International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Jiangfan; Jiang Zongfu; Xiao Fuliang; Huang Chunjia
2005-01-01
The dynamics of a generalized non-degenerate optical parametric down-conversion interaction whose Hamiltonian includes an arbitrary time-dependent driving part and a two-mode coupled part is studied by adopting the Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant theory. The closed formulae for the evolution of the quantum states and the evolution operators of the system are obtained. It is shown that various generalized squeezed states arise naturally in the process, and the two-mode squeezed effect is independent of the driving part. An explicitly analytical solution of the Schroedinger equation is further derived as the classical generalized force acting on each mode and the coupling of the two modes both have harmonic time dependences. This solution is found to be in agreement with previous research in special cases
Revisiting non-degenerate parametric down-conversion
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
conversion process is studied by recasting the time evolution equations for the basic op- erators in an equivalent ... We consider a model of non-degenerate parametric down-conversion process com- posed of two coupled ..... e−iωat and eiωbt have been left out in writing down the final results in ref. [4], even though these ...
Towards spontaneous parametric down-conversion at low temperatures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Akatiev Dmitrii
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The possibility of observing spontaneous parametric down-conversion in doped nonlinear crystals at low temperatures, which would be useful for combining heralded single-photon sources and quantum memories, is studied theoretically. The ordinary refractive index of a lithium niobate crystal doped with magnesium oxide LiNbO3:MgO is measured at liquid nitrogen and helium temperatures. On the basis of the experimental data, the coefficients of the Sellmeier equation are determined for the temperatures from 5 to 300 K. In addition, a poling period of the nonlinear crystal has been calculated for observing type-0 spontaneous parametric down-conversion (ooo-synchronism at the liquid helium temperature under pumping at the wavelength of λp = 532 nm and emission of the signal field at the wavelength of λs = 794 nm, which corresponds to the resonant absorption line of Tm3+ doped ions.
Parametric down conversion of X-rays, recent experiments
Adams, B; Novikov, D V; Materlik, G; Mills, D M
2001-01-01
Parametric down conversion of X-ray photons in diamond crystals was detected in six experiments, all using the phase matching scheme first employed in the X-ray regime by Eisenberger and McCall (Eisenberger and McCall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 26 (1971) 684). The conversion events were detected by a combination of time correlation spectroscopy and energy discrimination. The time correlation spectra gave a direct comparison of the conversion rate over the accidental coincidence rate.
Penin, A. N.; Reutova, T. A.; Sergienko, A. V.
1992-01-01
An experiment on one-photon state localization in space using a correlation technique in Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion (SPDC) process is discussed. Results of measurements demonstrate an idea of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox for coordinate and momentum variables of photon states. Results of the experiment can be explained with the help of an advanced wave technique. The experiment is based on the idea that two-photon states of optical electromagnetic fields arising in the nonlinear process of the spontaneous parametric down conversion (spontaneous parametric light scattering) can be explained by quantum mechanical theory with the help of a single wave function.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Penin, A.N.; Reutova, T.A.; Sergienko, A.V.
1992-01-01
An experiment on one-photon state localization in space using a correlation technique in Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion (SPDC) process is discussed. Results of measurements demonstrate an idea of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox for coordinate and momentum variables of photon states. Results of the experiment can be explained with the help of an advanced wave technique. The experiment is based on the idea that two-photon states of optical electromagnetic fields arising in the nonlinear process of the spontaneous parametric down conversion (spontaneous parametric light scattering) can be explained by quantum mechanical theory with the help of a single wave function
Modal spectrum in spontaneous parametric down-conversion with noncollinear phase matching
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Zhang, Y
2014-06-01
Full Text Available We investigate the effect of the down-conversion angle between the signal and idler beams in spontaneous parametric down-conversion on the bandwidth of the modal spectrum (Schmidt number) of the down-converted quantum state. For this purpose, we...
Interference of two photons in parametric down conversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghosh, R.; Hong, C.K.; Ou, Z.Y.; Mandel, L.
1986-01-01
A theoretical treatment is given of the process in which the two photons produced simultaneously in the parametric frequency splitting of light are allowed to interfere. It is shown that, while there is no interference in the usual sense involving quantities that are of the second order in the field, fourth-order interference effects are present. These may be revealed by measuring the joint probability of detecting two photons at two points x,x' in the interference plane with photoelectric detectors as a function of the separation x-x'. The probability exhibits a cosine modulation with x-x', with visibility that can approach 100%, even though the integration time in the experiment may greatly exceed the reciprocal bandwidth of the photons. The interference effect has a nonclassical origin and implies a violation of local realism in the highly correlated two-photon state
Cho, Minhaeng
2018-05-01
Parametric down-conversion is a second-order nonlinear optical process annihilating a pump photon and creating a pair of photons in the signal and idler modes. Then, by using two parametric down-converters and introducing a path indistinguishability for the two generated idler modes, a quantum coherence between two conjugate signal beams can be induced. Such a double spontaneous or stimulated parametric down-conversion scheme has been used to demonstrate quantum spectroscopy and imaging with undetected idler photons via measuring one-photon interference between their correlated signal beams. Recently, we considered another quantum optical measurement scheme utilizing W-type tripartite entangled signal photons that can be generated by employing three spontaneous parametric down-conversion crystals and by inducing coherences or path-indistinguishabilities between their correlated idler beams and between quantum vacuum fields. Here, we consider an extended triple stimulated parametric down-conversion scheme for quantum optical measurement of sample properties with undetected idler and photons. Noting the real effect of vacuum field indistinguishability on the fringe visibility as well as the role of zero-point field energy in the interferometry, we show that this scheme is an ideal and efficient way to create a coherent state of W-type entangled signal photons. We anticipate that this scheme would be of critical use in further developing quantum optical measurements in spectroscopy and microscopy with undetected photons.
Cho, Minhaeng
2018-05-14
Parametric down-conversion is a second-order nonlinear optical process annihilating a pump photon and creating a pair of photons in the signal and idler modes. Then, by using two parametric down-converters and introducing a path indistinguishability for the two generated idler modes, a quantum coherence between two conjugate signal beams can be induced. Such a double spontaneous or stimulated parametric down-conversion scheme has been used to demonstrate quantum spectroscopy and imaging with undetected idler photons via measuring one-photon interference between their correlated signal beams. Recently, we considered another quantum optical measurement scheme utilizing W-type tripartite entangled signal photons that can be generated by employing three spontaneous parametric down-conversion crystals and by inducing coherences or path-indistinguishabilities between their correlated idler beams and between quantum vacuum fields. Here, we consider an extended triple stimulated parametric down-conversion scheme for quantum optical measurement of sample properties with undetected idler and photons. Noting the real effect of vacuum field indistinguishability on the fringe visibility as well as the role of zero-point field energy in the interferometry, we show that this scheme is an ideal and efficient way to create a coherent state of W-type entangled signal photons. We anticipate that this scheme would be of critical use in further developing quantum optical measurements in spectroscopy and microscopy with undetected photons.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Avenhaus, M.; Chekhova, M. V.; Krivitsky, Leonid
2009-01-01
We study the spectral properties of spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) in a periodically poled waveguided structure of potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) crystal pumped by ultrashort pulses. Our theoretical analysis reveals a strongly entangled and asymmetric structure of the two...
Entanglement in optical parametric down-conversion with losses and noise
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Peřina, Jan; Křepelka, Jaromír
2009-01-01
Roč. 282, č. 19 (2009), 3918-3923 ISSN 0030-4018 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002; GA AV ČR IAA100100713 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : quantum measurement * parametric down-conversion * nonclassical light Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.316, year: 2009
Simulating spontaneous parametric down-conversion using classical light: Conference paper
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Zhang, Y
2014-08-01
Full Text Available We present a simple way of simulating Spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) by modulating a classical laser beam with two spatial light modulators (SLM) through a back projection setup. This system has the advantage of having very high...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casado, A; Guerra, S; Placido, J
2008-01-01
In this paper, the theory of parametric down-conversion in the Wigner representation is applied to Ekert's quantum cryptography protocol. We analyse the relation between two-photon entanglement and (non-secure) quantum key distribution within the Wigner framework in the Heisenberg picture. Experiments using two-qubit polarization entanglement generated in nonlinear crystals are analysed in this formalism, along with the effects of eavesdropping attacks in the case of projective measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Casado, A [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Guerra, S [Centro Asociado de la Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Placido, J [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)], E-mail: acasado@us.es
2008-02-28
In this paper, the theory of parametric down-conversion in the Wigner representation is applied to Ekert's quantum cryptography protocol. We analyse the relation between two-photon entanglement and (non-secure) quantum key distribution within the Wigner framework in the Heisenberg picture. Experiments using two-qubit polarization entanglement generated in nonlinear crystals are analysed in this formalism, along with the effects of eavesdropping attacks in the case of projective measurements.
Two-Photon Entanglement and EPR Experiments Using Type-2 Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion
Sergienko, A. V.; Shih, Y. H.; Pittman, T. B.; Rubin, M. H.
1996-01-01
Simultaneous entanglement in spin and space-time of a two-photon quantum state generated in type-2 spontaneous parametric down-conversion is demonstrated by the observation of quantum interference with 98% visibility in a simple beam-splitter (Hanburry Brown-Twiss) anticorrelation experiment. The nonlocal cancellation of two-photon probability amplitudes as a result of this double entanglement allows us to demonstrate two different types of Bell's inequality violations in one experimental setup.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Peřina, Jan; Křepelka, Jaromír
2008-01-01
Roč. 281, č. 18 (2008), s. 4705-4711 ISSN 0030-4018 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100713; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : quantum measurement * parametric down-conversion * nonclassical light * quantum noise Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.552, year: 2008
Controllable frequency entanglement via auto-phase-matched spontaneous parametric down-conversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sergienko, A.V.; Walton, Z.D.; Booth, M.C.; Saleh, B.E.A.; Teich, M.C.
2005-01-01
Full text: A new method for generating entangled photons with controllable frequency correlation via spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) is presented. The method entails initiating counter-propagating SPDC in a single-mode nonlinear waveguide by pumping with a pulsed beam perpendicular to the waveguide. In a typical spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) experiment, a photon from a monochromatic pump beam decays into two photons (often referred to as signal and idler) via interaction with a nonlinear optical crystal. While the signal and idler may be broadband individually, conservation of energy requires that the sum of their respective frequencies equals the single frequency of the monochromatic pump. This engenders frequency anti-correlation in the down-converted beams. Two developments in quantum information theory have renewed interest in the generalized states of frequency correlation. First, quantum information processes requiring the synchronized creation of multiple photon pairs have been devised, such as quantum teleportation. The requisite temporal control can be achieved by pumping the crystal with a brief pulse. The availability of pump photons of differing frequencies relaxes the strict frequency anti-correlation in the down-converted beams. Second, applications such as entanglement-enhanced clock synchronization and one-way auto-compensating quantum cryptography have been introduced that specifically require frequency correlation, as opposed to the usual frequency anticorrelation. Our method for obtaining controllable frequency entanglement entails initiating type-I SPDC (signal and idler identically polarized) in a single-mode nonlinear waveguide by pumping with a pulsed beam perpendicular to the waveguide. The down-converted photons emerge from opposite ends of the waveguide with a joint spectrum that can be varied from frequency anti-correlated to frequency correlated by adjusting the temporal and spatial characteristics of the
Two-Photon Quantum Entanglement from Type-II Spontaneous Parametric Down-Conversion
Pittman, Todd Butler
The concept of two (or more) particle entanglement lies at the heart of many fascinating questions concerning the foundations of quantum mechanics. The counterintuitive nonlocal behavior of entangled states led Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) to ask their famous 1935 question, "Can quantum mechanical description of reality be considered complete?". Although the debate has been raging on for more than 60 years, there is still no absolutely conclusive answer to this question. For if entangled states exist and can be observed, then accepting quantum mechanics as a complete theory requires a drastic overhaul of one's physical intuition with regards to the common sense notions of locality and reality put forth by EPR. Contained herein are the results of research investigating various non-classical features of the two-photon entangled states produced in Type-II Spontaneous Parametric Down -Conversion (SPDC). Through a series of experiments we have manifest the nonlocal nature of the quantum mechanical "two-photon effective wavefunction" (or Biphoton) realized by certain photon-counting coincidence measurements performed on these states. In particular, we examine a special double entanglement, in which the states are seen to be simultaneously entangled in both spin and space-time variables. The observed phenomena based on this double entanglement lead to many interesting results which defy classical explanation, but are well described within the framework of quantum mechanics. The implications provide a unique perspective concerning the nature of the photon, and the concept of quantum entanglement.
Control of photon correlations in type II parametric down-conversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrews, R; Joseph, A T; Pike, E R; Sarkar, Sarben
2005-01-01
In this paper we describe theoretically quantum control of temporal correlations of entangled photons produced by collinear type II spontaneous parametric down-conversion. We examine the effect of spectral phase modulation of the signal or idler photons arriving at a 50/50 beam splitter on the temporal shape of the entangled-photon wavepacket. The coincidence count rate is calculated analytically for photon pairs in terms of the modulation depth applied to either the signal or idler beam with a spectral phase filter. It is found that the two-photon coincidence rate can be controlled by varying the modulation depth of the spectral filter
Spatiotemporal correlations in entangled photons generated by spontaneous parametric down conversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osorio, Clara I; Valencia, Alejandra; Torres, Juan P
2008-01-01
In most configurations aimed at generating entangled photons based on spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC), the generated pairs of photons are required to be entangled in only one degree of freedom. Any distinguishing information coming from the other degrees of freedom that characterize the photon should be suppressed to avoid correlations with the degree of freedom of interest. However, this suppression is not always possible. Here, we show how the frequency information available affects the purity of the two-photon state in space, revealing a correlation between the frequency and the space degrees of freedom. This correlation should be taken into account to calculate the total amount of entanglement between the photons.
Pump Spectral Bandwidth, Birefringence, and Entanglement in Type-II Parametric Down Conversion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Erenso
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The twin photons produced by a type-II spontaneous parametric down conversion are well know as a potential source of photons for quantum teleportation due to the strong entanglement in polarization. This strong entanglement in polarization, however, depends on the spectral composition of the pump photon and the nature of optical isotropy of the crystal. By exact numerical calculation of the concurrence, we have shown that how pump photons spectral width and the birefringence nature of the crystal directly affect the degree of polarization entanglement of the twin photons.
Multi-copy entanglement purification with practical spontaneous parametric down conversion sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Shuai-Shuai; Shu Qi; Sheng Yu-Bo; Zhou Lan
2017-01-01
Entanglement purification is to distill the high quality entanglement from the low quality entanglement with local operations and classical communications. It is one of the key technologies in long-distance quantum communication. We discuss an entanglement purification protocol (EPP) with spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) sources, in contrast to previous EPP with multi-copy mixed states, which requires ideal entanglement sources. We show that the SPDC source is not an obstacle for purification, but can benefit the fidelity of the purified mixed state. This EPP works for linear optics and is feasible in current experiment technology. (paper)
Interference of biphotons upon parametric down-conversion in the field of biharmonic pumping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zolotoverkh, I I
2014-01-01
We report theoretical investigation of interference of biphotons emitted upon type-II collinear parametric down-conversion in the case of biharmonic pumping. Interference occurs when an optical or electronic shutter is used as an amplitude modulator in the experimental scheme. The phase of the interference is shown to depend on the time interval between the instant the shutter is opened and the instant corresponding to the maximum pump intensity. The main parameter affecting the visibility of the interference pattern is a time interval during which the shutter is open. (nonlinear optical phenomena)
Chirp and temperature effects in parametric down conversion from crystals pumped at 800 nm
Sánchez-Lozano, X.; Wiechers, C.; Lucio, J. L.
2018-04-01
We consider spontaneous parametric down conversion from aperiodic poled crystals pumped at 800 nm. Our analyses account the effect of internal and external parameters, where, in the former, we include the crystal chirp and length, while in the latter temperature, also the pump chirp and other beam properties. The typical distribution produced is a pop-tab like structure in frequency-momentum space, and our results show that this system is a versatile light source, appropriated to manipulate the frequency and transverse momentum properties of the light produced. We briefly comment on the potential usefulness of the types of telecom wavelength light produced, in particular for quantum information applications.
Kiess, Thomas E.; Shih, Yan-Hua; Sergienko, A. V.; Alley, Carroll O.
1994-01-01
We report a new two-photon polarization correlation experiment for realizing the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm (EPRB) state and for testing Bell-type inequalities. We use the pair of orthogonally-polarized light quanta generated in Type 2 parametric down conversion. Using 1 nm interference filters in front of our detectors, we observe from the output of a 0.5mm beta - BaB2O4 (BBO) crystal the EPRB correlations in coincidence counts, and measure an associated Bell inequality violation of 22 standard deviations. The quantum state of the photon pair is a polarization analog of the spin-1/2 singlet state.
Multi-copy entanglement purification with practical spontaneous parametric down conversion sources
Zhang, Shuai-Shuai; Shu, Qi; Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo
2017-06-01
Entanglement purification is to distill the high quality entanglement from the low quality entanglement with local operations and classical communications. It is one of the key technologies in long-distance quantum communication. We discuss an entanglement purification protocol (EPP) with spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) sources, in contrast to previous EPP with multi-copy mixed states, which requires ideal entanglement sources. We show that the SPDC source is not an obstacle for purification, but can benefit the fidelity of the purified mixed state. This EPP works for linear optics and is feasible in current experiment technology. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474168 and 61401222), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20151502), the Qing Lan Project in Jiangsu Province, China, and a Project Funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China.
Type I parametric down conversion of highly focused Gaussian beams in finite length crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeronimo-Moreno, Yasser; Jáuregui, R
2014-01-01
This paper presents a study of the correlations in wave vector space of photon pairs generated by type I spontaneous parametric down conversion using a Gaussian pump beam. The analysis covers both moderate focused and highly focused regimes, paying special attention to the angular spectrum and the conditional angular spectrum. Simple analytic expressions are derived that allow a detailed study of the dependence of these spectra on the waist of the source and the length of the nonlinear crystal. These expressions are in good agreement with numerical expectations and reported experimental results. They are used to make a systematic search of optimization parameters that improve the feasibility of using highly focused Gaussian beams to generate idler and signal photons with predetermined mean values and spread of their transverse wave vectors. (papers)
Parameter Estimation with Entangled Photons Produced by Parametric Down-Conversion
Cable, Hugo; Durkin, Gabriel A.
2010-01-01
We explore the advantages offered by twin light beams produced in parametric down-conversion for precision measurement. The symmetry of these bipartite quantum states, even under losses, suggests that monitoring correlations between the divergent beams permits a high-precision inference of any symmetry-breaking effect, e.g., fiber birefringence. We show that the quantity of entanglement is not the key feature for such an instrument. In a lossless setting, scaling of precision at the ultimate "Heisenberg" limit is possible with photon counting alone. Even as photon losses approach 100% the precision is shot-noise limited, and we identify the crossover point between quantum and classical precision as a function of detected flux. The predicted hypersensitivity is demonstrated with a Bayesian simulation.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Arkhipov, Ie.I.; Peřina Jr., J.; Haderka, Ondřej; Allevi, A.; Bondani, M.
2016-01-01
Roč. 6, Sep (2016), 1-12, č. článku 33802. ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : four-mode Gaussian states * parametric down-conversion Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Javůrek, D.; Peřina ml., Jan
2017-01-01
Roč. 95, č. 4 (2017), s. 1-13, č. článku 043828. ISSN 2469-9926 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : surface spontaneous * parametric down-conversion * photon pairs * layered media Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 2.925, year: 2016
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Centini, M.; Peřina ml., Jan; Sciscione, L.; Sibilia, C.; Scalora, M.; Bloemer, M.J.; Bertolotti, M.
2005-01-01
Roč. 72, 03 (2005), 033806/1-033806/11 ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC P11.003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : photon pair * photonic crystals * spontaneous parametric down-conversion Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.997, year: 2005
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Javůrek, D.; Svozilík, J.; Peřina ml., Jan
2014-01-01
Roč. 90, č. 4 (2014), "043844-1"-"043844-12" ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : photon pairs * orbital-angular-momentum-entangled * nonlinear ring fiber * spontaneous parametric down-conversion Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.808, year: 2014
Heralded creation of photonic qudits from parametric down-conversion using linear optics
Yoshikawa, Jun-ichi; Bergmann, Marcel; van Loock, Peter; Fuwa, Maria; Okada, Masanori; Takase, Kan; Toyama, Takeshi; Makino, Kenzo; Takeda, Shuntaro; Furusawa, Akira
2018-05-01
We propose an experimental scheme to generate, in a heralded fashion, arbitrary quantum superpositions of two-mode optical states with a fixed total photon number n based on weakly squeezed two-mode squeezed state resources (obtained via weak parametric down-conversion), linear optics, and photon detection. Arbitrary d -level (qudit) states can be created this way where d =n +1 . Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate our scheme for n =2 . The resulting qutrit states are characterized via optical homodyne tomography. We also discuss possible extensions to more than two modes concluding that, in general, our approach ceases to work in this case. For illustration and with regards to possible applications, we explicitly calculate a few examples such as NOON states and logical qubit states for quantum error correction. In particular, our approach enables one to construct bosonic qubit error-correction codes against amplitude damping (photon loss) with a typical suppression of √{n }-1 losses and spanned by two logical codewords that each correspond to an n -photon superposition for two bosonic modes.
Kwon, Osung; Ra, Young-Sik; Kim, Yoon-Ho
2009-07-20
Coherence properties of the photon pair generated via spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by a multi-mode cw diode laser are studied with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Each photon of the pair enters a different input port of the interferometer and the biphoton coherence properties are studied with a two-photon detector placed at one output port. When the photon pair simultaneously enters the interferometer, periodic recurrence of the biphoton de Broglie wave packet is observed, closely resembling the coherence properties of the pump diode laser. With non-zero delays between the photons at the input ports, biphoton interference exhibits the same periodic recurrence but the wave packet shapes are shown to be dependent on both the input delay as well as the interferometer delay. These properties could be useful for building engineered entangled photon sources based on diode laser-pumped spontaneous parametric down-conversion.
Howell, John C; Bennink, Ryan S; Bentley, Sean J; Boyd, R W
2004-05-28
We report on a momentum-position realization of the EPR paradox using direct detection in the near and far fields of the photons emitted by collinear type-II phase-matched parametric down conversion. Using this approach we achieved a measured two-photon momentum-position variance product of 0.01 variant Planck's over 2pi (2), which dramatically violates the bounds for the EPR and separability criteria.
Paudel, Uttam
Over the past decade, much effort has been made in identifying and characterizing systems that can form a building block of quantum networks, among which semiconductor quantum dots (QD) and spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) source are two of the most promising candidates. The work presented in this thesis will be centered on investigating and engineering the mentioned systems for generating customizable single photons. A type-II SPDC source can generate a highly flexible pair of entangled photons that can be used to interface disparate quantum systems. In this thesis, we have successfully implemented a cavity-SPDC source that emits polarization correlated photons at 942 nm with a lifetime of 950-1050ps that mode matches closely with InAs/GaAs QD photons. The source emits 80 photon pairs per second per mW pump power within the 150MHz bandwidth. Though the detection of idler photons, the source is capable of emitting heralded photons with g2?0.5 for up to 40 mW pump power. For a low pump power of 5 mW, the heralded g2 is 0.06, indicating that the system is an excellent heralded single photon source. By directly exciting a single QD with cavity-SPDC photons, we have demonstrated a heralded-absorption of SPDC photons by QD, resulting in the coupling of the two systems. Due to the large pump bandwidth, the emitted source is highly multimode in nature, requiring us to post-filter the downconverted field, resulting in a lower photon pair emission rate. We propose placing an intra-cavity etalon to suppress the multi-mode emissions and increase the photon count rate. Understanding and experimentally implementing two-photon interference (HOM) measurements will be crucial for building a scalable quantum network. A detailed theoretical description of HOM measurements is given and is experimentally demonstrated using photons emitted by QD. Through HOM measurements we demonstrated that the QD sample in the study is capable of emitting indistinguishable photons, with
Minozzi, M; Bonora, S; Sergienko, A V; Vallone, G; Villoresi, P
2013-02-15
We present an efficient method for optimizing the spatial profile of entangled-photon wave function produced in a spontaneous parametric down conversion process. A deformable mirror that modifies a wavefront of a 404 nm CW diode laser pump interacting with a nonlinear β-barium borate type-I crystal effectively controls the profile of the joint biphoton function. The use of a feedback signal extracted from the biphoton coincidence rate is used to achieve the optimal wavefront shape. The optimization of the two-photon coupling into two, single spatial modes for correlated detection is used for a practical demonstration of this physical principle.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Centini, M.; Sciscione, L.; Sibilia, C.; Bertolotti, M.; Perina, J. Jr.; Scalora, M.; Bloemer, M.J.
2005-01-01
A description of spontaneous parametric down-conversion in finite-length one-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals is developed using semiclassical and quantum approaches. It is shown that if a suitable averaging is added to the semiclassical model, its results are in very good agreement with the quantum approach. We propose two structures made with GaN/AlN that generate both degenerate and nondegenerate entangled photon pairs. Both structures are designed so as to achieve a high efficiency of the nonlinear process
Third-order spontaneous parametric down-conversion in thin optical fibers as a photon-triplet source
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corona, Maria [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, apdo. postal 70-543, DF 04510 Mexico City (Mexico); Departamento de Optica, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Apartado Postal 2732, BC 22860 Ensenada (Mexico); Garay-Palmett, Karina; U' Ren, Alfred B. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, apdo. postal 70-543, DF 04510 Mexico City (Mexico)
2011-09-15
We study the third-order spontaneous parametric down-conversion (TOSPDC) process, as a means to generate entangled photon triplets. Specifically, we consider thin optical fibers as the nonlinear medium to be used as the basis for TOSPDC in configurations where phase matching is attained through the use of more than one fiber transverse modes. Our analysis in this paper, which follows from our earlier paper [Opt. Lett. 36, 190-192 (2011)], aims to supply experimentalists with the details required in order to design a TOSPDC photon-triplet source. Specifically, our analysis focuses on the photon triplet state, on the rate of emission, and on the TOSPDC phase-matching characteristics for the cases of frequency-degenerate and frequency nondegenerate TOSPDC.
Simulating quantum state engineering in spontaneous parametric down-conversion using classical light
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Zhang, Y
2014-07-01
Full Text Available range of pump beams for quantum state engineering and confirm that the results are in agreement with theory. Our approach offers high photon count rates, is quick to yield results and can easily be converted back to a SPDC setup. It is likely to be a...
Faghihi, M. J.; Tavassoly, M. K.; Hatami, M.
In this paper, a model by which we study the interaction between a motional three-level atom and two-mode field injected simultaneously in a bichromatic cavity is considered; the three-level atom is assumed to be in a Λ-type configuration. As a result, the atom-field and the field-field interaction (parametric down conversion) will be appeared. It is shown that, by applying a canonical transformation, the introduced model can be reduced to a well-known form of the generalized Jaynes-Cummings model. Under particular initial conditions, which may be prepared for the atom and the field, the time evolution of state vector of the entire system is analytically evaluated. Then, the dynamics of atom by considering ‘atomic population inversion’ and two different measures of entanglement, i.e., ‘von Neumann entropy’ and ‘idempotency defect’ is discussed, in detail. It is deduced from the numerical results that, the duration and the maximum amount of the considered physical quantities can be suitably tuned by selecting the proper field-mode structure parameter p and the detuning parameters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vitelli, Chiara; Spagnolo, Nicolo; Toffoli, Lorenzo; Sciarrino, Fabio; De Martini, Francesco
2010-01-01
We consider the high-gain spontaneous parametric down-conversion in a noncollinear geometry as a paradigmatic scenario to investigate the quantum-to-classical transition by increasing the pump power, that is, the average number of generated photons. The possibility of observing quantum correlations in such a macroscopic quantum system through dichotomic measurement will be analyzed by addressing two different measurement schemes, based on different dichotomization processes. More specifically, we will investigate the persistence of nonlocality in an increasing size (n/2)-spin singlet state by studying the change in the correlations form as n increases, both in the ideal case and in presence of losses. We observe a fast decrease in the amount of Bell's inequality violation for increasing system size. This theoretical analysis is supported by the experimental observation of macro-macro correlations with an average number of photons of about 10 3 . Our results shed light on the practical extreme difficulty of observing nonlocality by performing such a dichotomic fuzzy measurement.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimir V. Kornienko
2018-05-01
Full Text Available We study a calibration scheme for terahertz wave nonlinear-optical detectors based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Contrary to the usual low wavelength pump in the green, we report here on the observation of spontaneous parametric down-conversion originating from an in-growth poled lithium niobate crystal pumped with a continuous wave 50 mW, 795 nm diode laser system, phase-matched to a terahertz frequency idler wave. Such a system is more compact and allows for longer poling periods as well as lower losses in the crystal. Filtering the pump radiation by a rubidium-87 vapor cell allowed the frequency-angular spectra to be obtained down to ∼0.5 THz or ∼1 nm shift from the pump radiation line. The presence of an amplified spontaneous emission “pedestal” in the diode laser radiation spectrum significantly hampers the observation of spontaneous parametric down-conversion spectra, in contrast to conventional narrowband gas lasers. Benefits of switching to longer pump wavelengths are pointed out, such as collinear optical-terahertz phase-matching in bulk crystals.
Kornienko, Vladimir V.; Kitaeva, Galiya Kh.; Sedlmeir, Florian; Leuchs, Gerd; Schwefel, Harald G. L.
2018-05-01
We study a calibration scheme for terahertz wave nonlinear-optical detectors based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Contrary to the usual low wavelength pump in the green, we report here on the observation of spontaneous parametric down-conversion originating from an in-growth poled lithium niobate crystal pumped with a continuous wave 50 mW, 795 nm diode laser system, phase-matched to a terahertz frequency idler wave. Such a system is more compact and allows for longer poling periods as well as lower losses in the crystal. Filtering the pump radiation by a rubidium-87 vapor cell allowed the frequency-angular spectra to be obtained down to ˜0.5 THz or ˜1 nm shift from the pump radiation line. The presence of an amplified spontaneous emission "pedestal" in the diode laser radiation spectrum significantly hampers the observation of spontaneous parametric down-conversion spectra, in contrast to conventional narrowband gas lasers. Benefits of switching to longer pump wavelengths are pointed out, such as collinear optical-terahertz phase-matching in bulk crystals.
Moreau, Paul-Antoine; Mougin-Sisini, Joé; Devaux, Fabrice; Lantz, Eric
2012-07-01
We demonstrate Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entanglement by detecting purely spatial quantum correlations in the near and far fields of spontaneous parametric down-conversion generated in a type-2 beta barium borate crystal. Full-field imaging is performed in the photon-counting regime with an electron-multiplying CCD camera. The data are used without any postselection, and we obtain a violation of Heisenberg inequalities with inferred quantities taking into account all the biphoton pairs in both the near and far fields by integration on the entire two-dimensional transverse planes. This ensures a rigorous demonstration of the EPR paradox in its original position-momentum form.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Büse, A; Tischler, N; Juan, M L; Molina-Terriza, G
2015-01-01
In spontaneous parametric down-conversion, pairs of photons are known to be created coherently and with equal probability over the entire length of the crystal. Then, there is no particular position in the crystal where a photon pair is created. We make the seemingly contradictory observation that the time delay between the photons in the pair depends on the distance from the crystal to the collection lens, as if the photons were actually collected preferentially from a particular position in the crystal. We resolve this contradiction by showing that the spatio–temporal correlations critically affect the temporal properties of the pair of photons. The theoretical model we present matches all our experimental results. We expect this to have important implications for experiments that require indistinguishable photons. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schneeloch, James; Howell, John C
2016-01-01
As a tutorial to the spatial aspects of spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC), we present a detailed first-principles derivation of the transverse correlation width of photon pairs in degenerate collinear SPDC. This width defines the size of a biphoton birth zone, the region where the signal and idler photons are likely to be found when conditioning on the position of the destroyed pump photon. Along the way, we discuss the quantum-optical calculation of the amplitude for the SPDC process, as well as its simplified form for nearly collinear degenerate phase matching. Following this, we show how this biphoton amplitude can be approximated with a double-Gaussian wavefunction, and give a brief discussion of the measurement statistics (and subsequent convenience) of such double-Gaussian wavefunctions. Next, we use this approximation to get a simplified estimation of the transverse correlation width, and compare it to more accurate calculations as well as experimental results. We then conclude with a discussion of the concept of a biphoton birth zone, using it to develop intuition for the tradeoff between the first-order spatial coherence and bipohoton correlations in SPDC. (tutorial)
Kwon, Osung; Park, Kwang-Kyoon; Ra, Young-Sik; Kim, Yong-Su; Kim, Yoon-Ho
2013-10-21
Generation of time-bin entangled photon pairs requires the use of the Franson interferometer which consists of two spatially separated unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers through which the signal and idler photons from spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) are made to transmit individually. There have been two SPDC pumping regimes where the scheme works: the narrowband regime and the double-pulse regime. In the narrowband regime, the SPDC process is pumped by a narrowband cw laser with the coherence length much longer than the path length difference of the Franson interferometer. In the double-pulse regime, the longitudinal separation between the pulse pair is made equal to the path length difference of the Franson interferometer. In this paper, we propose another regime by which the generation of time-bin entanglement is possible and demonstrate the scheme experimentally. In our scheme, differently from the previous approaches, the SPDC process is pumped by a cw multi-mode (i.e., short coherence length) laser and makes use of the coherence revival property of such a laser. The high-visibility two-photon Franson interference demonstrates clearly that high-quality time-bin entanglement source can be developed using inexpensive cw multi-mode diode lasers for various quantum communication applications.
Quantum theory of novel parametric devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drummond, P.D.; Reid, M.D.; Dechoum, K.; Chaturvedi, S.; Olsen, M.; Kheruntsyan, K.; Bradley, A.
2005-01-01
While the parametric amplifier is a widely used and important source of entangled and squeezed photons, there are many possible ways to investigate the physics of intracavity parametric devices. Novel quantum theory of parametric devices in this talk will cover several new types of unconventional devices, including the following topics:- Critical intracavity paramp - We calculate intrinsic limits to entanglement of a quantum paramp, caused by nonlinear effects originating in phase noise of the pump. - Degenerate planar paramp - We obtain universal quantum critical fluctuations in a planar paramp device by mapping to the equations of magnetic Lifshitz points Nondegenerate planar paramp - The Mermin-Wagner theorem is used to demonstrate that there is no phase transition in the case of a nondegenerate planar device - Coupled channel paramp - A robust and novel integrated entanglement source can be generated using type I waveguides coupled inside a cavity to generate spatial entanglement - Cascade paramps - This possible 'GHZ-type' source is obtained by cascading successive down conversion crystals inside the same cavity, giving two thresholds Parallel paramps - Tripartite entanglement can be generated if three intracavity paramp crystals are operated in parallel, each idler mode acting as a signal for the next. Finally, we briefly treat the relevant experimental developments. (author)
Optical analysis of down-conversion OLEDs
Krummacher, Benjamin; Klein, Markus; von Malm, Norwin; Winnacker, Albrecht
2008-02-01
Phosphor down-conversion of blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is one approach to generate white light, which offers the possibility of easy color tuning, a simple device architecture and color stability over lifetime. In this article previous work on down-conversion devices in the field of organic solid state lighting is briefly reviewed. Further, bottom emitting down-conversion OLEDs are studied from an optical point of view. Therefore the physical processes occurring in the down-conversion layer are translated into a model which is implemented in a ray tracing simulation. By comparing its predictions to experimental results the model is confirmed. For the experiments a blue-emitting polymer OLED (PLED) panel optically coupled to a series of down-conversion layers is used. Based on results obtained from ray tracing simulation some of the implications of the model for the performance of down-conversion OLEDs are discussed. In particular it is analysed how the effective reflectance of the underlying blue OLED and the particle size distribution of the phosphor powder embedded in the matrix of the down-conversion layer influence extraction efficiency.
Path integral quantization of parametrized field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varadarajan, Madhavan
2004-01-01
Free scalar field theory on a flat spacetime can be cast into a generally covariant form known as parametrized field theory in which the action is a functional of the scalar field as well as the embedding variables which describe arbitrary, in general curved, foliations of the flat spacetime. We construct the path integral quantization of parametrized field theory in order to analyze issues at the interface of quantum field theory and general covariance in a path integral context. We show that the measure in the Lorentzian path integral is nontrivial and is the analog of the Fradkin-Vilkovisky measure for quantum gravity. We construct Euclidean functional integrals in the generally covariant setting of parametrized field theory using key ideas of Schleich and show that our constructions imply the existence of nonstandard 'Wick rotations' of the standard free scalar field two-point function. We develop a framework to study the problem of time through computations of scalar field two-point functions. We illustrate our ideas through explicit computation for a time independent (1+1)-dimensional foliation. Although the problem of time seems to be absent in this simple example, the general case is still open. We discuss our results in the contexts of the path integral formulation of quantum gravity and the canonical quantization of parametrized field theory
Hamiltonian constraint in polymer parametrized field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laddha, Alok; Varadarajan, Madhavan
2011-01-01
Recently, a generally covariant reformulation of two-dimensional flat spacetime free scalar field theory known as parametrized field theory was quantized using loop quantum gravity (LQG) type ''polymer'' representations. Physical states were constructed, without intermediate regularization structures, by averaging over the group of gauge transformations generated by the constraints, the constraint algebra being a Lie algebra. We consider classically equivalent combinations of these constraints corresponding to a diffeomorphism and a Hamiltonian constraint, which, as in gravity, define a Dirac algebra. Our treatment of the quantum constraints parallels that of LQG and obtains the following results, expected to be of use in the construction of the quantum dynamics of LQG: (i) the (triangulated) Hamiltonian constraint acts only on vertices, its construction involves some of the same ambiguities as in LQG and its action on diffeomorphism invariant states admits a continuum limit, (ii) if the regulating holonomies are in representations tailored to the edge labels of the state, all previously obtained physical states lie in the kernel of the Hamiltonian constraint, (iii) the commutator of two (density weight 1) Hamiltonian constraints as well as the operator correspondent of their classical Poisson bracket converge to zero in the continuum limit defined by diffeomorphism invariant states, and vanish on the Lewandowski-Marolf habitat, (iv) the rescaled density 2 Hamiltonian constraints and their commutator are ill-defined on the Lewandowski-Marolf habitat despite the well-definedness of the operator correspondent of their classical Poisson bracket there, (v) there is a new habitat which supports a nontrivial representation of the Poisson-Lie algebra of density 2 constraints.
Evaluation of multiphoton effects in down-conversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshimi, Kazuyoshi; Koshino, Kazuki
2010-01-01
Multiphoton effects in down-conversion are investigated based on the full-quantum multimode formalism by considering a three-level system as a prototype nonlinear system. We analytically derive the three-photon output wave function for two input photons, where one of the two input photons is down-converted and the other one is not. Using this output wave function, we calculate the down-conversion probability, the purity, and the fidelity to evaluate the entanglement between a down-converted photon pair and a non-down-converted photon. It is shown that the saturation effect occurs by multiphoton input and that it affects both the down-conversion probability and the quantum correlation between the down-converted photon pair and the non-down-converted photon. We also reveal the necessary conditions for multiphoton effects to be strong.
Parametric Level Statistics in Random Matrix Theory: Exact Solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanzieper, E.
1999-01-01
During recent several years, the theory of non-Gaussian random matrix ensembles has experienced a sound progress motivated by new ideas in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and mesoscopic physics. Invariant non-Gaussian random matrix models appear to describe universal features of low-energy part of the spectrum of Dirac operator in QCD, and electron level statistics in normal conducting-superconducting hybrid structures. They also serve as a basis for constructing the toy models of universal spectral statistics expected at the edge of the metal-insulator transition. While conventional spectral statistics has received a detailed study in the context of RMT, quite a bit is known about parametric level statistics in non-Gaussian random matrix models. In this communication we report about exact solution to the problem of parametric level statistics in unitary invariant, U(N), non-Gaussian ensembles of N x N Hermitian random matrices with either soft or strong level confinement. The solution is formulated within the framework of the orthogonal polynomial technique and is shown to depend on both the unfolded two-point scalar kernel and the level confinement through a double integral transformation which, in turn, provides a constructive tool for description of parametric level correlations in non-Gaussian RMT. In the case of soft level confinement, the formalism developed is potentially applicable to a study of parametric level statistics in an important class of random matrix models with finite level compressibility expected to describe a disorder-induced metal-insulator transition. In random matrix ensembles with strong level confinement, the solution presented takes a particular simple form in the thermodynamic limit: In this case, a new intriguing connection relation between the parametric level statistics and the scalar two-point kernel of an unperturbed ensemble is demonstrated to emerge. Extension of the results obtained to higher-order parametric level statistics is
Parametric statistical inference basic theory and modern approaches
Zacks, Shelemyahu; Tsokos, C P
1981-01-01
Parametric Statistical Inference: Basic Theory and Modern Approaches presents the developments and modern trends in statistical inference to students who do not have advanced mathematical and statistical preparation. The topics discussed in the book are basic and common to many fields of statistical inference and thus serve as a jumping board for in-depth study. The book is organized into eight chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of how the theory of statistical inference is presented in subsequent chapters. Chapter 2 briefly discusses statistical distributions and their properties. Chapt
Non-parametric Bayesian networks: Improving theory and reviewing applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanea, Anca; Morales Napoles, Oswaldo; Ababei, Dan
2015-01-01
Applications in various domains often lead to high dimensional dependence modelling. A Bayesian network (BN) is a probabilistic graphical model that provides an elegant way of expressing the joint distribution of a large number of interrelated variables. BNs have been successfully used to represent uncertain knowledge in a variety of fields. The majority of applications use discrete BNs, i.e. BNs whose nodes represent discrete variables. Integrating continuous variables in BNs is an area fraught with difficulty. Several methods that handle discrete-continuous BNs have been proposed in the literature. This paper concentrates only on one method called non-parametric BNs (NPBNs). NPBNs were introduced in 2004 and they have been or are currently being used in at least twelve professional applications. This paper provides a short introduction to NPBNs, a couple of theoretical advances, and an overview of applications. The aim of the paper is twofold: one is to present the latest improvements of the theory underlying NPBNs, and the other is to complement the existing overviews of BNs applications with the NPNBs applications. The latter opens the opportunity to discuss some difficulties that applications pose to the theoretical framework and in this way offers some NPBN modelling guidance to practitioners. - Highlights: • The paper gives an overview of the current NPBNs methodology. • We extend the NPBN methodology by relaxing the conditions of one of its fundamental theorems. • We propose improvements of the data mining algorithm for the NPBNs. • We review the professional applications of the NPBNs.
Parametric Design of Outdoor Broadcasting Studio Based on Schema Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhu Li
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper mainly demonstrates that the schema is an important way for the architect to cognize architecture form logic. It connects schema to algorithm of parametric design in order to seek the “algorithm schema” generation in parametric design of architecture. Meanwhile, this paper discusses the generative process and methods of the “algorithm schema” in parametric design of architecture by describing a case of outdoor broadcasting studio of Hunan Economic Radio. It also reveals the importance of “algorithm schema” for the cognition and architectural form logic generation.
Qutrits and ququarts in spontaneous parametric down-conversion, correlations and entanglement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fedorov, M. V., E-mail: fedorovmv@gmail.com; Volkov, P. A.; Milhailova, J. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)
2012-07-15
We investigate features of biphoton qutrits and ququarts with the symmetry of biphoton wavefunctions fully taken into account. Entanglement quantifiers of such states are found as functions of qutrit and ququart parameters. For biphoton qutrits, a general relation between degrees of entanglement and polarization is established. In the case of biphoton ququarts, photon frequencies are considered as variables independent of polarization variables, with both polarization and frequency degrees of freedom equally contributing to the total ququart entanglement. Averaging over one of these two degrees of freedom is shown to reduce pure ququart states to mixed two-qubit states. The degree of polarization and degrees of correlations in mixed polarization states are investigated.
Radial modal dependence of the azimuthal spectrum after parametric down-conversion
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Zhang, Y
2014-01-01
Full Text Available .e., the spiral bandwidth [10–14]. Hence, a large spiral bandwidth indicates that an OAM entangled quantum state contains more OAM degrees of freedom that can be used to encode quantum information. The Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) modes are OAM eigenstates and are a... number of a quantum state produced bySPDC. A number of techniques have been investigated to increase the spiral bandwidth of LG modes, including increasing the pump beam size and manipulating the SPDC phase matching conditions [13,16–18]. Nevertheless...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kyung Ho Sun
2014-10-01
Full Text Available While environmental vibrations are usually in the range of a few hundred Hertz, small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters will have higher resonant frequencies due to the structural size effect. To address this issue, we propose a resonant frequency-down conversion based on the theory of dynamic vibration absorber for the design of a small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvester. The proposed energy harvester consists of two frequency-tuned elastic components for lowering the first resonant frequency of an integrated system but is so configured that an energy harvesting beam component is inverted with respect to the other supporting beam component for a small form factor. Furthermore, in order to change the unwanted modal characteristic of small separation of resonant frequencies, as is the case with an inverted configuration, a proof mass on the supporting beam component is slightly shifted toward a second proof mass on the tip of the energy harvesting beam component. The proposed small-form-factor design capability was experimentally verified using a fabricated prototype with an occupation volume of 20 × 39 × 6.9 mm3, which was designed for a target frequency of as low as 100 Hz.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, Kyung Ho; Kim, Young-Cheol [Department of System Dynamics, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 156 Gajeongbuk-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Eun, E-mail: jekim@cu.ac.kr [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, 13-13 Hayang-Ro, Hayang-Eup, Gyeongsan-Si, Gyeongsangbuk-Do 712-702 (Korea, Republic of)
2014-10-15
While environmental vibrations are usually in the range of a few hundred Hertz, small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters will have higher resonant frequencies due to the structural size effect. To address this issue, we propose a resonant frequency-down conversion based on the theory of dynamic vibration absorber for the design of a small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvester. The proposed energy harvester consists of two frequency-tuned elastic components for lowering the first resonant frequency of an integrated system but is so configured that an energy harvesting beam component is inverted with respect to the other supporting beam component for a small form factor. Furthermore, in order to change the unwanted modal characteristic of small separation of resonant frequencies, as is the case with an inverted configuration, a proof mass on the supporting beam component is slightly shifted toward a second proof mass on the tip of the energy harvesting beam component. The proposed small-form-factor design capability was experimentally verified using a fabricated prototype with an occupation volume of 20 × 39 × 6.9 mm{sup 3}, which was designed for a target frequency of as low as 100 Hz.
Analysis of family-wise error rates in statistical parametric mapping using random field theory.
Flandin, Guillaume; Friston, Karl J
2017-11-01
This technical report revisits the analysis of family-wise error rates in statistical parametric mapping-using random field theory-reported in (Eklund et al. []: arXiv 1511.01863). Contrary to the understandable spin that these sorts of analyses attract, a review of their results suggests that they endorse the use of parametric assumptions-and random field theory-in the analysis of functional neuroimaging data. We briefly rehearse the advantages parametric analyses offer over nonparametric alternatives and then unpack the implications of (Eklund et al. []: arXiv 1511.01863) for parametric procedures. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Parametrizations in scalar-tensor theories of gravity and the limit of general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Järv, L; Kuusk, P; Saal, M; Vilson, O
2014-01-01
We consider a general scalar-tensor theory of gravity and review briefly different forms it can be presented (different conformal frames and scalar field parametrizations). We investigate the conditions under which its field equations and the parametrized post-Newtonian parameters coincide with those of general relativity. We demonstrate that these so-called limits of general relativity are independent of the parametrization of the scalar field, although the transformation between scalar fields may be singular at the corresponding value of the scalar field. In particular, the limit of general relativity can equivalently be determined and investigated in the commonly used Jordan and Einstein frames.
Down-conversion IM-DD RF photonic link utilizing MQW MZ modulator.
Xu, Longtao; Jin, Shilei; Li, Yifei
2016-04-18
We present the first down-conversion intensity modulated-direct detection (IM-DD) RF photonic link that achieves frequency down-conversion using the nonlinear optical phase modulation inside a Mach-Zehnder (MZ) modulator. The nonlinear phase modulation is very sensitive and it can enable high RF-to-IF conversion efficiency. Furthermore, the link linearity is enhanced by canceling the nonlinear distortions from the nonlinear phase modulation and the MZ interferometer. Proof-of-concept measurement was performed. The down-conversion IM-DD link demonstrated 28dB improvement in distortion levels over that of a conventional IM-DD link using a LiNbO3 MZ modulator.
On the kinetic theory of parametric resonance in relativistic plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Ashry, M.Y.
1982-08-01
The instability of relativistic hot plasma located in high-frequency external electric field is studied. The dispersion relation, in the case when the plasma electrons have relativistic oscillatory motion, is obtained. It is shown that if the electron Deby's radius is less than the wave length of plasma oscillation and far from the resonance on the overtones of the external field frequency, the oscillation build-up is possible. It is also shown that taking into account the relativistic motion of electrons leads to a considerable decrease in the frequency at which the parametric resonance takes place. (author)
Prospect theory: A parametric analysis of functional forms in Brazil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Eugene Lobel
2017-10-01
Full Text Available This study aims to analyze risk preferences in Brazil based on prospect theory by estimating the risk aversion parameter of the expected utility theory (EUT for a select sample, in addition to the value and probability function parameter, assuming various functional forms, and a newly proposed value function, the modified log. This is the first such study in Brazil, and the parameter results are slightly different from studies in other countries, indicating that subjects are more risk averse and exhibit a smaller loss aversion. Probability distortion is the only common factor. As expected, the study finds that behavioral models are superior to EUT, and models based on prospect theory, the TK and Prelec weighting function, and the value power function show superior performance to others. Finally, the modified log function proposed in the study fits the data well, and can thus be used for future studies in Brazil.
