Nanoscale electromechanical parametric amplifier
Aleman, Benjamin Jose; Zettl, Alexander
2016-09-20
This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to a parametric amplifier. In one aspect, a device includes an electron source electrode, a counter electrode, and a pumping electrode. The electron source electrode may include a conductive base and a flexible conductor. The flexible conductor may have a first end and a second end, with the second end of the flexible conductor being coupled to the conductive base. A cross-sectional dimension of the flexible conductor may be less than about 100 nanometers. The counter electrode may be disposed proximate the first end of the flexible conductor and spaced a first distance from the first end of the flexible conductor. The pumping electrode may be disposed proximate a length of the flexible conductor and spaced a second distance from the flexible conductor.
Pump to signal noise transfer in parametric fiber amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lund-Hansen, Toke; Rottwitt, Karsten; Peucheret, Christophe
2010-01-01
Fiber optic parametric amplifiers have been suggested due to their potential low spontaneous emission. However, by nature the parametric amplifier only work in a forward pumped configuration, which result in transfer of relative intensity noise in the pump to the signal.......Fiber optic parametric amplifiers have been suggested due to their potential low spontaneous emission. However, by nature the parametric amplifier only work in a forward pumped configuration, which result in transfer of relative intensity noise in the pump to the signal....
On the unlimited gain of a nonlinear parametric amplifier
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sorokin, Vladislav
2014-01-01
The present paper is concerned with analysis of the response of a nonlinear parametric amplifier in abroad range of system parameters, particularly beyond resonance. Such analysis is of particular interestfor micro- and nanosystems, since many small-scale parametric amplifiers exhibit a distinctly...... nonlinearbehavior when amplitude of their response is sufficiently large. The modified method of direct separa-tion of motions is employed to study the considered system. As the result it is obtained that steady-stateamplitude of the nonlinear parametric amplifier response can reach large values in the case...... of arbitrarilysmall amplitude of external excitation, so that the amplifier gain tends to infinity. Very large amplifiergain can be achieved in a broad range of system parameters, in particular when the amplitude of para-metric excitation is comparatively small. The obtained results clearly demonstrate that very...
Asymmetric gain-saturated spectrum in fiber optical parametric amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Rottwitt, Karsten; Galili, Michael
2012-01-01
We demonstrate experimentally and numerically an unexpected spectral asymmetry in the saturated-gain spectrum of single-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers. The interaction between higher-order four-wave mixing products and dispersive waves radiated as an effect of third-order dispersion inf...... characteristics of the amplifier and shows local maxima for specific dispersion values....
Gain characteristics of a saturated fiber optic parametric amplifier
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rottwitt, Karsten; Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Noordegraaf, Danny
2008-01-01
In this work we discuss saturation performance of a fiber optic parametric amplifier. A simple numerical model is described and applied to specific cases. A system experiment using a saturated amplifier illustrates a 4 dB improvement in required signal to noise ratio for a fixed bit error ratio....
Dispersion-Engineered Traveling Wave Kinetic Inductance Parametric Amplifier
Zmuidzinas, Jonas (Inventor); Day, Peter K. (Inventor)
2014-01-01
A traveling wave kinetic inductance parametric amplifier comprises a superconducting transmission line and a dispersion control element. The transmission line can include periodic variations of its dimension along its length. The superconducting material can include a high normal state resistivity material. In some instances the high normal state resistivity material includes nitrogen and a metal selected from the group consisting of titanium, niobium and vanadium. The traveling wave kinetic inductance parametric amplifier is expected to exhibit a noise temperature below 100 mK/GHz.
Processing of optical combs with fiber optic parametric amplifiers
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Slavík, Radan; Kakande, J.; Richardson, D.J.; Petropoulos, P.
2012-01-01
Roč. 20, č. 9 (2012), s. 10059-10070 ISSN 1094-4087 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Fiber -optic parametric amplifier * Phase sensitive * Spectral coverage Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.546, year: 2012
Optimal Operation of a Josephson Parametric Amplifier for Vacuum Squeezing
Malnou, M.; Palken, D. A.; Vale, Leila R.; Hilton, Gene C.; Lehnert, K. W.
2018-04-01
A Josephson parametric amplifier (JPA) can create squeezed states of microwave light, lowering the noise associated with certain quantum measurements. We experimentally study how the JPA's pump influences the phase-sensitive amplification and deamplification of a coherent tone's amplitude when that amplitude is commensurate with vacuum fluctuations. We predict and demonstrate that, by operating the JPA with a single current pump whose power is greater than the value that maximizes gain, the amplifier distortion is reduced and, consequently, squeezing is improved. Optimizing the singly pumped JPA's operation in this fashion, we directly observe 3.87 ±0.03 dB of vacuum squeezing over a bandwidth of 30 MHz.
Ultrashort-pulse laser machining system employing a parametric amplifier
Perry, Michael D.
2004-04-27
A method and apparatus are provided for increasing the energy of chirped laser pulses to an output in the range 0.001 to over 10 millijoules at a repetition rate 0.010 to 100 kHz by using a two stage optical parametric amplifier utilizing a bulk nonlinear crystal wherein the pump and signal beam size can be independently adjusted in each stage.
Short-pulse propagation in fiber optical parametric amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cristofori, Valentina
Fiber optical parametric amplifiers (FOPAs) are attractive because they can provide large gain over a broad range of central wavelengths, depending only on the availability of a suitable pump laser. In addition, FOPAs are suitable for the realization of all-optical signal processing functionalities...... transfer can be reduced in saturated F OPAs. In order to characterize propagation impairments such as dispersion and Kerr effect, affecting signals reaching multi-terabit per second per channel, short pulses on the order of 500 fs need to be considered. Therefore, a short pulses fiber laser source...... is implemented to obtain an all-fiber system. The advantages of all fiber-systems are related to their reliability, long-term stability and compactness. Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is promising for the amplification of such signals thanks to the inherent compatibility of FOPAs with fiber...
Thermal effects in high average power optical parametric amplifiers.
Rothhardt, Jan; Demmler, Stefan; Hädrich, Steffen; Peschel, Thomas; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas
2013-03-01
Optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) have the reputation of being average power scalable due to the instantaneous nature of the parametric process (zero quantum defect). This Letter reveals serious challenges originating from thermal load in the nonlinear crystal caused by absorption. We investigate these thermal effects in high average power OPAs based on beta barium borate. Absorption of both pump and idler waves is identified to contribute significantly to heating of the nonlinear crystal. A temperature increase of up to 148 K with respect to the environment is observed and mechanical tensile stress up to 40 MPa is found, indicating a high risk of crystal fracture under such conditions. By restricting the idler to a wavelength range far from absorption bands and removing the crystal coating we reduce the peak temperature and the resulting temperature gradient significantly. Guidelines for further power scaling of OPAs and other nonlinear devices are given.
Experimental Generation of Multimode Squeezing in an Optical Parametric Amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Kui; Cui Shu-Zhen; Yang Rong-Guo; Zhang Jun-Xiang; Gao Jiang-Rui
2012-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate that HG 01 (Hermit—Gauss) and HG 10 squeezed states can be generated simultaneously in an optical parametric amplifier. The HG 01 mode is a bright squeezed state and the HG 10 mode is a vacuum squeezed state. The squeezing of the HG 01 mode is −2.8 dB, and the squeezing of the HG 10 mode is −1.6 dB. We also demonstrate that the output field is also continuous-variable entanglement with orbital angular momentum. (general)
Displacement of microwave squeezed states with Josephson parametric amplifiers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhong, Ling; Baust, Alexander; Xie, Edwar; Schwarz, Manuel; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Fedorov, Kirill; Menzel, Edwin; Marx, Achim [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Betzenbichler, Martin; Pogorzalek, Stefan; Haeberlein, Max; Eder, Peter; Goetz, Jan; Wulschner, Karl Friedrich; Huebl, Hans; Deppe, Frank [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany)
2015-07-01
Propagating quantum microwaves are promising building blocks for quantum communication. Interestingly, such itinerant quantum microwaves can be generated in the form of squeezed photon states by Josephson parametric amplifiers (JPA). We employ a specific ''dual-path'' setup for both state reconstruction and JPA characterization. Displacement operations are performed by using a directional coupler after the squeezing. We compare our results with theory predictions. In particular, we discuss our experiments in the context of remote state preparation and quantum teleportation with propagating microwaves.
Strong environmental coupling in a Josephson parametric amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mutus, J. Y.; White, T. C.; Barends, R.; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, John M.; Megrant, A.; Sundqvist, K. M.
2014-01-01
We present a lumped-element Josephson parametric amplifier designed to operate with strong coupling to the environment. In this regime, we observe broadband frequency dependent amplification with multi-peaked gain profiles. We account for this behavior using the “pumpistor” model which allows for frequency dependent variation of the external impedance. Using this understanding, we demonstrate control over the complexity of gain profiles through added variation in the environment impedance at a given frequency. With strong coupling to a suitable external impedance, we observe a significant increase in dynamic range, and large amplification bandwidth up to 700 MHz giving near quantum-limited performance.
Fiber optical parametric amplifiers in optical communication systems
Marhic (†), Michel E; Andrekson, Peter A; Petropoulos, Periklis; Radic, Stojan; Peucheret, Christophe; Jazayerifar, Mahmoud
2015-01-01
The prospects for using fiber optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) in optical communication systems are reviewed. Phase-insensitive amplifiers (PIAs) and phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSAs) are considered. Low-penalty amplification at/or near 1 Tb/s has been achieved, for both wavelength- and time-division multiplexed formats. High-quality mid-span spectral inversion has been demonstrated at 0.64 Tb/s, avoiding electronic dispersion compensation. All-optical amplitude regeneration of amplitude-modulated signals has been performed, while PSAs have been used to demonstrate phase regeneration of phase-modulated signals. A PSA with 1.1-dB noise figure has been demonstrated, and preliminary wavelength-division multiplexing experiments have been performed with PSAs. 512 Gb/s have been transmitted over 6,000 km by periodic phase conjugation. Simulations indicate that PIAs could reach data rate x reach products in excess of 14,000 Tb/s × km in realistic wavelength-division multiplexed long-haul networks. Technical challenges remaining to be addressed in order for fiber OPAs to become useful for long-haul communication networks are discussed. PMID:25866588
Riedel, R; Stephanides, A; Prandolini, M J; Gronloh, B; Jungbluth, B; Mans, T; Tavella, F
2014-03-15
Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifiers with high average power are possible with novel high-power Yb:YAG amplifiers with kW-level output powers. We demonstrate a compact wavelength-tunable sub-30-fs amplifier with 11.4 W average power with 20.7% pump-to-signal conversion efficiency. For parametric amplification, a beta-barium borate crystal is pumped by a 140 W, 1 ps Yb:YAG InnoSlab amplifier at 3.25 MHz repetition rate. The broadband seed is generated via supercontinuum generation in a YAG crystal.
Quantum and Raman Noise in a Depleted Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifier
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Rottwitt, Karsten; McKinstrie, Colin J.
2013-01-01
The noise properties of both phase-sensitive and phase-insensitive saturated parametric amplifiers are studied using a semi-classical approach. Vacuum fluctuations as well as spontaneous Raman scattering are included in the analysis....
Optical Parametric Chirped-Pulse Amplifier as the Front End for the OMEGA EP Laser Chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagnoud, V.; Begishev, I.A.; Guardalben, M.J.; Keegan, J.; Puth, J.; Waxer, L.J.; Zuegel, J.D.
2004-01-01
A 145-mJ optical parametric amplifier has been developed as a front-end source prototype for the OEMGA EP laser chain. The system definition is presented together with experimental results that show 30% conversion efficiency
GHz-rate optical parametric amplifier in hydrogenated amorphous silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Ke-Yao; Foster, Amy C
2015-01-01
We demonstrate optical parametric amplification operating at GHz-rates at telecommunications wavelengths using a hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguide through the nonlinear optical process of four-wave mixing. We investigate how the parametric amplification scales with repetition rate. The ability to achieve amplification at GHz-repetition rates shows hydrogenated amorphous silicon’s potential for telecommunication applications and a GHz-rate optical parametric oscillator. (paper)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Peucheret, Christophe; Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Seoane, Jorge
2008-01-01
Input power dynamic range enhancement and amplitude regeneration of highly distorted signals are demonstrated experimentally for 40 Gbit/s RZ-DPSK in a single-pump fibre parametric amplifier with 22 dB smallsignal gain.......Input power dynamic range enhancement and amplitude regeneration of highly distorted signals are demonstrated experimentally for 40 Gbit/s RZ-DPSK in a single-pump fibre parametric amplifier with 22 dB smallsignal gain....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cristofori, Valentina; Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Rishøj, Lars Søgaard
2013-01-01
We show a first-time demonstration of amplification of 400 fs pulses in a fiber optical parametric amplifier. The 400 fs signal is stretched in time, amplified by 26 dB and compressed back to 500 fs. A significant broadening of the pulses is experimentally shown due to dispersion and limited gain...
Parametric Amplifiers for Microwave Kinectic Inductance Detector (MKID) Readout
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Build a microwave amplifier with near quantum-limited sensitivity, octave or greater bandwidth, gain > 20 dB for input signals in the frequency range 1 – 10 GHz,...
Numerical Modelling of Spontaneous Emission in Optical Parametric Amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Rottwitt, Karsten
2013-01-01
Fiber optical parametric processes offer a wide range of applications including phase sensitive as well as phase insensitive amplification, wavelength conversion and signal regeneration. One of the difficult challenges is any of these applications is to predict their associated noise performance....
Performance Analysis Of Single-Pumped And Dual-Pumped Parametric Optical Amplifier
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sandar Myint
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this study we present a performance analysis of single-pumped and dual- pumped parametric optical amplifier and present the analysis of gain flatness in dual- pumped Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifier FOPA based on four-wave mixing FWM. Result shows that changing the signal power and pump power give the various gains in FOPA. It is also found out that the parametric gain increase with increase in pump power and decrease in signal power. .Moreover in this paper the phase matching condition in FWM plays a vital role in predicting the gain profile of the FOPAbecause the parametric gain is maximum when the total phase mismatch is zero.In this paper single-pumped parametric amplification over a 50nm gain bandwidth is demonstrated using 500 nm highly nonlinear fiber HNLF and signal achieves about 31dB gain. For dual-pumped parametric amplification signal achieves 26.5dB gains over a 50nm gain bandwidth. Therefore dual-pumped parametric amplifier can provide relatively flat gain over a much wider bandwidth than the single-pumped FOPA.
Andersen, T V; Schmidt, O; Bruchmann, C; Limpert, J; Aguergaray, C; Cormier, E; Tünnermann, A
2006-05-29
We report on the generation of high energy femtosecond pulses at 1 MHz repetition rate from a fiber laser pumped optical parametric amplifier (OPA). Nonlinear bandwidth enhancement in fibers provides the intrinsically synchronized signal for the parametric amplifier. We demonstrate large tunability extending from 700 nm to 1500 nm of femtosecond pulses with pulse energies as high as 1.2 muJ when the OPA is seeded by a supercontinuum generated in a photonic crystal fiber. Broadband amplification over more than 85 nm is achieved at a fixed wavelength. Subsequent compression in a prism sequence resulted in 46 fs pulses. With an average power of 0.5 W these pulses have a peak-power above 10 MW. In particular, the average power and pulse energy scalability of both involved concepts, the fiber laser and the parametric amplifier, will enable easy up-scaling to higher powers.
Dispersion management for a sub-10-fs, 10 TW optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier.
Tavella, Franz; Nomura, Yutaka; Veisz, Laszlo; Pervak, Vladimir; Marcinkevicius, Andrius; Krausz, Ferenc
2007-08-01
We report the amplification of three-cycle, 8.5 fs optical pulses in a near-infrared noncollinear optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier (OPCPA) up to energies of 80 mJ. Improved dispersion management in the amplifier by means of a combination of reflection grisms and a chirped-mirror stretcher allowed us to recompress the amplified pulses to within 6% of their Fourier limit. The novel ultrabroad, ultraprecise dispersion control technology presented in this work opens the way to scaling multiterawatt technology to even shorter pulses by optimizing the OPCPA bandwidth.
Combined Yb/Nd driver for optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers.
Michailovas, Kirilas; Baltuska, Andrius; Pugzlys, Audrius; Smilgevicius, Valerijus; Michailovas, Andrejus; Zaukevicius, Audrius; Danilevicius, Rokas; Frankinas, Saulius; Rusteika, Nerijus
2016-09-19
We report on the developed front-end/pump system for optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers. The system is based on a dual output fiber oscillator/power amplifier which seeds and assures all-optical synchronization of femtosecond Yb and picosecond Nd laser amplifiers operating at a central wavelength of 1030 nm and 1064 nm, respectively. At the central wavelength of 1030 nm, the fiber oscillator generates partially stretched 4 ps pulses with the spectrum supporting a scaling currently is prevented by limited dimensions of the diffraction gratings, which, because of the fast progress in MLD grating manufacturing technologies is only a temporary obstacle.
Raman and loss induced quantum noise in depleted fiber optical parametric amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Rottwitt, Karsten; McKinstrie, C. J.
2013-01-01
We present a semi-classical approach for predicting the quantum noise properties of fiber optical parametric amplifiers. The unavoidable contributors of noise, vacuum fluctuations, loss-induced noise, and spontaneous Raman scattering, are included in the analysis of both phase-insensitive and phase...
On-chip integration of a superconducting microwave circulator and a Josephson parametric amplifier
Rosenthal, Eric I.; Chapman, Benjamin J.; Moores, Bradley A.; Kerckhoff, Joseph; Malnou, Maxime; Palken, D. A.; Mates, J. A. B.; Hilton, G. C.; Vale, L. R.; Ullom, J. N.; Lehnert, K. W.
Recent progress in microwave amplification based on parametric processes in superconducting circuits has revolutionized the measurement of feeble microwave signals. These devices, which operate near the quantum limit, are routinely used in ultralow temperature cryostats to: readout superconducting qubits, search for axionic dark matter, and characterize astrophysical sensors. However, these amplifiers often require ferrite circulators to separate incoming and outgoing traveling waves. For this reason, measurement efficiency and scalability are limited. In order to facilitate the routing of quantum signals we have created a superconducting, on-chip microwave circulator without permanent magnets. We integrate our circulator on-chip with a Josephson parametric amplifier for the purpose of near quantum-limited directional amplification. In this talk I will present a design overview and preliminary measurements.
Traveling wave parametric amplifier with Josephson junctions using minimal resonator phase matching
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
White, T. C.; Mutus, J. Y.; Hoi, I.-C.; Barends, R.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Martinis, John M.; Megrant, A.; Chaudhuri, S.
2015-01-01
Josephson parametric amplifiers have become a critical tool in superconducting device physics due to their high gain and quantum-limited noise. Traveling wave parametric amplifiers (TWPAs) promise similar noise performance, while allowing for significant increases in both bandwidth and dynamic range. We present a TWPA device based on an LC-ladder transmission line of Josephson junctions and parallel plate capacitors using low-loss amorphous silicon dielectric. Crucially, we have inserted λ/4 resonators at regular intervals along the transmission line in order to maintain the phase matching condition between pump, signal, and idler and increase gain. We achieve an average gain of 12 dB across a 4 GHz span, along with an average saturation power of −92 dBm with noise approaching the quantum limit
The SU(1, 1) Perelomov number coherent states and the non-degenerate parametric amplifier
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ojeda-Guillén, D., E-mail: dojedag@ipn.mx; Granados, V. D. [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ed. 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, C.P. 07738 México D. F. (Mexico); Mota, R. D. [Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Unidad Culhuacán, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Santa Ana No. 1000, Col. San Francisco Culhuacán, Delegación Coyoacán, C.P. 04430, México D. F. (Mexico)
2014-04-15
We construct the Perelomov number coherent states for an arbitrary su(1, 1) group operation and study some of their properties. We introduce three operators which act on Perelomov number coherent states and close the su(1, 1) Lie algebra. By using the tilting transformation we apply our results to obtain the energy spectrum and eigenfunctions of the non-degenerate parametric amplifier. We show that these eigenfunctions are the Perelomov number coherent states of the two-dimensional harmonic oscillator.
A generalized Jaynes-Cummings model: The relativistic parametric amplifier and a single trapped ion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ojeda-Guillén, D., E-mail: dojedag@ipn.mx [Escuela Superior de Cómputo, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Juan de Dios Bátiz esq. Av. Miguel Othón de Mendizábal, Col. Lindavista, Delegación Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07738 Ciudad de México (Mexico); Mota, R. D. [Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Unidad Culhuacán, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Santa Ana No. 1000, Col. San Francisco Culhuacán, Delegación Coyoacán, C.P. 04430 Ciudad de México (Mexico); Granados, V. D. [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ed. 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, Delegación Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07738 Ciudad de México (Mexico)
2016-06-15
We introduce a generalization of the Jaynes-Cummings model and study some of its properties. We obtain the energy spectrum and eigenfunctions of this model by using the tilting transformation and the squeezed number states of the one-dimensional harmonic oscillator. As physical applications, we connect this new model to two important and novelty problems: the relativistic parametric amplifier and the quantum simulation of a single trapped ion.
Effects of quadratic and cubic nonlinearities on a perfectly tuned parametric amplifier
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Neumeyer, Stefan; Sorokin, Vladislav; Thomsen, Jon Juel
2016-01-01
We consider the performance of a parametric amplifier with perfect tuning (two-to-one ratio between the parametric and direct excitation frequencies) and quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. A forced Duffing–Mathieu equation with appended quadratic nonlinearity is considered as the model system......, and approximate analytical steady-state solutions and corresponding stabilities are obtained by the method of varying amplitudes. Some general effects of pure quadratic, and mixed quadratic and cubic nonlinearities on parametric amplification are shown. In particular, the effects of mixed quadratic and cubic...... nonlinearities may generate additional amplitude–frequency solutions. In this case an increased response and a more phase sensitive amplitude (phase between excitation frequencies) is obtained, as compared to the case with either pure quadratic or cubic nonlinearity. Furthermore, jumps and bi...
An optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier for seeding high repetition rate free-electron lasers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Höppner, H; Hage, A; Tanikawa, T; Schulz, M; Faatz, B; Riedel, R; Prandolini, M J; Teubner, U; Tavella, F
2015-01-01
High repetition rate free-electron lasers (FEL), producing highly intense extreme ultraviolet and x-ray pulses, require new high power tunable femtosecond lasers for FEL seeding and FEL pump-probe experiments. A tunable, 112 W (burst mode) optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier (OPCPA) is demonstrated with center frequencies ranging from 720–900 nm, pulse energies up to 1.12 mJ and a pulse duration of 30 fs at a repetition rate of 100 kHz. Since the power scalability of this OPCPA is limited by the OPCPA-pump amplifier, we also demonstrate a 6.7–13.7 kW (burst mode) thin-disk OPCPA-pump amplifier, increasing the possible OPCPA output power to many hundreds of watts. Furthermore, third and fourth harmonic generation experiments are performed and the results are used to simulate a seeded FEL with high-gain harmonic generation. (paper)
Chaotic noise in superconducting microbridge 4-photon X-band parametric amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andresen, J.E.; Christiansen, B.; Levinsen, M.T.
1988-01-01
The anomalous noise rise observed in nearly all types of parametric amplifiers based on Josephson junctions has been an intriguing as well as annoying problem for many years. This phenomenon has been most spectacular in microbridge amplifiers. Here we present measurements on externally pumped single microbridge 4-photon unbiased amplifiers, where the slit with the bridge is used as a slotline resonantly coupled to the waveguide in an exceptionally simple coupling scheme. This scheme may be of interest in itself, particularly if the noise problem can be overcome, but also in other connections. Up to 16 dB gain was obtained at the top of the waveguide. However, the noise rise was observed as usual. An analog computer study on a model including an input/output circiut was performed. The results are in very good agreement with the experiments. The amplification is heralded by a seemingly chaotic noise rise. This noise is then amplified linearly when gain occurs. Amplification is found to take place very close to where the supercurrent is completely suppressed by the pump. This has previously been interpreted as loss of phaselock being the cause of the noise rise. However, the power spectra of the time-derivative of the phase show the still to be locked in the region of positive gain. Furthermore, computations of the Lyapunov exponents show one to be positive in the region where gain occurs reaching a maximum value at the parameters corresponding to maximum gain. We therefore conclude that chaotic noise is indeed present in Josephson junction parametric amplifiers where low-impedance devices like microbridges with negligible capacitance are used as the active elements. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levinsen, M.T.
1982-01-01
The Stewart-McCumber model of a Josephson junction has been shown to exhibit period-doubling bifurcation cascades, as described by the Feigenbaum bifurcation theory. Chaotic states, sometimes associated with the bifurcations, are also prevalent. The present paper deals with the questions of subharmonic generation and chaotic states in the aforementioned model, and in addition with the problem of the ubiquitous noise rise found in Josephson junction parametric amplifiers. The bifurcation is first discussed by drawing on analytical results on the Duffing equation which is an approximation to the complete ac-driven Stewart-McCumber model. The complete model is then solved on an analog computer. Thereafter it is shown that besides the even subharmonics predicted by the bifurcation theory, the natural subharmonic to expect at small dc currents is the odd. This may then have associated its own bifurcation tree. The role of spontaneous symmetry breaking will be discussed. This reconciles the earlier treatment of the 3-photon amplifier with the Feigenbaum scheme. Finally, analog calculations on a model of an externally pumped Josephson junction parametric amplifier will be discussed. The conclusion seems to be that chaotic noise cannot account for the noise rise
A Phase-Controlled Optical Parametric Amplifier Pumped by Two Phase-Distorted Laser Beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong-Yan, Ren; Lie-Jia, Qian; Peng, Yuan; He-Yuan, Zhu; Dian-Yuan, Fan
2010-01-01
We theoretically study the phase characteristic of optical parametric amplification (OPA) or chirped pulse OPA (OPCPA) pumped by two phase-distorted laser beams. In the two-beam-pumped optical parametric amplification (TBOPA), due to spatial walk-off, both of the pump phase distortions will be partly transferred to signal in a single crystal so as to degrade the signal beam-quality, which will be more serious in high-energy OPCPA. An OPA configuration with a walkoff-compensated crystal pair is demonstrated for reducing the signal phase distortion experienced in the first stage and ensuring the signal phase independent of two pump phase distortions through the second crystal, hence maintaining the signal beam-quality. Such a TBOPA is similar to the conventional quantum laser amplifier by means of eliminating its sensitivity to the phase and number of the pump beams
Dolev, A.; Bucher, I.
2018-04-01
Mechanical or electromechanical amplifiers can exploit the high-Q and low noise features of mechanical resonance, in particular when parametric excitation is employed. Multi-frequency parametric excitation introduces tunability and is able to project weak input signals on a selected resonance. The present paper addresses multi degree of freedom mechanical amplifiers or resonators whose analysis and features require treatment of the spatial as well as temporal behavior. In some cases, virtual electronic coupling can alter the given topology of the resonator to better amplify specific inputs. An analytical development is followed by a numerical and experimental sensitivity and performance verifications, illustrating the advantages and disadvantages of such topologies.
Hädrich, S; Gottschall, T; Rothhardt, J; Limpert, J; Tünnermann, A
2010-02-01
An optical parametric amplifier that delivers nearly transform limited pulses is presented. The center wavelength of these pulses can be tuned between 993 nm and 1070 nm and, at the same time, the pulse duration is varied between 206 fs and 650 fs. At the shortest pulse duration the pulse energy was increased up to 7.2 microJ at 50 kHz repetition rate. Variation of the wavelength is achieved by applying a tunable cw seed while the pulse duration can be varied via altering the pump pulse duration. This scheme offers superior flexibility and scaling possibilities.
Arisholm, Gunnar
2007-05-14
Group velocity mismatch (GVM) is a major concern in the design of optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) and generators (OPGs) for pulses shorter than a few picoseconds. By simplifying the coupled propagation equations and exploiting their scaling properties, the number of free parameters for a collinear OPA is reduced to a level where the parameter space can be studied systematically by simulations. The resulting set of figures show the combinations of material parameters and pulse lengths for which high performance can be achieved, and they can serve as a basis for a design.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fang, Yami; Feng, Jingliang; Cao, Leiming; Wang, Yaxian; Jing, Jietai, E-mail: jtjing@phy.ecnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)
2016-03-28
Beamsplitters have played an important role in quantum optics experiments. They are often used to split and combine two beams, especially in the construct of an interferometer. In this letter, we experimentally implement a nonlinear beamsplitter using a phase-sensitive parametric amplifier, which is based on four-wave mixing in hot rubidium vapor. Here we show that, despite the different frequencies of the two input beams, the output ports of the nonlinear beamsplitter exhibit interference phenomena. We make measurements of the interference fringe visibility and study how various parameters, such as the intensity gain of the amplifier, the intensity ratio of the two input beams, and the one and two photon detunings, affect the behavior of the nonlinear beamsplitter. It may find potential applications in quantum metrology and quantum information processing.
Liu, Jian; Torres, F A; Ma, Yubo; Zhao, C; Ju, L; Blair, D G; Chao, S; Roch-Jeune, I; Flaminio, R; Michel, C; Liu, K-Y
2014-02-10
Three-mode optoacoustic parametric amplifiers (OAPAs), in which a pair of photon modes are strongly coupled to an acoustic mode, provide a general platform for investigating self-cooling, parametric instability and very sensitive transducers. Their realization requires an optical cavity with tunable transverse modes and a high quality-factor mirror resonator. This paper presents the design of a table-top OAPA based on a near-self-imaging cavity design, using a silicon torsional microresonator. The design achieves a tuning coefficient for the optical mode spacing of 2.46 MHz/mm. This allows tuning of the mode spacing between amplification and self-cooling regimes of the OAPA device. Based on demonstrated resonator parameters (frequencies ∼400 kHz and quality-factors ∼7.5×10(5) we predict that the OAPA can achieve parametric instability with 1.6 μW of input power and mode cooling by a factor of 1.9×10(4) with 30 mW of input power.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aleman, B J; Sussman, A; Zettl, A [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Mickelson, W, E-mail: azettl@berkeley.edu [Center of Integrated Nanomechanical Systems, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2011-07-20
We propose a scheme for a parametric amplifier based on a single suspended carbon nanotube field-emitter. This novel electromechanical nanotube device acts as a phase-sensitive, variable-gain, band-pass-filtering amplifier for electronic signal processing and, at the same time, can operate as a variable-sensitivity, tuneable detector and transducer of radio frequency electromagnetic waves. The amplifier can exhibit infinite gain at pumping voltages much less than 10 Volts. Additionally, the amplifier's low overhead power consumption (10-1000 nW) make it exceptionally attractive for ultra-low-power applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aleman, B J; Sussman, A; Zettl, A; Mickelson, W
2011-01-01
We propose a scheme for a parametric amplifier based on a single suspended carbon nanotube field-emitter. This novel electromechanical nanotube device acts as a phase-sensitive, variable-gain, band-pass-filtering amplifier for electronic signal processing and, at the same time, can operate as a variable-sensitivity, tuneable detector and transducer of radio frequency electromagnetic waves. The amplifier can exhibit infinite gain at pumping voltages much less than 10 Volts. Additionally, the amplifier's low overhead power consumption (10-1000 nW) make it exceptionally attractive for ultra-low-power applications.
A high-flux entanglement source based on a doubly resonant optical parametric amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuklewicz, Christopher E; Keskiner, Eser; Wong, Franco N C; Shapiro, Jeffrey H
2002-01-01
A 532 nm pumped type-II phase-matched, doubly resonant KTP optical parametric amplifier (OPA) was operated near frequency degeneracy to yield an inferred downconverted photon pair production rate of 1.7x10 6 s -1 at a pump power of 100 μW. The OPA output consisted of three components: narrowband doubly resonant mode pairs; narrowband singly resonant mode pairs for which either the signal or idler was resonant with the cavity and broadband nonresonant mode pairs. Under frequency-degenerate operation, the broadband nonresonant mode pairs were polarization triplet states. We observed quantum interference between the orthogonally polarized photons of the triplet states when they were analysed with a polarizer set at 45 deg. relative to the OPA's output polarizations, leading to reduced coincidence counts
A flexible receiver with fiber optical parametric amplifier in OCDMA-FSO communication system
Xia, Min; Yuan, Jin-hui; Sang, Xin-zhu; Yin, Xiao-li; Rao, Lan; Yu, Chong-xiu
2014-11-01
A new receiver is proposed, which uses the fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) in optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) over free space optic (FSO) communication system. The noise tolerance as the performance index in this receiver is derived. The receiver can not only improve the noise tolerance but also change the pump data conveniently for adapting to the length variation of the coding sequence under a complex and fast-changing weather condition. The influence of different factors on the noise tolerance is analyzed, and a significant improvement of about 18.77 dB for the noise tolerance can be achieved when the pump power and the length of coding sequence are 5 W and 256, respectively.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dodonov, V.V.; Valverde, C.; Souza, L.S.; Baseia, B.
2011-01-01
The exact Wigner function of a parametrically excited quantum oscillator in a phase-sensitive amplifying/attenuating reservoir is found for initial even/odd coherent states. Studying the evolution of negativity of the Wigner function we show the difference between the 'initial positivization time' (IPT), which is inversely proportional to the square of the initial size of the superposition, and the 'final positivization time' (FPT), which does not depend on this size. Both these times can be made arbitrarily long in maximally squeezed high-temperature reservoirs. Besides, we find the conditions when some (small) squeezing can exist even after the Wigner function becomes totally positive. -- Highlights: → We study parametric excitation of a quantum oscillator in phase-sensitive baths. → Exact time-dependent Wigner function for initial even/odd coherent states is found. → The evolution of negativity of Wigner function is compared with the squeezing dynamics. → The difference between initial and final 'classicalization times' is emphasized. → Both these times can be arbitrarily long for rigged reservoirs at infinite temperature.
Mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator pumped by an amplified random fiber laser
Shang, Yaping; Shen, Meili; Wang, Peng; Li, Xiao; Xu, Xiaojun
2017-01-01
Recently, the concept of random fiber lasers has attracted a great deal of attention for its feature to generate incoherent light without a traditional laser resonator, which is free of mode competition and insure the stationary narrow-band continuous modeless spectrum. In this Letter, we reported the first, to the best of our knowledge, optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by an amplified 1070 nm random fiber laser (RFL), in order to generate stationary mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser. The experiment realized a watt-level laser output in the mid-IR range and operated relatively stable. The use of the RFL seed source allowed us to take advantage of its respective stable time-domain characteristics. The beam profile, spectrum and time-domain properties of the signal light were measured to analyze the process of frequency down-conversion process under this new pumping condition. The results suggested that the near-infrared (near-IR) signal light `inherited' good beam performances from the pump light. Those would be benefit for further develop about optical parametric process based on different pumping circumstances.
Lindsay, I.D.; Adhimoolam, B.; Gross, P.; Klein, M.E.; Boller, Klaus J.
2005-01-01
A singly-resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator (cw-OPO) pumped by a fiber-amplified diode laser is described. Tuning of the pump source allowed the OPO output to be tuned continuously, without mode-hops, over 110 GHz in 29 ms. Discontinuous pump tuning over 20 nm in the region of
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Ozolins, Oskars; An, Yi
2012-01-01
The performance of cascaded single-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers (FOPAs) is experimentally studied for the first time using recirculating loop transmission with 80-km dispersion managed spans. Error-free performance has been achieved over 320 km for 40-Gbit/s CSRZ-OOK and CSRZ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Noordegraaf, Danny; Nielsen, Carsten Vandel
2009-01-01
An increased gain in a fibre-optical parametric amplifier through suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering is demonstrated by applying a temperature distribution along the fibre for a fixed phase modulation of the pump. The temperature distribution slightly impacts the gain spectrum....
Development of optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifiers and their applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ishii, Nobuhisa
2006-11-21
In this work, optical pulse amplification by parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) has been applied to the generation of high-energy, few-cycle optical pulses in the near-infrared (NIR) and infrared (IR) spectral regions. Amplification of such pulses is ordinarily difficult to achieve by existing techniques of pulse amplification based on standard laser gain media followed by external compression. Potential applications of few-cycle pulses in the IR have also been demonstrated. The NIR OPCPA system produces 0.5-terawatt (10 fs,5 mJ) pulses by use of noncollinearly phase-matched optical parametric amplification and a down-chirping stretcher and up-chirping compressor pair. An IR OPCPA system was also developed which produces 20-gigawatt (20 fs,350 {mu}J) pulses at 2.1 {mu}m. The IR seed pulse is generated by optical rectification of a broadband pulse and therefore it exhibits a self-stabilized carrier-envelope phase (CEP). In the IR OPCPA a common laser source is used to generate the pump and seed resulting in an inherent sub-picosecond optical synchronization between the two pulses. This was achieved by use of a custom-built Nd:YLF picosecond pump pulse amplifier that is directly seeded with optical pulses from a custom-built ultrabroadband Ti:sapphire oscillator. Synchronization between the pump and seed pulses is critical for efficient and stable amplification. Two spectroscopic applications which utilize these unique sources have been demonstrated. First, the visible supercontinuum was generated in a solid-state media by the infrared optical pulses and through which the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of the driving pulse was measured with an f-to-3f interferometer. This measurement confirms the self-stabilization mechanism of the CEP in a difference frequency generation process and the preservation of the CEP during optical parametric amplification. Second, high-order harmonics with energies extending beyond 200 eV were generated with the few
Garca Fernández, P.; Colet, P.; Toral, R.; San Miguel, M.; Bermejo, F. J.
1991-05-01
The squeezing properties of a model of a degenerate parametric amplifier with absorption losses and an added fourth-order nonlinearity have been analyzed. The approach used consists of obtaining the Langevin equation for the optical field from the Heisenberg equation provided that a linearization procedure is valid. The steady states of the deterministic equations have been obtained and their local stability has been analyzed. The stationary covariance matrix has been calculated below and above threshold. Below threshold, a squeezed vacuum state is obtained and the nonlinear effects in the fluctuations have been taken into account by a Gaussian decoupling. In the case above threshold, a phase-squeezed coherent state is obtained and numerical simulations allowed to compute the time interval, depending on the loss parameter, on which the system jumps from one stable state to the other. Finally, the variances numerically determined have been compared with those obtained from the linearized theory and the limits of validity of the linear theory have been analyzed. It has become clear that the nonlinear contribution may perhaps be profitably used for the construction of above-threshold squeezing devices.
Dressed Gain from the Parametrically Amplified Four-Wave Mixing Process in an Atomic Vapor
Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wen, Feng; Che, Junling; Zhang, Dan; Li, Changbiao; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min
2015-10-01
With a forward cone emitting from the strong pump laser in a thermal rubidium atomic vapor, we investigate the non-degenerate parametrically amplified four-wave mixing (PA-FWM) process with dressing effects in a three-level “double-Λ” configuration both theoretically and experimentally. By seeding a weak probe field into the Stokes or anti-Stokes channel of the FWM, the gain processes are generated in the bright twin beams which are called conjugate and probe beams, respectively. However, the strong dressing effect of the pump beam will dramatically affect the gain factors both in the probe and conjugate channels, and can inevitably impose an influence on the quantum effects such as entangled degree and the quantum noise reduction between the two channels. We systematically investigate the intensity evolution of the dressed gain processes by manipulating the atomic density, the Rabi frequency and the frequency detuning. Such dressing effects are also visually evidenced by the observation of Autler-Townes splitting of the gain peaks. The investigation can contribute to the development of quantum information processing and quantum communications.
Tunable High Harmonic Generation driven by a Visible Optical Parametric Amplifier
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keathley P.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available We studied high-harmonic generation (HHG in Ar, Ne and He gas jets using a broadly tunable, high-energy optical parametric amplifier (OPA in the visible wavelength range. We optimized the noncollinear OPA to deliver tunable, femtosecond pulses with 200-500 μJ energy at 1-kHz repetition rate with excellent spatiotemporal properties, suitable for HHG experiments. By tuning the central wavelength of the OPA while keeping energy, duration and beam size constant, we experimentally studied the scaling law of conversion efficiency and cut-off energy with the driver wavelength in argon and helium respectively. Our measurements show a λ−5.9±0.9 wavelength dependence of the conversion efficiency and a λ1.7±0.2 dependence of the HHG cut-off photon energy over the full visible range in agreement with previous experiments of near- and mid-IR wavelengths. By tuning the central wavelength of the driver source and changing the gas, the high order harmonic spectra in the extreme ultraviolet cover the full range of photon energy between ~25 eV and ~100 eV. Due to the high coherence intrinsic in HHG, as well as the broad and continuous tunability in the extreme UV range, a high energy, high repetition rate version of this source might be an ideal seed for free electron lasers.
Simultaneous single-shot readout of multi-qubit circuits using a traveling-wave parametric amplifier
O'Brien, Kevin
Observing and controlling the state of ever larger quantum systems is critical for advancing quantum computation. Utilizing a Josephson traveling wave parametric amplifier (JTWPA), we demonstrate simultaneous multiplexed single shot readout of 10 transmon qubits in a planar architecture. We employ digital image sideband rejection to eliminate noise at the image frequencies. We quantify crosstalk and infidelity due to simultaneous readout and control of multiple qubits. Based on current amplifier technology, this approach can scale to simultaneous readout of at least 20 qubits. This work was supported by the Army Research Office.
Rothhardt, J; Hädrich, S; Röser, F; Limpert, J; Tünnermann, A
2008-06-09
We present a high peak power degenerated parametric amplifier operating at 1030 nm and 97 kHz repetition rate. Pulses of a state-of-the art fiber chirped-pulse amplification (FCPA) system with 840 fs pulse duration and 410 microJ pulse energy are used as pump and seed source for a two stage optical parametric amplifier. Additional spectral broadening of the seed signal in a photonic crystal fiber creates enough bandwidth for ultrashort pulse generation. Subsequent amplification of the broadband seed signal in two 1 mm BBO crystals results in 41 microJ output pulse energy. Compression in a SF 11 prism compressor yields 37 microJ pulses as short as 52 fs. Thus, pulse shortening of more than one order of magnitude is achieved. Further scaling in terms of average power and pulse energy seems possible and will be discussed, since both concepts involved, the fiber laser and the parametric amplifier have the reputation to be immune against thermo-optical effects.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cameron, S.M.; Bliss, D.E.
1997-02-01
Implementation of optical imagery in a diffuse inhomogeneous medium such as biological tissue requires an understanding of photon migration and multiple scattering processes which act to randomize pathlength and degrade image quality. The nature of transmitted light from soft tissue ranges from the quasi-coherent properties of the minimally scattered component to the random incoherent light of the diffuse component. Recent experimental approaches have emphasized dynamic path-sensitive imaging measurements with either ultrashort laser pulses (ballistic photons) or amplitude modulated laser light launched into tissue (photon density waves) to increase image resolution and transmissive penetration depth. Ballistic imaging seeks to compensate for these {open_quotes}fog-like{close_quotes} effects by temporally isolating the weak early-arriving image-bearing component from the diffusely scattered background using a subpicosecond optical gate superimposed on the transmitted photon time-of-flight distribution. The authors have developed a broadly wavelength tunable (470 nm -2.4 {mu}m), ultrashort amplifying optical gate for transillumination spectral imaging based on optical parametric amplification in a nonlinear crystal. The time-gated image amplification process exhibits low noise and high sensitivity, with gains greater than 104 achievable for low light levels. We report preliminary benchmark experiments in which this system was used to reconstruct, spectrally upcovert, and enhance near-infrared two-dimensional images with feature sizes of 65 {mu}m/mm{sup 2} in background optical attenuations exceeding 10{sup 12}. Phase images of test objects exhibiting both absorptive contrast and diffuse scatter were acquired using a self-referencing Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor in combination with short-pulse quasi-ballistic gating. The sensor employed a lenslet array based on binary optics technology and was sensitive to optical path distortions approaching {lambda}/100.
Signal-to-pump back action and self-oscillation in double-pump Josephson parametric amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamal, Archana; Marblestone, Adam; Devoret, Michel
2009-01-01
We present the theory of a Josephson parametric amplifier employing two-pump sources. Our calculations are based on input-output theory, and can easily be generalized to any coupled system involving parametric interactions. We analyze the operation of the device, taking into account the feedback introduced by the reaction of the signal and noise on the pump power, and in this framework, compute the response functions of interest--signal and idler gains, internal gain of the amplifier, and self-oscillation signal amplitude. To account for this back action between signal and pump, we adopt a mean-field approach and self-consistently explore the boundary between amplification and self-oscillation. The coincidence of bifurcation and self-oscillation thresholds reveals that the origin of coherent emission of the amplifier lies in the multiwave mixing of the noise components. Incorporation of the back action leads the system to exhibit hysteresis, dependent on parameters such as temperature and detuning from resonance. Our analysis also shows that the resonance condition itself changes in the presence of back action and this can be understood in terms of the change in plasma frequency of the junction. The potential of the double-pump amplifier for quantum-limited measurements and as a squeezer is also discussed.
