results showed that S. terebinthifolius Raddi extract is able to reduce the tyrosinase activity in vitro, and the combination of this extract with linoleic acid is able to decrease the level of melanin produced by B16 cells cultured with melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Furthermore, melanin was also reduced in human reconstituted epidermis (containing melanocytes) treated with the compounds. The combination of the compounds may provide a synergistic positive whitening effect rather than their isolated use. Finally, we demonstrated that the performance of these mixed compounds is comparable to classical molecules used for skin whitening, as kojic acid. This new natural mixture could be considered an alternative therapeutic agent for treating hyperpigmentation and an effective component in whitening cosmetics. © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  3. Variabilidade genética de acessos silvestres e comerciais de Passiflora edulis Sims. com base em marcadores RAPD Genetic variability of wild and commercial passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims. accessions using RAPD markers

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    Graciele Bellon

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available No Cerrado brasileiro, há uma grande diversidade de cores, tamanhos e aromas de frutos em acessos silvestres de P. edulis. Estes acessos também são importantes fontes de resistência a doenças, podendo ser incorporados em programas de melhoramento genético do maracujazeiro azedo. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estimar a variabilidade genética existente em acessos silvestres e comerciais de P. edulis utilizando-se de marcadores RAPD. O DNA genômico de cada acesso foi extraído e amplificado com treze iniciadores decâmeros (OPD-04, OPD-07, OPD-08, OPD-16, OPE-18, OPE-20, OPF-01, OPF-14, OPG-05, OPG-08, OPH-04, OPH-12 e OPH-16 para a obtenção dos marcadores RAPD. Os marcadores obtidos foram convertidos em uma matriz de dados binários, a partir da qual foram estimadas as distâncias genéticas entre os acessos e realizadas análises de agrupamento e de dispersão gráfica. Um total de 187 marcadores foi gerado, sendo que apenas 28 (14,97% deles foram monomórficos. As distâncias genéticas entre os 15 acessos de maracujazeiro variaram de 0,091 a 0,496. Os marcadores moleculares demonstraram a alta variabilidade genética dos acessos de P. edulis, sendo que os acessos de frutos amarelos apresentaram maior distanciamento em relação aos de frutos roxos. Menores distâncias genéticas foram verificadas entre os acessos de mesma origem geográfica.There are a great diversity of colors, sizes and aromas of fruits in wild accessions of P. edulis in Brazilian Savannah. These accessions are also important resistance sources against illness which can be incorpored in passionfruit breeding programs. In this work, the objetive was to evaluate the genetic variability in wild and commercial P. edulis accessions using RAPD markers. The genomic DNA of each accession was extracted and amplified using thirteen decamer primers (OPD-04, OPD-07, OPD-08, OPD-16, OPE-18, OPE-20, OPF-01, OPF-14, OPG-05, OPG-08, OPH-04, OPH-12 and OPH-16 to obtain RAPD markers

  4. Efeito da adubação orgânica na produção e qualidade de frutos de maracujazeiro amarelo (Passiflora edulis, Sims f. flavicarpa Degener)

    OpenAIRE

    Pagliarini, Mateus Francisco

    2005-01-01

    A pesquisa teve o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da adubação orgânica sobre a produção, qualidade, conservação pós-colheita e aceitabilidade de frutos do maracujazeiro amarelo (Passiflora edulis, Sims f. flavicarpa Degener). O experimento foi estabelecido em março de 2004, num latossolo vermelho amarelo da Fazenda Experimental da Sementeira UFV, situada em Visconde do Rio Branco, MG. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos foram formados por tr...

  5. Compostos voláteis dos frutos de maracujá (Passiflora edulis forma Flavicarpa e de cajá (Spondias mombin L. obtidos pela técnica de headspace dinâmico Volatile compounds in passion fruit (Passiflora edulis forma Flavicarpa and yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L. fruits obtained by dynamic headspace technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerendra Narain

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre as inúmeras frutas tropicais e subtropicais produzidas no Brasil, duas que se destacam do ponto de vista do aroma da polpa são maracujá amarelo (Passiflora edulis forma Flavicarpa e cajá (Spondias mombin L.. Os voláteis da polpa destas frutas foram capturados pela técnica de headspace dinâmico e analisados no sistema de cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução e espectrometria de massa. Foram identificados 48 e 33 compostos voláteis na polpa de maracujá e cajá, respectivamente. Os compostos voláteis predominantes na polpa de maracujá pertenceram às classes de ésteres (59,24%, aldeídos (15,27%, cetonas (11,70% e álcoois (6,56%, enquanto na polpa de cajá as principais classes de compostos foram de ésteres (48,76%, álcoois (21,69%, aldeídos (11,61% e cetonas (4,19%. Outros compostos aromáticos característicos foram para maracujá: beta-ionona e linalol e para cajá: gama-octalactona e ácidos butírico e hexanóico.Among the numerous tropical and sub-tropical fruits produced in Brazil, two that attain relatively greater importance from the point of view of aroma of their pulp are yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis forma Flavicarpa and yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L.. The volatile components in the pulp of these fruits were captured by dynamic headspace technique and were analyzed in a system of high-resolution gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Forty-eight and thirty-one volatile compounds were identified in passion fruit and yellow mombin fruit pulp, respectively. The predominant volatile compounds in passion fruit pulp belonged to the classes of esters (59.24%, aldehydes (15.27%, ketones (11.70% and alcohols (6.56% while in the yellow mombin pulp, the principal classes of compounds were esters (48.76%, alcohols (21.69%. aldehydes (11.61% and ketones (4.19%. The other characteristic aroma compounds for passion fruit were beta-ionone and linalool and for yellow mombin were gamma-octalactone, butanoic and

  6. Caracterização fenotípica de três seleções de maracujazeiro-roxo (Passiflora edulis Sims Phenotypic characterization in three selections of purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims

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    Laura Maria Molina Meletti

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O interesse pelo cultivo do maracujazeiro-roxo vem crescendo no centro-sul do País, visando à exportação. Observa-se um número significativo de formas selvagens, nativas, compatíveis entre si, propagadas por sementes de polinização aberta, ampliando a variabilidade natural da fruteira. Com o objetivo de identificar cruzamentos com características comerciais desejáveis e disponibilizar sementes de matrizes selecionadas aos produtores, foram realizados estudos de caracterização agronômica, morfológica e citogenética, envolvendo seleções do Banco de Germoplasma de Passifloras do IAC, denominadas 'Roxinho-Miúdo', 'Paulista' e 'Maracujá-Maçã'. Durante duas safras consecutivas, foram analisados cerca de 350 flores e 150 frutos de cada seleção. A maior amplitude de variação ocorreu na massa e no tamanho dos frutos (de 21 a 193 g por fruto, seguidos pelo teor de sólidos solúveis (de 15,2 a 21,4º Brix, produção por planta (11,5 a 30,8 kg e número de sementes por fruto (de 39 a 261 sementes. A viabilidade polínica variou de 77 a 94,5%, enquanto o teste de germinação do pólen em ágar apresentou índices de 65,5 a 86%, contribuindo para o diferencial em produtividade observado. Todas as seleções apresentaram características comerciais desejáveis. 'Roxinho-Miúdo' possui fruto redondo, pequeno, com 4 cm de diâmetro, doce e de coloração roxo-intensa, adequando-se à preferência internacional. A seleção 'Paulista' apresentou frutos ovais, destacando-se pela dupla finalidade, podendo atender também à agroindústria. O 'Maracujá-Maçã' distinguiu-se pelo maior tamanho, formato arredondado e casca rosada, apto para um segmento diferenciado de mercado, que comercializa frutas por unidade e privilegia a qualidade.The interest in purple passion-fruit production is becoming higher in southeast of Brazil, aiming exportation. There are some wild, different native types with high variability due open pollination that

  7. Evaluation of the antihypertensive properties of yellow passion fruit pulp (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg.) in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konta, Eliziane Mieko; Almeida, Mara Ribeiro; do Amaral, Cátia Lira; Darin, Joana Darc Castania; de Rosso, Veridiana V; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; Bianchi, Maria Lourdes Pires

    2014-01-01

    Various species of the genus Passiflora have been extensively used in traditional medicine as sedatives, anxiolytics, diuretics and analgesics. In the present study, after the identification and quantification of phytochemical compounds from yellow passion fruit pulp by liquid chromatography-photodiode array-mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-MS/MS), its antihypertensive effect was investigated on spontaneously hypertensive rats. Additionally, the renal function, evaluated by kidney/body weight, serum creatinine, proteinuria, urinary flow, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and mutagenicity in bone marrow cells were assessed to evaluate the safety of passion fruit consumption. Yellow passion fruit pulp (5, 6 or 8 g/kg b.w.) was administered by gavage once a day for 5 consecutive days. HLPC-PDA-MS/MS analysis revealed that yellow passion fruit pulp contains phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and flavonoids. The highest dose of passion fruit pulp significantly reduced the systolic blood pressure, increased the GSH levels and decreased TBARS. There were no changes in renal function parameters or the frequency of micronuclei in bone marrow cells. In conclusion, the antihypertensive effect of yellow passion fruit pulp, at least in part, might be due to the enhancement of the antioxidant status. The exact mechanisms responsible by this effect need further investigation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. PHOTOSYNTHETIC PERFORMANCE AND LEAF WATER POTENTIAL OF GULUPA (Passiflora edulis Sims, PASSIFLORACEAE IN THE REPRODUCTIVE PHASE IN THREE LOCATIONS IN THE COLOMBIAN ANDES

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    Laura Victoria PÉREZ MARTÍNEZ

    2015-01-01

    La gulupa, Passiflora edulis Sims (Passifloraceae es un frutal importante debido a sus características organolépticas, nutricionales y su demanda en el mercado internacional; sin embargo, existen muy pocos estudios relacionados con su ecofisiología. Hasta el momento, el cultivo se ha extendido a través del país por medio de conocimiento empírico sin tener datos que sustenten las zonas más apropiadas para su cultivo. Por esta razón, en el presente estudio se midió el intercambio de gases, la fluorescencia de la clorofila (factor de eficiencia del fotosistema II y eficiencia cuántica fotoquímica máxima del fotosistema II y el potencial hídrico foliar en tres localidades diferentes del departamento de Cundinamarca (Chía [2610 m s.n.m., 14 °C], Granada [2230 m s.n.m., 15 °C] y Tena [2090 m s.n.m., 17 °C], cuyas condiciones climáticas fueron monitoreadas con estaciones meteorológicas para evaluar  el desempeño fisiológico en cada localidad  y relacionarlo con los factores ambientales. Los resultados indican que aunque la capacidad fotosintética fue alta y similar en Granada y Tena, el estado hídrico de la planta, el control estomático de la pérdida de agua y la recuperación de los fotosistemas durante la noche fueron más eficientes en Granada (p < 0.05. En Tena, la estrecha diferencia entre los valores día/noche de temperatura, humedad y déficit de presión de vapor (DPV limitaron la recuperación hídrica de la planta, mientras que en Chía el aumento de DPV en el día, y las bajas temperaturas disminuyeron el potencial hídrico, tanto durante el día como durante la noche, así como la recuperación del fotosistema II. Por tanto, en conclusión, condiciones climáticas cercanas a las de Granada; 18/13 °C día/noche, DPV de 0,5 KPa, y una radiación que no exceda los 1000 μmol fotones/m2s favorecen el buen desempeño de la planta.

  9. Macromorphological and micromorphological studies of four selected passiflora species in peninsular malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veeramohan, R.; Haron, N.W.

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomic studies of four selected Passiflora species; Passiflora edulis Sims (Passion fruit), Passiflora coccinea Aubl. (Scarlet passion flower), Passiflora foetida L. (Stinking passion flower) and Passiflora incarnata L. (Fragrant passion flower) were carried out to distinguish their morphological characteristics. Macromorphological characters on the leaves, flowers and fruits of all four Passiflora species were observed under a binocular microscope and they varied characteristically in terms of colour, texture and shape of flowers, leaves and fruits. Jeol JSM-7500F Scanning Electron Microscope was used to observe the micromorphological characters such as stomata, trichomes, and leaf surface indumentum of each Passiflora species. Micromorphologically, each species varied in types and sizes of stomata, epidermal. (author)

  10. Métodos para atrair e repelir a abelha Apis mellifera (L. em cultura de maracujá amarelo (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa flavicarpa Deg. - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2036 Methods to attract and repel Africanize honey bees Apis mellifera, L., to passion fruit (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa flavicarpa Deg. - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2036

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    Marta Maria Rossi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido no Centro Universitário Moura Lacerda, Campus Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo, e teve como objetivos observar a eficiência dos extratos de capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus, manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. e falsa melissa (Lippia alba, como atrativos, e citronela (C. nardus, extratos de orégano, pimenta-do-reino, canela e cravo, como repelentes, que foram comparados a outros atrativos (eugenol e linalol e repelentes (n.octyl.acetato, 2.heptanona e citronellal, obtidos comercialmente, para a A. mellifera. Foram estudados, ainda, os insetos visitantes nas flores do maracujá amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg., além de testar plantas-iscas para essas abelhas. Os produtos testados in vitro e, posteriormente, testados tanto pulverizados quanto em tubos, não foram eficientes para atrair ou repelir a abelha Apis mellifera. Os produtos n.octyl.acetato e citronellal repeliram completamente tanto as abelhas africanizadas quanto as Xylocopa, não devendo ser utilizado em cultivos comerciais. O girassol (Hellianthus annuus e o cosmos (Cosmos sulphureus podem ser utilizados como alternativas para afastar a abelha A. mellifera das flores do maracujá.This experiment was carried out at Centro Universitário Moura Lacerda, Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo, Brazil, to study Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera L. attractives and repellents in vitro, in tubes and on passion fruit flowers (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa flavicarpa Deg.. Visiting insects were studied in flowers and also, bait-plants to Africanized honey bees were tested. The products were not effective in attracting and repelling the honey bee in vitro and in tube tests. The chemicals n.octyl.acetato and citronellal were repellent to honey bees and Xylocopa bees on passion fruit flowers. Sunflower (Hellianthus annuus and cosmos (Cosmos sulphureus flowers can be used to remove Africanized honey bees from passion fruit crops.

  11. Acople de un modelo de conductancia estomática, fotosíntesis y transpiración para el cultivo de maracuyá (Passiflora edulis Sims

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    Jonathan Romero Cuéllar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad se desconocen las respuestas de los cultivos en términos de balances hídrico y energético frente al aumento de gases efecto invernadero y cambio climático. El objetivo de este trabajo fue formular y evaluar un modelo acoplado de fotosíntesis, conductancia estomática y transpiración para el cultivo de maracuyá (Passiflora edulis en condiciones de clima tropical por medio de la combinación de submodelos ampliamente aceptados. Como caso de estudio se utilizó el protocolo de modelación matemática aplicado al cultivo en el departamento del Huila, Colombia. La transpiración real estimada por el modelo fue evaluada usando un lisímetro de tipo gravimétrico. Los resultados del estudio indicaron que el modelo propuesto fue capaz de estimar la transpiración del cultivo de maracuyá bajo condiciones de clima templado con una buena validación de 0.30. La transpiración media diaria para el cultivo en las condiciones de clima templado del departamento del Huila durante el periodo de estudio fue de 1.36 mm/día. Por análisis de sensibilidad se identificó el parámetro m siendo altamente sensible para el caso de estudio; por el contrario, los parámetros Vm25, Kc25, Jm25, Ko25, f, Bs mostraron escasa sensibilidad e identificación.

  12. MICROSPOROGÉNESIS DE TRES ESPECIES DEL SUBGÉNERO PASSIFLORA (PASSIFLORA, PASSIFLORACEAE DE PARAGUAY

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    Claudia Pereira Sühsner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tuvo por objeto caracterizar cariológicamente las especies del género Passiflora L., subgénero Passiflora, del Distrito Félix Pérez Cardozo, Guairá, Paraguay. Por primera vez, se da a conocer el número cromosómico en meiosis 2n = 9II para P. alata Curtis y P. caerulea L. También, se confirma el número cromosómico de 2n = 9II para P. edulis Sims. El comportamiento meiótico en todas las especies estudiadas fue normal, con segregación regular de los cromosomas. La asociación cromosómica frecuentemente encontrada en diacinesis y metafase I fue de bivalentes. Las pocas irregularidades meióticas observadas consistieron en cromosomas rezagados en anafase I y fases asincrónicas en meiosis II, sin embargo, la viabilidad de polen es alta, entre 78,83% y 98,6%. Los resultados confirman x = 9 como número básico para el subgénero Passiflora. Este estudio es una importante contribución al conocimiento sobre la citogenética de las especies de Passiflora subg Passiflora de Paraguay.

  13. Correlações entre características físico-químicas e sensoriais em suco de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa durante o armazenamento Correlation between physico-chemical and sensory characteristcs of yellow passin fruit juice over storaging time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delcio Sandi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas possíveis correlações entre características físicas, químicas e sensoriais em suco de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa submetido à pasteurização, durante o armazenamento por 120 dias, sob duas temperaturas (25 ± 5ºC e 5 ± 1ºC. As características físicas e químicas relacionadas a cor, parâmetros "L" (luminosidade, "a" (intensidade de vermelho e verde e "b" (intensidade de amarelo e azul de Hunter, os açúcares redutores e não-redutores (sacarose, glucose e frutose, os compostos voláteis (butirato de etila, butirato de hexila, caproato de etila e caproato de hexila e furfural foram correlacionadas com características sensoriais (homogeneidade da cor, cor laranja, aroma característico, aroma floral, aroma doce, sabor característico, sabor estranho, sabor oxidado, sabor cozido, gosto doce e gosto amargo obtidas por Análise Descritiva Quantitativa. As correlações entre os parâmetros de cor e as características sensoriais de homogeneidade da cor e cor laranja foram baixas. Entretanto, o aumento da cor laranja foi proporcional ao aumento do valor "a" e inversamente proporcional aos valores "L" e "b". Correlações importantes foram observadas entre os compostos voláteis e sabor característico e aroma característico, aroma floral e aroma doce; furfural e sabor oxidado, sabor cozido e sabor estranho. Quanto aos açúcares redutores e não-redutores, enquanto observaram-se correlações significativas entre os teores de sacarose e o aroma doce, aroma floral, sabor característico e gosto doce, correlações significativas e positivas foram observadas entre os açúcares redutores e o sabor estranho e gosto amargo. De acordo com nossas observações, o uso de métodos instrumentais pode ser indicado, como a avaliação do escurecimento por meio de parâmetros colorimétricos de cor, sendo o valor "a" de Hunter, o melhor indicado.Physical-chemistry and sensory quality characteristics

  14. Molecular Genetic Variability of Commercial and Wild Accessions of Passion Fruit (Passiflora spp.) Targeting ex Situ Conservation and Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernard M.; Santos, Elisa S. L.; Jesus, Onildo N.; Vieira, João G. P.; Mori, Gustavo M.; Corrêa, Ronan X.; Souza, Anete P.

    2014-01-01

    Passiflora species are distributed throughout Latin America, and Brazil and Colombia serve as the centers of diversity for this genus. We performed cross-species amplification to evaluate 109 microsatellite loci in 14 Passiflora species and estimated the diversity and genetic structure of Passiflora cincinnata, Passiflora setaceae and Passiflora edulis. A total of 127 accessions, including 85 accessions of P. edulis, a commercial species, and 42 accessions of 13 wild species, were examined. The cross-species amplification was effective for obtaining microsatellite loci (average cross-amplification of 70%). The average number of alleles per locus (five) was relatively low, and the average diversity ranged from 0.52 in P. cincinnata to 0.32 in P. setacea. The Bayesian analyses indicated that the P. cincinnata and P. setacea accessions were distributed into two groups, and the P. edulis accessions were distributed into five groups. Private alleles were identified, and suggestions for core collections are presented. Further collections are necessary, and the information generated may be useful for breeding and conservation. PMID:25514245

  15. Nectar production and bee visits in two cultivated species of Passiflora L. (Passifloraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Varassin, Isabela Galarda; Ximenes, Brunna Maria Setti; Moreira, Priscila Ambrósio; Zanon, Mireille Maria Franco; Elbl, Paula; Löwenberg-Neto, Peter; Melo, Gabriel Augusto Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    A atividade dos polinizadores é afetada pela disponibilidade de recursos. Flores que produzem mais néctar podem ser mais visitadas e assim apresentar maior produção de frutos. O efeito da produção de néctar na atividade dos polinizadores foi testado em duas espécies cultivadas de maracujá, Passiflora alata Curtis e Passiflora edulis Sims, em Morretes, Paraná. Botões foram ensacados e o néctar acumulado das flores foi coletado em intervalos de 1 h. Em P. alata o volume e a concentração de solu...

  16. New Microsatellite Markers for Wild and Commercial Species of Passiflora (Passifloraceae and Cross-Amplification

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    Carlos B. M. Cerqueira-Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: We developed the first microsatellites for Passiflora setacea and characterized new sets of markers for P. edulis and P. cincinnata, enabling further genetic diversity studies to support the conservation and breeding of passion fruit species. Methods and Results: We developed 69 microsatellite markers and, in conjunction with assessments of cross-amplification using primers available from the literature, present 43 new polymorphic microsatellite loci for three species of Passiflora. The mean number of alleles per locus was 3.1, and the mean values of the expected and observed levels of heterozygosity were 0.406 and 0.322, respectively. Conclusions: These microsatellite markers will be valuable tools for investigating the genetic diversity and population structure of wild and commercial species of passion fruit (Passiflora spp. and may be useful for developing conservation and improvement strategies by contributing to the understanding of the mating system and hybridization within the genus.

  17. Efecto coadyuvante del extracto liofilizado de Passiflora edulis (maracuyá en la reducción de la presión arterial en pacientes tratados con enalapril

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    Juan Rojas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar el efecto coadyuvante antihipertensivo y la seguridad del jugo del fruto de maracuyá en pacientes hipertensos en tratamiento con enalapril. Diseño: Ensayo clínico prospectivo piloto, de fase II, aleatorizado, a doble ciego, de grupos paralelos, controlado, de búsqueda de dosis y evaluación del producto. Institución: Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo en Lima; Hospital Belén de Trujillo y Centros de Salud de Moche y Laredo, en la ciudad de Trujillo. Participantes: Pacientes hipertensos. Intervenciones: Los pacientes fueron asignados aleatoriamente a 4 grupos. Todos recibieron enalapril 10 mg/día y, además, el primer grupo recibió placebo y los demás 2, 3 y 4 cápsulas de 500 mg de liofilizado de jugo de maracuyá/día, respectivamente. Principales medidas de resultados: Disminución de la presión arterial. Resultados: Los grupos que recibieron enalapril más maracuyá tuvieron una mejor reducción de la presión sanguínea en comparación con el grupo que recibió enalapril más placebo. El grupo tratado con enalapril más 4 cápsulas de jugo liofilizado de maracuyá/día produjo al final del experimento una reducción de la presión sistólica de 6,73 mmHg y de la presión diastólica de 5,33 mmHg (p<0,05, en comparación con el grupo enalapril más placebo. No se observó efectos adversos por el tratamiento. Conclusiones: El jugo del fruto de P. edulis fue coadyuvante efectivo del enalapril en la disminución de la presión arterial en pacientes con hipertensión estadio 1, y demostró ser seguro.

  18. Ecologia da polinização do maracujá-amarelo, na região do vale do submédio São Francisco Ecology of pollination of the yellow passion fruit (passiflora edulis sims f. flavicarpa deg., in the region of São Francisco valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Maria Medeiros de Siqueira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descreve aspectos da biologia floral e sistema reprodutivo de Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa (Passifloraceae, incluindo os padrões de forrageio e comportamento dos visitantes florais. O estudo foi desenvolvido em cultivo irrigado no Projeto Maniçoba, em Juazeiro-BA, em 2005/2006. A antese floral ocorreu entre 12h e 13h, o fechamento da flor teve início às 18h, terminando por volta de 1h. O tempo para a deflexão dos estiletes foi de 71,4 ± 12,4 min, mas cerca de 5% das flores permaneceram com os estiletes sem curvatura. Os estigmas foram receptivos durante toda a antese, e os grãos de pólen apresentaram viabilidade de 94%. O volume de néctar foi em média de 100 µL, com 48% de concentração de açúcares. O número médio de grãos de pólen/ flor foi de 140.595 ± 34.175, e 426 ± 77 óvulos/ovário. As maiores taxas de frutificação (74% foram obtidas com polinização cruzada manual, confirmando a existência de sistema de autoincompatibilidade. Registraram-se 10% de flores com quatro estigmas que, quando polinizadas manualmente, apresentaram frutos maiores e com maior número de sementes (477,7 ± 76,8. Observou-se correlação positiva entre o número de sementes e o peso dos frutos. Os visitantes florais identificados foram Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes, Xylocopa grisescens, X. frontalis e X. cearensis. As abelhas A. mellifera e T. spinipes foram pilhadores de pólen e néctar, respectivamente. As abelhas do gênero Xylocopa foram mais frequentes nas flores durante o período seco, e A. mellifera, durante o período chuvoso. Os polinizadores efetivos foram X. grisescens e X. frontalis, constatando-se uma limitação desses polinizadores nas áreas estudadas. Entretanto, eles foram mais frequentes em outras espécies vegetais no período chuvoso, indicando competição com as flores dos maracujazeiros pelos serviços de polinização.This study describes aspects of floral biology and the reproductive system of

  19. Genetic Diversity in Passiflora Species Assessed by Morphological and ITS Sequence Analysis

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    Shiamala Devi Ramaiya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used morphological characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA to investigate the phylogeny of Passiflora species. The samples were collected from various regions of East Malaysia, and discriminant function analysis based on linear combinations of morphological variables was used to classify the Passiflora species. The biplots generated five distinct groups discriminated by morphological variables. The group consisted of cultivars of P. edulis with high levels of genetic similarity; in contrast, P. foetida was highly divergent from other species in the morphological biplots. The final dataset of aligned sequences from nine studied Passiflora accessions and 30 other individuals obtained from GenBank database (NCBI yielded one most parsimonious tree with two strongly supported clades. Maximum parsimony (MP tree showed the phylogenetic relationships within this subgenus Passiflora support the classification at the series level. The constructed phylogenic tree also confirmed the divergence of P. foetida from all other species and the closeness of wild and cultivated species. The phylogenetic relationships were consistent with results of morphological assessments. The results of this study indicate that ITS region analysis represents a useful tool for evaluating genetic diversity in Passiflora at the species level.

  20. First report and differential colonization of Passiflora species by the B biotype of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Endson S.; Vieira, Maria L.C.; Lourencao, Andre L.; Piedade, Sonia M.S.

    2008-01-01

    This note is the first report of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B colonizing passionvine in Brazil. We examined the colonization of nine Passiflora species by a wild B type population under greenhouse conditions. P. amethystina Mikan was the most preferred species for oviposition and colonization, whereas P. suberosa L., P. coriacea Juss. and two commercially cultivated species, P. alata Curtis and P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener, were mostly uncolonised. P. morifolia Mast., P. cincinnata Mast., P. foetida L. and P. caerulea L. showed intermediate levels of colonization. Such differential colonization might suggest some degree of resistance by certain Passiflora species or oviposition preference by B. tabaci. (author)

  1. First report and differential colonization of Passiflora species by the B biotype of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Endson S.; Vieira, Maria L.C. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica]. E-mail: esnunes@carpa.ciagri.usp.br; mlcvieir@esalq.usp.br; Brown, Judith K. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Plant Sciences]. E-mail: jbrown@Ag.arizona.edu; Moreira, Adriana G.; Rezende, Jorge A.M. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mails: agmoreir@esalq.usp.br; amrezen@esalq.usp.br; Watson, Gillian [California Dept. of Food and Agriculture, Sacramento, CA (United States)]. E-mail: gwatson@cdfa.ca.gov; Lourencao, Andre L. [Instituto Agronomico, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: andre@iac.sp.gov.br; Piedade, Sonia M.S. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas]. E-mail: jsoniamsp@esalq.usp.br

    2008-11-15

    This note is the first report of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B colonizing passionvine in Brazil. We examined the colonization of nine Passiflora species by a wild B type population under greenhouse conditions. P. amethystina Mikan was the most preferred species for oviposition and colonization, whereas P. suberosa L., P. coriacea Juss. and two commercially cultivated species, P. alata Curtis and P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener, were mostly uncolonised. P. morifolia Mast., P. cincinnata Mast., P. foetida L. and P. caerulea L. showed intermediate levels of colonization. Such differential colonization might suggest some degree of resistance by certain Passiflora species or oviposition preference by B. tabaci. (author)

  2. Cyanohydrin glycosides of Passiflora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaroszewski, Jerzy W; Olafsdottir, Elin S; Wellendorph, Petrine

    2002-01-01

    this glycoside co-occurs with simple beta-D-glucopyranosides: tetraphyllin A, deidaclin, tetraphyllin B, volkenin, epivolkenin and taraktophyllin. P. citrina contains passicapsin, a rare glycoside with the 2,6-dideoxy-beta-D-xylo-hexopyranosyl moiety, while P. herbertiana contains tetraphyllin A, deidaclin...... Passiflora species. These alpha-hydroxyamides, presumably formed during processing of the plant material, behave as cyanogenic compounds when treated with commercial Helix pomatia crude enzyme preparation. Thus, the enzyme preparation appears to contain an amide dehydratase, which converts alpha......-hydroxyamides to cyanohydrins that liberate cyanide; this finding is of interest in connection with analysis of plant tissues and extracts using Helix pomatia enzymes....

  3. Sedative and anticonvulsant properties of Passiflora edulis dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -D-aspartate- induced turning behavior in mice. The ED50 for the protection against seizures -induced by strychnine was 320 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.). For N-methyl-D-aspartate -induced turning behavior, the ED50 was 300 mg/kg i.p. ...

  4. Caracterización de Daños de Moscas del Género Dasiops (Diptera: Lonchaeidae en Passiflora spp. (Passifloraceae Cultivadas en Colombia / Characterization of Damage of the Genus Dasiops Flies (Diptera: Lonchaeidae from Cultivated Passiflora (Passiflor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maikol Yohanny Santamaría Galindo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Las moscas del género Dasiops Rondani constituyen la plaga más limitante en cultivos de pasifloras en Colombia, por lo que el reconocimiento de especies es importante para la toma de decisiones de vigilancia y control. Se caracterizaron los síntomas y daños producidos por moscas Dasiops spp.. en botones florales y frutos de maracuyá (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Sims, gulupa (Passiflora edulis f. edulis Sims, granadilla (Passiflora ligularis Juss y curuba (Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima Nielsen y Jorgensen. En botones florales de maracuyá, gulupa y granadilla con longitud mayor a 1 cm, la infestación se manifestó con amarillamiento y arrugamiento general. En frutos de gulupa y granadilla, la infestación se evidenció por arrugamiento del epicarpio en frutos inmaduros. En curuba, la infestación en frutos se caracterizó por un estrechamiento en la parte basal, apical o media del fruto. La infestación en botones florales estuvo entre 0,0 y 9,9% en tanto que en frutos presentó un rango entre 0,3 y 28,5%. No obstante, en maracuyá y gulupa se registraron botones florales infestados pero sin los síntomas descritos; en tanto que en gulupa y granadilla se observó el mismo fenómeno en frutos. Este estudio provee a agricultores y técnicos herramientas para el reconocimiento de infestación por moscas Dasiops spp. en cultivos de pasifloras como elemento fundamental para la toma decisiones para la vigilancia y control fitosanitario. / Abstract. The flies of the gender Dasiops Rondani are the most limiting plague in pasifloras crops in Colombia, thus species identification is important for decision making for monitoring and control. The symptoms and damage caused by Dasiops spp. flies in flower buds and fruits of yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Sims, purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. edulis Sims, sweet passion fruit (Passiflora ligularis Juss and banana passion fruit (Passiflora tripartita

  5. Evaluación de la resistencia genética de especies de Passiflora spp A Fusarium spp, agente causal de la “Secadera”

    OpenAIRE

    Londoño Aramburo, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    El maracuyá amarillo Passiflora edulis Sims var flavicarpa Degener, representa un renglón importante en la fruticultura colombiana, por su aceptación en el mercado nacional y por su potencial de exportación. El departamento del Valle del Cauca es considerado como el de mayor participación en la producción nacional de esta fruta, a pesar que los cultivos presentan alta incidencia de una enfermedad vascular conocida como secadera, causado por el hongo Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. passiflorae.

  6. Produção de néctar e visitas por abelhas em duas espécies cultivadas de Passiflora L. (Passifloraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Varassin,Isabela Galarda; Ximenes,Brunna Maria Setti; Moreira,Priscila Ambrósio; Zanon,Mireille Maria Franco; Elbl,Paula; Löwenberg-Neto,Peter; Melo,Gabriel Augusto Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    A atividade dos polinizadores é afetada pela disponibilidade de recursos. Flores que produzem mais néctar podem ser mais visitadas e assim apresentar maior produção de frutos. O efeito da produção de néctar na atividade dos polinizadores foi testado em duas espécies cultivadas de maracujá, Passiflora alata Curtis e Passiflora edulis Sims, em Morretes, Paraná. Botões foram ensacados e o néctar acumulado das flores foi coletado em intervalos de 1 h. Em P. alata o volume e a concentração de solu...

  7. Determinação espectrométrica dos flavonóides das folhas de Maytenus (Celastraceae e de Passiflora (Passifloraceae e comparação com método CLAE-UV

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    Regina de A. O. Chabariberi

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma modificação dos procedimentos descritos nas Farmacopéias Francesa e Européia para a análise de flavonoides de Passiflora incarnata L., Passifloraceae, por espectrometria UV-Visível e propõe a sua aplicação na determinação dos flavonoides totais das folhas da espinheira-santa (Maytenus aquifolium Mart. e Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad. Planch., Celastraceae e do maracujá (Passiflora edulis Sims. e Passiflora alata Curtis, Passifloraceae. Os resultados obtidos por espectrometria no UV-Visível foram comparados aos obtidos por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE-UV, encontrando-se resultados estatisticamente similares entre os métodos espectrométrico modificado da Farmacopéia Francesa e CLAE-UV.

  8. Heterologous primer transferability and access to microsatellite loci polymorphism in ‘somnus’ passion fruit tree (Passiflora setacea DC

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    Douglas de Almeida Pereira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Primer pairs that access microsatellite loci, initially constructed through the genome of Passiflora edulis Sims flavicarpa and P. alata, were tested concerning their ability to access microsatellite loci in ‘somnus’ passion fruit tree (P. setacea individuals. Seven out of the thirty one primer pairs tested were able to access DNA polymorphism in the genome of this wild Passiflora species, by evaluating six natural populations, located in a transition area between the biomes Caatinga and Cerrado, in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The number of alleles/loci was small, oscillating from 1 to 4. The average heterozygosity observed per locus in all populations ranged from 0.13 to 0.40. There was transference of heterologous microsatellite primer pairs from the Passiflora genus to ‘somnus’ passion fruit tree, constituting a new set of primers that access random co-dominant locus in this species, useful for conservationist purposes and pre-improvement of ‘somnus’ passion fruit tree.

  9. Utilización de lactosuero de queso fresco en la elaboración de una bebida fermentada con adición de pulpa maracuyá (passiflora edulis variedad púrpura y carbóximetil celulosa (cmc, enriquecida con vitaminas A y D.

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    Sepúlveda Valencia José Uriel

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se puede obtener una bebida con características especiales a partir de la fermentación de suero de queso fresco, en presencia de Streptococcus thermophillus y Lactobacillus bulgaricus, comparable con un yogur tradicional. Se utilizaron 150 kg de lactosuero de queso fresco, a cada muestra de 50 kg se le aplicó un tratamiento con estabilizantes comerciales cuya base es carboximetilcelulosa (CMC 27 FG, CMC 28FG y CMC 29FG, cuya función es conferir viscosidad. La bebida que se desarrolló a partir del gel formado durante el proces, se saborizó con pulpa de maracuyá (Pasiflora edulis var. púrpura, y se enriqueció con vitaminas A y D. La bebida con el tratamiento CMC 28FG demostró las mejores características sensoriales, el producto se mantuvo homogéneo por 24 días de almacenamiento a una temperatura de 6°C, durante este tiempo no se presentaron fenómenos de histéresis, gomosidad o grumosidad al tacto, sin embargo se observó un aumento en la acidez y una disminución de la viscosidad en el tiempo, ambos aspectos no fueron ampliamente percibidos por los jueces hasta la cuarta semana.

  10. Comportamento de maracujazeiros (Passiflora spp. quanto à morte prematura Behavior of passionfruit (Passiflora spp.in relation to premature death of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givanildo Roncatto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Na Universidade Estadual Paulista, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP, estudou-se o comportamento de Passifloráceas quanto à morte prematura de plantas, cultivadas em local com histórico da doença. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de diversos "acessos" de populações e espécies de maracujazeiros em relação a esta doença, sendo que as plantas resistentes deverão ser utilizadas como porta-enxertos de formas comerciais de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa e em programas de melhoramento genético. As espécies utilizadas foram P. edulis Sims, P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener, P. nitida H.B.K., P. cincinnata, P. giberti, P. laurifolia, P. morifolia, P. foetida e P. capsularis. Em local com histórico da doença, plantaram-se mudas em número variável e em épocas distintas. A condução das plantas e os tratos culturais foram os recomendados para o maracujá-amarelo. A morte prematura das plantas ocorreu entre dois meses e dois anos da cultura no campo. P. giberti e P. nitida mostraram-se resistente à doença, independentemente do local de origem. Entre os demais "acessos", não se encontraram fontes promissoras de resistência. Entretanto, novos "acessos" e novas espécies deverão ser estudadas na busca da resistência.The behavior of passionfruit, cultivated in sites with disease history, as to premature death, was researched at Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus of Jaboticabal, SP. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the behavior of acesses and passionfruit species related to this disease, whereas resistant plants are to be used as yellow passionfruit rootstocks, as well as in breeding programs. The species P. edulis Sims, P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener, P. nitida H.B.K., P. cincinnata, P. giberti, P. laurifolia, P. morifolia, P. foetida, P. capsularis were used. In a site with a known record of the disease, the plants were planted in a variable number and at distinct times. Plant

  11. Produção de néctar e visitas por abelhas em duas espécies cultivadas de Passiflora L. (Passifloraceae Nectar production and bee visits in two cultivated species of Passiflora L. (Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Galarda Varassin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A atividade dos polinizadores é afetada pela disponibilidade de recursos. Flores que produzem mais néctar podem ser mais visitadas e assim apresentar maior produção de frutos. O efeito da produção de néctar na atividade dos polinizadores foi testado em duas espécies cultivadas de maracujá, Passiflora alata Curtis e Passiflora edulis Sims, em Morretes, Paraná. Botões foram ensacados e o néctar acumulado das flores foi coletado em intervalos de 1 h. Em P. alata o volume e a concentração de solutos no néctar aumentaram durante o período de antese, associados com o aumento da temperatura. Em P. edulis, o volume aumentou durante o período diurno da antese, e decresceu após as 18 horas. A concentração de solutos no néctar permaneceu constante. A taxa média de visitação de Xylocopa frontalis (Olivier em P. alata foi de 1,7 visitas/100flores/hora e em P. edulis foi de 6,6 visitas/100flores/hora, sendo constante durante a antese. A taxa média de visitação de Bombus morio (Swederus em P. alata foi de 5,8 visitas/100flores/hora, sendo mais alta no início da antese. A constância das visitas de X. frontalis deve estar associada à produção contínua de néctar em ambas as espécies de maracujazeiros. Como as espécies são xenogâmicas, a manutenção das visitas é importante para propiciar o fluxo de pólen entre indivíduos e assim garantir boa produção de frutos.Pollinator activity is affected by resource availability. Flowers that produce more nectar are visited more, which results in a greater fruit set. The effect of nectar production on pollinator activity was tested in two cultivated species of passion fruit, Passiflora alata Curtis and Passiflora edulis Sims, in Morretes, Paraná. Flower buds were bagged and the accumulated nectar of flowers was collected hourly. The volume and concentration of nectar of P. alata increased during anthesis, which was associated with rising temperatures. The volume of nectar of P

  12. Pudrición basal del ají dulce por haematonectria haematococca en el estado mérida, venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Cedeño, Luis; Carrero, Chrystian; Jaimez, Ramón

    2003-01-01

    Se determinó Haematonectria haematococca (anamorfo Fusarium solani) como el agente causal de la enfermedad que en mayo 2002 pudrió el cuello y las raíces de aproximadamente 20000 plantas de ají dulce (Capsicum chinense), cultivadas bajo sombra de plantas de parchita (Passiflora edulis f. sp. flavicarpa) en el Municipio Alberto Adriani, estado Mérida, Venezuela. Posteriormente la enfermedad fue detectada en La Mucuy, Municipio Santos Marquina de Mérida. En el cuello de las plantas muertas, el ...

  13. Caracterização genética de espécies de Passiflora por marcadores moleculares análogos a genes de resistência Genetic characterization of Passiflora species via resistance genes analog markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana da Silva Paula

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo comercial do maracujá é afetado por diversos problemas fitossanitários, os quais contribuem para quebras de produção e significativa redução da vida útil dos plantios. Em algumas situações, a incidência de doenças pode inviabilizar o cultivo do maracujá. Fontes de resistência a distintas doenças têm sido identificadas em acessos de espécies de Passiflora. Neste trabalho, buscou-se avaliar a diversidade genética de acessos de oito espécies silvestres (P. setacea, P. nitida, P. serratodigitata, P. caerulea, P. gibertii, P. odontophyla, P. edulis e P. coccinea e de um híbrido interespecífico (P. setacea x P. coccinea, utilizando marcadores moleculares análogos a genes de resistência (RGAs. Verificou-se uma grande diversidade no perfil eletroforético de RGAs nos acessos de Passiflora, permitindo a anotação de 96 amplicons polimórficos entre, pelo menos, um par de acessos. Os níveis de dissimilaridade genética (calculados exclusivamente com os marcadores RGAs variaram entre 0,40 e 0,89 nos acessos das espécies de Passiflora avaliadas. A análise de sequência de um subgrupo destes amplicons obtidos com primers RGAs indicou que estas bandas correspondem a regiões genômicas que contêm segmentos (motivos com identidade aos encontrados em genes de resistência previamente caracterizados em outras espécies vegetais. Desta forma, os dados indicam a existência de um repertório variado de marcadores do tipo RGA em Passiflora que podem ser potencialmente úteis em sistemas de caracterização molecular de germoplasma e em programas de melhoramento genético visando à resistência a doenças nesta cultura.The commercial cultivation of passion fruit can be affected by many diseases, which might induce sever fruit yield losses and significant life cycle reduction of the crop. In some situations disease incidence can make the passion fruit production not economically viable. Sources of resistance against several

  14. Una nueva especie de Passiflora, subgénero Passiflora (Passifloraceae del oeste de Colombia

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    Gerlach Gϋnter

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Passiflora from Colombia is here described: Passiflora chocoensis. It is closely related to P. menispermifolia, but differs by its sparsely spreading hairs, the finer texture of the leaves, its larger and cordate bracts, the number of petiolar glands and the lack of glands on the stipules and bracts.Se describe una nueva especie de Passiflora de Colombia: P. chocoensis, la cual tiene un parentesco cercano con P. menispermifolia, diferenciándose de ésta por su indumento ligero de pocos pelos dispersos, la textura de las hojas más fina, el mayor tamaño de sus brácteas en forma de corazón, la cantidad de glándulas en los pecíolos, al igual que por la ausencia de las glándulas en las brácteas y estípulas.

  15. Micropropagation of Plectranthus edulis (Vatke) Agnew from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-09-03

    Sep 3, 2014 ... Key words: In vitro propagation, meristem culture, micropropagation, Plectranthus edulis (Vatke) Agnew, shoots multiplication. ... P. edulis showed the occurrence of diseases (Taye,. 2008). ..... Asian J. Plant Sci. 2:616-622.

  16. Enxertia de maracujazeiro-azedo em estacas herbáceas enraizadas de espécies de passifloras nativas Grafting of passion fruit on rooted-herbaceous cuttings of wild passiflora species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata da Costa Chaves

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available As doenças provocadas por patógenos do solo em maracujazeiro constituem-se em um dos principais problemas para essa cultura no Brasil. Uma das alternativas de controle dessas doenças seria a utilização de porta-enxertos resistentes. Várias espécies de passifloras nativas vêm apresentando resistência a essas doenças, mas a utilização destas como porta-enxertos oriundos de sementes tem sido dificultada pelas diferenças de diâmetro entre o porta-enxerto e o enxerto da espécie comercial, o que não aconteceria caso fossem utilizadas as estacas herbáceas como porta-enxerto. No presente experimento, utilizaram-se estacas herbáceas retiradas da parte mediana de ramos de plantas de Passiflora setacea (acesso EC-PS 1, P. nitida (acesso EC-PN 1, P. caerulea (acesso EC-PC 1, P. actinia (acesso EC-PA 1 e de um híbrido F1 entre P. setacea x P. edulis f. flavicarpa comercial e tratadas com ácido naftaleno acético (ANA a 500 mg/L e mantidas em câmaras de nebulização. As enxertias do tipo "garfagem lateral no topo" foram efetuadas aos 40; 55 e 70 dias após a coleta e plantio das estacas, utilizando garfos de uma única planta de maracujazeiro-azedo. As avaliações foram efetuadas aos 145 e 150 dias após o plantio das estacas, determinando-se a porcentagem de pegamento da enxertia e de enxertos brotados e o comprimento do broto do enxerto. A produção de mudas por enxertia em estacas herbáceas enraizadas de Passiflora nitida e do híbrido F1 (P. setacea x P. edulis f. flavicarpa foi tecnicamente viável.The soil born diseases cause expressive losses in passion fruit crops in Brazil. The use of resistant rootstocks is an alternative to control these diseases. Several wild species of Passifloraceae have presented resistance to soil born pathogens, but their utilization as rootstock from seeds has been limited mainly by differences of thickness between the rootstock and the graft of the commercial cultivars. These limitations could be

  17. Path analysis for physiological traits that influence seed germination of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erneida Coelho de Araújo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of yellow passion fruit seed is determined by fruit storage and the duration of this period. Two orthree harvest dates can thereby be defined to obtain maximum quality. This study aimed to obtain estimates of phenotype,genotype and residual correlation coefficients and evaluate the direct and indirect effects (path analysis of genotype correlationsin seed extracted from fruits stored for 7, 14 and 21 days at cooled (8 ºC and at environment temperature (25 ºC. Thevariables accelerated aging and moisture content explained the higher germination percentage in the refrigerated environment.However, in natural conditions, the variables dry matter and electric conductivity influenced seed germination percentagestrongly, evidencing that the indirect effects of accelerated aging, electric conductivity and weight reduction had the greatestinfluence on dry matter.

  18. Influence of extraction conditions on antioxidant properties of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yuh Shan; Sia, Chiaw Mei; Khoo, Hock Eng; Ang, Yee Kwang; Chang, Sui Kiat; Chang, Sui Kiat; Yim, Hip Seng

    2014-01-01

    As a by-product of tropical fruit juice industry, passion fruit peel is a valuable functional food. It is rich in antioxidants. To determine its potential antioxidant properties of passion fruit peel, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extraction conditions on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The extraction conditions were selected from different percentages of ethanol (0-100%, v/v), extraction times (60-300 min), and extraction temperatures (25-60°C) that based on the optimal percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity. The selected extraction condition was applied for further determination of total phenolic content (TPC) of the passion fruit peel extract using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay, while the antioxidant activities were evaluated using DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging assays, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and β-carotene bleaching (BCB) assay. The best extraction conditions were 40% ethanol, 60 min extraction time, and extraction temperature of 30°C. The chosen extraction conditions have contributed to the high TPC and antioxidant activity of passion fruit peel. The levels of antioxidant activity obtained from the passion fruit peel were also lower compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. Positive correlations were observed between TPC and antioxidant activities as assessed by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and BCB assays. As a waste of passion fruit consumption or by-product of fruit juice industry, its peel could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant for possible functional food and industrial applications.

  19. Maracuyá, Passiflora edulis sims, un cultivo promisorio en la costa de Mississippi

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    Arjona Díaz Harvey

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de estudiar la factibilidad de producir maracuyá morado en la zona de la costa del Estado de Mississippi, la cual goza de un clima que se acerca a las condiciones semitropicales, plantas de esta especiese transplantaron en la Estaci6n Experimental de Frutales Menores del Departamento de Agricultura de los Estados Unidos de América, en Poplarville, Mississippi, en los meses de Octubre de 1988 y Mayo de 1989. Las plantas transplantadas en octubre de 1988 toleraron bien las bajas temperaturas del invierno bajo una cubierta de ritidoma pero finalmente murieron como consecuencia de las heladas tardías que se presentaron en el mes de abril de 1989. Las plantas transplantadasen mayo de 1989 se desarrollaron normalmente y dos de ellas produjeron frutos comerciales los cuales mantuvieron un color verde durante el tiempo que estuvieron adheridos a la planta. Una vez se desprendieron de la misma los frutos adquirieron el colormorado característico.
    In order to study the feasibility of producing purple passion fruit on the coastal area of Mississippi, purple passion fruit vines were transplanted at the USDA Small Fruit Research Station, Poplarville, Mississipi, during october 1988 and May 1989. Plants transplanted in october 1988 withstood the low winter temperatures protected by a bark mulch but finally they died as a consequence of the late frosts that ocurred in april 1989. Plants transplanted in may 1989 developednormally and two of them beared commercial fruits which remained green in color as long as they were attached to the vine. Once fuits absiced from the vine they acquired the characteristic purple color.

  20. The Effect of Piceatannol from Passion Fruit (Passiflora edulis Seeds on Metabolic Health in Humans

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    Munehiro Kitada

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal studies have shown the beneficial effects of piceatannol on metabolic health; however, there is a lack of human studies designed to examine these effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of piceatannol on metabolic health in humans. This randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 39 subjects, including 10 overweight men and 9 overweight women (BMI ≥ 25, as well as 10 non-overweight men and 10 non-overweight women (BMI < 25. Subjects received piceatannol (20 mg/day or placebo capsules for eight weeks in a random order. The primary outcome was the effect of piceatannol on glucose-metabolism, including insulin sensitivity. The secondary outcomes were the effects on other parameters, including blood pressure (BP, heart rate (HR, endothelial function, lipids, inflammation, oxidative stress, mood status, and Sirt1 and phospho-AMP-activated kinase (p-AMPK expression in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs. Supplementation with piceatannol in overweight men reduced serum insulin levels, HOMA-IR, BP and HR. Other groups, including non-overweight men, as well as overweight and non-overweight women, showed no beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity, BP and HR. Furthermore, piceatannol is not associated with other data, including body weight (BW, body composition, endothelial function, lipids, inflammation, oxidative stress, mood status, and Sirt1/p-AMPK expression in PBMNCs. In conclusion, supplementation with piceatannol can improve metabolic health, including insulin sensitivity, BP and HR, in overweight men.

  1. An orientin derivative isolated from Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Freddy A.; Castellanos, Leonardo; López, César; Palacios, Lizeth; Duque, Carmenza; Pacheco, Ricardo; Guzmán, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Passiflora tripartita var. mollisima (banana passion fruit) is an edible fruit widespread in the Andean highlands of Colombia and Ecuador. The fruit is used for juices as well as for the sedative properties of the leaves. As a contribution to the chemical characterization of this species, a new compound, 4'- methoxyluteolin-8-C-6”acetylglucopyranoside, was isolated from the ethanolic extract of Passiflora tripartita var. mollisima leaves and identified by spectroscopical data (NMR, MS, UV).

  2. Micropropagation of Alibertia edulis Rich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Augusta Boato da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a micropropagation protocol for Alibertia edulis, a medicinal Brazilian Cerrado plant. A. edulis seeds were sterilized and germinated in water-agar. Fifteen millimeter long explants from the seedlings cultivated for 50 days were used for the multiplication in three consecutive subcultures. The cytokinin benzyladenine (BA alone or combined with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA was added to ¼ MS medium. The treatments containing combinations of the BA + IBA induced more shoot proliferation than the BA alone, with the optimum concentration of 0.5 mg.L-1 for both growth regulators. A. edulis shoots elongated easily and the presence of growth regulators did have a positive effect on the shoot elongation. Consecutive subcultures also had a positive effect on both sprouting and shoot elongation. Activated charcoal was essential for rooting, and all rooted plants were able to acclimatize.Foi desenvolvido um protocolo de micropropagação para A. edulis, uma espécie arbórea frutífera e medicinal presente no Cerrado brasileiro. Sementes de A. edulis foram esterilizadas e germinadas em ágar-água. Explantes de 15 mm foram retirados das plântulas e cultivados por 50 dias em meio de multiplicação e três subculturas. A citocinina benzilalanina (BA, sozinha ou em combinação com ácido indol butírico (IBA foram adicionados em no meio ¼ MS. Os tratamentos contendo combinações de BA-IBA induziram uma maior proliferação de brotos que aqueles somente com BA, e a concentração ótima desses reguladores de crescimento foi de 0.5 mg.L-1 para cada. Os brotos de A. edulis facilmente se alongaram e a presença de reguladores de crescimento no meio de cultura teve efeito positivo sobre o alongamento. Da mesma forma, as consecutivas subculturas tiveram um efeito positivo tanto sobre a brotação quanto no alongamento. Carvão ativado foi essencial para o enraizamento dos ramos, e todas as plantas foram aclimatadas com sucesso.

  3. Begin at the beginning: A BAC-end view of the passion fruit (Passiflora) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Anselmo Azevedo; Penha, Helen Alves; Bellec, Arnaud; Munhoz, Carla de Freitas; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea; Bergès, Hélène; Vieira, Maria Lucia Carneiro

    2014-09-26

    The passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) is a tropical crop of economic importance both for juice production and consumption as fresh fruit. The juice is also used in concentrate blends that are consumed worldwide. However, very little is known about the genome of the species. Therefore, improving our understanding of passion fruit genomics is essential and to some degree a pre-requisite if its genetic resources are to be used more efficiently. In this study, we have constructed a large-insert BAC library and provided the first view on the structure and content of the passion fruit genome, using BAC-end sequence (BES) data as a major resource. The library consisted of 82,944 clones and its levels of organellar DNA were very low. The library represents six haploid genome equivalents, and the average insert size was 108 kb. To check its utility for gene isolation, successful macroarray screening experiments were carried out with probes complementary to eight Passiflora gene sequences available in public databases. BACs harbouring those genes were used in fluorescent in situ hybridizations and unique signals were detected for four BACs in three chromosomes (n=9). Then, we explored 10,000 BES and we identified reads likely to contain repetitive mobile elements (19.6% of all BES), simple sequence repeats and putative proteins, and to estimate the GC content (~42%) of the reads. Around 9.6% of all BES were found to have high levels of similarity to plant genes and ontological terms were assigned to more than half of the sequences analysed (940). The vast majority of the top-hits made by our sequences were to Populus trichocarpa (24.8% of the total occurrences), Theobroma cacao (21.6%), Ricinus communis (14.3%), Vitis vinifera (6.5%) and Prunus persica (3.8%). We generated the first large-insert library for a member of Passifloraceae. This BAC library provides a new resource for genetic and genomic studies, as well as it represents a valuable tool for future whole genome

  4. Effect of a medicinal plant (Passiflora incarnata L on sleep

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    Fructuoso Ayala Guerrero

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Extracts of the plant Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae were administered intraperitoneally in order to test its effects on sleep. METHOD: Experiments were carried out on chronically implanted male adult wistar rats to obtain cerebral (EEG, ocular (EOG and muscular (EMG activities throughout their states of vigilance. Polygraphic recordings were taken during 9 continuous hours before and after the extract administration (500 mg/kg. RESULTS: Passiflora incarnata induced a significant increment in the total sleep time (p<0.05. This increment was due to an increase in the time spent by animals in slow wave sleep (SWS. Concomitantly, a significant decrement in wakefulness (W was observed (p<0.05. In contrast, time spent in rapid eye movement (REM sleep showed a decreasing tendency, since both its frequency and mean duration were reduced. CONCLUSIONS: The extracts obtained from Passiflora incarnata can be considered as appropriated sleep inducers.

  5. Effect of a medicinal plant (Passiflora incarnata L) on sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Fructuoso Ayala; Medina, Graciela Mexicano

    2017-01-01

    Extracts of the plant Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae) were administered intraperitoneally in order to test its effects on sleep. Experiments were carried out on chronically implanted male adult wistar rats to obtain cerebral (EEG), ocular (EOG) and muscular (EMG) activities throughout their states of vigilance. Polygraphic recordings were taken during 9 continuous hours before and after the extract administration (500 mg/kg). Passiflora incarnata induced a significant increment in the total sleep time ( p sleep (SWS). Concomitantly, a significant decrement in wakefulness (W) was observed ( p sleep showed a decreasing tendency, since both its frequency and mean duration were reduced. The extracts obtained from Passiflora incarnata can be considered as appropriated sleep inducers.

  6. Genetic variability assessment in the genus Passiflora by SSR markers

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    Claudia Lougon Paiva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Passiflora encompasses many species that are endemic to the Brazilian territory, including some with economic value. Studies on genetic diversity in this genus are fundamental because they allow understanding genetic variability and distance. The present study aimed to determine the genetic variability and distances among 10 species of the genus Passiflora by using microsatellite markers (Simple Sequence Repeat, SSR. Twenty-eight heterologous microsatellite markers were tested, but only 12 were used in the diversity analysis because they amplified in at least 80% of the species. A clear separation was observed among the subgenuses studied, as well as wide variation among the accessions of Passiflora. This knowledge enables breeders to explore diversity and transfer favorable alleles found in wild species.

  7. Notas sobre Passiflora ischnoclada Harms (Passifloraceae Notes on Passiflora ischnoclada Harms (Passifloraceae

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    Luís Carlos Bernacci

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Passiflora ischnoclada foi descrita com base em apenas uma coleta. O único exemplar conhecido estava depositado no herbário de Berlin-Dahlem (B, mas foi destruído. A sinonimização da espécie em P. jilekii Wawra havia sido proposta, com base apenas em sua descrição original, mas, outro exemplar da coleção-tipo foi localizado no herbário do Instituto de Botânica (SP e P. ischnoclada foi recoletada na mesma área, quase um século depois. Foi possível comprovar a validade da espécie e seu posicionamento na série Laurifoliae e complementar sua descrição, acrescentando caracteres das flores e do fruto imaturo.The description of Passiflora ischnoclada was based on the type collection. The only mentioned material was deposited in the Berlin-Dahlem herbarium (B and was destroyed. The synonimization of P. ischnoclada under P. jilekii was proposed according to that description. Recently another material from the type collection was found in the SP herbarium and the species was collected again in the type locality. In this work the reestablishment of P. ischnoclada is proposed as well as the position of the species in the series Laurifoliae is discussed, and the description of the species is complemented, with adding characters of the flowers and the immature fruit.

  8. Effect of a medicinal plant (Passiflora incarnata L) on sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero, Fructuoso Ayala; Medina, Graciela Mexicano

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Extracts of the plant Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae) were administered intraperitoneally in order to test its effects on sleep. METHOD: Experiments were carried out on chronically implanted male adult wistar rats to obtain cerebral (EEG), ocular (EOG) and muscular (EMG) activities throughout their states of vigilance. Polygraphic recordings were taken during 9 continuous hours before and after t...

  9. Screening of Passiflora species for reaction to Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus reveals an immune wild species Seleção de espécies de Passiflora inoculadas com o vírus do mosaico do caupi revela a imunidade de uma espécie selvagem

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    Scheila da Conceição Maciel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV is a potyvirus that causes the most serious virus disease of passion fruit crops in Brazil. It is transmitted by several species of aphids in a non-persistent, non-circulative manner. The reaction of 16 species of Passiflora to infection by mechanical inoculation with four Brazilian isolates of CABMV was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Only P. suberosa, a wild species, was resistant to infection by all virus isolates, in two independent assays. P. suberosa grafted onto infected P. edulis f. flavicarpa did not develop symptoms; neither was the virus detected by RT-PCR in the upper leaves, suggesting that this species is immune to CABMV.O vírus do mosaico do caupi (Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus - CABMV é um potyvirus que causa uma das mais importantes doenças do maracujazeiro no Brasil. O vírus é transmitido por diversas espécies de afídeos de maneira não persistente, não circulativa. A reação de 16 espécies de Passiflora à infecção com quatro isolados brasileiros do CABMV, por meio de inoculação mecânica foi avaliada em condições de casa-de-vegetação. Somente a espécie selvagem P. suberosa foi resistente à infecção com todos os isolados do CABMV, em dois ensaios independentes. Plantas de P. suberosa enxertadas em plantas de P. edulis f. flavicarpa infectadas com o CABMV também não desenvolveram sintomas da doença. O vírus também não foi detectado por RT-PCR nas folhas superiores das plantas, sugerindo que essa espécie é imune ao CABMV.

  10. Produção de mudas de maracujazeiro-amarelo por enxertia hipocotiledonar sobre sete espécies de passifloras

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    Geraldo Costa Nogueira Filho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O maracujazeiro-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Deg. é a principal Passifloraceae cultivada no Brasil, e seu cultivo tem encontrado algumas dificuldades, principalmente no que concerne à longevidade dos pomares, a qual tem sido reduzida devido à incidência de doenças e nematoides que atacam o seu sistema radicular. Este trabalho teve por objetivo estabelecer tecnologias para a produção de mudas de maracujazeiro-amarelo, através da enxertia hipocotiledonar, sobre sete porta-enxertos. Os porta-enxertos utilizados foram: P. edulis f. flavicarpa; P. caerulea; P. alata; P. gibertii; P. coccinea; P. cincinnata e P. setacea. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 36 repetições para cada porta-enxerto. As características avaliadas foram: percentual de sobrevivência dos enxertos, altura das plantas, número de folhas, diâmetro do porta-enxerto. A metodologia de enxertia hipocotiledonar testada foi bem-sucedida para a maioria das espécies testadas. Destacaram-se os porta-enxertos: P. caerulea; P. gibertii; P. cincinnata e P. flavicarpa, tanto pelo alto índice de pegamento como pela precocidade na obtenção da muda.

  11. PASSIOMA: Exploring Expressed Sequence Tags during Flower Development in Passiflora spp.

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    Lucas Cutri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Passiflora provides a remarkable example of floral complexity and diversity. The extreme variation of Passiflora flower morphologies allowed a wide range of interactions with pollinators to evolve. We used the analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs as an approach for the characterization of genes expressed during Passiflora reproductive development. Analyzing the Passiflora floral EST database (named PASSIOMA, we found sequences showing significant sequence similarity to genes known to be involved in reproductive development such as MADS-box genes. Some of these sequences were studied using RT-PCR and in situ hybridization confirming their expression during Passiflora flower development. The detection of these novel sequences can contribute to the development of EST-based markers for important agronomic traits as well as to the establishment of genomic tools to study the naturally occurring floral diversity among Passiflora species.

  12. Leaf allocation patterns and 13C and 15N natural abundances of tropical lianas (Passiflora sp.) as dependent on external climbing support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, Martin; Spiegel, Ann-Kathrin; Kazda, Marian

    2013-01-01

    The transformation from self-supporting lianas to host-supported climbing lianas is related to re-allocation of biomass and nutrients among plant organs. Therefore, first, variations in leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf carbon and nitrogen allocation and (13)C and (15)N natural abundances were analysed among three tropical Passiflora species (P. edulis, P. ligularis, and P. tripartita) in a greenhouse study. Second, the influence of a climbing support was considered for each species and parameter. P. ligularis leaves were most enriched in (13)C in both treatments when compared with the other two species. This enrichment was caused by a high LMA, which is related to a high internal resistance to CO(2) diffusion. For P. edulis and P. tripartita, δ(13)C was additionally increasing with nitrogen content per area. Generally, there were no differences when considering carbon and nitrogen allocation to leaves of host-supported and self-supporting lianas. The only hints towards increased investment into leaves after the transition from self-supporting to host-supported stages could be seen by a trend to increased leaf areas and masses. δ(13)C values of supported P. edulis or P. tripartita plants were significantly increasing faster than those of non-supported plants once the interactions of leaf mass or nitrogen content per area were accounted for. Hence, the offer of a climbing support had only a minor impact on δ(13)C or δ(15)N values in vitro, but this could be different with increasing age of lianas in vivo.

  13. Flavonoids from Afrofittonia silvestris and Dacryodes edulis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dirhamnoside, as well as a known glycoside, kaempferide 3–O–β–glucoside, were identified from the leaves of Afrofittonia silvestris. Other known compounds, ethylgallate and quercitrin, were isolated from the leaves of Dacryodes edulis.

  14. Efficiency of ITS Sequences for DNA Barcoding in Passiflora (Passifloraceae

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    Giovanna Câmara Giudicelli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding is a technique for discriminating and identifying species using short, variable, and standardized DNA regions. Here, we tested for the first time the performance of plastid and nuclear regions as DNA barcodes in Passiflora. This genus is a largely variable, with more than 900 species of high ecological, commercial, and ornamental importance. We analyzed 1034 accessions of 222 species representing the four subgenera of Passiflora and evaluated the effectiveness of five plastid regions and three nuclear datasets currently employed as DNA barcodes in plants using barcoding gap, applied similarity-, and tree-based methods. The plastid regions were able to identify less than 45% of species, whereas the nuclear datasets were efficient for more than 50% using “best match” and “best close match” methods of TaxonDNA software. All subgenera presented higher interspecific pairwise distances and did not fully overlap with the intraspecific distance, and similarity-based methods showed better results than tree-based methods. The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 region presented a higher discrimination power than the other datasets and also showed other desirable characteristics as a DNA barcode for this genus. Therefore, we suggest that this region should be used as a starting point to identify Passiflora species.

  15. In Vitro Culture and Phytochemical Analysis of Passiflora tenuifila Killip and Passiflora setacea DC (Passifloraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozo, Jenny Sumara; Cruz, Daniel Cuzziol; Pavei, Ana Flavia; Pereira, Isadora Medeiros da Costa; Wolfart, Marcia; Ramlov, Fernanda; Fiuza Montagner, Daiane; Maraschin, Marcelo; Viana, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    We have developed reproducible micropropagation, callus culture, phytochemical, and antioxidant analysis protocols for the wild passion fruit species P. tenuifila, and P. setacea, native to the Brazilian endangered biomes Atlantic Forest, Cerrado, and Caatinga, by using seeds and explants from seedlings and adult plants. Genotype and explant origin-linked differences are visible amongst the Passiflora species concerning callus production, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity. The protocols developed for screening phytochemicals and antioxidants in P. tenuifila and P. setacea callus extracts have shown their potential for phenolic production and antioxidant activity. The high level of phenolic compounds seems to account for the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of P. tenuifila derived from 45-day-old immature seed callus. The methanolic extracts of callus derived from P. setacea seedling leaf node and cotyledonary node explants have shown the highest antioxidant activity despite their lower content of phenolics, as compared to cotyledon callus extracts. The optimized micropropagation and callus culture protocols have great potential to use cell culture techniques for further vegetative propagation, in vitro germplasm conservation, and secondary metabolite production using biotic and abiotic elicitors.

  16. FLUTUAÇÃO POPULACIONAL DE Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae EM MARACUJAZEIROS (Passiflora spp., MÉTODOS DE AMOSTRAGEM E RESISTÊNCIA DE GENÓTIPOS

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    Boiça Júnior Arlindo Leal

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi desenvolvida por um período de três anos (1991/94, em condições de campo, em Jaboticabal, SP, objetivando-se verificar a época do ano de maior ocorrência de Dione juno juno, avaliar métodos de amostragem e a resistência de genótipos de maracujazeiro (Passiflora spp. ao seu ataque. Utilizaram-se doze genótipos entre espécies e híbridos. Os levantamentos foram realizados quinzenalmente, anotando-se o número de lagartas, o número total de folhas e o número de folhas atacadas por 0,25 m2 , e também em 1,5 m linear de espaldeira. Os resultados mostraram que a ocorrência de D. juno juno foi maior no inverno, com pico populacional em julho, seguindo-se da primavera e o verão, com pico em dezembro. As amostragens do número de folhas atacadas por D. juno juno/0,25 m2 e porcentagem de folhas atacadas pelas lagartas/0,25 m2 foram mais adequadas para a avaliação da infestação de genótipos de maracujazeiro pela praga; os genótipos P. alata, P. setacea, P. coccinea, P. nitida, P. alata2 x P. macrocarpa não foram atacados pela praga e o P. edulis x P. setacea foi muito pouco atacado, enquanto P. cincinnata, P. edulis, P. edulis x P. alata, P. edulis x P. giberti e P. caerulea foram os mais infestados.