On mass-shell parametric space renormalization of PHI3 theory in six dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, A.W.
1977-05-01
An on mass shell, parametric space renormalization procedure for phi 3 theory in six dimensions is defined and its formal equivalence to the usual Lagrangian counter procedure demonstrated. Two loop contributions to the self-energy are used as an illustration of the method. (author)
Augmenting Parametric Optimal Ascent Trajectory Modeling with Graph Theory
Dees, Patrick D.; Zwack, Matthew R.; Edwards, Stephen; Steffens, Michael
2016-01-01
into Conceptual and Pre-Conceptual design, knowledge of the effects originating from changes to the vehicle must be calculated. In order to do this, a model capable of quantitatively describing any vehicle within the entire design space under consideration must be constructed. This model must be based upon analysis of acceptable fidelity, which in this work comes from POST. Design space interrogation can be achieved with surrogate modeling, a parametric, polynomial equation representing a tool. A surrogate model must be informed by data from the tool with enough points to represent the solution space for the chosen number of variables with an acceptable level of error. Therefore, Design Of Experiments (DOE) is used to select points within the design space to maximize information gained on the design space while minimizing number of data points required. To represent a design space with a non-trivial number of variable parameters the number of points required still represent an amount of work which would take an inordinate amount of time via the current paradigm of manual analysis, and so an automated method was developed. The best practices of expert trajectory analysts working within NASA Marshall's Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) were implemented within a tool called multiPOST. These practices include how to use the output data from a previous run of POST to inform the next, determining whether a trajectory solution is feasible from a real-world perspective, and how to handle program execution errors. The tool was then augmented with multiprocessing capability to enable analysis on multiple trajectories simultaneously, allowing throughput to scale with available computational resources. In this update to the previous work the authors discuss issues with the method and solutions.
Quadripartite continuous-variable entanglement via quadruply concurrent down-conversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Midgley, S. L. W.; Olsen, M. K.; Bradley, A. S.; Pfister, O.
2010-01-01
We investigate an experimentally feasible intracavity coupled down-conversion scheme to generate quadripartite entanglement using concurrent nonlinearities. We verify that quadripartite entanglement is present in this system by calculating the output fluctuation spectra and then considering violations of optimized inequalities of the van Loock-Furusawa type. The entanglement characteristics both above and below the oscillation threshold are considered. We also present analytic solutions for the quadrature operators and the van Loock-Furusawa correlations in the undepleted pump approximation.
Quantum theory of parametric excitation in plasmas with the driving field space dispersion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vo Hong Anh
1998-11-01
A development of the quantum theory of parametric wave excitation in plasmas is presented to take into account the effects of space dispersion of the driving external fields. The quantum equation of motion method with the use of appropriate matrix formalism leads to the system of dispersion equations for the eigenmodes of vibrations. Calculations show the enlargement of the excitable waves region both in wave number values and directions as compared to the case of dipole approximation considered earlier. (author)
Parametrized tests of post-Newtonian theory using Advanced LIGO and Einstein Telescope
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishra, Chandra Kant; Arun, K. G.; Iyer, Bala R.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.
2010-01-01
General relativity has very specific predictions for the gravitational waveforms from inspiralling compact binaries obtained using the post-Newtonian (PN) approximation. We investigate the extent to which the measurement of the PN coefficients, possible with the second generation gravitational-wave detectors such as the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and the third generation gravitational-wave detectors such as the Einstein Telescope (ET), could be used to test post-Newtonian theory and to put bounds on a subclass of parametrized-post-Einstein theories which differ from general relativity in a parametrized sense. We demonstrate this possibility by employing the best inspiralling waveform model for nonspinning compact binaries which is 3.5PN accurate in phase and 3PN in amplitude. Within the class of theories considered, Advanced LIGO can test the theory at 1.5PN and thus the leading tail term. Future observations of stellar mass black hole binaries by ET can test the consistency between the various PN coefficients in the gravitational-wave phasing over the mass range of 11-44M · . The choice of the lower frequency cutoff is important for testing post-Newtonian theory using the ET. The bias in the test arising from the assumption of nonspinning binaries is indicated.
Down-conversion luminescence from (Ce, Yb) co-doped oxygen-rich silicon oxides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heng, C. L.; Wang, T.; Su, W. Y.; Wu, H. C.; Yin, P. G.; Finstad, T. G.
2016-01-01
We have studied down-conversion photoluminescence (PL) from (Ce, Yb) co-doped “oxygen rich” silicon oxide films prepared by sputtering and annealing. The Ce"3"+ ∼510 nm PL is sensitive to the Ce concentration of the films and is much stronger for 3 at. % Ce than for 2 at. % Ce after annealing at 1200 °C. The PL emission and excitation spectroscopy results indicate that the excitation of Yb"3"+ is mainly through an energy transfer from Ce"3"+ to Yb"3"+, oxide defects also play a role in the excitation of Yb"3"+ after lower temperature (∼800 °C) annealing. The Ce"3"+ 510 nm photon excites mostly only one Yb"3"+ 980 nm photon. Temperature-dependent PL measurements suggest that the energy transfer from Ce"3"+ to Yb"3"+ is partly thermally activated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parr, D.M.
2000-04-01
This thesis studies the propagation and stability of ultraintense laser light in plasma. A new method is devised, both general and inclusive yet requiring only modest computational effort. The exact anharmonic waveforms for laser light are established. An examination of their stability extends the theory of electron parametric instabilities to relativistic regimes in plasmas of any density including classically overdense plasma accessible by self-induced transparency. Such instabilities can rapidly degrade intense pulses, but can also be harnessed, for example in the self-resonant laser wakefield accelerator. Understanding both the new and established regimes is thus basic to the success of many applications arising in high-field science, including novel x-ray sources and ignition of laser fusion targets, as well as plasma-based accelerator schemes. A covariant formulation of a cold electron fluid plasma is Lorentz transformed to the laser group velocity frame; this is the essence of the method and produces a very simple final model. Then, first, the zero-order laser 'driver' model is developed, in this frame representing a spatially homogeneous environment and thus soluble numerically as ordinary differential equations. The linearised first-order system leads to a further set of differential equations, whose solution defines the growth and other characteristics of an instability. The method is exact, rugged and flexible, avoiding the many approximations and restrictions previously necessary. This approach unifies all theory on purely electronic parametric instabilities over the last 30 years and, for the first time in generality, extends it into the ultrahigh relativistic regime. Besides extensions to familiar parametric instabilities, such as Stimulated Raman Scattering and Two-Plasmon Decay, strong stimulated harmonic generation emerges across a wide range of harmonics with high growth rates, presenting a varied and complex physical entity
Ahmed, M. A.; Khafagy, Rasha M.; El-sayed, O.
2014-03-01
For the first time, standalone and ligand-free series of novel rare-earth-based perovskite nanomaterials are used as near infrared (NIR) and mid infrared (MIR) emitters. Nano-sized La0.7Sr0.3M0.1Fe0.9O3; where M = 0, Mn2+, Co2+ or Ni2+ were synthesized using the flash auto-combustion method and characterized using FTIR, FT-Raman, SEM and EDX. Photoluminescence spectra were spontaneously recorded during pumping the samples with 0.5 mW of green laser emitting continuously at 532 nm. La0.7Sr0.3FeO3 (where M = 0) did not result in any infrared emissivity, while intense near and mid infrared down-converted phosphorescence was released from the M-doped samples. The released phosphorescence greatly shifted among the infrared spectral region with changing the doping cation. Ni2+-doped perovskite emitted at the short-wavelength near-infrared region, while Mn2+ and Co2+-doped perovskites emitted at the mid-wavelength infrared region. The detected laser-induced spontaneous parametric down-conversion phosphorescence (SPDC) occurred through a two-photon process by emitting two NIR or MIR photons among a cooperative energy transfer between the La3+ cations and the M2+ cations. Combining SrFeO3 ceramic with both a rare earth cation (RE3+) and a transition metal cation (Mn2+, Co2+ or Ni2+), rather than introducing merely RE3+ cations, greatly improved and controlled the infrared emissivity properties of synthesized perovskites through destroying their crystal symmetry and giving rise to asymmetrical lattice vibration and the nonlinear optical character. The existence of SPDC in the M2+-doped samples verifies their nonlinear character after the absence of this character in La0.7Sr0.3FeO3. Obtained results verify that, for the first time, perovskite nanomaterials are considered as nonlinear optical crystals with intense infrared emissivity at low pumping power of visible wavelengths, which nominates them for photonic applications and requires further studies regarding their lasing
Nonlinear theory for the parametric instability with comparable electron and ion temperatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oberman, C.
1972-01-01
The basic linear theory of the parametric instability driven by a pump E 0 sin ω 0 t oscillating near the electron plasma frequency is reviewed. An expression is derived for the temporal nonlinear development of the fluctuation spectrum of the excited waves. For plasma with comparable electron and ion temperatures nonlinear Landau damping of electron plasma waves on ions provides the dominant nonlinearity. The steady state solutions are examined both analytically and numerically in the limit when the spontaneous emission term is small. The characteristics of the plasma wave spectrum agrees well with the general features of ionospheric observations. The enhanced dissipation rate of the pump due to the presence of the fluctuations agrees with laboratory observations. (U.S.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jia, Li-Ping; Zhang, Qiang; Yan, Bing
2014-01-01
Graphical abstract: Lanthanide ions doped bare earth rare earth fluoride nanocrystals are synthesized by hydrothermal technology and characterized. The down/up-conversion luminescence of them are discussed. - Highlights: • Mixed hydrothermal system H 2 O–OA (EDA)–O-A(LO-A) is used for synthesis. • Barium rare earth fluoride nanocrystals are synthesized comprehensively. • Luminescence for down-conversion and up-conversion are obtained for these systems. - Abstract: Mixed hydrothermal system H 2 O–OA (EDA)–O-A(LO-A) is developed to synthesize barium rare earth fluorides nanocrystals (OA = oleylamine, EDA = ethylenediamine, O-A = oleic acid and LO-A = linoleic acid). They are presented as BaREF 5 (RE = Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Y, Tm, Lu) and Ba 2 REF 7 (RE = La, Sm, Ho, Er, Yb). The influence of reaction parameters (rare earth species, hydrothermal system and temperature) is checked on the phase and shape evolution of the fluoride nanocrystals. It is found that reaction time and temperature of these nanocrystals using EDA (180 °C, 6 h) is lower than those of them using OA (220 °C, 10 h). The photoluminescence properties of these fluorides activated by some rare earth ions (Nd 3+ , Eu 3+ , Tb 3+ ) are studied, and especially up-conversion luminescence of the four fluoride nanocrystal systems (Ba 2 LaF 7 :Yb, Tm(Er), Ba 2 REF 7 :Yb, Tm(Er) (RE = Gd, Y, Lu)) is observed
A Non-Parametric Item Response Theory Evaluation of the CAGE Instrument Among Older Adults.
Abdin, Edimansyah; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Picco, Louisa; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily
2018-02-23
The validity of the CAGE using item response theory (IRT) has not yet been examined in older adult population. This study aims to investigate the psychometric properties of the CAGE using both non-parametric and parametric IRT models, assess whether there is any differential item functioning (DIF) by age, gender and ethnicity and examine the measurement precision at the cut-off scores. We used data from the Well-being of the Singapore Elderly study to conduct Mokken scaling analysis (MSA), dichotomous Rasch and 2-parameter logistic IRT models. The measurement precision at the cut-off scores were evaluated using classification accuracy (CA) and classification consistency (CC). The MSA showed the overall scalability H index was 0.459, indicating a medium performing instrument. All items were found to be homogenous, measuring the same construct and able to discriminate well between respondents with high levels of the construct and the ones with lower levels. The item discrimination ranged from 1.07 to 6.73 while the item difficulty ranged from 0.33 to 2.80. Significant DIF was found for 2-item across ethnic group. More than 90% (CC and CA ranged from 92.5% to 94.3%) of the respondents were consistently and accurately classified by the CAGE cut-off scores of 2 and 3. The current study provides new evidence on the validity of the CAGE from the IRT perspective. This study provides valuable information of each item in the assessment of the overall severity of alcohol problem and the precision of the cut-off scores in older adult population.
Nassar, H.; Lebée, A.; Monasse, L.
2017-01-01
Origami tessellations are particular textured morphing shell structures. Their unique folding and unfolding mechanisms on a local scale aggregate and bring on large changes in shape, curvature and elongation on a global scale. The existence of these global deformation modes allows for origami tessellations to fit non-trivial surfaces thus inspiring applications across a wide range of domains including structural engineering, architectural design and aerospace engineering. The present paper suggests a homogenization-type two-scale asymptotic method which, combined with standard tools from differential geometry of surfaces, yields a macroscopic continuous characterization of the global deformation modes of origami tessellations and other similar periodic pin-jointed trusses. The outcome of the method is a set of nonlinear differential equations governing the parametrization, metric and curvature of surfaces that the initially discrete structure can fit. The theory is presented through a case study of a fairly generic example: the eggbox pattern. The proposed continuous model predicts correctly the existence of various fittings that are subsequently constructed and illustrated.
Nassar, H; Lebée, A; Monasse, L
2017-01-01
Origami tessellations are particular textured morphing shell structures. Their unique folding and unfolding mechanisms on a local scale aggregate and bring on large changes in shape, curvature and elongation on a global scale. The existence of these global deformation modes allows for origami tessellations to fit non-trivial surfaces thus inspiring applications across a wide range of domains including structural engineering, architectural design and aerospace engineering. The present paper suggests a homogenization-type two-scale asymptotic method which, combined with standard tools from differential geometry of surfaces, yields a macroscopic continuous characterization of the global deformation modes of origami tessellations and other similar periodic pin-jointed trusses. The outcome of the method is a set of nonlinear differential equations governing the parametrization, metric and curvature of surfaces that the initially discrete structure can fit. The theory is presented through a case study of a fairly generic example: the eggbox pattern. The proposed continuous model predicts correctly the existence of various fittings that are subsequently constructed and illustrated.
Quantum correlations across two octaves from combined up- and down-conversion
Li, Jingyan; Olsen, M. K.
2018-04-01
We propose and analyze a cascaded optical parametric system which involves three interacting modes across two octaves of frequency difference. Our system, combining degenerate optical parametric oscillation (OPO) with second harmonic generation (SHG), promises to be a useful source of squeezed and entangled light at three differing frequencies. We show how changes in damping rates and the ratio of the two concurrent nonlinearities affect the quantum correlations in the output fields. We analyze the threshold behavior, showing how the normal OPO threshold is changed by the addition of the SHG interactions. We also find that the inclusion of the OPO interaction removes the self-pulsing behavior found in normal SHG. Finally, we show how the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations can be controlled by the injection of a coherent seed field at the lower frequency.
Theory of fluctuations and parametric noise in a point nuclear reactor model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez, M.A.; San Miguel, M.; Sancho, J.M.
1984-01-01
We present a joint description of internal fluctuations and parametric noise in a point nuclear reactor model in which delayed neutrons and a detector are considered. We obtain kinetic equations for the first moments and define effective kinetic parameters which take into account the effect of parametric Gaussian white noise. We comment on the validity of Langevin approximations for this problem. We propose a general method to deal with weak but otherwise arbitrary non-white parametric noise. Exact kinetic equations are derived for Gaussian non-white noise. (author)
Gardelis, Spiros; Nassiopoulou, Androula G.
2014-05-01
We report on the increase of up to 37.5% in conversion efficiency of a Si-based solar cell after deposition of light-emitting Cd-free, CuInS2/ZnS core shell quantum dots on the active area of the cell due to the combined effect of down-conversion and the anti- reflecting property of the dots. We clearly distinguished the effect of down-conversion from anti-reflection and estimated an enhancement of up to 10.5% in the conversion efficiency due to down-conversion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gardelis, Spiros; Nassiopoulou, Androula G.
2014-01-01
We report on the increase of up to 37.5% in conversion efficiency of a Si-based solar cell after deposition of light-emitting Cd-free, CuInS 2 /ZnS core shell quantum dots on the active area of the cell due to the combined effect of down-conversion and the anti- reflecting property of the dots. We clearly distinguished the effect of down-conversion from anti-reflection and estimated an enhancement of up to 10.5% in the conversion efficiency due to down-conversion
Optical parametric amplification and oscillation assisted by low-frequency stimulated emission
Longhi, Stefano
2016-01-01
Optical parametric amplification/oscillation provide a powerful tool for coherent light generation in spectral regions inaccessible to lasers. Parametric gain is based on a frequency {\\it down-conversion} process, and thus it can not be realized for signal waves at a frequency $\\omega_3$ {\\it higher} than the frequency of the pump wave $\\omega_1$. In this work we suggest a route toward the realization of {\\it up-conversion} optical parametric amplification and oscillation, i.e. amplification ...
Theory of fourfold interference with photon pairs from spatially separated sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Hui Rong; Wang, Ruo Peng
2007-01-01
We present a theory for fourfold quantum interference of photons generated from independent spontaneous parametric down-conversion processes. Closed-form expressions for fourfold quantum interference patterns and visibility are found. The theoretical result for fourfold quantum interference patterns is in good agreement with experimental data reported. Detailed numerical calculations for the dependence of fourfold quantum interference visibility on experimentally controllable parameters are carried out. It is found out that higher visibility can be achieved for small biphoton width, short pump pulse coherence time, and narrow bandwidth of spectral filters. The optimal condition for obtaining at the same time higher fourfold interference visibility and intensity is also discussed
Non-parametric transformation for data correlation and integration: From theory to practice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Datta-Gupta, A.; Xue, Guoping; Lee, Sang Heon [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)
1997-08-01
The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, we introduce the use of non-parametric transformations for correlating petrophysical data during reservoir characterization. Such transformations are completely data driven and do not require a priori functional relationship between response and predictor variables which is the case with traditional multiple regression. The transformations are very general, computationally efficient and can easily handle mixed data types for example, continuous variables such as porosity, permeability and categorical variables such as rock type, lithofacies. The power of the non-parametric transformation techniques for data correlation has been illustrated through synthetic and field examples. Second, we utilize these transformations to propose a two-stage approach for data integration during heterogeneity characterization. The principal advantages of our approach over traditional cokriging or cosimulation methods are: (1) it does not require a linear relationship between primary and secondary data, (2) it exploits the secondary information to its fullest potential by maximizing the correlation between the primary and secondary data, (3) it can be easily applied to cases where several types of secondary or soft data are involved, and (4) it significantly reduces variance function calculations and thus, greatly facilitates non-Gaussian cosimulation. We demonstrate the data integration procedure using synthetic and field examples. The field example involves estimation of pore-footage distribution using well data and multiple seismic attributes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xia, Yingdong; Chen, Yonghua; Smith, Gregory M. [Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27105 (United States); Sun, Hengda; Yang, Dezhi [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Nie, Wanyi; Li, Yuan; Huang, Wenxiao [Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27105 (United States); Ma, Dongge [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Carroll, David L., E-mail: carroldl@wfu.edu [Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27105 (United States)
2015-05-15
In this work, a high-performance alternating current (AC) filed-induced chromatic-stable white polymer electroluminescence (WFIPEL) device was fabricated by combining a fluorophor Poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO)-based blue device with a yellow down-conversion layer (YAG:Ce). A maximum luminance of this down-conversion FIPEL device achieves 3230 cd m{sup −2}, which is 1.41 times higher than the device without the down-conversion layer. A maximum current efficiency and power efficiency of the down-conversion WFIPEL device reach 19.7 cd A{sup −1} at 3050 cd m{sup −2} and 5.37 lm W{sup −1} at 2310 cd m{sup −2} respectively. To the best of our knowledge, the power efficiency is one of the highest reports for the WFIPEL up to now. Moreover, Commison Internationale de L’Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.28, 0.30) is obtained by adjusting the thickness of the down-conversion layer to 30 μm and it is kept stable over the entire AC-driven voltage range. We believe that this AC-driven, down-conversion, WFIPEL device may offer an easy way towards future flat and flexible lighting sources. - Highlights: • A high-performance AC filed-induced chromatic-stable white polymer electroluminescence (WFIPEL) device was fabricated. • A maximum luminance, current efficiency, and power efficiency achieves 3230 cd m{sup −2}, 19.7 cd A{sup −1}, and 5.37 lm W{sup −1}, respectively. • The power efficiency is one of the highest reports for the WFIPEL up to now. • The EL spectrum kept very stable over the entire AC-driven voltage range.
Theory of stochastic space-dependent neutron kinetics with a Gaussian parametric excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saito, K.
1980-01-01
Neutron kinetics and statics in a multiplying medium with a statistically fluctuating reactivity are unified and systematically studied by applying the Novikov-Furutsu formula. The parametric or multiplicative noise is spatially distributed and of Gaussian nature with an arbitrary spectral profile. It is found that the noise introduces a new definite production term into the conventional balance equation for the mean neutron number. The term is characterized by the magnitude and the correlation function of the random excitation. Its relaxation phenomena bring forth a non-Markoffian or a memory effect, which is conceptualised by introducing 'pseudo-precursors' or 'pseudo-delayed neutrons'. By using the concept, some typical reactor physical problems are solved; they are (1) reactivity and flux perturbation originating from the random dispersal of core materials and (2) analysis of neutron decay mode and it relaxation constant, and derivation of the corresponding new inhour equation. (author)
Economic policy optimization based on both one stochastic model and the parametric control theory
Ashimov, Abdykappar; Borovskiy, Yuriy; Onalbekov, Mukhit
2016-06-01
A nonlinear dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model with financial frictions is developed to describe two interacting national economies in the environment of the rest of the world. Parameters of nonlinear model are estimated based on its log-linearization by the Bayesian approach. The nonlinear model is verified by retroprognosis, estimation of stability indicators of mappings specified by the model, and estimation the degree of coincidence for results of internal and external shocks' effects on macroeconomic indicators on the basis of the estimated nonlinear model and its log-linearization. On the base of the nonlinear model, the parametric control problems of economic growth and volatility of macroeconomic indicators of Kazakhstan are formulated and solved for two exchange rate regimes (free floating and managed floating exchange rates)
Mokken scale analysis : Between the Guttman scale and parametric item response theory
van Schuur, Wijbrandt H.
2003-01-01
This article introduces a model of ordinal unidimensional measurement known as Mokken scale analysis. Mokken scaling is based on principles of Item Response Theory (IRT) that originated in the Guttman scale. I compare the Mokken model with both Classical Test Theory (reliability or factor analysis)
Chiao, Raymond Y.; Kwiat, Paul G.; Steinberg, Aephraim M.
1992-01-01
The energy-time uncertainty principle is on a different footing than the momentum position uncertainty principle: in contrast to position, time is a c-number parameter, and not an operator. As Aharonov and Bohm have pointed out, this leads to different interpretations of the two uncertainty principles. In particular, one must distinguish between an inner and an outer time in the definition of the spread in time, delta t. It is the inner time which enters the energy-time uncertainty principle. We have checked this by means of a correlated two-photon light source in which the individual energies of the two photons are broad in spectra, but in which their sum is sharp. In other words, the pair of photons is in an entangled state of energy. By passing one member of the photon pair through a filter with width delta E, it is observed that the other member's wave packet collapses upon coincidence detection to a duration delta t, such that delta E(delta t) is approximately equal to planks constant/2 pi, where this duration delta t is an inner time, in the sense of Aharonov and Bohm. We have measured delta t by means of a Michelson interferometer by monitoring the visibility of the fringes seen in coincidence detection. This is a nonlocal effect, in the sense that the two photons are far away from each other when the collapse occurs. We have excluded classical-wave explanations of this effect by means of triple coincidence measurements in conjunction with a beam splitter which follows the Michelson interferometer. Since Bell's inequalities are known to be violated, we believe that it is also incorrect to interpret this experimental outcome as if energy were a local hidden variable, i.e., as if each photon, viewed as a particle, possessed some definite but unknown energy before its detection.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Peřina ml., Jan; Hamar, Martin; Michálek, Václav; Haderka, O.
2012-01-01
Roč. 85, č. 2 (2012), "023816-1"-"023816-13" ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100713; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Grant - others:MSM(CZ) OC09026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : maximum-likelihood * multimode description * statistics quantum * states * downconversion * postselection * counter * pairs Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.042, year: 2012 http://pra.aps.org/pdf/PRA/v85/i2/e023816
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kopeikin, Sergei; Vlasov, Igor
2004-01-01
Post-Newtonian relativistic theory of astronomical reference frames based on Einstein's general theory of relativity was adopted by General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union in 2000. This theory is extended in the present paper by taking into account all relativistic effects caused by the presumable existence of a scalar field and parametrized by two parameters, β and γ, of the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism. We use a general class of the scalar-tensor (Brans-Dicke type) theories of gravitation to work out PPN concepts of global and local reference frames for an astronomical N-body system. The global reference frame is a standard PPN coordinate system. A local reference frame is constructed in the vicinity of a weakly self-gravitating body (a sub-system of the bodies) that is a member of the astronomical N-body system. Such local inertial frame is required for unambiguous derivation of the equations of motion of the body in the field of other members of the N-body system and for construction of adequate algorithms for data analysis of various gravitational experiments conducted in ground-based laboratories and/or on board of spacecrafts in the solar system.We assume that the bodies comprising the N-body system have weak gravitational field and move slowly. At the same time we do not impose any specific limitations on the distribution of density, velocity and the equation of state of the body's matter. Scalar-tensor equations of the gravitational field are solved by making use of the post-Newtonian approximations so that the metric tensor and the scalar field are obtained as functions of the global and local coordinates. A correspondence between the local and global coordinate frames is found by making use of asymptotic expansion matching technique. This technique allows us to find a class of the post-Newtonian coordinate transformations between the frames as well as equations of translational motion of the origin of the local frame
Pantazis, Yannis; Katsoulakis, Markos A; Vlachos, Dionisios G
2013-10-22
Stochastic modeling and simulation provide powerful predictive methods for the intrinsic understanding of fundamental mechanisms in complex biochemical networks. Typically, such mathematical models involve networks of coupled jump stochastic processes with a large number of parameters that need to be suitably calibrated against experimental data. In this direction, the parameter sensitivity analysis of reaction networks is an essential mathematical and computational tool, yielding information regarding the robustness and the identifiability of model parameters. However, existing sensitivity analysis approaches such as variants of the finite difference method can have an overwhelming computational cost in models with a high-dimensional parameter space. We develop a sensitivity analysis methodology suitable for complex stochastic reaction networks with a large number of parameters. The proposed approach is based on Information Theory methods and relies on the quantification of information loss due to parameter perturbations between time-series distributions. For this reason, we need to work on path-space, i.e., the set consisting of all stochastic trajectories, hence the proposed approach is referred to as "pathwise". The pathwise sensitivity analysis method is realized by employing the rigorously-derived Relative Entropy Rate, which is directly computable from the propensity functions. A key aspect of the method is that an associated pathwise Fisher Information Matrix (FIM) is defined, which in turn constitutes a gradient-free approach to quantifying parameter sensitivities. The structure of the FIM turns out to be block-diagonal, revealing hidden parameter dependencies and sensitivities in reaction networks. As a gradient-free method, the proposed sensitivity analysis provides a significant advantage when dealing with complex stochastic systems with a large number of parameters. In addition, the knowledge of the structure of the FIM can allow to efficiently address
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vos, Alexis de; Szymanska, Aleksandra; Badescu, Viorel
2009-01-01
In classical solar cells, each absorbed photon gives rise to one electron-hole pair, irrespective of the photon energy. By applying an appropriate photoluminescent layer in front of the solar cell semiconductor, one can convert one high energy photon into two low energy photons (so-called down-conversion). In the present study, we do not consider photoluminescent layers that merely shift down photon energies (without enhancing the number of photons). In principle, these two photons can then generate two electron-hole pairs in the solar cell, thus increasing the efficiency of the device. However, the two photons emitted by the converter, are not necessarily emitted in the direction of the semiconductor: they can also be emitted in the direction 'back to the sun'. As most semiconductors have a high refractive index, in case the luminescent material has a low refractive index, more than half of the photoluminescence emission is lost in the sun direction, resulting in a net loss of light current generated by the solar cell instead of an increase. On the other hand, a high refractive index of the conversion layer (e.g. equal to the solar cell refractive index) will lead to a bad optical coupling with the air and a good optical coupling with the semiconductor, and therefore, more than 50% of the emitted low energy photons will actually reach the solar cell. However, in the latter case, many solar photons do not reach the converter in the first place because of reflection at the air-converter interface. As a result, it turns out that, in the absence of any anti-reflection coating, a refractive index n 2 of the converting layer in the range between n 1 1/2 and n 1 is optimal, where n 1 is the refractive index of the solar cell material. If, however, an anti-reflection coating is applied between air and the converter, the best choice for n 2 is n 1 . Finally, if two anti-reflection coatings are applied (the former between air and the converter, the latter between the
Tong, Guoqing; Li, Huan; Zhu, Zhifeng; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Linwei; Xu, Jun; Jiang, Yang
2018-04-05
Hybrid perovskite photodetectors (PDs) exhibit outstanding performance in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrum but have poor detectability in the deep ultraviolet (DUV) region (200-350 nm). In this work, a novel inorganic-hybrid architecture that incorporates a dual-phase (CsPbBr 3 -Cs 4 PbBr 6 ) inorganic perovskite material as a down-conversion window layer and a hybrid perovskite as a light capture layer was prepared to achieve faster, highly sensitive photodetection in the DUV spectrum. A dual-phase inorganic perovskite film coated on the back surface of the photodetector enables strong light absorption and tunes the incident energy into emission bands that are optimized for the perovskite photodetector. The presence of Cs 4 PbBr 6 enhances the capture and down-conversion of the incident DUV light. Due to the down-conversion and transport of the DUV photons, a self-driven perovskite photodetector with this composite structure exhibits a fast response time of 7.8/33.6 μs and a high responsivity of 49.4 mA W -1 at 254 nm without extra power supply.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kelly, F.A.; Stacey, W.M.; Rapp, J.
2001-01-01
The observed dependence of the TEXTOR [Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research: E. Hintz, P. Bogen, H. A. Claassen et al., Contributions to High Temperature Plasma Physics, edited by K. H. Spatschek and J. Uhlenbusch (Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 1994), p. 373] density limit on global parameters (I, B, P, etc.) and wall conditioning is compared with the predicted density limit parametric scaling of thermal instability theory. It is necessary first to relate the edge parameters of the thermal instability theory to n(bar sign) and the other global parameters. The observed parametric dependence of the density limit in TEXTOR is generally consistent with the predicted density limit scaling of thermal instability theory. The observed wall conditioning dependence of the density limit can be reconciled with the theory in terms of the radiative emissivity temperature dependence of different impurities in the plasma edge. The thermal instability theory also provides an explanation of why symmetric detachment precedes radiative collapse for most low power shots, while a multifaceted asymmetric radiation from the edge MARFE precedes detachment for most high power shots
Hanson, Donald B.
1994-01-01
Typical analytical models for interaction between rotor and stator in a turbofan analyze the effect of wakes from the rotor impinging on the stator, producing unsteady loading, and thereby generating noise. Reflection/transmission characteristics of the rotor are sometimes added in a separate calculation. In those models, there is a one-to-one relationship between wake harmonics and noise harmonics; that is, the BPF (blade passing frequency) wake harmonic causes only the BPF noise harmonic, etc. This report presents a more complete model in which flow tangency boundary conditions are satisfied on two cascades in relative motion for several harmonics simultaneously. By an extension of S.N. Smith's code for two dimensional flat plate cascades, the noise generation/frequency scattering/blade row reflection problem is solved in a single matrix inversion. It is found that the BPF harmonic excitation of the stator scatters considerable energy in the higher BPF harmonics due to relative motion between the blade rows. Furthermore, when swirl between the rotor and stator is modeled, a 'mode trapping' effect occurs which explains observations on fans operating at rotational speeds below BFP cuton: the BPF mode amplifies between blade rows by multiple reflections but cannot escape to the inlet and exit ducts. However, energy scattered into higher harmonics does propagate and dominates the spectrum at two and three times BPF. This report presents the complete derivation of the theory, comparison with a previous (more limited) coupled rotor/stator interaction theory due to Kaji and Okazaki, exploration of the mode trapping phenomenon, and parametric studies showing the effects of vane/blade ratio and rotor/stator interaction. For generality, the analysis applies to stages where the rotor is either upstream or downstream of the stator and to counter rotation stages. The theory has been coded in a FORTRAN program called CUP2D, documented in Volume 2 of this report. It is
Parametric Resonance in Dynamical Systems
Nijmeijer, Henk
2012-01-01
Parametric Resonance in Dynamical Systems discusses the phenomenon of parametric resonance and its occurrence in mechanical systems,vehicles, motorcycles, aircraft and marine craft, and micro-electro-mechanical systems. The contributors provide an introduction to the root causes of this phenomenon and its mathematical equivalent, the Mathieu-Hill equation. Also included is a discussion of how parametric resonance occurs on ships and offshore systems and its frequency in mechanical and electrical systems. This book also: Presents the theory and principles behind parametric resonance Provides a unique collection of the different fields where parametric resonance appears including ships and offshore structures, automotive vehicles and mechanical systems Discusses ways to combat, cope with and prevent parametric resonance including passive design measures and active control methods Parametric Resonance in Dynamical Systems is ideal for researchers and mechanical engineers working in application fields such as MEM...
Phase locking and quantum statistics in a parametrically driven nonlinear resonator
Hovsepyan, G. H.; Shahinyan, A. R.; Chew, Lock Yue; Kryuchkyan, G. Yu.
2016-01-01
We discuss phase-locking phenomena at low-level of quanta for parametrically driven nonlinear Kerr resonator (PDNR) in strong quantum regime. Oscillatory mode of PDNR is created in the process of a degenerate down-conversion of photons under interaction with a train of external Gaussian pulses. We calculate the Wigner functions of cavity mode showing two-fold symmetry in phase space and analyse formation of phase-locked states in the regular as well as the quantum chaotic regime.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dominguez, C Ruiz; Kachenoura, N; Cesare, A De; Delouche, A; Lim, P; Gerard, O; Herment, A; Diebold, B; Frouin, F
2005-01-01
The computerized study of the regional contraction of the left ventricle has undergone numerous developments, particularly in relation to echocardiography. A new method, parametric analysis of main motion (PAMM), is proposed in order to synthesize the information contained in a cine loop of images in parametric images. PAMM determines, for the intensity variation time curves (IVTC) observed in each pixel, two amplitude coefficients characterizing the continuous component and the alternating component; the variable component is generated from a mother curve by introducing a time shift coefficient and a scale coefficient. Two approaches, a PAMM data driven and a PAMM model driven (simpler and faster), are proposed. On the basis of the four coefficients, an amplitude image and an image of mean contraction time are synthesized and interpreted by a cardiologist. In all cases, both PAMM methods allow better IVTC adjustment than the other methods of parametric imaging used in echocardiography. A preliminary database comprising 70 segments is scored and compared with the visual analysis, taken from a consensus of two expert interpreters. The levels of absolute and relative concordance are 79% and 97%. PAMM model driven is a promising method for the rapid detection of abnormalities in left ventricle contraction
Controlling Parametric Resonance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Galeazzi, Roberto; Pettersen, Kristin Ytterstad
2012-01-01
the authors review the conditions for the onset of parametric resonance, and propose a nonlinear control strategy in order to both induce the resonant oscillations and to stabilize the unstable motion. Lagrange’s theory is used to derive the dynamics of the system and input–output feedback linearization...
Optical parametric amplification and oscillation assisted by low-frequency stimulated emission.
Longhi, Stefano
2016-04-15
Optical parametric amplification and oscillation provide powerful tools for coherent light generation in spectral regions inaccessible to lasers. Parametric gain is based on a frequency down-conversion process and, thus, it cannot be realized for signal waves at a frequency ω3 higher than the frequency of the pump wave ω1. In this Letter, we suggest a route toward the realization of upconversion optical parametric amplification and oscillation, i.e., amplification of the signal wave by a coherent pump wave of lower frequency, assisted by stimulated emission of the auxiliary idler wave. When the signal field is resonated in an optical cavity, parametric oscillation is obtained. Design parameters for the observation of upconversion optical parametric oscillation at λ3=465 nm are given for a periodically poled lithium-niobate (PPLN) crystal doped with Nd(3+) ions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diaz-Herrera, B. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Linsun Power Technology (Quanzhou) Corp. Ltd. Co., Economic Development Zone, Jinjiang 362200, Fujian (China); Jimenez-Rodriguez, E. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Gonzalez-Diaz, B. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Instituto Tecnologico y de Energias Renovables, S.A. (ITER), Poligono Industrial de Granadilla, S/N, E38600, Granadilla de Abona (Spain); Montesdeoca-Santana, A. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Velazquez, J.J. [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental y Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Guerrero-Lemus, R., E-mail: rglemus@ull.es [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Fundacion de Estudios de Economia Aplicada, Programa Focus-Abengoa de Energia y Cambio Climaticoi, Jorge Juan 46, 28001 Madrid (Spain)
2011-07-01
In this work, erbium and ytterbium have been incorporated into luminescent porous silicon (PS) layers by simple impregnation of the PS substrate with a saturated nitrate solution of erbium and ytterbium. The photoluminescence of the co-doped rare earth layers have been evaluated. The doping process has been designed for its potential in silicon-based solar cell production, with the aim to improve the Shockley-Queisser limit with a reasonable cost effective method for the industry, which implies a significant enhancement of the efficiency under non-concentrated sunlight irradiation. The temperature and annealing time of the doping process were selected according to industry standards in order to ease a trial adoption. The composition was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in order to characterize the doping profile. Different up-conversion and down-conversion contributions from the rare earths in the visible and IR were detected, together with the down shifting effect of the stain etched PS. There is no evidence of energy transference between the PS matrix and the rare earths.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Yinpeng; Luo, Laihui; Wang, Jia; Zuo, Qianghui; Yao, Yongjie; Li, Weiping
2015-01-01
Na 0.5 Bi 0.5−x−y Yb x Pr y TiO 3 (NBT:xYb/yPr) ceramics with different Yb and Pr contents are prepared. Both the down-conversion (DC) and up-conversion (UC) photoluminescence (PL) of the ceramics via 453 and 980 nm excitation, respectively, are investigated. The effect of Yb 3+ and Pr 3+ doping contents on the DC and UC PL is significantly different from each other. Furthermore, the UC PL of the ceramics as a function of temperatures is measured to investigate the UC process in detail. Based on energy level diagram of Pr 3+ and Yb 3+ ions and the DC and UC PL spectra, the DC and UC PL mechanisms of Pr 3+ and Yb 3+ ions are discussed. Especially, the UC PL mechanism is clarified, which is different from the previously reported literature. Also, the temperature sensing properties of the ceramics are studied based on the photoluminescence ratio technique, using the thermal coupling energy levels of Pr 3+
Verma, Akta; Sharma, S. K.
2018-05-01
In the present work, we have synthesized a CaMoO4:(1%)Er3+,(1%)Yb3+ down-converting phosphor by hydrothermal method. The primary goal of studying down-conversion is to enhance the conversion efficiency of Si-solar cell by converting one high energy (UV) photon into two low energy (NIR) photons. The various characterization such as XRD, FESEM and Photoluminescence (PL) were carried out. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern exhibit tetragonal crystal structure and has a space group of I41a (88). The FESEM microphotograph shows surface morphology having a abundance of particles in spherical shape. The PL emission spectra were recorded both in Visible and NIR regions. There is hypertensive emission peak at 555 nm in the visible region due to 4S3/2 → 4I15/2 transition of Er3+ ions and an emission at 980 nm (2F5/2 → 2F7/2) due to Yb3+ ions. The result shows a demand of this down-converting material in the field of solar energy to improve the efficiency of Si-solar-cell.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katsuaki Tanabe
2009-07-01
Full Text Available Solar cells are a promising renewable, carbon-free electric energy resource to address the fossil fuel shortage and global warming. Energy conversion efficiencies around 40% have been recently achieved in laboratories using III-V semiconductor compounds as photovoltaic materials. This article reviews the efforts and accomplishments made for higher efficiency III-V semiconductor compound solar cells, specifically with multijunction tandem, lower-dimensional, photonic up/down conversion, and plasmonic metallic structures. Technological strategies for further performance improvement from the most efficient (AlInGaP/(InGaAs/Ge triple-junction cells including the search for 1.0 eV bandgap semiconductors are discussed. Lower-dimensional systems such as quantum well and dot structures are being intensively studied to realize multiple exciton generation and multiple photon absorption to break the conventional efficiency limit. Implementation of plasmonic metallic nanostructures manipulating photonic energy flow directions to enhance sunlight absorption in thin photovoltaic semiconductor materials is also emerging.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diaz-Herrera, B.; Jimenez-Rodriguez, E.; Gonzalez-Diaz, B.; Montesdeoca-Santana, A.; Velazquez, J.J.; Guerrero-Lemus, R.
2011-01-01
In this work, erbium and ytterbium have been incorporated into luminescent porous silicon (PS) layers by simple impregnation of the PS substrate with a saturated nitrate solution of erbium and ytterbium. The photoluminescence of the co-doped rare earth layers have been evaluated. The doping process has been designed for its potential in silicon-based solar cell production, with the aim to improve the Shockley-Queisser limit with a reasonable cost effective method for the industry, which implies a significant enhancement of the efficiency under non-concentrated sunlight irradiation. The temperature and annealing time of the doping process were selected according to industry standards in order to ease a trial adoption. The composition was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in order to characterize the doping profile. Different up-conversion and down-conversion contributions from the rare earths in the visible and IR were detected, together with the down shifting effect of the stain etched PS. There is no evidence of energy transference between the PS matrix and the rare earths.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arponen, J.S.; Bishop, R.F.
1991-01-01
The configuration-interaction method (CIM), normal coupled-cluster method (NCCM), and extended coupled-cluster method (ECCM) form a rather natural hierarchy of formulations of increasing sophistication for describing interacting systems of quantum-mechanical particles or fields. They are denoted generically as independent-cluster (IC) parameterizations in a view of the way in which they incorporate the many-body correlations via sets of amplitudes that describe the various correlated clusters within the interacting system as mutually independent entities. They differ primarily by the way in which they incorporate the exact locality and separability properties. Each method is shown to provide, in principle, an exact mapping of the original quantum-mechanical problem into a corresponding classical Hamiltonian mechanics in terms of a set of multiconfigurational canonical field amplitudes. In perturbation-theoretic terms the IC methods incorporate infinite classes of diagrams at each order of approximation. The diagrams differ in their connectivity or linkedness properties. The structure of the ECCM in particular makes it capable of describing such phenomena as phase transitions, spontaneous symmetry breaking , and topological states. The authors address such fundamentally important questions as the existence and convergence properties of the three IC parameterizations by formulating the holomorphic representation of each one for the class of single-mode bosonic field theories which include the anharmonic oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chu, Haipeng [Institute of Coordination Bond Metrology and Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Liu, Xinjuan, E-mail: lxj669635@126.com [Institute of Coordination Bond Metrology and Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Liu, Jiaqing [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics & Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Lei, Wenyan [Institute of Coordination Bond Metrology and Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Li, Jinliang [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics & Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Wu, Tianyang [Institute of Coordination Bond Metrology and Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Li, Ping [Shanghai Nanotechnology Promotion Center, Shanghai 200237 (China); Li, Huili; Pan, Likun [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics & Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)
2017-01-01
Graphical abstract: ZnO-Lu{sub 3}(Al,Si){sub 5}(O,N){sub 12}:Ce{sup 3+} hybrid photocatalysts were synthesized via a fast microwave-assisted approach for visible light photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutions with a high degradation rate of 91%. - Highlights: • ZnO-Lu{sub 3}(Al,Si){sub 5}(O,N){sub 12}:Ce{sup 3+} were synthesized via a facile microwave-assisted method. • Lu{sub 3}(Al,Si){sub 5}(O,N){sub 12}:Ce{sup 3+} acts as co-catalyst to facilitates the self-sensitized degradation of MB. • ZnO-Lu{sub 3}(Al,Si){sub 5}(O,N){sub 12}:Ce{sup 3+} exhibited enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity. • A high MB degradation rate of 91% was achieved under visible light irradiation. - Abstract: Exploring novel visible light responsive photocatalysts is one of greatly significant issues from the viewpoint of using solar energy. Here we report the yellow-orange emitting α-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-doped Lu{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce{sup 3+} (Lu{sub 3}Al{sub 5-x}Si{sub x}O{sub 12-x}N{sub x}:Ce{sup 3+}) phosphors as a noble-metal-free co-catalyst for enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of ZnO. The results show that ZnO-Lu{sub 3}Al{sub 5-x}Si{sub x}O{sub 12-x}N{sub x}:Ce{sup 3+} hybrid photocatalysts using a fast microwave-assisted approach exhibits a 91% methylene blue (MB) degradation under visible light irradiation at 240 min, which evidence the synergistic effect of ZnO and Lu{sub 3}Al{sub 5-x}Si{sub x}O{sub 12-x}N{sub x}:Ce{sup 3+} that suppress the rate of charge recombination and increase the self-sensitized degradation of MB. ZnO-down conversion phosphors can be envisaged as potential candidate in environmental engineering and solar energy applications.
Low-Threshold Optical Parametric Oscillations in a Whispering Gallery Mode Resonator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fürst, J. U.; Strekalov, D. V.; Elser, D.
2010-01-01
In whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator light is guided by continuous total internal reflection along a curved surface. Fabricating such resonators from an optically nonlinear material one takes advantage of their exceptionally high quality factors and small mode volumes to achieve extremely...... efficient optical frequency conversion. Our analysis of the phase-matching conditions for optical parametric down-conversion (PDC) in a spherical WGM resonator shows their direct relation to the sum rules for photons' angular momenta and predicts a very low parametric oscillation threshold. We realized...... such an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based on naturally phase-matched PDC in lithium niobate. We demonstrated a single-mode, strongly nondegenerate OPO with a threshold of 6.7 μW and linewidth under 10 MHz. This work demonstrates the remarkable capabilities of WGM-based OPOs....
2011-01-01
Background Nonparametric item response theory (IRT) was used to examine (a) the performance of the 30 Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) items and their options ((levels of severity), (b) the effectiveness of various subscales to discriminate among differences in symptom severity, and (c) the development of an abbreviated PANSS (Mini-PANSS) based on IRT and a method to link scores to the original PANSS. Methods Baseline PANSS scores from 7,187 patients with Schizophrenia or Schizoaffective disorder who were enrolled between 1995 and 2005 in psychopharmacology trials were obtained. Option characteristic curves (OCCs) and Item Characteristic Curves (ICCs) were constructed to examine the probability of rating each of seven options within each of 30 PANSS items as a function of subscale severity, and summed-score linking was applied to items selected for the Mini-PANSS. Results The majority of items forming the Positive and Negative subscales (i.e. 19 items) performed very well and discriminate better along symptom severity compared to the General Psychopathology subscale. Six of the seven Positive Symptom items, six of the seven Negative Symptom items, and seven out of the 16 General Psychopathology items were retained for inclusion in the Mini-PANSS. Summed score linking and linear interpolation was able to produce a translation table for comparing total subscale scores of the Mini-PANSS to total subscale scores on the original PANSS. Results show scores on the subscales of the Mini-PANSS can be linked to scores on the original PANSS subscales, with very little bias. Conclusions The study demonstrated the utility of non-parametric IRT in examining the item properties of the PANSS and to allow selection of items for an abbreviated PANSS scale. The comparisons between the 30-item PANSS and the Mini-PANSS revealed that the shorter version is comparable to the 30-item PANSS, but when applying IRT, the Mini-PANSS is also a good indicator of illness severity
Khan, Anzalee; Lewis, Charles; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre
2011-11-16
Nonparametric item response theory (IRT) was used to examine (a) the performance of the 30 Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) items and their options ((levels of severity), (b) the effectiveness of various subscales to discriminate among differences in symptom severity, and (c) the development of an abbreviated PANSS (Mini-PANSS) based on IRT and a method to link scores to the original PANSS. Baseline PANSS scores from 7,187 patients with Schizophrenia or Schizoaffective disorder who were enrolled between 1995 and 2005 in psychopharmacology trials were obtained. Option characteristic curves (OCCs) and Item Characteristic Curves (ICCs) were constructed to examine the probability of rating each of seven options within each of 30 PANSS items as a function of subscale severity, and summed-score linking was applied to items selected for the Mini-PANSS. The majority of items forming the Positive and Negative subscales (i.e. 19 items) performed very well and discriminate better along symptom severity compared to the General Psychopathology subscale. Six of the seven Positive Symptom items, six of the seven Negative Symptom items, and seven out of the 16 General Psychopathology items were retained for inclusion in the Mini-PANSS. Summed score linking and linear interpolation was able to produce a translation table for comparing total subscale scores of the Mini-PANSS to total subscale scores on the original PANSS. Results show scores on the subscales of the Mini-PANSS can be linked to scores on the original PANSS subscales, with very little bias. The study demonstrated the utility of non-parametric IRT in examining the item properties of the PANSS and to allow selection of items for an abbreviated PANSS scale. The comparisons between the 30-item PANSS and the Mini-PANSS revealed that the shorter version is comparable to the 30-item PANSS, but when applying IRT, the Mini-PANSS is also a good indicator of illness severity.