Jumps and bi-stability in the phase-gain characteristics of a nonlinear parametric amplifier
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Neumeyer, Stefan; van de Looij, Ruud; Thomsen, Jon Juel
2014-01-01
This work experimentally investigates the impact of nonlinearity on macromechanical parametric amplification. For a strong cubic stiffness nonlinearity we observe jumps in gain (ratio of steady-state vibration amplitude of the externally and parametrically excited system, to vibration amplitude o...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagnoud, V.
2004-01-01
We report on a high-energy, high-average-power optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier developed as the front end for the OMEGA EP laser. The amplifier provides a gain larger than 109 in two stages leading to a total energy of 400 mJ with a pump-to-signal conversion efficiency higher than 25%
Noroozian, Omid
2018-01-01
The current state of the art for some superconducting technologies will be reviewed in the context of a future single-dish submillimeter telescope called AtLAST. The technologies reviews include: 1) Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs), which have now been demonstrated in large-format kilo-pixel arrays with photon background-limited sensitivity suitable for large field of view cameras for wide-field imaging. 2) Parametric amplifiers - specifically the Traveling-Wave Kinetic Inductance (TKIP) amplifier - which has enormous potential to increase sensitivity, bandwidth, and mapping speed of heterodyne receivers, and 3) On-chip spectrometers, which combined with sensitive direct detectors such as KIDs or TESs could be used as Multi-Object Spectrometers on the AtLAST focal plane, and could provide low-medium resolution spectroscopy of 100 objects at a time in each field of view.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Noordegraaf, Danny; Nielsen, Carsten Vandel
2008-01-01
We demonstrate an increased gain in optical parametric amplier through suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering by applying a temperature distribution along the fiber resulting in a reduction of the required phase modulation.......We demonstrate an increased gain in optical parametric amplier through suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering by applying a temperature distribution along the fiber resulting in a reduction of the required phase modulation....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rottwitt, Karsten
2017-01-01
The chapter provides a discussion of optical fiber amplifiers and through three sections provides a detailed treatment of three types of optical fiber amplifiers, erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA), Raman amplifiers, and parametric amplifiers. Each section comprises the fundamentals including...... the basic physics and relevant in-depth theoretical modeling, amplifiers characteristics and performance data as a function of specific operation parameters. Typical applications in fiber optic communication systems and the improvement achievable through the use of fiber amplifiers are illustrated....
Pump-to-Signal Intensity Modulation Transfer in Saturated- Gain Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Lund-Hansen, Toke; Rottwitt, Karsten
2011-01-01
The pump-to-signal intensity modulation transfer in saturated degenerate FOPAs is numerically investigated over the whole gain bandwidth. The intensity modulation transfer decreases and the OSNR improves when the amplifier operates in the saturation regime....
Moses, J; Huang, S-W; Hong, K-H; Mücke, O D; Falcão-Filho, E L; Benedick, A; Ilday, F O; Dergachev, A; Bolger, J A; Eggleton, B J; Kärtner, F X
2009-06-01
We present a 9 GW peak power, three-cycle, 2.2 microm optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification source with 1.5% rms energy and 150 mrad carrier envelope phase fluctuations. These characteristics, in addition to excellent beam, wavefront, and pulse quality, make the source suitable for long-wavelength-driven high-harmonic generation. High stability is achieved by careful optimization of superfluorescence suppression, enabling energy scaling.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wegkamp, Daniel; Krenz, Marcel; Wolf, Martin [Fritz Haber Institute of the MPG, Dept. of Physical Chemistry, Berlin (Germany); Freie Universitaet Berlin, Dept. of Physics, Berlin (Germany); Bovensiepen, Uwe [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Dept. of Physics, Duisburg (Germany); Freie Universitaet Berlin, Dept. of Physics, Berlin (Germany)
2010-07-01
To study ultrafast dynamics on a femtosecond timescale, laser pulses of comparable and shorter scale are used in this work in combination with 2-photon photoemission. Here, we report the principle, setup, and characterisation of a femtosecond light-source based on a noncollinear optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) and its application in studying the dynamics of Na/Cu(111) following. Laser pulses with duration <20 fs have been generated in the visible spectral range using a 300 kHz regenerative amplifier. In a single color scheme (h{nu}=2.3 eV) the NOPA pulses are used to excite and photoemit hot electrons, which are detected with a time of flight (TOF) spectrometer. With time independent measurements the binding energy of the adsorbate-induced resonance at 2 eV is observed in agreement with. As a function of pump-probe delay a time-dependent binding energy shift of the Na resonance with -2 meV/fs is observed. This shift is explained as a pump-induced movement of the sodium adsorbate away from the surface.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sasanthi Peiris
2014-12-01
Full Text Available We describe a hybrid Raman-optical parametric amplifier (HROPA operating at the O- and E-bands and designed for coarse wavelength division multiplexed (CWDM passive optical networks (PONs. We present the mathematical model and simulation results for the optimization of this HROPA design. Our analysis shows that separating the two amplification processes allows for optimization of each one separately, e.g., proper selection of pump optical powers and wavelengths to achieve maximum gain bandwidth and low gain ripple. Furthermore, we show that the proper design of optical filters incorporated in the HROPA architecture can suppress idlers generated during the OPA process, as well as other crosstalk that leaks through the passive optical components. The design approach enables error free performance for all nine wavelengths within the low half of the CWDM band, assigned to upstream traffic in a CWDM PON architecture, for all possible transmitter wavelength misalignments (±6 nm from the center wavelength of the channel band. We show that the HROPA can achieve error-free performance with a 170-nm gain bandwidth (e.g., 1264 nm–1436 nm, a gain of >20 dB and a gain ripple of <4 dB.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cirmi, Giovanni; Lai, Chien-Jen; Granados, Eduardo; Huang, Shu-Wei; Sell, Alexander; Hong, Kyung-Han; Moses, Jeffrey; Keathley, Phillip; Kärtner, Franz X
2012-01-01
We studied high-harmonic generation (HHG) in Ar, Ne and He gas jets using a broadly tunable, high-energy optical parametric amplifier (OPA) in the visible wavelength range. We optimized the noncollinear OPA to deliver tunable, femtosecond pulses with 200-500 µJ energy at the 1 kHz repetition rate with excellent spatiotemporal properties, suitable for HHG experiments. By tuning the central wavelength of the OPA while keeping other parameters (energy, duration and beam size) constant, we experimentally studied the scaling law of cut-off energy with the driver wavelength in helium. Our measurements show a λ 1.7+0.2 dependence of the HHG cut-off photon energy over the full visible range in agreement with previous experiments of near- and mid-IR wavelengths. By tuning the central wavelength of the driver source, the high-order harmonic spectra in the extreme ultraviolet cover the full range of photon energy between ∼25 and ∼100 eV. Due to the high coherence intrinsic in HHG, as well as the broad and continuous tunability in the extreme UV range, a high energy, high repetition rate version of this source might be an ideal seed for free electron lasers.
Shamir, Yariv; Rothhardt, Jan; Hädrich, Steffen; Demmler, Stefan; Tschernajew, Maxim; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas
2015-12-01
Sources of long wavelengths few-cycle high repetition rate pulses are becoming increasingly important for a plethora of applications, e.g., in high-field physics. Here, we report on the realization of a tunable optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier at 100 kHz repetition rate. At a central wavelength of 2 μm, the system delivered 33 fs pulses and a 6 W average power corresponding to 60 μJ pulse energy with gigawatt-level peak powers. Idler absorption and its crystal heating is experimentally investigated for a BBO. Strategies for further power scaling to several tens of watts of average power are discussed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cristofori, Valentina; Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Lund-Hansen, Toke
2013-01-01
We present an experimental characterization of how signal gain saturation affects the transfer of intensity modulation from the pump to the signal in single-pump, phase-insensitive fiber optic parametric amplifiers (FOPAs). In this work, we demonstrate experimentally for the first time, to our...... knowledge, how gain saturation of a FOPA reduces the noise contribution due to the transfer of pump power fluctuations to the signal. In a particular example, it is shown that the transferred noise is significantly reduced by a factor of 3, while the FOPA gain remains above 10 dB....
Ogino, Jumpei; Miyamoto, Sho; Matsuyama, Takahiro; Sueda, Keiichi; Yoshida, Hidetsugu; Tsubakimoto, Koji; Miyanaga, Noriaki
2014-12-01
We demonstrate optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) based on two-beam pumping, using sub-nanosecond pulses generated by stimulated Brillouin scattering compression. Seed pulse energy, duration, and center wavelength were 5 nJ, 220 ps, and ˜1065 nm, respectively. The 532 nm pulse from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser was compressed to ˜400 ps in heavy fluorocarbon FC-40 liquid. Stacking of two time-delayed pump pulses reduced the amplifier gain fluctuation. Using a walk-off-compensated two-stage OPCPA at a pump energy of 34 mJ, a total gain of 1.6 × 105 was obtained, yielding an output energy of 0.8 mJ. The amplified chirped pulse was compressed to 97 fs.
Lang, T; Harth, A; Matyschok, J; Binhammer, T; Schultze, M; Morgner, U
2013-01-14
A 2 + 1 dimensional nonlinear pulse propagation model is presented, illustrating the weighting of different effects for the parametric amplification of ultra-broadband spectra in different regimes of energy scaling. Typical features in the distribution of intensity and phase of state-of-the-art OPA-systems can be understood by cascaded spatial and temporal effects.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Qiu-Lin; Zhang Jing; Qiu Kang-Sheng; Zhang Dong-Xiang; Feng Bao-Hua; Zhang Jing-Yuan
2012-01-01
Picosecond optical parametric generation and amplification in the near-infrared region within 1.361–1.656 μm and the mid-infrared region within 2.976–4.875 μm is constructed on the basis of bulk MgO:LiNbO 3 crystals pumped at 1.064 μm. The maximum pulse energy reaches 1.3 mJ at 1.464 μm and 0.47 mJ at 3.894 μm, corresponding to a pump-to-idler photon conversion efficiency of 25%. By seeding the hard-to-measure mid-infrared radiation as the idler in the optical parametric amplification and measuring the amplified and frequency up-converted signal in the near-infrared or even visible region, one can measure very week mid-infrared radiation with ordinary detectors, which are insensitive to mid-infrared radiation, with a very high gain. A maximum gain factor of about 7 × 10 7 is achieved at the mid-infrared wavelength of 3.374 μm and the corresponding energy detection limit is as low as about 390 aJ per pulse. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Xiang; Hu, Hao; Chandrasekhar, S.
2014-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate the generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated vector twin waves (PCTWs), consisting of eight 128-Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed QPSK signals and their idlers, by a broadband polarization-insensitive fiber optic parametric amplifier. This novel all...
Beutler, Marcus; Ghotbi, Masood; Noack, Frank; Brida, Daniele; Manzoni, Cristian; Cerullo, Giulio
2009-03-15
We report on the generation of powerful sub-20 fs deep UV pulses with 10 microJ level energy and broadly tunable in the 250-310 nm range. These pulses are produced by frequency doubling a high-power noncollinear optical parametric amplifier and compressed by a pair of MgF2 prisms to an almost transform-limited duration. Our results provide a power scaling by an order of magnitude with respect to previous works.
Liu, L.; Wang, H. Y.; Ning, Y.; Shen, C.; Si, L.; Yang, Y.; Bao, Q. L.; Ren, G.
2017-05-01
A sub-nanosecond seeded optical parametric generator (OPG) based on magnesium oxide-doped periodically poled lithium niobate (MgO:PPLN) crystal is presented. Pumped by an actively Q-switched diode-pumped 1 kHz, 1064 nm, Nd:YAG microlaser and seeded with a low power distributed feedback (DFB) diode continuous-wave (CW) laser, the OPG generated an output energy of 41.4 µJ and 681 ps pulse duration for the signal at 1652.4 nm, achieving a quantum conversion efficiency of 61.2% and a slope efficiency of 41.8%. Signal tuning was achieved from 1651.0 to 1652.4 nm by tuning the seed-laser current. The FWHM of the signal spectrum was approximately from 35 nm to 0.5 nm by injection seed laser. The SHG doubled the frequency of OPG signal to produce a output energy of 12 µJ with the energy conversion efficiency of 29.0% and tunanble wavelength near 826 nm.
Macromechanical Parametric Amplification
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Neumeyer, Stefan
between the two peaks can be altered. The first experimental bistable amplified steady-state responses are also reported. The derived analytical models and experimental setups can readily be extended to investigate other factors. Some of the results are also applicable to the more general field of systems...... for energy harvesting. Using analytical, numerical, and experimental methods, the thesis focuses on superthreshold pumping (above the systems parametric instability threshold), nonlinear effects, frequency response backbones, and frequency detuning effects for parametric amplifiers. Part one of the thesis...... covers superthreshold pumping and nonlinear effects. Superthresh-old pumping produces some useful characteristics. For instance, strong superthreshold pumping yields a high gain even though nonlinear effects tend to reduce it. In addition, a narrower excitation phase range is realized for which...
Tetsuya, Saito; Nauta, Bram
2008-01-01
To provide an operation amplifier which improves power source voltage removal ratios while assuring phase compensation characteristics, and therefore can be realized with a small-scale circuit and low power consumption. SOLUTION: The operation amplifier comprises: a differential amplifier circuit 1;
Jovanovic, Igor; Comaskey, Brian J.
2004-09-14
A first pump pulse and a signal pulse are injected into a first optical parametric amplifier. This produces a first amplified signal pulse. At least one additional pump pulse and the first amplified signal pulse are injected into at least one additional optical parametric amplifier producing an increased power coherent optical pulse.
Pulse Distortion in Saturated Fiber Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Da Ros, Francesco; Rottwitt, Karsten
2012-01-01
Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation.......Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation....
On the parametric approximation in quantum optics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D' Ariano, G.M.; Paris, M.G.A.; Sacchi, M.F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pavia (Italy); Pavia Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica ' Alessandro Volta'
1999-03-01
The authors perform the exact numerical diagonalization of Hamiltonians that describe both degenerate and nondegenerate parametric amplifiers, by exploiting the conservation laws pertaining each device. It is clarify the conditions under which the parametric approximation holds, showing that the most relevant requirements is the coherence of the pump after the interaction, rather than its un depletion.
On the parametric approximation in quantum optics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Ariano, G.M.; Paris, M.G.A.; Sacchi, M.F.; Pavia Univ.
1999-01-01
The authors perform the exact numerical diagonalization of Hamiltonians that describe both degenerate and nondegenerate parametric amplifiers, by exploiting the conservation laws pertaining each device. It is clarify the conditions under which the parametric approximation holds, showing that the most relevant requirements is the coherence of the pump after the interaction, rather than its un depletion
Tetsuya, Saito; Nauta, Bram
2011-01-01
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an operation amplifier which improves power source voltage removal ratios while assuring phase compensation characteristics, and therefore can be realized with a small-scale circuit and low power consumption. SOLUTION: The operation amplifier comprises: a
Tetsuya, S.; Nauta, Bram
2007-01-01
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an operation amplifier which improves power source voltage removal ratios while assuring phase compensation characteristics, and therefore can be realized with a small-scale circuit and low power consumption. ; SOLUTION: The operation amplifier comprises: a
Dostal, Jiri
1993-01-01
This book provides the reader with the practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. It presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits.Provides the reader with practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. Presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits
Keeports, David
2006-12-01
By definition, a high fidelity amplifier's instantaneous output voltage is directly proportional to its instantaneous input voltage. While high fidelity is generally valued in the amplification of recorded music, nonlinearity, also known as distortion, is desirable in the amplification of some musical instruments. In particular, guitar amplifiers exploit nonlinearity to increase both the harmonic content and sustain of a guitar's sound. I will discuss how both modifications in sound result from saturation of triode tubes and transistors. Additionally, I will describe the difference in the symmetry of saturation curves for transistors and tubes and the reason why tube guitar amplifiers are generally considered to be superior to solid-state amplifiers. Finally, I will discuss attempts to use solid-state electronics to replicate the sound of tube amplifiers.
Prince, Katherine; Woempner, Carolyn
2010-01-01
This brief examines the policy implications of two drivers of change presented in the "2020 Forecast: Creating the Future of Learning"-- Pattern Recognition and Amplified Organization. These drivers point toward a series of cultural shifts and illuminate how we are developing new ways of organizing, constructing, and managing knowledge.…
Parametric nanomechanical amplification at very high frequency.
Karabalin, R B; Feng, X L; Roukes, M L
2009-09-01
Parametric resonance and amplification are important in both fundamental physics and technological applications. Here we report very high frequency (VHF) parametric resonators and mechanical-domain amplifiers based on nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Compound mechanical nanostructures patterned by multilayer, top-down nanofabrication are read out by a novel scheme that parametrically modulates longitudinal stress in doubly clamped beam NEMS resonators. Parametric pumping and signal amplification are demonstrated for VHF resonators up to approximately 130 MHz and provide useful enhancement of both resonance signal amplitude and quality factor. We find that Joule heating and reduced thermal conductance in these nanostructures ultimately impose an upper limit to device performance. We develop a theoretical model to account for both the parametric response and nonequilibrium thermal transport in these composite nanostructures. The results closely conform to our experimental observations, elucidate the frequency and threshold-voltage scaling in parametric VHF NEMS resonators and sensors, and establish the ultimate sensitivity limits of this approach.
Ionospheric modification and parametric instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fejer, J.A.
1979-01-01
Thresholds and linear growth rates for stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering and for the parametric decay instability are derived by using arguments of energy transfer. For this purpose an expression for the ponderomotive force is derived. Conditions under which the partial pressure force due to differential dissipation exceeds the ponderomotive force are also discussed. Stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering are weakly excited by existing incoherent backscatter radars. The parametric decay instability is strongly excited in ionospheric heating experiments. Saturation theories of the parametric decay instability are therefore described. After a brief discussion of the purely growing instability the effect of using several pumps is discussed as well as the effects of inhomogenicity. Turning to detailed theories of ionospheric heating, artificial spread F is discussed in terms of a purely growing instability where the nonlinearity is due to dissipation. Field-aligned short-scale striations are explained in terms of dissipation of the parametrically excited Langmuir waves (plasma oscillations): they might be further amplified by an explosive instability (except the magnetic equator). Broadband absorption is probably responsible for the 'overshoot' effect: the initially observed level of parametrically excited Langmuir waves is much higher than the steady state level
Excess quantum noise in optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification
Manzoni, C.; Moses, J.; Kärtner, F. X.; Cerullo, G.
2011-01-01
Noise evolution in an optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier (OPCPA) differs essentially from that of an optical parametric or a conventional laser amplifier, in that an incoherent pedestal is produced by superfluorescence that can overwhelm the signal under strong saturation. Using a model for the nonlinear dynamics consistent with quantum mechanics, we numerically study the evolution of excess noise in an OPCPA. The observed dynamics explain the macroscopic characteristics seen previous...
Parametric and Non-Parametric System Modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg
1999-01-01
the focus is on combinations of parametric and non-parametric methods of regression. This combination can be in terms of additive models where e.g. one or more non-parametric term is added to a linear regression model. It can also be in terms of conditional parametric models where the coefficients...... considered. It is shown that adaptive estimation in conditional parametric models can be performed by combining the well known methods of local polynomial regression and recursive least squares with exponential forgetting. The approach used for estimation in conditional parametric models also highlights how...... networks is included. In this paper, neural networks are used for predicting the electricity production of a wind farm. The results are compared with results obtained using an adaptively estimated ARX-model. Finally, two papers on stochastic differential equations are included. In the first paper, among...
Amplifier for nuclear spectrometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suarez Canner, E.
1996-01-01
The spectroscopy amplifier model AE-020 is designed to adjust suitable the pulses coming from nuclear radiation detectors. Due to is capacity and specifications, the amplifier can be used together with high and medium resolution spectroscopy system
Portable musical instrument amplifier
Christian, David E.
1990-07-24
The present invention relates to a musical instrument amplifier which is particularly useful for electric guitars. The amplifier has a rigid body for housing both the electronic system for amplifying and processing signals from the guitar and the system's power supply. An input plug connected to and projecting from the body is electrically coupled to the signal amplifying and processing system. When the plug is inserted into an output jack for an electric guitar, the body is rigidly carried by the guitar, and the guitar is operatively connected to the electrical amplifying and signal processing system without use of a loose interconnection cable. The amplifier is provided with an output jack, into which headphones are plugged to receive amplified signals from the guitar. By eliminating the conventional interconnection cable, the amplifier of the present invention can be used by musicians with increased flexibility and greater freedom of movement.
Amplification factor variable amplifier
Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram
2007-01-01
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ; SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and
Amplification factor variable amplifier
Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram
2010-01-01
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ;SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and can
Fiber optical parametric amplifiers in optical communication systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marhic, Michel E.; Andrekson, Peter A.; Petropoulos, Periklis
2015-01-01
-modulated signals. A PSA with 1.1-dB noise figure has been demonstrated, and preliminary wavelength-division multiplexing experiments have been performed with PSAs. 512Gb/s have been transmitted over 6,000km by periodic phase conjugation. Simulations indicate that PIAs could reach data rate x reach products...
On Parametric (and Non-Parametric Variation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neil Smith
2009-11-01
Full Text Available This article raises the issue of the correct characterization of ‘Parametric Variation’ in syntax and phonology. After specifying their theoretical commitments, the authors outline the relevant parts of the Principles–and–Parameters framework, and draw a three-way distinction among Universal Principles, Parameters, and Accidents. The core of the contribution then consists of an attempt to provide identity criteria for parametric, as opposed to non-parametric, variation. Parametric choices must be antecedently known, and it is suggested that they must also satisfy seven individually necessary and jointly sufficient criteria. These are that they be cognitively represented, systematic, dependent on the input, deterministic, discrete, mutually exclusive, and irreversible.
Phase noise in RF and microwave amplifiers.
Boudot, Rodolphe; Rubiola, Enrico
2012-12-01
Understanding amplifier phase noise is a critical issue in many fields of engineering and physics, such as oscillators, frequency synthesis, telecommunication, radar, and spectroscopy; in the emerging domain of microwave photonics; and in exotic fields, such as radio astronomy, particle accelerators, etc. Focusing on the two main types of base noise in amplifiers, white and flicker, the power spectral density of the random phase φ(t) is Sφ(f) = b(0) + b(-1)/f. White phase noise results from adding white noise to the RF spectrum in the carrier region. For a given RF noise level, b(0) is proportional to the reciprocal of the carrier power P(0). By contrast, flicker results from a near-dc 1/f noise-present in all electronic devices-which modulates the carrier through some parametric effect in the semiconductor. Thus, b(-1) is a parameter of the amplifier, constant in a wide range of P(0). The consequences are the following: Connecting m equal amplifiers in parallel, b(-1) is 1/m times that of one device. Cascading m equal amplifiers, b(-1) is m times that of one amplifier. Recirculating the signal in an amplifier so that the gain increases by a power of m (a factor of m in decibels) as a result of positive feedback (regeneration), we find that b(-1) is m(2) times that of the amplifier alone. The feedforward amplifier exhibits extremely low b(-1) because the carrier is ideally nulled at the input of its internal error amplifier. Starting with an extensive review of the literature, this article introduces a system-oriented model which describes the phase flickering. Several amplifier architectures (cascaded, parallel, etc.) are analyzed systematically, deriving the phase noise from the general model. There follow numerous measurements of amplifiers using different technologies, including some old samples, and in a wide frequency range (HF to microwaves), which validate the theory. In turn, theory and results provide design guidelines and give suggestions for CAD and
Fiber Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification of Sub-Picosecond Pulses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cristofori, Valentina; Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Da Ros, Francesco
2013-01-01
We demonstrate experimentally, for the first time to our knowledge, fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification of 400-fs pulses. The 400-fs signal is stretched, amplified by 26 dB and compressed back to 500 fs.......We demonstrate experimentally, for the first time to our knowledge, fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification of 400-fs pulses. The 400-fs signal is stretched, amplified by 26 dB and compressed back to 500 fs....
Markovian Dynamics of Josephson Parametric Amplification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Kaiser
2017-09-01
Full Text Available In this work, we derive the dynamics of the lossy DC pumped non-degenerate Josephson parametric amplifier (DCPJPA. The main element in a DCPJPA is the superconducting Josephson junction. The DC bias generates the AC Josephson current varying the nonlinear inductance of the junction. By this way the Josephson junction acts as the pump oscillator as well as the time varying reactance of the parametric amplifier. In quantum-limited amplification, losses and noise have an increased impact on the characteristics of an amplifier. We outline the classical model of the lossy DCPJPA and derive the available noise power spectral densities. A classical treatment is not capable of including properties like spontaneous emission which is mandatory in case of amplification at the quantum limit. Thus, we derive a quantum mechanical model of the lossy DCPJPA. Thermal losses are modeled by the quantum Langevin approach, by coupling the quantized system to a photon heat bath in thermodynamic equilibrium. The mode occupation in the bath follows the Bose-Einstein statistics. Based on the second quantization formalism, we derive the Heisenberg equations of motion of both resonator modes. We assume the dynamics of the system to follow the Markovian approximation, i.e. the system only depends on its actual state and is memory-free. We explicitly compute the time evolution of the contributions to the signal mode energy and give numeric examples based on different damping and coupling constants. Our analytic results show, that this model is capable of including thermal noise into the description of the DC pumped non-degenerate Josephson parametric amplifier.
Markovian Dynamics of Josephson Parametric Amplification
Kaiser, Waldemar; Haider, Michael; Russer, Johannes A.; Russer, Peter; Jirauschek, Christian
2017-09-01
In this work, we derive the dynamics of the lossy DC pumped non-degenerate Josephson parametric amplifier (DCPJPA). The main element in a DCPJPA is the superconducting Josephson junction. The DC bias generates the AC Josephson current varying the nonlinear inductance of the junction. By this way the Josephson junction acts as the pump oscillator as well as the time varying reactance of the parametric amplifier. In quantum-limited amplification, losses and noise have an increased impact on the characteristics of an amplifier. We outline the classical model of the lossy DCPJPA and derive the available noise power spectral densities. A classical treatment is not capable of including properties like spontaneous emission which is mandatory in case of amplification at the quantum limit. Thus, we derive a quantum mechanical model of the lossy DCPJPA. Thermal losses are modeled by the quantum Langevin approach, by coupling the quantized system to a photon heat bath in thermodynamic equilibrium. The mode occupation in the bath follows the Bose-Einstein statistics. Based on the second quantization formalism, we derive the Heisenberg equations of motion of both resonator modes. We assume the dynamics of the system to follow the Markovian approximation, i.e. the system only depends on its actual state and is memory-free. We explicitly compute the time evolution of the contributions to the signal mode energy and give numeric examples based on different damping and coupling constants. Our analytic results show, that this model is capable of including thermal noise into the description of the DC pumped non-degenerate Josephson parametric amplifier.
Oscillators and operational amplifiers
Lindberg, Erik
2005-01-01
A generalized approach to the design of oscillators using operational amplifiers as active elements is presented. A piecewise-linear model of the amplifier is used so that it make sense to investigate the eigenvalues of the Jacobian of the differential equations. The characteristic equation of the general circuit is derived. The dynamic nonlinear transfer characteristic of the amplifier is investigated. Examples of negative resistance oscillators are discussed.
2010-07-27
PS) FOPAs are discussed, and the phase-squeezing behavior of PS-FOPAs is characterized in Sec V. In Sec. VI, we present measurements of the noise...fiber and has the following parameters: L = 350 m, Aeff = 9.4 μm2, S0 = 0.025 ps/nm2km, λ0 = 1561.9 nm, β4 = 2.5*10-5 ps4 /km, estimated variation of...obtained the average gain and NF, which makes the analysis complicated and time- consuming . When considering the impacts of ZDW distributions on FOPA
Several fluidic tuned AC Amplifiers were designed and tested. Interstage tuning and feedback designs are considered. Good results were obtained...corresponding Q’s as high as 12. Element designs and test results of one, two, and three stage amplifiers are presented. AC Modulated Carrier Systems
Quantum tomography enhanced through parametric amplification
Knyazev, E.; Spasibko, K. Yu; Chekhova, M. V.; Khalili, F. Ya
2018-01-01
Quantum tomography is the standard method of reconstructing the Wigner function of quantum states of light by means of balanced homodyne detection. The reconstruction quality strongly depends on the photodetectors quantum efficiency and other losses in the measurement setup. In this article we analyze in detail a protocol of enhanced quantum tomography, proposed by Leonhardt and Paul [1] which allows one to reduce the degrading effect of detection losses. It is based on phase-sensitive parametric amplification, with the phase of the amplified quadrature being scanned synchronously with the local oscillator phase. Although with sufficiently strong amplification the protocol enables overcoming any detection inefficiency, it was so far not implemented in the experiment, probably due to the losses in the amplifier. Here we discuss a possible proof-of-principle experiment with a traveling-wave parametric amplifier. We show that with the state-of-the-art optical elements, the protocol enables high fidelity tomographic reconstruction of bright non-classical states of light. We consider two examples: bright squeezed vacuum and squeezed single-photon state, with the latter being a non-Gaussian state and both strongly affected by the losses.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stine, R.D.; Ross, G.F.; Silvernail, C.
1979-01-01
The overall design of the Antares laser power amplifier is discussed. The power amplifier is the last stage of amplification in the 100-kJ Antares laser. In the power amplifier a single, cylindrical, grid-controlle, cold-cathode electron gun is surrounded by 12 large-aperture CO 2 electron-beam sustained laser discharge sectors. Each power amplifier will deliver 18 kJ and the six modules used in Antares will produce the required 100 kJ for delivery to the target. A large-scale interaction between optical, mechanical, and electrical disciplines is required to meet the design objectives. Significant component advances required by the power amplifier design are discussed
Parametric excitation of a SiN membrane via piezoelectricity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuhui Wu
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We develop a stoichiometric silicon nitride (SiN membrane-based electromechanical system, in which the spring constant of the mechanical resonator can be dynamically controlled via piezoelectric actuation. The degenerate parametric amplifier is studied in this configuration. We observe the splitting of mechanical mode in the response spectra of a phase-sensitive parametric amplifier. In addition, we demonstrate that the quality factor Q of the membrane oscillator can be significantly enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude due to the coherent amplification, reaching an effective Q factor of ∼3 × 108 at room temperature. The nonlinear effect on the parametric amplification is also investigated, as well as the thermomechanical noise squeezing. This system offers the possibility to integrate electrical, optical and mechanical degrees of freedom without compromising the exceptional material properties of SiN membranes, and can be a useful platform for studying cavity optoelectromechanics.
Parametric excitation of a SiN membrane via piezoelectricity
Wu, Shuhui; Sheng, Jiteng; Zhang, Xiaotian; Wu, Yuelong; Wu, Haibin
2018-01-01
We develop a stoichiometric silicon nitride (SiN) membrane-based electromechanical system, in which the spring constant of the mechanical resonator can be dynamically controlled via piezoelectric actuation. The degenerate parametric amplifier is studied in this configuration. We observe the splitting of mechanical mode in the response spectra of a phase-sensitive parametric amplifier. In addition, we demonstrate that the quality factor Q of the membrane oscillator can be significantly enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude due to the coherent amplification, reaching an effective Q factor of ˜3 × 108 at room temperature. The nonlinear effect on the parametric amplification is also investigated, as well as the thermomechanical noise squeezing. This system offers the possibility to integrate electrical, optical and mechanical degrees of freedom without compromising the exceptional material properties of SiN membranes, and can be a useful platform for studying cavity optoelectromechanics.
Auto-Zero Differential Amplifier
Quilligan, Gerard T. (Inventor); Aslam, Shahid (Inventor)
2017-01-01
An autozero amplifier may include a window comparator network to monitor an output offset of a differential amplifier. The autozero amplifier may also include an integrator to receive a signal from a latched window comparator network, and send an adjustment signal back to the differential amplifier to reduce an offset of the differential amplifier.
Motivations of parametric studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Birac, C.
1988-01-01
The paper concerns the motivations of parametric studies in connection with the Programme for the Inspection of Steel Components PISC II. The objective of the PISC II exercise is to evaluate the effectiveness of current and advanced NDT techniques for inspection of reactor pressure vessel components. The parametric studies were initiated to determine the influence of some parameters on defect detection and dimensioning, and to increase the technical bases of the Round Robin Tests. A description is given of the content of the parametric studies including:- the effect of the defects' characteristics, the effect of equipment characteristics, the effect of cladding, and possible use of electromagnetic techniques. (U.K.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeppesen, Palle
1997-01-01
Noise in optical amplifiers is discussed on the basis of photons and electromagntic fields. Formulas for quantum noise from spontaneous emission, signal-spontaneous beat noise and spontaneous-spontaneous beat noise are derived.......Noise in optical amplifiers is discussed on the basis of photons and electromagntic fields. Formulas for quantum noise from spontaneous emission, signal-spontaneous beat noise and spontaneous-spontaneous beat noise are derived....
Electrospun amplified fiber optics.
Morello, Giovanni; Camposeo, Andrea; Moffa, Maria; Pisignano, Dario
2015-03-11
All-optical signal processing is the focus of much research aiming to obtain effective alternatives to existing data transmission platforms. Amplification of light in fiber optics, such as in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, is especially important for efficient signal transmission. However, the complex fabrication methods involving high-temperature processes performed in a highly pure environment slow the fabrication process and make amplified components expensive with respect to an ideal, high-throughput, room temperature production. Here, we report on near-infrared polymer fiber amplifiers working over a band of ∼20 nm. The fibers are cheap, spun with a process entirely carried out at room temperature, and shown to have amplified spontaneous emission with good gain coefficients and low levels of optical losses (a few cm(-1)). The amplification process is favored by high fiber quality and low self-absorption. The found performance metrics appear to be suitable for short-distance operations, and the large variety of commercially available doping dyes might allow for effective multiwavelength operations by electrospun amplified fiber optics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lepetit, J.; Poussier, E.
1984-01-01
This amplifier comprises an inverter transformer, the primary circuit of which receives a pulse and the secondary circuit of which is connected to several amplifying elements in parallel. The inverter transformer is made of coaxial cable segments winded around a magnetic torus; the cable cores connected in series constitute the primary circuit and the braiding of cables, connected in parallel, are the secondary circuit. The transformer comprises, besides, delay lines in series with each braiding of the secondary circuit, these ones are such that pulses issued from each braiding arrive together to the secondary circuit connectors. This invention applies, noticeably in the case of a high voltage amplifier, to the control of deflection blocks of particles used in medicine or in particle accelerators [fr
Honma, K.; Handa, K.; Akinaga, W.; Doi, M.; Matsuzaki, O.
This paper describes the design and the performance of the S-band low noise amplifier and the S-band high power amplifier that have been developed for the Usuda Deep Space Station of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan. The S-band low noise amplifier consists of a helium gas-cooled parametric amplifier followed by three-stage FET amplifiers and has a noise temperature of 8 K. The high power amplifier is composed of two 28 kW klystrons, capable of transmitting 40 kW continuously when two klystrons are combined. Both subsystems are operating quite satisfactorily in the tracking of Sakigake and Suisei, the Japanese interplanetary probes for Halley's comet exploration, launched by ISAS in 1985.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tai, I.; Hasegawa, K.
1975-01-01
This paper reports on the improvement of frequency characteristics of a logarithmic amplifier with a Paterson transdiode connection. The improvement of the response speed has been achieved by using a phase compensation technique. Small signal response analyses of the logging circuit revealed the effects of a series resistor Rsub(p) and a parallel capacitance Csub(p) on the response of the circuit. The improvement of the frequency characteristics are remarkable at higher current levels. These facts were proved by the practical logarithmic amplifier. (auth.)
PARAMETRIC DRAWINGS VS. AUTOLISP
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
PRUNĂ Liviu
2015-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper the authors make a critical analysis of the advantages offered by the parametric drawing use by comparison with the AutoLISP computer programs used when it comes about the parametric design. Studying and analysing these two work models the authors have got to some ideas and conclusions which should be considered in the moment in that someone must to decide if it is the case to elaborate a software, using the AutoLISP language, or to establish the base rules that must be followed by the drawing, in the idea to construct outlines or blocks which can be used in the projection process.
PARAMETRIC DRAWINGS VS. AUTOLISP
PRUNĂ Liviu; SLONOVSCHI Andrei
2015-01-01
In this paper the authors make a critical analysis of the advantages offered by the parametric drawing use by comparison with the AutoLISP computer programs used when it comes about the parametric design. Studying and analysing these two work models the authors have got to some ideas and conclusions which should be considered in the moment in that someone must to decide if it is the case to elaborate a software, using the AutoLISP language, or to establish the base rules that must be followed...
Quantum theory of novel parametric devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drummond, P.D.; Reid, M.D.; Dechoum, K.; Chaturvedi, S.; Olsen, M.; Kheruntsyan, K.; Bradley, A.
2005-01-01
While the parametric amplifier is a widely used and important source of entangled and squeezed photons, there are many possible ways to investigate the physics of intracavity parametric devices. Novel quantum theory of parametric devices in this talk will cover several new types of unconventional devices, including the following topics:- Critical intracavity paramp - We calculate intrinsic limits to entanglement of a quantum paramp, caused by nonlinear effects originating in phase noise of the pump. - Degenerate planar paramp - We obtain universal quantum critical fluctuations in a planar paramp device by mapping to the equations of magnetic Lifshitz points Nondegenerate planar paramp - The Mermin-Wagner theorem is used to demonstrate that there is no phase transition in the case of a nondegenerate planar device - Coupled channel paramp - A robust and novel integrated entanglement source can be generated using type I waveguides coupled inside a cavity to generate spatial entanglement - Cascade paramps - This possible 'GHZ-type' source is obtained by cascading successive down conversion crystals inside the same cavity, giving two thresholds Parallel paramps - Tripartite entanglement can be generated if three intracavity paramp crystals are operated in parallel, each idler mode acting as a signal for the next. Finally, we briefly treat the relevant experimental developments. (author)
Controlling Parametric Resonance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Galeazzi, Roberto; Pettersen, Kristin Ytterstad
2012-01-01
the authors review the conditions for the onset of parametric resonance, and propose a nonlinear control strategy in order to both induce the resonant oscillations and to stabilize the unstable motion. Lagrange’s theory is used to derive the dynamics of the system and input–output feedback linearization...
Classification rates: non‐parametric verses parametric models using ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This research sought to establish if non parametric modeling achieves a higher correct classification ratio than a parametric model. The local likelihood technique was used to model fit the data sets. The same sets of data were modeled using parametric logit and the abilities of the two models to correctly predict the binary ...
Mismatch characteristics of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Novák, Ondřej; Turčičová, Hana; Divoký, Martin; Huynh, Jaroslav; Straka, Petr
2014-01-01
Roč. 11, č. 2 (2014), 1-7 ISSN 1612-2011 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0814; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : phase matching * phase mismatch * beam mismatch * broadband amplification * parametric amplifiers * OPCPA * iodine laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.458, year: 2014
Towards Stabilizing Parametric Active Contours
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Jinchao; Fan, Zhun; Olsen, Søren Ingvor
2014-01-01
Numerical instability often occurs in evolving of parametric active contours. This is mainly due to the undesired change of parametrization during evolution. In this paper, we propose a new tangential diffusion term to compensate this undesired change. As a result, the parametrization will converge...
Amplifying genetic logic gates.
Bonnet, Jerome; Yin, Peter; Ortiz, Monica E; Subsoontorn, Pakpoom; Endy, Drew
2013-05-03
Organisms must process information encoded via developmental and environmental signals to survive and reproduce. Researchers have also engineered synthetic genetic logic to realize simpler, independent control of biological processes. We developed a three-terminal device architecture, termed the transcriptor, that uses bacteriophage serine integrases to control the flow of RNA polymerase along DNA. Integrase-mediated inversion or deletion of DNA encoding transcription terminators or a promoter modulates transcription rates. We realized permanent amplifying AND, NAND, OR, XOR, NOR, and XNOR gates actuated across common control signal ranges and sequential logic supporting autonomous cell-cell communication of DNA encoding distinct logic-gate states. The single-layer digital logic architecture developed here enables engineering of amplifying logic gates to control transcription rates within and across diverse organisms.
Flashlamp excited fluid laser amplified
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1976-01-01
The patent describes a laser amplifier with chambers for containing and amplifying an intensifier medium. It serves the need for a large impulse repetition rate and high intensities as required e.g. for laser isotope separation
MEMS digital parametric loudspeaker
Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo
2016-03-23
This paper reports on the design and fabrication of MEMS actuator arrays suitable for Digital Sound reconstruction and Parametric Directional Loudspeakers. Two distinct versions of the device were fabricated: one using the electrostatic principle actuation and the other one, the piezoelectric principle. Both versions used similar membrane dimensions, with a diameter of 500 μm. These devices are the smallest Micro-Machined Ultrasound Transducer (MUT) arrays that can be operated for both modes: Digital Sound Reconstruction and Parametric Loudspeaker. The chips consist of an array with 256 transducers, in a footprint of 12 mm by 12 mm. The total single chip size is: 2.3 cm by 2.3 cm, including the contact pads. © 2016 IEEE.
Parametric Explosion Spectral Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ford, S R; Walter, W R
2012-01-19
Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.
MEMS digital parametric loudspeaker
Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Castro, David; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Kosel, Jü rgen; Foulds, Ian G.
2016-01-01
This paper reports on the design and fabrication of MEMS actuator arrays suitable for Digital Sound reconstruction and Parametric Directional Loudspeakers. Two distinct versions of the device were fabricated: one using the electrostatic principle actuation and the other one, the piezoelectric principle. Both versions used similar membrane dimensions, with a diameter of 500 μm. These devices are the smallest Micro-Machined Ultrasound Transducer (MUT) arrays that can be operated for both modes: Digital Sound Reconstruction and Parametric Loudspeaker. The chips consist of an array with 256 transducers, in a footprint of 12 mm by 12 mm. The total single chip size is: 2.3 cm by 2.3 cm, including the contact pads. © 2016 IEEE.
Circulation and Directional Amplification in the Josephson Parametric Converter
Hatridge, Michael
Nonreciprocal transport and directional amplification of weak microwave signals are fundamental ingredients in performing efficient measurements of quantum states of flying microwave light. This challenge has been partly met, as quantum-limited amplification is now regularly achieved with parametrically-driven, Josephson-junction based superconducting circuits. However, these devices are typically non-directional, requiring external circulators to separate incoming and outgoing signals. Recently this limitation has been overcome by several proposals and experimental realizations of both directional amplifiers and circulators based on interference between several parametric processes in a single device. This new class of multi-parametrically driven devices holds the promise of achieving a variety of desirable characteristics simultaneously- directionality, reduced gain-bandwidth constraints and quantum-limited added noise, and are good candidates for on-chip integration with other superconducting circuits such as qubits.
Implementing quantum optics with parametrically driven superconducting circuits
Aumentado, Jose
Parametric coupling has received much attention, in part because it forms the core of many low-noise amplifiers in superconducting quantum information experiments. However, parametric coupling in superconducting circuits is, as a general rule, simple to generate and forms the basis of a methodology for interacting microwave fields at different frequencies. In the quantum regime, this has important consequences, allowing relative novices to do experiments in superconducting circuits today that were previously heroic efforts in quantum optics and cavity-QED. In this talk, I'll give an overview of some of our work demonstrating parametric coupling within the context of circuit-QED as well as some of the possibilities this concept creates in our field.
Improved-Bandwidth Transimpedance Amplifier
Chapsky, Jacob
2009-01-01
The widest available operational amplifier, with the best voltage and current noise characteristics, is considered for transimpedance amplifier (TIA) applications where wide bandwidth is required to handle fast rising input signals (as for time-of-flight measurement cases). The added amplifier inside the TIA feedback loop can be configured to have slightly lower voltage gain than the bandwidth reduction factor.
Compressed magnetic flux amplifier with capacitive load
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stuetzer, O.M.
