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Sample records for parameters ballabeina study

  1. Influence of a lifestyle intervention in preschool children on physiological and psychological parameters (Ballabeina: study design of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niederer Iris

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity and physical inactivity are increasing dramatically worldwide. Children of low socioeconomic status and/or children of migrant background are especially at risk. In general, the overall effectiveness of school-based programs on health-related outcomes has been disappointing. A special gap exists for younger children and in high risk groups. Methods/Design This paper describes the rationale, design, curriculum, and evaluation of a multicenter preschool randomized intervention study conducted in areas with a high migrant population in two out of 26 Swiss cantons. Twenty preschool classes in the German (canton St. Gallen and another 20 in the French (canton Vaud part of Switzerland were separately selected and randomized to an intervention and a control arm by the use of opaque envelopes. The multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention aimed to increase physical activity and sleep duration, to reinforce healthy nutrition and eating behaviour, and to reduce media use. According to the ecological model, it included children, their parents and the teachers. The regular teachers performed the majority of the intervention and were supported by a local health promoter. The intervention included physical activity lessons, adaptation of the built infrastructure; promotion of regional extracurricular physical activity; playful lessons about nutrition, media use and sleep, funny homework cards and information materials for teachers and parents. It lasted one school year. Baseline and post-intervention evaluations were performed in both arms. Primary outcome measures included BMI and aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle run test. Secondary outcomes included total (skinfolds, bioelectrical impedance and central (waist circumference body fat, motor abilities (obstacle course, static and dynamic balance, physical activity and sleep duration (accelerometry and questionnaires, nutritional behaviour and food intake, media use, quality of

  2. Influence of a lifestyle intervention in preschool children on physiological and psychological parameters (Ballabeina): study design of a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Iris; Kriemler, Susi; Zahner, Lukas; Bürgi, Flavia; Ebenegger, Vincent; Hartmann, Tim; Meyer, Ursina; Schindler, Christian; Nydegger, Andreas; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J

    2009-03-31

    Childhood obesity and physical inactivity are increasing dramatically worldwide. Children of low socioeconomic status and/or children of migrant background are especially at risk. In general, the overall effectiveness of school-based programs on health-related outcomes has been disappointing. A special gap exists for younger children and in high risk groups. This paper describes the rationale, design, curriculum, and evaluation of a multicenter preschool randomized intervention study conducted in areas with a high migrant population in two out of 26 Swiss cantons. Twenty preschool classes in the German (canton St. Gallen) and another 20 in the French (canton Vaud) part of Switzerland were separately selected and randomized to an intervention and a control arm by the use of opaque envelopes. The multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention aimed to increase physical activity and sleep duration, to reinforce healthy nutrition and eating behaviour, and to reduce media use. According to the ecological model, it included children, their parents and the teachers. The regular teachers performed the majority of the intervention and were supported by a local health promoter. The intervention included physical activity lessons, adaptation of the built infrastructure; promotion of regional extracurricular physical activity; playful lessons about nutrition, media use and sleep, funny homework cards and information materials for teachers and parents. It lasted one school year. Baseline and post-intervention evaluations were performed in both arms. Primary outcome measures included BMI and aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle run test). Secondary outcomes included total (skinfolds, bioelectrical impedance) and central (waist circumference) body fat, motor abilities (obstacle course, static and dynamic balance), physical activity and sleep duration (accelerometry and questionnaires), nutritional behaviour and food intake, media use, quality of life and signs of hyperactivity (questionnaires

  3. Psychosocial Quality-of-Life, Lifestyle and Adiposity: A Longitudinal Study in Pre-schoolers (Ballabeina Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Nathalie; Susi, Kriemler; Marques-Vidal, Pedro M; Nydegger, Andreas; Puder, Jardena J

    2016-06-01

    In obesity prevention, understanding psychosocial influences in early life is pivotal. Reviews reported contradictory results and a lack of longitudinal studies focusing on underlying lifestyle factors. This study tested whether psychosocial Quality-Of-Life (QOL) was associated with pre-schoolers' lifestyle and adiposity changes over one school year and whether lifestyle moderated the latter. It was hypothesised that QOL might not impact adiposity in everybody but that this might depend on preceding lifestyle. Longitudinal data from 291 Swiss pre-schoolers (initially 3.9-6.3 years) was available. The following measures were used in longitudinal regressions: psychosocial QOL by PedsQL, adiposity (BMI z-score, waist, fat%), diet (food frequency), sedentary time and accelerometer-based activity. Concerning lifestyle, low psychosocial QOL was only related to unfavourable changes in diet (less fruit β = 0.21 and more fat intake β = -0.28) and lower physical activity (β = 0.21). Longitudinal QOL-adiposity relations appeared only after moderation by lifestyle factors (beta-range 0.13-0.67). Low psychosocial QOL was associated with increased adiposity in children with an unhealthy diet intake or high sedentary time. By contrast, low psychosocial QOL was associated with decreasing adiposity in high fruit consumers or more physically active pre-schoolers. Results emphasise the need for testing moderation in the QOL-adiposity relation. An unhealthy diet can be a vulnerability factor and high physical activity a protective factor in QOL-related adiposity. Consequently, QOL and lifestyle should be targeted concurrently in multi-factorial obesity prevention. The environment should be an 'activity encouraging, healthy food zone' that minimises opportunities for stress-induced eating. In addition, appropriate stress coping skills should be acquired.

  4. Relationship of aerobic fitness and motor skills with memory and attention in preschoolers (Ballabeina: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barral Jérôme

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The debate about a possible relationship between aerobic fitness and motor skills with cognitive development in children has recently re-emerged, because of the decrease in children's aerobic fitness and the concomitant pressure of schools to enhance cognitive performance. As the literature in young children is scarce, we examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship of aerobic fitness and motor skills with spatial working memory and attention in preschool children. Methods Data from 245 ethnically diverse preschool children (mean age: 5.2 (0.6 years, girls: 49.4% analyzed at baseline and 9 months later. Assessments included aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle run and motor skills with agility (obstacle course and dynamic balance (balance beam. Cognitive parameters included spatial working memory (IDS and attention (KHV-VK. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, BMI, migration status, parental education, native language and linguistic region. Longitudinal analyses were additionally adjusted for the respective baseline value. Results In the cross-sectional analysis, aerobic fitness was associated with better attention (r = 0.16, p = 0.03. A shorter time in the agility test was independently associated with a better performance both in working memory (r = -0.17, p = 0.01 and in attention (r = -0.20, p = 0.01. In the longitudinal analyses, baseline aerobic fitness was independently related to improvements in attention (r = 0.16, p = 0.03, while baseline dynamic balance was associated with improvements in working memory (r = 0.15, p = 0.04. Conclusions In young children, higher baseline aerobic fitness and motor skills were related to a better spatial working memory and/or attention at baseline, and to some extent also to their future improvements over the following 9 months. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT00674544

  5. ATLAS parameter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to make an independent assessment on the parameters chosen for the ATLAS capacitor bank at LANL. The contractor will perform a study of the basic pulsed power parameters of the ATLAS device with baseline functional parameters of >25 MA implosion current and <2.5 microsecond current risetime. Nominal circuit parameters held fixed will be the 14 nH from the vacuum interface to the load, and the nominal load impedances of 1 milliohm for slow loads and 10 milliohms for fast loads. Single Ended designs, as opposed to bipolar designs, will be studied in detail. The ATLAS pulsed power design problem is about inductance. The reason that a 36 MJ bank is required is that such a bank has enough individual capacitors so that the parallel inductance is acceptably low. Since about half the inductance is in the bank, and the inductance and time constant of the submodules is fixed, the variation of output with a given parameter will generally be a weak one. In general, the dl/dt calculation demonstrates that for the real system inductances, 700 kV is the optimum voltage for the bank to drive X-ray loads. The optimum is broad, and there is little reduction in performance at voltages as low as 450 kV. The direct drive velocity analysis also shows that the optimum velocity is between 480 and 800 kV for a variety of assumptions, and that there is less than a 10% variation in velocity over this range. Voltages in the 120 kV--600 kV range are desirable for driving heavy liners. A compromise optimum operating point might be 480 kV, at which all X-ray operation scenarios are within 10% of their velocity optimum, and heavy liners can be configured to be near optimum if small enough. Based on very preliminary studies the author believes that the choice of a single operating voltage point (say, 480 kV) is unnecessary, and that a bank engineered for dual operation at 480 and 240 kV will be the best solution to the ATLAS problem

  6. Comet Halley, parameter study I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, W.F.; Fikani, M.M.

    1982-06-01

    To aid in defining a mission to comet P/Halley, its inner coma is simulated by a computer program that models time-dependent chemical reactions in a radially and isentropically expanding gas, taking into account attenuation of solar ultraviolet radiation in the subsolar direction. Column density predictions are based on intelligently selected combinations of poorly known values for nucleus parameters that include size, visual albedo, and infrared emissivity. Only one chemical composition and a minor modification of it are considered here; the dust-to-gas ratio in this model is zero. Although the somewhat optimistically volatile composition chosen here favors a smaller nucleus, a mean nuclear radius of only 0.5 km is unlikely. No significant increase of molecular column density is predicted by this model as a spacecraft approaches, once it is less than a few 10 4 km from the nucleus. Predictions are made for various heliocentric distances of interest for comet missions and for ground observations

  7. A Parameter Study of Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandor Stephen Mester

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive work has been done on the vibration characteristics of perfectly periodic structures. Disorder in the periodic pattern has been found to lead to localization in one-dimensional periodic structures. It is important to understand localization because it causes energy to be concentrated near the disorder and may cause an overestimation of structural damping. A numerical study is conducted to obtain a better understanding of localization. It is found that any mode, even the first, can localize due to the presence of small imperfections.

  8. Qualitative Parameters of Practice during University Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiunaitiene, Egle; Norkute, Odeta

    2011-01-01

    In this article, relevance of practice during university studies is highlighted, as well as the main stages of its organisation, qualitative parameters, as well as criteria and indicators that validate them are defined. Discussion on the idea that taking into consideration qualitative parameters of organising practice as a component of studies…

  9. Program for parameter studies of steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathisen, R.P.

    1982-11-01

    R2-GEN is a computer code for stationary thermal parameter studies of steam generators. The geometry and data are valid for Ringhals-2 generators. Subroutines and relevant calculations are included. The program is based on a heterogeneous flow model and some applications on tubes with varying contamination are presented. (G.B.)

  10. Study of electroweak parameters at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, W.

    1991-10-01

    The measurement of the line shape and asymmetry parameters of the Z 0 in its leptonic and hadronic decays are reviewed. Progress is reported about a considerable increase in measurement accuracy. Several tests of the Standard Model confirm it to better than one per cent. New values for the effective mixing parameter are derived from the line shape parameters averaged over the four LEP experiments. The corresponding limits on the top mass are presented. (orig.)

  11. Fuel cycle parameters for strategy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archinoff, G.H.

    1979-05-01

    This report summarizes seven fuel cycle parameters (efficiency, specific power, burnup, equilibrium net fissile feed, equilibrium net fissile surplus, first charge fissile content, and whether or not fuel reprocessing is required) to be used in long-term strategy analyses of fuel cycles based on natural UO 2 , low enriched uranium, mixed oxides, plutonium topped thorium, uranium topped thorium, and the fast breeder oxide cycle. (LL)

  12. Study and analysis of drift chamber parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Laso, L.

    1988-01-01

    The present work deals mainly with drift chambers. In the first chapter a summary of drift chamber properties is presented. The information has been collected from the extensive bibliography available in this field. A very simple calculation procedure of drift chamber parameters has been developed and is presented in detail in the second chapter. Some prototypes have been made following two geometries (multidrift chamber and Z-chambers). Several installations have been used for test and calibration of these prototypes. A complete description of these installations is given in the third chapter. Cosmic rays, beta particles from a Ru106 radiactive source and a test beam in the WA (West Area) of SPS at CERN have been used for experimental purposes. The analysis and the results are described for the different setups. The experimental measurements have been used to produce a complete cell parametrization (position as function of drift time) and to obtain spatial resolution values (in the range of 200-250 um). Experimental results are in good agreement with numerical calculations. (Author)

  13. Multi-parameter study of gammas capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samama, R.; Nifenecker, H.; Carlos, P.; Delaitre, B.