Ionospheric modification and parametric instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fejer, J.A.
1979-01-01
Thresholds and linear growth rates for stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering and for the parametric decay instability are derived by using arguments of energy transfer. For this purpose an expression for the ponderomotive force is derived. Conditions under which the partial pressure force due to differential dissipation exceeds the ponderomotive force are also discussed. Stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering are weakly excited by existing incoherent backscatter radars. The parametric decay instability is strongly excited in ionospheric heating experiments. Saturation theories of the parametric decay instability are therefore described. After a brief discussion of the purely growing instability the effect of using several pumps is discussed as well as the effects of inhomogenicity. Turning to detailed theories of ionospheric heating, artificial spread F is discussed in terms of a purely growing instability where the nonlinearity is due to dissipation. Field-aligned short-scale striations are explained in terms of dissipation of the parametrically excited Langmuir waves (plasma oscillations): they might be further amplified by an explosive instability (except the magnetic equator). Broadband absorption is probably responsible for the 'overshoot' effect: the initially observed level of parametrically excited Langmuir waves is much higher than the steady state level
Parametric and Non-Parametric System Modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg
1999-01-01
the focus is on combinations of parametric and non-parametric methods of regression. This combination can be in terms of additive models where e.g. one or more non-parametric term is added to a linear regression model. It can also be in terms of conditional parametric models where the coefficients...... considered. It is shown that adaptive estimation in conditional parametric models can be performed by combining the well known methods of local polynomial regression and recursive least squares with exponential forgetting. The approach used for estimation in conditional parametric models also highlights how...... networks is included. In this paper, neural networks are used for predicting the electricity production of a wind farm. The results are compared with results obtained using an adaptively estimated ARX-model. Finally, two papers on stochastic differential equations are included. In the first paper, among...
Couvy-Duchesne, Baptiste; Davenport, Tracey A; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; Hickie, Ian B
2017-08-01
The Somatic and Psychological HEalth REport (SPHERE) is a 34-item self-report questionnaire that assesses symptoms of mental distress and persistent fatigue. As it was developed as a screening instrument for use mainly in primary care-based clinical settings, its validity and psychometric properties have not been studied extensively in population-based samples. We used non-parametric Item Response Theory to assess scale validity and item properties of the SPHERE-34 scales, collected through four waves of the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study (N = 1707, mean age = 12, 51% females; N = 1273, mean age = 14, 50% females; N = 1513, mean age = 16, 54% females, N = 1263, mean age = 18, 56% females). We estimated the heritability of the new scores, their genetic correlation, and their predictive ability in a sub-sample (N = 1993) who completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. After excluding items most responsible for noise, sex or wave bias, the SPHERE-34 questionnaire was reduced to 21 items (SPHERE-21), comprising a 14-item scale for anxiety-depression and a 10-item scale for chronic fatigue (3 items overlapping). These new scores showed high internal consistency (alpha > 0.78), moderate three months reliability (ICC = 0.47-0.58) and item scalability (Hi > 0.23), and were positively correlated (phenotypic correlations r = 0.57-0.70; rG = 0.77-1.00). Heritability estimates ranged from 0.27 to 0.51. In addition, both scores were associated with later DSM-IV diagnoses of MDD, social anxiety and alcohol dependence (OR in 1.23-1.47). Finally, a post-hoc comparison showed that several psychometric properties of the SPHERE-21 were similar to those of the Beck Depression Inventory. The scales of SPHERE-21 measure valid and comparable constructs across sex and age groups (from 9 to 28 years). SPHERE-21 scores are heritable, genetically correlated and show good predictive ability of mental health in an Australian-based population
Non-classical Signature of Parametric Fluorescence and its Application in Metrology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hamar M.
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The article provides a short theoretical background of what the non-classical light means. We applied the criterion for the existence of non-classical effects derived by C.T. Lee on parametric fluorescence. The criterion was originally derived for the study of two light beams with one mode per beam. We checked if the criterion is still working for two multimode beams of parametric down-conversion through numerical simulations. The theoretical results were tested by measurement of photon number statistics of twin beams emitted by nonlinear BBO crystal pumped by intense femtoseconds UV pulse. We used ICCD camera as the detector of photons in both beams. It appears that the criterion can be used for the measurement of the quantum efficiencies of the ICCD cameras.
On Parametric (and Non-Parametric Variation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neil Smith
2009-11-01
Full Text Available This article raises the issue of the correct characterization of ‘Parametric Variation’ in syntax and phonology. After specifying their theoretical commitments, the authors outline the relevant parts of the Principles–and–Parameters framework, and draw a three-way distinction among Universal Principles, Parameters, and Accidents. The core of the contribution then consists of an attempt to provide identity criteria for parametric, as opposed to non-parametric, variation. Parametric choices must be antecedently known, and it is suggested that they must also satisfy seven individually necessary and jointly sufficient criteria. These are that they be cognitively represented, systematic, dependent on the input, deterministic, discrete, mutually exclusive, and irreversible.
Controlling flexible rotor vibrations using parametric excitation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Atepor, L, E-mail: katepor@yahoo.co [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)
2009-08-01
This paper presents both theoretical and experimental studies of an active vibration controller for vibration in a flexible rotor system. The paper shows that the vibration amplitude can be modified by introducing an axial parametric excitation. The perturbation method of multiple scales is used to solve the equations of motion. The steady-state responses, with and without the parametric excitation terms, is investigated. An experimental test machine uses a piezoelectric exciter mounted on the end of the shaft. The results show a reduction in the rotor response amplitude under principal parametric resonance, and some good correlation between theory and experiment.
Synchronization of chaos in non-identical parametrically excited systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Idowu, B.A.; Vincent, U.E.; Njah, A.N.
2009-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the synchronization of chaotic systems consisting of non-identical parametrically excited oscillators. The active control technique is employed to design control functions based on Lyapunov stability theory and Routh-Hurwitz criteria so as to achieve global chaos synchronization between a parametrically excited gyroscope and each of the parametrically excited pendulum and Duffing oscillator. Numerical simulations are implemented to verify the results.
Motivations of parametric studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Birac, C.
1988-01-01
The paper concerns the motivations of parametric studies in connection with the Programme for the Inspection of Steel Components PISC II. The objective of the PISC II exercise is to evaluate the effectiveness of current and advanced NDT techniques for inspection of reactor pressure vessel components. The parametric studies were initiated to determine the influence of some parameters on defect detection and dimensioning, and to increase the technical bases of the Round Robin Tests. A description is given of the content of the parametric studies including:- the effect of the defects' characteristics, the effect of equipment characteristics, the effect of cladding, and possible use of electromagnetic techniques. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reid, M.D.; Munro, W.J.; De Martini, F.
2002-01-01
We show how polarization measurements on the output fields generated by parametric down conversion will reveal a violation of multiparticle Bell inequalities, in the regime of both low- and high-output intensity. In this case, each spatially separated system, upon which a measurement is performed, is comprised of more than one particle. In view of the formal analogy with spin systems, the proposal provides an opportunity to test the predictions of quantum mechanics for spatially separated higher spin states. Here the quantum behavior possible even where measurements are performed on systems of large quantum (particle) number may be demonstrated. Our proposal applies to both vacuum-state signal and idler inputs, and also to the quantum-injected parametric amplifier as studied by De Martini et al. The effect of detector inefficiencies is included, and weaker Bell-Clauser-Horne inequalities are derived to enable realistic tests of local hidden variables with auxiliary assumptions for the multiparticle situation
Schwinger-type parametrization of open string worldsheets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sam Playle
2017-03-01
Full Text Available A parametrization of (super moduli space near the corners corresponding to bosonic or Neveu–Schwarz open string degenerations is introduced for worldsheets of arbitrary topology. With this parametrization, Feynman graph polynomials arise as the α′→0 limit of objects on moduli space. Furthermore, the integration measures of string theory take on a very simple and elegant form.
Global chaos synchronization of coupled parametrically excited ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper, we study the synchronization behaviour of two linearly coupled parametrically excited chaotic pendula. The stability of the synchronized state is examined using Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI); and some sufficient criteria for global asymptotic synchronization are derived from which ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tai, Yuping, E-mail: yupingtai@126.com [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Zheng, Guojun, E-mail: zhengguojun88@126.com [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: huiwang@nwu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); National Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials Culture Base, National Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials & Application of International Science and Technology Cooperation Base, Institute of Photonics & Photon-Technology, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Bai, Jintao, E-mail: baijt@nwu.edu.cn [National Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials Culture Base, National Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials & Application of International Science and Technology Cooperation Base, Institute of Photonics & Photon-Technology, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China)
2015-03-15
Near infrared (NIR) quantum cutting involving the down conversion of an absorbed visible photon to emission of two NIR photons was achieved in SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:0.01Eu{sup 2+}, xYb{sup 3+} (x=0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30 mol%) samples. The photoluminescence properties of samples in visible and NIR regions were measured to verify the energy transfer (ET) from Eu{sup 2+} to Yb{sup 3+}. The results demonstrated that Eu{sup 2+} was an efficient sensitizer for Yb{sup 3+} in the SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} host lattice. According to Gaussian fitting analysis and temperature-dependent luminescence experiments, the conclusion was drawn that the cooperative energy transfer (CET) process dominated the ET process and the influence of charge transfer state (CTS) of Yb{sup 3+} could be negligible. As a result, the high energy transfer efficiency (ETE) and quantum yield (QY) have been acquired, the maximum value approached 73.68% and 147.36%, respectively. Therefore, this down-conversion material has potential application in crystalline silicon solar cells to improve conversion efficiency. - Graphical abstract: Near infrared quantum cutting was achieved in Eu{sup 2+}–Yb{sup 3+} co-doped SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples. The cooperative energy transfer process dominated energy transfer process and high energy transfer efficiency was acquired. - Highlights: • The absorption spectrum of Eu{sup 2+} ion is strong in intensity and broad in bandwidth. • The spectra of Eu{sup 2+} in SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} lies in the strongest region of solar spectrum. • The cooperative energy transfer (CET) dominated the energy transfer process. • The domination of CET is confirmed by experimental analysis. • SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+},Yb{sup 3+} show high energy transfer efficiency and long lifetime.
PARAMETRIC DRAWINGS VS. AUTOLISP
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
PRUNĂ Liviu
2015-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper the authors make a critical analysis of the advantages offered by the parametric drawing use by comparison with the AutoLISP computer programs used when it comes about the parametric design. Studying and analysing these two work models the authors have got to some ideas and conclusions which should be considered in the moment in that someone must to decide if it is the case to elaborate a software, using the AutoLISP language, or to establish the base rules that must be followed by the drawing, in the idea to construct outlines or blocks which can be used in the projection process.
PARAMETRIC DRAWINGS VS. AUTOLISP
PRUNĂ Liviu; SLONOVSCHI Andrei
2015-01-01
In this paper the authors make a critical analysis of the advantages offered by the parametric drawing use by comparison with the AutoLISP computer programs used when it comes about the parametric design. Studying and analysing these two work models the authors have got to some ideas and conclusions which should be considered in the moment in that someone must to decide if it is the case to elaborate a software, using the AutoLISP language, or to establish the base rules that must be followed...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gavrilović T.V.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we studied the effects of Er3+/Yb3+ concentration ratio on structural, morphological and luminescence properties of GdVO4:Er3+/Yb3+ green phosphors prepared by a high-temperature solid state method. The samples with different concentrations (between 0.5 to 2 mol% of dopant Er3+ emitting ions and different concentrations (between 5 to 20 mol% of sensitizer ions (Yb3+ were studied. The phosphors were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and photoluminescence spectroscopy. For all samples, XRD diffraction patterns confirmed a formation of a pure GdVO4 phase, while the SEM showed that the materials are comprised of chunks of deformed particles with an average diameter ranging from approximately 2 μm to 8 μm. Both, down-conversion and up-conversion emission spectra of GdVO4:Er3+/Yb3+ samples, under near UV and IR excitations, exhibit two strong emission bands in the green spectral region at 525 nm and 552 nm wavelengths corresponding to 2H11/2 →4I15/2 and 4S3/2 → 4I15/2 electronic transitions of Er3+ ions. The intensity of the green emission was changed by changing the Er3+/Yb3+ concentration ratio. This dual-mode luminescence makes these materials ideal as green phosphors for a wide variety of applications in the fields of bioanalysis and biomedical. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45020 i br. 172056
Classification rates: non‐parametric verses parametric models using ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This research sought to establish if non parametric modeling achieves a higher correct classification ratio than a parametric model. The local likelihood technique was used to model fit the data sets. The same sets of data were modeled using parametric logit and the abilities of the two models to correctly predict the binary ...
Towards Stabilizing Parametric Active Contours
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Jinchao; Fan, Zhun; Olsen, Søren Ingvor
2014-01-01
Numerical instability often occurs in evolving of parametric active contours. This is mainly due to the undesired change of parametrization during evolution. In this paper, we propose a new tangential diffusion term to compensate this undesired change. As a result, the parametrization will converge...
MEMS digital parametric loudspeaker
Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo
2016-03-23
This paper reports on the design and fabrication of MEMS actuator arrays suitable for Digital Sound reconstruction and Parametric Directional Loudspeakers. Two distinct versions of the device were fabricated: one using the electrostatic principle actuation and the other one, the piezoelectric principle. Both versions used similar membrane dimensions, with a diameter of 500 μm. These devices are the smallest Micro-Machined Ultrasound Transducer (MUT) arrays that can be operated for both modes: Digital Sound Reconstruction and Parametric Loudspeaker. The chips consist of an array with 256 transducers, in a footprint of 12 mm by 12 mm. The total single chip size is: 2.3 cm by 2.3 cm, including the contact pads. © 2016 IEEE.
Parametric Explosion Spectral Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ford, S R; Walter, W R
2012-01-19
Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.
MEMS digital parametric loudspeaker
Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Castro, David; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Kosel, Jü rgen; Foulds, Ian G.
2016-01-01
This paper reports on the design and fabrication of MEMS actuator arrays suitable for Digital Sound reconstruction and Parametric Directional Loudspeakers. Two distinct versions of the device were fabricated: one using the electrostatic principle actuation and the other one, the piezoelectric principle. Both versions used similar membrane dimensions, with a diameter of 500 μm. These devices are the smallest Micro-Machined Ultrasound Transducer (MUT) arrays that can be operated for both modes: Digital Sound Reconstruction and Parametric Loudspeaker. The chips consist of an array with 256 transducers, in a footprint of 12 mm by 12 mm. The total single chip size is: 2.3 cm by 2.3 cm, including the contact pads. © 2016 IEEE.
Macromechanical Parametric Amplification
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Neumeyer, Stefan
between the two peaks can be altered. The first experimental bistable amplified steady-state responses are also reported. The derived analytical models and experimental setups can readily be extended to investigate other factors. Some of the results are also applicable to the more general field of systems...... for energy harvesting. Using analytical, numerical, and experimental methods, the thesis focuses on superthreshold pumping (above the systems parametric instability threshold), nonlinear effects, frequency response backbones, and frequency detuning effects for parametric amplifiers. Part one of the thesis...... covers superthreshold pumping and nonlinear effects. Superthresh-old pumping produces some useful characteristics. For instance, strong superthreshold pumping yields a high gain even though nonlinear effects tend to reduce it. In addition, a narrower excitation phase range is realized for which...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cinelli, C.; Di Nepi, G.; De Martini, F.; Barbieri, M.; Mataloni, P.
2004-01-01
A parametric source of polarization-entangled photon pairs with striking spatial characteristics is reported. The distribution of the output electromagnetic k modes excited by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and coupled to the output detectors can be very broad. Using these states realized over a full entanglement ring output distribution, the nonlocal properties of the generated entanglement have been tested by standard Bell measurements and by Ou-Mandel interferometry. A 'mode-patchwork' technique based on the quantum superposition principle is adopted to synthesize in a straightforward and reliable way any kind of mixed state, of large conceptual and technological interest in modern quantum information. Tunable Werner states and maximally entangled mixed states have indeed been created by this technique and investigated by quantum tomography. A study of the entropic and nonlocal properties of these states has been undertaken experimentally and theoretically, by a unifying variational approach
Design and development of a parametrically excited nonlinear energy harvester
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yildirim, Tanju; Ghayesh, Mergen H.; Li, Weihua; Alici, Gursel
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A parametrically broadband energy harvester was fabricated. • Strong softening-type nonlinear behaviour was observed. • Experiments were conducted showing the large bandwidth of the device. - Abstract: An energy harvester has been designed, fabricated and tested based on the nonlinear dynamical response of a parametrically excited clamped-clamped beam with a central point-mass; magnets have been used as the central point-mass which pass through a coil when parametrically excited. Experiments have been conducted for the energy harvester when the system is excited (i) harmonically near the primary resonance; (ii) harmonically near the principal parametric resonance; (iii) by means of a non-smooth periodic excitation. An electrodynamic shaker was used to parametrically excite the system and the corresponding displacement of the magnet and output voltages of the coil were measured. It has been shown that the system displays linear behaviour at the primary resonance; however, at the principal parametric resonance, the motion characteristic of the magnet substantially changed displaying a strong softening-type nonlinearity. Theoretical simulations have also been conducted in order to verify the experimental results; the comparison between theory and experiment were within very good agreement of each other. The energy harvester developed in this paper is capable of harvesting energy close to the primary resonance as well as the principal parametric resonance; the frequency-band has been broadened significantly mainly due to the nonlinear effects as well as the parametric excitation.
Parametric motivation bases of floranimic nomination
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olga P. Ryabko
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The period of further development in the cognitive theory of nomination has been extensive in recent years. Our research has been concentrated on the formation of conceptual foundations in cognitive theory of flora nomination. The macrofield of flora namings embraces three microfields: parametric, pragmatic and locative-temporal ones. They determine motivation processes in cognitive theory of flora nomination, i.e., the presentation of systematic qualities in flora namings in the English language. The description and characterization of such qualities presupposes the existence of their taxonomic organization and methodology criteria, both general and practical ones. Flora namings on the phenomenological level are considered to be the products of naöve-cognitive consciousness of language speakers. They are determined, from the one hand, by the external perceptive adaptations (parametric nomination and, from the other hand, by practical needs (pure pragmatic nomination and local-temporal nomination. In this article we have concentrated on the complex parametric motivated basis of flora nomination. It is presented by a number of qualities, firstly, by dominative qualities («form», «appearance and manner of growth», «color», secondly, by peripheral qualities («odour», «taste», «size» and, finally, by minor qualities («sound», «weight», «genger». In the structure of complex parametric nomination the only one conerete qualitative element from the whole combination of qualities becomes the leading one. The cultural-archetypal dominant element determines. In each concrete situation, the choice of preferable prototypal motivated quality.
Brownian parametric oscillators
Zerbe, Christine; Jung, Peter; Hänggi, Peter
1994-05-01
We discuss the stochastic dynamics of dissipative, white-noise-driven Floquet oscillators, characterized by a time-periodic stiffness. Thus far, little attention has been paid to these exactly solvable nonstationary systems, although they carry a rich potential for several experimental applications. Here, we calculate and discuss the mean values and variances, as well as the correlation functions and the Floquet spectrum. As one main result, we find for certain parameter values that the fluctuations of the position coordinate are suppressed as compared to the equilibrium value of a harmonic oscillator (parametric squeezing).
Zhang, Qiang; Zhu, Boxing; Zhang, Deping; Gu, Jingwang; Zhao, Dongfeng; Chen, Yang
2017-12-01
We present a pulsed single longitudinal mode optical parametric oscillator that was recently constructed for sub-Doppler spectroscopic studies of transient species in a supersonic slit jet expansion environment. The system consists of a Littman-type grazing-incidence-grating resonator and a KTP crystal and is pumped at 532 nm. By spatially filtering the pump laser beam and employing an active cavity-length-stabilization scheme, a frequency down-conversion efficiency up to 18% and generation of Fourier-transform limited pulses with a typical pulse duration of ˜5.5 ns and a bandwidth less than 120 MHz have been achieved. In combination with a slit jet expansion, a sub-Doppler spectrum of SiC2 has been recorded at ˜498 nm, showing a spectral resolution of Δν/ν ≈ 6.2 × 10-7.
Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Faymonville
2014-08-01
Full Text Available We introduce Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic (PLDL, which extends Linear Dynamic Logic (LDL by temporal operators equipped with parameters that bound their scope. LDL was proposed as an extension of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL that is able to express all ω-regular specifications while still maintaining many of LTL's desirable properties like an intuitive syntax and a translation into non-deterministic Büchi automata of exponential size. But LDL lacks capabilities to express timing constraints. By adding parameterized operators to LDL, we obtain a logic that is able to express all ω-regular properties and that subsumes parameterized extensions of LTL like Parametric LTL and PROMPT-LTL. Our main technical contribution is a translation of PLDL formulas into non-deterministic Büchi word automata of exponential size via alternating automata. This yields a PSPACE model checking algorithm and a realizability algorithm with doubly-exponential running time. Furthermore, we give tight upper and lower bounds on optimal parameter values for both problems. These results show that PLDL model checking and realizability are not harder than LTL model checking and realizability.
Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, Rolland P.
2008-06-07
Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances was an SBIR project begun in July 2004 and ended in January 2008 with Muons, Inc., (Dr. Rolland Johnson, PI), and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) (Dr. Yaroslav Derbenev, Subcontract PI). The project was to develop the theory and simulations of Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) so that it could be used to provide the extra transverse cooling needed for muon colliders in order to relax the requirements on the proton driver, reduce the site boundary radiation, and provide a better environment for experiments. During the course of the project, the theoretical understanding of PIC was developed and a final exposition is ready for publication. Workshops were sponsored by Muons, Inc. in May and September of 2007 that were devoted to the PIC technique. One outcome of the workshops was the interesting and somewhat unexpected realization that the beam emittances using the PIC technique can get small enough that space charge forces can be important. A parallel effort to develop our G4beamline simulation program to include space charge effects was initiated to address this problem. A method of compensating for chromatic aberrations by employing synchrotron motion was developed and simulated. A method of compensating for spherical aberrations using beamline symmetry was also developed and simulated. Different optics designs have been developed using the OptiM program in preparation for applying our G4beamline simulation program, which contains all the power of the Geant4 toolkit. However, no PIC channel design that has been developed has had the desired cooling performance when subjected to the complete G4beamline simulation program. This is believed to be the consequence of the difficulties of correcting the aberrations associated with the naturally large beam angles and beam sizes of the PIC method that are exacerbated by the fringe fields of the rather complicated channel designs that have been
Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, Rolland P.
2008-01-01
Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances was an SBIR project begun in July 2004 and ended in January 2008 with Muons, Inc., (Dr. Rolland Johnson, PI), and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) (Dr. Yaroslav Derbenev, Subcontract PI). The project was to develop the theory and simulations of Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) so that it could be used to provide the extra transverse cooling needed for muon colliders in order to relax the requirements on the proton driver, reduce the site boundary radiation, and provide a better environment for experiments. During the course of the project, the theoretical understanding of PIC was developed and a final exposition is ready for publication. Workshops were sponsored by Muons, Inc. in May and September of 2007 that were devoted to the PIC technique. One outcome of the workshops was the interesting and somewhat unexpected realization that the beam emittances using the PIC technique can get small enough that space charge forces can be important. A parallel effort to develop our G4beamline simulation program to include space charge effects was initiated to address this problem. A method of compensating for chromatic aberrations by employing synchrotron motion was developed and simulated. A method of compensating for spherical aberrations using beamline symmetry was also developed and simulated. Different optics designs have been developed using the OptiM program in preparation for applying our G4beamline simulation program, which contains all the power of the Geant4 toolkit. However, no PIC channel design that has been developed has had the desired cooling performance when subjected to the complete G4beamline simulation program. This is believed to be the consequence of the difficulties of correcting the aberrations associated with the naturally large beam angles and beam sizes of the PIC method that are exacerbated by the fringe fields of the rather complicated channel designs that have been
Mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator pumped by an amplified random fiber laser
Shang, Yaping; Shen, Meili; Wang, Peng; Li, Xiao; Xu, Xiaojun
2017-01-01
Recently, the concept of random fiber lasers has attracted a great deal of attention for its feature to generate incoherent light without a traditional laser resonator, which is free of mode competition and insure the stationary narrow-band continuous modeless spectrum. In this Letter, we reported the first, to the best of our knowledge, optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by an amplified 1070 nm random fiber laser (RFL), in order to generate stationary mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser. The experiment realized a watt-level laser output in the mid-IR range and operated relatively stable. The use of the RFL seed source allowed us to take advantage of its respective stable time-domain characteristics. The beam profile, spectrum and time-domain properties of the signal light were measured to analyze the process of frequency down-conversion process under this new pumping condition. The results suggested that the near-infrared (near-IR) signal light `inherited' good beam performances from the pump light. Those would be benefit for further develop about optical parametric process based on different pumping circumstances.
Supercritical nonlinear parametric dynamics of Timoshenko microbeams
Farokhi, Hamed; Ghayesh, Mergen H.
2018-06-01
The nonlinear supercritical parametric dynamics of a Timoshenko microbeam subject to an axial harmonic excitation force is examined theoretically, by means of different numerical techniques, and employing a high-dimensional analysis. The time-variant axial load is assumed to consist of a mean value along with harmonic fluctuations. In terms of modelling, a continuous expression for the elastic potential energy of the system is developed based on the modified couple stress theory, taking into account small-size effects; the kinetic energy of the system is also modelled as a continuous function of the displacement field. Hamilton's principle is employed to balance the energies and to obtain the continuous model of the system. Employing the Galerkin scheme along with an assumed-mode technique, the energy terms are reduced, yielding a second-order reduced-order model with finite number of degrees of freedom. A transformation is carried out to convert the second-order reduced-order model into a double-dimensional first order one. A bifurcation analysis is performed for the system in the absence of the axial load fluctuations. Moreover, a mean value for the axial load is selected in the supercritical range, and the principal parametric resonant response, due to the time-variant component of the axial load, is obtained - as opposed to transversely excited systems, for parametrically excited system (such as our problem here), the nonlinear resonance occurs in the vicinity of twice any natural frequency of the linear system; this is accomplished via use of the pseudo-arclength continuation technique, a direct time integration, an eigenvalue analysis, and the Floquet theory for stability. The natural frequencies of the system prior to and beyond buckling are also determined. Moreover, the effect of different system parameters on the nonlinear supercritical parametric dynamics of the system is analysed, with special consideration to the effect of the length-scale parameter.
Nanoscale electromechanical parametric amplifier
Aleman, Benjamin Jose; Zettl, Alexander
2016-09-20
This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to a parametric amplifier. In one aspect, a device includes an electron source electrode, a counter electrode, and a pumping electrode. The electron source electrode may include a conductive base and a flexible conductor. The flexible conductor may have a first end and a second end, with the second end of the flexible conductor being coupled to the conductive base. A cross-sectional dimension of the flexible conductor may be less than about 100 nanometers. The counter electrode may be disposed proximate the first end of the flexible conductor and spaced a first distance from the first end of the flexible conductor. The pumping electrode may be disposed proximate a length of the flexible conductor and spaced a second distance from the flexible conductor.
Parametric Room Acoustic Workflows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parigi, Dario; Svidt, Kjeld; Molin, Erik
2017-01-01
The paper investigates and assesses different room acoustics software and the opportunities they offer to engage in parametric acoustics workflow and to influence architectural designs. The first step consists in the testing and benchmarking of different tools on the basis of accuracy, speed...... and interoperability with Grasshopper 3d. The focus will be placed to the benchmarking of three different acoustic analysis tools based on raytracing. To compare the accuracy and speed of the acoustic evaluation across different tools, a homogeneous set of acoustic parameters is chosen. The room acoustics parameters...... included in the set are reverberation time (EDT, RT30), clarity (C50), loudness (G), and definition (D50). Scenarios are discussed for determining at different design stages the most suitable acoustic tool. Those scenarios are characterized, by the use of less accurate but fast evaluation tools to be used...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Herzog, Dennis
adapt the primitives to the actual appearance of the tracked motion, since the appearance of actions depends on the object locations. From the recognition perspective, it is necessary to recognize a performed action, but the understanding requires also the recovery of the action parameters, which can......The thesis aims at the learning of action primitives and their application on the perceptive side (tracking/recognition) and the generative side (synthesizing for robot control). A motivation is to use a unified primitive representation applicable on both sides. The thesis considers arm actions...... with an investigation of PHMM training methods and structures to utilize the PHMM as a unified representation of parametric primitives, which is adequate for recognition and for synthesis. This is evaluated on a large motion data set. Main contributions of the thesis are the development and evaluation of approaches...
Robust Parametric Control of Spacecraft Rendezvous
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dake Gu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to design the robust parametric control for autonomous rendezvous of spacecrafts with the inertial information with uncertainty. We consider model uncertainty of traditional C-W equation to formulate the dynamic model of the relative motion. Based on eigenstructure assignment and model reference theory, a concise control law for spacecraft rendezvous is proposed which could be fixed through solving an optimization problem. The cost function considers the stabilization of the system and other performances. Simulation results illustrate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed control.
Parametrized post-Newtonian approximation and Rastall's gravitational field equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smalley, L.L.
1978-01-01
The parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) approximation is generalized to accomodate Rastall's modification of Einstein's theory of gravity, which allows nonzero divergence of the energy-momentum tensor. Rastall's theory is then shown to have consistent field equations, gauge conditions, and the correct Newtonian limit of the equations of motion. The PPN parameters are obtained and shown to agree experimentally with those for the Einstein theory. In light of the nonzero divergence condition, integral conservation laws are investigated and shown to yield conserved energy-momentum and angular-momentum. We conclude that the above generalization of metric theories, within the PPN framework, is a natural extension of the concept of metric theories
Parametric Mass Reliability Study
Holt, James P.
2014-01-01
The International Space Station (ISS) systems are designed based upon having redundant systems with replaceable orbital replacement units (ORUs). These ORUs are designed to be swapped out fairly quickly, but some are very large, and some are made up of many components. When an ORU fails, it is replaced on orbit with a spare; the failed unit is sometimes returned to Earth to be serviced and re-launched. Such a system is not feasible for a 500+ day long-duration mission beyond low Earth orbit. The components that make up these ORUs have mixed reliabilities. Components that make up the most mass-such as computer housings, pump casings, and the silicon board of PCBs-typically are the most reliable. Meanwhile components that tend to fail the earliest-such as seals or gaskets-typically have a small mass. To better understand the problem, my project is to create a parametric model that relates both the mass of ORUs to reliability, as well as the mass of ORU subcomponents to reliability.
Planar Parametrization in Isogeometric Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gravesen, Jens; Evgrafov, Anton; Nguyen, Dang-Manh
2012-01-01
Before isogeometric analysis can be applied to solving a partial differential equation posed over some physical domain, one needs to construct a valid parametrization of the geometry. The accuracy of the analysis is affected by the quality of the parametrization. The challenge of computing...... and maintaining a valid geometry parametrization is particularly relevant in applications of isogemetric analysis to shape optimization, where the geometry varies from one optimization iteration to another. We propose a general framework for handling the geometry parametrization in isogeometric analysis and shape...... are suitable for our framework. The non-linear methods we consider are based on solving a constrained optimization problem numerically, and are divided into two classes, geometry-oriented methods and analysis-oriented methods. Their performance is illustrated through a few numerical examples....
Parametric FEM for geometric biomembranes
Bonito, Andrea; Nochetto, Ricardo H.; Sebastian Pauletti, M.
2010-05-01
We consider geometric biomembranes governed by an L2-gradient flow for bending energy subject to area and volume constraints (Helfrich model). We give a concise derivation of a novel vector formulation, based on shape differential calculus, and corresponding discretization via parametric FEM using quadratic isoparametric elements and a semi-implicit Euler method. We document the performance of the new parametric FEM with a number of simulations leading to dumbbell, red blood cell and toroidal equilibrium shapes while exhibiting large deformations.
Absolute differential yield of parametric x-ray radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shchagin, A.V.; Pristupa, V.I.; Khizhnyak, N.A.
1993-01-01
The results of measurements of absolute differential yield of parametric X-ray radiation (PXR) in thin single crystal are presented for the first time. It has been established that the experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical calculations according with kinematical theory. The influence of density effect on PXR properties is discussed. (author). 19 refs., 7 figs
Chaotic neoclassical separatrix dissipation in parametric drift-wave decay.
Kabantsev, A A; Tsidulko, Yu A; Driscoll, C F
2014-02-07
Experiments and theory characterize a parametric decay instability between plasma drift waves when the nonlinear coupling is modified by an electrostatic barrier. Novel mode coupling terms representing enhanced dissipation and mode phase shifts are caused by chaotic separatrix crossings on the wave-ruffled separatrix. Experimental determination of these coupling terms is in broad agreement with new chaotic neoclassical transport analyses.
Parametric resonance in quantum electrodynamics vacuum birefringence
Arza, Ariel; Elias, Ricardo Gabriel
2018-05-01
Vacuum magnetic birefringence is one of the most interesting nonlinear phenomena in quantum electrodynamics because it is a pure photon-photon result of the theory and it directly signalizes the violation of the classical superposition principle of electromagnetic fields in the full quantum theory. We perform analytical and numerical calculations when an electromagnetic wave interacts with an oscillating external magnetic field. We find that in an ideal cavity, when the external field frequency is around the electromagnetic wave frequency, the normal and parallel components of the wave suffer parametric resonance at different rates, producing a vacuum birefringence effect growing in time. We also study the case where there is no cavity and the oscillating magnetic field is spatially localized in a region of length L . In both cases we find also a rotation of the elliptical axis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, C.
1994-10-01
The Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site near Richland, Washington is being cleaned up after 50 years of nuclear materials production. One of the most serious problems at the site is the waste stored in single-shell underground storage tanks. There are 149 of these tanks containing the spent fuel residue remaining after the fuel is dissolved in acid and the desired materials (primarily plutonium and uranium) are separated out. The tanks are upright cylinders 75 ft. in diameter with domed tops. They are made of reinforced concrete, have steel liners, and each tank is buried under 7--12 ft. of overburden. The tanks are up to 40-ft. high, and have capacities of 500,000, 750,000, or 1,000,000 gallons of waste. As many as one-third of these tanks are known or suspected to leak. The waste form contained in the tanks varies in consistency from liquid supernatant to peanut-butter-like gels and sludges to hard salt cake (perhaps as hard as low-grade concrete). The current waste retrieval plan is to insert a large long-reach manipulator through a hole cut in the top of the tank, and use a variety of end-effectors to mobilize the waste and remove it from the tank. PNL has, with the assistance of Deneb robotics employees, developed a means of using the IGRIP code to perform parametric design of mechanical systems. This method requires no modifications to the IGRIP code, and all design data are stored in the IGRIP workcell. The method is presented in the context of development of a passive articulated mechanism that is used to deliver down-arm services to a gantry robot. The method is completely general, however, and could be used to design a fully articulated manipulator. Briefly, the method involves using IGCALC expressions to control manipulator joint angles, and IGCALC variables to allow user control of link lengths and offsets. This paper presents the method in detail, with examples drawn from PNL's experience with the gantry robot service-providing mechanism
Parametrization of contrails in a comprehensive climate model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ponater, M; Brinkop, S; Sausen, R; Schumann, U [Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere
1998-12-31
A contrail parametrization scheme for a general circulation model (GCM) is presented. Guidelines for its development were that it should be based on the thermodynamic theory of contrail formation and that it should be consistent with the cloud parametrization scheme of the GCM. Results of a six-year test integration indicate reasonable results concerning the spatial and temporal development of both contrail coverage and contrail optical properties. Hence, the scheme forms a promising basis for the quantitative estimation of the contrail climatic impact. (author) 9 refs.
Parametrization of contrails in a comprehensive climate model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ponater, M.; Brinkop, S.; Sausen, R.; Schumann, U. [Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere
1997-12-31
A contrail parametrization scheme for a general circulation model (GCM) is presented. Guidelines for its development were that it should be based on the thermodynamic theory of contrail formation and that it should be consistent with the cloud parametrization scheme of the GCM. Results of a six-year test integration indicate reasonable results concerning the spatial and temporal development of both contrail coverage and contrail optical properties. Hence, the scheme forms a promising basis for the quantitative estimation of the contrail climatic impact. (author) 9 refs.
STATCAT, Statistical Analysis of Parametric and Non-Parametric Data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
David, Hugh
1990-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: A suite of 26 programs designed to facilitate the appropriate statistical analysis and data handling of parametric and non-parametric data, using classical and modern univariate and multivariate methods. 2 - Method of solution: Data is read entry by entry, using a choice of input formats, and the resultant data bank is checked for out-of- range, rare, extreme or missing data. The completed STATCAT data bank can be treated by a variety of descriptive and inferential statistical methods, and modified, using other standard programs as required
Parametric Thinking in Urban Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steinø, Nicolai
2010-01-01
The paper states that most applications of parametric mod- elling to architecture and urban design fall into one of two strands of either form for form’s sake, or the negotiation of environmental con- cerns, while approaches which allow scenarios to be easily tested and modified without the appli...... of the paper. The pros and cons of this simple approach is discussed, and the paper con- cludes, that while it does not represent a suitable solution in all cases, it fills a gap among the existing approaches to parametric urban de- sign.......The paper states that most applications of parametric mod- elling to architecture and urban design fall into one of two strands of either form for form’s sake, or the negotiation of environmental con- cerns, while approaches which allow scenarios to be easily tested and modified without...
High frequency parametric wave phenomena and plasma heating: a review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Porkolab, M.
1975-11-01
A survey of parametric instabilities in plasma, and associated particle heating, is presented. A brief summary of linear theory is given. The physical mechanism of decay instability, the purely growing mode (oscillating two-stream instability) and soliton and density cavity formation is presented. Effects of density gradients are discussed. Possible nonlinear saturation mechanisms are pointed out. Experimental evidence for the existence of parametric instabilities in both unmagnetized and magnetized plasmas is reviewed in some detail. Experimental observation of plasma heating associated with the presence of parametric instabilities is demonstrated by a number of examples. Possible application of these phenomena to heating of pellets by lasers and heating of magnetically confined fusion plasmas by high power microwave sources is discussed
Entanglement in a parametric converter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Su-Yong; Qamar, Shahid; Lee, Hai-Woong; Zubairy, M Suhail [Center for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: shahid_qamar@pieas.edu.pk, E-mail: zubairy@physics.tamu.edu
2008-07-28
In this paper, we consider a parametric converter as a source of entangled radiation. We examine recently derived conditions (Hillery and Zubairy 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 050503, Duan et al 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 2722) for determining when the two output modes in a parametric converter are entangled. We show that for different initial field states, the two criteria give different conditions that ensure that the output states are entangled. We also present an input-output calculation for the entanglement of the output field.
Variance in parametric images: direct estimation from parametric projections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maguire, R.P.; Leenders, K.L.; Spyrou, N.M.
2000-01-01
Recent work has shown that it is possible to apply linear kinetic models to dynamic projection data in PET in order to calculate parameter projections. These can subsequently be back-projected to form parametric images - maps of parameters of physiological interest. Critical to the application of these maps, to test for significant changes between normal and pathophysiology, is an assessment of the statistical uncertainty. In this context, parametric images also include simple integral images from, e.g., [O-15]-water used to calculate statistical parametric maps (SPMs). This paper revisits the concept of parameter projections and presents a more general formulation of the parameter projection derivation as well as a method to estimate parameter variance in projection space, showing which analysis methods (models) can be used. Using simulated pharmacokinetic image data we show that a method based on an analysis in projection space inherently calculates the mathematically rigorous pixel variance. This results in an estimation which is as accurate as either estimating variance in image space during model fitting, or estimation by comparison across sets of parametric images - as might be done between individuals in a group pharmacokinetic PET study. The method based on projections has, however, a higher computational efficiency, and is also shown to be more precise, as reflected in smooth variance distribution images when compared to the other methods. (author)
PARAMETRIC MODEL OF LUMBAR VERTEBRA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
CAPPETTI Nicola
2010-11-01
Full Text Available The present work proposes the realization of a parametric/variational CAD model of a normotype lumbar vertebra, which could be used for improving the effectiveness of actual imaging techniques in informational augmentation of the orthopaedic and traumatological diagnosis. In addition it could be used for ergonomic static and dynamical analysis of the lumbar region and vertebral column.
Parametric programming of industrial robots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Szulczyński Paweł
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This article proposes the use of parametric design software, commonly used by architects, in order to obtain complex trajectory and program code for industrial robots. The paper describes the drawbacks of existing solutions and proposes a new script to obtain a correct program. The result of the algorithm was verified experimentally.
Relational Parametricity and Separation Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birkedal, Lars; Yang, Hongseok
2008-01-01
Separation logic is a recent extension of Hoare logic for reasoning about programs with references to shared mutable data structures. In this paper, we provide a new interpretation of the logic for a programming language with higher types. Our interpretation is based on Reynolds's relational...... parametricity, and it provides a formal connection between separation logic and data abstraction. Udgivelsesdato: 2008...
Study on Semi-Parametric Statistical Model of Safety Monitoring of Cracks in Concrete Dams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chongshi Gu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Cracks are one of the hidden dangers in concrete dams. The study on safety monitoring models of concrete dam cracks has always been difficult. Using the parametric statistical model of safety monitoring of cracks in concrete dams, with the help of the semi-parametric statistical theory, and considering the abnormal behaviors of these cracks, the semi-parametric statistical model of safety monitoring of concrete dam cracks is established to overcome the limitation of the parametric model in expressing the objective model. Previous projects show that the semi-parametric statistical model has a stronger fitting effect and has a better explanation for cracks in concrete dams than the parametric statistical model. However, when used for forecast, the forecast capability of the semi-parametric statistical model is equivalent to that of the parametric statistical model. The modeling of the semi-parametric statistical model is simple, has a reasonable principle, and has a strong practicality, with a good application prospect in the actual project.
Parametric description of the quantum measurement process
Liuzzo-Scorpo, P.; Cuccoli, A.; Verrucchi, P.
2015-08-01
We present a description of the measurement process based on the parametric representation with environmental coherent states. This representation is specifically tailored for studying quantum systems whose environment needs being considered through the quantum-to-classical crossover. Focusing upon projective measures, and exploiting the connection between large-N quantum theories and the classical limit of related ones, we manage to push our description beyond the pre-measurement step. This allows us to show that the outcome production follows from a global-symmetry breaking, entailing the observed system's state reduction, and that the statistical nature of the process is brought about, together with the Born's rule, by the macroscopic character of the measuring apparatus.
Examples in parametric inference with R
Dixit, Ulhas Jayram
2016-01-01
This book discusses examples in parametric inference with R. Combining basic theory with modern approaches, it presents the latest developments and trends in statistical inference for students who do not have an advanced mathematical and statistical background. The topics discussed in the book are fundamental and common to many fields of statistical inference and thus serve as a point of departure for in-depth study. The book is divided into eight chapters: Chapter 1 provides an overview of topics on sufficiency and completeness, while Chapter 2 briefly discusses unbiased estimation. Chapter 3 focuses on the study of moments and maximum likelihood estimators, and Chapter 4 presents bounds for the variance. In Chapter 5, topics on consistent estimator are discussed. Chapter 6 discusses Bayes, while Chapter 7 studies some more powerful tests. Lastly, Chapter 8 examines unbiased and other tests. Senior undergraduate and graduate students in statistics and mathematics, and those who have taken an introductory cou...
Towards a parametrization of multiparticle hadronic reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giffon, M.; Hama, Y.; Predazzi, E.
1979-11-01
An explicit parametrization of high energy exclusive production cross-sections is shown to give a reasonable account of inclusive data. This is a first step towards a phenomenological parametrization of multiparticle hadronic amplitudes
Bianchi surfaces: integrability in an arbitrary parametrization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nieszporski, Maciej; Sym, Antoni
2009-01-01
We discuss integrability of normal field equations of arbitrarily parametrized Bianchi surfaces. A geometric definition of the Bianchi surfaces is presented as well as the Baecklund transformation for the normal field equations in an arbitrarily chosen surface parametrization.
Detection of Parametric Roll on Ships
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad
2012-01-01
phenomenon could make the navigator change ship’s speed and heading, and these remedial actions could make the vessel escape the bifurcation. This chapter proposes non-parametric methods to detect the onset of parametric roll resonance. Theoretical conditions for parametric resonance are re...... on experimental data from towing tank tests and data from a container ship passing an Atlantic storm....
Interactive Dimensioning of Parametric Models
Kelly, T.
2015-06-22
We propose a solution for the dimensioning of parametric and procedural models. Dimensioning has long been a staple of technical drawings, and we present the first solution for interactive dimensioning: A dimension line positioning system that adapts to the view direction, given behavioral properties. After proposing a set of design principles for interactive dimensioning, we describe our solution consisting of the following major components. First, we describe how an author can specify the desired interactive behavior of a dimension line. Second, we propose a novel algorithm to place dimension lines at interactive speeds. Third, we introduce multiple extensions, including chained dimension lines, controls for different parameter types (e.g. discrete choices, angles), and the use of dimension lines for interactive editing. Our results show the use of dimension lines in an interactive parametric modeling environment for architectural, botanical, and mechanical models.
Non-parametric estimation of the individual's utility map
Noguchi, Takao; Sanborn, Adam N.; Stewart, Neil
2013-01-01
Models of risky choice have attracted much attention in behavioural economics. Previous research has repeatedly demonstrated that individuals' choices are not well explained by expected utility theory, and a number of alternative models have been examined using carefully selected sets of choice alternatives. The model performance however, can depend on which choice alternatives are being tested. Here we develop a non-parametric method for estimating the utility map over the wide range of choi...
Parametric Optimization of Hospital Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holst, Malene Kirstine; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Christoffersen, L.D.
2013-01-01
Present paper presents a parametric performancebased design model for optimizing hospital design. The design model operates with geometric input parameters defining the functional requirements of the hospital and input parameters in terms of performance objectives defining the design requirements...... and preferences of the hospital with respect to performances. The design model takes point of departure in the hospital functionalities as a set of defined parameters and rules describing the design requirements and preferences....
Parametric decay of the curvaton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Enqvist, K; Nurmi, S; Rigopoulos, G I
2008-01-01
We argue that the curvaton decay takes place most naturally by way of a broad parametric resonance. The mechanism is analogous to resonant inflaton decay but does not require any tuning of the curvaton coupling strength to other scalar fields. For low scale inflation and a correspondingly low mass scale for the curvaton, we speculate on observable consequences including the possibility of stochastic gravitational waves
Parametric Fires for Structural Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hertz, Kristian
2012-01-01
The authorities, the construction association, and a number of companies in Denmark have supported the author writing a guide for design of building structures for parametric fires. The guide is published by the ministry as a supplement to the building regulations. However, consultants and contra......The authorities, the construction association, and a number of companies in Denmark have supported the author writing a guide for design of building structures for parametric fires. The guide is published by the ministry as a supplement to the building regulations. However, consultants...... and contractors have asked for a reference in English in order to make the guide-lines and the background for them available internationally. The paper therefore presents recommendations from the design guide especially concerning how to assess parametric design fires based on the opening factor method for large...... compartments. Findings leading to the guide-lines are discussed, and it is indicated what a safe design fire model means for structural design and how it differs from a safe design fire model for evacuation. Furthermore, the paper includes some experiences from the application of the design guide in practise...
Digital spectral analysis parametric, non-parametric and advanced methods
Castanié, Francis
2013-01-01
Digital Spectral Analysis provides a single source that offers complete coverage of the spectral analysis domain. This self-contained work includes details on advanced topics that are usually presented in scattered sources throughout the literature.The theoretical principles necessary for the understanding of spectral analysis are discussed in the first four chapters: fundamentals, digital signal processing, estimation in spectral analysis, and time-series models.An entire chapter is devoted to the non-parametric methods most widely used in industry.High resolution methods a
On the problem of neutron spectroscopy of parametrically non-equilibrium quasiparticles in solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vo Khong An'.
1981-01-01
A suitable for numerical estimations formula for coherent neutron inelastic scattering cross sections on the plasmon-phonon mixed modes of electron-phonon systems in the parametric resonance conditions is obtained from the analytical one presented in the previous work using some relations of the general parametric excitation theory. The cross sections of neutron scattering on the high-frequency plasmon-like and the low-frequency longitudinal optical phonon-like modes in InSb crystals are calculated as functions of the driving laser field intensity, which show an increase in values by about two orders of magnitude as the field intensity approaches the parametric excitation threshold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, B.I.
1987-01-01
The existence of compact dispersion relations for parametric instabilities of coherent electromagnetic waves in magnetized plasmas is addressed here. In general, comprehensive dispersion relations for parametric instabilities in unmagnetized plasmas become more complicated in the presence of an applied time-independent magnetic field. This is demonstrated with a fluid perturbation theory. A compact dispersion relation for parametric instabilities in unmagnetized plasma is heuristically extended here to the case of a magnetized plasma. This dispersion relation gives the correct results in a variety of circumstances of interest in considering electron cyclotron heating applications
Parametric amplification of metric fluctuations during reheating in two field models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finelli, F.; Brandenberger, R.