1980-03-01
A first-order analysis is presented for a compressed magnetic flux (CMF) current amplifier working into a load with a capacitive component. Since the purpose of the investigation was to gain a general understanding of the arrangement, a number of approximations and limitations were accepted. The inductance of the transducer varies with time; the inductance/resistance/capacitance (LRC) circuit therefore is parametric and solutions are different for the stable regime (high C), the oscillation regime (low C), and the transition case. Solutions and performance depend strongly on circuit boundary conditions, i.e., energization of the circuit by either an injected current or by an applied capacitor charge. The behavior of current and energy amplification for the various cases are discussed in detail. A number of experiments with small CMF devices showed that the first-order theory presented predicts transducer performance well in the linear regime
Parametric Resonance in Dynamical Systems
Nijmeijer, Henk
2012-01-01
Parametric Resonance in Dynamical Systems discusses the phenomenon of parametric resonance and its occurrence in mechanical systems,vehicles, motorcycles, aircraft and marine craft, and micro-electro-mechanical systems. The contributors provide an introduction to the root causes of this phenomenon and its mathematical equivalent, the Mathieu-Hill equation. Also included is a discussion of how parametric resonance occurs on ships and offshore systems and its frequency in mechanical and electrical systems. This book also: Presents the theory and principles behind parametric resonance Provides a unique collection of the different fields where parametric resonance appears including ships and offshore structures, automotive vehicles and mechanical systems Discusses ways to combat, cope with and prevent parametric resonance including passive design measures and active control methods Parametric Resonance in Dynamical Systems is ideal for researchers and mechanical engineers working in application fields such as MEM...
Shaping of picosecond pulses for pumping optical parametric amplification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fueloep, J.A.; Krausz, F.; Major, Zs.; Horvath, B.
2006-01-01
Complete test of publication follows. The use of temporally shaped pump pulses for optical parametric amplification (OPA) is expected to facilitate an increase of efficiency and suppression of possible spectral distortions in this process, since the gain sensitively depends on the pump intensity. Our simulations confirmed such beneficial effect of temporally shaped pump pulses on the OPA process. With the aim to realize an optimized OPA stage pumped by shaped pulses, a novel method for passively shaping narrow band picosecond pulses has been developed. The method is based on the pulse-stacking principle, where replicas of the incoming pulse are created in a specially designed four-beam interferometer. The replicas are recombined with appropriate delays. The interferometer design allows for a unique flexibility in varying the pulse shape, since all relevant degrees of freedom, such as relative intensities and delays between the pulse replicas are independently adjustable. According to our calculations a pulse with a flat-top time profile would provide optimal conditions in the OPA process. Usually the pump pulse needs to be amplified in a conventional laser amplifier prior to the OPA. Our cross-correlation measurements showed that we are able to obtain shaped amplified pulses by shaping the amplifier input. Furthermore, by precompensating the distortions introduced by the amplifier we demonstrated our capability to produce amplified pulses with a flat-top time profile.
Simplified design of IC amplifiers
Lenk, John
1996-01-01
Simplified Design of IC Amplifiers has something for everyone involved in electronics. No matter what skill level, this book shows how to design and experiment with IC amplifiers. For experimenters, students, and serious hobbyists, this book provides sufficient information to design and build IC amplifier circuits from 'scratch'. For working engineers who design amplifier circuits or select IC amplifiers, the book provides a variety of circuit configurations to make designing easier.Provides basics for all phases of practical design.Covers the most popular forms for amplif
Siddiqui, Aleem M; Moses, Jeffrey; Hong, Kyung-Han; Lai, Chien-Jen; Kärtner, Franz X
2010-06-15
We show that an enhancement cavity seeded at the full repetition rate of the pump laser can automatically reshape small-signal gain across the interacting pulses in an optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier for close-to-optimal operation, significantly increasing both the gain bandwidth and the conversion efficiency, in addition to boosting gain for high-repetition-rate amplification. Applied to a degenerate amplifier, the technique can provide an octave-spanning gain bandwidth.
Hollister, Allen L
2007-01-01
In this book, the theory needed to understand wideband amplifier design using the simplest models possible will be developed. This theory will be used to develop algebraic equations that describe particular circuits used in high frequency design so that the reader develops a ""gut level"" understanding of the process and circuit. SPICE and Genesys simulations will be performed to show the accuracy of the algebraic models. By looking at differences between the algebraic equations and the simulations, new algebraic models will be developed that include parameters originally left out of the model
Jones, Morgan
2013-01-01
Building Valve Amplifiers is a unique hands-on guide for anyone working with tube audio equipment--as an electronics hobbyist, audiophile or audio engineer. This 2nd Edition builds on the success of the first with technology and technique revisions throughout and, significantly, a major new self-build project, worked through step-by-step, which puts into practice the principles and techniques introduced throughout the book. Particular attention has been paid to answering questions commonly asked by newcomers to the world of the valve, whether audio enthusiasts tackling their first build or
Discretization analysis of bifurcation based nonlinear amplifiers
Feldkord, Sven; Reit, Marco; Mathis, Wolfgang
2017-09-01
Recently, for modeling biological amplification processes, nonlinear amplifiers based on the supercritical Andronov-Hopf bifurcation have been widely analyzed analytically. For technical realizations, digital systems have become the most relevant systems in signal processing applications. The underlying continuous-time systems are transferred to the discrete-time domain using numerical integration methods. Within this contribution, effects on the qualitative behavior of the Andronov-Hopf bifurcation based systems concerning numerical integration methods are analyzed. It is shown exemplarily that explicit Runge-Kutta methods transform the truncated normalform equation of the Andronov-Hopf bifurcation into the normalform equation of the Neimark-Sacker bifurcation. Dependent on the order of the integration method, higher order terms are added during this transformation.A rescaled normalform equation of the Neimark-Sacker bifurcation is introduced that allows a parametric design of a discrete-time system which corresponds to the rescaled Andronov-Hopf system. This system approximates the characteristics of the rescaled Hopf-type amplifier for a large range of parameters. The natural frequency and the peak amplitude are preserved for every set of parameters. The Neimark-Sacker bifurcation based systems avoid large computational effort that would be caused by applying higher order integration methods to the continuous-time normalform equations.
Brownian parametric oscillators
Zerbe, Christine; Jung, Peter; Hänggi, Peter
1994-05-01
We discuss the stochastic dynamics of dissipative, white-noise-driven Floquet oscillators, characterized by a time-periodic stiffness. Thus far, little attention has been paid to these exactly solvable nonstationary systems, although they carry a rich potential for several experimental applications. Here, we calculate and discuss the mean values and variances, as well as the correlation functions and the Floquet spectrum. As one main result, we find for certain parameter values that the fluctuations of the position coordinate are suppressed as compared to the equilibrium value of a harmonic oscillator (parametric squeezing).
Superconducting digital logic amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Przybysz, J.X.
1989-01-01
This paper describes a superconducting digital logic amplifier for interfacing between a Josephson junction logic circuit having output current and a higher voltage semiconductor circuit input. The amplifier comprising: an input terminal for connection to a; an output terminal for connection to a semiconductor circuit input; an input, lower critical current, Josephson junction having first and second terminals; a first series string of at least three lower critical current Josephson junctions. The first series string being connected to the first terminal of the input Josephson junction such that the first series string is in series with the input Josephson junction to provide a series combination. The input terminal being connected to the first terminal of the input Josephson junction, and with the critical current of the lower critical current Josephson junctions of the input Josephson junction and the first series Josephson junctions being less than the output current of the low voltage Josephson junction circuit; a second series string of at least four higher critical current Josephson junctions. The second string being connected in parallel with the series combination to provide parallel strings having an upper common connection and a lower common connection. The lower common connection being connected to the second terminal of the input Josephson junction and the upper common connection being connected to the output terminal; and a pulsed DC current source connected the parallel strings at the upper common connection. The DC current source having a current at least equal to the critical current of the higher critical current Josephson junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barzilov, A.P.; Gulevich, A.V.; Kukharchuk, O.F.
2000-01-01
The technical problem of long-life fission product and minor actinide incineration and production of plutonium fuel in the prospective nuclear systems will arise at significant scales of nuclear power industry development. Subcritical nuclear reactors driven by extemal neutron sources (energy amplifiers) are considered as incinerators of toxicity of complete nuclear industry. In the frames of this concept, the subcritical reactor part consisting of two coupled blanket regions (inner fast neutron spectrum core and outer thermal core) driven by extemal neutron source is discussed. Two types of source are studied: spallation target and 14-MeV fusion bum of micropellets. Liquid metal Pb-Bi is considered as target material and coolant of inner fast core. Thermal core is a heavy-water subcritical reactor of the Candu-type. The fast core is protected from thermal neutrons influence with the boron shield. All reactor technologies used in this concept are tested during years of operation and commercially available. Thus, the cascade energy amplifiers have a set of advantages in comparison with traditional concepts: in energy production, in transmutation efficiency, and in economics. (authors)
Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Faymonville
2014-08-01
Full Text Available We introduce Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic (PLDL, which extends Linear Dynamic Logic (LDL by temporal operators equipped with parameters that bound their scope. LDL was proposed as an extension of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL that is able to express all ω-regular specifications while still maintaining many of LTL's desirable properties like an intuitive syntax and a translation into non-deterministic Büchi automata of exponential size. But LDL lacks capabilities to express timing constraints. By adding parameterized operators to LDL, we obtain a logic that is able to express all ω-regular properties and that subsumes parameterized extensions of LTL like Parametric LTL and PROMPT-LTL. Our main technical contribution is a translation of PLDL formulas into non-deterministic Büchi word automata of exponential size via alternating automata. This yields a PSPACE model checking algorithm and a realizability algorithm with doubly-exponential running time. Furthermore, we give tight upper and lower bounds on optimal parameter values for both problems. These results show that PLDL model checking and realizability are not harder than LTL model checking and realizability.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tjutju, R.L.
1977-01-01
Pulse amplifier is standard significant part of spectrometer. Apart from other type of amplification, it's a combination of amplification and pulse shaping. Because of its special purpose the device should fulfill the following : High resolution is desired to gain a high yield comparable to its actual state of condition. High signal to noise is desired to nhν resolution. High linearity to facilitate calibration. A good overload recovery, in order to the device will capable of analizing a low energy radiation which appear joinly on the high energy fields. Other expections of the device are its economical and practical use its extentive application. For that reason it's built on a standard NIM principle. Taking also into account the above mentioned considerations. High quality component parts are used throughout, while its availability in the domestic market is secured. (author)
Modeling of semiconductor optical amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mørk, Jesper; Bischoff, Svend; Berg, Tommy Winther
We discuss the modelling of semiconductor optical amplifiers with emphasis on their high-speed properties. Applications in linear amplification as well as ultrafast optical signal processing are reviewed. Finally, the possible role of quantum-dot based optical amplifiers is discussed.......We discuss the modelling of semiconductor optical amplifiers with emphasis on their high-speed properties. Applications in linear amplification as well as ultrafast optical signal processing are reviewed. Finally, the possible role of quantum-dot based optical amplifiers is discussed....
Power Scaling of Laser Oscillators and Amplifiers Based on Nd:YVO4
Yarrow, Michael James
2006-01-01
This thesis presents a strategy for power and brightness scaling in diode-end-pumped, master-oscillator-power-amplifier laser systems, based on Nd:YVOIssues relating to further power and brightness scaling are discussed as well as the potential applications of these laser sources as pump sources for frequency conversion in optical parametric devices.
Parametric Room Acoustic Workflows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parigi, Dario; Svidt, Kjeld; Molin, Erik
2017-01-01
The paper investigates and assesses different room acoustics software and the opportunities they offer to engage in parametric acoustics workflow and to influence architectural designs. The first step consists in the testing and benchmarking of different tools on the basis of accuracy, speed...... and interoperability with Grasshopper 3d. The focus will be placed to the benchmarking of three different acoustic analysis tools based on raytracing. To compare the accuracy and speed of the acoustic evaluation across different tools, a homogeneous set of acoustic parameters is chosen. The room acoustics parameters...... included in the set are reverberation time (EDT, RT30), clarity (C50), loudness (G), and definition (D50). Scenarios are discussed for determining at different design stages the most suitable acoustic tool. Those scenarios are characterized, by the use of less accurate but fast evaluation tools to be used...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Herzog, Dennis
adapt the primitives to the actual appearance of the tracked motion, since the appearance of actions depends on the object locations. From the recognition perspective, it is necessary to recognize a performed action, but the understanding requires also the recovery of the action parameters, which can......The thesis aims at the learning of action primitives and their application on the perceptive side (tracking/recognition) and the generative side (synthesizing for robot control). A motivation is to use a unified primitive representation applicable on both sides. The thesis considers arm actions...... with an investigation of PHMM training methods and structures to utilize the PHMM as a unified representation of parametric primitives, which is adequate for recognition and for synthesis. This is evaluated on a large motion data set. Main contributions of the thesis are the development and evaluation of approaches...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1995-01-01
Even under the heavy burden of responsibility as CERN's Director General from 1989-3 the fertile mind of Carlo Rubbia the scientist was never still. A long-time Rubbia 'hobby' has been the search for new sources of nuclear energy, exploiting knowledge and skills from high energy physics. An initial objective was to adopt heavy ion techniques to induce controlled thermonuclear fusion, but in 1994 this quest changed direction. Putting the problems of thermonuclear fusion aside, Rubbia began to explore an alternative route to energy production through controlled nuclear fission. The idea is to use a particle accelerator producing neutrons by spallation (interaction of particles with a target) to feed a fuel/moderator assembly where the neutrons multiply by fission chain reactions. If the energy liberated becomes substantially greater than that needed to drive the accelerator, the process has a net gain and becomes selfsupporting. Hence the name ''Energy Amplifier'' (EA). Similar systems for energy production or for nuclear waste incineration have been proposed at Los Alamos and in Japan and Russia, but appear to require the prior development of innovative linear accelerators. For Rubbia's Amplifier, the requisite accelerator is a reasonable extrapolation of an existing cyclotron such that at the Swiss Paul Scherrer Institute. Moreover, the EA would require fuel rods very similar to those of conventional reactors, rather than demand-ing new technology using liquid fuel loops (molten salts) with on-line separation of radioactive products. Unlike a reactor, the EA's fission reaction is not self-sustaining: it is sub-critical and needs a continuous supply of neutrons from the accelerator. This makes Chernobyl-type meltdowns unlikely: if the accelerator stops, the reaction stops too. Another major advantage is that the old dream of using thorium as a fuel is now made possible. Thorium is not itself fissile, but under neutron
Millimeter-wave power amplifiers
du Preez, Jaco
2017-01-01
This book provides a detailed review of millimeter-wave power amplifiers, discussing design issues and performance limitations commonly encountered in light of the latest research. Power amplifiers, which are able to provide high levels of output power and linearity while being easily integrated with surrounding circuitry, are a crucial component in wireless microwave systems. The book is divided into three parts, the first of which introduces readers to mm-wave wireless systems and power amplifiers. In turn, the second focuses on design principles and EDA concepts, while the third discusses future trends in power amplifier research. The book provides essential information on mm-wave power amplifier theory, as well as the implementation options and technologies involved in their effective design, equipping researchers, circuit designers and practicing engineers to design, model, analyze, test and implement high-performance, spectrally clean and energy-efficient mm-wave systems.
High power pulsed sources based on fiber amplifiers
Canat, Guillaume; Jaouën, Yves; Mollier, Jean-Claude; Bouzinac, Jean-Pierre; Cariou, Jean-Pierre
2017-11-01
Cladding-pumped rare-earth-doped fiber laser technologies are currently among the best sources for high power applications. Theses extremely compact and robust sources appoint them as good candidate for aeronautical and space applications. The double-clad (DC) fiber converts the poor beamquality of high-power large-area pump diodes from the 1st cladding to laser light at another wavelength guided in an active single-mode core. High-power coherent MOPA (Master Oscillator Power Amplifier) sources (several 10W CW or several 100W in pulsed regime) will soon be achieved. Unfortunately it also brings nonlinear effects which quickly impairs output signal distortions. Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and optical parametric amplification (OPA) have been shown to be strong limitations. Based on amplifier modeling and experiments we discuss the performances of these sources.
Parametric Mass Reliability Study
Holt, James P.
2014-01-01
The International Space Station (ISS) systems are designed based upon having redundant systems with replaceable orbital replacement units (ORUs). These ORUs are designed to be swapped out fairly quickly, but some are very large, and some are made up of many components. When an ORU fails, it is replaced on orbit with a spare; the failed unit is sometimes returned to Earth to be serviced and re-launched. Such a system is not feasible for a 500+ day long-duration mission beyond low Earth orbit. The components that make up these ORUs have mixed reliabilities. Components that make up the most mass-such as computer housings, pump casings, and the silicon board of PCBs-typically are the most reliable. Meanwhile components that tend to fail the earliest-such as seals or gaskets-typically have a small mass. To better understand the problem, my project is to create a parametric model that relates both the mass of ORUs to reliability, as well as the mass of ORU subcomponents to reliability.
Study on high gain broadband optical parametric chirped pulse amplification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, S.K.; Fujita, M.; Yamanaka, C.; Yoshida, H.; Kodama, R.; Fujita, H.; Nakatsuka, M.; Izawa, Y.
2000-01-01
Optical parametric chirped pulse amplification has apparent advantages over the current schemes for high energy ultrashort pulse amplification. High gain in a single pass amplification, small B-integral, low heat deposition, high contrast ratio and, especially the extremely broad gain bandwidth with large-size crystals available bring people new hope for over multi-PW level at which the existing Nd:glass systems suffered difficulties. In this paper we present simulation and experimental studies for a high gain optical parametric chirped pulse amplification system which may be used as a preamplifier to replace the current complicated regenerative system or multi-pass Ti:sapphire amplifiers. Investigations on the amplification bandwidth and gain with BBO are performed. Analysis and discussions are also given. (author)
Parametric interactions in high-Tc superconducting step edge junctions at X-band. [Y-Ba-Cu-O
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kain, A.Z. (TRW Space and Tech. Group, Redondo Beach, CA (United States)); Fetterman, H.R. (Electrical Engineering Dept., Univ. of California at Los Angeles (United States))
1993-04-20
We have fabricated and tested both single junctions and series arrays of YBCO step edge junctions for four photon parametric effects at X band as a first step in developing a parametric amplifier at 60 GHz. The series array of 25 junctions at 10.3 Ghz shows a 10 dB increase in reflected signal power as the pump power is increased, while the single junction at 12.2 GHz indicates a 2 dB change. The reflected power at the characteristic idler frequency of 2[omega][sub p]-[omega][sub s] is evidence of true Josephson junction parametric interaction. We are currently investigating the use of thallium based films at 60 GHz which offer a broader range of operating temperatures than does YBCO. Our design for a parametric amplifier at V band is a combination of microstrip based series arrays of junctions and an antipodal finline transition. (orig.)
Small signal microwave amplifier design
Grosch, Theodore
2000-01-01
This book explains techniques and examples for designing stable amplifiers for high-frequency applications in which the signal is small and the amplifier circuit is linear. An in-depth discussion of linear network theory provides the foundation needed to develop actual designs. Examples throughout the book will show you how to apply the knowledge gained in each chapter leading to the complex design of low noise amplifiers. Many exercises at the end of each chapter will help students to practice their skills. The solutions to these design problems are available in an accompanying solutions book
Final amplifier design and mercury
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rose, E.A.; Hanson, D.E.
1991-01-01
The final amplifier for the Mercury KrF excimer facility is being designed. The design exercise involves extensive modeling to predict amplifier performance. Models of the pulsed-power system, including a Child-Langmuir diode with closure, electron-beam energy deposition, KrF laser kinetics, amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), a time-dependent laser extraction in the presence of ASE are presented as a design package. The design exercise indicates that the energy objective of Phase I -- 100 joules -- will be met
Optomechanical entanglement via non-degenerate parametric interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed, Rizwan; Qamar, Shahid
2017-01-01
We present a scheme for the optomechanical entanglement between a micro-mechanical mirror and the field inside a bimodal cavity system using a non-degenerate optical parametric amplifier (NOPA). Our results show that the introduction of NOPA makes the entanglement stronger or more robust against the mean number of average thermal phonons and cavity decay. Interestingly, macroscopic entanglement depends upon the choice of the phase associated with classical field driving NOPA. We also consider the effects of input laser power on optomechanical entanglement. (paper)
Optomechanical entanglement via non-degenerate parametric interactions
Ahmed, Rizwan; Qamar, Shahid
2017-10-01
We present a scheme for the optomechanical entanglement between a micro-mechanical mirror and the field inside a bimodal cavity system using a non-degenerate optical parametric amplifier (NOPA). Our results show that the introduction of NOPA makes the entanglement stronger or more robust against the mean number of average thermal phonons and cavity decay. Interestingly, macroscopic entanglement depends upon the choice of the phase associated with classical field driving NOPA. We also consider the effects of input laser power on optomechanical entanglement.
Planar Parametrization in Isogeometric Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gravesen, Jens; Evgrafov, Anton; Nguyen, Dang-Manh
2012-01-01
Before isogeometric analysis can be applied to solving a partial differential equation posed over some physical domain, one needs to construct a valid parametrization of the geometry. The accuracy of the analysis is affected by the quality of the parametrization. The challenge of computing...... and maintaining a valid geometry parametrization is particularly relevant in applications of isogemetric analysis to shape optimization, where the geometry varies from one optimization iteration to another. We propose a general framework for handling the geometry parametrization in isogeometric analysis and shape...... are suitable for our framework. The non-linear methods we consider are based on solving a constrained optimization problem numerically, and are divided into two classes, geometry-oriented methods and analysis-oriented methods. Their performance is illustrated through a few numerical examples....
New Packaging for Amplifier Slabs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Riley, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thorsness, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Suratwala, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Steele, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rogowski, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2015-03-18
The following memo provides a discussion and detailed procedure for a new finished amplifier slab shipping and storage container. The new package is designed to maintain an environment of <5% RH to minimize weathering.
Operational amplifiers theory and design
Huijsing, Johan
2017-01-01
This proven textbook guides readers to a thorough understanding of the theory and design of operational amplifiers (OpAmps). The core of the book presents systematically the design of operational amplifiers, classifying them into a periodic system of nine main overall configurations, ranging from one gain stage up to four or more stages. This division enables circuit designers to recognize quickly, understand, and choose optimal configurations. Characterization of operational amplifiers is given by macro models and error matrices, together with measurement techniques for their parameters. Definitions are given for four types of operational amplifiers depending on the grounding of their input and output ports. Many famous designs are evaluated in depth, using a carefully structured approach enhanced by numerous figures. In order to reinforce the concepts introduced and facilitate self-evaluation of design skills, the author includes problems with detailed solutions, as well as simulation exercises. Provides te...
TARC: Carlo Rubbia's Energy Amplifier
Laurent Guiraud
1997-01-01
Transmutation by Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (TARC) is Carlo Rubbia's energy amplifier. This CERN experiment demonstrated that long-lived fission fragments, such as 99-TC, can be efficiently destroyed.
Enhanced performance CCD output amplifier
Dunham, Mark E.; Morley, David W.
1996-01-01
A low-noise FET amplifier is connected to amplify output charge from a che coupled device (CCD). The FET has its gate connected to the CCD in common source configuration for receiving the output charge signal from the CCD and output an intermediate signal at a drain of the FET. An intermediate amplifier is connected to the drain of the FET for receiving the intermediate signal and outputting a low-noise signal functionally related to the output charge signal from the CCD. The amplifier is preferably connected as a virtual ground to the FET drain. The inherent shunt capacitance of the FET is selected to be at least equal to the sum of the remaining capacitances.
Parametric FEM for geometric biomembranes
Bonito, Andrea; Nochetto, Ricardo H.; Sebastian Pauletti, M.
2010-05-01
We consider geometric biomembranes governed by an L2-gradient flow for bending energy subject to area and volume constraints (Helfrich model). We give a concise derivation of a novel vector formulation, based on shape differential calculus, and corresponding discretization via parametric FEM using quadratic isoparametric elements and a semi-implicit Euler method. We document the performance of the new parametric FEM with a number of simulations leading to dumbbell, red blood cell and toroidal equilibrium shapes while exhibiting large deformations.
Ultrashort pulse shaping by optical parametric chirped amplification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelet, Ambre
2007-01-01
The aim of this work is to propose new laser architectures based on optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA). Common goals of OPCPA pre-amplifiers are to reach high energy level while maintaining the spectrum width and to adapt geometry of the amplified beam to the high power laser chain optics. We consider OPCPA as a way to control and to sculpt ultrashort pulses. Our first set-up aims at thwarting possible time recovery default between pump and signal pulses, which lower the energy extraction. A regenerative OPCPA, idler resonant, is a way to produce a high-intensity and high-repetition rate train of amplified signal replicas. Our second laser system pre-compensates the spectral gain narrowing by sculpting pulses directly within the OPCPA section, where a temporal shaping of the pump beam permits a spectro-spectral shaping of the amplified signal. Finally, we propose an OPCPA based on spatial coding and uniform amplification of spectral signal components by using a fan-out periodically poled crystal and a zero dispersion line. (author) [fr
Enhancement and suppression of opto-acoustic parametric interactions using optical feedback
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Zhongyang; Zhao Chunnong; Ju, L.; Blair, D. G.
2010-01-01
A three mode opto-acoustic parametric amplifier (OAPA) is created when two orthogonal optical modes in a high finesse optical cavity are coupled via an acoustic mode of the cavity mirror. Such interactions are predicted to occur in advanced long baseline gravitational wave detectors. They can have high positive gain, which leads to strong parametric instability. Here we show that an optical feedback scheme can enhance or suppress the parametric gain of an OAPA, allowing exploration of three-mode parametric interactions, especially in cavity systems that have insufficient optical power to achieve spontaneous instability. We derive analytical equations and show that optical feedback is capable of controlling predicted instabilities in advanced gravitational wave detectors within a time scale of 13∼10 s.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, C.
1994-10-01
The Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site near Richland, Washington is being cleaned up after 50 years of nuclear materials production. One of the most serious problems at the site is the waste stored in single-shell underground storage tanks. There are 149 of these tanks containing the spent fuel residue remaining after the fuel is dissolved in acid and the desired materials (primarily plutonium and uranium) are separated out. The tanks are upright cylinders 75 ft. in diameter with domed tops. They are made of reinforced concrete, have steel liners, and each tank is buried under 7--12 ft. of overburden. The tanks are up to 40-ft. high, and have capacities of 500,000, 750,000, or 1,000,000 gallons of waste. As many as one-third of these tanks are known or suspected to leak. The waste form contained in the tanks varies in consistency from liquid supernatant to peanut-butter-like gels and sludges to hard salt cake (perhaps as hard as low-grade concrete). The current waste retrieval plan is to insert a large long-reach manipulator through a hole cut in the top of the tank, and use a variety of end-effectors to mobilize the waste and remove it from the tank. PNL has, with the assistance of Deneb robotics employees, developed a means of using the IGRIP code to perform parametric design of mechanical systems. This method requires no modifications to the IGRIP code, and all design data are stored in the IGRIP workcell. The method is presented in the context of development of a passive articulated mechanism that is used to deliver down-arm services to a gantry robot. The method is completely general, however, and could be used to design a fully articulated manipulator. Briefly, the method involves using IGCALC expressions to control manipulator joint angles, and IGCALC variables to allow user control of link lengths and offsets. This paper presents the method in detail, with examples drawn from PNL's experience with the gantry robot service-providing mechanism
Spectroscopic amplifier for pin diode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alonso M, M. S.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.
2014-10-01
The photodiode remains the basic choice for the photo-detection and is widely used in optical communications, medical diagnostics and field of corpuscular radiation. In detecting radiation it has been used for monitoring radon and its progeny and inexpensive spectrometric systems. The development of a spectroscopic amplifier for Pin diode is presented which has the following characteristics: canceler Pole-Zero (P/Z) with a time constant of 8 μs; constant gain of 57, suitable for the acquisition system; 4th integrator Gaussian order to waveform change of exponential input to semi-Gaussian output and finally a stage of baseline restorer which prevents Dc signal contribution to the next stage. The operational amplifier used is the TLE2074 of BiFET technology of Texas Instruments with 10 MHz bandwidth, 25 V/μs of slew rate and a noise floor of 17 nv/(Hz)1/2. The integrated circuit has 4 operational amplifiers and in is contained the total of spectroscopic amplifier that is the goal of electronic design. The results show like the exponential input signal is converted to semi-Gaussian, modifying only the amplitude according to the specifications in the design. The total system is formed by the detector, which is the Pin diode, a sensitive preamplifier to the load, the spectroscopic amplifier that is what is presented and finally a pulse height analyzer (Mca) which is where the spectrum is shown. (Author)
STATCAT, Statistical Analysis of Parametric and Non-Parametric Data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
David, Hugh
1990-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: A suite of 26 programs designed to facilitate the appropriate statistical analysis and data handling of parametric and non-parametric data, using classical and modern univariate and multivariate methods. 2 - Method of solution: Data is read entry by entry, using a choice of input formats, and the resultant data bank is checked for out-of- range, rare, extreme or missing data. The completed STATCAT data bank can be treated by a variety of descriptive and inferential statistical methods, and modified, using other standard programs as required
Parametric Thinking in Urban Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steinø, Nicolai
2010-01-01
The paper states that most applications of parametric mod- elling to architecture and urban design fall into one of two strands of either form for form’s sake, or the negotiation of environmental con- cerns, while approaches which allow scenarios to be easily tested and modified without the appli...... of the paper. The pros and cons of this simple approach is discussed, and the paper con- cludes, that while it does not represent a suitable solution in all cases, it fills a gap among the existing approaches to parametric urban de- sign.......The paper states that most applications of parametric mod- elling to architecture and urban design fall into one of two strands of either form for form’s sake, or the negotiation of environmental con- cerns, while approaches which allow scenarios to be easily tested and modified without...
Optical parametric amplification of arbitrarily polarized light in periodically poled LiNbO3.
Shao, Guang-hao; Song, Xiao-shi; Xu, Fei; Lu, Yan-qing
2012-08-13
Optical parametric amplification (OPA) of arbitrarily polarized light is proposed in a multi-section periodically poled Lithium Niobate (PPLN). External electric field is applied on selected sections to induce the polarization rotation of involved lights, thus the quasi-phase matched optical parametric processes exhibit polarization insensitivity under suitable voltage. In addition to the amplified signal wave, an idler wave with the same polarization is generated simultaneously. As an example, a ~10 times OPA showing polarization independency is simulated. Applications of this technology are also discussed.
Entanglement in a parametric converter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Su-Yong; Qamar, Shahid; Lee, Hai-Woong; Zubairy, M Suhail [Center for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: shahid_qamar@pieas.edu.pk, E-mail: zubairy@physics.tamu.edu
2008-07-28
In this paper, we consider a parametric converter as a source of entangled radiation. We examine recently derived conditions (Hillery and Zubairy 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 050503, Duan et al 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 2722) for determining when the two output modes in a parametric converter are entangled. We show that for different initial field states, the two criteria give different conditions that ensure that the output states are entangled. We also present an input-output calculation for the entanglement of the output field.
Variance in parametric images: direct estimation from parametric projections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maguire, R.P.; Leenders, K.L.; Spyrou, N.M.
2000-01-01
Recent work has shown that it is possible to apply linear kinetic models to dynamic projection data in PET in order to calculate parameter projections. These can subsequently be back-projected to form parametric images - maps of parameters of physiological interest. Critical to the application of these maps, to test for significant changes between normal and pathophysiology, is an assessment of the statistical uncertainty. In this context, parametric images also include simple integral images from, e.g., [O-15]-water used to calculate statistical parametric maps (SPMs). This paper revisits the concept of parameter projections and presents a more general formulation of the parameter projection derivation as well as a method to estimate parameter variance in projection space, showing which analysis methods (models) can be used. Using simulated pharmacokinetic image data we show that a method based on an analysis in projection space inherently calculates the mathematically rigorous pixel variance. This results in an estimation which is as accurate as either estimating variance in image space during model fitting, or estimation by comparison across sets of parametric images - as might be done between individuals in a group pharmacokinetic PET study. The method based on projections has, however, a higher computational efficiency, and is also shown to be more precise, as reflected in smooth variance distribution images when compared to the other methods. (author)
Full and semi-analytic analyses of two-pump parametric amplification with pump depletion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steffensen, Henrik; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Rottwitt, Karsten
2011-01-01
This paper solves the four coupled equations describing non-degenerate four-wave mixing, with the focus on amplifying a signal in a fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA). Based on the full analytic solution, a simple approximate solution describing the gain is developed. The advantage...... of this new approximation is that it includes the depletion of the pumps, which is lacking in the usual quasi-linearized approximation. With the proposed model it is thus simple to predict the gain of a FOPA, which we demonstrate with a highly nonlinear fiber to show that an undepleted FOPA can produce a flat...
Dielectric waveguide amplifiers and lasers
Pollnau, Markus
The performance of semiconductor amplifiers and lasers has made them the preferred choice for optical gain on a micro-chip. In the past few years, we have demonstrated that also rare-earth-ion-doped dielectric waveguides show remarkable performance, ranging from a small-signal gain per unit length
Arslanov, D.D.; Spunei, M.; Ngai, A.K.Y.; Cristescu, S.M.; Lindsay, I.D.; Lindsay, I.D.; Boller, Klaus J.; Persijn, S.T.; Harren, F.J.M.
2011-01-01
A fiber-amplified Distributed Bragg Reflector diode laser is used to pump a continuous wave, singly resonant Optical Parametric Oscillator (OPO). The output radiation covers the 3–4 μm with ability of rapid (100 THz/s) and broad mode-hop-free tuning (5 cm−1). Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy is
PARAMETRIC MODEL OF LUMBAR VERTEBRA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
CAPPETTI Nicola
2010-11-01
Full Text Available The present work proposes the realization of a parametric/variational CAD model of a normotype lumbar vertebra, which could be used for improving the effectiveness of actual imaging techniques in informational augmentation of the orthopaedic and traumatological diagnosis. In addition it could be used for ergonomic static and dynamical analysis of the lumbar region and vertebral column.
Parametric programming of industrial robots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Szulczyński Paweł
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This article proposes the use of parametric design software, commonly used by architects, in order to obtain complex trajectory and program code for industrial robots. The paper describes the drawbacks of existing solutions and proposes a new script to obtain a correct program. The result of the algorithm was verified experimentally.
Relational Parametricity and Separation Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birkedal, Lars; Yang, Hongseok
2008-01-01
Separation logic is a recent extension of Hoare logic for reasoning about programs with references to shared mutable data structures. In this paper, we provide a new interpretation of the logic for a programming language with higher types. Our interpretation is based on Reynolds's relational...... parametricity, and it provides a formal connection between separation logic and data abstraction. Udgivelsesdato: 2008...
Mutually incoherent beam combining through optical parametric amplification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tropheme, B.
2012-01-01
This work deals with a technique of combination of coherent beams: Optical Parametric Amplification (OPA) with Multiple Pumps. This technique is used to instantly transfer the energy of several pumps on one beam, without energy storage and thus avoiding thermal effects in the amplifying media. It can be useful to combine energy of numerous fiber lasers and to amplify with a high repetition rate very high energy lasers or broadband pulses. With a numerical and experimental study using BBO and LBO as nonlinear crystal, we determine how to dispose the pumps around the signal and the corresponding angular tolerances of such set up. Then we focus our attention on recombining mechanisms between a pump and a non-corresponding idler. We demonstrate experimentally that these cascading effects may decrease the spatial and spectral quality of the amplified signal, and that these phenomena can be avoided with a minimum angle between the different pumps. A novel modelling of multi-pumps OPA links these cascading effects to the gratings generated by the interaction between the pumps. The last part presents a 5 pump OPA experiment. We achieve a pump-to-signal efficiency of 27% and so that a signal more powerful than each pump is obtained. (author) [fr
CMOS Current-mode Operational Amplifier
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kaulberg, Thomas
1992-01-01
current-mode feedback amplifier or a constant bandwidth in a transimpedance feedback amplifier. The amplifier is found to have a gain bandwidth product of 8 MHz, an offset current of 0.8 Â¿A (signal-range Â±700Â¿A) and a (theoretically) unlimited slew-rate. The amplifier is realized in a standard CMOS 2......A fully differential-input differential-output current-mode operational amplifier (COA) is described. The amplifier utilizes three second generation current-conveyors (CCII) as the basic building blocks. It can be configured to provide either a constant gain-bandwidth product in a fully balanced...
A CMOS current-mode operational amplifier
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kaulberg, Thomas
1993-01-01
current-mode feedback amplifier or a constant bandwidth in a transimpedance feedback amplifier. The amplifier is found to have a gain-bandwidth product of 3 MHz, an offset current of 0.8 μA (signal range ±700 μA), and a (theoretically) unlimited slew rate. The amplifier is realized in a standard CMOS 2......A fully differential-input, differential-output, current-mode operational amplifier (COA) is described. The amplifier utilizes three second-generation current conveyors (CCIIs) as the basic building blocks. It can be configured to provide either a constant gain-bandwidth product in a fully balanced...
Amplified spontaneous emissions in a high-gain laser amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osada, Hidenori; Gamo, Hideya.
1978-01-01
The gain and line-narrowing of the amplified spontaneous emissions(ASE) in a partially homogeneous high-gain Xe 3.51 μm laser amplifier were studied theoretically and experimentally with emphasis of saturation effect. The unidirectionally travelling ASE was generated by conveniently using optical isolators and used as a broadband radiation source. It has properties of 10 μW/mm 2 in intensity with fluctuation of less than 1% in 5 hours, 43.5 MHz of the linewidth and 1.0 x 10 -3 radians of beam divergence. The measured saturation intensity was 4.85 μW/mm 2 and a small signal gain was 0.1 cm -1 . The theoretical prediction of the line-narrowing shows reasonablly good agreement with the measured one. (author)
Towards a parametrization of multiparticle hadronic reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giffon, M.; Hama, Y.; Predazzi, E.
1979-11-01
An explicit parametrization of high energy exclusive production cross-sections is shown to give a reasonable account of inclusive data. This is a first step towards a phenomenological parametrization of multiparticle hadronic amplitudes
Bianchi surfaces: integrability in an arbitrary parametrization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nieszporski, Maciej; Sym, Antoni
2009-01-01
We discuss integrability of normal field equations of arbitrarily parametrized Bianchi surfaces. A geometric definition of the Bianchi surfaces is presented as well as the Baecklund transformation for the normal field equations in an arbitrarily chosen surface parametrization.
Detection of Parametric Roll on Ships
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad
2012-01-01
phenomenon could make the navigator change ship’s speed and heading, and these remedial actions could make the vessel escape the bifurcation. This chapter proposes non-parametric methods to detect the onset of parametric roll resonance. Theoretical conditions for parametric resonance are re...... on experimental data from towing tank tests and data from a container ship passing an Atlantic storm....
Single conversion stage amplifier - SICAM
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ljusev, P.
2005-12-15
This Ph.D. thesis presents a thorough analysis of the so called SICAM - SIngle Converter stage AMplifier approach to building direct energy conversion audio power amplifiers. The mainstream approach for building isolated audio power amplifiers today consists of isolated DC power supply and Class D amplifier, which essentially represents a two stage solution, where each of the components can be viewed as separate and independent part. The proposed SICAM solution strives for direct energy conversion from the mains to the audio output, by dedicating the operation of the components one to another and integrating their functions, so that the final audio power amplifier represents a single-stage topology with higher efficiency, lower volume, less board space, lower component count and subsequently lower cost. The SICAM approach is both applicable to non-isolated and isolated audio power amplifiers, but the problems encountered in these two cases are different. Non-isolated SICAM solutions are intended for both AC mains-connected and battery-powered devices. In non-isolated mains-connected SICAMs the main idea is to simplify the power supply or even provide integrated power factor correction (PFC) functions, while still maintaining low component stress and good audio performance by generally decreasing the input voltage level to the Class D audio power amplifier. On the other hand, non-isolated battery-powered SICAMs have to cope with the ever changing battery voltage and provide output voltage levels which are both lower and higher than the battery voltage, while still being simple and single-stage energy conversion solutions. In isolated SICAMs the isolation transformer adjusts the voltage level on the secondary side to the desired level, so the main challenges here are decreasing the size of the magnetic core and reducing the number and size of bulky reactive components as much as possible. The main focus of this thesis is directed towards the isolated SICAMs and
Qian, Chunqi; Murphy-Boesch, Joseph; Dodd, Stephen; Koretsky, Alan
2012-09-01
A completely wireless detection coil with an integrated parametric amplifier has been constructed to provide local amplification and transmission of MR signals. The sample coil is one element of a parametric amplifier using a zero-bias diode that mixes the weak MR signal with a strong pump signal that is obtained from an inductively coupled external loop. The NMR sample coil develops current gain via reduction in the effective coil resistance. Higher gain can be obtained by adjusting the level of the pumping power closer to the oscillation threshold, but the gain is ultimately constrained by the bandwidth requirement of MRI experiments. A feasibility study here shows that on a NaCl/D(2) O phantom, (23) Na signals with 20 dB of gain can be readily obtained with a concomitant bandwidth of 144 kHz. This gain is high enough that the integrated coil with parametric amplifier, which is coupled inductively to external loops, can provide sensitivity approaching that of direct wire connection. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Analog circuit design designing high performance amplifiers
Feucht, Dennis
2010-01-01
The third volume Designing High Performance Amplifiers applies the concepts from the first two volumes. It is an advanced treatment of amplifier design/analysis emphasizing both wideband and precision amplification.
Higher order mode optical fiber Raman amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rottwitt, Karsten; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.
2016-01-01
We review higher order mode Raman amplifiers and discuss recent theoretical as well as experimental results including system demonstrations.......We review higher order mode Raman amplifiers and discuss recent theoretical as well as experimental results including system demonstrations....
1977-01-01
The picture shows a 2 MW, 200 MHz amplifier plant with feeder lines. The main RF-system of the SPS comprises four cavities: two of 20 m length and two of 16.5 m length. They are all installed in one long straight section (LSS 3). These cavities are of the travelling-wave type operating at a centre frequency of 200.2 MHz. They are wideband, filling time about 700 ns and untuned. The power amplifiers, using tetrodes are installed in a surface building 200 m from the cavities. Initially only two cavities were installed, a third cavity was installed in 1978 and a forth one in 1979. The number of power amplifiers was also increased: to the first 2 MW plant a second 2 MW plant was added and by end 1979 there were 8 500 kW units combined in pairs to feed each of the 4 cavities with up to about 1 MW RF power, resulting in a total accelerating voltage of about 8 MV. See also 7412016X, 7412017X, 7411048X.
Interactive Dimensioning of Parametric Models
Kelly, T.
2015-06-22
We propose a solution for the dimensioning of parametric and procedural models. Dimensioning has long been a staple of technical drawings, and we present the first solution for interactive dimensioning: A dimension line positioning system that adapts to the view direction, given behavioral properties. After proposing a set of design principles for interactive dimensioning, we describe our solution consisting of the following major components. First, we describe how an author can specify the desired interactive behavior of a dimension line. Second, we propose a novel algorithm to place dimension lines at interactive speeds. Third, we introduce multiple extensions, including chained dimension lines, controls for different parameter types (e.g. discrete choices, angles), and the use of dimension lines for interactive editing. Our results show the use of dimension lines in an interactive parametric modeling environment for architectural, botanical, and mechanical models.
Challenges in higher order mode Raman amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rottwitt, Karsten; Nielsen, Kristian; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk
2015-01-01
A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed......A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed...
European Research on THz Vacuum Amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brunetti, F.; Cojocarua, C.-S.; de Rossi, A.
2010-01-01
The OPTHER (OPtically Driven TeraHertz AmplifiERs) project represents a considerable advancement in the field of high frequency amplification. The design and realization of a THz amplifier within this project is a consolidation of efforts at the international level from the main players...... of the European research, academy and industry in vacuum electronics. This paper describes the status of the project and progress towards the THz amplifier realization....
Integrated amplifying circuit with MOS transistors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baylac, B; Merckel, G; Meunier, P
1974-01-25
The invention relates to a feedback-pass-band amplifier with MOS-transistors. The differential stage of conventional amplifiers is changed into an adding state, whereas the differential amplification stages are changed into amplifier inverter stages. All MOS transistors used in that amplifier are of similar configuration and are interdigitized, whereby the operating speed dispersion is reduced. This can be applied to obtaining a measurement channel for proportional chambers.
Parametric Optimization of Hospital Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holst, Malene Kirstine; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Christoffersen, L.D.
