Sample records for parametru izmantoana suu

  1. Assessment of radiation exposure and evaluation of remedial measures for the uranium mining and milling area of Mailuu Suu, Kyrgyzstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Sweeck, Lieve; Clerc, Jean-Jacques; Aitaliev, Anarkul


    The area of the town of Mailuu Suu, Kyrgyzstan, is polluted by radionuclides and heavy metals in tailing dumps and heaps resulting from the historic exploitation of uranium mines. Radioactive substances are stored in 23 tailings and 10 heaps situated along the Mailuu Suu River. The stability of many tailings is at risk. Attention is mostly directed to Tailing 3, because of its important radionuclide inventory and since threatened by the borders of a major landslide. In the frame of a European Commission-TACIS funded project, a radiological monitoring programme was set up and a radiological assessment was performed for critical group members living in the city of Mailuu Suu, located downstream the tailings, or in the village of Kara Agach, partially located on a uranium mine-waste dump. The actual radiological situation is of no immediate concern for most of the population of Mailuu Suu. The actual external exposure and exposure from radon are, respectively, around 1.2 mSv a -1 and 5 mSv a -1 , at both locations. Ingestion dose was negligible for a critical group member living at Mailuu Suu. At Kara Agach, however, under the hypothesis that all food and fodder is cultivated locally, exposure from ingestion is much higher (∼10-30 mSv a -1 ). Additional dose from irrigation with Mailuu Suu river water is small in actual conditions ( -1 ). However, there is an important possibility that, triggered by an earthquake or a landslide, (part of the) tailing(s) content may be directed to the river Mailuu Suu. In case the content of Tailing 3 is thrust to river, calculated maximum doses are 45 and 77 mSv a -1 for an adult and a child, respectively, for an assumed exposure duration of 2 years. To impede the consequences of a potential disaster, under the TACIS project different remedial options were evaluated for Tailing 3 including in situ stabilisation and tailing translocation. Also more global remedial options for the Mailuu Suu River valley were proposed (translocation

  2. Environmental Impact and Remediation of Uranium Tailings and Waste Rock Dumps at Mailuu-Suu in Kyrgyzstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunze, C.; Walter, U.; Wagner, F.; Schmidt, P.; Barnekow, U.; Gruber, A.


    This paper describes the environmental situation in the former uranium mining and milling region of Mailuu-Suu (Kyrgyzstan), the approach to environmental remediation of the waste facilities (tailings ponds and waste dumps) and the results achieved so far. It starts with an outline of the history of the environmental remediation project which has received international attention and is seen as a pilot project for further remediation activities of former uranium mining and milling sites in the region. Apart from technical aspects, the paper draws conclusions with respect to the administrative environment, institutional capacity building and the local availability of resources needed to successfully implement a complex remediation project. (author)

  3. Isotope composition and uranium content in the rivers Naryn and Mailuu-Suu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, I. A.; Alekhina, V. M.; Orozobakov, T.; Mamatibraimov, S.


    To solve the atomic problem, including the creation of an atomic weapon, one must embark on an intensive exploration and mining of radioactive raw materials, first among which uranium, together with other materials and metals. The acquisition of all these materials has thus been accompanied by the creation of a great deal of production and storage wastes and other refuse from plants, leading to many problems of protecting the environment from radioactive and other hazardous metals and materials. And so, as a result of the extensive mining and processing of radioactive and other raw materials that had been necessary for the atomic industry, in locations like Kara-Balty, Mailuu-Suu, Kavak, Kadamzhay and other places, a series of radioactive and hazardous tailings and dumps has been generated in the Kyrgyz Republic. The toxic ingredients from the dumps migrate and mix together with the ground waters that leach the tailings. However, how these waters migrate both in space and time have not been sufficiently studied; and, so, in general, we cannot forecast the propagation of these hazards. In the usual estimation of the scale of migration from uranium plants, only the total uranium content in the ground water is used. But this does not show natural or technogenic components; and it is obvious that the danger from the plants need only be characterized by the technogenic components. To solve this problem, one can employ the phenomenon where there is a natural separation in the fraction of 234 U and 238 U present in nature and as a result of technological processes. The essence of this understanding is that, as uranium transitions from solid form into a liquid, such as its dissolution in ground water, it undergoes isotope enrichment, i.e. hydrogenic uranium is enriched with 234 U compared to 238 U.The essence of this understanding is that, as uranium transitions from solid form into a liquid, such as its dissolution in ground water, it undergoes isotope enrichment, i

  4. Radioactive and chemical contamination of the water resources in the former uranium mining and milling sites of Mailuu Suu (Kyrgyzstan). (United States)

    Corcho Alvarado, J A; Balsiger, B; Röllin, S; Jakob, A; Burger, M


    An assessment of the radioactive and chemical contamination of the water resources at the former uranium mines and processing sites of Mailuu-Suu, in Kyrgyzstan, was carried out. A large number of water samples were collected from the drinking water distribution system (DWDS), rivers, shallow aquifers and drainage water from the mine tailings. Radionuclides and trace metal contents in water from the DWDS were low in general, but were extremely high for Fe, Al and Mn. These elements were associated with the particle fractions in the water and strongly correlated with high turbidity levels. Overall, these results suggest that water from the DWDS does not represent a serious radiological hazard to the Mailuu Suu population. However, due to the high turbidities and contents of some elements, this water is not good quality drinking water. Water from artesian and dug wells were characterized by elevated levels of U (up to 10 μg/L) and some trace elements (e.g. As, Se, Cr, V and F) and anions (e.g. Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-)). In two artesian wells, the WHO guideline value of 10 μg/L for As in water was exceeded. As the artesian wells are used as a source of drinking water by a large number of households, special care should be taken in order to stay within the WHO recommended guidelines. Drainage water from the mine tailings was as expected highly contaminated with many chemicals (e.g. As) and radioactive contaminants (e.g. U). The concentrations of U were more than 200 times the WHO guideline value of 30 μg/L for U in drinking water. A large variation in (234)U/(238)U isotopic ratios in water was observed, with values near equilibrium at the mine tailings and far from equilibrium outside this area (reaching ratios of 2.3 in the artesian well). This result highlights the potential use of this ratio as an indicator of the origin of U contamination in Mailuu Suu. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Radioecological and radiobiogeochemical situation of flood-lands of river Mailuu-Suu (Kyrgyzstan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djenbaev, B.M.; Dijkanov, K.D.; Egemberdieva, A.D.


    Full text: In the end of XX c. in connection with increased texnogenium of biosphere accompanying wide application of mineral fertilizers, accumulation in environment wastes of a mining industry, household wastes and other, technogenium biogeochemical provinces and new associations of chemical elements arise. It is known, that sharp deficiency or the surplus in environment of biologically active elements results in diseases of animals, plants and a man. On the territory of Kyrgyzstan and other countries biogeochemical provinces with deficiency and surplus I, F, Cu, Cu, V, Ca, Sr, Se, U and Hg are investigated. The doctrine about biogeochemical provinces finds practical realization in medicine and agriculture (preventive maintenance of endemical diseases, synthesis of medicines, manufacture of micro fertilizers etc.). Selection of samples of soil, natural waters and plants carried out by a way of platforms on the certain routes with the account of landscape-geochemical and meteorological conditions. Processing of samples carried out in biogeochemistry laboratory of an environment GEOCHI of RAS and Biology-soil institute NAS of KR with use of soil and geological cards at an advice of the geologists and soil scientists of Kyrgyzstan. Concentration of triselementis was being by AAC, Spectrofluorimetrical and etc. methods. During operation of a uranium deposit Mailuu-Suu (1946-1968 years) more than 10 thousand tons of uranium were extracted. According to the scientific geologists and geochemists, radioactive wastes in the given site, are quantitatively equivalent to size of the extracted uranium. In tail-depository the huge weights of residual uranium and it long-lived of isotopes (Th-230, Ra-226 etc.), hence, radio-activity tail-depositories will be kept long. Now condition of these damps and storehouses contains in a so pitiable condition, that radioactive wastes, heavy metals and the toxic substances pollute an environment. And, most dangerous sites are in landslide

  6. "My Favourite Day Is Sunday": Community Perceptions of (Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis and Ambulatory Tuberculosis Care in Kara Suu District, Osh Province, Kyrgyzstan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Burtscher