2000-01-01
We study the parametric amplification of super-Hubble-scale scalar metric fluctuations at the end of inflation in some specific two-field models of inflation, a class of which is motivated by hybrid inflation. We demonstrate that there can indeed be a large growth of fluctuations due to parametric resonance and that this effect is not taken into account by the conventional theory of isocurvature perturbations. Scalar field interactions play a crucial role in this analysis. We discuss the conditions under which there can be nontrivial parametric resonance effects on large scales
Pataky, Todd C; Vanrenterghem, Jos; Robinson, Mark A
2015-05-01
Biomechanical processes are often manifested as one-dimensional (1D) trajectories. It has been shown that 1D confidence intervals (CIs) are biased when based on 0D statistical procedures, and the non-parametric 1D bootstrap CI has emerged in the Biomechanics literature as a viable solution. The primary purpose of this paper was to clarify that, for 1D biomechanics datasets, the distinction between 0D and 1D methods is much more important than the distinction between parametric and non-parametric procedures. A secondary purpose was to demonstrate that a parametric equivalent to the 1D bootstrap exists in the form of a random field theory (RFT) correction for multiple comparisons. To emphasize these points we analyzed six datasets consisting of force and kinematic trajectories in one-sample, paired, two-sample and regression designs. Results showed, first, that the 1D bootstrap and other 1D non-parametric CIs were qualitatively identical to RFT CIs, and all were very different from 0D CIs. Second, 1D parametric and 1D non-parametric hypothesis testing results were qualitatively identical for all six datasets. Last, we highlight the limitations of 1D CIs by demonstrating that they are complex, design-dependent, and thus non-generalizable. These results suggest that (i) analyses of 1D data based on 0D models of randomness are generally biased unless one explicitly identifies 0D variables before the experiment, and (ii) parametric and non-parametric 1D hypothesis testing provide an unambiguous framework for analysis when one׳s hypothesis explicitly or implicitly pertains to whole 1D trajectories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Parametric Verification of Weighted Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christoffersen, Peter; Hansen, Mikkel; Mariegaard, Anders
2015-01-01
are themselves indexed with linear equations. The parameters change the model-checking problem into a problem of computing a linear system of inequalities that characterizes the parameters that guarantee the satisfiability. To address this problem, we use parametric dependency graphs (PDGs) and we propose...... a global update function that yields an assignment to each node in a PDG. For an iterative application of the function, we prove that a fixed point assignment to PDG nodes exists and the set of assignments constitutes a well-quasi ordering, thus ensuring that the fixed point assignment can be found after...
Parametric Sensibility in Lixiviation Reactors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dra. Margarita Rivera-Soto
2015-11-01
Full Text Available This work presents the results obtained in an analysis of the parametric sensibility, on the base of a mathematical model, which describes the behavior a lixiviation reactors battery inside the limits of the habitual work of the industrial plant, in a concrete process and of high complexity. The analysis was carried out with the purpose of determining the effect that the changes in different operation variables have on the behavior of the system and it gave as result that the most important variables are: the mineral-acid relationship, the concentration of magnesium and of nickel.
Parametric nanomechanical amplification at very high frequency.
Karabalin, R B; Feng, X L; Roukes, M L
2009-09-01
Parametric resonance and amplification are important in both fundamental physics and technological applications. Here we report very high frequency (VHF) parametric resonators and mechanical-domain amplifiers based on nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Compound mechanical nanostructures patterned by multilayer, top-down nanofabrication are read out by a novel scheme that parametrically modulates longitudinal stress in doubly clamped beam NEMS resonators. Parametric pumping and signal amplification are demonstrated for VHF resonators up to approximately 130 MHz and provide useful enhancement of both resonance signal amplitude and quality factor. We find that Joule heating and reduced thermal conductance in these nanostructures ultimately impose an upper limit to device performance. We develop a theoretical model to account for both the parametric response and nonequilibrium thermal transport in these composite nanostructures. The results closely conform to our experimental observations, elucidate the frequency and threshold-voltage scaling in parametric VHF NEMS resonators and sensors, and establish the ultimate sensitivity limits of this approach.
Parametric Study of Sealant Nozzle
Yamamoto, Yoshimi
It has become apparent in recent years the advancement of manufacturing processes in the aerospace industry. Sealant nozzles are a critical device in the use of fuel tank applications for optimal bonds and for ground service support and repair. Sealants has always been a challenging area for optimizing and understanding the flow patterns. A parametric study was conducted to better understand geometric effects of sealant flow and to determine whether the sealant rheology can be numerically modeled. The Star-CCM+ software was used to successfully develop the parametric model, material model, physics continua, and simulate the fluid flow for the sealant nozzle. The simulation results of Semco sealant nozzles showed the geometric effects of fluid flow patterns and the influences from conical area reduction, tip length, inlet diameter, and tip angle parameters. A smaller outlet diameter induced maximum outlet velocity at the exit, and contributed to a high pressure drop. The conical area reduction, tip angle and inlet diameter contributed most to viscosity variation phenomenon. Developing and simulating 2 different flow models (Segregated Flow and Viscous Flow) proved that both can be used to obtain comparable velocity and pressure drop results, however; differences are seen visually in the non-uniformity of the velocity and viscosity fields for the Viscous Flow Model (VFM). A comprehensive simulation setup for sealant nozzles was developed so other analysts can utilize the data.
Spin-wave wavelength down-conversion at thickness steps
Stigloher, Johannes; Taniguchi, Takuya; Madami, Marco; Decker, Martin; Körner, Helmut S.; Moriyama, Takahiro; Gubbiotti, Gianluca; Ono, Teruo; Back, Christian H.
2018-05-01
We report a systematic experimental study on the refraction and reflection of magnetostatic spin-waves at a thickness step between two Permalloy films of different thickness. The transmitted spin-waves for the transition from a thick film to a thin film have a higher wave vector compared to the incoming waves. Consequently, such systems may find use as passive wavelength transformers in magnonic networks. We investigate the spin-wave transmission behavior by studying the influence of the external magnetic field, incident angle, and thickness ratio of the films using time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy and micro-focused Brillouin light scattering.
A general approach to optomechanical parametric instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evans, M.; Barsotti, L.; Fritschel, P.
2010-01-01
We present a simple feedback description of parametric instabilities which can be applied to a variety of optical systems. Parametric instabilities are of particular interest to the field of gravitational-wave interferometry where high mechanical quality factors and a large amount of stored optical power have the potential for instability. In our use of Advanced LIGO as an example application, we find that parametric instabilities, if left unaddressed, present a potential threat to the stability of high-power operation.
Connections between classical and parametric network entropies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthias Dehmer
Full Text Available This paper explores relationships between classical and parametric measures of graph (or network complexity. Classical measures are based on vertex decompositions induced by equivalence relations. Parametric measures, on the other hand, are constructed by using information functions to assign probabilities to the vertices. The inequalities established in this paper relating classical and parametric measures lay a foundation for systematic classification of entropy-based measures of graph complexity.
Parametric level correlations in random-matrix models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weidenmueller, Hans A
2005-01-01
We show that parametric level correlations in random-matrix theories are closely related to a breaking of the symmetry between the advanced and the retarded Green functions. The form of the parametric level correlation function is the same as for the disordered case considered earlier by Simons and Altshuler and is given by the graded trace of the commutator of the saddle-point solution with the particular matrix that describes the symmetry breaking in the actual case of interest. The strength factor differs from the case of disorder. It is determined solely by the Goldstone mode. It is essentially given by the number of levels that are strongly mixed as the external parameter changes. The factor can easily be estimated in applications
Design of parametric software tools
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Mullins, Michael
2011-01-01
The studies investigate the field of evidence-based design used in architectural design practice and propose a method using 2D/3D CAD applications to: 1) enhance integration of evidence-based design knowledge in architectural design phases with a focus on lighting and interior design and 2) assess...... fulfilment of evidence-based design criterion regarding light distribution and location in relation to patient safety in architectural health care design proposals. The study uses 2D/3D CAD modelling software Rhinoceros 3D with plug-in Grasshopper to create parametric tool prototypes to exemplify...... the operations and functions of the design method. To evaluate the prototype potentials, surveys with architectural and healthcare design companies are conducted. Evaluation is done by the administration of questionnaires being part of the development of the tools. The results show that architects, designers...
Parametric instabilities in large plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brambilla, Marco; Liberman, Bernardo.
1979-01-01
Parametric decay processes in large plasmas are considered as the linear stage of a three wave interaction (pump, sideband and beat wave) in which the amplitude of the externally excited pump is sufficiently large to neglect pump depletion to first order, yet sufficiently small to allow a linearized treatment of the pump propagation to zeroth order. The coupling coefficients are then obtained from an iterative solution of Vlasov equation, and a compact expression is derived, in which the multiple series over Bessel functions is explicitly summed. Even in the limit of a very long wavelength pump, the dispersion relation obtained in this way does not coincide with the one obtained using the well-known ''dipole'' approximation, unless both the sideband and beat wave are resonant modes of the plasma. An analysis of the origin of this discrepancy allows us to conclude that ''quasimodes'' (evanescent waves driven absolutely unstable by the pump) are more correctly described by the iterative approach
Parametric embedding for class visualization.
Iwata, Tomoharu; Saito, Kazumi; Ueda, Naonori; Stromsten, Sean; Griffiths, Thomas L; Tenenbaum, Joshua B
2007-09-01
We propose a new method, parametric embedding (PE), that embeds objects with the class structure into a low-dimensional visualization space. PE takes as input a set of class conditional probabilities for given data points and tries to preserve the structure in an embedding space by minimizing a sum of Kullback-Leibler divergences, under the assumption that samples are generated by a gaussian mixture with equal covariances in the embedding space. PE has many potential uses depending on the source of the input data, providing insight into the classifier's behavior in supervised, semisupervised, and unsupervised settings. The PE algorithm has a computational advantage over conventional embedding methods based on pairwise object relations since its complexity scales with the product of the number of objects and the number of classes. We demonstrate PE by visualizing supervised categorization of Web pages, semisupervised categorization of digits, and the relations of words and latent topics found by an unsupervised algorithm, latent Dirichlet allocation.
Parametric studies on automotive radiators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliet, C.; Oliva, A.; Castro, J.; Perez-Segarra, C.D.
2007-01-01
This paper presents a set of parametric studies performed on automotive radiators by means of a detailed rating and design heat exchanger model developed by the authors. This numerical tool has been previously verified and validated using a wide experimental data bank. A first part of the analysis focuses on the influence of working conditions on both fluids (mass flows, inlet temperatures) and the impact of the selected coolant fluid. Following these studies, the influence of some geometrical parameters is analysed (fin pitch, louver angle) as well as the importance of coolant flow lay-out on the radiator global performance. This work provides an overall behaviour report of automobile radiators working at usual range of operating conditions, while significant knowledge-based design conclusions have also been reported. The results show the utility of this numerical model as a rating and design tool for heat exchangers manufacturers, being a reasonable compromise between classic ε - NTU methods and CFD
Parametric instabilities in inhomogeneous plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicholson, D.R.
1975-01-01
The nonlinear coupling of three waves in a plasma is considered. One of the waves is assumed large and constant; its amplitude is the parameter of the parametric instability. The spatial-temporal evolution of the other two waves is treated theoretically, in one dimension, by analytic methods and by direct numerical integration of the basic equations. Various monotonic forms of inhomogeneity are considered; agreement with previous work is found and new results are established. Nonmonotonic inhomogeneities are considered, in the form of turbulence and, as a model problem, in the form of a simple sinusoidal modulation. Relatively small amounts of nonmonotonic inhomogeneity, in the presence of a linear density gradient, are found to destabilize the well-known convective saturation, absolute growth occurring instead. (U.S.)
A scale invariance criterion for LES parametrizations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Urs Schaefer-Rolffs
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Turbulent kinetic energy cascades in fluid dynamical systems are usually characterized by scale invariance. However, representations of subgrid scales in large eddy simulations do not necessarily fulfill this constraint. So far, scale invariance has been considered in the context of isotropic, incompressible, and three-dimensional turbulence. In the present paper, the theory is extended to compressible flows that obey the hydrostatic approximation, as well as to corresponding subgrid-scale parametrizations. A criterion is presented to check if the symmetries of the governing equations are correctly translated into the equations used in numerical models. By applying scaling transformations to the model equations, relations between the scaling factors are obtained by demanding that the mathematical structure of the equations does not change.The criterion is validated by recovering the breakdown of scale invariance in the classical Smagorinsky model and confirming scale invariance for the Dynamic Smagorinsky Model. The criterion also shows that the compressible continuity equation is intrinsically scale-invariant. The criterion also proves that a scale-invariant turbulent kinetic energy equation or a scale-invariant equation of motion for a passive tracer is obtained only with a dynamic mixing length. For large-scale atmospheric flows governed by the hydrostatic balance the energy cascade is due to horizontal advection and the vertical length scale exhibits a scaling behaviour that is different from that derived for horizontal length scales.
Integrable multi parametric SU(N) chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foerster, Angela; Roditi, Itzhak; Rodrigues, Ligia M.C.S.
1996-03-01
We analyse integrable models associated to a multi parametric SU(N) R-matrix. We show that the Hamiltonians describe SU(N) chains with twisted boundary conditions and that the underlying algebraic structure is the multi parametric deformation of SU(N) enlarged by the introduction of a central element. (author). 15 refs
Observation of Parametric Instability in Advanced LIGO.
Evans, Matthew; Gras, Slawek; Fritschel, Peter; Miller, John; Barsotti, Lisa; Martynov, Denis; Brooks, Aidan; Coyne, Dennis; Abbott, Rich; Adhikari, Rana X; Arai, Koji; Bork, Rolf; Kells, Bill; Rollins, Jameson; Smith-Lefebvre, Nicolas; Vajente, Gabriele; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Adams, Carl; Aston, Stuart; Betzweiser, Joseph; Frolov, Valera; Mullavey, Adam; Pele, Arnaud; Romie, Janeen; Thomas, Michael; Thorne, Keith; Dwyer, Sheila; Izumi, Kiwamu; Kawabe, Keita; Sigg, Daniel; Derosa, Ryan; Effler, Anamaria; Kokeyama, Keiko; Ballmer, Stefan; Massinger, Thomas J; Staley, Alexa; Heinze, Matthew; Mueller, Chris; Grote, Hartmut; Ward, Robert; King, Eleanor; Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, Chunnong
2015-04-24
Parametric instabilities have long been studied as a potentially limiting effect in high-power interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Until now, however, these instabilities have never been observed in a kilometer-scale interferometer. In this Letter, we describe the first observation of parametric instability in a gravitational wave detector, and the means by which it has been removed as a barrier to progress.
Parametric Methods for Order Tracking Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm
2017-01-01
Order tracking analysis is often used to find the critical speeds at which structural resonances are excited by a rotating machine. Typically, order tracking analysis is performed via non-parametric methods. In this report, however, we demonstrate some of the advantages of using a parametric method...
Parametric resonance in neutrino oscillations in matter
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Neutrino oscillations in matter can exhibit a specific resonance enhancement - parametric resonance, which is different from the MSW resonance. Oscillations of atmospheric and solar neutrinos inside the earth can undergo parametric enhancement when neutrino trajectories cross the core of the earth. In this paper we ...
On the parametric approximation in quantum optics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D' Ariano, G.M.; Paris, M.G.A.; Sacchi, M.F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pavia (Italy); Pavia Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica ' Alessandro Volta'
1999-03-01
The authors perform the exact numerical diagonalization of Hamiltonians that describe both degenerate and nondegenerate parametric amplifiers, by exploiting the conservation laws pertaining each device. It is clarify the conditions under which the parametric approximation holds, showing that the most relevant requirements is the coherence of the pump after the interaction, rather than its un depletion.
On the parametric approximation in quantum optics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Ariano, G.M.; Paris, M.G.A.; Sacchi, M.F.; Pavia Univ.
1999-01-01
The authors perform the exact numerical diagonalization of Hamiltonians that describe both degenerate and nondegenerate parametric amplifiers, by exploiting the conservation laws pertaining each device. It is clarify the conditions under which the parametric approximation holds, showing that the most relevant requirements is the coherence of the pump after the interaction, rather than its un depletion
Parametric form of QCD travelling waves
Peschanski, R.
2005-01-01
We derive parametric travelling-wave solutions of non-linear QCD equations. They describe the evolution towards saturation in the geometric scaling region. The method, based on an expansion in the inverse of the wave velocity, leads to a solvable hierarchy of differential equations. A universal parametric form of travelling waves emerges from the first two orders of the expansion.
Developing a Parametric Urban Design Tool
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steinø, Nicolai; Obeling, Esben
2014-01-01
Parametric urban design is a potentially powerful tool for collaborative urban design processes. Rather than making one- off designs which need to be redesigned from the ground up in case of changes, parametric design tools make it possible keep the design open while at the same time allowing...... for a level of detailing which is high enough to facilitate an understan- ding of the generic qualities of proposed designs. Starting from a brief overview of parametric design, this paper presents initial findings from the development of a parametric urban design tool with regard to developing a structural...... logic which is flexible and expandable. It then moves on to outline and discuss further development work. Finally, it offers a brief reflection on the potentials and shortcomings of the software – CityEngine – which is used for developing the parametric urban design tool....
Parametric modeling for damped sinusoids from multiple channels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Zhenhua; So, Hing Cheung; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll
2013-01-01
frequencies and damping factors are then computed with the multi-channel weighted linear prediction method. The estimated sinusoidal poles are then matched to each channel according to the extreme value theory of distribution of random fields. Simulations are performed to show the performance advantages......The problem of parametric modeling for noisy damped sinusoidal signals from multiple channels is addressed. Utilizing the shift invariance property of the signal subspace, the number of distinct sinusoidal poles in the multiple channels is first determined. With the estimated number, the distinct...... of the proposed multi-channel sinusoidal modeling methodology compared with existing methods....
Displacement of microwave squeezed states with Josephson parametric amplifiers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhong, Ling; Baust, Alexander; Xie, Edwar; Schwarz, Manuel; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Fedorov, Kirill; Menzel, Edwin; Marx, Achim [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Betzenbichler, Martin; Pogorzalek, Stefan; Haeberlein, Max; Eder, Peter; Goetz, Jan; Wulschner, Karl Friedrich; Huebl, Hans; Deppe, Frank [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany)
2015-07-01
Propagating quantum microwaves are promising building blocks for quantum communication. Interestingly, such itinerant quantum microwaves can be generated in the form of squeezed photon states by Josephson parametric amplifiers (JPA). We employ a specific ''dual-path'' setup for both state reconstruction and JPA characterization. Displacement operations are performed by using a directional coupler after the squeezing. We compare our results with theory predictions. In particular, we discuss our experiments in the context of remote state preparation and quantum teleportation with propagating microwaves.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mladen Skelin
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Scenario-aware dataflow (SADF is a prominent tool for modeling and analysis of dynamic embedded dataflow applications. In SADF the application is represented as a finite collection of synchronous dataflow (SDF graphs, each of which represents one possible application behaviour or scenario. A finite state machine (FSM specifies the possible orders of scenario occurrences. The SADF model renders the tightest possible performance guarantees, but is limited by its finiteness. This means that from a practical point of view, it can only handle dynamic dataflow applications that are characterized by a reasonably sized set of possible behaviours or scenarios. In this paper we remove this limitation for a class of SADF graphs by means of SADF model parametrization in terms of graph port rates and actor execution times. First, we formally define the semantics of the model relevant for throughput analysis based on (max,+ linear system theory and (max,+ automata. Second, by generalizing some of the existing results, we give the algorithms for worst-case throughput analysis of parametric rate and parametric actor execution time acyclic SADF graphs with a fully connected, possibly infinite state transition system. Third, we demonstrate our approach on a few realistic applications from digital signal processing (DSP domain mapped onto an embedded multi-processor architecture.
Linear Parametric Model Checking of Timed Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hune, Tohmas Seidelin; Romijn, Judi; Stoelinga, Mariëlle
2001-01-01
We present an extension of the model checker Uppaal capable of synthesize linear parameter constraints for the correctness of parametric timed automata. The symbolic representation of the (parametric) state-space is shown to be correct. A second contribution of this paper is the identication...... of a subclass of parametric timed automata (L/U automata), for which the emptiness problem is decidable, contrary to the full class where it is know to be undecidable. Also we present a number of lemmas enabling the verication eort to be reduced for L/U automata in some cases. We illustrate our approach...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sorokin, Vladislav; Thomsen, Jon Juel
2015-01-01
Parametrically excited systems appear in many fields of science and technology, intrinsically or imposed purposefully; e.g. spatially periodic structures represent an important class of such systems [4]. When the parametric excitation can be considered weak, classical asymptotic methods like...... the method of averaging [2] or multiple scales [6] can be applied. However, with many practically important applications this simplification is inadequate, e.g. with spatially periodic structures it restricts the possibility to affect their effective dynamic properties by a structural parameter modulation...... of considerable magnitude. Approximate methods based on Floquet theory [4] for analyzing problems involving parametric excitation, e.g. the classical Hill’s method of infinite determinants [3,4], can be employed also in cases of strong excitation; however, with Floquet theory being applicable only for linear...
Parametric optimization of inverse trapezoid oleophobic surfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cavalli, Andrea; Bøggild, Peter; Okkels, Fridolin
2012-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a comprehensive and versatile approach to the parametric shape optimization of oleophobic surfaces. We evaluate the performance of inverse trapezoid microstructures in terms of three objective parameters: apparent contact angle, maximum sustainable hydrostatic pressure...
Parametric decay below the upper hybrid frequency
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Albers, E; Krause, K; Schlueter, H [Bochum Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik 2
1977-03-21
Parametric decay of the upper hybrid mode is observed between the electron cyclotron frequency and its first two harmonics. The decay products are identified as electron Bernstein and ion acoustic mode. The diagnostic results confirm the relevant dispersion relations.
Optimal parametric modelling of measured short waves
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Mandal, S.
the importance of selecting a suitable sampling interval for better estimates of parametric modelling and also for better statistical representation. Implementation of the above algorithms in a structural monitoring system has the potential advantage of storing...
Robust and Efficient Parametric Face Alignment
Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja
2011-01-01
We propose a correlation-based approach to parametric object alignment particularly suitable for face analysis applications which require efficiency and robustness against occlusions and illumination changes. Our algorithm registers two images by iteratively maximizing their correlation coefficient
Ranking Forestry Investments With Parametric Linear Programming
Paul A. Murphy
1976-01-01
Parametric linear programming is introduced as a technique for ranking forestry investments under multiple constraints; it combines the advantages of simple tanking and linear programming as capital budgeting tools.
A Parametric k-Means Algorithm
Tarpey, Thaddeus
2007-01-01
Summary The k points that optimally represent a distribution (usually in terms of a squared error loss) are called the k principal points. This paper presents a computationally intensive method that automatically determines the principal points of a parametric distribution. Cluster means from the k-means algorithm are nonparametric estimators of principal points. A parametric k-means approach is introduced for estimating principal points by running the k-means algorithm on a very large simulated data set from a distribution whose parameters are estimated using maximum likelihood. Theoretical and simulation results are presented comparing the parametric k-means algorithm to the usual k-means algorithm and an example on determining sizes of gas masks is used to illustrate the parametric k-means algorithm. PMID:17917692
Parametric resonance in neutrino oscillations in matter
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
specific phase relationships has an interesting property that it can accumulate if the matter .... In Д 3 we discuss the physical interpretation of the parametric reso- nance in neutrino ..... long-baseline accelerator and reactor experiments [12,29].
Parametric resonance in an expanding universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zlatev, I.; Huey, G.; Steinhardt, P.J.
1998-01-01
Parametric resonance has been discussed as a mechanism for copious particle production following inflation. Here we present a simple and intuitive calculational method for estimating the efficiency of parametric amplification as a function of parameters. This is important for determining whether resonant amplification plays an important role in the reheating process. We find that significant amplification occurs only for a limited range of couplings and interactions. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
von Hirschhausen, Christian R.; Cullmann, Astrid
2005-01-01
Abstract This paper applies parametric and non-parametric and parametric tests to assess the efficiency of electricity distribution companies in Germany. We address traditional issues in electricity sector benchmarking, such as the role of scale effects and optimal utility size, as well as new evidence specific to the situation in Germany. We use labour, capital, and peak load capacity as inputs, and units sold and the number of customers as output. The data cover 307 (out of 553) ...
Parametric decay instability near the upper hybrid resonance in magnetically confined fusion plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Søren Kjer; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Salewski, Mirko
2017-01-01
In this paper we investigate parametric decay of an electromagnetic pump wave into two electrostatic daughter waves, particularly an X-mode pump wave decaying into a warm upper hybrid wave (a limit of an electron Bernstein wave) and a warm lower hybrid wave. We describe the general theory...
Conditions of equilibrium of a rotating ideal fluid in the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bondarenko, N.P.
1986-01-01
Conditions of equilibrium of a rotating ideal fluid in parametrized post-Newtonian hydrodynamics are obtained by the variational method. They generalize the analogous equilibrium conditions in the post-Newtonian approximation of the general theory of relativity. A conservation law for the total energy is obtained by integrating the equations of motion
Josephson Parametric Amplification for Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics: Theory and Implementation
2013-05-01
especially Will McFaul and Anasua Chatterjee. I (and all other lab members) also thank Mr. Bean , our coffee /espresso machine, for always being there. Next, I...a chain of amplifiers [15,16], an initial amplification with a low noise figure and high gain will lead to an effective SNR at later stages of...product of such a state is the minimum possible for the harmonic oscillator. The expectation value rotates clockwise about the origin of the Re[a], Im[a
Neutrosophic Parametrized Soft Set Theory and Its Decision Making
Said Broumi; Irfan Deli; Florentin Smarandache
2014-01-01
In this work, we present definition of neutrosophic parameterized (NP) soft set and its operations. Then we define NP-aggregation operator to form NP-soft decision making method which allows constructing more efficient decision processes. We also dive an example which shows that they can be successfully applied to problem that contain indeterminacy.
An Optimal Parametrization of Turbulent Scales
Thalabard, S.
2015-12-01
To numerically capture the large-scale dynamics of atmospheric flows, geophysicists need to rely on reasonable parametrizations of the energy transfers to and from the non-resolved small scale eddies, mediated through turbulence. The task is notoriously not trivial, and is typically solved by ingenious but ad-hoc elaborations on the concept of eddy viscosities. The difficulty is tied into the intrinsic Non-Gaussianity of turbulence, a feature that may explain why standard Quasi-Normal cumulant discard statistical closure strategies can fail dramatically, an example being the development of negative energy spectra in Millionshtchikov's 1941 Quasi-Normal (QN) theory. While Orszag's 1977 Eddy Damped Quasi Normal Markovian closure (EDQNM) provides an ingenious patch to the issue, the reason why the QN theory fails so badly is not so clear. Are closures necessarily either trivial or ad-hoc, when proxies for true ensemble averages are taken to be Gaussian ? The purpose of the talk is to answer negatively, using the lights of a new ``optimal closure framework'' recently exposed by [Turkington,2013]. For turbulence problems, the optimal closure allows a consistent use of a Gaussian Ansatz (and corresponding vanishing third cumulant) that also retains an intrinsic damping. The key to this apparent paradox lies in a clear distinction between the true ensemble averages and their proxies, most easily grasped provided one uses the Liouville equation as a starting point, rather than the cumulant hierarchy. Schematically said, closure is achieved by minimizing a lack-of-fit residual, which retains the intrinsic features of the true dynamics. The optimal closure is not restricted to the Gaussian modeling. Yet, for the sake of clarity, I will discuss the optimal closure on a problem where it can be entirely implemented, and compared to DNS : the relaxation of an arbitrarily far from equilibrium energy shell towards the Gibbs equilibrium for truncated Euler dynamics. Predictive
Model reduction of parametrized systems
Ohlberger, Mario; Patera, Anthony; Rozza, Gianluigi; Urban, Karsten
2017-01-01
The special volume offers a global guide to new concepts and approaches concerning the following topics: reduced basis methods, proper orthogonal decomposition, proper generalized decomposition, approximation theory related to model reduction, learning theory and compressed sensing, stochastic and high-dimensional problems, system-theoretic methods, nonlinear model reduction, reduction of coupled problems/multiphysics, optimization and optimal control, state estimation and control, reduced order models and domain decomposition methods, Krylov-subspace and interpolatory methods, and applications to real industrial and complex problems. The book represents the state of the art in the development of reduced order methods. It contains contributions from internationally respected experts, guaranteeing a wide range of expertise and topics. Further, it reflects an important effor t, carried out over the last 12 years, to build a growing research community in this field. Though not a textbook, some of the chapters ca...
PHAZE, Parametric Hazard Function Estimation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2002-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: Phaze performs statistical inference calculations on a hazard function (also called a failure rate or intensity function) based on reported failure times of components that are repaired and restored to service. Three parametric models are allowed: the exponential, linear, and Weibull hazard models. The inference includes estimation (maximum likelihood estimators and confidence regions) of the parameters and of the hazard function itself, testing of hypotheses such as increasing failure rate, and checking of the model assumptions. 2 - Methods: PHAZE assumes that the failures of a component follow a time-dependent (or non-homogenous) Poisson process and that the failure counts in non-overlapping time intervals are independent. Implicit in the independence property is the assumption that the component is restored to service immediately after any failure, with negligible repair time. The failures of one component are assumed to be independent of those of another component; a proportional hazards model is used. Data for a component are called time censored if the component is observed for a fixed time-period, or plant records covering a fixed time-period are examined, and the failure times are recorded. The number of these failures is random. Data are called failure censored if the component is kept in service until a predetermined number of failures has occurred, at which time the component is removed from service. In this case, the number of failures is fixed, but the end of the observation period equals the final failure time and is random. A typical PHAZE session consists of reading failure data from a file prepared previously, selecting one of the three models, and performing data analysis (i.e., performing the usual statistical inference about the parameters of the model, with special emphasis on the parameter(s) that determine whether the hazard function is increasing). The final goals of the inference are a point estimate
Nikulin, M; Mesbah, M; Limnios, N
2004-01-01
Parametric and semiparametric models are tools with a wide range of applications to reliability, survival analysis, and quality of life. This self-contained volume examines these tools in survey articles written by experts currently working on the development and evaluation of models and methods. While a number of chapters deal with general theory, several explore more specific connections and recent results in "real-world" reliability theory, survival analysis, and related fields.
Weber, Rebecca
2012-01-01
What can we compute--even with unlimited resources? Is everything within reach? Or are computations necessarily drastically limited, not just in practice, but theoretically? These questions are at the heart of computability theory. The goal of this book is to give the reader a firm grounding in the fundamentals of computability theory and an overview of currently active areas of research, such as reverse mathematics and algorithmic randomness. Turing machines and partial recursive functions are explored in detail, and vital tools and concepts including coding, uniformity, and diagonalization are described explicitly. From there the material continues with universal machines, the halting problem, parametrization and the recursion theorem, and thence to computability for sets, enumerability, and Turing reduction and degrees. A few more advanced topics round out the book before the chapter on areas of research. The text is designed to be self-contained, with an entire chapter of preliminary material including re...
Interaction of a parametric transducer with a resonant bar gravitational radiation detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linthorne, N.P.; Veitch, P.J.; Blair, D.G.
1990-01-01
It is shown that a microwave parametric transducer for a resonant bar gravitational radiation antenna can achieve high electromechanical coupling without degrading the acoustic Q of the antenna. The reactive coupling of the transducer to the antenna leads to both cold-damping and modification of the antenna's resonant frequency. These effects are examined in a 1.5 tonne niobium resonant bar antenna. At low coupling the observed behaviour is found to be in good agreement with theory. At higher coupling, the behaviour is complicated by other effects. We discuss how these parametric effects may be used to advantage when suitably controlled. (author)
Green-Schwarz superstring: Beltrami parametrization and world-sheet supersymmetric generalization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Binetruy, P.; Girardi, G.; Grimm, R.
1989-06-01
We study a generalization of the superstring theory in which both world-sheet and space-time supersymmetries are explicit. This hybrid superstring interpolates between the Green-Schwarz and the Ramond-Neveu-Schwarz formulations. We show that the Beltrami parametrization of the world-sheet provides a natural setting for the description of K-transformations already in the Green-Schwarz string. We construct the hybrid superstring action using the (1,1) supersymmetric version of the Beltrami parametrization. We discuss the generalization of k-transformations
Assessing pupil and school performance by non-parametric and parametric techniques
de Witte, K.; Thanassoulis, E.; Simpson, G.; Battisti, G.; Charlesworth-May, A.
2010-01-01
This paper discusses the use of the non-parametric free disposal hull (FDH) and the parametric multi-level model (MLM) as alternative methods for measuring pupil and school attainment where hierarchical structured data are available. Using robust FDH estimates, we show how to decompose the overall
Verrelst, Jochem; Rivera, Juan Pablo; Veroustraete, Frank; Muñoz-Marí, Jordi; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Camps-Valls, Gustau; Moreno, José
2015-01-01
Given the forthcoming availability of Sentinel-2 (S2) images, this paper provides a systematic comparison of retrieval accuracy and processing speed of a multitude of parametric, non-parametric and physically-based retrieval methods using simulated S2 data. An experimental field dataset (SPARC),
Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations
Stiggelbout, A.M.; Wakker, P.P.
1995-01-01
Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities.
Multiattribute utility theory without expected utility foundations
Wakker, P.P.; Miyamoto, J.
1996-01-01
Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities.
Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations
J. Miyamoto (John); P.P. Wakker (Peter)
1996-01-01
textabstractMethods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute
Parametric pendulum based wave energy converter
Yurchenko, Daniil; Alevras, Panagiotis
2018-01-01
The paper investigates the dynamics of a novel wave energy converter based on the parametrically excited pendulum. The herein developed concept of the parametric pendulum allows reducing the influence of the gravity force thereby significantly improving the device performance at a regular sea state, which could not be achieved in the earlier proposed original point-absorber design. The suggested design of a wave energy converter achieves a dominant rotational motion without any additional mechanisms, like a gearbox, or any active control involvement. Presented numerical results of deterministic and stochastic modeling clearly reflect the advantage of the proposed design. A set of experimental results confirms the numerical findings and validates the new design of a parametric pendulum based wave energy converter. Power harvesting potential of the novel device is also presented.
Parametric methods for spatial point processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Jesper
is studied in Section 4, and Bayesian inference in Section 5. On one hand, as the development in computer technology and computational statistics continues,computationally-intensive simulation-based methods for likelihood inference probably will play a increasing role for statistical analysis of spatial...... inference procedures for parametric spatial point process models. The widespread use of sensible but ad hoc methods based on summary statistics of the kind studied in Chapter 4.3 have through the last two decades been supplied by likelihood based methods for parametric spatial point process models......(This text is submitted for the volume ‘A Handbook of Spatial Statistics' edited by A.E. Gelfand, P. Diggle, M. Fuentes, and P. Guttorp, to be published by Chapmand and Hall/CRC Press, and planned to appear as Chapter 4.4 with the title ‘Parametric methods'.) 1 Introduction This chapter considers...
Parametric Conversion Using Custom MOS Varactors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iniewski Krzysztof (Kris
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The possible role of customized MOS varactors in amplification, mixing, and frequency control of future millimeter wave CMOS RFICs is outlined. First, the parametric conversion concept is revisited and discussed in terms of modern RF communications systems. Second, the modeling, design, and optimization of MOS varactors are reconsidered in the context of their central role in parametric circuits. Third, a balanced varactor structure is proposed for robust oscillator frequency control in the presence of large extrinsic noise expected in tightly integrated wireless communicators. Main points include the proposal of a subharmonic pumping scheme based on the MOS varactor, a nonequilibrium elastance-voltage model, optimal varactor layout suggestions, custom m-CMOS varactor design and measurement, device-level balanced varactor simulations, and parametric circuit evaluation based on measured device characteristics.
Piezoelectric energy harvesting with parametric uncertainty
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali, S F; Friswell, M I; Adhikari, S
2010-01-01
The design and analysis of energy harvesting devices is becoming increasing important in recent years. Most of the literature has focused on the deterministic analysis of these systems and the problem of uncertain parameters has received less attention. Energy harvesting devices exhibit parametric uncertainty due to errors in measurement, errors in modelling and variability in the parameters during manufacture. This paper investigates the effect of parametric uncertainty in the mechanical system on the harvested power, and derives approximate explicit formulae for the optimal electrical parameters that maximize the mean harvested power. The maximum of the mean harvested power decreases with increasing uncertainty, and the optimal frequency at which the maximum mean power occurs shifts. The effect of the parameter variance on the optimal electrical time constant and optimal coupling coefficient are reported. Monte Carlo based simulation results are used to further analyse the system under parametric uncertainty
Parametric analysis of ATM solar array.
Singh, B. K.; Adkisson, W. B.
1973-01-01
The paper discusses the methods used for the calculation of ATM solar array performance characteristics and provides the parametric analysis of solar panels used in SKYLAB. To predict the solar array performance under conditions other than test conditions, a mathematical model has been developed. Four computer programs have been used to convert the solar simulator test data to the parametric curves. The first performs module summations, the second determines average solar cell characteristics which will cause a mathematical model to generate a curve matching the test data, the third is a polynomial fit program which determines the polynomial equations for the solar cell characteristics versus temperature, and the fourth program uses the polynomial coefficients generated by the polynomial curve fit program to generate the parametric data.
PARAMETRIC AMPLIFICATION OF THE SIGNALS IN THE ELECTROSTATIC GRAVIINERTIAL SENSOR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Z. Gilavdary
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The challenges of designing simple, reliable, and high sensitivity graviinertial sensors are investigated. The sensor comprises a proof mass (PM and is fixed with the housing by the elastic torsion suspension. PM makes small rotations under the action of gravitational forces or inertial forces.The distinctive features of the sensor are that the differential electrostatic system provides simultaneous reading of the desired signal and a control the torsional rigidity of suspension. In addition, the PM's rotational angular velocity transforms in the alternating current flowing through the capacitors. The presence of аlternating current (AC voltage sources allows to get the parametric amplification of AC and significantly to improve the sensitivity of the sensor. In the simplest case, the sensor does not contain any feedback circuits.As an example, calculations of the micromechanical linear accelerations confirm that the periodic modulation of the coefficient of elastic stiffness of the suspension can significantly increase the sensitivity in the low frequency range, even in the absence of parametric resonance.Conditions for suppressions of background current participating in the output signal from a parametric pumping due to the asymmetry of the differential circuits are set. The frequency characteristics calculations of the sensor were carried out. It is expected, that the proposed sensor design ensures minimum noise level, which can be achievable in the graviinertial sensors. This design and the constructed theory can serve as a basis for creating a wide range of graviinertial devices operating on a movable base, for example, linear and angular accelerometer, gravity gradiometer, gravimeters, and inclinometers, which can be realized in the hybrid and in the micromechanical versions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Yonghee; Heo, Myoung-Sun; Moon, Geol; Kim, Ji-Hyoun; Jhe, Wonho; Noh, Heung-Ryoul
2010-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate resonant symmetry lifting in a parametrically modulated magneto-optical trap of cold 85 Rb atoms. This is achieved by applying a weak additional modulation at half the frequency of the strong parametric modulation, which acts as an effective static bias field to the system. We measure the system response by varying the amplitude of the additional fictitious bias as well as the relative phase between the bias and the parametric drive, and the results are in good agreement with theory. The additional modulation provides an additional degree of freedom to control the system, which is useful for investigating system properties such as susceptibility, dynamic response, and related critical phenomena. We also have measured the amplitude of the response to higher harmonics of the additional modulation frequency, which allows more precise understanding of the system dynamics.
Observation of parametric X-ray radiation by an imaging plate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takabayashi, Y.; Shchagin, A.V.
2012-01-01
We have demonstrated experimentally the application of an imaging plate for registering the angular distribution of parametric X-ray radiation. The imaging plate was used as a two-dimensional position-sensitive X-ray detector. High-quality images of the fine structure in the angular distributions of the yield around the reflection of the parametric X-ray radiation produced in a silicon crystal by a 255-MeV electron beam from a linear accelerator have been observed in the Laue geometry. A fairly good agreement between results of measurements and calculations by the kinematic theory of parametric X-ray radiation is shown. Applications of the imaging plates for the observation of the angular distribution of X-rays produced by accelerated particles in a crystal are also discussed.
Theory of vibration protection
Karnovsky, Igor A
2016-01-01
This text is an advancement of the theory of vibration protection of mechanical systems with lumped and distributed parameters. The book offers various concepts and methods of solving vibration protection problems, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different methods, and the fields of their effective applications. Fundamental approaches of vibration protection, which are considered in this book, are the passive, parametric and optimal active vibration protection. The passive vibration protection is based on vibration isolation, vibration damping and dynamic absorbers. Parametric vibration protection theory is based on the Shchipanov-Luzin invariance principle. Optimal active vibration protection theory is based on the Pontryagin principle and the Krein moment method. The book also contains special topics such as suppression of vibrations at the source of their occurrence and the harmful influence of vibrations on humans. Numerous examples, which illustrate the theoretical ideas of each chapter, ar...
Parametric Landau damping of space charge modes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Macridin, Alexandru [Fermilab; Burov, Alexey [Fermilab; Stern, Eric [Fermilab; Amundson, James [Fermilab; Spentzouris, Panagiotis [Fermilab
2016-09-23
Landau damping is the mechanism of plasma and beam stabilization; it arises through energy transfer from collective modes to the incoherent motion of resonant particles. Normally this resonance requires the resonant particle's frequency to match the collective mode frequency. We have identified an important new damping mechanism, parametric Landau damping, which is driven by the modulation of the mode-particle interaction. This opens new possibilities for stability control through manipulation of both particle and mode-particle coupling spectra. We demonstrate the existence of parametric Landau damping in a simulation of transverse coherent modes of bunched accelerator beams with space charge.
Universal parametrization for quark and lepton substructure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akama, Keiichi; Terazawa, Hidezumi.
1994-01-01
A universal parametrization for possible quark and lepton substructure is advocated in terms of quark and lepton form factors. It is emphasized that the lower bounds on compositeness scale, Λ c , to be determined experimentally strongly depend on their definitions in composite models. From the recent HERA data, it is estimated to be Λ c > 50 GeV, 0.4 TeV and 10 TeV, depending on the parametrizations with a single-pole form factor, a contact interaction and a logarithmic form factor, respectively. (author)
Parametric number covariance in quantum chaotic spectra.
Vinayak; Kumar, Sandeep; Pandey, Akhilesh
2016-03-01
We study spectral parametric correlations in quantum chaotic systems and introduce the number covariance as a measure of such correlations. We derive analytic results for the classical random matrix ensembles using the binary correlation method and obtain compact expressions for the covariance. We illustrate the universality of this measure by presenting the spectral analysis of the quantum kicked rotors for the time-reversal invariant and time-reversal noninvariant cases. A local version of the parametric number variance introduced earlier is also investigated.
Parametric frequency conversion in long Josephson junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Irie, F.; Ashihara, S.; Yoshida, K.
1976-01-01
Current steps at voltages corresponding to the parametric coupling between an applied r.f. field and junction resonant modes have been observed in long Josephson tunnel junctions in the flux-flow state. The observed periodic variations of the step height due to the applied magnetic field are explained quantitatively by a perturbational analysis using Josephson phase equations. The present study demonstrates that the moving vortex array can serve as a coherent pump wave for signal waves propagating in the barrier region, which indicates, as a result, the possibility of traveling-wave parametric devices with long Josephson tunnel junctions. (author)
Fine features of parametric X-ray radiation by relativistic electrons and ions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K.B. Korotchenko
2017-11-01
Full Text Available In present work within the frame of dynamic theory for parametric X-ray radiation in two-beam approximation we have presented detailed studies on parametric radiation emitted by relativistic both electrons and ions at channeling in crystals that is highly requested at planned experiments. The analysis done has shown that the intensity of radiation at relativistic electron channeling in Si (110 with respect to the conventional parametric radiation intensity has up to 5% uncertainty, while the error of approximate formulas for calculating parametric X-ray radiation maxima does not exceed 1.2%. We have demonstrated that simple expressions for the Fourier components of Si crystal susceptibility χ0 and χgσ could be reduced, as well as the temperature dependence for radiation maxima in Si crystal (diffraction plane (110 within Debye model. Moreover, for any types of channeled ions it is shown that the parametric X-ray radiation intensity is proportional to z2−b(Z,z/z with the function b(Z,z depending on the screening parameter and the ion charge number z=Z−Ze.
Multi-pulse orbits and chaotic dynamics in motion of parametrically excited viscoelastic moving belt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Wei; Yao Minghui
2006-01-01
In this paper, the Shilnikov type multi-pulse orbits and chaotic dynamics of parametrically excited viscoelastic moving belt are studied in detail. Using Kelvin-type viscoelastic constitutive law, the equations of motion for viscoelastic moving belt with the external damping and parametric excitation are given. The four-dimensional averaged equation under the case of primary parametric resonance is obtained by directly using the method of multiple scales and Galerkin's approach to the partial differential governing equation of viscoelastic moving belt. From the averaged equations obtained here, the theory of normal form is used to give the explicit expressions of normal form with a double zero and a pair of pure imaginary eigenvalues. Based on normal form, the energy-phrase method is employed to analyze the global bifurcations and chaotic dynamics in parametrically excited viscoelastic moving belt. The global bifurcation analysis indicates that there exist the heteroclinic bifurcations and the Silnikov type multi-pulse homoclinic orbits in the averaged equation. The results obtained above mean the existence of the chaos for the Smale horseshoe sense in parametrically excited viscoelastic moving belt. The chaotic motions of viscoelastic moving belts are also found by using numerical simulation. A new phenomenon on the multi-pulse jumping orbits is observed from three-dimensional phase space
Packham, B; Barnes, G; Dos Santos, G Sato; Aristovich, K; Gilad, O; Ghosh, A; Oh, T; Holder, D
2016-06-01
Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) allows for the reconstruction of internal conductivity from surface measurements. A change in conductivity occurs as ion channels open during neural activity, making EIT a potential tool for functional brain imaging. EIT images can have >10 000 voxels, which means statistical analysis of such images presents a substantial multiple testing problem. One way to optimally correct for these issues and still maintain the flexibility of complicated experimental designs is to use random field theory. This parametric method estimates the distribution of peaks one would expect by chance in a smooth random field of a given size. Random field theory has been used in several other neuroimaging techniques but never validated for EIT images of fast neural activity, such validation can be achieved using non-parametric techniques. Both parametric and non-parametric techniques were used to analyze a set of 22 images collected from 8 rats. Significant group activations were detected using both techniques (corrected p < 0.05). Both parametric and non-parametric analyses yielded similar results, although the latter was less conservative. These results demonstrate the first statistical analysis of such an image set and indicate that such an analysis is an approach for EIT images of neural activity.
Using Parametrics to Facilitate Collaborative Urban Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steinø, Nicolai; Benbih, Karima; Obeling, Esben
2013-01-01
in the context of the urban South which is characterized by high urban growth rates, weak planning systems and modest means. The current state of planning and urban development in Morocco is introduced as a context for discussing collaborative urban design and parametric urban design, and some tentative...
Parametric Architectural Design with Point-clouds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zwierzycki, Mateusz; Evers, Henrik Leander; Tamke, Martin
2016-01-01
This paper investigates the efforts and benefits of the implementation of point clouds into architectural design processes and tools. Based on a study on the principal work processes of designers with point clouds the prototypical plugin/library - Volvox - was developed for the parametric modelling...
Interdisciplinary parametric design : The XXL experience
Turrin, M.; Sariyildiz, I.S.; Paul, J.C.
2015-01-01
Focusing on large span structures for sport buildings, the paper tackles the role of parametric modelling and performance simulations, to enhance the integration between architectural and engineering design. The general approach contrasts post-engineering processes. In post-engineering, technical
The parametrized simulation of electromagnetic showers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peters, S.
1992-09-01
The simulation of electromagnetic showers in calorimeters by detailed tracking of all secondary particles is extremely computer time consuming. Without loosing considerably in precision, the use of parametrizations for global shower properties may reduce the computing time by factors of 10 1 to 10 4 , depending on the energy, the degree of parametrization, and the complexity in the material description and the cut off energies in the detailed simulation. To arrive at a high degree of universality, parametrizations of individual electromagnetic showers in homogeneous media are developed, taking the dependence of the shower development on the material into account. In sampling calorimeters, the inhomogeneous material distribution leads to additional effects which can be taken into account by geometry dependent terms in the parametrization of the longitudinal and radial energy density distributions. Comparisons with detailed simulations of homogeneous and sampling calorimeters show very good agreement in the fluctuations, correlations, and signal averages of spatial energy distributions. Verifications of the algorithms for the simulation of the H1 detector are performed using calorimeter test data for different moduls of the H1 liquid argon calorimeter. Special attention has been paid to electron pion separation, which is of great importance for physics analysis. (orig.) [de
Narrow linewidth pulsed optical parametric oscillator
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Tunable narrow linewidth radiation by optical parametric oscillation has many applications, particularly in spectroscopic investigation. In this paper, different techniques such as injection seeding, use of spectral selecting element like grating, grating and etalon in combination, grazing angle of incidence, entangled cavity ...
Consequences of hadron-nucleus multiplicity parametrization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, C.P.; Shyam, M.
1986-01-01
Some interesting consequences are analyzed of a new parametrization for the hadron-nucleus multiplicity distributions and they are compared with the experimental data. Further, it is illustrated how the scaling property for the average multiplicity will be modified and it is found that the experimental data support this behaviour. (orig.)