2013-01-01
Present paper presents a parametric performancebased design model for optimizing hospital design. The design model operates with geometric input parameters defining the functional requirements of the hospital and input parameters in terms of performance objectives defining the design requirements...... and preferences of the hospital with respect to performances. The design model takes point of departure in the hospital functionalities as a set of defined parameters and rules describing the design requirements and preferences....
Parametric decay of the curvaton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Enqvist, K; Nurmi, S; Rigopoulos, G I
2008-01-01
We argue that the curvaton decay takes place most naturally by way of a broad parametric resonance. The mechanism is analogous to resonant inflaton decay but does not require any tuning of the curvaton coupling strength to other scalar fields. For low scale inflation and a correspondingly low mass scale for the curvaton, we speculate on observable consequences including the possibility of stochastic gravitational waves
Parametric Fires for Structural Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hertz, Kristian
2012-01-01
The authorities, the construction association, and a number of companies in Denmark have supported the author writing a guide for design of building structures for parametric fires. The guide is published by the ministry as a supplement to the building regulations. However, consultants and contra......The authorities, the construction association, and a number of companies in Denmark have supported the author writing a guide for design of building structures for parametric fires. The guide is published by the ministry as a supplement to the building regulations. However, consultants...... and contractors have asked for a reference in English in order to make the guide-lines and the background for them available internationally. The paper therefore presents recommendations from the design guide especially concerning how to assess parametric design fires based on the opening factor method for large...... compartments. Findings leading to the guide-lines are discussed, and it is indicated what a safe design fire model means for structural design and how it differs from a safe design fire model for evacuation. Furthermore, the paper includes some experiences from the application of the design guide in practise...
Low-noise wide-band amplifiers for stochastic beam cooling experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leskovar, B.; Lo, C.C.
1982-01-01
Noise characteristics of the continuous-wave wide-band amplifier systems for stochastic beam cooling experiments are presented. Also, the noise performance, bandwidth capability and gain stability of components used in these amplifiers are summarized and compared in the 100 MHz to 40 GHz frequency range. This includes bipolar and field-effect transistors, parametric amplifier, Schottky diode mixer and maser. Measurements of the noise characteristics and scattering parameters of variety GaAs FETs as a function of ambient temperature are also given. Performance data and design information are presented on a broadband 150-500 MHz preamplifier having noise temperature of approximately 35 0 K at ambient temperature of 20 0 K. An analysis of preamplifier stability based on scattering parameters concept is included
NASA developments in solid state power amplifiers
Leonard, Regis F.
1990-01-01
Over the last ten years, NASA has undertaken an extensive program aimed at development of solid state power amplifiers for space applications. Historically, the program may be divided into three phases. The first efforts were carried out in support of the advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) program, which is developing an experimental version of a Ka-band commercial communications system. These first amplifiers attempted to use hybrid technology. The second phase was still targeted at ACTS frequencies, but concentrated on monolithic implementations, while the current, third phase, is a monolithic effort that focusses on frequencies appropriate for other NASA programs and stresses amplifier efficiency. The topics covered include: (1) 20 GHz hybrid amplifiers; (2) 20 GHz monolithic MESFET power amplifiers; (3) Texas Instruments' (TI) 20 GHz variable power amplifier; (4) TI 20 GHz high power amplifier; (5) high efficiency monolithic power amplifiers; (6) GHz high efficiency variable power amplifier; (7) TI 32 GHz monolithic power amplifier performance; (8) design goals for Hughes' 32 GHz variable power amplifier; and (9) performance goals for Hughes' pseudomorphic 60 GHz power amplifier.
A pulse amplifier for nuclear instrumentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, D.; Cliff, P.
1987-01-01
A Class-A 1 Watt amplifier has been designed and optimized for nanosecond pulses. Spanning .01MHz to 1300Mhz, signal gain is 26dB with gain flatness of 1dB. The amplifier drive +- 10 volts across 500 with 350ps risetime. Each amplifier is housed in a 2-wide NIM
Remote Acquisition Amplifier For 50-Ohm Cable
Amador, Jose J.
1995-01-01
Buffer-amplifier unit designed to drive 50-Ohm cables up to 100 ft. (30 m) long, compensating for attenuation in cables and enabling remote operation of oscilloscopes. Variable resistor provides for adjustment of gain of amplifier, such that overall gain from input terminals of amplifier to output end of cable set to unity.
Formation of nanosecond SBS-compressed pulses for pumping an ultra-high power parametric amplifier
Kuz’min, A. A.; Kulagin, O. V.; Rodchenkov, V. I.
2018-04-01
Compression of pulsed Nd : glass laser radiation under stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in perfluorooctane is investigated. Compression of 16-ns pulses at a beam diameter of 30 mm is implemented. The maximum compression coefficient is 28 in the optimal range of laser pulse energies from 2 to 4 J. The Stokes pulse power exceeds that of the initial laser pulse by a factor of about 11.5. The Stokes pulse jitter (fluctuations of the Stokes pulse exit time from the compressor) is studied. The rms spread of these fluctuations is found to be 0.85 ns.
2011-08-01
Research Council Centre of Excellence, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia, 3IFN-CNR, Dipartimento di Fisica , Politecnico di...Cristian Manzoni, 1,* Jeffrey Moses, 2 Franz X. Kärtner, 2,3 and Giulio Cerullo 1 1IFN-CNR, Dipartimento di Fisica , Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L...Cerullo1 1 IFN-CNR, Dipartimento di Fisica , Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy 2 Department of Electrical
Frequency dependence of the pump-to-signal RIN transfer in fiber optical parametric amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pakarzadeh Dezfuli Nezhad, Hassan; Rottwitt, Karsten; Zakery, A.
2009-01-01
Using a numerical model, the frequency dependence of the pump-to-signal RIN transfer in FOPAs has been investigated. The model includes fiber loss, pump depletion as well as difference in group velocity among interacting beams.......Using a numerical model, the frequency dependence of the pump-to-signal RIN transfer in FOPAs has been investigated. The model includes fiber loss, pump depletion as well as difference in group velocity among interacting beams....
Amplitude regeneration of RZ-DPSK signals in single-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Peucheret, Christophe; Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Seoane, Jorge
2009-01-01
to demonstrate amplitude regeneration of a distorted RZ-DPSK signal in a gain-saturated FOPA. An optical signal-to-noise ratio penalty of 3.5 dB after amplitude distortion is shown to be reduced to 0.2 dB after the FOPA, thus clearly demonstrating the regenerative nature of saturated FOPAs for RZ-DPSK modulation....
Parametric amplification and cascaded-nonlinearity processes in common atomic system.
Zheng, Huaibin; Zhang, Xun; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Tian, Yaling; Chen, Haixia; Li, Changbiao; Zhang, Yanpeng
2013-01-01
For the first time, we study the parametric amplification process of multi-wave mixing (PA-MWM) signal and cascaded-nonlinearity process (CNP) in sodium vapors both theoretically and experimentally, based on a conventional phase-conjugate MWM and a self-diffraction four-wave mixing (SD-FWM) processes, which are pumped by laser or amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), respectively. For laser pumping case, SD-FWM process serves as a quantum linear amplifier (a CNP) out (inside) of the resonant absorption region. While for ASE case, only the CNP occurs and the output linewidth is much narrower than that of the MWM signal due to the second selected effect of its electromagnetically induced transparency window. In addition, the phase-sensitive amplifying process seeded by two MWM processes is discussed for the first time. Theoretical fittings agree well with the experiment. The investigations have important potential applications in quantum communication.
An Implantable CMOS Amplifier for Nerve Signals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jannik Hammel; Lehmann, Torsten
2003-01-01
In this paper, a low noise high gain CMOS amplifier for minute nerve signals is presented. The amplifier is constructed in a fully differential topology to maximize noise rejection. By using a mixture of weak- and strong inversion transistors, optimal noise suppression in the amplifier is achieved....... A continuous-time current-steering offset-compensation technique is utilized in order to minimize the noise contribution and to minimize dynamic impact on the amplifier input nodes. The method for signal recovery from noisy nerve signals is presented. A prototype amplifier is realized in a standard digital 0...
Semiconductor quantum-dot lasers and amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Borri, Paola; Ledentsov, N. N.
2002-01-01
-power surface emitting VCSELs. We investigated the ultrafast dynamics of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers. The dephasing time at room temperature of the ground-state transition in semiconductor quantum dots is around 250 fs in an unbiased amplifier, decreasing to below 50 fs when the amplifier...... is biased to positive net gain. We have further measured gain recovery times in quantum dot amplifiers that are significantly lower than in bulk and quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifiers. This is promising for future demonstration of quantum dot devices with high modulation bandwidth...
CMOS Current-mode Operational Amplifier
Kaulberg, Thomas
1992-01-01
A fully differential-input differential-output current-mode operational amplifier (COA) is described. The amplifier utilizes three second generation current-conveyors (CCII) as the basic building blocks. It can be configured to provide either a constant gain-bandwidth product in a fully balanced current-mode feedback amplifier or a constant bandwidth in a transimpedance feedback amplifier. The amplifier is found to have a gain bandwidth product of 8 MHz, an offset current of 0.8 Â¿A (signal-r...
NIF/LMJ prototype amplifier mechanical design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horvath, J.
1996-10-01
Amplifier prototypes for the National Ignition Facility and the Laser Megajoule will be tested at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The prototype amplifier, which is an ensemble of modules from LLNL and Centre d'Etudes de Limeil-Valenton, is cassette-based with bottom access for maintenance. A sealed maintenance transfer vehicle which moves optical cassettes between the amplifier and the assembly cleanroom, and a vacuum gripper which holds laser slabs during cassette assembly will also be tested. The prototype amplifier will be used to verify amplifier optical performance, thermal recovery time, and cleanliness of mechanical operations
Digital spectral analysis parametric, non-parametric and advanced methods
Castanié, Francis
2013-01-01
Digital Spectral Analysis provides a single source that offers complete coverage of the spectral analysis domain. This self-contained work includes details on advanced topics that are usually presented in scattered sources throughout the literature.The theoretical principles necessary for the understanding of spectral analysis are discussed in the first four chapters: fundamentals, digital signal processing, estimation in spectral analysis, and time-series models.An entire chapter is devoted to the non-parametric methods most widely used in industry.High resolution methods a
HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2005-01-01
Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department
Audio power amplifier design handbook
Self, Douglas
2013-01-01
This book is essential for audio power amplifier designers and engineers for one simple reason...it enables you as a professional to develop reliable, high-performance circuits. The Author Douglas Self covers the major issues of distortion and linearity, power supplies, overload, DC-protection and reactive loading. He also tackles unusual forms of compensation and distortion produced by capacitors and fuses. This completely updated fifth edition includes four NEW chapters including one on The XD Principle, invented by the author, and used by Cambridge Audio. Cro
Cathode-follower power amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giordano, S.; Puglisi, M.
1983-01-01
In circular accelerators and particularly in storage rings it is essential that the total impedance, as seen by the beam, be kept below some critical value. A model of the accelerating system was built using a single-ended cathode-follower amplifier driving a ferrite-loaded cavity. The system operated at 234.5 kHz with a peak output voltage of +-10 kV on the gap. The dynamic output impedance, as measured on the gap, was < 15 ohms
Parametric Verification of Weighted Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christoffersen, Peter; Hansen, Mikkel; Mariegaard, Anders
2015-01-01
are themselves indexed with linear equations. The parameters change the model-checking problem into a problem of computing a linear system of inequalities that characterizes the parameters that guarantee the satisfiability. To address this problem, we use parametric dependency graphs (PDGs) and we propose...... a global update function that yields an assignment to each node in a PDG. For an iterative application of the function, we prove that a fixed point assignment to PDG nodes exists and the set of assignments constitutes a well-quasi ordering, thus ensuring that the fixed point assignment can be found after...
Parametric Sensibility in Lixiviation Reactors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dra. Margarita Rivera-Soto
2015-11-01
Full Text Available This work presents the results obtained in an analysis of the parametric sensibility, on the base of a mathematical model, which describes the behavior a lixiviation reactors battery inside the limits of the habitual work of the industrial plant, in a concrete process and of high complexity. The analysis was carried out with the purpose of determining the effect that the changes in different operation variables have on the behavior of the system and it gave as result that the most important variables are: the mineral-acid relationship, the concentration of magnesium and of nickel.
Parametric Study of Sealant Nozzle
Yamamoto, Yoshimi
It has become apparent in recent years the advancement of manufacturing processes in the aerospace industry. Sealant nozzles are a critical device in the use of fuel tank applications for optimal bonds and for ground service support and repair. Sealants has always been a challenging area for optimizing and understanding the flow patterns. A parametric study was conducted to better understand geometric effects of sealant flow and to determine whether the sealant rheology can be numerically modeled. The Star-CCM+ software was used to successfully develop the parametric model, material model, physics continua, and simulate the fluid flow for the sealant nozzle. The simulation results of Semco sealant nozzles showed the geometric effects of fluid flow patterns and the influences from conical area reduction, tip length, inlet diameter, and tip angle parameters. A smaller outlet diameter induced maximum outlet velocity at the exit, and contributed to a high pressure drop. The conical area reduction, tip angle and inlet diameter contributed most to viscosity variation phenomenon. Developing and simulating 2 different flow models (Segregated Flow and Viscous Flow) proved that both can be used to obtain comparable velocity and pressure drop results, however; differences are seen visually in the non-uniformity of the velocity and viscosity fields for the Viscous Flow Model (VFM). A comprehensive simulation setup for sealant nozzles was developed so other analysts can utilize the data.
A general approach to optomechanical parametric instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evans, M.; Barsotti, L.; Fritschel, P.
2010-01-01
We present a simple feedback description of parametric instabilities which can be applied to a variety of optical systems. Parametric instabilities are of particular interest to the field of gravitational-wave interferometry where high mechanical quality factors and a large amount of stored optical power have the potential for instability. In our use of Advanced LIGO as an example application, we find that parametric instabilities, if left unaddressed, present a potential threat to the stability of high-power operation.
Connections between classical and parametric network entropies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthias Dehmer
Full Text Available This paper explores relationships between classical and parametric measures of graph (or network complexity. Classical measures are based on vertex decompositions induced by equivalence relations. Parametric measures, on the other hand, are constructed by using information functions to assign probabilities to the vertices. The inequalities established in this paper relating classical and parametric measures lay a foundation for systematic classification of entropy-based measures of graph complexity.
A system for biasing a differential amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbier, Daniel; Ittel, J.M.; Poujois, Robert
1975-01-01
This invention concerns a system for biasing a differential amplifier. It particularly applies to the integrated differential amplifiers designed with MOS field effect transistors. Variations in the technological parameters may well cause the amplifying transistors to work outside their usual operational area, in other words outside the linear part of the transfer characteristic. To ensure that these transistors function correctly, it is necessary that the value of the voltage difference at the output be equally null. To do this and to centre on the so called 'rest' point of the amplifier transfer charateristic, the condition will be set that the output potentials of each amplifier transistor should have a zero value or a constant value as sum. With this in view, the bias on the source (generally a transistor powered by its grid bias voltage) supplying current to the two amplifying transistors fitted in parallel, is permanently adjusted in a suitable manner [fr
Enhanced Gain in Photonic Crystal Amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ek, Sara; Semenova, Elizaveta; Hansen, Per Lunnemann
2012-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate enhanced gain in the slow-light regime of quantum well photonic crystal amplifiers. A strong gain enhancement is observed with the increase of the group refractive index, due to light slow-down. The slow light enhancement is shown in a amplified spontaneous emission....... These results are promising for short and efficient semiconductor optical amplifiers. This effect will also benefit other devices, such as mode locked lasers....
Very broad bandwidth klystron amplifiers
Faillon, G.; Egloff, G.; Farvet, C.
Large surveillance radars use transmitters at peak power levels of around one MW and average levels of a few kW, and possibly several tens of kW, in S band, or even C band. In general, the amplification stage of these transmitters is a microwave power tube, frequently a klystron. Although designers often turn to klystrons because of their good peak and average power capabilities, they still see them as narrow band amplifiers, undoubtedly because of their resonant cavities which, at first sight, would seem highly selective. But, with the progress of recent years, it has now become quite feasible to use these tubes in installations requiring bandwidths in excess of 10 - 12 percent, and even 15 percent, at 1 MW peak for example, in S-band.
Hydraulically amplified PZT mems actuator
Miles, Robin R.
2004-11-02
A hydraulically amplified microelectromechanical systems actuator. A piece of piezoelectric material or stacked piezo bimorph is bonded or deposited as a thin film. The piece is operatively connected to a primary membrane. A reservoir is operatively connected to the primary membrane. The reservoir contains a fluid. A membrane is operatively connected to the reservoir. In operation, energizing the piezoelectric material causing the piezoelectric material to bow. Bowing of the piezoelectric material causes movement of the primary membrane. Movement of the primary membrane results in a force in being transmitted to the liquid in the reservoir. The force in the liquid causes movement of the membrane. Movement of the membrane results in an operating actuator.
Transverse pumped laser amplifier architecture
Bayramian, Andrew James; Manes, Kenneth; Deri, Robert; Erlandson, Al; Caird, John; Spaeth, Mary
2013-07-09
An optical gain architecture includes a pump source and a pump aperture. The architecture also includes a gain region including a gain element operable to amplify light at a laser wavelength. The gain region is characterized by a first side intersecting an optical path, a second side opposing the first side, a third side adjacent the first and second sides, and a fourth side opposing the third side. The architecture further includes a dichroic section disposed between the pump aperture and the first side of the gain region. The dichroic section is characterized by low reflectance at a pump wavelength and high reflectance at the laser wavelength. The architecture additionally includes a first cladding section proximate to the third side of the gain region and a second cladding section proximate to the fourth side of the gain region.
Design of an 1800nm Raman amplifier
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svane, Ask Sebastian; Rottwitt, Karsten
2013-01-01
We present the experimental results for a Raman amplifier that operates at 1810 nm and is pumped by a Raman fiber laser at 1680 nm. Both the pump laser and the Raman amplifier is polarization maintaining. A challenge when scaling Raman amplifiers to longer wavelengths is the increase...... in transmission loss, but also the reduction in the Raman gain coefficient as the amplifier wavelength is increased. Both polarization components of the Raman gain is characterized, initially for linearly co-polarized signal and pump, subsequently linearly polarized orthogonal signal and pump. The noise...
Reflection amplifiers in self-regulated learning
Verpoorten, Dominique
2012-01-01
Verpoorten, D. (2012). Reflection amplifiers in self-regulated learning. Doctoral thesis. November, 9, 2012, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open Universiteit (CELSTEC). Datawyse / Universitaire Pers Maastricht.
Decoherence of odd compass states in the phase-sensitive amplifying/dissipating environment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dodonov, V.V., E-mail: vdodonov@fis.unb.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, Caixa Postal 04455, 70919-970 Brasília, DF (Brazil); Valverde, C. [Unidade de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade Estadual de Goiás, BR 153, km 98, 75001-970 Anápolis, GO (Brazil); Universidade Paulista, BR 153, km 7, 74845-090 Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Souza, L.S. [Unidade de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade Estadual de Goiás, BR 153, km 98, 75001-970 Anápolis, GO (Brazil); Baseia, B. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, 74.690-900 Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58.051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)
2016-08-15
We study the evolution of odd compass states (specific superpositions of four coherent states), governed by the standard master equation with phase-sensitive amplifying/attenuating terms, in the presence of a Hamiltonian describing a parametric degenerate linear amplifier. Explicit expressions for the time-dependent Wigner function are obtained. The time of disappearance of the so called “sub-Planck structures” is calculated using the negative value of the Wigner function at the origin of phase space. It is shown that this value rapidly decreases during a short “conventional interference degradation time” (CIDT), which is inversely proportional to the size of quantum superposition, provided the anti-Hermitian terms in the master equation are of the same order (or stronger) as the Hermitian ones (governing the parametric amplification). The CIDT is compared with the final positivization time (FPT), when the Wigner function becomes positive. It appears that the FPT does not depend on the size of superpositions, moreover, it can be much bigger in the amplifying media than in the attenuating ones. Paradoxically, strengthening the Hamiltonian part results in decreasing the CIDT, so that the CIDT almost does not depend on the size of superpositions in the asymptotical case of very weak reservoir coupling. We also analyze the evolution of the Mandel factor, showing that for some sets of parameters this factor remains significantly negative, even when the Wigner function becomes positive.
Design of parametric software tools
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Mullins, Michael
2011-01-01
The studies investigate the field of evidence-based design used in architectural design practice and propose a method using 2D/3D CAD applications to: 1) enhance integration of evidence-based design knowledge in architectural design phases with a focus on lighting and interior design and 2) assess...... fulfilment of evidence-based design criterion regarding light distribution and location in relation to patient safety in architectural health care design proposals. The study uses 2D/3D CAD modelling software Rhinoceros 3D with plug-in Grasshopper to create parametric tool prototypes to exemplify...... the operations and functions of the design method. To evaluate the prototype potentials, surveys with architectural and healthcare design companies are conducted. Evaluation is done by the administration of questionnaires being part of the development of the tools. The results show that architects, designers...
Parametric instabilities in large plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brambilla, Marco; Liberman, Bernardo.
1979-01-01
Parametric decay processes in large plasmas are considered as the linear stage of a three wave interaction (pump, sideband and beat wave) in which the amplitude of the externally excited pump is sufficiently large to neglect pump depletion to first order, yet sufficiently small to allow a linearized treatment of the pump propagation to zeroth order. The coupling coefficients are then obtained from an iterative solution of Vlasov equation, and a compact expression is derived, in which the multiple series over Bessel functions is explicitly summed. Even in the limit of a very long wavelength pump, the dispersion relation obtained in this way does not coincide with the one obtained using the well-known ''dipole'' approximation, unless both the sideband and beat wave are resonant modes of the plasma. An analysis of the origin of this discrepancy allows us to conclude that ''quasimodes'' (evanescent waves driven absolutely unstable by the pump) are more correctly described by the iterative approach
Parametric embedding for class visualization.
Iwata, Tomoharu; Saito, Kazumi; Ueda, Naonori; Stromsten, Sean; Griffiths, Thomas L; Tenenbaum, Joshua B
2007-09-01
We propose a new method, parametric embedding (PE), that embeds objects with the class structure into a low-dimensional visualization space. PE takes as input a set of class conditional probabilities for given data points and tries to preserve the structure in an embedding space by minimizing a sum of Kullback-Leibler divergences, under the assumption that samples are generated by a gaussian mixture with equal covariances in the embedding space. PE has many potential uses depending on the source of the input data, providing insight into the classifier's behavior in supervised, semisupervised, and unsupervised settings. The PE algorithm has a computational advantage over conventional embedding methods based on pairwise object relations since its complexity scales with the product of the number of objects and the number of classes. We demonstrate PE by visualizing supervised categorization of Web pages, semisupervised categorization of digits, and the relations of words and latent topics found by an unsupervised algorithm, latent Dirichlet allocation.
Parametric studies on automotive radiators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliet, C.; Oliva, A.; Castro, J.; Perez-Segarra, C.D.
2007-01-01
This paper presents a set of parametric studies performed on automotive radiators by means of a detailed rating and design heat exchanger model developed by the authors. This numerical tool has been previously verified and validated using a wide experimental data bank. A first part of the analysis focuses on the influence of working conditions on both fluids (mass flows, inlet temperatures) and the impact of the selected coolant fluid. Following these studies, the influence of some geometrical parameters is analysed (fin pitch, louver angle) as well as the importance of coolant flow lay-out on the radiator global performance. This work provides an overall behaviour report of automobile radiators working at usual range of operating conditions, while significant knowledge-based design conclusions have also been reported. The results show the utility of this numerical model as a rating and design tool for heat exchangers manufacturers, being a reasonable compromise between classic ε - NTU methods and CFD
Parametric instabilities in inhomogeneous plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicholson, D.R.
1975-01-01
The nonlinear coupling of three waves in a plasma is considered. One of the waves is assumed large and constant; its amplitude is the parameter of the parametric instability. The spatial-temporal evolution of the other two waves is treated theoretically, in one dimension, by analytic methods and by direct numerical integration of the basic equations. Various monotonic forms of inhomogeneity are considered; agreement with previous work is found and new results are established. Nonmonotonic inhomogeneities are considered, in the form of turbulence and, as a model problem, in the form of a simple sinusoidal modulation. Relatively small amounts of nonmonotonic inhomogeneity, in the presence of a linear density gradient, are found to destabilize the well-known convective saturation, absolute growth occurring instead. (U.S.)
Integrable multi parametric SU(N) chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foerster, Angela; Roditi, Itzhak; Rodrigues, Ligia M.C.S.
1996-03-01
We analyse integrable models associated to a multi parametric SU(N) R-matrix. We show that the Hamiltonians describe SU(N) chains with twisted boundary conditions and that the underlying algebraic structure is the multi parametric deformation of SU(N) enlarged by the introduction of a central element. (author). 15 refs
Observation of Parametric Instability in Advanced LIGO.
Evans, Matthew; Gras, Slawek; Fritschel, Peter; Miller, John; Barsotti, Lisa; Martynov, Denis; Brooks, Aidan; Coyne, Dennis; Abbott, Rich; Adhikari, Rana X; Arai, Koji; Bork, Rolf; Kells, Bill; Rollins, Jameson; Smith-Lefebvre, Nicolas; Vajente, Gabriele; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Adams, Carl; Aston, Stuart; Betzweiser, Joseph; Frolov, Valera; Mullavey, Adam; Pele, Arnaud; Romie, Janeen; Thomas, Michael; Thorne, Keith; Dwyer, Sheila; Izumi, Kiwamu; Kawabe, Keita; Sigg, Daniel; Derosa, Ryan; Effler, Anamaria; Kokeyama, Keiko; Ballmer, Stefan; Massinger, Thomas J; Staley, Alexa; Heinze, Matthew; Mueller, Chris; Grote, Hartmut; Ward, Robert; King, Eleanor; Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, Chunnong
2015-04-24
Parametric instabilities have long been studied as a potentially limiting effect in high-power interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Until now, however, these instabilities have never been observed in a kilometer-scale interferometer. In this Letter, we describe the first observation of parametric instability in a gravitational wave detector, and the means by which it has been removed as a barrier to progress.
Parametric Methods for Order Tracking Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm
2017-01-01
Order tracking analysis is often used to find the critical speeds at which structural resonances are excited by a rotating machine. Typically, order tracking analysis is performed via non-parametric methods. In this report, however, we demonstrate some of the advantages of using a parametric method...
Parametric resonance in neutrino oscillations in matter
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Neutrino oscillations in matter can exhibit a specific resonance enhancement - parametric resonance, which is different from the MSW resonance. Oscillations of atmospheric and solar neutrinos inside the earth can undergo parametric enhancement when neutrino trajectories cross the core of the earth. In this paper we ...
Parametric form of QCD travelling waves
Peschanski, R.
2005-01-01
We derive parametric travelling-wave solutions of non-linear QCD equations. They describe the evolution towards saturation in the geometric scaling region. The method, based on an expansion in the inverse of the wave velocity, leads to a solvable hierarchy of differential equations. A universal parametric form of travelling waves emerges from the first two orders of the expansion.
Distributed feedback laser amplifiers combining the functions of amplifiers and channel filters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Z.; Durhuus, T.; Mikkelsen, Benny
1994-01-01
A dynamic model for distributed feedback amplifiers, including the mode coupled equations and the carrier rate equation, is established. The presented mode coupled equations have taken into account the interaction between fast changing optical signal and the waveguide with corrugations. By showin...... the possibility of amplifying 100 ps pulses without pulse broadening, we anticipate that a distributed feedback amplifier can be used as a combined amplifier and channel filter in high bit rate transmission systems....
Developing a Parametric Urban Design Tool
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steinø, Nicolai; Obeling, Esben
2014-01-01
Parametric urban design is a potentially powerful tool for collaborative urban design processes. Rather than making one- off designs which need to be redesigned from the ground up in case of changes, parametric design tools make it possible keep the design open while at the same time allowing...... for a level of detailing which is high enough to facilitate an understan- ding of the generic qualities of proposed designs. Starting from a brief overview of parametric design, this paper presents initial findings from the development of a parametric urban design tool with regard to developing a structural...... logic which is flexible and expandable. It then moves on to outline and discuss further development work. Finally, it offers a brief reflection on the potentials and shortcomings of the software – CityEngine – which is used for developing the parametric urban design tool....
Self-pulsation in Raman fiber amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Martin Erland Vestergaard; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Rottwitt, Karsten
2009-01-01
Dynamic behavior caused by Brillouin scattering in Raman fiber amplifiers is studied. Modes of self-pulsation steady state oscillations are found. Their dependence on amplification scheme is demonstrated.......Dynamic behavior caused by Brillouin scattering in Raman fiber amplifiers is studied. Modes of self-pulsation steady state oscillations are found. Their dependence on amplification scheme is demonstrated....
Pulse amplifier with high 'common mode rejection'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ijlst, P.
1987-01-01
The input signal of a pulse amplifier contains large 'common-mode' signals which have to be suppressed. A transformer, especially constructed for this purpose, is described. It has been tried to optimize the signal to noise ratio of the pulse amplifier by means of noise analysis. (Auth.)
BROADBAND TRAVELLING WAVE SEMICONDUCTOR OPTICAL AMPLIFIER
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2010-01-01
Broadband travelling wave semiconductor optical amplifier (100, 200, 300, 400, 800) for amplification of light, wherein the amplifier (100, 200, 300, 400, 800) comprises a waveguide region (101, 201, 301, 401, 801) for providing confinement of the light in transverse directions and adapted...
Bevalac injector final stage RF amplifier upgrades
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howard, D.; Calvert, J.; Dwinell, R.; Lax, J.; Lindner, A.; Richter, R.; Ridgeway, W.
1991-01-01
With the assistance of the DOE In-house Energy Management Program, the Bevalac injector final stage RF amplifier systems have been successfully upgraded to reduce energy consumption and operating costs. This recently completed project removed the energy-inefficient plate voltage modulator circuits that were used in conjunction with the final stage RF amplifiers. Construction, design, and operating parameters are described in detail
Method for reducing snap in magnetic amplifiers
Fischer, R. L. E.; Word, J. L.
1968-01-01
Method of reducing snap in magnetic amplifiers uses a degenerative feedback circuit consisting of a resistor and a separate winding on a magnetic core. The feedback circuit extends amplifier range by allowing it to be used at lower values of output current.
Parametric amplification and phase preserving amplitude regeneration of a 640 Gbit/s RZ-DPSK signal
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Galili, Michael; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen
2013-01-01
We report the first experimental demonstration of parametric amplification and all-optical phase-preserving amplitude regeneration for a 640 Gbit/s return-to-zero (RZ) differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) optical time division multiplexed (OTDM) signal. In the designed gain-flattened single......-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA), 620 fs short optical pulses are successfully amplified with 15 dB gain with error-free performance and less than 1 dB power penalty. Phase-preserving amplitude regeneration based on gain saturation in the FOPA is carried out for optical signals with degraded...... optical signal-to-noise ratio. An improvement of 2.2 dB in receiver sensitivity at a bit-error-ratio of 10−9 has been successfully achieved after regeneration, together with 13.3 dB net gain....
A fluidic/pneumatic interface amplifier
Limbert, D. E.; Kegel, T. M.
The development of a low cost, reliable, linear pressure amplifier to interface Laminar Proportional Amplifiers (LPA) to pneumatic controllers is presented. The amplifier consists of an LPA input stage and an output stage consisting of a venturi in series with a bellows nozzle valve. The LPA output drives the bellows nozzle valve thereby altering the flowrate through the venturi. The pressure within the venturi throat region, which is the amplifier output, changes with the flowrate. Non-linear characteristics, due to supersonic flow within the venturi, are altered through the use of feedback to the LPA input. A computer based model, to aid in optimizing the amplifier design, is developed. This model incorporates the effects of shock waves and boundary layers within the venturi. Good correspondence between the model and an experimental prototype is shown.
Amplified OTDR Systems for Multipoint Corrosion Monitoring
Nascimento, Jehan F.; Silva, Marcionilo J.; Coêlho, Isnaldo J. S.; Cipriano, Eliel; Martins-Filho, Joaquim F.
2012-01-01
We present two configurations of an amplified fiber-optic-based corrosion sensor using the optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) technique as the interrogation method. The sensor system is multipoint, self-referenced, has no moving parts and can measure the corrosion rate several kilometers away from the OTDR equipment. The first OTDR monitoring system employs a remotely pumped in-line EDFA and it is used to evaluate the increase in system reach compared to a non-amplified configuration. The other amplified monitoring system uses an EDFA in booster configuration and we perform corrosion measurements and evaluations of system sensitivity to amplifier gain variations. Our experimental results obtained under controlled laboratory conditions show the advantages of the amplified system in terms of longer system reach with better spatial resolution, and also that the corrosion measurements obtained from our system are not sensitive to 3 dB gain variations. PMID:22737017
An Implantable CMOS Amplifier for Nerve Signals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jannik Hammel; Lehmann, Torsten
2001-01-01
In this paper, a low noise high gain CMOS amplifier for minute nerve signals is presented. By using a mixture of weak- and strong inversion transistors, optimal noise suppression in the amplifier is achieved. A continuous-time offset-compensation technique is utilized in order to minimize impact...... on the amplifier input nodes. The method for signal recovery from noisy nerve signals is presented. A prototype amplifier is realized in a standard digital 0.5 μm CMOS single poly, n-well process. The prototype amplifier features a gain of 80 dB over a 3.6 kHz bandwidth, a CMRR of more than 87 dB and a PSRR...
Bandwidth tunable amplifier for recording biopotential signals.
Hwang, Sungkil; Aninakwa, Kofi; Sonkusale, Sameer
2010-01-01
This paper presents a low noise, low power, bandwidth tunable amplifier for bio-potential signal recording applications. By employing depletion-mode pMOS transistor in diode configuration as a tunable sub pA current source to adjust the resistivity of MOS-Bipolar pseudo-resistor, the bandwidth is adjusted without any need for a separate band-pass filter stage. For high CMRR, PSRR and dynamic range, a fully differential structure is used in the design of the amplifier. The amplifier achieves a midband gain of 39.8dB with a tunable high-pass cutoff frequency ranging from 0.1Hz to 300Hz. The amplifier is fabricated in 0.18εm CMOS process and occupies 0.14mm(2) of chip area. A three electrode ECG measurement is performed using the proposed amplifier to show its feasibility for low power, compact wearable ECG monitoring application.
Dual-range linearized transimpedance amplifier system
Wessendorf, Kurt O.
2010-11-02
A transimpedance amplifier system is disclosed which simultaneously generates a low-gain output signal and a high-gain output signal from an input current signal using a single transimpedance amplifier having two different feedback loops with different amplification factors to generate two different output voltage signals. One of the feedback loops includes a resistor, and the other feedback loop includes another resistor in series with one or more diodes. The transimpedance amplifier system includes a signal linearizer to linearize one or both of the low- and high-gain output signals by scaling and adding the two output voltage signals from the transimpedance amplifier. The signal linearizer can be formed either as an analog device using one or two summing amplifiers, or alternately can be formed as a digital device using two analog-to-digital converters and a digital signal processor (e.g. a microprocessor or a computer).
Detection of Non-Amplified Genomic DNA
Corradini, Roberto
2012-01-01
This book offers a state-of-the-art overview on non amplified DNA detection methods and provides chemists, biochemists, biotechnologists and material scientists with an introduction to these methods. In fact all these fields have dedicated resources to the problem of nucleic acid detection, each contributing with their own specific methods and concepts. This book will explain the basic principles of the different non amplified DNA detection methods available, highlighting their respective advantages and limitations. The importance of non-amplified DNA sequencing technologies will be also discussed. Non-amplified DNA detection can be achieved by adopting different techniques. Such techniques have allowed the commercialization of innovative platforms for DNA detection that are expected to break into the DNA diagnostics market. The enhanced sensitivity required for the detection of non amplified genomic DNA has prompted new strategies that can achieve ultrasensitivity by combining specific materials with specifi...
Ultrafast disk lasers and amplifiers
Sutter, Dirk H.; Kleinbauer, Jochen; Bauer, Dominik; Wolf, Martin; Tan, Chuong; Gebs, Raphael; Budnicki, Aleksander; Wagenblast, Philipp; Weiler, Sascha
2012-03-01
Disk lasers with multi-kW continuous wave (CW) output power are widely used in manufacturing, primarily for cutting and welding applications, notably in the automotive industry. The ytterbium disk technology combines high power (average and/or peak power), excellent beam quality, high efficiency, and high reliability with low investment and operating costs. Fundamental mode picosecond disk lasers are well established in micro machining at high throughput and perfect precision. Following the world's first market introduction of industrial grade 50 W picosecond lasers (TruMicro 5050) at the Photonics West 2008, the second generation of the TruMicro series 5000 now provides twice the average power (100 W at 1030 nm, or 60 W frequency doubled, green output) at a significantly reduced footprint. Mode-locked disk oscillators achieve by far the highest average power of any unamplified lasers, significantly exceeding the 100 W level in laboratory set-ups. With robust long resonators their multi-microjoule pulse energies begin to compete with typical ultrafast amplifiers. In addition, significant interest in disk technology has recently come from the extreme light laser community, aiming for ultra-high peak powers of petawatts and beyond.
Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, Rolland P.
2008-06-07
Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances was an SBIR project begun in July 2004 and ended in January 2008 with Muons, Inc., (Dr. Rolland Johnson, PI), and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) (Dr. Yaroslav Derbenev, Subcontract PI). The project was to develop the theory and simulations of Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) so that it could be used to provide the extra transverse cooling needed for muon colliders in order to relax the requirements on the proton driver, reduce the site boundary radiation, and provide a better environment for experiments. During the course of the project, the theoretical understanding of PIC was developed and a final exposition is ready for publication. Workshops were sponsored by Muons, Inc. in May and September of 2007 that were devoted to the PIC technique. One outcome of the workshops was the interesting and somewhat unexpected realization that the beam emittances using the PIC technique can get small enough that space charge forces can be important. A parallel effort to develop our G4beamline simulation program to include space charge effects was initiated to address this problem. A method of compensating for chromatic aberrations by employing synchrotron motion was developed and simulated. A method of compensating for spherical aberrations using beamline symmetry was also developed and simulated. Different optics designs have been developed using the OptiM program in preparation for applying our G4beamline simulation program, which contains all the power of the Geant4 toolkit. However, no PIC channel design that has been developed has had the desired cooling performance when subjected to the complete G4beamline simulation program. This is believed to be the consequence of the difficulties of correcting the aberrations associated with the naturally large beam angles and beam sizes of the PIC method that are exacerbated by the fringe fields of the rather complicated channel designs that have been
Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, Rolland P.
2008-01-01
Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances was an SBIR project begun in July 2004 and ended in January 2008 with Muons, Inc., (Dr. Rolland Johnson, PI), and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) (Dr. Yaroslav Derbenev, Subcontract PI). The project was to develop the theory and simulations of Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) so that it could be used to provide the extra transverse cooling needed for muon colliders in order to relax the requirements on the proton driver, reduce the site boundary radiation, and provide a better environment for experiments. During the course of the project, the theoretical understanding of PIC was developed and a final exposition is ready for publication. Workshops were sponsored by Muons, Inc. in May and September of 2007 that were devoted to the PIC technique. One outcome of the workshops was the interesting and somewhat unexpected realization that the beam emittances using the PIC technique can get small enough that space charge forces can be important. A parallel effort to develop our G4beamline simulation program to include space charge effects was initiated to address this problem. A method of compensating for chromatic aberrations by employing synchrotron motion was developed and simulated. A method of compensating for spherical aberrations using beamline symmetry was also developed and simulated. Different optics designs have been developed using the OptiM program in preparation for applying our G4beamline simulation program, which contains all the power of the Geant4 toolkit. However, no PIC channel design that has been developed has had the desired cooling performance when subjected to the complete G4beamline simulation program. This is believed to be the consequence of the difficulties of correcting the aberrations associated with the naturally large beam angles and beam sizes of the PIC method that are exacerbated by the fringe fields of the rather complicated channel designs that have been
Controlling flexible rotor vibrations using parametric excitation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Atepor, L, E-mail: katepor@yahoo.co [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)
2009-08-01
This paper presents both theoretical and experimental studies of an active vibration controller for vibration in a flexible rotor system. The paper shows that the vibration amplitude can be modified by introducing an axial parametric excitation. The perturbation method of multiple scales is used to solve the equations of motion. The steady-state responses, with and without the parametric excitation terms, is investigated. An experimental test machine uses a piezoelectric exciter mounted on the end of the shaft. The results show a reduction in the rotor response amplitude under principal parametric resonance, and some good correlation between theory and experiment.
Linear Parametric Model Checking of Timed Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hune, Tohmas Seidelin; Romijn, Judi; Stoelinga, Mariëlle
2001-01-01
We present an extension of the model checker Uppaal capable of synthesize linear parameter constraints for the correctness of parametric timed automata. The symbolic representation of the (parametric) state-space is shown to be correct. A second contribution of this paper is the identication...... of a subclass of parametric timed automata (L/U automata), for which the emptiness problem is decidable, contrary to the full class where it is know to be undecidable. Also we present a number of lemmas enabling the verication eort to be reduced for L/U automata in some cases. We illustrate our approach...
Simulations of longitudinally pumped dye laser amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takehisa, Kiwamu; Takemori, Satoshi
1995-01-01
Simulations of a copper laser pumped dye laser amplifier and new designs of the longitudinally pumped dye laser amplifier are presented. The simulations take the consideration of the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). The new designs utilize a center-hole reflector instead of a dichroic mirror. The simulation results indicate that the poor spatial overlap between the pump beam and the dye beam in the transverse pumping not only reduces the laser output power, but also generates ASE strongly. The results also indicate that the longitudinal pumping is as efficient as the transverse pumping. (author)
A parallel input composite transimpedance amplifier
Kim, D. J.; Kim, C.
2018-01-01
A new approach to high performance current to voltage preamplifier design is presented. The design using multiple operational amplifiers (op-amps) has a parasitic capacitance compensation network and a composite amplifier topology for fast, precision, and low noise performance. The input stage consisting of a parallel linked JFET op-amps and a high-speed bipolar junction transistor (BJT) gain stage driving the output in the composite amplifier topology, cooperating with the capacitance compensation feedback network, ensures wide bandwidth stability in the presence of input capacitance above 40 nF. The design is ideal for any two-probe measurement, including high impedance transport and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements.
Fundamentals of RF and microwave transistor amplifiers
Bahl, Inder J
2009-01-01
A Comprehensive and Up-to-Date Treatment of RF and Microwave Transistor Amplifiers This book provides state-of-the-art coverage of RF and microwave transistor amplifiers, including low-noise, narrowband, broadband, linear, high-power, high-efficiency, and high-voltage. Topics covered include modeling, analysis, design, packaging, and thermal and fabrication considerations. Through a unique integration of theory and practice, readers will learn to solve amplifier-related design problems ranging from matching networks to biasing and stability. More than 240 problems are included to help read
Quantum electronics maser amplifiers and oscillators
Fain, V M; Sanders, J H
2013-01-01
Quantum Electronics, Volume 2: Maser Amplifiers and Oscillators deals with the experimental and theoretical aspects of maser amplifiers and oscillators which are based on the principles of quantum electronics. It shows how the concepts and equations used in quantum electronics follow from the basic principles of theoretical physics.Comprised of three chapters, this volume begins with a discussion on the elements of the theory of quantum oscillators and amplifiers working in the microwave region, along with the practical achievements in this field. Attention is paid to two-level paramagnetic ma
Unconditionally stable microwave Si-IMPATT amplifiers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seddik, M.M.
1986-07-01
The purpose of this investigation has been the development of an improved understanding of the design and analysis of microwave reflection amplifiers employing the negative resistance property of the IMPATT devices. Unconditionally stable amplifier circuit using a Silicon IMPATT diode is designed. The problems associated with the design procedures and the stability criterion are discussed. A computer program is developed to perform the computations. The stable characteristics of a reflection-type Si-IMPATT amplifier, such as gain, frequency and bandwidth are examined. It was found that at large signal drive levels, 7 dB gain with bandwidth of 800 MHz at 22,5 mA was obtained. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rishøj, Lars Søgaard; Svane, Ask Sebastian; Lund-Hansen, Toke
2014-01-01
A numerical model for parametric amplifiers, which include stochastic variations of the group velocity dispersion (GVD), is presented. The impact on the gain is investigated, both with respect to the magnitude of the variations and by the effect caused by changing the wavelength of the pump. It i....... It is demonstrated that the described model is able to predict the experimental results and thereby provide a quantitative evaluation of the standard deviation of the GVD. For the investigated fibre, a standard deviation of 0.01 ps/(nm km) was found....