  17. Pengaruh Kadar Gula, Vitamin C Dan Kadar Serat Dari Sari Buah Markisa Ungu (Passiflora Edulis Var Edulis) Pada Pembuatan Nata De Coco Dengan Menggunakan Acetobacter Xylinum

    OpenAIRE

    Suwijah

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted with laboratory scale. Research on the influence of sugar content, vitamin C and fiber content of fruit juice markisah on making nata de coco using acetobacter xylinum. Studies have been conducted without the addition of passion fruit juice with a ratio of 100: 0 and with the addition of fruit juice markisah with a ratio 90: 10, 80:20, 70: 30, 60: 40 and 50: 50. The method is carried out in research is an experimental method. In nata de coco that is not mixed with pas...

  18. VALIDACIÓN DE UN MÉTODO PARA EL ANÁLISIS DE RESIDUALIDAD DE PLAGUICIDAS EN GULUPA (Passiflora edulis f. edulis

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    Sara Juliana Olivo-Taborda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La gulupa perteneciente a la familia Passifloraceae, es nativa del trópico americano, y se caracteriza por su exótico y distintivo aroma, cualidad que la hace atractiva para el mercado europeo, para lo cual debe de cumplir estándares de inocuidad sanitaria. Para ello, se evaluó un método para el análisis simultáneo de residualidad de parathion-methyl, malathion, deltamethrina y chlorothalonil en esta matriz. Se aplicó la técnica de QuEChERS, siguiendo una modificación del protocolo EN 15662, formado por tres etapas, la primera, consiste en una extracción con acetonitrilo (MeCN que incluye un proceso de precipitación salina de la muestra en medio acuoso. En el segundo paso, se realiza una limpieza utilizando diversos sorbentes para remover la mayoría de componentes coextraídos con los analitos, y por último se realiza el análisis instrumental empleando la cromatografía gaseosa. En el análisis de linealidad se obtuvieron correlaciones de 0,9991; 0,9998 y 0,9992 para parathion-methyl, malatihon y deltametrina respectivamente; que cumplieron las pruebas de significancia, pues chlorothalonil no cumplió con los parámetros requeridos para la validación. Se lograron límites de cuantificación de 0,035 mg/kg para parathion-methyl y 0,02 mg/kg para los otros dos compuestos validados con estimaciones de incertidumbre menores al 50%. Se cumplieron los criterios de precisión y exactitud establecidos en SANCO 12571, 2013, logrando una validación exitosa

  19. Optimization of in vitro organogenesis in passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Otimização da organogênese in vitro de maracujazeiro (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa

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    Flavio Trevisan

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In vitro organogenesis of passion fruit was studied by the induction of adventitious buds from leaf discs in culture media supplemented with benzyladenine (BAP or thidiazuron (TDZ. To minimize adverse effects of ethylene accumulation on shoot development, silver nitrate (AgNO3 was added to the induction media. Both BAP (0; 2.2; 4.4; 6.6 µmol L-1 and TDZ (0; 1.1; 2.2; 3.4 µmol L-1 were effective in promoting shoot development. Although no significant differences were detected using AgNO3 (23.5 µmol L-1, buds grown in AgNO3-supplemented media were more vigorous. The number of explants with buds obtained using TDZ and AgNO3-supplemented media (5.6 were higher than those obtained using BAP and AgNO3 (3.0. MSM + giberrellic acid (GA3, MSM + coconut water, and ½ MSM culture media were tested for shoot bud elongation, incubated in flasks covered with either non-vented or vented lids. Best results were obtained by culturing buds in MSM + coconut water media in flasks covered with vented lids. Plantlets transferred to MSM + indol butyric acid (IBA media rooted in a 30-day period. Passion fruit organogenesis was enhanced by using TDZ and AgNO3 for bud induction. Transferring the buds to MSM + coconut water media and incubating in flasks with vented lids favored shoot elongation and plantlet development.A organogênese in vitro de maracujá foi estudada pela indução de gemas adventícias em discos de folha cultivados em meio de cultura suplementado com benziladenina (BAP ou thidiazuron (TDZ. Nitrato de prata (AgNO3 foi adicionado ao meio de cultura de indução de gemas adventícias para minimizar o efeito do acúmulo de etileno no desenvolvimento dos brotos. Tanto BAP (0; 2,2; 4,4; 6,6 µmol L-1 como TDZ (0; 1,1; 2,2; 3,4 µmol L-1 foram eficientes em promover o desenvolvimento de brotos. Embora diferenças significativas no uso de AgNO3 (23,5 µmol L-1 não tenham sido detectadas, gemas adventícias desenvolvidas em meio de cultura suplementado com AgNO3 eram mais vigorosas. O número de explantes com gemas obtidos no meio de cultura suplementado com TDZ e AgNO3 (5,6 foi maior do que aquele obtido com BAP e AgNO3 (3,0. Os meios de cultura MSM + ácido giberélico (GA3, MSM + água de coco ou ½ MSM foram utilizados para o alongamento dos brotos, os quais foram incubados em frascos com tampas ventiladas ou tampas normais. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos cultivando-se as gemas adventícias no meio de cultura MSM + água de coco em frascos com tampas ventiladas. As plântulas transferidas para meio de cultura MSM + ácido indol butírico enraizaram num período de 30 dias. A organogênese in vitro de maracujazeiro foi otimizada utilizando-se TDZ + AgNO3 para a indução de gemas adventícias. A transferência das gemas para meio de cultura MSM + água de coco e a incubação em frascos com tampas ventiladas favoreceu o alongamento e o desenvolvimento de plântulas.

  20. PROXIMAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF THE EXTRACT OF PASSION FRUIT SEEDS (Passiflora edulis IN SOYBEAN OIL COMPOSIÇÃO CENTESIMAL E ATIVIDADE ANTIOXIDANTE DO EXTRATO DE SEMENTES DE MARACUJÁ (Passiflora edulis EM ÓLEO DE SOJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Milene Angelo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    This study evaluated the antioxidant activity of passion fruit seeds extract in soybean oil. Dried seeds were ground and submitted to extraction with ethanol:water (95:5, for two hours, at room temperature. The resulting extract was centrifuged and the supernatant evaporated for dry extract yield calculation. The extract of passion fruit seeds was suspended again in ethanol:water (95:5 and applied to soybean oil in two concentrations (500 mg kg-1 and 1,000 mg kg-1, being submitted to oven accelerated test at 60oC, for 20 days. Oil samples were taken every 5 days and analyzed for peroxide value. As a parameter of comparison, it was used butyl hydroxytoluene (BHT as well as refined soybean oil without antioxidants (control. In the extract, the antioxidant activity was measured by the DPPH radical method and total phenols by using the Folin-Ciocalteau method. The yield of dry extract was 1.26%, the IC50 value was 113.41 µg mL-1, and the concentration of total phenolic compounds was 42.93 mg of gallic acid per gram of extract. At the final heating time, peroxide values were significantly different and the antioxidant activity order was: BHT > passion fruit 500 mg kg-1 > passion fruit 1,000 mg kg-1 > control.

    KEY-WORDS: Antioxidants; passion fruit seeds; peroxide value; proximal composition.

    Este trabalho consistiu em avaliar a atividade antioxidante do extrato de sementes de maracujá em óleo de soja. As sementes desidratadas foram trituradas e submetidas à extração em etanol:água (95:5, por duas horas, à temperatura ambiente. O extrato resultante foi centrifugado e o sobrenadante rotoevaporado, a fim de se calcular o rendimento de extrato seco. O extrato de sementes de maracujá foi ressuspenso no mesmo solvente utilizado para a extração e aplicado no óleo de soja, em duas concentrações (500 mg kg-1 e 1.000 mg kg-1, sendo submetido ao teste acelerado de estufa, a 60ºC, por 20 dias. Amostras de óleo foram retiradas a cada 5 dias e analisadas quanto ao índice de peróxidos. Como parâmetro de comparação, foi utilizado butil hidroxitolueno (BHT, bem como o óleo de soja refinado, isento de antioxidantes (controle. No extrato, a atividade antioxidante foi mensurada pelo método do radical DPPH e a concentração de compostos fenólicos totais pelo método de Folin-Ciocalteau. O rendimento em extrato seco foi 1,26%, o valor de CE50 encontrado foi 113,41 µg mL-1 e a concentração de compostos fenólicos totais foi 42,93 mg de ácido gálico/g de extrato. Para o tempo final de estufa, os valores de peróxidos diferiram significativamente entre si e a ordem de atividade antioxidante foi: BHT > maracujá 500 mg kg-1 > maracujá 1.000 mg kg-1 > controle.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Antioxidantes; sementes de maracujá; índice de peróxidos; composição centesimal.

  1. Activity of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis and guava (Psidium guajava pulps on Lactobacillus acidophilus in refrigerated mousses Atividade das polpas de maracujá (Passiflora edulis e goiaba (Psidium guajava sobre Lactobacillus acidophilus em musses refrigeradas

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    Flávia C. A. Buriti

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Five pilot-scale mousse-making trials were produced and supplemented with Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 probiotic culture: M1 with passion fruit concentrated juice (PJ; M2 with PJ and prebiotic fibre inulin; M3 with frozen passion fruit pulp (PP; M4 with frozen guava pulp (GP; M5 with GP and lactic acid. The products were stored refrigerated (4ºC and M2 and M5 were also stored frozen (-18ºC. Viability of L. acidophilus decreased up to 4.7 log cfu.g-1 in the 21st day for refrigerated mousses containing passion fruit (M1, M2 and M3, whereas the probiotic population remained above 6 log cfu.g-1 in the mousses containing guava (M4 and M5. Inhibition due to acidity was discharged. The addition of fruits to probiotic products should be carefully planned because inhibition of probiotic strains might occur.Cinco musses foram produzidas em escala piloto e suplementadas com a cultura probiótica de Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5: M1 - com suco concentrado de maracujá (SM; M2 - com SM e fibra prebiótica inulina; M3 - com polpa congelada de maracujá (PM; M4 - com polpa congelada de goiaba (PG; M5 - com PG e ácido lático. Os produtos foram armazenados refrigerados (4ºC e M2 e M5 também congelados (-18ºC. A viabilidade de Lactobacillus acidophilus diminuiu em até 4,7 log ufc.g-1 ao 21º dia nas musses contendo maracujá (M1, M3 e M2, enquanto a população do probiótico permaneceu acima de 6 log ufc.g-1 naquelas contendo goiaba (M4 e M5. A inibição devido à acidez foi descartada. A adição de frutas aos produtos probióticos deve ser cuidadosamente planejada, uma vez que pode haver inibição das cepas probióticas.

  2. Desenvolvimento de mudas de maracujazeiro (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. sob diferentes níveis de sombreamento = The effect of shading levels on the development of yellow passion fruit seedlings (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg.

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    Maria Laura Souza Silva

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o efeito de níveis de sombreamento sobre o desenvolvimento de mudas de maracujazeiro, no período de 12/05 a 29/06 de 2004, na Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, em Vitória da Conquista, Estado da Bahia. Mudas com 45 dias após aemergência foram transplantadas e submetidas a diferentes níveis de redução da radiação solar, quais sejam: 0% (pleno sol, 30%, 50% e 70%. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos, cinco repetições e seis plantas úteis por parcela. Foram avaliadas as características: massa seca de raízes, caules e folhas, razão parte aérea/raiz, área foliar, área foliar específica, razão de área foliar, razão de massa foliar e teor de nitrogênio total. Foi observada tendência ao acúmulo de massa secanas mudas menos sombreadas, sendo que houve aumento da razão parte aérea/raiz nas mudas sob maiores níveis de sombreamento. A área foliar, área foliar específica e razão de área foliar foram maiores nas plantas mais sombreadas, refletindo uma adaptação destas paramaximizar a absorção de luz. A razão de massa foliar não diferiu entre os tratamentos. O teor de nitrogênio total por unidade de massa foi maior nas plantas mais sombreadas, enquanto por unidade de área, decresceu.The effect of shading levels on the development of yellow passion fruit seedlings was studied, from May 12 to June 29 (2004, at theUniversidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. Seedlings aged 45 days after the emergency, were cultivated and submitted to different levels of solar radiation reduction: 0%, 30%, 50% and 70%. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with four treatments, five replications and six plants for plot. The evaluation parameters were: dry mass of roots, stems and leaves, shoot/root ratio, leaf area, specific leaf area, leaf area ratio, leaf mass ratio and nitrogen content. A trend to the accumulation of dry mass in the less shaded plants was observed. Also, there was an increase of the aerial part/root ratio in the plants under higher shade levels. The leaf area, specific leaf area and leaf area ratio were higher in the shaded plants, reflecting an adaptation of these to maximize the light absorption. The leaf massratio did not differ between the treatments. The total nitrogen content per unit of mass was higher in the shaded plants, while per unit of area, a decrease was observed.

  3. Evaluación del potencial antibacteriano de extractos de semillas de cinco frutas tropicales

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    Nirza de la Cruz Noguera Machado

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Las semillas y epicarpios de muchos frutos suelen ser descartados después del consumo directo y/o procesamiento industrial. Se ha descrito que estos subproductos son ricos en compuestos bioactivos, los cuales pueden ser utilizados como aditivos en la industria de alimentos y en otros procesos productivos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue producir extractos a partir de las semillas de cinco frutas tropicales: mango (Mangifera indica, papaya (Carica papaya, guayaba (Psidium guajava, parchita (Passiflora edulis y melón (Cucumis melo, y medir su efecto sobre el crecimiento de las bacterias Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 y Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. La extracción se hizo por maceración a temperatura ambiental usando etanol al 90 %. Se tomaron 100 μL de los extractos y se adicionaron al medio de cultivo. Las bacterias fueron incubadas por 6 horas y su crecimiento se midió por turbidimetría a 600 nm, cada 30 minutos. Se encontró que las bacterias crecidas en presencia del extracto de parchita, exhibieron los menores valores de absorbancia, indicativo del potencial inhibitorio. Este efecto fue confirmado mediante contajes en placas y el método de difusión en agar, donde las concentraciones de 11,7 y 9,4 mg/mL fueron las que presentaron mejor efecto sobre S. aureus.

  4. Markisa fruit (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa) as a fixation material of natural colour of mangrove waste on batik

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzah, S. N.; Marwoto, P.; Iswari, R. S.

    2018-03-01

    The process of natural colouring of batik using mangrove waste with the markisa fruit as a fixation material has been reported. In this experiment, the fixation material of markisa fruit has been compared with the commonly used fixation materials, such as CaCO3, AlK(SO4)2, and FeSO4 as material controls. Both grey scale and staining scale have been used as standard evaluations. Based on the Indonesian National Standard (SNI) it can be shown that batik with markisa fruit as a fixation material has a colour fastness value against average washing at good-excellent level (4-5) and colour fastness value to sunshine is moderate-excellent level (3-5). Thus, we conclude that Markisa fruit can be used as a fixation material in the colouring process of natural colour batik from mangrove waste.

  5. Effect of storage temperature on physico-chemical and sensory attributes of purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Kundan; Pathak, K A; Shukla, Rohit; Bharali, Rinku

    2011-08-01

    Physico-chemical and sensory quality of juice from purple passion fruit under different storage temperature and time were assessed. The maximum loss in fruit weight was recorded under room temperature (25 ± 1°C) followed by at 11 ± 1°C. There was an increase in juice percentage up to 9 and 13 days under room temperature and storage at 11 ± 1°C respectively. The optimum flavour in juice was up to 5 days at 25 ± 1°C and up to 21 days at 8 ± 1°C. A significant reduction in sourness was recorded on 5th day under all treatments and the scores for sourness became almost constant after 17 days. The maximum increase in the mean scores of sweetness on 5th day was observed at 25 ± 1°C followed by at 11 ± 1°C. The optimum level of juice sweetness was maintained up to 21 days at 8 ± 1°C. Total soluble solids content increased in initial stage followed by reduction. There was a reduction in the titrable acidity up to 21 days at 8 ± 1°C. A decreasing trend in the reducing and non-reducing sugar of passion fruit was observed under all the treatments. Fruits stored at 25 ± 1°C, developed off-flavour in juice after 5 days, while storage at 8 ± 1°C produced no off-flavor even up to 21 days. Fruits can be stored for 5 days only at 25 ± 1°C as the overall sensory quality of juice reduced significantly afterwards, while juice maintained the optimum overall quality up to 21 days at 8 ± 1°C.

  6. Physico-chemical properties, rheology and degree of esterification of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) peel flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Emanuela M; de Azevêdo, Luciana C; Viana, Arão C; Ramos, Ingrid G; Gomes, Raquel G; Lima, Marcos Dos S; Umsza-Guez, Marcelo A

    2018-01-01

    The peel of yellow passion fruit is as an agro-industrial waste of great environmental impact, representing more than 50% of the total weight of the fruit. For this reason, and also considering its importance as a source of functional components such as pectin, this organic waste is increasingly attracting the attention of researchers. The aim of this study was to investigate the physico-chemical composition and physical properties of this material, which may be of interest to the food industry. We obtained two samples of passion fruit peel flour applying different processes: flour without treatment (FWOT) and flour with treatment by maceration (FWT). It was found that the flour samples contain, respectively, 372.4 g kg -1 and 246.7 kg -1 of soluble fiber and, according to the FTIR analysis, this material corresponds to high and low methoxyl pectins, respectively. The flour obtained by maceration (FWT) offers greater benefits for industrial use, with 60% fewer tannins and greater thermal stability. In addition, this sample does not reabsorb moisture as easily, although FWOT also shows potential for use in dietary products. Considering the pseudoplastic properties of the flours, the application of both samples could be expanded to many industrial sectors. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Soil carabids and ants in two farming areas of yellow passion fruit (passiflora edulis) at Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, Anderson; Armbrecht, Inge; Chacon, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The fauna of beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and ants that survive in the soil of a passion fruit crop under conventional management in Roldanillo-Valle del Cauca was examined, in March and May (rainy season) and in June and July (dry season), 2012. We carried out four samplings of monthly intensity in two plots with plants of different ages, and registered the species found. We found 149 individuals of Carabidae, distributed into ten species and 2447 ants, distributed in 19 morphospecies. The most abundant species of ants was Solenopsis geminata, while Megacephala (Tetracha) sobrina was the most abundant species of Carabidae. It was also found that the abundance and richness of carabid beetles tend to be higher in the rainy season, while some ant species showed a preference for specific seasonal periods. We conclude that a rich fauna of ground carabids and ants survives in the study area, which could contribute in the control of phytophagous insects populations associated with the crops of passion fruit.

  8. Characterization of the seed oils from kiwi (Actinidia chinensis, passion fruit (Passiflora edulis and guava (Psidium guajava

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    Piombo Georges

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Oils extracted from three exotic fruits, guava, kiwi and passion fruit were analyzed to evaluate the possible commercial interest for these waste materials from fruit juices industry. Results showed interesting fatty acids compositions with high amounts of essential fatty acids such as 62.3% alpha linolenic acid for kiwi seed oil, and respectively 73.4% and 77.0% for omega 6 linoleic acid in passion fruit and guava seed oils. Fatty acids regiodistribution, sterols and tocopherols contents were also analyzed to try to establish the potential nutritional interest of such oils.

  9. Effects of some extrusion variables on physicochemical characteristics of extruded corn starch-passion fruit pulp (Passiflora edulis) snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, R Nallely Falfán; Guzmán, Iñigo Verdalet; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of the addition of passion fruit pulp (PFP: 0-7%), the variation of barrel temperature in the third zone extruder (BT: 80-140 °C) and feed moisture (FM:16-30%) in a blend of corn starch and passion fruit pulp on different physicochemical characteristics of directly expanded snacks by extrusion technology. Single-screw laboratory extruder and a central, composite, rotatable experimental design were used. Expansion index of extrudates ranged between 1.0 and 1.8. Decreasing of feed moisture (18%), passion fruit pulp concentration (1.42%) and the increasing of barrel temperature (127 °C) resulted in higher expansion index. The increasing of feed moisture and passion fruit pulp concentration resulted in higher penetration force values of extrudates. The passion fruit pulp concentration showed a highly significant effect (p ≤ 0.01) on the L *, a * and b * parameters. Passion fruit pulp has a reasonable source of β-carotene, proteins and dietary fibers that can be added to expanded snacks.

  10. The arms race between heliconiine butterflies and Passiflora plants - new insights on an ancient subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinheiro de Castro, Érika Cristina; Zagrobelny, Mika; Cardoso, Márcio Z.

    2018-01-01

    , are morphological defences reported in this plant genus. Moreover, Passiflora plants are well protected chemically, not only by cyanogenic glucosides, but also by other compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and phenolics. Heliconiines can synthesize cyanogenic glucosides themselves...

  11. Genetic Breeding and Diversity of the Genus Passiflora: Progress and Perspectives in Molecular and Genetic Studies

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    Carlos Bernard M. Cerqueira-Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the ecological and economic importance of passion fruit (Passiflora spp., molecular markers have only recently been utilized in genetic studies of this genus. In addition, both basic genetic researches related to population studies and pre-breeding programs of passion fruit remain scarce for most Passiflora species. Considering the number of Passiflora species and the increasing use of these species as a resource for ornamental, medicinal, and food purposes, the aims of this review are the following: (i to present the current condition of the passion fruit crop; (ii to quantify the applications and effects of using molecular markers in studies of Passiflora; (iii to present the contributions of genetic engineering for passion fruit culture; and (iv to discuss the progress and perspectives of this research. Thus, the present review aims to summarize and discuss the relationship between historical and current progress on the culture, breeding, and molecular genetics of passion fruit.

  12. GENETIC AND MORPHOAGRONOMIC DIVERSITY OF Passiflora spp. BASED ON QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENTS OF FLOWERS AND FRUITS

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    JAMILE DA SILVA OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to characterize Passiflora spp. accessions and its genetic diversity based on quantitative morphological descriptors of flowers and fruits. The study was conducted at Embrapa Cerrados, Planaltina-DF. Fifteen Passiflora spp. accessions were characterized using 14 quantitative morphological descriptors. Genetic distances among accessions were estimated based on Mahalanobis’ generalized distance. Cluster analysis via dendrogram and graphic dispersion was analyzed. The relative contribution of characters for accession divergence was also calculated. The morphoagronomic characterization based on quantitative descriptors of flowers and fruits contributed to the differentiation of Passiflora spp. accessions, serving as an important tool for variability quantification. This information is useful to perform Passiflora spp. characterization and genetic diversity studies.

  13. Biologia reprodutiva de Passiflora capsularis L. e P. pohlii Mast. (Decaloba, Passifloraceae Reproductive biology of Passiflora capsularis L. e P. pohlii Mast. (Decaloba, Passifloracae

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    Flávia Santos Faria

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O subgênero Decaloba, ao qual pertencem as espécies de Passiflora L. com flores pequenas, é pouco estudado do ponto de vista reprodutivo, o qual pode contribuir para esclarecimento das relações filogenéticas no gênero Passiflora. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a biologia reprodutiva e a polinização de populações de duas espécies desse subgênero, P. capsularis e P. pohlii, ocorrentes no estado de Minas Gerais. Determinou-se a receptividade do estigma, viabilidade dos grãos de pólen e a concentração do néctar. Foram realizadas polinizações controladas para verificar o sistema reprodutivo. Foram registrados os visitantes florais e a carga polínica. As flores de ambas as espécies abrem à noite; em P. pohlii a antese iniciou-se por volta das 3 h e a senescência ocorreu por volta das 11 h, já em P. capsularis, a abertura se deu no mesmo horário, mas a senescência ocorreu por volta das 14h. A concentração do néctar e viabilidade do pólen foram, respectivamente, 34,88 ± 7,66% e 80 ± 0,15% em P. pohlii e 22,33 ± 5,82% e 92 ± 0,06% em P. capsularis. Passiflora pohlii é alógama e autoincompatível, enquanto que P. capsularis é autógama e autocompatível. Passiflora pohlii teve como polinizadores três espécies de abelhas do gênero Ptiloglossa (Colletidae, enquanto que em P. capsularis os visitantes florais observados foram considerados pilhadores de pólen e néctar. A antese noturna encontrada nas espécies de Passiflora estudadas sugere haver uma relação evolutiva entre espécies de Passiflora subg. Decaloba e himenópteros com hábito noturno, especialmente abelhas do gênero Ptiloglossa.The subgenus Decaloba (Passifloraceae is poorly studied on reproductive aspects, which may help our understanding on phylogenetic relationships in the genus. The purpose of this work was to study the reproductive biology and pollination of Passiflora pohlii and P. capsularis, two species belonging to this subgenus with

  14. Composição químico-bromatológica e degradabilidade In Situ da matéria seca, proteína bruta e fibra em detergente neutro da casca do fruto de três variedades de maracujá (Passiflora spp Chemical composition and In situ degradability of dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber of three varieties passion fruit (Passiflora spp shelves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Villela Vieira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição químico-bromatológica e as degradabilidades potenciais e efetivas da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN do resíduo (casca das variedades de maracujá amarela (Passiflora edulis f. Flavicarpa Degener, roxa (Passiflora edulis Sims e doce (Passiflora alata e da mistura das variedades amarela e roxa. Calcularam-se, também, o consumo de MS e as concentrações de amônia, ácidos graxos voláteis e pH no líquido ruminal e a taxa de passagem das fases líquida e sólida da digesta no rúmen de bovinos. Os resíduos (casca in natura apresentaram grande quantidade de água, enquanto a variedade roxa apresentou o maior teor de matéria seca (17,01% e o amarelo, o menor (10,78%. O teor de proteína bruta variou de 9,82% na MS, para a variedade amarela, a 7,53%, para a doce. O teor de fósforo foi 0,13% na MS para a variedade doce, chegando a 0,09, para a roxo, e 0,08%, para a amarelo. Os teores de cálcio, FDN e FDA não diferiram entre as variedades. Às 48 horas de incubação no rúmen, a degradabilidade atingiu ponto máximo para o teor de MS, PB e FDN. Houve interação de tempo e variedade na degradabilidade de MS, PB e FDN. As degradabilidades de PB e FDN foram influenciadas pelas variedades. A DE da FDN foi maior para a mistura (45,85% e menor para a doce (34,61%. O consumo médio de MS foi de 16,90 kg/animal, equivalente a 3,27% do peso vivo ou 156,11 g/kg0,75, quando se utilizou farelo de casca (resíduo com 90% de MS. As concentrações de ácidos graxos voláteis mantiveram-se na faixa de 7,76 a 10,87 mmoles/100 mL. O pH do líquido ruminal variou de 6,03 a 6,75 e o N-amoniacal, de 4,93 a 9,86 mg/100 mL.Chemical composition and the potential and effective degradabilities of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF of passion fruit residue (shelves were studied in the varieties yellow (Passiflora edulis f. Flavicarpa Degener

  15. Hexane extract of Dacryodes edulis fruits possesses anti-diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The fruit extract of Dacryodes edulis (D. edulis), the African pear or plum, a tree indigenous to the humid tropics has been used for managing wounds, skin diseases, sickle cell anaemia, dysentery and fever in some African nations. In South Eastern Nigeria, 'herbal doctors' include its marshed fruit in decoctions ...

  16. The arms race between heliconiine butterflies and Passiflora plants - new insights on an ancient subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Érika C P; Zagrobelny, Mika; Cardoso, Márcio Z; Bak, Søren

    2018-02-01

    Heliconiines are called passion vine butterflies because they feed exclusively on Passiflora plants during the larval stage. Many features of Passiflora and heliconiines indicate that they have radiated and speciated in association with each other, and therefore this model system was one of the first examples used to exemplify coevolution theory. Three major adaptations of Passiflora plants supported arguments in favour of their coevolution with heliconiines: unusual variation of leaf shape within the genus; the occurrence of yellow structures mimicking heliconiine eggs; and their extensive diversity of defence compounds called cyanogenic glucosides. However, the protection systems of Passiflora plants go beyond these three features. Trichomes, mimicry of pathogen infection through variegation, and production of extrafloral nectar to attract ants and other predators of their herbivores, are morphological defences reported in this plant genus. Moreover, Passiflora plants are well protected chemically, not only by cyanogenic glucosides, but also by other compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and phenolics. Heliconiines can synthesize cyanogenic glucosides themselves, and their ability to handle these compounds was probably one of the most crucial adaptations that allowed the ancestor of these butterflies to feed on Passiflora plants. Indeed, it has been shown that Heliconius larvae can sequester cyanogenic glucosides and alkaloids from their host plants and utilize them for their own benefit. Recently, it was discovered that Heliconius adults have highly accurate visual and chemosensory systems, and the expansion of brain structures that can process such information allows them to memorize shapes and display elaborate pre-oviposition behaviour in order to defeat visual barriers evolved by Passiflora species. Even though the heliconiine-Passiflora model system has been intensively studied, the forces driving host-plant preference in these

  17. Conservação de sementes de maracujá-amarelo: interferências do teor de água das sementes e da temperatura de armazenamento Conservation of yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edults Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. seeds: interference of water content and storage temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Camargo Lopes Fonseca

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Buscando embasamento para a definição de alternativas tecnológicas voltadas a desacelerar a deterioração durante o armazenamento, a pesquisa objetivou estudar, através de variações no teor de água das sementes e na temperatura do ambiente de armazenamento, o comportamento fisiológico de sementes de maracujazeiro. O experimento, realizado entre julho de 2002 e agosto de 2003 no Laboratório de Análise de Sementes localizado na Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (USP, foi realizado com sementes de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. produzidas em Mogi Mirim/ SP a partir de polinização aberta entre híbridos da Série IAC 270. Após a retirada da mucilagem das sementes, foi determinado o grau de umidade inicial do lote e, paralelamente, obtida a amostra representante do tratamento com o maior teor de água estudado (31%. As sementes remanescentes foram submetidas à secagem, em estufa com circulação de ar a 30ºC ± 3ºC, para a obtenção dos demais tratamentos referentes aos teores de água desejados (27%, 21%, 17%, 11% e 7%. Posteriormente, os tratamentos, correspondentes aos diferentes graus de umidade, foram armazenados em câmaras com temperaturas controladas de 10ºC, 15ºC e 20ºC. Antes do armazenamento, e após 35, 70, 105, 140, 175, 210, 245, 280, 315 e 350 dias, as sementes foram submetidas às avaliações da qualidade. De acordo com os resultados, a combinação do grau de umidade de 7% com a temperatura de 10ºC supera as demais no favorecimento à manutenção do potencial fisiológico das sementes de Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg.In order to define technological alternatives foward delaying deterioration of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. seeds during storage, physiological studies were performed through varied seed water content and environmental temperature. The experiments were conducted at the Seed Analysis Laboratory of the Escola Superior

  18. Search for alkaloids on callus culture of Passiflora alata

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    Michelli Wesz Machado

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary work on Passiflora alata leaves failed to detect harmane alkaloids using LC. The aim of this work was to investigate the production of harmane alkaloids through the cell culture of P. alata, inducing its precursor (L-tryptophan. The leaf explants presented satisfactory results after disinfection, and the callus formation was initiated in MS media with adequate quantities of phytohormones. Sixty days after inoculation, calli were inoculated in the optimized semi-solid MS media, with and without the addition of L-tryptophan (50, 100, 200 mg/L and kept in standard conditions for 90 days. Calli were collected on days 6, 16, 26, 36, and 90, followed by acid-base extraction, and analysed by LC. The results showed an absence of harmane, harmin, harmol, harmalol, and harmaline. With L-tryptophan feeding, two peaks were detected, collected and analysed through positive mode electrospray [ESI(+-MS] and sequential analysis in tandem ESI(+-MS/MS. The spectra obtained were very similar, with a repetition of the more intense ions, and consecutive loss of 68 Da units, attributed to the heterocycle pyrazole. It appeared that this transformation was not related to any enzymatic pathway previously described for the plant from L-tryptophan, and the biosynthesis of β-carboline alkaloids in callus culture of P. alata were not observed in this work.As folhas de varias espécies de Passiflora são utilizadas como ansioliticas e sedativas. Passiflora alata Curtis, Passifloraceae consta em três edições da farmacopéia brasileira, porem não há muitos estudos sobre sua composição química. No passado, enfatizava-se a ação conjunta de alcalóides e flavonóides. Em trabalho anterior, não foi detectada a presença de alcalóides harmanicos através de CLAE. Assim, decidiu-se investigar a produção dos mesmos através de cultivo celular, introduzindo seu precursor metabólico L-triptofano. Os explantes foliares apresentaram resultados satisfatorios

  19. The exhalant jet of mussels Mytilus edulis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgard, Hans Ulrik; Jørgensen, Bo Hoffmann; Lundgreen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    shell lengths. Here, we present results of a detailed study of fully open mussels Mytilus edulis in terms of filtration rate, exhalant siphon aperture area, jet velocity, gill area and body dry weight, all as a function of shell length (mean +/- SD) over the range 16.0 +/- 0.4 to 82.6 +/- 2.9 mm...... detailed 2-component velocity distributions near the exhalant siphon in 5 planes parallel to the axis of the jet and the major axis of the oval aperture, and hence estimates of momentum and kinetic energy flows in addition to mean velocity. Data obtained on particles inside the exhalant jet of filtered...

  20. Chemical constituents of Carissa edulis Vahl

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    Hanan M. Al-Youssef

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinvestigation of the biologically active ethyl acetate and butanol extracts of the aerial parts of Carissa edulis afforded 3-O-acetyl chlorogenic acid (I, along with four known flavonol glucosides including, kaempferol 3-O-β-d glucopyranoside (II, quercetin-3-O-β-d glucopyranoside (III, rhamnetin-3-O-β-d glucopyranoside (IV and isorhamnetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (V from ethyl acetate fraction. Isorhamnetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside-(2″→1″′-rhamnopyranoside (VI, Caredulis, 1-{1-[2-(2 hydroxypropoxy propoxy] propan-2-yloxy} propan-2-ol (VII and (+ butyl-O-α-l-rhamnoside (VIII were isolated from butanol fraction. Characterization of these compounds was achieved by various spectroscopic methods (UV, MS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, COSY, HSQC and HMBC and through comparison with published data. Compounds I–VIII were isolated from C. edulis for the first time, while compounds VII and VIII were isolated for the first time from nature.

  1. Silver nano fabrication using leaf disc of Passiflora foetida Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Bipin D.; Patil, Anita S.

    2017-06-01

    The main purpose of the experiment is to develop a greener low cost SNP fabrication steps using factories of secondary metabolites from Passiflora leaf extract. Here, the leaf extraction process is omitted, and instead a leaf disc was used for stable SNP fabricated by optimizing parameters such as a circular leaf disc of 2 cm (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) instead of leaf extract and grade of pH (7, 8, 9, 11). The SNP synthesis reaction is tried under room temperature, sun, UV and dark condition. The leaf disc preparation steps are also discussed in details. The SNP obtained using (1 mM: 100 ml AgNO3+ singular leaf disc: pH 9, 11) is applied against featured room temperature and sun condition. The UV spectroscopic analysis confirms that sun rays synthesized SNP yields stable nano particles. The FTIR analysis confirms a large number of functional groups such as alkanes, alkyne, amines, aliphatic amine, carboxylic acid; nitro-compound, alcohol, saturated aldehyde and phenols involved in reduction of silver salt to zero valent ions. The leaf disc mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles, minimizes leaf extract preparation step and eligible for stable SNP synthesis. The methods sun and room temperature based nano particles synthesized within 10 min would be use certainly for antimicrobial activity.

  2. Dissolution test of herbal medicines containing Passiflora sp.

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    Ane R. T. Costa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The dissolution test is an essential tool to assess the quality of herbal medicines in the solid dosage form for oral use. This work aimed to evaluate the dissolution behavior of three herbal medicines in the form of capsules and tablet containing Passiflora, produced with powder or dried extract. Assay of total flavonoids and dissolution methods were validated and obtained results allowed the quantification of flavonoids with precision, accuracy and selectivity. The percentage of total flavonoids found was 2% for capsule A (containing only powder, 0.97% for capsule B (containing only dried extract and 5.5% for tablet. Although the content was lower, the release of flavonoids present in the capsule containing dried extract was 12% higher over 30 min, with dissolved percentage values of 87 and 75, for the capsules containing extract and powder, respectively. The tablet containing dried extract presented dissolution of 76%, despite the higher content of flavonoids, which may be due to pharmacotechnical problems. Obtained data demonstrated the need to implement these tests in the quality control of herbal medicines, confirming the release of the active ingredients that underlie the pharmacological action of these medicines.

  3. Subchronic Crude Khat ( Catha edulis F.) Extract Administration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    People chew khat (Catha edulis F.), believing that it improves memory, ... Morphometric analysis revealed a significant reduction in weight of brain as well as ... properties of the dentate granule cells, including volume of the granular layer of ...

  4. In vitro culture from mature seeds of Passiflora species Regeneração e cultura in vitro de espécies de Passiflora

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    Flavia Guzzo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The genus Passiflora comprises hundred species, mainly native of the South American tropics and rainforests, which are grouped into 21 subgenera. Some species are widely studied for their economic importance and are chiefly cultivated for production of fruit juice. To obtain a continuous source of material for a screening of secondary metabolites, zygotic embryo culture was attempted for 62 Passiflora species, starting from seeds mainly collected in the wild. Twenty nine of these species produced calli, which had very different growth rates. Plants were successfully regenerated from calli of 13 different species. For 25 of the responsive species this is the first report of in vitro culture.O gênero Passiflora compõe centenas de espécies, a maioria de origem dos trópicos e das florestas da América do Sul, as quais são agrupadas em 21 subgêneros. Algumas espécies foram intensamente estudadas por sua importância econômica e são cultivadas principalmente para a produção de suco de fruta. Cultura de 29 espécies de Passiflora foram obtidos a partir de embriões zigóticos e de culturas de endosperma. Foram obtidos diferentes tipos de calos de crescimento, de tal forma que plantas foram regeneradas a partir de calos de 13 espécies diferentes. Não haviam sido ainda relatadas culturas in vitro para 25 das espécies trabalhadas.

  5. BOTANICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL APPROACH ON PASSIFLORA SPP. – NEW NUTRACEUTICAL CROP IN ROMANIA

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    Tatiana Eugenia SESAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been performed a complex investigation – morpho-anatomical, physiological, taxonomical and phytochemical one – of Passiflora nutraceutical plants from Hofigal S.A., in the frame of project PN-II-PCCA-2013-4-0995, contract 160 (MAIA/2014. Anatomic analysis of leaf lamina, petiole and stem, provided data with taxonomical importance, leading to the conclusion that plant material belongs to Passiflora caerulea L., in concordance with world monographers of Passiflora genus: VANDERPLANK (2000 and ULMAN & MacDOUGAL (2004. Physiological investigation referred to the following parameters: coefficient k, leaf area index (LAI, chlorophyll fluorescence, stomatal conductance and yield of green plant biomass. Phytochemical investigation consisted in analyzing active principles (polyphenols, flavonoids content, in correlation with their antioxidant activity and determination of cytotoxicity of Passiflora extracts in NCTC cell line. At 10-150 µg/ml concentrations, it was recorded a normal cell morphology. At concentrations over 250 µg/ml, the plant extract become cytotoxic, altering the cell membrane structure, cells viability and proliferation.

  6. Landscape Distance and Connectivity Effects on Pollination of Passiflora incarnata L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, A.F.

    2000-05-05

    To test the effect of landscape distance and habitat corridors on pollen-mediated gene flow between fragmentary plant populations, principle investigator used fluorescent dye as a pollen analog, unique tags on pollinators and known allozyme markers using experimental and wildtype Passiflora incarnata at Savannah River Site. Results indicate no significant effect of a corridor on pollen-mediated gene flow.

  7. Biología floral de Passiflora foetida (Passifloraceae

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    María T. Amela García

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Un experimento reproductivo muestra que Passiflora foetida es autocompatible. Observaciones de las características florales y de los visitantes durante la antesis, más el análisis del polen transportado, permitieron identificar el síndrome floral (melitofilia y las funciones de cada visitante. La antesis ocurre desde las 6 hasta las 11 hs. Se identificaron 3 fases florales: 1 estigmas por encima de las anteras, 2 estigmas a la altura de las anteras, 3 estigmas por encima de las anteras; los radii, los pétalos y los sépalos se incurvan. Los estigmas están receptivos durante toda la antesis. La concentración de azúcares del néctar es 34 %. El color predominante en el espectro visible es el blanco. En el espectro UV, los estambres y el gineceo contrastan con el limen y el androginóforo; pueden ser una guía de néctar. Tres especies de himenópteros fueron los visitantes más frecuentes y constantes: Ptiloglossa tarsata (Colletidae siempre contactan las anteras y los estigmas cuando liban, transportan un alto porcentaje de polen de P. foetida y visitan flores en fase 1 y 2; pueden ser considerados los principales polinizadores. Pseudaugochloropsis sp. (Halictidae raramente contactan las anteras o los estigmas cuando perforan el limen para acceder al néctar y visitan flores en fase 2 y 3; son ladrones de néctar que raramente polinizan. Augochlorella sp. (Halictidae recolectan polen sin tocar los estigmas y visitan flores en fase 2 y 3; son hurtadores de polen.A reproductive experiment shows that Passiflora foetida is autocompatible. Observations of floral characteristics and visitors during anthesis, plus the analysis of pollen allowed identification of floral syndrome (melittophily and functions for each visitor. Anthesis occurs from 6 to 11 AM. Three floral phases were identified: 1 stigmas above anthers, 2 stigmas at anther level, 3 stigmas above anthers; radii, petals and sepals become incurved. The stigmas are receptive during the

  8. Studies on floral biology of passion fruit (passiflora spp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishore, K.; Pathak, K.A.; Shukla, R.; Bharali, R.

    2010-01-01

    Floral biology of purple, yellow, giant and Passiflora foetida was studied at the ICAR Research Complex, Mizoram Centre, Kolasib, Mizoram, India during 2005-07. Purple, giant and P. foetida had major bloom during March-April, July-August and September-October. While major bloom in yellow was mainly during May-June and September-October. Purple, giant and P. foetida had the maximum duration of bloom of 42.4, 22.5 and 32.6 days, respectively during March-April with the maximum duration of effective bloom of 12.5 8.6 and 10.4 days in purple, giant and P. foetida, respectively. Yellow had the maximum duration of bloom for 28.4 days and effective bloom of 10.5 days during May-June. Most of the flowers of purple (54.5%) and giant (58.5%) opened between 6-7 hrs, while the maximum per cent of anthesis in yellow (70%) took place between 12-13 hrs. Pollen dehiscence and pollination in purple and giant mainly occurred between 7-8 hrs, while 13-14 hrs was the major period of pollen dehiscence and pollination in yellow. The earliest anthesis (5-6 hrs), anther dehiscence (6-7 hrs) and pollination (6-7 hrs) were recorded in P. foetida. The maximum stigma receptivity was recorded on the day of anthesis in all the passion fruits. Completely curved style was more common in all passion fruits that gave the maximum fruit set. The maximum number of bees observed between 7-8 hrs in purple and giant and between 13-14 hrs in yellow. The most common pollinating bee in purple, giant and yellow was Apis mellifera, while A. cerena was in P. foetida. (author)

  9. Características físico-químicas e produtividade de acessos de Passiflora nitida Kunth procedentes do Centro-Norte do Brasil Physical and chemical characteristics and yield of Passiflora nitida Kunth accessions from North and Central regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Tadeu Vilela Junqueira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O maracujá-suspiro (Passiflora nitida Kunth é uma espécie silvestre amplamente distribuída no território nacional. Tem alto potencial para o melhoramento visando à resistência a diversas doenças que provocam perdas expressivas em cultivos comerciais de maracujá-azedo (Passiflora edulis Sims. Seus frutos são comestíveis e têm elevado valor comercial como fruta fresca. Dessa forma, esse estudo teve como objetivo analisar as características físicas e químicas dos frutos e determinar, em condições de campo, o rendimento de dez acessos de P. nitida procedentes de estados e/ou de diferentes tipos fitofisionômicos das regiões Centro - Norte do Brasil. O experimento foi conduzido na Embrapa Cerrados, localizada em Planaltina, Distrito Federal. Os acessos avaliados foram coletados em Manaus-AM, de capoeira; no Núcleo Rural São José - DF, de chapada e de vereda; no Vale do Amanhecer - DF, de vereda; Jardim Botânico-DF, de Cerrado Stricto Sensu; em Silvânia-GO, de mata ciliar e de chapada; em Itiquira - MT, de Cerrado Stricto Sensu; em Alto Paraíso-GO, de chapada, e em Natividade-TO, de chapada. O delineamento estatístico foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e três plantas úteis por repetição. As plantas foram propagadas por estacas enraizadas de cada acesso e conduzidas em espaldeiras verticais de 1,80 metro de altura, com irrigação por gotejamento. As avaliações foram feitas durante as colheitas de 2006 e 2007. O acesso do Vale do Amanhecer apresentou o melhor rendimento de frutos. Este acesso pode ser usado no programa de melhoramento visando à inserção de P. nitida no mercado. Também foi possível observar que as fontes provenientes do Cerrado têm características físicas mais desejáveis, produzindo frutos maiores e com melhor rendimento em polpa. Por outro lado, o acesso do Amazonas teve a menor espessura da casca, característica desejável para o mercado de frutas naturais.The passion fruit

  10. Biological activities and phytochemical profile of Passiflora mucronata from the Brazilian restinga

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    Marlon H. de Araujo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In general, Passiflora species have been reported for their folk medicinal use as sedative and anti-inflammatory. However, P. caerulea has already been reported to treat pulmonary diseases. Severe pulmonary tuberculosis, generally caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to multiple drugs, can lead to deleterious inflammation and high mortality, encouraging new approaches in drug discovery. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the Passiflora mucronata Lam., Passifloraceae, potential for tuberculosis treatment. Specifically, related to antimycobacterial activity and anti-inflammatory related effects (based on inhibition of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha production and antioxidant potential, as well as the chemical profile of P. mucronata. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array ultraviolet and mass spectrometer analyses of crude hydroalcoholic extract and ethyl acetate fraction showed the presence of flavonoids. Ethyl acetate fraction showed to be as antioxidant as Ginkgo biloba standard extract with EC50 of 14.61 ± 1.25 µg/ml. One major flavonoid isolated from ethyl acetate fraction was characterized as isoorientin. The hexane fraction and its main isolated compound, the triterpene β-amyrin, exhibited significant growth inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium bovis BCG (MIC50 1.61 ± 1.43 and 3.93 ± 1.05 µg/ml, respectively. In addition, Passiflora mucronata samples, specially hexane and dichloromethane fractions, as well as pure β-amyrin, showed a dose-related inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced nitric oxide production. In conclusion, Passiflora mucronata presented relevant biological potential and should be considered for further studies using in vivo pulmonary tuberculosis model.

  11. Chemical composition of hydroethanolic extracts from five species of the Passiflora genus

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    Marna E Sakalem

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The diversified genus Passiflora is well distributed all over Brazil, and many species have been long used as medicinal plants, mainly against anxiety disturbances. This effect has been attributed to its rich flavonoid composition. Flavonoids’ main class, flavonoid glycosides, has presented central action, particularly as sedative-hypnotic, anxiolytic and analgesic. The objective of the present study was to make a phytochemical screening of five little studied Passiflora species, in order to evaluate their phenolic composition. For this aim, HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS was used. After the preparation of the hydroalcoholic extracts, each species was evaluated by direct injection electrospray ionization (ESI and tandem mass spectrometry. Although belonging to the same genus, the composition of each species presented particularities; this justifies the importance of studies aiming for the phenolic composition of different Passiflora species. Flavones C-glycosides were detected in all extracts, and are found as the main constituents in P. vitifolia, P. coccinea, P. bahiensis and P. sidifolia. In this last one, flavone-6,8-di-C-glycoside, apigenin-6-C-rhamnosyl-8-C-arabinoside are present in high content. Cyclopassiflosides were found in high content together with cyanogenic glycosides in P. quadrangularis, while in P. coccinea, besides flavones-C-glycosides were also found procyanidins.

  12. Chemical composition of hydroethanolic extracts from five species of the Passiflora genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marna E Sakalem

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The diversified genus Passiflora is well distributed all over Brazil, and many species have been long used as medicinal plants, mainly against anxiety disturbances. This effect has been attributed to its rich flavonoid composition. Flavonoids’ main class, flavonoid glycosides, has presented central action, particularly as sedative-hypnotic, anxiolytic and analgesic. The objective of the present study was to make a phytochemical screening of five little studied Passiflora species, in order to evaluate their phenolic composition. For this aim, HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS was used. After the preparation of the hydroalcoholic extracts, each species was evaluated by direct injection electrospray ionization (ESI and tandem mass spectrometry. Although belonging to the same genus, the composition of each species presented particularities; this justifies the importance of studies aiming for the phenolic composition of different Passiflora species. Flavones C-glycosides were detected in all extracts, and are found as the main constituents in P. vitifolia, P. coccinea, P. bahiensis and P. sidifolia. In this last one, flavone-6,8-di-C-glycoside, apigenin-6-C-rhamnosyl-8-C-arabinoside are present in high content. Cyclopassiflosides were found in high content together with cyanogenic glycosides in P. quadrangularis, while in P. coccinea, besides flavones-C-glycosides were also found procyanidins.

  13. The rediscovery of Passiflora kwangtungensis Merr. (subgenus Decaloba supersection Disemma: a critically endangered Chinese endemic

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    Shawn Krosnick

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Passiflora kwangtungensis is a critically endangered Chinese species known from Guangxi, Guangdong, and Jiangxi Provinces. The species belongs to Passiflora subgenus Decaloba, supersection Disemma, section Octandranthus. Field observations decreased rapidly during the 1970s to 1980s, and it was suspected that this species might have been extirpated due to repeated deforestation events throughout southern China. In recent years, however, small isolated populations of this species have been rediscovered in Hunan Province, representing new locality records for P. kwangtungensis. New herbarium collections, color photographs, and silica gel collections have provided an unexpected opportunity to examine the evolutionary significance of this species. The current study presents a revised morphological description of P. kwangtungensis based on fresh material, along with an updated distribution map. Using nrITS sequence data, preliminary insights into the phylogenetic position of P. kwangtungensis are presented. Molecular data support the placement of P. kwangtungensis within supersection Disemma section Octandranthus. However, the exact placement of P. kwangtungensis within this lineage is unclear. The nrITS data suggest that P. kwangtungensis may be sister to a clade containing Passiflora from China, Nepal, India, and Southeast Asia. Morphologically, P. kwangtungensis displays the most similarity P. geminiflora (Nepal, India and P. henryi (China. Lastly, conservation status and recommendations are made for P. kwangtungensis following the IUCN Red List Criteria, where this species is classified as CR C1+C2a(i; D.

  14. Allometry of a neotropical palm, Euterpe edulis Mart. Alometria de uma palmeira Neotropical, Euterpe edulis Mart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana F. Alves

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The stem allometry (stem diameter vs. tree height of a Neotropical palm (Euterpe edulis found in rain and seasonal forest of Southeastern Brazil was examined. Observed height-diameter relationships along the stem (diameter at ground level, (dgl, and diameter at breast height (dbh were compared to three theoretical stability mechanical models: elastic similarity, stress similarity and geometric similarity. Slopes of log-transformed height-diameter relationships did not lie near those predicted by any stability mechanical models. Significant differences in stem allometry were found when comparing dgl to dbh, suggesting greater increase in dbh with height. The relationship between stability safety factor (SSF and palm height showed that both dgl and dbh were found to be above McMahon's theoretical buckling limit for dicotyledonous trees, but some individuals approached this limit in relation to dbh. Despite displaying a similar decreasing pattern of SSF with height, differences found in SSF along the stem - greater SSF for dgl when compared to dbh - indicate that the risk of mechanism failure in palms depends upon the size and varies along the stem. Distinct allometric relationships along the stem obtained for Euterpe edulis may be reflecting possible differences in stem design and growth strategies.Neste trabalho foram analisadas as relações entre o diâmetro e a altura de uma palmeira Neotropical (Euterpe edulis comum na Floresta Atlântica do SE do Brasil. As relações observadas entre a altura e o diâmetro ao longo do estipe (diâmetro ao nível do solo (DAS, e diâmetro ao nível do peito (DAP foram comparadas a três modelos teóricos de estabilidade mecânica: similaridade elástica, similaridade de estresse e similaridade geométrica. As inclinações das regressões altura-diâmetro não se ajustaram a nenhum dos modelos de estabilidade mecânica. Diferenças significativas na alometria do estipe foram encontradas comparando-se as rela

  15. Physico-chemical properties of Safou (Dacryodes edulis) fruits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-09-30

    Sep 30, 2016 ... Most of high levels of nutrient content ... Conclusions and application of findings: Dacryodes edulis fruits are potential source of essential nutrient for ... pulp and its oil (Ajayi et al., 2006), and the oil ... and interesting food processing properties of the oils ..... maintenance of osmotic pressure in the body.

  16. Parasitisme de Dacryodes edulis par le genre Tapinanthus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 août 2013 ... Parasitisme de Dacryodes edulis par le genre. Tapinanthus (Loranthaceae) et répartition de la myrmécofaune associée à Logbessou Plateau. (Douala, Cameroun). Massako F1*, Tchatat M2, Mony R3, Ladoh Yemeda CF1, Dibong SD1,4,5. 1Laboratoire de Biologie et Physiologie des Organismes ...

  17. Anti-hyperlipidemic effects of Caralluma edulis (Asclepiadaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-hyperlipidemic effects of Caralluma edulis (Asclepiadaceae) and Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae) whole plants against high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia in mice. ... Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TGs) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were assayed using Merck diagnostic kits. For histopathological analysis ...

  18. Intercalibration of mussel Mytilus edulis clearance rate measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjerulf Petersen, J.; Bougrier, S.; Smaal, A.C.; Garen, P.; Robert, S.; Larsen, J.E.N.; Brummelhuis, E.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Clearance rate (CR) was measured in blue mussels Mytilus edulis L. from Aiguillon Bay and the Oosterschelde using 3 different methods: the flow-through method, the bio-deposition method and the indirect or clearance method. CR differed significantly as a function of the method used and of the origin

  19. Oxidative stress and toxicity of gold nanoparticles in Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedesco, Sara; Doyle, Hugh; Blasco, Julian; Redmond, Gareth; Sheehan, David

    2010-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) have potential applications in drug delivery, cancer diagnosis and therapy, food industry and environment remediation. However, little is known about their potential toxicity or fate in the environment. Mytilus edulis was exposed in tanks to750 ppb AuNP (average diameter 5.3 ± 1 nm) for 24 h to study in vivo biological effects of nanoparticles. Traditional biomarkers and an affinity procedure selective for thiol-containing proteins followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) separations were used to study toxicity and oxidative stress responses. Results were compared to those obtained for treatment with cadmium chloride, a well known pro-oxidant. M. edulis mainly accumulated AuNP in digestive gland which also showed higher lipid peroxidation. One-dimensional SDS/PAGE (1DE) and 2DE analysis of digestive gland samples revealed decreased thiol-containing proteins for AuNP. Lysosomal membrane stability measured in haemolymph gave lower values for neutral red retention time (NRRT) in both treatments but was greater in AuNP. Oxidative stress occurred within 24 h of AuNP exposure in M. edulis. Previously we showed that larger diameter AuNP caused modest effects, indicating that nanoparticle size is a key factor in biological responses to nanoparticles. This study suggests that M. edulis is a suitable model animal for environmental toxicology studies of nanoparticles.

  20. LA POLINIZACIÓN NATURAL EN EL MARACUYÁ (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Degener COMO UN SERVICIO REPRODUCTIVO Y ECOSISTÉMICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Arias-Su\\u00E1rez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue estudiar los mecanismos de la polinización en el cultivo del maracuyá y la importancia de los polinizadores naturales. El estudio se realizó en los años 2010–2011, en el municipio de Palestina, Caldas, Colombia a 1050 msnm. Se emplearon cinco tratamientos de polinización: natural (P.N, manual dirigida (P.M.D, autopolinización manual y espontánea (A.P, A.P.E y geitonogamia (G, en 48 accesiones de maracuyá. Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas entre tratamientos, la P.N realizada por abejorros del género Xylocopa spp. obtuvo el mayor porcentaje de frutos forma- dos (88%, seguido por P.M.D (60%, y solo un 3% en los tratamientos de autopolinización (A.P.E, A.P, G. De igual manera, la P.N presentó mayor peso promedio del fruto (203 g y porcentaje de pulpa más semilla (47% en comparación a P.M.D (187,5 g y 44,7%. La actividad y efectividad de los polinizadores estuvo correlacionada con la temperatura máxima diurna (r=0,69, brillo solar (r=0,56 y humedad relativa (r=0,64. Cuando las dos primeras variables descendieron simultáneamente por debajo de 26°C y menos de tres horas por día, se alcanzaron los mayores porcentajes de fructificación.

  1. Quality characteristics of pork burger added with albedo-fiber powder obtained from yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa) co-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vargas, Jairo H; Fernández-López, Juana; Pérez-Álvarez, José Ángel; Viuda-Martos, Manuel

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work determined the technological, nutritional and sensory characteristics of pork burgers, added with different concentrations (2.5 and 5%) of passion fruit albedo (PFA) co-product, obtained from passion fruit juice processing. The addition of PFA on pork burgers improves their nutritional value (higher fiber content). In raw and cooked burger, all textural parameters, except springiness and cohesiveness, were affected by the incorporation of PFA. PFA addition was found to be effective improving the cooking yield, moisture retention and fat retention. The raw and cooked pork burgers added with PFA had lower TBA values and lower counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria and enterobacteria than the control samples. No Escherichia coli and molds were found in the samples. The overall acceptability scores showed that the most appreciated sample was the one containing 2.5% PFA. According to the results obtained, 2.5 and 5% of PFA addition can be recommended in pork burger production as a new dietary fiber source. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Trichoderma harzianum como promotor del crecimiento vegetal del maracuyá (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa Degener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cubillos-Hinojosa Juan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Se realizó un experimento en condiciones de laboratorio e invernadero, con el propósito de evaluar el efecto de la cepa nativa TCN-014 y la cepa comercial TCC-005 de Trichoderma harzianum sobre la germinación y el crecimiento temprano del maracuyá. Se adecuaron inóculos de 104, 106 y 108 conidias/mL para cada cepa y se aplicaron a semillas de maracuyá; se evaluó el número de semillas germinadas durante 15 días; se calculó el porcentaje de germinación, el índice de velocidad de germinación y el tiempo medio de germinación. Posteriormente las semillas germinadas se llevaron a condiciones de invernadero y transcurridos dos meses se midió la altura de las plántulas, el grosor del tallo, el número de hojas, la longitud de la raíz y el peso seco total. Todos los tratamientos estimularon la germinación de las semillas y el desarrollo de las plántulas; sin embargo la cepa nativa en concentraciones 106 y 108 conidias/mL mostró resultados superiores frente a la cepa comercial. Los resultados sugieren una acción efectiva de T. harzianum como promotor de crecimiento vegetal, mostrando que tiene potencial para la elaboración de un bioproducto útil para el manejo ecológico del cultivo de maracuyá.

  3. EFECTO DEL PRE-TRATAMIENTO CON ULTRASONIDO EN LA EXTRACCIÓN DE PECTINA CONTENIDA EN EL ALBEDO DEL MARACUYÁ (Passiflora edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YESENIA CAMPO-VERA

    Full Text Available La pectina es un polisacárido contenido en la pared celular de la mayoría de los vegetales y frutas, con propiedades benéficas para la salud y muy utilizado en la industria alimentaria. El objetivo del estudio fue la evaluación del efecto de pre-tratamiento con ultrasonido (US en la extracción de pectina contenidas en el albedo del maracuyá, las muestras fueron expuestas a 40 KHz a una temperatura de 30, 45 y 60°C durante 10, 20 y 30 minutos. A continuación las muestras se sometieron a extracción de hidrolisis acida relación 1:3 (%p/%v con calentamiento de 80°C por 30 minutos agitándose a 700 rpm, se procedió a filtrar y precipitar adicionando etanol al 96% en una relación (1:1 (%v/%v. Determinando que las muestras tratadas a 40 KHz/45°C/20 min, obtuvieron un 40% de aumento en el rendimiento de extracción de pectina comparada con las muestras control; debido probablemente a la disminución del pH y al efecto de cavitación, donde las partículas vibran y se aceleran ante la acción ultrasónica, provocando una macro turbulencia y la colisión de interpartículas de la biomasa que acelera difusión; logrando extraer pectinas de gran calidad y aprovechables para la elaboración de productos de interés.

  4. EFECTO DEL PRE-TRATAMIENTO CON ULTRASONIDO EN LA EXTRACCIÓN DE PECTINA CONTENIDA EN EL ALBEDO DEL MARACUYÁ (Passiflora edulis)

    OpenAIRE

    CAMPO-VERA, YESENIA; VILLADA-CASTILLO, DORA CLEMENCIA; MENESES-ORTEGA, JOSE DANIEL

    2016-01-01

    La pectina es un polisacárido contenido en la pared celular de la mayoría de los vegetales y frutas, con propiedades benéficas para la salud y muy utilizado en la industria alimentaria. El objetivo del estudio fue la evaluación del efecto de pre-tratamiento con ultrasonido (US) en la extracción de pectina contenidas en el albedo del maracuyá, las muestras fueron expuestas a 40 KHz a una temperatura de 30, 45 y 60°C durante 10, 20 y 30 minutos. A continuación las muestras se sometieron a extra...

  5. Pigments and antioxidant activity of optimized Ready-to-Drink (RTD Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. - passion fruit (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa juice blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nadanasabapathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A central composite rotatable design (CCRD was employed to optimize the beetroot-passion fruit blended juice. The independent variables were beetroot juice (30-70 ml, passion fruit juice (10-30 ml and sucrose (9.00-10.50g. The combined effect of these independent variables on pH, °Brix and overall acceptability were investigated. Results showed that the generated regression models adequately explained the data variation and significantly represented the actual relationship between the independent variables and the responses. The optimized blended juice was prepared in bulk, thermally pasteurized and studied the effects on pigments, antioxidant activity, CIE Color (L*, a*, b*, E*, Browning Index*, native microflora and other physicochemical quality parameters were also evaluated during the storage at 27-30 ± 2 °C. The processing and storage had a significant effect on (p < 0.05 degradation in the pigments, antioxidant activity during storage. The decrease in antioxidant activity was correlated (r = 0.9895 with a decrease in betalain pigment. The product was safe from microflora after thermal pasteurization and during 180 days of storage with good sensory acceptability.

  6. Identificación de nematodos fitoparásitos en el Banco de Germoplasma de maracuyá (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Degener en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Alexandra Ortiz-Paz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los nematodos fitoparásitos son una de las mayores limitantes en la fruticultura tropical causando grandes pérdidas económicas por la reducción de los rendimientos. En Colombia no existe información respecto a estos parásitos que afectan el cultivo del maracuyá y es necesario generarla para crear estrategias de manejo. El objetivo del estudio fue identificar y cuantificar los nematodos fitoparásitos presentes en plantas de maracuyá de la Colección Nacional, conformada por 28 accesiones de diferentes procedencias establecida en la Granja Luker en Palestina, Caldas (Colombia, a 1058 m.s.n.m., 5° 4' 13.2" N y -75° 41' 7.7" O, 23 °C, 2250 mm/año y 75% de HR. La recolección de las muestras se realizó en la zona de plateo de cada planta hasta 60 cm de profundidad. En cada accesión se tomaron tres muestras de 100 g de raíces funcionales y 100 g de suelo. La extracción de nematodos de raíces y suelo se realizó con base en el principio de flotación en azúcar. Para los datos se desarrolló un análisis univariado con la estimación del promedio, el coeficiente de variación, el análisis de varianza y prueba de Tukey al 5%, para establecer las diferencias entre accesiones. Se recuperaron nematodos de siete géneros, Helicotylenchus, Rotylenchulus, Radopholus, Meloidogyne, Tylenchus, Aphelenchoides y Trichodorus. Las especies con mayor frecuencia en las accesiones, tanto en raíces como en suelo, fueron Helicotylenchus dihystera, Rotylenchulus reniformis y Radopholus similis con 100, 75 y 61%, respectivamente. Se encontraron 11, 8 y 16 accesiones de maracuyá sin parasitismo de los géneros Radopholus, Rotylenchulus y Meloidogyne, respectivamente. Dentro de éstas, sobresalen las accesiones AntFla03 y CauFla01 por sus características agronómicas, las cuales constituyen un reservorio genético para programas de fitomejoramiento en la búsqueda de resistencia o tolerancia a nematodos fitoparásitos que involucren hibridación o injertación.

  7. Microsatellite Primers in the Foundation Tree Species Pinus edulis and P. monophylla (Pinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew L. Krohn

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed in the foundational tree species Pinus edulis to investigate population differentiation of P. edulis and hybridization among closely related species. Methods and Results: Using a hybridization protocol, primer sets for 11 microsatellite loci were developed using megagametophyte tissue from P. edulis and scored for polymorphism in three populations of P. edulis and a single P. monophylla population. The primers amplified simple and compound di-, tri-, and pentanucleotide repeats with two to 18 alleles per locus. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the utility of the described primers for studies of population differentiation within and among P. edulis populations as well as across putative hybrid zones where P. edulis may coexist with sister species.

  8. Enraizamento de estacas de três espécies silvestres de Passiflora Cutting rooting of three wild Passiflora species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fideles Braga

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Em ambiente com nebulização controlada, estacas herbáceas com um par de folhas, contendo 2 ou 3 nós, foram testadas quanto ao enraizamento, utilizando-se de bandeja de poliestireno com célula de 95cm³ e saco plástico de 15x25x0,02cm com 1.730 cm³. Foram testadas estacas de Passiflora actinia, P. serrato-digitata e P. setacea. Observou-se que P. serrato-digitata apresentou 94,3% de estacas enraizadas com brotos e 2,4% de mortalidade; enquanto P. actinia e P. setacea apresentaram, respetivamente, 30,5% e 28,6% de estacas enraizadas com brotos e 56,8% e 60,7% de mortalidade. A alta mortalidade das estacas foi atribuída ao estado fenológico das matrizes de P. actinia e P. setacea e ao ataque de larvas de bradisia (Bradysia spp. Estacas com dois e três nós não apresentaram diferenças significativas, e o recipiente saco plástico de 1.730 cm³ proporcionou melhor desenvolvimento das mudas.Steam cuttings of three wild Passiflora species where tested for rooting in a mist regulated greenhouse. Cuttings with two or three buds were used with two kinds of containers: polystyrene trays with 95 cm³ cells and perforated plastic bags of 15x25x0.02cm, with 1,730 cm³. Passiflora serrato-digitata was the best, with 94.3% of rooted cuttings with shoots e only 2.4% of death cuttings. P. actinia and P. setacea showed , respectivelly, 30.5% and 28.6% of rooted cuttings and 56.8% and 60.7%, of death cuttings. The high death were attribute to phenological phases of P. actinia and P. setacea or injury caused by fungus-gnat larvae (Bradysia spp.. Cuttings with two or three buds didn't show differences among them. Plastic bags proporcioned the best results, increasing rooted cuttings and plant development.