Simple parametrization of nucleon form factors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kelly, J.J.
2004-01-01
This Brief Report provides simple parametrizations of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors using functions of Q 2 that are consistent with dimensional scaling at high Q 2 . Good fits require only four parameters each for G Ep , G Mp , and G Mn and only two for G En
Parametric studies of tandem mirror reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlson, G.A.; Boghosian, B.M.; Fink, J.H.; Myall, J.O.; Neef, W.S. Jr.
1979-01-01
This report, along with its companion, An Improved Tandem Mirror Reactor, discusses the recent progress and present status of our tandem mirror reactor studies. This report presents the detailed results of parametric studies up to, but not including, the very new ideas involving thermal barriers
Statistical prediction of parametric roll using FORM
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Choi, Ju-hyuck; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam
2017-01-01
Previous research has shown that the First Order Reliability Method (FORM) can be an efficient method for estimation of outcrossing rates and extreme value statistics for stationary stochastic processes. This is so also for bifurcation type of processes like parametric roll of ships. The present...
Probabilistic Reachability for Parametric Markov Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hahn, Ernst Moritz; Hermanns, Holger; Zhang, Lijun
2011-01-01
Given a parametric Markov model, we consider the problem of computing the rational function expressing the probability of reaching a given set of states. To attack this principal problem, Daws has suggested to first convert the Markov chain into a finite automaton, from which a regular expression...
Non-Parametric Estimation of Correlation Functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brincker, Rune; Rytter, Anders; Krenk, Steen
In this paper three methods of non-parametric correlation function estimation are reviewed and evaluated: the direct method, estimation by the Fast Fourier Transform and finally estimation by the Random Decrement technique. The basic ideas of the techniques are reviewed, sources of bias are point...
A parametric reconstruction of the deceleration parameter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Al Mamon, Abdulla [Manipal University, Manipal Centre for Natural Sciences, Manipal (India); Visva-Bharati, Department of Physics, Santiniketan (India); Das, Sudipta [Visva-Bharati, Department of Physics, Santiniketan (India)
2017-07-15
The present work is based on a parametric reconstruction of the deceleration parameter q(z) in a model for the spatially flat FRW universe filled with dark energy and non-relativistic matter. In cosmology, the parametric reconstruction technique deals with an attempt to build up a model by choosing some specific evolution scenario for a cosmological parameter and then estimate the values of the parameters with the help of different observational datasets. In this paper, we have proposed a logarithmic parametrization of q(z) to probe the evolution history of the universe. Using the type Ia supernova, baryon acoustic oscillation and the cosmic microwave background datasets, the constraints on the arbitrary model parameters q{sub 0} and q{sub 1} are obtained (within 1σ and 2σ confidence limits) by χ{sup 2}-minimization technique. We have then reconstructed the deceleration parameter, the total EoS parameter ω{sub tot}, the jerk parameter and have compared the reconstructed results of q(z) with other well-known parametrizations of q(z). We have also shown that two model selection criteria (namely, the Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion) provide a clear indication that our reconstructed model is well consistent with other popular models. (orig.)
Parametric Primitives for Hand Gesture Recognition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baby, Sanmohan; Krüger, Volker
2009-01-01
Imitation learning is considered to be an effective way of teaching humanoid robots and action recognition is the key step to imitation learning. In this paper an online algorithm to recognize parametric actions with object context is presented. Objects are key instruments in understanding...
Parametric Transverse Patterns in Broad Aperture Lasers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grigorieva, E.V.; Kashchenko, S.A.; Mosekilde, Erik
1998-01-01
Parametrically generated optical patterns are investigated for finite and large-scale transverse aperture lasers. Standing and rotating patterns as well as periodic and chaotic pattern alternations are described in the framework of the amplitude equation formalism. Sensitive dependence...... on the geometrical size of the system is demonstrated even in the case of large-scale systems....
Parametric instabilities in advanced gravitational wave detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gras, S; Zhao, C; Blair, D G; Ju, L
2010-01-01
As the LIGO interferometric gravitational wave detectors have finished gathering a large observational data set, an intense effort is underway to upgrade these observatories to improve their sensitivity by a factor of ∼10. High circulating power in the arm cavities is required, which leads to the possibility of parametric instability due to three-mode opto-acoustic resonant interactions between the carrier, transverse optical modes and acoustic modes. Here, we present detailed numerical analysis of parametric instability in a configuration that is similar to Advanced LIGO. After examining parametric instability for a single three-mode interaction in detail, we examine instability for the best and worst cases, as determined by the resonance condition of transverse modes in the power and signal recycling cavities. We find that, in the best case, the dual recycling detector is substantially less susceptible to instability than a single cavity, but its susceptibility is dependent on the signal recycling cavity design, and on tuning for narrow band operation. In all cases considered, the interferometer will experience parametric instability at full power operation, but the gain varies from 3 to 1000, and the number of unstable modes varies between 7 and 30 per test mass. The analysis focuses on understanding the detector complexity in relation to opto-acoustic interactions, on providing insights that can enable predictions of the detector response to transient disturbances, and of variations in thermal compensation conditions.
Nitzan, Sarah H; Zega, Valentina; Li, Mo; Ahn, Chae H; Corigliano, Alberto; Kenny, Thomas W; Horsley, David A
2015-03-12
Parametric amplification, resulting from intentionally varying a parameter in a resonator at twice its resonant frequency, has been successfully employed to increase the sensitivity of many micro- and nano-scale sensors. Here, we introduce the concept of self-induced parametric amplification, which arises naturally from nonlinear elastic coupling between the degenerate vibration modes in a micromechanical disk-resonator, and is not externally applied. The device functions as a gyroscope wherein angular rotation is detected from Coriolis coupling of elastic vibration energy from a driven vibration mode into a second degenerate sensing mode. While nonlinear elasticity in silicon resonators is extremely weak, in this high quality-factor device, ppm-level nonlinear elastic effects result in an order-of-magnitude increase in the observed sensitivity to Coriolis force relative to linear theory. Perfect degeneracy of the primary and secondary vibration modes is achieved through electrostatic frequency tuning, which also enables the phase and frequency of the parametric coupling to be varied, and we show that the resulting phase and frequency dependence of the amplification follow the theory of parametric resonance. We expect that this phenomenon will be useful for both fundamental studies of dynamic systems with low dissipation and for increasing signal-to-noise ratio in practical applications such as gyroscopes.
Minimum variance Monte Carlo importance sampling with parametric dependence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ragheb, M.M.H.; Halton, J.; Maynard, C.W.
1981-01-01
An approach for Monte Carlo Importance Sampling with parametric dependence is proposed. It depends upon obtaining by proper weighting over a single stage the overall functional dependence of the variance on the importance function parameter over a broad range of its values. Results corresponding to minimum variance are adapted and other results rejected. Numerical calculation for the estimation of intergrals are compared to Crude Monte Carlo. Results explain the occurrences of the effective biases (even though the theoretical bias is zero) and infinite variances which arise in calculations involving severe biasing and a moderate number of historis. Extension to particle transport applications is briefly discussed. The approach constitutes an extension of a theory on the application of Monte Carlo for the calculation of functional dependences introduced by Frolov and Chentsov to biasing, or importance sample calculations; and is a generalization which avoids nonconvergence to the optimal values in some cases of a multistage method for variance reduction introduced by Spanier. (orig.) [de
Synthetic Domain Theory and Models of Linear Abadi & Plotkin Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers; Birkedal, Lars; Rosolini, Guiseppe
2008-01-01
Plotkin suggested using a polymorphic dual intuitionistic/linear type theory (PILLY) as a metalanguage for parametric polymorphism and recursion. In recent work the first two authors and R.L. Petersen have defined a notion of parametric LAPL-structure, which are models of PILLY, in which one can...... reason using parametricity and, for example, solve a large class of domain equations, as suggested by Plotkin.In this paper, we show how an interpretation of a strict version of Bierman, Pitts and Russo's language Lily into synthetic domain theory presented by Simpson and Rosolini gives rise...... to a parametric LAPL-structure. This adds to the evidence that the notion of LAPL-structure is a general notion, suitable for treating many different parametric models, and it provides formal proofs of consequences of parametricity expected to hold for the interpretation. Finally, we show how these results...
Parametric instabilities in magnetized bi-ion and dusty plasmas
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
-ion or dusty plasma with parametric pumping of the magnetic field is analysed. The equation of motion governing the perturbed plasma is derived and parametrically excited transverse modes propagating along the magnetic field are found.
Improved parametric fits for the HeH2 ab initio energy surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muchnick, P.
1992-01-01
A brief history of the development of ab initio calculations for the HeH 2 quasi-molecule energy surface, and the parametric fits to these ab initio calculations, is presented. The concept of 'physical reasonableness' of the parametric fit is discussed. Several new improved parametric fits for the energy surface, meeting these requirements, are then proposed. One fit extends the Russek-Garcia parametric fit for the deep repulsion region to include r-dependent parameters, resulting in a more physically reasonable fit with smaller average error. This improved surface fit is applied to quasi-elastic collisions of He on H 2 in the impulse approximation. Previous classical calculations of the scaled inelastic vibrorotational excitation energy distributions are improved with this more accurate parametric fit of the energy surface and with the incorporation of quantum effects in vibrational excitation. It is shown that Sigmund's approach in developing his scaling law is incomplete in the contribution of the three-body interactions to vibrational excitation of the H 2 molecule is concerned. The Sigmund theory is extended to take into account for r-dependency of three-body interactions. A parametric fit for the entire energy surface from essentially 0 ≤R≤∞ and 1.2≤r≤1.6 a.u., where R is the intermolecular spacing and r is the hydrogen bonding length, is also presented. This fit is physically reasonable in all asymptotic limits. This first, full surface parametric fit is based primarily upon a composite of ab initio studies by Russek and Garcia and Meyer, Hariharan and Kutzelnigg. Parametric fits for the H 2 (1sσ g ) 2 , H 2 + (1sσ g ), H 2 + (2pσ u ) and (LiH 2 ) + energy surfaces are also presented. The new parametric fits for H 2 , H 2 + (1sσ g ) are shown to be improvements over the well-known Morse potentials for these surfaces
Pump to signal noise transfer in parametric fiber amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lund-Hansen, Toke; Rottwitt, Karsten; Peucheret, Christophe
2010-01-01
Fiber optic parametric amplifiers have been suggested due to their potential low spontaneous emission. However, by nature the parametric amplifier only work in a forward pumped configuration, which result in transfer of relative intensity noise in the pump to the signal.......Fiber optic parametric amplifiers have been suggested due to their potential low spontaneous emission. However, by nature the parametric amplifier only work in a forward pumped configuration, which result in transfer of relative intensity noise in the pump to the signal....
Hyperbolic and semi-parametric models in finance
Bingham, N. H.; Kiesel, Rüdiger
2001-02-01
The benchmark Black-Scholes-Merton model of mathematical finance is parametric, based on the normal/Gaussian distribution. Its principal parametric competitor, the hyperbolic model of Barndorff-Nielsen, Eberlein and others, is briefly discussed. Our main theme is the use of semi-parametric models, incorporating the mean vector and covariance matrix as in the Markowitz approach, plus a non-parametric part, a scalar function incorporating features such as tail-decay. Implementation is also briefly discussed.
Fault detection and isolation in systems with parametric faults
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Hans Henrik
1999-01-01
The problem of fault detection and isolation of parametric faults is considered in this paper. A fault detection problem based on parametric faults are associated with internal parameter variations in the dynamical system. A fault detection and isolation method for parametric faults is formulated...
Parametric Audio Based Decoder and Music Synthesizer for Mobile Applications
Oomen, A.W.J.; Szczerba, M.Z.; Therssen, D.
2011-01-01
This paper reviews parametric audio coders and discusses novel technologies introduced in a low-complexity, low-power consumption audiodecoder and music synthesizer platform developed by the authors. Thedecoder uses parametric coding scheme based on the MPEG-4 Parametric Audio standard. In order to
Parametric Study Of Window Frame Geometry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per
2013-01-01
This paper describes a parametric study on window frame geometry with the goal of designing frames with very good thermal properties. Three different parametric frame models are introduced, deseribed by a number of variables. In the first part of the study, a process of sensitivity analysis...... is conducted to determine which of the parameters describing the frame have the highest impact on its thermal performance. Afterwards, an optimization process is conducted on each frame in order to optimize the design with regard to three objectives: minimizing the thermal transmittance, maxim izing the net...... energy gain factor and minimizing the material use. Since the objectives contradiet each other, it was found that it is not possible to identifY a single solution that satisfies all these goals. lnstead, a compromise between the objectives has to be found....
Parametric structural modeling of insect wings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mengesha, T E; Vallance, R R; Barraja, M; Mittal, R
2009-01-01
Insects produce thrust and lift forces via coupled fluid-structure interactions that bend and twist their compliant wings during flapping cycles. Insight into this fluid-structure interaction is achieved with numerical modeling techniques such as coupled finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics, but these methods require accurate and validated structural models of insect wings. Structural models of insect wings depend principally on the shape, dimensions and material properties of the veins and membrane cells. This paper describes a method for parametric modeling of wing geometry using digital images and demonstrates the use of the geometric models in constructing three-dimensional finite element (FE) models and simple reduced-order models. The FE models are more complete and accurate than previously reported models since they accurately represent the topology of the vein network, as well as the shape and dimensions of the veins and membrane cells. The methods are demonstrated by developing a parametric structural model of a cicada forewing.
Casas-Ibarra parametrization and leptogenesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xing Zhizhong
2010-01-01
The Casas-Ibarra parametrization is a description of the Dirac neutrino mass matrix M D in terms of the neutrino mixing matrix V, an orthogonal matrix O and the diagonal mass matrices of light and heavy Majorana neutrinos in the type-I seesaw mechanism. Because M D + M D is apparently independent of V but dependent on O in this parametrization, a number of authors have claimed that unflavored leptogenesis has nothing to do with CP violation at low energies. Here we question this logic by clarifying the physical meaning of O. We establish a clear relationship between O and the observable quantities, and find that O does depend on V. We show that both unflavored leptogenesis and flavored leptogenesis have no direct connection with low-energy CP violation. (authors)
Rayleigh-type parametric chemical oscillation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghosh, Shyamolina; Ray, Deb Shankar, E-mail: pcdsr@iacs.res.in [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)
2015-09-28
We consider a nonlinear chemical dynamical system of two phase space variables in a stable steady state. When the system is driven by a time-dependent sinusoidal forcing of a suitable scaling parameter at a frequency twice the output frequency and the strength of perturbation exceeds a threshold, the system undergoes sustained Rayleigh-type periodic oscillation, wellknown for parametric oscillation in pipe organs and distinct from the usual forced quasiperiodic oscillation of a damped nonlinear system where the system is oscillatory even in absence of any external forcing. Our theoretical analysis of the parametric chemical oscillation is corroborated by full numerical simulation of two well known models of chemical dynamics, chlorite-iodine-malonic acid and iodine-clock reactions.
Rayleigh-type parametric chemical oscillation.
Ghosh, Shyamolina; Ray, Deb Shankar
2015-09-28
We consider a nonlinear chemical dynamical system of two phase space variables in a stable steady state. When the system is driven by a time-dependent sinusoidal forcing of a suitable scaling parameter at a frequency twice the output frequency and the strength of perturbation exceeds a threshold, the system undergoes sustained Rayleigh-type periodic oscillation, wellknown for parametric oscillation in pipe organs and distinct from the usual forced quasiperiodic oscillation of a damped nonlinear system where the system is oscillatory even in absence of any external forcing. Our theoretical analysis of the parametric chemical oscillation is corroborated by full numerical simulation of two well known models of chemical dynamics, chlorite-iodine-malonic acid and iodine-clock reactions.
Parametric instability in GEO 600 interferometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gurkovsky, A.G.; Vyatchanin, S.P.
2007-01-01
We present analysis of undesirable effect of parametric instability in signal recycled GEO 600 interferometer. The basis for this effect is provided by excitation of additional (Stokes) optical mode, having frequency ω 1 , and mirror elastic mode, having frequency ω m , when the optical energy stored in the main FP cavity mode, having frequency ω 0 , exceeds a certain threshold and detuning Δ=ω 0 -ω 1 -ω m is small. We discuss the potential of observing parametric instability and its precursors in GEO 600 interferometer. This approach provides the best option to get familiar with this phenomenon, to develop experimental methods to depress it and to test the effectiveness of these methods in situ
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yoshitaka Haribara
2016-04-01
Full Text Available We present the operational principle of a coherent Ising machine (CIM based on a degenerate optical parametric oscillator (DOPO network. A quantum theory of CIM is formulated, and the computational ability of CIM is evaluated by numerical simulation based on c-number stochastic differential equations. We also discuss the advanced CIM with quantum measurement-feedback control and various problems which can be solved by CIM.
Parametric Immunization in Bond Portfolio Management
Bravo, Jorge; Fonseca, José
2012-01-01
In this paper, we evaluate the relative immunization performance of the multifactor parametric interest rate risk model based on the Nelson-Siegel-Svensson specification of the yield curve with that of standard benchmark investment strategies, using European Central Bank yield curve data in the period between January 3, 2005 and December 31, 2011. In addition, we examine the role of portfolio design in the success of immunization strategies, particularly the role of the maturit...
Parametric study of laser photovoltaic energy converters
Walker, G. H.; Heinbockel, J. H.
1987-01-01
Photovoltaic converters are of interest for converting laser power to electrical power in a space-based laser power system. This paper describes a model for photovoltaic laser converters and the application of this model to a neodymium laser silicon photovoltaic converter system. A parametric study which defines the sensitivity of the photovoltaic parameters is described. An optimized silicon photovoltaic converter has an efficiency greater than 50 percent for 1000 W/sq cm of neodymium laser radiation.
Acoustic parametric pumping of spin waves
Keshtgar, Hedyeh; Zareyan, Malek; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.
2014-11-01
Recent experiments demonstrated generation of spin currents by ultrasound. We can understand this acoustically induced spin pumping in terms of the coupling between magnetization and lattice waves. Here we study the parametric excitation of magnetization by longitudinal acoustic waves and calculate the acoustic threshold power. The induced magnetization dynamics can be detected by the spin pumping into an adjacent normal metal that displays the inverse spin Hall effect.
Acoustic parametric pumping of spin waves
Keshtgar, Hedyeh; Zareyan, Malek; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.
2013-01-01
Recent experiments demonstrated generation of spin currents by ultrasound. We can understand this acoustically induced spin pumping in terms of the coupling between magnetization and lattice waves. Here we study the parametric excitation of magnetization by longitudinal acoustic waves and calculate the acoustic threshold power. The induced magnetization dynamics can be detected by the spin pumping into an adjacent normal metal that displays the inverse spin Hall effect.
Multidimensional Scaling Visualization using Parametric Similarity Indices
Machado, J. A. Tenreiro; Lopes, António M.; Galhano, A.M.
2015-01-01
In this paper, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) and parametric similarity indices (PSI) in the analysis of complex systems (CS). Each CS is viewed as a dynamical system, exhibiting an output time-series to be interpreted as a manifestation of its behavior. We start by adopting a sliding window to sample the original data into several consecutive time periods. Second, we define a given PSI for tracking pieces of data. We then compare the windows for different values of the parameter, an...
On Algebraic Approach for MSD Parametric Estimation
Oueslati , Marouene; Thiery , Stéphane; Gibaru , Olivier; Béarée , Richard; Moraru , George
2011-01-01
This article address the identification problem of the natural frequency and the damping ratio of a second order continuous system where the input is a sinusoidal signal. An algebra based approach for identifying parameters of a Mass Spring Damper (MSD) system is proposed and compared to the Kalman-Bucy filter. The proposed estimator uses the algebraic parametric method in the frequency domain yielding exact formula, when placed in the time domain to identify the unknown parameters. We focus ...
Parametric Architecture in the Urban Space
Januszkiewicz, Krystyna; Kowalski, Karol G.
2017-10-01
The paper deals with the parametric architecture which is trying to introduce a new spatial language in the context for urban tissue that correspond to the artistic consciousness and the attitude of information and digital technologies era. The first part of the paper defines the main features of parametric architecture (such as: folding, continuity and curvilinearity) which are are characteristic of the new style of named the “parametricism”. This architecture is a strong emphasis on geometry, materiality, feasibility and sustainability, what emerges is an explicit agenda promoting material ornamentation, spatial spectacle and formal theatricality. The second part presents result of case study, especially parametric public use buildings, within the tissue of city. The analyzed objects are: The Sage Gateshead (1998-2004) in Gateshead, Kunsthaus in Graz (2000-2003), the Weltstadthaus (2003-2005) in Cologne, The Golden Terraces in Warsaw (2000-2007), the Metropol Parasol in Seville (2005-2011) the King Cross Station (2005-2012) in London, the headquarters of the Pathé Foundation (2006-2014) in Paris. Each of the enumerated examples shows a diverse approach to designing in the urban space, which reflect the age of digital technologies and the information society. In conclusion emphasizes, that new concept of the spatialization of architecture is the equivalent of the democratization of the political system, the liberalization of the economy, among other examples.
Sgr A* Emission Parametrizations from GRMHD Simulations
Anantua, Richard; Ressler, Sean; Quataert, Eliot
2018-06-01
Galactic Center emission near the vicinity of the central black hole, Sagittarius (Sgr) A*, is modeled using parametrizations involving the electron temperature, which is found from general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations to be highest in the disk-outflow corona. Jet-motivated prescriptions generalizing equipartition of particle and magnetic energies, e.g., by scaling relativistic electron energy density to powers of the magnetic field strength, are also introduced. GRMHD jet (or outflow)/accretion disk/black hole (JAB) simulation postprocessing codes IBOTHROS and GRMONTY are employed in the calculation of images and spectra. Various parametric models reproduce spectral and morphological features, such as the sub-mm spectral bump in electron temperature models and asymmetric photon rings in equipartition-based models. The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) will provide unprecedentedly high-resolution 230+ GHz observations of the "shadow" around Sgr A*'s supermassive black hole, which the synthetic models presented here will reverse-engineer. Both electron temperature and equipartition-based models can be constructed to be compatible with EHT size constraints for the emitting region of Sgr A*. This program sets the groundwork for devising a unified emission parametrization flexible enough to model disk, corona and outflow/jet regions with a small set of parameters including electron heating fraction and plasma beta.
Parametric Cost Models for Space Telescopes
Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Dollinger, Courtney
2010-01-01
Multivariable parametric cost models for space telescopes provide several benefits to designers and space system project managers. They identify major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades. They enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment. And, they provide a basis for estimating total project cost. A survey of historical models found that there is no definitive space telescope cost model. In fact, published models vary greatly [1]. Thus, there is a need for parametric space telescopes cost models. An effort is underway to develop single variable [2] and multi-variable [3] parametric space telescope cost models based on the latest available data and applying rigorous analytical techniques. Specific cost estimating relationships (CERs) have been developed which show that aperture diameter is the primary cost driver for large space telescopes; technology development as a function of time reduces cost at the rate of 50% per 17 years; it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; and increasing mass reduces cost.
Parametric cost models for space telescopes
Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Dollinger, Courtnay
2017-11-01
Multivariable parametric cost models for space telescopes provide several benefits to designers and space system project managers. They identify major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades. They enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment. And, they provide a basis for estimating total project cost. A survey of historical models found that there is no definitive space telescope cost model. In fact, published models vary greatly [1]. Thus, there is a need for parametric space telescopes cost models. An effort is underway to develop single variable [2] and multi-variable [3] parametric space telescope cost models based on the latest available data and applying rigorous analytical techniques. Specific cost estimating relationships (CERs) have been developed which show that aperture diameter is the primary cost driver for large space telescopes; technology development as a function of time reduces cost at the rate of 50% per 17 years; it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; and increasing mass reduces cost.
Nonscaling parametrization of hadronic spectra and dual parton model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaponenko, O.N.
2001-01-01
Using the popular Wdowczyk-Wolfendale parametrization (WW-parametrization) as an example one studies restrictions imposed by a dual parton model for different nonscaling parametrizations of the pulsed hadron spectra in soft hadron-hadron and hadron-nuclear interactions. One derived a new parametrization free from basic drawback of the WW-formulae. In the central range the determined parametrization show agreement with the Wdowczyk-Wolfendale formula, but in contrast to the last-named one it does not result in contradiction with the experiment due to fast reduction of inelastic factor reduction with energy increase [ru
Unified triminimal parametrizations of quark and lepton mixing matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Xiaogang; Li Shiwen; Ma Boqiang
2009-01-01
We present a detailed study on triminimal parametrizations of quark and lepton mixing matrices with different basis matrices. We start with a general discussion on the triminimal expansion of the mixing matrix and on possible unified quark and lepton parametrization using quark-lepton complementarity. We then consider several interesting basis matrices and compare the triminimal parametrizations with the Wolfenstein-like parametrizations. The usual Wolfenstein parametrization for quark mixing is a triminimal expansion around the unit matrix as the basis. The corresponding quark-lepton complementarity lepton mixing matrix is a triminimal expansion around the bimaximal basis. Current neutrino oscillation data show that the lepton mixing matrix is very well represented by the tribimaximal mixing. It is natural to take it as an expanding basis. The corresponding zeroth order basis for quark mixing in this case makes the triminimal expansion converge much faster than the usual Wolfenstein parametrization. The triminimal expansion based on tribimaximal mixing can be converted to the Wolfenstein-like parametrizations discussed in the literature. We thus have a unified description between different kinds of parametrizations for quark and lepton sectors: the standard parametrizations, the Wolfenstein-like parametrizations, and the triminimal parametrizations.
Parametric resonance of intrinsic localized modes in coupled cantilever arrays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kimura, Masayuki, E-mail: kimura.masayuki.8c@kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Matsushita, Yasuo [Advanced Mathematical Institute, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sughimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Hikihara, Takashi [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)
2016-08-19
In this study, the parametric resonances of pinned intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) were investigated by computing the unstable regions in parameter space consisting of parametric excitation amplitude and frequency. In the unstable regions, the pinned ILMs were observed to lose stability and begin to fluctuate. A nonlinear Klein–Gordon, Fermi–Pasta–Ulam-like, and mixed lattices were investigated. The pinned ILMs, particularly in the mixed lattice, were destabilized by parametric resonances, which were determined by comparing the shapes of the unstable regions with those in the Mathieu differential equation. In addition, traveling ILMs could be generated by parametric excitation. - Highlights: • Destabilization of intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) by parametric excitation is investigated for FPU, NKG, and mixed lattices. • Frequency and amplitude of parametric excitation is determined based on characteristic multipliers of ILMs. • Unstable regions for the mixed lattice case show very similar shape to those of the Mathieu equation. • ILMs become unstable by causing parametric resonance.
Parametric resonance of intrinsic localized modes in coupled cantilever arrays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kimura, Masayuki; Matsushita, Yasuo; Hikihara, Takashi
2016-01-01
In this study, the parametric resonances of pinned intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) were investigated by computing the unstable regions in parameter space consisting of parametric excitation amplitude and frequency. In the unstable regions, the pinned ILMs were observed to lose stability and begin to fluctuate. A nonlinear Klein–Gordon, Fermi–Pasta–Ulam-like, and mixed lattices were investigated. The pinned ILMs, particularly in the mixed lattice, were destabilized by parametric resonances, which were determined by comparing the shapes of the unstable regions with those in the Mathieu differential equation. In addition, traveling ILMs could be generated by parametric excitation. - Highlights: • Destabilization of intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) by parametric excitation is investigated for FPU, NKG, and mixed lattices. • Frequency and amplitude of parametric excitation is determined based on characteristic multipliers of ILMs. • Unstable regions for the mixed lattice case show very similar shape to those of the Mathieu equation. • ILMs become unstable by causing parametric resonance.
A probabilistic strategy for parametric catastrophe insurance
Figueiredo, Rui; Martina, Mario; Stephenson, David; Youngman, Benjamin
2017-04-01
Economic losses due to natural hazards have shown an upward trend since 1980, which is expected to continue. Recent years have seen a growing worldwide commitment towards the reduction of disaster losses. This requires effective management of disaster risk at all levels, a part of which involves reducing financial vulnerability to disasters ex-ante, ensuring that necessary resources will be available following such events. One way to achieve this is through risk transfer instruments. These can be based on different types of triggers, which determine the conditions under which payouts are made after an event. This study focuses on parametric triggers, where payouts are determined by the occurrence of an event exceeding specified physical parameters at a given location, or at multiple locations, or over a region. This type of product offers a number of important advantages, and its adoption is increasing. The main drawback of parametric triggers is their susceptibility to basis risk, which arises when there is a mismatch between triggered payouts and the occurrence of loss events. This is unavoidable in said programmes, as their calibration is based on models containing a number of different sources of uncertainty. Thus, a deterministic definition of the loss event triggering parameters appears flawed. However, often for simplicity, this is the way in which most parametric models tend to be developed. This study therefore presents an innovative probabilistic strategy for parametric catastrophe insurance. It is advantageous as it recognizes uncertainties and minimizes basis risk while maintaining a simple and transparent procedure. A logistic regression model is constructed here to represent the occurrence of loss events based on certain loss index variables, obtained through the transformation of input environmental variables. Flood-related losses due to rainfall are studied. The resulting model is able, for any given day, to issue probabilities of occurrence of loss
Sobh, Tarek M.; Tibrewal, Abhilasha
2006-01-01
Operating systems theory primarily concentrates on the optimal use of computing resources. This paper presents an alternative approach to teaching and studying operating systems design and concepts by way of parametrically optimizing critical operating system functions. Detailed examples of two critical operating systems functions using the…
Vectorial-tensorial conservative theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mociutchi, C.; Ionescu-Pallas, N.
1975-01-01
Gravitation is considered as a mixing of interactions and a suggestion for a vectorial-tensorial theory with parametric coupling is given. The self consistent character of the theory leads to a system of equations for the proposed tensorial-vectorial theory of gravitation. If the weight of the vectorial component is low enough i.e. epsilon much smaller than 1, then this theory can correctly reproduce all the experimental verifications
Evaluating a stochastic parametrization for a fast–slow system using the Wasserstein distance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Vissio
2018-06-01
Full Text Available Constructing accurate, flexible, and efficient parametrizations is one of the great challenges in the numerical modeling of geophysical fluids. We consider here the simple yet paradigmatic case of a Lorenz 84 model forced by a Lorenz 63 model and derive a parametrization using a recently developed statistical mechanical methodology based on the Ruelle response theory. We derive an expression for the deterministic and the stochastic component of the parametrization and we show that the approach allows for dealing seamlessly with the case of the Lorenz 63 being a fast as well as a slow forcing compared to the characteristic timescales of the Lorenz 84 model. We test our results using both standard metrics based on the moments of the variables of interest as well as Wasserstein distance between the projected measure of the original system on the Lorenz 84 model variables and the measure of the parametrized one. By testing our methods on reduced-phase spaces obtained by projection, we find support for the idea that comparisons based on the Wasserstein distance might be of relevance in many applications despite the curse of dimensionality.
Martinez Manzanera, Octavio; Elting, Jan Willem; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.; Maurits, Natasha M.
2016-01-01
In the clinic, tremor is diagnosed during a time-limited process in which patients are observed and the characteristics of tremor are visually assessed. For some tremor disorders, a more detailed analysis of these characteristics is needed. Accelerometry and electromyography can be used to obtain a better insight into tremor. Typically, routine clinical assessment of accelerometry and electromyography data involves visual inspection by clinicians and occasionally computational analysis to obtain objective characteristics of tremor. However, for some tremor disorders these characteristics may be different during daily activity. This variability in presentation between the clinic and daily life makes a differential diagnosis more difficult. A long-term recording of tremor by accelerometry and/or electromyography in the home environment could help to give a better insight into the tremor disorder. However, an evaluation of such recordings using routine clinical standards would take too much time. We evaluated a range of techniques that automatically detect tremor segments in accelerometer data, as accelerometer data is more easily obtained in the home environment than electromyography data. Time can be saved if clinicians only have to evaluate the tremor characteristics of segments that have been automatically detected in longer daily activity recordings. We tested four non-parametric methods and five parametric methods on clinical accelerometer data from 14 patients with different tremor disorders. The consensus between two clinicians regarding the presence or absence of tremor on 3943 segments of accelerometer data was employed as reference. The nine methods were tested against this reference to identify their optimal parameters. Non-parametric methods generally performed better than parametric methods on our dataset when optimal parameters were used. However, one parametric method, employing the high frequency content of the tremor bandwidth under consideration
Parametric autoresonant excitation of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation.
Friedland, L; Shagalov, A G
2016-10-01
Parametric excitation of autoresonant solutions of the nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) equation by a chirped frequency traveling wave is discussed. Fully nonlinear theory of the process is developed based on Whitham's averaged variational principle and its predictions verified in numerical simulations. The weakly nonlinear limit of the theory is used to find the threshold on the amplitude of the driving wave for entering the autoresonant regime. It is shown that above the threshold, a flat (spatially independent) NLS solution can be fully converted into a traveling wave. A simplified, few spatial harmonics expansion approach is also developed for studying this nonlinear mode conversion process, allowing interpretation as autoresonant interaction within triads of spatial harmonics.
Comparative Study of Parametric and Non-parametric Approaches in Fault Detection and Isolation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Katebi, S.D.; Blanke, M.; Katebi, M.R.
This report describes a comparative study between two approaches to fault detection and isolation in dynamic systems. The first approach uses a parametric model of the system. The main components of such techniques are residual and signature generation for processing and analyzing. The second...... approach is non-parametric in the sense that the signature analysis is only dependent on the frequency or time domain information extracted directly from the input-output signals. Based on these approaches, two different fault monitoring schemes are developed where the feature extraction and fault decision...
Markovian Dynamics of Josephson Parametric Amplification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Kaiser
2017-09-01
Full Text Available In this work, we derive the dynamics of the lossy DC pumped non-degenerate Josephson parametric amplifier (DCPJPA. The main element in a DCPJPA is the superconducting Josephson junction. The DC bias generates the AC Josephson current varying the nonlinear inductance of the junction. By this way the Josephson junction acts as the pump oscillator as well as the time varying reactance of the parametric amplifier. In quantum-limited amplification, losses and noise have an increased impact on the characteristics of an amplifier. We outline the classical model of the lossy DCPJPA and derive the available noise power spectral densities. A classical treatment is not capable of including properties like spontaneous emission which is mandatory in case of amplification at the quantum limit. Thus, we derive a quantum mechanical model of the lossy DCPJPA. Thermal losses are modeled by the quantum Langevin approach, by coupling the quantized system to a photon heat bath in thermodynamic equilibrium. The mode occupation in the bath follows the Bose-Einstein statistics. Based on the second quantization formalism, we derive the Heisenberg equations of motion of both resonator modes. We assume the dynamics of the system to follow the Markovian approximation, i.e. the system only depends on its actual state and is memory-free. We explicitly compute the time evolution of the contributions to the signal mode energy and give numeric examples based on different damping and coupling constants. Our analytic results show, that this model is capable of including thermal noise into the description of the DC pumped non-degenerate Josephson parametric amplifier.
Non-parametric smoothing of experimental data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuketayev, A.T.; Pen'kov, F.M.
2007-01-01
Full text: Rapid processing of experimental data samples in nuclear physics often requires differentiation in order to find extrema. Therefore, even at the preliminary stage of data analysis, a range of noise reduction methods are used to smooth experimental data. There are many non-parametric smoothing techniques: interval averages, moving averages, exponential smoothing, etc. Nevertheless, it is more common to use a priori information about the behavior of the experimental curve in order to construct smoothing schemes based on the least squares techniques. The latter methodology's advantage is that the area under the curve can be preserved, which is equivalent to conservation of total speed of counting. The disadvantages of this approach include the lack of a priori information. For example, very often the sums of undifferentiated (by a detector) peaks are replaced with one peak during the processing of data, introducing uncontrolled errors in the determination of the physical quantities. The problem is solvable only by having experienced personnel, whose skills are much greater than the challenge. We propose a set of non-parametric techniques, which allows the use of any additional information on the nature of experimental dependence. The method is based on a construction of a functional, which includes both experimental data and a priori information. Minimum of this functional is reached on a non-parametric smoothed curve. Euler (Lagrange) differential equations are constructed for these curves; then their solutions are obtained analytically or numerically. The proposed approach allows for automated processing of nuclear physics data, eliminating the need for highly skilled laboratory personnel. Pursuant to the proposed approach is the possibility to obtain smoothing curves in a given confidence interval, e.g. according to the χ 2 distribution. This approach is applicable when constructing smooth solutions of ill-posed problems, in particular when solving
Markovian Dynamics of Josephson Parametric Amplification
Kaiser, Waldemar; Haider, Michael; Russer, Johannes A.; Russer, Peter; Jirauschek, Christian
2017-09-01
In this work, we derive the dynamics of the lossy DC pumped non-degenerate Josephson parametric amplifier (DCPJPA). The main element in a DCPJPA is the superconducting Josephson junction. The DC bias generates the AC Josephson current varying the nonlinear inductance of the junction. By this way the Josephson junction acts as the pump oscillator as well as the time varying reactance of the parametric amplifier. In quantum-limited amplification, losses and noise have an increased impact on the characteristics of an amplifier. We outline the classical model of the lossy DCPJPA and derive the available noise power spectral densities. A classical treatment is not capable of including properties like spontaneous emission which is mandatory in case of amplification at the quantum limit. Thus, we derive a quantum mechanical model of the lossy DCPJPA. Thermal losses are modeled by the quantum Langevin approach, by coupling the quantized system to a photon heat bath in thermodynamic equilibrium. The mode occupation in the bath follows the Bose-Einstein statistics. Based on the second quantization formalism, we derive the Heisenberg equations of motion of both resonator modes. We assume the dynamics of the system to follow the Markovian approximation, i.e. the system only depends on its actual state and is memory-free. We explicitly compute the time evolution of the contributions to the signal mode energy and give numeric examples based on different damping and coupling constants. Our analytic results show, that this model is capable of including thermal noise into the description of the DC pumped non-degenerate Josephson parametric amplifier.
Massively multi-parametric immunoassays using ICPMS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanner, S.D.; Ornatsky, O.; Bandura, D.R.; Baranov, V.I.
2009-01-01
The use of stable isotopes as tags in immunoassays, and their determination by ICPMS, is poised to have a huge impact on multi-parametric bioanalysis. A new technology, which we term 'mass cytometry', enables high throughput, highly multiplexed individual cell analysis. Preliminary results for T-cell immunophenotyping in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), agonist influence on concomitant phosphorylation pathways, and sub-classification of acute myeloid leukemia patients' samples will be presented. The significance of individual cell analysis is demonstrated by the identification of populations of rogue cells in PBMC samples through the use of multidimensional neural network cluster analysis. (author)
A parametric evaluation of supersonic STOVL
Kidwell, G. H.; Rapp, D. C.
1985-01-01
This paper describes the results of a study to evaluate parametric variations to a single engine short-takeoff vertical-landing fighter/attack aircraft design. The variables considered involved thrust vectoring, thrust degradation, maximum lift, and other changes to determine the impact on short-takeoff performance, but subject to a vertical-landing capability. The results indicate that there are certain parameters that have a significant effect on short-field performance. Also, the optimal control strategies for transitions from a short-takeoff to forward flight and from forward flight to hover are determined. The results have applicability beyond the configuration evaluated.
Semi-parametric estimation for ARCH models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raed Alzghool
2018-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we conduct semi-parametric estimation for autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (ARCH model with Quasi likelihood (QL and Asymptotic Quasi-likelihood (AQL estimation methods. The QL approach relaxes the distributional assumptions of ARCH processes. The AQL technique is obtained from the QL method when the process conditional variance is unknown. We present an application of the methods to a daily exchange rate series. Keywords: ARCH model, Quasi likelihood (QL, Asymptotic Quasi-likelihood (AQL, Martingale difference, Kernel estimator
Parametric resonance in acoustically levitated water drops
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen, C.L.; Xie, W.J.; Wei, B.
2010-01-01
Liquid drops can be suspended in air with acoustic levitation method. When the sound pressure is periodically modulated, the levitated drop is usually forced into an axisymmetric oscillation. However, a transition from axisymmetric oscillation into sectorial oscillation occurs when the modulation frequency approaches some specific values. The frequency of the sectorial oscillation is almost exactly half of the modulation frequency. It is demonstrated that this transition is induced by the parametric resonance of levitated drop. The natural frequency of sectorial oscillation is found to decrease with the increase of drop distortion extent.
Parametric resonance in acoustically levitated water drops
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shen, C.L.; Xie, W.J. [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Wei, B., E-mail: bbwei@nwpu.edu.c [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)
2010-05-10
Liquid drops can be suspended in air with acoustic levitation method. When the sound pressure is periodically modulated, the levitated drop is usually forced into an axisymmetric oscillation. However, a transition from axisymmetric oscillation into sectorial oscillation occurs when the modulation frequency approaches some specific values. The frequency of the sectorial oscillation is almost exactly half of the modulation frequency. It is demonstrated that this transition is induced by the parametric resonance of levitated drop. The natural frequency of sectorial oscillation is found to decrease with the increase of drop distortion extent.
Parametric systems analysis for tandem mirror hybrids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, J.D.; Chapin, D.L.; Chi, J.W.H.
1980-09-01
Fusion fission systems, consisting of fissile producing fusion hybrids combining a tandem mirror fusion driver with various blanket types and net fissile consuming LWR's, have been modeled and analyzed parametrically. Analysis to date indicates that hybrids can be competitive with mined uranium when U 3 O 8 cost is about 100 $/lb., adding less than 25% to present day cost of power from LWR's. Of the three blanket types considered, uranium fast fission (UFF), thorium fast fission (ThFF), and thorium fission supressed (ThFS), the ThFS blanket has a modest economic advantage under most conditions but has higher support ratios and potential safety advantages under all conditions
Molecular and parametric imaging with iron oxides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matuszewski, L.; Bremer, C.; Tombach, B.; Heindel, W.
2007-01-01
Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) contrast agents, clinically established for high resolution magnetic resonance imaging of reticuloendothelial system containing anatomical structures, can additionally be exploited for the non-invasive characterization and quantification of pathology down to the molecular level. In this context, SPIOs can be applied for non-invasive cell tracking, quantification of tissue perfusion and target specific imaging, as well as for the detection of gene expression. This article provides an overview of new applications for clinically approved iron oxides as well of new, modified SPIO contrast agents for parametric and molecular imaging. (orig.) [de
Parametric Cherenkov radiation (development of idea)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buts, V.A.
2004-01-01
Some physical results of researches about charged particles radiation in mediums with a periodic heterogeneity and in periodic potential are reported. The development of ideas Parametric Cherenkov Radiation has shown, that in mediums, which have even a weak degree of a periodic heterogeneity of an permittivity or potential, the nonrelativistic oscillators can radiated as relativistic. They effectively radiate the high numbers of harmonics. In particular, in the carried out experiments the ultra-violet radiation was excited at action on a crystal of intensive ten-centimetric radiation. These results give the reasons to hope for making of nonrelativistic lasers on free electrons
Parametrization relating the fermionic mass spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleppe, A.
1993-01-01
When parametrizing the fermionic mass spectra in terms of the unit matrix and a recursive matrix scrR 0 , which corresponds to an underlying scaling pattern in the mass spectra, each fermionic sector is characterized by three parameters: k, α, and R. Using the set of relations displayed by the parameters of the different sectors, it is possible to formulate a ''family Lagrangian'' which for each sector encompasses all the families. Relations between quark masses are furthermore deduced from these ''family Lagrangians.'' Using the relations between the parameters of the different charge sectors, it is also possible to ''derive'' the quark mass spectra from the (charged) leptonic mass spectrum
Parametric Portfolio Policies with Common Volatility Dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ergemen, Yunus Emre; Taamouti, Abderrahim
A parametric portfolio policy function is considered that incorporates common stock volatility dynamics to optimally determine portfolio weights. Reducing dimension of the traditional portfolio selection problem significantly, only a number of policy parameters corresponding to first- and second......-order characteristics are estimated based on a standard method-of-moments technique. The method, allowing for the calculation of portfolio weight and return statistics, is illustrated with an empirical application to 30 U.S. industries to study the economic activity before and after the recent financial crisis....
Exercise in Configurable Products using Creo parametric
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Georg Kronborg
2017-01-01
Family tables is a long know method with ProEngineer/Creo parametric to make families of products – like families of bolts and roller bearings. Configurable Products expand these possibilities in two major ways: First it makes configurable assemblies possible where one topologically different com...... been available as: configurable assemblies in earlier versions of Creo) An example of a practical application of configurable products is shown below where an outdoor Play/Exercise system is transferred from AutoCAD 2D to a 3D configurable product in Creo 3.0....
Quantum phase from s-parametrized quasidistributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perinova, V; Luks, A
2005-01-01
It is familiar that a well behaved operator of the harmonic oscillator phase does not exist. Therefore, Turski's phase operator and the operator of Garrison and Wong may be at most defined in an interesting fashion and yield useful quantum expectation values. In this paper we touch on a recent incomplete definition of a phase operator which has also failed in the respect that it can be completed only to a definition of an 'incomplete' phase operator. We discuss, however, a possibility of completion of the definition and a relationship to the phase operator from an s-parametrized quasidistribution
White-light parametric instabilities in plasmas.
Santos, J E; Silva, L O; Bingham, R
2007-06-08
Parametric instabilities driven by partially coherent radiation in plasmas are described by a generalized statistical Wigner-Moyal set of equations, formally equivalent to the full wave equation, coupled to the plasma fluid equations. A generalized dispersion relation for stimulated Raman scattering driven by a partially coherent pump field is derived, revealing a growth rate dependence, with the coherence width sigma of the radiation field, scaling with 1/sigma for backscattering (three-wave process), and with 1/sigma1/2 for direct forward scattering (four-wave process). Our results demonstrate the possibility to control the growth rates of these instabilities by properly using broadband pump radiation fields.
Parametric Amplification of Gravitational Fluctuations during Reheating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finelli, F.; Brandenberger, R.; Finelli, F.
1999-01-01
Cosmological perturbations can undergo amplification by parametric resonance during preheating even on scales larger than the Hubble radius, without violating causality. A unified description of gravitational and matter fluctuations is crucial to determine the strength of the instability. To extract specific signatures of the oscillating inflaton field during reheating, it is essential to focus on a variable describing metric fluctuations which is constant in the standard analyses of inflation. For a massive inflaton without self-coupling, we find no additional growth of superhorizon modes during reheating beyond the usual predictions. For a massless self-coupled inflaton, there is a sub-Hubble scale resonance. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society
Ground-Based Telescope Parametric Cost Model
Stahl, H. Philip; Rowell, Ginger Holmes
2004-01-01
A parametric cost model for ground-based telescopes is developed using multi-variable statistical analysis, The model includes both engineering and performance parameters. While diameter continues to be the dominant cost driver, other significant factors include primary mirror radius of curvature and diffraction limited wavelength. The model includes an explicit factor for primary mirror segmentation and/or duplication (i.e.. multi-telescope phased-array systems). Additionally, single variable models based on aperture diameter are derived. This analysis indicates that recent mirror technology advances have indeed reduced the historical telescope cost curve.
Preparing Schrodinger cat states by parametric pumping
Leghtas, Zaki; Touzard, Steven; Pop, Ioan; Vlastakis, Brian; Zalys-Geller, Evan; Albert, Victor V.; Jiang, Liang; Frunzio, Luigi; Schoelkopf, Robert J.; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Devoret, Michel H.
2014-03-01
Maintaining a quantum superposition state of light in a cavity has important applications for quantum error correction. We present an experimental protocol based on parametric pumping and Josephson circuits, which could prepare a Schrodinger cat state in a cavity. This is achieved by engineering a dissipative environment, which exchanges only pairs or quadruples of photons with our cavity mode. The dissipative nature of this preparation would lead to the observation of a dynamical Zeno effect, where the competition between a coherent drive and the dissipation reveals non trivial dynamics. Work supported by: IARPA, ARO, and NSF.
On the parametrization of the planetary boundary layer of the atmosphere
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yordanov, D. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Geophysical Inst., Sofia (Bulgaria); Syrakov, D.; Kolarova, M. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, National Inst. of Meteorology and Hydrology, Sofia (United Kingdom)
1997-10-01
The investigation of the dynamic processes in the planetary boundary layer presents a definite theoretical challenge and plays a growing role for the solution of a number of practical tasks. The improvement of large-scale atmospheric weather forecast depends, to a certain degree, on the proper inclusion of the planetary boundary layer dynamics in the numerical models. The modeling of the transport and the diffusion of air pollutants is connected with estimation of the different processes in the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) and needs also a proper PBL parametrization. For the solution of these practical tasks the following PBL models;(i) a baroclinic PBL model with its barotropic version, and (ii) a convective PBL model were developed. Both models are one dimensional and are based on the similarity theory and the resistance lows extended for the whole PBL. Two different PBL parametrizations under stable and under convective conditions are proposed, on the basis of which the turbulent surface heat and momentum fluxes are estimated using generalized similarity theory. By the proposed parametrizations the internal parameters are calculated from the synoptic scale parameters as geostrophyc wind, potential temperature and humidity given at two levels (ground level and at 850 hPa) and from them - the PBL profiles. The models consists of two layers: a surface layer (SL) with a variable height and a second (Ekman layer) over it with a constant with height turbulent exchange coefficient. (au) 14 refs.