    Full Text Available Kyrgyzstan is one of the 27 high multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB burden countries listed by the WHO. In 2012, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF started a drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB project in Kara Suu District. A qualitative study was undertaken to understand the perception of TB and DR-TB in order to improve the effectiveness and acceptance of the MSF intervention and to support advocacy strategies for an ambulatory model of care.This paper reports findings from 63 interviews with patients, caregivers, health care providers and members of communities. Data was analysed using a qualitative content analysis. Validation was ensured by triangulation and a 'thick' description of the research context, and by presenting deviant cases.Findings show that the general population interprets TB as the 'lungs having a cold' or as a 'family disease' rather than as an infectious illness. From their perspective, individuals facing poor living conditions are more likely to get TB than wealthier people. Vulnerable groups such as drug and alcohol users, homeless persons, ethnic minorities and young women face barriers in accessing health care. As also reported in other publications, TB is highly stigmatised and possible side effects of the long treatment course are seen as unbearable; therefore, people only turn to public health care quite late. Most patients prefer ambulatory treatment because of the much needed emotional support from their social environment, which positively impacts treatment concordance. Health care providers favour inpatient treatment only for a better monitoring of side effects. Health staff increasingly acknowledges the central role they play in supporting DR-TB patients, and the importance of assuming a more empathic attitude.Health promotion activities should aim at improving knowledge on TB and DR-TB, reducing stigma, and fostering the inclusion of vulnerable populations. Health seeking delays and adherence problems will

  7. Rahaga kleebit suu / Ivar Tallo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tallo, Ivar, 1964-


    Ametnike politiseerimisest ja selle põhjusest. Autor on arvamusel, et sotsiaalminister Maret Maripuu valis endale 2007. a. kantsleriks inimese, kellel puudus ametnikuelu kogemus. See, et sotsiaalministeeriumi kantsler vabastatakse ja minister jätkab ametis, meenutab autori sõnul pigem monarhiat, kus monarh ei saanud eksida ja keegi alamatest pidi süü endale võtma

  8. Sportimine taastab juhi väsinud vaimu / Sigrid Suu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suu, Sigrid


    Juhtide vaimsest ja füüsilisest tervisest, stressi ennetamisest ja tagajärgedest ning sportimis- ja lõõgastumisviiside valikust. Kommenteerivad Remet AS-i juht Tõnu Altnurme ja E.L.L. Kinnisvara juht Jaak Vende

  9. Estonian Cell peab suu kasumist puhtaks pühkima / Kaisa Tahlfeld, Katre Pilvinski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tahlfeld, Kaisa


    Estonian Cell saatis valitsusele pöördumise, milles palutakse teha parandusi elektrienergiaga seonduvates seadustes, mis aitaksid ettevõtet energia hinnatõusu ajal. Elektri hinnatõusu tõttu on muutunud küsitavaks ka Nitroferti tehase edasine eksisteerimine

  10. EKA - suur tükk ajab suu lõhki / Tuuli Jõesaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõesaar, Tuuli


    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia uue hoone arhitektuurikonkursi võidutöö "Art Plaza" projekti muutmisest. Kadunud on korruseid läbinud avatud aatrium. Uuenenud plaanid ei ole veel EKA nõukogu ette jõudnud. Projektis saab muudatusi teha töö autor (Taani bürood SEA ja Effekt koos AET Arhitektide ja Allianss Arhitektidega) koostöös dekaanide, õppejõudude ja tehniliste ekspertidega. Lisandunud on tudengite algatusrühm

  11. "Supersizing" the College Classroom: How One Instructor Teaches 2,670 Students (United States)

    Parry, Marc


    In October, Myanmar's pro-democracy leader, Aung San Suu Kyi, got a quirky request on YouTube. A hyperactive instructor in a plaid jacket posted a video inviting her to do a Skype interview with his "World Regions" geography class at Virginia Tech. Ms. Suu Kyi, a Nobel Peace Prize laureate often compared to Nelson Mandela, might have…

  12. The Struggle for Human Rights in Myanmar (United States)

    Keefer, Natalie


    The non-violent participation of Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi and Buddhist monks in resistance efforts to advocate for the welfare of Myanmar's people has played an important role in educating the world about human rights violations in the country. Faced with international condemnation, Myanmar's junta released Aung San Suu Kyi from…

  13. Piinatud birmalased ootavad ÜRO seni jõuetut abikätt / Karin Dean

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Dean, Karin


    Buda munkade eestvedmisel toimunud massimeeleavalduste mahasurumisest Birmas. ÜRO erisaadiku Ibrahim Gambari kohtumisest nii Birma kindralite kui ka opositsiooniliidri Aung San Suu Kyiga oodatakse tulemusi ja sanktsioone Lisa: Sõjaväe haardes riik

  14. Individuaalse sõna- ja loomevabaduse kahjulikkusest ehk kas kunstnikul on mõnikord mõtet suu pidada? = The downside of feedom of speech and artistic creativity or is there any sense in the artist keeping their mouth shut occasionally? / Johannes S

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Johannes, 1965-


    Eesti kunstikultuuri paiknemine individualismi ja kommunitarismi skaalal. Ettekanne Kaasaegse Kunsti Eesti Keskuse 4. ettekannete päeval "Kunstnike moraalsed valikud kultuurikonfliktides" Tallinna Kunstihoones 27.04.2006. Bibliograafia lk. 87

  15. National Hydroelectric Power Resources Study: Regional Assessment: Volume XXII: Western Systems Coordinating Council, (WSCC). Volume 22 (United States)


    largest combustion- turbine plants, both over 200 MW, are the Harborton facility in Portland, Oregon, owned by Portland General Electric, and Agua ...SUU 110 Sl/U CJt SUU III Ii/U :r 93 SUU 94 Si/U W 95 IlIU U Si/U 97 SlIU 98 SitU 99 SlIU 100 Si/U 101 SlIU 102 Si/U 103 Fl RlIV 104 01 R2...YNNNYNN * * S 2 * MARICOPA AGUA FRIA elV. 112 lb.l * UP * 103800 * 1500 * 32b5 * 57.781 * * * AS * MCM~CD PI * tij~9 * 60.0* 170,8 * 1500 * l2bS

  16. Main ecopathology syndromes of children living in the area of nuclear waste tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saatova G. M.


    Full Text Available the clinical forms of ecopathology and clinical and epidemiological features of congenital and acquired diseases of children living in the area of nuclear waste tailings (city Mailu-Suu Kyrgyz Republic are studied in this article. The authors figured out that 52.6% of children living in stressful environmental conditions had a high medical and social risk of chronic disease.

  17. AHP 10: Story: A Stolen Journey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blo bzang tshe ring བློ་བཟང་ཚེ་རིང་།


    Full Text Available BIo bzang tshe ring (b 1984 is from A mgon Village, A mchog Town, Bsang chu County, Kan Iho Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Kan su'u Province. He says, "I wrote this story based on what I was told by the three men who brought the main character of the story to Zi ling City in their car."

  18. Dialogue of Freedom. Asian Voices Challenge Cultural Assumptions about Democracy. (United States)

    Pon, Cynthia


    Discusses the concept of freedom in a global context, focusing on the Asian perspectives of three spokespersons: Zhuangzi or Chuang Tzu, a Daoist (Taoist) poet-philosopher in 4th-century-BCE China; Indian-born Nobel economist Amartya Sen, whose work on poverty links development with freedom; and Aung San Suu Kyi, Burmese democratic leader and…

  19. Korruptsiooniskandaal : Olympic Casino maksis kinni riigikogulase öö luksushotellis / Margus Tsahkna ; interv. Urmo Soonvald, Kaspar Käänik, Lauri Birkan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tsahkna, Margus, 1977-


    Ilmunud ka: Vesti Dnja, 21. juuni 2007, lk. 24. Olympic Casino maksis kinni IRL peasekretäri ja Riigikogu rahanduskomisjoni liikme Margus Tsahkna öö Varssavi luksushotellis. Intervjuu Margus Tsahknaga. Vt. samas: Partei aukohtul suu vett täis; Igor Gräzin: Margus Tsahkna poleks tohtinud sinna sõita

  20. Eesti peaks toetama Birma vabaduse taastamist / Jared Genser

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Genser, Jared


    Advokaat, Birma vabadusvõitleja Aung San Suu Kyid'i esindaja tema koduaresti kaasuses kirjeldab olukorda Birmas ning avaldab lootust, et eestlased kasutavad võimalust ja vastutust kõnelda Birma ning teiste allasurutud rahvaste eest kogu maailmas, täpsemalt - Eesti võiks õhutada Euroopa Liitu toetama ÜRO julgeolekunõukogu

  1. Radioactive parameters of waters of the Syr-Darya river basin on the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrisova, S.; Vasiliev, I.A.; Alekhina, V.M.; Mamatibraimov, S.; Orozobakov, T.