Low-noise parametric amplification at 35 GHz in a single Josephson tunnel junction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mygind, Jesper; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, O. H.
1979-01-01
Parametric amplification at 35 GHz has been obtained using a single Josephson tunnel junction as the active element. The amplifier was operated in the singly quasidegenerate mode with a pump frequency at 70 GHz. The noise temperature was measured and found correlated with the gain. At the highest...... gain achieved, 11.6 dB, the noise temperature was 400 K. The noise temperature was reduced considerably by decreasing the gain. At 8 and 4 dB we found 165±25 K and 50±30 K, respectively. Applied Physics Letters is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....
Parametric optimization of inverse trapezoid oleophobic surfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cavalli, Andrea; Bøggild, Peter; Okkels, Fridolin
2012-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a comprehensive and versatile approach to the parametric shape optimization of oleophobic surfaces. We evaluate the performance of inverse trapezoid microstructures in terms of three objective parameters: apparent contact angle, maximum sustainable hydrostatic pressure...
Parametric decay below the upper hybrid frequency
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Albers, E; Krause, K; Schlueter, H [Bochum Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik 2
1977-03-21
Parametric decay of the upper hybrid mode is observed between the electron cyclotron frequency and its first two harmonics. The decay products are identified as electron Bernstein and ion acoustic mode. The diagnostic results confirm the relevant dispersion relations.
Optimal parametric modelling of measured short waves
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Mandal, S.
the importance of selecting a suitable sampling interval for better estimates of parametric modelling and also for better statistical representation. Implementation of the above algorithms in a structural monitoring system has the potential advantage of storing...
Robust and Efficient Parametric Face Alignment
Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja
2011-01-01
We propose a correlation-based approach to parametric object alignment particularly suitable for face analysis applications which require efficiency and robustness against occlusions and illumination changes. Our algorithm registers two images by iteratively maximizing their correlation coefficient
Ranking Forestry Investments With Parametric Linear Programming
Paul A. Murphy
1976-01-01
Parametric linear programming is introduced as a technique for ranking forestry investments under multiple constraints; it combines the advantages of simple tanking and linear programming as capital budgeting tools.
A Parametric k-Means Algorithm
Tarpey, Thaddeus
2007-01-01
Summary The k points that optimally represent a distribution (usually in terms of a squared error loss) are called the k principal points. This paper presents a computationally intensive method that automatically determines the principal points of a parametric distribution. Cluster means from the k-means algorithm are nonparametric estimators of principal points. A parametric k-means approach is introduced for estimating principal points by running the k-means algorithm on a very large simulated data set from a distribution whose parameters are estimated using maximum likelihood. Theoretical and simulation results are presented comparing the parametric k-means algorithm to the usual k-means algorithm and an example on determining sizes of gas masks is used to illustrate the parametric k-means algorithm. PMID:17917692
Parametric resonance in neutrino oscillations in matter
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
specific phase relationships has an interesting property that it can accumulate if the matter .... In Д 3 we discuss the physical interpretation of the parametric reso- nance in neutrino ..... long-baseline accelerator and reactor experiments [12,29].
Parametric resonance in an expanding universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zlatev, I.; Huey, G.; Steinhardt, P.J.
1998-01-01
Parametric resonance has been discussed as a mechanism for copious particle production following inflation. Here we present a simple and intuitive calculational method for estimating the efficiency of parametric amplification as a function of parameters. This is important for determining whether resonant amplification plays an important role in the reheating process. We find that significant amplification occurs only for a limited range of couplings and interactions. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Energy scaling of terahertz-wave parametric sources.
Tang, Guanqi; Cong, Zhenhua; Qin, Zengguang; Zhang, Xingyu; Wang, Weitao; Wu, Dong; Li, Ning; Fu, Qiang; Lu, Qingming; Zhang, Shaojun
2015-02-23
Terahertz-wave parametric oscillators (TPOs) have advantages of room temperature operation, wide tunable range, narrow line-width, good coherence. They have also disadvantage of small pulse energy. In this paper, several factors preventing TPOs from generating high-energy THz pulses and the corresponding solutions are analyzed. A scheme to generate high-energy THz pulses by using the combination of a TPO and a Stokes-pulse-injected terahertz-wave parametric generator (spi-TPG) is proposed and demonstrated. A TPO is used as a source to generate a seed pulse for the surface-emitted spi-TPG. The time delay between the pump and Stokes pulses is adjusted to guarantee they have good temporal overlap. The pump pulses have a large pulse energy and a large beam size. The Stokes beam is enlarged to make its size be larger than the pump beam size to have a large effective interaction volume. The experimental results show that the generated THz pulse energy from the spi-TPG is 1.8 times as large as that obtained from the TPO for the same pumping pulse energy density of 0.90 J/cm(2) and the same pumping beam size of 3.0 mm. When the pumping beam sizes are 5.0 and 7.0 mm, the enhancement times are 3.7 and 7.5, respectively. The spi-TPG here is similar to a difference frequency generator; it can also be used as a Stokes pulse amplifier.
von Hirschhausen, Christian R.; Cullmann, Astrid
2005-01-01
Abstract This paper applies parametric and non-parametric and parametric tests to assess the efficiency of electricity distribution companies in Germany. We address traditional issues in electricity sector benchmarking, such as the role of scale effects and optimal utility size, as well as new evidence specific to the situation in Germany. We use labour, capital, and peak load capacity as inputs, and units sold and the number of customers as output. The data cover 307 (out of 553) ...
Automatic error compensation in dc amplifiers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Longden, L.L.
1976-01-01
When operational amplifiers are exposed to high levels of neutron fluence or total ionizing dose, significant changes may be observed in input voltages and currents. These changes may produce large errors at the output of direct-coupled amplifier stages. Therefore, the need exists for automatic compensation techniques. However, previously introduced techniques compensate only for errors in the main amplifier and neglect the errors induced by the compensating circuitry. In this paper, the techniques introduced compensate not only for errors in the main operational amplifier, but also for errors induced by the compensation circuitry. Included in the paper is a theoretical analysis of each compensation technique, along with advantages and disadvantages of each. Important design criteria and information necessary for proper selection of semiconductor switches will also be included. Introduced in this paper will be compensation circuitry for both resistive and capacitive feedback networks
Stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold in fiber amplifiers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liang Liping; Chang Liping
2011-01-01
Based on the wave coupling theory and the evolution model of the critical pump power (or Brillouin threshold) for stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in double-clad fiber amplifiers, the influence of signal bandwidth, fiber-core diameter and amplifier gain on SBS threshold is simulated theoretically. And experimental measurements of SBS are presented in ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber amplifiers with single-frequency hundred nanosecond pulse amplification. Under different input signal pulses, the forward amplified pulse distortion is observed when the pulse energy is up to 660 nJ and the peak power is up to 3.3 W in the pulse amplification with pulse duration of 200 ns and repetition rate of 1 Hz. And the backward SBS narrow pulse appears. The pulse peak power equals to SBS threshold. Good agreement is shown between the modeled and experimental data. (authors)
Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP-cDNA) analysis of differential gene expression from the xerophyte Ammopiptanthus mongolicus in response to cold, drought and cold together with drought.
Behavior of MOSFET Amplifier in Radiation Fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharshar, K.A.A.; Ashry, M.
2000-01-01
MOSFET type 2 N 3823 characteristics and its application as an amplifier are analyzed including the effects of gamma, electron beam 1.5 MeV 25 m A and neutron flux. The 1-V characteristics, transfer curve, and the frequency response of the amplifier, and the amplification factor(A v 0 are discussed with MOSFET circuit parameters. The drain current and the amplitude of the output signal decrease as the absorbed dose increases. The measured values of the amplified signal are attenuated by 30% and 6% after exposing the MOSFET to gamma radiation and electron beam at the same dose respectively. Also for exposure to 4x10 13 N/cm 3 neutrons decreased the measured value of the amplified signal by 73% of the initial values. The decrease in the gain of the MOSFET is due to the degradation of the transconductance. It is also noticed that percentage of the decrease depends on the type of radiation
Quantum-Limited Directional Amplifiers with Optomechanics
Malz, Daniel; Tóth, László D.; Bernier, Nathan R.; Feofanov, Alexey K.; Kippenberg, Tobias J.; Nunnenkamp, Andreas
2018-01-01
Directional amplifiers are an important resource in quantum-information processing, as they protect sensitive quantum systems from excess noise. Here, we propose an implementation of phase-preserving and phase-sensitive directional amplifiers for microwave signals in an electromechanical setup comprising two microwave cavities and two mechanical resonators. We show that both can reach their respective quantum limits on added noise. In the reverse direction, they emit thermal noise stemming from the mechanical resonators; we discuss how this noise can be suppressed, a crucial aspect for technological applications. The isolation bandwidth in both is of the order of the mechanical linewidth divided by the amplitude gain. We derive the bandwidth and gain-bandwidth product for both and find that the phase-sensitive amplifier has an unlimited gain-bandwidth product. Our study represents an important step toward flexible, on-chip integrated nonreciprocal amplifiers of microwave signals.
Manhattan equation for the operational amplifier
Mishonov, Todor M.; Danchev, Victor I.; Petkov, Emil G.; Gourev, Vassil N.; Dimitrova, Iglika M.; Varonov, Albert M.
2018-01-01
A differential equation relating the voltage at the output of an operational amplifier $U_0$ and the difference between the input voltages ($U_{+}$ and $U_{-}$) has been derived. The crossover frequency $f_0$ is a parameter in this operational amplifier master equation. The formulas derived as a consequence of this equation find applications in thousands of specifications for electronic devices but as far as we know, the equation has never been published. Actually, the master equation of oper...
Distributed amplifier using Josephson vortex flow transistors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McGinnis, D.P.; Beyer, J.B.; Nordman, J.E.
1986-01-01
A wide-band traveling wave amplifier using vortex flow transistors is proposed. A vortex flow transistor is a long Josephson junction used as a current controlled voltage source. The dual nature of this device to the field effect transistor is exploited. A circuit model of this device is proposed and a distributed amplifier utilizing 50 vortex flow transistors is predicted to have useful gain to 100 GHz
Multiple excitation regenerative amplifier inertial confinement system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
George, V.E.; Haas, R.A.; Krupke, W.F.; Schlitt, L.G.
1980-01-01
The invention relates to apparatus and methods for producing high intensity laser radiation generation which is achieved through an optical amplifier-storage ring design. One or two synchronized, counterpropagating laser pulses are injected into a regenerative amplifier cavity and amplified by gain media which are pumped repetitively by electrical or optical means. The gain media excitation pulses are tailored to efficiently amplify the laser pulses during each transit. After the laser pulses have been amplified to the desired intensity level, they are either switched out of the cavity by some switch means, as for example an electro-optical device, for any well known laser end uses, or a target means may be injected into the regenerative amplifier cavity in such a way as to intercept simultaneously the counterpropagating laser pulses. One such well known end uses to which this invention is intended is for production of high density and temperature plasmas suitable for generating neutrons, ions and x-rays and for studying matter heated by high intensity laser radiation
PHAZE, Parametric Hazard Function Estimation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2002-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: Phaze performs statistical inference calculations on a hazard function (also called a failure rate or intensity function) based on reported failure times of components that are repaired and restored to service. Three parametric models are allowed: the exponential, linear, and Weibull hazard models. The inference includes estimation (maximum likelihood estimators and confidence regions) of the parameters and of the hazard function itself, testing of hypotheses such as increasing failure rate, and checking of the model assumptions. 2 - Methods: PHAZE assumes that the failures of a component follow a time-dependent (or non-homogenous) Poisson process and that the failure counts in non-overlapping time intervals are independent. Implicit in the independence property is the assumption that the component is restored to service immediately after any failure, with negligible repair time. The failures of one component are assumed to be independent of those of another component; a proportional hazards model is used. Data for a component are called time censored if the component is observed for a fixed time-period, or plant records covering a fixed time-period are examined, and the failure times are recorded. The number of these failures is random. Data are called failure censored if the component is kept in service until a predetermined number of failures has occurred, at which time the component is removed from service. In this case, the number of failures is fixed, but the end of the observation period equals the final failure time and is random. A typical PHAZE session consists of reading failure data from a file prepared previously, selecting one of the three models, and performing data analysis (i.e., performing the usual statistical inference about the parameters of the model, with special emphasis on the parameter(s) that determine whether the hazard function is increasing). The final goals of the inference are a point estimate
Assessing pupil and school performance by non-parametric and parametric techniques
de Witte, K.; Thanassoulis, E.; Simpson, G.; Battisti, G.; Charlesworth-May, A.
2010-01-01
This paper discusses the use of the non-parametric free disposal hull (FDH) and the parametric multi-level model (MLM) as alternative methods for measuring pupil and school attainment where hierarchical structured data are available. Using robust FDH estimates, we show how to decompose the overall
Verrelst, Jochem; Rivera, Juan Pablo; Veroustraete, Frank; Muñoz-Marí, Jordi; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Camps-Valls, Gustau; Moreno, José
2015-01-01
Given the forthcoming availability of Sentinel-2 (S2) images, this paper provides a systematic comparison of retrieval accuracy and processing speed of a multitude of parametric, non-parametric and physically-based retrieval methods using simulated S2 data. An experimental field dataset (SPARC),
Advances in high-power rf amplifiers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tallerico, P.J.
1979-01-01
Several powerful accelerators and storage rings are being considered that will require tens or even hundreds of megawatts of continuous rf power. The economics of such large machines can be dictated by the cost and efficiency of the rf amplifiers. The overall design and performance of such narrow-band amplifiers, operating in the 50- to 1500-MHz region, are being theoretically studied as a function of frequency to determine the optimum rf amplifier output power, gain, efficiency, and dc power requirements. The state of the art for three types of amplifiers (gridded tubes, klystrons, and gyrocons) is considered and the development work necessary to improve each is discussed. The gyrocon is a new device, hence its various embodiments are discussed in detail. The Soviet designs are reviewed and the gyrocon's strengths and weaknesses are compared to other types of microwave amplifiers. The primary advantages of the gyrocon are the very large amount of power available from a single device and the excellent efficiency and stable operation. The klystron however, has much greater gain and is simpler mechanically. At very low frequencies, the small size of the gridded tube makes it the optimum choice for all but the most powerful systems
Transpermeance Amplifier Applied to Magnetic Bearings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jossana Ferreira
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The most conventional approach of controlling magnetic forces in active magnetic bearings (AMBs is through current feedback amplifiers: transconductance. This enables the operation of the AMB to be understood in terms of a relatively simple current-based model as has been widely reported on in the literature. The alternative notion of using transpermeance amplifiers, which approximate the feedback of gap flux rather than current, has been in commercial use in some form for at least thirty years, however is only recently seeing more widespread acceptance as a commercial standard. This study explores how such alternative amplifiers should be modeled and then examines the differences in behavior between AMBs equipped with transconductance and transpermeance amplifiers. The focus of this study is on two aspects. The first is the influence of rotor displacement on AMB force, commonly modeled as a constant negative equivalent mechanical stiffness, and it is shown that either scheme actually leads to a finite bandwidth effect, but that this bandwidth is much lower when transpermeance is employed. The second aspect is the influence of eddy currents. Using a very simple model of eddy currents (a secondary short-circuited coil, it is demonstrated that transpermeance amplifiers can recover significant actuator bandwidth compared with transconductance, but at the cost of needing increased peak current headroom.
Wideband Low Noise Amplifiers Exploiting Thermal Noise Cancellation
Bruccoleri, F.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram
2005-01-01
Low Noise Amplifiers (LNAs) are commonly used to amplify signals that are too weak for direct processing for example in radio or cable receivers. Traditionally, low noise amplifiers are implemented via tuned amplifiers, exploiting inductors and capacitors in resonating LC-circuits. This can render
Solid-state disk amplifiers for fusion-laser systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martin, W.E.; Trenholme, J.B.; Linford, G.J.; Yarema, S.M.; Hurley, C.A.
1981-09-01
We review the design, performance, and operation of large-aperture (10 to 46 cm) solid-state disk amplifiers for use in laser systems. We present design data, prototype tests, simulations, and projections for conventional cylindrical pump-geometry amplifiers and rectangular pump-geometry disk amplifiers. The design of amplifiers for the Nova laser system is discussed.
The design of high performance weak current integrated amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Guojie; Cao Hui
2005-01-01
A design method of high performance weak current integrated amplifier using ICL7650 operational amplifier is introduced. The operating principle of circuits and the step of improving amplifier's performance are illustrated. Finally, the experimental results are given. The amplifier has programmable measurement range of 10 -9 -10 -12 A, automatic zero-correction, accurate measurement, and good stability. (authors)
Suppression of period-doubling and nonlinear parametric effects in periodically perturbed systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bryant, P.; Wiesenfeld, K.
1986-01-01
We consider the effect on a generic period-doubling bifurcation of a periodic perturbation, whose frequency ω 1 is near the period-doubled frequency ω 0 /2. The perturbation is shown to always suppress the bifurcation, shifting the bifurcation point and stabilizing the behavior at the original bifurcation point. We derive an equation characterizing the response of the system to the perturbation, analysis of which reveals many interesting features of the perturbed bifurcation, including (1) the scaling law relating the shift of the bifurcation point and the amplitude of the perturbation, (2) the characteristics of the system's response as a function of bifurcation parameter, (3) parametric amplification of the perturbation signal including nonlinear effects such as gain saturation and a discontinuity in the response at a critical perturbation amplitude, (4) the effect of the detuning (ω 1 -ω 0 /2) on the bifurcation, and (5) the emergence of a closely spaced set of peaks in the response spectrum. An important application is the use of period-doubling systems as small-signal amplifiers, e.g., the superconducting Josephson parametric amplifier
Power Amplifiers in CMOS Technology: A contribution to power amplifier theory and techniques
Acar, M.
2011-01-01
In order to meet the demands from the market on cheaper, miniaturized mobile communications devices realization of RF power amplifiers in the mainstream CMOS technology is essential. In general, CMOS Power Amplifiers (PAs) require high voltage to decrease the matching network losses and for high
Design considerations for RF power amplifiers demonstrated through a GSM/EDGE power amplifier module
Baltus, P.G.M.; Bezooijen, van A.; Huijsing, J.H.; Steyaert, M.; Roermund, van A.H.M.
2002-01-01
This paper describes the design considerations for RF power amplifiers in general, including trends in systems, linearity and efficiency, the PA environment, implementation is sues and technology. As an example a triple-band (900/1800/1900MHz) dual mode (GSMIEdge) power amplifier module is described
Parametric pendulum based wave energy converter
Yurchenko, Daniil; Alevras, Panagiotis
2018-01-01
The paper investigates the dynamics of a novel wave energy converter based on the parametrically excited pendulum. The herein developed concept of the parametric pendulum allows reducing the influence of the gravity force thereby significantly improving the device performance at a regular sea state, which could not be achieved in the earlier proposed original point-absorber design. The suggested design of a wave energy converter achieves a dominant rotational motion without any additional mechanisms, like a gearbox, or any active control involvement. Presented numerical results of deterministic and stochastic modeling clearly reflect the advantage of the proposed design. A set of experimental results confirms the numerical findings and validates the new design of a parametric pendulum based wave energy converter. Power harvesting potential of the novel device is also presented.
Parametric methods for spatial point processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Jesper
is studied in Section 4, and Bayesian inference in Section 5. On one hand, as the development in computer technology and computational statistics continues,computationally-intensive simulation-based methods for likelihood inference probably will play a increasing role for statistical analysis of spatial...... inference procedures for parametric spatial point process models. The widespread use of sensible but ad hoc methods based on summary statistics of the kind studied in Chapter 4.3 have through the last two decades been supplied by likelihood based methods for parametric spatial point process models......(This text is submitted for the volume ‘A Handbook of Spatial Statistics' edited by A.E. Gelfand, P. Diggle, M. Fuentes, and P. Guttorp, to be published by Chapmand and Hall/CRC Press, and planned to appear as Chapter 4.4 with the title ‘Parametric methods'.) 1 Introduction This chapter considers...
Parametric Conversion Using Custom MOS Varactors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iniewski Krzysztof (Kris
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The possible role of customized MOS varactors in amplification, mixing, and frequency control of future millimeter wave CMOS RFICs is outlined. First, the parametric conversion concept is revisited and discussed in terms of modern RF communications systems. Second, the modeling, design, and optimization of MOS varactors are reconsidered in the context of their central role in parametric circuits. Third, a balanced varactor structure is proposed for robust oscillator frequency control in the presence of large extrinsic noise expected in tightly integrated wireless communicators. Main points include the proposal of a subharmonic pumping scheme based on the MOS varactor, a nonequilibrium elastance-voltage model, optimal varactor layout suggestions, custom m-CMOS varactor design and measurement, device-level balanced varactor simulations, and parametric circuit evaluation based on measured device characteristics.
Piezoelectric energy harvesting with parametric uncertainty
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali, S F; Friswell, M I; Adhikari, S
2010-01-01
The design and analysis of energy harvesting devices is becoming increasing important in recent years. Most of the literature has focused on the deterministic analysis of these systems and the problem of uncertain parameters has received less attention. Energy harvesting devices exhibit parametric uncertainty due to errors in measurement, errors in modelling and variability in the parameters during manufacture. This paper investigates the effect of parametric uncertainty in the mechanical system on the harvested power, and derives approximate explicit formulae for the optimal electrical parameters that maximize the mean harvested power. The maximum of the mean harvested power decreases with increasing uncertainty, and the optimal frequency at which the maximum mean power occurs shifts. The effect of the parameter variance on the optimal electrical time constant and optimal coupling coefficient are reported. Monte Carlo based simulation results are used to further analyse the system under parametric uncertainty
Parametric analysis of ATM solar array.
Singh, B. K.; Adkisson, W. B.
1973-01-01
The paper discusses the methods used for the calculation of ATM solar array performance characteristics and provides the parametric analysis of solar panels used in SKYLAB. To predict the solar array performance under conditions other than test conditions, a mathematical model has been developed. Four computer programs have been used to convert the solar simulator test data to the parametric curves. The first performs module summations, the second determines average solar cell characteristics which will cause a mathematical model to generate a curve matching the test data, the third is a polynomial fit program which determines the polynomial equations for the solar cell characteristics versus temperature, and the fourth program uses the polynomial coefficients generated by the polynomial curve fit program to generate the parametric data.
Wideband pulse amplifiers for the NECTAr chip
Sanuy, A.; Delagnes, E.; Gascon, D.; Sieiro, X.; Bolmont, J.; Corona, P.; Feinstein, F.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Naumann, C. L.; Nayman, P.; Ribó, M.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Toussenel, F.; Vincent, P.; Vorobiov, S.
2012-12-01
The NECTAr collaboration's FE option for the camera of the CTA is a 16 bits and 1-3 GS/s sampling chip based on analog memories including most of the readout functions. This works describes the input amplifiers of the NECTAr ASIC. A fully differential wideband amplifier, with voltage gain up to 20 V/V and a BW of 400 MHz. As it is impossible to design a fully differential OpAmp with an 8 GHz GBW product in a 0.35 CMOS technology, an alternative implementation based on HF linearized transconductors is explored. The output buffer is a class AB miller operational amplifier, with special non-linear current boost.
Wideband pulse amplifiers for the NECTAr chip
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanuy, A.; Delagnes, E.; Gascon, D.; Sieiro, X.; Bolmont, J.; Corona, P.; Feinstein, F.; Glicenstein, J-F.; Naumann, C.L.; Nayman, P.; Ribó, M.
2012-01-01
The NECTAr collaboration's FE option for the camera of the CTA is a 16 bits and 1–3 GS/s sampling chip based on analog memories including most of the readout functions. This works describes the input amplifiers of the NECTAr ASIC. A fully differential wideband amplifier, with voltage gain up to 20 V/V and a BW of 400 MHz. As it is impossible to design a fully differential OpAmp with an 8 GHz GBW product in a 0.35 CMOS technology, an alternative implementation based on HF linearized transconductors is explored. The output buffer is a class AB miller operational amplifier, with special non-linear current boost.
Wideband pulse amplifiers for the NECTAr chip
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanuy, A., E-mail: asanuy@ecm.ub.es [Dept. AM i Dept. ECM, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona. Marti i Franques 1, E08028, Barcelona (Spain); Delagnes, E. [IRFU/DSM/CEA, CE-Saclay, Bat. 141 SEN Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gascon, D. [Dept. AM i Dept. ECM, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona. Marti i Franques 1, E08028, Barcelona (Spain); Sieiro, X. [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona. Marti i Franques 1, E08028, Barcelona (Spain); Bolmont, J.; Corona, P. [LPNHE, Universite Paris VI and Universite Paris VII and IN2P3/CNRS, Barre 12-22, 1er etage, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France); Feinstein, F. [LUPM, Universite Montpellier II and IN2P3/CNRS, CC072, bat. 13, place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier (France); Glicenstein, J-F. [IRFU/DSM/CEA, CE-Saclay, Bat. 141 SEN Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Naumann, C.L.; Nayman, P. [LPNHE, Universite Paris VI and Universite Paris VII and IN2P3/CNRS, Barre 12-22, 1er etage, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France); Ribo, M. [Dept. AM i Dept. ECM, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona. Marti i Franques 1, E08028, Barcelona (Spain); and others
2012-12-11
The NECTAr collaboration's FE option for the camera of the CTA is a 16 bits and 1-3 GS/s sampling chip based on analog memories including most of the readout functions. This works describes the input amplifiers of the NECTAr ASIC. A fully differential wideband amplifier, with voltage gain up to 20 V/V and a BW of 400 MHz. As it is impossible to design a fully differential OpAmp with an 8 GHz GBW product in a 0.35 CMOS technology, an alternative implementation based on HF linearized transconductors is explored. The output buffer is a class AB miller operational amplifier, with special non-linear current boost.
An automated test facility for neutronic amplifiers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beattie, W.J.
1997-01-01
Neutronic amplifiers are used at the Chalk River Laboratory in applications such as neutron flux monitoring and reactor control systems. Routine preventive maintenance of control and safety systems included annual calibration and characterization of the neutronic amplifiers. An investigation into the traditional methods of annual routine maintenance of amplifiers concluded that frequency and phase response measurements in particular were labour intensive and subject to non-repeatable errors. A decision was made to upgrade testing methods and facilities by using programmable test equipment under the control of a computer. In order to verify the results of the routine measurements, expressions for the transfer functions were derived from the circuit diagrams. Frequency and phase responses were then calculated and plotted thus providing a bench-mark to which the test results can be compared. (author)
A high-efficiency superconductor distributed amplifier
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herr, Q P, E-mail: quentin.herr@ngc.co [Northrop Grumman Corporation, 7323 Aviation Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21240 (United States)
2010-02-15
A superconductor output amplifier that converts single-flux-quantum signals to a non-return-to-zero pattern is reported using a twelve-stage distributed amplifier configuration. The output amplitude is measured to be 1.75 mV over a wide bias current range of {+-} 12%. The bit error rate is measured using a Delta-Sigma data pattern to be less than 1 x 10{sup -9} at 10 Gb s{sup -1} per channel. Analysis of the eye diagram suggests that the actual bit error rate may be much lower. The amplifier has power efficiency of 12% neglecting the termination resistor, which may be eliminated from the circuit with a small modification. (rapid communication)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Guibao; Wandel, Scott F.; Jovanovic, Igor
2014-01-01
We describe the production of 2.2-mJ, ∼6 optical-cycle-long mid-infrared laser pulses with a carrier wavelength of 2.05 μm in a two-stage β-BaB 2 O 4 nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier design with a mixed phase matching scheme, which is pumped by a standard Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse amplification system. It is demonstrated that relatively high pulse energies, short pulse durations, high stability, and excellent beam profiles can be obtained using this simple approach, even without the use of optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification
Parametric Landau damping of space charge modes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Macridin, Alexandru [Fermilab; Burov, Alexey [Fermilab; Stern, Eric [Fermilab; Amundson, James [Fermilab; Spentzouris, Panagiotis [Fermilab
2016-09-23
Landau damping is the mechanism of plasma and beam stabilization; it arises through energy transfer from collective modes to the incoherent motion of resonant particles. Normally this resonance requires the resonant particle's frequency to match the collective mode frequency. We have identified an important new damping mechanism, parametric Landau damping, which is driven by the modulation of the mode-particle interaction. This opens new possibilities for stability control through manipulation of both particle and mode-particle coupling spectra. We demonstrate the existence of parametric Landau damping in a simulation of transverse coherent modes of bunched accelerator beams with space charge.
Universal parametrization for quark and lepton substructure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akama, Keiichi; Terazawa, Hidezumi.
1994-01-01
A universal parametrization for possible quark and lepton substructure is advocated in terms of quark and lepton form factors. It is emphasized that the lower bounds on compositeness scale, Λ c , to be determined experimentally strongly depend on their definitions in composite models. From the recent HERA data, it is estimated to be Λ c > 50 GeV, 0.4 TeV and 10 TeV, depending on the parametrizations with a single-pole form factor, a contact interaction and a logarithmic form factor, respectively. (author)
Parametric number covariance in quantum chaotic spectra.
Vinayak; Kumar, Sandeep; Pandey, Akhilesh
2016-03-01
We study spectral parametric correlations in quantum chaotic systems and introduce the number covariance as a measure of such correlations. We derive analytic results for the classical random matrix ensembles using the binary correlation method and obtain compact expressions for the covariance. We illustrate the universality of this measure by presenting the spectral analysis of the quantum kicked rotors for the time-reversal invariant and time-reversal noninvariant cases. A local version of the parametric number variance introduced earlier is also investigated.
Parametric frequency conversion in long Josephson junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Irie, F.; Ashihara, S.; Yoshida, K.
1976-01-01
Current steps at voltages corresponding to the parametric coupling between an applied r.f. field and junction resonant modes have been observed in long Josephson tunnel junctions in the flux-flow state. The observed periodic variations of the step height due to the applied magnetic field are explained quantitatively by a perturbational analysis using Josephson phase equations. The present study demonstrates that the moving vortex array can serve as a coherent pump wave for signal waves propagating in the barrier region, which indicates, as a result, the possibility of traveling-wave parametric devices with long Josephson tunnel junctions. (author)
Noise figure of amplified dispersive Fourier transformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goda, Keisuke; Jalali, Bahram
2010-01-01
Amplified dispersive Fourier transformation (ADFT) is a powerful tool for fast real-time spectroscopy as it overcomes the limitations of traditional optical spectrometers. ADFT maps the spectrum of an optical pulse into a temporal waveform using group-velocity dispersion and simultaneously amplifies it in the optical domain. It greatly simplifies spectroscopy by replacing the diffraction grating and detector array in the conventional spectrometer with a dispersive fiber and single-pixel photodetector, enabling ultrafast real-time spectroscopic measurements. Following our earlier work on the theory of ADFT, here we study the effect of noise on ADFT. We derive the noise figure of ADFT and discuss its dependence on various parameters.
Predistortion of a Bidirectional Cuk Audio Amplifier
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birch, Thomas Hagen; Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold
2014-01-01
Some non-linear amplifier topologies are capable of providing a larger voltage gain than one from a DC source, which could make them suitable for various applications. However, the non-linearities introduce a significant amount of harmonic distortion (THD). Some of this distortion could be reduced...... using predistortion. This paper suggests linearizing a nonlinear bidirectional Cuk audio amplifier using an analog predistortion approach. A prototype power stage was built and results show that a voltage gain of up to 9 dB and reduction in THD from 6% down to 3% was obtainable using this approach....
Cryogenic transimpedance amplifier for micromechanical capacitive sensors.
Antonio, D; Pastoriza, H; Julián, P; Mandolesi, P
2008-08-01
We developed a cryogenic transimpedance amplifier that works at a broad range of temperatures, from room temperature down to 4 K. The device was realized with a standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor 1.5 mum process. Measurements of current-voltage characteristics, open-loop gain, input referred noise current, and power consumption are presented as a function of temperature. The transimpedance amplifier has been successfully applied to sense the motion of a polysilicon micromechanical oscillator at low temperatures. The whole device is intended to serve as a magnetometer for microscopic superconducting samples.
Dynamic range meter for radiofrequency amplifiers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Drozd S. S.
2009-04-01
Full Text Available The new measurement setup having increased on 20…30 dB the own dynamic range in comparison with the standard circuit of the dynamic range meter is offered and the rated value of an error bringing by setup in the worst case does not exceed ± 2,8 dB. The measurement setup can be applied also to determinate levels of intermodulation components average power amplifiers and powerful amplifiers of a low-frequency at replacement of the quartz filter on meeting low-frequency the LC-filter and the spectrum analyzer.
Optimization of a high efficiency FEL amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.
2014-10-01
The problem of an efficiency increase of an FEL amplifier is now of great practical importance. Technique of undulator tapering in the post-saturation regime is used at the existing X-ray FELs LCLS and SACLA, and is planned for use at the European XFEL, Swiss FEL, and PAL XFEL. There are also discussions on the future of high peak and average power FELs for scientific and industrial applications. In this paper we perform detailed analysis of the tapering strategies for high power seeded FEL amplifiers. Application of similarity techniques allows us to derive universal law of the undulator tapering.
Operational amplifier circuits analysis and design
Nelson, J C C
1995-01-01
This book, a revised and updated version of the author's Basic Operational Amplifiers (Butterworths 1986), enables the non-specialist to make effective use of readily available integrated circuit operational amplifiers for a range of applications, including instrumentation, signal generation and processing.It is assumed the reader has a background in the basic techniques of circuit analysis, particularly the use of j notation for reactive circuits, with a corresponding level of mathematical ability. The underlying theory is explained with sufficient but not excessive, detail. A range of compu
Cavity enhanced rephased amplified spontaneous emission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Williamson, Lewis; J Longdell, Jevon
2014-01-01
Amplified spontaneous emission is usually treated as an incoherent noise process. Recent theoretical and experimental work using rephasing optical pulses has shown that rephased amplified spontaneous emission (RASE) is a potential source of wide bandwidth time-delayed entanglement. Due to poor echo efficiency the plain RASE protocol does not in theory achieve perfect entanglement. Experiments done to date show a very small amount of entanglement at best. Here we show that RASE can, in principle, produce perfect multimode time-delayed two mode squeezing when the active medium is placed inside a Q-switched cavity. (paper)
Image transmission in mid-IR using a solid state laser pumped optical parametric oscillator
Prasad, Narasimha S.; Kratovil, Pat; Magee, James R.
2002-04-01
In this paper, image transmission using a mid-wave IR (MWIR) optical transceiver based free-space data link under low visibility conditions is presented. The all-solid-state MWIR transceiver primarily consisted of a passively Q-switched, short-pulsed Nd:YAG laser pumping a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) based optical parametric oscillator and a Dember effect detector. The MILES transceiver generates pulse position waveforms. The optical data link consisting of transmitter drive electronics, pulse conditioning electronics and a computer generating pulses compatible with the 2400-baud rate RS232 receiver was utilized. Data formatting and RS232 transmission and reception were achieved using a computer. Data formatting transformed an arbitrary image file format compatible with the basic operation of pump laser. Images were transmitted at a date rate of 2400 kbits/sec with 16 bits/pixel. Test images consisting of 50X40 pixels and 100X80 pixels were transmitted through free-space filled with light fog up to 120 ft. Besides optical parametric oscillators, the proposed concept can be extended to optical parametric amplifiers, Raman lasers and other nonlinear optical devices to achieve multi-functionality.
Ten-watt level picosecond parametric mid-IR source broadly tunable in wavelength
Vyvlečka, Michal; Novák, Ondřej; Roškot, Lukáscaron; Smrž, Martin; Mužík, Jiří; Endo, Akira; Mocek, Tomáš
2018-02-01
Mid-IR wavelength range (between 2 and 8 μm) offers perspective applications, such as minimally-invasive neurosurgery, gas sensing, or plastic and polymer processing. Maturity of high average power near-IR lasers is beneficial for powerful mid-IR generation by optical parametric conversion. We utilize in-house developed Yb:YAG thin-disk laser of 100 W average power at 77 kHz repetition rate, wavelength of 1030 nm, and about 2 ps pulse width for pumping of a ten-watt level picosecond mid-IR source. Seed beam is obtained by optical parametric generation in a double-pass 10 mm long PPLN crystal pumped by a part of the fundamental near-IR beam. Tunability of the signal wavelength between 1.46 μm and 1.95 μm was achieved with power of several tens of miliwatts. Main part of the fundamental beam pumps an optical parametric amplification stage, which includes a walk-off compensating pair of 10 mm long KTP crystals. We already demonstrated the OPA output signal and idler beam tunability between 1.70-1.95 μm and 2.18-2.62 μm, respectively. The signal and idler beams were amplified up to 8.5 W and 5 W, respectively, at 42 W pump without evidence of strong saturation. Thus, increase in signal and idler output power is expected for pump power increase.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rytikov, G. O.; Chekhova, M. V.
2008-01-01
Generation of 'twin beams' (of light with two-mode compression) in single-pass optical parametric amplifier (a crystal with a nonzero quadratic susceptibility) is considered. Radiation at the output of the nonlinear crystal is essentially multimode, which raises the question about the effect of the detection volume on the extent of suppression of noise from the difference photocurrent of the detectors. In addition, the longitudinal as well as transverse size of the region in which parametric transformation takes place is of fundamental importance. It is shown that maximal suppression of noise from difference photocurrent requires a high degree of entanglement of two-photon light at the outlet of the parametric amplifier, which is defined by Federov et al. [Phys. Rev. A 77, 032336 (2008)] as the ratio of the intensity distribution width to the correlation function width. The detection volume should be chosen taking into account both these quantities. Various modes of single-pass generation of twin beams (noncollinear frequency-degenerate and collinear frequency-nondegenerate synchronism of type I, as well as collinear frequency-degenerate synchronism of type II) are considered in connection with the degree of entanglement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Xiang; Hu, Hao; Chandrasekhar, S.
2013-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate the first Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated twin waves, consisting of eight 128-Gb/s PDM-QPSK signals and their idlers, by a broadband polarization-insensitive fiber optical parametric amplifier, enabling more than doubled reach in dispersion-managed transmission. © ...
Using Parametrics to Facilitate Collaborative Urban Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steinø, Nicolai; Benbih, Karima; Obeling, Esben
2013-01-01
in the context of the urban South which is characterized by high urban growth rates, weak planning systems and modest means. The current state of planning and urban development in Morocco is introduced as a context for discussing collaborative urban design and parametric urban design, and some tentative...
Parametric Architectural Design with Point-clouds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zwierzycki, Mateusz; Evers, Henrik Leander; Tamke, Martin
2016-01-01
This paper investigates the efforts and benefits of the implementation of point clouds into architectural design processes and tools. Based on a study on the principal work processes of designers with point clouds the prototypical plugin/library - Volvox - was developed for the parametric modelling...
Global chaos synchronization of coupled parametrically excited ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper, we study the synchronization behaviour of two linearly coupled parametrically excited chaotic pendula. The stability of the synchronized state is examined using Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI); and some sufficient criteria for global asymptotic synchronization are derived from which ...
Interdisciplinary parametric design : The XXL experience
Turrin, M.; Sariyildiz, I.S.; Paul, J.C.
2015-01-01
Focusing on large span structures for sport buildings, the paper tackles the role of parametric modelling and performance simulations, to enhance the integration between architectural and engineering design. The general approach contrasts post-engineering processes. In post-engineering, technical
The parametrized simulation of electromagnetic showers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peters, S.
1992-09-01
The simulation of electromagnetic showers in calorimeters by detailed tracking of all secondary particles is extremely computer time consuming. Without loosing considerably in precision, the use of parametrizations for global shower properties may reduce the computing time by factors of 10 1 to 10 4 , depending on the energy, the degree of parametrization, and the complexity in the material description and the cut off energies in the detailed simulation. To arrive at a high degree of universality, parametrizations of individual electromagnetic showers in homogeneous media are developed, taking the dependence of the shower development on the material into account. In sampling calorimeters, the inhomogeneous material distribution leads to additional effects which can be taken into account by geometry dependent terms in the parametrization of the longitudinal and radial energy density distributions. Comparisons with detailed simulations of homogeneous and sampling calorimeters show very good agreement in the fluctuations, correlations, and signal averages of spatial energy distributions. Verifications of the algorithms for the simulation of the H1 detector are performed using calorimeter test data for different moduls of the H1 liquid argon calorimeter. Special attention has been paid to electron pion separation, which is of great importance for physics analysis. (orig.) [de
Narrow linewidth pulsed optical parametric oscillator
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Tunable narrow linewidth radiation by optical parametric oscillation has many applications, particularly in spectroscopic investigation. In this paper, different techniques such as injection seeding, use of spectral selecting element like grating, grating and etalon in combination, grazing angle of incidence, entangled cavity ...
Consequences of hadron-nucleus multiplicity parametrization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, C.P.; Shyam, M.
1986-01-01
Some interesting consequences are analyzed of a new parametrization for the hadron-nucleus multiplicity distributions and they are compared with the experimental data. Further, it is illustrated how the scaling property for the average multiplicity will be modified and it is found that the experimental data support this behaviour. (orig.)
Simple parametrization of nucleon form factors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kelly, J.J.
2004-01-01
This Brief Report provides simple parametrizations of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors using functions of Q 2 that are consistent with dimensional scaling at high Q 2 . Good fits require only four parameters each for G Ep , G Mp , and G Mn and only two for G En
Parametric studies of tandem mirror reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlson, G.A.; Boghosian, B.M.; Fink, J.H.; Myall, J.O.; Neef, W.S. Jr.
1979-01-01
This report, along with its companion, An Improved Tandem Mirror Reactor, discusses the recent progress and present status of our tandem mirror reactor studies. This report presents the detailed results of parametric studies up to, but not including, the very new ideas involving thermal barriers
Path integral quantization of parametrized field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varadarajan, Madhavan
2004-01-01
Free scalar field theory on a flat spacetime can be cast into a generally covariant form known as parametrized field theory in which the action is a functional of the scalar field as well as the embedding variables which describe arbitrary, in general curved, foliations of the flat spacetime. We construct the path integral quantization of parametrized field theory in order to analyze issues at the interface of quantum field theory and general covariance in a path integral context. We show that the measure in the Lorentzian path integral is nontrivial and is the analog of the Fradkin-Vilkovisky measure for quantum gravity. We construct Euclidean functional integrals in the generally covariant setting of parametrized field theory using key ideas of Schleich and show that our constructions imply the existence of nonstandard 'Wick rotations' of the standard free scalar field two-point function. We develop a framework to study the problem of time through computations of scalar field two-point functions. We illustrate our ideas through explicit computation for a time independent (1+1)-dimensional foliation. Although the problem of time seems to be absent in this simple example, the general case is still open. We discuss our results in the contexts of the path integral formulation of quantum gravity and the canonical quantization of parametrized field theory
Statistical prediction of parametric roll using FORM
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Choi, Ju-hyuck; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam
2017-01-01
Previous research has shown that the First Order Reliability Method (FORM) can be an efficient method for estimation of outcrossing rates and extreme value statistics for stationary stochastic processes. This is so also for bifurcation type of processes like parametric roll of ships. The present...
Probabilistic Reachability for Parametric Markov Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hahn, Ernst Moritz; Hermanns, Holger; Zhang, Lijun
2011-01-01
Given a parametric Markov model, we consider the problem of computing the rational function expressing the probability of reaching a given set of states. To attack this principal problem, Daws has suggested to first convert the Markov chain into a finite automaton, from which a regular expression...
Non-Parametric Estimation of Correlation Functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brincker, Rune; Rytter, Anders; Krenk, Steen
In this paper three methods of non-parametric correlation function estimation are reviewed and evaluated: the direct method, estimation by the Fast Fourier Transform and finally estimation by the Random Decrement technique. The basic ideas of the techniques are reviewed, sources of bias are point...