  9. Chromosome stickiness during meiotic behavior analysis of Passiflora serrato-digitata L. (PassifloraCEAE Aderência cromossômica durante a análise do comportamento meiótico de Passiflora serrato-digitata L (PassifloraCEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Peres Kiihl

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Almost 90% of species of the genus Passiflora are native to the American continent, with high commercial value due to the fact that some species are used for human food while others have ornamental and medical qualities. Passiflora serrato-digitata is one of the species that integrates the Paraná Agronomic Institute germoplasm bank at its experimental base in Londrina, PR, Brazil. Collected flower buds were fixed in ethanol/acetic acid (3:1 v/v for 24h, transferred to 70% alcohol and stored under refrigeration. Slides were prepared by the squashing technique and stained with 1.0% propionic carmine; they were analyzed under an optic microscope. Irregularities in the chromosome segregation process of P. serrato-digitata have been verified by meiotic behavior analysis. These comprised precocious migration to poles in metaphase I and II, non-oriented chromosomes in metaphase plate in metaphase I and II, laggard chromosomes in anaphase I and II towards the formation of micronucleus in telophase I and II, and microspores in tetrads. Chromosome stickiness was another irregularity reported in the Passiflora genus for the first time. These irregularities which also contributed to the formation of monads, dyads and triads, resulted in normal imbalanced 2n and 4n microspores. According to the observed Meiotic Index of 71.83%, this species is not meiotically stable.Cerca de 90% das espécies do gênero Passiflora são nativas das Américas, sendo que aproximadamente 200 espécies são nativas do Brasil. Possuem grande importância comercial, pois algumas espécies são utilizadas na alimentação humana, outras apresentam propriedades medicinais e ornamentais. A espécie Passiflora serrato-digitata faz parte do banco de germoplasma do Instituto Agronômico do Paraná - IAPAR, estação experimental de Londrina, PR. Botões florais colhidos foram fixados em etanol/ácido acético (3:1 v/v por 24 horas, transferidos para álcool a 70% e acondicionado sob

  10. CARACTERÍSTICAS NUTRICIONALES Y ANTIOXIDANTES DE LA FRUTA CURUBA LARGA (Passiflora mollisima Bailey)

    OpenAIRE

    CHAPARRO R, DIANA CAROLINA; MALDONADO C, MARIA ELENA; FRANCO L, MARÍA CAMILA; URANGO M, LUZ AMPARO

    2015-01-01

    La presente revisión muestra el valor nutricional y el impacto para la salud humana del consumo de la fruta curuba larga (Passiflora mollisima Bailey), con base a las características nutricionales y antioxidantes. Pertenece a la familia de las pasifloráceas, es originaria de la zona andina del continente americano y en Colombia se cultiva principalmente en las cordilleras oriental y occidental. Esta fruta es fuente de vitaminas A, C y riboflavina; contiene potasio, fósforo, magnesio, sodio, c...

  11. Maracujá-doce: o autor, a obra e a data da publicação de Passiflora alata (Passifloraceae Sweet-passion-fruit: the autor, data and publication of the scientific name of Passiflora alata (Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Bernacci

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O maracujazeiro-doce (Passiflora alata Curtis é uma espécie nativa da América do Sul, especialmente do Brasil, cujo cultivo tem se expandido em função do preço alcançado pelos frutos. Vários trabalhos de pesquisa foram realizados com esta espécie, quase todos com imprecisões na citação do nome científico. Com o objetivo de avaliar a extensão desses equívocos e identificar a forma cientificamente correta de citar a espécie, foram investigados o autor e a data de publicação do nome científico do maracujá-doce, em estudos taxonômicos. Concluiu-se que a espécie deve ser citada como Passiflora alata Curtis, conforme publicado originalmente em 1788, no periódico Botanical Magazine.The author, data and publication of the scientific name of the sweet passion-fruit had been investigated. A series of mistakes occurred in relation to the correct citation of the species. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the problems and identify the scientific correct form of Passiflora alata nomenclature. The species must be cited as Passiflora alata Curtis and was published originally in 1788, in the Botanical Magazine.

  12. Accumulation factors of mercury by King Bolete Boletus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, J.; Frankowska, A.

    2003-05-01

    To understand pollution picture with mercury and to examine suitability of King Bolete Boletits edulis Bull.: Fr. as possible bioindicator the total mercurv concentrations were determined both in the fruiting bodies and underlying soil substrate collected from various regions of Poland. There were quite large spatial variations of mercury concentration and some seasonal also were noted. Mercury content of the caps exceeded that of stalks (p<0.05), Nvhile Hg BCF values varied between 9 and 40, and 4 and 40, respectively.

  13. Processing of antifouling paint particles by Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Andrew; Barrett, Mark; Brown, Murray T.

    2009-01-01

    Particles of spent antifouling paint collected from a marine boatyard were ground and subsequently administered to the filter-feeding bivalve, Mytilus edulis, maintained in static aquaria. Concentrations of Cu and Zn were measured in seawater throughout a 16 h feeding phase and a 24 h depuration phase, in rejected and egested particles collected during the respective phases, and in the organisms themselves at the end of the experiments. Concentrations and distributions of Cu and Zn in processed particles indicated that M. edulis was able to ingest paint particles, regardless of whether nutritionally viable silt was present, and no mechanism of particle discrimination was evident. Enrichment of Cu and Zn in the visceral mass of individuals and in the aqueous phase during depuration supported these assertions, although elevated concentrations in other compartments of the organism (e.g. shell, gill) suggested that biotic and abiotic uptake of aqueous metal was also important. - Particles of antifouling paint enriched in Cu and Zn are ingested and digested by the marine bivalve M. edulis

  14. [Study on physiological and germination characteristics of Tulipa edulis seed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhengjun; Zhu, Zaibiao; Guo, Qiaosheng; Ma, Hongliang; Xu, Hongjian; Miao, Yuanyuan

    2012-03-01

    Current study was conducted to investigate the seed physiological characteristics of Tulipa edulis and improve germination rate. Anatomical characteristics was observed. Seed water absorption curve was tested by soaking method. Dynamic of embryo development and germination rate as well as germination index under different conditions were recorded. And the biological test of cabbage seed was used for detecting the germination inhibitors. The embryo rate of newly matured seeds was about 10%, and there was no obstacle of water absorption on testa of T. edulis. The optimum method for embryo development was exposure to 300 mg x L(-1) gibberellin solution for 24 hours, and stratification at 25 degrees C for 70 days followed by stratification at 5 degrees C for 40 days. The germintion rate and germination index of dormancy-broken seeds under the dark environment at 10 degrees C and 15 degrees C were significantly higher than those under other conditions. Additionally, there were some germination inhibitory substances in dry seeds. The seed of T. edulis can be classified as having complex morphophysiological dormancy, and the morphological embryo dormancy played a leading role. Warm and cold stratification resulted in a fast dormancy breaking effect, and a high germination rate more than 90% could be obtained under the optimum conditions.

  15. Processing of antifouling paint particles by Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Andrew [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk; Barrett, Mark [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Brown, Murray T. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    Particles of spent antifouling paint collected from a marine boatyard were ground and subsequently administered to the filter-feeding bivalve, Mytilus edulis, maintained in static aquaria. Concentrations of Cu and Zn were measured in seawater throughout a 16 h feeding phase and a 24 h depuration phase, in rejected and egested particles collected during the respective phases, and in the organisms themselves at the end of the experiments. Concentrations and distributions of Cu and Zn in processed particles indicated that M. edulis was able to ingest paint particles, regardless of whether nutritionally viable silt was present, and no mechanism of particle discrimination was evident. Enrichment of Cu and Zn in the visceral mass of individuals and in the aqueous phase during depuration supported these assertions, although elevated concentrations in other compartments of the organism (e.g. shell, gill) suggested that biotic and abiotic uptake of aqueous metal was also important. - Particles of antifouling paint enriched in Cu and Zn are ingested and digested by the marine bivalve M. edulis.

  16. Actividad hipoglucemiante de Bouvardia terniflora, Brickellia veronicaefolia y Parmentiera edulis Hypoglicemic activity of Bouvardia terniflora, Brickellia veronicaefolia and Parmentiera edulis

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    Rosa Martha Pérez-Gutiérrez

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la actividad hipoglucemiante de los extractos de hexano, cloroformo y metanol de Brickellia veronicaefolia, Bouvardia terniflora y Parmentiera edulis. Material y métodos. Se probaron los extractos de las plantas (100, 200 y 300 mg/kg, vía intraperitoneal en ratones normoglucémicos y con diabetes inducida con aloxana. Resultados. La administración de 300 mg/kg de los extractos clorofórmicos de P. edulis, B. terniflora y hexánico de B. veronicaefolia en ratones diabéticos disminuye el nivel de glucosa sanguínea en 43.75, 58.56 y 72.13%, respectivamente. Estos extractos (300 mg/kg, administrados en ratones normoglucémicos, reducen la glucosa sanguínea en 29.61, 33.42 y 39.84%, respectivamente. Conclusiones. Con este estudio se confirma la actividad hipoglucemiante de estas plantas usadas en la medicina tradicional para el tratamiento de la diabetes.Objective. To evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of Bouvardia terniflora, Brickelia veronicaefolia and Parmentiera edulis. Material and methods. Normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice were administered these plant extracts (intraperitoneal 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. Results. The administration of 300 mg/kg of chloroform extracts from P. edulis and B. terniflora and hexane from B. veronicaefolia to diabetic mice decreased the blood glucose levels in 43.75, 58.56 and 72.13%, respectively. These extracts administered to normal mice reduced blood glucose levels in 29.61, 33.42 and 39.84%, respectively. Conclusions. The hypoglycemic effect of these plant extracts used in traditional medicine for diabetes treatment is confirmed.

  17. Morphophysiology, Phenotypic and Molecular Diversity of Auxin-induced Passiflora mucronata Lam. (Passifloraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Juliany M; Venial, Lucimara R; Costa, Eloá B; Schmildt, Edilson R; Schmildt, Omar; Bernardes, Paula M; Tatagiba, Sandro D; Lopes, José C; Ferreira, Marcia F S; Alexandre, Rodrigo S

    2018-01-01

    Genetic diversity allows identification of potential intraspecific genotypes in the genus Passiflora. The objective of this study was to examine the morphological and genetic diversity of auxin-induced Passiflora mucronata. The experiments were arranged in a complete randomized block design, with a 9 x 2 factorial arrangement (nine genotypes x presence and absence of auxin, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)), with four replicates of 16 cuttings. The rooting and vegetative growth responses were variable. Genotype 5 was more responsive in the absence of IBA and genotypes 3, 8 and 9 were more responsive in the presence of IBA. Auxin increased rooting rate and percentage, reducing the average time of root protrusion in eight days. IBA also contributed to increase photosynthesis and dry root and shoot mass in 55.55 and 44.44% of the genotypes, respectively. The highest relative contribution to phenotypic diversity in the absence of auxin was rate (38.75%) and percentage (20.27%) of rooting, whereas in the presence of auxin was stomatal conductance (23.19%) and root dry mass (20.91%). Similarity was found for phenotypic and molecular divergence in the presence of IBA, in which genotypes 1 and 6; genotypes 5, 8 and 9; and genotype 3 were clustered in distinct groups.

  18. Caracterização de preparações extrativas obtidas de Passiflora alata Curtis

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    ANDREAS S. L. MENDEZ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo fazer uma análise comparativa da qualidade de preparações extrativas obtidas de Passiflora alata Curtis, além de descrever esse processo. O extrato líquido foi obtido por refluxo utilizando água como solvente em proporção 1:10. A preparação líquida foi submetida à secagem em spray dryer utilizando aerosil® e fosfato de cálcio como adjuvantes tecnológicos. A eficiência de extração foi avaliada através da determinação do resíduo seco e do teor de flavonoides totais por técnica de espectrofotometria no UV. O extrato seco foi avaliado quanto à viabilidade tecnológica a partir da determinação das características de granulometria e da estabilidade em ambientes de umidade relativa controlada. O teor de flavonoides totais para o extrato seco apresentou redução quando comparado à solução extrativa, indicando possível influência do processo de secagem na composição do material. Os resultados de caracterização tecnológica demonstraram que o processo de secagem utilizado garante uma uniformidade de tamanho particular, embora seja observada uma tendência de higroscopicidade do material em ambientes de elevada umidade relativa. As técnicas empregadas se mostraram viáveis para uso em ensaios quali-quantitativos aplicados à determinação da qualidade dos extratos desenvolvidos. Palavras-chave: Passiflora alata Curtis; Preparações extrativas; Spray-drying; Flavonoides totais; Caracterização tecnológica. ABSTRACT Characterization of extracts prepared from Passiflora alata Curtis This paper describes a process to prepare liquid and dried aqueous extracts from aerial parts of Passiflora alata Curtis (sweet passionfruit and reports a comparative analysis of the extractive preparations obtained. The extractive solution was obtained by refluxing the plant material with water in the proportion 1:10 (w/v. The aqueous extract was dried in a spray-dryer, with Aerosil® and calcium

  19. Evaluation of Dacryodes edulis (native pear) seed biomass for Pb (II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dacryodes edulis (Native pear) seed is herein evaluated as a promising biomass for Pb(II) removal from aqueous solution. The Pb(II) adsorption onto Dacryodes edulis seed biomass was influenced by the solution pH, time, biomass dose and initial adsorbate concentration. The Freundlich model fitted better than the ...

  20. Differing effects of eelgrass Zostera marina on recruitment and growth of associated blue mussels Mytilus edulis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reusch, B.H.T.

    1998-01-01

    I studied the effects of habitat structure, provided by an eelgrass Zostera marina canopy, on shell growth rate and recruitment of co-occurring blue mussels Mytilus edulis in the Western Baltic Sea. M. edulis in clumps consisting of 10 and 30 individuals were tagged and placed in unvegetated areas

  1. Boletus edulis: a digestion-resistant allergen may be relevant for food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbling, A; Bonadies, N; Brander, K A; Pichler, W J

    2002-05-01

    Fungal components can cause allergic symptoms either through inhalation, ingestion or contact. Whereas respiratory allergy is thought to be induced by spores, allergic reactions following ingestion are attributed to other parts of the mushroom. Reports of food-related allergic reactions due to the edible mushroom Boletus edulis have occasionally been reported. The aim of the study was to investigate whether separate allergens may be detected in alimentary allergy to Boletus edulis. Sera of two subjects, one with recurrent anaphylaxis and the other with a predominantly oral allergy syndrome following ingestion of Boletus edulis, have been analysed by a time-course digestion assay using simulated gastric fluid and by SDS-PAGE immunoblotting. Sera of four Boletus edulis skin prick test-negative subjects and all without clinical symptoms to ingested Boletus edulis served as controls. In lyophilized Boletus edulis extract, at least four water-soluble proteins were detected, the most reactive at 55 kDa and at 80 kDa. Following the time-course digestion assay, IgE binding was found to a 75-kDa protein, but only if the sera of the subject with recurrent anaphylaxis was used. The data indicate that Boletus edulis can cause an IgE-mediated food allergy due to a digestion-stabile protein at 75 kDa. No IgE immune response to this protein was detected in the serum of a subject with respiratory allergy and oral allergy syndrome to Boletus edulis nor in control sera.

  2. Effects of Catha edulis on kidney and liver function among chewing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Catha edulis on kidney and liver function among chewing adults in Meru ... socio-cultural tradition in Kenya and as such poses a public health problem. ... Objective: To investigate the possible effects of Catha edulis on the levels of ...

  3. Fruiting efficiency in Dacryodes edulis (G.Don): A case study in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruiting efficiency in 2 varieties of Dacryodes edulis were investigated between 2004 to 2007 in Ekpoma. The influence of variety on fruiting efficiency and abortion rate of gynoecium per inflorescence was determined. D. edulis had a regular fruiting pattern with no interannual variability. The mean fruiting efficiency per ...

  4. Comparative metabolite profiling and fingerprinting of genus Passiflora leaves using a multiplex approach of UPLC-MS and NMR analyzed by chemometric tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed A; Otify, Asmaa; Porzel, Andrea; Michel, Camilia George; Elsayed, Aly; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2016-05-01

    Passiflora incarnata as well as some other Passiflora species are reported to possess anxiolytic and sedative activity and to treat various CNS disorders. The medicinal use of only a few Passiflora species has been scientifically verified. There are over 400 species in the Passiflora genus worldwide, most of which have been little characterized in terms of phytochemical or pharmacological properties. Herein, large-scale multi-targeted metabolic profiling and fingerprinting techniques were utilized to help gain a broader insight into Passiflora species leaves' chemical composition. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) spectra of extracted components derived from 17 Passiflora accessions and from different geographical origins were analyzed using multivariate data analyses. A total of 78 metabolites were tentatively identified, that is, 20 C-flavonoids, 8 O-flavonoids, 21 C, O-flavonoids, 2 cyanogenic glycosides, and 23 fatty acid conjugates, of which several flavonoid conjugates are for the first time to be reported in Passiflora spp. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the most complete map for secondary metabolite distribution within that genus. Major signals in (1)H-NMR and MS spectra contributing to species discrimination were assigned to those of C-flavonoids including isovitexin-2″-O-xyloside, luteolin-C-deoxyhexoside-O-hexoside, schaftoside, isovitexin, and isoorientin. P. incarnata was found most enriched in C-flavonoids, justifying its use as an official drug within that genus. Compared to NMR, LC-MS was found more effective in sample classification based on genetic and/ or geographical origin as revealed from derived multivariate data analyses. Novel insight on metabolite candidates to mediate for Passiflora CNS sedative effects is also presented.

  5. Caracterização e extração de compostos voláteis de resíduos do processamento de maracujá (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa degener Characterization and extraction of volatile compounds from passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa degener processing waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lília Calheiros de Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou extrair e identificar compostos voláteis presentes nos resíduos de processo de maracujá. Obtiveram-se destilados a partir de resíduos de maracujá através das técnicas de hidrodestilação simples e hidrodestilação com arraste de gás nitrogênio. Os compostos voláteis presentes nos destilados foram capturados por microextração em fase sólida, empregando-se fibra Carboxen/DVB/DMS, e identificados por cromatografia gasosa acoplada com espectrômetro de massa, usando a coluna capilar de sílica fundida CP WAX 52. Foram identificados trinta e um compostos voláteis no extrato obtido pela técnica de hidrodestilação simples, sendo os principais compostos: neral (26,19%, cinamato de metila (18,52%, linalol (16,82%, 1-undecanol (5,60%, cis-óxido de linalol (4,41%, benzaldeído (3,92% e 1-hexanol (3,48%. Para a hidrodestilação com arraste de gás nitrogênio, trinta compostos foram identificados, sendo que, em maior porcentagem de área, destacaram-se: cinamato de metila (30,41%, neral (24,46%, β-ionona (13,81%, linalol (4,0% e acido butanoico (2,19%. O presente estudo revelou que os resíduos de maracujá apresentam compostos voláteis que podem ser extraídos na forma de aromas, apresentando potencial para gerar essências naturais com valor agregado.The aim of this study was to extract and identify volatile compounds from passion fruit residues generated during processing. Distillates of passion fruit residues were obtained from the techniques of simple hydrodistillation and hydrodistillation by passing nitrogen gas. The volatile compounds present in the distillates were captured by solid phase microextraction with Carboxen/DVB/DMS fiber. The volatile compounds were indentified by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry using a fused sillica capillary column with a CP WAX 52 stationary phase. Thirty one compounds were indentified by simple hydrodistillation technique. The main compounds were: neral (26.19%, methyl cinnamate (18.52%, linalool (16.82%, 1-undecanol (5.60%, cis-linalool oxide (4.41%, benzaldehyde (3.92% and 1-hexanol (3.48%. For the hydrodistillation by passing nitrogen gas, thirty compounds were identified and the ones which presented higher area percentage were: methyl cinnamate (30.41%, neral (24.46%, β-ionone (13.81%, linalool (4.0% and butanoic acid (2.19%. The present study revealed that passion fruit waste contained volatile compounds that could be extracted as aromas products, presenting potential for the production of value-added natural essences.

  6. Visitantes florais do maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. Passifloraceae em áreas de cultivo com diferentes proximidades a fragmentos florestais na região Norte Fluminense, RJ Yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. Passifloraceae floral visitors in cultivated areas within different distances from forest remnants in north Rio de Janeiro state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristine Rodrigues Benevides

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos estudar a biologia floral e identificar os principais polinizadores do maracujá-amarelo em áreas de cultivo com diferentes proximidades a fragmentos florestais no norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro. A floração do maracujá-amarelo teve duração de nove meses, no período de setembro a maio. As flores iniciavam a antese às 12:00 h e abriam-se ao longo do dia até às 16:30 h. O processo de curvatura dos estiletes ocorreu ao longo da antese e 72,4% das flores curvaram seus estiletes. A produção de néctar deu-se continuamente, atingindo 18μl/flor/hora e a concentração de solutos totais variou entre 38 e 42%. Xylocopa frontalis e Xylocopa ordinaria foram os principais polinizadores do maracujá-amarelo pela freqüência de visitas, comportamento intrafloral e porte corporal. Estas espécies de abelhas, além de Apis mellifera, estiveram presentes em todas as áreas de cultivo. A maior riqueza de visitantes polinizadores do maracujá-amarelo foi observada em áreas de cultivo próximas a fragmentos florestais, fato relacionado à presença de certos grupos de abelhas nativas, como Centridini e Euglossina (Apidae que dependem de áreas florestais para nidificação e alimentação. A proximidade a fragmentos florestais também é importante para o fornecimento de recursos alimentares e de nidificação ao longo do ano para a manutenção de populações de Xylocopa.This work aimed to identify the main pollinators and study the floral biology of the yellow passion fruit cultivated in areas within different distances from forest remnants in north Rio de Janeiro state. The yellow passion fruit flowering lasted nine months, from September to March. Anthesis started at 12:00 h and the opening process lasted until 16:30 h. The styles bent down during the anthesis and 72.4% of the flowers had its styles curved. Nectar was produced continuously, reaching 18μl/flower/hour, and the total solute concentration varied between 38 and 42%. Xylocopa frontalis and Xylocopa ordinaria were the most effective yellow passion fruit pollinators because of their visit frequency, intrafloral behavior and body size. These bee species, besides Apis mellifera, were found in all the cultivated areas studied. The highest richness of pollinators was observed in cultivated areas closest to forest remnants. This fact is related to the presence of native bee groups, like Centridini and Euglossina bees (Apidae, which depend on forest areas for nesting and foraging. The forest remnant proximity is also important to provide the nesting and food resources needed by the Xylocopa population during the year.

  7. Antiulcerogenic Potential Activity of Free and Nanoencapsulated Passiflora serratodigitata L. Extracts

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    Marc Strasser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides evidence that the leaves and stem of Passiflora serratodigitata L. dry crude extract (DCE, ethylacetate fraction (EAF, and residual water fraction show potential antiulcerogenic activity. Interestingly, the polymeric nanocapsule loaded with EAF had 10-fold more activity than the free EAF. Furthermore, the polymer nanoparticles provided homogeneous colloidal drug delivery systems and allowed overcoming challenges such as poor aqueous solubility as well as the physical-chemical instability of the organic extract, which presented 90% (w/w of the flavonoid content. The entrapment efficiency of the total flavonoid was 90.6 ± 2.5% (w/v for the DCE and 79.9 ± 2.7% (w/v for the EAF. This study shows that nanoencapsulation improves both the physicochemical properties and the efficacy of the herbal formulations. Therefore, free and encapsulated extracts have the potential to be suitable drug design candidates for the therapeutic management of ulcer.

  8. CARACTERÍSTICAS NUTRICIONALES Y ANTIOXIDANTES DE LA FRUTA CURUBA LARGA (Passiflora mollisima Bailey

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    DIANA CAROLINA CHAPARRO R

    Full Text Available La presente revisión muestra el valor nutricional y el impacto para la salud humana del consumo de la fruta curuba larga (Passiflora mollisima Bailey, con base a las características nutricionales y antioxidantes. Pertenece a la familia de las pasifloráceas, es originaria de la zona andina del continente americano y en Colombia se cultiva principalmente en las cordilleras oriental y occidental. Esta fruta es fuente de vitaminas A, C y riboflavina; contiene potasio, fósforo, magnesio, sodio, cloro, hierro; aporta cantidades moderadas de carbohidratos y calóricas. El contenido de fenoles, flavonoides y carotenoides confiere la capacidad de captar radicales libres causantes del estrés oxidativo, éste relacionado con el origen y desarrollo de enfermedades cardiovasculares, neurodegenerativas y el cáncer.

  9. EFFECTS OF STORAGE PERIODS AND METHODS OF OVERCOMING DORMANCY IN SEEDS OF PASSIFLORA

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    Telma Miranda dos Santos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of storage period and treatement with hot water at 50ºC or scarification on dormancy break down on Passiflora mucronata seeds. The storage periods were 0, 1, 4 and 12 months. The seeds were sown onto Germitest paper roll and incubated in a germination chamber under 20ºC/8h-30ºC/16h alternate temperature, at 16-h photoperiod (fluorescent light at 32 mol m-2 s-1 irradiance. The percent germination was evaluated, and the seeds germinated on moistened Germitest paper rolls in distilled water at a ratio of two and a half times the paper weight. The seeds were transferred to a germination chamber with alternating temperatures of 20-30º C and photoperiod of 16 h until the end of the experiment at 31 days. The experiment was analyzed as completely randomized designed with four replications, in which each plot was constituted by 50 seeds. The storage periods had significant effect on the variable studied, where the higher germination was obtained at freshly harvested seeds. At the first month of evaluation the germination decreased. After 4 and 12 months of storage, no germination was detected. The treatment with hot water at 50º or scarification favored the germination of the Passiflora seeds stored by one and four months, however even with the stimulus of the treatments, the values of final germination were low. The treatments were not efficient to stimulate the seed germination stored by 12 months.

  10. Anatomia comparada da antera de espécies de Passiflora L.(Passifloraceae) do Rio Grande do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Greta Aline Dettke

    2009-01-01

    Passiflora L. é o maior dos gêneros de Passifloraceae, com cerca de 530 espécies, e ocorre predominantemente no continente americano. Compreende trepadeiras herbáceas ou lenhosas com gavinhas, raramente ervas, arbustos ou pequenas árvores. A sistemática de Passiflora, assim como de Passifloraceae, não está ainda bem resolvida, pois são frágeis os limites de circunscrição de vários subgêneros, seções e séries e a última revisão sistemática dos gêneros americanos data do século passado. Esta cl...

  11. Nutrient composition of Dacryodes edulis seed and seed coat mixture

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    C.U. OGUNKA-NNOKA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the nutrient composition of D. edulis seed and seed coat mixture. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemicals, proximate, and vitamin compositions were evaluated using standard methods. Saponins were very high, alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins were high, while terpenoids were low, and glycosides, aldehydes, and steroids were absent. The quantitative phytochemical determination followed the order; saponin > kaempferol > rutin > catechin > tannin > sapogenin > lunamarine > phenol > ribalinidine > anthocyanin > oxalate > phytate. For the proximate composition, carbohydrates had the highest concentration, followed by lipids and fibre, while, protein concentration was the lowest. Vitamin E (5.42 mg/100g, vitamin C (3.24 mg/100g, and vitamin A (2.84 mg/100g were the highest occurring constituent vitamins while vitamin B12 (0.035 mg/100g and vitamin B2 (0.075 mg/100g were the least occurring vitamins. This study has shown the rich phytochemical composition of D. edulis seed and seed coat mixture while showing deficiencies in proteins, distinct vitamins, and ash contents.

  12. [Floral syndrome and breeding system of Corydalis edulis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qing; Zhou, Shoubiao; Zhang, Dong; Chao, Tiancai

    2012-05-01

    A field investigation was conducted on the floral syndrome and breeding system of Corydalis edulis located in natural populations in campus of Anhui Normal University by out-crossing index, pollen-ovule ratio, artificial pollination and bagging experiment. The results showed that the plant was in bloom from March to May and flowering span among populations was 72 days. The flowering span for a raceme was 14-24 days. The life span of one single flower was approximately 5-10 days. Spatial positioning of stigma and anthers were spatially desperation on the day of anthesis. The filaments were shorter than the styles through pollen vitality and stigma receptivity experiments. A self-pollination breeding system was reflected by OCI 3, pollinators were required sometimes; A complex cross bred was indicated by P/O = 857.14, combined with the results of the bagging and artificial pollination experiment, the breeding system of C. edulis was mixed with self-pollination and outcrossing. The special floral structure and pests destroying may have a certain impact on seed-set rate.

  13. Mycorrhization between Cistus ladanifer L. and Boletus edulis Bull is enhanced by the mycorrhiza helper bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla, Olaya; Olaizola, Jaime; Santos-del-Blanco, Luis; Oria-de-Rueda, Juan Andrés; Martín-Pinto, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    Boletus edulis Bull. is one of the most economically and gastronomically valuable fungi worldwide. Sporocarp production normally occurs when symbiotically associated with a number of tree species in stands over 40 years old, but it has also been reported in 3-year-old Cistus ladanifer L. shrubs. Efforts toward the domestication of B. edulis have thus focused on successfully generating C. ladanifer seedlings associated with B. edulis under controlled conditions. Microorganisms have an important role mediating mycorrhizal symbiosis, such as some bacteria species which enhance mycorrhiza formation (mycorrhiza helper bacteria). Thus, in this study, we explored the effect that mycorrhiza helper bacteria have on the efficiency and intensity of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between C. ladanifer and B. edulis. The aim of this work was to optimize an in vitro protocol for the mycorrhizal synthesis of B. edulis with C. ladanifer by testing the effects of fungal culture time and coinoculation with the helper bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula. The results confirmed successful mycorrhizal synthesis between C. ladanifer and B. edulis. Coinoculation of B. edulis with P. fluorescens doubled within-plant mycorrhization levels although it did not result in an increased number of seedlings colonized with B. edulis mycorrhizae. B. edulis mycelium culture time also increased mycorrhization levels but not the presence of mycorrhizae. These findings bring us closer to controlled B. edulis sporocarp production in plantations.

  14. Efecto de la escarificación y la dosis del ácido giberélico (AG3) en la germinación de semilla de curuba (Passiflora mollisima) Efecto de la escarificación y la dosis del ácido giberélico (AG3) en la germinación de semilla de curuba (Passiflora mollisima)

    OpenAIRE

    Cardozo Gutiérrez Rito Hernán

    1988-01-01

    The trials made on banana passion fruit seeds germination (Passiflora mollisima(HBK) Bailey, under laboratory specifications show that the testa delays the water absortion and it is the critic factor on the germination. AG3 increases the germination remarkably and strengthens the effects of the scarification considerably.

    Los ensayos de la germinación de semilla de curuba (Passiflora mollisima (HBK) Bailey en condiciones de ...

  15. Preharvest factors related to sensory profile of Passiflora setacea nectars, a wild passion fruit from Brazilian savannah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Mariana Veras Oliveira; de Lacerda de Oliveira, Lívia; Melo, Lauro; Costa, Ana Maria

    2018-05-08

    Passiflora setacea D.C is a passion fruit species native from Brazilian savannah characterized by naturally sweet sensory characteristics. Sensory quality of the pulp can be affected by growing environment. The effect of training systems (trellis or espalier), seasons (the weather conditions in periods of drought and rain) and addition of seeds to the juice (25%) were evaluated, with emphasis on the sensory quality of Passiflora setacea nectars. Training systems of P. setacea plantation did not influence flavor or aroma of nectars. Season had an effect on texture attributes. Although training system and season had impact on pH, TSS, TA, polyphenolics and condensed tannins content, these environment factors had no influence on acceptance. Seeds addition had a negative effect on overall liking. Frequency of consumption of passion fruit and functional food did not influence nectar preference whereas being neophilic or having higher level of knowledge about functional foods favored greater acceptance of P. setacea nectars. Passiflora setacea nectar is a potential functional beverage, due its bioactive contents. Training system and season had no influence on acceptance as isolated factors. However, there was an interaction between these factors, which could be considered to market projection, as well as the addition of seeds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Studies on agronomy and crop physiology of Plectranthus edulis (Vatke) Agnew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taye, M.

    2008-01-01


    Keywords: Development, morphology, plant density, potato, radiation interception, radiation use efficiency, seed size, seed tuber, spacing, stolon, tipping, tuber


    Plectranthus edulis (Vatke) Agnew (Lamiaceae) is an ancient Ethiopian tuber crop grown in mid and high altitude

  17. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of Catha edulis: A Comparative Analysis of Genome Features with Related Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuihua Gu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Qat (Catha edulis, Celastraceae is a woody evergreen species with great economic and cultural importance. It is cultivated for its stimulant alkaloids cathine and cathinone in East Africa and southwest Arabia. However, genome information, especially DNA sequence resources, for C. edulis are limited, hindering studies regarding interspecific and intraspecific relationships. Herein, the complete chloroplast (cp genome of Catha edulis is reported. This genome is 157,960 bp in length with 37% GC content and is structurally arranged into two 26,577 bp inverted repeats and two single-copy areas. The size of the small single-copy and the large single-copy regions were 18,491 bp and 86,315 bp, respectively. The C. edulis cp genome consists of 129 coding genes including 37 transfer RNA (tRNA genes, 8 ribosomal RNA (rRNA genes, and 84 protein coding genes. For those genes, 112 are single copy genes and 17 genes are duplicated in two inverted regions with seven tRNAs, four rRNAs, and six protein coding genes. The phylogenetic relationships resolved from the cp genome of qat and 32 other species confirms the monophyly of Celastraceae. The cp genomes of C. edulis, Euonymus japonicus and seven Celastraceae species lack the rps16 intron, which indicates an intron loss took place among an ancestor of this family. The cp genome of C. edulis provides a highly valuable genetic resource for further phylogenomic research, barcoding and cp transformation in Celastraceae.

  18. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of Catha edulis: A Comparative Analysis of Genome Features with Related Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembrock, Luke R.; Zheng, Shaoyu; Wu, Zhiqiang

    2018-01-01

    Qat (Catha edulis, Celastraceae) is a woody evergreen species with great economic and cultural importance. It is cultivated for its stimulant alkaloids cathine and cathinone in East Africa and southwest Arabia. However, genome information, especially DNA sequence resources, for C. edulis are limited, hindering studies regarding interspecific and intraspecific relationships. Herein, the complete chloroplast (cp) genome of Catha edulis is reported. This genome is 157,960 bp in length with 37% GC content and is structurally arranged into two 26,577 bp inverted repeats and two single-copy areas. The size of the small single-copy and the large single-copy regions were 18,491 bp and 86,315 bp, respectively. The C. edulis cp genome consists of 129 coding genes including 37 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 8 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and 84 protein coding genes. For those genes, 112 are single copy genes and 17 genes are duplicated in two inverted regions with seven tRNAs, four rRNAs, and six protein coding genes. The phylogenetic relationships resolved from the cp genome of qat and 32 other species confirms the monophyly of Celastraceae. The cp genomes of C. edulis, Euonymus japonicus and seven Celastraceae species lack the rps16 intron, which indicates an intron loss took place among an ancestor of this family. The cp genome of C. edulis provides a highly valuable genetic resource for further phylogenomic research, barcoding and cp transformation in Celastraceae. PMID:29425128

  19. Passiflora incarnata L. Improves Spatial Memory, Reduces Stress, and Affects Neurotransmission in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawna-Zboińska, Katarzyna; Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Joniec-Maciejak, Ilona; Wawer, Adriana; Pyrzanowska, Justyna; Piechal, Agnieszka; Mirowska-Guzel, Dagmara; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa

    2016-05-01

    Passiflora incarnata L. has been used as a medicinal plant in South America and Europe since the 16th century. Previous pharmacological studies focused mainly on the plant's sedative, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant effects on the central nervous system and its supporting role in the treatment of addiction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the behavioral and neurochemical effects of long-term oral administration of P. incarnata. The passionflower extract (30, 100, or 300 mg/kg body weight/day) was given to 4-week-old male Wistar rats via their drinking water. Tests were conducted after 7 weeks of treatment. Spatial memory was assessed in a water maze, and the levels of amino acids, monoamines, and their metabolites were evaluated in select brain regions by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We observed reduced anxiety and dose-dependent improvement of memory in rats given passionflower compared to the control group. In addition, hippocampal glutamic acid and cortical serotonin content were depleted, with increased levels of metabolites and increased turnover. Thus, our results partially confirmed the proposed mechanism of action of P. incarnata involving GABAA receptors. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Sweet passion fruit (Passiflora alata Curtis germination: Phases and effect of plant growth regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Zambello de Pinho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to characterize Passiflora alata germination phases and evaluate the effects of GA3 and GA4+7, associated with phenylmethylaminepurine, on P. alata seed germination. Two experiments were conducted. In the first, two treatments were carried out: seeds submerged in distilled water in a Becker and seeds conditioned in containers on filter paper soaked in distilled water; five replications of 25 seeds were used. The moisture level and the percentage of germination (%G were evaluated. In the second, six treatments and five replications of 25 seeds for each regulator were used. The seeds were imbibed in 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250mg.L-1 of GA3 and GA4+7, associated with to phenylmethylaminepurine, for 11 hours. The seeds were sown in black containers and deposited in to the germination chamber. The numbers of germinated and dormant seeds were evaluated daily. The percentage of germination, the percentage of dormant seeds, and the mean germination time (TMG were estimated. Significant differences in the germination phases between the methods were verified. The germination was affected by the regulators with an increase in the percentage of germination and a reduction in the mean germination time. The highest values were observed with 250mg.L-1 of GA4+7 plus phenylmethylaminepurine.

  1. Developmental exposure to Passiflora incarnata induces behavioural alterations in the male progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, André D; Ponte, Bianca; Vieira, Milene L; de Paula, Jaqueline C C; Mesquita, Suzana F P; Gerardin, Daniela C C; Moreira, Estefânia G

    2013-01-01

    Passiflora incarnata is marketed in many countries as a phytomedicine and is prescribed mainly as a sedative and anxiolytic. Even though the directions of most marketed phytomedicines recommend them to be used under medical supervision, reproductive and developmental studies are sparse and not mandatory for regulatory purposes. To evaluate the reproductive and developmental toxicity of P. incarnata, Wistar female rats were gavaged with 30 or 300 mg kg(-1) of this herb from gestational Day (GD) 0 to postnatal Day (PND) 21. P. incarnata treatment did not influence dams' bodyweight or food intake or their reproductive performance (post-implantation loss, litter size, litter weight). There was also no influence on the physical development of pups (bodyweight gain, day of vaginal opening or preputial separation) or their behaviour in the open-field at PND 22, 35 and 75. Sexual behaviour was disrupted in adult male pups exposed to 300 mg kg(-1) of P. incarnata; in this group, only 3 out of 11 pups were sexually competent. This behavioural disruption was not accompanied by alterations in plasma testosterone levels, reproductive-related organs and glands weights or sperm count. It is hypothesised that aromatase inhibition may be involved in the observed effect.

  2. Morfología de Passiflora: una guía para la descripción de sus especies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Macgayver Bonilla Morales

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Las pasifloras son un grupo de plantas que tienen uso desde periodos precolombinos por el sabor de sus frutos, sin embargo, en los últimos siglosse han encontrado compuestos de importancia farmacéutica para la salud humana. Desde esta perspectiva, conocer las especies mediante sus caracteres morfológicos permitirá explorar la variabilidadexistente a nivel intra e inter especifico, y también definir a futuro su importancia económicapor su uso potencial. Por tal motivo, el objetivo de esta investigación fue definir e ilustrar los caracteres morfológicos más utilizados en Passiflora L. para estudios de diversidad, caracterización y taxonomía en Colombia. De esta manera, se establecieron los ítems de hábito, raíz, tallo, estípula,hoja, flor, inflorescencia, fruto y semilla con sus respectivas descripciones que relacionan la taxonomía actual de Passiflora. Adicional, se añadióun componente de polinización que determinó las principales relaciones florísticas y polinizadores como insectos, aves y mamíferos. Se concluyeque el entendimiento de las estructuras morfológicas en Passiflora servirá de guía para trabajos de caracterización de germoplasma y revisionestaxonómicas como eje para describir nuevas especies. 

  3. MORFOANATOMÍA DE LAS GLÁNDULAS EN CUATRO ESPECIES DE PASSIFLORA L. (PASSIFLORACEAE) DE VENEZUELA

    OpenAIRE

    JÁUREGUI DAMELIS; GARCÍA MARINA; PÉREZ DELIS

    2002-01-01

    Se estudió la morfoanatomía de las glándulas secretoras presentes en cuatro especiesde Passiflora: P. foetida var. moritziana, P. oerstedii, P. suberosa y P. tuberosacon el fin de aportar información de valor diagnóstico como apoyo a la sistemáticadel género. Las muestras foliares se procesaron siguiendo técnicas convencionalesusadas tanto para microscopía óptica como para microscopía electrónica de barrido.Los resultados revelan diferencias notorias entre las cuatro especies, en lo referente...

  4. Vegetative propagation of Passiflora actinia by semihardwood cuttings/ Propagação vegetativa de Passiflora actinia por meio de estacas semilenhosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Possamai

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to investigate the relationship between of bovine mastitis and the nutrients concentration in milk. Seventy-two Holstein cows were divided into 2 groups: G1 - clinically healthy cows (n = 36 and G2 - subclinical mastitis cows (n = 36. Both groups of animals were subjected to the California Mastitis Test – CMT, the somatic cell counting, and the microbiological examination. The concentrations of fat, matter protein, copper, iron, manganese and zinc in the milk sample were determined. The recorded data were statistically analyzed and presented the following means and standard-deviations, according to groups 1 and 2: fat (% 1.251 ± 0.676 and 1.662 ± 1.166 (p > 0.05; protein (% 3.373 ± 0.428 and 3.411 ± 0.348 (p > 0.05; somatic cell counting (after logarithmic basis 1.694 ± 0.632 and 2.909 ± 0.424 (p 0.05; iron (ppm 0.159 ± 0.047 and 0.191 ± 0.063 (p 0.05 and zinc (ppm 3.938 ± 1.221 and 3.658 ± 1.212 (p > 0.05. It was concluded that there were significant differences in the levels of SCC and iron between the two groups of animals.Foram conduzidos dois experimentos para verificar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de AIB (ácido indolbutírico e de etanol na propagação vegetativa de Passiflora actinia. Foram usadas estacas semilenhosas possuindo 4 nós e 2 folhas. No experimento com AIB foram testadas as seguintes concentrações: 0, 250, 500 e 1000 mg.L-1. No experimento com etanol os tratamentos foram os seguintes: testemunha, água, etanol 10%, etanol 30%, etanol 50% e etanol 70%. Todos os tratamentos foram aplicados por imersão da base das estacas (2cm durante 1 minuto. Em ambos experimentos o delineamento foi em blocos ao acaso com 5 repetições e 20 estacas por parcela. A estaquia foi realizada em câmara de nebulização, em tubetes de polietileno, contendo o substrato comercial Plantmax®. A avaliação foi feita 7 semanas após a instalação do experimento. Não foram observadas diferen

  5. Hydrocarbon uptake and loss by the mussel Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossato, V U; Canzonier, W J

    1976-01-01

    The dynamics of accumulation and elimination of hydrocarbons by the blue mussel Mytilus edulis were studied in a continuous-flow system. Mussels were exposed for as long as 41 days to 200 to 400 ..mu..g/l of diesel fuel adsorbed on kaolin particles. Hydrocarbons were accumulated in the tissues in excess of 1000 times the exposure levels. Upon termination of dosing, the mussels exhibited a rather rapid loss of hydrocarbons for the first 15 to 20 days (biological half-life = 2.7 to 3.5 days). Subsequently, however, elimination was reduced to a minimum and a considerable fraction of the hydrocarbons could be recovered from the tissues after as long as 32 days of depuration. The mussels exhibited definite signs of physiological stress due to chronic exposure to diesel fuel, although recovery was rapid upon termination of dosing. It is concluded that mussels could be utilized as a test organism for monitoring long-term hydrocarbon pollution in marine waters. The implications for the mussel culture industry are discussed.

  6. Toxicity of tributyltin in the marine mollusc Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Josephine A; Depledge, Michael H; Galloway, Tamara S

    2005-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that tributyltin (TBT) is genotoxic to the early life stages of marine mussels and worms. Here, the toxicity of TBT to adult organisms was determined using a suite of biomarkers designed to detect cytotoxic, immunotoxic and genotoxic effects. Exposure of adult mussels, Mytilus edulis, to environmentally realistic concentrations of TBTO for 7 days resulted in a statistically significant decrease in cell viability at concentrations of 0.5 microg/l and above. TBT had no effect on phagocytic activity or antioxidant capacity (FRAP assay). There was a statistically significant increase in DNA damage detected using the comet and micronucleus assays between the controls and 0.5, 1 and 5 microg/l of TBTO (P > 0.0005). Furthermore there was a strong correlation between DNA strand breaks (comet assay) and formation of micronuclei (P = 0.0005; R2 = 61.5%). Possible mechanisms by which TBT could damage DNA either directly or indirectly are discussed including the possibility that TBT is genotoxic due to its ability to disrupt calcium homeostasis.

  7. Chemical analysis and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides extracted from Boletus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anqiang; Xiao, Nannan; He, Pengfei; Sun, Peilong

    2011-12-01

    Boletus edulis is a well-known delicious mushroom. In this study, three crude polysaccharides (BEPF30, BEPF60 and BEPF80) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of B. edulis with boiling water. Chemical and physical characteristics of the three crude polysaccharides were investigated by the combination of chemical and instrumental analysis methods. Their antioxidant activities were investigated in vitro systems including hydroxyl assay, superoxide radical assay, reducing power and chelating activity. Among these three polysaccharides, BEPF60 showed more significant reducing power and chelating activity; and highest inhibitory effects on superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical. These results indicated that polysaccharides extracted from B. edulis might be employed as ingredients in healthy and functional food to alleviate the oxidative stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Bioremediation of waste under ocean acidification: Reviewing the role of Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broszeit, Stefanie; Hattam, Caroline; Beaumont, Nicola

    2016-02-15

    Waste bioremediation is a key regulating ecosystem service, removing wastes from ecosystems through storage, burial and recycling. The bivalve Mytilus edulis is an important contributor to this service, and is used in managing eutrophic waters. Studies show that they are affected by changes in pH due to ocean acidification, reducing their growth. This is forecasted to lead to reductions in M. edulis biomass of up to 50% by 2100. Growth reduction will negatively affect the filtering capacity of each individual, potentially leading to a decrease in bioremediation of waste. This paper critically reviews the current state of knowledge of bioremediation of waste carried out by M. edulis, and the current knowledge of the resultant effect of ocean acidification on this key service. We show that the effects of ocean acidification on waste bioremediation could be a major issue and pave the way for empirical studies of the topic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. NARINGENIN ENHANCED EFFICIENCY OF GUS ACTIVITY IN Passiflora mollissima (H.B.K. Bailey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.O. Cancino

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The flavonoid naringenin has been investigated as a possible vir gene inducer in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in Passiflora mollissima, P. giberti and Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi. The transformation efficiency percentage of explants showing blue GUS expression and the extent of staining following inoculation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains EHA 105 and 1065, carrying gus and nptII genes was enhanced with the supplementation of the co-cultivation medium with naringenin. Supplementation of medium with 100µM (strain EHA 105 and 300 µM (strain 1065 naringenin was most effective at enhancing mean (±s.e.m., n=3 GUS activity in leaf explants (20.3 ± 2.4%, strain EHA; 105; 6.0 ± 0.57%, strain 1065 and nodal segments (16.7 ± 2.4% strain EHA 105; 8.3 ± 0.57% strain 1065 of P. mollissima. In P. giberti and N. tabacum maximum GUS activity was obtained in leaf and root explants with 100µM naringenin for both strains analysed. Additionally, when naringenin was added to Luria Bertani (LB medium, both bacterial growth via optical density and colony forming units were higher when compared to control. This is the first report of the use of naringenin to enhance gene transfer from Agrobacterium to plants. These findings suggest that naringenin can be used as an alternative to acetosyringone for vir gene induction in Agrobacterium. This approach may be especially useful in plants that are generally recalcitrant to Agrobacterium-mediatedtransformation.

  10. Radium concentration factors in passionfruit (Passiflora foetida) from the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, Peter; Bollhöfer, Andreas; Parry, David; Martin, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In this study, uptake of Ra from soil into the edible fruit of the wild passionfruit species Passiflora foetida was investigated, using selective extraction from the soil samples. A wide range of environmental exposure conditions were represented by the locations that were sampled, including both natural soils, and soils influenced by past and present uranium mining activities. The bioavailable 226 Ra fraction in soils was found to be a better predictor of 226 Ra fruit activity concentrations than the total soil activity concentration, or any of the other fractions studied. Concentration Factors (CFs) derived using the bioavailable fraction varied by only a factor of 7 between different locations, whereas CFs derived using other fractions and total soil varied by up to two orders of magnitude. CFs were highest for those soils containing the lowest concentrations of Mg, Ca and Ba, and approached a saturation value at higher soil concentrations. This finding suggests that group II elements influence radium uptake, most likely the result of increased pressure on the plant to take up essential nutrient group II elements from soil with the lower concentrations, with Ra being taken up as an analogue element. It is also possible that at higher concentrations of bioavailable Ca and Mg in the soil, these ions will outcompete Ra for adsorption sites in the soil and/or on the root surfaces. The study also shows that 228 Ra can potentially be a significant contributor to ingestion doses and should also be considered when assessing committed effective doses from the ingestion of fruits. -- Highlights: • Fruit and soil samples were taken from wild growing native passionfruit plants. • The sampling locations were on natural and U mining impacted sites. • Sequential extraction of the soil was undertaken. • Radium-226, radium-228 and other key elements were measured. • Concentration factors show the lowest variability in the bioavailable fraction

  11. GENETIC DIVERGENCE AMONG Passiflora cristalina Vanderpl & Zappi. GENOTYPES BASED ON FLOWER AND FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GREICIELE FARIAS DA SILVEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the genetic divergence among Passiflora cristalina genotypes and quantify the relative contribution of 30 flower and fruit characteristics, seeking to support the preservation and characterization of genetic resources of the species for preservation and use in future breeding programs. We evaluated 150 fruit and 150 flowers collected in 15 genotypes with naturally occurring in the municipality of Alta Floresta, MT. The characterization of genotypes was performed through 30 morphological characteristics of flowers and fruits, 21 of these for flower and 9 for fruit. Data were evaluated using the principal components and cluster methods obtained by UPGMA method from the similarity matrix (Euclidian mean distance, using the Genes software. By principal component analysis, it has been found that the first three components have absorbed 52.11% of the accumulated variation. The characteristics that most contributed to the discrimination of genotypes were fresh fruit weight, stigma length, length of corona filaments, fruit width, petal width and pulp weight, which are more responsive for the selection of P.cristalina genotypes. Smaller contributions to diversity were obtained from anther width, bract width and fruit length. The smallest contributions for diversity were obtained from the following characteristics: anther width, bract width and fruit length. Through UPGMA clustering method, it was found that there is a large genetic divergence among genotypes analyzed because all genotypes were grouped with over 50% of dissimilarity. This study identified genotypes 4, 5 and 9 as the most divergent and therefore the most suitable for breeding in future breeding programs and genetic conservation of the species.

  12. Phytochemical analysis of Passiflora loefgrenii Vitta, a rich source of luteolin-derived flavonoids with antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentieri, Maria Pia; Levi, Marisa; Guzzo, Flavia; Avato, Pinarosa

    2015-11-01

    The paper describes the flavonoid composition of the aerial parts (young leaves, YL; adult leaves, AL; stems, ST) of Passiflora loefgrenii Vitta, a rare species native to Brazil, where it is traditionally used as food. Antioxidant potential has also been evaluated. To the best of our knowledge, no phytochemical and biological study on this species has been reported previously. Compositional data have been acquired combining HPLC-diode array detector (DAD) and Electrospary ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) analyses. Antioxidant activity has been evaluated by the 2,2'-di-phenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method. Glycosylated flavones, with luteolin as the main aglycone, can be regarded as biomarkers for this drug. Qualitative composition of the extracts from YL, AL and ST was similar. The bulk of the constituents was made up by 8-C-ß-glucosyl luteolin (orientin), 7-O-α-rhamnosyl-6-C-ß-glucosyl luteolin and 6-C-α-rhamnosyl luteolin, which totally amounted to 16.57 (73%), 10.77 (74%) and 5.07 (77%) μg/mg in YL, AL and ST, respectively. P. loefgrenii showed a good antioxidant activity (IC50 of 350 μg/ml), higher than generally reported for other passifloras. P. loefgrenii, rich in luteolin glycosides, can be regarded as a good candidate to be explored for therapeutic properties other than the sedative one since it represents a rich source of valuable flavonoids with antioxidant potential. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. Determination of mineral contents of wild Boletus edulis mushroom and its edible safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jiuyan; Zhang, Ji; Li, Jieqing; Li, Tao; Liu, Honggao; Wang, Yuanzhong

    2018-04-06

    This study aimed to determine the contents of main mineral elements of wild Boletus edulis and to assess its edible safety, which may provide scientific evidence for the utilization of this species. Fourteen mineral contents (Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sr, V and Zn) in the caps and stipes of B. edulis as well as the corresponding surface soils collected from nine different geographic regions in Yunnan Province, southwest China were determined. The analyses were performed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) after microwave digestion. Measurement data were analyzed using variance and Pearson correlation analysis. Edible safety was evaluated according to the provisionally tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of heavy metals recommended by United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). Mineral contents were significantly different with the variance of collection areas. B. edulis showed relative abundant contents of Ca, Fe, Mg and Na, followed by Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn, and the elements with the lower content less were Cd, Co, Ni, Sr and V. The elements accumulation differed significantly in caps and stipes. Among them, Cd and Zn were bioconcentrated (BCF > 1) while others were bioexcluded (BCF < 1). The mineral contents in B. edulis and its surface soil were positively related, indicating that the elements accumulation level was related to soil background. In addition, from the perspective of food safety, if an adult (60 kg) eats 300 g fresh B. edulis per week, the intake of Cd in most of tested mushrooms were lower than PTWI value whereas the Cd intakes in some other samples were higher than this standard. The results indicated that the main mineral contents in B. edulis were significantly different with respect to geographical distribution, and the Cd intake in a few of regions was higher than the acceptable intakes with a potential risk.

  14. Boletus edulis y cistus ladanifer : caracterización de sus ectomicorrizas, síntesis in vitro y área ptoencial= Boletus edulis and cistus ladanifer: characterization of its ectomycorrhizae, in vitro synthesis, and realised niche

    OpenAIRE

    Águeda Hernández, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    El grupo Boletus edulis incluye cuatro especies que poseen gran importancia económica por su valor gastronómico: Boletus aereus, Boletus edulis, Boletus pinophilus y Boletus reticulatus. Las Cistaceae son plantas características de las primeras etapas sucesionales, ecológicamente importantes por su papel como reservorio de inóculo de hongos ectomicorrícicos ante perturbaciones ecológicas. Los carpóforos del grupo Boletus edulis son recolectados en algunas regiones de la España Central, en z...

  15. Seasonal light interception, radiation use efficiency, growth and tuber production of the tuber crop Plectranthus edulis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taye, M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Plectranthus edulis (Vatke) Agnew (Lamiaceae) is an ancient Ethiopian crop that produces below-ground, edible tubers on stolons. It is grown from seed tuber pieces. There is thus far little quantitative information on dry matter production of this crop and parameters determining growth and yield.

  16. Preliminary phytochemical analysis, Antioxidant and cytotoxicity test of Carissa edulis Vahl dried fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowsiya, J.; Madhumitha, G.

    2017-11-01

    Plants are the main source of medicine which is used in traditional as well as modern medicine in recent years for curing many diseases. Carissa edulis Vahl is one of the traditional plants which have healing property on diarrhea, toothache and chest pain. The present work aims on phytochemical, antioxidant and in vitro cytotoxicity test of C. edulis dried fruits. The different solvent extracts obtained from petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, ethanol and water have been evaluated the presence of phytochemicals. Several assays were carried out like total antioxidant, DPPH, reducing power and thiobarbituric acid to investigate the free radical scavenging property. In addition, the cytotoxicity study also carried out on human lung cancer cells (A549). Among different solvent extract, ethanol exhibited strong antioxidant activity. Additionally, the in vitro cytotoxicity test of C. edulis on human lung cancer cell (A549) showed IC50 value 405.704 ± 2.42 μg/mL. Therefore, C. edulis could be useful as a potential preventive intervention for free radicals mediated diseases as well as an antioxidant drug in the pharmaceutical industry.

  17. Seasonal variability in nutrient regeneration by mussel Mytilus edulis rope culture in oligotrophic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.M.; Strand, O.; Strohmeier, T.; Krogness, C.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Smaal, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Blue mussel Mytilus edulis cultures contribute to nutrient cycling in coastal ecosystems. Mussel populations filter particulate nutrients from the water column and inorganic nutrients are regenerated by excretion of metabolic wastes and decomposition of (pseudo-)faeces. The objective of this study

  18. Epidemiology of Bonamia ostreae infecting European flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) from Lake Grevelingen, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelsma, M.Y.; Kerkhoff, S.; Roozenburg, I.; Haenen, O.L.M.; van Gool, A.; Sistermans, W.C.H.; Wijnhoven, S.; Hummel, H.

    2010-01-01

    Production of European flat oysters Ostrea edulis in the Netherlands has been hampered by the presence of the haplosporidian parasite Bonamia ostreae, which is now an enzootic species following its establishment after 1980. We analyzed histopathological data from annual shellfish disease monitoring

  19. Epidemiology of Bonamia ostrea infecting European flat oysters Ostrea edulis from Lake Grevelingen, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelsma, M.Y.; Kerkhoff, S.; Roozenburg, I.; Haenen, O.L.M.; Gool, van A.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Production of European flat oysters Ostrea edulis in the Netherlands has been hampered by the presence of the haplosporidian parasite Bonamia ostreae, which is now an enzootic species following its establishment after 1980. We analyzed histopathological data from annual shellfish disease monitoring

  20. Insect Pests Occurring on Dacryodes edulis (Burseraceae) in Rural Areas in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poligui, R N; Mouaragadja, I; Vandereycken, A; Haubruge, E; Francis, F

    2014-08-01

    The inventory of pests occurring on Dacryodes edulis (Burseraceae) was carried out in rural areas in Gabon during 2009 and 2010. Yellow traps and visual observations were used to record weekly pests during the tree flowering stage, in five villages. Catches from yellow traps rose to 7,296 and 1,722 insect pests in 2009 and 2010, respectively, whereas records from visual observations corresponded to 1,812 and 171 insect pests in 2009 and 2010, respectively. During both years, abundance from traps and visual monitoring was significantly different between sampling sites (p pests' diversity between sampling sites was not significant (p > 0.05) according to traps, but significant (p ≤ 0.04) according to visual observations in 2010. Mecocorynus loripes Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Cucurlionidae) attacked the stem of D. edulis, while Oligotrophus sp. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), Pseudophacopteron serrifer Malenovsky and Burckhardt (Hemiptera: Phacopteronidae), and Selenothrips rubrocinctus Giard (Thysanopera: Thripidae) attacked leaves. Pseudonoorda edulis Maes and Poligui (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Lobesia aeolopa Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) infested fruits and inflorescences, respectively. These insects are specifically linked to plant patterns, and their identification provided the first basic information for developing suitable strategies to control pests of D. edulis in Gabon, as well as in neighboring central African countries.

  1. Area-intensive bottom culture of blue mussels Mytilus edulis in a micro-tidal estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Christensen, Helle Torp; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2012-01-01

    Dredge fishery for blue mussels Mytilus edulis (L.) impacts the benthic ecosystem, and substitution by area-intensive bottom culture production may reduce adverse effects on the ecosystem. Two different field studies in 2007 and 2009 tested the productivity of bottom culture of blue mussels, and ...

  2. Allometric equations for maximum filtration rate in blue mussels Mytilus edulis and importance of condition index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Pleissner, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    rate (F, l h-1), W (g), and L (mm) as described by the equations: FW = aWb and FL = cLd, respectively. This is done by using available and new experimental laboratory data on M. edulis obtained by members of the same research team using different methods and controlled diets of cultivated algal cells...

  3. A pilot study on the effect of Catha edulis frosk., (celastraceae) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pilot study on the effect of Catha edulis frosk., (celastraceae) on metabolic syndrome in WOKW rats. ... Feeding with khat leaves reduced the body weight and the triglyceride level of the animals. The effect of KD on these parameters was stronger than that of KL. KD lowered the blood glucose concentration and the leptin ...

  4. Morphological and anatomical analyses of the seed coats of sweet granadilla (Passiflora ligularis Juss. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárdenas Hernández Julián

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The study of histology and morphology of seeds of genus Passiflora has been of high utility for the classification of species. In seeds of sweet granadilla, the histological characteristics and methodologies for their study are unknown. This study was aimed to know the tissue and morphological characteristics of the seed coats of seeds of sweet granadilla and to be able to determine its value in the differentiation of accessions. Five accessions collected in producing zones of the Province of Huila, Colombia, were analyzed. In morphological analysis, all accessions presented falsifoveate ornamentation and entire margin. The seeds presented high change in weight and size for every accession; there stood out the seeds of the accession PmN for presenting major size (7.42 mm long, weight (35.62 mg, homogeneity in these variables and a typical orange color. For the histological analysis, a protocol was adapted to realize sections of seed coats in parafin, by means of which one managed to obtain sections (7 μ that in the optical microscope show clearly three well differentiated layers, belonging, possibly, to exotegmen (internal layer, mesotesta (medium layer and exotesta (external layer. Every layer presented differences in the form of the cells, color and thickness, between the sections of the basal and medium parts of the seeds, but the differences between the analyzed accessions

  5. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Passiflora suberosa L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasani Prabodha Sudasinghe

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Passiflora suberosa L. (Family: Passifloraceae; common name: wild passion fruit, devil’s pumpkin are used in Sri Lankan traditional medicine for treating diabetes. The present study investigated the in vivo ability of P. suberosa leaves to manage blood sugar status and associated cholesterol levels. Mechanisms of action and toxicity were also determined. Phytochemical screening of aqueous extracts of P. suberosa leaves and carbohydrate content of the leaves were determined according to previously published methods. In two group of male mice (n = 9, effects on fasting and random blood glucose levels (BGLs of different acute doses (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of the aqueous leaf extract (ALE were evaluated at 1, 3, and 5 h post-treatment. In another set of mice, the fasting BGL was evaluated following treatment of 0 or 50 mg/kg ALE (dose prescribed in traditional medicine for 30 consecutive days. The lipid profile, some mechanism of ALE action (diaphragm glucose uptake, glycogen content in the liver and skeletal muscles and its toxicity (behavioural observation, food and water intake, hepatoxicity were also assessed following 30-day treatment. However, sucrose and glucose tolerance tests and intestinal glucose uptake were conducted to determine portion of mechanisms of action following single dose of 50 mg/kg ALE. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, unsaturated sterols, triterpenes, saponins, flavonoids, tannins and proanthocyanidins. Carbohydrate content of the leaves was 12.97%. The maximum hypoglycemic effect was observed after 4 h of 50 and 100 mg/kg ALE administration. The extract decreased fasting BGL (18% following an oral sucrose challenge and inhibited (79% glucose absorption from the intestine. Correspondingly, the levels of glycogen in the liver (61% and in the skeletal muscles (57% were found be higher than that of the control group. The levels of total cholesterol (17% and tri

  6. Caracterização de Passiflora mucronata Lam.: nova alternativa de maracujá ornamental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Maria Molina Meletti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a família Passifloraceae possui ampla diversidade genética devido ao elevado número de espécies nativas, entretanto, o valor ornamental da família ainda é praticamente inexplorado. Passiflora mucronata Lam. é uma das espécies nativas que integram o Banco de Germoplasma de Maracujazeiros do Instituto Agronômico (IAC, que estão sendo caracterizadas para fins ornamentais, em condições de campo, objetivando sua utilização comercial. Foram avaliados desenvolvimento vegetativo, época de florescimento, período de antese, compatibilidade, viabilidade polínica, produção de frutos, comportamento germinativo e longevidade das sementes. As flores de P. mucronata são brancas, fosforescentes e têm antese noturna, atraindo mariposas e morcegos. A viabilidade polínica permaneceu elevada (75,8%, desde a antese (18h00min h até a manhã seguinte. A espécie mostrou-se autoincompatível. A polinização cruzada resultou em frutos ovoides, com 14,82g de peso médio, 4,59cm de diâmetro longitudinal por 2,73cm de diâmetro equatorial. A casca do fruto é delgada, amarelo-canária quando totalmente maduro. A polpa apresentou pouca suculência, sem aroma característico, mas sabor agradável. As sementes são achatadas, de coloração marrom-enegrecida, com dormência quando recém-colhidas, o que pode ser superado efetivamente com armazenamento em câmara fria e seca mais choque térmico, associados. A longevidade das sementes foi de cerca de um ano. Os acessos avaliados de P. mucronata evidenciaram se tratar de uma planta de vigor vegetativo intermediário, tolerante ao frio, com intenso florescimento, que se estende por um longo período do ano. Em função destas vantagens adicionais, pode ser utilizada como planta ornamental, uma alternativa dentro do grupo das trepadeiras indicadas para cercas vivas ou caramanchões.

  7. Passiflora incarnata attenuation of neuropathic allodynia and vulvodynia apropos GABA-ergic and opioidergic antinociceptive and behavioural mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Urooj; Subhan, Fazal; Shahid, Muhammad; Akbar, Shehla; Ahmad, Nisar; Ali, Gowhar; Fawad, Khwaja; Sewell, Robert D E

    2016-02-24

    Passiflora incarnata is widely used as an anxiolytic and sedative due to its putative GABAergic properties. Passiflora incarnata L. methanolic extract (PI-ME) was evaluated in an animal model of streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathic allodynia and vulvodynia in rats along with antinociceptive, anxiolytic and sedative activities in mice in order to examine possible underlying mechanisms. PI-ME was tested preliminary for qualitative phytochemical analysis and then quantitatively by proximate and GC-MS analysis. The antinociceptive property was evaluated using the abdominal constriction assay and hot plate test. The anxiolytic activity was performed in a stair case model and sedative activity in an open field test. The antagonistic activities were evaluated using naloxone and/or pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). PI-ME was evaluated for prospective anti-allodynic and anti-vulvodynic properties in a rat model of streptozotocin induced neuropathic pain using the static and dynamic testing paradigms of mechanical allodynia and vulvodynia. GC-MS analysis revealed that PI-ME contained predominant quantities of oleamide (9-octadecenamide), palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid) and 3-hydroxy-dodecanoic acid, among other active constituents. In the abdominal constriction assay and hot plate test, PI-ME produced dose dependant, naloxone and pentylenetetrazole reversible antinociception suggesting an involvement of opioidergic and GABAergic mechanisms. In the stair case test, PI-ME at 200 mg/kg increased the number of steps climbed while at 600 mg/kg a significant decrease was observed. The rearing incidence was diminished by PI-ME at all tested doses and in the open field test, PI-ME decreased locomotor activity to an extent that was analagous to diazepam. The effects of PI-ME were antagonized by PTZ in both the staircase and open field tests implicating GABAergic mechanisms in its anxiolytic and sedative activities. In the streptozotocin-induced neuropathic nociceptive model, PI

  8. Effects of coexistence between the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and eelgrass Zostera marina on sediment biogeochemistry and plant performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, H.F.; Norling, P.; Kristensen, Per Sand

    2012-01-01

    The habitat-modifying suspension-feeding mussel, Mytilus edulis, may have facilitating or inhibiting effects on seagrass meadows depending on the environmental conditions. We investigated the effects of M. edulis on sediment biogeochemistry in Zostera marina meadows under eutrophic conditions...... in Flensborg fjord, Denmark. Sediment and plant samples were collected at ten stations; five with Z. marina (Eelgrass) and five with Z. marina and M. edulis (Mixed) and at two unvegetated stations; one with mussels (Mussel) and one with sand (Sand). The Mixed sediment was enriched in fine particles (2-3 times...... significantly reduced at Mixed stations suggesting inhibiting effect of M. edulis on Z. marina. Negative correlations between eelgrass measures and sediment sulphide at Mixed stations indicate that presence of mussels increase sulphide invasion in the plants. A survey of 318 stations in Danish fjords suggests...

  9. Comparison of PCBs and PAHs levels in European coastal waters using mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex as biomonitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olenycz, M.; Sokolowski, A.; Niewinska, A.; Wolowicz, M.; Namiesnik, J.; Hummel, H.; Jansen, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors for two groups of organic pollutants: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene,

  10. Exploración de la variabilidad genética del maracuyá (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Degener como base para un programa de fitomejoramiento en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ocampo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El maracuyá es uno de los principales frutales del Neotrópico y en Colombia existen cerca de 6000 ha cultivadas con esta fruta, con una producción de 90,000 t/año. No obstante este potencial, los cultivos presentan graves problemas fitosanitarios y degeneración genética, lo que se manifiesta por una reducción de la vida útil de la plantación. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el grado de variabilidad genética del maracuyá cultivado en Colombia como base para un programa de fitomejoramiento. Las recolecciones se realizaron en los departamentos de Antioquia, Caldas, Cauca, Huila, Tolima y Valle del Cauca mediante una selección masal participativa con los productores. En cada cultivo, se seleccionaron diez frutos al azar (calidad extra de las plantas más sobresalientes por productividad y sanidad, en las cuales se registró la incidencia de insectos plaga y enfermedades. Los frutos fueron caracterizados con 11 variables fisicoquímicas y analizados mediante la descomposición de la varianza (univariado y el análisis de clasificación (neighbour joining. Los resultados mostraron que los trips (Neohydatothrips spp. y la virosis (SMV son los problemas fitosanitarios que más afectan el cultivo en los sitios del estudio. El análisis univariado del fruto mostró un porcentaje de variabilidad promedio total de 14.31% (CV, destacándose los pesos de la cáscara (20.53% y de la semilla (20.47%. Tomando en cuenta los parámetros de calidad (°Brix y %pulpa + semilla se identificaron ocho accesiones élite provenientes de Caldas, Valle del Cauca y Antioquia. El análisis de clasificación mostró una alta variabilidad, con poca estructuración por origen geográfico. Estos resultados permitirán iniciar un proceso de mejoramiento genético a partir de genotipos superiores de las accesiones élite identificadas.