    Full text: Within the framework of the International Cooperation Program in the sphere of the transboundary monitoring of the rivers between the Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, and the United States of America ( N avruz , ISTC KR-850 Project), in addition, in the Kyrgyz Republic, the isotopic content (isotopic ratio of 234 U/ 238 U=γ ), and the uranium content (CU) in the waters was measured. The isotopic ratio 234 U/ 238 U=γ of the waters of the rivers Naryn and Kara-Daria basins has no anomalous values of 234 U/ 238 U, which indicates the absence of the man-caused uranium in these rivers. The results of determination of the activity ratio of 234 U/ 238 U and uranium content in the Mailuu-Suu river basin are of great interest. In the upper reaches of the Mailuu-Suu river the uranium content is 0.4 10 -6 g/l (0.8 10 -6 g/l in the flood period), in Mailuu-Suu town (after the tailing dump) - (3 †4) 10 -6 g/l, i.e. this value is an order of magnitude higher, and at the border with Uzbekistan - 1.8 ·10 -6 g/l (3.2 ·10 -6 g/l in the period of flooding), which is lower as compared with the town. Correspondently, there are changes in the activity ratio from 1.39 (in the upper reaches of the river) to 1.05 (in the town), and 1.32 (1.12 during the flood period) at the border with Uzbekistan. This situation indicates, first, the enrichment of the waters of the rivers with the man-caused uranium ( γ=1), and its subsequent sorption along the river stream. The obtained results indicate the absence of the man-caused uranium in the whole stream of the Naryn and Kara-Daria rivers on the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic, and lack of noticeable contamination of the waters of the Mailuu-Suu river with the man-caused uranium from the tailing dumps of the Western Mining-Chemical Plant (WMCP, Mailuu-Suu). It also should be noted that the share of the man-caused uranium, transported to Uzbekistan by the Mailuu-Suu river does not exceed 20-30%, and

  2. All the Missiles Work Technological Dislocations and Military Innovation: A Case Study in US Air Force Air-to-Air Armament, Post-World War II through Operation Rolling Thunder (United States)


    summary within the AFHRA folder. 3 aerial refueling in the skies over Thailand and began their trek north towards Hanoi, they were alerted to the...the missile for the long trek from Hanoi south to friendly airspace. Craig and Talley in SPEEDO 3 also had success with the new SUU-16 20-mm gun...for a manned presence in space independent from that of the newly formed National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA ). 15 The Air Force‘s

  3. Puruvana puruvanavana : [luuletused] / Eno Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Eno, 1928-1996


    Sisu: Puruvana puruvanavana ; Vetesell ; Pada ja katel ; Nääripäkapikk ; Vanapaar ; Mere peremees ; Lepamaim ; Kiilaspää kiilasjääl ; Tõugu unistus ; Naljatilk silk ; Muttide jalutuskäik ; Hiir lumes ; Kalakari salakaril ; Naljalammas ; Mesilastest ; Kure mure ; Voki laul karule ; Põrsalaul ; Kurk ja kõrvits ; Tuhk ja tina ; Õige pea ja vale pea ; Suu pea, puupea! ; Siga õuel

  4. Vaktsineerimine kui hoop Eesti maaelule / Ivari Padar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Padar, Ivari, 1965-


    Põllumajandusminister selgitab põllumajandusministeeriumi tegevust Eestit ähvardava suu- ja sõrataudi tõrjumisel. Autor: Rahvaerakond Mõõdukad. Ilmunud ka: Maaleht, 12. apr. 2001, lk. 15; Nädaline, 12. apr. 2001, lk. 4; Meie Maa, 12. apr. 2001, lk. 4; Virumaa Teataja, 11. apr. 2001, lk.7; Vooremaa, 17. apr. 2001, lk. 3; Järva Teataja, 20. apr. 2001, lk. 2

  5. China’s Arrival: A Strategic Framework for a Global Relationship (United States)


    land bridge, with ports on either side of the Isthmus of Kra, connected by rails and highways. And the Malaysian government is interested in an east...speeches before the Diet , only this time with a clear identification with the West. Japanese diplomats also used the universality branding in the debate...aid to the junta following the 2007 crackdown and the formation of a Diet members’ League to support Aung San Suu Kyi. The 2008 Diplomatic Blue Book

  6. Contemporary Pollution Due Old Uranium Tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjamberdiev, I.


    The areas of our study are uranium mining areas (with tails and dumps) Min-Kush, Kadji-Sai, Mailuu-Suu. These areas situated in different parts of Tien-Shan region. We study the content (and correlations among): level of uranium in environment, immune function and level, level in human teeth. It has been found: content of uranium in river water under tails about 2,0x10-5 gm/litter, and high level in drinking water too 2,0-4,0. Drying grass and flowers uranium content was 0,04-0,51x10-5 gm/gm, most high content were in Tacniatherum crinitum and Atgilops triuncialis. Lams tissues contain 0,005-2,44 mg/g in Min-Kush, 0,03-0,107, in Mailuu-Suu, and 0,001-0,048 mg/g in Kadji-Sai. Human teeth uranium content (Mailuu-Suu): in milk-teeth 0,481x10-6 gm/gm, in former miners 0,7684x10-6 gm/gm. Inhabitants of the area, which not working in uranium industry have 0,6876x10-6 gm/gm. There was low level of immune function (lymphocytes, IgI globulin, etc) in all three regions (in child, in adults, in uranium-mining worked people). There is no doubt of the positive correlations of uranium pollution of water (by underground infiltration from tails) on one hand and, on the other hand - a) grass, b) lambs body, c) human teeth, d) human immune function. Levels of uranium in teeth strictly depend on time of mining contact. (author)

  7. Raskauden vaikutukset suun terveyteen : Oppimateriaali raskaana olevien suun terveydestä Oulun Ammattikorkeakoulun kätilöopiskelijoille


    Lesonen, Jemina; Pääkkönen, Pauliina


    Raskaus vaikuttaa suuhun usealla tavalla esimerkiksi estrogeenin ja progesteronin pitoisuuksien muutosten vuoksi. Raskausaikana sylki happamoituu ja sen puskurointikyky heikkenee, suu voi tuntua kuivalta ja mikrobien määrä suussa kasvaa. Esimerkiksi nämä tekijät yhdessä mahdollisen napostelun ja raskauspahoinvoinnin kanssa vaikuttavat raskaana olevan karies- ja eroosioriskiin. Tämän toiminnallisen opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tuottaa selkeä ja asiantuntijatietoon perustuva sähköinen o...

  8. Summary of ARI Research on Remotely Monitored Sensors (United States)



  9. Miks on Savisaar ja proua Bush Birma kallal / Mai Loog

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loog, Mai, 1960-


    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 29. mai lk. 7. Birma sõjaväeline valitsus otsustas taas pikendada aasta võrra Nobeli rahupreemia laureaadi ja demokraatliku opositsiooni liidri Aung San Suu Kyi 11-aastast koduaresti, mille vastu astusid välja USA senaatorid presidendiproua Laura Bushi juhtimisel kui ka Tallinna linnapea Edgar Savisaar koos Pariisi ja Rooma linnapeadega. Birma hunta plaanitavast konstitutsioonist, kus aatomienergia on pandud riigikaitse ja julgeoleku alla. Venemaa aatomienergia agentuuri Rosatomi lepingust Birma huntaga aatomienergia tootmiseks

  10. Burma’s 2010 Elections: Implications of the New Constitution and Election Laws (United States)


    10,000,’” BBC, May 5, 2008; “Burma’s Cyclone Death Toll Soars,” BBC, May 6, 2008, and Aung Hla Tun , “Myanmar Cyclone Toll Climbs to Nearly 22,500...Aftermath,” December 20, 2007, by Michael F. Martin. 22 Aung Hla Tun , “Suu Kyi’s Party Says Won’t Stand in Myanmar Polls,” Reuters, March 30, 2010. Burma’s...part of her name. 27 U.S. Department of State, “Daily Press Briefing,” press release, March 10, 2010. 28 Ibid. 29 Aung Zaw , “Hipocrisy Replaces

  11. Izlases dizainu salīdzināšana ar simulācijas eksperimentu palīdzību


    Rikačova, Tatjana


    Darbā tika aplūkoti trīs veidu izlases dizaini: vienkāršā gadījuma izlase, sistemātiskā gadījuma izlase un stratificētā gadījuma izlase, kā arī tika apskatīta GREG novērtējumu teorija. Pētījuma mērķis bija ar simulācijas eksperimentu palīdzību salīdzināt iepriekš minētos izlases dizainus, lai noteiktu izlases dizainu, kas dod precīzākus konkrētās populācijas parametru novērtējumus. Lai veiktu simulācijas eksperimentus tika ģenerēti dati un uzrakstītas programmas, kas tika palaistas va...