A parametric reconstruction of the deceleration parameter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Al Mamon, Abdulla [Manipal University, Manipal Centre for Natural Sciences, Manipal (India); Visva-Bharati, Department of Physics, Santiniketan (India); Das, Sudipta [Visva-Bharati, Department of Physics, Santiniketan (India)
2017-07-15
The present work is based on a parametric reconstruction of the deceleration parameter q(z) in a model for the spatially flat FRW universe filled with dark energy and non-relativistic matter. In cosmology, the parametric reconstruction technique deals with an attempt to build up a model by choosing some specific evolution scenario for a cosmological parameter and then estimate the values of the parameters with the help of different observational datasets. In this paper, we have proposed a logarithmic parametrization of q(z) to probe the evolution history of the universe. Using the type Ia supernova, baryon acoustic oscillation and the cosmic microwave background datasets, the constraints on the arbitrary model parameters q{sub 0} and q{sub 1} are obtained (within 1σ and 2σ confidence limits) by χ{sup 2}-minimization technique. We have then reconstructed the deceleration parameter, the total EoS parameter ω{sub tot}, the jerk parameter and have compared the reconstructed results of q(z) with other well-known parametrizations of q(z). We have also shown that two model selection criteria (namely, the Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion) provide a clear indication that our reconstructed model is well consistent with other popular models. (orig.)
Parametric Primitives for Hand Gesture Recognition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baby, Sanmohan; Krüger, Volker
2009-01-01
Imitation learning is considered to be an effective way of teaching humanoid robots and action recognition is the key step to imitation learning. In this paper an online algorithm to recognize parametric actions with object context is presented. Objects are key instruments in understanding...
Parametric Transverse Patterns in Broad Aperture Lasers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grigorieva, E.V.; Kashchenko, S.A.; Mosekilde, Erik
1998-01-01
Parametrically generated optical patterns are investigated for finite and large-scale transverse aperture lasers. Standing and rotating patterns as well as periodic and chaotic pattern alternations are described in the framework of the amplitude equation formalism. Sensitive dependence...... on the geometrical size of the system is demonstrated even in the case of large-scale systems....
Parametric instabilities in advanced gravitational wave detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gras, S; Zhao, C; Blair, D G; Ju, L
2010-01-01
As the LIGO interferometric gravitational wave detectors have finished gathering a large observational data set, an intense effort is underway to upgrade these observatories to improve their sensitivity by a factor of ∼10. High circulating power in the arm cavities is required, which leads to the possibility of parametric instability due to three-mode opto-acoustic resonant interactions between the carrier, transverse optical modes and acoustic modes. Here, we present detailed numerical analysis of parametric instability in a configuration that is similar to Advanced LIGO. After examining parametric instability for a single three-mode interaction in detail, we examine instability for the best and worst cases, as determined by the resonance condition of transverse modes in the power and signal recycling cavities. We find that, in the best case, the dual recycling detector is substantially less susceptible to instability than a single cavity, but its susceptibility is dependent on the signal recycling cavity design, and on tuning for narrow band operation. In all cases considered, the interferometer will experience parametric instability at full power operation, but the gain varies from 3 to 1000, and the number of unstable modes varies between 7 and 30 per test mass. The analysis focuses on understanding the detector complexity in relation to opto-acoustic interactions, on providing insights that can enable predictions of the detector response to transient disturbances, and of variations in thermal compensation conditions.
Hybrid amplifier for calorimetry with photodiode readout
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sushkov, V V
1994-12-31
A hybrid surface mounted amplifier for the photodiode readout of the EM calorimeter has been developed. The main technical characteristics of the design are presented. The design able to math readout constraints for a high luminosity collider experiment is discussed. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.
Amplifier Design for Proportional Ionization Chambers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baker, W. H.
1950-08-24
This paper presents the requirements of a nuclear amplifier of short resolving time, designed to accept pulses of widely varying amplitudes. Data are given which show that a proportional ionization chamber loaded with a 1,000-ohm resistor develops pulses of 0.5 microsecond duration and several volts amplitude. Results indicate that seven basic requirements are imposed on the amplifier when counting soft beta and gamma radiation in the presence of alpha particles, without absorbers. It should, (1) have a fast recovery time, (2) have a relatively good low frequency response, (3) accept pulses of widely varying heights without developing spurious pulsed, (4) have a limiting output stage, (5) preserve the inherently short rise time of the chamber, (6) minimize pulse integration, and (7) have sufficient gain to detect the weak pulses well below the chamber voltage at which continuous discharge takes place. The results obtained with an amplifier which meets these requirements is described. A formula is derived which indicates that redesign of the proportional ionization chamber might eliminate the need for an amplifier. This may be possible if the radioactive particles are collimated parallel to the collecting electrode.
Methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) reveals that ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ajl yemi
2011-12-19
Dec 19, 2011 ... Key words: Salt stress, alkali stress, Gossypium hirsutum L., DNA methylation, methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP). INTRODUCTION. DNA methylation is one of the key epigenetic mecha- nisms among eukaryotes that can modulate gene expression without the changes of DNA sequence.
Enhanced timing channel for spectroscopy amplifiers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ianakiev, K; Grigorov, N [Inst. for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria)
1996-12-31
Purpose of this paper is to analyze noise and timing performance of some methods of filtering in the fast channel. Implementation of RLC-filter into a semi-Gaussian amplifier allows to obtain the time resolution of 420 ns. 5 refs.
Optimization of Pr3+:ZBLAN fiber amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, B.; Miniscalco, J. W.; Quimby, R. S.
1992-01-01
Experimental parameters have been measured and used in a quantitative model of Pr3+-doped fluorozirconate fiber amplifiers. The optimum cutoff wavelength was determined to be 800 nm and the gain for 400 mW of pump was found to increase from 12 to 34 dB if the NA was increased from 0.15 to 0...
Reducing Switching Artifacts in Chopper Amplifiers
Kusuda, Y.
2018-01-01
This thesis describes the theory, design, and implementation of chopper operational amplifiers (op-amps) in CMOS integrated circuits (ICs). The chopping technique periodically corrects DC errors of such op-amps, so that low 1/f noise and stable, microvolt-level offset can be achieved. However,
High-Performance Operational and Instrumentation Amplifiers
Shahi, B.
2015-01-01
This thesis describes techniques to reduce the offset error in precision instrumentation and operational amplifiers. The offset error which is considered a major error source associated with gain blocks, together with other errors are reviewed. Conventional and newer approaches to remove offset and
SINGLE CONVERSION ISOLATED IMPEDANCE TRANSFORMATION AMPLIFIER
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2003-01-01
The invention relates to a switch mode power amplifier. A first and a second change-over switch are inserted between a DC voltage supply and a primary side of an isolation transformer. Two secondary windings are connected to a power output terminal. A first and a second secondary side power switc...
Feedback analysis of transimpedance operational amplifier circuits
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bruun, Erik
1993-01-01
The transimpedance or current feedback operational amplifier (CFB op-amp) is reviewed and compared to a conventional voltage mode op-amp using an analysis emphasizing the basic feedback characteristics of the circuit. With this approach the paradox of the constant bandwidth obtained from CFB op...
Random amplified polymorphic DNA based genetic characterization ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Random amplified polymorphic DNA based genetic characterization of four important species of Bamboo, found in Raigad district, Maharashtra State, India. ... Bambusoideae are differentiated from other members of the family by the presence of petiolate blades with parallel venation and stamens are three, four, six or more, ...
Molecular markers. Amplified fragment length polymorphism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pržulj Novo
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism molecular markers (AFLPs has been developed combining procedures of RFLPs and RAPDs molekular markers, i.e. the first step is restriction digestion of the genomic DNA that is followed by selective amplification of the restricted fragments. The advantage of the AFLP technique is that it allows rapid generation of a large number of reproducible markers. The reproducibility of AFLPs markers is assured by the use of restriction site-specific adapters and adapter-specific primers for PCR reaction. Only fragments containing the restriction site sequence plus the additional nucleotides will be amplified and the more selected nucleotides added on the primer sequence the fewer the number of fragments amplified by PCR. The amplified products are normally separated on a sequencing gel and visualized after exposure to X-ray film or by using fluorescent labeled primers. AFLP shave proven to be extremely proficient in revealing diversity at below the species level. A disadvantage of AFLP technique is that AFLPs are essentially a dominant marker system and not able to identify heterozygotes.
Compensation techniques for operational amplifier bias current
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, M.S.
1981-01-01
Two techniques are proposed for the compensation of the input current on operational amplifiers that can be used on inverting and non-inverting configurations. A qualitative analysis of temperature drift problems is made, and as a practical application, the construction of a voltage follower for high impedance measurements is presented. (Author) [pt
Application of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Jane
2011-10-10
Oct 10, 2011 ... and T7-010 based on functional markers according to He et al. (2007). These primers were constructed by Invitrogen GmbH,. Karlsruhe, Germany, and used to amplify the polyphenol oxidases genes. The sequences of these primers were as follows: T3-001: 5`-CCA TTA ACC CTC ACT AAA GGG ACC GTA ...
Multi-pass amplifier architecture for high power laser systems
Manes, Kenneth R; Spaeth, Mary L; Erlandson, Alvin C
2014-04-01
A main amplifier system includes a first reflector operable to receive input light through a first aperture and direct the input light along an optical path. The input light is characterized by a first polarization. The main amplifier system also includes a first polarizer operable to reflect light characterized by the first polarization state. The main amplifier system further includes a first and second set of amplifier modules. Each of the first and second set of amplifier modules includes an entrance window, a quarter wave plate, a plurality of amplifier slablets arrayed substantially parallel to each other, and an exit window. The main amplifier system additionally includes a set of mirrors operable to reflect light exiting the first set of amplifier modules to enter the second set of amplifier modules and a second polarizer operable to reflect light characterized by a second polarization state.
Transmission characteristics of acoustic amplifier in thermoacoustic engine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Daming; Qiu Limin; Wang Bo; Xiao Yong
2008-01-01
Thermoacoustic engines are promising in practical applications for the merits of simple configuration, reliable operation and environmentally friendly working gas. An acoustic amplifier can increase the output pressure amplitude of a thermoacoustic engine (TE) and improve the matching between the engine and its load. In order to make full use of an acoustic amplifier, the transmission characteristics are studied based on linear thermoacoustic theory. Computational and experimental results show that the amplifying ability of an acoustic amplifier is mainly determined by its geometry parameters and output resistance impedance. The amplifying ability of an acoustic amplifier with appropriate length and diameter reaches its maximum when the output resistance impedance is infinite. It is also shown that the acoustic amplifier consumes an amount of acoustic power when amplifying pressure amplitude and the acoustic power consumption increases with amplifying ratio. Furthermore, a novel cascade acoustic amplifier is proposed, which has a much stronger amplifying ability with reduced acoustic power consumption. In experiments, a two-stage cascade acoustic amplifier amplifies the pressure ratio from 1.177 to 1.62 and produces a pressure amplitude of 0.547 MPa with nitrogen of 2.20 MPa as working gas. Good agreements are obtained between the theoretical analysis and experimental results. This research is instructive for comprehensively understanding the mechanism and making full use of the acoustic amplifier
Is there a role for amplifiers in sexual selection?
Gualla, Filippo; Cermelli, Paolo; Castellano, Sergio
2008-05-21
The amplifier hypothesis states that selection could favour the evolution of traits in signallers that improve the ability of receivers to extract honest information from other signals or cues. We provide a formal definition of amplifiers based on the receiver's mechanisms of signal perception and we present a game-theoretical model in which males advertise their quality and females use sequential-sampling tactics to choose among prospective mates. The main effect of an amplifier on the female mating strategy is to increase her mating threshold, making the female more selective as the effectiveness of the amplifier increases. The effects of the amplifier on male advertising strategy depends both on the context and on the types of the amplifier involved. We consider two different contexts for the evolution of amplifiers (when the effect of amplifiers is on signals and when it is on cues) and two types of amplifiers (the 'neutral amplifier', when it improves quality assessment without altering male attractiveness, and the 'attractive amplifier', when it improves both quality assessment and male attractiveness). The game-theoretical model provides two main results. First, neutral and attractive amplifiers represent, respectively, a conditional and an unconditional signalling strategy. In fact, at the equilibrium, neutral amplifiers are displayed only by males whose advertising level lays above the female acceptance threshold, whereas attractive amplifiers are displayed by all signalling males, independent of their quality. Second, amplifiers of signals increase the differences in advertising levels between amplifying and not-amplifying males, but they decrease the differences within each group, so that the system converges towards an 'all-or-nothing' signalling strategy. By applying concepts from information theory, we show that the increase in information transfer at the perception level due to the amplifier of signals is contrasted by a decrease in information
High-power Femtosecond Optical Parametric Amplification at 1 kHz in BiB(3)O(6) pumped at 800 nm.
Petrov, Valentin; Noack, Frank; Tzankov, Pancho; Ghotbi, Masood; Ebrahim-Zadeh, Majid; Nikolov, Ivailo; Buchvarov, Ivan
2007-01-22
Substantial power scaling of a travelling-wave femtosecond optical parametric amplifier, pumped near 800 nm by a 1 kHz Ti:sapphire laser amplifier, is demonstrated using monoclinic BiB(3)O(6) in a two stage scheme with continuum seeding. Total energy output (signal plus idler) exceeding 1 mJ is achieved, corresponding to an intrinsic conversion efficiency of approximately 32% for the second stage. The tunability extends from 1.1 to 2.9 microm. The high parametric gain and broad amplification bandwidth of this crystal allowed the maintenance of the pump pulse duration, leading to pulse lengths less than 140 fs, both for the signal and idler pulses, even at such high output levels.
Parametric instabilities in magnetized bi-ion and dusty plasmas
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
-ion or dusty plasma with parametric pumping of the magnetic field is analysed. The equation of motion governing the perturbed plasma is derived and parametrically excited transverse modes propagating along the magnetic field are found.
Hyperbolic and semi-parametric models in finance
Bingham, N. H.; Kiesel, Rüdiger
2001-02-01
The benchmark Black-Scholes-Merton model of mathematical finance is parametric, based on the normal/Gaussian distribution. Its principal parametric competitor, the hyperbolic model of Barndorff-Nielsen, Eberlein and others, is briefly discussed. Our main theme is the use of semi-parametric models, incorporating the mean vector and covariance matrix as in the Markowitz approach, plus a non-parametric part, a scalar function incorporating features such as tail-decay. Implementation is also briefly discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Hanchao; Huang Lirong; Shi Zhongwei
2011-01-01
A two-electrode multi-quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier is designed and fabricated. The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) spectrum and gain were measured and analyzed. It is shown that the ASE spectrum and gain characteristic are greatly influencedby the distribution of the injection current density. By changing the injection current density of two electrodes, the full width at half maximum, peak wavelength, peak power of the ASE spectrum and the gain characteristic can be easily controlled. (semiconductor devices)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horvath, J. A.
1998-01-01
Mechanical assembly and maintenance of the prototype National Ignition Facility amplifiers in the Amplifier Module Prototype Laboratory (AMPLAB) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory requires specialized equipment designed to manipulate large and delicate amplifier components in a safe and clean manner. Observations made during the operation of this assembly and maintenance equipment in AMPLAB provide design guidance for similar tools being built for the National Ignition Facility. Fixtures used for amplifier frame installation, laser slab and flashlamp cassette assembly, transport, and installation, and in-situ blastshield exchange are presented. Examples include a vacuum slab gripper, slab handling clean crane, slab cassette assembly fixture, sealed transport vehicle for slab cassette movement between the cleanroom and amplifier, slab cassette transfer fixture between the cleanroom and transport vehicle, and equipment needed for frame assembly unit, blastshield, an d flashlamp cassette installation and removal. The use of these tools for amplifier assembly, system reconfiguration, reflector replacement, and recovery from an abnormal occurrence such as a flashlamp explosion is described. Observations are made on the design and operation of these tools and their contribution to the final design
Prediction of the performance of an ion chamber amplifier under γ radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agarwal, Vivek; Sundarsingh, V.P.; Ramachandran, V.
2005-01-01
The ion chamber amplifier (ICA) plays a major role in the proper functioning of a nuclear reactor as it monitors the radiations from the nuclear reactor by measuring the ionic activity inside the ion chamber. The signal conditioning circuitry of the ICA detects and conditions the weak ionic currents coming from the ion chamber dome. Degradation in the performance of the semiconductor devices used in this part of the ICA, can lead to inaccurate monitoring of the reactor operation, resulting in a possible catastrophe due to malfunction. Further, the response of the ICA under irradiation also depends upon the strength of the input signal (ionic) current it is required to handle. The active devices used in the ICA under study are operational amplifiers (Op-Amps) such as DN8500A and OPA111, instrumentation amplifier INA101, transistor 2N2920A and a voltage reference device, AD584. Since these devices may be sensitive to radiation, one must know their radiation behaviour so that the performance of the ICA can be predicted. This paper examines the performance of the ICA by characterising the radiation profiles of its vital components, viz. the Op-Amps, instrumentation amplifiers, transistors, etc. by monitoring their parametric changes on-line, i.e. when the source is on, and the devices are biased. The simulation runs involve the simulation of the entire ICA circuitry using the changed values of the vital parameters such as input bias current and input offset voltage. The main advantage of this method is that it obviates irradiating the whole ICA circuit to study its irradiation performance, and simulates an environment of radiation leakage around the ICA. Based on this study, results are presented to predict the performance of the ICA
Fault detection and isolation in systems with parametric faults
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Hans Henrik
1999-01-01
The problem of fault detection and isolation of parametric faults is considered in this paper. A fault detection problem based on parametric faults are associated with internal parameter variations in the dynamical system. A fault detection and isolation method for parametric faults is formulated...
Parametric Audio Based Decoder and Music Synthesizer for Mobile Applications
Oomen, A.W.J.; Szczerba, M.Z.; Therssen, D.
2011-01-01
This paper reviews parametric audio coders and discusses novel technologies introduced in a low-complexity, low-power consumption audiodecoder and music synthesizer platform developed by the authors. Thedecoder uses parametric coding scheme based on the MPEG-4 Parametric Audio standard. In order to
Xu, Lu; Yu, Lianghong; Liang, Xiaoyan
2016-04-01
We present for the first time a scheme to amplify a Laguerre-Gaussian vortex beam based on non-collinear optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA). In addition, a three-dimensional numerical model of non-collinear optical parametric amplification was deduced in the frequency domain, in which the effects of non-collinear configuration, temporal and spatial walk-off, group-velocity dispersion and diffraction were also taken into account, to trace the dynamics of the Laguerre-Gaussian vortex beam and investigate its critical parameters in the non-collinear OPCPA process. Based on the numerical simulation results, the scheme shows promise for implementation in a relativistic twisted laser pulse system, which will diversify the light-matter interaction field.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reid, M.D.; Munro, W.J.; De Martini, F.
2002-01-01
We show how polarization measurements on the output fields generated by parametric down conversion will reveal a violation of multiparticle Bell inequalities, in the regime of both low- and high-output intensity. In this case, each spatially separated system, upon which a measurement is performed, is comprised of more than one particle. In view of the formal analogy with spin systems, the proposal provides an opportunity to test the predictions of quantum mechanics for spatially separated higher spin states. Here the quantum behavior possible even where measurements are performed on systems of large quantum (particle) number may be demonstrated. Our proposal applies to both vacuum-state signal and idler inputs, and also to the quantum-injected parametric amplifier as studied by De Martini et al. The effect of detector inefficiencies is included, and weaker Bell-Clauser-Horne inequalities are derived to enable realistic tests of local hidden variables with auxiliary assumptions for the multiparticle situation
Transport in coherently absorbing or amplifying media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, A.K.
1995-11-01
We study electronic transport in a one-dimensional ordered chain in the presence of either absorption or amplification at each site (the site-potential having an imaginary positive or negative part) within a single-band tightbinding Hamiltonian. The spectrum in either case for the isolated (closed) quantum system is found to become broader compared to the regular Bloch case where there is no absorption or amplification at any site. Interestingly for the transport through an infinitely long ordered chain (open quantum system), the reflectance saturates to a value greater (lesser) than unity in the amplifying (absorbing) case and the transmittance decays to zero in either case. This fact implies that the transmittance does not grow indefinitely even for an ordered, amplifying (active or lasing) medium and that it is not necessary to have any disorder or interaction induced confining mechanism on the transmitted wave, so as to achieve an amplification in the backscattered wave. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs
Amplified music exposure carries risks to hearing.
da Silva, Valéria Gomes; de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Costa Pires; Tauil, Pedro Luíz; de Castro Silva, Isabella Monteiro; Sampaio, André Luiz Lopes
2017-02-01
To investigate the association between changes in the outer hair cells and exposure to amplified music in a group of high-school students. In this retrospective, case-control study, 86 subjects underwent audiometry, immittance audiometry, and distortion-product otoacoustic emission tests. The subjects were questioned about their listening habits and divided into 2 groups: exposed and unexposed. Most of the subjects had reduced function in their outer hair cells, mainly beginning at 8 kHz. Among 60 subjects-30 cases and 30 controls-75% were considered exposed and 25% unexposed. The exposed subjects were 9.33 times more likely to have altered outer hair cells than the unexposed subjects were. Exposure to amplified music is associated with reduced function in the hair cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cryogenic cooling for high power laser amplifiers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Perin J.P.
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Using DPSSL (Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers as pumping technology, PW-class lasers with enhanced repetition rates are developed. Each of the Yb YAG amplifiers will be diode-pumped at a wavelength of 940 nm. This is a prerequisite for achieving high repetition rates (light amplification duration 1 millisecond and repetition rate 10 Hz. The efficiency of DPSSL is inversely proportional to the temperature, for this reason the slab amplifier have to be cooled at a temperature in the range of 100 K–170 K with a heat flux of 1 MW*m−2. This paper describes the thermo-mechanical analysis for the design of the amplification laser head, presents a preliminary proposal for the required cryogenic cooling system and finally outlines the gain of cryogenic operation for the efficiency of high pulsed laser.
Spaceflight 2 um Tm Fiber MOPA Amplifier, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fibertek proposes to design, develop, and test a spaceflight prototype 2051 nm thulium (Tm)-doped fiber amplifier (TDFA) optical master oscillator power amplifier...
Conversion of the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Conversion of the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker UBC#116 linked to Fusarium crown and root rot resistance gene (Frl) into a co-dominant sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker for marker-assisted selection of tomato.
Parametric Study Of Window Frame Geometry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per
2013-01-01
This paper describes a parametric study on window frame geometry with the goal of designing frames with very good thermal properties. Three different parametric frame models are introduced, deseribed by a number of variables. In the first part of the study, a process of sensitivity analysis...... is conducted to determine which of the parameters describing the frame have the highest impact on its thermal performance. Afterwards, an optimization process is conducted on each frame in order to optimize the design with regard to three objectives: minimizing the thermal transmittance, maxim izing the net...... energy gain factor and minimizing the material use. Since the objectives contradiet each other, it was found that it is not possible to identifY a single solution that satisfies all these goals. lnstead, a compromise between the objectives has to be found....
Parametric structural modeling of insect wings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mengesha, T E; Vallance, R R; Barraja, M; Mittal, R
2009-01-01
Insects produce thrust and lift forces via coupled fluid-structure interactions that bend and twist their compliant wings during flapping cycles. Insight into this fluid-structure interaction is achieved with numerical modeling techniques such as coupled finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics, but these methods require accurate and validated structural models of insect wings. Structural models of insect wings depend principally on the shape, dimensions and material properties of the veins and membrane cells. This paper describes a method for parametric modeling of wing geometry using digital images and demonstrates the use of the geometric models in constructing three-dimensional finite element (FE) models and simple reduced-order models. The FE models are more complete and accurate than previously reported models since they accurately represent the topology of the vein network, as well as the shape and dimensions of the veins and membrane cells. The methods are demonstrated by developing a parametric structural model of a cicada forewing.
Casas-Ibarra parametrization and leptogenesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xing Zhizhong
2010-01-01
The Casas-Ibarra parametrization is a description of the Dirac neutrino mass matrix M D in terms of the neutrino mixing matrix V, an orthogonal matrix O and the diagonal mass matrices of light and heavy Majorana neutrinos in the type-I seesaw mechanism. Because M D + M D is apparently independent of V but dependent on O in this parametrization, a number of authors have claimed that unflavored leptogenesis has nothing to do with CP violation at low energies. Here we question this logic by clarifying the physical meaning of O. We establish a clear relationship between O and the observable quantities, and find that O does depend on V. We show that both unflavored leptogenesis and flavored leptogenesis have no direct connection with low-energy CP violation. (authors)
Rayleigh-type parametric chemical oscillation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghosh, Shyamolina; Ray, Deb Shankar, E-mail: pcdsr@iacs.res.in [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)
2015-09-28
We consider a nonlinear chemical dynamical system of two phase space variables in a stable steady state. When the system is driven by a time-dependent sinusoidal forcing of a suitable scaling parameter at a frequency twice the output frequency and the strength of perturbation exceeds a threshold, the system undergoes sustained Rayleigh-type periodic oscillation, wellknown for parametric oscillation in pipe organs and distinct from the usual forced quasiperiodic oscillation of a damped nonlinear system where the system is oscillatory even in absence of any external forcing. Our theoretical analysis of the parametric chemical oscillation is corroborated by full numerical simulation of two well known models of chemical dynamics, chlorite-iodine-malonic acid and iodine-clock reactions.
Rayleigh-type parametric chemical oscillation.
Ghosh, Shyamolina; Ray, Deb Shankar
2015-09-28
We consider a nonlinear chemical dynamical system of two phase space variables in a stable steady state. When the system is driven by a time-dependent sinusoidal forcing of a suitable scaling parameter at a frequency twice the output frequency and the strength of perturbation exceeds a threshold, the system undergoes sustained Rayleigh-type periodic oscillation, wellknown for parametric oscillation in pipe organs and distinct from the usual forced quasiperiodic oscillation of a damped nonlinear system where the system is oscillatory even in absence of any external forcing. Our theoretical analysis of the parametric chemical oscillation is corroborated by full numerical simulation of two well known models of chemical dynamics, chlorite-iodine-malonic acid and iodine-clock reactions.
Parametric instability in GEO 600 interferometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gurkovsky, A.G.; Vyatchanin, S.P.
2007-01-01
We present analysis of undesirable effect of parametric instability in signal recycled GEO 600 interferometer. The basis for this effect is provided by excitation of additional (Stokes) optical mode, having frequency ω 1 , and mirror elastic mode, having frequency ω m , when the optical energy stored in the main FP cavity mode, having frequency ω 0 , exceeds a certain threshold and detuning Δ=ω 0 -ω 1 -ω m is small. We discuss the potential of observing parametric instability and its precursors in GEO 600 interferometer. This approach provides the best option to get familiar with this phenomenon, to develop experimental methods to depress it and to test the effectiveness of these methods in situ
Electrically Pumped Vertical-Cavity Amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Greibe, Tine
2007-01-01
In this work, the design of electrically pumped vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers (eVCAs) for use in a mode-locked external-cavity laser has been developed, investigated and analysed. Four different eVCAs, one top-emitting and three bottom emitting structures, have been designed...... and discussed. The thesis concludes with recommendations for further work towards the realisation of compact electrically pumped mode-locked vertical externalcavity surface emitting lasers....
Self-amplifying mRNA vaccines.
Brito, Luis A; Kommareddy, Sushma; Maione, Domenico; Uematsu, Yasushi; Giovani, Cinzia; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Otten, Gillis R; Yu, Dong; Mandl, Christian W; Mason, Peter W; Dormitzer, Philip R; Ulmer, Jeffrey B; Geall, Andrew J
2015-01-01
This chapter provides a brief introduction to nucleic acid-based vaccines and recent research in developing self-amplifying mRNA vaccines. These vaccines promise the flexibility of plasmid DNA vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity and safety. The key to realizing the full potential of these vaccines is efficient delivery of nucleic acid to the cytoplasm of a cell, where it can amplify and express the encoded antigenic protein. The hydrophilicity and strong net negative charge of RNA impedes cellular uptake. To overcome this limitation, electrostatic complexation with cationic lipids or polymers and physical delivery using electroporation or ballistic particles to improve cellular uptake has been evaluated. This chapter highlights the rapid progress made in using nonviral delivery systems for RNA-based vaccines. Initial preclinical testing of self-amplifying mRNA vaccines has shown nonviral delivery to be capable of producing potent and robust innate and adaptive immune responses in small animals and nonhuman primates. Historically, the prospect of developing mRNA vaccines was uncertain due to concerns of mRNA instability and the feasibility of large-scale manufacturing. Today, these issues are no longer perceived as barriers in the widespread implementation of the technology. Currently, nonamplifying mRNA vaccines are under investigation in human clinical trials and can be produced at a sufficient quantity and quality to meet regulatory requirements. If the encouraging preclinical data with self-amplifying mRNA vaccines are matched by equivalently positive immunogenicity, potency, and tolerability in human trials, this platform could establish nucleic acid vaccines as a versatile new tool for human immunization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fast Electrocardiogram Amplifier Recovery after Defibrillation Shock
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivan Dotsinsky
2005-04-01
Full Text Available A procedure for fast ECG amplifier recovery after defibrillation shocks was developed and simulated in the MATLAB environment. Exponentially decaying post-shock voltages have been recorded. Signals from the AHA database are taken and mixed with the recorded exponential disturbances. The algorithm applies moving averaging (comb filter on the compound input signal, thereby obtaining the samples of the disturbance. They are currently subtracted from the input signal. The results obtained show that its recovery is practically instantaneous.
Ultra-low Voltage CMOS Cascode Amplifier
Lehmann, Torsten; Cassia, Marco
2000-01-01
In this paper, we design a folded cascode operational transconductance amplifier in a standard CMOS process, which has a measured 69 dB DC gain, a 2 MHz bandwidth and compatible input- and output voltage levels at a 1 V power supply. This is done by a novel Current Driven Bulk (CDB) technique, which reduces the MOST threshold voltage by forcing a constant current though the transistor bulk terminal. We also look at limitations and improvements of this CDB technique.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1977-01-01
The photo electrons from the picture on the fluorescent input screen are amplified by an electron optical system and produce an intensified image on the output screen. This can be photographed and shown on a TV screen. The effects of stray magnetic fields are reduced by covering the input screen with a grating made of strips of ferromagnetic material such as μ metal. (T.S.E.T.)
Ultra-low Voltage CMOS Cascode Amplifier
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lehmann, Torsten; Cassia, Marco
2000-01-01
In this paper, we design a folded cascode operational transconductance amplifier in a standard CMOS process, which has a measured 69 dB DC gain, a 2 MHz bandwidth and compatible input- and output voltage levels at a 1 V power supply. This is done by a novel Current Driven Bulk (CDB) technique......, which reduces the MOST threshold voltage by forcing a constant current though the transistor bulk terminal. We also look at limitations and improvements of this CDB technique....
Parametric Immunization in Bond Portfolio Management
Bravo, Jorge; Fonseca, José
2012-01-01
In this paper, we evaluate the relative immunization performance of the multifactor parametric interest rate risk model based on the Nelson-Siegel-Svensson specification of the yield curve with that of standard benchmark investment strategies, using European Central Bank yield curve data in the period between January 3, 2005 and December 31, 2011. In addition, we examine the role of portfolio design in the success of immunization strategies, particularly the role of the maturit...
Parametric study of laser photovoltaic energy converters
Walker, G. H.; Heinbockel, J. H.
1987-01-01
Photovoltaic converters are of interest for converting laser power to electrical power in a space-based laser power system. This paper describes a model for photovoltaic laser converters and the application of this model to a neodymium laser silicon photovoltaic converter system. A parametric study which defines the sensitivity of the photovoltaic parameters is described. An optimized silicon photovoltaic converter has an efficiency greater than 50 percent for 1000 W/sq cm of neodymium laser radiation.
Acoustic parametric pumping of spin waves
Keshtgar, Hedyeh; Zareyan, Malek; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.
2014-11-01
Recent experiments demonstrated generation of spin currents by ultrasound. We can understand this acoustically induced spin pumping in terms of the coupling between magnetization and lattice waves. Here we study the parametric excitation of magnetization by longitudinal acoustic waves and calculate the acoustic threshold power. The induced magnetization dynamics can be detected by the spin pumping into an adjacent normal metal that displays the inverse spin Hall effect.
Acoustic parametric pumping of spin waves
Keshtgar, Hedyeh; Zareyan, Malek; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.
2013-01-01
Recent experiments demonstrated generation of spin currents by ultrasound. We can understand this acoustically induced spin pumping in terms of the coupling between magnetization and lattice waves. Here we study the parametric excitation of magnetization by longitudinal acoustic waves and calculate the acoustic threshold power. The induced magnetization dynamics can be detected by the spin pumping into an adjacent normal metal that displays the inverse spin Hall effect.
Parametric motivation bases of floranimic nomination
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olga P. Ryabko
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The period of further development in the cognitive theory of nomination has been extensive in recent years. Our research has been concentrated on the formation of conceptual foundations in cognitive theory of flora nomination. The macrofield of flora namings embraces three microfields: parametric, pragmatic and locative-temporal ones. They determine motivation processes in cognitive theory of flora nomination, i.e., the presentation of systematic qualities in flora namings in the English language. The description and characterization of such qualities presupposes the existence of their taxonomic organization and methodology criteria, both general and practical ones. Flora namings on the phenomenological level are considered to be the products of naöve-cognitive consciousness of language speakers. They are determined, from the one hand, by the external perceptive adaptations (parametric nomination and, from the other hand, by practical needs (pure pragmatic nomination and local-temporal nomination. In this article we have concentrated on the complex parametric motivated basis of flora nomination. It is presented by a number of qualities, firstly, by dominative qualities («form», «appearance and manner of growth», «color», secondly, by peripheral qualities («odour», «taste», «size» and, finally, by minor qualities («sound», «weight», «genger». In the structure of complex parametric nomination the only one conerete qualitative element from the whole combination of qualities becomes the leading one. The cultural-archetypal dominant element determines. In each concrete situation, the choice of preferable prototypal motivated quality.
Multidimensional Scaling Visualization using Parametric Similarity Indices
Machado, J. A. Tenreiro; Lopes, António M.; Galhano, A.M.
2015-01-01
In this paper, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) and parametric similarity indices (PSI) in the analysis of complex systems (CS). Each CS is viewed as a dynamical system, exhibiting an output time-series to be interpreted as a manifestation of its behavior. We start by adopting a sliding window to sample the original data into several consecutive time periods. Second, we define a given PSI for tracking pieces of data. We then compare the windows for different values of the parameter, an...
On Algebraic Approach for MSD Parametric Estimation
Oueslati , Marouene; Thiery , Stéphane; Gibaru , Olivier; Béarée , Richard; Moraru , George
2011-01-01
This article address the identification problem of the natural frequency and the damping ratio of a second order continuous system where the input is a sinusoidal signal. An algebra based approach for identifying parameters of a Mass Spring Damper (MSD) system is proposed and compared to the Kalman-Bucy filter. The proposed estimator uses the algebraic parametric method in the frequency domain yielding exact formula, when placed in the time domain to identify the unknown parameters. We focus ...
Supercritical nonlinear parametric dynamics of Timoshenko microbeams
Farokhi, Hamed; Ghayesh, Mergen H.
2018-06-01
The nonlinear supercritical parametric dynamics of a Timoshenko microbeam subject to an axial harmonic excitation force is examined theoretically, by means of different numerical techniques, and employing a high-dimensional analysis. The time-variant axial load is assumed to consist of a mean value along with harmonic fluctuations. In terms of modelling, a continuous expression for the elastic potential energy of the system is developed based on the modified couple stress theory, taking into account small-size effects; the kinetic energy of the system is also modelled as a continuous function of the displacement field. Hamilton's principle is employed to balance the energies and to obtain the continuous model of the system. Employing the Galerkin scheme along with an assumed-mode technique, the energy terms are reduced, yielding a second-order reduced-order model with finite number of degrees of freedom. A transformation is carried out to convert the second-order reduced-order model into a double-dimensional first order one. A bifurcation analysis is performed for the system in the absence of the axial load fluctuations. Moreover, a mean value for the axial load is selected in the supercritical range, and the principal parametric resonant response, due to the time-variant component of the axial load, is obtained - as opposed to transversely excited systems, for parametrically excited system (such as our problem here), the nonlinear resonance occurs in the vicinity of twice any natural frequency of the linear system; this is accomplished via use of the pseudo-arclength continuation technique, a direct time integration, an eigenvalue analysis, and the Floquet theory for stability. The natural frequencies of the system prior to and beyond buckling are also determined. Moreover, the effect of different system parameters on the nonlinear supercritical parametric dynamics of the system is analysed, with special consideration to the effect of the length-scale parameter.
Prototype disc amplifier for Iskra-6 facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grigorovich, S.V.; Eroshenko, V.F.; Krotov, V.A.; Demidov, V.L.; Kalinin, N.V.; Kurunov, R.F.; Smirnov, V.G.; Fomin, V.M.
2006-01-01
Eight-channel disk amplifiers of the ISKRA-6 facility are made up of sections. An amplifier section consists of eight active elements (2*4) made of KGSS-0180/35-grade neodymium phosphate glass 400*690*40 mm in size located in frames at the Brewster angle. Twenty flash-lamps are arranged in one amplifier module. The flash-lamps have an inter electrode distance of 1600 mm, the tube is 40 mm in inner diameter. The results of numerical investigations into the dynamics of high-current pulse radiation discharge are presented. The investigations were carried out by the 1-dimensional RMHD-model. This model takes into account the transient processes in the electric circuit and the physical processes in the discharge plasma: ionization, Joule heating, thermal conductivity, radiation transfer and plasma motion caused by the non-uniformity of energy introduction into the discharge in case of a non-uniform initial ionization of gas in the pumping lamp. The experimental results of spectral measurements and light efficiency of the flash-lamps depending on specific power and value of energy contribution are presented
Charge sensitive amplifies. The state of arts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mori, Kunishiro [Clear Pulse Co., Tokyo (Japan)
1996-07-01
In the radiation detectors, signals are essentially brought with charges produced by radiation, then it is naturally the best way to use a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) system to extract those signals. The CSA is thought to be the best amplifier suitable to almost all the radiation detectors, if neglecting economical points of view. The CSA has been only applied to special fields like radiation detection because the concept of `charges` is not so universal against the concepts of `voltage` and `current`. The CSA, however, is low in noise and a high speed amplifier and may be applicable not only to radiation measurement but also piezoelectric devices and also bolometers. In this article, noise in the CSA, basic circuit on the CSA, concepts of `equivalent noise charge` (ENC), a method for the ENC, and importance of the `open-loop gain` in the CSA to achieve better performance of it and how to realize in a practical CSA were described. And, characteristics on a counting rate of the CSA, various circuit used in the CSA, and CSAs which are commercially available at present and special purpose CSAs were also introduced. (G.K.)
Noise and saturation properties of semiconductor quantum dot optical amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper
2002-01-01
We present a detailed theoretical analysis of quantum dot optical amplifiers. Due to the presence of a reservoir of wetting layer states, the saturation and noise properties differ markedly from bulk or QW amplifiers and may be significantly improved.......We present a detailed theoretical analysis of quantum dot optical amplifiers. Due to the presence of a reservoir of wetting layer states, the saturation and noise properties differ markedly from bulk or QW amplifiers and may be significantly improved....
The OPTHER Project: Progress toward the THz Amplifier
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paoloni, C; Brunetti, F; Di Carlo, A
2011-01-01
This paper describes the status of the OPTHER (OPtically driven TeraHertz AmplifiERs) project and progress toward the THz amplifier realization. This project represents a considerable advancement in the field of high frequency amplification. The design and realization of a THz amplifier within...... this project is a consolidation of efforts at the international level from the leading scientific and industrial European organizations working with vacuum electronics....
Parametric Architecture in the Urban Space
Januszkiewicz, Krystyna; Kowalski, Karol G.
2017-10-01
The paper deals with the parametric architecture which is trying to introduce a new spatial language in the context for urban tissue that correspond to the artistic consciousness and the attitude of information and digital technologies era. The first part of the paper defines the main features of parametric architecture (such as: folding, continuity and curvilinearity) which are are characteristic of the new style of named the “parametricism”. This architecture is a strong emphasis on geometry, materiality, feasibility and sustainability, what emerges is an explicit agenda promoting material ornamentation, spatial spectacle and formal theatricality. The second part presents result of case study, especially parametric public use buildings, within the tissue of city. The analyzed objects are: The Sage Gateshead (1998-2004) in Gateshead, Kunsthaus in Graz (2000-2003), the Weltstadthaus (2003-2005) in Cologne, The Golden Terraces in Warsaw (2000-2007), the Metropol Parasol in Seville (2005-2011) the King Cross Station (2005-2012) in London, the headquarters of the Pathé Foundation (2006-2014) in Paris. Each of the enumerated examples shows a diverse approach to designing in the urban space, which reflect the age of digital technologies and the information society. In conclusion emphasizes, that new concept of the spatialization of architecture is the equivalent of the democratization of the political system, the liberalization of the economy, among other examples.
Sgr A* Emission Parametrizations from GRMHD Simulations
Anantua, Richard; Ressler, Sean; Quataert, Eliot
2018-06-01
Galactic Center emission near the vicinity of the central black hole, Sagittarius (Sgr) A*, is modeled using parametrizations involving the electron temperature, which is found from general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations to be highest in the disk-outflow corona. Jet-motivated prescriptions generalizing equipartition of particle and magnetic energies, e.g., by scaling relativistic electron energy density to powers of the magnetic field strength, are also introduced. GRMHD jet (or outflow)/accretion disk/black hole (JAB) simulation postprocessing codes IBOTHROS and GRMONTY are employed in the calculation of images and spectra. Various parametric models reproduce spectral and morphological features, such as the sub-mm spectral bump in electron temperature models and asymmetric photon rings in equipartition-based models. The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) will provide unprecedentedly high-resolution 230+ GHz observations of the "shadow" around Sgr A*'s supermassive black hole, which the synthetic models presented here will reverse-engineer. Both electron temperature and equipartition-based models can be constructed to be compatible with EHT size constraints for the emitting region of Sgr A*. This program sets the groundwork for devising a unified emission parametrization flexible enough to model disk, corona and outflow/jet regions with a small set of parameters including electron heating fraction and plasma beta.
Parametric Cost Models for Space Telescopes
Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Dollinger, Courtney
2010-01-01
Multivariable parametric cost models for space telescopes provide several benefits to designers and space system project managers. They identify major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades. They enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment. And, they provide a basis for estimating total project cost. A survey of historical models found that there is no definitive space telescope cost model. In fact, published models vary greatly [1]. Thus, there is a need for parametric space telescopes cost models. An effort is underway to develop single variable [2] and multi-variable [3] parametric space telescope cost models based on the latest available data and applying rigorous analytical techniques. Specific cost estimating relationships (CERs) have been developed which show that aperture diameter is the primary cost driver for large space telescopes; technology development as a function of time reduces cost at the rate of 50% per 17 years; it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; and increasing mass reduces cost.
Parametric cost models for space telescopes
Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Dollinger, Courtnay
2017-11-01
Multivariable parametric cost models for space telescopes provide several benefits to designers and space system project managers. They identify major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades. They enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment. And, they provide a basis for estimating total project cost. A survey of historical models found that there is no definitive space telescope cost model. In fact, published models vary greatly [1]. Thus, there is a need for parametric space telescopes cost models. An effort is underway to develop single variable [2] and multi-variable [3] parametric space telescope cost models based on the latest available data and applying rigorous analytical techniques. Specific cost estimating relationships (CERs) have been developed which show that aperture diameter is the primary cost driver for large space telescopes; technology development as a function of time reduces cost at the rate of 50% per 17 years; it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; and increasing mass reduces cost.
Nonscaling parametrization of hadronic spectra and dual parton model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaponenko, O.N.
2001-01-01
Using the popular Wdowczyk-Wolfendale parametrization (WW-parametrization) as an example one studies restrictions imposed by a dual parton model for different nonscaling parametrizations of the pulsed hadron spectra in soft hadron-hadron and hadron-nuclear interactions. One derived a new parametrization free from basic drawback of the WW-formulae. In the central range the determined parametrization show agreement with the Wdowczyk-Wolfendale formula, but in contrast to the last-named one it does not result in contradiction with the experiment due to fast reduction of inelastic factor reduction with energy increase [ru
Laser driven X-ray parametric amplification in neutral gases-a new brilliant light source in the XUV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aurand, B.; Seres, J.; Bagnoud, V.; Ecker, B.; Hochhaus, D.C.; Neumayer, P.; Seres, E.; Spielmann, C.; Zielbauer, B.; Zimmer, D.; Kuehl, T.
2011-01-01
In this paper we present the experimental setup and results showing a new type of strong-field parametric amplification of high-order harmonic radiation. With a simple semi-classical model, we can identify the most important experimental parameters, the spectral range and the small signal gain in gases. Using a single stage amplifier, a small signal gain of 8000 has been obtained in argon for the spectral range of 40-50 eV, using 350 fs, 7 mJ pulses at 1.05 μm. An outlook for an experiment employing a double stage gas system will be given.