  11. Degradabilidad ruminal in vitro de ensilajes de pasto saboya (Panicum maximum jacq. con diferentes niveles de inclusión de cáscara de maracuyá (Passiflora edulis sims.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Barrera-Álvarez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo como objetivo evaluar la composición y degradabilidad ruminal in vitro de la materia seca, materia orgánica y materia inorgánica de los ensilajes de pasto saboya con los tratamientos T1: Pasto saboya 90%+cáscara de maracuyá 10%; T2: Pasto saboya 80%+cáscara de maracuyá 20%; T3: Pasto saboya 70%+cáscara de maracuyá 30% y T4: Pasto saboya 60%+cáscara de maracuyá 40%. Se utilizó el método de microensilaje (silos PVC de 3 kg de capacidad provistos de una válvula bunsen y mecanismo de extracción de efluentes y la técnica de degradación in vitro con el sistema de incubación DAISY II, empleando el líquido ruminal de bovinos brahman de 500±25 kg de peso promedio. Se aplicó un Diseño Completamente al Azar con seis repeticiones. El nivel de inclusión de maracuyá mejoró el contenido de nutrientes en el ensilaje, incrementando la materia orgánica, la proteína bruta y la grasa bruta y disminuyendo las fracciones de fibra. La degradabilidad de la materia seca, materia orgánica y materia inorgánica fue superior (p

  12. AGREGAÇÃO DE VALOR A FRUTOS DE ATA ATRAVÉS DO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE NÉCTAR MISTO DE MARACUJÁ (PASSIFLORA EDULIS SIMS E ATA (ANNONA SQUAMOSA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARESSA CALDEIRA MORZELLE

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Atualmente, observa-se uma nova tendência no consumo alimentar, com uma demanda cada vez maior por alimentos com elevadas propriedades nutricionais e funcionais. Pelo crescente interesse em produtos saudáveis, houve uma expansão na agroindústria de frutas, principalmente aquelas com características sensoriais exóticas. Sendo assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo geral desenvolver um néctar misto, à base dos frutos de ata e maracujá, que atendesse ao requerimento de aceitação pelo público; considerando assim essa mistura de frutas uma saída para um melhor aproveitamento tecnológico dessas matérias-primas com agregação de valor. Avaliou-se as características sensoriais, microbiológicas e físico-químicas: pH, acidez total titulável e sólidos solúveis. Foram estudadas duas formulações de néctar variando o teor de polpa (50% polpa de ata e 50% polpa de maracujá e 30% polpa de maracujá com 70% polpa de ata de cada fruta, as quais foram avaliadas por 100 consumidores utilizando a escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos para a aceitabilidade e escala estruturada de cinco pontos de intenção de compra. Os resultados de aceitação global não diferiram signifi cativamente (p< 0,05, sendo que as duas formulações foram bem aceitas com média de aceitação 8, equivalente ao termo “gostei muito”, o que sugere alto potencial para mercado.

  13. Stomatal behavior in fruits and leaves of the purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims and fruits and cladodes of the yellow pitaya [Hylocereus megalanthus (K. Schum. ex Vaupel Ralf Bauer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Sánchez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants as C3 and CAM react photosynthetically different but both can grow in the same agroecological zone in the tropics. Therefore we studied the behavior of stomatal opening in fruits and leaves of the purple passion fruit and fruits and cladodes of the yellow pitaya was studied under natural growing conditions in Granada and Fusagasuga, Cundinamarca (Colombia. Imprints were made on the surface of leaves, fruits and cladodes using cosmetic enamel impressions. Three cycles were carried out, each cycle took 72 hours, obtaining three different samples every 3 hours; then the impressions were observed by microscope and the opened and closed stomata were counted in each species. In each sampling, data of solar radiation, temperature and relative humidity (RH were measured. The purple passion fruit had the typical behavior of a C3 plant in the leaves as well as the fruits, and a positive correlation between the stomatal aperture and radiation and temperature was found, along with a negative correlation between stomatal aperture and RH. The pitaya showed the typical behavior of a CAM plant with a negative correlation between the stomatal opening and radiation and temperature, as well as a positive correlation between stomatal opening and RH. Radiation, temperature and RH affected the stomatal opening in the fruits and cladodes. Stomatal densities differed greatly between the species and plant organs. In the purple passion fruit, 106.53 stomata per mm² leaf surface were found, but only 12.64 stomata per mm² fruit surface; whereas in the pitaya, 11.28 and 1.43 stomata per mm² were found on the cladodes and fruits, respectively

  14. Feeding traits of the European flat oyster, Ostrea edulis, and the invasive Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette; Hansen, Benni Winding; Vismann, Bent

    2017-01-01

    Two oysters, the native flat oyster, Ostrea edulis, and the non-indigenous Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, have partially overlapping distributions in European waters. Relatively little is known about particle selection by O. edulis, and the goal of the present study was to establish baselines...... for particle selection by both oyster species under controlled conditions in the laboratory. The study was carried out with adult oysters of similar shell size collected in the Limfjord estuary, Denmark (56°47′N, 08°51′E), in November 2011. The feeding traits of both species [clearance rate (CR), retention...... efficiency (RE) and lower threshold for clearance (LTC)] were compared using five algal species with different cell sizes (5−32 µm ESD) (Isochrysis galbana, Rhodomonas salina, Thalassiosira weissflogii, Prorocentrum micans and Akashiwo sanguinea). Oysters were acclimated to an experimental temperature of 22...

  15. Proteome analysis of an ectomycorrhizal fungus Boletus edulis under salt shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Chen, Hui; Tang, Mingjuan; Shen, Shihua

    2007-08-01

    Soil salinization has become a severe global problem and salinity is one of the most severe abiotic stresses inhibiting growth and survival of mycorrhizal fungi and their host plants. Salinity tolerance of ectomycorrhizal fungi and survival of ectomycorrhizal inocula is essential to reforestation and ecosystem restoration in saline areas. Proteomic changes of an ectomycorrhizal fungus, Boletus edulis, when exposed to salt stress conditions (4% NaCl, w/v) were determined using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and mass spectrometry (MS) techniques. Twenty-two protein spots, 14 upregulated and 8 downregulated, were found changed under salt stress conditions. Sixteen changed protein spots were identified by nanospray ESI Q-TOF MS/MS and liquid chromatography MS/MS. These proteins were involved in biosynthesis of methionine and S-adenosylmethionine, glycolysis, DNA repair, cell cycle control, and general stress tolerance, and their possible functions in salinity adaptation of Boletus edulis were discussed.

  16. New phenyl-ethanediols from the culture broth of Boletus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wan-Qiu; Qin, Xiang-Dong; Shao, Hong-Jun; Fang, Li-Zhen; Wang, Fei; Ding, Zhi-Hui; Dong, Ze-Jun; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2007-04-01

    A new phenyl-ethanediol, (1S)-(4-acetylphenyl)-1, 2-ethanediol (1), and a new natural product, (1S)-(3-ethenylphenyl)-1, 2-ethanediol (2), were isolated from the culture broth of the basidiomycete Boletus edulis together with three related known compounds, 1-(4-ethylphenyl)-1, 2-ethanediol (3), 1-(3-ethylphenyl)-1, 2-ethanediol (4) and 1-(3-formylphenyl)-ethanone (5). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including extensive 2D-NMR techniques.

  17. Chitin in the Silk Gland Ducts of the Spider Nephila edulis and the Silkworm Bombyx mori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gwilym J. G.; Knight, David P.; Vollrath, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the detection and localisation of chitin in the cuticle of the spinning ducts of both the spider Nephila edulis and the silkworm Bombyx mori. Our observations demonstrate that the duct walls of both animals contain chitin notwithstanding totally independent evolutionary pathways of the systems. We conclude that chitin may well be an essential component for the construction of spinning ducts; we further conclude that in both species chitin may indicate the evolutionary origin of the spinning ducts. PMID:24015298

  18. Efeito da sacarose e sorbitol na conservação in vitro de Passiflora giberti N. E. Brown Sucrose and sorbitol effect in the in vitro conservation of Passiflora giberti N. E. Brown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Amorim Faria

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o efeito da sacarose e do sorbitol na conservação in vitro de um acesso de Passiflora giberti N. E. Brown. Para isso, foi instalado um experimento no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em que foi comparado o tratamento-testemunha (MS padrão com o meio MS suplementado com três concentrações de sacarose (0; 15 e 30 g L-1 em combinação com três concentrações de sorbitol (10; 20 e 40 g L-1. As avaliações foram realizadas aos 30; 60; 90 e 120 dias de incubação, observando-se o comprimento das brotações (cm, número de raízes, número e coloração das folhas. Os resultados mostram ser possível conservar sob crescimento lento, por quatro meses, microplantas de maracujazeiro em meio de cultura MS suplementado com 10 ou 20 g L-1 de sorbitol, na ausência de sacarose, e mantidas sob condições de fotoperíodo de 16 h (22 µE m-2s-1 e temperatura de 27 ± 1 ºC. A sacarose promoveu maior desenvolvimento de microplantas. A rizogênese é afetada pelo sorbitol na concentração de 40 g L-1 e pela ausência de sacarose no meio de cultura.This work objectified the study of sucrose and sorbitol effect in the in vitro conservation for Passiflora giberti N. E. Brown, access. Therefore, an experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design to compare control treatment (standard MS to MS medium supplemented with three sucrose concentrations (0, 15 and 30 g L-1 combined with three sorbitol concentrations (10, 20 and 40 g L-1, in a total of 10 treatments with 20 replicas. The experiment evaluation was carried out at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of incubation, whereas the height of shoots (cm, number of roots, number and color of leaves were observed. The results showed the possibility to maintain passion-fruit microplants for a four months period under slow growth in MS medium supplemented with 10 or 20 g L-1 of sorbitol, without sucrose, and kept under 16 hours photoperiod (22 µ E m-2 s-1 and

  19. Variación morfológica de tres especies de curubas (Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima, P. tarminiana y P. mixta y sus híbridos en el Valle del Cauca (Colombia Morphological variation of three banana passion fruit species (Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima, P. tarminiana and P. mixta and their hybrids in the Cauca Valley (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Primot

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la variación morfológica entre ocho accesiones de las tres principales especies de curubas cultivadas y silvestres del Valle del Cauca, Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima (curuba de Castilla, Passiflora tarminiana (curuba india y Passiflora mixta (curuba de monte y 11 de sus híbridos, usando el análisis de componentes principales y el método de clasificación del vecino más próximo en 105 caracteres cualitativos y cuantitativos. Siete componentes principales explican 84% de la varianza total. Las clasificaciones sobre los caracteres cualitativos y cuantitativos muestran una clara agrupación por especie. Dentro de P. mixta, se distinguen un tipo poco pubescente, representativo de las plantas silvestres más comunes, y un tipo muy pubescente, con caracteres de domesticación como frutos amarillentos de pulpa colorida, y con una mayor variación morfológica. La clasificación de estos últimos individuos sugiere una introgresión entre P. mixta y Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima. Los híbridos ocupan una posición intermedia entre las especies parentales, pero se diferencian claramente según la dirección del cruzamiento, revelando un efecto maternal sobre la herencia de los caracteres vegetativos y florales. Los primeros análisis del fruto muestran características intermedias en cuanto a forma, color y tolerancia a la antracnosis.Morphological variation was studied in eight accessions from the three most common cultivated and wild species of banana passion fruit in the Cauca Valley, Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima (curuba de Castilla, P. tarminiana (curuba india and P. mixta (curuba de monte, and 11 of their hybrids, using the principal component analysis and neighbor joining cluster analysis on 105 qualitative and quantitative traits. The seven principal components explain 84% of the total variance. The principal component and cluster analyses clearly show the groups accessions by species. Two subgroups are

  20. Toxic effect of khat (Catha edulis on memory: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birhane Alem Berihu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: People use khat (Catha edulis for its pleasant stimulant effect of physical activity, consciousness, motor, and mental functions. Although there are reports assessing the effect of khat on memory, there was no study based on formal systematic review and meta-analysis. Objective: We have therefore conducted this meta-analysis to determine the level of evidence for the effect of khat (C. edulis Forsk on memory discrepancy. Methods: MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, PubMed, Academic Search Complete, SPORTDiscus, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched to retrieve the papers for this review. Keywords utilized across database search were khat, cat, chat, long-term memory, short-term memory, memory deficit, randomized control trial, and cross-sectional survey. The search was limited to studies in humans and rodents; published in English language. Result: Finding of various studies included in our meta-analysis showed that the effect of acute, and subchronic exposure to khat showed that short-term memory appears to be affected depending on the duration of exposure. However, does not have any effect on long-term memory. Conclusion: Although a number of studies regarding the current topic are limited, the evidenced showed that khat (C. edulis induced memory discrepancy.

  1. Relationship between oxygen concentration, respiration and filtration rate in blue mussel Mytilus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Baojun; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2018-03-01

    The large water-pumping and particle-capturing gills of the filter-feeding blue mussel Mytilus edulis are oversized for respiratory purposes. Consequently, the oxygen uptake rate of the mussel has been suggested to be rather insensitive to decreasing oxygen concentrations in the ambient water, since the diffusion rate of oxygen from water flowing through the mussel determines oxygen uptake. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the oxygen uptake in mussels exposed to various oxygen concentrations. These concentrations were established via N2-bubbling of the water in a respiration chamber with mussels fed algal cells to stimulate fully opening of the valves. It was found that mussels exposed to oxygen concentrations decreasing from 9 to 2 mg O2/L resulted in a slow but significant reduction in the respiration rate, while the filtration rate remained high and constant. Thus, a decrease of oxygen concentration by 78% only resulted in a 25% decrease in respiration rate. However, at oxygen concentrations below 2 mg O2/L M. edulis responded by gradually closing its valves, resulting in a rapid decrease of filtration rate, concurrent with a rapid reduction of respiration rate. These observations indicated that M. edulis is no longer able to maintain its normal aerobic metabolism at oxygen concentration below 2 mg O2/L, and there seems to be an energy-saving mechanism in bivalve molluscs to strongly reduce their activity when exposed to low oxygen conditions.

  2. Evaluation of physicochemical properties, proximate and nutritional composition of Gracilaria edulis collected from Palk Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivel, Ravi; Pandima Devi, Kasi

    2015-05-01

    Gracilaria edulis, a red alga present in southeast coast of India was evaluated for its nutritional composition. FT-IR analysis of soluble polysaccharides revealed the presence of galactans, 3,6-anhydro-α-L-galactopyranose, sulphated galactose and the gelling agent agar, with the sulphate content estimated as 51.01 μg/mg of polysaccharide. Results of physicochemical properties and nutritional profile reveal the presence of dietary fibre (8.9 ± 0.62% DW), carbohydrate (101.61 ± 1.8 mg/g DW), crude protein (6.68 ± 0.94 mg/g DW) and lipid content (8.3 ± 1.03 mg/g DW). G. edulis contains biologically important fatty acids like palmitic acid (2.06%), linolenic acid (2.56%), and oleic acid (1.98%). The other nutritional components present in high amounts are proline, chlorophyll A and B, all the essential amino acids and vitamin A, E and C. These findings suggest that G. edulis has potent nutritional value which might be used as a source of nutrients for human and animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Seasonal dynamics of Boletus edulis and Lactarius deliciosus extraradical mycelium in pine forests of central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Varga, Herminia; Águeda, Beatriz; Ágreda, Teresa; Martínez-Peña, Fernando; Parladé, Javier; Pera, Joan

    2013-07-01

    The annual belowground dynamics of extraradical soil mycelium and sporocarp production of two ectomycorrhizal fungi, Boletus edulis and Lactarius deliciosus, have been studied in two different pine forests (Pinar Grande and Pinares Llanos, respectively) in Soria (central Spain). Soil samples (five per plot) were taken monthly (from September 2009 to August 2010 in Pinar Grande and from September 2010 to September 2011 in Pinares Llanos) in eight permanent plots (four for each site). B. edulis and L. deliciosus extraradical soil mycelium was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction, with DNA extracted from soil samples, using specific primers and TaqMan® probes. The quantities of B. edulis soil mycelium did not differ significantly between plots, but there was a significant difference over time with a maximum in February (0.1576 mg mycelium/g soil) and a minimum in October (0.0170 mg mycelium/g soil). For L. deliciosus, significant differences were detected between plots and over time. The highest amount of mycelium was found in December (1.84 mg mycelium/g soil) and the minimum in February (0.0332 mg mycelium/g soil). B. edulis mycelium quantities were positively correlated with precipitation of the current month and negatively correlated with the mean temperature of the previous month. Mycelium biomass of L. deliciosus was positively correlated with relative humidity and negatively correlated with mean temperature and radiation. No significant correlation between productivity of the plots with the soil mycelium biomass was observed for any of the two species. No correlations were found between B. edulis sporocarp production and weather parameters. Sporocarp production of L. deliciosus was positively correlated with precipitation and relative humidity and negatively correlated with maximum and minimum temperatures. Both species have similar distribution over time, presenting an annual dynamics characterized by a seasonal variability, with a clear increase

  4. Analysis of MADS-Box Gene Family Reveals Conservation in Floral Organ ABCDE Model of Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis

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    Zhanchao Cheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mini chromosome maintenance 1, agamous, deficiens, and serum response factor (MADS-box genes are transcription factors which play fundamental roles in flower development and regulation of floral organ identity. However, till date, identification and functions of MADS-box genes remain largely unclear in Phyllostachys edulis. In view of this, we performed a whole-genome survey and identified 34 MADS-box genes in P. edulis, and based on phylogeny, they were classified as MIKCC, MIKC∗, Mα, and Mβ. The detailed analysis about gene structure and motifs, phylogenetic classification, comparison of gene divergence and duplication are provided. Interestingly, expression patterns for most genes were found similar to those of Arabidopsis and rice, indicating that the well-established ABCDE model can be applied to P. edulis. Moreover, we overexpressed PheMADS15, an AP1-like gene, in Arabidopsis, and found that the transgenic plants have early flowering phenotype, suggesting that PheMADS15 might be a regulator of flowering transition in P. edulis. Taken together, this study provides not only insightful comprehension but also useful information for understanding the functions of MADS-box genes in P. edulis.

  5. Involvement of GABAergic pathway in the sedative activity of apigenin, the main flavonoid from Passiflora quadrangularis pericarp

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    Andressa C. Gazola

    Full Text Available Abstract In the current study we showed that oral administration of an aqueous extract of Passiflora quadrangularis L., Passifloraceae, pericarp results in a significant prolongation of the sleep duration in mice evaluated in the ethyl ether-induced hypnosis test which indicates sedative effects. Apigenin, the main flavonoid of the extract, induced a similar sedative response when applied alone, at a dose equivalent to that found in the extract, suggesting that apigenin is mediating the sedative effects of P. quadrangularis extract. In addition, the sedative effect of apigenin was blocked by pretreatment with the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil (1 mg/kg, suggesting an interaction of apigenin with gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA receptors. However, apigenin at concentrations 0.1–50 µM failed to enhance GABA-induced currents through GABAA receptors (α1β2γ2S expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Nevertheless, based on our results, we suggest that the in vivo sedative effect of the P. quadrangularis extract and its main flavonoid apigenin maybe be due to an enhancement of the GABAergic system.

  6. Evaluation of antidepressant-like effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Passiflora incarnata in animal models of depression in male mice

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    Jafarpoor Nima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Passiflora incarnata (PI is one of the commonest herbal anti-anxiety and sedative agents. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antidepressant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of PI in forced swim test (FST and tail suspension test (TST in male mice. Methods: In this experimental study, 48 male mice were randomly divided into 6 groups of 8: Negative and positive control groups received normal saline (10 ml/kg, fluoxetine (20 mg/kg and imipramine (30 mg/kg, respectively and treatment groups received extracts of PI (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg. Immobility, swimming and climbing behaviors were recorded during 6-min. Results: All doses of PI extract compared to control group significantly reduced the duration of immobility time in both of two tests (p<0.001. Also, these extracts increased swimming time (p<0.001 without significant change of climbing time. Conclusion: PI has considerable antidepressant-like effect in animal models of depression. However, further studies are needed to determine its exact mechanism of action.

  7. Herbivore handling of a plant's trichome: the case of Heliconius charithonia (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch. (Passifloraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Marcio Z.

    2008-01-01

    Trichomes reduce herbivore attack on plants by physically and/or chemically inhibiting movement or other activities. Despite evidence that herbivores are negatively affected by trichomes there also reports of insect counter-adaptations that circumvent the plant's defense. This paper reports on a study that investigated the likely mechanisms employed by larvae of the nymphalid butterfly, Heliconius charithonia (L.), that allow it to feed on a host that is presumably protected by hooked trichomes (Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch). Evidence were gathered using data from direct observations of larval movement and behavior, faeces analysis, scanning electron microscopy of plant surface and experimental analysis of larval movement on plants with and without trichomes (manually removed). The latter involved a comparison with a non specialist congener, Heliconius pachinus Salvin. Observations showed that H. charithonia larvae are capable of freeing themselves from entrapment on trichome tips by physical force. Moreover, wandering larvae lay silk mats on the trichomes and remove their tips by biting. In fact, trichome tips were found in the faeces. Experimental removal of trichomes aided in the movement of the non specialist but had no noticeable effect on the specialist larvae. These results support the suggestion that trichomes are capable of deterring a non specialist herbivore (H. pachinus). The precise mechanisms that allow the success of H. charithonia are not known, but I suggest that a blend of behavioral as well as physical resistance mechanisms is involved. Future studies should ascertain whether larval integument provides physical resistance to trichomes. (author)

  8. Effects of soil characteristics, allelopathy and frugivory on establishment of the invasive plant Carpobrotus edulis and a co-occurring native, Malcolmia littorea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Ana; González, Luís; Moravcová, Lenka; Pyšek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    The species Carpobrotus edulis, native to South Africa, is one of the major plant invaders of Mediterranean coastal ecosystems around the world. Invasion by C. edulis exerts a great impact on coastal habitats. The low number of native species in invaded communities points to the possible existence of mechanisms suppressing their germination. In this study we assessed whether soil factors, endozoochory, competition and allelopathic effects of the invader affect its own early establishment and that of the native species Malcolmia littorea. We used laboratory solutions representing different chemical composition and moisture of the soil, herbivore feeding assays to simulate seed scarification and rainwater solutions to account for the effect of differently aged C. edulis litter. We show that unlike that of the native species, germination and early growth of C. edulis was not constrained by low moisture. The establishment of C. edulis, in terms of germination and early growth, was increased by scarification of seeds following passage through the European rabbit intestines; the rabbits therefore may have potential implications for plant establishment. There was no competition between C. edulis and M. littorea. The litter of the invasive C. edulis, which remains on the soil surface for several years, releases allelopathic substances that suppress the native plant germination process and early root growth. The invasive species exhibits features that likely make it a better colonizer of sand dunes than the co-occurring native species. Allelopathic effects, ability to establish in drier microsites and efficient scarification by rabbits are among the mechanisms allowing C. edulis to invade. The results help to explain the failure of removal projects that have been carried out in order to restore dunes invaded by C. edulis, and the long-lasting effects of C. edulis litter need to be taken into account in future restoration projects.

  9. Effects of soil characteristics, allelopathy and frugivory on establishment of the invasive plant Carpobrotus edulis and a co-occurring native, Malcolmia littorea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Novoa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The species Carpobrotus edulis, native to South Africa, is one of the major plant invaders of Mediterranean coastal ecosystems around the world. Invasion by C. edulis exerts a great impact on coastal habitats. The low number of native species in invaded communities points to the possible existence of mechanisms suppressing their germination. In this study we assessed whether soil factors, endozoochory, competition and allelopathic effects of the invader affect its own early establishment and that of the native species Malcolmia littorea. We used laboratory solutions representing different chemical composition and moisture of the soil, herbivore feeding assays to simulate seed scarification and rainwater solutions to account for the effect of differently aged C. edulis litter. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that unlike that of the native species, germination and early growth of C. edulis was not constrained by low moisture. The establishment of C. edulis, in terms of germination and early growth, was increased by scarification of seeds following passage through the European rabbit intestines; the rabbits therefore may have potential implications for plant establishment. There was no competition between C. edulis and M. littorea. The litter of the invasive C. edulis, which remains on the soil surface for several years, releases allelopathic substances that suppress the native plant germination process and early root growth. CONCLUSIONS: The invasive species exhibits features that likely make it a better colonizer of sand dunes than the co-occurring native species. Allelopathic effects, ability to establish in drier microsites and efficient scarification by rabbits are among the mechanisms allowing C. edulis to invade. The results help to explain the failure of removal projects that have been carried out in order to restore dunes invaded by C. edulis, and the long-lasting effects of C. edulis litter need to be taken into account in future

  10. A King Bolete, Boletus edulis (Agaricomycetes), RNA Fraction Stimulates Proliferation and Cytotoxicity of Natural Killer Cells Against Myelogenous Leukemia Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Nunes, Fernando Herminio Ferreira Milheiro; Sawa-Wejksza, Katarzyna; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies indicate the crucial role of natural killer (NK) cells in the prevention of tumor growth and inhibition of their metastasis, which suggests the possibility of their use in cancer treatment. This therapeutic strategy required finding a selective NK cell stimulator that, upon administration, did not disturb organism homeostasis, unlike natural activators (interleukin-2 or interleukin-12). Because the majority of anticancer agents derived from Basidiomycetes are able to stimulate lymphocytes, we describe the influence of Boletus edulis RNA on a human NK cell line (NK92). Our studies showed that a B. edulis RNA fraction was not toxic against NK92 cells. Furthermore, the tested fraction significantly stimulated NK92 cell proliferation and their cytotoxicity against tumor cells. We demonstrate here, to our knowledge for the first time, that B. edulis RNA enhances NK cell activity and possesses immunomodulatory potential.

  11. Buried Alive: The Behavioural Response of the Mussels, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis to Sudden Burial by Sediment.

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    Zoë L Hutchison

    Full Text Available Sedimentation in the sea occurs through natural processes, such as wave and tidal action, which can be exacerbated during storms and floods. Changes in terrestrial land use, marine aggregate extraction, dredging, drilling and mining are known to result in substantial sediment deposition. Research suggests that deposition will also occur due to the modern development of marine renewable energy. The response to individual burial under three depths of sediment, three sediment fractions and five burial durations was investigated in two mussel species, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis in specialist mesocosms. Both mussel species showed substantial mortality, which increased with duration of burial and burial by finer sediment fractions. M. modiolus was better able to survive short periods of burial than M. edulis, but at longer durations mortality was more pronounced. No mortality was observed in M. modiolus in burial durations of eight days or less but by 16 days of burial, over 50% cumulative mortality occurred. Under variable temperature regimes, M. edulis mortality increased from 20% at 8°C to over 60% at 14.5 and 20°C. Only M. edulis was able to emerge from burial, facilitated by increased byssus production, laid mostly on vertical surfaces but also on sediment particles. Emergence was higher from coarse sediment and shallow burials. Byssus production in M. edulis was not related to the condition index of the mussels. Results suggest that even marginal burial would result in mortality and be more pronounced in warm summer periods. Our results suggest that in the event of burial, adult M. modiolus would not be able to emerge from burial unless local hydrodynamics assist, whereas a small proportion of M. edulis may regain contact with the sediment water interface. The physiological stress resulting in mortality, contribution of local hydrodynamics to survival and other ecological pressures such as mussels existing in aggregations, are

  12. Chemical Profile and Biological Activity of Casimiroa Edulis Non-Edible Fruit`s Parts

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    Wafaa Mostafa Elkady

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the non-edible fruit parts of Casimiroa edulis Llave et were evaluated for their active constituents and their potential as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity. Methods: Fruits peel (FP and seeds kernel (SK of Casimiroa edulis Llave et Lex. were extracted successively with hexane and then methanol. Fatty acids were prepared from hexane extracts and identified by GC. Total flavonoid, phenolic acids and tannins contents in methanol extracts were determined by UV spectrophotometer and identified by HPLC. Antioxidant, in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity and antitumor effect against Caco-2 cell line were determined. Results: GC analysis of hexane extracts showed that oleic acid (47.00% was the major unsaturated fatty acids in both extracts while lignoceric acid (15.49% is the most abundant saturated fatty acid in (FP. Total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents in (FP & (SK methanol extracts were; 37.5±1.5, 10.79±0.66 and 22.28±0.23 for (FP; 53.5±1.5mg/g, 14.44±0.32 mg/g; and 53.73±3.58 mg/g for (SK respectively. HPLC analysis of methanol extract revealed that; the major phenolic compound was pyrogallol in (FP and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in (SK, the major flavonoid was luteolin 6-arabinose-8-glucose in (FP and acacetin in (SK. Conclusion: This study showed that non-edible parts of C. edulis fruit is a rich source of different phenolic compounds and fatty acids which has great antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities; that could be used as a natural source in pharmaceutical industry.

  13. Boletus edulis biologically active biopolymers induce cell cycle arrest in human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Cardoso, Claudia; Ferreira Milheiro Nunes, Fernando Hermínio; Ramos Novo Amorim de Barros, Ana Isabel; Marques, Guilhermina; Pożarowski, Piotr; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2013-04-25

    The use of biologically active compounds isolated from edible mushrooms against cancer raises global interest. Anticancer properties are mainly attributed to biopolymers including mainly polysaccharides, polysaccharopeptides, polysaccharide proteins, glycoproteins and proteins. In spite of the fact that Boletus edulis is one of the widely occurring and most consumed edible mushrooms, antitumor biopolymers isolated from it have not been exactly defined and studied so far. The present study is an attempt to extend this knowledge on molecular mechanisms of their anticancer action. The mushroom biopolymers (polysaccharides and glycoproteins) were extracted with hot water and purified by anion-exchange chromatography. The antiproliferative activity in human colon adenocarcinoma cells (LS180) was screened by means of MTT and BrdU assays. At the same time fractions' cytotoxicity was examined on the human colon epithelial cells (CCD 841 CoTr) by means of the LDH assay. Flow cytometry and Western blotting were applied to cell cycle analysis and protein expression involved in anticancer activity of the selected biopolymer fraction. In vitro studies have shown that fractions isolated from Boletus edulis were not toxic against normal colon epithelial cells and in the same concentration range elicited a very prominent antiproliferative effect in colon cancer cells. The best results were obtained in the case of the fraction designated as BE3. The tested compound inhibited cancer cell proliferation which was accompanied by cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1-phase. Growth inhibition was associated with modulation of the p16/cyclin D1/CDK4-6/pRb pathway, an aberration of which is a critical step in the development of many human cancers including colon cancer. Our results indicate that a biopolymer BE3 from Boletus edulis possesses anticancer potential and may provide a new therapeutic/preventive option in colon cancer chemoprevention.

  14. Protection against suspended sand: the function of the branchial membrane in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vooys, C. G. N.

    2006-09-01

    Blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis) living in estuaries have to cope with varying concentrations of suspended sand. Sand flowing through the inhalant siphons comes into the infrabranchial chamber. The inhalant siphon can be partially closed by the branchial membrane. As a result the inward flow decreases, and suspended sand sinks and can be eliminated. Experiments with mussels from three ecologically different locations showed about the same response of the branchial membrane on contact with suspended sand. The presence and function of the branchial membrane appears to be an adaptation of mussels to their estuarine environment.

  15. Mycorrhizal synthesis between Boletus edulis species complex and rockroses (Cistus sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Águeda, Beatriz; Parladé, Javier; Fernández-Toirán, Luz Marina; Cisneros, Óscar; de Miguel, Ana María; Modrego, María Pilar; Martínez-Peña, Fernando; Pera, Joan

    2008-10-01

    Ectomycorrhizas of Boletus aereus, Boletus edulis, and Boletus reticulatus were synthesized with Cistus sp. under laboratory conditions using synthesis tubes filled with a mixture of sterilized peat-vermiculite and nutrient solution. The fungal strains isolated from sporocarps were identified by molecular techniques. The inoculated seedlings were grown for 4-5 months. The ectomycorrhizas formed were described based on standard morphological and anatomical characters. The three ectomycorrhizas described were very similar, with white monopodial-pinnate morphology, a three-layered plectenchymatous mantle on plan view and boletoid rhizomorphs.

  16. Oxygen isotope ratios in the shell of Mytilus edulis: Archives of glacier meltwater in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteegh, E.A.A.; Blicher, M.E.; Mortensen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is accelerating and will contribute significantly to global sea level rise during the 21st century. Instrumental data on GrIS melting only cover the last few decades, and proxy data extending our knowledge into the past are vital for validating models...... these variations, because it precipitates its shell calcite in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient seawater. As M. edulis shells are known to occur in raised shorelines and archaeological shell middens from previous Holocene warm periods, this species may be ideal in reconstructing past meltwater dynamics. We...

  17. Antidermatophytic and Toxicological Evaluations of Dichloromethane-Methanol Extract, Fractions and Compounds Isolated from Coula edulis

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    Jean De Dieu Tamokou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coula edulis Bail (Olacaceae, is an evergreen tree growing to a height of 25-38 m. This study aimed at evaluating the antidermatophytic and toxicological properties of the stem bark of C. edulis extract as well as fractions and compounds isolated from it. Methods: The plant extract was prepared by maceration in CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1 v/v. The fractionation of this extract was done by silica gel column chromatography. Antidermatophytic activities were assayed using agar dilution method. The acute and sub-acute toxicities of oral administrations of the extract were studied in rodents. Results: The crude extract of C. edulis displayed antidermatophytic activity against the tested microorganisms with highest activity against Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The fractionation enhanced the antidermatophytic activity in fraction F3 (MIC=0.62-1.25 mg/ml compared to the crude extract (MIC=1.25-5 mg/ml. Further fractionation and purification of the fractions F2 and F3 gave respectively 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside of sitosterol (MIC=0.20-0.40 mg/ml and a mixture of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and n-hexadecanoid acid (MIC=0.80 mg/ml. The median lethal doses (LD50 of the crude extract were 16.8 and 19.6 g/kg body weight (BW in male and female mice, respectively. At 200 mg/kg BW, there was a decrease in body weight gain, food and water consumptions. Gross anatomical analysis revealed white vesicles on the liver of the rats treated with the extract at 200 mg/kg BW. This dose also induced significant (P<0.05 changes on hematological and biochemical parameters in rats after 28 days of treatment. Conclusion: These data suggest that the CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1 v/v extract of C. edulis stem bark possesses antidermatophytic properties. They also show that at high doses (≥ 200 mg/kg BW, the extract has significant hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic activities

  18. Interannual variations in needle and sapwood traits of Pinus edulis branches under an experimental drought

    OpenAIRE

    Guérin, Marceau; Martin‐Benito, Dario; von Arx, Georg; Andreu‐Hayles, Laia; Griffin, Kevin L.; Hamdan, Rayann; McDowell, Nate G.; Muscarella, Robert; Pockman, William; Gentine, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In the southwestern USA, recent large‐scale die‐offs of conifers raise the question of their resilience and mortality under droughts. To date, little is known about the interannual structural response to droughts. We hypothesized that piñon pines (Pinus edulis) respond to drought by reducing the drop of leaf water potential in branches from year to year through needle morphological adjustments. We tested our hypothesis using a 7‐year experiment in central New Mexico with three wateri...

  19. Accumulation, elimination and chemical speciation of mercury in the bivalves Mytilus edulis and Macoma balthica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, H. U.; Kiørboe, Thomas; Møhlenberg, F.

    1985-01-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis) transferred in net bags from clean to chronically mercury polluted water readily accumulated mercury during an exposure period of three months. Growth of the transplanted mussels had a “diluting” effect on the mercury concentration, but the absolute weight of mercury uptake...... increased throughout the entire period, though there was a tendency for decreased efficiency of the removal of mercury per liter of water filtered by the mussels. Mussels were also translocated from polluted to clean (laboratory) water to depurate mercury. The biological half-lives of mercury was 293 d...

  20. Clonación y micropropagación de curuba (Passiflora mollissima Bailey a partir de embriones somáticos provenientes de hojas | Cloning and micropropagation of banana passionfruit (Passiflora mollissima Bailey from leaf somatic embryos

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    María Del Pilar Acosta-Zambrano

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The banana passionfruit (Passiflora mollissima Bailey is a fruit from the Andean region and is used as raw material for the preparation of various food products. Tests were carried out for its in vitro multiplication using somatic embryos obtained from its leaves. A disinfection using sodium hypochlorite for 5 minutes and Murashige and Skoog (MS growth medium protocols with 1 mg/L of gibberellins was designed in order to induce germination. Vitro explants were selected for the multiplication in the MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L of benzyl aminopurine and 1 mg/L of naphthenic acid. The stronger leaves were selected and inoculated in the MS medium and Woody Plant (WPM. The formation of embryos was observed since the third week. The formed plants were inoculated in a WPM medium with 1 mg/L of benzyl aminopurine. A 2-ip WPM 1 mg/L medium was used for the rooting period. Finally, they were acclimatized in peat with earth or pearlite, and then planted in pots with earth for further studies. Seed disinfection using sodium hypochlorite presented 20% contamination and 80% of plants germination, proving to be the best disinfectant (p < 0.05. From this last procedure, somatic embryos of leaves in a 2-ip WPM with 1 mg/L were obtained. The ideal acclimatization occurred in the medium with peat and earth, in which case the survival level obtained was 100% by comparison with earth and pearlite, in which no plant growth was observed. Micropropagation represents an economic and effective technique in the breeding of pathogen-free plants.

  1. Efecto de la escarificación y la dosis del ácido giberélico (AG3 en la germinación de semilla de curuba (Passiflora mollisima

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    Rito Hernán Cardozo Gutiérrez

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The trials made on banana passion fruit seeds germination (Passiflora mollisima(HBK Bailey, under laboratory specifications show that the testa delays the water absortion and it is the critic factor on the germination. AG3 increases the germination remarkably and strengthens the effects of the scarification considerably.

  2. Impacts of Carpobrotus edulis (L. N.E.Br. on the germination, establishment and survival of native plants: a clue for assessing its competitive strength.

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    Ana Novoa

    Full Text Available Does Carpobrotus edulis have an impact on native plants? How do C. edulis' soil residual effects affect the maintenance of native populations? What is the extent of interspecific competition in its invasion process? In order to answer those questions, we established pure and mixed cultures of native species and C. edulis on soil collected from invaded and native areas of Mediterranean coastal dunes in the Iberian Peninsula. We examined the impact of the invader on the germination, growth and survival of seeds and adult plants of two native plant species (Malcolmia littorea (L. R.Br, and Scabiosa atropurpurea L. growing with ramets or seeds of C. edulis. Residual effects of C. edulis on soils affected the germination process and early growth of native plants in different ways, depending on plant species and density. Interspecific competition significantly reduced the germination and early growth of native plants but this result was soil, density, timing and plant species dependent. Also, at any density of adult individuals of C. edulis, established native adult plants were not competitive. Moreover, ramets of C. edulis had a lethal effect on native plants, which died in a short period of time. Even the presence of C. edulis seedlings prevents the recruitment of native species. In conclusion, C. edulis have strong negative impacts on the germination, growth and survival of the native species M. littorea and S. atropurpurea. These impacts were highly depended on the development stages of native and invasive plants. Our findings are crucial for new strategies of biodiversity conservation in coastal habitats.

  3. Impacts of Carpobrotus edulis (L.) N.E.Br. on the germination, establishment and survival of native plants: a clue for assessing its competitive strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Ana; González, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Does Carpobrotus edulis have an impact on native plants? How do C. edulis' soil residual effects affect the maintenance of native populations? What is the extent of interspecific competition in its invasion process? In order to answer those questions, we established pure and mixed cultures of native species and C. edulis on soil collected from invaded and native areas of Mediterranean coastal dunes in the Iberian Peninsula. We examined the impact of the invader on the germination, growth and survival of seeds and adult plants of two native plant species (Malcolmia littorea (L.) R.Br, and Scabiosa atropurpurea L.) growing with ramets or seeds of C. edulis. Residual effects of C. edulis on soils affected the germination process and early growth of native plants in different ways, depending on plant species and density. Interspecific competition significantly reduced the germination and early growth of native plants but this result was soil, density, timing and plant species dependent. Also, at any density of adult individuals of C. edulis, established native adult plants were not competitive. Moreover, ramets of C. edulis had a lethal effect on native plants, which died in a short period of time. Even the presence of C. edulis seedlings prevents the recruitment of native species. In conclusion, C. edulis have strong negative impacts on the germination, growth and survival of the native species M. littorea and S. atropurpurea. These impacts were highly depended on the development stages of native and invasive plants. Our findings are crucial for new strategies of biodiversity conservation in coastal habitats.

  4. Response of the banana passion fruit (Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima to different levels of nitrogen, potassium and magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ánge Lizarazo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to observe the effects of N, K, and Mg on dry mass (DM allocation, canopy growth and nutritional deficiency symptom expression of the banana passion fruit (Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima, three levels of fertilization were evaluated: none (0, low (1 and high (2 of each element, and compared to complete fertilization (control, arranged in a randomized complete block design. Banana passion fruit plants were transplanted to plastic pots, containing a substrate of quartz sand, with irrigation twice a week and fertigation once a week. The evaluated variables were total dry weight (TDW, percentage of dry mass allocation, leaf area (LA, number of leaves (NL, specific leaf area (SLA and leaf area ratio (LAR. In addition, a photographic record was taken to recognize the symptomatology in the leaves. The absence of N, K and Mg affected the accumulation of DM, whereas the high nutrient level allowed for the greatest gain in DM only with N, while with K and Mg, it was reduced, indicating that these doses may be too excessive. The distribution pattern of DM with the N treatments corresponded to the model proposed by Thornley, accumulating more DM in the root. With the K and Mg levels, the distribution pattern was similar with the absence of these nutrients causing higher DM accumulation in the above-ground plant parts. The leaf variables NL and LA were reduced with all three elements at the zero nutrient level, whereas the high indices of SLA and LAR revealed a low gain of DM. Deprivation of each nutrient showed characteristic symptoms on the leaves, mainly chlorosis with different patterns, necrosis and reduced LA

  5. Apoptosis caused by triterpenes and phytosterols and antioxidant activity of an enriched flavonoid extract and from Passiflora mucronata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Isabel Cristina Vieira; Kaluderovic, Goran; de Oliveira, Pollyana Felix; Guimaraes, Denise Oliveira; Quaresma, Carla Holandino; Porzel, Andrea; Muzitano, Michelle Frazao; Wessjohann, Ludger A; Leal, Ivana Correa Ramos

    2018-03-14

    The genus Passiflora is knew for food consumption mainly and it extracts present a variety of methabolites, including flavones, alkaloids and triterpenes usually correlated with their antioxidant and antitumoral activities. P. mucronata (Pm) is from Brazil South America and is characterized as "Maracujá de Restinga", being used in the folk medicine for treating insomnia and soothing. The present study evaluated in the first time, the antioxidant and cytotoxicity of the hydroalcoholic leaves extract and fractions from Pm. Their cytotoxic effects were against human prostate cancer (PC3) and mouse malignant melanoma (B16F10) cell lines, by the MTT and CV assays. β-Amyrin, oleanolic acid, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol were isolated as the main components of the most active hexane fraction. These substances were tested individually against the tumor cell lines, whereby β-sitosterol and stigmasterol showed the most relevant activity to PC3 in CV assay and, oleanolic acid to B16F10 by the MTT assay. In addition, these compounds were analysed to cell cycle arrest, and stigmasterol decreased the number of cells in B16F10 line in the G1/G0 phase and subsequently, increased the cell number in sub-G1 phase, presumably indicating apoptosis as possible mode of cell death.The antioxidant activity by the DPPH method showed that the hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves presented higher antioxidant activity (EC50= 133.3 µg/mL) compared to the flowers (EC50= 152.3 µg/mL) and fruits (EC50=207.9 µg/mL) extracts. By the HPLC-MS it was possible to identify the main flavones present in the leaf extract (isoschaftoside, schaftoside, isovitexin, vitexin, isoorientin, orientin). Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Avaliação do potencial alelopático de folhas de Passiflora cincinnata Mast. (Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Oliveria

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A alelopatia é um fenômeno pouco estudado no Cerrado. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o potencial alelopático de extratos foliares de Passiflora cincinnata sobre o desenvolvimento inicial de espécies modelos. Para isso, o extrato etanólico bruto e frações hexânica, acetato de etila e metanólica, em diferentes concentrações (0, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 e 4000mgL-1 foram utilizadas em bioensaios de germinação e crescimento de alface (Lactuca sativa var. Grand rapids e milho (Zea mays var. Havaí.. Diariamente, avaliou-se o percentual de germinação e o Índice de Velocidade de Germinação (IVG. O crescimento da radícula/raiz primária e do hipocótilo/coleóptilo foram medidos três dias após a protusão radicular. O experimento foi em fatorial (4x6, utilizando delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições. Os resultados demonstraram que não houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos sobre a germinação e IVG de alface, enquanto que o extrato etanólico bruto inibiu o comprimento do hipocótilo de alface, em 16,5%, comparado à frações hexânica e, em 16,8%, em relação às frações acetato de etila e metanólica. Não verificou-se efeito significativo dos tratamentos sobre milho. Assim, conclui-se que folhas de P. cincinnata apresentam atividade alelopática sobre o comprimento de alface, não promovendo efeito sobre milho.

  7. Reducing the impact of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) dredging on the ecosystem in shallow water soft bottom areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rikke; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau; Poulsen, Louise K.

    2015-01-01

    Dredging blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) and thus removing structural elements, inducing resuspension of sediment as well as reducing filtration capacity, will inevitably affect the ecosystem. The study demonstrates that the impacts of fishing can be reduced through gear developments. A new light d...

  8. Impact of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis on the microbial food web in the western Wadden Sea, The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Riegman, R.; van der Meer, J.

    2015-01-01

    To study the impact of juvenile blue mussels Mytilus edulis on the microbial food web in the Dutch Wadden Sea, natural sea water was first exposed to mussel filtration. Subsequently, filtered plankton communities were used in a dilution experiment to establish mussel-induced changes in bacterial,

  9. Impact of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis on the microbial food web in the western Wadden Sea, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Riegman, R.; Meer, van der J.

    2015-01-01

    To study the impact of juvenile blue mussels Mytilus edulis on the microbial food web in the Dutch Wadden Sea, natural sea water was first exposed to mussel filtration. Subsequently, filtered plankton communities were used in a dilution experiment to establish mussel-induced changes in bacterial,

  10. Comparison of trace metal bioavailabilities in European coastal waters using mussels from Mytilus edulis complex as biomonitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Przytarska, J.E.; Sokołowski, A.; Wołowicz, M.; Hummel, H.; Jansen, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Mussels from Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors of the trace metals Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, and Cu at 17 sampling sites to assess the relative bioavailability of metals in coastal waters around the European continent. Because accumulated metal concentrations in a given area can differ

  11. Influence of abiotic factors on bacterial proliferation and anoxic survival of the sea mussel Mytilus edulis L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babarro, J.M.F.; De Zwaan, A.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of several abiotic factors (salinity, temperature and pH) on bacterial proliferation and survival time of the sea mussel Mytilus edulis L. were studied under anoxic incubations. In addition, the presence in the incubation media of ammonium and the volatile fatty acids propionate and

  12. Boletus edulis Nitrite Reductase Reduces Nitrite Content of Pickles and Mitigates Intoxication in Nitrite-intoxicated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Tian, Guoting; Feng, Shanshan; Wong, Jack Ho; Zhao, Yongchang; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-10-08

    Pickles are popular in China and exhibits health-promoting effects. However, nitrite produced during fermentation adversely affects health due to formation of methemoglobin and conversion to carcinogenic nitrosamine. Fruiting bodies of the mushroom Boletus edulis were capable of inhibiting nitrite production during pickle fermentation. A 90-kDa nitrite reductase (NiR), demonstrating peptide sequence homology to fungal nitrite reductase, was isolated from B. edulis fruiting bodies. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme was 45 °C and 6.8, respectively. B. edulis NiR was capable of prolonging the lifespan of nitrite-intoxicated mice, indicating that it had the action of an antidote. The enzyme could also eliminate nitrite from blood after intragastric administration of sodium nitrite, and after packaging into capsule, this nitrite-eliminating activity could persist for at least 120 minutes thus avoiding immediate gastric degradation. B. edulis NiR represents the first nitrite reductase purified from mushrooms and may facilitate subsequent applications.

  13. Phylogeography of the wild and cultivated stimulant plant qat (Catha edulis, Celastraceae) in areas of historic cultivation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qat (Catha edulis, Celastraceae) is a woody plant species cultivated for its stimulant alkaloids. Qat is important to the economy and culture in large regions of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Yemen. Despite the importance of this species, the wild origins and dispersal of cultivars have only been described i...

  14. Immune modulation in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis exposed to North Sea produced water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannam, M.L., E-mail: marie.hannam@plymouth.ac.u [Ecotoxicology and Stress Biology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Bamber, S.D.; Sundt, R.C. [IRIS - Biomiljo, Mekjarvik 12, 4070 Randaberg (Norway); Galloway, T.S. [School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Hatherly Laboratories, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, EX4 4PS (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    The discharge of oil well produced water (PW) provides a constant source of contaminants to the marine environment including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylated phenols, metals and production chemicals. High concentrations of PW cause adverse effects to exposed biota, including reduced survival, growth and reproduction. Here we explore the effects of PW on immune function in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Mussels were exposed for 21 days to sublethal PW concentrations (0.125-0.5%) and cellular parameters were measured. Cell viability, phagocytosis and cytotoxicity were inhibited after exposure to 0.25% and 0.5% PW, whilst the 0.125% PW treatment produced significant increases in these biomarker responses. This biphasic response was only observed after 7 days exposure; longer exposure periods led to a reduction in immune parameters. Results indicate that PW concentrations close to the discharge point cause modulation to cellular immunity. The implications for longer-term disease resistance are discussed. - Exposure to produced water alters immune function in the sentinel species Mytilus edulis.

  15. Clearance rate of Mytilus edulis (L.) as a function of current velocity and mussel aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pernille; Vismann, Bent

    2014-01-01

    by current velocities up to 1.4 m/sec, whereas experiments with 3 mussels showed that clearance of the mussels decreased progressively at current velocities greater than 0.2 m/sec, and reached 0 L/h per individual at current velocities greater than 0.6 m/sec. The constant feeding at all current velocities......The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of water current velocities on the clearance rate of Mytilus edulis when different numbers of mussels were used in the experiments. An automatic setup, which controlled and monitored the algal concentration continually, was used to measure...... the effect of increasing current velocity (0.05-1.4 m/sec) on the M. edulis clearance rate. Clearance rate measurements were performed under constant food concentrations of 3,000 cells/mL of Rhodomonas salina on either 3 mussels or 20 mussels. We found that the clearance rate of 20 mussels was unaffected...

  16. Trophic level transfer of microplastic: Mytilus edulis (L.) to Carcinus maenas (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, Paul; Nelson, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the trophic transfer of microplastic from mussels to crabs. Mussels (Mytilus edulis) were exposed to 0.5 μm fluorescent polystyrene microspheres, then fed to crabs (Carcinus maenas). Tissue samples were then taken at intervals up to 21 days. The number of microspheres in the haemolymph of the crabs was highest at 24 h (15 033 ml −1 ± SE 3146), and was almost gone after 21 days (267 ml −1 ± SE 120). The maximum amount of microspheres in the haemolymph was 0.04% of the amount to which the mussels were exposed. Microspheres were also found in the stomach, hepatopancreas, ovary and gills of the crabs, in decreasing numbers over the trial period. This study is the first to show ‘natural’ trophic transfer of microplastic, and its translocation to haemolymph and tissues of a crab. This has implications for the health of marine organisms, the wider food web and humans. -- Highlights: ► Microplastic transferred in marine food chain. ► Microplastic transferred to haemolymph when ingested in food. ► Microplastic remains in organism for at least 21 days. -- This communication demonstrates trophic level transfer of microplastic particles from Mytilus edulis to Carcinus maenas

  17. [Impact of TDZ and NAA on adventitious bud induction and cluster bud multiplication in Tulipa edulis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Fang; Xu, Chao; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Yang, He-Tong; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Xu, Hong-jian; Ma, Hong-Jian; Zhao, Gui-Hua

    2014-08-01

    To explore the method of explants directly induced bud and establish the tissue culture system of mutiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis, core bud and daughter bulbs (the top of bud stem expanded to form daughter bulb) of T. edulis were used as explants and treated with thidiazuron (TDZ) and 1-naphthlcetic acid (NAA). The results showed that the optimal medium for bud inducted form core bud and daughter bulb were MS + TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 4.0 mg x L(-1) and MS +TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 2.0 mg x L(-1) respectively, both of them had a bud induction rate of 72.92%, 79.22%. The optimal medium for cluster buds multiplication was MS + TDZ 0.2 mg x L(-1) + NAA 0.2 mg x L(-1), and proliferation coefficient was 2.23. After proliferation, cluster buds rooting occurred on MS medium with IBA 1.0 mg x L(-1) and the rooting rate was 52.6%, three to five seedlings in each plant. Using core bud and daughter bulb of T. edulis, the optimum medium for adventitious bud directly inducted from daughter bulb, core bud and cluster bud multiplication were screened out and the tissue culture system of multiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis was established.

  18. Feeding activity of mussels Mytilus edulis related to near-bed currents and phytoplankton biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per

    2000-01-01

    The feeding activity of blue mussels Mytilus edulis was investigated in the field and related to near-bottom current velocities and the phytoplankton biomass in the near-bottom water layers for four days. The body content of Chl-a in mussels and their shell gap size were used as indices of filtra......The feeding activity of blue mussels Mytilus edulis was investigated in the field and related to near-bottom current velocities and the phytoplankton biomass in the near-bottom water layers for four days. The body content of Chl-a in mussels and their shell gap size were used as indices...... of filtration activity. During days 1 and 2 the near-bed current velocities were low (1.2-2.1 cm s(-1)), and the near-bed phytoplankton biomass was at the same time lower than near the water surface. Between 44 and 69% of the mussels had closed shells and accumulated only small amounts of Chl-a in the body....... During day 3 and day 4 the near-bed current velocities increased to 6.5 and 3.9 cm s(-1). respectively, and the Chl-a was homogeneously distributed in the water column. Now only 17 and 25% of the mussels had closed valves and they accumulated a larger amount of Chl-a. The actual population filtration...

  19. Rehydration of freeze-dried and convective dried boletus edulis mushrooms: effect on some quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, I; Sanjuán, N; Pérez-Munuera, I; Mulet, A

    2008-10-01

    Quality of rehydrated products is a key aspect linked to rehydration conditions. To assess the effect of rehydration temperature on some quality parameters, experiments at 20 and 70 degrees C were performed with convective dried and freeze-dried Boletus edulis mushrooms. Rehydration characteristics (through Peleg's parameter, k(1), and equilibrium moisture, W(e)), texture (Kramer), and microstructure (Cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy) were evaluated. Freeze-dried samples absorbed water more quickly and attained higher W(e) values than convective dried ones. Convective dehydrated samples rehydrated at 20 degrees C showed significantly lower textural values (11.9 +/- 3.3 N/g) than those rehydrated at 70 degrees C (15.7 +/- 1.2 N/g). For the freeze-dried Boletus edulis, the textural values also exhibited significant differences, being 8.2 +/- 1.3 and 10.5 +/- 2.3 N/g for 20 and 70 degrees C, respectively. Freeze-dried samples showed a porous structure that allows rehydration to take place mainly at the extracellular level. This explains the fact that, regardless of temperature, freeze-dried mushrooms absorbed water more quickly and reached higher W(e) values than convective dried ones. Whatever the dehydration technique used, rehydration at 70 degrees C produced a structural damage that hindered water absorption; consequently lower W(e) values and higher textural values were attained than when rehydrating at 20 degrees C.

  20. STUDIES ON ANTIOXIDANT, ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECTS OF EDIBLE MUSHROOMS BOLETUS EDULIS AND CANTHARELLUS CIBARIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Elena ZAVASTIN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and antimicrobial effects of both ethanolic and hydromethanolic extracts of the fruiting bodies of wild edible mushrooms Boletus edulis (penny bun and Cantharellus cibarius (golden chanterelle sampled in Poiana Stampei (Suceava county, Romania. The total phenolic contents of extracts were also determined. Boletus edulis hydromethanolic extract showed the highest total phenolic content (72.78±0.29 mg/g. This extract was also the most active as scavenger of DPPH and ABTS radicals (EC50=151.44±0.85 and 65.4±0.4 µg/mL, respectively and reducing agent (EC50=46.77±0.34 µg/mL. Cantharellus cibarius ethanolic extract showed high ferrous ion chelating (EC50=82.9±0.6 µg/mL, 15-lipoxygenase (EC50=236.7±1.5 µg/mL and α-glucosidase (EC50=9.77±0.06 μg/mL inhibitory activities. For both mushrooms, the ethanolic extracts were more active against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 than the hydromethanolic ones. The antioxidant and antihyperglycemic effects revealed in this study support further investigations for a possible valorization of both mushrooms in the dietary supplement and pharmaceutical industries.

  1. BEL β-trefoil: a novel lectin with antineoplastic properties in king bolete (Boletus edulis) mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovi, Michele; Cenci, Lucia; Perduca, Massimiliano; Capaldi, Stefano; Carrizo, Maria E; Civiero, Laura; Chiarelli, Laurent R; Galliano, Monica; Monaco, Hugo L

    2013-05-01

    A novel lectin was purified from the fruiting bodies of king bolete mushrooms (Boletus edulis, also called porcino, cep or penny bun). The lectin was structurally characterized i.e its amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure were determined. The new protein is a homodimer and each protomer folds as β-trefoil domain and therefore we propose the name Boletus edulis lectin (BEL) β-trefoil to distinguish it from the other lectin that has been described in these mushrooms. The lectin has potent anti-proliferative effects on human cancer cells, which confers to it an interesting therapeutic potential as an antineoplastic agent. Several crystal forms of the apoprotein and of complexes with different carbohydrates were studied by X-ray diffraction. The structure of the apoprotein was solved at 1.12 Å resolution. The interaction of the lectin with lactose, galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine and T-antigen disaccharide, Galβ1-3GalNAc, was examined in detail. All the three potential binding sites present in the β-trefoil fold are occupied in at least one crystal form and are described in detail in this paper. No important conformational changes are observed in the lectin when comparing its co-crystals with carbohydrates with those of the ligand-free protein.

  2. Structure of a lectin with antitumoral properties in king bolete (Boletus edulis) mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovi, Michele; Carrizo, Maria E; Capaldi, Stefano; Perduca, Massimiliano; Chiarelli, Laurent R; Galliano, Monica; Monaco, Hugo L

    2011-08-01

    A novel lectin has been isolated from the fruiting bodies of the common edible mushroom Boletus edulis (king bolete, penny bun, porcino or cep) by affinity chromatography on a chitin column. We propose for the lectin the name BEL (B. edulis lectin). BEL inhibits selectively the proliferation of several malignant cell lines and binds the neoplastic cell-specific T-antigen disaccharide, Galβ1-3GalNAc. The lectin was structurally characterized: the molecule is a homotetramer and the 142-amino acid sequence of the chains was determined. The protein belongs to the saline-soluble family of mushroom fruiting body-specific lectins. BEL was also crystallized and its three-dimensional structure was determined by X-ray diffraction to 1.15 Å resolution. The structure is similar to that of Agaricus bisporus lectin. Using the appropriate co-crystals, the interactions of BEL with specific mono- and disaccharides were also studied by X-ray diffraction. The six structures of carbohydrate complexes reported here provide details of the interactions of the ligands with the lectin and shed light on the selectivity of the two distinct binding sites present in each protomer.

  3. Anti-inflammatory effects of Boletus edulis polysaccharide on asthma pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songquan; Wang, Guangli; Yang, Ruhui; Cui, Yubao

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic airway disease common around the world. The burden of this disease could be reduced with new and effective treatments. Here, the efficacy of a polysaccharide extract from the Boletus edulis (BEP) mushroom, which has demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties, was tested in a mouse model of asthma. Five groups of BaLB/C mice were developed; one group served as a control and did not have asthma induction. The other four groups of mice were sensitized by ovalbumin challenge. FinePointe™ RC animal airway resistance and pulmonary compliance was used to assess airway function in asthma models. Three of the 4 model groups received treatments: one received pravastatin, one received dexamethasone, and one received BEP. Histopathology of lung tissues was performed using H&E and AB-PAS staining. Levels of cytokines IL-4 and IFN-g were detected using ELISA, qRT-PCR, and Western blotting. Cyclophilin A was measured by Western blot, and flow cytometry was used to determine the proportion of CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + Treg cells. BEP treatment resulted in improvements in lung pathology, IL-4 level (PBoletus edulis polysaccharide reduces pro-inflammatory responses and increases anti-inflammatory responses in mouse models of asthma, suggesting this may be a novel treatment method.

  4. Pulsed counter-current ultrasound-assisted extraction and characterization of polysaccharides from Boletus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Qinghong; Yin, Xiulian; Ji, Chaowen

    2014-01-30

    Four methods for extracting polysaccharides from Boletus edulis, namely, hot-water extraction, ultrasonic clearer extraction, static probe ultrasonic extraction, and pulsed counter-current probe ultrasonic extraction (CCPUE), were studied. Results showed that CCPUE has the highest extraction efficiency among the methods studied. Under optimal CCPUE conditions, a B. edulis polysaccharide (BEP) yield of 8.21% was obtained. Three purified fractions, BEP-I, BEP-II, and BEP-III, were obtained through sequential purification by DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-75 chromatography. The average molecular weights of BEP-I, BEP-II, and BEP-III were 10,278, 23,761, and 42,736 Da, respectively. The polysaccharides were mainly composed of xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose; of these, mannose contents were the highest. The antioxidant activities of the BEPs were further investigated by measurement of their ability to scavenge DPPH and hydroxyl radicals as well as their reducing power. The results indicated that the BEPs have good antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolation and N-terminal sequencing of a novel cadmium-binding protein from Boletus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin-Hansen, C.; Andersen, R. A.; Steinnes, E.

    2003-05-01

    A Cd-binding protein was isolated from the popular edible mushroom Boletus edulis, which is a hyperaccumulator of both Cd and Hg. Wild-growing samples of B. edulis were collected from soils rich in Cd. Cd radiotracer was added to the crude protein preparation obtained from ethanol precipitation of heat-treated cytosol. Proteins were then further separated in two consecutive steps; gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography. In both steps the Cd radiotracer profile showed only one distinct peak, which corresponded well with the profiles of endogenous Cd obtained by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Concentrations of the essential elements Cu and Zn were low in the protein fractions high in Cd. N-terminal sequencing performed on the Cd-binding protein fractions revealed a protein with a novel amino acid sequence, which contained aromatic amino acids as well as proline. Both the N-terminal sequencing and spectrofluorimetric analysis with EDTA and ABD-F (4-aminosulfonyl-7-fluoro-2, 1, 3-benzoxadiazole) failed to detect cysteine in the Cd-binding fractions. These findings conclude that the novel protein does not belong to the metallothionein family. The results suggest a role for the protein in Cd transport and storage, and they are of importance in view of toxicology and food chemistry, but also for environmental protection.

  6. Composition and antioxidant properties of wild mushrooms Boletus edulis and Xerocomus badius prepared for consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Grażyna; Pogoń, Krystyna; Skrzypczak, Aleksandra; Bernaś, Emilia

    2015-12-01

    Wild edible mushrooms Boletus edulis and Xerocomus badius were prepared for consumption by braising with 10 % canola oil (half of the batch was blanched prior to braising). Fresh X.badius had comparable to B.edulis amounts of proximate components and higher levels of most B-group vitamins and antioxidants. Analyzed mushrooms prepared for consumption fulfilled 7-14 % RDA of vitamin B1 for healthy adults and 15-35, 18-37 and 1 % RDA of B2, B3 and B3 respectively. Prepared for consumption mushrooms were rich in antioxidants containing in 100 g dry weight 164,601 mg total polyphenols, 19-87 mg total flavonoids, 22.1-27.4 mg L-ascorbic acid, 0.531-1.031 mg β-carotene, 0.325-0.456 mg lycopene and 38.64-44.49 mg total tocopherols and presented high antioxidant activity against ABTS (4.9-36.5 mmol TE), against DPPH (7.8-21.3 mmol TE) and in FRAP assay (15.0-28.1 mmol Fe(2+)). Mushrooms prepared for consumption with blanching prior to culinary treatment showed lower antioxidant properties and vitamin content in comparison to mushrooms braised raw.

  7. Immune modulation in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis exposed to North Sea produced water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannam, M.L.; Bamber, S.D.; Sundt, R.C.; Galloway, T.S.

    2009-01-01

    The discharge of oil well produced water (PW) provides a constant source of contaminants to the marine environment including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylated phenols, metals and production chemicals. High concentrations of PW cause adverse effects to exposed biota, including reduced survival, growth and reproduction. Here we explore the effects of PW on immune function in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Mussels were exposed for 21 days to sublethal PW concentrations (0.125-0.5%) and cellular parameters were measured. Cell viability, phagocytosis and cytotoxicity were inhibited after exposure to 0.25% and 0.5% PW, whilst the 0.125% PW treatment produced significant increases in these biomarker responses. This biphasic response was only observed after 7 days exposure; longer exposure periods led to a reduction in immune parameters. Results indicate that PW concentrations close to the discharge point cause modulation to cellular immunity. The implications for longer-term disease resistance are discussed. - Exposure to produced water alters immune function in the sentinel species Mytilus edulis.

  8. Calcium modified edible Canna (Canna edulis L) starch for controlled released matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, A. P.; Ridwan, M.; Darmawan, T. A.; Darusman, F.; Gadri, A.

    2017-07-01

    Canna edulis L starch was modified with calcium chloride in order to form controlled released matrix. Present study aim to analyze modified starch characteristic. Four different formulation of ondansetron granules was used to provide dissolution profile of controlled released, two formula consisted of 15% and 30% modified starch, one formula utilized matrix reference standards and the last granules was negative control. Methocel-hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose was used as controlled released matrix reference standards in the third formula. Calcium starch was synthesized in the presence of sodium hydroxide to form gelatinized mass and calcium chloride as the cross linking agent. Physicochemical and dissolution properties of modified starch for controlled released application were investigated. Modified starch has higher swelling index, water solubility and compressibility index. Three of four different formulation of granules provide dissolution profile of controlled released. The profiles indicate granules which employed calcium Canna edulis L starch as matrix are able to resemble controlled drug released profile of matrix reference, however their bigger detain ability lead to lower bioavailability.

  9. Initial growth of Eugenia stipitata, Inga spectabilis, and Inga edulis in Napo, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vinicio Abril Saltos

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture has been one of the causes of deforestation, causing environmental impact and soil degeneration, which leads to lower income earned by farmers; hence the need to implement agroforestry systems .This research aims to describe fromthe initial growth of Eugenia stipitata, Inga edulis, and Inga spectabilis to 320 days after emergence. The study took place at the Amazon Research and Conservation Center of the Amazonas State University, during 2014 and 2015. The growth process was evaluated in regards to plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, and branch length. Plant height and stem diameter were compared over time applying variance analysis. Precipitation was also compared to analyze whether its variations had a direct influence on plant growth. The linear and polynomial models fitted better for thespecies regarding plant height and sprout diameter. Predominance of green leaves compared to yellow and dry ones, as branch length showed significant differences over all the sampling periods. The two-way analysis of variance showed significant differences in the correlation between age and precipitation over plant height and stem diameter. The outcomes led to conclude that Eugenia stipitata had a lower growth than both Inga edulis and Inga spectabilis. Branch production and growth and the number of leaves were also important elements of the growth process.