    1966-06-01

    This equipment is intended for analyzing, recording, and reading simultaneous information from several 'gamma' detectors. It allows multiparameter study of γ-γ cascades emitted after thermal neutrons capture. (authors) [fr

  14. Socio-cultural determinants of adiposity and physical activity in preschool children: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürgi, Flavia; Meyer, Ursina; Niederer, Iris; Ebenegger, Vincent; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Granacher, Urs; Kriemler, Susi; Puder, Jardena J

    2010-11-26

    Both individual socio-cultural determinants such as selected parental characteristics (migrant background, low educational level and workload) as well as the regional environment are related to childhood overweight and physical activity (PA). The purpose of the study was to compare the impact of distinct socio-cultural determinants such as the regional environment and selected parental characteristics on adiposity, PA and motor skills in preschool children. Forty preschools (N = 542 children) of two culturally different urban regions (German and French speaking part of Switzerland) participated in the study (Ballabeina Study). Outcome measures included adiposity (BMI and skinfold thickness), objectively measured sedentary activities and PA (accelerometers) and agility performance (obstacle course). Parental characteristics (migrant status, educational level and workload) were assessed by questionnaire. Children from the French speaking areas had higher adiposity, lower levels of total and of more intense PA, were more sedentary and less agile than children from the German speaking regions (percent differences for all outcome parameters except for BMI ≥10%; all p ≤ 0.04). Differences in skinfold thickness, sedentary activities and agility, but not in PA, were also found between children of Swiss and migrant parents, though they were ≤8% (p ≤ 0.02). While paternal workload had no effect, maternal workload and parental education resulted in differences in some PA measures and/or agility performance (percent differences in both: ≤9%, p ≤ 0.008), but not in adiposity or sedentary activities (p = NS). Regional differences in skinfold thickness, PA, sedentary activities and agility performance persisted after adjustment for parental socio-cultural characteristics, parental BMI and, where applicable, children's skinfolds (all p ≤ 0.01). The regional environment, especially the broader social environment, plays a prominent role in determining adiposity, PA and

  15. Socio-cultural determinants of adiposity and physical activity in preschool children: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriemler Susi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both individual socio-cultural determinants such as selected parental characteristics (migrant background, low educational level and workload as well as the regional environment are related to childhood overweight and physical activity (PA. The purpose of the study was to compare the impact of distinct socio-cultural determinants such as the regional environment and selected parental characteristics on adiposity, PA and motor skills in preschool children. Methods Forty preschools (N = 542 children of two culturally different urban regions (German and French speaking part of Switzerland participated in the study (Ballabeina Study. Outcome measures included adiposity (BMI and skinfold thickness, objectively measured sedentary activities and PA (accelerometers and agility performance (obstacle course. Parental characteristics (migrant status, educational level and workload were assessed by questionnaire. Results Children from the French speaking areas had higher adiposity, lower levels of total and of more intense PA, were more sedentary and less agile than children from the German speaking regions (percent differences for all outcome parameters except for BMI ≥10%; all p ≤ 0.04. Differences in skinfold thickness, sedentary activities and agility, but not in PA, were also found between children of Swiss and migrant parents, though they were ≤8% (p ≤ 0.02. While paternal workload had no effect, maternal workload and parental education resulted in differences in some PA measures and/or agility performance (percent differences in both: ≤9%, p ≤ 0.008, but not in adiposity or sedentary activities (p = NS. Regional differences in skinfold thickness, PA, sedentary activities and agility performance persisted after adjustment for parental socio-cultural characteristics, parental BMI and, where applicable, children's skinfolds (all p ≤ 0.01. Conclusions The regional environment, especially the broader social environment

  16. Study of photodissociation parameters of carboxyhemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'min, V V; Salmin, V V; Provorov, A S; Salmina, A B

    2008-01-01

    The general properties of photodissociation of carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) in buffer solutions of whole human blood are studied by the flash photolysis method on a setup with intersecting beams. It is shown that the efficiency of photoinduced dissociation of the HbCO complex virtually linearly depends on the photolytic irradiation intensity for the average power density not exceeding 45 mW cm -2 . The general dissociation of the HbCO complex in native conditions occurs in a narrower range of values of the saturation degree than in model experiments with the hemoglobin solution. The dependence of the pulse photolysis efficiency of HbCO on the photolytic radiation wavelength in the range from 550 to 585 nm has a broad bell shape. The efficiency maximum corresponds to the electronic Q transition (porphyrin π-π* absorption) in HbCO at a wavelength of 570 nm. No dissociation of the complex was observed under given experimental conditions upon irradiation of solutions by photolytic radiation at wavelengths above 585 nm. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  17. The study of multiple PET reconstructed parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, D. Y.; Tian, J.

    2000-01-01

    PET, compared with SPECT, uses some similar techniques in image reconstruction, on the other hand, there are some difference on the techniques. A phantom experiment was conducted and the result was evaluated objectively through quantitative analysis in order to find ideal filter and cutoff frequency (Fc) for clinical application. The PET phantom have 6 solid inserts (cold) in the upper half and 6 hollow ones (hot) in the lower part. The middle insert is 1cm in diameter, the outer five have diameters of 1 to 3cm respectively. The phantom filled with 111 MBq 18 FDG and studied with segmentation acquisition. 25 set of images were reconstructed using HANN, HAMM, PARZEN, BUTTERWORTH, BUTTERWORTH2 filter and 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 Fe successively.A ROI of 4*4 pixels was drawn over middle 1 cm, outer 1cm, 3 cm cold column area and background area, the ratio between the ROI of cold column and background was calculated to evaluate the image contrast. A ROI of 15*15 pixels was drawn on the background area to get s.d as a judgement of image noise. A profile curve was drawn on the hollow column of middle 1 cm and outer 1 cm and their FWHM were compared with the real diameter to reflect linearity. With the same Fc, the contrast using HANN and HAMM filter was superior to other filter, The effect of the filter on image noise is listed in high to low order as HAMM, HANN, BUTTERWORTH, PARZEN and BUTTERWORTH2. The higher Fc, the higher image noise. The FWHM will increases as the Fc value decreases. With same Fc, the FWHM of different filter from small to big is HAMM, BUTTERWORTH, HANN, PARZEN, BUTTERWORTH2. The outer FWHM is larger than the middle one. For brain image, we suggest HAMM and HANN with Fc 0.3, 0.4 For image demanding lower resolution, we suggest BUTTERWORTH with Fc 0.4, 0.5, 2. For hot image, we can increase Fc to get high resolution. The FWHM value closed to the real value when HANN, HANN with Fc 0.3 and BUTTERWORTH with Fc 0.2. The 5% difference of FWHM between

  18. A Comparative Study of Distribution System Parameter Estimation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yannan; Williams, Tess L.; Gourisetti, Sri Nikhil Gup

    2016-07-17

    In this paper, we compare two parameter estimation methods for distribution systems: residual sensitivity analysis and state-vector augmentation with a Kalman filter. These two methods were originally proposed for transmission systems, and are still the most commonly used methods for parameter estimation. Distribution systems have much lower measurement redundancy than transmission systems. Therefore, estimating parameters is much more difficult. To increase the robustness of parameter estimation, the two methods are applied with combined measurement snapshots (measurement sets taken at different points in time), so that the redundancy for computing the parameter values is increased. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods are discussed. The results of this paper show that state-vector augmentation is a better approach for parameter estimation in distribution systems. Simulation studies are done on a modified version of IEEE 13-Node Test Feeder with varying levels of measurement noise and non-zero error in the other system model parameters.

  19. An experimental study on effect of process parameters in deep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of various deep drawing process parameters were determined by experimental study with the use of Taguchi fractional factorial design and analysis of variance for AA6111 Aluminum alloy. The optimum process parameters were determined based on their influence on the thickness variation at different regions ...

  20. Study of excitation energy dependence of nuclear level density parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanto, G.; Nayak, B.K.; Saxena, A.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we have populated CN by fusion reaction and excitation energy of the intermediate nuclei is determined after first chance α-emission to investigate excitation energy dependence of the NLD parameter. Evaporated neutron spectra were measured following alpha evaporation for obtaining NLD parameter for the reaction 11 B + 197 Au, populating CN 208 Po. This CN after evaporating an α-particle populates intermediate nucleus 204 Pb. The 204 Pb has magic number of Z=82. Our aim is to study the excitation energy dependence of NLD parameter for closed shell nuclei

  1. Astrophysical parameters of ten poorly studied open star clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadross, Ashraf Latif; El-Bendary, Reda; Osman, Anas; Ismail, Nader; Bakry, Abdel Aziz

    2012-01-01

    We present the fundamental parameters of ten open star clusters, nominated from Kronberger et al. who presented some newly discovered stellar groups on the basis of the Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry and Digitized Sky Survey visual images. Star counts and photometric parameters (radius, membership, distance, color excess, age, luminosity function, mass function, total mass, and dynamical relaxation time) have been determined for these ten clusters for the first time. In order to calibrate our procedures, the main parameters (distance, age, and color excess) have been re-estimated for another five clusters, which are also studied by Kronberger et al. (research papers)

  2. Delivery parameters, neonatal parameters and incidence of urinary incontinence six months postpartum: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesnes, Stian Langeland; Hannestad, Yngvild; Rortveit, Guri

    2017-10-01

    Contradictory results have been reported regarding most delivery parameters as risk factors for urinary incontinence. We investigated the association between the incidence of urinary incontinence six months postpartum and single obstetric risk factors as well as combinations of risk factors. This study was based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health during 1998-2008. This substudy was based on 7561 primiparous women who were continent before and during pregnancy. Data were obtained from questionnaires answered at weeks 15 and 30 of pregnancy and six months postpartum. Data were linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Single and combined delivery- and neonatal parameters were analyzed by logistic regression analyses. Birthweight was associated with significantly higher risk of urinary incontinence six months postpartum [3541-4180 g: odds ratio (OR) 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-1.6; >4180 g: OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.0]. Fetal presentation, obstetric anal sphincter injuries, episiotomy and epidural analgesia were not significantly associated with increased risk of urinary incontinence. The following combinations of risk factors among women delivering by spontaneous vaginal delivery increased the risk of urinary incontinence six months postpartum; birthweight ≥3540 g and ≥36 cm head circumference; birthweight ≥3540 g and forceps, birthweight ≥3540 g and episiotomy; and ≥36 cm head circumference and episiotomy. Some combinations of delivery parameters and neonatal parameters seem to act together and may increase the risk of incidence of urinary incontinence six months postpartum in a synergetic way. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Spillover effects in epidemiology: parameters, study designs and methodological considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin-Chung, Jade; Arnold, Benjamin F; Berger, David; Luby, Stephen P; Miguel, Edward; Colford Jr, John M; Hubbard, Alan E

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Many public health interventions provide benefits that extend beyond their direct recipients and impact people in close physical or social proximity who did not directly receive the intervention themselves. A classic example of this phenomenon is the herd protection provided by many vaccines. If these ‘spillover effects’ (i.e. ‘herd effects’) are present in the same direction as the effects on the intended recipients, studies that only estimate direct effects on recipients will likely underestimate the full public health benefits of the intervention. Causal inference assumptions for spillover parameters have been articulated in the vaccine literature, but many studies measuring spillovers of other types of public health interventions have not drawn upon that literature. In conjunction with a systematic review we conducted of spillovers of public health interventions delivered in low- and middle-income countries, we classified the most widely used spillover parameters reported in the empirical literature into a standard notation. General classes of spillover parameters include: cluster-level spillovers; spillovers conditional on treatment or outcome density, distance or the number of treated social network links; and vaccine efficacy parameters related to spillovers. We draw on high quality empirical examples to illustrate each of these parameters. We describe study designs to estimate spillovers and assumptions required to make causal inferences about spillovers. We aim to advance and encourage methods for spillover estimation and reporting by standardizing spillover parameter nomenclature and articulating the causal inference assumptions required to estimate spillovers. PMID:29106568

  4. Reactor parameters for European economic, safety and environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancox, R.; Cooke, P.I.H.; Spears, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Parameter sets for five 1200 MW e tokamak reactors were developed for the European Study Group on the Environmental, Safety-related and Economic Potential of Fusion Power, showing today's perception of the range of reactors likely to be available as a result of the Commission's fusion programme. On the basis of the cost of generating electricity, relative to a fission reactor, a reference set was chosen and endorsed by the Group for further studies including that on the environmental impact of fusion power. Key physics and technology parameters for the reference reactor are compared with values used in the ITER design, and with those from American studies. (author)

  5. Study on the Energetic Parameters in a Photothermic Sensor with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on the Energetic Parameters in a Photothermic Sensor with Black Polymeric Film. ... The evolution of incidental solar illumination on the horizontal plan of sensor and the temperature distribution are studied. Results showed that the ... Keywords: film, solar energy, greenhouse effect, design, radiation, illumination.

  6. A numerical study of non-linear crack tip parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.V. Antunes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Crack closure concept has been widely used to explain different issues of fatigue crack propagation. However, different authors have questioned the relevance of crack closure and have proposed alternative concepts. The main objective here is to check the effectiveness of crack closure concept by linking the contact of crack flanks with non-linear crack tip parameters. Accordingly, 3D-FE numerical models with and without contact were developed for a wide range of loading scenarios and the crack tip parameters usually linked to fatigue crack growth, namely range of cyclic plastic strain, crack tip opening displacement, size of reversed plastic zone and total plastic dissipation per cycle, were investigated. It was demonstrated that: i LEFM concepts are applicable to the problem under study; ii the crack closure phenomenon has a great influence on crack tip parameters decreasing their values; iii the Keff concept is able to explain the variations of crack tip parameters produced by the contact of crack flanks; iv the analysis of remote compliance is the best numerical parameter to quantify the crack opening level; v without contact there is no effect of stress ratio on crack tip parameters. Therefore it is proved that the crack closure concept is valid.