Laser driven X-ray parametric amplification in neutral gases-a new brilliant light source in the XUV
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aurand, B., E-mail: b.aurand@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Saarstr. 21, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Seres, J. [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Bagnoud, V. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Ecker, B. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Institut Jena, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Saarstr. 21, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Hochhaus, D.C.; Neumayer, P. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Johann-Wolfgang von Goethe University, 60325 Frankfurt (Germany); Seres, E.; Spielmann, C. [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Zielbauer, B. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Institut Jena, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena (Germany); Zimmer, D. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Kuehl, T. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Saarstr. 21, 55099 Mainz (Germany)
2011-10-11
In this paper we present the experimental setup and results showing a new type of strong-field parametric amplification of high-order harmonic radiation. With a simple semi-classical model, we can identify the most important experimental parameters, the spectral range and the small signal gain in gases. Using a single stage amplifier, a small signal gain of 8000 has been obtained in argon for the spectral range of 40-50 eV, using 350 fs, 7 mJ pulses at 1.05 {mu}m. An outlook for an experiment employing a double stage gas system will be given.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guardalben, M.J.; Keegan, J.; Waxer, L.J.; Bagnoud, V.; Begishev, I.A.; Puth, J.; Zuegel, J.D.
2003-01-01
OAK B204 An optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier (OPCPA) design that provides 40% pump-to-signal conversion efficiency and over-500-mJ signal energy at 1054 nm for front-end injection into a Nd:glass amplifier chain is presented. This OPCPA system is currently being built as the prototype front end for the OMEGA EP (extended performance) laser system at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Using a three-dimensional spatial and temporal numerical model, several design considerations necessary to achieve high conversion efficiency, good output stability, and good beam quality are discussed. The dependence of OPCPA output on the pump beam's spatiotemporal shape and the relative size of seed and pump beams is described. This includes the effects of pump intensity modulation and pump-signal walk-off. The trade-off among efficiency, stability, and low output beam intensity modulation is discussed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Da Ros, Francesco; Rottwitt, Karsten; Peucheret, Christophe
2012-01-01
Combining Al-doped and Ge-doped HNLFs as gain media in FOPAs is proposed and optimized, resulting in efficient SBS mitigation while circumventing the additional loss of the high SBS threshold Al-doped fiber.......Combining Al-doped and Ge-doped HNLFs as gain media in FOPAs is proposed and optimized, resulting in efficient SBS mitigation while circumventing the additional loss of the high SBS threshold Al-doped fiber....
Isaienko, Oleksandr; Borguet, Eric
A non-collinear KTP-OPA to provide ultra-broadband mid-infrared pulses was designed and characterized. With proper pulse-front and phase correction, the system has a potential for high-time resolution vibrational VIS-IR-SFG spectroscopy.
Differential transimpedance amplifier circuit for correlated differential amplification
Gresham, Christopher A [Albuquerque, NM; Denton, M Bonner [Tucson, AZ; Sperline, Roger P [Tucson, AZ
2008-07-22
A differential transimpedance amplifier circuit for correlated differential amplification. The amplifier circuit increase electronic signal-to-noise ratios in charge detection circuits designed for the detection of very small quantities of electrical charge and/or very weak electromagnetic waves. A differential, integrating capacitive transimpedance amplifier integrated circuit comprising capacitor feedback loops performs time-correlated subtraction of noise.
Functional Blocks and Biquadratic ARC Filters using Transimpedance Amplifiers
R. Sarman; R. Prokop; T. Dostal
1997-01-01
The aims of the article are design and analysis of modern circuits including high performance functional blocks and biquadratic filters using transimpedance amplifiers. Here are given various types of these circuits, that works in classical voltage, current or hybrid mode. In this paper are also compared various possibilities of connection of single amplifier filters as for reduction of influence of transimpedance amplifier parasitic elements.
The Dynamics of Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers – Modeling and Applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mørk, Jesper; Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup; Berg, Tommy Winther
2003-01-01
The importance of semiconductor optical amplifiers is discussed. A semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is a semiconductor laser with anti-reflection coated facets that amplifies an injected light signal by means of stimulated emission. SOAs have a number of unique properties that open up...
Dua, Puneit
Increased demand for larger bandwidth and longer inter-amplifiers distances translates to higher power budgets for fiber optic communication systems in order to overcome large splitting losses and achieve acceptable signal-to-noise ratios. Due to their unique design ytterbium sensitized erbium doped, double clad fiber amplifiers; offer significant increase in the output powers that can be obtained. In this thesis we investigate, a one-stage, high power erbium and ytterbium co-doped double clad fiber amplifier (DCFA) with output power of 1.4W, designed and built in our lab. Experimental demonstration and numerical simulation techniques have been used to systematically study the applications of such an amplifier and the effects of incorporating it in various fiber optic communication systems. Amplitude modulated subcarrier multiplexed (AM-SCM) CATV distribution experiment has been performed to verify the feasibility of using this amplifier in an analog/digital communication system. The applications of the amplifier as a Fabry-Perot and ring fiber laser with an all-fiber cavity, a broadband supercontinuum source and for generation of high power, short pulses at 5GHz have been experimentally demonstrated. A variety of observable nonlinear effects occur due to the high intensity of the optical powers confined in micron-sized cores of the fibers, this thesis explores in detail some of these effects caused by using the high power Er/Yb double clad fiber amplifier. A fiber optic based analog/digital CATV system experiences composite second order (CSO) distortion due to the interaction between the gain tilt---the variation of gain with wavelength, of the doped fiber amplifier and the wavelength chirp of the directly modulated semiconductor laser. Gain tilt of the Er/Yb co-doped fiber amplifier has been experimentally measured and its contribution to the CSO of the system calculated. Theoretical analysis of a wavelength division multiplexed system with closely spaced
Unified triminimal parametrizations of quark and lepton mixing matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Xiaogang; Li Shiwen; Ma Boqiang
2009-01-01
We present a detailed study on triminimal parametrizations of quark and lepton mixing matrices with different basis matrices. We start with a general discussion on the triminimal expansion of the mixing matrix and on possible unified quark and lepton parametrization using quark-lepton complementarity. We then consider several interesting basis matrices and compare the triminimal parametrizations with the Wolfenstein-like parametrizations. The usual Wolfenstein parametrization for quark mixing is a triminimal expansion around the unit matrix as the basis. The corresponding quark-lepton complementarity lepton mixing matrix is a triminimal expansion around the bimaximal basis. Current neutrino oscillation data show that the lepton mixing matrix is very well represented by the tribimaximal mixing. It is natural to take it as an expanding basis. The corresponding zeroth order basis for quark mixing in this case makes the triminimal expansion converge much faster than the usual Wolfenstein parametrization. The triminimal expansion based on tribimaximal mixing can be converted to the Wolfenstein-like parametrizations discussed in the literature. We thus have a unified description between different kinds of parametrizations for quark and lepton sectors: the standard parametrizations, the Wolfenstein-like parametrizations, and the triminimal parametrizations.
Parametric resonance of intrinsic localized modes in coupled cantilever arrays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kimura, Masayuki, E-mail: kimura.masayuki.8c@kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Matsushita, Yasuo [Advanced Mathematical Institute, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sughimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Hikihara, Takashi [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)
2016-08-19
In this study, the parametric resonances of pinned intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) were investigated by computing the unstable regions in parameter space consisting of parametric excitation amplitude and frequency. In the unstable regions, the pinned ILMs were observed to lose stability and begin to fluctuate. A nonlinear Klein–Gordon, Fermi–Pasta–Ulam-like, and mixed lattices were investigated. The pinned ILMs, particularly in the mixed lattice, were destabilized by parametric resonances, which were determined by comparing the shapes of the unstable regions with those in the Mathieu differential equation. In addition, traveling ILMs could be generated by parametric excitation. - Highlights: • Destabilization of intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) by parametric excitation is investigated for FPU, NKG, and mixed lattices. • Frequency and amplitude of parametric excitation is determined based on characteristic multipliers of ILMs. • Unstable regions for the mixed lattice case show very similar shape to those of the Mathieu equation. • ILMs become unstable by causing parametric resonance.
Parametric resonance of intrinsic localized modes in coupled cantilever arrays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kimura, Masayuki; Matsushita, Yasuo; Hikihara, Takashi
2016-01-01
In this study, the parametric resonances of pinned intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) were investigated by computing the unstable regions in parameter space consisting of parametric excitation amplitude and frequency. In the unstable regions, the pinned ILMs were observed to lose stability and begin to fluctuate. A nonlinear Klein–Gordon, Fermi–Pasta–Ulam-like, and mixed lattices were investigated. The pinned ILMs, particularly in the mixed lattice, were destabilized by parametric resonances, which were determined by comparing the shapes of the unstable regions with those in the Mathieu differential equation. In addition, traveling ILMs could be generated by parametric excitation. - Highlights: • Destabilization of intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) by parametric excitation is investigated for FPU, NKG, and mixed lattices. • Frequency and amplitude of parametric excitation is determined based on characteristic multipliers of ILMs. • Unstable regions for the mixed lattice case show very similar shape to those of the Mathieu equation. • ILMs become unstable by causing parametric resonance.
A probabilistic strategy for parametric catastrophe insurance
Figueiredo, Rui; Martina, Mario; Stephenson, David; Youngman, Benjamin
2017-04-01
Economic losses due to natural hazards have shown an upward trend since 1980, which is expected to continue. Recent years have seen a growing worldwide commitment towards the reduction of disaster losses. This requires effective management of disaster risk at all levels, a part of which involves reducing financial vulnerability to disasters ex-ante, ensuring that necessary resources will be available following such events. One way to achieve this is through risk transfer instruments. These can be based on different types of triggers, which determine the conditions under which payouts are made after an event. This study focuses on parametric triggers, where payouts are determined by the occurrence of an event exceeding specified physical parameters at a given location, or at multiple locations, or over a region. This type of product offers a number of important advantages, and its adoption is increasing. The main drawback of parametric triggers is their susceptibility to basis risk, which arises when there is a mismatch between triggered payouts and the occurrence of loss events. This is unavoidable in said programmes, as their calibration is based on models containing a number of different sources of uncertainty. Thus, a deterministic definition of the loss event triggering parameters appears flawed. However, often for simplicity, this is the way in which most parametric models tend to be developed. This study therefore presents an innovative probabilistic strategy for parametric catastrophe insurance. It is advantageous as it recognizes uncertainties and minimizes basis risk while maintaining a simple and transparent procedure. A logistic regression model is constructed here to represent the occurrence of loss events based on certain loss index variables, obtained through the transformation of input environmental variables. Flood-related losses due to rainfall are studied. The resulting model is able, for any given day, to issue probabilities of occurrence of loss
A low-voltage sense amplifier with two-stage operational amplifier clamping for flash memory
Guo, Jiarong
2017-04-01
A low-voltage sense amplifier with reference current generator utilizing two-stage operational amplifier clamp structure for flash memory is presented in this paper, capable of operating with minimum supply voltage at 1 V. A new reference current generation circuit composed of a reference cell and a two-stage operational amplifier clamping the drain pole of the reference cell is used to generate the reference current, which avoids the threshold limitation caused by current mirror transistor in the traditional sense amplifier. A novel reference voltage generation circuit using dummy bit-line structure without pull-down current is also adopted, which not only improves the sense window enhancing read precision but also saves power consumption. The sense amplifier was implemented in a flash realized in 90 nm flash technology. Experimental results show the access time is 14.7 ns with power supply of 1.2 V and slow corner at 125 °C. Project supported by the National Natural Science Fundation of China (No. 61376028).
Note: A high dynamic range, linear response transimpedance amplifier.
Eckel, S; Sushkov, A O; Lamoreaux, S K
2012-02-01
We have built a high dynamic range (nine decade) transimpedance amplifier with a linear response. The amplifier uses junction-gate field effect transistors (JFETs) to switch between three different resistors in the feedback of a low input bias current operational amplifier. This allows for the creation of multiple outputs, each with a linear response and a different transimpedance gain. The overall bandwidth of the transimpedance amplifier is set by the bandwidth of the most sensitive range. For our application, we demonstrate a three-stage amplifier with transimpedance gains of approximately 10(9)Ω, 3 × 10(7)Ω, and 10(4)Ω with a bandwidth of 100 Hz.
Characterization of a Common-Source Amplifier Using Ferroelectric Transistors
Hunt, Mitchell; Sayyah, Rana; MacLeond, Todd C.; Ho, Pat D.
2010-01-01
This paper presents empirical data that was collected through experiments using a FeFET in the established common-source amplifier circuit. The unique behavior of the FeFET lends itself to interesting and useful operation in this widely used common-source amplifier. The paper examines the effect of using a ferroelectric transistor for the amplifier. It also examines the effects of varying load resistance, biasing, and input voltages on the output signal and gives several examples of the output of the amplifier for a given input. The difference between a commonsource amplifier using a ferroelectric transistor and that using a MOSFET is addressed.
Characterization of a Common-Gate Amplifier Using Ferroelectric Transistors
Hunt, Mitchell; Sayyah, Rana; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.
2011-01-01
In this paper, the empirical data collected through experiments performed using a FeFET in the common-gate amplifier circuit is presented. The FeFET common-gate amplifier was characterized by varying all parameters in the circuit, such as load resistance, biasing of the transistor, and input voltages. Due to the polarization of the ferroelectric layer, the particular behavior of the FeFET common-gate amplifier presents interesting results. Furthermore, the differences between a FeFET common-gate amplifier and a MOSFET common-gate amplifier are examined.
Martinez Manzanera, Octavio; Elting, Jan Willem; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.; Maurits, Natasha M.
2016-01-01
In the clinic, tremor is diagnosed during a time-limited process in which patients are observed and the characteristics of tremor are visually assessed. For some tremor disorders, a more detailed analysis of these characteristics is needed. Accelerometry and electromyography can be used to obtain a better insight into tremor. Typically, routine clinical assessment of accelerometry and electromyography data involves visual inspection by clinicians and occasionally computational analysis to obtain objective characteristics of tremor. However, for some tremor disorders these characteristics may be different during daily activity. This variability in presentation between the clinic and daily life makes a differential diagnosis more difficult. A long-term recording of tremor by accelerometry and/or electromyography in the home environment could help to give a better insight into the tremor disorder. However, an evaluation of such recordings using routine clinical standards would take too much time. We evaluated a range of techniques that automatically detect tremor segments in accelerometer data, as accelerometer data is more easily obtained in the home environment than electromyography data. Time can be saved if clinicians only have to evaluate the tremor characteristics of segments that have been automatically detected in longer daily activity recordings. We tested four non-parametric methods and five parametric methods on clinical accelerometer data from 14 patients with different tremor disorders. The consensus between two clinicians regarding the presence or absence of tremor on 3943 segments of accelerometer data was employed as reference. The nine methods were tested against this reference to identify their optimal parameters. Non-parametric methods generally performed better than parametric methods on our dataset when optimal parameters were used. However, one parametric method, employing the high frequency content of the tremor bandwidth under consideration
Thermal properties of borate crystals for high power optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification.
Riedel, R; Rothhardt, J; Beil, K; Gronloh, B; Klenke, A; Höppner, H; Schulz, M; Teubner, U; Kränkel, C; Limpert, J; Tünnermann, A; Prandolini, M J; Tavella, F
2014-07-28
The potential of borate crystals, BBO, LBO and BiBO, for high average power scaling of optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifiers is investigated. Up-to-date measurements of the absorption coefficients at 515 nm and the thermal conductivities are presented. The measured absorption coefficients are a factor of 10-100 lower than reported by the literature for BBO and LBO. For BBO, a large variation of the absorption coefficients was found between crystals from different manufacturers. The linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients at 515 nm as well as thermal conductivities were determined for the first time for BiBO. Further, different crystal cooling methods are presented. In addition, the limits to power scaling of OPCPAs are discussed.
Comparative Study of Parametric and Non-parametric Approaches in Fault Detection and Isolation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Katebi, S.D.; Blanke, M.; Katebi, M.R.
This report describes a comparative study between two approaches to fault detection and isolation in dynamic systems. The first approach uses a parametric model of the system. The main components of such techniques are residual and signature generation for processing and analyzing. The second...... approach is non-parametric in the sense that the signature analysis is only dependent on the frequency or time domain information extracted directly from the input-output signals. Based on these approaches, two different fault monitoring schemes are developed where the feature extraction and fault decision...
Class D audio amplifiers for high voltage capacitive transducers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Dennis
of high volume, weight, and cost. High efficient class D amplifiers are now widely available offering power densities, that their linear counterparts can not match. Unlike the technology of audio amplifiers, the loudspeaker is still based on the traditional electrodynamic transducer invented by C.W. Rice......Audio reproduction systems contains two key components, the amplifier and the loudspeaker. In the last 20 – 30 years the technology of audio amplifiers have performed a fundamental shift of paradigm. Class D audio amplifiers have replaced the linear amplifiers, suffering from the well-known issues...... with the low level of acoustical output power and complex amplifier requirements, have limited the commercial success of the technology. Horn or compression drivers are typically favoured, when high acoustic output power is required, this is however at the expense of significant distortion combined...
Low noise amplifier for ZnS(Ag) scintillation chamber
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Do Hoang Cuong
1998-01-01
A new pulse amplifier that can be used with standard photomultiplier tubes coupled with Zn(Ag) scintillation chamber is presented. The amplifier based on an IC operational amplifier LF 356N consists of a low-noise charge sensitive preamplifier and pulse shaping circuits for optimization of signal to noise ratio. Temperature instability is ≤ 0.05%/ o C. Dynamic range for linear output signals is equal +7 V. The presented amplifier is used in a measuring head for 0.17 L Lucas chambers developed in Department of Nuclear Instruments and Methods of the INCT in laboratory investigations aimed to develop methods and instruments for measurement of radon concentration in the air. The amplifier can also be employed for measurement of ionizing radiation by means of other scintillators coupled to PM tube. The amplifier is followed by a pulse discriminator with adjustable discrimination level. The amplifier output signal and discriminator output pulses are fed to external devices. (author)
A new semicustom integrated bipolar amplifier for silicon strip detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zimmerman, T.
1989-01-01
The QPA02 is a four channel DC coupled two stage transimpedance amplifier designed at Fermilab on a semicustom linear array (Quickchip 2S) manufactured by Tektronix. The chip was developed as a silicon strip amplifier but may have other applications as well. Each channel consists of a preamplifier and a second stage amplifier/sharper with differential output which can directly drive a transmission line (90 to 140 ohms). External bypass capacitors are the only discrete components required. QPA02 has been tested and demonstrated to be an effective silicon strip amplifier. Other applications may exist which can use this amplifier or a modified version of this amplifier. For example, another design is now in progress for a wire chamber amplifier, QPA03, to be reported later. Only a relatively small effort was required to modify the design and layout for this application. 11 figs
High sensitivity amplifier/discriminator for PWC's
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hansen, S.
1983-01-01
The facility support group at Fermilab is designing and building a general purpose beam chamber for use in several locations at the laboratory. This pwc has 128 wires per plane spaced 1 mm apart. An initial production of 25 signal planes is anticipated. In proportional chambers, the size of the signal depends exponentially on the charge stored per unit of length along the anode wire. As the wire spacing decreases, the capacitance per unit length decreases, thereby requiring increased applied voltage to restore the necessary charge per unit length. In practical terms, this phenomenon is responsible for difficulties in constructing chambers with less than 2 mm wire spacing. 1 mm chambers, therefore, are frequently operated very near to their breakdown point and/or a high gain gas containing organic compounds such as magic gas is used. This argon/iso-butane mixture has three drawbacks: it is explosive when exposed to the air, it leaves a residue on the wires after extended use and is costly. An amplifier with higher sensitivity would reduce the problems associated with operating chambers with small wire spacings and allow them to be run a safe margin below their breakdown voltage even with an inorganic gas mixture such as argon/CO2, this eliminating the need to use magic gas. Described here is a low cost amplifier with a usable threshold of less than 0.5 μA. Data on the performance of this amplifier/discriminator in operation on a prototype beam chamber are given. This data shows the advantages of the high sensitivity of this design
Numerical simulation of cross field amplifiers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eppley, K.
1990-01-01
Cross field amplifiers (CFA) have been used in many applications where high power, high frequency microwaves are needed. Although these tubes have been manufactured for decades, theoretical analysis of their properties is not as highly developed as for other microwave devices such as klystrons. One feature distinguishing cross field amplifiers is that the operating current is produced by secondary emission from a cold cathode. This removes the need for a heater and enables the device to act as a switch tube, drawing no power until the rf drive is applied. However, this method of generating the current does complicate the simulation. We are developing a simulation model of cross field amplifiers using the PIC code CONDOR. We simulate an interaction region, one traveling wavelength long, with periodic boundary conditions. An electric field with the appropriate phase velocity is imposed on the upper boundary of the problem. Evaluation of the integral of E·J gives the power interchanged between the wave and the beam. Given the impedance of the structure, we then calculate the change in the traveling wave field. Thus we simulate the growth of the wave through the device. The main advance of our model over previous CFA simulations is the realistic tracking of absorption and secondary emission. The code uses experimental curves to calculate secondary production as a function of absorbed energy, with a theoretical expression for the angular dependence. We have used this code to model the 100 MW X-band CFA under construction at SLAC, as designed by Joseph Feinstein and Terry Lee. We are examining several questions of practical interest, such as the power and spectrum of absorbed electrons, the minimum traveling wave field needed to initiate spoke formation, and the variation of output power with dc voltage, anode-cathode gap, and magnetic field. 5 refs., 8 figs
Waveguide harmonic damper for klystron amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Y.
1998-01-01
A waveguide harmonic damper was designed for removing the harmonic frequency power from the klystron amplifiers of the APS linac. Straight coaxial probe antennas are used in a rectangular waveguide to form a damper. A linear array of the probe antennas is used on a narrow wall of the rectangular waveguide for damping klystron harmonics while decoupling the fundamental frequency in dominent TE 01 mode. The klystron harmonics can exist in the waveguide as waveguide higher-order modes above cutoff. Computer simulations are made to investigate the waveguide harmonic damping characteristics of the damper
Active isotropic slabs: conditions for amplified reflection
Perez, Liliana I.; Matteo, Claudia L.; Etcheverry, Javier; Duplaá, María Celeste
2012-12-01
We analyse in detail the necessary conditions to obtain amplified reflection (AR) in isotropic interfaces when a plane wave propagates from a transparent medium towards an active one. First, we demonstrate analytically that AR is not possible if a single interface is involved. Then, we study the conditions for AR in a very simple configuration: normal incidence on an active slab immersed in transparent media. Finally, we develop an analysis in the complex plane in order to establish a geometrical method that not only describes the behaviour of active slabs but also helps to simplify the calculus.
Active isotropic slabs: conditions for amplified reflection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perez, Liliana I; Duplaá, María Celeste; Matteo, Claudia L; Etcheverry, Javier
2012-01-01
We analyse in detail the necessary conditions to obtain amplified reflection (AR) in isotropic interfaces when a plane wave propagates from a transparent medium towards an active one. First, we demonstrate analytically that AR is not possible if a single interface is involved. Then, we study the conditions for AR in a very simple configuration: normal incidence on an active slab immersed in transparent media. Finally, we develop an analysis in the complex plane in order to establish a geometrical method that not only describes the behaviour of active slabs but also helps to simplify the calculus. (paper)
Sm 3+-doped polymer optical waveguide amplifiers
Huang, Lihui; Tsang, Kwokchu; Pun, Edwin Yue-Bun; Xu, Shiqing
2010-04-01
Trivalent samarium ion (Sm 3+) doped SU8 polymer materials were synthesized and characterized. Intense red emission at 645 nm was observed under UV laser light excitation. Spectroscopic investigations show that the doped materials are suitable for realizing planar optical waveguide amplifiers. About 100 μm wide multimode Sm 3+-doped SU8 channel waveguides were fabricated using a simple UV exposure process. At 250 mW, 351 nm UV pump power, a signal enhancement of ˜7.4 dB at 645 nm was obtained for a 15 mm long channel waveguide.
Non-parametric smoothing of experimental data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuketayev, A.T.; Pen'kov, F.M.
2007-01-01
Full text: Rapid processing of experimental data samples in nuclear physics often requires differentiation in order to find extrema. Therefore, even at the preliminary stage of data analysis, a range of noise reduction methods are used to smooth experimental data. There are many non-parametric smoothing techniques: interval averages, moving averages, exponential smoothing, etc. Nevertheless, it is more common to use a priori information about the behavior of the experimental curve in order to construct smoothing schemes based on the least squares techniques. The latter methodology's advantage is that the area under the curve can be preserved, which is equivalent to conservation of total speed of counting. The disadvantages of this approach include the lack of a priori information. For example, very often the sums of undifferentiated (by a detector) peaks are replaced with one peak during the processing of data, introducing uncontrolled errors in the determination of the physical quantities. The problem is solvable only by having experienced personnel, whose skills are much greater than the challenge. We propose a set of non-parametric techniques, which allows the use of any additional information on the nature of experimental dependence. The method is based on a construction of a functional, which includes both experimental data and a priori information. Minimum of this functional is reached on a non-parametric smoothed curve. Euler (Lagrange) differential equations are constructed for these curves; then their solutions are obtained analytically or numerically. The proposed approach allows for automated processing of nuclear physics data, eliminating the need for highly skilled laboratory personnel. Pursuant to the proposed approach is the possibility to obtain smoothing curves in a given confidence interval, e.g. according to the χ 2 distribution. This approach is applicable when constructing smooth solutions of ill-posed problems, in particular when solving
Massively multi-parametric immunoassays using ICPMS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanner, S.D.; Ornatsky, O.; Bandura, D.R.; Baranov, V.I.
2009-01-01
The use of stable isotopes as tags in immunoassays, and their determination by ICPMS, is poised to have a huge impact on multi-parametric bioanalysis. A new technology, which we term 'mass cytometry', enables high throughput, highly multiplexed individual cell analysis. Preliminary results for T-cell immunophenotyping in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), agonist influence on concomitant phosphorylation pathways, and sub-classification of acute myeloid leukemia patients' samples will be presented. The significance of individual cell analysis is demonstrated by the identification of populations of rogue cells in PBMC samples through the use of multidimensional neural network cluster analysis. (author)
A parametric evaluation of supersonic STOVL
Kidwell, G. H.; Rapp, D. C.
1985-01-01
This paper describes the results of a study to evaluate parametric variations to a single engine short-takeoff vertical-landing fighter/attack aircraft design. The variables considered involved thrust vectoring, thrust degradation, maximum lift, and other changes to determine the impact on short-takeoff performance, but subject to a vertical-landing capability. The results indicate that there are certain parameters that have a significant effect on short-field performance. Also, the optimal control strategies for transitions from a short-takeoff to forward flight and from forward flight to hover are determined. The results have applicability beyond the configuration evaluated.
Semi-parametric estimation for ARCH models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raed Alzghool
2018-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we conduct semi-parametric estimation for autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (ARCH model with Quasi likelihood (QL and Asymptotic Quasi-likelihood (AQL estimation methods. The QL approach relaxes the distributional assumptions of ARCH processes. The AQL technique is obtained from the QL method when the process conditional variance is unknown. We present an application of the methods to a daily exchange rate series. Keywords: ARCH model, Quasi likelihood (QL, Asymptotic Quasi-likelihood (AQL, Martingale difference, Kernel estimator
Robust Parametric Control of Spacecraft Rendezvous
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dake Gu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to design the robust parametric control for autonomous rendezvous of spacecrafts with the inertial information with uncertainty. We consider model uncertainty of traditional C-W equation to formulate the dynamic model of the relative motion. Based on eigenstructure assignment and model reference theory, a concise control law for spacecraft rendezvous is proposed which could be fixed through solving an optimization problem. The cost function considers the stabilization of the system and other performances. Simulation results illustrate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed control.
Parametric resonance in acoustically levitated water drops
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen, C.L.; Xie, W.J.; Wei, B.
2010-01-01
Liquid drops can be suspended in air with acoustic levitation method. When the sound pressure is periodically modulated, the levitated drop is usually forced into an axisymmetric oscillation. However, a transition from axisymmetric oscillation into sectorial oscillation occurs when the modulation frequency approaches some specific values. The frequency of the sectorial oscillation is almost exactly half of the modulation frequency. It is demonstrated that this transition is induced by the parametric resonance of levitated drop. The natural frequency of sectorial oscillation is found to decrease with the increase of drop distortion extent.
Parametric resonance in acoustically levitated water drops
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shen, C.L.; Xie, W.J. [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Wei, B., E-mail: bbwei@nwpu.edu.c [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)
2010-05-10
Liquid drops can be suspended in air with acoustic levitation method. When the sound pressure is periodically modulated, the levitated drop is usually forced into an axisymmetric oscillation. However, a transition from axisymmetric oscillation into sectorial oscillation occurs when the modulation frequency approaches some specific values. The frequency of the sectorial oscillation is almost exactly half of the modulation frequency. It is demonstrated that this transition is induced by the parametric resonance of levitated drop. The natural frequency of sectorial oscillation is found to decrease with the increase of drop distortion extent.
Parametric systems analysis for tandem mirror hybrids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, J.D.; Chapin, D.L.; Chi, J.W.H.
1980-09-01
Fusion fission systems, consisting of fissile producing fusion hybrids combining a tandem mirror fusion driver with various blanket types and net fissile consuming LWR's, have been modeled and analyzed parametrically. Analysis to date indicates that hybrids can be competitive with mined uranium when U 3 O 8 cost is about 100 $/lb., adding less than 25% to present day cost of power from LWR's. Of the three blanket types considered, uranium fast fission (UFF), thorium fast fission (ThFF), and thorium fission supressed (ThFS), the ThFS blanket has a modest economic advantage under most conditions but has higher support ratios and potential safety advantages under all conditions
Molecular and parametric imaging with iron oxides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matuszewski, L.; Bremer, C.; Tombach, B.; Heindel, W.
2007-01-01
Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) contrast agents, clinically established for high resolution magnetic resonance imaging of reticuloendothelial system containing anatomical structures, can additionally be exploited for the non-invasive characterization and quantification of pathology down to the molecular level. In this context, SPIOs can be applied for non-invasive cell tracking, quantification of tissue perfusion and target specific imaging, as well as for the detection of gene expression. This article provides an overview of new applications for clinically approved iron oxides as well of new, modified SPIO contrast agents for parametric and molecular imaging. (orig.) [de
Parametric Cherenkov radiation (development of idea)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buts, V.A.
2004-01-01
Some physical results of researches about charged particles radiation in mediums with a periodic heterogeneity and in periodic potential are reported. The development of ideas Parametric Cherenkov Radiation has shown, that in mediums, which have even a weak degree of a periodic heterogeneity of an permittivity or potential, the nonrelativistic oscillators can radiated as relativistic. They effectively radiate the high numbers of harmonics. In particular, in the carried out experiments the ultra-violet radiation was excited at action on a crystal of intensive ten-centimetric radiation. These results give the reasons to hope for making of nonrelativistic lasers on free electrons
Parametrization relating the fermionic mass spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleppe, A.
1993-01-01
When parametrizing the fermionic mass spectra in terms of the unit matrix and a recursive matrix scrR 0 , which corresponds to an underlying scaling pattern in the mass spectra, each fermionic sector is characterized by three parameters: k, α, and R. Using the set of relations displayed by the parameters of the different sectors, it is possible to formulate a ''family Lagrangian'' which for each sector encompasses all the families. Relations between quark masses are furthermore deduced from these ''family Lagrangians.'' Using the relations between the parameters of the different charge sectors, it is also possible to ''derive'' the quark mass spectra from the (charged) leptonic mass spectrum
Parametric Portfolio Policies with Common Volatility Dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ergemen, Yunus Emre; Taamouti, Abderrahim
A parametric portfolio policy function is considered that incorporates common stock volatility dynamics to optimally determine portfolio weights. Reducing dimension of the traditional portfolio selection problem significantly, only a number of policy parameters corresponding to first- and second......-order characteristics are estimated based on a standard method-of-moments technique. The method, allowing for the calculation of portfolio weight and return statistics, is illustrated with an empirical application to 30 U.S. industries to study the economic activity before and after the recent financial crisis....
Exercise in Configurable Products using Creo parametric
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Georg Kronborg
2017-01-01
Family tables is a long know method with ProEngineer/Creo parametric to make families of products – like families of bolts and roller bearings. Configurable Products expand these possibilities in two major ways: First it makes configurable assemblies possible where one topologically different com...... been available as: configurable assemblies in earlier versions of Creo) An example of a practical application of configurable products is shown below where an outdoor Play/Exercise system is transferred from AutoCAD 2D to a 3D configurable product in Creo 3.0....
Quantum phase from s-parametrized quasidistributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perinova, V; Luks, A
2005-01-01
It is familiar that a well behaved operator of the harmonic oscillator phase does not exist. Therefore, Turski's phase operator and the operator of Garrison and Wong may be at most defined in an interesting fashion and yield useful quantum expectation values. In this paper we touch on a recent incomplete definition of a phase operator which has also failed in the respect that it can be completed only to a definition of an 'incomplete' phase operator. We discuss, however, a possibility of completion of the definition and a relationship to the phase operator from an s-parametrized quasidistribution
White-light parametric instabilities in plasmas.
Santos, J E; Silva, L O; Bingham, R
2007-06-08
Parametric instabilities driven by partially coherent radiation in plasmas are described by a generalized statistical Wigner-Moyal set of equations, formally equivalent to the full wave equation, coupled to the plasma fluid equations. A generalized dispersion relation for stimulated Raman scattering driven by a partially coherent pump field is derived, revealing a growth rate dependence, with the coherence width sigma of the radiation field, scaling with 1/sigma for backscattering (three-wave process), and with 1/sigma1/2 for direct forward scattering (four-wave process). Our results demonstrate the possibility to control the growth rates of these instabilities by properly using broadband pump radiation fields.
Parametric Amplification of Gravitational Fluctuations during Reheating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finelli, F.; Brandenberger, R.; Finelli, F.
1999-01-01
Cosmological perturbations can undergo amplification by parametric resonance during preheating even on scales larger than the Hubble radius, without violating causality. A unified description of gravitational and matter fluctuations is crucial to determine the strength of the instability. To extract specific signatures of the oscillating inflaton field during reheating, it is essential to focus on a variable describing metric fluctuations which is constant in the standard analyses of inflation. For a massive inflaton without self-coupling, we find no additional growth of superhorizon modes during reheating beyond the usual predictions. For a massless self-coupled inflaton, there is a sub-Hubble scale resonance. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society
Ground-Based Telescope Parametric Cost Model
Stahl, H. Philip; Rowell, Ginger Holmes
2004-01-01
A parametric cost model for ground-based telescopes is developed using multi-variable statistical analysis, The model includes both engineering and performance parameters. While diameter continues to be the dominant cost driver, other significant factors include primary mirror radius of curvature and diffraction limited wavelength. The model includes an explicit factor for primary mirror segmentation and/or duplication (i.e.. multi-telescope phased-array systems). Additionally, single variable models based on aperture diameter are derived. This analysis indicates that recent mirror technology advances have indeed reduced the historical telescope cost curve.
Preparing Schrodinger cat states by parametric pumping
Leghtas, Zaki; Touzard, Steven; Pop, Ioan; Vlastakis, Brian; Zalys-Geller, Evan; Albert, Victor V.; Jiang, Liang; Frunzio, Luigi; Schoelkopf, Robert J.; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Devoret, Michel H.
2014-03-01
Maintaining a quantum superposition state of light in a cavity has important applications for quantum error correction. We present an experimental protocol based on parametric pumping and Josephson circuits, which could prepare a Schrodinger cat state in a cavity. This is achieved by engineering a dissipative environment, which exchanges only pairs or quadruples of photons with our cavity mode. The dissipative nature of this preparation would lead to the observation of a dynamical Zeno effect, where the competition between a coherent drive and the dissipation reveals non trivial dynamics. Work supported by: IARPA, ARO, and NSF.
Optimal Design of a Traveling-Wave Kinetic Inductance Amplifier Operated in Three-Wave Mixing Mode
Erickson, Robert; Bal, Mustafa; Ku, Ksiang-Sheng; Wu, Xian; Pappas, David
In the presence of a DC bias, an injected pump, of frequency fP, and a signal, of frequency fS, undergo parametric three-way mixing (3WM) within a traveling-wave kinetic inductance (KIT) amplifier, producing an idler product of frequency fI =fP -fS . Periodic frequency stops are engineered into the coplanar waveguide of the device to enhance signal amplification. With fP placed just above the first frequency stop gap, 3WM broadband signal gain is achieved with maximum gain at fS =fP / 2 . Within a theory of the dispersion of traveling waves in the presence of these engineered loadings, which accounts for this broadband signal gain, we show how an optimal frequency-stop design may be constructed to achieve maximum signal amplification. The optimization approach we describe can be applied to the design of other nonlinear traveling-wave parametric amplifiers. This work was supported by the Army Research Office and the Laboratory for Physical Sciences under EAO221146, EAO241777, and the NIST Quantum Initiative. RPE acknowledges Grant 60NANB14D024 from the US Department of Commerce, NIST.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Schleyer
2017-09-01
Full Text Available This paper reports on an effective root-cause analysis method of memory effects in power amplifiers, as well as introduces compensation techniques on a circuit design level. Despite conventional memory-effect approaches, the discussed method uses a two-tone scan over a wide operation and modulation range. This enables an in-depth study of physical causes and helps to implement compensation techniques at design stage. On the one hand, this circuit investigation is optimized using an automated SystemC model parametrized with real device and measurement values. Hence, computation time is widely reduced which shortens design cycles. On the other hand, the implementation of the derived circuit compensation means will reduce the complexity of digital pre-distortion due to a reduced memory-effect induced AM/AM and AM/PM hysteresis. The approach is demonstrated on a 65 nm CMOS power amplifier with an OIP1 of 27 dBm and a PAE of over 30 % using WCDMA and LTE signals. In fact, mismatch could be reduced by more than 8 %.
Low-noise kinetic inductance traveling-wave amplifier using three-wave mixing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vissers, M. R.; Erickson, R. P.; Ku, H.-S.; Vale, Leila; Wu, Xian; Hilton, G. C.; Pappas, D. P., E-mail: David.Pappas@NIST.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)
2016-01-04
We have fabricated a wide-bandwidth, high dynamic range, low-noise cryogenic amplifier based on a superconducting kinetic inductance traveling-wave device. The device was made from NbTiN and consisted of a long, coplanar waveguide on a silicon chip. By adding a DC current and an RF pump tone, we are able to generate parametric amplification using three-wave mixing (3WM). The devices exhibit gain of more than 15 dB across an instantaneous bandwidth from 4 to 8 GHz. The total usable gain bandwidth, including both sides of the signal-idler gain region, is more than 6 GHz. The noise referred to the input of the devices approaches the quantum limit, with less than 1 photon excess noise. We compare these results directly to the four-wave mixing amplification mode, i.e., without DC-biasing. We find that the 3WM mode allows operation with the pump at lower RF power and at frequencies far from the signal. We have used this knowledge to redesign the amplifiers to utilize primarily 3WM amplification, thereby allowing for direct integration into large scale qubit and detector applications.
Theory of multiwave mixing within the superconducting kinetic-inductance traveling-wave amplifier
Erickson, R. P.; Pappas, D. P.
2017-03-01
We present a theory of parametric mixing within the coplanar waveguide (CPW) of a superconducting nonlinear kinetic-inductance traveling-wave (KIT) amplifier engineered with periodic dispersion loadings. This is done by first developing a metamaterial band theory of the dispersion-engineered KIT using a Floquet-Bloch construction and then applying it to the description of mixing of the nonlinear RF traveling waves. Our theory allows us to calculate signal gain versus signal frequency in the presence of a frequency stop gap, based solely on loading design. We present results for both three-wave mixing (3WM), with applied dc bias, and four-wave mixing (4WM), without dc. Our theory predicts an intrinsic and deterministic origin to undulations of 4WM signal gain with signal frequency, apart from extrinsic sources, such as impedance mismatch, and shows that such undulations are absent from 3WM signal gain achievable with dc. Our theory is extensible to amplifiers based on Josephson junctions in a lumped LC-ladder transmission line (TWPA).
Low-noise kinetic inductance traveling-wave amplifier using three-wave mixing
Vissers, M. R.; Erickson, R. P.; Ku, H.-S.; Vale, Leila; Wu, Xian; Hilton, G. C.; Pappas, D. P.
2016-01-01
We have fabricated a wide-bandwidth, high dynamic range, low-noise cryogenic amplifier based on a superconducting kinetic inductance traveling-wave device. The device was made from NbTiN and consisted of a long, coplanar waveguide on a silicon chip. By adding a DC current and an RF pump tone, we are able to generate parametric amplification using three-wave mixing (3WM). The devices exhibit gain of more than 15 dB across an instantaneous bandwidth from 4 to 8 GHz. The total usable gain bandwidth, including both sides of the signal-idler gain region, is more than 6 GHz. The noise referred to the input of the devices approaches the quantum limit, with less than 1 photon excess noise. We compare these results directly to the four-wave mixing amplification mode, i.e., without DC-biasing. We find that the 3WM mode allows operation with the pump at lower RF power and at frequencies far from the signal. We have used this knowledge to redesign the amplifiers to utilize primarily 3WM amplification, thereby allowing for direct integration into large scale qubit and detector applications.
Trial manufacture of an insulated amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okuno, Shigeo; Matsuura, Kiyokata.
1978-10-01
Trial manufacture of an insulated amplifier was carried out. The input signals are divided by filters Th and Tl into high frequency component and low frequency component. The high frequency component drives a transformer T 1 , and secondary signals are induced. The low frequency component drives a transformer T 2 through a buffer and a modulator. The secondary signals from both transformers are recombined to make the output signals. Compensation for the frequency characteristics of the high frequency transformer and that for the effect of a filter in the demodulation circuit for low frequency component are considered. The time constant of output signals for rectangular input signals was 30 microsec, when only the low frequency part is operated. The drift of the direct current level is within 5 mV. The characteristic features of the high frequency part was also investigated. The overall characteristic features of this amplifier were good for the frequency range of 0 to 500 kHz. (Kato, T.)
Mechanical Amplifier for a Piezoelectric Transducer
Moore, James; Swain, Mark; Lawson, Peter; Calvet, Robert
2003-01-01
A mechanical amplifier has been devised to multiply the stroke of a piezoelectric transducer (PZT) intended for use at liquid helium temperatures. Interferometry holds the key to high angular resolution imaging and astrometry in space. Future space missions that will detect planets around other solar systems and perform detailed studies of the evolution of stars and galaxies will use new interferometers that observe at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. Phase-measurement interferometry is key to many aspects of astronomical interferometry, and PZTs are ideal modulators for most methods of phase measurement, but primarily at visible wavelengths. At far infrared wavelengths of 150 to 300 m, background noise is a severe problem and all optics must be cooled to about 4 K. Under these conditions, piezos are ill-suited as modulators, because their throw is reduced by as much as a factor of 2, and even a wavelength or two of modulation is beyond their capability. The largest commercially available piezo stacks are about 5 in. (12.7 cm) long and have a throw of about 180 m at room temperature and only 90 m at 4 K. It would seem difficult or impossible to use PZTs for phase measurements in the far infrared were it not for the new mechanical amplifier that was designed and built.
Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier
Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon
1990-01-01
The optimum conditions of a solar pumped iodine laser are found in this research for the case of a continuous wave operation and a pulsed operation. The optimum product of the pressure(p) inside the laser tube and the tube diameter(d) was pd=40 approx. 50 torr-cm on the contrary to the case of a high intensity flashlamp pumped iodine laser where the optimum value of the product is known to be pd=150 torr-cm. The pressure-diameter product is less than 1/3 of that of the high power iodine laser. During the research period, various laser materials were also studied for solar pumping. Among the laser materials, Nd:YAG is found to have the lowest laser threshold pumping intensity of about 200 solar constant. The Rhodamine 6G was also tested as the solar pumped laser material. The threshold pumping power was measured to be about 20,000 solar constant. The amplification experiment for a continuously pumped iodine laser amplifier was performed using Vortek solar simulator and the amplification factors were measured for single pass amplification and triple pass amplification of the 15 cm long amplifier tube. The amplification of 5 was obtained for the triple pass amplification.