  10. Total phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Blepharis edulis extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaddese Mahboubi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Blepharis edulis is traditionally used as an antiseptic, purgative, aphrodisiac and anti-inflammatory agent. The extractsof plant aerial parts were screened for total phenolic content (TPC gallic acid equivalents (GAE, total flavonoid compound(TFC quercetin equivalents (QE, antioxidant capacity and its antimicrobial activity by micro broth dilution assay. The 50%-inhibition values of BHT and 70% (v/v aqueous ethanol, 70% (v/v aqueous methanol, methanol, and water extracts of B.edulis according to the DPPH method were found to be 19.6, 71.2, 73.7, 81.4, and 218.4 g/ml, respectively. TPC ranged from38.9 to 102.7 mg GAE/g dry extracts. The antimicrobial activity showed that yeast and fungi were sensitive and resistantmicroorganisms to the extracts. The 70%-methanol extract showed more drastic antimicrobial activity than the others. Theantimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract is the same as of the methanolic extract; water extract had the weakest antimicrobialactivity.

  11. Elevated extracellular pH during early shell formation in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, K.; Melzner, F.; Himmerkus, N.; Hu, M.; Bleich, M.

    2016-02-01

    Marine calcifiers are amongst the most vulnerable organisms to ocean acidification (OA). However, limited studies investigate the mechanisms underlying their hindered performance under OA stress. Working with larval stages of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, we use microsensors to study the pH and calcium conditions necessary for shell deposition. Using 45-48 hour, D-veliger stages, we discover alkaline conditions with respect to ambient seawater pH by 0.28 pH units and higher calcium concentrations (by 0.54mM) in the extra pallial space beneath the growing shell that likely promotes the rapid synthesis of the first shell. We further use enzyme assays in combination with immuno-stainings of sodium-potassium ATPase (NKA) and proton ATPase (VHA) to provide information on the major ion regulatory pathways that enable transport of calcium carbonate required for shell formation and pH homeostasis. We also use the juvenile stages of M. edulis to understand how extracellular pH regulation close to the shell formation site will be influenced by OA stress. This allows us to describe the pH dependency of early shell formation and to begin to develop a model of the ion regulatory network that facilitates biomineralisation in the organism. The results are discussed in the context of environmental change and consequences for mollusc developmental success.

  12. Endozoicomonas dominates the gill and intestinal content microbiomes of Mytilus edulis from Barnegat Bay, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, William B.; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Adams, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    Blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, Linnaeus 1758 from southern Barnegat Bay, New Jersey were examined to determine the make-up of the normal blue mussel microbiome. Sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA amplicons from gill and intestinal content microbiomes using the Illumina® MiSeq platform yielded 1,276,161 paired end sequence reads from the gill libraries and 1,092,333 paired end sequence reads from the intestinal content libraries. General bioinformatic analyses were conducted with the open-source packages Qiime and Mothur. Phylotype assignments to the genus level were made using the commercial One Codex platform. This resulted in 1,697,852 gill and 988,436 intestinal content sequences being classified to genus. A majority of these (67.6% and 37.2% respectively) were assigned to a single operational taxonomic unit (Mytilus edulis Symbiont, MeS) that has homologies with other recently described Endozoicomonas pathogens and symbionts of marine invertebrates. MeS shares 98% identity with an uncultured bacterium from the gill tissue of an invasive indo-Pacific oyster and with HQE1 and HQE2 isolated from the sea squirt, Styela clava. Other than MeS, most of the detected bacterial species are known from marine sediments and seawater.

  13. Morphological beak differences of loliginid squid, Uroteuthis chinensis and Uroteuthis edulis, in the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yue; Liu, Bilin; Chen, Xinjun; Staples, Kevin

    2018-03-01

    The mitre squid ( Uroteuthis chinensis) and the swordtip squid ( U. edulis) are Indo-Pacific cephalopod species that are abundant in the western Pacific Ocean. They are currently exploited in the East and South China Seas and make up a significant portion of the Chinese neritic squid catch. Beaks, the feeding organs of squid, are important for individual size and biomass estimation because of their high resistance to degradation in predator stomachs and consistent dimensions. In this study, 104 U. chinensis and 143 U. edulis individuals were sampled from northern South China Sea with mantle length from 70 to 260 mm and 96 to 284 mm, respectively. The results indicated that morphological beak values were greater for U. edulis, compared to U. chinensis, for upper hood length (UHL), upper crest length (UCL), upper lateral wall length (ULWL), lower crest length (LCL), and lower lateral wall length (LLWL). According to principal component analysis, UHL/ML, UCL/ML, ULWL/ML, LCL/ML, LLWL/ML and LWL/ML could represent the characteristics of beaks for U. chinensis, while UHL/ML, UCL/ML, ULWL/ML, LHL/ML, LCL/ML and LLWL/ML could represent it for U. edulis. According to Akaike's information criterion (AIC) values, a power function was the most suitable model for U. chinensis, while a linear function was the most suitable model for U. edulis. The beak variable-mantle length ratio (beak variable/mantle length) declined with the increasing of mantle length and declined sharply at the early stage of growth in both beaks and species. The ratio changed quickly after achieving the mantle length of 140 mm for U. chinensis, while the ratio changed quickly after 170 mm for U. edulis. Beaks in both species experienced sharper changes through maturity stage I to II than other maturity stages. This study gives us basic beak morphology information for U. chinensis and U. edulis in the East and South China Seas. Geometric morphological methods combined with dietary analysis should be used

  14. Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis using fundamental parameter approach of Catha edulis and other related plant samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaltout, Abdallah A., E-mail: shaltout_a@hotmail.com [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, El Behooth Str., 12622 Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Faculty of science, Taif University, 21974 Taif, P.O. Box 888 (Saudi Arabia); Moharram, Mohammed A. [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, El Behooth Str., 12622 Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Mostafa, Nasser Y. [Faculty of science, Taif University, 21974 Taif, P.O. Box 888 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt)

    2012-01-15

    This work is the first attempt to quantify trace elements in the Catha edulis plant (Khat) with a fundamental parameter approach. C. edulis is a famous drug plant in east Africa and Arabian Peninsula. We have previously confirmed that hydroxyapatite represents one of the main inorganic compounds in the leaves and stalks of C. edulis. Comparable plant leaves from basil, mint and green tea were included in the present investigation as well as trifolium leaves were included as a non-related plant. The elemental analyses of the plants were done by Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) spectroscopy. Standard-less quantitative WDXRF analysis was carried out based on the fundamental parameter approaches. According to the standard-less analysis algorithms, there is an essential need for an accurate determination of the amount of organic material in the sample. A new approach, based on the differential thermal analysis, was successfully used for the organic material determination. The obtained results based on this approach were in a good agreement with the commonly used methods. Depending on the developed method, quantitative analysis results of eighteen elements including; Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Na, Ni, Mg, Mn, P, Rb, S, Si, Sr, Ti and Zn were obtained for each plant. The results of the certified reference materials of green tea (NCSZC73014, China National Analysis Center for Iron and Steel, Beijing, China) confirmed the validity of the proposed method. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantitative analysis of Catha edulis was carried out using standardless WDXRF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential thermal analysis was used for determination of the loss of ignition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The existence of hydroxyapatite in Catha edulis plant has been confirmed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CRM results confirmed the validity of the developed method.

  15. Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis using fundamental parameter approach of Catha edulis and other related plant samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaltout, Abdallah A.; Moharram, Mohammed A.; Mostafa, Nasser Y.

    2012-01-01

    This work is the first attempt to quantify trace elements in the Catha edulis plant (Khat) with a fundamental parameter approach. C. edulis is a famous drug plant in east Africa and Arabian Peninsula. We have previously confirmed that hydroxyapatite represents one of the main inorganic compounds in the leaves and stalks of C. edulis. Comparable plant leaves from basil, mint and green tea were included in the present investigation as well as trifolium leaves were included as a non-related plant. The elemental analyses of the plants were done by Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) spectroscopy. Standard-less quantitative WDXRF analysis was carried out based on the fundamental parameter approaches. According to the standard-less analysis algorithms, there is an essential need for an accurate determination of the amount of organic material in the sample. A new approach, based on the differential thermal analysis, was successfully used for the organic material determination. The obtained results based on this approach were in a good agreement with the commonly used methods. Depending on the developed method, quantitative analysis results of eighteen elements including; Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Na, Ni, Mg, Mn, P, Rb, S, Si, Sr, Ti and Zn were obtained for each plant. The results of the certified reference materials of green tea (NCSZC73014, China National Analysis Center for Iron and Steel, Beijing, China) confirmed the validity of the proposed method. - Highlights: ► Quantitative analysis of Catha edulis was carried out using standardless WDXRF. ► Differential thermal analysis was used for determination of the loss of ignition. ► The existence of hydroxyapatite in Catha edulis plant has been confirmed. ► The CRM results confirmed the validity of the developed method.

  16. Single, binary and multi-component adsorption of some anions and heavy metals on environmentally friendly Carpobrotus edulis plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiban, Mohamed; Soudani, Amina; Sinan, Fouad; Persin, Michel

    2011-02-01

    A low-cost adsorbent and environmentally friendly adsorbent from Carpobrotus edulis plant was used for the removal of NO(3)(-), H(2)PO(4)(-), Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) ions from single, binary and multi-component systems. The efficiency of the adsorbent was studied using batch adsorption technique under different experimental conditions by varying parameters such as pH, initial concentration and contact time. In single component systems, the dried C. edulis has the highest affinity for Pb(2+), followed by NO(3)(-), Cd(2+) and H(2)PO(4)(-), with adsorption capacities of 175mg/g, 125mg/g, 28mg/g and 26mg/g, respectively. These results showed that the adsorption of NO(3)(-) and H(2)PO(4)(-) ions from single and binary component systems can be successfully described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Freundlich adsorption model, showed the best fit to the single and binary experimental adsorption data. These results also indicated that the adsorption yield of Pb(2+) ion was reduced by the presence of Cd(2+) ion in binary metal mixture. The competitive adsorption of NO(3)(-), H(2)PO(4)(-), Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) ions on dried C. edulis plant shows that NO(3)(-) and H(2)PO(4)(-) anions are able to adsorb on different free binding sites and Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) cations are able to adsorb on the same active sites of C. edulis particles. The dried C. edulis was found to be efficient in removing nitrate, phosphate, cadmium and lead from aqueous solution as compared to other adsorbents already used for the removal of these ions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enraizamento de estacas de espécies de maracujazeiro (Passiflora spp. no inverno e no verão Cutting rooting of passion fruit plant species (Passiflora spp. in the winter and in the summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givanildo Roncatto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O maracujazeiro está entre as principais frutíferas cultivadas no País, mas apresenta limitações no cultivo, ocasionando baixa produtividade, que pode ser superada através do uso da estaquia, clonando as melhores matrizes de alta produtividade. Com isso, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o potencial de enraizamento de estacas no inverno e no verão, utilizando as espécies comerciais (P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener e P. alata Dryander e os porta-enxertos (P. giberti N.E.Brown, P. nitida H.B.K. e P. setacea D.C.. Este experimento foi realizado no período de julho de 2001 a março de 2002, em câmara de nebulização intermitente, sob condições de telado (50% de sombreamento. As estacas foram coletadas de plantas adultas oriundas do Banco de Germoplasma Ativo (BAG do Departamento de Produção Vegetal da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias da Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal-SP (FCAV/UNESP e de pomares comerciais, em julho de 2001 e em janeiro de 2002. A estaquia foi feita com a coleta da parte intermediária de ramos em estádio de crescimento vegetativo, no inverno e no verão. As estacas herbáceas tinham aproximadamente 15cm de comprimento, três nós e duas meias - folhas. As estacas foram tratadas com ácido indolbutírico (AIB nas concentrações de 0; 500; 1.000 e 2.000mg.L-1, por cinco segundos, e plantadas em bandejas plásticas (40x30x10cm com vermiculita de textura média, onde permaneceram por 60 dias. Houve influência do AIB e da época do ano no enraizamento, variando de acordo com a espécie. Sendo assim, P. giberti obteve o melhor desempenho em relação às demais espécies, com 73% de enraizamento no verão. A percentagem de enraizamento foi melhor para P. alata (58% e para P. nitida (40% no inverno e sem AIB. P. edulis f. flavicarpa enraizou apenas 23% no inverno, e P. setacea não enraizou. O número e o comprimento de raízes foram maiores no inverno. A sobrevivência de plantas n

  18. Anatomical, growth and development studies in Badea fruits (Passiflora cuadrangularis Estudio anatómico y de los procesos de crecimiento y desarrollo del fruto de la badea (Passiflora quadrangularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montenegro de Carrillo Nohora

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available This work had been done as a contribution to the study the processes of growth and development of Badea fruit
    (Passiflora quadrangularis L.. Fruit samples of different sizes were taken and treated by histological techniques and analyzed under microscope. Eight stage of development of
    diameter fruits were evaluated: 6; 10; 18; 22; 30; 40; 60 y 80 mm. Continues divisions in the external epidermis cells and parenchima on the three first stages were observed.
    Aditionally, the fruit originated from a triangular ovary, progresively pets a circular from. From the fourth stage, fruit ripenning initiates and the placenta starts to fill the locules and sarround the seed. At the eight stage the aril, which is originated from thickening of funiculus apical zone is observed. all the proeesses, which take place during
    the fruíts growth produce their final form and establish the organoleptic caracteristics.
    El presente trabajo se realizó para contribuir al estudio de los procesos de crecimiento y desarrollo del fruto de la Badea
    (Passif/ora quadrangularis L.. Para su realización se tomaron muestras de frutos de diferentes tamaños, los cuales fueron tratados mediante técnicas histológicas y analizados al microscopio. Se evaluaron ocho estadios de crecimiento correspondientes a frutos de los diámetros: 6; 10; 18; 22; 30; 40; 60 y 80 mm. En los tres primeros estadios de desarrollo del fruto, se observaron continuas divisiones
    en las células de la epidermis externa y del parénquima. Adicionalmente, el fruto que se ha originado de un ovario triangular, va tomando forma circular. A partir del cuarto
    estadio, se inicia la maduración del fruto y la placenta ernpiezaa llenar los lóculos y a rodear las semillas. En el estadio ocho, se observa el arilo cuyo origen proviene de un engrosamiento de la zona apical del funículo. Todos los procesos, que ocurren a lo largo del crecimiento del fruto, originan su forma final y

  19. Impacts of Carpobrotus edulis (L.) N.E.Br. on the Germination, Establishment and Survival of Native Plants: A Clue for Assessing Its Competitive Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Ana; González, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Does Carpobrotus edulis have an impact on native plants? How do C. edulis’ soil residual effects affect the maintenance of native populations? What is the extent of interspecific competition in its invasion process? In order to answer those questions, we established pure and mixed cultures of native species and C. edulis on soil collected from invaded and native areas of Mediterranean coastal dunes in the Iberian Peninsula. We examined the impact of the invader on the germination, growth and survival of seeds and adult plants of two native plant species (Malcolmia littorea (L.) R.Br, and Scabiosa atropurpurea L.) growing with ramets or seeds of C. edulis. Residual effects of C. edulis on soils affected the germination process and early growth of native plants in different ways, depending on plant species and density. Interspecific competition significantly reduced the germination and early growth of native plants but this result was soil, density, timing and plant species dependent. Also, at any density of adult individuals of C. edulis, established native adult plants were not competitive. Moreover, ramets of C. edulis had a lethal effect on native plants, which died in a short period of time. Even the presence of C. edulis seedlings prevents the recruitment of native species. In conclusion, C. edulis have strong negative impacts on the germination, growth and survival of the native species M. littorea and S. atropurpurea. These impacts were highly depended on the development stages of native and invasive plants. Our findings are crucial for new strategies of biodiversity conservation in coastal habitats. PMID:25210924

  20. Manganese in the shell of the bivalve Mytilus edulis: Seawater Mn or physiological control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Pedro S.; Clarke, Leon J.; Kennedy, Hilary; Richardson, Christopher A.

    2016-12-01

    Manganese in the shell calcite of marine bivalves has been suggested to reflect ambient seawater Mn concentrations, thus providing a high-resolution archive of past seawater Mn concentrations. However, a quantitative relationship between seawater Mn and shell Mn/Ca ratios, as well as clear understanding of which process(es) control(s) shell Mn/Ca, are still lacking. Blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, were grown in a one-year duration field experiment in the Menai Strait, U.K., to study the relationship between seawater particulate and dissolved Mn2+ concentrations and shell calcite Mn/Ca ratios. Shell Mn/Ca showed a well-defined intra-annual double-peak, with maximum values during early spring and early summer and low values during autumn and winter. Seawater particulate Mn peaked during winter and autumn, with a series of smaller peaks during spring and summer, whereas dissolved Mn2+ exhibited a marked single maximum during late-spring to early-summer, being low during the remainder of the year. Consequently, neither seawater particulate Mn nor dissolved Mn2+ concentrations explain the intra-annual variation of shell Mn/Ca ratios. A physiological control on shell Mn/Ca ratios is evident from the strong similarity and timing of the double-peaked intra-annual variations of Mn/Ca and shell growth rate (SGR), the latter corresponding to periods of increased metabolic activity (as indicated by respiration rate). It is thus likely that in M. edulis SGR influences shell Mn/Ca by altering the concentration or activity of Mn2+ within the extra-pallial fluid (EPF), by changing the flux of Mn into or the proportion of protein bound Mn within the EPF. By linking shell Mn/Ca ratios to the endogenous and environmental factors that determine growth and metabolic activity, this study helps to explain the lack of a consistent relationship between shell Mn/Ca in marine bivalve shell calcite and seawater particulate and dissolved Mn2+ concentrations. The use of Mn content from M. edulis

  1. Boletus edulis ribonucleic acid - a potent apoptosis inducer in human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Ribeiro, Miguel; Guichard Alves, Helena; Marques, Guilhermina; Nunes, Fernando Milheiro; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2016-07-13

    Despite the large popularity of the Boletus edulis mushroom, little is known about its influence on human health and the possibilities of its therapeutic use. Nevertheless, several reports revealed the usefulness of biopolymers isolated from it in cancer treatment. Our previous studies have shown that B. edulis water soluble biopolymers are not toxic against normal colon epithelial cells (CCD841 CoTr) and at the same concentration range elicited a very prominent antiproliferative effect in colon cancer cells (LS180) which was accompanied with cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. The purpose of the present study was to verify the proapoptotic properties of a selected fraction from B. edulis - BE3, as well as determine its chemical nature. The BE3 fraction was extracted with hot water and purified by anion-exchange chromatography. Further chemical examinations revealed that BE3 consists mainly of ribonucleic acid (59.1%). The ability of BE3 to induce programmed cell death was examined in human colon cancer cell lines LS180 and HT-29 by measuring caspase activation, DNA fragmentation and expression of BAX, BCL2, TP53 and CDKN1A genes. The sensitivity of colon cancer cells with silenced BAX, TP53 and CDKN1A expression to BE3 treatment was also evaluated. We have demonstrated for the first time that the BE3 fraction is a potent apoptosis inducer in human colon cancer cells. The revealed mechanism of apoptosis triggering was dependent on the presence of functional p53 and consequently was a little different in investigated cell lines. Our results indicated that BE3 stimulated proapoptotic genes BAX (LS180, HT-29), TP53 (LS180) and CDKN1A (HT-29) while at the same time silenced the expression of the key prosurvival gene BCL2 (LS180, HT-29). The obtained results indicate the high therapeutic potential of the BE3 fraction against colon cancer, yet it is necessary to further confirm fraction efficacy and safety in animal and clinical studies.

  2. Correlation of transcriptomic responses and metal bioaccumulation in Mytilus edulis L. reveals early indicators of stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poynton, Helen C., E-mail: helen.poynton@umb.edu; Robinson, William E.; Blalock, Bonnie J.; Hannigan, Robyn E.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Gene expression and metal tissue concentrations were compared in Mytilus edulis. • Expression levels of several transcripts correlated with metal concentrations. • Transcripts involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR) were induced. • Integration of transcriptomics and tissue levels provides insight to toxicity. - Abstract: Marine biomonitoring programs in the U.S. and Europe have historically relied on monitoring tissue concentrations of bivalves to monitor contaminant levels and ecosystem health. By integrating ‘omic methods with these tissue residue approaches we can uncover mechanistic insight to link tissue concentrations to potential toxic effects. In an effort to identify novel biomarkers and better understand the molecular toxicology of metal bioaccumulation in bivalves, we exposed the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L., to sub-lethal concentrations (0.54 μM) of cadmium, lead, and a Cd + Pb mixture. Metal concentrations were measured in gill tissues at 1, 2, and 4 weeks, and increased linearly over the 4 week duration. In addition, there was evidence that Pb interfered with Cd uptake in the mixture treatment. Using a 3025 sequence microarray for M. edulis, we performed transcriptomic analysis, identifying 57 differentially expressed sequences. Hierarchical clustering of these sequences successfully distinguished the different treatment groups demonstrating that the expression profiles were reproducible among the treatments. Enrichment analysis of gene ontology terms identified several biological processes that were perturbed by the treatments, including nucleoside phosphate biosynthetic processes, mRNA metabolic processes, and response to stress. To identify transcripts whose expression level correlated with metal bioaccumulation, we performed Pearson correlation analysis. Several transcripts correlated with gill metal concentrations including mt10, mt20, and contig 48, an unknown transcript containing a wsc domain. In addition

  3. Study of the stability of passion fruit powder (Passiflora edullis f. flavicarpa from organic farmingEstabilidade maracujá (Passiflora edullis f. flavicarpa em pó oriundo do cultivo orgânico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Nascimento da Costa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Passion fruit is a fruit originating in the American tropics, is cultivated in countries with tropical and subtropical climates and belongs to the Passifloraceae family and Passiflora gender. One of the methods of cultivation of passion fruit is the organic system, a practice increasingly common in order to combine quality of food products with environmental preservation. Considering the current trends for nutritious foods and fast preparation, the use of dehydrated passion fruit offers an interesting alternative to reduce losses, add value to the product and provide other ways to consume fruit. Based on this information, the objective was to evaluate the stability and the quality of the organic passion fruit powder, obtained by spray drying, during 360 days of storage under room temperature (25 ± 2°C. The passion fruit powder was evaluated every 30 days during the 360 days of storage, for the chemical, physic-chemical and microbiological parameters. The organic passion fruit powder remained stable during the 360 days of storage at room temperature, offering great potential for use due to present adequate retention of ascorbic acid (15.86 mg/100 g, desired hygroscopicity (22.48 g of absorbed water/100 g, low water activity (0.46, stable acid pH (4.1, high levels of ash (4.7%, total sugar (36.93%, total extractable polyphenols (196.18 mg GAE/100 g and satisfactory microbiological results with absence of coliforms at 35°C and 45°C, Salmonella sp/25 g, mesophilic and Staphylococcus coagulase positive values were less than 10 CFU/g. O maracujá é um fruto originário da América Tropical, sendo cultivado em países de climas tropical e subtropical, pertencente à família Passifloraceae, gênero Passiflora. Dentre os métodos de cultivo do maracujá, tem-se a produção pelo sistema orgânico, uma prática cada vez mais comum, visando aliar qualidade de produtos alimentícios com a preservação ambiental. Considerando as tendências atuais por

  4. Quantification of extraradical soil mycelium and ectomycorrhizas of Boletus edulis in a Scots pine forest with variable sporocarp productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Varga, Herminia; Agueda, Beatriz; Martínez-Peña, Fernando; Parladé, Javier; Pera, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The availability of most edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms depends on their natural fructification. Sporocarp formation of these fungi is linked to habitat characteristics and climate conditions, but these data alone do not explain all the trends of fungal fruiting and dynamics. It could be hypothesized that the amount of soil mycelia could also be related to the production of carpophores. Soil samples (five cylinders of 250 cm(3) per plot) were taken monthly, from September to November, in five fenced permanent plots (5 × 5 m) in Pinar Grande (Soria, Spain), a Pinus sylvestris stand situated in the north of the Sistema Ibérico mountain range. Plots were chosen to establish a gradient of Boletus edulis productivity from 0 to 38.5 kg/ha year, according to the mean fresh weight of sporocarps collected during the last 10 years. B. edulis ectomycorrhizal root tips were identified in each soil sample according to its morphology and counted. DNA extractions were performed with the PowerSoil(TM) DNA Isolation Kit and quantification of extraradical soil mycelium by real-time polymerase chain reaction using specific primers and a TaqMan® probe. The concentration of soil mycelium of B. edulis (mg mycelium/g soil) did not differ significantly between plots (p = 0.1397), and sampling time (p = 0.7643) within the fructification period. The number of mycorrhizal short roots per soil volume showed significant differences between the plots (p = 0.0050) and the three sampling times (p < 0.0001). No significant correlation between the number of mycorrhizas and the productivity of the plot (kg of B. edulis/ha year) was detected (p = 0.615). A statistically significant positive correlation (p = 0.0481) was detected between the concentration of mycelia of B. edulis in the soil samples and the presence of short roots mycorrhizal with B. edulis in these samples. The productivity of the plots, in terms of sporocarps produced during the last 10 years, was not correlated either with the

  5. The production of relaid blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) in a Danish fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Per Sand; Lassen, H.

    1997-01-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) smaller than the commercial size caught in Limfjorden, as in other areas, are typically discarded. However, during the period 1990 to 1993 these small mussels were returned, after sorting to mussel beds for later harvest; a process defined as ''relay''. This paper...... presents data from two commercial culture beds and from two smaller experimental beds established to study growth and mortality of these small mussel discards. The data were analysed by a yield- per-recruit model to calculate yields from such relays. This model was also used to predict the optimal time...... of harvest. The parameters utilized in the model were: (1) initial mortality due to harvesting, unshipping and sorting; (2) growth and mortality between relay and harvest; and, (3) the drained wet weight of a mussel of a given shell length. The initial mortality was estimated from observations of mussels...

  6. ANALISA KARAKTERISTIK MANISAN KERING SALAK(SALACCA EDULIS DENGAN LAMA PERENDAMAN DAN KONSENTRASI LARUTAN GULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arini Maulidiah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Snake fruit (Salacca edulis can be made into dried fruit with addition of high concentration of sugar syrup prior to drying. This study aims to determine the effect of the concentration of sugar solution and soaking time on the characteristics of candied snake fruit. The experimental design used was a completely randomized design (CRD factorial consisting of two factors: the concentration of sugar solution (40%, 50%, 60% and the soaking time (24 and 48 hours. Each treatment was repeated three times. Data processing on quality of candied snake fruit was done using the General Linear Model (GLM and univariate test of Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT. Results showed that concentration of sugar solution and soaking time gave significant effect on concentration of reducing sugar. Soaking at 48 hours significantly affectedyield, preferences for taste, texture, and overall preferences of candied snake fruit. Interaction of soaking and the concentration of sugar solution significantly affected moisture content of final product.

  7. [The composition of volatile components of cepe (Boletus edulis) and oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misharina, T A; Mukhutdinova, S M; Zharikova, G G; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    The composition of aroma compounds in cooked and canned cepe (Boletus edulis) and in cooked oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) is studied using capillary gas chromatography and chromatography-mass spectrometry. It is found that unsaturated alcohols and ketones containing eight atoms of carbon determine the aroma of raw mushrooms and take part in the formation of the aroma of cooked mushrooms as well. The content of these compounds was the highest in canned cepes. In oyster mushrooms, the concentration of these alcohols and ketones was lower in comparison with cepes. The content of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes was much higher in oyster mushrooms. Volatile aliphatic and heterocyclic Maillard reaction products and isomeric octenols and octenones formed the aroma of cooked and canned mushrooms.

  8. Modulations in cell-mediated immunity of Mytilus edulis following the 'Sea Empress' oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyrynda, E.A.; Dyrynda, P.E.J.; Ratcliffe, N.A.; Pipe, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    The 'Sea Empress' oil tanker grounded outside Milford Haven (Wales, UK) in February 1996, spilling ∼ 70,000 tonnes of crude oil and contaminating over 100 km of coastline, causing mass mortalities and strandings of at least 11 mollusc species. Intensive field monitoring commenced after the spill, examining immunity and hydrocarbon levels in the mussel, Mytilus edulis (Mollusca: Bivalvia), a commercially-harvested species which can accumulate contaminants. Comparisons of mussels from oiled and reference sites revealed significant modulations in cell-mediated immunity. Elevations in blood cell (haemocyte) numbers and decreases in superoxide generation and phagocytosis were identified in contaminated animals. The immune response of contaminated mussels gradually improved and generally showed no significant differences compared with clean mussels after 11 weeks. By then, total hydrocarbon content in contaminated mussels had declined by 70-90%, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content had decreased by over 90%. (author)

  9. Effect of cadmium on protein synthesis in gill tissue of the sea mussel Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhuizen-Tsoerkan, M.B.; Holwerda, D.A.; Van der Mast, C.A.; Zandee, D.I.

    1990-01-01

    Cellular toxicity of cadmium was studied in the gill tissue of the sea mussel, Mytilus edulis. Mussels were exposed to cadmium chloride at 50 or 250 microgram Cd/L for short periods. Then the gills were excised and incubated with 35-S-methionine or cysteine for 4 hr. Uptake of radiolabeled amino acids by the isolated gills was not affected by Cd, whereas the incorporation of label was significantly decreased after Cd exposure. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the de novo synthesized gill proteins. It revealed that the expression of particular proteins was differently altered by Cd. One dimensional gel analysis by 35-S-cysteine labeled gill proteins demonstrated that Cd induced, in a concentration dependent manner, a cysteine-rich protein with a molecular weight of approximately 13 kDa, consisting of two isomers with low isoelectric points

  10. Effect of cadmium on protein synthesis in gill tissue of marine mollusc Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhuizen-Tsoerkan, M.B.; Mast, C.A. van der; Zandee, D.I.

    1988-01-01

    Mussels have a high capacity to accumulate cadmium and other heavy metals without notable toxic effects. However, they have recently found that cadmium is toxic to M. edulis at a relatively low concentration, as anoxic survival time of the animals was significantly shortened after two weeks of exposure to 50 ppb Cd. Based on this finding, a research was started to study the toxic effects of cadmium at a macromolecular level (proteins, RNA). Mussels were exposed to 250 ppb Cd for short periods. Then excised gills were incubated with 35 s-methionine for 4 hours. In the gill tissue of 7 and 15 days Cd-exposed animals, a significantly decrease in the incorporation rate of the introduced label was found of 30 and 37%, respectively. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the de novo synthesized gill tissue proteins

  11. Towards the determination of Mytilus edulis food preferences using the dynamic energy budget (DEB theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie Picoche

    Full Text Available The blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, is a commercially important species, with production based on both fisheries and aquaculture. Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB models have been extensively applied to study its energetics but such applications require a deep understanding of its nutrition, from filtration to assimilation. Being filter feeders, mussels show multiple responses to temporal fluctuations in their food and environment, raising questions that can be investigated by modeling. To provide a better insight into mussel-environment interactions, an experiment was conducted in one of the main French growing zones (Utah Beach, Normandy. Mussel growth was monitored monthly for 18 months, with a large number of environmental descriptors measured in parallel. Food proxies such as chlorophyll a, particulate organic carbon and phytoplankton were also sampled, in addition to non-nutritious particles. High-frequency physical data recording (e.g., water temperature, immersion duration completed the habitat description. Measures revealed an increase in dry flesh mass during the first year, followed by a high mass loss, which could not be completely explained by the DEB model using raw external signals. We propose two methods that reconstruct food from shell length and dry flesh mass variations. The former depends on the inversion of the growth equation while the latter is based on iterative simulations. Assemblages of food proxies are then related to reconstructed food input, with a special focus on plankton species. A characteristic contribution is attributed to these sources to estimate nutritional values for mussels. M. edulis shows no preference between most plankton life history traits. Selection is based on the size of the ingested particles, which is modified by the volume and social behavior of plankton species. This finding reveals the importance of diet diversity and both passive and active selections, and confirms the need to adjust DEB models to

  12. First report of phytochelatins in a mushroom: induction of phytochelatins by metal exposure in Boletus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin-Hansen, Christian; Pedersen, Sindre A; Andersen, Rolf A; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2007-01-01

    Some species of macromycetes (mushrooms) consistently are found to contain high concentrations of toxic metals such as cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg), and consumption of wild-growing mushrooms is acknowledged as a significant source for Cd and Hg in humans. Yet little is known about the speciation of Cd and Hg in mushroom tissues. Here we present the first evidence of peptides of the phytochelatin family being responsible for binding a large fraction of Cd in caps of the macromycete Boletus edulis exposed to excess metals. Concentrations of Cd, Zn, Cu and Hg, as well as cytosolic Cd-binding capacity (CCBC), glutathione (GSH) and free proline (Pro) were quantified in fruiting bodies of B. edulis differentially exposed to a wide range of metals. Metal distribution among cytosolic compounds were investigated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), followed by metal determinations with atomic absorption chromatography (AAS) and HR-ICP-MS. Cd-binding compounds in SEC elutates were investigated further by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). CCBC was >90 times higher in the exposed group relative to the reference group (Mann-Whitney's P < 0.001), whereas concentrations of free Pro were almost identical for the two groups. For the whole study selection, CCBC correlated positively with metal exposure (Spearman's P < 0.001 for all four metals), suggesting dose-dependent induction of Cd-binding compounds by exposure to these metals, possibly as a defense mechanism. The presence of phytochelatins (PCs), a family of cystein-rich oligopeptides, was confirmed in Cd-containing SEC fractions by HPLC-MS. The appearance of more complex PCs was coupled to declining concentrations of GSH. To our knowledge this is the first report demonstrating the presence of PCs in a macromycete.

  13. (90)Sr in King Bolete Boletus edulis and certain other mushrooms consumed in Europe and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saniewski, Michał; Zalewska, Tamara; Krasińska, Grażyna; Szylke, Natalia; Wang, Yuanzhong; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2016-02-01

    The (90)Sr activity concentrations released from a radioactive fallout have been determined in a range of samples of mushrooms collected in Poland, Belarus, China, and Sweden in 1996-2013. Measurement of (90)Sr in pooled samples of mushrooms was carried out with radiochemical procedure aimed to pre-isolate the analyte from the fungal materials before it was determined using the Low-Level Beta Counter. Interestingly, the Purple Bolete Imperator rhodopurpureus collected from Yunnan in south-western China in 2012 showed (90)Sr activity concentration at around 10 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass, which was greater when compared to other mushrooms in this study. The King Bolete Boletus edulis from China showed the (90)Sr activity in caps at around 1.5 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass (whole fruiting bodies) in 2012 and for specimens from Poland activity was well lower than 1.0 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in 1998-2010. A sample of Sarcodonimbricatus collected in 1998 from the north-eastern region of Poland impacted by Chernobyl fallout showed (90)Sr in caps at around 5 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. Concentration of (90)Sr in Bay Bolete Royoporus (Xerocomus or Boletus) badius from affected region of Gomel in Belarus was in 2010 at 2.1 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. In several other species from Poland (90)Sr was at <0.5 to around 1.0 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. Activity concentrations of (90)Sr in popular B. edulis and some other mushrooms collected from wild in Poland were very low (<1 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass), and values noted showed on persistence of this type of radioactivity in mushrooms over time passing from nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant catastrophe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. L-alanine uptake in membrane vesicles from Mytilus edulis gills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajor, A.M.; Wright, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that gills from M. edulis can accumulate L-alanine from seawater by a saturable process specific for α-neutral amino acids. This uptake occurs against chemical gradients in excess of 10 6 to 1. To further characterize this uptake, membrane vesicles were prepared from M. edulis gill tissue by differential centrifugation. Enrichments of putative enzyme markers (relative to that in combined initial fractions) were as follows: γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase, 25-30x; Alkaline Phosphatase, 5-6x; K + -dependent para-Nitrophenyl Phosphatase, 3-5x; Succinate Dehydrogenase 0.1-0.2x. These results suggest that the preparation is enriched in plasma membranes, although histochemical studies will be needed to verify this. The time course of 14 C-L-alanine uptake in the presence of inwardly-directed Na + gradient showed a transient overshoot (3-5 fold) at 10 minutes which decreased to equilibrium after six hours. The size of the overshoot and early uptake rates depended on the size of the inwardly-directed Na + gradient. No overshoot was seen in the presence of inwardly-directed gradients of LiCl or choline-Cl, or with equilibrium concentrations NaCl or mannitol. A reduced overshoot was seen with a gradient of NaSCN. A small overshoot was seen with an inwardly-directed gradient of KCl. Transport of L-alanine included saturable and diffusive components. Uptake of 6 μM L-alanine was inhibited more than 80% by 100 μM α-zwitterionic amino acids (alanine, leucine, glycine); by 30 to 75% by proline, aspartate and lysine; and less than 20% by a β-amino acid, taurine. The results of these experiments agree with those from intact gill studies and support the hypothesis that L-alanine is transported into gill epithelial cells by a secondary active transport process involving Na +

  15. Cyclanthera pedata (L. Schrad. var. edulis (Naud. Cogn. - uma Cucurbitaceae pouco conhecida na alimentação humana Cyclanthera pedata (L. Schrad. var. edulis (Naud. Cogn. (Cucurbitaceae[ign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Gomes Klein

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available São mencionados os diversos usos como alimento dos frutos de Cyclanthera pedata (L. Schrad. var. edulis (Naud. Cogn., além de sua descrição morfológica e de seus nomes vulgares, objetivando um melhor conhecimento e ou divulgação dessa nova opção entre as fontes já bastantes conhecidas de alimentos.On mention here the food uses of the fruits of "Cyclanthera pedata (L. var. edulis (Naud. Cogn. besides the its morphology description and common families having in view the knowing or else the divulgation of new options among the sourrées already wellknown.

  16. Fenologia do florescimento e características do perfume das flores de Passiflora quadrangularis l. (maracujá-melão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Antonio Villamil Montero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Passiflora quadrangularis L. é uma espécie originária do neotrópico, conhecida no Brasil como maracujá-melão devido ao tamanho e formato dos seus frutos. Tem sido amplamente disseminada nas regiões tropicais do mundo onde é produzida em pequena escala para comercialização dos frutos, o que ocorre bem próximo às regiões de cultivo, em função da dificuldade de conservação pós-colheita. As plantas são trepadeiras bastante vigorosas, com flores abundantes, grandes e perfumadas, o que amplia o seu valor e a torna particularmente interessante para caramanchões e cercas-vivas. O uso efetivo de passifloras no mercado de plantas ornamentais depende de estudos da fenologia floral. Neste trabalho foram estudadas algumas características da fenologia floral e o perfume das flores de P. quadrangularis, sob cultivo protegido. São apresentados os dados relativos ao período de floração, picos de florescimento e intensidade relativa das flores, bem como algumas características do perfume floral. Conclui-se que a espécie representa uma nova alternativa de cultivo para fins ornamentais, por apresentar múltiplas flores em antese simultânea, abundantes, grandes, fragrantes e coloridas, com longo período de floração no ano, além de frutos comestíveis, folhas exuberantes e medicinais que oferecem amplo sombreamento para áreas externas de lazer e/ou outras plantas cultivadas.

  17. Oxygen isotope ratios in the shell of Mytilus edulis: archives of glacier meltwater in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteegh, E. A. A.; Blicher, Martin E.; Mortensen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is accelerating and will contribute significantly to global sea level rise during the 21st century. Instrumental data on GrIS melting only cover the last few decades, and proxy data extending our knowledge into the past are vital for validating models...... predicting the influence of ongoing climate change. We investigated a potential meltwater proxy in Godthåbsfjord (West Greenland), where glacier meltwater causes seasonal excursions with lower oxygen isotope water (δ18Ow) values and salinity. The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) potentially records...... its potential as a palaeo-meltwater proxy. First, we confirmed that M. edulis shell calcite oxygen isotope (δ18Oc) values are in equilibrium with ambient water and generally reflect meltwater conditions. Subsequently we investigated if this species recorded the full range of δ18Ow values occurring...

  18. On the dynamics of the stocks of blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) in the Danish Wadden Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Petersen, Sten; Kristensen, Per Sand

    2001-01-01

    As biological basis for the monitoring programme for the commercially exploited stock(s) of mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) in the Danish Wadden Sea, samples of mussels have been collected regularly since 1986, both from sub-tidal and inter- tidal mussel beds. These samples are the basis for the esti...... with figures from other investigations. These analyses have been the basis for annual assessments of the mussel stocks, which again are used in the current management of mussel fishery in the Danish Wadden Sea.......As biological basis for the monitoring programme for the commercially exploited stock(s) of mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) in the Danish Wadden Sea, samples of mussels have been collected regularly since 1986, both from sub-tidal and inter- tidal mussel beds. These samples are the basis...

  19. Study the possibility of use of extracts of the mushroom Boletus edulis in the production of functional dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Aleksandrova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruiting bodies of mushrooms are rich in proteins. The most rich in proteins is Boletus edulis (white mushroom, and total protein contains all the essential amino acids. The low bioavailability of proteins Boletus edulis stimulates the search for ways to improve. One way to improve the bioavailability of nutrients of Boletus edulis is an extraction. This article presents the results of studies of extracts of white mushroom (Boletus edulis, obtained using different methods of processing the chopped dry fruiting body. The effect of physical and biotechnological parameters on the efficiency of the extraction of proteins was studied. The spectral characteristics and protein content of the obtained extracts were determined. It is shown that the ultrasonic extraction activation leads to the most efficient protein extraction(an increase of 9.5%. It is also significantly affected by the duration of extraction. The use of the enzyme preparation in the investigated ratios do not have a positive impact, however, enzymatic treatment in conjunction with ultrasound treatment increased the efficiency of 13.5%, showing the complex diffusion processes in the fruiting bodies of mushrooms. Increasing the length of the extraction, despite the high content of protein in the extract, is impractical because of the risk of bacterial contamination of high-nutritive extract. Increasing the temperature of the process has no significant effect on the protein content, but it reduces the value of the extract, due to the destruction of heat-labile components, which include vitamins and secondary metabolites. The extract application rate for curd product was determined. For the test samples organoleptic characteristics and titratable acidity were determined. The most appropriate dose of the extract in the manufacture of making curd product is 15% by weight of the finished product.

  20. Studies on the Paint Forming Properties of Avocado(Persea Americana) and African Pear (Dacryodes Edulis) Seed Oils.

    OpenAIRE

    Otaigbe, J.O.E; Oriji, O.G; Ekerenam, G.E

    2016-01-01

    Avocado(Persea Americana) and African Pear (Dacryodes edulis) seed oils were investigated for their suitability as base materials for oil paint production. Soxhlet extraction of the oils from the powdered seeds using n-hexane gave 3.63% and 10.40% yields for Avocado and African Pear respectively. Proximate analysis and chemical characterization of the seed oils were carried out using standard procedures according to the American Oil Chemist Society (AOCS) and the American Society for Testing ...

  1. Efecto de la escarificación y la dosis del ácido giberélico (ag3) en la germinación de semilla de curuba (passiflora mollisima)

    OpenAIRE

    Cardozo Gutiérrez, Rito Hernán

    2011-01-01

    Los ensayos de la germinación de semilla de curuba (Passiflora mollisima (HBK) Bailey en condiciones de laboratorio, muestran que la testa retarda la absorción del agua y es el principal factor de control de la germinación. El ácido giberélico aplicado incrementa la germinación y refuerza considerablemente los efectos de la escarificación.

  2. Genotoxic and immunotoxic potential effects of selected psychotropic drugs and antibiotics on blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) hemocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacaze, Emilie; Pédelucq, Julie; Fortier, Marlène; Brousseau, Pauline; Auffret, Michel; Budzinski, Hélène; Fournier, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The potential toxicity of pharmaceuticals towards aquatic invertebrates is still poorly understood and sometimes controversial. This study aims to document the in vitro genotoxicity and immunotoxicity of psychotropic drugs and antibiotics on Mytilus edulis. Mussel hemocytes were exposed to fluoxetine, paroxetine, venlafaxine, carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and erythromycin, at concentrations ranging from μg/L to mg/L. Paroxetine at 1.5 μg/L led to DNA damage while the same concentration of venlafaxine caused immunomodulation. Fluoxetine exposure resulted in genotoxicity, immunotoxicity and cytotoxicity. In the case of antibiotics, trimethoprim was genotoxic at 200 μg/L and immunotoxic at 20 mg/L whereas erythromycin elicited same detrimental effects at higher concentrations. DNA metabolism seems to be a highly sensitive target for psychotropic drugs and antibiotics. Furthermore, these compounds affect the immune system of bivalves, with varying intensity. This attests the relevance of these endpoints to assess the toxic mode of action of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. - Highlights: • Psychotropic drugs and antibiotics affect the immune system of Mytilus edulis. • Genotoxic and immunotoxic endpoints were relevant to assess pharmaceuticals toxicity. • DNA metabolism is a highly sensitive target for pharmaceuticals. • Fluoxetine and paroxetine were the most toxic compounds on mussel hemocytes. - Psychotropic drugs and antibiotics have the potential to cause immune toxicity and genotoxicity on Mytilus edulis hemocytes

  3. Future oceanic warming and acidification alter immune response and disease status in a commercial shellfish species, Mytilus edulis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara L Mackenzie

    Full Text Available Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are leading to physical changes in marine environments including parallel decreases in ocean pH and increases in seawater temperature. This study examined the impacts of a six month exposure to combined decreased pH and increased temperature on the immune response and disease status in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L. Results provide the first confirmation that exposure to future acidification and warming conditions via aquarium-based simulation may have parallel implications for bivalve health. Collectively, the data suggests that temperature more than pH may be the key driver affecting immune response in M. edulis. Data also suggests that both increases in temperature and/or lowered pH conditions may lead to changes in parasite abundance and diversity, pathological conditions, and bacterial incidence in M. edulis. These results have implications for future management of shellfish under a predicted climate change scenario and future sustainability of shellfisheries. Examination of the combined effects of two stressors over an extended exposure period provides key preliminary data and thus, this work represents a unique and vital contribution to current research efforts towards a collective understanding of expected near-future impacts of climate change on marine environments.

  4. Effects if 60Co γ rays radiation on seed vigor and young seedling growth of phyllostachys edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Chunju; Gao Jian; Mu Shaohua

    2007-01-01

    The dry seeds of Phyllostachys edulis were irradiated by different doses of 60 Co γ rays, the effects of the radiation on seed vigor and seedling growth characters were investigated by four testing methods, i.e. germination testing indoor, electrical conductivity, TTC vigor testing and growth classification of saddling. Results showed that the germination process and germination rate could be accelerated by doses of 60 Co γ rays (≤100 Gy), and higher doses of 60 Co γ rays (>100 Gy) could obviously inhibit the germination process and reduce seed vigor, while induce seed embryo broken, cell division, growth restrained, the height of young seedling and length of root decreasing. The inhibition effects were significantly increased with radiation dose increase. The optimal range of radiation dose for radiation breeding of Phyllostachys edulis dry seeds was 100 to 175 Gy. Linear relationships were existed in electrical conductivity after dipping in water for 24h in germination rate (G), germination index (GI), vigor index (VI), height of seedlings and length of root. EC after 24h and height of seedlings were chosen to test the change of seeds vigor and the effect of the radiation of 60 Co γ rays on Phyllostachys edulis. (authors)

  5. Complete sequences of the highly rearranged molluscan mitochondrial genomes of the scaphopod graptacme eborea and the bivalve mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boore, Jeffrey L.; Medina, Monica; Rosenberg, Lewis A.

    2004-01-31

    We have determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the scaphopod mollusk Graptacme eborea (Conrad, 1846) (14,492 nts) and completed the sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the bivalve mollusk Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 (16,740 nts). (The name Graptacme eborea is a revision of the species formerly known as Dentalium eboreum.) G. eborea mtDNA contains the 37 genes that are typically found and has the genes divided about evenly between the two strands, but M. edulis contains an extra trnM and is missing atp8, and has all genes on the same strand. Each has a highly rearranged gene order relative to each other and to all other studied mtDNAs. G. eborea mtDNA has almost no strand skew, but the coding strand of M. edulis mtDNA is very rich in G and T. This is reflected in differential codon usage patterns and even in amino acid compositions. G. eborea mtDNA has fewer non-coding nucleotides than any other mtDNA studied to date, with the largest non-coding region being only 24 nt long. Phylogenetic analysis using 2,420 aligned amino acid positions of concatenated proteins weakly supports an association of the scaphopod with gastropods to the exclusion of Bivalvia, Cephalopoda, and Polyplacophora, but is generally unable to convincingly resolve the relationships among major groups of the Lophotrochozoa, in contrast to the good resolution seen for several other major metazoan groups.

  6. Designing conservation strategies to preserve the genetic diversity of Astragalus edulis Bunge, an endangered species from western Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Peñas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus edulis (Fabaceae is an endangered annual species from the western Mediterranean region that colonized the SE Iberian Peninsula, NE and SW Morocco, and the easternmost Macaronesian islands (Lanzarote and Fuerteventura. Although in Spain some conservation measures have been adopted, it is still necessary to develop an appropriate management plan to preserve genetic diversity across the entire distribution area of the species. Our main objective was to use population genetics as well as ecological and phylogeographic data to select Relevant Genetic Units for Conservation (RGUCs as the first step in designing conservation plans for A. edulis. We identified six RGUCs for in situ conservation, based on estimations of population genetic structure and probabilities of loss of rare alleles. Additionally, further population parameters, i.e. occupation area, population size, vulnerability, legal status of the population areas, and the historical haplotype distribution, were considered in order to establish which populations deserve conservation priority. Three populations from the Iberian Peninsula, two from Morocco, and one from the Canary Islands represent the total genetic diversity of the species and the rarest allelic variation. Ex situ conservation is recommended to complement the preservation of A. edulis, given that effective in situ population protection is not feasible in all cases. The consideration of complementary phylogeographic and ecological data is useful for management efforts to preserve the evolutionary potential of the species.

  7. Designing conservation strategies to preserve the genetic diversity of Astragalus edulis Bunge, an endangered species from western Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas, Julio; Barrios, Sara; Bobo-Pinilla, Javier; Lorite, Juan; Martínez-Ortega, M Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Astragalus edulis (Fabaceae) is an endangered annual species from the western Mediterranean region that colonized the SE Iberian Peninsula, NE and SW Morocco, and the easternmost Macaronesian islands (Lanzarote and Fuerteventura). Although in Spain some conservation measures have been adopted, it is still necessary to develop an appropriate management plan to preserve genetic diversity across the entire distribution area of the species. Our main objective was to use population genetics as well as ecological and phylogeographic data to select Relevant Genetic Units for Conservation (RGUCs) as the first step in designing conservation plans for A. edulis. We identified six RGUCs for in situ conservation, based on estimations of population genetic structure and probabilities of loss of rare alleles. Additionally, further population parameters, i.e. occupation area, population size, vulnerability, legal status of the population areas, and the historical haplotype distribution, were considered in order to establish which populations deserve conservation priority. Three populations from the Iberian Peninsula, two from Morocco, and one from the Canary Islands represent the total genetic diversity of the species and the rarest allelic variation. Ex situ conservation is recommended to complement the preservation of A. edulis, given that effective in situ population protection is not feasible in all cases. The consideration of complementary phylogeographic and ecological data is useful for management efforts to preserve the evolutionary potential of the species.

  8. POTENSI BUAH SALAK (Salacca edulis, R. SEBAGAI SUPLEMEN HIPOLIPIDEMIK DITINJAU DARI GAMBARAN HISTOPATOLOGI JANTUNG DAN HEPAR MENCIT YANG DIBERI DIET RENDAH LEMAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Hardjana

    2016-10-01

      This study aims to study the structure of the heart histopathologic and the liver of white rat given the Salacca edulis, R extract and animal fat diet. This research used experimental research with the aim to measure the response of an object that appears as a result of the change in a factor that is about it. Place of research did in animal house of Yogyakarta State University and observation of preparations did in the laboratory of biological, faculty of mathematics and natural science, at Yogyakarta State University during the months of June to October 2015. Independent study variables such as salacca edulis, R extract, while the dependent variable is the description of liver histopathology includes damaged cells and fat cell infiltration, while the heart includes endothelial damage and infiltration of fat cells. Data were analyzed descriptively to present the frequency distribution, Linkages between these variables are presented in table format and analyzed with cross descriptive statistics. The results are (1 the structure of the heart histopathologic white rat given salacca edulis, R extract and animal fat diet have endotel defect and fat infiltration less than structure of the heart histopahologic white rat given animal fat diet. (2 the structure of the liver histopathologic white rat given salacca edulis, R extract and animal fat diet have endotel defect and fat infiltration more  than structure of the heart histopahologic white rat given animal fat diet. Keywords: Salacca edulis, R, fat, histopathology, liver, heart

  9. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of stem barks of Coula edulis Baill. Pseudospondias longifolia Engl. and Carapa klaineana Pierre. from Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Sima Obiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the phytochemical constituents, antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of water-acetone, water-ethanol and water extracts of Coula edulis (C. edulis, Pseudospondia longifolia (P. longifolia and Carapa klaineana (C. klaineana. Methods: Presence of total phenols, flavonoids, tannins and proanthocyanidins was evaluated to estimate the effects of plants on microbial diseases. Water-acetone, water-ethanol and water extracts were examined for antioxidant activities. All plant extracts were evaluated against six reference strains, eleven clinical isolates and two fungal strains. Results: The contents of total phenols [(12 857.56 ± 1.00 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g], flavonoids [(1 634.13 ± 1.88 mg quercetin equivalent/100 g], tannins [(2 672.00 ± 1.59 mg tannic acid equivalent/100 g] and proanthocyanidins [(395.11 ± 0.83 mg apple procyanidin equivalent/100 g] were highest in the water-acetone and water-ethanol extracts from C. edulis in comparison with P. longifolia and C. klaineana. The water-acetone, water-ethanol and water extracts from C. edulis presented the highest antimicrobial activities against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Enterococcus faecalis CIP 103907, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella sp. The tested microorganisms showed sensitivity to all extracts of P. longifolia and C. klaineana with the exception of Shigella dysenteriae CIP 5451, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi. Conclusions: Our results suggest that C. edulis extracts contain greater antioxidant and antimicrobial properties than P. longifolia and C. klaineana extracts.

  10. Effects of estrogen exposure in mussels, Mytilus edulis, at different stages of gametogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciocan, Corina M.; Cubero-Leon, Elena; Puinean, Alin M.; Hill, Elizabeth M. [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom); Minier, Christophe [Laboratoire d' Ecotoxicologie, Universite du Havre, 25 Rue Philippe Lebon, BP540, 766058 Le Havre (France); Osada, Makoto [Laboratory of Aquacultural Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, 1-1 Tsutsumidori-amamiyamachi, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan); Fenlon, Kate [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom); Rotchell, Jeanette M., E-mail: j.rotchell@sussex.ac.u [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-15

    Mytilus edulis were exposed to 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) and the synthetic estrogens ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and estradiol benzoate (EB) for 10 days. Two exposures were performed to determine their effect on vitellogenin (VTG) and estrogen receptor 2 (ER2) mRNA expression at different stages of the reproductive cycle. Significant natural variation was not observed in VTG mRNA expression, though ER2 mRNA expression displayed significantly lower values during January, February and July compared with other times of the year. A significant increase in VTG and ER2 mRNA expression was observed in mussels exposed to estrogens at the early stage of gametogenesis. In contrast, mature mussels displayed no statistically significant change in the VTG or ER2 mRNA expression. The data presented suggests that the reproductive physiology of molluscs, in terms of VTG and ER2 mRNA expression, may be susceptible to damage by environmental estrogens at certain points in their gametogenesis process. - This study concerns vitellogenin and estrogen receptor mRNA expression in a mollusc and is relevant to those studying endocrine disruption in invertebrate species.

  11. Differential depuration of poliovirus, Escherichia coli, and a coliphage by the common mussel, Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, U.F.; Collins, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The elimination of sewage effluent-associated poliovirus, Escherichia coli, and a 22-nm icosahedral coliphage by the common mussel, Mytilus edulis, was studied. Both laboratory-and commercial-scale recirculating, UV depuration systems were used in this study. In the laboratory system, the logarithms of the poliovirus, E. coli, and coliphage levels were reduced by 1.86, 2.9, and 2.16, respectively, within 52 h of depuration. The relative patterns and rates of elimination of the three organisms suggest that they are eliminated from mussels by different mechanisms during depuration under suitable conditions. Poliovirus was not included in experiments undertaken in the commercial-scale depuration system. The differences in the relative rates and patterns of elimination were maintained for E. coli and coliphage in this system, with the logarithm of the E. coli levels being reduced by 3.18 and the logarithm of the coliphage levels being reduced by 0.87. The results from both depuration systems suggest that E. coli is an inappropriate indicator of the efficiency of virus elimination during depuration. The coliphage used appears to be a more representative indicator. Depuration under stressful conditions appeared to have a negligible affect on poliovirus and coliphage elimination rates from mussels. However, the rate and pattern of E. coli elimination were dramatically affected by these conditions. Therefore, monitoring E. coli counts might prove useful in ensuring that mussels are functioning well during depuration

  12. Effects of microplastics on European flat oysters, Ostrea edulis and their associated benthic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Dannielle Senga

    2016-09-01

    Plastic pollution is recognised as an emerging threat to aquatic ecosystems, with microplastics now the most abundant type of marine debris. Health effects caused by microplastics have been demonstrated at the species level, but impacts on ecological communities remain unknown. In this study, impacts of microplastics on the health and biological functioning of European flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) and on the structure of associated macrofaunal assemblages were assessed in an outdoor mesocosm experiment using intact sediment cores. Biodegradable and conventional microplastics were added at low (0.8 μg L(-1)) and high (80 μg L(-1)) doses in the water column repeatedly for 60 days. Effects on the oysters were minimal, but benthic assemblage structures differed and species richness and the total number of organisms were ∼1.2 and 1.5 times greater in control mesocosms than in those exposed to high doses of microplastics. Notably, abundances of juvenile Littorina sp. (periwinkles) and Idotea balthica (an isopod) were ∼2 and 8 times greater in controls than in mesocosms with the high dose of either type of microplastic. In addition, the biomass of Scrobicularia plana (peppery furrow shell clam) was ∼1.5 times greater in controls than in mesocosms with the high dose of microplastics. This work indicates that repeated exposure to high concentrations of microplastics could alter assemblages in an important marine habitat by reducing the abundance of benthic fauna. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Feeding activity of mussels Mytilus edulis related to near-bed currents and phytoplankton biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per

    2000-01-01

    The feeding activity of blue mussels Mytilus edulis was investigated in the field and related to near-bottom current velocities and the phytoplankton biomass in the near-bottom water layers for four days. The body content of Chl-a in mussels and their shell gap size were used as indices...... of filtration activity. During days 1 and 2 the near-bed current velocities were low (1.2-2.1 cm s(-1)), and the near-bed phytoplankton biomass was at the same time lower than near the water surface. Between 44 and 69% of the mussels had closed shells and accumulated only small amounts of Chl-a in the body....... During day 3 and day 4 the near-bed current velocities increased to 6.5 and 3.9 cm s(-1). respectively, and the Chl-a was homogeneously distributed in the water column. Now only 17 and 25% of the mussels had closed valves and they accumulated a larger amount of Chl-a. The actual population filtration...

  14. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF Salacca Edulis REINW FRUIT IN SLEMAN DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hidayati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available RACT Yogyakarta Special Province decided Salak Pondohs (Salacca edulis Reinw as excellent commodity, particularly in Sleman. To support successful strategy, development of salak pondoh cultivation in terms of its post harvest, namely character of salah pondoh, is required. Purpose: to study physical and chemical properties of various types salak pondoh from farmers, wholesalers and retailers at three levels of quality. Samples were taken by using Purposive Random Sampling method. Aspects to observe involved physical properties of fruit flesh and chemical properties of fruit flesh Results: salak pondoh among various market players showed, teksture, water content, total acid, and tanine content of fruit flesh were significantly different. While color, thickness, edible section percentage, and total sugar content of fruit flesh were not significantly different. Characteristics of salak pondoh at various levels of quality indicated that color and textures of flesh fruits were significantly different. Edible section percentage, thickness, water content, total sugar, total acid and tanine content of fruit flesh not significantly different. Characters of various types salak pondoh showed that edible section percentage, water content, total acid, and tanine content of fruit flesh significantly different. While color, thickness, textures and total sugar content of fruit flesh not significantly different.

  15. Ocean acidification and host-pathogen interactions: blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, encountering Vibrio tubiashii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Maria E; Baden, Susanne P; Russ, Sarah; Ellis, Robert P; Gong, Ningping; Hernroth, Bodil E

    2014-04-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) can shift the ecological balance between interacting organisms. In this study, we have used a model system to illustrate the interaction between a calcifying host organism, the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and a common bivalve bacterial pathogen, Vibrio tubiashii, with organisms being exposed to a level of acidification projected to occur by the end of the 21st century. OA exposures of the mussels were carried out in relative long-term (4 months) and short-term (4 days) experiments. We found no effect of OA on the culturability of V. tubiashii, in broth or in seawater. OA inhibited mussel shell growth and impaired crystalline shell structures but did not appear to affect mussel immune parameters (i.e haemocyte counts and phagocytotic capacity). Despite no evident impact on host immunity or growth and virulence of the pathogen, V. tubiashii was clearly more successful in infecting mussels exposed to long-term OA compared to those maintained under ambient conditions. Moreover, OA exposed V. tubiashii increased their viability when exposed to haemocytes of OA-treated mussel. Our findings suggest that even though host organisms may have the capacity to cope with periods of OA, these conditions may alter the outcome of host-pathogen interactions, favouring the success of the latter. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Exposure of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, to gold nanoparticles and the pro-oxidant menadione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Sara; Doyle, Hugh; Blasco, Julian; Redmond, Gareth; Sheehan, David

    2010-03-01

    Relatively little is known about how gold nanoparticles (GNP) might interact in vivo with marine organisms. Mytilus edulis was exposed (24h) to approximately 15 nm GNP, menadione and both compounds simultaneously (GNP/menadione). GNP was detected by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy mainly in digestive gland of samples exposed to GNP though not GNP/menadione, perhaps due to impaired feeding. Thioredoxin reductase activity and malondialdehyde levels were determined in all tissues. Thioredoxin reductase inhibition was detected only in digestive gland exposed to menadione whilst malondialdehyde levels did not vary in response to treatment in all tissues. GNP caused a decrease in the reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio in digestive gland, but no difference was found in other tissues or for other treatments. One dimensional electrophoresis of proteins containing thiol groups was performed in all tissues and revealed a reduction in protein thiols for all treatments in digestive gland. Two dimensional electrophoresis of digestive gland extracts, from GNP and control groups, showed decreased levels of thiol proteins in response to GNP which we attribute to oxidation. Our results suggest that GNP causes a modest level of oxidative stress sufficient to oxidize thiols in glutathione and proteins but without causing lipid peroxidation or induction of thioredoxin reductase activity.

  17. Field data and growth model for mussels Mytilus edulis in Danish waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgard, Hans Ulrik; Lundgreen, Kim; Larsen, Poul S.

    2012-01-01

    of different overlapping size-classes of M. edulis were analysed individually and after being assembled to cover the full range of sizes, as full time series in terms of weight specific growth rate (μ = (1/W) dW/dt,% day-1) as a function of dry weight of soft parts (W, g). The results were compared to a simple...... bioenergetic growth model for mussels (μ = aWb, a = 0.871 x C - 0.986, b = -0.34), and observed power-law relations of growth data were in good agreement with the model, which takes into account the prevailing average chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration (C, μ g chl a l-1) at field sites. Thus, the b......-values of data were close to the predicted -0.34 while the a-value was in one case lower than estimated due to suboptimal conditions during part of the growth period. As a supplementary interpretation the growth data have been expressed in terms of the time to double the dry weight of soft parts for a given size...

  18. Structural investigation of a novel heteropolysaccharide from the fruiting bodies of Boletus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, An-qiang; Liu, Ye; Xiao, Nan-nan; Zhang, Yang; Sun, Pei-long

    2014-03-01

    A novel water-soluble heteropolysaccharide, BEPF1, was isolated from the fruiting bodies of Boletus edulis with boiling water extraction and purified by Sephacryl S-300, with a molecular weight of 1.08×10(4)Da. Sugar composition of BEPF1 showed that it was composed of l-fucose, d-mannose, d-glucose and d-galactose in the ratio of 0.21:0.23:1.17:1.00. Methylation analysis together with (1)H, (13)C and 2D NMR spectroscopy established that BEPF1 was consisted of α-d-(1→6)-galactopyranan backbone with a terminal of α-l-fucosyl unit on O-2 of the 2-d-(2→6)-galactosyl units, β-d-(1→6)-4-O-Me-glucopyranan and β-d-(1→6)-glucopyranan backbone with a terminal β-d-glucosyl unit and it also contained a minor of 2,6-β-d-Mannopyranan residues. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Isolation and evaluation of endophytic fungi with antimicrobial ability from Phyllostachys edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoye Shen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi (30 isolates from bamboo branches were categorized into 12 genera, based on the blast analyses of ITS nrDNA sequence in GenBank and microscopic examination. The aim of this work was to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal activities of endophytic fungi. Inhibitory effects against clinical pathogens and phytopathogens have been screened for all the isolates preliminarily and strains tentatively identified as Cladosporium sphaerospermum (PE106, Simplicillium lanosoniveum (PE120, Curvularia sp. (PE127, Didymella sp. (PE128 and Penicillium cf. raistrickii (PE130 presented bioactivity against at least four tested pathogens using the agar diffusion method. Crude extracts of PE106, PE120, PE127 and PE130 displayed broad-spectrum activity against plant pathogenic fungi by mycelial radial growth test. All of the four isolates were found to have high bioactivity against the frequent plant pathogenic fungus Botryotinia fuckeliana, and two of the isolates (PE120 and PE130 also inhibited the growth of phytopathogen Thanatephorus cucumeris noteworthily. This study is the first report on the antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with branches of Ph. edulis.

  20. Is Khat (Catha edulis) chewing a risk factor for periodontal diseases? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalakonda, Butchibabu; Al-Maweri, Sadeq-Ali; Al-Shamiri, Hashem-Motahir; Ijaz, Anum; Gamal, Shukri; Dhaifullah, Esam

    2017-10-01

    Khat (Catha edulis) chewing is a highly prevalent habit in the Arabian Peninsula and East Africa, and has recently spread to Western countries. The association between khat chewing and oral mucosal lesions is well documented in the literature. However, there is no concrete evidence on the association between khat chewing and periodontal disease. The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze the influence of khat chewing on periodontal health. A literature search of PubMed, Scopus and Web of Sciences databases was carried out to identify relevant articles published from 1990 to May 2017. The inclusion criteria were all clinical studies that assessed the relationship between khat chewing and periodontal disease. The search yielded 122 articles, of which 10 were included in this systematic review. Most of the studies exhibited a positive correlation between khat chewing and periodontal disease. Altogether, the analysis of the current evidence reveals that khat chewing is destructive to the periodontium and enhances the risk of periodontal disease progression. However, due to variability of studies, more longitudinal case-controlled studies are highly warranted to establish a causal relation between khat chewing and periodontal disease. Key words: Khat chewing, periodontal health, periodontal disease, risk factor.

  1. Colloidal complexed silver and silver nanoparticles in extrapallial fluid of Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuykov, Michael; Pelletier, Emilien; Demers, Serge

    2011-02-01

    Metal transport in mollusk extrapallial fluid (EPF) that acts as a "bridge" between soft tissues and shell has surprisingly received little attention until now. Using ultrafiltration and radiotracer techniques we determined silver concentrations and speciation in the EPF of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis after short-term uptake and depuration laboratory experiments. Radiolabelled silver ((¹¹⁰m)Ag) was used in dissolved or nanoparticulate phases (AgNPs silver nanoparticles were transported to the EPF of blue mussels at a level similar to the Ag ionic form. Bulk activity of radiolabelled silver in the EPF represented only up to 7% of the bulk activity measured in the whole mussels. The EPF extracted from mussels exposed to both treatments exhibited an Ag colloidal complexed form based on EPF ultrafiltration through a 3 kDa filter. This original study brings new insights to internal circulation of nanoparticles in living organisms and contributes to the international effort in studying the potential impacts of engineered nanomaterials on marine bivalves which play an essential role in coastal ecosystems, and are important contributors to human food supply from the sea. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Khat (Catha edulis Forsk. Dependence Potential and Pattern of Use in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Catha edulis Forsk. (Khat is used for its psychoactive effects among people in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, although its utilization is illegal in some countries such as Saudi Arabia. This study examined the pattern of Khat use and assessed the applicability of the Drug Abuse Screening Test-10 (DAST-10 to measure Khat dependence. Methods. A pretested questionnaire was used to gather data from 603 respondents. Variables included demographic characteristics, pattern of use, reasons for Khat chewing, and DAST-10. Stepwise-logistic regression was used to explore predictors of Khat dependence. Results. The majority of the respondents were married, had a secondary school level of education, were employed, were younger than 35 years old, and were living in rural areas. Many chewers gave more than one reason for using Khat. It was mainly used to increase mental capacity, physical strength, and social entertainment, as well as enhance cheerfulness and orgasms. Statistical modeling of Khat dependence suggested that the most significant predictors were residence (OR = 1.67, P<0.02, frequency of Khat chewing (OR = 4.8, P<0.01, age of starting Khat chewing (OR = 1.15, P<0.01, and time of Khat effect (OR = 1.15, P<0.04. Conclusion. Our study provides important information on the pattern of Khat use and its potential to cause dependence.