  12. Health conditions among workers who participated in the cleanup of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarli, Z.; Abdulina, A.


    People who took part in the Chernobyl accident cleanup have been registered upon their return to Kyrgyzstan since 1991, and their children since 1992. Later, citizens affected by the Semipalatinsk and Chelyabinsk contamination incidents were included for registration and health care purposes. The effects of the nuclear waste depositories in the Mailuu-Suu region were examined with the assistance of the Kansas University Medical Center (United States of America). All these investigations of affected people indicated apparent increases in a number of symptoms and illnesses when compared to the rest of the population. Samples sizes ranged from several hundred to several thousand. Above-normal radiation levels and/or the stress and fear of living in contaminated areas can lead to significant increases in nervous disorders, cardiovascular diseases and other problems. The most significant increase was in the suicide rate. 6 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  13. Local Democracy in Myanmar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyed, Helene Maria; Harrisson, Annika Pohl; McCarthy, Gerard

    Myanmar is undergoing a comprehensive political transition. In April this year the first democratically elected government in six decades came into power under the leadership of NLD, the pro-democracy party headed by Aung San Suu Kyi. The largest peace conference in the country’s history was held...... in early September, and Myanmar again made the international headlines a week later when Kofi Annan visited the country to head a commission for addressing communal violence. These national events are crucial to the democratization process in Myanmar and for ending the almost seven decades of civil war....... However, often overlooked in this larger picture of transition is the state of local democracy, including village level governance and everyday state-citizen engagements. Political changes at this level are equally crucial for the wider democratization process. This roundtable summary discusses the 2016...

  14. Le Carnaval de Schignano : un dernier salut aux émigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Del Biaggio


    Full Text Available Pour arriver à Schignano, il faut passer par una cürva al giazz e una cürva al suu [Un virage dans la glace et un virage au soleil], comme disent les mots en dialecte d’une récente chanson écrite par Davide Van De Sfroos, compositeur-interprète de la région. C’est dans ce petit hameau de la Vallée d’Intelvi, au-dessus du Lac de Côme, que, tous les ans, le carnaval anime le village. Une fête populaire spontanée, sans règles écrites, ni lois, qui survit grâce aux habitants qui l’animent, aux ar...

  15. Mining and burden of the past - mercy or bane for a region? Proceedings; Bergbau und Altlasten - Segen und Fluch einer Region? Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helling, Claudia (comp.)


    The volume contains 21 contributions covering the following topics: mining remediation in eastern Germany; brown coal mining area remediation in the Lausitz, the reference project WISMUT: remediation of uranium mining areas; cases of old environmental damage due to coal processing; sulfate in the ground water in the Lausitz; potential hazard of the black coal stockpiles in Sachsen (Saxonia); natural pollutants reduction processes in mining regions; microbial sulfate reduction as remediation measure in contaminated mining areas; use of hydrogeological models; process oriented laboratory experiments concerning leachate behaviour; passive biological treatment of leakage water from the WISMUT stockpile 371; planning of a mine water treatment installation for the Vietnamese anthracite mining; remediation measures for the uranium mining and uranium ore processing in Mailuu-Suu (South Kirgistan); consequences of the German radiation protection law amendment on the evaluation of terminated Mining remediation projects.

  16. Badania wytrzymałości resztkowej gruntów spoistych z terenów osuwiskowych okolic Szymbarku k. Gorlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Staromłyńska


    Full Text Available W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań wytrzymałości resztkowej gruntów spoistych pochodzących z terenów osuwiskowych okolic Szymbarku k. Gorlic. Badania przeprowadzone zostały w aparacie bezpośredniego ścinania na próbkach o przekroju 60 × 60 mm. Zastosowano dwie prędkości ścinania 0,05 i 0,1 mm • min–1, każda próbka była ścinana sześciokrotnie, a zakres poziomych odkształceń próbek wynosił 20%. Badania wykazały, że resztkowa wytrzymałość na ścinanie wzdłuż wytworzonej płaszczyzny osłabienia stanowi 52–78% jego wytrzymałości maksymalnej, a do wytworzenia płaszczyzny osłabienia niezbędne jest co najmniej 5-krotne ścinanie próbki. Wpływ prędkości ścinania miał niejednoznaczny wpływ na otrzymane wartości wytrzymałości resztkowej. Wykazano, że stosując do uzyskanych wyników badań liniową interpretację równania Coulomba-Mohra otrzymano niezerowe wartości spójności resztkowej. W związku z tym dla ograniczenia wpływu tego parametru na ocenę stateczności należałoby stosować nieliniową obwiednię wytrzymałościową, do której opisu można zastosować przedstawione w pracy równanie Lade.

  17. Health as a bridge to peace and trust in Myanmar: The 21st Century Panglong Conference. (United States)

    Tang, Kun; Zhao, Yingxi


    The twenty-first Century Panglong Conference, proposed by Aung San Suu Kyi and her National League for Democracy, has concluded with unsatisfactory results. This five-day conference attracted global attention and wide endorsements from the United Nations and many other key stakeholders. The broad framework of the peace dialogue included various social and economic issues. However, the implication of the conference on the health system strengthening efforts in ethnic areas was largely unknown. Although a "convergence model" was proposed by organizations in Thai-Myanmar borders as a roadmap for integrations of the national and ethnic health systems years ago, the genuine bottlenecks beneath have not been addressed. This commentary discussed the Panglong Conference and its implication for the health systems in ethnic regions, as well as the bottlenecks of a "peace process" in health sector. It outlined a few key steps to achieve health system convergence between national and ethnic health systems, the outcome of which will not only improve the health status of the ethnic regions, but also help strengthen mutual trust and understanding among peoples, as a powerful bridge for peace.

  18. Multiple origins of large hummock deposits in Alai Valley, Northern Pamir: Implications for palaeoclimate reconstructions (United States)

    Reznichenko, N. V.; Andrews, G. R.; Geater, R. E.; Strom, A.


    This paper interprets the origin of several of the largest hummocky landform assemblages in the Alai Valley, Northern Pamir - a formerly glaciated intermontane depression. The vast hummocky deposits in the Koman-Suu and Achik-Tash river catchments are found to be of two contrasting modes of formation: glacial hummocks deposited during Koman and Lenin Glaciers withdraw and avalanche hummocks produced during catastrophic Koman and Lenin rock avalanches. The origins of the deposits we assessed through remote and field-based geomorphological mapping, as well as sedimentological investigations, which included clast analysis and the identification of micro-scale agglomerates indicative of rock avalanche emplacement. Both the Koman and Lenin rock avalanches were large, catastrophic events (with run-outs of 34 and 24 km, respectively, and a volume over 1 × 109 m3 each) that occurred subsequent to glacier withdrawal from the area. The complex conditions on the moment of the rock avalanche emplacement promoted unusual deposits geomorphology and extensive run-outs. The landslide landforms formed over the pre-existing glacial hummocks and fluvial deposits, and are geomorphologically and sedimentologically distinct from the larger glacial hummocks. The reconstruction of this sequence of events has implications for how hummock dating should be interpreted. This research illustrates large scale catastrophic landsliding in the glacial environment, and adds to the ongoing debate about the misidentification of rock avalanche deposits as of glacial origin, and their relevance to palaeoclimatological and palaeoseismological reconstructions.