  7. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN HERZEGOVINIAN DONKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Rukavina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Herzegovinian donkey is a very important animal resource of Bosnia and Herzegovina. There have been no works attempted at determining the normal values of hematological parameters of Herzegovinian donkey. For this reason, the objective of the present study was to investigate some hematological parameters in Herzegovinian donkey. The research was performed on 30 apparently healthy donkeys (18 female and 12 male of ages from 1 to 20 years. Blood samples (3 ml were obtained by jugular vein puncture (vena jugularis externa in vacuum tubes with EDTA. The mean value of hematocrit was 29.19 %, hemoglobin concentration 10.6 g/dl, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 36.33 g/dl, white blood cells 9.33 x109/L, granulocytes (109/L 5.45 x109/L, granulocytes (% 59.47%, lymphocyte/monocyte (109/L 3.89 x109/L, lymphocyte/monocyte (% 40.53% and platelet cells 148.97 x109/L. Parameters were determined using an automated analyzer IDEXX QBC VET AutoRead. Data were analyzed by SPSS V 15. All hematological parameters (except platelet cells were consistent with the recommended reference ranges for donkeys, and the values found in literature so far. Platelet cells values were much lower than in the literature for the other donkey breeds and the recommended reference ranges for donkeys. The slight differences found between our results and those reported in the previous works confirm the need for further studies to investigate the reference values of hematological parameters of Herzegovinian donkey. This work is a contribution to the study of hematological parameters of Herzegovinian donkey, and we expect these data to be applied to the further studies.

  8. The normative study of acoustic parameters in normal Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yehia A. Abo-Ras

    2013-03-21

    Mar 21, 2013 ... all children were subjected to computerized acoustic analysis using Multidimensional voice program ... cal quality is important for social relations to happen effectively. ... lish comparative parameters with the normal values of the acoustic ... from lower age ranges in the normative studies since the child's.

  9. Developing the Parameters of Scholarship in Postgraduate Coursework Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLay, Allan F.

    2013-01-01

    Scholarship parameters, in relation to postgraduate coursework studies, are developed against the expectations of the Boyer classifications of scholarship (Boyer, 1990) with particular emphasis on the role of minor thesis development. An example is presented in which postgraduate coursework students are required to undertake a three semester minor…

  10. Parameters of importance to determine in geoscientific site studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Almen, K.E.; Ericsson, L.O.; Karlsson, Fred; Stroem, A.; Fredriksson, Anders; Stanfors, R.

    1996-12-01

    This report identifies and describes parameters, that may be determined in a site characterization study, for performing functional and safety analyses of a deep rock repository for radioactive wastes. The report discusses data needs for rock engineering and for description of other environmental aspects. It is intended that the report be used as a basis for formulating the criteria of acceptance in evaluating a candidate site. The report describes how different parameters influence the safety function, and how they are evaluated in practice. The logical order of performing measurements, due to the need of in-data and influence on other measurements is also discussed. 65 refs

  11. Monte Carlo parameter studies and uncertainty analyses with MCNP5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, F. B.; Sweezy, J. E.; Hayes, R.

    2004-01-01

    A software tool called mcnp p study has been developed to automate the setup, execution, and collection of results from a series of MCNP5 Monte Carlo calculations. This tool provides a convenient means of performing parameter studies, total uncertainty analyses, parallel job execution on clusters, stochastic geometry modeling, and other types of calculations where a series of MCNP5 jobs must be performed with varying problem input specifications. (authors)

  12. Study of pipe-whip parameters in pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreiro, J.N.C.; Loula, A.F.D.; Galeao, A.C.N.R.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of the high energy pipe-whip, assuming an elastic-plastic behavior for the tube material and taking in account the internal pressure, is studied. The constraints are simulated as bilinear springs and viscous dampers. A general research, based on the finite element method was developed to analyse the phenomenon. The influence of the following parameters: gap, damping coefficient, stiffness, constraints positioning and internal pressure of the tube is studied. (Author) [pt

  13. Parameter studies for a two-component fusion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towner, H.H.

    1975-01-01

    The sensitivity of the energy multiplication of a two-component fusion experiment is examined relative to the following parameters: energy confinement time (tau/sub E/), particle confinement time (tau/sub p/), effective Z of the plasma (Z/sub eff/), injection rate (j/sub I/) and injection energy (E/sub I/). The Energy Research and Development Administration recently approved funding for such a fusion device (the Toroidal Fusion Test Reactor or TFTR) which will be built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Hence, such a parameter study seems both timely and necessary. This work also serves as an independent check on the design values proposed for the TFTR to enable it to achieve energy breakeven (F = 1). Using the nominal TFTR design parameters and a self-consistent ion-electron power balance, the maximum F-value is found to be approximately 1.2 which occurs at an injection energy of approximately 210 KeV. The injector operation, i.e. its current and energy capability are shown to be a very critical factor in the TFTR performance. However, if the injectors meet the design objectives, there appears to be sufficient latitude in the other parameters to offer reasonable assurance that energy breakeven can be achieved. (U.S.)

  14. Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety Project parameter study database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toffer, H.; Erickson, D.G.; Samuel, T.J.; Pearson, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    A computerized, knowledge-screened, comprehensive database of the nuclear criticality safety documentation has been assembled as part of the Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety (NCTS) Project. The database is focused on nuclear criticality parameter studies. The database has been computerized using dBASE III Plus and can be used on a personal computer or a workstation. More than 1300 documents have been reviewed by nuclear criticality specialists over the last 5 years to produce over 800 database entries. Nuclear criticality specialists will be able to access the database and retrieve information about topical parameter studies, authors, and chronology. The database places the accumulated knowledge in the nuclear criticality area over the last 50 years at the fingertips of a criticality analyst

  15. Geotechnical parameters for three deep ocean study areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the results of geotechnical measurements made on cores taken at the three deep ocean sites that have been studied in detail as part of the international programme assessing the feasibility of deep ocean disposal of heat-generating radioactive waste. The capabilities of existing sampling methods and the adequacy of the available data for providing the geotechnical parameters needed to evaluate the technical feasibility of deep ocean disposal are discussed. It is concluded that, while it has not been possible to obtain core samples of sufficient quality and depth to provide all the parameters needed for the assessment, no fundamental differences between the sediments at the study areas and those found on land or in shallow water have been identified. (author)

  16. Study of some physiological parameters among mobile phone users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, S.M.; Gabr, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    Forty male mobile users in additional to twenty males as control group similar in age and socio economically matched were chosen for this study. Blood pressure, complete blood picture, five parameters of semen quality and four sex hormones (LH, FSH, prolactin and testosterone)were measured. Elevated significant differences for blood pressure (P<0.01) for the exposed group and some changes in mean values of haematologic parameters, although all values were within the normal range. Minor semen quality and hormonal levels changes between the two groups, including a higher mean follicle-stimulating hormone level; for mobile users (8.10 vs 6.00 mIU/mL), and a slightly higher mean luteinizing hormone level (11.73 vs 10.16 mLU/mL) were noted in the user group

  17. Seismic analysis of steam generator and parameter sensitivity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Hao; Xu Dinggen; Yang Ren'an; Liang Xingyun

    2013-01-01

    Background: The steam generator (SG) serves as the primary means for removing the heat generated within the reactor core and is part of the reactor coolant system (RCS) pressure boundary. Purpose: Seismic analysis in required for SG, whose seismic category is Cat. I. Methods: The analysis model of SG is created with moisture separator assembly and tube bundle assembly herein. The seismic analysis is performed with RCS pipe and Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV). Results: The seismic stress results of SG are obtained. In addition, parameter sensitivities of seismic analysis results are studied, such as the effect of another SG, support, anti-vibration bars (AVBs), and so on. Our results show that seismic results are sensitive to support and AVBs setting. Conclusions: The guidance and comments on these parameters are summarized for equipment design and analysis, which should be focused on in future new type NPP SG's research and design. (authors)

  18. POPULATION SYNTHESIS OF HOT SUBDWARFS: A PARAMETER STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, Drew; Wade, Richard A.; Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; O'Shaughnessy, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Binaries that contain a hot subdwarf (sdB) star and a main-sequence companion may have interacted in the past. This binary population has historically helped determine our understanding of binary stellar evolution. We have computed a grid of binary population synthesis models using different assumptions about the minimum core mass for helium ignition, the envelope binding energy, the common-envelope ejection efficiency, the amount of mass and angular momentum lost during stable mass transfer, and the criteria for stable mass transfer on the red giant branch and in the Hertzsprung gap. These parameters separately and together can significantly change the entire predicted population of sdBs. Nonetheless, several different parameter sets can reproduce the observed subpopulation of sdB + white dwarf and sdB + M dwarf binaries, which has been used to constrain these parameters in previous studies. The period distribution of sdB + early F dwarf binaries offers a better test of different mass transfer scenarios for stars that fill their Roche lobes on the red giant branch.

  19. Study of Temperature Coefficients for Parameters of Photovoltaic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Tudor Cotfas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature is one of the most important factors which affect the performance of the photovoltaic cells and panels along with the irradiance. The current voltage characteristics, I-V, are measured at different temperatures from 25°C to 87°C and at different illumination levels from 400 to 1000 W/m2, because there are locations where the upper limit of the photovoltaic cells working temperature exceeds 80°C. This study reports the influence of the temperature and the irradiance on the important parameters of four commercial photovoltaic cell types: monocrystalline silicon—mSi, polycrystalline silicon—pSi, amorphous silicon—aSi, and multijunction InGaP/InGaAs/Ge (Emcore. The absolute and normalized temperature coefficients are determined and compared with their values from the related literature. The variation of the absolute temperature coefficient function of the irradiance and its significance to accurately determine the important parameters of the photovoltaic cells are also presented. The analysis is made on different types of photovoltaics cells in order to understand the effects of technology on temperature coefficients. The comparison between the open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current was also performed, calculated using the temperature coefficients, determined, and measured, in various conditions. The measurements are realized using the SolarLab system, and the photovoltaic cell parameters are determined and compared using the LabVIEW software created for SolarLab system.

  20. Study on parameter identification and control of ground temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Keiichi; Suzuki, Seiichi; Kawahara, Mutsuto.

    1995-01-01

    A numerical thermal management system for ground structure is presented. The system consists of two parts, i.e. the identification analysis of the thermal conductivity and the thermal control analysis for the ground. The former is carried out by using the nonlinear least squares method and the latter is based on the optimal control theory. The formulations of these methods are presented and they are applied to an laboratory test. A reasonable thermal conductivity of the ground is identified by parameter estimation method and the ground temperature is actually controled as illustrated by numerical and experimental study. (author)

  1. Studying the noise parameters of thin-film silicon resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belogurov, S.V.; Gostilo, V.V.; Yurov, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    The results of studies on spectral density and energy noise equivalent of thin-film resistors on the base of amorphous silicon and KIM and KVM commercial high-ohmic resistors are presented. Dependence of the active part of impedance on frequency is shown to be the main source of redundant noise in resistors. Dependence of spectral density of noise voltage of current noises of silicon resistors on applied voltage is described by the formula S T =B V 2 /f 1.6 with the values B=(1.4-1.7)x10 -12 Hz 0.6 . As to noise parameters the silicon resistor is superior to commercial resistors

  2. Study of nuclear level density parameter and its temperature dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasrabadi, M. N.; Behkami, A. N.