  3. Branchial lesions associated with abundant apoptotic cells in oysters Ostrea edulis of Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirella da Silva, P; Villalba, Antonio; Sunila, Inke

    2006-06-12

    An experiment to evaluate differences in growth, mortality and disease susceptibility among Ostrea edulis stocks was performed. Five families were produced from each of 4 oyster populations (Irish, Greek and 2 Galician). The spat were transferred to a raft in the Ria de Arousa (Galicia, Spain) for grow-out. Monthly samples of each family were histologically processed from 2001 to 2003. One of the pathological conditions discovered by this study was the occurrence of extensive branchial lesions characterized by haemocytic infiltration and loss of branchial architecture. Furthermore, abundant atypical cells occurred among the haemocytes in the lesions in the branchial connective and epithelial tissues, but rarely in the mantle. These cells were contracted in size with nuclei showing chromatin condensation and fragmentation. Some nuclear chromatin aggregated under the nuclear membranes into crescent shapes, whereas others were uniformly dense. Those characteristics suggested that the cells were apoptotic haemocytes, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and by a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay using the Apoptag Kit on paraffin sections. A low prevalence of gill lesions was detected in some, but not all, families of every origin peaking in July 2002 and April 2003. No etiologic agent was identified by either histology or TEM; thus, the cause of the abundance of apoptotic cells remains unclear.

  4. Antioxidant Capacity and the Correlation with Major Phenolic Compounds, Anthocyanin, and Tocopherol Content in Various Extracts from the Wild Edible Boletus edulis Mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Vamanu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Boletus edulis is a wild edible mushroom habitually consumed by rural populations. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts was obtained in cold and hot water from dried fruit bodies. The antioxidant activity of freeze-dried extracts from B. edulis were investigated using free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power, metal chelating effect, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and the identification of antioxidant compounds. The levels of different compounds with antioxidant properties were higher in alcoholic extracts compared with aqueous extracts. Rosmarinic acid was the major phenolic compound, it being identified in a concentration between 7±0.23 and 56±0.15 mg/100 g extract. A positive correlation between the content of total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tocopherols, and the antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined. The results showed that the ethanolic extract of Romanian wild mushroom B. edulis represents a natural source of functional compounds.

  5. Antioxidant capacity and the correlation with major phenolic compounds, anthocyanin, and tocopherol content in various extracts from the wild edible Boletus edulis mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamanu, Emanuel; Nita, Sultana

    2013-01-01

    Boletus edulis is a wild edible mushroom habitually consumed by rural populations. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts was obtained in cold and hot water from dried fruit bodies. The antioxidant activity of freeze-dried extracts from B. edulis were investigated using free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power, metal chelating effect, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and the identification of antioxidant compounds. The levels of different compounds with antioxidant properties were higher in alcoholic extracts compared with aqueous extracts. Rosmarinic acid was the major phenolic compound, it being identified in a concentration between 7 ± 0.23 and 56 ± 0.15 mg/100 g extract. A positive correlation between the content of total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tocopherols, and the antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined. The results showed that the ethanolic extract of Romanian wild mushroom B. edulis represents a natural source of functional compounds.

  6. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of four edible mushrooms from the Central Anatolia, Eskisehir - Turkey: Lactarius deterrimus, Suillus collitinus, Boletus edulis, Xerocomus chrysenteron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Tepe, Bektas; Yamac, Mustafa

    2008-09-01

    The methanolic extracts of Lactarius deterrimus, Suillus collitinus, Boletus edulis, Xerocomus chrysenteron were analyzed for their antioxidant activities in different test systems namely beta-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH free radical scavenging, reducing power and metal chelating activities in addition to their total phenolic and flavonoid contents. In beta-carotene/linoleic acid and DPPH systems, L. deterrimus and B. edulis showed the strongest activity patterns. Their activities were as strong as the positive controls. The reducing power of the species was excellent. Chelating capacity of the extracts was increased with the increasing concentration. On the other hand, B. edulis found to have the highest phenolic content. Total flavonoid content of S. collitinus found the superior to the other mushrooms.

  7. Field clearance of an intertidal bivalve bed: relative significance of the co-occurring blue mussel Mytilus edulis and Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vismann, Bent; Holm, Mark Wejlemann; Davids, Jens

    2016-01-01

    was estimated by combining field measurements of clearance rates and modelling of the bivalve bed (topography, biomass distribution, temporal and spatial water coverage and depth). The average density of C. gigas and M. edulis was 35 ± 36 and 1001 ± 685 ind. m−2, respectively. The water volume cleared during...... a tidal cycle was estimated at 45 838 m3, of which C. gigas and M. edulis contributed 9169 and 36 669 m3, respectively. Therefore, M. edulis contributed 4 times as much as C. gigas to the bivalve bed’s clearance, and the 2 bivalves were estimated to clear the water volume 1.9 times during each tidal cycle....... However, the estimated water column cleared during low tide is overestimated due to phytoplankton depletion. Hence, it is concluded that the bivalve bed clears the water close to 1 time each tidal cycle. This, together with a low dry weight of soft parts, indicates that the bivalve bed, in general...

  8. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Potential of Fruiting Bodies of the Wild-Growing King Bolete Mushroom, Boletus edulis (Agaricomycetes), from Western Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Aleksandra; Karaman, Maja; Kaisarevic, Sonja; Radusin, Tanja; Llic, Nebojsa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the bioactivity of crude aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Boletus edulis prepared from caps and stipes of wild-growing basidiocarps collected from the Prijepolje region (western Serbia). The bioactivity screening included antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH], nitric oxide, super-oxide anion*, and hydroxyl radicals and ferric-reducing antioxidant power) and antiproliferative MTT assays (human breast MCF-7 cancer cell line). In addition, all extracts were primarily characterized by ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry to determine total phenolic and flavonoid contents. The highest anti-DPPH and anti-hydroxyl radical activity were observed in aqueous B. edulis extract from the caps (half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 50.97 μg/ mL and 2.05 μg/mL, respectively), whereas the highest anti-nitric oxide radical activity was observed in aqueous B. edulis extract from the stipes (IC50 = 10.74 μg/mL). The ethanolic extract obtained from the mushroom stipe showed higher anti-superoxide anion radical activity (IC50 = 9.84 μg/mL) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (22.14 mg ascorbic acid equivalents/g dry weight) compared with aqueous extracts. Total phenolic content for all extracts was similar but total flavonoid content was significantly higher in the aqueous B. edulis extract from the caps (4.5 mg quercetin equivalents/g dry weight). All crude extracts showed activity against the MCF-7 cell line, with the ethanolic extract of B. edulis prepared from stipes (IC50 = 56 μg/mL) being the most potent. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of the antiproliferative effects of crude aqueous and ethanolic extracts prepared from caps and stipes of wild-growing basidiocarps of B. edulis on the human breast MCF-7 cancer cell line.

  9. Efeito de arilo na germinação de sementes de Passiflora alata curtis em diferentes substratos e submetidas a tratamentos com giberelina Effect of aril in Passiflora alata seed germination in differents substrates and submited to previous germinative treatments with gibberellin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Ferreira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a germinação de sementes de Passiflora alata Curtis sob o efeito da presença de arilo em diferentes substratos de papel e submetidas a pré-tratamentos germinativos. Foram realizados dois experimentos (com e sem remoção de arilo, com delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 8 tratamentos e 5 repetições de 25 sementes, em esquema fatorial 2x4 (substratos x tratamentos pré-germinativos para cada experimento. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelos substratos (sobre papel em gerbox e entre papel em rolo e tratamentos pré-germinativos (sementes embebidas em GA3 e água, papel de germinação umedecido com GA3 e água. Pode-se verificar que a germinação das sementes sem arilo foi maior, em substratos sobre papel ou entre papel, umedecidos com GA3.The objective of this work was to evaluate the germination seeds of Passiflora alata submitted to effect of aril presence in different substrates and previous germinated treatments. The work was conduced with two experiments (with and without aril in a completely randomized design with 8 treatments, 5 replicates per treatment and 25 seeds, in a factorial scheme 2X4 (substrates x previous germinated treatments for each experiment. The treatments were composed with the substrates gerbox and roll of paper, and the following previous germinated treatments: seeds soaked in GA3 and in water, paper infusion in GA3 and in water. The analysis of the data showed that the germination has improved when extracting the aril and administrating GA3 infusion in gerbox or roll of paper.

  10. Purification, characterization and antioxidant activities in vitro and in vivo of the polysaccharides from Boletus edulis bull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Aoxue; Luo, Aoshuang; Huang, Jiandong; Fan, Yijun

    2012-07-05

    A water-soluble polysaccharide (BEBP) was extracted from Boletus edulis Bull using hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. The polysaccharide BEBP was further purified by chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column, giving three major polysaccharide fractions termed BEBP-1, BEBP-2 and BEBP-3. In the next experiment, the average molecular weight (Mw), IR and monosaccharide compositional analysis of the three polysaccharide fractions were determined. The evaluation of antioxidant activities both in vitro and in vivo suggested that BEBP-3 had good potential antioxidant activity, and should be explored as a novel potential antioxidant.

  11. Effect of treatment with reserpine on the change in filtration rate of Mytilus edulis subjected to dissolved copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, R.; Grant, A.M.; Maccoy, N.E.J.

    1984-12-01

    Exposure of specimens of Mytilus edulis to dissolved copper leads to a fall in the filtration rate measured in whole animals. The copper concentration leading to a 50% reduction in the filtration rate was found to be 0.094 mg I/sup -1/. This effect was abolished on depletion of the monoamine content of the animal using reserpine. It is suggested that there may be a chemosensory mechanism present in the animals which responds to increased levels of metals in the seawater leading to a reduction in the rate of ciliary beating and mediated via the branchial nerve. 15 references, 2 figures.

  12. Size of and damage on shoots of Passiflora suberosa (Passifloraceae influence oviposition site selection of Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elna Mugrabi-Oliveira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition site selection of Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae was studied when size of and damage on shoots were variable in a natural population of Passiflora suberosa Linnaeus (Passifloraceae, and through sequential and simultaneous choice experiments performed under insectary conditions. Females showed marked oviposition preference for undamaged and largest shoots of P. suberosa. Eggs were mostly laid on the terminal buds of intact shoots under natural conditions. In simultaneous choice trials, females preferred to oviposit on shoots from which leaves (ten were removed but the terminal bud maintained to those where leaves were kept but the terminal bud was cut out. In sequential choice trials, they did not lay eggs on shoots from which the terminal bud was removed. Females preferred to oviposit on large to short intact shoots in both sequential and simultaneous choice trials. Females laid eggs preferentially on shoots with the greatest leaf area when most plants were intact in the field during early spring. Later in fall, when mostly large, old shoots were damaged or in a reproductive stage (less desirable for oviposition, oviposition intensity was highest on the shortest, youngest shoots of P. suberosa. Thus, females might rank these quality attributes higher than size while selecting shoots for oviposition. The consequences of ovipositing selectively on intact, large shoots of P. suberosa are discussed from the view point of H. erato phyllis larval performance.

  13. Herbivore handling of a plant's trichome: the case of Heliconius charithonia (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch. (Passifloraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Marcio Z. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias. Dept. de Botanica, Ecologia e Zoologia]. E-mail: mzc@cb.ufrn.br

    2008-05-15

    Trichomes reduce herbivore attack on plants by physically and/or chemically inhibiting movement or other activities. Despite evidence that herbivores are negatively affected by trichomes there also reports of insect counter-adaptations that circumvent the plant's defense. This paper reports on a study that investigated the likely mechanisms employed by larvae of the nymphalid butterfly, Heliconius charithonia (L.), that allow it to feed on a host that is presumably protected by hooked trichomes (Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch). Evidence were gathered using data from direct observations of larval movement and behavior, faeces analysis, scanning electron microscopy of plant surface and experimental analysis of larval movement on plants with and without trichomes (manually removed). The latter involved a comparison with a non specialist congener, Heliconius pachinus Salvin. Observations showed that H. charithonia larvae are capable of freeing themselves from entrapment on trichome tips by physical force. Moreover, wandering larvae lay silk mats on the trichomes and remove their tips by biting. In fact, trichome tips were found in the faeces. Experimental removal of trichomes aided in the movement of the non specialist but had no noticeable effect on the specialist larvae. These results support the suggestion that trichomes are capable of deterring a non specialist herbivore (H. pachinus). The precise mechanisms that allow the success of H. charithonia are not known, but I suggest that a blend of behavioral as well as physical resistance mechanisms is involved. Future studies should ascertain whether larval integument provides physical resistance to trichomes. (author)

  14. Efecto de las deficiencias nutricionales en la distribución de la materia seca en plantas de vivero de curuba (Passiflora mollissima Bailey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabezas Marco

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Para confirmar el efecto que tienen las deficiencias de nutrientes minerales mayores en la asignación de la materia seca en órganos vegetativos de Passiflora mollissima, se realizó un experimento en condiciones de vivero, mediante la técnica de deficiencia inducida por elemento faltante. Se pudo establecer que las deficiencias de N y K reducen en alta proporción el área foliar y la masa de la planta, mientras que las deficiencias de P afectan el patrón de distribución de la biomasa, al favorecer la mayor acumulación en la raíz. En general, las deficiencias de macronutrientes afectan de forma drástica la distribución de la materia seca en los órganos vegetativos de la planta y producen síntomas específicos que pueden servir como indicadores del estado nutricional en condiciones de campo.

  15. RELACIÓN ENTRE LOS USOS POPULARES DE LA GRANADILLA (Passiflora ligularis Juss Y SU COMPOSICIÓN FITOQUÍMICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Marina Carvajal De Pabón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the common uses of the Passiflora ligularis juss among the farm workers in the department of Huila and the preliminary results of its phytochemical composition. In the first phase of this investigation, an ethnobotany survey distributed among 42 families was consulted to create an inventory of the agricultural uses of the different parts of the plant. This information served as a starting point to select the basic qualitative analysis which allows the identification of biological activity of this species such as the phytochemical analysis, the bromatological analysis, and the mineral analysis. Twenty six common uses were discovered especially for medical and nutritional purposes. Some medicinal uses may be related to the qualitative presence of compositions found in the phytochemical analysis. The use of the grenade’s outer shell for animal nutrition was found to be justified based on the calories and fiber. This study highlights the finding that the pulp of the fruit is a source of magnesium for children younger than a year. Significant differences were found in the composition of the grenade’s pulp of three different areas due to agroecological conditions and the mineral nutrition that the plants receive.

  16. Multivariate analysis of the effects of soil parameters and environmental factors on the flavonoid content of leaves of Passiflora incarnata L., Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Célia H. Reimberg

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of soil characteristics (pH, macro- and micro-nutrients, environmental factors (temperature, humidity, period of the year and time of day of collection and meteorological conditions (rain, sun, cloud and cloud/rain on the flavonoid content of leaves of Passiflora incarnata L., Passifloraceae. The total flavonoid contents of leaf samples harvested from plants cultivated or collected under different conditions were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV/PAD. Chemometric treatment of the data by principal component (PCA and hierarchic cluster analyses (HCA showed that the samples did not present a specific classification in relation to the environmental and soil variables studied, and that the environmental variables were not significant in describing the data set. However, the levels of the elements Fe, B and Cu present in the soil showed an inverse correlation with the total flavonoid contents of the leaves of P. incarnata.

  17. Interannual variations in needle and sapwood traits of Pinus edulis branches under an experimental drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Marceau; Martin-Benito, Dario; von Arx, Georg; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Griffin, Kevin L; Hamdan, Rayann; McDowell, Nate G; Muscarella, Robert; Pockman, William; Gentine, Pierre

    2018-02-01

    In the southwestern USA, recent large-scale die-offs of conifers raise the question of their resilience and mortality under droughts. To date, little is known about the interannual structural response to droughts. We hypothesized that piñon pines ( Pinus edulis ) respond to drought by reducing the drop of leaf water potential in branches from year to year through needle morphological adjustments. We tested our hypothesis using a 7-year experiment in central New Mexico with three watering treatments (irrigated, normal, and rain exclusion). We analyzed how variation in "evaporative structure" (needle length, stomatal diameter, stomatal density, stomatal conductance) responded to watering treatment and interannual climate variability. We further analyzed annual functional adjustments by comparing yearly addition of needle area (LA) with yearly addition of sapwood area (SA) and distance to tip ( d ), defining the yearly ratios SA:LA and SA:LA/ d . Needle length ( l ) increased with increasing winter and monsoon water supply, and showed more interannual variability when the soil was drier. Stomatal density increased with dryness, while stomatal diameter was reduced. As a result, anatomical maximal stomatal conductance was relatively invariant across treatments. SA:LA and SA:LA/ d showed significant differences across treatments and contrary to our expectation were lower with reduced water input. Within average precipitation ranges, the response of these ratios to soil moisture was similar across treatments. However, when extreme soil drought was combined with high VPD, needle length, SA:LA and SA:LA/ d became highly nonlinear, emphasizing the existence of a response threshold of combined high VPD and dry soil conditions. In new branch tissues, the response of annual functional ratios to water stress was immediate (same year) and does not attempt to reduce the drop of water potential. We suggest that unfavorable evaporative structural response to drought is compensated

  18. Molecular imaging of alkaloids in khat (Catha edulis) leaves with MeV-SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenčič, Boštjan; Jeromel, Luka; Ogrinc Potočnik, Nina; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Vavpetič, Primož; Rupnik, Zdravko; Bučar, Klemen; Vencelj, Matjaž; Kelemen, Mitja; Matsuo, Jiro; Kusakari, Masakazu; Siketić, Zdravko; Al-Jalali, Muhammad A.; Shaltout, Abdallah; Pelicon, Primož

    2017-08-01

    Imaging Mass Spectroscopy (IMS) is a unique research tool providing localization and identification of a wide range of biomolecules as essential data to understand biochemical processes in living organisms. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry with high-energy heavy ions (MeV-SIMS) is emerging as a promising IMS technique for chemical imaging of biological tissue. We measured the molecular mass spatial distributions in leaves of khat (Catha edulis). Khat is a natural drug plant, native to eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. In these countries, fresh leaves are being chewed by significant part of population. It was reported that 80% of the adult population in Yemen chew the khat leaves. The main stimulating effects of khat are induced by a monoamine alkaloid called cathinone. During leaf ageing, cathinone is further metabolised to cathine and norephedrine. Earlier studies identified the alkaloids in khat, however little is known on their spatial distribution, reflecting the biosynthesis and accumulation in the tissue. Chemical mapping of alkaloids on cross-sections of khat leaves by MeV-SIMS was done at JSI by a pulsed 5.8 MeV 35Cl6+ beam, focused to a diameter of 15 μm, using a linear time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer with a mass resolution of 500. In addition, measurements of MeV-SIMS mass spectra were performed at Kyoto University by a continuous broad beam of 6 MeV 63Cu4+ ions at an orthogonal TOF spectrometer with a high mass resolution of 11,000. Sections of leaves were analysed and mass spectra obtained at both MeV-SIMS setups were compared. Tissue-level distributions of detected alkaloids are presented and discussed.

  19. Chat (Catha edulis): a socio economic crop in Harar Region, Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandari, Laxman S; Yadav, Hiranmai R; Thakur, Ashok K; Kandari, Tripti

    2014-01-01

    Chat (Catha edulis) is an important perennial crop and its leaves are chewed for a stimulating effect. It is widely cultivated in the Ethiopian highlands of Oromia region and is figured as Ethiopia's second largest foreign exchange earner. Its cultivation accounts for about 70% of farmer's income in the study area. The common effect of its consumption leads to insomnia, a condition that the users sometimes try to overcome with sedatives or alcohol. The present study is an attempt to survey and assess the impact of crop on the community. It has been observed to implicate health problems, reduces savings and nutritional standards of the family members. The chat yields in the area ranges from 1500-1800 kg/ha through monoculture. During the study, the average monthly income of the family practicing chat cultivation was from Birr 8, 533.00 to 13, 166.00 kg/ha per year in Baate and Genede cultivating areas. When the average cost per/ha was rupees 60/kg. The present study shows that during the recent past, leaf consumption has increased significantly. Chat growers are not only producers but also traders and consumers. Its consumption has become a widespread habit from secondary schools. Highest number of consumers was found to be among drivers followed by students and shopkeepers. The consumption of the plant is not considered a taboo but on contrary a status symbol in the region. It has no legal or moral implications and is considered as a part of custom and habit of local people. High value cash crop like vegetables and orchard fruits needs to be used as a replacement for chat which could be a regular source of income to farmers. Alternative sources of income for farmers needs to be scientifically worked out and proposed keeping in view the proportion of agricultural land reserved under chat cultivation and to increase the production of food grains being produced.

  20. Massively Parallel RNA Sequencing Identifies a Complex Immune Gene Repertoire in the lophotrochozoan Mytilus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Eva E. R.; Kraemer, Lars; Melzner, Frank; Poustka, Albert J.; Thieme, Sebastian; Findeisen, Ulrike; Schreiber, Stefan; Rosenstiel, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The marine mussel Mytilus edulis and its closely related sister species are distributed world-wide and play an important role in coastal ecology and economy. The diversification in different species and their hybrids, broad ecological distribution, as well as the filter feeding mode of life has made this genus an attractive model to investigate physiological and molecular adaptations and responses to various biotic and abiotic environmental factors. In the present study we investigated the immune system of Mytilus, which may contribute to the ecological plasticity of this species. We generated a large Mytilus transcriptome database from different tissues of immune challenged and stress treated individuals from the Baltic Sea using 454 pyrosequencing. Phylogenetic comparison of orthologous groups of 23 species demonstrated the basal position of lophotrochozoans within protostomes. The investigation of immune related transcripts revealed a complex repertoire of innate recognition receptors and downstream pathway members including transcripts for 27 toll-like receptors and 524 C1q domain containing transcripts. NOD-like receptors on the other hand were absent. We also found evidence for sophisticated TNF, autophagy and apoptosis systems as well as for cytokines. Gill tissue and hemocytes showed highest expression of putative immune related contigs and are promising tissues for further functional studies. Our results partly contrast with findings of a less complex immune repertoire in ecdysozoan and other lophotrochozoan protostomes. We show that bivalves are interesting candidates to investigate the evolution of the immune system from basal metazoans to deuterostomes and protostomes and provide a basis for future molecular work directed to immune system functioning in Mytilus. PMID:22448234

  1. Nivel de aceptabilidad del vino de tumbo serrano (passiflora mollisima), elaborado con los parámetros tecnológicos óptimos, en la ciudad de Huánuco 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos García, Geaninne

    2017-01-01

    La investigación se desarrolló en la ciudad de Huánuco que por su ubicación geográfica, produce una gran variedad de frutas, entre ellas el tumbo serrano, esta fruta no es aprovechada por los pobladores. El objetivo del presente estudio es determinar el nivel de aceptabilidad en la ciudad de Huánuco, Amarilis y Pillco Marca del vino de tumbo serrano (Passiflora mollissima L.), elaborado con los parámetros tecnológicos óptimos. La investigación se desarrolló en tres etapas la primera con...

  2. Seasonal changes in size selection and intake rate of Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus feeding on the bivalves Mytilus edulis and Cerastoderma edule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ens, B.J.; Dirksen, S; Smit, CJ; Bunskoeke, AJ

    1996-01-01

    During the course of spring, Cockles Cerastoderma edule and Mussels Mytilus edulis grow in size, while the condition, as measured by the biomass content of shells of a given size, also increases. Condition temporarily drops when the larger individuals spawn. This study investigates the effects of

  3. Coexistence of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) and blue mussels Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 on a sheltered intertidal bivalve bed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, M.W.; Davids, J.K.; Dolmer, Per

    2016-01-01

    The invasive Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas Thunberg, 1793 was introduced in Denmark for aquaculture in the 1970s. Presently, feral populations are found in many parts of the country, with the largest populations established on existing beds of blue mussel, Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758...

  4. Biochemical and volatile organic compound profile of European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) and Pacific cupped oyster (Crassostrea gigas) cultivated in the Eastern Scheldt and Lake Grevelingen, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houcke, van Jasper; Medina, Isabel; Linssen, Jozef; Luten, Joop

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two important different geographical cultivation areas in the Netherlands (Eastern Scheldt and Lake Grevelingen) on the volatile organic compound (VOC) profile of European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) and Pacific cupped oyster (Crassostrea

  5. Acute Oral Mammalian Toxicity and Effect of Solvents on Efficacy of Maerua edulis (Gilg. & Ben. De Wolf against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus Koch, 1844 (Acarina: Ixodidae, Tick Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel T. Nyahangare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy and toxicity of aqueous and organic solvents extracts of Maerua edulis against ticks and mice, respectively, were determined. Ground leaves were extracted separately using cold water, cold water plus surfactant (1% v/v liquid soap, hot water plus surfactant, hexane, or methanol to make 25% w/v stock solutions from which serial dilutions of 5, 10, 20, and 25% were made. For each concentration, 20 Rhipicephalus decoloratus tick larvae were put in filter papers impregnated with extracts and incubated for 48 h at 27°C and 85–90% RH for mortality observation after 24 h and 48 h. In the toxicity experiment, hot water plus surfactant treatments of 5, 10, 20, and 25% (w/v M. edulis were administered in suspension per os to sexually mature Balb/C mice and observed for clinical signs and mortality for 72 h. Larvae mortality was highest (>98% in methanol-extracted M. edulis treatments (20 and 25%, which was not different from the amitraz-based control (Tickbuster®. Mortality was also higher in the hot water than in cold water plus surfactant treatments (P<0.05. No postadministration adverse health effects were observed in the mice. These results suggest that M. edulis is an effective tick remedy best extracted using methanol or hot water plus surfactant.

  6. [Biological contamination by micromycetes in dried Boletus edulis: research of aflatoxin B1, B2 G1, G2 and ochratoxin A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorini, C; Rossetti, F; Palazzoni, S; Comodo, N; Bonaccorsi, G

    2008-01-01

    Aim of this survey is to identify those filamentous fungi which parasite Boletus edulis and its group and check the potential presence of secondary metabolites, specifically aflatoxin B1, total aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, in order to assess the risk to consumers' health. Forty samples of dried Boletus edulis, collected by two food industries which distribute the product in many Italian regions, have been analysed. The sampling plan has been conducted from November 2005 to March 2006, collecting 50 g from each commercial category of dried Boletus edulis available in the factory at the time of sampling. All the samples have been tested by visual macroscopic and stereoscopic assays; for some samples--those referred to commercial category presumably at higher risk--we have performed cultural assays as well, typization of isolated micromycetes, extraction and quantification of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. Mycotoxin detection has been made by HPLC, using the UNI EN 14123 and UNI EN 14132 standard methods, respectively applied to aflatoxins determination in peanuts, pistachios, figs and paprika and to ochratoxin A in barley and coffee. Non pathogenic micromycetes, common in food products, have been frequently observed in cultural assays, while Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger have been found in some samples. However the concentration of aflatoxins was always under the quantification limit. The survey confirm that, if the cold chain is kept throughout the process and the distribution, Boletus edulis and analogue mycetes are not a favourable substratum for the growth and the development of moulds.

  7. 137Caesium in samples of wild-grown Boletus edulis Bull. from Lucca province (Tuscany, Italy) and other Italian and European geographical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, Laura; Palego, Lionella; Lucacchini, Antonio; Giannaccini, Gino

    2017-01-01

    Samples of the edible mushroom Boletus edulis Bull. were studied to assess the risk for human health related to their content of the artificial radionuclide 137 Cs. Fresh B. edulis carpophores were collected in four undeveloped microhabitats of Lucca province (Tuscany, North-Central Italy). Dried non-cultivated samples coming from this same district and 11 other Italian provinces or European countries were instead purchased fromcommercial sources. Contents of 137 Cs, reported as Bq kg ‒1 dry weight (dw), were measured by γ-spectrometry. The radionuclide concentration varied depending on the gathering site in fresh samples, with 41.8 ± 5.2 Bq kg ‒1 dw at site 1 (Tosco-Emiliani Apennine) and four-fold less, 12.8 ± 1.3 Bq kg ‒1 dw, at site 2 (Apuan Alps). Moreover, fresh or dried carpophores from Lucca province displayed among the lowest 137 Cs contents in Europe. Average 137 Cs levels in all analysed samples were substantially below the legal threshold for edible mushrooms, 600 Bq kg ‒1 dw. Conclusively, we report that 137 Cs amounts in B. edulis depend on both the distance from the Chernobyl accident and multifactorial features of collection sites. We also show that the consumption of European B. edulis does not represent a major health risk with respect to 137 Cs radio contamination.

  8. Predation of shore crabs (Carcinus maenas (L.)) and starfish (Asterias rubens L.) on blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) seed from wild sources and spat collectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamermans, P.; Blankendaal, M.; Perdon, J.

    2009-01-01

    In The Netherlands, several pilot projects are carried out on the use of spat collectors as an additional supply of seed for bottom culture of mussels (Mytilus edulis). The method proves to be successful in yielding substantial amounts of seed. One of the conditions for successful application of

  9. Biochemical and Molecular Study of Carpobrotus edulis Bioactive Properties and Their Effects on Dugesia sicula (Turbellaria, Tricladida) Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddeb, Emna; Charni, Mohamed; Ghazouani, Tesnime; Cozzolino, Autilia; Fratianni, Florinda; Raboudi, Faten; Nazzaro, Filomena; Fattouch, Sami

    2017-07-01

    The traditional medicinal properties of Carpobrotus edulis are well recognized, particularly in Tunisia where it is used for wound healing. Thus, in this study, biochemical and molecular properties of its leaves' bioactive aqueous-acetone extract were investigated. The total phenolic content (TPC) of the extract was estimated to be 184 ± 5 mg/100 g of fresh matter (FM). The qualitative and quantitative polyphenolic profile was determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (UPLC-DAD) and showed that chlorogenic acid was the major compound (43.7%). The extract exhibits potent antioxidant capacities with IC50 = 56.19 and 58.91 μg/ml, as accessed via the anionic DPPH and cationic ABTS radical scavenging assays, respectively. The extract has high antibacterial properties, especially against the Gram+ Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus strains. To investigate the extract effect on regeneration, the flatworm Dugesia sicula Lepori, 1948, was used as a model. The macroscopic analysis of planarian cultures in ordinary medium containing phenolic extract at non-toxic concentrations illustrated that the extract caused morphological changes. Additionally, the molecular study through the fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) technique showed that C. edulis polyphenols can harm the stem cells' development. These results emphasize the ecotoxicological impact of phenolic rejections in the environment on flatworms' physiology.

  10. Impact of season and location on the natural radioactivity in marine macroalgae (Gracilaria edulis) of coastal Tamil Nadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saroja, P.M.; Raj, G.A.G.; Selvan, K.E.

    2012-01-01

    Gracilaria edulis, an edible red marine macro algae from three high background radiation areas (Arockiapuram, Kadiapattinam and Kurumpanai) on the southwest coast of Tamil Nadu, and one low background radiation area (Mandapam) on the southeast coast of Tamil Nadu, in India, were studied for variations in average gross alpha and beta radiation activities. Significant variations in average gross beta activities were observed while alpha activities showed only marginal variation. The average gross alpha activity was recorded high (61.51 Bq kg -1 ) during the post southwest monsoon season, while it recorded lowest (25.48 Bq kg -1 ) during the post northeast monsoon season. Average gross beta activity varied between seasons with the lowest level (211.55 Bq Kg -1 ) during post southwest monsoon season and the highest (413.33 Bq kg -1 ) during post northeast monsoon season. Among the four locations, the gross alpha activity was high (70.95 ± 26.74 Bq Kg -1 ) in Arockiapuram and low (18.74 ± 6.32 Bq Kg -1 ) in Mandapam, while the gross beta activity was high (442.25 ± 168.53 Bq Kg -1 ) in Kurumpanai and low (158.63 ± 34.37 Bq Kg -1 ) in Mandapam. Average gross alpha activity in G. edulis was found significantly varying in terms of locations, while average gross beta activity for the same species recorded significant seasonal variation. (author)

  11. ESTIMATIVA DE REPETIBILIDADE PARA RENDIMENTO DE POLPA E CARACTERES BIOMÉTRICOS DE FRUTOS E SEMENTES DE Euterpe edulis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Bravim Canal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available O Euterpe edulis (Arecaceae é uma espécie ameaçada de extinção, sobretudo pela exploração indiscriminada de seu palmito. O manejo do fruto surge como alternativa para contornar esta problemática, uma vez que possibilita a geração de renda e mantem os indivíduos vivos. Porém, pouco se sabe sobre os caracteres produtivos desta espécie. Objetivou-se caracterizar as variáveis relacionadas aos frutos e definir o tamanho mínimo de amostras para estas avaliações pela estimativa de repetibilidade. Foram avaliados caracteres de frutos e sementes de 138 genótipos (diâmetro equatorial e longitudinal, massa fresca, volume, intensidade de cor e o rendimento de polpa. Os caracteres avaliados apresentaram elevada variação. O rendimento de polpa de E. edulis é, em média, de 20,94%. O esforço experimental do presente trabalho foi maior que o necessário para todas as características, exceto para o rendimento de polpa, que exigiu maiores repetições para níveis de confiabilidade acima de 90%.

  12. Corydalis edulis Maxim. Promotes Insulin Secretion via the Activation of Protein Kinase Cs (PKCs) in Mice and Pancreatic β Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiao; Zhao, Yunfang; Lun, Qixing; Song, Yuelin; Shi, Shepo; Gu, Xiaopan; Pan, Bo; Qu, Changhai; Li, Jun; Tu, Pengfei

    2017-01-16

    Corydalis edulis Maxim., a widely grown plant in China, had been proposed for the treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we found that C. edulis extract (CE) is protective against diabetes in mice. The treatment of hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-/- mice with a high dose of CE reduced serum glucose by 28.84% and serum total cholesterol by 17.34% and increased insulin release. We also found that CE significantly enhanced insulin secretion in a glucose-independent manner in hamster pancreatic β cell (HIT-T15). Further investigation revealed that CE stimulated insulin exocytosis by a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent signaling pathway and that CE selectively activated novel protein kinase Cs (nPKCs) and atypical PKCs (aPKCs) but not conventional PKCs (cPKCs) in HIT-T15 cells. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first to identify the PKC pathway as a direct target and one of the major mechanisms underlying the antidiabetic effect of CE. Given the good insulinotropic effect of this herbal medicine, CE is a promising agent for the development of new drugs for treating diabetes.

  13. Tissue-specific incorporation and genotoxicity of different forms of tritium in the marine mussel, Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeschke, Benedict C., E-mail: ben@ecology.su.s [Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre, School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Millward, Geoffrey E. [Consolidated Radio-isotope Facility, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Moody, A. John; Jha, Awadhesh N. [Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre, School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Marine mussels (Mytilus edulis) were exposed to seawater spiked with tritiated water (HTO) at a dose rate of 122 and 79 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} for 7 and 14 days, respectively, and tritiated glycine (T-Gly) at a dose rate of 4.9 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} over 7 days. This was followed by depuration in clean seawater for 21 days. Tissues (foot, gills, digestive gland, mantle, adductor muscle and byssus) and DNA extracts from tissues were analysed for their tritium activity concentrations. All tissues demonstrated bio-accumulation of tritium from HTO and T-Gly. Tritium from T-Gly showed increased incorporation into DNA compared to HTO. About 90% of the initial activity from HTO was depurated within one day, whereas T-Gly was depurated relatively slowly, indicating that tritium may be bound with different affinities in tissues. Both forms of tritium caused a significant induction of micronuclei in the haemocytes of mussels. Our findings identify significant differential impacts on Mytilus edulis of the two chemical forms of tritium and emphasise the need for a separate classification and control of releases of tritiated compounds, to adequately protect the marine ecosystem. - Tritium from tritiated glycine demonstrates greater accumulation and persistence in tissues and enhanced genotoxicity in haemocytes of marine mussels, compared to tritium from tritiated water.

  14. Stress on stress response of wild mussels, Mytilus edulis and Mytilus trossulus, as an indicator of ecosystem health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellou, J.; Law, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Mussels' health as indicated by the survival time of 50% of sampled animals (LT 50 ) when maintained in air at 15 deg. C was examined at three sites in Halifax Harbour with expected differing levels of contamination. Condition and gonad indices, lipid content and the body burden of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) were compared with this stress response in 60 groups of mussels covering two species. At each sampling time, the bioaccumulation of PACs, lipid content and condition indices were higher whithin Mytilus edulis and Mytilus trossulus displaying shorter survival than at the other sites. M. edulis was generally more tolerant than M. trossulus (for n=11, LT 50 of 9.3 and 7.9 days), with indications of shorter and later gonad development in M. trossulus. Minimum and maximum tolerance was apparent in June and October (LT 50 spanning 3-14 days), respectively. Our results indicate that the stress on stress response provides a simple and sensitive indicator of environmental health, which could be integrated with mussel watch studies. - Stress on stress response is a simple and sensitive indicator of environmental condition

  15. Genetic structure, mating system, and long-distance gene flow in heart of palm (Euterpe edulis Mart.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiotto, F A; Grattapaglia, D; Vencovsky, R

    2003-01-01

    We report a detailed analysis of the population genetic structure, mating system, and gene flow of heart of palm (Euterpe edulis Mart.-Arecaceae) in central Brazil. This palm is considered a keystone species because it supplies fruits for birds and rodents all year and is intensively harvested for culinary purposes. Two populations of this palm tree were examined, using 18 microsatellite loci. The species displays a predominantly outcrossed mating system (tm = 0.94), with a probability of full sibship greater than 70% within open-pollinated families. The following estimates of interpopulation genetic variation were calculated and found significant: FIT = 0.17, FIS = 0.12, FST = 0.06, and RST = 0.07. This low but significant level of interpopulation genetic variation indicates high levels of gene flow. Two adult trees were identified as likely seed parents (P > 99.9%) of juveniles located at a distance of 22 km. Gene flow over such distances has not been reported before for tropical tree species. The establishment and management of in situ genetic reserves or ex situ conservation and breeding populations for E. edulis should contemplate the collection of several hundreds open-pollinated maternal families from relatively few distant populations to maximize the genetic sampling of a larger number of pollen parents.

  16. A comparison of scope for growth (SFG) and dynamic energy budget (DEB) models applied to the blue mussel ( Mytilus edulis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueira, Ramón; Rosland, Rune; Grant, Jon

    2011-11-01

    Growth of Mytilus edulis was simulated using individual based models following both Scope For Growth (SFG) and Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) approaches. These models were parameterized using independent studies and calibrated for each dataset by adjusting the half-saturation coefficient of the food ingestion function term, XK, a common parameter in both approaches related to feeding behavior. Auto-calibration was carried out using an optimization tool, which provides an objective way of tuning the model. Both approaches yielded similar performance, suggesting that although the basis for constructing the models is different, both can successfully reproduce M. edulis growth. The good performance of both models in different environments achieved by adjusting a single parameter, XK, highlights the potential of these models for (1) producing prospective analysis of mussel growth and (2) investigating mussel feeding response in different ecosystems. Finally, we emphasize that the convergence of two different modeling approaches via calibration of XK, indicates the importance of the feeding behavior and local trophic conditions for bivalve growth performance. Consequently, further investigations should be conducted to explore the relationship of XK to environmental variables and/or to the sophistication of the functional response to food availability with the final objective of creating a general model that can be applied to different ecosystems without the need for calibration.

  17. Interactive effects of seawater acidification and elevated temperature on biomineralization and amino acid metabolism in the mussel Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiguo; Liu, Chuang; Huang, Jingliang; Liu, Yangjia; Zheng, Guilan; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2015-11-01

    Seawater acidification and warming resulting from anthropogenic production of carbon dioxide are increasing threats to marine ecosystems. Previous studies have documented the effects of either seawater acidification or warming on marine calcifiers; however, the combined effects of these stressors are poorly understood. In our study, we examined the interactive effects of elevated carbon dioxide partial pressure (P(CO2)) and temperature on biomineralization and amino acid content in an ecologically and economically important mussel, Mytilus edulis. Adult M. edulis were reared at different combinations of P(CO2) (pH 8.1 and 7.8) and temperature (19, 22 and 25°C) for 2 months. The results indicated that elevated P(CO2) significantly decreased the net calcification rate, the calcium content and the Ca/Mg ratio of the shells, induced the differential expression of biomineralization-related genes, modified shell ultrastructure and altered amino acid content, implying significant effects of seawater acidification on biomineralization and amino acid metabolism. Notably, elevated temperature enhanced the effects of seawater acidification on these parameters. The shell breaking force significantly decreased under elevated P(CO2), but the effect was not exacerbated by elevated temperature. The results suggest that the interactive effects of seawater acidification and elevated temperature on mussels are likely to have ecological and functional implications. This study is therefore helpful for better understanding the underlying effects of changing marine environments on mussels and other marine calcifiers. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Probable neuro sexual mode of action of Casimiroa edulis seed extract versus [correction of verses] sildenafil citrate (Viagra(tm)) on mating behavior in normal male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Tabrez; Rakkah, Nabeeh I

    2008-01-01

    The present study deals with the aphrodisiac actions of the aqueous extract of the seeds of the hypotensive plant Casimiroa edulis on the sexual behavior of normal male rats. In this investigation 30 healthy male Wister strain white albino rats showing the brisk sexual activity age 15 weeks, weighing 400-450 grams were included. Female rats were artificially brought into estrous by hormonal treatment. Receptivity was checked by exposing them to the male rats and the most receptive females were selected for the stud The mating responses including Mounting Frequency (MF), Intromission Frequency (IF), Mounting Latency (ML), Intromission Latency (IL), Ejaculatory Latency in first and second series (EL1 and EL2) and Post Ejaculatory Interval (PEI) were recorded after treating the animals with 250 mg/kg casimiroa edulis extract (test reference) and 5 mg/kg sildenafil citrate (standard reference) respectively orally per day for 7 days. Both the groups exhibited a significant increase in Mounting Frequency, Intromission Frequency, and first and second ejaculatory latencies, where as Mounting and Intromission latencies and the Post Ejaculatory Interval showed a significant reduction than the controls. Although a similar pattern of mating behavior was observed among the test and the standard groups, however in all the cases as expected, sildenafil produced greater activity than the casimiroa edulis extract. These results suggest the possibility of a similar mode of action of casimiroa edulis and sildenafil citrate on mating behavior in these animals. Our work reported in this research thus provide preliminary evidence that the aqueous seed extract of casimiroa edulis possesses alphrodisiac activity and may be used as an alternative drug therapy to restore sexual functions probably via a neurogenic mode of action.

  19. Spatial variations in biomarkers of Mytilus edulis mussels at four polluted regions spanning the Northern Hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, F.; Burgeot, T.; Hellou, J.; St-Jean, S.; Farcy, E.; Blaise, C.

    2008-01-01

    Economic and social developments have taken place at the expense of the health of the environment, both locally and on a global scale. In an attempt to better understand the large-scale effects of pollution and other stressors like climate change on the health status of Mytilus edulis, mussels were collected during the first two weeks of June 2005 at three sites (one pristine and two affected by pollution) located in each of the regions of the Canadian West Coast, the St. Lawrence estuary, the Atlantic East Coast and the northwestern coast of France, covering a total distance of some 11 000 km. The mussels were analyzed for morphologic integrity (condition factor), gametogenic activity (gonado-somatic and gonad maturation index, vitellogenin(Vtg)-like proteins), energy status (temperature-dependent mitochondrial electron transport activity and gonad lipid stores), defense mechanisms (glutathione S-transferase, metallothioneins, cytochrome P4503A activity and xanthine oxidoreductase-XOR), and tissue damage (lipid peroxidation-LPO and DNA strand breaks). The results showed that data from the reference sites in each region were usually not normally distributed, with discriminant factors reaching the number of regions (i.e. four), except for the biomarkers gonadal lipids, XOR and LPO in digestive gland. The integrated responses of the biomarkers revealed that biomarkers of stress were significantly more pronounced in mussels from the Seine estuary, suggesting that the impacts of pollution are more generalized in this area. Mussels from the Seine estuary and the Atlantic East Coast (Halifax Harbor) responded more strongly for Vtg-like proteins, but was not related to gonad maturation and gonado-somatic indexes, suggesting the presence of environmental estrogens. Moreover, these mussels displayed reduced DNA repair activity and increased LPO. Factorial analyses revealed that energy status, cytochrome P4503A activity and Vtg-like proteins were the most important

  20. Retention of radioactive particles and associated effects in the filter-feeding marine mollusc Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeschke, B.C., E-mail: Ben.Jaeschke@gmail.com [Department of Ecology Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); CERAD CoE, Department of Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Lind, O.C. [CERAD CoE, Department of Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Bradshaw, C. [Department of Ecology Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Salbu, B. [CERAD CoE, Department of Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway)

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive particles are aggregates of radioactive atoms that may contain significant activity concentrations. They have been released into the environment from nuclear weapons tests, and from accidents and effluents associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. Aquatic filter-feeders can capture and potentially retain radioactive particles, which could then provide concentrated doses to nearby tissues. This study experimentally investigated the retention and effects of radioactive particles in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Spent fuel particles originating from the Dounreay nuclear establishment, and collected in the field, comprised a U and Al alloy containing fission products such as {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y. Particles were introduced into mussels in suspension with plankton-food or through implantation in the extrapallial cavity. Of the particles introduced with food, 37% were retained for 70 h, and were found on the siphon or gills, with the notable exception of one particle that was ingested and found in the stomach. Particles not retained seemed to have been actively rejected and expelled by the mussels. The largest and most radioactive particle (estimated dose rate 3.18 ± 0.06 Gy h{sup −1}) induced a significant increase in Comet tail-DNA %. In one case this particle caused a large white mark (suggesting necrosis) in the mantle tissue with a simultaneous increase in micronucleus frequency observed in the haemolymph collected from the muscle, implying that non-targeted effects of radiation were induced by radiation from the retained particle. White marks found in the tissue were attributed to ionising radiation and physical irritation. The results indicate that current methods used for risk assessment, based upon the absorbed dose equivalent limit and estimating the “no-effect dose” are inadequate for radioactive particle exposures. Knowledge is lacking about the ecological implications of radioactive particles released into the environment

  1. Analysis of Soil Degradation Causes in Phyllostachys edulis Forests with Different Mulching Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis (Carrière J.Houz. is famous for its fast growth and biomass accumulation, as well as high annual output for timber and bamboo shoots. Organic mulches are widely used to improve shoots’ production in moso bamboo forests. However, continuous mulching management may cause bamboo forest degradation and affect sustainable development. The objective of this study was to identify the degradation mechanism and to provide a theoretical basis for recovery. A complete randomized block design with four treatments was conducted, including mulching for one year (M1, two years (M2, three years (M3 and no-mulching management (NM. Soil nutrient contents, enzyme activities and microbial biomass were determined. With the increase of mulching years, the soil pH value gradually reduced, causing soil acidification, but the content of soil organic matter was inclined to ascend. Soil total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP and total potassium (TK contents showed an increasing trend, and they were significantly higher in mulching stands than those in NM (p < 0.05. Contents of soil available nutrients (AN, AP and AK increased, then decreased with the increase of mulching years and peaked in M1. With the increase of mulching years, the soil stoichiometry ratio (C/N, C/P and N/P gradually increased. Soil invertase, urease and acid phosphatase activities presented a single-peak curve and reached the maximum within one year after mulching. Total microbial biomass and that of individual groups changed greatly after mulching. Soil microbial biomass increased first and then decreased, and it was the largest in M1. The fungi:bacteria ratio decreased in the first year and then began to rise, while the aerobic:anaerobic ratio showed the opposite trend. According to the overall results, M3 leads to soil acidification, imbalance of the nutrients’ proportion, abnormal enzyme activity and change of soil microbial flora, and rotated mulching

  2. Retention of radioactive particles and associated effects in the filter-feeding marine mollusc Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeschke, B.C.; Lind, O.C.; Bradshaw, C.; Salbu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive particles are aggregates of radioactive atoms that may contain significant activity concentrations. They have been released into the environment from nuclear weapons tests, and from accidents and effluents associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. Aquatic filter-feeders can capture and potentially retain radioactive particles, which could then provide concentrated doses to nearby tissues. This study experimentally investigated the retention and effects of radioactive particles in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Spent fuel particles originating from the Dounreay nuclear establishment, and collected in the field, comprised a U and Al alloy containing fission products such as 137 Cs and 90 Sr/ 90 Y. Particles were introduced into mussels in suspension with plankton-food or through implantation in the extrapallial cavity. Of the particles introduced with food, 37% were retained for 70 h, and were found on the siphon or gills, with the notable exception of one particle that was ingested and found in the stomach. Particles not retained seemed to have been actively rejected and expelled by the mussels. The largest and most radioactive particle (estimated dose rate 3.18 ± 0.06 Gy h −1 ) induced a significant increase in Comet tail-DNA %. In one case this particle caused a large white mark (suggesting necrosis) in the mantle tissue with a simultaneous increase in micronucleus frequency observed in the haemolymph collected from the muscle, implying that non-targeted effects of radiation were induced by radiation from the retained particle. White marks found in the tissue were attributed to ionising radiation and physical irritation. The results indicate that current methods used for risk assessment, based upon the absorbed dose equivalent limit and estimating the “no-effect dose” are inadequate for radioactive particle exposures. Knowledge is lacking about the ecological implications of radioactive particles released into the environment, for example

  3. Impact of ocean acidification on antimicrobial activity in gills of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernroth, B; Baden, S; Tassidis, H; Hörnaeus, K; Guillemant, J; Bergström Lind, S; Bergquist, J

    2016-08-01

    Here, we aimed to investigate potential effects of ocean acidification on antimicrobial peptide (AMP) activity in the gills of Mytilus edulis, as gills are directly facing seawater and the changing pH (predicted to be reduced from ∼8.1 to ∼7.7 by 2100). The AMP activity of gill and haemocyte extracts was compared at pH 6.0, 7.7 and 8.1, with a radial diffusion assay against Escherichia coli. The activity of the gill extracts was not affected by pH, while it was significantly reduced with increasing pH in the haemocyte extracts. Gill extracts were also tested against different species of Vibrio (V. parahaemolyticus, V. tubiashii, V. splendidus, V. alginolyticus) at pH 7.7 and 8.1. The metabolic activity of the bacteria decreased by ∼65-90%, depending on species of bacteria, but was, as in the radial diffusion assay, not affected by pH. The results indicated that AMPs from gills are efficient in a broad pH-range. However, when mussels were pre-exposed for pH 7.7 for four month the gill extracts presented significantly lower inhibit of bacterial growth. A full in-depth proteome investigation of gill extracts, using LC-Orbitrap MS/MS technique, showed that among previously described AMPs from haemocytes of Mytilus, myticin A was found up-regulated in response to lipopolysaccharide, 3 h post injection. Sporadic occurrence of other immune related peptides/proteins also pointed to a rapid response (0.5-3 h p.i.). Altogether, our results indicate that the gills of blue mussels constitute an important first line defence adapted to act at the pH of seawater. The antimicrobial activity of the gills is however modulated when mussels are under the pressure of ocean acidification, which may give future advantages for invading pathogens. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Evaluation of different methods to overcome in vitro seed dormancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-09-03

    Sep 3, 2014 ... Seeds from yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) present dormancy imposed by the seed-coat. The present study aimed to evaluate some methods to overcome dormancy of seeds from P. edulis grown under in vitro conditions. The experimental design was completely randomized in factorial scheme ...

  5. RELACIÓN ENTRE LOS USOS POPULARES DE LA GRANADILLA (Passiflora ligularis Juss Y SU COMPOSICIÓN FITOQUÍMICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Marina Carvajal-de Pabón

    Full Text Available Este artículo reporta los usos populares de la Passiflora ligularis juss entre los campesinos del departamento del Huila y los resultados preliminares sobre su composición fitoquímica. En la primera etapa de esta investigación se hizo un inventario de los usos que los agricultores hacen de distintas partes de la planta con base en una encuesta etnobotánica realizada a 42 familias. Este conocimiento popular sirvió de punto de partida para seleccionar los análisis cualitativos básicos que permitieran identificar la actividad biológica de esta especie como la marcha fitoquímica, el análisis bromatológico y el análisis de minerales. Se encontraron 26 usos populares especialmente medicinales y alimenticios. Algunos usos medicinales podrían estar relacionados con la presencia cualitativa de compuestos hallados en la marcha fitoquímica. El empleo de la cáscara de granadilla para nutrición animal se encontró justificado por su aporte en calorías y en fibra. El estudio destaca el aporte de la pulpa de la fruta como fuente de magnesio para los niños menores de un año. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en la composición de la pulpa de granadilla de tres municipios debido a las condiciones agroecológicas y a la nutrición mineral a las que son sometidas las plantas.

  6. Eficiencia fotoquímica del fotosistema II y crecimiento en plantas de curuba (Passiflora tripartita (Juss. var. mollissima (Kunth bajo estrés salino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fánor Casierra-Posada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La curuba (Passiflora tripartita (Juss. var. mollissima (Kunth es un cultivo importante en Colombia, especialmente en el departamento de Boyacá. A pesar de que el estrés osmótico es un limitante en la producción de este cultivo, existe poca información sobre su respuesta a la salinidad. En el presente estudio se evaluó el crecimiento y la fluorescencia de la clorofila en plantas de curuba bajo estrés salino. Las plantas se expusieron a concentraciones (mmol/kg de suelo de 20, 40, 60, y 80 de NaCl. Como consecuencia, el área foliar de la planta se redujo 20.89, 42.91, 58.37 y 76.40%, respectivamente, en relación con plantas control (condiciones no salinas. La longitud total de tallos se redujo 9.97, 27.28, 42.79 y 55.77% y el peso seco total por planta en 23.89, 31.49, 39.60 y 61.26%. La eficiencia cuántica máxima del fotosistema II (Fv/Fm se redujo 11.29, 14.23, 38.89 y 92.25% bajo los tratamientos de salinidad; por tanto, la salinidad afectó drásticamente los parámetros de crecimiento y fluorescencia. La reducción en el área foliar se correlacionó con la reducción en la fotosíntesis. La reducción en peso seco también siguió la tendencia de la relación Fv/Fm, lo que sugiere que la mayoría de los impactos de la salinidad en las plantas de curuba se deben a los efectos negativos sobre la fotosíntesis.

  7. Genetic variations among passion fruit species using rapd markers Variação genética entre espécies de maracujá utilizando marcadores rapd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula de Andrade Aukar

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been evaluated the genetic variability through the use of RAPD molecular markers on the following passionflower species: Passiflora amethystina, P. caerulea, P. cincinnata, P. coccinea, P. serrato digitata, P. foetida, P. maliformis, P. alata, P. giberti, P. laurifolia, P. macrocarpa, P. nitida, P. setacea, P. suberosa, P. ligularis, P. capsularis, P. edulis Sims and its botanical variety P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. In this research work, the analyses of the random amplified polymorphic DNA products (RAPD were employed to estimate the genetic diversity and the taxonomic linkage within the species above. The total of 21 primers were used in this study which generated 270 different polymorphic products. It was possible to detect that the Passiflora species had shown a similarity of 17,3%, and between Passiflora edulis Sims and Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa a similarity of 34,35% has been found. The rate of similarity within edulis specie is low, making it clear that a large variability between the yellow and the purple forms exists.Foram avaliadas as variações genéticas através de marcadores moleculares RAPD, as seguintes espécies de maracujá: Passiflora amethystina, P. caerulea, P. cincinnata, P. coccinea, P. serrato digitata, P. foetida, P. maliformis, P. alata, P. giberti, P. laurifolia, P. macrocarpa, P. nitida, P. setacea, P. suberosa, P. ligularis, P. capsularis, P. edulis Sims e sua variedade botânica P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. Neste estudo, a análise dos produtos da amplificação ao acaso do DNA polimórfico (RAPD foi usada para estimar a diversidade genética e as relações taxonômicas entre as espécies. Foram utilizados 21 "primers", que produziram um total de 270 bandas polimórficas. Verificou-se que as espécies de Passiflora apresentaram uma média de similaridade de 17,3%, e entre Passiflora edulis Sims e Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa, de 34,35%. Pode-se perceber que o valor de

  8. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of SBP-like transcription factor genes in Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feng; Wang, Yue; Liu, Huanglong; Wu, Min; Chu, Wenyuan; Chen, Danmei; Xiang, Yan

    2017-06-27

    The SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like (SPL) proteins are plant-specific transcription factors (TFs) that function in a variety of developmental processes including growth, flower development, and signal transduction. SPL proteins are encoded by a gene family, and these genes have been characterized in two model grass species, Zea mays and Oryza sativa. The SPL gene family has not been well studied in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis), a woody grass species. We identified 32 putative PeSPL genes in the P. edulis genome. Phylogenetic analysis arranged the PeSPL protein sequences in eight groups. Similarly, phylogenetic analysis of the SBP-like and SBP proteins from rice and maize clustered them into eight groups analogous to those from P. edulis. Furthermore, the deduced PeSPL proteins in each group contained very similar conserved sequence motifs. Our analyses indicate that the PeSPL genes experienced a large-scale duplication event ~15 million years ago (MYA), and that divergence between the PeSPL and OsSPL genes occurred 34 MYA. The stress-response expression profiles and tissue-specificity of the putative PeSPL gene promoter regions showed that SPL genes in moso bamboo have potential biological functions in stress resistance as well as in growth and development. We therefore examined PeSPL gene expression in response to different plant hormone and drought (polyethylene glycol-6000; PEG) treatments to mimic biotic and abiotic stresses. Expression of three (PeSPL10, -12, -17), six (PeSPL1, -10, -12, -17, -20, -31), and nine (PeSPL5, -8, -9, -14, -15, -19, -20, -31, -32) genes remained relatively stable after treating with salicylic acid (SA), gibberellic acid (GA), and PEG, respectively, while the expression patterns of other genes changed. In addition, analysis of tissue-specific expression of the moso bamboo SPL genes during development showed differences in their spatiotemporal expression patterns, and many were expressed at high levels in flowers and

  9. Lactic Acid Bacteria Producing Inhibitor of Alpha Glucosidase Isolated from Ganyong (Canna Edulis) and Kimpul (Xanthosoma sagittifolium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, Rifa; Miftakhussolikhah; Frediansyah, Andri; Lailatul Rachmah, Desy

    2017-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a disease that caused by the failure of insulin secretion by the beta cells of the pancreas and insulin resistance in peripheral levels. One therapy for diabetics is by inhibiting the activity of α-glucosidase. Lactic acid bacteria have the ability to inhibit of α-glucosidase activity. The aims of this research was to isolation and screening of lactic acid bacteria from ganyong tuber (Canna Edulis) and kimpul tuber (Xanthosoma sagittifolium), which has the ability to inhibit the activity of α-glucosidase. Eightteen isolates were identified as lactic acid bacteria and all of them could inhibit the activity of α-glukosidase. The GN 8 isolate was perform the highest inhibition acivity.

  10. Effects of substrate type on growth and mortality of blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis ) exposed to the predator Carcinus maenas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rikke; Dolmer, Per

    2002-01-01

    Structure and complexity of the substrate are important habitat characteristics for benthic epifauna. The specific growth and mortality rates and inducible defence characters on medium- sized blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) exposed to shore crabs (Carcinus maenas L.) were examined on three...... different substrate types in combined field and laboratory experiments. The experiments showed that complexity of the substrate increased blue mussel survival significantly, through a decrease in predation pressure. However, increased intraspecific competition for food on the complex substrate resulted...... in significantly lower growth rates of the mussels. Inducible defence characters were also influenced by substrate type. Blue mussels were more affected by predators on the structurally simple substrate, where they developed thicker shells and a larger posterior adductor muscle....

  11. Comparison of PCBs and PAHs levels in European coastal waters using mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex as biomonitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Olenycz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors for two groups of organic pollutants: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz(aanthracene, chrysene, benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(kfluoranthene, benzo(apyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cdpyrene, dibenz(a,hanthracene, benzo(g,h,iperylene at 17 sampling sites to assess their relative bioavailabilities in coastal waters around Europe. Because of the temporal differences in PCBs and PAHs concentrations, data were adjusted using Seasonal Variation Coefficients (SVC before making large-scale spatial comparisons. The highest concentrations of PCBs were found near estuaries of large rivers flowing through urban areas and industrial regions. Elevated bioavailabilities of PAHs occurred in the vicinity of large harbors, urban areas, and regions affected by petroleum pollution as well as in some remote locations, which indicated long-range atmospheric deposition.

  12. Variations in Element Levels Accumulated in Different Parts of Boletus edulis Collected from Central Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Mei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ICP-AES and microwave assisted digestion were applied to determine P, Mg, Ca, Zn, Na, Cu, Ba, Ni, V, Cd, Sr, Co, and Li in the caps and stipes of Boletus edulis collected from six spatially distant sites in Yunnan province, China. Fruiting bodies of King Bolete are abundant in P, Mg, Ca, Zn, Cu, and Na, followed by Ba, Cd, Ni, V, Li, Sr, and Co. Contents of P, Mg, Zn, and Cu are more abundant in caps than in stipes of King Bolete. However, elements such as Na, Ba, Cd, Ni, V, Li, Sr, and Co prefer to accumulate in stipes of mushrooms from Yaoan, Chuxiong. The results of this study indicate that spatial variations of elements between caps and stipes are mainly related to different bedrock soil geochemistry and enrichment capability for various elements.

  13. Growth potential of blue mussels (M. edulis) exposed to different salinities evaluated by a Dynamic Energy Budget model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maar, Marie; Saurel, Camille; Landes, Anja

    2015-01-01

    ) metabolic costs due to osmoregulation in different salinity environments. Themodified DEBmodel was validated with experimental data fromdifferent locations in the Western Baltic Sea (including the Limfjorden) with salinities varying from 8.5 to 29.9 psu. The identified areas suitable for mussel production......For bluemussels,Mytilus edulis, onemajor constrain in the Baltic Sea is the low salinities that reduce the efficiency of mussel production. However, the effects of living in low and variable salinity regimes are rarely considered in models describing mussel growth. The aim of the present study...... was to incorporate the effects of low salinity into an eco-physiological model of blue mussels and to identify areas suitable for mussel production. A Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model was modified with respect to i) the morphological parameters (DW/WW-ratio, shape factor), ii) change in ingestion rate and iii...

  14. Somatic growth of mussels Mytilus edulis in field studies compared to predictions using BEG, DEB, and SFG models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Filgueira, Ramón; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Prediction of somatic growth of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, based on the data from 2 field-growth studies of mussels in suspended net-bags in Danish waters was made by 3 models: the bioenergetic growth (BEG), the dynamic energy budget (DEB), and the scope for growth (SFG). Here, the standard BEG...... at nearly constant environmental conditions with a mean chl a concentration of C=2.7μgL−1, and the observed monotonous growth in the dry weight of soft parts was best predicted by DEB while BEG and SFG models produced lower growth. The second 165-day field study was affected by large variations in chl...... a and temperature, and the observed growth varied accordingly, but nevertheless, DEB and SFG predicted monotonous growth in good agreement with the mean pattern while BEG mimicked the field data in response to observed changes in chl a concentration and temperature. The general features of the models were that DEB...

  15. A pilot study on the effect of Catha edulis Frosk., (Celastraceae) on metabolic syndrome in WOKW rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Samira Abdulla; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2008-04-10

    This study investigated the effect of Catha edulis (khat) on some important parameters of the metabolic syndrome in Wistar Ottawa Karlsburg W (WOKW) rat. The animals were fed with the standard chow containing 5% air dried pulverized khat leaves for 14 days; followed by the standard chow for 16 days. The khat leaves were sorted into green (khat light; KL) and crimson (khat dark; KD) leaves. The control rats were fed on standard chow. Blood glucose (G), serum insulin, serum leptin and serum lipids (triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-, LDL-, and VLDL cholesterol) were determined. Feeding with khat leaves reduced the body weight and the triglyceride level of the animals. The effect of KD on these parameters was stronger than that of KL. KD lowered the blood glucose concentration and the leptin content whereas KL was inactive. The khat intake had no significant influence on serum insulin, total serum cholesterol, HDL-, LDL- and VLDL-cholesterol.

  16. Assessment of blue mussel Mytilus edulis fisheries and waterbird shellfish-predator management in the Danish Wadden Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Karsten; Kristensen, Per Sand; Clausen, Preben

    2010-01-01

    biomass and mussel bed areas in zones closed to fishery, (ii) decrease in eiders Somateria mollissima numbers and increase or stable numbers for oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus and herring gull Larus argentatus and (iii) that energy estimations based on ecological food requirements for the mussel-eating......We assessed the blue mussel Mytilus edulis fishery management scheme introduced in 1994 in the Danish Wadden Sea that regulate fishing vessels, fishery quota, set-aside for mussel-eating birds and established zones closed to mussel fishery. The results showed (i) a reduction in the blue mussel......, it is recommended to revise the present blue mussel management scheme in the Danish Wadden Sea, to continue and improve mussel stock and bird surveys, and to consider novel studies of the mussel-eating birds’ energetics for improved set-aside estimates and future assessments....

  17. Growth of mussels Mytilus edulis at algal (Rhodomonas salina) concentrations below and above saturation level for reduced filtration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Pleissner, Daniel; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2013-01-01

    Average filtration and growth rates of groups of juvenile Mytilus edulis (n =2545 of 22-35 mm shell length) were measured at different concentrations of an algal cell monoculture in 9 laboratory experiments of duration 14-30 days, 4 experiments below and 5 above the limit of incipient saturation...... concentration (Csat ≈ 6000-7000 Rhodomonas salina cells ml-1). From a nearly constant filtration rate (F ≈ 30 ml min-1 for a 30 mm shell length) at measured algal concentrations below Csat the steady-state filtration rate decreased approximately as 1/C for increasing algal concentrations (C) above Csat...... is exceeded and then as partial valve closure and reduced filtration and growth rates along with production of pseudofaeces. A survey of naturally occurring phytoplankton biomass in the sea shows that this is generally below Csat except for the short spring bloom periods; hence mussels generally feed...

  18. Effect of Luffa aegyptiaca (seeds) and Carissa edulis (leaves) extracts on blood glucose level of normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fiky, F K; Abou-Karam, M A; Afify, E A

    1996-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of oral administration of the ethanolic extracts of Luffa aegyptiaca (seeds) and Carissa edulis (leaves) on blood glucose levels both in normal and streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. Treatment with both extracts significantly reduced the blood glucose level in STZ diabetic rats during the first three hours of treatment. L. aegyptiaca extract decreased blood glucose level with a potency similar to that of the biguanide, metformin. The total glycaemic areas were 589.61 +/- 45.62 mg/dl/3 h and 660.38 +/- 64.44 mg/dl/3 h for L. aegyptiaca and metformin, respectively, vs. 816.73 +/- 43.21 mg/dl/3 h for the control (P < 0.05). On the other hand, in normal rats, both treatments produced insignificant changes in blood glucose levels compared to glibenclamide treatment.

  19. Growth-Prediction Model for Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis on Future Optimally Thinned Farm-Ropes in Great Belt (Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul S. Larsen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A recently developed BioEnergetic Growth (BEG model for blue mussels (Mytilus edulis, valid for juvenile mussels, has been further developed to an ‘extended model’ and an alternative ‘ad hoc BEG model’ valid for post-metamorphic mussels, where the latter accounts for changing ambient chl a concentration. It was used to predict the growth of M. edulis on optimally thinned farm-ropes in Great Belt (Denmark, from newly settled post-metamorphic mussels of an initial shell size of 0.8 mm to marketable juvenile 30–35 mm ‘mini-mussels’. Such mussels will presumably in the near future be introduced as a new Danish, smaller-sized consumer product. Field data for actual growth (from Day 0 = 14 June 2011 showed that size of ‘mini-mussel’ was reached on Day 109 (Oct 1 and length 38 mm on Day 178 (Dec 9 while the corresponding predictions using the extended model were Day 121 (Oct 13 and Day 159 (Nov 20. Similar results were obtained by use of the ad hoc BEG model which also demonstrated the sensitivity of growth prediction to levels of chl a concentration, but less to temperature. The results suggest that it is possible (when the conditions are optimal, i.e., no intraspecific competition ensured by sufficient thinning to produce ‘mini-mussels’ in Great Belt during one season, but not the usual marketable 45-mm mussels. We suggest that the prediction model may be used as a practical instrument to evaluate to what degree the actual growth of mussels on farm ropes due to intraspecific competition may deviate from the potential (optimal growth under specified chl a and temperature conditions, and this implies that the effect of thinning to optimize the individual growth by eliminating intraspecific competition can be rationally evaluated.