  19. Biomarkery uszkodzenia miąższu nerek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jung


    Full Text Available Ostre uszkodzenie nerek (acute kidney injury, AKI jest rozpoznawane w oparciu o stężenie kreatyniny w surowicy i upośledzenie filtracji kłębuszkowej (glomerular filtration rate, GFR. AKI, które zastąpiło w ostatnich latach termin ostra niewydolność nerek, jest rozpoznawane między innymi u pacjentów po operacjach kardiochirurgicznych, w wyniku nefrotoksycznego uszkodzenia radiokontrastem podczas zabiegów naczyniowych i badań obrazowych, u pacjentów oddziałów intensywnej terapii, we wstrząsie septycznym. Stężenie surowiczej kreatyniny jest ciągle głównym testem diagnostycznym, chociaż zmienia się w przebiegu AKI później niż GFR, który stanowi dokładniejszy wskaźnik czynności nerek. Użyteczność stężenia kreatyniny jako obiektywnego parametru jest jednak ograniczona, ponieważ zależy ono od wielu czynników, w tym od stopnia nawodnienia, diety, masy ciała, masy mięśniowej, wieku, płci, stosowanych leków. Nowe badania zaprezentowały inne, bardziej użyteczne laboratoryjne markery AKI, możliwe do oznaczenia w surowicy i/lub w moczu. Należą do nich cystatyna C, NGAL, KIM-1, L-FABP i IL-18. Nowe biomarkery stwarzają większe możliwości we wczesnym wykrywaniu AKI, a także mogą określać stopień uszkodzenia nerek w przebiegu AKI. Mogą być również przydatne w prognozowaniu zagrożenia przewlekłą chorobą nerek (PChN w wyniku AKI lub z innych przyczyn. Celem opracowania jest przedstawienie przeglądu aktualnych doniesień dotyczących zastosowania nowych biomarkerów we wczesnym wykrywaniu AKI oraz progresji do PChN.

  20. Ryzyko zdrowotne związane ze spożywaniem wody pitnej ze studni kopanych na przykładzie gminy Chmielnik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Żurek


    Full Text Available Wstęp. W Polsce znaczny odsetek populacji pozyskuje wodę pitną ze studni kopanych, podatnych na zanieczyszczenia przemysłowe i rolnicze. Woda pochodząca z tzw. prywatnych ujęć wodnych, zgodnie z polskim prawodawstwem, nie podlega jednak ustawowej kontroli, a jej spo- żywanie naraża konsumentów na negatywne skutki zdrowotne. Celem pracy było oszacowanie wybranych parametrów fizykochemicznych wody pitnej ze studni kopanych oraz odniesienie uzyskanych wyników do norm ujętych w rozporządzeniu ministra zdrowia. Materiał i metody. W przeprowadzonych analizach 36 próbek wody studziennej z terenu gminy Chmielnik, zawartość azotanów (III i jonu amonowego badano za pomocą fotometru, odczyn i przewodność elektrolityczną miernikiem wieloparametrowym, mętność za pomocą turbidymetru, zaś stężenie chlorków oznaczono metodą miareczkową. Wyniki. Dla badanych parametrów chemicznych, tj. azotanów (III, chlorków i jonu amonowego nie stwierdzono przekroczeń dopuszczalnych norm, podobnie jak dla parametru fizycznego, tj. przewodności elektrolitycznej. Ponadnormatywne wartości odnotowano natomiast dla dwóch parametrów fizycznych, tj. odczynu (2 próbki i mętności (33 próbki. Wnioski. Wodę z badanych studni kopanych można określić jako bezpieczną dla konsumentów pod względem badanych parametrów chemicznych, dla których spodziewano się przekroczeń dopuszczalnych norm w związku z terminem poboru. Problem ponadnormatywnych wartości mętności dla większości kontrolowanych studni może być rozwiązany poprzez wprowadzenie prostych metod uzdatniania, natomiast wprowadzenie regularnych badań wszystkich parametrów jakości wody pitnej pozwoliłoby ustalić, czy przekroczone normy dla odczynu wiążą się z niedopuszczalnymi stężeniami wskaźników chemicznych, które nie były badane w niniejszej pracy.

  1. Analiza porównawcza wyników badania oczopląsu w teście kalorycznym uzyskanych przy użyciu metody ENG i VNG u osób zdrowych

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Pepaś


    Full Text Available Wprowadzenie: Najważniejszą obiektywną metodą oceny zaburzeń układu równowagi jest badanie oczopląsu. Badanie kaloryczne jako jedyny test obrazuje pobudliwość poszczególnych błędników, umożliwiając ocenę każdego z nich osobno. Cel pracy: Celem pracy jest analiza porównawcza wyników badania oczopląsu kalorycznego uzyskanych przy użyciu metody ENG i VNG u osób zdrowych. Materiał i metody: Badaniami objęto grupę 20 osób zdrowych, w tym 10 kobiet i 10 mężczyzn w wieku 22-26 lat. U wszystkich chorych przeprowadzono badanie podmiotowe oraz badanie przedmiotowe otoneurologiczne, badanie ENG i w odstępie 7-dniowym badanie VNG z kalibracją, oceną oczopląsu samoistnego oraz próbami kalorycznymi wg Hallpike’a. Test kaloryczny wykonano kalorymetrem powietrznym firmy HOMOTH, używając temperatury powietrza 30°C oraz 44°C, podawanych przez 40 s do ucha. Wyniki: W teście kalorycznym u żadnej osoby nie stwierdzono deficytu kanałowego wykraczającego poza granice przyjętych norm. Zaobserwowano niższe wartości średnie maksymalnej prędkości wolnej fazy oczopląsów w badaniu ENG niż VNG. Ponadto badanie VNG dodatkowo umożliwiło wyznaczenie wartości przewagi kierunkowej bezwzględnej oraz średniej pobudliwości błędników. Wnioski: Uzyskane wyniki wskazują, iż badanie VNG w stosunku do badania ENG jest bardziej precyzyjne i umożliwia dokładniejsze opisanie próby kalorycznej wg Hallpike’a. W badaniu VNG analiza parametru przewagi kierunkowej bezwzględnej znacznie podnosi wartość próby kalorycznej wg Hallpike’a.

  2. In situ crystallization and transformation kinetics of polymorphic forms of saturated-unsaturated-unsaturated triacylglycerols: 1-palmitoyl-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol, 1-stearoyl-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol, and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-linoleoyl glycerol. (United States)

    Bayés-García, L; Calvet, T; Cuevas-Diarte, M A; Ueno, S


    We examined the influence of dynamic thermal treatment (variation of cooling/heating rates) on the polymorphic crystallization and transformation pathways of 1-palmitoyl-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (POO), 1-stearoyl-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (SOO), and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-linoleoyl glycerol (POL), which are major saturated-unsaturated-unsaturated (SUU) triacylglycerols (TAGs) of vegetable oils and animal fats (e.g., palm oil, olive oil, and Iberian ham fat). Using mainly a combination of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD), we analyzed the polymorphic behavior of TAGs when high (15°Cmin -1 ), intermediate (2°Cmin -1 ), and low (0.5°Cmin -1 ) cooling and heating rates were applied. Multiple polymorphic forms were detected in POO, SOO, and POL (sub-α, α, β' 2 , and β' 1 ). Transient disordered phases, defined as kinetic liquid crystal (KLC) phases, were determined in POO and SOO for the first time. The results demonstrated that more stable forms were directly obtained from the melt by decreasing the cooling rates, whereas less stable forms predominated at high cooling rates, as confirmed in our previous work. Regarding heating rate variation, we confirmed that the nature of the polymorphic transformations observed (solid-state, transformation through KLC phase, or melt-mediation) depended largely on the heating rate. These results were discussed considering the activation energies involved in each process and compared with previous studies on TAGs with different saturated-unsaturated structures (1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol, trioleoyl glycerol, and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-linoleoyl glycerol). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Climate and Social Change on Pasture Productivity and Area in the Alay Valley, Kyrgyzstan (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Smithwick, E. A. H.