PARAMETRIC INSURANCE COVER FOR NATURAL CATASTROPHE RISKS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Serghei Margulescu
2013-11-01
Full Text Available With economic losses of over USD 370 bn caused by 325 catastrophic events, 2011 ranks as the worst ever year in terms of costs to society due to natural catastrophes and man-made disasters. Inthe same time, 2011 is the second most expensive year in the history for the insurance industry, with insured losses from catastrophic events amounting to USD 116 bn. Both the high level of damages and insured losses, as well as the unprecedented gap between the two values, made insurers and reinsurers worldwide to understand that some risks had so far been underestimated and they have to be better integrated in the catastrophes modelling.On the other hand, governments have to protect themselves against the financial impact of natural catastrophes and new forms of cooperation between the public and private sectors can help countries finance disaster risks. Viewed in a country’s wider risk management context, the purchase of parametric insurance cover, which transfers natural catastrophe risk to the private sector using an index- based trigger, is a necessary shift towards a pre-emptive risk management strategy. This kind of approach can be pursued by central governments or at the level of provincial or municipal governments, and a number of case studies included in the publication “Closing the financial gap” by Swiss Re (2011 illustrates how new forms of parametric insurance can help countries finance disaster risks.
Quantum tomography enhanced through parametric amplification
Knyazev, E.; Spasibko, K. Yu; Chekhova, M. V.; Khalili, F. Ya
2018-01-01
Quantum tomography is the standard method of reconstructing the Wigner function of quantum states of light by means of balanced homodyne detection. The reconstruction quality strongly depends on the photodetectors quantum efficiency and other losses in the measurement setup. In this article we analyze in detail a protocol of enhanced quantum tomography, proposed by Leonhardt and Paul [1] which allows one to reduce the degrading effect of detection losses. It is based on phase-sensitive parametric amplification, with the phase of the amplified quadrature being scanned synchronously with the local oscillator phase. Although with sufficiently strong amplification the protocol enables overcoming any detection inefficiency, it was so far not implemented in the experiment, probably due to the losses in the amplifier. Here we discuss a possible proof-of-principle experiment with a traveling-wave parametric amplifier. We show that with the state-of-the-art optical elements, the protocol enables high fidelity tomographic reconstruction of bright non-classical states of light. We consider two examples: bright squeezed vacuum and squeezed single-photon state, with the latter being a non-Gaussian state and both strongly affected by the losses.
Supramodal parametric working memory processing in humans.
Spitzer, Bernhard; Blankenburg, Felix
2012-03-07
Previous studies of delayed-match-to-sample (DMTS) frequency discrimination in animals and humans have succeeded in delineating the neural signature of frequency processing in somatosensory working memory (WM). During retention of vibrotactile frequencies, stimulus-dependent single-cell and population activity in prefrontal cortex was found to reflect the task-relevant memory content, whereas increases in occipital alpha activity signaled the disengagement of areas not relevant for the tactile task. Here, we recorded EEG from human participants to determine the extent to which these mechanisms can be generalized to frequency retention in the visual and auditory domains. Subjects performed analogous variants of a DMTS frequency discrimination task, with the frequency information presented either visually, auditorily, or by vibrotactile stimulation. Examining oscillatory EEG activity during frequency retention, we found characteristic topographical distributions of alpha power over visual, auditory, and somatosensory cortices, indicating systematic patterns of inhibition and engagement of early sensory areas, depending on stimulus modality. The task-relevant frequency information, in contrast, was found to be represented in right prefrontal cortex, independent of presentation mode. In each of the three modality conditions, parametric modulations of prefrontal upper beta activity (20-30 Hz) emerged, in a very similar manner as recently found in vibrotactile tasks. Together, the findings corroborate a view of parametric WM as supramodal internal scaling of abstract quantity information and suggest strong relevance of previous evidence from vibrotactile work for a more general framework of quantity processing in human working memory.
Parametric uncertainty in optical image modeling
Potzick, James; Marx, Egon; Davidson, Mark
2006-10-01
Optical photomask feature metrology and wafer exposure process simulation both rely on optical image modeling for accurate results. While it is fair to question the accuracies of the available models, model results also depend on several input parameters describing the object and imaging system. Errors in these parameter values can lead to significant errors in the modeled image. These parameters include wavelength, illumination and objective NA's, magnification, focus, etc. for the optical system, and topography, complex index of refraction n and k, etc. for the object. In this paper each input parameter is varied over a range about its nominal value and the corresponding images simulated. Second order parameter interactions are not explored. Using the scenario of the optical measurement of photomask features, these parametric sensitivities are quantified by calculating the apparent change of the measured linewidth for a small change in the relevant parameter. Then, using reasonable values for the estimated uncertainties of these parameters, the parametric linewidth uncertainties can be calculated and combined to give a lower limit to the linewidth measurement uncertainty for those parameter uncertainties.
Parametric Instability, Inverse Cascade, and the 1/f Range of Solar-Wind Turbulence.
Chandran, Benjamin D G
2018-02-01
In this paper, weak turbulence theory is used to investigate the nonlinear evolution of the parametric instability in 3D low- β plasmas at wavelengths much greater than the ion inertial length under the assumption that slow magnetosonic waves are strongly damped. It is shown analytically that the parametric instability leads to an inverse cascade of Alfvén wave quanta, and several exact solutions to the wave kinetic equations are presented. The main results of the paper concern the parametric decay of Alfvén waves that initially satisfy e + ≫ e - , where e + and e - are the frequency ( f ) spectra of Alfvén waves propagating in opposite directions along the magnetic field lines. If e + initially has a peak frequency f 0 (at which fe + is maximized) and an "infrared" scaling f p at smaller f with -1 scaling throughout a range of frequencies that spreads out in both directions from f 0 . At the same time, e - acquires an f -2 scaling within this same frequency range. If the plasma parameters and infrared e + spectrum are chosen to match conditions in the fast solar wind at a heliocentric distance of 0.3 astronomical units (AU), then the nonlinear evolution of the parametric instability leads to an e + spectrum that matches fast-wind measurements from the Helios spacecraft at 0.3 AU, including the observed f -1 scaling at f ≳ 3 × 10 -4 Hz. The results of this paper suggest that the f -1 spectrum seen by Helios in the fast solar wind at f ≳ 3 × 10 -4 Hz is produced in situ by parametric decay and that the f -1 range of e + extends over an increasingly narrow range of frequencies as r decreases below 0.3 AU. This prediction will be tested by measurements from the Parker Solar Probe .
GHz-rate optical parametric amplifier in hydrogenated amorphous silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Ke-Yao; Foster, Amy C
2015-01-01
We demonstrate optical parametric amplification operating at GHz-rates at telecommunications wavelengths using a hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguide through the nonlinear optical process of four-wave mixing. We investigate how the parametric amplification scales with repetition rate. The ability to achieve amplification at GHz-repetition rates shows hydrogenated amorphous silicon’s potential for telecommunication applications and a GHz-rate optical parametric oscillator. (paper)
Absolute decay parametric instability of high-temperature plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zozulya, A.A.; Silin, V.P.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.
1986-01-01
A new absolute decay parametric instability having wide spatial localization region is shown to be possible near critical plasma density. Its excitation is conditioned by distributed feedback of counter-running Langmuir waves occurring during parametric decay of incident and reflected pumping wave components. In a hot plasma with the temperature of the order of kiloelectronvolt its threshold is lower than that of a known convective decay parametric instability. Minimum absolute instability threshold is shown to be realized under conditions of spatial parametric resonance of higher orders
The numerical model for parametric studies of forest haul roads pavements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lenka Ševelová
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Forest roads pavement structures are considered to be low volume roads. These roads serve as a mean of transport of wood and people. Besides they are currently often used for recreational purpose. The construction of the pavements should be suitable for forest transportation irrespective of their low bearing capacity. These pavement structures are very specific for special unbound materials that are used in their construction. To meet the requirements of the pavement designs and simulation analysis the FEM model in the software ANSYS was created.This paper compares two material models used for the description of the behaviour of unbound materials. The first is linear elastic according to Hook theory (H model and the second one is nonlinear plastic model Drucker-Prager (D–P model. ANSYS software has been used to create flexible model based on the parametrers of variable principle. The flexible model is parametric to realize repeated calculations useful for optimization analysis.
Nonlinear Dynamical Analysis for the Cable Excited with Parametric and Forced Excitation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Z. Qian
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Considering the deck vibration effect on the cable in cable-stayed bridge, using nonlinear structure dynamics theory, the nonlinear dynamical equation for the stayed cable excited with deck vibration is proposed. Research shows that the vertical vibration of the deck has a combined parametric and forced excitation effect on the cable when the angle of the cable is taken into consideration. Using multiscale method, the 1/2 principle parametric resonance is studied and the bifurcation equation is obtained. Despite the parameters analysis, the bifurcation characters of the dynamical system are studied. At last, by means of numerical method and software MATHMATIC, the effect rules of system parameters to the dynamical behavior of the system are studied, and some useful conclusions are obtained.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ying Li
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The nonlinear parametric vibration of an axially moving string made by rubber-like materials is studied in the paper. The fractional viscoelastic model is used to describe the damping of the string. Then, a new nonlinear fractional mathematical model governing transverse motion of the string is derived based on Newton’s second law, the Euler beam theory, and the Lagrangian strain. Taking into consideration the fractional calculus law of Riemann-Liouville form, the principal parametric resonance is analytically investigated via applying the direct multiscale method. Numerical results are presented to show the influences of the fractional order, the stiffness constant, the viscosity coefficient, and the axial-speed fluctuation amplitude on steady-state responses. It is noticeable that the amplitudes and existing intervals of steady-state responses predicted by Kirchhoff’s fractional material model are much larger than those predicted by Mote’s fractional material model.
Zhang, Chuan; Wang, Xingyuan; Luo, Chao; Li, Junqiu; Wang, Chunpeng
2018-03-01
In this paper, we focus on the robust outer synchronization problem between two nonlinear complex networks with parametric disturbances and mixed time-varying delays. Firstly, a general complex network model is proposed. Besides the nonlinear couplings, the network model in this paper can possess parametric disturbances, internal time-varying delay, discrete time-varying delay and distributed time-varying delay. Then, according to the robust control strategy, linear matrix inequality and Lyapunov stability theory, several outer synchronization protocols are strictly derived. Simple linear matrix controllers are designed to driver the response network synchronize to the drive network. Additionally, our results can be applied on the complex networks without parametric disturbances. Finally, by utilizing the delayed Lorenz chaotic system as the dynamics of all nodes, simulation examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results.
Jing, Xingjian
2015-01-01
This book is a systematic summary of some new advances in the area of nonlinear analysis and design in the frequency domain, focusing on the application oriented theory and methods based on the GFRF concept, which is mainly done by the author in the past 8 years. The main results are formulated uniformly with a parametric characteristic approach, which provides a convenient and novel insight into nonlinear influence on system output response in terms of characteristic parameters and thus facilitate nonlinear analysis and design in the frequency domain. The book starts with a brief introduction to the background of nonlinear analysis in the frequency domain, followed by recursive algorithms for computation of GFRFs for different parametric models, and nonlinear output frequency properties. Thereafter the parametric characteristic analysis method is introduced, which leads to the new understanding and formulation of the GFRFs, and nonlinear characteristic output spectrum (nCOS) and the nCOS based analysis a...
A semi-parametric within-subject mixture approach to the analyses of responses and response times.
Molenaar, Dylan; Bolsinova, Maria; Vermunt, Jeroen K
2018-05-01
In item response theory, modelling the item response times in addition to the item responses may improve the detection of possible between- and within-subject differences in the process that resulted in the responses. For instance, if respondents rely on rapid guessing on some items but not on all, the joint distribution of the responses and response times will be a multivariate within-subject mixture distribution. Suitable parametric methods to detect these within-subject differences have been proposed. In these approaches, a distribution needs to be assumed for the within-class response times. In this paper, it is demonstrated that these parametric within-subject approaches may produce false positives and biased parameter estimates if the assumption concerning the response time distribution is violated. A semi-parametric approach is proposed which resorts to categorized response times. This approach is shown to hardly produce false positives and parameter bias. In addition, the semi-parametric approach results in approximately the same power as the parametric approach. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Parametric time-frequency domain spatial audio
Delikaris-Manias, Symeon; Politis, Archontis
2018-01-01
This book provides readers with the principles and best practices in spatial audio signal processing. It describes how sound fields and their perceptual attributes are captured and analyzed within the time-frequency domain, how essential representation parameters are coded, and how such signals are efficiently reproduced for practical applications. The book is split into four parts starting with an overview of the fundamentals. It then goes on to explain the reproduction of spatial sound before offering an examination of signal-dependent spatial filtering. The book finishes with coverage of both current and future applications and the direction that spatial audio research is heading in. Parametric Time-frequency Domain Spatial Audio focuses on applications in entertainment audio, including music, home cinema, and gaming--covering the capturing and reproduction of spatial sound as well as its generation, transduction, representation, transmission, and perception. This book will teach readers the tools needed...
Parametric HMMs for Movement Recognition and Synthesis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Herzog, Dennis; Krüger, Volker
2009-01-01
, we develop an exemplar-based parametric hidden Markov model (PHMM) that allows to represent movements of a particular type. Since we use model interpolation to reduce the necessary amount of training data, we had to develop a method to setup local models in a synchronized way. In our experiments we......A common problem in human movement recognition is the recognition of movements of a particular type (semantic). E.g., grasping movements have a particular semantic (grasping) but the actual movements usually have very different appearances due to, e.g., different grasping directions. In this paper...... to recover the movement type, and, e.g., the object position a human is pointing at. Our experiments show the flexibility of the PHMMs in terms of the amount of training data and its robustness in terms of noisy observation data. In addition, we compare our PHMM to an other kind of PHMM, which has been...
Parametric resonance and cosmological gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sa, Paulo M.; Henriques, Alfredo B.
2008-01-01
We investigate the production of gravitational waves due to quantum fluctuations of the vacuum during the transition from the inflationary to the radiation-dominated eras of the universe, assuming this transition to be dominated by the phenomenon of parametric resonance. The energy spectrum of the gravitational waves is calculated using the method of continuous Bogoliubov coefficients, which avoids the problem of overproduction of gravitons at large frequencies. We found, on the sole basis of the mechanism of quantum fluctuations, that the resonance field leaves no explicit and distinctive imprint on the gravitational-wave energy spectrum, apart from an overall upward or downward translation. Therefore, the main features in the spectrum are due to the inflaton field, which leaves a characteristic imprint at frequencies of the order of MHz/GHz.
Parametric Design Strategies for Collaborative Urban Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steinø, Nicolai; Yıldırım, Miray Baş; Özkar, Mine
2013-01-01
to the collaboration between professionals, participation by different non-professional stakeholders, such as residents, local authorities, non-governmental organizations and investors, is another important component of collaborative urban design processes. The involvement of community in decision making process...... implications of planning and design decisions, unless they are presented with relatively detailed architectural models, whether physical or virtual. This however, typically presents steep demands in terms of time and resources. As a foundation for our work with parametric urban design lies the hypothesis...... to solve different scripting challenges. The paper is organized into an introduction, three main sections and closing section with conclusions and perspectives. The first section of the paper gives a theoretical discussion of the notion of collaborative design and the challenges of collaborative urban...
Parametric systems analysis for ICF hybrid reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berwald, D.H.; Maniscalco, J.A.; Chapin, D.L.
1981-01-01
Parametric design and systems analysis for inertial confinement fusion-fission hybrids are presented. These results were generated as part of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) sponsored Feasibility Assessment of Fusion-Fission Hybrids, using an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) hybrid power plant design code developed in conjunction with the feasibility assessment. The SYMECON systems analysis code, developed by Westinghouse, was used to generate economic results for symbiotic electricity generation systems consisting of the hybrid and its client Light Water Reactors (LWRs). These results explore the entire fusion parameter space for uranium fast fission blanket hybrids, thorium fast fission blanket hybrids, and thorium suppressed fission blanket types are discussed, and system sensitivities to design uncertainties are explored
Simplifying the circuit of Josephson parametric converters
Abdo, Baleegh; Brink, Markus; Chavez-Garcia, Jose; Keefe, George
Josephson parametric converters (JPCs) are quantum-limited three-wave mixing devices that can play various important roles in quantum information processing in the microwave domain, including amplification of quantum signals, transduction of quantum information, remote entanglement of qubits, nonreciprocal amplification, and circulation of signals. However, the input-output and biasing circuit of a state-of-the-art JPC consists of bulky components, i.e. two commercial off-chip broadband 180-degree hybrids, four phase-matched short coax cables, and one superconducting magnetic coil. Such bulky hardware significantly hinders the integration of JPCs in scalable quantum computing architectures. In my talk, I will present ideas on how to simplify the JPC circuit and show preliminary experimental results
Spherical Parametrization of the Higgs Boson Candidate
Gainer, James S; Matchev, Konstantin T; Mrenna, Stephen; Park, Myeonghun
2013-01-01
The latest results from the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) unequivocally confirm the existence of a resonance, $X$, with mass near 125 GeV which could be the Higgs boson of the Standard Model. Measuring the properties (quantum numbers and couplings) of this resonance is of paramount importance. Initial analyses by the LHC collaborations disfavor specific alternative benchmark hypotheses, e.g. pure pseudoscalars or gravitons. However, this is just the first step in a long-term program of detailed measurements. We consider the most general set of operators in the decay channels $X \\to ZZ$, $WW$, $Z\\gamma$, $\\gamma\\gamma$ and derive the constraint implied by the measured rate. This allows us to provide a useful parametrization of the orthogonal independent Higgs coupling degrees of freedom as coordinates on a suitably defined sphere.
Stellar parametrization from Gaia RVS spectra
Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Allende Prieto, C.; Fustes, D.; Manteiga, M.; Arcay, B.; Bijaoui, A.; Dafonte, C.; Ordenovic, C.; Ordoñez Blanco, D.
2016-01-01
Context. Among the myriad of data collected by the ESA Gaia satellite, about 150 million spectra will be delivered by the Radial Velocity Spectrometer (RVS) for stars as faint as GRVS~ 16. A specific stellar parametrization will be performed on most of these RVS spectra, I.e. those with enough high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), which should correspond to single stars that have a magnitude in the RVS band brighter than ~14.5. Some individual chemical abundances will also be estimated for the brightest targets. Aims: We describe the different parametrization codes that have been specifically developed or adapted for RVS spectra within the GSP-Spec working group of the analysis consortium. The tested codes are based on optimisation (FERRE and GAUGUIN), projection (MATISSE), or pattern-recognition methods (Artificial Neural Networks). We present and discuss each of their expected performances in the recovered stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, overall metallicity) for B- to K-type stars. The performances for determining of [α/Fe] ratios are also presented for cool stars. Methods: Each code has been homogeneously tested with a large grid of RVS simulated synthetic spectra of BAFGK-spectral types (dwarfs and giants), with metallicities varying from 10-2.5 to 10+ 0.5 the solar metallicity, and taking variations of ±0.4 dex in the composition of the α-elements into consideration. The tests were performed for S/N ranging from ten to 350. Results: For all the stellar types we considered, stars brighter than GRVS~ 12.5 are very efficiently parametrized by the GSP-Spec pipeline, including reliable estimations of [α/Fe]. Typical internal errors for FGK metal-rich and metal-intermediate stars are around 40 K in Teff, 0.10 dex in log(g), 0.04 dex in [M/H], and 0.03 dex in [α/Fe] at GRVS = 10.3. They degrade to 155 K in Teff, 0.15 dex in log(g), 0.10 dex in [M/H], and 0.1 dex in [α/Fe] at GRVS~ 12. Similar accuracies in Teff and [M/H] are
Parametric inference for biological sequence analysis.
Pachter, Lior; Sturmfels, Bernd
2004-11-16
One of the major successes in computational biology has been the unification, by using the graphical model formalism, of a multitude of algorithms for annotating and comparing biological sequences. Graphical models that have been applied to these problems include hidden Markov models for annotation, tree models for phylogenetics, and pair hidden Markov models for alignment. A single algorithm, the sum-product algorithm, solves many of the inference problems that are associated with different statistical models. This article introduces the polytope propagation algorithm for computing the Newton polytope of an observation from a graphical model. This algorithm is a geometric version of the sum-product algorithm and is used to analyze the parametric behavior of maximum a posteriori inference calculations for graphical models.
Toward a compact fibered squeezing parametric source.
Brieussel, Alexandre; Ott, Konstantin; Joos, Maxime; Treps, Nicolas; Fabre, Claude
2018-03-15
In this work, we investigate three different compact fibered systems generating vacuum squeezing that involve optical cavities limited by the end surface of a fiber and by a curved mirror and containing a thin parametric crystal. These systems have the advantage to couple squeezed states directly to a fiber, allowing the user to benefit from the flexibility of fibers in the use of squeezing. Three types of fibers are investigated: standard single-mode fibers, photonic-crystal large-mode-area single-mode fibers, and short multimode fibers taped to a single-mode fiber. The observed squeezing is modest (-0.56 dB, -0.9 dB, -1 dB), but these experiments open the way for miniaturized squeezing devices that could be a very interesting advantage in scaling up quantum systems for quantum processing, opening new perspectives in the domain of integrated quantum optics.
Normal dispersion femtosecond fiber optical parametric oscillator.
Nguyen, T N; Kieu, K; Maslov, A V; Miyawaki, M; Peyghambarian, N
2013-09-15
We propose and demonstrate a synchronously pumped fiber optical parametric oscillator (FOPO) operating in the normal dispersion regime. The FOPO generates chirped pulses at the output, allowing significant pulse energy scaling potential without pulse breaking. The output average power of the FOPO at 1600 nm was ∼60 mW (corresponding to 1.45 nJ pulse energy and ∼55% slope power conversion efficiency). The output pulses directly from the FOPO were highly chirped (∼3 ps duration), and they could be compressed outside of the cavity to 180 fs by using a standard optical fiber compressor. Detailed numerical simulation was also performed to understand the pulse evolution dynamics around the laser cavity. We believe that the proposed design concept is useful for scaling up the pulse energy in the FOPO using different pumping wavelengths.
Parametric uncertainty modeling for robust control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, K.H.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay
1999-01-01
The dynamic behaviour of a non-linear process can often be approximated with a time-varying linear model. In the presented methodology the dynamics is modeled non-conservatively as parametric uncertainty in linear lime invariant models. The obtained uncertainty description makes it possible...... to perform robustness analysis on a control system using the structured singular value. The idea behind the proposed method is to fit a rational function to the parameter variation. The parameter variation can then be expressed as a linear fractional transformation (LFT), It is discussed how the proposed...... point changes. It is shown that a diagonal PI control structure provides robust performance towards variations in feed flow rate or feed concentrations. However including both liquid and vapor flow delays robust performance specifications cannot be satisfied with this simple diagonal control structure...
Parametric resonance and cosmological gravitational waves
Sá, Paulo M.; Henriques, Alfredo B.
2008-03-01
We investigate the production of gravitational waves due to quantum fluctuations of the vacuum during the transition from the inflationary to the radiation-dominated eras of the universe, assuming this transition to be dominated by the phenomenon of parametric resonance. The energy spectrum of the gravitational waves is calculated using the method of continuous Bogoliubov coefficients, which avoids the problem of overproduction of gravitons at large frequencies. We found, on the sole basis of the mechanism of quantum fluctuations, that the resonance field leaves no explicit and distinctive imprint on the gravitational-wave energy spectrum, apart from an overall upward or downward translation. Therefore, the main features in the spectrum are due to the inflaton field, which leaves a characteristic imprint at frequencies of the order of MHz/GHz.
Parametric cost estimation for space science missions
Lillie, Charles F.; Thompson, Bruce E.
2008-07-01
Cost estimation for space science missions is critically important in budgeting for successful missions. The process requires consideration of a number of parameters, where many of the values are only known to a limited accuracy. The results of cost estimation are not perfect, but must be calculated and compared with the estimates that the government uses for budgeting purposes. Uncertainties in the input parameters result from evolving requirements for missions that are typically the "first of a kind" with "state-of-the-art" instruments and new spacecraft and payload technologies that make it difficult to base estimates on the cost histories of previous missions. Even the cost of heritage avionics is uncertain due to parts obsolescence and the resulting redesign work. Through experience and use of industry best practices developed in participation with the Aerospace Industries Association (AIA), Northrop Grumman has developed a parametric modeling approach that can provide a reasonably accurate cost range and most probable cost for future space missions. During the initial mission phases, the approach uses mass- and powerbased cost estimating relationships (CER)'s developed with historical data from previous missions. In later mission phases, when the mission requirements are better defined, these estimates are updated with vendor's bids and "bottoms- up", "grass-roots" material and labor cost estimates based on detailed schedules and assigned tasks. In this paper we describe how we develop our CER's for parametric cost estimation and how they can be applied to estimate the costs for future space science missions like those presented to the Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey Study Committees.
Parametric representation of centrifugal pump homologous curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veloso, Marcelo A.; Mattos, Joao R.L. de
2015-01-01
Essential for any mathematical model designed to simulate flow transient events caused by pump operations is the pump performance data. The performance of a centrifugal pump is characterized by four basic quantities: the rotational speed, the volumetric flow rate, the dynamic head, and the hydraulic torque. The curves showing the relationships between these four variables are called the pump characteristic curves. The characteristic curves are empirically developed by the pump manufacturer and uniquely describe head and torque as functions of volumetric flow rate and rotation speed. Because of comprising a large amount of points, this configuration is not suitable for computational purposes. However, it can be converted to a simpler form by the development of the homologous curves, in which dynamic head and hydraulic torque ratios are expressed as functions of volumetric flow and rotation speed ratios. The numerical use of the complete set of homologous curves requires specification of sixteen partial curves, being eight for the dynamic head and eight for the hydraulic torque. As a consequence, the handling of homologous curves is still somewhat complicated. In solving flow transient problems that require the pump characteristic data for all the operation zones, the parametric form appears as the simplest way to deal with the homologous curves. In this approach, the complete characteristics of a pump can be described by only two closed curves, one for the dynamic head and other for the hydraulic torque, both in function of a single angular coordinate defined adequately in terms of the quotient between volumetric flow ratio and rotation speed ratio. The usefulness and advantages of this alternative method are demonstrated through a practical example in which the homologous curves for a pump of the type used in the main coolant loops of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) are transformed to the parametric form. (author)
Parametric amplifications in the nonlinear transmission line
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kawata, T; Sakai, J; Inoue, H [Toyama Univ., Takaoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1980-03-01
The parametric amplification in a transmission line with nonlinear capacitors is analysed theoretically using the equations of three wave interactions. Since this line has two modes, high frequency and low frequency modes, there may occur some mode coupling phenomena through the resonant interactions. We consider three waves with wave number k sub(j) and frequency ..omega..sub(j) in resonance with each other, that is, ..omega../sub 1/ + ..omega../sub 2/ = ..omega../sub 3/ and k/sub 1/ + k/sub 2/ = k/sub 3/, where 0 <= ..omega../sub 1/ <= ..omega../sub 2/ <= ..omega../sub 3/ and k/sub 3/ >= 0. Such conditions are realized in our network and there exist two states: ''forward state'' (each group velocity is positive) and ''backward state'' (one of the group velocities is negative). The coupled equations of three waves has two constant pumps: high frequency (HF) pump and low frequency (LF) pump. Using linear approximations, we examine the possible types of parametric amplification and obtain the power gains depending on the frequency deviation. For only the case of HF pump we get the gain between signals with seme frequency and also get the gain from the low frequency signal to the high frequency signal (''up-conversion'') for the LF pump. The nonlinear analysis gives the exact relation between input and output signals. For the forward state the gain is absolutely suppressed by the ratio of pumping power to input power, while the gain of backward state has no finite maximum and there may appear an ''oscillating state'' if the pumping power is comparatively small.
Evaluation of Two Energy Balance Closure Parametrizations
Eder, Fabian; De Roo, Frederik; Kohnert, Katrin; Desjardins, Raymond L.; Schmid, Hans Peter; Mauder, Matthias
2014-05-01
A general lack of energy balance closure indicates that tower-based eddy-covariance (EC) measurements underestimate turbulent heat fluxes, which calls for robust correction schemes. Two parametrization approaches that can be found in the literature were tested using data from the Canadian Twin Otter research aircraft and from tower-based measurements of the German Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) programme. Our analysis shows that the approach of Huang et al. (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 127:273-292, 2008), based on large-eddy simulation, is not applicable to typical near-surface flux measurements because it was developed for heights above the surface layer and over homogeneous terrain. The biggest shortcoming of this parametrization is that the grid resolution of the model was too coarse so that the surface layer, where EC measurements are usually made, is not properly resolved. The empirical approach of Panin and Bernhofer (Izvestiya Atmos Oceanic Phys 44:701-716, 2008) considers landscape-level roughness heterogeneities that induce secondary circulations and at least gives a qualitative estimate of the energy balance closure. However, it does not consider any feature of landscape-scale heterogeneity other than surface roughness, such as surface temperature, surface moisture or topography. The failures of both approaches might indicate that the influence of mesoscale structures is not a sufficient explanation for the energy balance closure problem. However, our analysis of different wind-direction sectors shows that the upwind landscape-scale heterogeneity indeed influences the energy balance closure determined from tower flux data. We also analyzed the aircraft measurements with respect to the partitioning of the "missing energy" between sensible and latent heat fluxes and we could confirm the assumption of scalar similarity only for Bowen ratios 1.
Thresholds of parametric instabilities near the lower hybrid frequency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berger, R.L.; Perkins, F.W.
1975-06-01
Resonant decay instabilities of a pump wave with frequency ω 0 near the lower-hybrid frequency ω/sub LH/ are analyzed with respect to the wavenumber k of the decay waves and the ratio ω 0 /ω/sub LH/ to determine the decay process with the minimum threshold. It was found that the lowest thresholds are for decay into an electron plasma (lower hybrid) wave plus either a backward ion-cyclotron wave, an ion Bernstein wave, or a low frequency sound wave. For ω 0 less than (2ω/sub LH/)/sup 1 / 2 /, it was found that these decay processes can occur and have faster growth than ion quasimodes provided the drift velocity (cE 0 /B 0 ) is much less than the sound speed. In many cases of interest, electromagnetic corrections to the lower-hybrid wave rule out decay into all but short wavelength (k rho/sub i/ greater than 1) waves. The experimental results are consistent with the linear theory of parametric instabilities in a homogeneous plasma. (U.S.)
Parametric instabilities in resonantly-driven Bose–Einstein condensates
Lellouch, S.; Goldman, N.
2018-04-01
Shaking optical lattices in a resonant manner offers an efficient and versatile method to devise artificial gauge fields and topological band structures for ultracold atomic gases. This was recently demonstrated through the experimental realization of the Harper–Hofstadter model, which combined optical superlattices and resonant time-modulations. Adding inter-particle interactions to these engineered band systems is expected to lead to strongly-correlated states with topological features, such as fractional Chern insulators. However, the interplay between interactions and external time-periodic drives typically triggers violent instabilities and uncontrollable heating, hence potentially ruling out the possibility of accessing such intriguing states of matter in experiments. In this work, we study the early-stage parametric instabilities that occur in systems of resonantly-driven Bose–Einstein condensates in optical lattices. We apply and extend an approach based on Bogoliubov theory (Lellouch et al 2017 Phys. Rev. X 7 021015) to a variety of resonantly-driven band models, from a simple shaken Wannier–Stark ladder to the more intriguing driven-induced Harper–Hofstadter model. In particular, we provide ab initio numerical and analytical predictions for the stability properties of these topical models. This work sheds light on general features that could guide current experiments to stable regimes of operation.
Monte Carlo parametric importance sampling with particle tracks scaling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ragheb, M.M.H.
1981-01-01
A method for Monte Carlo importance sampling with parametric dependence is proposed. It depends upon obtaining over a single stage the overall functional dependence of the variance on the importance function parameter over a broad range of its values. Results corresponding to minimum variance are adopted and others rejected. The proposed method is applied to the finite slab penetration problem. When the exponential transformation is used, our method involves scaling of the generated particle tracks, and is a new application of Morton's method of similar trajectories. The method constitutes a generalization of Spanier's multistage importance sampling method, obtained by proper weighting over a single stage the curves he obtains over several stages, and preserves the statistical correlations between histories. It represents an extension of a theory by Frolov and Chentsov on Monte Carlo calculations of smooth curves to surfaces and to importance sampling calculations. By the proposed method, it seems possible to systematically arrive at minimum variance results and to avoid the infinite variances and effective biases sometimes observed in this type of calculation. (orig.) [de
Phase transition in the parametric natural visibility graph.
Snarskii, A A; Bezsudnov, I V
2016-10-01
We investigate time series by mapping them to the complex networks using a parametric natural visibility graph (PNVG) algorithm that generates graphs depending on arbitrary continuous parameter-the angle of view. We study the behavior of the relative number of clusters in PNVG near the critical value of the angle of view. Artificial and experimental time series of different nature are used for numerical PNVG investigations to find critical exponents above and below the critical point as well as the exponent in the finite size scaling regime. Altogether, they allow us to find the critical exponent of the correlation length for PNVG. The set of calculated critical exponents satisfies the basic Widom relation. The PNVG is found to demonstrate scaling behavior. Our results reveal the similarity between the behavior of the relative number of clusters in PNVG and the order parameter in the second-order phase transitions theory. We show that the PNVG is another example of a system (in addition to magnetic, percolation, superconductivity, etc.) with observed second-order phase transition.
Parametric plasma surface instabilities with s-polarized radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rappaport, H.L.
1994-01-01
The authors argue that parametric plasma surface mode excitation is a viable broadband instability mechanism in the microwave regime since the wavelength of incident radiation ca be large compared to plasma ion density gradient scale lengths. They restrict their attention to plasmas which are uniform in the planes perpendicular to the density gradients. The boundary is characterized by three parameters: (1) the ion density gradient scale length, (2) the electron Debye length, and (3) the excursion of boundary electrons as they move in response to monochromatic radiation. For s-polarized radiation, equilibrium fluid motion is parallel to the boundary when the ratio of the pump quiver velocity to the speed of light is small. In this case, an abruptly bounded plasma may be modeled with no transition width. If in this case the cold fluid approximation is used as well, the specular and diffuse boundary approximations become the same. A new formation is presented in which pump induced perturbations are expressed as an explicit superposition of linear and non-linear plasma half-space modes. A four-wave interaction is found to produce instability as well as surface wave frequency-shift. This mode is compared against other modes known to exist in this geometry. The theory of surface wave linear mode conversion is reviewed with special attention paid to power flow and energy conservation in this system
Parametrized post-Friedmann framework for modified gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu, Wayne; Sawicki, Ignacy
2007-01-01
We develop a parametrized post-Friedmann (PPF) framework which describes three regimes of modified gravity models that accelerate the expansion without dark energy. On large scales, the evolution of scalar metric and density perturbations must be compatible with the expansion history defined by distance measures. On intermediate scales in the linear regime, they form a scalar-tensor theory with a modified Poisson equation. On small scales in dark matter halos such as our own galaxy, modifications must be suppressed in order to satisfy stringent local tests of general relativity. We describe these regimes with three free functions and two parameters: the relationship between the two metric fluctuations, the large and intermediate scale relationships to density fluctuations, and the two scales of the transitions between the regimes. We also clarify the formal equivalence of modified gravity and generalized dark energy. The PPF description of linear fluctuation in f(R) modified action and the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld models show excellent agreement with explicit calculations. Lacking cosmological simulations of these models, our nonlinear halo-model description remains an ansatz but one that enables well-motivated consistency tests of general relativity. The required suppression of modifications within dark matter halos suggests that the linear and weakly nonlinear regimes are better suited for making a complementary test of general relativity than the deeply nonlinear regime
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petrova Irina Yur’evna
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Subject: automation of calculation of dynamic characteristics of the device being designed in the system of conceptual design of sensor equipment, structurally-parametric models of dynamic processes and algorithms for the automated calculation of the qualitative characteristics of elements of the information-measuring and control systems (IMCS. The stage of conceptual design most fully determines the operational characteristics of technical systems. However, none of the information support systems of this stage provides an opportunity to evaluate the performance characteristics of the element being designed taking into account its dynamic characteristics. Research objectives: increasing the effectiveness of the evaluation of dynamic characteristics of sensitive elements of the information-measuring and control systems of a smart house. Materials and methods: when solving the problems posed, the mathematical apparatus of system modeling was used (in particular, the energy-information method of modeling processes of various physical nature that occur in the sensor equipment; the main provisions of the theory of automatic control, the theory of constructing computer-aided design systems, the theory of operational calculus; basics of conceptual design of elements of the information-measuring and control systems. Results: we compared the known automated systems for conceptual design of sensors, highlighted their advantages and disadvantages and we showed that none of these systems allows us to investigate dynamic characteristics of the element being designed in a simple and understandable for engineer form. The authors proposed using energy-information method of modeling for the synthesis of operation principles of sensors and analysis of their dynamic characteristics. We considered elementary dynamic chains and issues of synthesis of parametrical structural schemes that reflect the dynamics of the process with the use of mathematical apparatus of
Fast, Sequence Adaptive Parcellation of Brain MR Using Parametric Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Puonti, Oula; Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Van Leemput, Koen
2013-01-01
In this paper we propose a method for whole brain parcellation using the type of generative parametric models typically used in tissue classification. Compared to the non-parametric, multi-atlas segmentation techniques that have become popular in recent years, our method obtains state-of-the-art ...
Parametric Statistics of Individual Energy Levels in Random Hamiltonians
Smolyarenko, I. E.; Simons, B. D.
2002-01-01
We establish a general framework to explore parametric statistics of individual energy levels in disordered and chaotic quantum systems of unitary symmetry. The method is applied to the calculation of the universal intra-level parametric velocity correlation function and the distribution of level shifts under the influence of an arbitrary external perturbation.
QCD parametrizations of the parton distribution of deep inelastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kotikov, A.V.; Maksimov, S.J.; Parobij, I.S.
1993-01-01
A realistic parametrization of the gluon and quarks distributions is suggested. It is shown that the solutions of the Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Paris equations can be presented by these parametrizations and these equations unambiguously lead to the constraints on the Q 2 -evolution of the parameters. (author). 10 refs
Parametric excitation of drift waves in a sheared slab geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vranjes, J.; Weiland, J.
1992-01-01
The threshold for parametric excitation of drift waves in a sheared slab geometry is calculated for a pump wave that is a standing wave along the magnetic field, using the Hasegawa-Mima nonlinearity. The shear damping is counteracted by the parametric coupling and the eigenvalue problem is solved analytically using Taylor's strong coupling approximation. (au)
Additivity for parametrized topological Euler characteristic and Reidemeister torsion
Badzioch, Bernard; Dorabiala, Wojciech
2005-01-01
Dwyer, Weiss, and Williams have recently defined the notions of parametrized topological Euler characteristic and parametrized topological Reidemeister torsion which are invariants of bundles of compact topological manifolds. We show that these invariants satisfy additivity formulas paralleling the additive properties of the classical Euler characteristic and Reidemeister torsion of finite CW-complexes.
Parametric Cost and Schedule Modeling for Early Technology Development
2018-04-02
Research NoteNational Security Rep rt PARAMETRIC MODELING FOR EARLY TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT COST AND SCHEDULE Chuck...Alexander NSR_11x17_Cover_CostModeling_v8.indd 1 11/20/17 3:15 PM PARAMETRIC COST AND SCHEDULE MODELING FOR EARLY TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT Chuck...COST AND SCHEDULE MODELING FOR EARLY TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT iii Contents Figures
Parametric Room Acoustic workflows with real-time acoustic simulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parigi, Dario
2017-01-01
The paper investigates and assesses the opportunities that real-time acoustic simulation offer to engage in parametric acoustics workflow and to influence architectural designs from early design stages......The paper investigates and assesses the opportunities that real-time acoustic simulation offer to engage in parametric acoustics workflow and to influence architectural designs from early design stages...
Parametric Equations: Push 'Em Back, Push 'Em Back, Way Back!
Cieply, Joseph F.
1993-01-01
Stresses using the features of graphing calculators to teach parametric equations much earlier in the curriculum than is presently done. Examples using parametric equations to teach slopes and lines in beginning algebra, inverse functions in advanced algebra, the wrapping function, and simulations of physical phenomena are presented. (MAZ)
A PARAMETRIC STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF SHORT-TERM ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
(b). (•). Figure I a) The building embedded in a layered formation; b) The building model with base springs. PARAMETRIC STUDY. 'fhe parametric study carried out in this work aims at investigating the effect of the soil flexibility on the internal force distribution of selected structural systems of buildings that are founded on soil.
PISC II: Parametric studies. Monitoring of PISC-II parametric studies in ultrasonic NDT for PWR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toft, M.W.
1989-09-01
The CEGB NDT Applications Centre is partipating in the EEC-funded international Programme for the Inspection of Steel Components (PISC) on account of its relevance to the inspection of Sizewell B and future PWRs. This report describes an inspection monitoring exercise undertaken by NDTAC under partial funding from JRC Ispra, at the initiation of the PISC-III Ultrasonic Modelling Group. Experimental studies have been carried out under PISC-II to investigate ultrasonic defect response as a function of various parameters which characterise the inspection situation. Some of these parametric studies are potentially useful for the validation of theoretical models of ultrasonic inspection and are consequently relevant to the work of the PISC-III Modelling Group. The aim of the present exercise was to ensure that data obtained by the various contract organizations participating in the PISC-II Parametric Studies was of high quality, was a complete record of the inspection and would yield valid comparisons with the predictions of theoretical models. The exercise entailed visits by a nominated CEGB observer to 4 European NDT Laboratories at which the parametric studies were in progress; CISE (Milan); UKAEA (Harwell); UKAEA (Risley) and Vincotte (Brussels). This report presents the findings of those visits
Autonomous Supervision and Control of Parametric Roll Resonance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Galeazzi, Roberto
therefore two objectives. The first is to develop methods for detection of the inception of parametric roll resonance. The second is to develop control strategies to stabilize the motion after parametric roll has started. Stabilisation of parametric roll resonance points to two possible courses of action...... strategies are then combined to stabilise parametric roll resonance within few roll cycles. Limitations on the maximum stabilisable roll angle are analysed and linked to the ii slew rate saturation and hydrodynamic stall characteristics of the fin stabilisers. The study on maximum stabilisable roll angle...... leads to the requirements for early detection. Two novel detectors are proposed, which work within a shorttime prediction horizon, and issue early warnings of parametric roll inception within few roll cycles from its onset. The main idea behind these detection schemes is that of exploiting the link...
Parametric Instability in Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ju, L; Grass, S; Zhao, C; Degallaix, J; Blair, D G
2006-01-01
High frequency parametric instabilities in optical cavities are radiation pressure induced interactions between test mass mechanical modes and cavity optical modes. The parametric gain depends on the cavity power and the quality factor of the test mass internal modes (usually in ultrasonic frequency range), as well as the overlap integral for the mechanical and optical modes. In advanced laser interferometers which require high optical power and very low acoustic loss test masses, parametric instabilities could prevent interferometer operation if not suppressed. Here we review the problem of parametric instabilities in advanced detector configurations for different combinations of sapphire and fused silica test masses, and compare three methods for control or suppression of parametric instabilities-thermal tuning, surface damping and active feedback
Hastuti, S.; Harijono; Murtini, E. S.; Fibrianto, K.
2018-03-01
This current study is aimed to investigate the use of parametric and non-parametric approach for sensory RATA (Rate-All-That-Apply) method. Ledre as Bojonegoro unique local food product was used as point of interest, in which 319 panelists were involved in the study. The result showed that ledre is characterized as easy-crushed texture, sticky in mouth, stingy sensation and easy to swallow. It has also strong banana flavour with brown in colour. Compared to eggroll and semprong, ledre has more variances in terms of taste as well the roll length. As RATA questionnaire is designed to collect categorical data, non-parametric approach is the common statistical procedure. However, similar results were also obtained as parametric approach, regardless the fact of non-normal distributed data. Thus, it suggests that parametric approach can be applicable for consumer study with large number of respondents, even though it may not satisfy the assumption of ANOVA (Analysis of Variances).
Brown, Gregory G; Thomas, Michael L; Patt, Virginie
Neuropsychology is an applied measurement field with its psychometric work primarily built upon classical test theory (CTT). We describe a series of psychometric models to supplement the use of CTT in neuropsychological research and test development. We introduce increasingly complex psychometric models as measurement algebras, which include model parameters that represent abilities and item properties. Within this framework of parametric model measurement (PMM), neuropsychological assessment involves the estimation of model parameters with ability parameter values assuming the role of test 'scores'. Moreover, the traditional notion of measurement error is replaced by the notion of parameter estimation error, and the definition of reliability becomes linked to notions of item and test information. The more complex PMM approaches incorporate into the assessment of neuropsychological performance formal parametric models of behavior validated in the experimental psychology literature, along with item parameters. These PMM approaches endorse the use of experimental manipulations of model parameters to assess a test's construct representation. Strengths and weaknesses of these models are evaluated by their implications for measurement error conditional upon ability level, sensitivity to sample characteristics, computational challenges to parameter estimation, and construct validity. A family of parametric psychometric models can be used to assess latent processes of interest to neuropsychologists. By modeling latent abilities at the item level, psychometric studies in neuropsychology can investigate construct validity and measurement precision within a single framework and contribute to a unification of statistical methods within the framework of generalized latent variable modeling.
A parametric model order reduction technique for poroelastic finite element models.
Lappano, Ettore; Polanz, Markus; Desmet, Wim; Mundo, Domenico
2017-10-01
This research presents a parametric model order reduction approach for vibro-acoustic problems in the frequency domain of systems containing poroelastic materials (PEM). The method is applied to the Finite Element (FE) discretization of the weak u-p integral formulation based on the Biot-Allard theory and makes use of reduced basis (RB) methods typically employed for parametric problems. The parametric reduction is obtained rewriting the Biot-Allard FE equations for poroelastic materials using an affine representation of the frequency (therefore allowing for RB methods) and projecting the frequency-dependent PEM system on a global reduced order basis generated with the proper orthogonal decomposition instead of standard modal approaches. This has proven to be better suited to describe the nonlinear frequency dependence and the strong coupling introduced by damping. The methodology presented is tested on two three-dimensional systems: in the first experiment, the surface impedance of a PEM layer sample is calculated and compared with results of the literature; in the second, the reduced order model of a multilayer system coupled to an air cavity is assessed and the results are compared to those of the reference FE model.
Squeezed light in an optical parametric oscillator network with coherent feedback quantum control.
Crisafulli, Orion; Tezak, Nikolas; Soh, Daniel B S; Armen, Michael A; Mabuchi, Hideo
2013-07-29
We present squeezing and anti-squeezing spectra of the output from a degenerate optical parametric oscillator (OPO) network arranged in different coherent quantum feedback configurations. One OPO serves as a quantum plant, the other as a quantum controller. The addition of coherent feedback enables shaping of the output squeezing spectrum of the plant, and is found to be capable of pushing the frequency of maximum squeezing away from the optical driving frequency and broadening the spectrum over a wider frequency band. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the developed theory, and illustrate the use of coherent quantum feedback to engineer the quantum-optical properties of the plant OPO output.
Effects of Boundary Conditions on the Parametric Resonance of Cylindrical Shells under Axial Loading
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T.Y. Ng
1998-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a formulation for the dynamic stability analysis of circular cylindrical shells under axial compression with various boundary conditions is presented. The present study uses Love’s first approximation theory for thin shells and the characteristic beam functions as approximate axial modal functions. Applying the Ritz procedure to the Lagrangian energy expression yields a system of Mathieu–Hill equations the stability of which is analyzed using Bolotin’s method. The present study examines the effects of different boundary conditions on the parametric response of homogeneous isotropic cylindrical shells for various transverse modes and length parameters.
A soft double regularization approach to parametric blind image deconvolution.
Chen, Li; Yap, Kim-Hui
2005-05-01
This paper proposes a blind image deconvolution scheme based on soft integration of parametric blur structures. Conventional blind image deconvolution methods encounter a difficult dilemma of either imposing stringent and inflexible preconditions on the problem formulation or experiencing poor restoration results due to lack of information. This paper attempts to address this issue by assessing the relevance of parametric blur information, and incorporating the knowledge into the parametric double regularization (PDR) scheme. The PDR method assumes that the actual blur satisfies up to a certain degree of parametric structure, as there are many well-known parametric blurs in practical applications. Further, it can be tailored flexibly to include other blur types if some prior parametric knowledge of the blur is available. A manifold soft parametric modeling technique is proposed to generate the blur manifolds, and estimate the fuzzy blur structure. The PDR scheme involves the development of the meaningful cost function, the estimation of blur support and structure, and the optimization of the cost function. Experimental results show that it is effective in restoring degraded images under different environments.
Function parametrization by using 4-point transforms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dikusar, N.D.
1996-01-01
A continuous parametrization of the smooth curve f(x)=f(x;R) is suggested on a basis of four-point transformations. Coordinates of three reference points of the curve are chosen as parameters R. This approach allows to derive a number of advantages in function approximation and fitting of empiric data. The transformations have made possible to derive a new class of polynomials (monosplines) having the better approximation quality than monomials {x n }. A behaviour of an error of the approximation has a uniform character. A three-point model of the cubic spline (TPS) is proposed. The model allows to reduce a number of unknown parameters in twice and to obtain an advantage in a computing aspect. The new approach to the function approximation and fitting are shown on a number of examples. The proposed approach gives a new mathematical tool and a new possibility in both practical applications and theoretical research of numerical and computational methods. 13 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs
Parametric Decay during HHFW on NSTX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, J.R.; Bernabei, S.; Biewer, T.; Diem, S.; Hosea, J.; LeBlanc, B.; Phillips, C.K.; Ryan, P.; Swain, D.W.