  20. The neuropsychopharmacological effects of Catha edulis in mice offspring born to mothers exposed during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedada, Worku; Engidawork, Ephrem

    2010-02-01

    Chewing fresh leaves of the khat plant (Catha edulis Forsk) is a deep rooted and widespread habit in East Africa and the Middle East. Although a body of knowledge exists about the adverse effects of khat during pregnancy, data are sparse with regard to the consequences of long-term exposure during pregnancy and lactation. The present work, therefore, was initiated to evaluate the neuropsychopharmacological effects of Catha edulis exposure during pregnancy and lactation in mice at postnatal day 28. To this effect, a lyophilized extract of khat (100 mg/kg, K100 and 200 mg/kg, K200), amphetamine (1 mg/kg, positive control, AMP), and a similar volume of 2% v/v Tween-80 in distilled water (negative control, CONT) were administered daily to pregnant mice from gestational day 6 until weaning. Neuropsychopharmacological measurements were done by making use of a battery of neurobehavioural and cognitive tests. Moreover, toxicity to liver and kidney was also evaluated by determining biochemical markers for possible tissue damage. K200 produced significant motor in-coordination and emotional instability; as revealed by impairment in both cliff avoidance (p learning and the recall tests was observed with K200 and AMP. By contrast, both doses of khat and AMP equally affected performance in the Y-maze (p < 0.05). Alterations in the biochemical indices of liver and kidney function were also noted with AMP and K200. These findings indicate that khat exposure produces dose-related central and peripheral effects during pregnancy and lactation which might pose a serious impediment to the physical and mental development of the offspring. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Estudo farmacognóstico e atividade in vitro sobre a coagulação sanguínea e agregação plaquetária das folhas de Passiflora nitida Kunth (Passifloraceae Pharmacognostic study and in vitro activity on blood coagulation and platelet aggregation of leaves of Passiflora nitida Kunth (Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José de Carvalho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Passiflora (Passifloraceae é utilizado principalmente para tratar doenças do SNC e cardiovasculares. A espécie Passiflora nitida Kunth é comumente conhecida como “maracujá-do-mato". A literatura relata o consumo in natura dos frutos desta espécie pela população local para distúrbios gastrointestinais. Considerando o potencial farmacológico do gênero, este trabalho teve por objetivo realizar estudo de caracterização fitoquímica desta espécie e estudar os efeitos dos extratos aquoso (EA, etanólico (EE e hexânico (EH de suas folhas sobre a coagulação sanguínea e agregação plaquetária. Para a caracterização fitoquímica foram realizados testes de cromatografia em camada delgada e ressonância magnética nuclear. O efeito dos extratos sobre a coagulação foi avaliado pelos testes de tempo de protrombina (TP e tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPa. O efeito sobre a agregação plaquetária foi avaliado em plasma rico em plaquetas por método espectrofotométrico, usando adenosina difosfato (ADP e adrenalina (ADR como indutores da agregação. Os extratos EA, EE e EH apresentaram atividade coagulante pelo teste do TP e o EE apresentou atividade anticoagulante para o TTPa. Quando induzidos por ADP, os extratos EA, EE e EH apresentaram valores de concentração inibitória 50% (CI50, µg/mL de 450,5 ± 50,7; 511,2 ± 35,5 e 394,4 ± 8,9, respectivamente, e quando induzidos por ADR apresentaram valores de 438,7 ± 5,2; 21,0 ± 1,9 e 546,9 ± 49,9, respectivamente. O EE apresentou atividade inibitória sobre a agregação. A caracterização fitoquímica foi sugestiva da presença de flavonóides e cumarinas, aos quais podem ser atribuídos, em parte, os efeitos biológicos estudados.The Passiflora genus (Passifloraceae is mainly used to treat CNS and cardiovascular diseases. The Passiflora nitida Kunth species is commonly known as “maracujá-do-mato". The literature reports the in natura consumption of

  2. Conservation of jucara pulp (Euterpe edulis) submitted to gamma radiation, pasteurization, lyophilization and spray drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Paula Porrelli Moreira da

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil there are unexplored fruit species, which represent an opportunity for producers to access special markets, where consumers appreciate the exotic character and presence of nutrients capable of preventing degenerative diseases. In this context, jucara palm (Euterpe edulis), native of the Atlantic Forest, has long been explored only for the removal of the stem, but currently the pulp of its fruit is becoming more popular. The intense purple color is due to the presence of anthocyanins, powerful antioxidants that act by inhibiting or decreasing the effects unleashed by free radicals. The pulp is highly perishable and its preservation is impossible at room temperature, lowering its market value in sales. In face of this, we need technologies that minimize nutritional and sensorial losses in order to produce healthy, tasty and long lasting foods. This study consists of five experiments with jucara pulp, which aimed to: evaluate the physico-chemical, mineral and lipid composition; realize the sensory characterization by Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA); evaluate the physico-chemical and sensory conservation when submitted to radiation gamma, acidification and pasteurization, and dehydration by spray and freeze drying. The fruits have been obtained at Parque das Neblinas (Mogi das Cruzes/SP) and depulped at Agribusiness, Food and Nutrition Department (ESALQ/USP). Was verified that jucara pulp is excellent source of energy and minerals K, Fe, Co, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn and Mo; rich in anthocyanins and fatty oils of good quality (palmitic, oleic and linoleic). The irradiation of pulp was performed at the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN - Sao Paulo, SP) at doses 0,0, 2,5, 5,0, 7,5 and 10,0 kGy and stored at 6 degree C for 30 days (fortnightly assessments). That process was not promising for the conservation of the product at 6 degree C, because the degradation of anthocyanins and phenolic compounds was accelerated and the color changed from purple to

  3. Euterpe edulis Extract but Not Oil Enhances Antioxidant Defenses and Protects against Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by a High-Fat Diet in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barros Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of E. edulis bioproducts (lyophilized pulp [LEE], defatted lyophilized pulp [LDEE], and oil [EO] on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD induced by a high-fat diet (HFD in rats. All products were chemically analyzed. In vivo, 42 rats were equally randomized into seven groups receiving standard diet, HFD alone or combined with EO, LEE, or LDEE. After NAFLD induction, LEE, LDEE, or EO was added to the animals’ diet for 4 weeks. LEE was rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. From LEE degreasing, LDEE presented higher levels of anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity in vitro. Dietary intake of LEE and especially LDEE, but not EO, attenuated diet-induced NAFLD, reducing inflammatory infiltrate, steatosis, and lipid peroxidation in liver tissue. Although both E. edulis bioproducts were not hepatotoxic, only LDEE presented sufficient benefits to treat NAFLD in rats, possibly by its low lipid content and high amount of phenols and anthocyanins.

  4. Species biology and potential for controlling four exotic plants (Ammophila arenaria, Carpobrotus edulis, Cortaderia jubata and Gasoul crystallinum) on Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1987-01-01

    Invasive exotic plants can displace native flora and modify community and ecosystem structure and function. Ammophila arenaria, Corpobrotus edulis, Cortaderia jubata, and Gasoul crystallinum are invasive plants present on Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, designated for study by the Environmental Task Force because of the perceived threat they represent to the native flora. Each plant's native habitat, how they came to be at Vandenberg, their propagation, and how they can be controlled is discussed.

  5. Phytochemical Profile, Chemotaxonomic Studies, and In Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Two Endemisms from Madeira Archipelago: Melanoselinum decipiens and Monizia edulis (Apiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spínola, Vítor; Castilho, Paula C

    2016-10-01

    Melanoselinum decipiens and Monizia edulis (Apiaceae) are two endemic plants from Madeira archipelago, phytochemical compositions of which remains little explored, despite their use in folk medicine. Using liquid chromatography with diode array and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry analysis, their polyphenolic profile was established for the first time. Fifty-six compounds were identified with 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, quercetin-O-(malonyl)hexoside, luteolin diacetyl, and quercetin-O-hexoside being the major constituents in the leaves of both plant species (≥ 0.76 mg/g of dry extract). Principal component analysis provided a suitable tool to differentiate targeted plants. Naringenin-6,8-di-C-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-pentosylhexoside, and 1,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid can be used as discriminatory taxonomic/geographical markers for M. edulis subspecies from Madeira and Porto Santo populations. This methodology of using polyphenols as chemotaxonomic markers proved to be useful for identification of plant species since the results are consistent with previous taxonomical data. The free-radical scavenging activities of the M. decipiens extracts proved to be higher than those of M. edulis, which correlated well with their phenolic content (R 2  > 0.906). © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  6. New insights into the molecular mechanism of Boletus edulis ribonucleic acid fraction (BE3) concerning antiproliferative activity on human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Ribeiro, Miguel; Marques, Guilhermina; Nunes, Fernando Milheiro; Pożarowski, Piotr; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2017-05-24

    One of the relatively new and promising strategies of cancer treatment is chemoprevention, which involves the use of natural or synthetic compounds to block, inhibit or reverse carcinogenesis. A valuable and still untapped source of chemopreventive compounds seems to be edible mushrooms belonging to higher Basidiomycetes. Boletus edulis biopolymers extracted with hot water and purified by anion-exchange chromatography showed antiproliferative activity in colon cancer cells, but only fraction BE3, mostly composed of ribonucleic acids, was able to inhibit DNA synthesis in HT-29 cells. The present work aims to elucidate the molecular mechanism of this Boletus edulis ribonucleic acid fraction and in this sense flow cytometry and western blotting were applied to cell cycle analysis in HT-29 cells. We found that the antiproliferative ability of fraction BE3 observed in HT-29 cells was associated with the modulation of expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins (Cyclin D1, Cyclin A, p21 and p27) leading to cell accumulation in the S phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, the BE3 fraction showed effective silencing of the signal transduction in an MAPK/Erk pathway in HT-29 and LS180 colon cancer cell lines. Thus, the previously and currently obtained results indicate that the BE3 fraction from Boletus edulis has great potential and needs to be further exploited through animal and clinical studies in order to develop a new efficient and safe therapeutic strategy for people who have been threatened by or suffered from colon cancer.

  7. Efeito alelopático e toxicidade frente à Artemia salina Leach dos extatos do fruto de Euterpe edulis Martius Allelopathic effects and toxicity against Artemia salina Leach of extracts of the fruit of Euterpe edulis Martius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Peitz de Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Alelopatia é um processo envolvendo metabólitos secundários produzidos por plantas que infl uenciam o crescimento e desenvolvimento de sistemas agrícolas. Devido à toxicidade dos herbicidas sintéticos para o meio ambiente e para a saúde humana tem-se aumentado o interesse na exploração da alelopatia como uma alternativa para o controle de plantas daninhas. O presente trabalho avaliou efeito dos extratos dos frutos de Euterpe edulis Martius sobre o desenvolvimento de cipselas e plântulas de Lactuca sativa Linné, foram determinados o índice de velocidade de germinação, o crescimento da radícula e do hipocótilo. Para a avaliação da toxicidade dos extratos foi realizado o ensaio de toxicidade frente ao microcrustáceo Artemia salina Leach determinando-se a CL50 e percentual de mortalidade. A fração remanescente demonstrou efeito alelopático, pois todas as concentrações alteraram os valores do índice de velocidade de germinação e as concentrações de 0,2 e 0,4 mg inibiram tanto o crescimento da radícula quanto o crescimento do hipocótilo. No ensaio de toxicidade todos os extratos apresentaram CL50 superior a 1000 ppm e 0% de mortalidade das artemias, indicando a não toxicidade dos extratos.Allelopathy is a process involving secondary metabolites produced by plants that influence growth and development of agricultural systems. Because of the toxicity of synthetic herbicides to the environment and human health, there has been increased interest in exploiting allelopathy as an alternative for weed control. This study evaluated the eff ect of extracts of Euterpe edulis Martius fruits on the development of cypselae and seedlings of Lactuca sativa Linné; the germination speed index, radicle and hypocotyl growth were determined. To evaluate the toxicity of the extracts the toxicity test against Artemia salina Leach was used, where the LC50 and mortality rate were determined. Th e remaining fraction showed allelopathic effect

  8. Utilización de lactosuero de queso fresco en la elaboración de una bebida fermentada con adición de pulpa maracuyá (passiflora edulis) variedad púrpura y carbóximetil celulosa (cmc), enriquecida con vitaminas A y D.

    OpenAIRE

    Sepúlveda Valencia José Uriel; Flórez Flórez Luis Eduardo; Peña Álvarez Claudia Milena

    2002-01-01

    Se puede obtener una bebida con características especiales a partir de la fermentación de suero de queso fresco, en presencia de Streptococcus thermophillus y Lactobacillus bulgaricus, comparable con un yogur tradicional. Se utilizaron 150 kg de lactosuero de queso fresco, a cada muestra de 50 kg se le aplicó un tratamiento con estabilizantes comerciales cuya base es carboximetilcelulosa (CMC 27 FG, CMC 28FG y CMC 29FG), cuya función es conferir viscosidad. La bebida que se desarrolló a...

  9. Utilización de lactosuero de queso fresco en la elaboración de una bebida fermentada con adición de pulpa maracuyá (passiflora edulis) variedad púrpura y carbóximetil celulosa (cmc), enriquecida con vitaminas a y d.

    OpenAIRE

    Sepúlveda Valencia, José Uriel; Flórez Flórez, Luis Eduardo; Peña Álvarez, Claudia Milena

    2011-01-01

    Se puede obtener una bebida con características especiales a partir de la fermentación de suero de queso fresco, en presencia de Streptococcus thermophillus y Lactobacillus bulgaricus, comparable con un yogur tradicional. Se utilizaron 150 kg de lactosuero de queso fresco, a cada muestra de 50 kg se le aplicó un tratamiento con estabilizantes comerciales cuya base es carboximetilcelulosa (CMC 27 FG, CMC 28FG y CMC 29FG), cuya función es conferir viscosidad. La bebida que se desarrolló a p...

  10. Avaliação do desenvolvimento de maracujá-doce (Passiflora alata Dryander propagado por estaquia e por semente em condições de pomar comercial Evaluation and development of passion fruit (Passiflora alata Dryander propagated by cutting and seed in conditions of commercial orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givanildo Roncatto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado na Área de Propagação de Fruteiras do Departamento de Produção Vegetal da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP, Jaboticabal-SP, e em área de produtor, no município de Araguari-MG, com o objetivo de verificar o potencial de crescimento vegetativo (diâmetro do caule, altura de plantas e número de folhas de plantas de maracujá-doce (Passiflora alata Dryander, obtidas por estaquia e por semente, comparando o desenvolvimento inicial de plantas no campo. O experimento foi conduzido no período de janeiro de 2002 a fevereiro de 2003. A formação de mudas por semente foi realizada em casa de vegetação e, por estaca, em câmara de nebulização intermitente, sob condições de telado. As estacas e sementes foram coletadas de plantas adultas, oriundas do Banco de Germoplasma Ativo (BAG do Departamento de Produção Vegetal da FCAV/UNESP. Para as estacas, utilizou-se a parte intermediária de ramos em estádio de crescimento vegetativo. As sementes, para a obtenção das plântulas, foram semeadas em bandejas plásticas. Efetuou-se o transplantio de estacas e de plântulas, para sacos de polietileno, mantido sob telado e irrigado diariamente por aspersão, para aclimatação e plantio no campo, após 60 dias. O diâmetro do caule, a altura e o número de folhas de plantas obtidas por estaca foram maiores do que nas obtidas por semente, em Jaboticabal-SP. Já em Araguari-MG, o diâmetro do caule foi maior naquelas oriundas de semente, enquanto a altura e o número de folhas foram maiores nas plantas propagadas por estacas.The present work was conducted in a fruit tree propagation area of the Plant Production Department of the Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP in Jaboticabal, SP, and also in a commercial orchard in Araguari, MG, with the objective to verify the potential of vegetative growth (stem diameter

  11. {sup 90}Sr in King Bolete Boletus edulis and certain other mushrooms consumed in Europe and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saniewski, Michał; Zalewska, Tamara [Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, National Research Institute, Maritime Branch, 42 Waszyngtona Av., PL 81-342 Gdynia (Poland); Krasińska, Grażyna; Szylke, Natalia [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry & Ecotoxicology, Gdańsk University, 63 Wita Stwosza Str., PL 80-308 Gdańsk (Poland); Wang, Yuanzhong [Institute of Medicinal Plants, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 2238 Beijing Road, Panlong District, 650200 Kunming (China); Falandysz, Jerzy, E-mail: jerzy.falandysz@ug.edu.pl [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry & Ecotoxicology, Gdańsk University, 63 Wita Stwosza Str., PL 80-308 Gdańsk (Poland)

    2016-02-01

    The {sup 90}Sr activity concentrations released from a radioactive fallout have been determined in a range of samples of mushrooms collected in Poland, Belarus, China, and Sweden in 1996–2013. Measurement of {sup 90}Sr in pooled samples of mushrooms was carried out with radiochemical procedure aimed to pre-isolate the analyte from the fungal materials before it was determined using the Low-Level Beta Counter. Interestingly, the Purple Bolete Imperator rhodopurpureus collected from Yunnan in south-western China in 2012 showed {sup 90}Sr activity concentration at around 10 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass, which was greater when compared to other mushrooms in this study. The King Bolete Boletus edulis from China showed the {sup 90}Sr activity in caps at around 1.5 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass (whole fruiting bodies) in 2012 and for specimens from Poland activity was well lower than 1.0 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass in 1998–2010. A sample of Sarcodonimbricatus collected in 1998 from the north-eastern region of Poland impacted by Chernobyl fallout showed {sup 90}Sr in caps at around 5 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass. Concentration of {sup 90}Sr in Bay Bolete Royoporus (Xerocomus or Boletus) badius from affected region of Gomel in Belarus was in 2010 at 2.1 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass. In several other species from Poland {sup 90}Sr was at < 0.5 to around 1.0 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass. Activity concentrations of {sup 90}Sr in popular B. edulis and some other mushrooms collected from wild in Poland were very low (< 1 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass), and values noted showed on persistence of this type of radioactivity in mushrooms over time passing from nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant catastrophe. - Highlights: • Mushrooms are an important food in some regions of the world. • Radioactive strontium ({sup 90}Sr) in mushrooms from Europe and China was measured. • Purple Bolete Imperator rhodopurpureus from Yunnan in China accumulates {sup 90}Sr.

  12. Effects of pre-treatment, freezing and frozen storage on the texture of Boletus edulis (Bull: Fr.) mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaworska, Grazyna; Bernas, Emilia [Department of Raw Material and Processing of Fruit and Vegetables, Agricultural University of Krakow, 122 Balicka Street, 30-149 Krakow (Poland)

    2010-06-15

    The aim of the present work was to determine changes in the texture of Boletus edulis resulting from blanching or soaking and blanching, freezing and twelve months' frozen storage. The texture was examined using instrumental as well as sensory profiling methods. Instrumental textural profile analysis (TPA) showed that, there was a reduction in hardness, chewiness and gumminess of 77-100% and an increase in cohesiveness of 121-521% after frozen storage, when compared to the raw material. Measurements using a Kramer shear cell revealed that the changes occurring at all stages of the investigation were similar. The end, the work required to cut strips of mushroom decreased by 3-32%, while the force increased by 27-110%. In the evaluation of texture through sensory profiling, the greatest changes in the characteristics listed occurred as a result of pre-treatment and frozen storage. There was a decrease in hardness, brittleness, crispiness and firmness of 0.7-3.5 points, accompanied by an increase in wateriness of 1.8-4.0 points. (author) [French] Le but de ce travail a ete de determiner les changements dans la texture de Boletus edulis, sous l'effet du blanchiment ou bien du trempage avec blanchiment, de la congelation et de l'emmagasinage gele pendant douze mois. La texture des champignons a ete examinee par des methodes instrumentales et le profilage sensoriel. Apres l'emmmagasinage gele l'analyse TPA a demontre il y a une diminution de la durete, de la mastiquabilite et de la gommalite de l'ordre de 77-100% et l'augmentation de la cohesivite de l'ordre de 121-521%, qu'en comparaison avec le materiau premier. Le mesurage dans la cellule detachee de Kramer a demontre que les changements apparaissant a toutes les etapes de la recherche etaient similaires. En resultat, le travail necessaire pour couper les cossettes du champignon a diminue de 3-32% et la valeur de la force a augmente de 27-110%. Dans l'evaluation de la

  13. "9"0Sr in King Bolete Boletus edulis and certain other mushrooms consumed in Europe and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniewski, Michał; Zalewska, Tamara; Krasińska, Grażyna; Szylke, Natalia; Wang, Yuanzhong; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The "9"0Sr activity concentrations released from a radioactive fallout have been determined in a range of samples of mushrooms collected in Poland, Belarus, China, and Sweden in 1996–2013. Measurement of "9"0Sr in pooled samples of mushrooms was carried out with radiochemical procedure aimed to pre-isolate the analyte from the fungal materials before it was determined using the Low-Level Beta Counter. Interestingly, the Purple Bolete Imperator rhodopurpureus collected from Yunnan in south-western China in 2012 showed "9"0Sr activity concentration at around 10 Bq kg"−"1 dry biomass, which was greater when compared to other mushrooms in this study. The King Bolete Boletus edulis from China showed the "9"0Sr activity in caps at around 1.5 Bq kg"−"1 dry biomass (whole fruiting bodies) in 2012 and for specimens from Poland activity was well lower than 1.0 Bq kg"−"1 dry biomass in 1998–2010. A sample of Sarcodonimbricatus collected in 1998 from the north-eastern region of Poland impacted by Chernobyl fallout showed "9"0Sr in caps at around 5 Bq kg"−"1 dry biomass. Concentration of "9"0Sr in Bay Bolete Royoporus (Xerocomus or Boletus) badius from affected region of Gomel in Belarus was in 2010 at 2.1 Bq kg"−"1 dry biomass. In several other species from Poland "9"0Sr was at < 0.5 to around 1.0 Bq kg"−"1 dry biomass. Activity concentrations of "9"0Sr in popular B. edulis and some other mushrooms collected from wild in Poland were very low (< 1 Bq kg"−"1 dry biomass), and values noted showed on persistence of this type of radioactivity in mushrooms over time passing from nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant catastrophe. - Highlights: • Mushrooms are an important food in some regions of the world. • Radioactive strontium ("9"0Sr) in mushrooms from Europe and China was measured. • Purple Bolete Imperator rhodopurpureus from Yunnan in China accumulates "9"0Sr. • "9"0Sr was at 11 ± 0 to 12 ± 0 Bq kg"−"1 dry biomass in caps of

  14. AKTIVITAS ANTIHIPERURIKEMIA EKSTRAK ETIL ASETAT DAN ETANOL BUAH SALAK VARIETAS BONGKOK (Salacca edulis Reinw. PADA TIKUS GALUR WISTAR [Antihyperuricemic Activity of Ethyl Acetate and Ethanol Extracts of Snake Fruit var. Bongkok (Salacca edulis Reinw. on Wistar Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leni Herliani Afrianti1*

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study was to determine antihyperuricemic activity of ethyl acetate and ethanol extractsof snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw. var. Bongkok on Wistar male rats. Wistar male rats administered with 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w ethyl acetat extract and 200 mg/kg b.w ethanol extract and simulationsly induced with potassium oxonate peritoneally and uric acid orally showed descreased uric acid serum level significantly as compared to control group at 6th and 7thhour (p < 0.05. Meanwhile ethanol extract at 100 mg/kg bw did not affect uric acid serum level significantly. Determination of uric acid level in urine of the rats, indicated that administration ofethanol extract at 200 mg/kg bw, orprobenecid as a standard at 45 mg/kg bw, increased excretion of urine uric acid level significantly as compared to control group at 7thhour (p < 0.05. Additionally, administration of ethyl acetate extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg bw did not show an increase of uric acid excretion in urine. Mechanism of action of the ethyl acetate extract and ethanol extract as an antihyperuricemic agent has been proposed by inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity wich decrease the synthesis of uric acid. Hence, the mechanism of action of antihyperuricemia of the ethanol extract was suggested to be an uricosuric i.e. increases the excretion of urine uric acid and xanthine oxidase inhibitory.

  15. Physical and chemical characterization of composite flour from canna flour (Canna edulis) and lima bean flour (Phaseolus lunatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praseptiangga, Danar; Tryas, Anisha Ayuning; Affandi, Dian Rachmawanti; Atmaka, Windi; Ariyantoro, Achmad Ridwan; Minardi, Slamet

    2018-02-01

    The diversity of Indonesian local food sources has potential to be developed for supporting food security based development of local food diversification. Canna tubers (Canna edulis) and lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) are two local commodities in Indonesia which under is utilization and has limited assessment to its characteristics. This study aimed at determining the best formula of composite flour based on physical and chemical properties of composite flour produced. There were three formulas, F1 for 85% of canna flour and 15%of lima beans flour, F2 for 70% of canna flour and 30% of lima beans flour and F3 for 55% of canna flour and 45% of lima beans flour. Physical and chemical analyses were conducted and completely randomized design was used. De Garmo analysis was then used to determine the highest effectiveness index from the three formulas developed in this study and F3 demonstrated the highest effectiveness index (0.545) among three formulas evaluated. Thus, formula (F3) was selected as the best composite of the flour developed from canna flour and lima beans flour.

  16. Assessment of bioavailability of weathered oil residues using caged bivalves (Crassostrea gigas and Mytilus edulis) as indicator organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleczinski, C.F.; Costa, H.J.; Rigatti, M.J.; Wong, M.C.; Boehm, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    In April 1988, an estimated 400,000 gallons of San Joaquin Valley crude oil spilled into Peyton Slough and subsequently into Suisun Bay from an oil refinery in Martinez, California. The crude oil initially impacted a number of ecologically sensitive environments including estuarine water, marsh grasses, marsh and shoreline sediment, and intertidal sediment. A four-year oil weathering study was performed to determine the concentrations of environmentally important compounds in the stranded oil, to monitor changes in these concentrations over time, and to assess the potential long-term impact of the spilled oil in these various environments. As a result of marked differences in the rate of weathering at the different sites, a bioaccumulation component was added to the original study design in order to assess the bioavailability of crude oil residues remaining four-years post spill. Caged bivalves (Crassostrea gigas and Mytilus edulis) were deployed at the three study sites as sentinel organisms and exposed for three months. Sediments and organism tissues were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) assemblages characteristics of the spilled oil. Advanced hydrocarbon fingerprinting techniques (e.g., double ratio plots of characteristic alkyl PAHs) were used to match distributions in the organisms and in the study site sediments

  17. Long-term loss rates of radioisotopes of cobalt, zinc, ruthenium, caesium and silver by Mytilus edulis under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgaard, H.

    1999-01-01

    Long-term loss rates of cobalt, zinc, ruthenium, caesium and silver by Mytilus edulis soft parts as well as shells were measured under field conditions in the Mediterranean Sea at Monaco during a period of 13 months after experimental contamination. For all 5 elements, the loss could be described by two exponential functions for the soft parts and one for the shells. Biological half lives for the long-lived compartment ranged from ∼20 days for caesium to 100 - 200 days for cobalt, zinc, ruthenium and silver for soft parts as well as for shells. A comparison with results from similar experiments performed under very different environmental conditions in the Baltic Sea indicated that caesium and maybe silver had a faster turnover in the warm and saline Mediterranean, whereas loss rates for cobalt and zinc were comparable. It is argued, that reliable deduction of loss rates require experiments running over several months to a year, and it is pointed out that shorter term experiments - even up to 3 months - may give biased results. (author)

  18. NMR Profiling of Metabolites in Larval and Juvenile Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis) under Ambient and Low Salinity Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Melissa A; Bishop, Karl D; Rawson, Paul D

    2017-07-06

    Blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis ) are ecologically and economically important marine invertebrates whose populations are at risk from climate change-associated variation in their environment, such as decreased coastal salinity. Blue mussels are osmoconfomers and use components of the metabolome (free amino acids) to help maintain osmotic balance and cellular function during low salinity exposure. However, little is known about the capacity of blue mussels during the planktonic larval stages to regulate metabolites during osmotic stress. Metabolite studies in species such as blue mussels can help improve our understanding of the species' physiology, as well as their capacity to respond to environmental stress. We used 1D ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 2D total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY) experiments to describe baseline metabolite pools in larval (veliger and pediveliger stages) and juvenile blue mussels (gill, mantle, and adductor tissues) under ambient conditions and to quantify changes in the abundance of common osmolytes in these stages during low salinity exposure. We found evidence for stage- and tissue-specific differences in the baseline metabolic profiles of blue mussels, which reflect variation in the function and morphology of each larval stage or tissue type of juveniles. These differences impacted the utilization of osmolytes during low salinity exposure, likely stemming from innate physiological variation. This study highlights the importance of foundational metabolomic studies that include multiple tissue types and developmental stages to adequately evaluate organismal responses to stress and better place these findings in a broader physiological context.

  19. Seed size-number trade-off in Euterpe edulis in plant communities of the Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Santin Brancalion

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of seed size and number differences among plant populations growing in contrasting habitats can provide relevant information about ecological strategies that optimize reproductive effort. This may imply important consequences for biodiversity conservation and restoration. Therefore, we sought to investigate seed size-number trade-off in Euterpe edulis populations growing in plant communities in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Seed dry mass and seed number per bunch were evaluated in 2008 and 2009 in large remnants of the Seasonally Dry Forest, Restinga Forest and Atlantic Rainforest in southeastern Brazil, in 20 individuals per site and year. Seed size and seed number varied among forest types, but a seed size-number trade-off was neither observed within nor among populations. Positive association between seed size and number was found in the Atlantic Rainforest, and reduced seed crop was not accompanied by heavier seeds in the Restinga Forest. Seed dry mass declined in 2009 in all three forest types. Compared to seed number in 2008, palms of both the Restinga Forest and the Atlantic Rainforest produced in 2009 higher yields of smaller seeds - evidence of between years seed size-number trade-off -, while the Seasonally Dry Forest population produced a reduced number of smaller seeds. Such a flexible reproductive strategy, involving neutral, positive, and negative associations between seed size and number could enhance the ecological amplitude of this species and their potential to adapt to different environment conditions.

  20. Multixenobiotic resistance in Mytilus edulis: Molecular and functional characterization of an ABCG2- type transporter in hemocytes and gills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Cheikh, Yosra; Xuereb, Benoit; Boulangé-Lecomte, Céline; Le Foll, Frank

    2018-02-01

    Among the cellular protection arsenal, ABC transporters play an important role in xenobiotic efflux in marine organisms. Two pumps belonging to B and C subfamily has been identified in Mytilus edulis. In this study, we investigated the presence of the third major subtype ABCG2/BCRP protein in mussel tissues. Transcript was expressed in hemocytes and with higher level in gills. Molecular characterization revealed that mussel ABCG2 transporter shares the sequence and organizational structure with mammalian and molluscan orthologs. Overall identity of the predicted amino acid sequence with corresponding homologs from other organisms was between 49% and 98%. Moreover, protein efflux activity was demonstrated using a combination of fluorescent allocrites and specific inhibitors. The accumulation of bodipy prazosin and pheophorbide A was heterogeneous in gills and hemocytes. Most of the used blockers enhanced probe accumulation at different levels, most significantly for bodipy prazosin. Moreover, Mrp classical blocker MK571 showed a polyspecificity. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that several ABC transporters contribute to MXR phenotype in the blue mussel including ABCG2 that forms an active pump in hemocytes and gills. Efforts are needed to distinguish between the different members and to explore their single function and specificity towards allocrites and chemosensitizers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Canna edulis Leaf Extract-Mediated Preparation of Stabilized Silver Nanoparticles: Characterization, Antimicrobial Activity, and Toxicity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otari, S V; Pawar, S H; Patel, Sanjay K S; Singh, Raushan K; Kim, Sang-Yong; Lee, Jai Hyo; Zhang, Liaoyuan; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2017-04-28

    A novel approach to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using leaf extract of Canna edulis Ker-Gawl. (CELE) under ambient conditions is reported here. The as-prepared AgNPs were analyzed by UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission emission microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive analysis of X-ray spectroscopy, zeta potential, and dynamic light scattering. The AgNPs showed excellent antimicrobial activity against various pathogens, including bacteria and various fungi. The biocompatibility of the AgNPs was analyzed in the L929 cell line using NRU and MTT assays. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining was used to determine whether the AgNPs had necrotic or apoptotic effects on L929 cells. The concentration of AgNPs required for 50% inhibition of growth of mammalian cells is far more than that required for inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, CELE is a candidate for the eco-friendly, clean, cost-effective, and nontoxic synthesis of AgNPs.

  2. An integrated biomarker response index for the mussel Mytilus edulis based on laboratory exposure to anthracene and field transplantation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mengqi; Wang, You; Zhou, Bin; Jian, Xiaoyang; Dong, Wenlong; Tang, Xuexi

    2017-09-01

    Organic pollution is a serious environmental problem in coastal areas and it is important to establish quantitative methods for monitoring this pollution. This study screened a series of sensitive biomarkers to construct an integrated biomarker response (IBR) index using Mytilus edulis. Mussels were exposed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon anthracene under controlled laboratory conditions and the activities of components of the glutathione antioxidant system, and the concentrations of oxidative-damage markers, were measured in the gills and digestive glands. Anthracene exposure resulted in increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide radicals (O 2 • ), indicating that oxidative damage had occurred. Correspondingly, anthracene exposure induced increased activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in digestive glands, and GPx and glutathione reductase (GR) in gills, consistent with stimulation of the antioxidant system. A field experiment was set up, in which mussels from a relatively clean area were transplanted to a contaminated site. One month later, the activities of GST, GPx and GR had increased in several tissues, particularly in the digestive glands. Based on the laboratory experiment, an IBR, which showed a positive relationship with anthracene exposure, was constructed. The IBR is suggested to be a potentially useful tool for assessing anthracene pollution.

  3. Sensory and Textural Characteristics of Noodle Made of Ganyong Flour (Canna edulis Kerr.) and Arenga Starch (Arenga pinnata Merr.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herawati, ERN; Ariani, D.; Miftakhussolikhah; Yosieto, E.; Angwar, M.; Pranoto, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Ganyong (Canna edulis Kerr) is a local tuber which highest amount of starch content, but has not been fully utilized well at present. One way to improve the usefulness of canna is to process it into noodle, but it needs arenga starch which has high amylose content. The aim of this research was to study the sensory and textural properties of noodle made from canna flour and arenga starch. Research methodologies consist of: (i) characterization of canna flour and arenga starch, (ii) noodle production, and (iii) characterization sensory and textural properties of the noodle. Noodle was made with five ratio variations of canna flour and arenga starch, i.e. 100:0; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75; and 0:100. Sensory analysis was done by hedonic scoring method with attributes : color, stickiness, elasticity, firmness, surface smoothness and overall liking. Textural properties analyses consist of tensile strength, elongation, and stickiness measurements. The results showed that canna flour and arenga starch can be used in noodle making process. Noodle with 25% of canna flour was the most favored product and has the best textural properties. Factors which affect textural properties of product are the amylose and amylopectin amount in each starch. Tensile strength, elongation, and stickiness measurements of noodle with 25% of canna flour were 0,13 N; 41,61%; and 0,0115N respectively.

  4. Macromolecule oxidation and DNA repair in mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) gill following exposure to Cd and Cr(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmanouil, C.; Sheehan, T.M.T.; Chipman, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    The oxidation of DNA and lipid was analysed in the marine mussel (Mytilus edulis) in response to exposure (10 μg/l and 200 μg/l) to cadmium (Cd) and chromium [Cr(VI)]. Concentration dependent uptake of both metals into mussel tissues was established and levels of gill ATP were not depleted at these exposure levels. DNA strand breakage in gill cells (analysed by the comet assay) was elevated by both metals, however, DNA oxidation [measured by DNA strand breakage induced by the DNA repair enzyme formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG)] was not elevated. This was despite a statistically significant increase in both malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal - indicative of lipid peroxidation - following treatment with Cd. In contrast, both frank DNA stand breaks and FPG-induced DNA strand breaks (indicative of DNA oxidation) were increased following injection of mussels with sodium dichromate (10.4 μg Cr(VI)/mussel). The metals also showed differential inhibitory potential towards DNA repair enzyme activity with Cd exhibiting inhibition of DNA cutting activity towards an oligonucleotide containing 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and Cr(VI) showing inhibition of such activity towards an oligonucleotide containing ethenoadenosine, both at 200 μg/l. The metals thus show DNA damage activity in mussel gill with distinct mechanisms involving both direct and indirect (oxidative) DNA damage, as well as impairing different DNA repair capacities. A combination of these activities can contribute to adverse effects in these organisms

  5. Condition and biochemical profile of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) cultured at different depths in a cold water coastal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardi, Daria; Mills, Terry; Donnet, Sebastien; Parrish, Christopher C.; Murray, Harry M.

    2017-08-01

    The growth and health of cultured blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) are affected by environmental conditions. Typically, culture sites are situated in sheltered areas near shore (i.e., 20 m depth) mussel culture has been growing. This study evaluated the effect of culture depth on blue mussels in a cold water coastal environment (Newfoundland, Canada). Culture depth was examined over two years from September 2012 to September 2014; mussels from three shallow water (5 m) and three deep water (15 m) sites were compared for growth and biochemical composition; culture depths were compared for temperature and chlorophyll a. Differences between the two years examined were noted, possibly due to harsh winter conditions in the second year of the experiment. In both years shallow and deep water mussels presented similar condition; in year 2 deep water mussels had a significantly better biochemical profile. Lipid and glycogen analyses showed seasonal variations, but no significant differences between shallow and deep water were noted. Fatty acid profiles showed a significantly higher content of omega-3 s (20:5ω3; EPA) and lower content of bacterial fatty acids in deep water sites in year 2. Everything considered, deep water appeared to provide a more favorable environment for mussel growth than shallow water under harsher weather conditions.

  6. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity, Polyphenolic Compounds, Amino Acids and Mineral Elements of Representative Genotypes of Lonicera edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Sochor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactive substances in 19 berry cultivars of edible honeysuckle (Lonicera edulis. A statistical evaluation was used to determine the relationship between the content of selected bioactive substances and individual cultivars. Regarding mineral elements, the content of sodium was measured using potentiometry and spectrophotometry. The content of selected polyphenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity was determined by a HPLC–UV/ED method. The total amount of polyphenols was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was determined using five methods (DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, FR and DMPD that differ in their principles. The content of 13 amino acids was determined by ion-exchange chromatography. The experimental results obtained for the different cultivars were evaluated and compared by statistical and bioinformatic methods. A unique feature of this study lies in the exhaustive analysis of the chosen parameters (amino acids, mineral elements, polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity during one growing season.

  7. Carpobrotus edulis methanol extract inhibits the MDR efflux pumps, enhances killing of phagocytosed S. aureus and promotes immune modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Diane; Hohmann, Judit; Viveiros, Miguel; Viveiros, Antonio; Molnar, Joseph; Leandro, Clara; Arroz, Maria Jorge; Gracio, Maria Amelia; Amaral, Leonard

    2003-05-01

    Although alkaloids from the family Aizoaceae have anticancer activity, species of this family have received little attention. Because these alkaloids also exhibit properties normally associated with compounds that have activity at the level of the plasma membrane, a methanol extract of Carpobrotus edulis, a common plant found along the Portuguese coast, was studied for properties normally associated with plasma membrane active compounds. The results of this study show that the extract is non-toxic at concentrations that inhibit a verapamil sensitive efflux pump of L5178 mouse T cell lymphoma cell line thereby rendering these multi-drug resistant cells susceptible to anticancer drugs. These non-toxic concentrations also prime THP-1 human monocyte-derived macrophages to kill ingested Staphylococcus aureus and to promote the release of lymphokines associated with cellular immune functions. The extract also induces the proliferation of THP-1 cells within 1 day of exposure to quantities normally associated with phytohaemagglutinin. The potential role of the compound(s) isolated from this plant in cancer biology is intriguing and is currently under investigation. It is supposed that the resistance modifier and immunomodulatory effect of this plant extract can be exploited in the experimental chemotherapy of cancer and bacterial or viral infections. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Khat (Catha edulis: The herb with officio-legal, socio-cultural and economic uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikiru Lamina

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Khat (Catha edulis is a plant of uncertain and highly controversial status grown in the countries around the Red Sea and on the eastern coast of Africa. The chewing of khat leaves has a deep-rooted religious and socio-cultural tradition. Khat is considered a cash crop and its cultivation is a source of economic value to the societies and nations involved. There have, however, been reports of negative economic effects on the individuals engaging in the habit of khat chewing.

    The increasing use of khat worldwide, along with the negative international attention that this has garnered, has led to the present status of uncertainty of the once indigenous practice of khat chewing. Scientists, mostly western Europeans, have tended to focus on problems related to khat with little attention to the positive role of khat chewing in society and the world at large. In addition, no report has directly associated khat with any organised crime, violence or antisocial activity, particularly in countries where khat is legalised.

    This paper reviewed the various areas of uncertainty and controversy relating to khat. Based on the findings of the review, further qualitative and quantitative research is required and a positive international approach to khat use at economic, religious and socio-cultural levels is advocated.

  9. Disturbance of eelgrass Zostera marina by commercial mussel Mytilus edulis harvesting in Maine: Dragging impacts and habitat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckles, Hilary A.; Short, Frederick T.; Barker, Seth; Kopp, Blaine S.

    2005-01-01

    We studied the effects of commercial harvest of blue mussels Mytilus edulis on eelgrass Zostera marina L. in Maquoit Bay, Maine, USA, at a hierarchy of scales. We used aerial photography, underwater video, and eelgrass population- and shoot-based measurements to quantify dragging impacts within 4 sites that had been disturbed at different times over an approximate 7 yr interval, and to project eelgrass meadow recovery rates. Dragging had disturbed 10% of the eelgrass cover in Maquoit Bay, with dragged sites ranging from 3.4 to 31.8 ha in size. Dragging removed above- and belowground plant material from the majority of the bottom in the disturbed sites. One year following dragging, eelgrass shoot density, shoot height and total biomass of disturbed sites averaged respectively 2 to 3%, 46 to 61% and model based on measured rates of lateral patch-expansion (mean 12.5 cm yr-1) and new-patch recruitment (mean 0.19 patches m-2 yr-1) yielded a mean bed recovery time of 9 to 11 yr following dragging, depending on initial degree of plant removal. Model simulations suggested that with favorable environmental conditions, eelgrass beds might recover from dragging disturbance in 6 yr; conversely, recovery under conditions less conducive to eelgrass growth could require 20 yr or longer. This study shows that mussel dragging poses a severe threat to eelgrass in this region and that regulations to protect eelgrass from dragging impacts would maintain the integrity of a substantial amount of habitat.

  10. Evaluación del desarrollo de Salíx humboldtiana, Erythrina edulis y Trichantera gigantea asociados al cultivo de mora sin espina (Rubus glaucus Benth)

    OpenAIRE

    Guapacha, Cristiam Camilo; Mesa, Jhon Jairo; Patiño, Andrés Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    En el Municipio de Quinchía, Departamento de Risaralda (Colombia), se evaluó el desarrollo de los tutores vivos Salíx humboldtiana, Erythrina edulis y Trichantera gigantea asociados al cultivo de mora sin espina (Rubus glaucus Benth), también la incidencia de Peronospora sparsa y Oidium sp en plantas de mora asociadas a estos sistemas agroforestales. Se utilizo un diseño de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones cada uno. Los resultados indican que Erythrina edulis es el tutor con mejor adapta...

  11. The Influence of Organic Material and Temperature on the Burial Tolerance of the Blue Mussel, Mytilus edulis: Considerations for the Management of Marine Aggregate Dredging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S Cottrell

    Full Text Available Aggregate dredging is a growing source of anthropogenic disturbance in coastal UK waters and has the potential to impact marine systems through the smothering of benthic fauna with organically loaded screening discards. This study investigates the tolerance of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis to such episodic smothering events using a multi-factorial design, including organic matter concentration, temperature, sediment fraction size and duration of burial as important predictor variables.Mussel mortality was significantly higher in organically loaded burials when compared to control sediments after just 2 days. Particularly, M. edulis specimens under burial in fine sediment with high (1% concentrations of organic matter experienced a significantly higher mortality rate (p<0.01 than those under coarse control aggregates. Additionally, mussels exposed to the summer maximum temperature treatment (20°C exhibited significantly increased mortality (p<0.01 compared to those in the ambient treatment group (15°C. Total Oxygen Uptake rates of experimental aggregates were greatest (112.7 mmol m-2 day-1 with 1% organic loadings in coarse sediment at 20°C. Elevated oxygen flux rates in porous coarse sediments are likely to be a function of increased vertical migration of anaerobically liberated sulphides to the sediment-water interface. However, survival of M. edulis under bacterial mats of Beggiatoa spp. indicates the species' resilience to sulphides and so we propose that the presence of reactive organic matter within the burial medium may facilitate bacterial growth and increase mortality through pathogenic infection. This may be exacerbated under the stable interstitial conditions in fine sediment and increased bacterial metabolism under high temperatures. Furthermore, increased temperature may impose metabolic demands upon the mussel that cannot be met during burial-induced anaerobiosis.Lack of consideration for the role of organic matter and

  12. Inter- and intra-specimen variability masks reliable temperature control on shell Mg/Ca ratios in laboratory- and field-cultured Mytilus edulis and Pecten maximus (bivalvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Kennedy

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mg/Ca ratios of biogenic calcite is commonly seen as a valuable palaeo-proxy for reconstructing past ocean temperatures. The temperature dependence of Mg/Ca ratios in bivalve calcite has been the subject of contradictory observations. The palaeoceanographic use of a geochemical proxy is dependent on initial, rigorous calibration and validation of relationships between the proxy and the ambient environmental variable to be reconstructed. Shell Mg/Ca ratio data are reported for the calcite of two bivalve species, Mytilus edulis (common mussel and Pecten maximus (king scallop, which were grown in laboratory culturing experiments at controlled and constant aquarium seawater temperatures over a range from ~10 to ~20°C. Furthermore, Mg/Ca ratio data of laboratory- and field-grown M. edulis specimens were compared. Only a weak, albeit significant, shell Mg/Ca ratio–temperature relationship was observed in the two bivalve species: M. edulis (r2=0.37, p0.001 for laboratory-cultured specimens and r2=0.50, p0.001 for field-cultured specimens and P. maximus (r2=0.21, p0.001 for laboratory-cultured specimens only. In the two species, shell Mg/Ca ratios were not found to be controlled by shell growth rate or salinity. The Mg/Ca ratios in the shells exhibited a large degree of variability among and within species and individuals. The results suggest that the use of bivalve calcite Mg/Ca ratios as a temperature proxy is limited, at least in the species studied to date. Such limitations are most likely due to the presence of physiological effects on Mg incorporation in bivalve calcite. The utilization is further limited by the great variability both within and among shells of the same species that were precipitated under the same ambient conditions.

  13. Modelação espacial da adequabilidade de habitat a espécies invasoras: o Carpobrotus Edulis em terreno não dunar

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    César Capinha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available SPATIAL MODELLING OF HABITAT SUITABILITY FOR INVASIVE SPECIES: THE CARPOBROTUS EDULIS IN A NON-DUNE AREA. The use of habitat modelling for exotic invasive species can be extremely useful for identifying their potential impacts and for assisting in the design of eradication strategies. Even though the latter builds on theoretical assumptions that are quite different from those involved in the modelling of the habitat of native species, these two modelling methods are in fact quite similar. This article presents a habitat suitability modelling framework for Carpobrotus edulis, an alien invader plant in Serra do Bouro, Portugal. Several land surveys have been carried out in the study area in order to record the presence of this plant. The criteria for recording a presence were that the plant did not show any signs of weakness and that there were mat formations covering at least 5m2. Pseudo-absences were also obtained in a completely random way. The model was calibrated using a binary logistic regression. The performance of this model usually considered superior to that of models that rely on presence data only. Additionally, an evaluation technique based on the minimum area of higher adequacy is also presented. This technique assumes that, for a given probability threshold, model performance is higher whenever it has the same number of correct presences for a smaller predicted area. Using a 0.7 probability threshold, the model correctly predicted 80% of the total presences using only 8% of the study area. The model suggests that the main factor contributing to the expansion of Carpobrotus edulis has been the abandonment of agriculture in the study area. In addition, proximity to the shoreline and above-average erosion potential in the study area both seem to benefit the plant’s expansion. Conversely, steeper and longer slopes, and greater distances from the shoreline, were found to be significant contributors to the plant’s absence.

  14. Capacidade antioxidante e triagem farmacológica de extratos brutos de folhas de Byrsonima crassifolia e de Inga edulis Antioxidant capacity and pharmacologic screening of crude extracts of Byrsonima crassifolia and Inga edulis leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darly R. Pompeu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de duas espécies amazônicas em doenças relacionadas aos processos de oxidação, determinou-se a capacidade antioxidante (método Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity, o teor de polifenóis totais (método Folin-Ciocalteu - PT, bem como os efeitos farmacológicos in vitro (efeito antiproliferativo e in vivo (antinociceptivo, antiinflamatório, antiulcerogênico dos extratos hidroalcoólicos (65:35; v/v; etanol:água das folhas de Byrsonima crassifolia (BC e Inga edulis (IE. Os extratos de BC e IE apresentaram elevada capacidade antioxidante (1.422 e 694 µmol de Trolox Equivalente g-1 de folha seca - FS, respectivamente e um valor relativamente alto de PT (35,93 e 24,50 mg Equivalente ácido gálico g-1 FS, respectivamente. Essa atividade antioxidante não teve relação direta com o teor de compostos fenólicos dos extratos, sugerindo a contribuição de outros grupos químicos nessa atividade. Em cultura de células tumorais humanas (nove linhagens, os extratos não apresentaram atividade antiproliferativa significante, com efeito citotóxico somente na concentração mais elevada. Em modelo de nocicepção induzida pelo calor (placa quente, o extrato de IE apresentou efeito antinociceptivo (P In order to evaluate the effect of two Amazonian species on chronic diseases linked with the oxidative processes, we performed antioxidant capacity analyses (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity - ORAC and Folin-Ciocalteu - PT assays and pharmacological effects in vitro (antiproliferative effect and in vivo (antinociceptive, antiinflammatory, antiulcerogenic effects for ethanolic extracts (65:35; v/v; ethanol:water from Byrsonima crassifolia (BC and Inga edulis (IE leaves. Both BC and IE extracts showed high ORAC values (1,422 and 694 mmol of Trolox equivalent/g of dry leaf, respectively and high PT contents (35.93 and 24.50 mg gallic acid equivalent g-1 dry leaf, respectively. The ORAC values had no correlation with PT

  15. The Brahea edulis palm forest in Guadalupe Island: A North American fog oasis? El palmar de Brahea edulis de Isla Guadalupe: ¿Un oasis de niebla en Norteamérica?

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    PEDRO P GARCILLÁN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fog is a factor that affects deeply the structure of vegetation of coastal deserts. Guadalupe is an oceanic island located 260 km off the coast of Baja California, and is one of the few places of the Sonoran Desert coasts with scarped coastal topography and frequent fog. With the aim to identify the effect of fog on the community of the palm forest (palmar of Brahea edulis located in the northern tip of the island: (1 we analyzed the richness and composition of vascular plants in the palmar compared to the remainder of the island, and (2 we analyzed the altitudinal variation of the abundance of palms, herbs and mosses to identify if there is altitudinal variation of the vegetation. Although species composition was not different between palmar and the rest of island, species richness and vascular plant cover were greater in the palmar. On the other hand, we found a clear altitudinal zonation of the vegetation in the palmar that is similar to that found in South American fog-driven plant communities such as the lomas. Thus, the palmar community of Guadalupe Island may be considered as a fog oasis, one of the very few that occur in North America.La niebla es un factor que afecta profundamente la estructura de la vegetación de los desiertos costeros. Guadalupe es una isla oceánica a 260 km de la costa de Baja California y constituye uno de los pocos lugares de la costa del Desierto Sonorense donde se reúnen una topografía escarpada próxima a la costa y una alta frecuencia de nieblas. Con el objeto de identificar el efecto de la niebla sobre la comunidad del palmar de Brahea edulis presente en la ladera norte de la isla: (1 analizamos la diferencia de la riqueza y la composición de plantas vasculares del palmar respecto del resto de la isla, y (2 analizamos la variación altitudinal de la abundancia de palmas, plantas acompañantes y musgo para determinar si existe variación altitudinal de la vegetación. Encontramos que, aunque la composici

  16. Comparative study of predatory responses in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) produced in suspended long line cultures or collected from natural bottom mussel beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle Torp; Dolmer, Per; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf

    2011-01-01

    Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) are a valuable resource for commercial shellfish production and may also have uses as a tool in habitat improvement, because mussel beds can increase habitat diversity and complexity. A prerequisite for both commercial mussel production and habitat improvement...... originated from suspended cultures had a higher length increment and lower mortality when compared to bottom mussels. It is concluded that suspended mussels potentially are an alternative resource to bottom culture and can be used in habitat improvement of mussel beds, but that the use of suspended mussels...

  17. Avaliação da Composição Centesimal, Mineral e Teor de Antocianinas da Polpa de Juçaí (Euterpe edulis Martius)

    OpenAIRE

    Leilson de Oliveira Ribeiro; Marisa Fernandes Mendes; Cristiane de Souza Siqueira Pereira

    2015-01-01

    A polpa de juçaí, fruto da palmeira juçara (Euterpe edulis Martius) encontrada nas áreas da Mata Atlântica e a polpa de açaí, fruto da palmeira juçara (Euterpe oleracea Martius) cultivado na Floresta Amazônica, foram caracterizadas obtendo assim sua composição centesimal, mineral e também seu teor de antocianinas. Com os resultados obtidos foi possível fazer um estudo comparativo da concentração de antocianinas das duas polpas congeladas e verificar a importância do consumo destes alimentos, ...

  18. DNA damage, acetylcholinesterase activity and lysosomal stability in native and transplanted mussels (Mytilus edulis) in areas close to coastal chemical dumping sites in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Jette; Lehtonen, Kari K.; Strand, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    Biomarkers of genotoxicity (DNA damage, measured as tail moment in the Comet assay), neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase inhibition, AChE) and general stress (lysosomal membrane stability, LMS) were studied in native and transplanted blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) in coastal areas of western Denmark...... of chemical pollution complex, as seen especially in the variability in results on DNA damage, and also in regard to AChE activity. These investigations further stress the importance of understanding the effects of natural factors (salinity, temperature, water levels, rain and storm events) in correct...

  19. Dredging of blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) in a Danish sound: stock sizes and fishery-effects on mussel population dynamic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Kristensen, Per Sand; Hoffmann, Erik

    1999-01-01

    In April 1993, 1994 and 1995 the abundance of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis L., was estimated in Limfjorden, Denmark. The stocks were assessed by using a down-scaled model of a commercial mussel dredge which efficiency was analysed by comparing its samples with others collected by diver. The mean...... dredge efficiency was 17%. The fishing area in Limfjorden (700 km(2)) is divided into 22 fishery zones and mussel stock size was calculated for each zone. From April 1993 to April 1994 the total stock size declined from 771 000 to 616 000 t. In the same period, the exploitation rate in the fishery was 14...

  20. Potential for production of ‘mini-mussels’ in Great Belt (Denmark) evaluated on basis of actual and modeled growth of young mussels Mytilus edulis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Lundgreen, Kim; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a first step towards evaluation of the potential for line-mussel production in the Great Belt region between the Kattegat and Baltic Sea, Denmark. We present experimental results for actual growth rates of juvenile/adult mussels Mytilus edulis in suspended net bags in terms......) as a function of dry weight of soft parts (W, g) by a previously developed simple bioenergetic growth model μ = aW −0.34. Results were generally in good agreement with the model which assumes the prevailing average chlorophyll a concentration at field sites to essentially account for the nutrition. Our studies...

  1. The Indigenous Old World Passifloras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1972-01-01

    A short revision of the indigenous Old World taxa in Passifiora in the form of a key, the enumeration of synonyms, descriptions, and an index accounting for all names proposed for the area. Examined specimens, distributional areas, and some notes are given. In the Old World 20 indigenous species are

  2. Secagem e armazenamento de sementes de juçara Drying and storage of euterpe edulis seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Chalita Martins

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da secagem parcial e do armazenamento sobre a germinação e vigor de sementes de Euterpe edulis obtidas em três épocas de produção, o lote 1 foi colhido em 10 plantasmatriz (PM, em 02/99; o lote 2 em 15 PM, em 04/00; e o lote 3 em 11 PM, em 08/00. Os frutos foram despolpados e as sementes, colocadas para secar por zero, 20 e 40 h (três sublotes, em câmara seca (temperatura de 27 ºC e umidade relativa de 35%. Os três sublotes foram armazenados a 10 ºC, em sacos plásticos (20 mm de espessura fechados. Durante o armazenamento, a qualidade das sementes foi avaliada a cada seis semanas, por 30 semanas, por meio das seguintes determinações: teor de água (105±3 ºC/24 h, porcentagem de germinação e vigor (primeira contagem e índice de velocidade de germinação. O aumento do tempo de secagem resultou em sementes com teor de água decrescente, em torno de 14 a 21% dos valores iniciais, que se mantiveram praticamente inalterados durante o armazenamento. A germinação e vigor das sementes foram prejudicados pela secagem parcial e pelo aumento do tempo de armazenamento, de forma diferenciada entre as épocas de produção, e ambas as características dependem das condições climáticas vigentes durante o desenvolvimento e maturação das sementes.The objective of this research was to verify the effects of partial drying and storage duration on the germination and vigor of three E. edulis seed lots developed under different weather conditions. Mature fruits were harvested in the palm collection from the Instituto Agronômico, located in Ubatuba, SP., forming three seed lots. Seeds from ten plants were harvested on 02/99 and constituted the Seed lot 1; seed lot 2 was composed of seeds of fifteen plants collected in 04/00, whereas seeds from eleven plants harvested on 08/00 composed seed lot 3. The fruits were depulped and the seeds were dried for 0, 20 and 40 hours, using a drying chamber regulated at

  3. Heterogeneity of Cr in Mytilus edulis: Implications for the Cr isotope system as a paleo-redox proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggmann, Sylvie; Klaebe, Robert; Frei, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Changes in 53Cr/52Cr (δ53Cr) values recorded by biogenic carbonates are emerging as a proxy for variations in the redox state of the Earth's oceans and atmosphere (e.g. [1], [2]). We investigate the ability of modern carbonate shells (Mytilus edulis) to record the δ53Cr composition of ambient seawater in order to assess their utility as a paleo-redox proxy. Samples of cultivated M. edulis from the Kiel Fjord, Germany, were analyzed for their δ53Cr composition and Cr concentrations [Cr] using TIMS. To disentangle the pathway of Cr into the carbonate shell, a series of step-digestions of their organic outer sheaths (periostraca) and their intra-layer composition were performed. Bulk analyses of specimens with intact periostraca returned 16 to 34 ppb Cr with δ53Cr values ranging from 0.28 to 0.65 ± 0.1 (2SE) and thus fall within the range of surface seawater from the Baltic Sea (0.3 - 0.6 \\permil [3]). Partial removal of periostraca resulted in lower [Cr] (5 to 17 ppb) and δ53Cr values (-0.05 ± 0.15 \\permil). These results show a positive correlation between the amount of organic matter present in a sample and both [Cr] and δ53Cr (n = 9). With nearly complete removal of periostraca, the remaining [Cr] is significantly lower (less than 5 ppb) and can only be accessed by incineration of the carbonate shell. The correlation between [Cr], δ53Cr and the amount of periostracum present in bulk samples indicates that a significant proportion of preserved Cr may be associated with the organic outer sheath. The Cr endmember accessed after incineration is less likely associated with the carbonate crystal lattice. Instead, the δ53Cr values obtained after incineration are similar to those reported from terrestrial rocks, suggesting the influence of detrital particles. Alternatively, Cr may be reduced and subsequently re-oxidized during the mineralization of biogenic carbonates [4]. Seasonal changes in primary productivity in seawater may further influence the shell

  4. Maracujá: um alimento funcional?

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    Maria Luiza Zeraik

    Full Text Available Este artigo é uma revisão bibliográfica sobre as espécies brasileiras de Passiflora (Passiflora edulis fo. flavicarpa O. Deg., P. alata Curtis e P. edulis fo. edulis. A maioria dos artigos da literatura focaliza somente as folhas de Passiflora, enquanto que esta revisão contém informações sobre a polpa, cascas e sementes dos frutos do maracujá, com destaque para a composição química, estudos nutricionais e farmacológicos. O enfoque nos frutos do maracujá fundamenta-se no amplo consumo do suco de maracujá (fresco ou industrializado no Brasil e também nas investigações em andamento para avaliar o seu potencial uso como alimento funcional.

  5. Genetic, Ecological and Morphological Distinctness of the Blue Mussels Mytilus trossulus Gould and M. edulis L. in the White Sea.

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    Marina Katolikova

    Full Text Available Two blue mussel lineages of Pliocene origin, Mytilus edulis (ME and M. trossulus (MT, co-occur and hybridize in several regions on the shores of the North Atlantic. The two species were distinguished from each other by molecular methods in the 1980s, and a large amount of comparative data on them has been accumulated since that time. However, while ME and MT are now routinely distinguished by various genetic markers, they tend to be overlooked in ecological studies since morphological characters for taxonomic identification have been lacking, and no consistent habitat differences between lineages have been reported. Surveying a recently discovered area of ME and MT co-occurrence in the White Sea and employing a set of allozyme markers for identification, we address the issue whether ME and MT are true biological species with distinct ecological characteristics or just virtual genetic entities with no matching morphological and ecological identities. We find that: (1 in the White Sea, the occurrence of MT is largely concentrated in harbors, in line with observations from other subarctic regions of Europe; (2 mixed populations of ME and MT are always dominated by purebred individuals, animals classified as hybrids constituting only ca. 18%; (3 in terms of shell morphology, 80% of MT bear a distinct uninterrupted dark prismatic strip under the ligament while 97% of ME lack this character; (4 at sites of sympatry MT is more common on algal substrates while ME mostly lives directly on the bottom. This segregation by the substrate may contribute to maintaining reproductive isolation and decreasing competition between taxa. We conclude that while ME and MT are not fully reproductively isolated, they do represent clearly distinguishable biological, ecological and morphological entities in the White Sea. It remains to be documented whether the observed morphological and ecological differences are of a local character, or whether they have simply been

  6. The Utilization of Canna Starch (Canna edulis Ker As A Alternative Hydrocolloid on The Manufacturing Process of Yogurt Drink

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    Ahmad Khoirul Umam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Yogurt as a fermented dairy product has been providing several benefits for human health and appropriate for people with lactose intolerance. Recently, the consumption level of yogurt has significantly increased. Starch can be used as an alternative hydrocolloid in the manufacturing process of yogurt. Indonesian Canna edulis Ker contains 63.27% amylopectin that has the potential used as an alternative hydrocolloid. Amylopectin has a very high capability of the water holding capacity to increase the viscosity and maintain the stability of yogurt drink. The present research was to determine the additional effects of Canna starch as an alternative hydrocolloid on the physicochemical and sensory properties of the yogurt drink during storage. Concentrations of 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, and 0.4% canna starch and 0.2% CMC (control were added to make yogurt. All treatments were carried out with four replications. Samples were refrigerated at 4oC for 24 hours and then analyzed for pH, titratable acidity, viscosity, syneresis, sedimentable fraction, and sensory properties. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA, and followed by Duncan's multiple range test (DMRT. Data from the pH, titratable acidity, syneresis, sedimentable fraction, viscosity and sensory analyses obtained from the present study indicated that concentration of 0.1–0.4% (w/v Canna starch could be applicable in the manufacture of the yogurt drink. Furthermore, it was found that 0.1% (w/v of Canna starch selected as the best concentration could be used in yogurt manufacture process that resulted in similar sensory quality compared with CMC as commercial hydrocolloid.

  7. Exposure to DDT and its metabolites from khat (Catha edulis) chewing: Consumers risk assessment from southwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw; Negassa, Belay; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2017-07-01

    Khat (Catha edulis) is one of the most consumed plant in the horn of African countries. However, it is a stimulant plant that has several side effects on the health of consumers. On top of that, the khat leaves used for human consumption are often contain contaminants such as pesticide residues. The present study aims to investigate the level of DDT residue and its metabolites (p'p-DDE, p'p-DDD, o'p-DDT and p'p-DDT) in khat samples and to undertake exposure assessment to consumers. The khat samples were collected from local markets in southwestern Ethiopia. Consumption survey was undertaken using 24 h recall method for both male and female khat consumers. The finding showed that 80% of the khat samples contained DDT and its metabolites. Some of the residues were above the maximum residue limit (MRL) set by Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). The concentration of p'p-DDE and p'p-DDT in khat were in the range of 0.033-0.113 and 0.010-0.026 mg/kg, respectively. High concentration of the metabolite (p'p-DDE) compared to the parent compound (p'p-DDT) revealed the historical use of DDT in the study area. Probabilistic exposure analysis indicated that the mean and 97.5 percentile (P97.5), of the estimated daily intake of total DDT were 0.002 and 0.006 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. The study concluded that khat consumers are exposed to the stimulant effect of the plant as well as DDT and its metabolites in Jimma zone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Genotoxic, cytotoxic, developmental and survival effects of tritiated water in the early life stages of the marine mollusc, Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagger, Josephine A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Devon, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Atienzar, Franck A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Devon, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Jha, Awadhesh N. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Devon, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ajha@plymouth.ac.uk

    2005-09-10

    Using an integrated approach linking different levels of biological organisation, the genotoxic, cytotoxic, developmental and survival impact of tritiated water (HTO) were investigated in the embryo-larvae of marine mollusc Mytilus edulis. One-hour-old embryos were exposed to a range of concentrations (0.37-370 kBq ml{sup -1}) of HTO, which delivered a dose between 0.02 and 21.41 mGy over the exposure period for different end points. Detrimental effects, if any, were monitored at different levels of biological organisation (i.e. DNA, chromosomal, cellular and individual). Genotoxic effects were assessed using molecular and cytogenetic approaches which included analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and chromosomal aberrations (Cabs). Cytotoxic effects were evaluated by determining the proliferative rate index (PRI) of the embryo-larval cells. Developmental and survival effects were also monitored every 24 h up to 72 h. Results in general indicated that HTO significantly increased cytogenetic damage, cytotoxicity, developmental abnormalities and mortality of the embryo-larvae as a function of concentration or radiation dose. The analysis of RAPD profiles also revealed qualitative effects in the HTO exposed population compared to controls. However, while the embryo-larvae showed dose or concentration dependent effects for mortality, developmental abnormalities and induction of SCEs, the dose-dependent effects were not apparent for Cabs and PRI at higher doses. The study contributes to our limited understanding of the impact of environmentally relevant radionuclides on non-human biota and emphasises the need for further investigations to elucidate potentially long term damage induced by persistent, low levels of other radionuclides on commercially and ecologically important species, in order to protect human and ecosystem health.

  9. Linking trace element variations with macronutrients and major cations in marine mussels Mytilus edulis and Perna viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengjie; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2015-09-01

    Marine mussels have long been used as biomonitors of contamination of trace elements, but little is known about whether variation in tissue trace elements is significantly associated with those of macronutrients and major cations. The authors examined the variability of macronutrients and major cations and their potential relationships with bioaccumulation of trace elements. The authors analyzed the concentrations of macronutrients (C, N, P, S), major cations (Na, Mg, K, Ca), and trace elements (Al, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Ba, Pb) in the whole soft tissues of marine mussels Mytilus edulis and Perna viridis collected globally from 21 sites. The results showed that 12% to 84% of the variances in the trace elements was associated with major cations, and the tissue concentration of major cations such as Na and Mg in mussels was a good proxy for ambient seawater concentrations of the major cations. Specifically, bioaccumulation of most of the trace elements was significantly associated with major cations, and the relationships of major cations with trace cations and trace oxyanions were totally opposite. Furthermore, 14% to 69% of the variances in the trace elements were significantly associated with macronutrients. Notably, more than half of the variance in the tissue concentrations of As, Cd, V, Ba, and Pb was explained by the variance in macronutrients in one or both species. Because the tissue macronutrient concentrations were strongly associated with animal growth and reproduction, the observed coupling relationships indicated that these biological processes strongly influenced the bioaccumulation of some trace elements. The present study indicated that simultaneous quantification of macronutrients and major cations with trace elements can improve the interpretation of biomonitoring data. © 2015 SETAC.