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear level density ρ is the basic ingredient required for theoretical studies of nuclear reaction and structure. It describes the statistical nuclear properties and is expressed as a function of various constants of motion such as number of particles, excitation energy and angular momentum. In this work the energy and spin dependence of nuclear level density will be presented and discussed. In addition the level density parameter α will be extracted from this level density information, and its temperature and mass dependence will be obtained

  3. Characterizing parameters of Jatropha curcas cell cultures for microgravity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrame, Wagner A.; Pinares, Ania

    2013-06-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) is a tropical perennial species identified as a potential biofuel crop. The oil is of excellent quality and it has been successfully tested as biodiesel and in jet fuel mixes. However, studies on breeding and genetic improvement of jatropha are limited. Space offers a unique environment for experiments aiming at the assessment of mutations and differential gene expression of crops and in vitro cultures of plants are convenient for studies of genetic variation as affected by microgravity. However, before microgravity studies can be successfully performed, pre-flight experiments are necessary to characterize plant material and validate flight hardware environmental conditions. Such preliminary studies set the ground for subsequent spaceflight experiments. The objectives of this study were to compare the in vitro growth of cultures from three explant sources (cotyledon, leaf, and stem sections) of three jatropha accessions (Brazil, India, and Tanzania) outside and inside the petriGAP, a modified group activation pack (GAP) flight hardware to fit petri dishes. In vitro jatropha cell cultures were established in petri dishes containing a modified MS medium and maintained in a plant growth chamber at 25 ± 2 °C in the dark. Parameters evaluated were surface area of the explant tissue (A), fresh weight (FW), and dry weight (DW) for a period of 12 weeks. Growth was observed for cultures from all accessions at week 12, including subsequent plantlet regeneration. For all accessions differences in A, FW and DW were observed for inside vs. outside the PetriGAPs. Growth parameters were affected by accession (genotype), explant type, and environment. The type of explant influenced the type of cell growth and subsequent plantlet regeneration capacity. However, overall cell growth showed no abnormalities. The present study demonstrated that jatropha in vitro cell cultures are suitable for growth inside PetriGAPs for a period of 12 weeks. The parameters

  4. Parameter uncertainty in simulations of extreme precipitation and attribution studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, B.; Collins, W. D.; O'Brien, T. A.; Risser, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    The attribution of extreme weather events, such as heavy rainfall, to anthropogenic influence involves the analysis of their probability in simulations of climate. The climate models used however, such as the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), employ approximate physics that gives rise to "parameter uncertainty"—uncertainty about the most accurate or optimal values of numerical parameters within the model. In particular, approximate parameterisations for convective processes are well known to be influential in the simulation of precipitation extremes. Towards examining the impact of this source of uncertainty on attribution studies, we investigate the importance of components—through their associated tuning parameters—of parameterisations relating to deep and shallow convection, and cloud and aerosol microphysics in CAM. We hypothesise that as numerical resolution is increased the change in proportion of variance induced by perturbed parameters associated with the respective components is consistent with the decreasing applicability of the underlying hydrostatic assumptions. For example, that the relative influence of deep convection should diminish as resolution approaches that where convection can be resolved numerically ( 10 km). We quantify the relationship between the relative proportion of variance induced and numerical resolution by conducting computer experiments that examine precipitation extremes over the contiguous U.S. In order to mitigate the enormous computational burden of running ensembles of long climate simulations, we use variable-resolution CAM and employ both extreme value theory and surrogate modelling techniques ("emulators"). We discuss the implications of the relationship between parameterised convective processes and resolution both in the context of attribution studies and progression towards models that fully resolve convection.

  5. Study of some parameters of the fibrinogen - fibrin transformation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollard, D.; Suscillon, M.; Marcille, G.; Rambaud, F.; Baloyan, M.

    1966-01-01

    The authors studied the action of some parameters on the reaction of transformation fibrinogen-fibrin. The five parameters studied are: the concentration of substratum: a certain quantity of enzyme determines an optimum quantity of fibrinogen; the concentration of enzyme: a certain quantity of substratum defines an optimum quantity of enzyme, beyond which the excess of enzyme is unable to act, the substratum being saturated by the enzyme; the concentration of Ca ions: between 0,07 and 0,10 mg of Ca by mg of fibrinogen, the reaction appears with a great speed. Between 0,02 and 0,40 mg of Ca by mg of fibrinogen the fibrin stabilisation is possible, the FSF can act only inside the definite bounds; the ph of the solution: the reaction of the transformation appears with its maximum intensity on physiological ph, the polymerisation is not possible on acid ph; the temperature has an effect which could not really be verified owing to the fact that the technical realisation is difficult. (author) [fr

  6. Study on Parameters Modeling of Wind Turbines Using SCADA Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonglong YAN

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Taking the advantage of the current massive monitoring data from Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA system of wind farm, it is of important significance for anomaly detection, early warning and fault diagnosis to build the data model of state parameters of wind turbines (WTs. The operational conditions and the relationships between the state parameters of wind turbines are complex. It is difficult to establish the model of state parameter accurately, and the modeling method of state parameters of wind turbines considering parameter selection is proposed. Firstly, by analyzing the characteristic of SCADA data, a reasonable range of data and monitoring parameters are chosen. Secondly, neural network algorithm is adapted, and the selection method of input parameters in the model is presented. Generator bearing temperature and cooling air temperature are regarded as target parameters, and the two models are built and input parameters of the models are selected, respectively. Finally, the parameter selection method in this paper and the method using genetic algorithm-partial least square (GA-PLS are analyzed comparatively, and the results show that the proposed methods are correct and effective. Furthermore, the modeling of two parameters illustrate that the method in this paper can applied to other state parameters of wind turbines.

  7. Studies on some biochemical parameters in viral hepatitis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherbiny, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    The present investigation deals with studying liver amino transferases (ALT. AST). Cholesterol and triglycerides. As well as testosterone and protection hormones in blood of Egyptian men infected with hepatitis C virus.hepatitis B virus and mixed B and C viruses. These biochemical parameters were evaluated to be used in diagnosis and prognosis of viral hepatitis. Which considered the most important health problem in Egypt and developing countries. Biochemical analysis were performed using spectrophotometric and radioimmunoassay techniques. All data will be subjected to statistical analysis in order to detect the most suitable biochemical analysis that can be used as specific tests for early diagnosis of viral hepatitis and to detect the parameters that show abnormalities among the different groups of infected patients. The data revealed that AST and ALT levels were increased in all patient groups. Concerning the level of triglycerides, it was increased only in the group of mixed viral hepatitis B and C, while cholesterol showed non-significant changes in all viral hepatitis groups. The sex hormone testosterone was decreased in all infected patients while the prolactin level was increased only in case of patients infected with mixed B and C viruses. However, these abnormal values in such sex hormones play a serious role in male sterility

  8. Study of Operating Parameters for Accelerated Anode Degradation in SOFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploner, Alexandra; Hagen, Anke; Hauch, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications require lifetimes of several years on the system level. A big challenge is to demonstrate such exceptionally long lifetimes in ongoing R&D projects. Accelerated or compressed testing are alternative methods to obtain this. Activities in this area have been...... carried out without arriving at a generally accepted methodology. This is mainly due to the complexity of degradation mechanisms on the single SOFC components as function of operating parameters. In this study, we present a detailed analysis of approx. 180 durability tests regarding degradation of single...... SOFC components as function of operating conditions. Electrochemical impedance data were collected on the fresh and long-term tested SOFCs and used to de-convolute the individual losses of single SOFC cell components – electrolyte, cathode and anode. The main findings include a time-dependent effect...

  9. Does Cigarette Smoking Affect Seminal Fluid Parameters? A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakarya Bani Meri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of cigarette smoking on seminal fluid parameters, namely; volume, sperm concentration, and motility, as well as morphology, leukocyte infiltration, among males complaining of infertility.Methods: Between August 2010 and July 2011, seminal fluid analysis was done for 1438 males who are partners of couples who visited the infertility clinic at Prince Rashid Ben Al Hassan Hospital (PRH for infertility. The men who fit the inclusion criteria (n=960 were classified into two groups: group a (non-smokers; n=564 and group B (smokers; n=396, which represents 41.25% of the study group. Seminal fluid was collected using masturbation after 3-5 days of abstinence then analyzed for volume, sperm count, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. In order to analyze whether the number of cigarettes smoked per day has an effect on the spermatogram; the smoking men were divided into two subgroups: the heavy smokers (n=266 and non-heavy smokers (n=130.Results: A total of 960 adult males were enrolled. Their age ranged between 21 and 76 years, 564 were non-smokers with mean age of 36. 45±6.27 (Mean±SD. Three-hundred-and-ninety-six were smokers with a mean age of 34.35±4.25 (Mean±SD. There was a significant effect of smoking on the motility of sperms and the ratios of abnormality (p<0.005. Concentration appeared not to be affected by smoking. Furthermore, the group of heavy smokers were found to have lower sperm concentrations and a higher percentage of abnormal sperms compared to the non-heavy smokers.Conclusion: Cigarette smoking has a deleterious effect on some of the seminal fluid parameters (motility, morphology and leukocyte count which in turn may result in male subfertility.

  10. Damping parameter study of a perforated plate with bias flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazdeh, Alireza

    role of LES for research studies concerned with damping properties of liners is limited to validation of other empirical or theoretical approaches. This research has shown that LES can go beyond that and can be used for performing parametric studies to characterize the sensitivity of acoustic properties of multi--perforated liners to the changes in the geometry and flow conditions and be used as a tool to design acoustic liners. The conducted research provides an insightful understanding about the contribution of different flow and geometry parameters such as perforated plate thickness, aperture radius, porosity factors and bias flow velocity. While the study agrees with previous observations obtained by analytical or experimental methods, it also quantifies the impact from these parameters on the acoustic impedance of perforated plate, a key parameter to determine the acoustic performance of any system. The conducted study has also explored the limitations and capabilities of commercial tool when are applied for performing simulation studies on damping properties of liners. The overall agreement between LES results and previous studies proves that commercial tools can be effectively used for these applications under certain conditions.

  11. THE STUDY OF THE MAIN PARAMETERS QUALITY OF BUFFALO MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AURELIA PECE

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Researches were conducted on a biologic material, a buffalo livestock, in different lactating stages and their physico-chemical parameters were determined: fat, protein, lactose, unfat dry substance, density, pH, temperature. Regarding the variation of these components, researches conducted emphasized differences determined by those conditions specific to reference seasons. Individual analysis on the buffalo livestock in the study, emphasized significant differences: fat 8.59-9.36%, protein 5.16-5.31% respective of lactation. Microbiologic determinations mainly envisioned: the number of somatic cells (NSC, number of total germs (NTG Positive Coagulanzo Stafilococii, Listeria, Salmonella, determinations which lay at the basis of the assessment of buffalo milk quality. The positive Coagulanzo stafilococus was absent, excepting sample number 15 (2 germs/ml and sample number 22 (4 germs/ml; Salmonella was absent. Regarding the total number of germs: values between 1.0-1.8 germs/ml were obtained. The detection of this microbiologic parameter in the composition of buffalo milk provides information regarding the hygienic conditions of their production and handling. Correlations between the number of somatic cells, milk production and composition are employed in dairy buffalo farms, in order to assess losses caused by mastitis and the implementing of certain measures for the control of these diseases. On the other hand, correlations between the number of somatic cells and milk composition prove useful in establishing milk processing behaviour, as the practice of setting milk-raw matter prices according to the number of somatic cells in the milk is becoming increasingly more frequent in developed countries.

  12. studies on the correlation of some aggregate parameters in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    simulations for problem solving and forecasting environmental conditions .... METHODS. Parameters: The water quality parameters examined were, Turbidity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS),. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), 5-day Biochemical. Oxygen Demand ..... Vogel's Textbook of Quantitative. Chemical Analysis 6th ed ...

  13. Systematic parameter study of dynamo bifurcations in geodynamo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitdemange, Ludovic

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the nature of the dynamo bifurcation in a configuration applicable to the Earth's liquid outer core, i.e. in a rotating spherical shell with thermally driven motions with no-slip boundaries. Unlike in previous studies on dynamo bifurcations, the control parameters have been varied significantly in order to deduce general tendencies. Numerical studies on the stability domain of dipolar magnetic fields found a dichotomy between non-reversing dipole-dominated dynamos and the reversing non-dipole-dominated multipolar solutions. We show that, by considering weak initial fields, the above transition disappears and is replaced by a region of bistability for which dipolar and multipolar dynamos coexist. Such a result was also observed in models with free-slip boundaries in which the geostrophic zonal flow can develop and participate to the dynamo mechanism for non-dipolar fields. We show that a similar process develops in no-slip models when viscous effects are reduced sufficiently. The following three regimes are distinguished: (i) Close to the onset of convection (Rac) with only the most critical convective mode (wave number) being present, dynamos set in supercritically in the Ekman number regime explored here and are dipole-dominated. Larger critical magnetic Reynolds numbers indicate that they are particularly inefficient. (ii) in the range 3 10) , the relative importance of zonal flows increases with Ra in non-magnetic models. The field topology depends on the magnitude of the initial magnetic field. The dipolar branch has a subcritical behavior whereas the multipolar branch has a supercritical behavior. By approaching more realistic parameters, the extension of this bistable regime increases. A hysteretic behavior questions the common interpretation for geomagnetic reversals. Far above the dynamo threshold (by increasing the magnetic Prandtl number), Lorentz forces contribute to the first order force balance, as predicted for planetary dynamos. When

  14. Study of Parameters that Determine Railway Line Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Kukec

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work the study focuses on:- determining the elements required to determine the locationfor the installation of the main signals,- calculated block lengths, and- calculations of optimal head ways, that have not been studiedin detail although they deserve special attention due totheir impact.Generally speaking, the signals are installed in compliancewith the local circumstances, i. e. according to the technicaland technological characteristics and conditions determinedby the traffic places of work they protect.The distribution and length of the blocks depend on: therailway line and its exploitation characteristics, structure andtype of trains that run on the railway line, traffic organisationand signalisation system, as well as technical and exploitationcharacte1istics of the traction vehicles and the rolling stock.What has to be considered is that the minimum section lengthcannot be shorter than the length of the braking distance, i. e.the length of the longest train which runs on the respective railwayline.The study of these parameters is supplemented by the calculationof the reduction in throughput capacity depending on thelack of uniformity in the operation of trains, which, in order tomaintain the design quality of the transportation se1vice, and inthe activities of establishing and implementing the business policyshouldn't be left out nor bypassed.