2005-01-01
High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) heating experiments on NSTX have been observed to be accompanied by significant edge ion heating (T i >> T e ). This heating is found to be anisotropic with T perp > T par . Simultaneously, coherent oscillations have been detected with an edge Langmuir probe. The oscillations are consistent with parametric decay of the incident fast wave (ω > 13ω ci ) into ion Bernstein waves and an unobserved ion-cyclotron quasi-mode. The observation of anisotropic heating is consistent with Bernstein wave damping, and the Bernstein waves should completely damp in the plasma periphery as they propagate toward a cyclotron harmonic resonance. The number of daughter waves is found to increase with rf power, and to increase as the incident wave's toroidal wavelength increases. The frequencies of the daughter wave are separated by the edge ion cyclotron frequency. Theoretical calculations of the threshold for this decay in uniform plasma indicate an extremely small value of incident power should be required to drive the instability. While such decays are commonly observed at lower harmonics in conventional ICRF heating scenarios, they usually do not involve the loss of significant wave power from the pump wave. On NSTX an estimate of the power loss can be found by calculating the minimum power required to support the edge ion heating (presumed to come from the decay Bernstein wave). This calculation indicates at least 20-30% of the incident rf power ends up as decay waves
Parametric Design in Timber Gridshell Tectonics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ismailiyah Al Athas Syarifah
2018-01-01
Full Text Available This paper begins with a simple proposition: rather than mimicking the geometric structures found in nature, perhaps the most effective modes of sustainable fabrication can be found throughunderstanding the nature of materials themselves. The material becomes a design parameter through the constraints of fabrication tools, limitations of material size, and most importantly the productivecapacity of material resistance a given material’s capacity and tendencies to take shape, rather than cutting shape out of material. Gridshell structures provide an intriguing case study to pursue this proposition. Not only is there clear precedent in the form finding experiments of frei Otto and the institute for lightweight structures, but also the very nurbs based tools of current design practices developed from the ability of wood to bend. Taking the bent wood spline quite literally, gridshells provide a means that is at once formally expressive, structurally optimized, materially efficient, and quite simply a delight to experience. The the larger motivation of this work anticipates a parametric system linking the intrinsic material values of the gridshell tectonic with extrinsic criteria such as programmatic needs and environmental response. Through an applied case study of gridshells, the play between form and material is tested out through the author’s own experimentation with gridshells and the pedagogical results of two gridshell studios.The goal of this research is to establish a give and take relationship between top down formal emphasis and a bottom-up material influence.
Stability analysis of fuzzy parametric uncertain systems.
Bhiwani, R J; Patre, B M
2011-10-01
In this paper, the determination of stability margin, gain and phase margin aspects of fuzzy parametric uncertain systems are dealt. The stability analysis of uncertain linear systems with coefficients described by fuzzy functions is studied. A complexity reduced technique for determining the stability margin for FPUS is proposed. The method suggested is dependent on the order of the characteristic polynomial. In order to find the stability margin of interval polynomials of order less than 5, it is not always necessary to determine and check all four Kharitonov's polynomials. It has been shown that, for determining stability margin of FPUS of order five, four, and three we require only 3, 2, and 1 Kharitonov's polynomials respectively. Only for sixth and higher order polynomials, a complete set of Kharitonov's polynomials are needed to determine the stability margin. Thus for lower order systems, the calculations are reduced to a large extent. This idea has been extended to determine the stability margin of fuzzy interval polynomials. It is also shown that the gain and phase margin of FPUS can be determined analytically without using graphical techniques. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Multidimensional Scaling Visualization Using Parametric Similarity Indices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. A. Tenreiro Machado
2015-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS and parametric similarity indices (PSI in the analysis of complex systems (CS. Each CS is viewed as a dynamical system, exhibiting an output time-series to be interpreted as a manifestation of its behavior. We start by adopting a sliding window to sample the original data into several consecutive time periods. Second, we define a given PSI for tracking pieces of data. We then compare the windows for different values of the parameter, and we generate the corresponding MDS maps of ‘points’. Third, we use Procrustes analysis to linearly transform the MDS charts for maximum superposition and to build a globalMDS map of “shapes”. This final plot captures the time evolution of the phenomena and is sensitive to the PSI adopted. The generalized correlation, theMinkowski distance and four entropy-based indices are tested. The proposed approach is applied to the Dow Jones Industrial Average stock market index and the Europe Brent Spot Price FOB time-series.
Parametric analysis of a magnetized cylindrical plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahedo, Eduardo
2009-01-01
The relevant macroscopic model, the spatial structure, and the parametric regimes of a low-pressure plasma confined by a cylinder and an axial magnetic field is discussed for the small-Debye length limit, making use of asymptotic techniques. The plasma response is fully characterized by three-dimensionless parameters, related to the electron gyroradius, and the electron and ion collision mean-free-paths. There are the unmagnetized regime, the main magnetized regime, and, for a low electron-collisionality plasma, an intermediate-magnetization regime. In the magnetized regimes, electron azimuthal inertia is shown to be a dominant phenomenon in part of the quasineutral plasma region and to set up before ion radial inertia. In the main magnetized regime, the plasma structure consists of a bulk diffusive region, a thin layer governed by electron inertia, a thinner sublayer controlled by ion inertia, and the non-neutral Debye sheath. The solution of the main inertial layer yields that the electron azimuthal energy near the wall is larger than the electron thermal energy, making electron resistivity effects non-negligible. The electron Boltzmann relation is satisfied only in the very vicinity of the Debye sheath edge. Ion collisionality effects are irrelevant in the magnetized regime. Simple scaling laws for plasma production and particle and energy fluxes to the wall are derived.
Parametric Analysis of Flexible Logic Control Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lihua Fu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Based on deep analysis about the essential relation between two input variables of normal two-dimensional fuzzy controller, we used universal combinatorial operation model to describe the logic relationship and gave a flexible logic control method to realize the effective control for complex system. In practical control application, how to determine the general correlation coefficient of flexible logic control model is a problem for further studies. First, the conventional universal combinatorial operation model has been limited in the interval [0,1]. Consequently, this paper studies a kind of universal combinatorial operation model based on the interval [a,b]. And some important theorems are given and proved, which provide a foundation for the flexible logic control method. For dealing reasonably with the complex relations of every factor in complex system, a kind of universal combinatorial operation model with unequal weights is put forward. Then, this paper has carried out the parametric analysis of flexible logic control model. And some research results have been given, which have important directive to determine the values of the general correlation coefficients in practical control application.
Supercritical extraction of oleaginous: parametric sensitivity analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Santos M.M.
2000-01-01
Full Text Available The economy has become universal and competitive, thus the industries of vegetable oil extraction must advance in the sense of minimising production costs and, at the same time, generating products that obey more rigorous patterns of quality, including solutions that do not damage the environment. The conventional oilseed processing uses hexane as solvent. However, this solvent is toxic and highly flammable. Thus the search of substitutes for hexane in oleaginous extraction process has increased in the last years. The supercritical carbon dioxide is a potential substitute for hexane, but it is necessary more detailed studies to understand the phenomena taking place in such process. Thus, in this work a diffusive model for semi-continuous (batch for the solids and continuous for the solvent isothermal and isobaric extraction process using supercritical carbon dioxide is presented and submitted to a parametric sensitivity analysis by means of a factorial design in two levels. The model parameters were disturbed and their main effects analysed, so that it is possible to propose strategies for high performance operation.
Improvement of Statistical Decisions under Parametric Uncertainty
Nechval, Nicholas A.; Nechval, Konstantin N.; Purgailis, Maris; Berzins, Gundars; Rozevskis, Uldis
2011-10-01
A large number of problems in production planning and scheduling, location, transportation, finance, and engineering design require that decisions be made in the presence of uncertainty. Decision-making under uncertainty is a central problem in statistical inference, and has been formally studied in virtually all approaches to inference. The aim of the present paper is to show how the invariant embedding technique, the idea of which belongs to the authors, may be employed in the particular case of finding the improved statistical decisions under parametric uncertainty. This technique represents a simple and computationally attractive statistical method based on the constructive use of the invariance principle in mathematical statistics. Unlike the Bayesian approach, an invariant embedding technique is independent of the choice of priors. It allows one to eliminate unknown parameters from the problem and to find the best invariant decision rule, which has smaller risk than any of the well-known decision rules. To illustrate the proposed technique, application examples are given.
Parametric and Non-Parametric Vibration-Based Structural Identification Under Earthquake Excitation
Pentaris, Fragkiskos P.; Fouskitakis, George N.
2014-05-01
The problem of modal identification in civil structures is of crucial importance, and thus has been receiving increasing attention in recent years. Vibration-based methods are quite promising as they are capable of identifying the structure's global characteristics, they are relatively easy to implement and they tend to be time effective and less expensive than most alternatives [1]. This paper focuses on the off-line structural/modal identification of civil (concrete) structures subjected to low-level earthquake excitations, under which, they remain within their linear operating regime. Earthquakes and their details are recorded and provided by the seismological network of Crete [2], which 'monitors' the broad region of south Hellenic arc, an active seismic region which functions as a natural laboratory for earthquake engineering of this kind. A sufficient number of seismic events are analyzed in order to reveal the modal characteristics of the structures under study, that consist of the two concrete buildings of the School of Applied Sciences, Technological Education Institute of Crete, located in Chania, Crete, Hellas. Both buildings are equipped with high-sensitivity and accuracy seismographs - providing acceleration measurements - established at the basement (structure's foundation) presently considered as the ground's acceleration (excitation) and at all levels (ground floor, 1st floor, 2nd floor and terrace). Further details regarding the instrumentation setup and data acquisition may be found in [3]. The present study invokes stochastic, both non-parametric (frequency-based) and parametric methods for structural/modal identification (natural frequencies and/or damping ratios). Non-parametric methods include Welch-based spectrum and Frequency response Function (FrF) estimation, while parametric methods, include AutoRegressive (AR), AutoRegressive with eXogeneous input (ARX) and Autoregressive Moving-Average with eXogeneous input (ARMAX) models[4, 5
Parametric resonance and cooling on an atom chip
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Bo; Li Xiaolin; Ke Min; Wang Yuzhu
2008-01-01
This paper observes the parametric excitation on atom chip by measuring the trap loss when applying a parametric modulation. By modulating the current in chip wires, it modulates not only the trap frequency but also the trap position. It shows that the strongest resonance occurs when the modulation frequency equals to the trap frequency. The resonance amplitude increases exponentially with modulation depth. Because the Z-trap is an anharmonic trap, there exists energy selective excitation which would cause parametric cooling. We confirm this effect by observing the temperature of atom cloud dropping
Parametric decay instabilities in ECR heated plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Porkolab, M.
1982-01-01
The possibility of parametric excitation of electron Bernstein waves and low frequency ion oscillations during ECR heating at omega/sub o/ approx. = l omega/sub ce/, l = 1,2 is examined. In particular, the thresholds for such instabilities are calculated. It is found that Bernstein waves and lower hybrid quasi-modes have relatively low homogeneous where T/sub e/ approx. = T/sub i/. Thus, these processes may lead to nonlinear absorption and/or scattering of the incident pump wave. The resulting Bernstein waves may lead to either more effective heating (especially during the start-up phase) or to loss of microwave energy if the decay waves propagate out of the system before their energy is absorbed by particles. While at omega/sub o/ = omega/sub UH/ the threshold is reduced due to the WKB enhancement of the pump wave, (and this instability may be important in tokamaks) in EBT's and tandem mirrors the instability at omega /sub o/ greater than or equal to 2 omega/sub ce/ may be important. The instability may persist even if omega > 2 omega/sub ce/ and this may be the case during finite beta depression of the magnetic field in which case the decay waves may be trapped in the local magnetic well so that convective losses are minimized. The excited fluctuations may lead to additional scattering of the ring electrons and the incident microwave fields. Application of these calculations to ECR heating of tokamaks, tandem mirrors, and EBT's will be examined
Parametric tomography of the cardiac blood pool
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyer, M.; Schwartz, K.D.
1990-01-01
In nuclear cardiology image processing is performed usually in 3 of 4 dimensions. ECG-gated SPECT (GSPECT) would make it possible to obtain all 4 dimensions of space and time during one examination, but its duration as well as radiation dose is limited resulting in a low signal-to-noise ratio. Sensitive feature extractions from the amount of data are necessary, e.g. Fourier filtering or extracting isovolumetric intervals. The relatively large amount of calculations and storage requirements often handicaps tomographic ventriculography because a high number of sections have to be processed and the temporal resolution is limited. A new list-mode oriented tomographic algorithm demands less storage and fewer calculations: The Fourier coefficient extraction and the filtered back projection, both of which are linear operations, could be interchanged in the case of thoracic SPECT. The feature extraction algorithm process internal list-mode heart cycles for discrimination of invalid cycles, for end-diastolic and end-systolic synthesis as well as for Fourier analysis of the first harmonic in 10 ms steps. Reconstruction operations are applied also to modified distribution matrices of Fourier coefficients. By only processing 4 spatial matrix sequences (end-diastolic and end-systolic images, amplitude and phase values) parametric tomography becomes practicable and could be also performed by a minicomputer with 64 KByte memory in addition to the possibilities of the planar left ventricular gated imaging. If there are 3 or more processors available a complete feature extraction on-the-fly will be possible. The numerical algorithms were tested with respect to stable reconstructions by phantoms. First results of a patient examination are used to explore effective display techniques, and preliminary modes are demonstrated. It is the purpose of this study to obtain additional information about the gated planar cardiac blood pool imaging in the field of SPECT. (author)
Parametric study of roof diaphragm stiffness requirements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, W.D.; Tenbus, M.A.
1991-01-01
A common assumption made in performing a dynamic seismic analysis for a building is that the roof/floor system is open-quotes rigidclose quotes. This assumption would appear to be reasonable for many of the structures found in nuclear power plants, since many of these structures are constructed of heavily reinforced concrete having floor/roof slabs at least two feet in thickness, and meet the code requirements for structural detailing for seismic design. The roofs of many Department of Energy (DOE) buildings at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, have roofs constructed of either metal, precast concrete or gypsum plank deck overlaid with rigid insulation, tar and gravel. In performing natural phenomena hazard assessments for one such facility, it was assumed that the existing roof performed first as a flexible diaphragm (zero stiffness) and then, rigid (infinitely stiff). For the flexible diaphragm model it was determined that the building began to experience significant damage around 0.09 g's. For the rigid diaphragm model it was determined that no significant damage was observed below 0.20 g's. A Conceptual Design Report has been prepared for upgrading/replacing the roof of this building. The question that needed to be answered here was, open-quotes How stiff should the new roof diaphragm be in order to satisfy the rigid diaphragm assumption and, yet, be cost effective?close quotes. This paper presents a parametric study of a very simple structural system to show that the design of roof diaphragms needs to consider both strength and stiffness (frequency) requirements. This paper shows how the stiffness of a roof system affects the seismically induced loads in the lateral, vertical load resisting elements of a building and provides guidance in determining how open-quotes rigidclose quotes a roof system should be in order to accomplish a cost effective design
Current-driven parametric resonance in magnetic multilayers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, C; Seinige, H; Tsoi, M
2013-01-01
Current-induced parametric excitations were observed in point-contact spin-valve nanodevices. Point contacts were used to inject high densities of direct and microwave currents into spin valves, thus producing oscillating spin-transfer and Oersted-field torques on magnetic moments. The resulting magnetodynamics were observed electrically by measuring rectified voltage signals across the contact. In addition to the spin-torque-driven ferromagnetic resonance we observe doubled-frequency signals which correspond to the parametric excitation of magnetic moments. Numerical simulations suggest that while both spin-transfer torque and ac Oersted field contribute to the parametrically excited dynamics, the ac spin torque dominates, and dc spin torque can switch it on and off. The dc bias dependence of the parametric resonance signal enabled the mapping of instability regions characterizing the nonlinearity of the oscillation. (paper)
Determinant of flexible Parametric Estimation of Mixture Cure ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA
2015-12-01
Dec 1, 2015 ... Suitability of four parametric mixture cure models were considered namely; Log .... regression analysis which relies on the ... The parameter of mixture cure fraction model was ..... Stochastic Models of Tumor Latency and Their.
Semi-parametrical NAA method for paper analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Medeiros, Ilca M.M.A.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Cruz, Manuel T.F. da; Morel, Jose C.O.; Park, Song W.
2007-01-01
The semi-parametric Neutron Activation Analysis technique, using Au as flux monitor, was applied to determine element concentrations in white paper, usually commercialized, aiming to check the quality control of its production in industrial process. (author)
Interplay between parametric instabilities in fusion - relevant laser plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huller, St.
2003-01-01
The control of parametric instabilities plays an important role in laser fusion. They are driven by the incident laser beams in the underdense plasma surrounding a fusion capsule and hinder the absorption process of incident laser light which is necessary to heat the fusion target. Due to its high intensity and power, the laser light modifies the plasma density dynamically, such that two or more parametric instabilities compete, in particular stimulated Brillouin scattering and the filamentation instability. The complicated interplay between these parametric instabilities is studied in detail by developing an adequate model accompanied by numerical simulations with multidimensional codes. The model is applied to generic and to smoothed laser beams, which are necessary to limit parametric instabilities, with parameters close to experimental conditions. (author)
Parametric trapping of electromagnetic waves in an inhomogeneous plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silin, V.P.; Starodub, A.N.
1977-01-01
Considered is parametric instability in an inhomogeneous plasma at which a pumping wave is transformed to an electromagnetic wave and aperiodically in-time-growing disturbances. It is shown that after achievement of some boundary pumping value by electric field intensity an absolute parametric instability evolution becomes possible. In-time growing plasma disturbances are localized near electric field extremums of a pumping wave. Such localization areas are small as compared to characteristic size of pumping inhomogeneity in a plasma. The secondary electromagnetic waves stay within the localization areas and, therefore, are not scattered by a plasma. As following from this it has been established, that due to parametric instability electromagnetic radiation trapping by a plasma occurs. Such a trapping is considerably connected with a spatial structure of a pumping field and it cannot arise within the field of a running wave in the theoretical model considered. However parametric trapping turns out to be possible even with very small reflection coefficients
Evaluating forest management policies by parametric linear programing
Daniel I. Navon; Richard J. McConnen
1967-01-01
An analytical and simulation technique, parametric linear programing explores alternative conditions and devises an optimal management plan for each condition. Its application in solving policy-decision problems in the management of forest lands is illustrated in an example.
The RECENT code with the Reich-Moore parametrization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melnikoff, M.; Chalhoub, E.S.; Carlson, B.V.
1985-01-01
The program RECENT, which reconstructs neutron cross sections from resonance parameters given in the ENDF/B format, was modified in order to include in its structure the Reich-Moore parametrization. (Author) [pt
Parametric optimization of CNC end milling using entropy ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Parametric optimization of CNC end milling using entropy measurement technique combined with grey-Taguchi method. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... Keywords: CNC end milling, surface finish, material removal rate (MRR), entropy measurement technique, Taguchi method ...
On the unlimited gain of a nonlinear parametric amplifier
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sorokin, Vladislav
2014-01-01
The present paper is concerned with analysis of the response of a nonlinear parametric amplifier in abroad range of system parameters, particularly beyond resonance. Such analysis is of particular interestfor micro- and nanosystems, since many small-scale parametric amplifiers exhibit a distinctly...... nonlinearbehavior when amplitude of their response is sufficiently large. The modified method of direct separa-tion of motions is employed to study the considered system. As the result it is obtained that steady-stateamplitude of the nonlinear parametric amplifier response can reach large values in the case...... of arbitrarilysmall amplitude of external excitation, so that the amplifier gain tends to infinity. Very large amplifiergain can be achieved in a broad range of system parameters, in particular when the amplitude of para-metric excitation is comparatively small. The obtained results clearly demonstrate that very...
Comparing parametric and nonparametric regression methods for panel data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard; Henningsen, Arne
We investigate and compare the suitability of parametric and non-parametric stochastic regression methods for analysing production technologies and the optimal firm size. Our theoretical analysis shows that the most commonly used functional forms in empirical production analysis, Cobb......-Douglas and Translog, are unsuitable for analysing the optimal firm size. We show that the Translog functional form implies an implausible linear relationship between the (logarithmic) firm size and the elasticity of scale, where the slope is artificially related to the substitutability between the inputs....... The practical applicability of the parametric and non-parametric regression methods is scrutinised and compared by an empirical example: we analyse the production technology and investigate the optimal size of Polish crop farms based on a firm-level balanced panel data set. A nonparametric specification test...
Scaling of plasma turbulence resulting from parametric instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ott, E.
1976-01-01
Dimensional analysis is used to obtain results on the turbulent state resulting from parametric instabilities of an initially cold plasma. The results include the possibility of an applied magnetic field, multiple ion species, and arbitrary dimensionality
Using non-parametric methods in econometric production analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard; Henningsen, Arne
2012-01-01
by investigating the relationship between the elasticity of scale and the farm size. We use a balanced panel data set of 371~specialised crop farms for the years 2004-2007. A non-parametric specification test shows that neither the Cobb-Douglas function nor the Translog function are consistent with the "true......Econometric estimation of production functions is one of the most common methods in applied economic production analysis. These studies usually apply parametric estimation techniques, which obligate the researcher to specify a functional form of the production function of which the Cobb...... parameter estimates, but also in biased measures which are derived from the parameters, such as elasticities. Therefore, we propose to use non-parametric econometric methods. First, these can be applied to verify the functional form used in parametric production analysis. Second, they can be directly used...
Parametric roll resonance monitoring using signal-based detection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Falkenberg, Thomas
2015-01-01
Extreme roll motion of ships can be caused by several phenomena, one of which is parametric roll resonance. Several incidents occurred unexpectedly around the millennium and caused vast fiscal losses on large container vessels. The phenomenon is now well understood and some consider parametric roll...... algorithms in real conditions, and to evaluate the frequency of parametric roll events on the selected vessels. Detection performance is scrutinised through the validation of the detected events using owners’ standard methods, and supported by available wave radar data. Further, a bivariate statistical...... analysis of the outcome of the signal-based detectors is performed to assess the real life false alarm probability. It is shown that detection robustness and very low false warning rates are obtained. The study concludes that small parametric roll events are occurring, and that the proposed signal...
Prediction of Parametric Roll Resonance by Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Míguez González, M; López Peña, F.; Díaz Casás, V.
2011-01-01
Parametric roll resonance is a ship stability related phenomenon that generates sudden large amplitude oscillations up to 30-40 degrees of roll. This can cause severe damage, and it can put the crew in serious danger. The need for a parametric rolling real time prediction system has been acknowle......Parametric roll resonance is a ship stability related phenomenon that generates sudden large amplitude oscillations up to 30-40 degrees of roll. This can cause severe damage, and it can put the crew in serious danger. The need for a parametric rolling real time prediction system has been...... acknowledged in the last few years. This work proposes a prediction system based on a multilayer perceptron (MP) neural network. The training and testing of the MP network is accomplished by feeding it with simulated data of a three degrees-of-freedom nonlinear model of a fishing vessel. The neural network...
Involute Spur Gear Template Development by Parametric Technique ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Nekky Umera
cylindrical coordinate systems to create the involute curve profile. Since spur gear ... Template gear development using parametric method means that the dimensions control the ... and rapid prototyping of interlocking gears. Excel is a common ...
Parametric Portfolio Selection: Evaluating and Comparing to Markowitz Portfolios
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcelo C. Medeiros
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper we exploit the parametric portfolio optimization in the Brazilian market. Our data consists of monthly returns of 306 Brazilian stocks in the period between 2001 and 2013. We tested the model both in and out of sample and compared the results with the value and equal weighted portfolios and with a Markowitz based portfolio. We performed statistical inference in the parametric optimization using bootstrap techniques in order to build the parameters empirical distributions. Our results showed that the parametric optimization is a very efficient technique out of sample. It consistently showed superior results when compared with the VW, EW and Markowitz portfolios even when transaction costs were included. Finally, we consider the parametric approach to be very flexible to the inclusion of constraints in weights, transaction costs and listing and delisting of stocks.
Nonlinear parametric instability of wind turbine wings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Jesper Winther; Nielsen, Søren R.K.
2006-01-01
-base eigenmodes. It turns out that the system becomes unstable at certain excitation amplitudes and frequencies. If the ratio between the support point motion and the rotational frequency of the rotor is rational, the response becomes periodic, and Floquet theory may be used to determine instability. In reality...
Estimation and asymptotic theory for transition probabilities in Markov Renewal Multi–state models
Spitoni, C.; Verduijn, M.; Putter, H.
2012-01-01
In this paper we discuss estimation of transition probabilities for semi–Markov multi–state models. Non–parametric and semi–parametric estimators of the transition probabilities for a large class of models (forward going models) are proposed. Large sample theory is derived using the functional
Housing price prediction: parametric versus semi-parametric spatial hedonic models
Montero, José-María; Mínguez, Román; Fernández-Avilés, Gema
2018-01-01
House price prediction is a hot topic in the economic literature. House price prediction has traditionally been approached using a-spatial linear (or intrinsically linear) hedonic models. It has been shown, however, that spatial effects are inherent in house pricing. This article considers parametric and semi-parametric spatial hedonic model variants that account for spatial autocorrelation, spatial heterogeneity and (smooth and nonparametrically specified) nonlinearities using penalized splines methodology. The models are represented as a mixed model that allow for the estimation of the smoothing parameters along with the other parameters of the model. To assess the out-of-sample performance of the models, the paper uses a database containing the price and characteristics of 10,512 homes in Madrid, Spain (Q1 2010). The results obtained suggest that the nonlinear models accounting for spatial heterogeneity and flexible nonlinear relationships between some of the individual or areal characteristics of the houses and their prices are the best strategies for house price prediction.
The evalution of reproduction parametres in chosen herd of sheep
BENEŠOVÁ, Kristýna
2009-01-01
It has been observed the breed herd of Texel sheep in the foothills area of Orlické mountains in the year 2005-2008. The base of herd was consisted of 374 ewes, 575 lambs and 6 rams in total. These parametres of reproduction - conception, fertility, rearing, empty ewes, abortions, lambing, stillborn, death after born, were monitored at ewes. For the parametres of reproduction at ewes were found significant effects of ewe´s age and ram´s line.
Relativistic parametric instabilities in extended extragalactic radio sources
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferrari, A [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Trussoni, E; Zaninetti, L
1978-01-01
A general discussion is presented of parametric instabilities of electromagnetic waves in cold plasmas. Previous results for f = eE/msub(e)c..omega../sub 0/ >> 1 and << 1 are extended and the intermediate range f approximately 1, which could be relevant in some astrophysical applications, is analysed by numerical techniques. In the final section a model for particle acceleration and radiation emission by turbulent plasma modes excited in extended radiosources by parametric absorption of strong electromagnetic waves is tentatively discussed.
Two-parametric PT-symmetric quartic family
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eremenko, Alexandre; Gabrielov, Andrei
2012-01-01
We describe a parametrization of the real spectral locus of the two-parametric family of PT-symmetric quartic oscillators. For this family, we find a parameter region where all eigenvalues are real, extending the results of Dorey et al (2007 J. Phys. A: Math Theor. 40 R205–83) and Shin (2005 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 38 6147–66; 2002 Commun. Math. Phys. 229 543–64). (paper)
Pulse Distortion in Saturated Fiber Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Da Ros, Francesco; Rottwitt, Karsten
2012-01-01
Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation.......Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation....
Bayesian non- and semi-parametric methods and applications
Rossi, Peter
2014-01-01
This book reviews and develops Bayesian non-parametric and semi-parametric methods for applications in microeconometrics and quantitative marketing. Most econometric models used in microeconomics and marketing applications involve arbitrary distributional assumptions. As more data becomes available, a natural desire to provide methods that relax these assumptions arises. Peter Rossi advocates a Bayesian approach in which specific distributional assumptions are replaced with more flexible distributions based on mixtures of normals. The Bayesian approach can use either a large but fixed number
Excess quantum noise in optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification
Manzoni, C.; Moses, J.; Kärtner, F. X.; Cerullo, G.
2011-01-01
Noise evolution in an optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier (OPCPA) differs essentially from that of an optical parametric or a conventional laser amplifier, in that an incoherent pedestal is produced by superfluorescence that can overwhelm the signal under strong saturation. Using a model for the nonlinear dynamics consistent with quantum mechanics, we numerically study the evolution of excess noise in an OPCPA. The observed dynamics explain the macroscopic characteristics seen previous...
Global optimization of silicon nanowires for efficient parametric processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vukovic, Dragana; Xu, Jing; Mørk, Jesper
2013-01-01
We present a global optimization of silicon nanowires for parametric single-pump mixing. For the first time, the effect of surface roughness-induced loss is included in the analysis, significantly influencing the optimum waveguide dimensions.......We present a global optimization of silicon nanowires for parametric single-pump mixing. For the first time, the effect of surface roughness-induced loss is included in the analysis, significantly influencing the optimum waveguide dimensions....
Applying Parametric Fault Detection to a Mechanical System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Felício, P.; Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.
2002-01-01
A way of doing parametric fault detection is described. It is based on the representation of parameter changes as linear fractional transformations (lfts). We describe a model with parametric uncertainty. Then a stabilizing controller is chosen and its robustness properties are studied via mu. Th....... The parameter changes (faults) are estimated based on estimates of the fictitious signals that enter the delta block in the lft. These signal estimators are designed by H-infinity techniques. The chosen example is an inverted pendulum....
The confrontation between gravitation theory and experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Will, C.M.
1979-01-01
After an introductory section, an analysis is given of the foundations of gravitation theory - principles of equivalence, the fundamental criteria for the viability of a gravitational theory, and the experiments that support those criteria. One of the principal conclusions is that the correct, viable theory of gravity must in all probability be a 'metric' theory. Attention is focussed on solar-system tests, using a 'theory of theories' known as the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism that encompasses most metric theories of gravity and that is ideally suited to the solar-system arena. Gravitational radiation is discussed as a possible tool for testing gravitational theory. The binary pulsar, a new , 'stellar-system' testing ground is studied. Tests of gravitation theory in a cosmic arena are described. (U.K.)
Theory and Application of DNA Histogram Analysis.
Bagwell, Charles Bruce
The underlying principles and assumptions associated with DNA histograms are discussed along with the characteristics of fluorescent probes. Information theory was described and used to calculate the information content of a DNA histogram. Two major types of DNA histogram analyses are proposed: parametric and nonparametric analysis. Three levels…
On unambiguous parametrization of neutron cross-sections in the low-energy region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novoselov, G.M.; Kolomiets, V.M.
1982-08-01
One of the most important aims of analysis in the resonance region is the evaluation of neutron resonance parameters on the basis of a given formalism of the theory of nuclear reactions. However, the task of finding resonance parameters from experimental data on the energy dependence of cross-sections is subject to a number of difficulties. These difficulties are not only of a theoretical character associated with the selection of one version or another of the theory taking into account the effects necessary (interference between resonances, Doppler effect etc.), but also involve problems of principle. Whether the set of parameters found is the only possible one within the context of a single formalism used remains open. The specific features of processing the experimental data are such that even with good resolution a number of overlapping resonances (occurring as a result of the fluctuation in inter-level distances or the Doppler effect) may be classified as an isolated resonance. Moreover, even given a very weak inter-level interference and Doppler effect, unambiguous parametrization of the cross-sections is not always possible. In the present paper these questions (the choice of the approximation needed for describing experimentally observed cross-sections, allowance for inter-level interference and the Doppler effect and the possibility of ambiguous reproduction of the resonance structure of cross-sections) are examined with reference to the parametrization of the total cross-sections for non-fissionable nuclei in the low-neutron-energy region
Parametric excitation of the J=2+ modes by zero sound in superfluid 3He-B
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sauls, J.A.; McKenzie, R.H.
1991-01-01
We discuss order-parameter collective modes in weakly inhomogeneous states of superfluid 3 He-B, i.e., states in which the scale of the inhomogeneities is considerably longer than the coherence length ξ 0 =v t /2πTc and the energy associated with the inhomogeneity is small compared to the condensation energy. The theory describes resonance phenomena between order-parameter modes and zero sound. We discuss two specific cases, both of which involve excitation of the J=2 + modes via a parametric field that lifts the selection rule due to particle-hole symmetry. In the case of a static superflow the modes with J=2 + , M=±1 couple to sound for qparallelH, and should be observable as Zeeman states with a maximum absorption that scales as the square of the superflow velocity. The J=2 + modes may also be excited parametrically in a three-wave resonance process involving two zero-sound phonons. We summarize the nonlinear response theory for two-phonon excitation of these modes. (orig.)
Iidaka, Tetsuya
2017-12-01
Humor perception is a ubiquitous phenomenon in human societies. In theories of humor perception, three factors, non-seriousness, social context, and incongruity, have been implicated in humor. In another theory, however, elaboration and reinterpretation of contexts are considered to play a role in eliciting humor. Although the neural correlates of humor appreciation have been investigated using neuroimaging methods, only a few studies have conducted such experiments under natural conditions. In the present study, two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments, using a comedy movie as a stimulus, were conducted to investigate the neural correlates of humor under natural conditions. The subjects' brain activity was measured while watching and enjoying a movie. In experiment 1, a parametric analysis showed that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and hippocampus/amygdala had a positive relationship with the subjective rating of funniness. In experiment 2, intersubject correlation was analyzed to investigate synchronized activity across all participants. Signal synchronization that paralleled increased funniness ratings was observed in the MPFC and hippocampus. Thus, it appears that both parametric and synchronized activity in the MPFC and hippocampus are important during humor appreciation. The present study has revealed the brain regions that are predominantly involved in humor sensation under natural condition. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levinsen, M.T.
1982-01-01
The Stewart-McCumber model of a Josephson junction has been shown to exhibit period-doubling bifurcation cascades, as described by the Feigenbaum bifurcation theory. Chaotic states, sometimes associated with the bifurcations, are also prevalent. The present paper deals with the questions of subharmonic generation and chaotic states in the aforementioned model, and in addition with the problem of the ubiquitous noise rise found in Josephson junction parametric amplifiers. The bifurcation is first discussed by drawing on analytical results on the Duffing equation which is an approximation to the complete ac-driven Stewart-McCumber model. The complete model is then solved on an analog computer. Thereafter it is shown that besides the even subharmonics predicted by the bifurcation theory, the natural subharmonic to expect at small dc currents is the odd. This may then have associated its own bifurcation tree. The role of spontaneous symmetry breaking will be discussed. This reconciles the earlier treatment of the 3-photon amplifier with the Feigenbaum scheme. Finally, analog calculations on a model of an externally pumped Josephson junction parametric amplifier will be discussed. The conclusion seems to be that chaotic noise cannot account for the noise rise
Parametric decay of plasma waves near the upper-hybrid resonance
Dodin, I. Y.; Arefiev, A. V.
2017-10-01
An intense X wave propagating perpendicularly to dc magnetic field is unstable with respect to a parametric decay into an electron Bernstein wave and a lower-hybrid wave. A modified theory of this effect is proposed that extends to the high-intensity regime, where the instability rate γ ceases to be a linear function of the incident-wave amplitude. An explicit formula for γ is derived and expressed in terms of cold-plasma parameters. Theory predictions are in reasonable agreement with the results of the particle-in-cell simulations reported in Ref.. The work was supported by the U.S. DOE through Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and by the U.S. DOE-NNSA Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NA0002008.
de-Graft Acquah, Henry
2014-01-01
This paper highlights the sensitivity of technical efficiency estimates to estimation approaches using empirical data. Firm specific technical efficiency and mean technical efficiency are estimated using the non parametric Data Envelope Analysis (DEA) and the parametric Corrected Ordinary Least Squares (COLS) and Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) approaches. Mean technical efficiency is found to be sensitive to the choice of estimation technique. Analysis of variance and Tukeyâ€™s test sugge...
Mixing parametrizations for ocean climate modelling
Gusev, Anatoly; Moshonkin, Sergey; Diansky, Nikolay; Zalesny, Vladimir
2016-04-01
The algorithm is presented of splitting the total evolutionary equations for the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and turbulence dissipation frequency (TDF), which is used to parameterize the viscosity and diffusion coefficients in ocean circulation models. The turbulence model equations are split into the stages of transport-diffusion and generation-dissipation. For the generation-dissipation stage, the following schemes are implemented: the explicit-implicit numerical scheme, analytical solution and the asymptotic behavior of the analytical solutions. The experiments were performed with different mixing parameterizations for the modelling of Arctic and the Atlantic climate decadal variability with the eddy-permitting circulation model INMOM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model) using vertical grid refinement in the zone of fully developed turbulence. The proposed model with the split equations for turbulence characteristics is similar to the contemporary differential turbulence models, concerning the physical formulations. At the same time, its algorithm has high enough computational efficiency. Parameterizations with using the split turbulence model make it possible to obtain more adequate structure of temperature and salinity at decadal timescales, compared to the simpler Pacanowski-Philander (PP) turbulence parameterization. Parameterizations with using analytical solution or numerical scheme at the generation-dissipation step of the turbulence model leads to better representation of ocean climate than the faster parameterization using the asymptotic behavior of the analytical solution. At the same time, the computational efficiency left almost unchanged relative to the simple PP parameterization. Usage of PP parametrization in the circulation model leads to realistic simulation of density and circulation with violation of T,S-relationships. This error is majorly avoided with using the proposed parameterizations containing the split turbulence model
The package PAKPDF ver. 1.1 of parametrizations of parton distribution functions in the proton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charchula, K.
1991-08-01
A FORTRAN package containing parametrizations of parton distribution functions (PDFS) in the proton is described. It allows an easy access to PDFS provided by several recent parametrizations and to some parameters characterizing particular parametrization. Some comments about the use of various parametrizations are also included. (orig.)
Monitoring coastal marshes biomass with CASI: a comparison of parametric and non-parametric models
Mo, Y.; Kearney, M.
2017-12-01
Coastal marshes are important carbon sinks that face multiple natural and anthropogenic stresses. Optical remote sensing is a powerful tool for closely monitoring the biomass of coastal marshes. However, application of hyperspectral sensors on assessing the biomass of diverse coastal marsh ecosystems is limited. This study samples spectral and biophysical data from coastal freshwater, intermediate, brackish, and saline marshes in Louisiana, and develops parametric and non-parametric models for using the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) to retrieve the marshes' biomass. Linear models and random forest models are developed from simulated CASI data (48 bands, 380-1050 nm, bandwidth 14 nm). Linear models are also developed using narrowband vegetation indices computed from all possible band combinations from the blue, red, and near infrared wavelengths. It is found that the linear models derived from the optimal narrowband vegetation indices provide strong predictions for the marshes' Leaf Area Index (LAI; R2 > 0.74 for ARVI), but not for their Aboveground Green Biomass (AGB; R2 > 0.25). The linear models derived from the simulated CASI data strongly predict the marshes' LAI (R2 = 0.93) and AGB (R2 = 0.71) and have 27 and 30 bands/variables in the final models through stepwise regression, respectively. The random forest models derived from the simulated CASI data also strongly predict the marshes' LAI and AGB (R2 = 0.91 and 0.84, respectively), where the most important variables for predicting LAI are near infrared bands at 784 and 756 nm and for predicting ABG are red bands at 684 and 670 nm. In sum, the random forest model is preferable for assessing coastal marsh biomass using CASI data as it offers high R2 for both LAI and AGB. The superior performance of the random forest model is likely to due to that it fully utilizes the full-spectrum data and makes no assumption of the approximate normality of the sampling population. This study offers solutions
Parametric, nonparametric and parametric modelling of a chaotic circuit time series
Timmer, J.; Rust, H.; Horbelt, W.; Voss, H. U.
2000-09-01
The determination of a differential equation underlying a measured time series is a frequently arising task in nonlinear time series analysis. In the validation of a proposed model one often faces the dilemma that it is hard to decide whether possible discrepancies between the time series and model output are caused by an inappropriate model or by bad estimates of parameters in a correct type of model, or both. We propose a combination of parametric modelling based on Bock's multiple shooting algorithm and nonparametric modelling based on optimal transformations as a strategy to test proposed models and if rejected suggest and test new ones. We exemplify this strategy on an experimental time series from a chaotic circuit where we obtain an extremely accurate reconstruction of the observed attractor.
PISC II: parametric studies. The purpose of the PISC II parametric studies programme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crutzen, S.
1989-09-01
The results of the PISC I round robin test of the ASME type procedure showed a very large dispersion. The amplitude of response of all defects varied very much among the teams from the 27 laboratories considered for the evaluation of results. Scatter on detection and sizing in PISC I was such that discussions started on the reasons for such a phenomenon when exactly the same procedure was used by all teams. The observation of two teams' results (JRC Ispra and ENEL Piacenza, Italy) induced the NDE Ispra laboratories to insist on the possible importance of equipment characteristics. All PISC members insisted on specific studies of the influence of defect characteristics as well as the role of cladding. These three chapters were the leading PIS laboratory exercises called Parametric Studies
Advanced electromagnetism foundations, theory and applications
Barrett, Terence W
1995-01-01
Advanced Electromagnetism: Foundations, Theory and Applications treats what is conventionally called electromagnetism or Maxwell's theory within the context of gauge theory or Yang-Mills theory. A major theme of this book is that fields are not stand-alone entities but are defined by their boundary conditions. The book has practical relevance to efficient antenna design, the understanding of forces and stresses in high energy pulses, ring laser gyros, high speed computer logic elements, efficient transfer of power, parametric conversion, and many other devices and systems. Conventional electro
Physiological responses at short distances from a parametric speaker
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lee Soomin
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, parametric speakers have been used in various circumstances. In our previous studies, we verified that the physiological burden of the sound of parametric speaker set at 2.6 m from the subjects was lower than that of the general speaker. However, nothing has yet been demonstrated about the effects of the sound of a parametric speaker at the shorter distance between parametric speakers the human body. Therefore, we studied this effect on physiological functions and task performance. Nine male subjects participated in this study. They completed three consecutive sessions: a 20-minute quiet period as a baseline, a 30-minute mental task period with general speakers or parametric speakers, and a 20-minute recovery period. We measured electrocardiogram (ECG photoplethysmogram (PTG, electroencephalogram (EEG, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Four experiments, one with a speaker condition (general speaker and parametric speaker, the other with a distance condition (0.3 m and 1.0 m, were conducted respectively at the same time of day on separate days. To examine the effects of the speaker and distance, three-way repeated measures ANOVA (speaker factor x distance factor x time factor were conducted. In conclusion, we found that the physiological responses were not significantly different between the speaker condition and the distance condition. Meanwhile, it was shown that the physiological burdens increased with progress in time independently of speaker condition and distance condition. In summary, the effects of the parametric speaker at the 2.6 m distance were not obtained at the distance of 1 m or less.
Kouramas, K.I.; Faí sca, N.P.; Panos, C.; Pistikopoulos, E.N.
2011-01-01
This work presents a new algorithm for solving the explicit/multi- parametric model predictive control (or mp-MPC) problem for linear, time-invariant discrete-time systems, based on dynamic programming and multi-parametric programming techniques
Two- and three-loop amplitudes in the bosonic string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belavin, A.; Knizhnik, V.; Morozov, A.; Perelomov, A.
1986-01-01
Explicit formulae are obtained for two- and three-loop vacuum amplitudes in the theory of closed oriented bosonic strings at α=26 in terms of the theta-constants, with the module space being parametrized by period matrices
Experimental generation of complex noisy photonic entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dobek, K; Banaszek, K; Karpiński, M; Demkowicz-Dobrzański, R; Horodecki, P
2013-01-01
We present an experimental scheme based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion to produce multiple-photon pairs in maximally entangled polarization states using an arrangement of two type-I nonlinear crystals. By introducing correlated polarization noise in the paths of the generated photons we prepare mixed-entangled states whose properties illustrate fundamental results obtained recently in quantum information theory, in particular those concerning bound entanglement and privacy. (paper)
Incorporating parametric uncertainty into population viability analysis models
McGowan, Conor P.; Runge, Michael C.; Larson, Michael A.
2011-01-01
Uncertainty in parameter estimates from sampling variation or expert judgment can introduce substantial uncertainty into ecological predictions based on those estimates. However, in standard population viability analyses, one of the most widely used tools for managing plant, fish and wildlife populations, parametric uncertainty is often ignored in or discarded from model projections. We present a method for explicitly incorporating this source of uncertainty into population models to fully account for risk in management and decision contexts. Our method involves a two-step simulation process where parametric uncertainty is incorporated into the replication loop of the model and temporal variance is incorporated into the loop for time steps in the model. Using the piping plover, a federally threatened shorebird in the USA and Canada, as an example, we compare abundance projections and extinction probabilities from simulations that exclude and include parametric uncertainty. Although final abundance was very low for all sets of simulations, estimated extinction risk was much greater for the simulation that incorporated parametric uncertainty in the replication loop. Decisions about species conservation (e.g., listing, delisting, and jeopardy) might differ greatly depending on the treatment of parametric uncertainty in population models.
A capacitive ultrasonic transducer based on parametric resonance.
Surappa, Sushruta; Satir, Sarp; Levent Degertekin, F
2017-07-24
A capacitive ultrasonic transducer based on a parametric resonator structure is described and experimentally demonstrated. The transducer structure, which we call capacitive parametric ultrasonic transducer (CPUT), uses a parallel plate capacitor with a movable membrane as part of a degenerate parametric series RLC resonator circuit with a resonance frequency of f o . When the capacitor plate is driven with an incident harmonic ultrasonic wave at the pump frequency of 2f o with sufficient amplitude, the RLC circuit becomes unstable and ultrasonic energy can be efficiently converted to an electrical signal at f o frequency in the RLC circuit. An important characteristic of the CPUT is that unlike other electrostatic transducers, it does not require DC bias or permanent charging to be used as a receiver. We describe the operation of the CPUT using an analytical model and numerical simulations, which shows drive amplitude dependent operation regimes including parametric resonance when a certain threshold is exceeded. We verify these predictions by experiments with a micromachined membrane based capacitor structure in immersion where ultrasonic waves incident at 4.28 MHz parametrically drive a signal with significant amplitude in the 2.14 MHz RLC circuit. With its unique features, the CPUT can be particularly advantageous for applications such as wireless power transfer for biomedical implants and acoustic sensing.
Comparison of parametric and bootstrap method in bioequivalence test.
Ahn, Byung-Jin; Yim, Dong-Seok
2009-10-01
The estimation of 90% parametric confidence intervals (CIs) of mean AUC and Cmax ratios in bioequivalence (BE) tests are based upon the assumption that formulation effects in log-transformed data are normally distributed. To compare the parametric CIs with those obtained from nonparametric methods we performed repeated estimation of bootstrap-resampled datasets. The AUC and Cmax values from 3 archived datasets were used. BE tests on 1,000 resampled datasets from each archived dataset were performed using SAS (Enterprise Guide Ver.3). Bootstrap nonparametric 90% CIs of formulation effects were then compared with the parametric 90% CIs of the original datasets. The 90% CIs of formulation effects estimated from the 3 archived datasets were slightly different from nonparametric 90% CIs obtained from BE tests on resampled datasets. Histograms and density curves of formulation effects obtained from resampled datasets were similar to those of normal distribution. However, in 2 of 3 resampled log (AUC) datasets, the estimates of formulation effects did not follow the Gaussian distribution. Bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) CIs, one of the nonparametric CIs of formulation effects, shifted outside the parametric 90% CIs of the archived datasets in these 2 non-normally distributed resampled log (AUC) datasets. Currently, the 80~125% rule based upon the parametric 90% CIs is widely accepted under the assumption of normally distributed formulation effects in log-transformed data. However, nonparametric CIs may be a better choice when data do not follow this assumption.
A capacitive ultrasonic transducer based on parametric resonance
Surappa, Sushruta; Satir, Sarp; Levent Degertekin, F.
2017-07-01
A capacitive ultrasonic transducer based on a parametric resonator structure is described and experimentally demonstrated. The transducer structure, which we call capacitive parametric ultrasonic transducer (CPUT), uses a parallel plate capacitor with a movable membrane as part of a degenerate parametric series RLC resonator circuit with a resonance frequency of fo. When the capacitor plate is driven with an incident harmonic ultrasonic wave at the pump frequency of 2fo with sufficient amplitude, the RLC circuit becomes unstable and ultrasonic energy can be efficiently converted to an electrical signal at fo frequency in the RLC circuit. An important characteristic of the CPUT is that unlike other electrostatic transducers, it does not require DC bias or permanent charging to be used as a receiver. We describe the operation of the CPUT using an analytical model and numerical simulations, which shows drive amplitude dependent operation regimes including parametric resonance when a certain threshold is exceeded. We verify these predictions by experiments with a micromachined membrane based capacitor structure in immersion where ultrasonic waves incident at 4.28 MHz parametrically drive a signal with significant amplitude in the 2.14 MHz RLC circuit. With its unique features, the CPUT can be particularly advantageous for applications such as wireless power transfer for biomedical implants and acoustic sensing.