    The high elevation Alay Valley, located in the central Asian country of Kyrgyzstan, has experienced substantial socio-political and environmental changes in recent decades, resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union and an increase in average annual temperature from 1.8 C to 2.7 C between 1990 and 2014. However, the consequences of these changes on pastureland productivity and area has not been previously assessed, despite the critical cultural and economic importance of pasturelands for sustaining livelihoods in this region. We assessed spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture, pasture productivity and pasture area in the Alay Valley. Supervised classification was performed on Landsat imagery over the study region to distinguish pastures and agricultural land in order to relate changes in soil moisture to specific land classes. Root Zone Soil Moisture (RZSM) was estimated between May 2015 and June 2017 from Soil Moisture Active Passive L4 RZSM product. Average monthly NDVI for 2016 was calculated to obtain seasonal patterns in productivity of the pasturelands in the region. Results show that annual RZSM trends closely matched those of precipitation, as RZSM peaks during May (the wettest month) and decreases during the dry summer. The NDVI trend is also notable as it peaks very early in June before declining due to limited precipitation and grazing practices. There has been a sharp increase in pasturelands encompassing the bank of the Kyzyl Suu river from 1993 to 2016. Likely due to turmoil from collapse of the USSR, the area of pasturelands decreased slightly from 59.98 to 55.99 km^2 from 1993-1994, corresponding with a decline in livestock count and GDP per capita. The area of pasturelands has since recovered and is hovering around 104.47 - 107.95 km^2 between 2009-2016. Overall results highlight both sensitivity and resilience of high elevation pasture to coupled socio-environmental drivers.

  4. Damage-reducing measures to manage flood risks in a changing climate (United States)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Bubeck, Philip; Van Vliet, Mathijs; De Moel, Hans


    Damage due to floods has increased during the last few decades, and further increases are expected in several regions due to climate change and a growing vulnerability. To address the projected increase in flood risk, a combination of structural and non-structural flood risk mitigation measures is considered as a promising adaptation strategy. Such a combination takes into account that flood defence systems may fail, and prepare for unexpected crisis situations via land-use planning, building construction, evacuation and disaster response. Non-structural flood risk mitigation measures like shielding with water shutters or sand bags, building fortification or safeguarding of hazardous substances are often voluntary: they demand self-dependent action by the population at risk (Bubeck et al. 2012; 2013). It is believed that these measures are especially effective in areas with frequent flood events and low flood water levels, but some types of measures showed a significant damage-reducing effect also during extreme flood events, such as the Elbe River flood in August 2002 in Germany (Kreibich et al. 2005; 2011). Despite the growing importance of damage-reducing measures, information is still scarce about factors that motivate people to undertake such measures, the state of implementation of various non-structural measures in different countries and their damage reducing effects. Thus, we collected information and undertook an international review about this topic in the framework of the Dutch KfC project "Climate proof flood risk management". The contribution will present an overview about the available information on damage-reducing measures and draw conclusions for practical flood risk management in a changing climate. References: Bubeck, P., Botzen, W. J. W., Suu, L. T. T., Aerts, J. C. J. H. (2012): Do flood risk perceptions provide useful insights for flood risk management? Findings from central Vietnam. Journal of Flood Risk Management, 5, 4, 295-302 Bubeck, P

  5. Multi-Objective Optimization of Transmission Lines / Elektropārvades Līnijas Daudzkriteriālā Optimizācija (United States)

    Berjozkina, S.; Sauhats, A.; Neimane, V.


    Introduction of new advanced electrical connections into a transmission grid reduces the capacity of existing overhead lines (OHLs). At the same time, designing & building of new OHLs and substations involves considerable technical, environmental and economical problems. The authors propose a concept of the multi-objective optimization for selection of transmission line routes, towers (their type, placement and geometry), of conductors, insulators, dampers, earthing and lightning protection systems, span lengths, etc.. The optimization is organized in five stages. At the first and second stages a search for optimum solutions is performed along with determination of the main impacting factors. The next two stages present a two-objective optimization based on Pareto's approach. At the last stage (exemplified by a case study), the probability of the restriction removal conditions is assessed, and preventive measures are identified. The presented approach uses a real line design and is intended for minimizing the total invested capital and maximizing the net present value. In the framework of this approach 20 alternatives have been elaborated, which can successfully be applied in the cases described in the paper. Elektropārvades tīklam rodas nepieciešamība pēc jauniem elektriskajiem pieslēgumiem, kas noved pie esošo gaisvadu līniju jaudas nepietiekamības. Viens no iespējamajiem pastāvošās problēmas risinājumiem ir jaunu gaisvadu līniju un apakšstacijas būvniecība. Gaisvadu līniju projektēšana ir saistīta ar ievērojamām tehniskām, vides un ekonomiskām problēmām. Darbā aprakstīta elektropārvades līnijas optimālās trases izvēles daudzkritēriju optimizācijas koncepcija, ieskaitot balstu tipa, balstu izvietojuma koordināšu, balstu ģeometrijas, vadu tipu un parametru, izolatoru tipu, vibroslāpētāju tipu, zibensaizsardzības un zemēšanas sistēmu, kā arī laidumu garumu izvēles optimizāciju. Optimizācijas uzdevums tiek organiz

  6. CIS as a successor of the Soviet Union: who is financially responsible for the uranium waste storage sites in Kyrgyzstan?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajtmatova, J.


    weapons' arsenal. Yet, the newly independent Kyrgyz Republic was left alone with an enormous amount of uranium waste, which was extracted on the Kyrgyz territory to produce these nuclear armaments. As a consequence of the Soviet policy, uranium waste storage sites represent a direct danger to the environment of present-day Kyrgyzstan. Therefore, Russia as the official successor of the Soviet Empire should help the Kyrgyz Republic to deal with this costly and extensive problem. These environmental issues serve as a basis for the given work. In turn, research will be primarily concentrated on several the most problematic radioactive waste storage sites, namely, the Mailuu-Suu, Kadji-Say, Kara-Balta, and Ak-Tuz uranium storages. Today, Kyrgyzstan has 50 radioactive waste storage sites, located throughout its territory and contained altogether about 300 million tons of wastes. In general, it could be suggested that the financial responsibility could be delegated to the Kyrgyz government; the Central Asian Community; Russia. It is clear with the first instance, the Kyrgyz government, as it ought to deal with the environmental problems of its country. The situation is more sophisticated and arguable in terms of second and third instance, namely, the Central Asian Community and, particularly, Russia. This paper is designed to prove not only the necessity for their involvement, but rather their responsibility for the present-day situation with the Kyrgyz storage sites. As regards the other Central Asian States, it is in their interests since they are under immediate threat of being affected. Concerning Russia, it is rather a moral right to demand its assistance than a legally legitimate one. All information, related to uranium, its extraction and further utilization was totally classified and only revealed after the Soviet Union's dissolution. Only in 1994 did the Kyrgyz public become acquainted with the truly poor environmental conditions of the newly fledged Republic. Yet, no

  7. Investigations on uranium sorption on bentonite and montmorillonite, respectively, and uranium in environmental samples; Untersuchungen zur Uransorption an Bentonit bzw. Montmorillonit sowie von Uran in Umweltproben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azeroual, Mohamed


    (VI) sorption on four montmorillonite-standard, which are distinguished by the cationic composition of the octahedral sheet, provided further evidence on the mechanism of uranium(VI) sorption on montmorillonit. The uranium(VI) sorption was found to be controlled by the cationic composition of the octahedral sheet and by the dissolution rate of montmorillonite. Higher Mg contents in the octahedral sheet enhance the dissolution kinetics of Montmorillonite and thus lower uranium(VI) sorption with time and vice versa. In addition to Al and Fe octahedron, Mg octahedron contributes to the sorption of uranium(VI) (here 20 up to 50 % depending on Mg content in Montmorillonite). These observations allowed to propose a model for the mechanism of uranium(VI) sorption on the edge surface of montmorillonite. At lower octahedral Mg contents (here SWy- and STx-montmorillonites), at which the distance between Mg octahedra becomes larger, uranium(VI) binds monodentately to AlAl-OH, AlFe-OH, AlMg-OH, FeFe-OH, and FeMg-OH pairs and the Mg octahedra contribute up to approximately 20 % to the sorption of uranium(VI). At high Mg contents in the octahedral sheet, where the distance between Mg octahedra becomes small and MgMg-OH pairs can occur, uranium(VI) forms monodentate surface complexes with AlAl-OH, AlFe-OH, AlMg-OH, FeFe-OH, FeMg-OH, and MgMg-OH pairs and the Mg octahedra can even stronger contribute to uranium(VI) sorption (up to about 50 %). The second focus of this work concerned the environmental analytics of uranium. In this regard, extensive investigations of environmental samples from tailings disposal sites near Mailuu-Suu city (Kyrgyzstan) were carried out. Previous radiological examinations in Mailuu-Suu showed that uranium can migrate from tailings as a result of rain events to the ground water and river water and eventually to the foods [Vandenhove et al., 2006]. Therefore, it was very important to investigate, uranium speciation in water samples and the processes which controlling

  8. Radioisotopic parameters of water of the Syrdarya river basin in territory of the Kyrgyz Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, I. A.; Alekhina, V. M.; Mamatibraimov, S.; Idrisova, S.; Orozobakov, T.