  15. Simulation Study on the Controllable Dielectrophoresis Parameters of Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jian-Long; Liu, Ya-Li; Ge, Yang; Xie, Sheng-Dong; Zhang, Xi; Sang, Sheng-Bo; Jian, Ao-Qun; Duan, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Wen-Dong

    2017-03-01

    The method of using dielectrophoresis (DEP) to assemble graphene between micro-electrodes has been proven to be simple and efficient. We present an optimization method for the kinetic formula of graphene DEP, and discuss the simulation of the graphene assembly process based on the finite element method. The simulated results illustrate that the accelerated motion of graphene is in agreement with the distribution of the electric field squared gradient. We also conduct research on the controllable parameters of the DEP assembly such as the alternating current (AC) frequency, the shape of micro-electrodes, and the ratio of the gap between electrodes to the characteristic/geometric length of graphene (λ). The simulations based on the Clausius-Mossotti factor reveal that both graphene velocity and direction are influenced by the AC frequency. When graphene is close to the electrodes, the shape of micro-electrodes will exert great influence on the velocity of graphene. Also, λ has a great influence on the velocity of graphene. Generally, the velocity of graphene would be greater when λ is in the range of 0.4-0.6. The study is of a theoretical guiding significance in improving the precision and efficiency of the graphene DEP assembly. Supported by the Basic Research Project of Shanxi Province under Grant No 2015021092, the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 61471255, 61474079, 61501316, 51505324 and 51622507, and the National High-Technology Research and Development Program of China under Grant No 2015AA042601.

  16. Future Circular Collider Study FCC-he Baseline Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Bruning, Oliver; Klein, Max; Pellegrini, Dario; Schulte, Daniel; Zimmermann, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Initial considerations are presented on the FCC-he, the electron-hadron collider con guration within the Future Circular Collider study. This note considers arguments for the choice of the electron beam energy based on physics, ep scattering kinematics and cost. The default con guration for the electron accelerator, as for the LHeC, is chosen to be a multi-turn energy recovery linac external to the proton beam tunnel. The main accelerator parameters of the FCC-he are discussed, assuming the concurrent operation of ep with the 100TeV cms energy pp collider. These are compared with the LHeC design concept, for increased performance as for a Higgs facility using the HL-LHC, and also the high energy HE-LHC ep collider configuration. Initial estimates are also provided for the luminosity performance of electron-ion colliders for the 60 GeV electron ERL when combined with the LHC, the HE-LHC and the FCC ion beams.

  17. Parameter studies of sediments in the Storegga Slide region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S. L.; Kvalstad, T.; Solheim, A.; Forsberg, C. F.

    2006-09-01

    Based on classification tests, oedometer tests, fall-cone tests and triaxial tests, physical and mechanical properties of sediments in the Storegga Slide region were analysed to assess parameter interrelationships. The data show good relationships between a number of physical and mechanical parameters. Goodness of fit between compression index and various physical parameters can be improved by multiple regression analysis. The interclay void ratio and liquidity index correlate well with the undrained shear strength of clay. Sediments with higher water content, liquid limit, activity, interclay void ratio, plasticity index and liquidity index showed higher compression index and/or lower undrained shear strength. Some relationships between parameters were tested by using data from two other sites south of the Storegga Slide. A better understanding of properties of sediments in regions such as that of the Storegga Slide can be obtained through this approach.

  18. Study of the transport parameters of cloud lightning plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Z. S.; Yuan, P.; Zhao, N.

    2010-01-01

    Three spectra of cloud lightning have been acquired in Tibet (China) using a slitless grating spectrograph. The electrical conductivity, the electron thermal conductivity, and the electron thermal diffusivity of the cloud lightning, for the first time, are calculated by applying the transport theory of air plasma. In addition, we investigate the change behaviors of parameters (the temperature, the electron density, the electrical conductivity, the electron thermal conductivity, and the electron thermal diffusivity) in one of the cloud lightning channels. The result shows that these parameters decrease slightly along developing direction of the cloud lightning channel. Moreover, they represent similar sudden change behavior in tortuous positions and the branch of the cloud lightning channel.

  19. Parameter motivated mutual correlation analysis: Application to the study of currency exchange rates based on intermittency parameter and Hurst exponent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristescu, Constantin P.; Stan, Cristina; Scarlat, Eugen I.; Minea, Teofil; Cristescu, Cristina M.

    2012-04-01

    We present a novel method for the parameter oriented analysis of mutual correlation between independent time series or between equivalent structures such as ordered data sets. The proposed method is based on the sliding window technique, defines a new type of correlation measure and can be applied to time series from all domains of science and technology, experimental or simulated. A specific parameter that can characterize the time series is computed for each window and a cross correlation analysis is carried out on the set of values obtained for the time series under investigation. We apply this method to the study of some currency daily exchange rates from the point of view of the Hurst exponent and the intermittency parameter. Interesting correlation relationships are revealed and a tentative crisis prediction is presented.

  20. Permanently split capacitor motor-study of the design parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarac, Vasilija; Stefanov, Goce

    2017-09-01

    Paper analyzes the influence of various design parameters on torque of permanently split capacitor motor. Motor analytical model is derived and it is used for calculating the performance characteristics of basic motor model. The acquired analytical model is applied in optimization software that uses genetic algorithms (GA) as an optimization method. Optimized motor model with increased torque is derived by varying three motor parameters in GA program: winding turns ratio, average air gap flux density and motor stack length. Increase of torque has been achieved for nominal operation but also at motor starting. Accuracy of the derived models is verified by Simulink. The acquired values of several motor parameters from transient characteristics of Simulink models are compared with the corresponding values obtained from analytical models of both motors, basic and optimized. Numerical analysis, based on finite element method (FEM), is also performed for both motor models. As a result of the FEM analysis, magnetic flux density in motor cross-section is calculated and adequate conclusions are derived in relation to core saturation and air gap flux density in both motor models.

  1. Correction factors for photon spectrometry in nuclear parameters study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrao, Karla Cristina de Souza

    2004-10-01

    The goal of this work was the determination, using metrologic severity, the factors of correction for coincidences XX, Xγ and γγ and the factors of transference of efficiency for use in gamma spectrometry. On this way, it was carried through by determination of nuclear parameters of a nuclide used in medicine diagnostic ( 201 Tl) and the standardization of two environmental samples, of regular and irregular geometry, proceeding from the residual (ashes and slag) from the nuclear industry. The results shows that this adopted methodology is valid, and it allows its application for many different nuclides, including complex decay schema nuclides, using only photons spectrometry techniques on semiconductor detectors. (author)

  2. Comparative study of radiation shielding parameters for bismuth borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaundal, Rajinder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Melt and quench technique was used for the preparation of glassy samples of the composition x Bi 2 O 3- (1-x) B 2 O 3 where x= .05 to .040. XCOM computer program is used for the evaluation of gamma-ray shielding parameters of the prepared glass samples. Further the values of mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic number and half value layer for the glassy samples have been calculated in the energy range from 1KeV to 100GeV. Rigidity of the glass samples have been analyzed by molar volume of the prepared glass samples. (author)

  3. Comparative study of radiation shielding parameters for bismuth borate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaundal, Rajinder Singh, E-mail: rajinder_apd@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab (India)

    2016-07-15

    Melt and quench technique was used for the preparation of glassy samples of the composition x Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3-}(1-x) B{sub 2}O{sub 3} where x= .05 to .040. XCOM computer program is used for the evaluation of gamma-ray shielding parameters of the prepared glass samples. Further the values of mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic number and half value layer for the glassy samples have been calculated in the energy range from 1KeV to 100GeV. Rigidity of the glass samples have been analyzed by molar volume of the prepared glass samples. (author)

  4. Comparative Study of Radiation Shielding Parameters for Bismuth Borate Glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Kaundal, Rajinder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Melt and quench technique was used for the preparation of glassy samples of the composition x Bi2O3-(1-x) B2O3 where x= .05 to .040. XCOM computer program is used for the evaluation of gamma-ray shielding parameters of the prepared glass samples. Further the values of mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic number and half value layer for the glassy samples have been calculated in the energy range from 1KeV to 100GeV. Rigidity of the glass samples have been analyzed by molar volume of...

  5. THE EVOLUTION OF HETERGENEOUS 'CLUMPY JETS': A PARAMETER STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yirak, Kristopher; Schroeder, Ed; Frank, Adam; Cunningham, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the role discrete clumps embedded in an astrophysical jet play on the jet's morphology and line emission characteristics. By varying clumps' size, density, position, and velocity, we cover a range of parameter space motivated by observations of objects such as the Herbig-Haro object HH 34. We here extend the results presented in Yirak et al., including how analysis of individual observations may lead to spurious sinusoidal variation whose parameters vary widely over time, owing chiefly to interactions between clumps. The goodness of fits, while poor in all simulations, are best when clump-clump collisions are minimal. Our results indicate that a large velocity dispersion leads to a clump-clump collision-dominated flow which disrupts the jet beam. Finally, we present synthetic emission images of Hα and [S II] and note an excess of [S II] emission along the jet length as compared to observations. This suggests that observed beams undergo earlier processing, if they are present at all.

  6. Dynamic Parameter Identification of Subject-Specific Body Segment Parameters Using Robotics Formalism: Case Study Head Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Rodríguez, Miguel; Valera, Angel; Page, Alvaro; Besa, Antonio; Mata, Vicente

    2016-05-01

    Accurate knowledge of body segment inertia parameters (BSIP) improves the assessment of dynamic analysis based on biomechanical models, which is of paramount importance in fields such as sport activities or impact crash test. Early approaches for BSIP identification rely on the experiments conducted on cadavers or through imaging techniques conducted on living subjects. Recent approaches for BSIP identification rely on inverse dynamic modeling. However, most of the approaches are focused on the entire body, and verification of BSIP for dynamic analysis for distal segment or chain of segments, which has proven to be of significant importance in impact test studies, is rarely established. Previous studies have suggested that BSIP should be obtained by using subject-specific identification techniques. To this end, our paper develops a novel approach for estimating subject-specific BSIP based on static and dynamics identification models (SIM, DIM). We test the validity of SIM and DIM by comparing the results using parameters obtained from a regression model proposed by De Leva (1996, "Adjustments to Zatsiorsky-Seluyanov's Segment Inertia Parameters," J. Biomech., 29(9), pp. 1223-1230). Both SIM and DIM are developed considering robotics formalism. First, the static model allows the mass and center of gravity (COG) to be estimated. Second, the results from the static model are included in the dynamics equation allowing us to estimate the moment of inertia (MOI). As a case study, we applied the approach to evaluate the dynamics modeling of the head complex. Findings provide some insight into the validity not only of the proposed method but also of the application proposed by De Leva (1996, "Adjustments to Zatsiorsky-Seluyanov's Segment Inertia Parameters," J. Biomech., 29(9), pp. 1223-1230) for dynamic modeling of body segments.

  7. Experimental constraints on transport from dimensionless parameter scaling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Luce, T.C.; Baker, D.R.

    1998-02-01

    The scalings of heat transport with safety factor (q), normalized collisionality (v), plasma beta (β), and relative gyroradius (ρ*) have been measured on the DIII-D tokamak. The measured ρ* β and v scalings of heat transport indicate that E x B transport from drive wave turbulence is a plausible basis for anomalous transport. For high confinement (H) mode plasmas where the safety factor was varied at fixed magnetic shear, the effective (or one-fluid) thermal diffusivity was found to scale like χ eff ∝ q 2.3±0.64 , with the ion and electron fluids having the same q scaling to within the experimental errors except near the plasma edge. The scaling of the thermal confinement time with safety factor was in good agreement with this local transport dependence, τ th ∝ q -2.42±0.31 ; however, when the magnetic shear was allowed to vary to keep q 0 fixed during the (edge) safety factor scan, a weaker global dependence was observed, τ th ∝ q 95 -1.43±0.23 . This weaker dependence was mainly due to the change in the local value of q between the two types of scans. The combined ρ*, β, v and q scalings of heat transport for H-mode plasmas on DIII-D reproduce the empirical confinement scaling using physical (dimensionless) parameters with the exception of weaker power degradation

  8. Experimental constraints on transport from dimensionless parameter scaling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Luce, T.C.; Baker, D.R.; Ballet, B.; Carlstrom, T.N.; Cordey, J.G.; DeBoo, J.C.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.J.; Rice, B.W.; Thomas, D.M.; Wade, M.R.; Waltz, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    The scalings of heat transport with safety factor (q), normalized collisionality (ν), plasma beta (β), and relative gyroradius (ρ * ) have been measured on the DIII-D tokamak [Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)]. The measured ρ * , β and ν scalings of heat transport indicate that ExB transport from drift wave turbulence is a plausible basis for anomalous transport. For high confinement (H) mode plasmas where the safety factor was varied at fixed magnetic shear, the effective (or one-fluid) thermal diffusivity was found to scale like χ eff ∝q 2.3±0.64 , with the ion and electron fluids having the same q scaling to within the experimental errors except near the plasma edge. The scaling of the thermal confinement time with safety factor was in good agreement with this local transport dependence, τ th ∝q -2.42±0.31 ; however, when the magnetic shear was allowed to vary to keep q 0 fixed during the (edge) safety factor scan, a weaker global dependence was observed, τ th ∝q 95 -1.43±0.23 . This weaker dependence was mainly due to the change in the local value of q between the two types of scans. The combined ρ * , β , ν and q scalings of heat transport for H-mode plasmas on DIII-D reproduce the empirical confinement scaling using physical (dimensional) parameters with the exception of weaker power degradation. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  9. Parameters for determining inoculated pack/challenge study protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods developed guidelines for conducting challenge studies on pathogen inhibition and inactivation studies in a variety of foods. The document is intended for use by the food industry, including food processors, food service operators, and food retailers; federal, state, and local food safety regulators; public health officials; food testing laboratories; and process authorities. The document is focused on and limited to bacterial inactivation and growth inhibition and does not make specific recommendations with respect to public health. The Committee concluded that challenge studies should be designed considering the most current advances in methodologies, current thinking on pathogens of concern, and an understanding of the product preparation, variability, and storage conditions. Studies should be completed and evaluated under the guidance of an expert microbiologist in a qualified laboratory and should include appropriate statistical design and data analyses. This document provides guidelines for choice of microorganisms for studies, inoculum preparation, inoculum level, methods of inoculation, incubation temperatures and times, sampling considerations, and interpreting test results. Examples of appropriately designed growth inhibition and inactivation studies are provided.