Magnetorheological fluid dampers: a review of parametric modelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, D H; Liao, W H
2011-01-01
Due to the inherent nonlinear nature of magnetorheological (MR) dampers, one of the challenging aspects for developing and utilizing these devices to achieve high performance is the development of models that can accurately describe their unique characteristics. In this review, the characteristics of MR dampers are summarized according to the measured responses under different conditions. On these bases, the considerations and methods of the parametric dynamic modelling for MR dampers are given and the state-of-the-art parametric dynamic modelling, identification and validation techniques for MR dampers are reviewed. In the past two decades, the models for MR dampers have been focused on how to improve the modelling accuracy. Although the force–displacement behaviour is well represented by most of the proposed dynamic models for MR dampers, no simple parametric models with high accuracy for MR dampers can be found. In addition, the parametric dynamic models for MR dampers with on-line updating ability and the inverse parametric models for MR dampers are scarcely explored. Moreover, whether one dynamic model for MR dampers can portray the force–displacement and force–velocity behaviour is not only determined by the dynamic model itself but also determined by the identification method. (topical review)
Observational Signatures of Parametric Instability at 1AU
Bowen, T. A.; Bale, S. D.; Badman, S.
2017-12-01
Observations and simulations of inertial compressive turbulence in the solar wind are characterized by density structures anti-correlated with magnetic fluctuations parallel to the mean field. This signature has been interpreted as observational evidence for non-propagating pressure balanced structures (PBS), kinetic ion acoustic waves, as well as the MHD slow mode. Recent work, specifically Verscharen et al. (2017), has highlighted the unexpected fluid like nature of the solar wind. Given the high damping rates of parallel propagating compressive fluctuations, their ubiquity in satellite observations is surprising and suggests the presence of a driving process. One possible candidate for the generation of compressive fluctuations in the solar wind is the parametric instability, in which large amplitude Alfvenic fluctuations decay into parallel propagating compressive waves. This work employs 10 years of WIND observations in order to test the parametric decay process as a source of compressive waves in the solar wind through comparing collisionless damping rates of compressive fluctuations with growth rates of the parametric instability. Preliminary results suggest that generation of compressive waves through parametric decay is overdamped at 1 AU. However, the higher parametric decay rates expected in the inner heliosphere likely allow for growth of the slow mode-the remnants of which could explain density fluctuations observed at 1AU.
Bootstrapping N=3 superconformal theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lemos, Madalena; Liendo, Pedro [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Meneghelli, Carlo [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States). Simons Center for Geometry and Physics; Mitev, Vladimir [Mainz Univ. (Germany). PRISMA Cluster of Excellence
2016-12-15
We initiate the bootstrap program for N=3 superconformal field theories (SCFTs) in four dimensions. The problem is considered from two fronts: the protected subsector described by a 2d chiral algebra, and crossing symmetry for half-BPS operators whose superconformal primaries parametrize the Coulomb branch of N=3 theories. With the goal of describing a protected subsector of a family of =3 SCFTs, we propose a new 2d chiral algebra with super Virasoro symmetry that depends on an arbitrary parameter, identified with the central charge of the theory. Turning to the crossing equations, we work out the superconformal block expansion and apply standard numerical bootstrap techniques in order to constrain the CFT data. We obtain bounds valid for any theory but also, thanks to input from the chiral algebra results, we are able to exclude solutions with N=4 supersymmetry, allowing us to zoom in on a specific N=3 SCFT.
Bootstrapping N=3 superconformal theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lemos, Madalena; Liendo, Pedro [DESY Hamburg, Theory Group,Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Meneghelli, Carlo [Simons Center for Geometry and Physics,Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3636 (United States); Mitev, Vladimir [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Institut für Physik,JGU Mainz, Staudingerweg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany)
2017-04-06
We initiate the bootstrap program for N=3 superconformal field theories (SCFTs) in four dimensions. The problem is considered from two fronts: the protected subsector described by a 2d chiral algebra, and crossing symmetry for half-BPS operators whose superconformal primaries parametrize the Coulomb branch of N=3 theories. With the goal of describing a protected subsector of a family of N=3 SCFTs, we propose a new 2d chiral algebra with super Virasoro symmetry that depends on an arbitrary parameter, identified with the central charge of the theory. Turning to the crossing equations, we work out the superconformal block expansion and apply standard numerical bootstrap techniques in order to constrain the CFT data. We obtain bounds valid for any theory but also, thanks to input from the chiral algebra results, we are able to exclude solutions with N=4 supersymmetry, allowing us to zoom in on a specific N=3 SCFT.
Parametric excitation of a SiN membrane via piezoelectricity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuhui Wu
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We develop a stoichiometric silicon nitride (SiN membrane-based electromechanical system, in which the spring constant of the mechanical resonator can be dynamically controlled via piezoelectric actuation. The degenerate parametric amplifier is studied in this configuration. We observe the splitting of mechanical mode in the response spectra of a phase-sensitive parametric amplifier. In addition, we demonstrate that the quality factor Q of the membrane oscillator can be significantly enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude due to the coherent amplification, reaching an effective Q factor of ∼3 × 108 at room temperature. The nonlinear effect on the parametric amplification is also investigated, as well as the thermomechanical noise squeezing. This system offers the possibility to integrate electrical, optical and mechanical degrees of freedom without compromising the exceptional material properties of SiN membranes, and can be a useful platform for studying cavity optoelectromechanics.
Parametric excitation of a SiN membrane via piezoelectricity
Wu, Shuhui; Sheng, Jiteng; Zhang, Xiaotian; Wu, Yuelong; Wu, Haibin
2018-01-01
We develop a stoichiometric silicon nitride (SiN) membrane-based electromechanical system, in which the spring constant of the mechanical resonator can be dynamically controlled via piezoelectric actuation. The degenerate parametric amplifier is studied in this configuration. We observe the splitting of mechanical mode in the response spectra of a phase-sensitive parametric amplifier. In addition, we demonstrate that the quality factor Q of the membrane oscillator can be significantly enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude due to the coherent amplification, reaching an effective Q factor of ˜3 × 108 at room temperature. The nonlinear effect on the parametric amplification is also investigated, as well as the thermomechanical noise squeezing. This system offers the possibility to integrate electrical, optical and mechanical degrees of freedom without compromising the exceptional material properties of SiN membranes, and can be a useful platform for studying cavity optoelectromechanics.
Parametric Resonance in a Time-Dependent Harmonic Oscillator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. N. Nesterov
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we study the phenomenon of appearance of new resonances in a timedependent harmonic oscillator under an oscillatory decreasing force. The studied equation belongs to the class of adiabatic oscillators and arises in connection with the spectral problem for the one-dimensional Schr¨odinger equation with Wigner–von Neumann type potential. We use a specially developed method for asymptotic integration of linear systems of differential equations with oscillatory decreasing coefficients. This method uses the ideas of the averaging method to simplify the initial system. Then we apply Levinson’s fundamental theorem to get the asymptotics for its solutions. Finally, we analyze the features of a parametric resonance phenomenon. The resonant frequencies of perturbation are found and the pointwise type of the parametric resonance phenomenon is established. In conclusion, we construct an example of a time-dependent harmonic oscillator (adiabatic oscillator in which the parametric resonances, mentioned in the paper, may occur.
Circulation and Directional Amplification in the Josephson Parametric Converter
Hatridge, Michael
Nonreciprocal transport and directional amplification of weak microwave signals are fundamental ingredients in performing efficient measurements of quantum states of flying microwave light. This challenge has been partly met, as quantum-limited amplification is now regularly achieved with parametrically-driven, Josephson-junction based superconducting circuits. However, these devices are typically non-directional, requiring external circulators to separate incoming and outgoing signals. Recently this limitation has been overcome by several proposals and experimental realizations of both directional amplifiers and circulators based on interference between several parametric processes in a single device. This new class of multi-parametrically driven devices holds the promise of achieving a variety of desirable characteristics simultaneously- directionality, reduced gain-bandwidth constraints and quantum-limited added noise, and are good candidates for on-chip integration with other superconducting circuits such as qubits.
Simulation-based optimization parametric optimization techniques and reinforcement learning
Gosavi, Abhijit
2003-01-01
Simulation-Based Optimization: Parametric Optimization Techniques and Reinforcement Learning introduces the evolving area of simulation-based optimization. The book's objective is two-fold: (1) It examines the mathematical governing principles of simulation-based optimization, thereby providing the reader with the ability to model relevant real-life problems using these techniques. (2) It outlines the computational technology underlying these methods. Taken together these two aspects demonstrate that the mathematical and computational methods discussed in this book do work. Broadly speaking, the book has two parts: (1) parametric (static) optimization and (2) control (dynamic) optimization. Some of the book's special features are: *An accessible introduction to reinforcement learning and parametric-optimization techniques. *A step-by-step description of several algorithms of simulation-based optimization. *A clear and simple introduction to the methodology of neural networks. *A gentle introduction to converg...
Wind Farm parametrization in the mesoscale model WRF
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Volker, Patrick; Badger, Jake; Hahmann, Andrea N.
2012-01-01
, but are parametrized as another sub-grid scale process. In order to appropriately capture the wind farm wake recovery and its direction, two properties are important, among others, the total energy extracted by the wind farm and its velocity deficit distribution. In the considered parametrization the individual...... the extracted force is proportional to the turbine area interfacing a grid cell. The sub-grid scale wake expansion is achieved by adding turbulence kinetic energy (proportional to the extracted power) to the flow. The validity of both wind farm parametrizations has been verified against observational data. We...... turbines produce a thrust dependent on the background velocity. For the sub-grid scale velocity deficit, the entrainment from the free atmospheric flow into the wake region, which is responsible for the expansion, is taken into account. Furthermore, since the model horizontal distance is several times...
Noise-enhanced Parametric Resonance in Perturbed Galaxies
Sideris, Ioannis V.; Kandrup, Henry E.
2004-02-01
This paper describes how parametric resonances associated with a galactic potential subjected to relatively low-amplitude, strictly periodic time-dependent perturbations can be impacted by pseudo-random variations in the pulsation frequency, modeled as colored noise. One aim thereby is to allow for the effects of a changing oscillation frequency as the density distribution associated with a galaxy evolves during violent relaxation. Another is to mimic the possible effects of internal substructures, satellite galaxies, and/or a high-density environment. The principal conclusions are that allowing for a variable frequency does not vitiate the effects of parametric resonance, and that, in at least some cases, such variations can increase the overall importance of parametric resonance associated with systematic pulsations. In memory of Professor H. E. Kandrup, a brilliant scientist, excellent teacher, and good friend. His genius and sense of humor will be greatly missed.
The parametric resonance—from LEGO Mindstorms to cold atoms
Kawalec, Tomasz; Sierant, Aleksandra
2017-07-01
We show an experimental setup based on a popular LEGO Mindstorms set, allowing us to both observe and investigate the parametric resonance phenomenon. The presented method is simple but covers a variety of student activities like embedded software development, conducting measurements, data collection and analysis. It may be used during science shows, as part of student projects and to illustrate the parametric resonance in mechanics or even quantum physics, during lectures or classes. The parametrically driven LEGO pendulum gains energy in a spectacular way, increasing its amplitude from 10° to about 100° within a few tens of seconds. We provide also a short description of a wireless absolute orientation sensor that may be used in quantitative analysis of driven or free pendulum movement.
The parametric resonance—from LEGO Mindstorms to cold atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawalec, Tomasz; Sierant, Aleksandra
2017-01-01
We show an experimental setup based on a popular LEGO Mindstorms set, allowing us to both observe and investigate the parametric resonance phenomenon. The presented method is simple but covers a variety of student activities like embedded software development, conducting measurements, data collection and analysis. It may be used during science shows, as part of student projects and to illustrate the parametric resonance in mechanics or even quantum physics, during lectures or classes. The parametrically driven LEGO pendulum gains energy in a spectacular way, increasing its amplitude from 10° to about 100° within a few tens of seconds. We provide also a short description of a wireless absolute orientation sensor that may be used in quantitative analysis of driven or free pendulum movement. (paper)
Epicyclic helical channels for parametric resonance ionization cooling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johson, Rolland Paul [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Derbenev, Yaroslav [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)
2015-08-23
Proposed next-generation muon colliders will require major technical advances to achieve rapid muon beam cooling requirements. Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) is proposed as the final 6D cooling stage of a high-luminosity muon collider. In PIC, a half-integer parametric resonance causes strong focusing of a muon beam at appropriately placed energy absorbers while ionization cooling limits the beam’s angular spread. Combining muon ionization cooling with parametric resonant dynamics in this way should then allow much smaller final transverse muon beam sizes than conventional ionization cooling alone. One of the PIC challenges is compensation of beam aberrations over a sufficiently wide parameter range while maintaining the dynamical stability with correlated behavior of the horizontal and vertical betatron motion and dispersion. We explore use of a coupling resonance to reduce the dimensionality of the problem and to shift the dynamics away from non-linear resonances. PIC simulations are presented.
Parametric Resonance in the Early Universe - A Fitting Analysis
Figueroa, Daniel G.
2017-02-01
Particle production via parametric resonance in the early Universe, is a non-perturbative, non-linear and out-of-equilibrium phenomenon. Although it is a well studied topic, whenever a new scenario exhibits parametric resonance, a full re-analysis is normally required. To avoid this tedious task, many works present often only a simplified linear treatment of the problem. In order to surpass this circumstance in the future, we provide a fitting analysis of parametric resonance through all its relevant stages: initial linear growth, non-linear evolution, and relaxation towards equilibrium. Using lattice simulations in an expanding grid in $3+1$ dimensions, we parametrise the dynamics' outcome scanning over the relevant ingredients: role of the oscillatory field, particle coupling strength, initial conditions, and background expansion rate. We emphasise the inaccuracy of the linear calculation of the decay time of the oscillatory field, and propose a more appropriate definition of this scale based on the subsequ...
Parametric Hidden Markov Models for Recognition and Synthesis of Movements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Herzog, Dennis; Krüger, Volker; Grest, Daniel
2008-01-01
In humanoid robotics, the recognition and synthesis of parametric movements plays an extraordinary role for robot human interaction. Such a parametric movement is a movement of a particular type (semantic), for example, similar pointing movements performed at different table-top positions....... For understanding the whole meaning of a movement of a human, the recognition of its type, likewise its parameterization are important. Only both together convey the whole meaning. Vice versa, for mimicry, the synthesis of movements for the motor control of a robot needs to be parameterized, e.g., by the relative...... the applicability for online recognition based on very noisy 3D tracking data. The use of a parametric representation of movements is shown in a robot demo, where a robot removes objects from a table as demonstrated by an advisor. The synthesis for motor control is performed for arbitrary table-top positions....
Implementing quantum optics with parametrically driven superconducting circuits
Aumentado, Jose
Parametric coupling has received much attention, in part because it forms the core of many low-noise amplifiers in superconducting quantum information experiments. However, parametric coupling in superconducting circuits is, as a general rule, simple to generate and forms the basis of a methodology for interacting microwave fields at different frequencies. In the quantum regime, this has important consequences, allowing relative novices to do experiments in superconducting circuits today that were previously heroic efforts in quantum optics and cavity-QED. In this talk, I'll give an overview of some of our work demonstrating parametric coupling within the context of circuit-QED as well as some of the possibilities this concept creates in our field.
Siciliani, Luigi
2006-01-01
Policy makers are increasingly interested in developing performance indicators that measure hospital efficiency. These indicators may give the purchasers of health services an additional regulatory tool to contain health expenditure. Using panel data, this study compares different parametric (econometric) and non-parametric (linear programming) techniques for the measurement of a hospital's technical efficiency. This comparison was made using a sample of 17 Italian hospitals in the years 1996-9. Highest correlations are found in the efficiency scores between the non-parametric data envelopment analysis under the constant returns to scale assumption (DEA-CRS) and several parametric models. Correlation reduces markedly when using more flexible non-parametric specifications such as data envelopment analysis under the variable returns to scale assumption (DEA-VRS) and the free disposal hull (FDH) model. Correlation also generally reduces when moving from one output to two-output specifications. This analysis suggests that there is scope for developing performance indicators at hospital level using panel data, but it is important that extensive sensitivity analysis is carried out if purchasers wish to make use of these indicators in practice.
Machine learning-based dual-energy CT parametric mapping.
Su, Kuan-Hao; Kuo, Jung-Wen; Jordan, David W; Van Hedent, Steven; Klahr, Paul; Wei, Zhouping; Al Helo, Rose; Liang, Fan; Qian, Pengjiang; Pereira, Gisele C; Rassouli, Negin; Gilkeson, Robert C; Traughber, Bryan J; Cheng, Chee-Wai; Muzic, Raymond F
2018-05-22
The aim is to develop and evaluate machine learning methods for generating quantitative parametric maps of effective atomic number (Z_{eff}), relative electron density (ρ_{e}), mean excitation energy (I_{x}), and relative stopping power (RSP) from clinical dual-energy CT data. The maps could be used for material identification and radiation dose calculation. Machine learning methods of historical centroid (HC), random forest (RF), and artificial neural networks (ANN) were used to learn the relationship between dual-energy CT input data and ideal output parametric maps calculated for phantoms from the known compositions of 13 tissue substitutes. After training and model selection steps, the machine learning predictors were used to generate parametric maps from independent phantom and patient input data. Precision and accuracy were evaluated using the ideal maps. This process was repeated for a range of exposure doses, and performance was compared to that of the clinically-used dual-energy, physics-based method which served as the reference. The machine learning methods generated more accurate and precise parametric maps than those obtained using the reference method. Their performance advantage was particularly evident when using data from the lowest exposure, one-fifth of a typical clinical abdomen CT acquisition. The RF method achieved the greatest accuracy. In comparison, the ANN method was only 1% less accurate but had much better computational efficiency than RF, being able to produce parametric maps in 15 seconds. Machine learning methods outperformed the reference method in terms of accuracy and noise tolerance when generating parametric maps, encouraging further exploration of the techniques. Among the methods we evaluated, ANN is the most suitable for clinical use due to its combination of accuracy, excellent low-noise performance, and computational efficiency. . © 2018 Institute of Physics and Engineering in
The impact of parametrized convection on cloud feedback
Webb, Mark J.; Lock, Adrian P.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Bony, Sandrine; Cole, Jason N. S.; Idelkadi, Abderrahmane; Kang, Sarah M.; Koshiro, Tsuyoshi; Kawai, Hideaki; Ogura, Tomoo; Roehrig, Romain; Shin, Yechul; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Sherwood, Steven C.; Vial, Jessica; Watanabe, Masahiro; Woelfle, Matthew D.; Zhao, Ming
2015-01-01
We investigate the sensitivity of cloud feedbacks to the use of convective parametrizations by repeating the CMIP5/CFMIP-2 AMIP/AMIP + 4K uniform sea surface temperature perturbation experiments with 10 climate models which have had their convective parametrizations turned off. Previous studies have suggested that differences between parametrized convection schemes are a leading source of inter-model spread in cloud feedbacks. We find however that ‘ConvOff’ models with convection switched off have a similar overall range of cloud feedbacks compared with the standard configurations. Furthermore, applying a simple bias correction method to allow for differences in present-day global cloud radiative effects substantially reduces the differences between the cloud feedbacks with and without parametrized convection in the individual models. We conclude that, while parametrized convection influences the strength of the cloud feedbacks substantially in some models, other processes must also contribute substantially to the overall inter-model spread. The positive shortwave cloud feedbacks seen in the models in subtropical regimes associated with shallow clouds are still present in the ConvOff experiments. Inter-model spread in shortwave cloud feedback increases slightly in regimes associated with trade cumulus in the ConvOff experiments but is quite similar in the most stable subtropical regimes associated with stratocumulus clouds. Inter-model spread in longwave cloud feedbacks in strongly precipitating regions of the tropics is substantially reduced in the ConvOff experiments however, indicating a considerable local contribution from differences in the details of convective parametrizations. In both standard and ConvOff experiments, models with less mid-level cloud and less moist static energy near the top of the boundary layer tend to have more positive tropical cloud feedbacks. The role of non-convective processes in contributing to inter-model spread in cloud
Using non-parametric methods in econometric production analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard; Henningsen, Arne
Econometric estimation of production functions is one of the most common methods in applied economic production analysis. These studies usually apply parametric estimation techniques, which obligate the researcher to specify the functional form of the production function. Most often, the Cobb...... results—including measures that are of interest of applied economists, such as elasticities. Therefore, we propose to use nonparametric econometric methods. First, they can be applied to verify the functional form used in parametric estimations of production functions. Second, they can be directly used...
Spin effect on parametric interactions of waves in magnetoplasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shahid, M.; Melrose, D. B.; Jamil, M.; Murtaza, G.
2012-01-01
The parametric decay instability of upper hybrid wave into low-frequency electromagnetic Shear Alfvén wave and Ordinary mode radiation (O-mode) has been investigated in an electron-ion plasma immersed in the uniform external magnetic field. Incorporating quantum effect due to electron spin, the fluid model has been used to investigate the linear and nonlinear response of the plasma species for three-wave coupling in a magnetoplasma. It is shown that the spin of electrons has considerable effect on the parametric decay of upper hybrid wave into Ordinary mode radiation (O-mode) and Shear Alfvén wave even in classical regime.
Early Detection of Parametric Roll Resonance on Container Ships
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad
2013-01-01
Parametric roll resonance on ships is a nonlinear phenomenon where waves encountered at twice the natural roll frequency can bring the vessel dynamics into a bifurcation mode and lead to extreme values of roll. Recent years have seen several incidents with dramatic damage to container vessels...... the ship's speed and course, to escape from the bifurcation condition. This paper proposes nonparametric methods to detect the onset of roll resonance and demonstrates their performance. Theoretical conditions for parametric resonance are revisited and are used to develop efficient methods to detect its...... on experimental data from model tests and on data from a container ship crossing the Atlantic during a storm....
On the parametrization of the Δ residue function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasan, S.S.
1976-01-01
The complex residues at the Δ(1236) and Δ(1950) poles in the relevant partial-wave amplitudes provide information on the behaviour of the Δ Regge residue function in the resonance region u>0. Attempts to incorporate this information in parametrizations of the residue by functions that are real on the real u-axis result in residues which have unsatisfactory behaviour in the region u 2 . The choice of complex functions for the trajectory and residue removes this undesirable feature and provides a better representation of the residue in the resonance region, suggesting that complex parametrizations would be better suited to Regge analyses of near-backward scattering. (Auth.)
Dispersion-Engineered Traveling Wave Kinetic Inductance Parametric Amplifier
Zmuidzinas, Jonas (Inventor); Day, Peter K. (Inventor)
2014-01-01
A traveling wave kinetic inductance parametric amplifier comprises a superconducting transmission line and a dispersion control element. The transmission line can include periodic variations of its dimension along its length. The superconducting material can include a high normal state resistivity material. In some instances the high normal state resistivity material includes nitrogen and a metal selected from the group consisting of titanium, niobium and vanadium. The traveling wave kinetic inductance parametric amplifier is expected to exhibit a noise temperature below 100 mK/GHz.
Frequency comb generation in a continuously pumped optical parametric oscillator
Mosca, S.; Parisi, M.; Ricciardi, I.; Leo, F.; Hansson, T.; Erkintalo, M.; Maddaloni, P.; De Natale, P.; Wabnitz, S.; De Rosa, M.
2018-02-01
We demonstrate optical frequency comb generation in a continuously pumped optical parametric oscillator, in the parametric region around half of the pump frequency. We also model the dynamics of such quadratic combs using a single time-domain mean-field equation, and obtain simulation results that are in good agreement with experimentally observed spectra. Moreover, we numerically investigate the coherence properties of simulated combs, showing the existence of correlated and phase-locked combs. Our work could pave the way for a new class of frequency comb sources, which may enable straightforward access to new spectral regions and stimulate novel applications of frequency combs.
Parametric study of prospective early commercial OCMHD power plants /PSPEC/
Marston, C. H.; Bender, D. J.; Hnat, J. G.; Dellinger, T. C.
1980-06-01
The paper presents a parametric study conducted to obtain the performance, economics, natural resource requirements, and environmental impact of moderate technology MHD/steam power plants that do not require development of direct-fired high-temperature air heaters. The study was divided into three base cases, each with a reference case and parametric variations. The case using recuperative air preheat in the range of 1000 F to 1300 F, combined with O2 enrichment to 42% by volume has been selected for conceptual design.
On the parametric cyclotron heating of a toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golovanivsky, K.C.; Punithavelu, A.M.
1976-01-01
The possibility of heating the ionic component of a dense plasma at the parametric cyclotron resonance, using a section of the conducting toroidal chamber of a large scale Tokamak as a resonance cavity, is considered. It is suggested to use the mode TE 011 to overcome the difficulties with the penetration of HF fields into such a dense plasma. The experimental investigation of parametric cyclotron heating of electrons in a overdense plasma (n/nsub(cut off)=10 2 ) on such a model has given hopeful results
Synchronously Pumped Optical Parametric Oscillator with Intracavity Difference Frequency Mixing
1998-06-29
departing from the Rrpubbc of Panama when traveling on official orders." * " De eonfortnidad con el Parrafo 5u) del Articulo XVII del Acuerdo para U...isotopic photochemistry using an optical parametric oscillator and a down converter," J. Opt. ( Paris ), , no. 14, pp. 43-48, 1983. [4] J. D. Kafka, M. L...isotopic photochemistry using an optical parametric oscillator and a down converter," J. Opt. ( Paris ), , no. 14, pp. 43-48, 1983. [4] J. D. Kafka, M. L
A parametric LTR solution for discrete-time systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niemann, Hans Henrik; Jannerup, Ole Erik
1989-01-01
A parametric LTR (loop transfer recovery) solution for discrete-time compensators incorporating filtering observers which achieve exact recovery is presented for both minimum- and non-minimum-phase systems. First the recovery error, which defines the difference between the target loop transfer...... and the full loop transfer function, is manipulated into a general form involving the target loop transfer matrix and the fundamental recovery matrix. A parametric LTR solution based on the recovery matrix is developed. It is shown that the LQR/LTR (linear quadratic Gaussian/loop transfer recovery) solution...
Theoretical and algorithmic advances in multi-parametric programming and control
Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.; Dominguez, Luis; Panos, Christos; Kouramas, Konstantinos; Chinchuluun, Altannar
2012-01-01
This paper presents an overview of recent theoretical and algorithmic advances, and applications in the areas of multi-parametric programming and explicit/multi-parametric model predictive control (mp-MPC). In multi-parametric programming, advances include areas such as nonlinear multi-parametric programming (mp-NLP), bi-level programming, dynamic programming and global optimization for multi-parametric mixed-integer linear programming problems (mp-MILPs). In multi-parametric/explicit MPC (mp-MPC), advances include areas such as robust multi-parametric control, multi-parametric nonlinear MPC (mp-NMPC) and model reduction in mp-MPC. A comprehensive framework for multi-parametric programming and control is also presented. Recent applications include a hydrogen storage device, a fuel cell power generation system, an unmanned autonomous vehicle (UAV) and a hybrid pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.
Theoretical and algorithmic advances in multi-parametric programming and control
Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.
2012-04-21
This paper presents an overview of recent theoretical and algorithmic advances, and applications in the areas of multi-parametric programming and explicit/multi-parametric model predictive control (mp-MPC). In multi-parametric programming, advances include areas such as nonlinear multi-parametric programming (mp-NLP), bi-level programming, dynamic programming and global optimization for multi-parametric mixed-integer linear programming problems (mp-MILPs). In multi-parametric/explicit MPC (mp-MPC), advances include areas such as robust multi-parametric control, multi-parametric nonlinear MPC (mp-NMPC) and model reduction in mp-MPC. A comprehensive framework for multi-parametric programming and control is also presented. Recent applications include a hydrogen storage device, a fuel cell power generation system, an unmanned autonomous vehicle (UAV) and a hybrid pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.
Simple down conversion nano-crystal coatings for enhancing Silicon-solar cells efficiency
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gur Mittelman
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Utilizing self-assembled nano-structured coatings on top of existing solar cells has thepotential to increase the total quantum efficiency of the cell using a simple and cheap process. In ourwork we have exploited the controlled absorption of nano-crystal with different band gaps to realizedown conversion artificial antennas that self-assembled on the device surface. The UV sun light isconverted to the visible light enhancing the solar cell performance in two complementary routes; a.protecting the solar cell and coatings from the UV illumination and therefore reducing the UVradiation damage. b. enhancing the total external quantum efficiency of the cell by one percent. Thisis achieved using a simple cheap process that can be adjusted to many different solar cells.
Enhancing the Photovoltaic Performance of Perovskite Solar Cells with a Down-Conversion Eu-Complex.
Jiang, Ling; Chen, Wangchao; Zheng, Jiawei; Zhu, Liangzheng; Mo, Li'e; Li, Zhaoqian; Hu, Linhua; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Zhang, Changneng; Dai, Songyuan
2017-08-16
Organometal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have shown high photovoltaic performance but poor utilization of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Lanthanide complexes have a wide absorption range in the UV region and they can down-convert the absorbed UV light into visible light, which provides a possibility for PSCs to utilize UV light for higher photocurrent, efficiency, and stability. In this study, we use a transparent luminescent down-converting layer (LDL) of Eu-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Eu-complex) to improve the light utilization efficiency of PSCs. Compared with the uncoated PSC, the PSC coated with Eu-complex LDL on the reverse of the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass displayed an enhancement of 11.8% in short-circuit current density (J sc ) and 15.3% in efficiency due to the Eu-complex LDL re-emitting UV light (300-380 nm) in the visible range. It is indicated that the Eu-complex LDL plays the role of enhancing the power conversion efficiency as well as reducing UV degradation for PSCs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sandvik Leiv
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of events per individual is a widely reported variable in medical research papers. Such variables are the most common representation of the general variable type called discrete numerical. There is currently no consensus on how to compare and present such variables, and recommendations are lacking. The objective of this paper is to present recommendations for analysis and presentation of results for discrete numerical variables. Methods Two simulation studies were used to investigate the performance of hypothesis tests and confidence interval methods for variables with outcomes {0, 1, 2}, {0, 1, 2, 3}, {0, 1, 2, 3, 4}, and {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, using the difference between the means as an effect measure. Results The Welch U test (the T test with adjustment for unequal variances and its associated confidence interval performed well for almost all situations considered. The Brunner-Munzel test also performed well, except for small sample sizes (10 in each group. The ordinary T test, the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test, the percentile bootstrap interval, and the bootstrap-t interval did not perform satisfactorily. Conclusions The difference between the means is an appropriate effect measure for comparing two independent discrete numerical variables that has both lower and upper bounds. To analyze this problem, we encourage more frequent use of parametric hypothesis tests and confidence intervals.
Measuring energy performance with sectoral heterogeneity: A non-parametric frontier approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, H.; Ang, B.W.; Wang, Q.W.; Zhou, P.
2017-01-01
Evaluating economy-wide energy performance is an integral part of assessing the effectiveness of a country's energy efficiency policy. Non-parametric frontier approach has been widely used by researchers for such a purpose. This paper proposes an extended non-parametric frontier approach to studying economy-wide energy efficiency and productivity performances by accounting for sectoral heterogeneity. Relevant techniques in index number theory are incorporated to quantify the driving forces behind changes in the economy-wide energy productivity index. The proposed approach facilitates flexible modelling of different sectors' production processes, and helps to examine sectors' impact on the aggregate energy performance. A case study of China's economy-wide energy efficiency and productivity performances in its 11th five-year plan period (2006–2010) is presented. It is found that sectoral heterogeneities in terms of energy performance are significant in China. Meanwhile, China's economy-wide energy productivity increased slightly during the study period, mainly driven by the technical efficiency improvement. A number of other findings have also been reported. - Highlights: • We model economy-wide energy performance by considering sectoral heterogeneity. • The proposed approach can identify sectors' impact on the aggregate energy performance. • Obvious sectoral heterogeneities are identified in evaluating China's energy performance.
On minimally parametric primordial power spectrum reconstruction and the evidence for a red tilt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verde, Licia; Peiris, Hiranya
2008-01-01
The latest cosmological data seem to indicate a significant deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power spectrum when parameterized either by a power law or by a spectral index with non-zero 'running'. This deviation, by itself, serves as a powerful tool for discriminating among theories for the origin of cosmological structures such as inflationary models. Here, we use a minimally parametric smoothing spline technique to reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum. This technique is well suited to searching for smooth features in the primordial power spectrum such as deviations from scale invariance or a running spectral index, although it would recover sharp features of high statistical significance. We use the WMAP three-year results in combination with data from a suite of higher resolution cosmic microwave background experiments (including the latest ACBAR 2008 release), as well as large-scale structure data from SDSS and 2dFGRS. We employ cross-validation to assess, using the data themselves, the optimal amount of smoothness in the primordial power spectrum consistent with the data. This minimally parametric reconstruction supports the evidence for a power law primordial power spectrum with a red tilt, but not for deviations from a power law power spectrum. Smooth variations in the primordial power spectrum are not significantly degenerate with the other cosmological parameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Riccardo Trinchero
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a general purpose, algebraic tool—named TMsim—for the combined parametric and worst-case analysis of systems with bounded uncertain parameters. The tool is based on the theory of Taylor models and represents uncertain variables on a bounded domain in terms of a Taylor polynomial plus an interval remainder accounting for truncation and round-off errors. This representation is propagated from inputs to outputs by means of a suitable redefinition of the involved calculations, in both scalar and matrix form. The polynomial provides a parametric approximation of the variable, while the remainder gives a conservative bound of the associated error. The combination between the bound of the polynomial and the interval remainder provides an estimation of the overall (worst-case bound of the variable. After a preliminary theoretical background, the tool (freely available online is introduced step by step along with the necessary theoretical notions. As a validation, it is applied to illustrative examples as well as to real-life problems of relevance in electrical engineering applications, specifically a quarter-car model and a continuous-time linear equalizer.
Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Hidalgo, María Dolores; Guilera, Georgina; Pino, Oscar; Rojo, J Emilio; Gómez-Benito, Juana
2015-03-01
The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II) is a multidimensional instrument developed for measuring disability. It comprises six domains (getting around, self-care, getting along with others, life activities and participation in society). The main purpose of this paper is the evaluation of the psychometric properties for each domain of the WHO-DAS II with parametric and non-parametric Item Response Theory (IRT) models. A secondary objective is to assess whether the WHO-DAS II items within each domain form a hierarchy of invariantly ordered severity indicators of disability. A sample of 352 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder is used in this study. The 36 items WHO-DAS II was administered during the consultation. Partial Credit and Mokken scale models are used to study the psychometric properties of the questionnaire. The psychometric properties of the WHO-DAS II scale are satisfactory for all the domains. However, we identify a few items that do not discriminate satisfactorily between different levels of disability and cannot be invariantly ordered in the scale. In conclusion the WHO-DAS II can be used to assess overall disability in patients with schizophrenia, but some domains are too general to assess functionality in these patients because they contain items that are not applicable to this pathology. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Parametric instability analysis of truncated conical shells using the Haar wavelet method
Dai, Qiyi; Cao, Qingjie
2018-05-01
In this paper, the Haar wavelet method is employed to analyze the parametric instability of truncated conical shells under static and time dependent periodic axial loads. The present work is based on the Love first-approximation theory for classical thin shells. The displacement field is expressed as the Haar wavelet series in the axial direction and trigonometric functions in the circumferential direction. Then the partial differential equations are reduced into a system of coupled Mathieu-type ordinary differential equations describing dynamic instability behavior of the shell. Using Bolotin's method, the first-order and second-order approximations of principal instability regions are determined. The correctness of present method is examined by comparing the results with those in the literature and very good agreement is observed. The difference between the first-order and second-order approximations of principal instability regions for tensile and compressive loads is also investigated. Finally, numerical results are presented to bring out the influences of various parameters like static load factors, boundary conditions and shell geometrical characteristics on the domains of parametric instability of conical shells.
Observation of parametric X-ray radiation in an anomalous diffraction region
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alexeyev, V.I., E-mail: vial@x4u.lebedev.ru [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, 53 Leninskiy prospect, Moscow (Russian Federation); Belgorod National Research University, 85 Pobedy st., Belgorod (Russian Federation); Eliseyev, A.N., E-mail: elisseev@pluton.lpi.troitsk.ru [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, 53 Leninskiy prospect, Moscow (Russian Federation); Belgorod National Research University, 85 Pobedy st., Belgorod (Russian Federation); Irribarra, E., E-mail: esteban.irribarra@epn.edu.ec [Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Ladrón de Guevara E11-253, Quito (Ecuador); Kishin, I.A., E-mail: ivan.kishin@mail.ru [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, 53 Leninskiy prospect, Moscow (Russian Federation); Belgorod National Research University, 85 Pobedy st., Belgorod (Russian Federation); Kubankin, A.S., E-mail: kubankin@bsu.edu.ru [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, 53 Leninskiy prospect, Moscow (Russian Federation); Belgorod National Research University, 85 Pobedy st., Belgorod (Russian Federation); Nazhmudinov, R.M., E-mail: fizeg@bk.ru [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, 53 Leninskiy prospect, Moscow (Russian Federation); Belgorod National Research University, 85 Pobedy st., Belgorod (Russian Federation)
2016-08-19
A new possibility to expand the energy region of diffraction processes based on the interaction of relativistic charged particles with crystalline structures is presented. Diffracted photons related to parametric X-ray radiation produced by relativistic electrons are detected below the low energy threshold for the X-ray diffraction mechanism in crystalline structures for the first time. The measurements were performed during the interaction of 7 MeV electrons with a textured polycrystalline tungsten foil and a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite crystal. The experiment results are in good agreement with a developed model based on the PXR kinematical theory. The developed experimental approach can be applied to separate the contributions of real and virtual photons to the total diffracted radiation generated during the interaction of relativistic charged particles with crystalline targets. - Highlights: • Parametric X-ray radiation below the low energy threshold for diffraction of free X-rays. • Experimental separation of the contributions from different radiation mechanisms. • PXR from relativistic electrons in mosaic crystals and textured polycrystlas.
Parametrizing the Reionization History with the Redshift Midpoint, Duration, and Asymmetry
Trac, Hy
2018-05-01
A new parametrization of the reionization history is presented to facilitate robust comparisons between different observations and with theory. The evolution of the ionization fraction with redshift can be effectively captured by specifying the midpoint, duration, and asymmetry parameters. Lagrange interpolating functions are then used to construct analytical curves that exactly fit corresponding ionization points. The shape parametrizations are excellent matches to theoretical results from radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. The comparative differences for reionization observables are: ionization fraction | {{Δ }}{x}{{i}}| ≲ 0.03, 21 cm brightness temperature | {{Δ }}{T}{{b}}| ≲ 0.7 {mK}, Thomson optical depth | {{Δ }}τ | ≲ 0.001, and patchy kinetic Sunyaev–Zel’dovich angular power | {{Δ }}{D}{\\ell }| ≲ 0.1 μ {{{K}}}2. This accurate and flexible approach will allow parameter-space studies and self-consistent constraints on the reionization history from 21 cm, cosmic microwave background (CMB), and high-redshift galaxies and quasars.
Schuitemaker, Alie; van Berckel, Bart N M; Kropholler, Marc A; Veltman, Dick J; Scheltens, Philip; Jonker, Cees; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Boellaard, Ronald
2007-05-01
(R)-[11C]PK11195 has been used for quantifying cerebral microglial activation in vivo. In previous studies, both plasma input and reference tissue methods have been used, usually in combination with a region of interest (ROI) approach. Definition of ROIs, however, can be labourious and prone to interobserver variation. In addition, results are only obtained for predefined areas and (unexpected) signals in undefined areas may be missed. On the other hand, standard pharmacokinetic models are too sensitive to noise to calculate (R)-[11C]PK11195 binding on a voxel-by-voxel basis. Linearised versions of both plasma input and reference tissue models have been described, and these are more suitable for parametric imaging. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of these plasma input and reference tissue parametric methods on the outcome of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of (R)-[11C]PK11195 binding. Dynamic (R)-[11C]PK11195 PET scans with arterial blood sampling were performed in 7 younger and 11 elderly healthy subjects. Parametric images of volume of distribution (Vd) and binding potential (BP) were generated using linearised versions of plasma input (Logan) and reference tissue (Reference Parametric Mapping) models. Images were compared at the group level using SPM with a two-sample t-test per voxel, both with and without proportional scaling. Parametric BP images without scaling provided the most sensitive framework for determining differences in (R)-[11C]PK11195 binding between younger and elderly subjects. Vd images could only demonstrate differences in (R)-[11C]PK11195 binding when analysed with proportional scaling due to intersubject variation in K1/k2 (blood-brain barrier transport and non-specific binding).
Parametric decay of lower hybrid wave into drift waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanuki, Heiji.
1976-12-01
A dispersion relation describing the parametric decay of a lower hybrid wave into an electrostatic drift wave and a drift Alfven wave is derived for an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma. Particularly the stimulated scattering of a drift Alfven wave in such a plasma was investigated in detail. The resonance backscattering instability is found to yield the minimum threshold. (auth.)
Parametric estimation for reinforced concrete relief shelter for Aceh cases
Atthaillah; Saputra, Eri; Iqbal, Muhammad
2018-05-01
This paper was a work in progress (WIP) to discover a rapid parametric framework for post-disaster permanent shelter’s materials estimation. The intended shelters were reinforced concrete construction with bricks as its wall. Inevitably, in post-disaster cases, design variations were needed to help suited victims condition. It seemed impossible to satisfy a beneficiary with a satisfactory design utilizing the conventional method. This study offered a parametric framework to overcome slow construction-materials estimation issue against design variations. Further, this work integrated parametric tool, which was Grasshopper to establish algorithms that simultaneously model, visualize, calculate and write the calculated data to a spreadsheet in a real-time. Some customized Grasshopper components were created using GHPython scripting for a more optimized algorithm. The result from this study was a partial framework that successfully performed modeling, visualization, calculation and writing the calculated data simultaneously. It meant design alterations did not escalate time needed for modeling, visualization, and material estimation. Further, the future development of the parametric framework will be made open source.
Multi-level approach for parametric roll analysis
Kim, Taeyoung; Kim, Yonghwan
2011-03-01
The present study considers multi-level approach for the analysis of parametric roll phenomena. Three kinds of computation method, GM variation, impulse response function (IRF), and Rankine panel method, are applied for the multi-level approach. IRF and Rankine panel method are based on the weakly nonlinear formulation which includes nonlinear Froude- Krylov and restoring forces. In the computation result of parametric roll occurrence test in regular waves, IRF and Rankine panel method show similar tendency. Although the GM variation approach predicts the occurrence of parametric roll at twice roll natural frequency, its frequency criteria shows a little difference. Nonlinear roll motion in bichromatic wave is also considered in this study. To prove the unstable roll motion in bichromatic waves, theoretical and numerical approaches are applied. The occurrence of parametric roll is theoretically examined by introducing the quasi-periodic Mathieu equation. Instability criteria are well predicted from stability analysis in theoretical approach. From the Fourier analysis, it has been verified that difference-frequency effects create the unstable roll motion. The occurrence of unstable roll motion in bichromatic wave is also observed in the experiment.
Containment parametric analysis for loss of coolant accident
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fabjan, L.
1985-01-01
Full text: This paper presents parametric analysis of double containment response to LOCA using CONTEMPT-LT/28 code. The influence of the active and passive heat sinks on thermodynamic parameters in the containment after big and small LOCA was considered. (author)
DEVELOPING PARAMETRIC BUILDING MODELS – THE GANDIS USE CASE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Thaller
2012-09-01
Full Text Available In the course of a project related to green building design, we have created a group of eight parametric building models that can be manipulated interactively with respect to dimensions, number of ﬂoors, and a few other parameters. We report on the commonalities and differences between the models and the abstractions that we were able to identify.
Parametric resonance in the early Universe—a fitting analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Figueroa, Daniel G. [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Torrentí, Francisco, E-mail: daniel.figueroa@cern.ch, E-mail: f.torrenti@csic.es [Instituto de Física Teórica IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco 28049, Madrid (Spain)
2017-02-01
Particle production via parametric resonance in the early Universe, is a non-perturbative, non-linear and out-of-equilibrium phenomenon. Although it is a well studied topic, whenever a new scenario exhibits parametric resonance, a full re-analysis is normally required. To avoid this tedious task, many works present often only a simplified linear treatment of the problem. In order to surpass this circumstance in the future, we provide a fitting analysis of parametric resonance through all its relevant stages: initial linear growth, non-linear evolution, and relaxation towards equilibrium. Using lattice simulations in an expanding grid in 3+1 dimensions, we parametrize the dynamics' outcome scanning over the relevant ingredients: role of the oscillatory field, particle coupling strength, initial conditions, and background expansion rate. We emphasize the inaccuracy of the linear calculation of the decay time of the oscillatory field, and propose a more appropriate definition of this scale based on the subsequent non-linear dynamics. We provide simple fits to the relevant time scales and particle energy fractions at each stage. Our fits can be applied to post-inflationary preheating scenarios, where the oscillatory field is the inflaton, or to spectator-field scenarios, where the oscillatory field can be e.g. a curvaton, or the Standard Model Higgs.
Testing Parametric versus Semiparametric Modelling in Generalized Linear Models
Härdle, W.K.; Mammen, E.; Müller, M.D.
1996-01-01
We consider a generalized partially linear model E(Y|X,T) = G{X'b + m(T)} where G is a known function, b is an unknown parameter vector, and m is an unknown function.The paper introduces a test statistic which allows to decide between a parametric and a semiparametric model: (i) m is linear, i.e.
SEMIPARAMETRIC VERSUS PARAMETRIC CLASSIFICATION MODELS - AN APPLICATION TO DIRECT MARKETING
BULT, [No Value
In this paper we are concerned with estimation of a classification model using semiparametric and parametric methods. Benefits and limitations of semiparametric models in general, and of Manski's maximum score method in particular, are discussed. The maximum score method yields consistent estimates
Non-Parametric Analysis of Rating Transition and Default Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fledelius, Peter; Lando, David; Perch Nielsen, Jens
2004-01-01
We demonstrate the use of non-parametric intensity estimation - including construction of pointwise confidence sets - for analyzing rating transition data. We find that transition intensities away from the class studied here for illustration strongly depend on the direction of the previous move b...
Nonlinear dynamics of a parametrically driven sine-Gordon system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm
1993-01-01
We consider a sine-Gordon system, driven by an ac parametric force in the presence of loss. It is demonstrated that a breather can be maintained in a steady state at half of the external frequency. In the small-amplitude limit the effect is described by an effective nonlinear Schrodinger equation...
A parametric level-set method for partially discrete tomography
A. Kadu (Ajinkya); T. van Leeuwen (Tristan); K.J. Batenburg (Joost)
2017-01-01
textabstractThis paper introduces a parametric level-set method for tomographic reconstruction of partially discrete images. Such images consist of a continuously varying background and an anomaly with a constant (known) grey-value. We express the geometry of the anomaly using a level-set function,
Asymmetric gain-saturated spectrum in fiber optical parametric amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Rottwitt, Karsten; Galili, Michael
2012-01-01
We demonstrate experimentally and numerically an unexpected spectral asymmetry in the saturated-gain spectrum of single-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers. The interaction between higher-order four-wave mixing products and dispersive waves radiated as an effect of third-order dispersion inf...... characteristics of the amplifier and shows local maxima for specific dispersion values....
Parametric Cost Estimates for an International Competitive Edge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murphy, L.T.; Hickey, M.
2006-01-01
This paper summarizes the progress to date by CH2M HILL and the UKAEA in development of a parametric modelling capability for estimating the costs of large nuclear decommissioning projects in the United Kingdom (UK) and Europe. The ability to successfully apply parametric cost estimating techniques will be a key factor to commercial success in the UK and European multi-billion dollar waste management, decommissioning and environmental restoration markets. The most useful parametric models will be those that incorporate individual components representing major elements of work: reactor decommissioning, fuel cycle facility decommissioning, waste management facility decommissioning and environmental restoration. Models must be sufficiently robust to estimate indirect costs and overheads, permit pricing analysis and adjustment, and accommodate the intricacies of international monetary exchange, currency fluctuations and contingency. The development of a parametric cost estimating capability is also a key component in building a forward estimating strategy. The forward estimating strategy will enable the preparation of accurate and cost-effective out-year estimates, even when work scope is poorly defined or as yet indeterminate. Preparation of cost estimates for work outside the organizations current sites, for which detailed measurement is not possible and historical cost data does not exist, will also be facilitated. (authors)
Parametric inference for discretely sampled stochastic differential equations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Michael
A review is given of parametric estimation methods for discretely sampled mul- tivariate diffusion processes. The main focus is on estimating functions and asymp- totic results. Maximum likelihood estimation is briefly considered, but the emphasis is on computationally less demanding martingale...
Gain characteristics of a saturated fiber optic parametric amplifier
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rottwitt, Karsten; Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Noordegraaf, Danny
2008-01-01
In this work we discuss saturation performance of a fiber optic parametric amplifier. A simple numerical model is described and applied to specific cases. A system experiment using a saturated amplifier illustrates a 4 dB improvement in required signal to noise ratio for a fixed bit error ratio....
Linear time heteronymous damping in nonlinear parametric systems
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hortel, Milan; Škuderová, Alena; Houfek, Martin
2016-01-01
Roč. 40, 23-24 (2016), s. 10038-10051 ISSN 0307-904X Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : nonlinear dynamics of systems * parametric systems * time heteronymous damping * gears Subject RIV: JT - Propulsion, Motors ; Fuels Impact factor: 2.350, year: 2016