    Solution of atomic problem, which comprises atomic weapon creation, required intensive exploration and extraction of radioactive raw material, uranium ores in the first place, as well as other important metals for this purpose. Practical realization of these problems led to formation of many storages of wastes (tail storages) and dumps of mining production. In this connection the problems of the environmental protection from contamination by radioactive and other unhealthy metals appeared. As a result of mining and processing of radioactive and other raw material, which are necessary in atomic industry, a series of tail storages and dumps appeared in the Kyrgyz Republic. The largest of them are the Kara-Balty, Mailuu-Suu, Kavak, Kadamjai and other tail storages of uranium production. Toxic ingredients of the tail storages migrate together with the natural waters. However the regularities of their migration in space and time are studied insufficiently. By this reason it is almost impossible forecasting radiative and other ecological hazard. As an assessment of the measure of migration from territories of uranium plants only summarized the content of the uranium in underground waters, without natural and technogenic (man-caused) component separation is used at present time, though it is obvious, that just a technogenic component must characterize hazard. For solving this problem the discovery 'Phenomenon of uranium-234 and uranium-238 natural separation' and different degree of 2 34U and 2 38U fractioning in natural conditions and during technological processes were used. Essence of the discovery consists in that at transition of uranium from solid uranium-containing formations in liquids (comprising natural waters), which do not dissolve these formations, the enrichment of isotopic mixture by uranium-234 occurs. As a result of this natural waters and hydrogenic uranium derived from them have a surplus of 2 34U toward 2 38U. In technological cycle when deriving the

  9. Analysis of the beginning of the early flight phase of the ski jump in athletes with different performance levels [Analýza fáze přechodu do letu ve skoku na lyžích u skupin závodníků s různou výkonností

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Janurová


    mezi závodníky s různou výkonností, ale i uvnitř skupin se srovnatelnou délkou skoku. CÍLE: Cílem studie bylo porovnat provedení zahájení přechodové fáze skoku mezi skupinami závodníků v severské kombinaci s různou výkonností. Určit rozdíly v provedení této fáze skoku mezi závodníky v severské kombinaci a ve skoku na lyžích. METODIKA: Odrazová a přechodová fáze skoku na můstku HS-134 m při závodech MS v klasickém lyžování v Liberci v r. 2009 byla zaznamenána s využitím tří kamer (50 Hz. Kamery byly umístěny tak, že jejich optické osy byly kolmé na rovinu pohybu závodníků. Vybrané body na těle a na lyžích závodníků byly vyhodnoceny manuálně. Ze souřadnic těchto bodů jsme určili základní úhlové a rychlostní charakteristiky pro polohu segmentů a lyží. Ze všech startujících závodníků v severské kombinaci jsme vybrali a porovnali skupiny, které dosáhly nejlepší (B, průměrné (M a nejkratší (P délky skoku. VÝSLEDKY: Nájezdová rychlost byla při porovnání skupiny závodníků severské kombinace (NC a skoku na lyžích (SJ významně vyšší u skupiny NC (p < 0,01. Skupina SJ měla na hraně můstku větší posun těla dopředu (p < 0,05. Velikost úhlové rychlosti v kolenním kloubu v úseku 0 až 5 m za hranou můstku byla vyšší u skupiny SJ (p < 0,05. Při porovnání skupin nejlepších závodníků v obou disciplínách byl nalezen rozdíl v poloze bérců na hraně můstku i v celém úseku za hranou. Skupina SJ se vyznačovala větším posunem dolních končetin dopředu (hrana, p < 0,05; 5 m za hranou, p < 0,01, úhlová rychlost v kolenním kloubu byla vyšší. V tomto parametru jsme také zjistili rozdíl mezi skupinami závodníků s průměrnou výkonností, s větší úhlovou rychlostí u skupiny SJ (p < 0,05. ZÁVĚRY: Závodníci ve skoku na lyžích mají ve sledovaném úseku za hranou můstku výhodnější aerodynamickou polohu těla, s v

  10. Development and Experimental Study of Phantoms for Mapping Skin Chromophores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silapetere A.


    Full Text Available Mūsdienās multispektrālās attēlošanas iekārtas izmanto ādas parametru un fizioloģisko procesu aprakstīšanai gan pētniecības, gan diagnostikas nolūkiem. Iekārtu darbības uzlabošanai ir nepieciešams labāk saprast gaismas mijiedarbību ar audiem, kā arī veikt šo iekārtu kalibrēšanu ar ādas maketu. Redzamā un tuvā infrasarkanā optiskā diapazona spektroskopijā ir svarīgi ādas maketi, kas simulē audu slāņaino struktūru un ķīmiskās īpašības, kā arī maketi, kas ir bioloģiski līdzvērtīgi. Šajā pētījumā tika izveidots ādas makets no bioloģiskām un ķīmiski sintezētām struktūrām. Ādas maketa izveidei tika izmantota fibrīna matrica ar dermālo un epidermālo šūnu piejaukumu, lai imitētu ādas slāņaino struktūru. Fibrīna matrica tiek veidota no 0,47 ml asins plazmas, 0,4 ml fizioloģiskā šķīduma, 0,8 μl treneksāmskābes un 89,4 μl kalcija glukanāta. Izveidoto matricu ievieto šūnu inkubatorā, lai tā polimerizētos. Nākošais slānis tiek veidots ar dermālo šūnu piejaukumu (180-270 šūnas, un pēdējais fibrīna matriksa slānis tiek veidots ar epidermālo šūnu piejaukumu (270 šūnas un šūnu augšanu veicinošu serumu (FBS. Šūnu kultivēšanai nepieciešamas vismaz divas nedēļas. Šajā slāņainajā struktūrā ir iespējams pievienot ādas hromoforu simulējošus iekļāvumus. Optiskajā diapazonā no 450-900 nm ādas hromoforas, kurām ir visizteiktākais spektrs, ir bilirubīns, melanīns un hemoglobīns. Lai simulētu ādas hromoforu spektrālās īpašības, tika izmantots sintezēts bilirubīns, eritrocītu masa un nigrozīns. Lai izpētītu šī maketa iekārtu kalibrēšanas potenciālu, tika izveidoti 76 paraugi, kur katros 24 paraugos bija pievienots viens no absorbentiem ar dažādām koncentrācijām. Pilna ādas maketa audzēšanai nepieciešamas divas nedēļas, lai ātrāk tiktu iegūti pirmie rezultāti tika veidoti maketi bez dermālo un epiderm

  11. Dėl vienos neaiškios M. Daukšos katekizmo glosos interpretacijos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Palionis