  10. studies on growth, organs weight and haematological parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-06-01

    Jun 1, 2012 ... Maize which is the most available basal energy feedstuff is in constant demand for human and animal nutrition and for industrial processing (Esonu, 2000). The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding graded level of cassava root meal flour on haematological and growth performance of broiler.

  11. Soil water balance scenario studies using predicted soil hydraulic parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nemes, A.; Wösten, J.H.M.; Bouma, J.; Várallyay, G.

    2006-01-01

    Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) have become a topic drawing increasing interest within the field of soil and environmental research because they can provide important soil physical data at relatively low cost. Few studies, however, explore which contributions PTFs can make to land-use planning, in

  12. Comparison study of selected geophysical and geotechnical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Randi Warncke; Poulsen, Søren Erbs

    Successful foundation of constructions relies on accurate characterization of the geotechnical properties of the subsurface. By implementing data from geophysical surveys, the placement of geotechnical drillings can be significantly improved, potentially reducing the number of required drillings....... This case study is mainly to compare geophysical investigations (MEP/IP) with existing PACES data and information from geotechnical drillings....

  13. Parameter study on dynamic behavior of ITER tokamak scaled model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahira, Masataka; Takeda, Nobukazu

    2004-12-01

    This report summarizes that the study on dynamic behavior of ITER tokamak scaled model according to the parametric analysis of base plate thickness, in order to find a reasonable solution to give the sufficient rigidity without affecting the dynamic behavior. For this purpose, modal analyses were performed changing the base plate thickness from the present design of 55 mm to 100 mm, 150 mm and 190 mm. Using these results, the modification plan of the plate thickness was studied. It was found that the thickness of 150 mm gives well fitting of 1st natural frequency about 90% of ideal rigid case. Thus, the modification study was performed to find out the adequate plate thickness. Considering the material availability, transportation and weldability, it was found that the 300mm thickness would be a limitation. The analysis result of 300mm thickness case showed 97% fitting of 1st natural frequency to the ideal rigid case. It was however found that the bolt length was too long and it gave additional twisting mode. As a result, it was concluded that the base plate thickness of 150mm or 190mm gives sufficient rigidity for the dynamic behavior of the scaled model. (author)

  14. Ambient pressure sensitivity of microbubbles investigated through a parameter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Scheldrup; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2009-01-01

    Measurements on microbubbles clearly indicate a relation between the ambient pressure and the acoustic behavior of the bubble. The purpose of this study was to optimize the sensitivity of ambient pressure measurements, using the subharmonic component, through microbubble response simulations....... The behavior of two microbubbles corresponding to two different contrast agents was investigated as a function of driving pulse and ambient overpressure, pov. Simulations of Levovist using a rectangular driving pulse show an almost linear reduction in the subharmonic component as pov is increased. For a 20...... found, although the reduction is not completely linear as a function of the ambient pressure....

  15. Experimental Studies of the Transport Parameters of Warm Dense Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouffani, Khalid [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    There is a need to establish fundamental properties of matter and energy under extreme physical conditions. Although high energy density physics (HEDP) research spans a wide range of plasma conditions, there is one unifying regime that is of particular importance and complexity: that of warm dense matter, the transitional state between solid state condensed matter and energetic plasmas. Most laboratory experimental conditions, including inertial confinement implosion, fall into this regime. Because all aspects of laboratory-created high-energy-density plasmas transition through the warm dense matter regime, understanding the fundamental properties to determine how matter and energy interact in this regime is an important aspect of major research efforts in HEDP. Improved understanding of warm dense matter would have significant and wide-ranging impact on HEDP science, from helping to explain wire initiation studies on the Sandia Z machine to increasing the predictive power of inertial confinement fusion modeling. The central goal or objective of our proposed research is to experimentally determine the electrical resistivity, temperature, density, and average ionization state of a variety of materials in the warm dense matter regime, without the use of theoretical calculations. Since the lack of an accurate energy of state (EOS) model is primarily due to the lack of experimental data, we propose an experimental study of the transport coefficients of warm dense matter.

  16. Study of Human Biochemical Parameters During and After Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyani, Mubin Mustafa; Memon, Aamir Raoof; Amjad, Mian Imran; Ameer, Muhammad Rifaqat; Sadiq, Muhammad; Mahmood, Tariq

    2017-02-01

    Ramadan fasting is obligatory for Muslims each year. They abstain from drinking, eating and intimate relationship between dawn and dusk during this month. Dietary restriction during Ramadan has various biochemical and physiological effects. It is shown to decrease the body weight, glucose and lipid profile. This study aims to analyze the changes in body weight, glucose and lipid profile during Ramadan in physiotherapy students in Pakistan. The study was conducted during June-July 2013 (Hijri year 1434). There were 80 students (50 males and 30 females) recruited in the experiment. They all were healthy adults between the age group of 18-24 (mean age 20.5) years. All subjects underwent a general physical examination and interview, and non-healthy subjects were excluded. On statistical analysis, quantitative data were expressed in terms of mean ± SD and a p value of ≤0.05 was believed statically significant. Paired t test was used to compare the variables. There was a little reduction in body weight (62.7 ± 8.8 vs. 62.3 ± 9.0; p value = 0.009) but a significant decline in glucose level (72.6 ± 12.5 vs. 57.9 ± 10.7; p value = 0.000), low-density lipoprotein level (2.9 ± 0.3 vs. 2.5 ± 0.3; p value = 0.000), total cholesterol (4.6 ± 0.4 vs. 4.2 ± 0.5; p value = 0.000) and triglycerides (1.4 ± 0.5 vs. 1.2 ± 0.5; p value = 0.000) was observed. Moreover, there was some reduction in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (1.2 ± 0.3 vs. 1.1 ± 0.3; p value = 0.045). This study shows that Ramadan fasting, a religious obligation for purification of body and soul, resulted in reduced body weight and a positive effect on glucose level and lipid profile.

  17. A Parameter Study of Large Fast Reactor Nuclear Explosion Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesel, J R

    1969-02-15

    An IBM-code EEM (Explosive Excursion Model) has been developed for calculating the energy releases associated with the explosive disassembly of a large fast reactor following a superprompt critical condition. The assumed failure chain of events and the possible core collapse following a fuel meltdown give the input data and initial conditions, the most important of which is the reactivity insertion rate at the moment of the explosive core disassembly. The dependence of the energy releases on the reactivity insertion rate, the Doppler reactivity feedback, the power form factor and the core size have been studied. The model enables a quick estimation of conservative values of the destructive mechanical energy releases following a nuclear explosion and gives suggestions as to how to reduce or even avoid such excursions.

  18. A Parameter Study of Large Fast Reactor Nuclear Explosion Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesel, J.R.

    1969-02-01

    An IBM-code EEM (Explosive Excursion Model) has been developed for calculating the energy releases associated with the explosive disassembly of a large fast reactor following a superprompt critical condition. The assumed failure chain of events and the possible core collapse following a fuel meltdown give the input data and initial conditions, the most important of which is the reactivity insertion rate at the moment of the explosive core disassembly. The dependence of the energy releases on the reactivity insertion rate, the Doppler reactivity feedback, the power form factor and the core size have been studied. The model enables a quick estimation of conservative values of the destructive mechanical energy releases following a nuclear explosion and gives suggestions as to how to reduce or even avoid such excursions

  19. Study on orthorhombic parameters for 3D elastic full waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Juwon

    2015-08-21

    For a better understanding of the influence of the parameterizations on the multi-parameter full waveform inversion (FWI) for 3D elastic orthorhombic media, we analyze the virtual sources for each cij parameter. Because the virtual sources for cij parameters can be regarded as bases of the virtual sources for other parameterizations, the insights developed here explains many of the scattering phenomena of the different parameters. The resulting radiation patterns provide insights on which parameter set is the best in the multi-parameter FWI for 3D elastic orthorhombic media. In this study, we analyze the virtual source for each cij parameter as a linear combination of several moment tensors. After that, we analyze the strain fields deformed by incident waves as momenta of the virtual source and their influences on sensitivity kernels of each cij parameter.

  20. Study on orthorhombic parameters for 3D elastic full waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Juwon; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2015-01-01

    For a better understanding of the influence of the parameterizations on the multi-parameter full waveform inversion (FWI) for 3D elastic orthorhombic media, we analyze the virtual sources for each cij parameter. Because the virtual sources for cij parameters can be regarded as bases of the virtual sources for other parameterizations, the insights developed here explains many of the scattering phenomena of the different parameters. The resulting radiation patterns provide insights on which parameter set is the best in the multi-parameter FWI for 3D elastic orthorhombic media. In this study, we analyze the virtual source for each cij parameter as a linear combination of several moment tensors. After that, we analyze the strain fields deformed by incident waves as momenta of the virtual source and their influences on sensitivity kernels of each cij parameter.

  1. Study of relevant parameters of GEM-based detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Croci, Gabriele; Sauli, Fabio; Ragazzi, S

    2007-01-01

    The Gas Electron Multiplier consist of a thin Kapton insulating (50 $\\mu$m) foil copper-clad on both sides and perforated by a high density, regular matrix of holes (around 100 per square millimeter). Typically the distance between holes (pitch) is 140 $\\mu$m and diameters of about 70 $\\mu$m. The mesh is realised by conventional photolitographic methods as used for the fabrication of multi-layer board. Upon application of a potential difference between the GEM electrodes, a high dipole field develops in the holes focusing the field lines between the drift electrode and the readout element. Electron drift along the channel and the charge is amplified by a factor that depends on the field density and the length of the channel. Owing to their excellent position resolution and rate capability GEM-based detector are very suitable to be used in different applications: from the high energy physics to the medical field. The GEM temporal and rate gain stability was studied and it was discovered that the gain variation...

  2. Parameter study toward economical magnetic fusion power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Tomoaki; Okano, Kunihiko; Nanahara, Toshiya; Hatayama, Akiyoshi; Yamaji, Kenji; Takuma, Tadashi.

    1996-01-01

    Although the R and D of nuclear fusion reactors has made a steady progress as seen in ITER project, it has become of little doubt that fusion power reactors require hugeness and enormous amount of construction cost as well as surmounting the physics and engineering difficulties. Therefore, it is one of the essential issues to investigate the prospect of realizing fusion power reactors. In this report we investigated the effects of physics and engineering improvements on the economics of ITER-like steady state tokamak fusion reactors using our tokamak system and costing analysis code. With the results of this study, we considered what is the most significant factor for realizing economical competitive fusion reactors. The results show that with the conventional TF coil maximum field (12T), physics progress in β-value (or Troyon coefficient) has the most considerable effect on the reduction of fusion plant COE (Cost of Electricity) while the achievement of H factor = 2-3 and neutron wall load =∼5MW/m 2 is necessary. The results also show that with the improvement of TF coil maximum field, reactors with a high aspect ratio are economically advantageous because of low plasma current driving power while the improvement of current density in the conductors and yield strength of support structures is indispensable. (author)

  3. Study of hydraulic parameters in leach mining using radioactive tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Tariq, J.A.; Iqbal, N.; Rafiq, M.