Quantum dots for lasers, amplifiers and computing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bimberg, Dieter
2005-01-01
For InAs-GaAs based quantum dot lasers emitting at 1300 nm, digital modulation showing an open eye pattern up to 12 Gb s -1 at room temperature is demonstrated, at 10 Gb s -1 the bit error rate is below 10 -12 at -2 dB m receiver power. Cut-off frequencies up to 20 GHz are realised for lasers emitting at 1.1 μm. Passively mode-locked QD lasers generate optical pulses with repetition frequencies between 5 and 50 GHz, with a minimum Fourier limited pulse length of 3 ps. The uncorrelated jitter is below 1 ps. We use here deeply etched narrow ridge waveguide structures which show excellent performance similar to shallow mesa structures, but a circular far field at a ridge width of 1 μm, improving coupling efficiency into fibres. No beam filamentation of the fundamental mode, low a-factors and strongly reduced sensitivity to optical feedback are observed. QD lasers are thus superior to QW lasers for any system or network. Quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier (QD SOAs) demonstrate gain recovery times of 120-140 fs, 4-7 times faster than bulk/QW SOAs, and a net gain larger than 0.4 dB/(mm*QD-layer) providing us with novel types of booster amplifiers and Mach-Zehnder interferometers. These breakthroughs became possible due to systematic development of self-organized growth technologies
Development of FIR arrays with integrating amplifiers
Young, Erick T.
1988-08-01
The development of optimized photoconductor arrays suitable for far infrared space astronomical applications are described. Although the primary impetus is the production of a 16 by 16 element Ge:Ga demonstration array for SIRTF, the extension of this technology to Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) is considered. The optimization of Ge:Ga and Ge:Be photoconductor materials is discussed. In collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, measurements of FIR photoconductors with quantum efficiencies greater than 20 percent at 100 micrometers, and dark currents below 300 electrons/s are presented. Integrating J-FET amplifier technology is discussed. The current generation of integrating amplifiers has a demonstrated read noise of less than 20 electrons for an integration time of 100 s. The design is shown for a stackable 16 x n Ge:Ga array that utilizes a 16-channel monolithic version of the J-FET integrator. A part of the design is the use of a thin, thermally insulating substrate that allows the electronics to operate at the optimum temperature of 50 K while maintaining thermal and optical isolation from the detectors at 2 K. The power dissipation for the array is less than 16 mW. The array design may particularly be applicable to high resolution imaging spectrometers for LDR.
Multipath interference test method for distributed amplifiers
Okada, Takahiro; Aida, Kazuo
2005-12-01
A method for testing distributed amplifiers is presented; the multipath interference (MPI) is detected as a beat spectrum between the multipath signal and the direct signal using a binary frequency shifted keying (FSK) test signal. The lightwave source is composed of a DFB-LD that is directly modulated by a pulse stream passing through an equalizer, and emits the FSK signal of the frequency deviation of about 430MHz at repetition rate of 80-100 kHz. The receiver consists of a photo-diode and an electrical spectrum analyzer (ESA). The base-band power spectrum peak appeared at the frequency of the FSK frequency deviation can be converted to amount of MPI using a calibration chart. The test method has improved the minimum detectable MPI as low as -70 dB, compared to that of -50 dB of the conventional test method. The detailed design and performance of the proposed method are discussed, including the MPI simulator for calibration procedure, computer simulations for evaluating the error caused by the FSK repetition rate and the fiber length under test and experiments on singlemode fibers and distributed Raman amplifier.
PARAMETRIC INSURANCE COVER FOR NATURAL CATASTROPHE RISKS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Serghei Margulescu
2013-11-01
Full Text Available With economic losses of over USD 370 bn caused by 325 catastrophic events, 2011 ranks as the worst ever year in terms of costs to society due to natural catastrophes and man-made disasters. Inthe same time, 2011 is the second most expensive year in the history for the insurance industry, with insured losses from catastrophic events amounting to USD 116 bn. Both the high level of damages and insured losses, as well as the unprecedented gap between the two values, made insurers and reinsurers worldwide to understand that some risks had so far been underestimated and they have to be better integrated in the catastrophes modelling.On the other hand, governments have to protect themselves against the financial impact of natural catastrophes and new forms of cooperation between the public and private sectors can help countries finance disaster risks. Viewed in a country’s wider risk management context, the purchase of parametric insurance cover, which transfers natural catastrophe risk to the private sector using an index- based trigger, is a necessary shift towards a pre-emptive risk management strategy. This kind of approach can be pursued by central governments or at the level of provincial or municipal governments, and a number of case studies included in the publication “Closing the financial gap” by Swiss Re (2011 illustrates how new forms of parametric insurance can help countries finance disaster risks.
Supramodal parametric working memory processing in humans.
Spitzer, Bernhard; Blankenburg, Felix
2012-03-07
Previous studies of delayed-match-to-sample (DMTS) frequency discrimination in animals and humans have succeeded in delineating the neural signature of frequency processing in somatosensory working memory (WM). During retention of vibrotactile frequencies, stimulus-dependent single-cell and population activity in prefrontal cortex was found to reflect the task-relevant memory content, whereas increases in occipital alpha activity signaled the disengagement of areas not relevant for the tactile task. Here, we recorded EEG from human participants to determine the extent to which these mechanisms can be generalized to frequency retention in the visual and auditory domains. Subjects performed analogous variants of a DMTS frequency discrimination task, with the frequency information presented either visually, auditorily, or by vibrotactile stimulation. Examining oscillatory EEG activity during frequency retention, we found characteristic topographical distributions of alpha power over visual, auditory, and somatosensory cortices, indicating systematic patterns of inhibition and engagement of early sensory areas, depending on stimulus modality. The task-relevant frequency information, in contrast, was found to be represented in right prefrontal cortex, independent of presentation mode. In each of the three modality conditions, parametric modulations of prefrontal upper beta activity (20-30 Hz) emerged, in a very similar manner as recently found in vibrotactile tasks. Together, the findings corroborate a view of parametric WM as supramodal internal scaling of abstract quantity information and suggest strong relevance of previous evidence from vibrotactile work for a more general framework of quantity processing in human working memory.
Parametric uncertainty in optical image modeling
Potzick, James; Marx, Egon; Davidson, Mark
2006-10-01
Optical photomask feature metrology and wafer exposure process simulation both rely on optical image modeling for accurate results. While it is fair to question the accuracies of the available models, model results also depend on several input parameters describing the object and imaging system. Errors in these parameter values can lead to significant errors in the modeled image. These parameters include wavelength, illumination and objective NA's, magnification, focus, etc. for the optical system, and topography, complex index of refraction n and k, etc. for the object. In this paper each input parameter is varied over a range about its nominal value and the corresponding images simulated. Second order parameter interactions are not explored. Using the scenario of the optical measurement of photomask features, these parametric sensitivities are quantified by calculating the apparent change of the measured linewidth for a small change in the relevant parameter. Then, using reasonable values for the estimated uncertainties of these parameters, the parametric linewidth uncertainties can be calculated and combined to give a lower limit to the linewidth measurement uncertainty for those parameter uncertainties.
Synchronization of chaos in non-identical parametrically excited systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Idowu, B.A.; Vincent, U.E.; Njah, A.N.
2009-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the synchronization of chaotic systems consisting of non-identical parametrically excited oscillators. The active control technique is employed to design control functions based on Lyapunov stability theory and Routh-Hurwitz criteria so as to achieve global chaos synchronization between a parametrically excited gyroscope and each of the parametrically excited pendulum and Duffing oscillator. Numerical simulations are implemented to verify the results.
Absolute decay parametric instability of high-temperature plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zozulya, A.A.; Silin, V.P.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.
1986-01-01
A new absolute decay parametric instability having wide spatial localization region is shown to be possible near critical plasma density. Its excitation is conditioned by distributed feedback of counter-running Langmuir waves occurring during parametric decay of incident and reflected pumping wave components. In a hot plasma with the temperature of the order of kiloelectronvolt its threshold is lower than that of a known convective decay parametric instability. Minimum absolute instability threshold is shown to be realized under conditions of spatial parametric resonance of higher orders
High energy high repetition-rate thin-disk amplifier for OPCPA pumping
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schulz, Michael
2013-08-15
The development of a pump laser system for a high power and high repetition rate optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) is presented in this thesis. The OPCPA system requires pump pulse energies in the range of tens of millijoules at high repetition rates with sub-picosecond pulse durations. This can be achieved to some extend with Innoslab amplifier technology. However, scaling to higher pulse energies at high repetition rates may be problematic. With the thin-disk amplifier presented in this thesis, output energies of 140 mJ at 100 kHz repetition rate could be achieved in burst-mode operation, which is a world record for this type of laser amplifier. Due to its material and spectral properties, ytterbium doped YAG (Yb:YAG) is used as a gain medium for the high power amplifier stages. The low quantum defect and the comparatively large emission bandwidth makes this material the choice for high power operation and sub-picosecond compressed pulse durations. The output beam profile as well as the shape of the output bursts is ideal to pump an OPCPA system. An OPCPA output energy in the millijoule range with repetition rates of 100 kHz to 1 MHz is needed to generate seed pulses for the FEL and for the application as pump-probe laser at the FEL facility. Since the development of this laser system needs to meet requirements set by the Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), the amplifier is conceived for burst-mode operation. The main requirement is a high intra-burst pulse repetition rate of more than 100 kHz and a uniform pulse train (burst) with equal properties for every pulse. The burst-mode is an operation mode where the laser never reaches a lasing equilibrium, which means that the behavior of the amplifier is similar to a switch-on of the laser system for every burst. This makes the development of the amplifier system difficult. Therefore, an analytical model has been developed to study the amplification process during the burst. This includes the
High energy high repetition-rate thin-disk amplifier for OPCPA pumping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulz, Michael
2013-08-01
The development of a pump laser system for a high power and high repetition rate optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) is presented in this thesis. The OPCPA system requires pump pulse energies in the range of tens of millijoules at high repetition rates with sub-picosecond pulse durations. This can be achieved to some extend with Innoslab amplifier technology. However, scaling to higher pulse energies at high repetition rates may be problematic. With the thin-disk amplifier presented in this thesis, output energies of 140 mJ at 100 kHz repetition rate could be achieved in burst-mode operation, which is a world record for this type of laser amplifier. Due to its material and spectral properties, ytterbium doped YAG (Yb:YAG) is used as a gain medium for the high power amplifier stages. The low quantum defect and the comparatively large emission bandwidth makes this material the choice for high power operation and sub-picosecond compressed pulse durations. The output beam profile as well as the shape of the output bursts is ideal to pump an OPCPA system. An OPCPA output energy in the millijoule range with repetition rates of 100 kHz to 1 MHz is needed to generate seed pulses for the FEL and for the application as pump-probe laser at the FEL facility. Since the development of this laser system needs to meet requirements set by the Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), the amplifier is conceived for burst-mode operation. The main requirement is a high intra-burst pulse repetition rate of more than 100 kHz and a uniform pulse train (burst) with equal properties for every pulse. The burst-mode is an operation mode where the laser never reaches a lasing equilibrium, which means that the behavior of the amplifier is similar to a switch-on of the laser system for every burst. This makes the development of the amplifier system difficult. Therefore, an analytical model has been developed to study the amplification process during the burst. This includes the
Direct coupled amplifiers using field effect transistors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fowler, E P [Control and Instrumentation Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)
1964-03-15
The concept of the uni-polar field effect transistor (P.E.T.) was known before the invention of the bi-polar transistor but it is only recently that they have been made commercially. Being produced as yet only in small quantities, their price imposes a restriction on use to circuits where their peculiar properties can be exploited to the full. One such application is described here where the combination of low voltage drift and relatively low input leakage current are necessarily used together. One of the instruments used to control nuclear reactors has a logarithmic response to the mean output current from a polarised ionisation chamber. The logarithmic signal is then differentiated electrically, the result being displayed on a meter calibrated to show the reactor divergence or doubling time. If displayed in doubling time the scale is calibrated reciprocally. Because of the wide range obtained in the logarithmic section and the limited supply voltage, an output of 1 volt per decade change in ionisation current is used. Differentiating this gives a current of 1.5 x 10{sup -8} A for p.s.D. (20 sec. doubling time) in the differentiating amplifier. To overcome some of the problems of noise due to statistical variations in input current, the circuit design necessitates a resistive path to ground at the amplifier input of 20 M.ohms. A schematic diagram is shown. 1. It is evident that a zero drift of 1% can be caused by a leakage current of 1.5 x 10{sup -10} A or an offset voltage of 3 mV at the amplifier input. Although the presently used electrometer valve is satisfactory from the point of view of grid current, there have been sudden changes in grid to grid voltage (the valve is a double triode) of up to 10 m.V. It has been found that a pair of F.E.T's. can be used to replace the electrometer valve so long as care is taken in correct balance of the two devices. An investigation has been made into the characteristics of some fourteen devices to see whether those with
Single-mode operation of a coiled multimode fiber amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koplow, Jeffrey P.; Kliner, Dahv A. V.; Goldberg, Lew
2000-01-01
We report a new approach to obtaining single-transverse-mode operation of a multimode fiber amplifier in which the gain fiber is coiled to induce significant bend loss for all but the lowest-order mode. We demonstrated this method by constructing a coiled amplifier using Yb-doped, double-clad fiber with a core diameter of 25 μm and a numerical aperture of ∼0.1 (V≅7.4) . When the amplifier was operated as an amplified-spontaneous-emission source, the output beam had an M 2 value of 1.09±0.09 ; when seeded at 1064 nm, the slope efficiency was similar to that of an uncoiled amplifier. This technique will permit scaling of pulsed fiber lasers and amplifiers to significantly higher pulse energies and peak powers and cw fiber sources to higher average powers while maintaining excellent beam quality. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America
Realization of OFCC based Transimpedance Mode Instrumentation Amplifier
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neeta Pandey
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The paper presents an instrumentation amplifier suitable for amplifying the current source transducer signals. It provides a voltage output. It has a high gain, common mode rejection ratio and gain independent bandwidth. It uses three Operational Floating Current Conveyors (OFCCs and four resistors. The effect of nonidealities of OFCC on performance of proposed transimpedance instrumentation amplifier (TIA is also analyzed. The proposal has been verified through SPICE simulations using CMOS based schematicThe paper presents an instrumentation amplifier suitable for amplifying the current source transducer signals. It provides a voltage output. It has a high gain, common mode rejection ratio and gain independent bandwidth. It uses three operational floating current conveyors (OFCCs and four resistors. The effect of nonidealities of OFCC on performance of proposed transimpedance instrumentation amplifier (TIA is also analyzed. The proposal has been verified through SPICE simulations using CMOS based schematic.
Modeling and design techniques for RF power amplifiers
Raghavan, Arvind; Laskar, Joy
2008-01-01
The book covers RF power amplifier design, from device and modeling considerations to advanced circuit design architectures and techniques. It focuses on recent developments and advanced topics in this area, including numerous practical designs to back the theoretical considerations. It presents the challenges in designing power amplifiers in silicon and helps the reader improve the efficiency of linear power amplifiers, and design more accurate compact device models, with faster extraction routines, to create cost effective and reliable circuits.
GaN-based Power amplifiers for microwave applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jorge Julián Moreno-Rubio
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a discussion about the design strategies of different kind of power amplifiers for RF/Microwave appli- cations, such as the tuned load power amplifier, class F, class F-1 and Doherty. Furthermore, it is shown the continuous wave characterization of the amplifiers above mentioned. A comparison between the obtained results, in terms of gain, efficiency and output power is presented.
InP Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers to 255 GHz
Radisic, Vesna; Sawdai, Donald; Scott, Dennis; Deal, William; Dang, Linh; Li, Danny; Cavus, Abdullah; To, Richard; Lai, Richard
2009-01-01
Two single-stage InP heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) amplifiers operate at 184 and 255 GHz, using Northrop Grumman Corporation s InP HBT MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) technology. At the time of this reporting, these are reported to be the highest HBT amplifiers ever created. The purpose of the amplifier design is to evaluate the technology capability for high-frequency designs and verify the model for future development work.
Functional Blocks and Biquadratic ARC Filters using Transimpedance Amplifiers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Sarman
1997-04-01
Full Text Available The aims of the article are design and analysis of modern circuits including high performance functional blocks and biquadratic filters using transimpedance amplifiers. Here are given various types of these circuits, that works in classical voltage, current or hybrid mode. In this paper are also compared various possibilities of connection of single amplifier filters as for reduction of influence of transimpedance amplifier parasitic elements.
Noise-driven neuromorphic tuned amplifier
Fanelli, Duccio; Ginelli, Francesco; Livi, Roberto; Zagli, Niccoló; Zankoc, Clement
2017-12-01
We study a simple stochastic model of neuronal excitatory and inhibitory interactions. The model is defined on a directed lattice and internodes couplings are modulated by a nonlinear function that mimics the process of synaptic activation. We prove that such a system behaves as a fully tunable amplifier: the endogenous component of noise, stemming from finite size effects, seeds a coherent (exponential) amplification across the chain generating giant oscillations with tunable frequencies, a process that the brain could exploit to enhance, and eventually encode, different signals. On a wider perspective, the characterized amplification process could provide a reliable pacemaking mechanism for biological systems. The device extracts energy from the finite size bath and operates as an out of equilibrium thermal machine, under stationary conditions.
Rippled beam free electron laser amplifier
Carlsten, Bruce E.
1999-01-01
A free electron laser amplifier provides a scalloping annular electron beam that interacts with the axial electric field of a TM.sub.0n mode. A waveguide defines an axial centerline and, a solenoid arranged about the waveguide produces an axial constant magnetic field within the waveguide. An electron beam source outputs a annular electron beam that interacts with the axial magnetic field to have an equilibrium radius and a ripple radius component having a variable radius with a ripple period along the axial centerline. An rf source outputs an axial electric field that propagates within the waveguide coaxial with the electron beam and has a radial mode that interacts at the electron beam at the equilibrium radius component of the electron beam.
Current feedback operational amplifiers and their applications
Senani, Raj; Singh, A K; Singh, V K
2013-01-01
This book describes a variety of current feedback operational amplifier (CFOA) architectures and their applications in analog signal processing/generation. Coverage includes a comprehensive survey of commercially available, off-the-shelf integrated circuit CFOAs, as well as recent advances made on the design of CFOAs, including design innovations for bipolar and CMOS CFOAs. This book serves as a single-source reference to the topic, as well as a catalog of over 200 application circuits which would be useful not only for students, educators and researchers in apprising them about the recent developments in the area but would also serve as a comprehensive repertoire of useful circuits for practicing engineers who might be interested in choosing an appropriate CFOA-based topology for use in a given application.
A highly linear power amplifier for WLAN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jin Jie; Shi Jia; Ai Baoli; Zhang Xuguang
2016-01-01
A three-stage power amplifier (PA) for WLAN application in 2.4-2.5 GHz is presented. The proposed PA employs an adaptive bias circuit to adjust the operating point of the PA to improve the linearity of the PA. Two methods to short the 2nd harmonic circuit are compared in the area of efficiency and gain of the PA. The PA is taped out in the process of 2 μm InGaP/GaAs HBT and is tested by the evaluation board. The measured results show that 31.5 dB power gain and 29.3 dBm P 1dB with an associated 40.4% power added efficiency (PAE) under the single tone stimulus. Up to 26.5 dBm output power can be achieved with an error vector magnitude (EVM) of lower than 3% under the 64QAM/OFDM WLAN stimulus. (paper)
New developments in relativistic klystron amplifiers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Friedman, M; Colombant, D; Fernsler, R; Hubbard, R; Lampe, M; Serlin, V; Slinker, S [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Plasma Physics Div.
1997-12-31
A relativistic klystron amplifier that employed cavities with inductively loaded wide gaps and a novel converter has achieved 50% energy efficiency, a significant advance over the previous state of the art of 20%. The new device was immersed in a 3 kG magnetic field and contained two innovations: (1) Wide gaps which include an inductively loaded return current structure that was opaque to the unmodulated beam space charge but transparent to the RF field. (2) A novel converter that was made of a `leaky` cavity with a radially-converging inductively-loaded structure that was inserted in the output wide-gap. This structure reduced the potential energy residing in the electron beam and maximized RF output energy. (author). 4 figs., 13 refs.
Optical oscillator-amplifier laser configuration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McAllister, G.L.
1975-01-01
A laser is described that has incorporated therein an oscillator formed by a pair of mirrors, at least one of the mirrors being positioned outside of the envelope. The mirrors are dimensioned and spaced from each other so that the resonator has a relatively low Fresnel number and is operated unstably. The entire surface of one of these mirrors is convex and diffracts a portion of the energy outside of the oscillator region. Also incorporated into the laser is an amplifier region defined by a separate pair of mirrors which receive the energy diffracted from the oscillator region. The second pair of mirrors form an optical system with a high Fresnel number. A filter, modulator or other control for the laser signal may be placed outside the laser envelope in the optical path of the oscillator
Coherent combination of ultrafast fiber amplifiers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanna, Marc; Guichard, Florent; Druon, Frédéric; Georges, Patrick; Zaouter, Yoann; Papadopoulos, Dimitris N
2016-01-01
We review recent progress in coherent combining of femtosecond pulses amplified in optical fibers as a way to scale the peak and average power of ultrafast sources. Different methods of achieving coherent pulse addition in space (beam combining) and time (divided pulse amplification) domains are described. These architectures can be widely classified into active methods, where the relative phases between pulses are subject to a servomechanism, and passive methods, where phase matching is inherent to the geometry. Other experiments that combine pulses with different spectral contents, pulses that have been nonlinearly broadened or successive pulses from a mode-locked laser oscillator, are then presented. All these techniques allow access to unprecedented parameter range for fiber ultrafast sources. (topical review)
Pulse shaping amplifier (PSA) for nuclear spectroscopy system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lombigit, L.; Maslina Mohd Ibrahim; Nolida Yusup; Nur Aira Abdul Rahman; Yong, C.F.
2014-01-01
Pulse Shaping Amplifier (PSA) is an essential components in nuclear spectroscopy system. This networks have two functions; to shape the output pulse and performs noise filtering. In this paper, we describes procedure for design and development of a pulse shaping amplifier which can be used for nuclear spectroscopy system. This prototype was developed using high performance electronics devices and assembled on a FR4 type printed circuit board. Performance of this prototype was tested by comparing it with an equivalent commercial spectroscopy amplifier (Model SILENA 7611). The test results show that the performance of this prototype is comparable to the commercial spectroscopic amplifier. (author)
Ring cavity for a Raman capillary waveguide amplifier
Kurnit, N.A.
1981-01-27
A regenerative ring amplifier and regenerative ring oscillator are described which function to feed back a portion of the Stokes signal to complete the ring cavity. The ring cavity configuration allows the CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal and Stokes signal to copropagate through the Raman capillary waveguide amplifier. A Raman capillary waveguide amplifier is also provided in the return leg of the ring cavity to increase gain without increasing the round trip time. Additionally, the ring cavity can be designed such that the amplified Stokes signal is synchronous with the mode-locked spikes of the incoming CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal.
Parametric resonance in quantum electrodynamics vacuum birefringence
Arza, Ariel; Elias, Ricardo Gabriel
2018-05-01
Vacuum magnetic birefringence is one of the most interesting nonlinear phenomena in quantum electrodynamics because it is a pure photon-photon result of the theory and it directly signalizes the violation of the classical superposition principle of electromagnetic fields in the full quantum theory. We perform analytical and numerical calculations when an electromagnetic wave interacts with an oscillating external magnetic field. We find that in an ideal cavity, when the external field frequency is around the electromagnetic wave frequency, the normal and parallel components of the wave suffer parametric resonance at different rates, producing a vacuum birefringence effect growing in time. We also study the case where there is no cavity and the oscillating magnetic field is spatially localized in a region of length L . In both cases we find also a rotation of the elliptical axis.
Parametric time-frequency domain spatial audio
Delikaris-Manias, Symeon; Politis, Archontis
2018-01-01
This book provides readers with the principles and best practices in spatial audio signal processing. It describes how sound fields and their perceptual attributes are captured and analyzed within the time-frequency domain, how essential representation parameters are coded, and how such signals are efficiently reproduced for practical applications. The book is split into four parts starting with an overview of the fundamentals. It then goes on to explain the reproduction of spatial sound before offering an examination of signal-dependent spatial filtering. The book finishes with coverage of both current and future applications and the direction that spatial audio research is heading in. Parametric Time-frequency Domain Spatial Audio focuses on applications in entertainment audio, including music, home cinema, and gaming--covering the capturing and reproduction of spatial sound as well as its generation, transduction, representation, transmission, and perception. This book will teach readers the tools needed...
Parametric HMMs for Movement Recognition and Synthesis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Herzog, Dennis; Krüger, Volker
2009-01-01
, we develop an exemplar-based parametric hidden Markov model (PHMM) that allows to represent movements of a particular type. Since we use model interpolation to reduce the necessary amount of training data, we had to develop a method to setup local models in a synchronized way. In our experiments we......A common problem in human movement recognition is the recognition of movements of a particular type (semantic). E.g., grasping movements have a particular semantic (grasping) but the actual movements usually have very different appearances due to, e.g., different grasping directions. In this paper...... to recover the movement type, and, e.g., the object position a human is pointing at. Our experiments show the flexibility of the PHMMs in terms of the amount of training data and its robustness in terms of noisy observation data. In addition, we compare our PHMM to an other kind of PHMM, which has been...
Parametric resonance and cosmological gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sa, Paulo M.; Henriques, Alfredo B.
2008-01-01
We investigate the production of gravitational waves due to quantum fluctuations of the vacuum during the transition from the inflationary to the radiation-dominated eras of the universe, assuming this transition to be dominated by the phenomenon of parametric resonance. The energy spectrum of the gravitational waves is calculated using the method of continuous Bogoliubov coefficients, which avoids the problem of overproduction of gravitons at large frequencies. We found, on the sole basis of the mechanism of quantum fluctuations, that the resonance field leaves no explicit and distinctive imprint on the gravitational-wave energy spectrum, apart from an overall upward or downward translation. Therefore, the main features in the spectrum are due to the inflaton field, which leaves a characteristic imprint at frequencies of the order of MHz/GHz.
Parametric description of the quantum measurement process
Liuzzo-Scorpo, P.; Cuccoli, A.; Verrucchi, P.
2015-08-01
We present a description of the measurement process based on the parametric representation with environmental coherent states. This representation is specifically tailored for studying quantum systems whose environment needs being considered through the quantum-to-classical crossover. Focusing upon projective measures, and exploiting the connection between large-N quantum theories and the classical limit of related ones, we manage to push our description beyond the pre-measurement step. This allows us to show that the outcome production follows from a global-symmetry breaking, entailing the observed system's state reduction, and that the statistical nature of the process is brought about, together with the Born's rule, by the macroscopic character of the measuring apparatus.
Parametric Design Strategies for Collaborative Urban Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steinø, Nicolai; Yıldırım, Miray Baş; Özkar, Mine
2013-01-01
to the collaboration between professionals, participation by different non-professional stakeholders, such as residents, local authorities, non-governmental organizations and investors, is another important component of collaborative urban design processes. The involvement of community in decision making process...... implications of planning and design decisions, unless they are presented with relatively detailed architectural models, whether physical or virtual. This however, typically presents steep demands in terms of time and resources. As a foundation for our work with parametric urban design lies the hypothesis...... to solve different scripting challenges. The paper is organized into an introduction, three main sections and closing section with conclusions and perspectives. The first section of the paper gives a theoretical discussion of the notion of collaborative design and the challenges of collaborative urban...
Parametric systems analysis for ICF hybrid reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berwald, D.H.; Maniscalco, J.A.; Chapin, D.L.
1981-01-01
Parametric design and systems analysis for inertial confinement fusion-fission hybrids are presented. These results were generated as part of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) sponsored Feasibility Assessment of Fusion-Fission Hybrids, using an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) hybrid power plant design code developed in conjunction with the feasibility assessment. The SYMECON systems analysis code, developed by Westinghouse, was used to generate economic results for symbiotic electricity generation systems consisting of the hybrid and its client Light Water Reactors (LWRs). These results explore the entire fusion parameter space for uranium fast fission blanket hybrids, thorium fast fission blanket hybrids, and thorium suppressed fission blanket types are discussed, and system sensitivities to design uncertainties are explored
Simplifying the circuit of Josephson parametric converters
Abdo, Baleegh; Brink, Markus; Chavez-Garcia, Jose; Keefe, George
Josephson parametric converters (JPCs) are quantum-limited three-wave mixing devices that can play various important roles in quantum information processing in the microwave domain, including amplification of quantum signals, transduction of quantum information, remote entanglement of qubits, nonreciprocal amplification, and circulation of signals. However, the input-output and biasing circuit of a state-of-the-art JPC consists of bulky components, i.e. two commercial off-chip broadband 180-degree hybrids, four phase-matched short coax cables, and one superconducting magnetic coil. Such bulky hardware significantly hinders the integration of JPCs in scalable quantum computing architectures. In my talk, I will present ideas on how to simplify the JPC circuit and show preliminary experimental results
Spherical Parametrization of the Higgs Boson Candidate
Gainer, James S; Matchev, Konstantin T; Mrenna, Stephen; Park, Myeonghun
2013-01-01
The latest results from the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) unequivocally confirm the existence of a resonance, $X$, with mass near 125 GeV which could be the Higgs boson of the Standard Model. Measuring the properties (quantum numbers and couplings) of this resonance is of paramount importance. Initial analyses by the LHC collaborations disfavor specific alternative benchmark hypotheses, e.g. pure pseudoscalars or gravitons. However, this is just the first step in a long-term program of detailed measurements. We consider the most general set of operators in the decay channels $X \\to ZZ$, $WW$, $Z\\gamma$, $\\gamma\\gamma$ and derive the constraint implied by the measured rate. This allows us to provide a useful parametrization of the orthogonal independent Higgs coupling degrees of freedom as coordinates on a suitably defined sphere.
Examples in parametric inference with R
Dixit, Ulhas Jayram
2016-01-01
This book discusses examples in parametric inference with R. Combining basic theory with modern approaches, it presents the latest developments and trends in statistical inference for students who do not have an advanced mathematical and statistical background. The topics discussed in the book are fundamental and common to many fields of statistical inference and thus serve as a point of departure for in-depth study. The book is divided into eight chapters: Chapter 1 provides an overview of topics on sufficiency and completeness, while Chapter 2 briefly discusses unbiased estimation. Chapter 3 focuses on the study of moments and maximum likelihood estimators, and Chapter 4 presents bounds for the variance. In Chapter 5, topics on consistent estimator are discussed. Chapter 6 discusses Bayes, while Chapter 7 studies some more powerful tests. Lastly, Chapter 8 examines unbiased and other tests. Senior undergraduate and graduate students in statistics and mathematics, and those who have taken an introductory cou...
Stellar parametrization from Gaia RVS spectra
Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Allende Prieto, C.; Fustes, D.; Manteiga, M.; Arcay, B.; Bijaoui, A.; Dafonte, C.; Ordenovic, C.; Ordoñez Blanco, D.
2016-01-01
Context. Among the myriad of data collected by the ESA Gaia satellite, about 150 million spectra will be delivered by the Radial Velocity Spectrometer (RVS) for stars as faint as GRVS~ 16. A specific stellar parametrization will be performed on most of these RVS spectra, I.e. those with enough high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), which should correspond to single stars that have a magnitude in the RVS band brighter than ~14.5. Some individual chemical abundances will also be estimated for the brightest targets. Aims: We describe the different parametrization codes that have been specifically developed or adapted for RVS spectra within the GSP-Spec working group of the analysis consortium. The tested codes are based on optimisation (FERRE and GAUGUIN), projection (MATISSE), or pattern-recognition methods (Artificial Neural Networks). We present and discuss each of their expected performances in the recovered stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, overall metallicity) for B- to K-type stars. The performances for determining of [α/Fe] ratios are also presented for cool stars. Methods: Each code has been homogeneously tested with a large grid of RVS simulated synthetic spectra of BAFGK-spectral types (dwarfs and giants), with metallicities varying from 10-2.5 to 10+ 0.5 the solar metallicity, and taking variations of ±0.4 dex in the composition of the α-elements into consideration. The tests were performed for S/N ranging from ten to 350. Results: For all the stellar types we considered, stars brighter than GRVS~ 12.5 are very efficiently parametrized by the GSP-Spec pipeline, including reliable estimations of [α/Fe]. Typical internal errors for FGK metal-rich and metal-intermediate stars are around 40 K in Teff, 0.10 dex in log(g), 0.04 dex in [M/H], and 0.03 dex in [α/Fe] at GRVS = 10.3. They degrade to 155 K in Teff, 0.15 dex in log(g), 0.10 dex in [M/H], and 0.1 dex in [α/Fe] at GRVS~ 12. Similar accuracies in Teff and [M/H] are
Parametric inference for biological sequence analysis.
Pachter, Lior; Sturmfels, Bernd
2004-11-16
One of the major successes in computational biology has been the unification, by using the graphical model formalism, of a multitude of algorithms for annotating and comparing biological sequences. Graphical models that have been applied to these problems include hidden Markov models for annotation, tree models for phylogenetics, and pair hidden Markov models for alignment. A single algorithm, the sum-product algorithm, solves many of the inference problems that are associated with different statistical models. This article introduces the polytope propagation algorithm for computing the Newton polytope of an observation from a graphical model. This algorithm is a geometric version of the sum-product algorithm and is used to analyze the parametric behavior of maximum a posteriori inference calculations for graphical models.
Toward a compact fibered squeezing parametric source.
Brieussel, Alexandre; Ott, Konstantin; Joos, Maxime; Treps, Nicolas; Fabre, Claude
2018-03-15
In this work, we investigate three different compact fibered systems generating vacuum squeezing that involve optical cavities limited by the end surface of a fiber and by a curved mirror and containing a thin parametric crystal. These systems have the advantage to couple squeezed states directly to a fiber, allowing the user to benefit from the flexibility of fibers in the use of squeezing. Three types of fibers are investigated: standard single-mode fibers, photonic-crystal large-mode-area single-mode fibers, and short multimode fibers taped to a single-mode fiber. The observed squeezing is modest (-0.56 dB, -0.9 dB, -1 dB), but these experiments open the way for miniaturized squeezing devices that could be a very interesting advantage in scaling up quantum systems for quantum processing, opening new perspectives in the domain of integrated quantum optics.
Normal dispersion femtosecond fiber optical parametric oscillator.
Nguyen, T N; Kieu, K; Maslov, A V; Miyawaki, M; Peyghambarian, N
2013-09-15
We propose and demonstrate a synchronously pumped fiber optical parametric oscillator (FOPO) operating in the normal dispersion regime. The FOPO generates chirped pulses at the output, allowing significant pulse energy scaling potential without pulse breaking. The output average power of the FOPO at 1600 nm was ∼60 mW (corresponding to 1.45 nJ pulse energy and ∼55% slope power conversion efficiency). The output pulses directly from the FOPO were highly chirped (∼3 ps duration), and they could be compressed outside of the cavity to 180 fs by using a standard optical fiber compressor. Detailed numerical simulation was also performed to understand the pulse evolution dynamics around the laser cavity. We believe that the proposed design concept is useful for scaling up the pulse energy in the FOPO using different pumping wavelengths.
Parametric uncertainty modeling for robust control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, K.H.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay
1999-01-01
The dynamic behaviour of a non-linear process can often be approximated with a time-varying linear model. In the presented methodology the dynamics is modeled non-conservatively as parametric uncertainty in linear lime invariant models. The obtained uncertainty description makes it possible...... to perform robustness analysis on a control system using the structured singular value. The idea behind the proposed method is to fit a rational function to the parameter variation. The parameter variation can then be expressed as a linear fractional transformation (LFT), It is discussed how the proposed...... point changes. It is shown that a diagonal PI control structure provides robust performance towards variations in feed flow rate or feed concentrations. However including both liquid and vapor flow delays robust performance specifications cannot be satisfied with this simple diagonal control structure...
Parametric resonance and cosmological gravitational waves
Sá, Paulo M.; Henriques, Alfredo B.
2008-03-01
We investigate the production of gravitational waves due to quantum fluctuations of the vacuum during the transition from the inflationary to the radiation-dominated eras of the universe, assuming this transition to be dominated by the phenomenon of parametric resonance. The energy spectrum of the gravitational waves is calculated using the method of continuous Bogoliubov coefficients, which avoids the problem of overproduction of gravitons at large frequencies. We found, on the sole basis of the mechanism of quantum fluctuations, that the resonance field leaves no explicit and distinctive imprint on the gravitational-wave energy spectrum, apart from an overall upward or downward translation. Therefore, the main features in the spectrum are due to the inflaton field, which leaves a characteristic imprint at frequencies of the order of MHz/GHz.
Parametric cost estimation for space science missions
Lillie, Charles F.; Thompson, Bruce E.
2008-07-01
Cost estimation for space science missions is critically important in budgeting for successful missions. The process requires consideration of a number of parameters, where many of the values are only known to a limited accuracy. The results of cost estimation are not perfect, but must be calculated and compared with the estimates that the government uses for budgeting purposes. Uncertainties in the input parameters result from evolving requirements for missions that are typically the "first of a kind" with "state-of-the-art" instruments and new spacecraft and payload technologies that make it difficult to base estimates on the cost histories of previous missions. Even the cost of heritage avionics is uncertain due to parts obsolescence and the resulting redesign work. Through experience and use of industry best practices developed in participation with the Aerospace Industries Association (AIA), Northrop Grumman has developed a parametric modeling approach that can provide a reasonably accurate cost range and most probable cost for future space missions. During the initial mission phases, the approach uses mass- and powerbased cost estimating relationships (CER)'s developed with historical data from previous missions. In later mission phases, when the mission requirements are better defined, these estimates are updated with vendor's bids and "bottoms- up", "grass-roots" material and labor cost estimates based on detailed schedules and assigned tasks. In this paper we describe how we develop our CER's for parametric cost estimation and how they can be applied to estimate the costs for future space science missions like those presented to the Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey Study Committees.
Parametric representation of centrifugal pump homologous curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veloso, Marcelo A.; Mattos, Joao R.L. de
2015-01-01
Essential for any mathematical model designed to simulate flow transient events caused by pump operations is the pump performance data. The performance of a centrifugal pump is characterized by four basic quantities: the rotational speed, the volumetric flow rate, the dynamic head, and the hydraulic torque. The curves showing the relationships between these four variables are called the pump characteristic curves. The characteristic curves are empirically developed by the pump manufacturer and uniquely describe head and torque as functions of volumetric flow rate and rotation speed. Because of comprising a large amount of points, this configuration is not suitable for computational purposes. However, it can be converted to a simpler form by the development of the homologous curves, in which dynamic head and hydraulic torque ratios are expressed as functions of volumetric flow and rotation speed ratios. The numerical use of the complete set of homologous curves requires specification of sixteen partial curves, being eight for the dynamic head and eight for the hydraulic torque. As a consequence, the handling of homologous curves is still somewhat complicated. In solving flow transient problems that require the pump characteristic data for all the operation zones, the parametric form appears as the simplest way to deal with the homologous curves. In this approach, the complete characteristics of a pump can be described by only two closed curves, one for the dynamic head and other for the hydraulic torque, both in function of a single angular coordinate defined adequately in terms of the quotient between volumetric flow ratio and rotation speed ratio. The usefulness and advantages of this alternative method are demonstrated through a practical example in which the homologous curves for a pump of the type used in the main coolant loops of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) are transformed to the parametric form. (author)
Parametric amplifications in the nonlinear transmission line
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kawata, T; Sakai, J; Inoue, H [Toyama Univ., Takaoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1980-03-01
The parametric amplification in a transmission line with nonlinear capacitors is analysed theoretically using the equations of three wave interactions. Since this line has two modes, high frequency and low frequency modes, there may occur some mode coupling phenomena through the resonant interactions. We consider three waves with wave number k sub(j) and frequency ..omega..sub(j) in resonance with each other, that is, ..omega../sub 1/ + ..omega../sub 2/ = ..omega../sub 3/ and k/sub 1/ + k/sub 2/ = k/sub 3/, where 0 <= ..omega../sub 1/ <= ..omega../sub 2/ <= ..omega../sub 3/ and k/sub 3/ >= 0. Such conditions are realized in our network and there exist two states: ''forward state'' (each group velocity is positive) and ''backward state'' (one of the group velocities is negative). The coupled equations of three waves has two constant pumps: high frequency (HF) pump and low frequency (LF) pump. Using linear approximations, we examine the possible types of parametric amplification and obtain the power gains depending on the frequency deviation. For only the case of HF pump we get the gain between signals with seme frequency and also get the gain from the low frequency signal to the high frequency signal (''up-conversion'') for the LF pump. The nonlinear analysis gives the exact relation between input and output signals. For the forward state the gain is absolutely suppressed by the ratio of pumping power to input power, while the gain of backward state has no finite maximum and there may appear an ''oscillating state'' if the pumping power is comparatively small.
Evaluation of Two Energy Balance Closure Parametrizations
Eder, Fabian; De Roo, Frederik; Kohnert, Katrin; Desjardins, Raymond L.; Schmid, Hans Peter; Mauder, Matthias
2014-05-01
A general lack of energy balance closure indicates that tower-based eddy-covariance (EC) measurements underestimate turbulent heat fluxes, which calls for robust correction schemes. Two parametrization approaches that can be found in the literature were tested using data from the Canadian Twin Otter research aircraft and from tower-based measurements of the German Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) programme. Our analysis shows that the approach of Huang et al. (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 127:273-292, 2008), based on large-eddy simulation, is not applicable to typical near-surface flux measurements because it was developed for heights above the surface layer and over homogeneous terrain. The biggest shortcoming of this parametrization is that the grid resolution of the model was too coarse so that the surface layer, where EC measurements are usually made, is not properly resolved. The empirical approach of Panin and Bernhofer (Izvestiya Atmos Oceanic Phys 44:701-716, 2008) considers landscape-level roughness heterogeneities that induce secondary circulations and at least gives a qualitative estimate of the energy balance closure. However, it does not consider any feature of landscape-scale heterogeneity other than surface roughness, such as surface temperature, surface moisture or topography. The failures of both approaches might indicate that the influence of mesoscale structures is not a sufficient explanation for the energy balance closure problem. However, our analysis of different wind-direction sectors shows that the upwind landscape-scale heterogeneity indeed influences the energy balance closure determined from tower flux data. We also analyzed the aircraft measurements with respect to the partitioning of the "missing energy" between sensible and latent heat fluxes and we could confirm the assumption of scalar similarity only for Bowen ratios 1.
Fast, Sequence Adaptive Parcellation of Brain MR Using Parametric Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Puonti, Oula; Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Van Leemput, Koen
2013-01-01
In this paper we propose a method for whole brain parcellation using the type of generative parametric models typically used in tissue classification. Compared to the non-parametric, multi-atlas segmentation techniques that have become popular in recent years, our method obtains state-of-the-art ...
Parametric Statistics of Individual Energy Levels in Random Hamiltonians
Smolyarenko, I. E.; Simons, B. D.
2002-01-01
We establish a general framework to explore parametric statistics of individual energy levels in disordered and chaotic quantum systems of unitary symmetry. The method is applied to the calculation of the universal intra-level parametric velocity correlation function and the distribution of level shifts under the influence of an arbitrary external perturbation.
Design and development of a parametrically excited nonlinear energy harvester
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yildirim, Tanju; Ghayesh, Mergen H.; Li, Weihua; Alici, Gursel
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A parametrically broadband energy harvester was fabricated. • Strong softening-type nonlinear behaviour was observed. • Experiments were conducted showing the large bandwidth of the device. - Abstract: An energy harvester has been designed, fabricated and tested based on the nonlinear dynamical response of a parametrically excited clamped-clamped beam with a central point-mass; magnets have been used as the central point-mass which pass through a coil when parametrically excited. Experiments have been conducted for the energy harvester when the system is excited (i) harmonically near the primary resonance; (ii) harmonically near the principal parametric resonance; (iii) by means of a non-smooth periodic excitation. An electrodynamic shaker was used to parametrically excite the system and the corresponding displacement of the magnet and output voltages of the coil were measured. It has been shown that the system displays linear behaviour at the primary resonance; however, at the principal parametric resonance, the motion characteristic of the magnet substantially changed displaying a strong softening-type nonlinearity. Theoretical simulations have also been conducted in order to verify the experimental results; the comparison between theory and experiment were within very good agreement of each other. The energy harvester developed in this paper is capable of harvesting energy close to the primary resonance as well as the principal parametric resonance; the frequency-band has been broadened significantly mainly due to the nonlinear effects as well as the parametric excitation.