  10. Cathinone, an active principle of Catha edulis, accelerates oxidative stress in the limbic area of swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safhi, Mohammed M; Alam, Mohammad Firoz; Hussain, Sohail; Hakeem Siddiqui, Mohammed Abdul; Khuwaja, Gulrana; Jubran Khardali, Ibrahim Abdu; Al-Sanosi, Rashad Mohammed; Islam, Fakhrul

    2014-10-28

    Cathinone hydrochloride is an active principle of the khat plant (Catha edulis) that produces pleasurable and stimulating effects in khat chewers. To the best of our knowledge no data of cathinone on oxidative stress in limbic areas of mice is available. This is the first study of cathinone on oxidative stress in limbic areas of the brain in Swiss albino male mice. The animals were divided into four groups. Group-I was the control group and received vehicle, while groups-II to IV received (-)-cathinone hydrochloride (0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg body wt., i.p.) once daily for 15 days. The level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was elevated dose-dependently and was significant (p<0.05, p<0.01) with doses of 0.25 and 0.5mg/kg body wt. of cathinone as compared to control group. In contrast, the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) was decreased significantly (p<0.01, p<0.001) with doses of 0.25 and 0.5mg/kg body wt. of cathinone as compared to control group. The activity of antioxidant enzymes (GPx, GR, GST, CAT, and SOD) was also decreased dose-dependently: the decreased activity of GPx, GR, catalase and SOD was significant with doses of 0.25 and 0.5 mg of cathinone as compared to control group, while the activity of GST was decreased dose-dependently and was significant with 0.5mg of cathinone as compared to control group. The results indicate that the cathinone generated oxidative stress hampered antioxidant enzymes, glutathione and lipid peroxidation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Somatic growth of mussels Mytilus edulis in field studies compared to predictions using BEG, DEB, and SFG models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Poul S.; Filgueira, Ramón; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2014-04-01

    Prediction of somatic growth of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, based on the data from 2 field-growth studies of mussels in suspended net-bags in Danish waters was made by 3 models: the bioenergetic growth (BEG), the dynamic energy budget (DEB), and the scope for growth (SFG). Here, the standard BEG model has been expanded to include the temperature dependence of filtration rate and respiration and an ad hoc modification to ensure a smooth transition to zero ingestion as chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration approaches zero, both guided by published data. The first 21-day field study was conducted at nearly constant environmental conditions with a mean chl a concentration of C = 2.7 μg L- 1, and the observed monotonous growth in the dry weight of soft parts was best predicted by DEB while BEG and SFG models produced lower growth. The second 165-day field study was affected by large variations in chl a and temperature, and the observed growth varied accordingly, but nevertheless, DEB and SFG predicted monotonous growth in good agreement with the mean pattern while BEG mimicked the field data in response to observed changes in chl a concentration and temperature. The general features of the models were that DEB produced the best average predictions, SFG mostly underestimated growth, whereas only BEG was sensitive to variations in chl a concentration and temperature. DEB and SFG models rely on the calibration of the half-saturation coefficient to optimize the food ingestion function term to that of observed growth, and BEG is independent of observed actual growth as its predictions solely rely on the time history of the local chl a concentration and temperature.

  12. Phylogeography of the wild and cultivated stimulant plant qat (Catha edulis, Celastraceae) in areas of historical cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembrock, Luke R; Simmons, Mark P; Richards, Christopher M; Reeves, Patrick A; Reilley, Ann; Curto, Manuel A; Meimberg, Harald; Ngugi, Grace; Demissew, Sebsebe; Al Khulaidi, Abdul Wali; Al-Thobhani, Mansoor; Simpson, Sheron; Varisco, Daniel M

    2017-04-01

    Qat ( Catha edulis , Celastraceae) is a woody plant species cultivated for its stimulant alkaloids. Qat is important to the economy and culture in large regions of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Yemen. Despite the importance of this species, the wild origins and dispersal of cultivars have only been described in often contradictory historical documents. We examined the wild origins, human-mediated dispersal, and genetic divergence of cultivated qat compared to wild qat. We sampled 17 SSR markers and 1561 wild and cultivated individuals across the historical areas of qat cultivation. On the basis of genetic structure inferred using Bayesian and nonparametric methods, two centers of origin in Kenya and one in Ethiopia were found for cultivated qat. The centers of origin in Ethiopia and northeast of Mt. Kenya are the primary sources of cultivated qat genotypes. Qat cultivated in Yemen is derived from Ethiopian genotypes rather than Yemeni wild populations. Cultivated qat with a wild Kenyan origin has not spread to Ethiopia or Yemen, whereas a small minority of qat cultivated in Kenya originated in Ethiopia. Hybrid genotypes with both Ethiopian and Kenyan parentage are present in northern Kenya. Ethiopian cultivars have diverged from their wild relatives, whereas Kenyan qat has diverged less. This pattern of divergence could be caused by the extinction of the wild-source qat populations in Ethiopia due to deforestation, undersampling, and/or artificial selection for agronomically important traits. © 2017 Tembrock et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons public domain license (CC0 1.0).

  13. Prevalence and determinants of khat (Catha edulis chewing among high school students in eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

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    Ayalu A Reda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Use of psychoactive drugs such as khat leaves (Catha edulis alter moods and emotional state and lead to adverse effects on the health and social life of users. Ethiopia is a major producer and exporter of khat in east Africa and the majority of the khat comes from the eastern part of the country, however, no studies have been conducted to investigate the habit in this area. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and predictors of khat chewing among high school students in Harar, eastern Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY: The study was conducted among 1,890 secondary school students in Harar town in April 2010. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed to examine the prevalence and predictors of khat chewing. RESULT: The overall prevalence of khat chewing among the sample was 24.2% (95% CI 22.2%-26.2%. About 28.5% of females and 71.5% of males had chewed khat. Older age (OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.16-1.49, male gender (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.50-2.93, Muslim religion (OR 1.88; 95% CI 1.17-3.04, having friends who chewed khat (OR 7.93; 95% CI 5.40-11.64, and availability of someone with a similar habit in the family (OR 1.50; 95% CI 1.07-2.11 were found to be independent predictors of chewing. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of students chew khat. The use of khat is significantly associated with age, gender, Muslim religion, peer influence and habit of family and other relatives among students. Measures such as educational campaigns need to be instituted to create awareness among school adolescents and their parents in order to reduce the prevalence of the habit and its adverse social and health consequences.

  14. Prevalence and determinants of khat (Catha edulis) chewing among high school students in eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Ayalu A; Moges, Asmamaw; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Wondmagegn, Berhanu Y

    2012-01-01

    Use of psychoactive drugs such as khat leaves (Catha edulis) alter moods and emotional state and lead to adverse effects on the health and social life of users. Ethiopia is a major producer and exporter of khat in east Africa and the majority of the khat comes from the eastern part of the country, however, no studies have been conducted to investigate the habit in this area. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and predictors of khat chewing among high school students in Harar, eastern Ethiopia. The study was conducted among 1,890 secondary school students in Harar town in April 2010. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed to examine the prevalence and predictors of khat chewing. The overall prevalence of khat chewing among the sample was 24.2% (95% CI 22.2%-26.2%). About 28.5% of females and 71.5% of males had chewed khat. Older age (OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.16-1.49), male gender (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.50-2.93), Muslim religion (OR 1.88; 95% CI 1.17-3.04), having friends who chewed khat (OR 7.93; 95% CI 5.40-11.64), and availability of someone with a similar habit in the family (OR 1.50; 95% CI 1.07-2.11) were found to be independent predictors of chewing. A significant proportion of students chew khat. The use of khat is significantly associated with age, gender, Muslim religion, peer influence and habit of family and other relatives among students. Measures such as educational campaigns need to be instituted to create awareness among school adolescents and their parents in order to reduce the prevalence of the habit and its adverse social and health consequences.

  15. Discovery and comparative profiling of microRNAs in representative monopodial bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis and sympodial bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus.

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    Hansheng Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to the growth pattern of bamboo, sympodial bamboo and monopodial bamboo are considered as two mainly kinds of bamboo. They have different phenotypes and different characteristics in developmental stage. Much attention had been paid on the study of bamboo cultivation, processing, physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, which had made great progresses in the last decade, especially for the highlighted achievement of the bamboo genomics. However, there is no information available on concerning comparative profiling of miRNAs between sympodial bamboo and monopodial bamboo, which might play important roles in the regulation of bamboo development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified the profiles of small RNAs using leaf tissues from one sympodial bamboo i.e. moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis and another monopodial bamboo i.e. ma bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus. The result showed that there were 19,295,759 and 11,513,888 raw sequence reads, in which 92 and 69 conserved miRNAs, as well as 95 and 62 novel miRNAs were identified in moso bamboo and ma bamboo, respectively. The ratio of high conserved miRNA families in ma bamboo is more than that in moso bamboo. In addition, a total of 49 and 106 potential targets were predicted in moso bamboo and ma bamboo, respectively, in which several targets for novel miRNAs are transcription factors that play important roles in plant development. More importantly, annotation of differentially expressed target genes was performed based on the analysis of pathway and gene ontology terms enrichment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides the first large-scale sight of discovery and comparative characterization of miRNAomes between two representative bamboos belonged to sympodial bamboo and monopodial bamboo, respectively. Although it will be necessary to validate the function of miRNAs through more experimental research in further, these results lay a foundation for

  16. Use and perception of the psychostimulant, khat (catha edulis) among three occupational groups in south western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihunwo, A O; Kayanja, F I B; Amadi-Ihunwo, U B

    2004-09-01

    To examine the use of and perception of the psychostimulant, khat (catha edulis) in three towns in south-western Uganda. Cross-sectional survey. Mbarara, Kabale and Fort Portal. Three categories of respondents prone to khat chewing habit were selected; One hundred and thirty students, thirty five law enforcement officials and sixteen transporters. Khat chewers existed within the sampled population. The relationship between tobacco smoking, drinking alcoholic beverages and the khat chewing habit was established. Out of 181 respondents, 164(90.6%) had heard of khat, 126(69.6%) had seen it and 57(31.5%) had chewed khat before. As at the time of this study, 37(20.4%) still chewed khat. Within the three categories of subjects, the use of khat was highest among law enforcement officials (97.1%), followed by transporters (68.8%) and students (9.2%). The majority of khat chewers were in the age range of 16-25 years. There was a clear correlation between khat chewing and the use of stimulants such as alcoholic beverages and tobacco smoking. Those who smoked cigarettes were twenty-eight times more likely to chew khat (OR=28.95% CI=9.6,83.7). Euphoria, suppressed sleep and increased sexual desire were the most predominant effects experienced by khat chewers. The knowledge of khat is widespread and its consumption is on the increase among students, law enforcement officials and transporters in south-western Uganda. This calls for attention considering the public health implications.

  17. Experimental Transmission of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus from the Blue Mussel, Mytilus edulis, to Cohabitating Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Smolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrak, Michael R.; Bricknell, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) reduces the environmental impacts of commercial aquaculture systems by combining the cultivation of fed species with extractive species. Shellfish play a critical role in IMTA systems by filter-feeding particulate-bound organic nutrients. As bioaccumulating organisms, shellfish may also increase disease risk on farms by serving as reservoirs for important finfish pathogens such as infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). The ability of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) to bioaccumulate and transmit IPNV to naive Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts was investigated. To determine the ability of mussels to filter and accumulate viable IPNV, mussels were held in water containing log 4.6 50% tissue culture infective dose(s) (TCID50) of the West Buxton strain of IPNV ml−1. Viable IPNV was detected in the digestive glands (DGs) of IPNV-exposed mussels as early as 2 h postexposure. The viral load in mussel DG tissue significantly increased with time and reached log 5.35 ± 0.25 TCID50 g of DG tissue−1 after 120 h of exposure. IPNV titers never reached levels that were significantly greater than that in the water. Viable IPNV was detected in mussel feces out to 7 days postdepuration, and the virus persisted in DG tissues for at least 18 days of depuration. To determine whether IPNV can be transmitted from mussels to Atlantic salmon, IPNV-exposed mussels were cohabitated with naive Atlantic salmon smolts. Transmission of IPNV did occur from mussels to smolts at a low frequency. The results demonstrate that a nonenveloped virus, such as IPNV, can accumulate in mussels and be transferred to naive fish. PMID:23872575

  18. Food Plants of 19 butterflies species (Lepidoptera from Loreto, Peru

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    Joel Vásquez Bardales

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the food plants utilized by 19 species of butterflies from Allpahuayo-Mishana Research Center and the Community of San Rafael, Loreto, Peru. We report 23 plant species and one hybrid of angiosperms used by the butterflies. Larval host plants were 21 species and five were adult nectar sources. Two species were both host plant and nectar source: Passiflora coccinea Aubl. and Passiflora edulis Sims. The most frequently used plant families were Solanaceae, Passifloraceae, Fabaceae and Aristolochiaceae.

  19. Análisis nutricional y estudio de la actividad antioxidante de algunas frutas tropicales cultivadas en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Gómez, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este trabajo consistió en realizar el análisis nutricional que incluyo: porcentaje de humedad, cenizas, proteína, grasa, fibra dietaria total, minerales y carbohidratos, además se evaluó la actividad antioxidante de extractos de pulpa de gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims.), curuba (Passiflora tripartida var. Mollissima), aguacate (Persea americana Mill.), uchuva (Physalis peruviana L.), tomate de árbol (Cyphomandra betacea Sendt.) y lulo (Solanum quitoense...

  20. Influência do processo de secagem e condição de armazenamento de extratos secos de Bauhinia forficata e Passiflora alata sobre seu perfil de dissolução

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    C.R.F. SOUZA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, os produtos fitoterápicos são considerados medicamentos, sendo necessário o estabelecimento de estudos que assegurem a manutenção dos requisitos de qualidade durante o processamento e o armazenamento. Testes de dissolução podem ser empregados para se estimar a biodisponibilidade de um fármaco, sendo uma análise rotineira no desenvolvimento e controle de qualidade de medicamentos alopáticos. A determinação do perfil de dissolução de fitoterápicos também pode ser um importante critério para avaliação da sua qualidade lote-a-lote, bem como para os estudos de desenvolvimento e de estabilidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a influência dos métodos de secagem e da condição de armazenagem sobre os perfis de dissolução dos flavonoides totais de extratos secos de duas plantas medicinais bastante difundidas no Brasil, a Bauhinia forficata e a Passiflora alata. Os extratos secos foram produzidos pelo processo de secagem em leito de jorro e em spray drying, sendo submetidos a condições de armazenagem aceleradas (temperatura de 40 ± 2ºC e umidade relativa de 75 ± 5%, por um período de 90 dias. Os perfis de dissolução foram obtidos para amostras de extratos secos antes e após o período de armazenamento. O teor de flavonoides totais foi quantificado por espectrofotometria. Os extratos secos de B. forficata e P. alata apresentaram adequada liberação de flavonoides nos ensaios de dissolução. Os extratos secos de Passiflora alata apresentaram completa dissolução dos flavonoides, 92% e 98% dos teores originais após 60 minutos de ensaio, respectivamente para o extrato seco em leito de jorro e em spray drying.

  1. Boletus edulis loaded with γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles as a magnetic sorbent for preconcentration of Co(II) and Sn(II) prior to their determination by ICP-OES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Sadin; Serkan Yalcin, M; Kilinc, Ersin; Soylak, Mustafa

    2017-12-20

    The authors show that the fungus Boletus edulis loaded with γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles is a viable sorbent for magnetic solid phase extraction of trace levels of Co(II) and Sn(II). The surface structure of immobilized magnetized B. edulis was characterized by FT-IR, SEM and EDX. Experimental parameters were optimized. Following elution with 1 M HCl, the ions were quantified by ICP-OES. The limits of detection are 21 pg·mL -1 for Co(II), and 19 pg·mL -1 for Sn(II). The preconcentration factors are 100 for both ions. The sorption capacities of the sorbent are 35.8 mg·g -1 for Co(II) and 29.6 mg·g -1 for Sn(II). The method was applied to the analysis of certificated reference materials and gave ≥95% recoveries with low RSDs. It was also successfully applied to the quantification of Co(II) and Sn(II) in spiked environmental and food samples. Graphical abstract The fungus Boletus edulis loaded with γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles is a viable biosorbent for magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of trace levels of Co(II) and Sn(II). The surface structure of immobilized magnetized B. edulis was characterized by FT-IR, SEM and EDX. Experimental parameters were optimized.

  2. An axenic culture system for fruiting body formation by an edible bolete phylogenetically related to culinary-medicinal penny bun mushroom, Boletus edulis Bull.:Fr. strains from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shao Chun; Zhang, Mei Yan; Shang, Xiao Dong; Chen, Ming Jie; Tan, Qi

    2011-01-01

    The ability of two freshly isolated Boletus stains to fruit under axenic conditions was tested using different solid and liquid nutrient media. One strain (YNCX04) produced numerous primordia from which fruiting bodies, 12 mm and 10 mm in length, with grey, convex pilei, and yellow-white, clavate stipes developed between 15 and 30 d after inoculation of fungal mycelium onto a solid medium consisting of mineral salts, thiamine, glucose, potato, an extract of Cunninghamia lanceolata root, and agar. The other strain (YNB200) produced numerous primordia but no sporophores. Strain YNCX04 lost the ability to form fruiting bodies in axenic culture 6 mo after initial isolation but retained the ability to form primordia for up to 18 mo. Based on internal transcribed spacer sequencing data, strains YNB200 and YNCX04 formed a sub-cluster together with four previously designated Boletus edulis strains from China. Phylogenetic analysis placed the Chinese strains closer to B. aestivalis than to European and North American strains of B. edulis, although a 29-bp fragment specific to all the B. aestivalis strains was absent from all the Chinese strains. Furthermore, partial 18S rDNA sequences from strains YNB200 and YNCX04 exhibited 98% similarity with an 18S rDNA sequence from B. edulis strain Be3. Further molecular studies are indicated to more accurately establish the taxonomic positions ofF3 and F4-3, as well as the Chinese strains designated as B. edulis.

  3. A massive ingression of the alien species Mytilus edulis L. (Bivalvia: Mollusca into the Mediterranean Sea following the Costa Concordia cruise-ship disaster

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    E. CASOLI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Costa Concordia cruise-ship disaster occurred just off the coast of Italy on January 13th, 2012, and entailed the largest marine salvage operation in history. The salvage employed vessels from different European harbours, providing an unexpected means for transporting alien species into the Mediterranean. In this work we identified mussel species using fragments length polymorphism of a nuclear locus and report the first evidence of the transport of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 (Bivalvia: Mollusca, into the Mediterranean Sea, as a part of the fouling community of the hull of an accommodation barge arrived from a NE Atlantic location in October 2012. Furthermore, we describe the rapid growth of this species, under the ASV Pioneer, until its almost total extinction during the summer of 2013, which left a covering of mussel shells on the underlying Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus Delile, 1813. meadow. This high mortality rate indicated that M. edulis had been exposed to high stress conditions, probably due to different salinity, temperature, and oligotrophic conditions from its place of origin, and there was no spawning event or known settlement on the nearest infralittoral natural habitats. This event reminds us of how the Mediterranean Sea is constantly under alien-species pressure, due to human activities.

  4. Geographical traceability of wild Boletus edulis based on data fusion of FT-MIR and ICP-AES coupled with data mining methods (SVM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Zhang, Ji; Li, Tao; Liu, Honggao; Li, Jieqing; Wang, Yuanzhong

    2017-04-15

    In this work, the data fusion strategy of Fourier transform mid infrared (FT-MIR) spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used in combination with Support Vector Machine (SVM) to determine the geographic origin of Boletus edulis collected from nine regions of Yunnan Province in China. Firstly, competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) was used for selecting an optimal combination of key wavenumbers of second derivative FT-MIR spectra, and thirteen elements were sorted with variable importance in projection (VIP) scores. Secondly, thirteen subsets of multi-elements with the best VIP score were generated and each subset was used to fuse with FT-MIR. Finally, the classification models were established by SVM, and the combination of parameter C and γ (gamma) of SVM models was calculated by the approaches of grid search (GS) and genetic algorithm (GA). The results showed that both GS-SVM and GA-SVM models achieved good performances based on the #9 subset and the prediction accuracy in calibration and validation sets of the two models were 81.40% and 90.91%, correspondingly. In conclusion, it indicated that the data fusion strategy of FT-MIR and ICP-AES coupled with the algorithm of SVM can be used as a reliable tool for accurate identification of B. edulis, and it can provide a useful way of thinking for the quality control of edible mushrooms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Expression of important pathway genes involved in withanolides biosynthesis in hairy root culture of Withania somnifera upon treatment with Gracilaria edulis and Sargassum wightii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Arunachalam, Chinnathambi; Selvaraj, Natesan; Sulaiman, Ali Alharbi; Lim, Yong Pyo; Ganapathi, Andy

    2015-06-01

    The investigation of seaweeds, Gracilaria edulis and Sargassum wightii extracts was carried out for the estimation of growth characteristics and major withanolides production in hairy root culture of Withania somnifera. The extract of G. edulis (50%) in MS liquid basal medium enabled maximum production of dry biomass (5.46 g DW) and withanolides contents (withanolide A 5.23 mg/g DW; withaferin A 2.24 mg/g DW and withanone 4.83 mg/g DW) in hairy roots after 40 days of culture with 48 h contact time. The obtained withanolides contents were significantly higher (2.32-fold-2.66-fold) in hairy root culture when compared to the control. RT PCR analysis of important pathway genes such as SE, SS, HMGR and FPPS exhibited substantial higher expression upon the seaweed extracts treatment in hairy root culture. This experiment would paw a platform for withanolides production in hairy root culture with the influence of sea weed extracts for pharmaceutical companies in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Nonstructural leaf carbohydrate dynamics of Pinus edulis during drought-induced tree mortality reveal role for carbon metabolism in mortality mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Henry D; Germino, Matthew J; Breshears, David D; Barron-Gafford, Greg A; Guardiola-Claramonte, Maite; Zou, Chris B; Huxman, Travis E

    2013-03-01

    Vegetation change is expected with global climate change, potentially altering ecosystem function and climate feedbacks. However, causes of plant mortality, which are central to vegetation change, are understudied, and physiological mechanisms remain unclear, particularly the roles of carbon metabolism and xylem function. We report analysis of foliar nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) and associated physiology from a previous experiment where earlier drought-induced mortality of Pinus edulis at elevated temperatures was associated with greater cumulative respiration. Here, we predicted faster NSC decline for warmed trees than for ambient-temperature trees. Foliar NSC in droughted trees declined by 30% through mortality and was lower than in watered controls. NSC decline resulted primarily from decreased sugar concentrations. Starch initially declined, and then increased above pre-drought concentrations before mortality. Although temperature did not affect NSC and sugar, starch concentrations ceased declining and increased earlier with higher temperatures. Reduced foliar NSC during lethal drought indicates a carbon metabolism role in mortality mechanism. Although carbohydrates were not completely exhausted at mortality, temperature differences in starch accumulation timing suggest that carbon metabolism changes are associated with time to death. Drought mortality appears to be related to temperature-dependent carbon dynamics concurrent with increasing hydraulic stress in P. edulis and potentially other similar species. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Feature Fusion of ICP-AES, UV-Vis and FT-MIR for Origin Traceability of Boletus edulis Mushrooms in Combination with Chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Luming; Liu, Honggao; Li, Jieqing; Li, Tao; Wang, Yuanzhong

    2018-01-15

    Origin traceability is an important step to control the nutritional and pharmacological quality of food products. Boletus edulis mushroom is a well-known food resource in the world. Its nutritional and medicinal properties are drastically varied depending on geographical origins. In this study, three sensor systems (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer (ICP-AES), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR)) were applied for the origin traceability of 192 mushroom samples (caps and stipes) in combination with chemometrics. The difference between cap and stipe was clearly illustrated based on a single sensor technique, respectively. Feature variables from three instruments were used for origin traceability. Two supervised classification methods, partial least square discriminant analysis (FLS-DA) and grid search support vector machine (GS-SVM), were applied to develop mathematical models. Two steps (internal cross-validation and external prediction for unknown samples) were used to evaluate the performance of a classification model. The result is satisfactory with high accuracies ranging from 90.625% to 100%. These models also have an excellent generalization ability with the optimal parameters. Based on the combination of three sensory systems, our study provides a multi-sensory and comprehensive origin traceability of B. edulis mushrooms.

  8. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of a H(+)-dependent phosphate transporter gene from the ectomycorrhizal fungus Boletus edulis in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junling; Li, Tao; Wu, Xiaogang; Zhao, Zhiwei

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate transporters (PTs), as entry points for phosphorus (P) in organisms, are involved in a number of P nutrition processes such as phosphate uptake, transport, and transfer. In the study, a PT gene 1632 bp long (named BePT) was cloned, identified, and functionally characterized from Boletus edulis. BePT was expected to encode a polypeptide with 543 amino acid residues. The BePT polypeptide belonged to the major facilitator superfamily and showed a high degree of sequence identity to the Pht1 family. A topology model revealed that BePT exhibited 12 transmembrane helices, divided into two halves, and connected by a large hydrophilic loop in the middle. A yeast mutant complementation analysis suggested that BePT was a functional PT which mediated orthophosphate uptake of yeast at micromolar concentrations. Green fluorescent protein-BePT fusion proteins expressed were extensively restricted to the plasma membrane in BePT transformed yeast, and its activity was dependent on electrochemical membrane potential. In vitro, quantitative PCR confirmed that the expression of BePT was significantly upregulated at lower phosphorus availability, which may enhance phosphate uptake and transport under phosphate starvation. Our results suggest that BePT plays a key role in phosphate acquisition in the ectomycorrhizal fungus B. edulis. Copyright © 2014 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Feature Fusion of ICP-AES, UV-Vis and FT-MIR for Origin Traceability of Boletus edulis Mushrooms in Combination with Chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luming Qi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Origin traceability is an important step to control the nutritional and pharmacological quality of food products. Boletus edulis mushroom is a well-known food resource in the world. Its nutritional and medicinal properties are drastically varied depending on geographical origins. In this study, three sensor systems (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer (ICP-AES, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis and Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR were applied for the origin traceability of 184 mushroom samples (caps and stipes in combination with chemometrics. The difference between cap and stipe was clearly illustrated based on a single sensor technique, respectively. Feature variables from three instruments were used for origin traceability. Two supervised classification methods, partial least square discriminant analysis (FLS-DA and grid search support vector machine (GS-SVM, were applied to develop mathematical models. Two steps (internal cross-validation and external prediction for unknown samples were used to evaluate the performance of a classification model. The result is satisfactory with high accuracies ranging from 90.625% to 100%. These models also have an excellent generalization ability with the optimal parameters. Based on the combination of three sensory systems, our study provides a multi-sensory and comprehensive origin traceability of B. edulis mushrooms.

  10. Geographical traceability of wild Boletus edulis based on data fusion of FT-MIR and ICP-AES coupled with data mining methods (SVM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Zhang, Ji; Li, Tao; Liu, Honggao; Li, Jieqing; Wang, Yuanzhong

    2017-04-01

    In this work, the data fusion strategy of Fourier transform mid infrared (FT-MIR) spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used in combination with Support Vector Machine (SVM) to determine the geographic origin of Boletus edulis collected from nine regions of Yunnan Province in China. Firstly, competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) was used for selecting an optimal combination of key wavenumbers of second derivative FT-MIR spectra, and thirteen elements were sorted with variable importance in projection (VIP) scores. Secondly, thirteen subsets of multi-elements with the best VIP score were generated and each subset was used to fuse with FT-MIR. Finally, the classification models were established by SVM, and the combination of parameter C and γ (gamma) of SVM models was calculated by the approaches of grid search (GS) and genetic algorithm (GA). The results showed that both GS-SVM and GA-SVM models achieved good performances based on the #9 subset and the prediction accuracy in calibration and validation sets of the two models were 81.40% and 90.91%, correspondingly. In conclusion, it indicated that the data fusion strategy of FT-MIR and ICP-AES coupled with the algorithm of SVM can be used as a reliable tool for accurate identification of B. edulis, and it can provide a useful way of thinking for the quality control of edible mushrooms.

  11. Soil fungal communities in a Castanea sativa (chestnut) forest producing large quantities of Boletus edulis sensu lato (porcini): where is the mycelium of porcini?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peintner, Ursula; Iotti, Mirco; Klotz, Petra; Bonuso, Enrico; Zambonelli, Alessandra

    2007-04-01

    A study was conducted in a Castanea sativa forest that produces large quantities of the edible mushroom porcini (Boletus edulis sensu lato). The primary aim was to study porcini mycelia in the soil, and to determine if there were any possible ecological and functional interactions with other dominant soil fungi. Three different approaches were used: collection and morphological identification of fruiting bodies, morphological and molecular identification of ectomycorrhizae by rDNA-ITS sequence analyses and molecular identification of the soil mycelia by ITS clone libraries. Soil samples were taken directly under basidiomes of Boletus edulis, Boletus aestivalis, Boletus aereus and Boletus pinophilus. Thirty-nine ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified on root tips whereas 40 fungal species were found in the soil using the cloning technique. The overlap between above- and below-ground fungal communities was very low. Boletus mycelia, compared with other soil fungi, were rare and with scattered distribution, whereas their fruiting bodies dominated the above-ground fungal community. Only B. aestivalis ectomycorrhizae were relatively abundant and detected as mycelia in the soil. No specific fungus-fungus association was found. Factors triggering formation of mycorrhizae and fructification of porcini appear to be too complex to be simply explained on the basis of the amount of fungal mycelia in the soil.

  12. Certification of methylmercury content in two fresh-frozen reference materials: SRM 1947 Lake Michigan fish tissue and SRM 1974b organics in mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.C.; Christopher, S.J.; Pugh, Rebecca S.; Donard, O.F.X.; Krupp, Eva A.; Point, David; Horvat, Milena; Gibicar, D.; Kljakovic-Gaspic, Z.; Porter, Barbara J.; Schantz, Michele M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development of two independent analytical methods for the extraction and quantification of methylmercury from marine biota. The procedures involve microwave extraction, followed by derivatization and either headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated silica fiber or back-extraction into iso-octane. The identification and quantification of the extracted compounds is carried out by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (GC/ICP-MS) detection. Both methods were validated for the determination of methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in a variety of biological standard reference materials (SRMs) including fresh-frozen tissue homogenates of SRM 1946 Lake Superior fish tissue and SRM 1974a organics in mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis) and then applied to the certification effort of SRM 1947 Lake Michigan fish tissue and SRM 1974b organics in mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis). While past certifications of methylmercury in tissue SRMs have been based on two independent methods from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and participating laboratories, the methods described within provide improved protocols and will allow future certification efforts to be based on at least two independent analytical methods within NIST. (orig.)

  13. Certification of methylmercury content in two fresh-frozen reference materials: SRM 1947 Lake Michigan fish tissue and SRM 1974b organics in mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.C.; Christopher, S.J.; Pugh, Rebecca S. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Hollings Marine Laboratory, Analytical Chemistry Division, Charleston, SC (United States); Donard, O.F.X.; Krupp, Eva A. [LCABIE/CNRS Helioparc Pau-Pyrenees, Pau (France); Point, David [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Hollings Marine Laboratory, Analytical Chemistry Division, Charleston, SC (United States); LCABIE/CNRS Helioparc Pau-Pyrenees, Pau (France); Horvat, Milena; Gibicar, D. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kljakovic-Gaspic, Z. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia); Porter, Barbara J.; Schantz, Michele M. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Analytical Chemistry Division, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2007-04-15

    This paper describes the development of two independent analytical methods for the extraction and quantification of methylmercury from marine biota. The procedures involve microwave extraction, followed by derivatization and either headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated silica fiber or back-extraction into iso-octane. The identification and quantification of the extracted compounds is carried out by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (GC/ICP-MS) detection. Both methods were validated for the determination of methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in a variety of biological standard reference materials (SRMs) including fresh-frozen tissue homogenates of SRM 1946 Lake Superior fish tissue and SRM 1974a organics in mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis) and then applied to the certification effort of SRM 1947 Lake Michigan fish tissue and SRM 1974b organics in mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis). While past certifications of methylmercury in tissue SRMs have been based on two independent methods from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and participating laboratories, the methods described within provide improved protocols and will allow future certification efforts to be based on at least two independent analytical methods within NIST. (orig.)

  14. Passionflower supplementation in diets of Japanese qualis at rearing and laying periods Efeitos da utilização de passiflora em rações de codornas japonesas nas fases de recria e postura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Della Torre da Silva

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the inclusion of passionflower (Passiflora alata in diets on performance, behavior, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio (H/L, corticosterone plasma levels (CPL and immune response of quails. The study was carried out using 192 birds, distributed in randomized blocks with 4 diets (0, 125, 250 and 375 and 0, 250, 500 and 750 mg of passionflower/kg of feed for the rearing and laying period, respectively, 8 replicates and 6 birds per experimental unit. The rearing period began when birds were 28 days of age and it lasted for 15 days. In this phase, it was evaluated daily feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion, viability, tonic immobility time, intensity of injuries, behavior, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and corticosterone plasma levels. Laying phase started when birds were 43 days of age and it finished when they were 140 days of age; it was compesed of six 14-day cycles in which it evaluated feed intake, feed conversion, egg production and quality, viability, tonic immobility time, intensity of injuries, behavior, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, corticosterone plasma levels and immune response. In the rearing period, the use of passionflower in the diet of quails influenced the behavioral parameters, and the birds became calmer, mainly at the dosage of 375 mg/kg of ration. However, in the laying period, passionflower was efficient in reducing stress in the quails, and the most promising results are observed when higher dosages of the phytotherapic were applied. Nevertheless, the dose of 750 mg/kg of feeeding reduces egg production, though it does not influence quality of eggs neither immune response of the quails.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da inclusão de passiflora na ração sobre o desempenho, o comportamento, a relação heterófilo/linfócito, a concentração plasmática de corticosterona e a imunidade de codornas. Foram utilizadas 192 aves, distribuídas em blocos casualizados com 4

  15. Measurement of stress effects (scope for growth) and contaminant levels in mussels (Mytilus edulis) collected from the Irish Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdows, J; Donkin, P; Staff, F J; Matthiessen, P; Law, R J; Allen, Y T; Thain, J E; Allchin, C R; Jones, B R

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this research was to quantify the impact of pollution along the coastlines of the Irish Sea. Pollution assessment was based on the combined measurement of scope for growth (SFG), and chemical contaminants in the tissues of mussels (Mytilus edulis) collected from 38 coastal sites around the Irish Sea during June-July in 1996 and 1997. On the UK mainland coast, the SFG showed a general trend with a significant decline in water quality in the Liverpool and Morecambe Bay region. High water quality was recorded along the west coast of Wales, as well as southwest England and northwest Scotland (clean reference sites outside the Irish Sea). Along the coast of Ireland there was a similar trend with reduced SFG within the Irish Sea region. SFG was generally low north of Duncannon and then improved north of Belfast. The poor water quality on both sides of the Irish Sea is consistent with the prevailing hydrodynamics and the spatial distribution of contaminants associated with urban/ industrial development. The decline in SFG of mussels on both sides of the Irish Sea was associated with a general increase in contaminant levels in the mussels. Certain contaminants, including PAHs, TBT, sigmaDDT, Dieldrin, gamma-HCH, PCBs, and a few of the metals (Cd, Se, Ag, Pb), showed elevated concentrations. Many of these contaminants were particularly elevated in the coastal margins of Liverpool Bay, Morecambe Bay and Dublin Bay. A quantitative toxicological interpretation (QTI) of the combined tissue residue chemistry and SFG measurements indicated that at the majority of coastal sites, c. 50 to > 80% of the observed decline in SFG was due to PAHs as a result of fossil fuel combustion and oil spills. TBT levels were highest at major ports and harbours, but these concentrations only made a minor contribution to the overall reduction in SFG. At no sites were individual metals accumulated to concentrations that could cause a significant effect on SFG. The study identified

  16. Bioaccumulation of tritiated water in phytoplankton and trophic transfer of organically bound tritium to the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeschke, Benedict C.; Bradshaw, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Large releases of tritium are currently permitted in coastal areas due to assumptions that it rapidly disperses in the water and has a low toxicity due to its low energy emissions. This paper presents a laboratory experiment developed to identify previously untested scenarios where tritium may concentrate or transfer in biota relevant to Baltic coastal communities. Phytoplankton populations of Dunaliella tertiolecta and Nodularia spumigena were exposed at different growth-stages, to tritiated water (HTO; 10 MBq l −1 ). Tritiated D. tertiolecta was then fed to mussels, Mytilus edulis, regularly over a period of three weeks. Activity concentrations of phytoplankton and various tissues from the mussel were determined. Both phytoplankton species transformed HTO into organically-bound tritium (OBT) in their tissues. D. tertiolecta accumulated significantly more tritium when allowed to grow exponentially in HTO than if it had already reached the stationary growth phase; both treatments accumulated significantly more than the corresponding treatments of N. spumigena. No effect of growth phase on bioaccumulation of tritium was detectable in N. spumigena following exposure. After mussels were given 3 feeds of tritiated D. tertiolecta, significant levels of tritium were detected in the tissues. Incorporation into most mussel tissues appeared to follow a linear relationship with number of tritiated phytoplankton feeds with no equilibrium, highlighting the potential for biomagnification. Different rates of incorporation in species from a similar functional group highlight the difficulties in using a ‘representative’ species for modelling the transfer and impact of tritium. Accumulations of organic tritium into the mussel tissues from tritiated-phytoplankton demonstrate an environmentally relevant transfer pathway of tritium even when water-concentrations are reduced, adding weight to the assertion that organically bound tritium acts as a persistent organic pollutant. The

  17. Immunological responses, histopathological finding and disease resistance of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) exposed to treated and untreated municipal wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaishi, Fabiola M.; St-Jean, Sylvie D.; Bishay, Farida; Clarke, John; Rabitto, Ines da S.; Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro A. de

    2007-01-01

    This study provides new information on the response of the immune system of Mytilus edulis exposed to untreated and treated sewage, linking immune response to ecologically relevant endpoints, such as disease resistance. Our goal was to assess the potential effects of sewage on the immune system (phagocytic activity and production of cytotoxic metabolites, disease resistance) and gills (light microscope) of mussels through a bioassay and field study in an estuarine receiving environment (RE). A semi-static experiment was developed in a wastewater treatment plant in New Glasgow, NS Canada. Mussels were exposed for 21 days to 12.5%, 25%, 50% and 100% of untreated sewage influent and artificial seawater control. Sampling occurred after 7, 14 and 21 days of exposure. In the field study, eight sites were selected in East River and Pictou Harbour, NS, positioned upstream and downstream of sewage effluents outfalls. Caged mussels were exposed to the RE for 90 days (May-July 2005). Mussels were challenged to test their efficiency at eliminating the bacteria, Listonella anguillarium in the bioassay and field studies. The bioassay results showed that higher concentrations of untreated sewage could modulate the immune system of mussels through increased of phagocytic activity (PA), nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) production during 14 days of exposure, and decreased activity and production at 21 days, with the exception of H 2 O 2 production which was high even at 21 days. Mussels exposed to untreated sewage RE also presented a high PA, NO and H 2 O 2 production and lower number of haemocytes compared to mussels from reference sites. In the bacterial challenge, mussels pre-exposed to 100% sewage died 24 h after being infected with L. anguillarium, while mussels pre-exposed to 50% eliminated bacteria had a mortality rate of 30%. Mussels from the control, 12.5% and 25% groups eliminated bacteria and no mortality was observed. No significant difference was

  18. Bioaccumulation of tritiated water in phytoplankton and trophic transfer of organically bound tritium to the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeschke, Benedict C; Bradshaw, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Large releases of tritium are currently permitted in coastal areas due to assumptions that it rapidly disperses in the water and has a low toxicity due to its low energy emissions. This paper presents a laboratory experiment developed to identify previously untested scenarios where tritium may concentrate or transfer in biota relevant to Baltic coastal communities. Phytoplankton populations of Dunaliella tertiolecta and Nodularia spumigena were exposed at different growth-stages, to tritiated water (HTO; 10 MBq l(-1)). Tritiated D. tertiolecta was then fed to mussels, Mytilus edulis, regularly over a period of three weeks. Activity concentrations of phytoplankton and various tissues from the mussel were determined. Both phytoplankton species transformed HTO into organically-bound tritium (OBT) in their tissues. D. tertiolecta accumulated significantly more tritium when allowed to grow exponentially in HTO than if it had already reached the stationary growth phase; both treatments accumulated significantly more than the corresponding treatments of N. spumigena. No effect of growth phase on bioaccumulation of tritium was detectable in N. spumigena following exposure. After mussels were given 3 feeds of tritiated D. tertiolecta, significant levels of tritium were detected in the tissues. Incorporation into most mussel tissues appeared to follow a linear relationship with number of tritiated phytoplankton feeds with no equilibrium, highlighting the potential for biomagnification. Different rates of incorporation in species from a similar functional group highlight the difficulties in using a 'representative' species for modelling the transfer and impact of tritium. Accumulations of organic tritium into the mussel tissues from tritiated-phytoplankton demonstrate an environmentally relevant transfer pathway of tritium even when water-concentrations are reduced, adding weight to the assertion that organically bound tritium acts as a persistent organic pollutant. The

  19. Efeito de diferentes substratos e condições ambientais na germinação de sementes de Euterpe edulis Mart. e Geonoma schottiana Mart Effects of different substrates and environmental conditions upon the germination of seeds of Euterpe edulis Mart, and Geonoma schottiana Mart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francismar Francisco Alves Aguiar

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Duas espécies da família Palmae: Euterpe edulis Mart. (palmiteiro e Geonoma schottiana Mart. (guaricanga, ambas com potencial ornamental e em vias de extinção, estão sendo estudadas no Instituto de Botânica de São Paulo, quanto à germinação de suas sementes. Testes de germinação foram realizados em diferentes condições ambientais (casa de vegetação e laboratório e substratos (terra vegetal, areia, esfagno natural, esfagno seco moído e vermiculita. O efeito dos substratos e dos ambientes na germinação das sementes, foi avaliado através da porcentagem de germinação e velocidade de germinação (V.G.. Considerando-se os resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que o melhor substrato para germinação de Euterpe edulis Mart. em casa de vegetação foi o esfagno natural. Já em condições controlada (25ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 horas, o melhor substrato para germinação das duas espécies investigadas foi a vermiculita.Two species of the family Palmae: Euterpe edulis Mart, (palmiteiro and Geonoma schottiana Mart, (guaricanga, both potentially ornamental and threatened by extinction, are being studied for seed germination. Tests were undertaken in different environmental conditions (greenhouse and laboratory and substrates (organic soil, sand, green sphagnum moss, dry, ground spahgnum and vermiculite. The effect of environmental conditions and substrates upon the germination of seeds was evaluated by the percentage germination and rate of germination (V.G. percentages. The best substrate for the germination of Euterpe edulis Mart., in greenhouse was green sphagnum moss. Under controlled conditions (25ºC and 12 hours photoperiod, the best substrate for germination of both species investigated was vermiculite.

  20. Construction of an Ostrea edulis database from genomic and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) obtained from Bonamia ostreae infected haemocytes: Development of an immune-enriched oligo-microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Belén G; Álvarez-Dios, José Antonio; Cao, Asunción; Ramilo, Andrea; Gómez-Tato, Antonio; Planas, Josep V; Villalba, Antonio; Martínez, Paulino

    2016-12-01

    The flat oyster, Ostrea edulis, is one of the main farmed oysters, not only in Europe but also in the United States and Canada. Bonamiosis due to the parasite Bonamia ostreae has been associated with high mortality episodes in this species. This parasite is an intracellular protozoan that infects haemocytes, the main cells involved in oyster defence. Due to the economical and ecological importance of flat oyster, genomic data are badly needed for genetic improvement of the species, but they are still very scarce. The objective of this study is to develop a sequence database, OedulisDB, with new genomic and transcriptomic resources, providing new data and convenient tools to improve our knowledge of the oyster's immune mechanisms. Transcriptomic and genomic sequences were obtained using 454 pyrosequencing and compiled into an O. edulis database, OedulisDB, consisting of two sets of 10,318 and 7159 unique sequences that represent the oyster's genome (WG) and de novo haemocyte transcriptome (HT), respectively. The flat oyster transcriptome was obtained from two strains (naïve and tolerant) challenged with B. ostreae, and from their corresponding non-challenged controls. Approximately 78.5% of 5619 HT unique sequences were successfully annotated by Blast search using public databases. A total of 984 sequences were identified as being related to immune response and several key immune genes were identified for the first time in flat oyster. Additionally, transcriptome information was used to design and validate the first oligo-microarray in flat oyster enriched with immune sequences from haemocytes. Our transcriptomic and genomic sequencing and subsequent annotation have largely increased the scarce resources available for this economically important species and have enabled us to develop an OedulisDB database and accompanying tools for gene expression analysis. This study represents the first attempt to characterize in depth the O. edulis haemocyte transcriptome in

  1. Conservation of jucara pulp (Euterpe edulis) submitted to gamma radiation, pasteurization, lyophilization and spray drying; Conservacao de polpa de jucara (Euterpe edulis) submetida a radiacao gama, pasteurizacao, liofilizacao e atomizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Paula Porrelli Moreira da

    2013-08-01

    In Brazil there are unexplored fruit species, which represent an opportunity for producers to access special markets, where consumers appreciate the exotic character and presence of nutrients capable of preventing degenerative diseases. In this context, jucara palm (Euterpe edulis), native of the Atlantic Forest, has long been explored only for the removal of the stem, but currently the pulp of its fruit is becoming more popular. The intense purple color is due to the presence of anthocyanins, powerful antioxidants that act by inhibiting or decreasing the effects unleashed by free radicals. The pulp is highly perishable and its preservation is impossible at room temperature, lowering its market value in sales. In face of this, we need technologies that minimize nutritional and sensorial losses in order to produce healthy, tasty and long lasting foods. This study consists of five experiments with jucara pulp, which aimed to: evaluate the physico-chemical, mineral and lipid composition; realize the sensory characterization by Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA); evaluate the physico-chemical and sensory conservation when submitted to radiation gamma, acidification and pasteurization, and dehydration by spray and freeze drying. The fruits have been obtained at Parque das Neblinas (Mogi das Cruzes/SP) and depulped at Agribusiness, Food and Nutrition Department (ESALQ/USP). Was verified that jucara pulp is excellent source of energy and minerals K, Fe, Co, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn and Mo; rich in anthocyanins and fatty oils of good quality (palmitic, oleic and linoleic). The irradiation of pulp was performed at the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN - Sao Paulo, SP) at doses 0,0, 2,5, 5,0, 7,5 and 10,0 kGy and stored at 6 degree C for 30 days (fortnightly assessments). That process was not promising for the conservation of the product at 6 degree C, because the degradation of anthocyanins and phenolic compounds was accelerated and the color changed from purple to

  2. Effect of infection with Metacercariae of Himasthla elongata (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) on cardiac activity and growth rate in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmet, Igor; Nikolaev, Kirill; Levakin, Ivan

    2017-05-01

    Trematode parasites can affect their molluscan hosts, which serve as the first intermediate hosts in their life cycles, in manifold ways, but little is known about trematode-induced effects on their second intermediate hosts. Experimental infection of blue mussels Mytilus edulis serving as second intermediate hosts for larval stages (metacercariae) of the trematodes Himasthla elongata was studied in field experiments during one year. The heart rates and growth rates of noninfected mussels were significantly higher than those of infected mussels. During the summer, the heart rates of noninfected mussels showed rhythmic oscillations, whereas the parasitized animals displayed no any rhythmicity. There was a significant difference between the infected and uninfected mussels in relation to heart rates and temperature. The results indicate that mussels infected with H. elongata metacercariae may be at an energetic disadvantage relative to noninfected mussels. Furthermore, trematode infection may disrupt neuronal control of cardiac function.

  3. DNA damage, acetylcholinesterase activity and lysosomal stability in native and transplanted mussels (Mytilus edulis) in areas close to coastal chemical dumping sites in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, J.; Lehtonen, K. K.; Strand, J.

    2007-01-01

    of chemical pollution complex, as seen especially in the variability in results on DNA damage, and also in regard to AChE activity. These investigations further stress the importance of understanding the effects of natural factors (salinity, temperature, water levels, rain and storm events) in correct......Biomarkers of genotoxicity (DNA damage, measured as tail moment in the Comet assay), neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase inhibition, AChE) and general stress (lysosomal membrane stability, LMS) were studied in native and transplanted blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) in coastal areas of western Denmark...... potentially affected by anthropogenic pollution originating from chemical dumping sites. The results indicate responses to pollution in all the biomarkers applied at the suspected areas, but the results were not consistent. Seasonal fluctuations in exposure situations at the study sites make interpretation...

  4. Too much food may cause reduced growth of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) – Test of hypothesis and new ‘high Chl a BEG-model’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul S.; Lüskow, Florian; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    Growth of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) is closely related to the biomass of phytoplankton (expressed as concentration of chlorophyll a, Chl a), but the effect of too much food in eutrophicated areas has so far been overlooked. The hypothesis addressed in the present study suggests that high Chl...... a concentrations (> about 8 μg Chl a l−1) result in reduced growth because mussels are not evolutionarily adapted to utilize such high phytoplankton concentrations and to physiologically regulate the amount of ingested food in such a way that the growth rate remains high and constant. We first make a comparison...... the effect of Chl a, but the present study shows that too much food may cause reduced growth of mussels in eutrophicated marine areas regardless of high or moderate salinity above about 10 psu....

  5. Avaliação da Composição Centesimal, Mineral e Teor de Antocianinas da Polpa de Juçaí (Euterpe edulis Martius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilson de Oliveira Ribeiro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A polpa de juçaí, fruto da palmeira juçara (Euterpe edulis Martius encontrada nas áreas da Mata Atlântica e a polpa de açaí, fruto da palmeira juçara (Euterpe oleracea Martius cultivado na Floresta Amazônica, foram caracterizadas obtendo assim sua composição centesimal, mineral e também seu teor de antocianinas. Com os resultados obtidos foi possível fazer um estudo comparativo da concentração de antocianinas das duas polpas congeladas e verificar a importância do consumo destes alimentos, classificados como funcionais, devido às propriedades antioxidantes de suas antocianinas no combate dos radicais livres no organismo humano.

  6. Pollution from mining in South Greenland: Uptake and release of Pb by blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) documented by transplantation experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmer, L.A.; Asmund, G.; Johansen, P.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term impact of former mining activities on the marine sub-Arctic ecosystem in the Ivittuut area, Arsuk Fjord, South Greenland, was studied by transplantation experiments with the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Measurements of metal concentration in mussels were conducted using atomic absorption...... spectrometry (flame AAS) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (graphite furnace AAS). Uptake and release of Pb were documented to be slow processes. For mussels transplanted from the pristine Kugnait Bay to the polluted mining site at Ivittuut, a continuous accumulation throughout...... the experiments was found. Linear uptake rates of 5.86, 6.94 and 11.62 μg Pb month−1 for small, medium and large mussels were found for a 6-week experiment, whereas exponential uptake rates of 0.26, 0.20 and 0.28 month−1 were found for a 9-month experiment. It is estimated that the transplanted mussels will reach...

  7. Major and minor arsenic compounds accounting for the total urinary excretion of arsenic following intake of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis): A controlled human study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, M.; Ydersbond, T.A.; Ulven, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) accumulate and biotransform arsenic (As) to a larger variety of arsenicals than most seafood. Eight volunteers ingested a test meal consisting of 150g blue mussel (680μg As), followed by 72h with an identical, low As controlled diet and full urine sampling. We provide...... a complete speciation, with individual patterns, of urinary As excretion. Total As (tAs) urinary excretion was 328±47μg, whereof arsenobetaine (AB) and dimethylarsinate (DMA) accounted for 66% and 21%, respectively. Fifteen minor urinary arsenicals were quantified with inductively coupled plasma mass...... spectrometry (ICPMS) coupled to reverse-phase, anion and cation-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Thio-arsenicals and non-thio minor arsenicals (including inorganic As (iAs) and methylarsonate (MA)) contributed 10% and 7% of the total sum of species excretion, respectively, but there were...

  8. Growth-Mortality Relationships in Piñon Pine (Pinus edulis) during Severe Droughts of the Past Century: Shifting Processes in Space and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macalady, Alison K.; Bugmann, Harald

    2014-01-01

    The processes leading to drought-associated tree mortality are poorly understood, particularly long-term predisposing factors, memory effects, and variability in mortality processes and thresholds in space and time. We use tree rings from four sites to investigate Pinus edulis mortality during two drought periods in the southwestern USA. We draw on recent sampling and archived collections to (1) analyze P. edulis growth patterns and mortality during the 1950s and 2000s droughts; (2) determine the influence of climate and competition on growth in trees that died and survived; and (3) derive regression models of growth-mortality risk and evaluate their performance across space and time. Recent growth was 53% higher in surviving vs. dying trees, with some sites exhibiting decades-long growth divergences associated with previous drought. Differential growth response to climate partly explained growth differences between live and dead trees, with responses wet/cool conditions most influencing eventual tree status. Competition constrained tree growth, and reduced trees’ ability to respond to favorable climate. The best predictors in growth-mortality models included long-term (15–30 year) average growth rate combined with a metric of growth variability and the number of abrupt growth increases over 15 and 10 years, respectively. The most parsimonious models had high discriminatory power (ROC>0.84) and correctly classified ∼70% of trees, suggesting that aspects of tree growth, especially over decades, can be powerful predictors of widespread drought-associated die-off. However, model discrimination varied across sites and drought events. Weaker growth-mortality relationships and higher growth at lower survival probabilities for some sites during the 2000s event suggest a shift in mortality processes from longer-term growth-related constraints to shorter-term processes, such as rapid metabolic decline even in vigorous trees due to acute drought stress, and

  9. Growth-mortality relationships in piñon pine (Pinus edulis) during severe droughts of the past century: shifting processes in space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macalady, Alison K; Bugmann, Harald

    2014-01-01

    The processes leading to drought-associated tree mortality are poorly understood, particularly long-term predisposing factors, memory effects, and variability in mortality processes and thresholds in space and time. We use tree rings from four sites to investigate Pinus edulis mortality during two drought periods in the southwestern USA. We draw on recent sampling and archived collections to (1) analyze P. edulis growth patterns and mortality during the 1950s and 2000s droughts; (2) determine the influence of climate and competition on growth in trees that died and survived; and (3) derive regression models of growth-mortality risk and evaluate their performance across space and time. Recent growth was 53% higher in surviving vs. dying trees, with some sites exhibiting decades-long growth divergences associated with previous drought. Differential growth response to climate partly explained growth differences between live and dead trees, with responses wet/cool conditions most influencing eventual tree status. Competition constrained tree growth, and reduced trees' ability to respond to favorable climate. The best predictors in growth-mortality models included long-term (15-30 year) average growth rate combined with a metric of growth variability and the number of abrupt growth increases over 15 and 10 years, respectively. The most parsimonious models had high discriminatory power (ROC>0.84) and correctly classified ∼ 70% of trees, suggesting that aspects of tree growth, especially over decades, can be powerful predictors of widespread drought-associated die-off. However, model discrimination varied across sites and drought events. Weaker growth-mortality relationships and higher growth at lower survival probabilities for some sites during the 2000s event suggest a shift in mortality processes from longer-term growth-related constraints to shorter-term processes, such as rapid metabolic decline even in vigorous trees due to acute drought stress, and/or increases

  10. Growth-mortality relationships in piñon pine (Pinus edulis during severe droughts of the past century: shifting processes in space and time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison K Macalady

    Full Text Available The processes leading to drought-associated tree mortality are poorly understood, particularly long-term predisposing factors, memory effects, and variability in mortality processes and thresholds in space and time. We use tree rings from four sites to investigate Pinus edulis mortality during two drought periods in the southwestern USA. We draw on recent sampling and archived collections to (1 analyze P. edulis growth patterns and mortality during the 1950s and 2000s droughts; (2 determine the influence of climate and competition on growth in trees that died and survived; and (3 derive regression models of growth-mortality risk and evaluate their performance across space and time. Recent growth was 53% higher in surviving vs. dying trees, with some sites exhibiting decades-long growth divergences associated with previous drought. Differential growth response to climate partly explained growth differences between live and dead trees, with responses wet/cool conditions most influencing eventual tree status. Competition constrained tree growth, and reduced trees' ability to respond to favorable climate. The best predictors in growth-mortality models included long-term (15-30 year average growth rate combined with a metric of growth variability and the number of abrupt growth increases over 15 and 10 years, respectively. The most parsimonious models had high discriminatory power (ROC>0.84 and correctly classified ∼ 70% of trees, suggesting that aspects of tree growth, especially over decades, can be powerful predictors of widespread drought-associated die-off. However, model discrimination varied across sites and drought events. Weaker growth-mortality relationships and higher growth at lower survival probabilities for some sites during the 2000s event suggest a shift in mortality processes from longer-term growth-related constraints to shorter-term processes, such as rapid metabolic decline even in vigorous trees due to acute drought stress, and

  11. A PCA-based hyperspectral approach to detect infections by mycophilic fungi on dried porcini mushrooms (boletus edulis and allied species).

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    Bagnasco, Lucia; Zotti, Mirca; Sitta, Nicola; Oliveri, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    Mycophilic fungi of anamorphic genus Sepedonium (telomorphs in Hypomyces, Hypocreales, Ascomycota) infect and parasitize sporomata of boletes. The obligated hosts such as Boletus edulis and allied species (known as "porcini mushrooms") are among the most valued and prized edible wild mushrooms in the world. Sepedonium infections have a great morphological variability: at the initial state, contaminated mushrooms present a white coating covering tubes and pores; at the final state, Sepedonium forms a deep and thick hyphal layer that eventually leads to the total necrosis of the host. Up to date, Sepedonium infections in porcini mushrooms have been evaluated only through macroscopic and microscopic visual analysis. In this study, in order to implement the infection evaluation as a routine methodology for industrial purposes, the potential application of Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for detection of Sepedonium presence on sliced and dried B. edulis and allied species was investigated. Hyperspectral images were obtained using a pushbroom line-scanning HSI instrument, operating in the wavelength range between 400 and 1000 nm with 5 nm resolution. PCA was applied on normal and contaminated samples. To reduce the spectral variability caused by factors unrelated to Sepedonium infection, such as scattering effects and differences in sample height, different spectral pre-treatments were applied. A supervised rule was then developed to assign spectra recorded on new test samples to each of the two classes, based on the PC scores. This allowed to visualize directly - within false-color images of test samples - which points of the samples were contaminated. The results achieved may lead to the development of a non-destructive monitoring system for a rapid on-line screening of contaminated mushrooms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Expression of M6 and M7 lysin in Mytilus edulis is not restricted to sperm, but occurs also in oocytes and somatic tissue of males and females.

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    Heß, Anne-Katrin; Bartel, Manuela; Roth, Karina; Messerschmidt, Katrin; Heilmann, Katja; Kenchington, Ellen; Micheel, Burkhard; Stuckas, Heiko

    2012-08-01

    Sperm proteins of marine sessile invertebrates have been extensively studied to understand the molecular basis of reproductive isolation. Apart from molecules such as bindin of sea urchins or lysin of abalone species, the acrosomal protein M7 lysin of Mytilus edulis has been analyzed. M7 lysin was found to be under positive selection, but mechanisms driving the evolution of this protein are not fully understood. To explore functional aspects, this study investigated the protein expression pattern of M7 and M6 lysin in gametes and somatic tissue of male and female M. edulis. The study employs a previously published monoclonal antibody (G26-AG8) to investigate M6 and M7 lysin protein expression, and explores expression of both genes. It is shown that these proteins and their encoding genes are expressed in gametes and somatic tissue of both sexes. This is in contrast to sea urchin bindin and abalone lysin, in which gene expression is strictly limited to males. Although future studies need to clarify the functional importance of both acrosomal proteins in male and female somatic tissue, new insights into the evolution of sperm proteins in marine sessile invertebrates are possible. This is because proteins with male-specific expression (bindin, lysin) might evolve differently than proteins with expression in both sexes (M6/M7 lysin), and the putative function of both proteins in females opens the possibility that the evolution of M6/M7 lysin is under sexual antagonistic selection, for example, mutations beneficial to the acrosomal function that are less beneficial the function in somatic tissue of females. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Too much food may cause reduced growth of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) - Test of hypothesis and new 'high Chl a BEG-model'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Poul S.; Lüskow, Florian; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2018-04-01

    Growth of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) is closely related to the biomass of phytoplankton (expressed as concentration of chlorophyll a, Chl a), but the effect of too much food in eutrophicated areas has so far been overlooked. The hypothesis addressed in the present study suggests that high Chl a concentrations (> about 8 μg Chl a l-1) result in reduced growth because mussels are not evolutionarily adapted to utilize such high phytoplankton concentrations and to physiologically regulate the amount of ingested food in such a way that the growth rate remains high and constant. We first make a comparison of literature values for actually measured weight-specific growth rates (μ, % d-1) of small (20 to 25 mm) M. edulis, either grown in controlled laboratory experiments or in net bags in Danish waters, as a function of Chl a. A linear increase up to about μ = 8.3% d-1 at 8.1 μg Chl a l-1 fits the "standard BEG-model" after which a marked decrease takes place, and this supports the hypothesis. A "high Chl a BEG-model", applicable to newly settled post-metamorphic and small juvenile (non-spawning) mussels in eutrophicated Danish and other temperate waters, is developed and tested, and new data from a case study in which the growth of mussels in net bags was measured along a Chl a gradient are presented. Finally, we discuss the phenomenon of reduced growth of mussels in eutrophicated areas versus a possible impact of low salinity. It is concluded that it is difficult to separate the effect of salinity from the effect of Chl a, but the present study shows that too much food may cause reduced growth of mussels in eutrophicated marine areas regardless of high or moderate salinity above about 10 psu.

  14. Bioavailability of sediment-associated and low-molecular-mass species of radionuclides/trace metals to the mussel Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borretzen, Peer [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 50003, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, N-1432 As (Norway)], E-mail: peer.borretzen@gmail.com; Salbu, Brit [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 50003, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, N-1432 As (Norway)

    2009-04-15

    Sediments can act as a sink for contaminants in effluents from industrial and nuclear installations or when released from dumped waste. However, contaminated sediments may also act as a potential source of radionuclides and trace metals to the water phase due to remobilisation of metals as dissolved species and resuspension of particles. The marine mussel Mytilus edulis is a filter-feeding organism that via the gills is subjected to contaminants in dissolved form and from contaminants associated to suspended particles via the digestive system. In this paper the bioavailability of sediment-associated and seawater diluted Cs, Co, Cd and Zn radioactive tracers to the filtering bivalve M. edulis has been examined. The mussels were exposed to tracers diluted in ultrafiltered (<10 kDa) seawater (Low Molecular Mass form) or to tracers associated with sediment particles from the Stepovogo Fjord at Novaya Zemlya in short-term uptake experiments, followed by 1-month depuration experiments in flow-through tanks. A toxicokinetic model was fitted to the uptake and depuration data, and the obtained parameters were used to simulate the significance of the two uptake pathways at different suspended sediment loads and sediment-seawater distribution coefficients. The results of the model simulations, assuming steady state conditions, suggest that resuspended particles from contaminated sediments can be a highly significant pathway for mussels in the order {sup 109}Cd {approx_equal} {sup 65}Zn < {sup 134}Cs < {sup 60}Co. The significance increases with higher suspended sediment load and with higher K{sub d}. Furthermore, the experimental depuration data suggest that Cs is retained longer and Co, Cd and Zn shorter by the mussels when associated with ingested sediments, than if the metals are taken up from the low molecular mass (LMM) phase.

  15. Le savoir-faire local dans la valorisation alimentaire des fruits du safoutier (Dacryodes edulis (G. Don H.J. Lam au Cameroun

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    Noumi, GB.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Local Know-how in the Valorisation of (Dacryodes edulis (G. Don H.J. Lam Fruits in Cameroon. Dacryodes edulis (G. Don H.J. Lam (Burseraceae is an oleaginous plant highly appreciated in the forest zone of Cameroon. This tree yields fruits called african pear or safou, highly consumed by local populations and even abroad. African pear is at the centre of a great economic activity in the Central Africa subregion as its trade generates cash for local traders during the production period. However, the valorisation of african pear is hindered by its high perishable nature responsible for important post-harvest losses due to lack of proper post-harvest handling. Some studies addressed the problem, unfortunately, nothing was done on the local know-how which has still to be investigated. The present paper sheds light on african pear local harvesting, handling and marketing practices in Cameroon. Field surveys were carried out in different production zones in Cameroon savannah and humid forest lowlands: Adamawa, centre, east, littoral and west provinces. Results showed that african pear occupies an important place in the population daily life. This multipurpose tree specie appears to be a source of foodstuffs, cash income, drugs and wood. If, on one hand diverse strategies are developed by the population for a proper conservation of fruits, on the other hand there is not a real fruits transformation activity. Results of this study highlight the traditional know-how and bring out prospects for future works on african pear valorisation.

  16. Growth of farmed blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) in a Norwegian coastal area; comparison of food proxies by DEB modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handå, Aleksander; Alver, Morten; Edvardsen, Christian Vik; Halstensen, Stein; Olsen, Anders Johny; Øie, Gunvor; Reitan, Kjell Inge; Olsen, Yngvar; Reinertsen, Helge

    2011-11-01

    Seston variables and growth of the blue mussel ( Mytilus edulis L.) were measured during the growth season from March to October in three suspended longline farms in Central Norway; one in the inner part of Åfjorden (63° 56' N, 10° 11' E) and two in Inner and Outer Koet, respectively (63° 49' N, 9° 42' and 47' E). Four seston variables were used as alternative input values in a Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model to compare their suitability as food proxies for predicting mussel growth: 1; total particulate matter (TPM), 2; particulate organic matter (POM), 3; organic content (OC) and 4; chlorophyll a (chl a). Mean TPM and POM measured 6.1 and 1.9 mg L - 1 in Åfjorden, 10.3 and 4.2 mg L - 1 in Inner Koet, and 10.5 and 4.6 mg L - 1 in Outer Koet, respectively, resulting in a mean OC of 32, 41 and 44% in Åfjorden and Inner and Outer Koet, respectively. Mean chl a measured 1.6 μg L - 1 in Åfjorden, 3.1 μg L - 1 in Inner Koet, and 1.6 μg L - 1 in Outer Koet. Average length growth was 0.20% day - 1 in medium sized mussels (24-36 mm) in Åfjorden and 0.08% day - 1 in large mussels (40-55 mm) in Inner and Outer Koet. Mean standardized soft tissue dry weight ranged between 250 and 390 mg in Åfjorden, 600 and 1175 in Inner Koet, and 600 and 960 mg in Outer Koet, and showed a seasonal pattern independent of growth in length with scattered spawnings. The model showed the best match for a single criterion for growth in both length and soft tissue dry weight for different food proxies depending on location. TPM gave the best match in Åfjorden, while chl a and POM gave the best match in Inner and Outer Koet, respectively. For Åfjorden, growth in length decreased markedly at the end of the sampling period, and this decrease was not reproduced by the model for any of the food proxies. For Inner and Outer Koet, agreement between measured and modeled length was quite good for the optimal choices of food proxy, with clear variations between the proxies for both farms. The

  17. ESTUDO DA CINÉTICA DE SECAGEM, EXTRAÇÃO, CARACTERIZAÇÃO E ESTABILIDADE TÉRMICA DO ÓLEO DAS SEMENTES DE MARACUJÁ DO MATO (PASSIFLORA CINCINNATA MAST.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianna Karla Santana Andrade

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a viabilidade de aproveitamento de semente de maracujá do mato (Passiflora cincinnata Mast. para a extração de óleo. As sementes foram desidratadas em um secador convectivo, com finalidade de estudar as melhores condições de secagem nas temperaturas de 50, 60 e 70° C e ajustar os dados experimentais de cinética de s