    2002-01-01

    Six radioactive tracer (/sup 131/I) experiments were carried out at in-situ leach mining site to study transit time of injected fluid from the injection wells to the production well along the dip, against the dip, along the diagonals and the strike. It was found that the dip of the host sandstone does not affect the movement of fluid as the same velocity was found along the dip (0.23 m/h) and against the dip (0.22 m/h). Along the diagonals, the breakthrough times for 13.75 m and 16.25 m were 54 hours and 155 hours respectively yielding velocities of 0.26 m/h and 0.1 m/h. The higher velocity is not only due to shorter distance but also due to higher porosity / injection rate. Along the strike, the breakthrough time was 29 hours (very short) for 9.25 m distance and 147 hours for 16.25 m distance. The unexpectedly high velocity along the strike for shorter distance was also due to higher injection rate in the well as the other well was accepting only small fraction of the total injection. At higher injection/production rate or higher hydraulic gradient, the breakthrough time is shorter and also the dispersion of fluid is less, consequently the leach area would be relatively small. Fluctuations of activity in some cases show the presence of fractures/cracks at certain places in the strata. The estimated porosity and hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer are 28% and 1.23 x 10-5 m/s respectively. (author)

  4. Parameter study on infilled steel frames with discretely connected precast concrete panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuwen, P.A.; Kleinman, C.S.; Snijder, H.H.; Hofmeyer, H.; Chan, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a parameter study on infilled steel frames with discretely connected precast concrete infill panels having window openings. In this study, finite element simulations were carried out to study the infilled frame performance by varying several parameters. A recently developed

  5. Comparative study for different statistical models to optimize cutting parameters of CNC end milling machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Berry, A.; El-Berry, A.; Al-Bossly, A.

    2010-01-01

    In machining operation, the quality of surface finish is an important requirement for many work pieces. Thus, that is very important to optimize cutting parameters for controlling the required manufacturing quality. Surface roughness parameter (Ra) in mechanical parts depends on turning parameters during the turning process. In the development of predictive models, cutting parameters of feed, cutting speed, depth of cut, are considered as model variables. For this purpose, this study focuses on comparing various machining experiments which using CNC vertical machining center, work pieces was aluminum 6061. Multiple regression models are used to predict the surface roughness at different experiments.

  6. A study on the boiler efficiency influenced by the boiler operation parameter in fossil power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Y. S.; Suh, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    The main reason to analyze the boiler operation parameter in fossil power plant is to increase boiler high efficiency and energy saving movement in the government. This study intends to have trend and analyze the boiler efficiency influenced by the boiler parameter in sub-critical and super-critical type boiler

  7. A study on the microstructural parameters of 550 keV electron irradiated Lexan polymer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hareesh, K.; Pramod, R.; Petwal, V. C.; Dwivedi, Jishnu; Sangappa; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2012-01-01

    Lexan polymer films irradiated with 550 keV Electron Beam (EB) were characterized using Wide Angle Xray Scattering (WAXS) data to study the microstructural parameters. The crystal imperfection parameters like crystal size , lattice strain (g in %) and enthalpy (α) have been determined by Line Profile Analysis (LPA) using Fourier method of Warren.

  8. Study of the decay asymmetry parameter and CP violation parameter in the Λc+→Λπ decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOCUS Collaboration; Link, J. M.; Yager, P. M.; Anjos, J. C.; Bediaga, I.; Castromonte, C.; Machado, A. A.; Magnin, J.; Massafferri, A.; de Miranda, J. M.; Pepe, I. M.; Polycarpo, E.; Dos Reis, A. C.; Carrillo, S.; Casimiro, E.; Cuautle, E.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Uribe, C.; Vázquez, F.; Agostino, L.; Cinquini, L.; Cumalat, J. P.; O'Reilly, B.; Segoni, I.; Stenson, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chiodini, G.; Gaines, I.; Garbincius, P. H.; Garren, L. A.; Gottschalk, E.; Kasper, P. H.; Kreymer, A. E.; Kutschke, R.; Wang, M.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F. L.; Pacetti, S.; Zallo, A.; Reyes, M.; Cawlfield, C.; Kim, D. Y.; Rahimi, A.; Wiss, J.; Gardner, R.; Kryemadhi, A.; Chung, Y. S.; Kang, J. S.; Ko, B. R.; Kwak, J. W.; Lee, K. B.; Cho, K.; Park, H.; Alimonti, G.; Barberis, S.; Boschini, M.; Cerutti, A.; D'Angelo, P.; Dicorato, M.; Dini, P.; Edera, L.; Erba, S.; Inzani, P.; Leveraro, F.; Malvezzi, S.; Menasce, D.; Mezzadri, M.; Moroni, L.; Pedrini, D.; Pontoglio, C.; Prelz, F.; Rovere, M.; Sala, S.; Davenport, T. F.; Arena, V.; Boca, G.; Bonomi, G.; Gianini, G.; Liguori, G.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Merlo, M. M.; Pantea, D.; Ratti, S. P.; Riccardi, C.; Vitulo, P.; Göbel, C.; Olatora, J.; Hernandez, H.; Lopez, A. M.; Mendez, H.; Paris, A.; Quinones, J.; Ramirez, J. E.; Zhang, Y.; Wilson, J. R.; Handler, T.; Mitchell, R.; Engh, D.; Hosack, M.; Johns, W. E.; Luiggi, E.; Moore, J. E.; Nehring, M.; Sheldon, P. D.; Vaandering, E. W.; Webster, M.; Sheaff, M.

    2006-03-01

    Using data from the FOCUS (E831) experiment at Fermilab, we present a new measurement of the weak decay-asymmetry parameter αΛ_c in Λc+→Λπ decay. Comparing particle with antiparticle decays, we obtain the first measurement of the CP violation parameter A≡αΛ_c+ααΛ_c-α. We obtain αΛ_c=-0.78±0.16±0.19 and A=-0.07±0.19±0.24 where errors are statistical and systematic.

  9. Modeling the X-ray Process, and X-ray Flaw Size Parameter for POD Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay M.

    2014-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method reliability can be determined by a statistical flaw detection study called probability of detection (POD) study. In many instances, the NDE flaw detectability is given as a flaw size such as crack length. The flaw is either a crack or behaving like a crack in terms of affecting the structural integrity of the material. An alternate approach is to use a more complex flaw size parameter. The X-ray flaw size parameter, given here, takes into account many setup and geometric factors. The flaw size parameter relates to X-ray image contrast and is intended to have a monotonic correlation with the POD. Some factors such as set-up parameters, including X-ray energy, exposure, detector sensitivity, and material type that are not accounted for in the flaw size parameter may be accounted for in the technique calibration and controlled to meet certain quality requirements. The proposed flaw size parameter and the computer application described here give an alternate approach to conduct the POD studies. Results of the POD study can be applied to reliably detect small flaws through better assessment of effect of interaction between various geometric parameters on the flaw detectability. Moreover, a contrast simulation algorithm for a simple part-source-detector geometry using calibration data is also provided for the POD estimation.

  10. APPLICATION OPENFOAM TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS ON THE AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF BLUFF BODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Efimov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Justification of possibility of application of an OpenFOAM package for obtaining aerodynamic characteristics of bluff bodies and studying of their dependence on geometrical parameters.

  11. Salivary caries parameters: Comparative study among Yemeni khat chewers and nonchewers

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Rashad Al-Alimi; Abdul Aziz Abdul Razak; Roslan Saub

    2014-01-01

    Background/purpose: Millions of people in Yemen and East African countries chew khat for more than 5 hours daily for its amphetamine-like effects. Previous studies have associated khat chewing with salivary glands enlargement, inflammation, and xerostomia. However, no information is available on the possible effects of this habit on salivary parameters. This comparative study aims to evaluate salivary parameters, such as salivary flow rate, pH, and viscosity among Yemeni khat chewers and nonc...

  12. Oyster Creek cycle 10 nodal model parameter optimization study using PSMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougher, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The power shape monitoring system (PSMS) is an on-line core monitoring system that uses a three-dimensional nodal code (NODE-B) to perform nodal power calculations and compute thermal margins. The PSMS contains a parameter optimization function that improves the ability of NODE-B to accurately monitor core power distributions. This functions iterates on the model normalization parameters (albedos and mixing factors) to obtain the best agreement between predicted and measured traversing in-core probe (TIP) reading on a statepoint-by-statepoint basis. Following several statepoint optimization runs, an average set of optimized normalization parameters can be determined and can be implemented into the current or subsequent cycle core model for on-line core monitoring. A statistical analysis of 19 high-power steady-state state-points throughout Oyster Creek cycle 10 operation has shown a consistently poor virgin model performance. The normalization parameters used in the cycle 10 NODE-B model were based on a cycle 8 study, which evaluated only Exxon fuel types. The introduction of General Electric (GE) fuel into cycle 10 (172 assemblies) was a significant fuel/core design change that could have altered the optimum set of normalization parameters. Based on the need to evaluate a potential change in the model normalization parameters for cycle 11 and in an attempt to account for the poor cycle 10 model performance, a parameter optimization study was performed

  13. [Study of the plantar arch: correlations between podometrical and radiological parameters. results of a prospective study of 79 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, R; Dojcinovic, S; Andrianne, Y; Burny, F

    2006-01-01

    The authors present a prospective study on the potential correlations between eight footprint parameters and three radiological parameters in the study of the plantar arch. Seventy nine patients were evaluated in 2001. The eight footprint parameters were as fellows : the arch angle, the Chippaux-Smirak's index, the Quamra's contact index 2,3 and 4, the Schwartz's footprint angle, the Staheli's arch index and the arch length index. The three radiological parameters were as fellows : the Djian-Annonier's angle, the Méary's angle and the calcaneal inclination. This prospective study confirms the best correlation, found in others studies, obtained between the Djian-Annonier's angle and the Chippaux-Smirak. The use of the Méary's angle and the calcaneal inclination is not justified because they have bad correlations with footprint parameters.

  14. Study of the decay asymmetry parameter and CP violation parameter in the Lambda(c)+ ---> Lambda pi+ decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, J.M.; Yager, P.M.; /UC, Davis; Anjos, J.C.; Bediaga, I.; Castromonte, C.; Machado, A.A.; Magnin, J.; Massafferri, A.; de Miranda, J.M.; Pepe, I.M.; Polycarpo, E.; dos Reis, A.C.; /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF; Carrillo, S.; Casimiro, E.; Cuautle, E.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Uribe, C.; Vazquez, F.; /CINVESTAV, IPN; Agostino, L.; Cinquini, L.; Cumalat,; /Colorado U. /Fermilab /Frascati /Guanajuato U. /Illinois U., Urbana /Indiana U. /Korea U. /Kyungpook Natl. U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /North Carolina U. /Pavia U. /INFN,

    2005-09-01

    Using data from the FOCUS (E831) experiment at Fermilab, we present a new measurement of the weak decay-asymmetry parameter a{sub {Lambda}{sub c}} in {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Lambda}{pi}{sup +} decay. Comparing particle with antiparticle decays, we obtain the first measurement of the CP violation parameter {Alpha} {triple_bond} a{sub {Lambda}{sub c}} + a{sub {ovr {Lambda}{sub c}}}/a{sub {Lambda}{sub c}} - a{sub {ovr {Lambda}{sub c}}}. We obtain a{sub {Lambda}{sub c}} = -0.78 {+-} 0.16 {+-} 0.13 and {Alpha} = -0.07 {+-} 0.19 {+-} 0.12 where errors are statistical and systematic.

  15. Reference tissue modeling with parameter coupling: application to a study of SERT binding in HIV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endres, Christopher J; Pomper, Martin G [Russell H Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States); Hammoud, Dima A, E-mail: endres@jhmi.edu [Radiology and Imaging Sciences, National Institutes of Health/Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2011-04-21

    When applicable, it is generally preferred to evaluate positron emission tomography (PET) studies using a reference tissue-based approach as that avoids the need for invasive arterial blood sampling. However, most reference tissue methods have been shown to have a bias that is dependent on the level of tracer binding, and the variability of parameter estimates may be substantially affected by noise level. In a study of serotonin transporter (SERT) binding in HIV dementia, it was determined that applying parameter coupling to the simplified reference tissue model (SRTM) reduced the variability of parameter estimates and yielded the strongest between-group significant differences in SERT binding. The use of parameter coupling makes the application of SRTM more consistent with conventional blood input models and reduces the total number of fitted parameters, thus should yield more robust parameter estimates. Here, we provide a detailed evaluation of the application of parameter constraint and parameter coupling to [{sup 11}C]DASB PET studies. Five quantitative methods, including three methods that constrain the reference tissue clearance (k{sup r}{sub 2}) to a common value across regions were applied to the clinical and simulated data to compare measurement of the tracer binding potential (BP{sub ND}). Compared with standard SRTM, either coupling of k{sup r}{sub 2} across regions or constraining k{sup r}{sub 2} to a first-pass estimate improved the sensitivity of SRTM to measuring a significant difference in BP{sub ND} between patients and controls. Parameter coupling was particularly effective in reducing the variance of parameter estimates, which was less than 50% of the variance obtained with standard SRTM. A linear approach was also improved when constraining k{sup r}{sub 2} to a first-pass estimate, although the SRTM-based methods yielded stronger significant differences when applied to the clinical study. This work shows that parameter coupling reduces the

  16. Desert plains classification based on Geomorphometrical parameters (Case study: Aghda, Yazd)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazeh, mahdi; Kalantari, Saeideh

    2013-04-01

    This research focuses on plains. There are several tremendous methods and classification which presented for plain classification. One of The natural resource based classification which is mostly using in Iran, classified plains into three types, Erosional Pediment, Denudation Pediment Aggradational Piedmont. The qualitative and quantitative factors to differentiate them from each other are also used appropriately. In this study effective Geomorphometrical parameters in differentiate landforms were applied for plain. Geomorphometrical parameters are calculable and can be extracted using mathematical equations and the corresponding relations on digital elevation model. Geomorphometrical parameters used in this study included Percent of Slope, Plan Curvature, Profile Curvature, Minimum Curvature, the Maximum Curvature, Cross sectional Curvature, Longitudinal Curvature and Gaussian Curvature. The results indicated that the most important affecting Geomorphometrical parameters for plain and desert classifications includes: Percent of Slope, Minimum Curvature, Profile Curvature, and Longitudinal Curvature. Key Words: Plain, Geomorphometry, Classification, Biophysical, Yazd Khezarabad.