    Full Text Available Rengdamas spausdinti fotokopinį Mikalojaus Daukšos 1595 m. katekizmo (toliau – DK leidimą, susidūriau su keliomis nevienodai interpretuojamomis teksto glosomis. Išspausdinto fotokopinio leidimo įžanginiame straipsnyje „1595 m. katekizmas ir jo leidimai“ mėginau tas glosas aiškinti. Tačiau beskaitant jau išspausdintą tą leidimą kilo ir naujų minčių dėl vienos tokios glosos, būtent dėl Mudrusiaks ißmintingas, esančios leidinio 134 puslapio paraštėje. Ši glosa prirašyta ne prie tos teksto dalies, kurioje reiškiamas mokinio (= Mokitinio, Mo atsakymas į mokytojo (= Mistro, M klausimą „Kaſg yra Jėzus Christus?“, – „Yra ſunús Diewo teip galis / teip geras teip ißmintingas... [mano pabraukta. – J. P.], o ties minėtu klausimu kaip šio būdvardžio sinoniminis variantas (lenkiškojo originalo mądry atitikmuo. Nei 1886 m. Eduardo Volterio paskelbtame DK leidime, nei 1929 m. Ernsto Sittigo volteriškojo leidimo perspaude minėta glosa nebuvo komentuojama. Bene pirmasis ją, kaip būdvardžio išmintingas paralelizmą, suskaidęs į du žodžius – mudru ir seks, bet prie jų skliausteliuose prirašęs klaustuką (?, savo straipsnyje „Leksiniai paralelizmai Daukšos katekizmo (1595 kalboje“ bandė aiškinti Jonas Kruopas. Kaip matyti, dėl tokio skaidymo ir kalbamosios glosos atstatymo ir pats straipsnio autorius yra abejojęs. 1995 m. leidime transliteruotinio teksto išnašoje palikta nesuskaidyta glosa: Mudrusiakś (p. 135, nes man tuomet rodėsi J. Kruopo interpretacija semantiškai nelabai motyvuota. Dabar esu linkęs sutikti su ja, t. y. manau, kad ši glosa yra dviejų grafiškai neatskirtų žodžių mudrus (būdvardžio įnagininko formos ir sekti (veikiamosios rūšies būtojo laiko dalyvio formos sekęs junginys. Antrojo žodžio rašyba siaks atspindi M. Daukšos tarmei būdingą balsio [e] po [s] suužpakalintą tartį. Kaip matyti iš 1995 m. leidime pridėto lenki

  12. Dėl vienos neaiškios M. Daukšos katekizmo glosos interpretacijos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Palionis


    Full Text Available Rengdamas spausdinti fotokopinį Mikalojaus Daukšos 1595 m. katekizmo (toliau – DK leidimą, susidūriau su keliomis nevienodai interpretuojamomis teksto glosomis. Išspausdinto fotokopinio leidimo įžanginiame straipsnyje „1595 m. katekizmas ir jo leidimai“ mėginau tas glosas aiškinti. Tačiau beskaitant jau išspausdintą tą leidimą kilo ir naujų minčių dėl vienos tokios glosos, būtent dėl Mudrusiaks ißmintingas, esančios leidinio 134 puslapio paraštėje.Ši glosa prirašyta ne prie tos teksto dalies, kurioje reiškiamas mokinio (= Mokitinio, Mo atsakymas į mokytojo (= Mistro, M klausimą „Kaſg yra Jėzus Christus?“, – „Yra ſunús Diewo teip galis / teip geras teip ißmintingas... [mano pabraukta. – J. P.], o ties minėtu klausimu kaip šio būdvardžio sinoniminis variantas (lenkiškojo originalo mądry atitikmuo.Nei 1886 m. Eduardo Volterio paskelbtame DK leidime, nei 1929 m. Ernsto Sittigo volteriškojo leidimo perspaude minėta glosa nebuvo komentuojama. Bene pirmasis ją, kaip būdvardžio išmintingas paralelizmą, suskaidęs į du žodžius – mudru ir seks, bet prie jų skliausteliuose prirašęs klaustuką (?, savo straipsnyje „Leksiniai paralelizmai Daukšos katekizmo (1595 kalboje“ bandė aiškinti Jonas Kruopas. Kaip matyti, dėl tokio skaidymo ir kalbamosios glosos atstatymo ir pats straipsnio autorius yra abejojęs.1995 m. leidime transliteruotinio teksto išnašoje palikta nesuskaidyta glosa: Mudrusiakś (p. 135, nes man tuomet rodėsi J. Kruopo interpretacija semantiškai nelabai motyvuota. Dabar esu linkęs sutikti su ja, t. y. manau, kad ši glosa yra dviejų grafiškai neatskirtų žodžių mudrus (būdvardžio įnagininko formos ir sekti (veikiamosios rūšies būtojo laiko dalyvio formos sekęs junginys. Antrojo žodžio rašyba siaks atspindi M. Daukšos tarmei būdingą balsio [e] po [s] suužpakalintą tartį.Kaip matyti iš 1995 m. leidime pridėto lenkiško originalo

  13. The radioecology study of the biosphere territory of Issik-Kul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djenbaev, B.M.; Abdijapar, S.; Shamshiev, A.B.; Jolboldiev, B.; Jalilova, A.A.


    covered ground (0,20 sm) the contents of uranium about from 1,1 up to 2,6x10-6 g/g, and with depth it is increased a few - to 3,0x10-6 g/g. there is more concentration of uranium in the average zone of Uranium deposits, where has the contents of uranium in the upper horizon of a soil equally 4,2x10-6 g/g, and in the bottom of horizon, on depth of 40-60 sm consist - 35,0x10-6 g/g or in 8,3 times above. According to some authors quantity of uranium in waters of the rivers Tone, Ae-Suu in hollow of Issyk-Kul makes 5,6x10-6 g/l, and in river Jergalan about (depend on seasonally and places of selection) from 2,8x10-6 to 1x10-5 g/l i.e. the main waters of wells and the rivers a hollow of Issyk-Kul contain in 10, and in some cases it is in 100 times more uranium, than water from black earth and not from black earth zones. On the surface of uranium tail deposits founded 10 sorts of plants of desert type: Ulmus pinnato-ramosa, Elaeagnus songorica, Caragana Turfanica, Peganum harmala, Akantholimon alatavicum, Natraria sibirica, Clematis songorica... The contents of uranium in the listed plants was small and changed about 0.02-0.31x10-6 g/g at coefficient of enrich is - from 1,0 to 15,5 and coefficient of discrimination is - from 17,8 to 240,0. Growing of plants in the environment with the high concentration of uranium not only is accompanied by change of theirs bioproductivity but also causes of morphological variability. The infringement of pigmentation of a flower at various sorts of plants is most often shown in area of Issyk Kul. The Astragalus borodinii is has morphological variability of splitting of a sheet plate. The Peganum garmala and Potentilla argentea - instead of usual 5 petals have 6-7 and their bifurcation. But other plants are intensive growing and developing (Caragana, Scutellaria, Peganum, and Peganum harmala). By the results of the research work the common level of external radiation in researched territory and level of uranium are about limits of the norm

  14. Application of Relevance Maps in Multidimensional Classification of Coal Types / Zastosowanie Map Odniesienia W Wielowymiarowej Klasyfikacji Typów Węgla (United States)

    Niedoba, Tomasz


    żdej cechy (współrzędnej) zostaje przyporządkowany punkt odniesienia reprezentujący tą cechę. Czyli przy danych 7-wymiarowych umieszczamy na płaszczyźnie 7 takich punktów odniesienia reprezentujących poszczególne współrzędne. Rozkład punktów reprezentujących przedstawiane wielowymiarowe dane odzwierciedla relacje pomiędzy tymi danymi a cechami. Im bardziej i-ta cecha występuje w danym obiekcie (czyli i-ta współrzędna ma większą wartość), tym bliżej powinien leżeć punkt reprezentujący dany obiekt względem punktu odniesienia reprezentującego i-tą cechę (współrzędną). W ten sposób każdy punkt odniesienia reprezentujący daną cechę, dzieli płaszczyznę na obszary bardziej oraz mniej zależne od cechy nr i (mniej oraz bardziej odległe od punktu odniesienia reprezentującego i-tą cechę). Dokładny opis algorytmu przedstawiono w podrozdziale 3 artykułu. Za pomocą omawianej metody dokonano wizualizacji danych dotyczących przedstawionych typów węgla. Uzyskane rezultaty przedstawiono na rysunkach 1-9. Widoki te pokazują sposób, w jaki 7-wymiarowe dane zostają przekształcone przy pomocy mapy odniesienia do dwóch wymiarów. Algorytm wizualizacji przy użyciu mapy odniesienia działa tak by pomimo znacznej redukcji liczby wymiarów, w jak największym stopniu odległości pomiędzy punktem reprezentującym konkretny wektor danych a punktami odniesienia zależały od współrzędnych tego wektora danych. W ten sposób na ekranie 2-wymiarowym, możemy zobaczyć istotne cechy danych 7-wymiarowych. Na rysunkach 1-4 widać, w jaki sposób wzrasta grupowanie punktów reprezentujących trzy różne klasy węgla (31, 34.2 oraz 35) wraz ze wzrostem parametru ITER. Widać, że punkty będące obrazami danych reprezentujących te same klasy węgla zaczynają zajmować osobne podobszary oraz zaczynają się grupować. Jednak w niektórych częściach przestrzeni obrazy punktów reprezentujących różne klasy węgla zachodzą na siebie. Przez