  17. A systematic study of distribution characters of infiltration parameters in an experimental basin by nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Weizu; Lu Jieju; Lu Mingjiang; Chen Tingyang

    1988-01-01

    A case study of spatial variability of Philip's infiltration parameters was carried out in a small experimental catchment with an area of 0.8 ha by nuclear monitoring methods. Relationships between sorptivity S, parameter A and the average initial soil water content within 0.5 m depth of soil profiles over the catchment have been plotted. A watershed infiltration parameter distribution curve is set up and fitted approximately by f/F=1-(1-S/S M ) n . The parameters of composite infiltration response related to whole catchment are suggested. The author has studied it on an experimental basin by combined method of nuclear technology and micro-geomorphic analysis. The results are satisfactory. (author). 6 refs, 11 figs, 2 tabs

  18. A Study on the Basic Criteria for Selecting Heterogeneity Parameters of F18-FDG PET Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgacs, Attila; Pall Jonsson, Hermann; Dahlbom, Magnus; Daver, Freddie; D. DiFranco, Matthew; Opposits, Gabor; K. Krizsan, Aron; Garai, Ildiko; Czernin, Johannes; Varga, Jozsef; Tron, Lajos; Balkay, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Textural analysis might give new insights into the quantitative characterization of metabolically active tumors. More than thirty textural parameters have been investigated in former F18-FDG studies already. The purpose of the paper is to declare basic requirements as a selection strategy to identify the most appropriate heterogeneity parameters to measure textural features. Our predefined requirements were: a reliable heterogeneity parameter has to be volume independent, reproducible, and suitable for expressing quantitatively the degree of heterogeneity. Based on this criteria, we compared various suggested measures of homogeneity. A homogeneous cylindrical phantom was measured on three different PET/CT scanners using the commonly used protocol. In addition, a custom-made inhomogeneous tumor insert placed into the NEMA image quality phantom was imaged with a set of acquisition times and several different reconstruction protocols. PET data of 65 patients with proven lung lesions were retrospectively analyzed as well. Four heterogeneity parameters out of 27 were found as the most attractive ones to characterize the textural properties of metabolically active tumors in FDG PET images. These four parameters included Entropy, Contrast, Correlation, and Coefficient of Variation. These parameters were independent of delineated tumor volume (bigger than 25–30 ml), provided reproducible values (relative standard deviation< 10%), and showed high sensitivity to changes in heterogeneity. Phantom measurements are a viable way to test the reliability of heterogeneity parameters that would be of interest to nuclear imaging clinicians. PMID:27736888

  19. Thermal Hydraulic design parameters study for severe accidents using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Chang Hyun; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Keun Sun [Sunmoon University, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    To provide the information on severe accident progression is very important for advanced or new type of nuclear power plant (NPP) design. A parametric study, therefore, was performed to investigate the effect of thermal hydraulic design parameters on severe accident progression of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Nine parameters, which are considered important in NPP design or severe accident progression, were selected among the various thermal hydraulic design parameters. The backpropagation neural network (BPN) was used to determine parameters, which might more strongly affect the severe accident progression, among nine parameters. For training, different input patterns were generated by the latin hypercube sampling (LHS) technique and then different target patterns that contain core uncovery time and vessel failure time were obtained for Young Gwang Nuclear (YGN) Units 3 and 4 using modular accident analysis program (MAAP) 3.0B code. Three different severe accident scenarios, such as two loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs) and station blackout (SBO), were considered in this analysis. Results indicated that design parameters related to refueling water storage tank (RWST), accumulator and steam generator (S/G) have more dominant effects on the progression of severe accidents investigated, compared to the other six parameters. 9 refs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  20. Thermal Hydraulic design parameters study for severe accidents using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Chang Hyun; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Keun Sun [Sunmoon University, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    To provide the information on severe accident progression is very important for advanced or new type of nuclear power plant (NPP) design. A parametric study, therefore, was performed to investigate the effect of thermal hydraulic design parameters on severe accident progression of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Nine parameters, which are considered important in NPP design or severe accident progression, were selected among the various thermal hydraulic design parameters. The backpropagation neural network (BPN) was used to determine parameters, which might more strongly affect the severe accident progression, among nine parameters. For training, different input patterns were generated by the latin hypercube sampling (LHS) technique and then different target patterns that contain core uncovery time and vessel failure time were obtained for Young Gwang Nuclear (YGN) Units 3 and 4 using modular accident analysis program (MAAP) 3.0B code. Three different severe accident scenarios, such as two loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs) and station blackout (SBO), were considered in this analysis. Results indicated that design parameters related to refueling water storage tank (RWST), accumulator and steam generator (S/G) have more dominant effects on the progression of severe accidents investigated, compared to the other six parameters. 9 refs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  1. A Study on the Basic Criteria for Selecting Heterogeneity Parameters of F18-FDG PET Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Forgacs

    Full Text Available Textural analysis might give new insights into the quantitative characterization of metabolically active tumors. More than thirty textural parameters have been investigated in former F18-FDG studies already. The purpose of the paper is to declare basic requirements as a selection strategy to identify the most appropriate heterogeneity parameters to measure textural features. Our predefined requirements were: a reliable heterogeneity parameter has to be volume independent, reproducible, and suitable for expressing quantitatively the degree of heterogeneity. Based on this criteria, we compared various suggested measures of homogeneity. A homogeneous cylindrical phantom was measured on three different PET/CT scanners using the commonly used protocol. In addition, a custom-made inhomogeneous tumor insert placed into the NEMA image quality phantom was imaged with a set of acquisition times and several different reconstruction protocols. PET data of 65 patients with proven lung lesions were retrospectively analyzed as well. Four heterogeneity parameters out of 27 were found as the most attractive ones to characterize the textural properties of metabolically active tumors in FDG PET images. These four parameters included Entropy, Contrast, Correlation, and Coefficient of Variation. These parameters were independent of delineated tumor volume (bigger than 25-30 ml, provided reproducible values (relative standard deviation< 10%, and showed high sensitivity to changes in heterogeneity. Phantom measurements are a viable way to test the reliability of heterogeneity parameters that would be of interest to nuclear imaging clinicians.

  2. A study of the infrared spectrum of psi Persei .1. A parameter study of the disc model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marlborough, JM; Waters, LBFM

    We report a parameter study of emission lines arising from a disc surrounding a Be star, using parameters appropriate to the Be star psi Per. We concentrate on the Hn line and on some IR recombination lines (Br alpha, Br gamma, Pf gamma, and HI 17-6). The model we use is a simple cone-like disc

  3. The effect of uphill and downhill walking on gait parameters: A self-paced treadmill study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimel-Naor, Shani; Gottlieb, Amihai; Plotnik, Meir

    2017-07-26

    It has been shown that gait parameters vary systematically with the slope of the surface when walking uphill (UH) or downhill (DH) (Andriacchi et al., 1977; Crowe et al., 1996; Kawamura et al., 1991; Kirtley et al., 1985; McIntosh et al., 2006; Sun et al., 1996). However, gait trials performed on inclined surfaces have been subject to certain technical limitations including using fixed speed treadmills (TMs) or, alternatively, sampling only a few gait cycles on inclined ramps. Further, prior work has not analyzed upper body kinematics. This study aims to investigate effects of slope on gait parameters using a self-paced TM (SPTM) which facilitates more natural walking, including measuring upper body kinematics and gait coordination parameters. Gait of 11 young healthy participants was sampled during walking in steady state speed. Measurements were made at slopes of +10°, 0° and -10°. Force plates and a motion capture system were used to reconstruct twenty spatiotemporal gait parameters. For validation, previously described parameters were compared with the literature, and novel parameters measuring upper body kinematics and bilateral gait coordination were also analyzed. Results showed that most lower and upper body gait parameters were affected by walking slope angle. Specifically, UH walking had a higher impact on gait kinematics than DH walking. However, gait coordination parameters were not affected by walking slope, suggesting that gait asymmetry, left-right coordination and gait variability are robust characteristics of walking. The findings of the study are discussed in reference to a potential combined effect of slope and gait speed. Follow-up studies are needed to explore the relative effects of each of these factors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. CORRELATION STUDY AMONG WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS OF GROUNDWATER OF VALSAD DISTRICT OF SOUTH GUJARAT(INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Vashi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater samples were collected from five talukas of Valsad district for one year (from August 2008 to July 2009 and were analyzed for their physicochemical characteristics.  The present investigation is focused on  determination of parameters like pH, Colour, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Hardness (TH, Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg, Total Alkalinity (TA, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Silica, Chloride, Sulphate, Fluoride, Sodium, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and metals like Copper (Cu and Manganese (Mn.  Correlation coefficients were determined to identify the highly correlated parameters and interrelated water quality parameters. Correlation matrix of Valsad district suggests that EC of groundwater is found to be significantly correlated with eight out of seventeen water quality parameters studied.  It may be suggested that the quality of Valsad district can be checked very effectively by controlling EC of water.

  5. Determination of a PWR key neutron parameters uncertainties and conformity studies applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, D.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate uncertainties of key neutron parameters of slab reactors. Uncertainties sources have many origins, technologic origin for parameters of fabrication and physical origin for nuclear data. First, each contribution of uncertainties is calculated and finally, a factor of uncertainties is associated to key slab parameter like reactivity, isotherm reactivity coefficient, control rod efficiency, power form factor before irradiation and lifetime. This factors of uncertainties were computed by Generalized Perturbations Theory in case of step 0 and by directs calculations in case of irradiation problems. One of neutronic conformity applications was about fabrication and nuclear data targets precision adjustments. Statistic (uncertainties) and deterministic (deviations) approaches were studied. Then neutronics key slab parameters uncertainties were reduced and so nuclear performances were optimised. (author)

  6. Normal Values for Heart Electrophysiology Parameters of Healthy Swine Determined on Electrophysiology Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noszczyk-Nowak, Agnieszka; Cepiel, Alicja; Janiszewski, Adrian; Pasławski, Robert; Gajek, Jacek; Pasławska, Urszula; Nicpoń, Józef

    2016-01-01

    Swine are a well-recognized animal model for human cardiovascular diseases. Despite the widespread use of porcine model in experimental electrophysiology, still no reference values for intracardiac electrical activity and conduction parameters determined during an invasive electrophysiology study (EPS) have been developed in this species thus far. The aim of the study was to develop a set of normal values for intracardiac electrical activity and conduction parameters determined during an invasive EPS of swine. The study included 36 healthy domestic swine (24-40 kg body weight). EPS was performed under a general anesthesia with midazolam, propofol and isoflurane. The reference values for intracardiac electrical activity and conduction parameters were calculated as arithmetic means ± 2 standard deviations. The reference values were determined for AH, HV and PA intervals, interatrial conduction time at its own and imposed rhythm, sinus node recovery time (SNRT), corrected sinus node recovery time (CSNRT), anterograde and retrograde Wenckebach points, atrial, atrioventricular node and ventricular refractory periods. No significant correlations were found between body weight and heart rate of the examined pigs and their electrophysiological parameters. The hereby presented reference values can be helpful in comparing the results of various studies, as well as in more accurately estimating the values of electrophysiological parameters that can be expected in a given experiment.

  7. Mathematical modelling of simultaneous solvent evaporation and chemical curing in thermoset coatings: A parameter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model, describing the curing behaviour of a two-component, solvent-based, thermoset coating, is used to conduct a parameter study. The model includes curing reactions, solvent intra-film diffusion and evaporation, film gelation, vitrification, and crosslinking. A case study with a ...

  8. The Legion Support for Advanced Parameter-Space Studies on a Grid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Natrajan, Anand; Humphrey, Marty A; Grimshaw, Andrew S

    2006-01-01

    .... Legion provides tools and services that support advanced parameter-space studies, i.e., studies that make complex demands such as transparent access to distributed files, fault-tolerance and security. We demonstrate these benefits with a protein-folding experiment in which a molecular simulation package was run over a grid managed by Legion.

  9. A System for Extracting Study Design Parameters from Nutritional Genomics Abstracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cassidy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of study design parameters from biomedical journal articles is an important problem in natural language processing (NLP. Such parameters define the characteristics of a study, such as the duration, the number of subjects, and their profile. Here we present a system for extracting study design parameters from sentences in article abstracts. This system will be used as a component of a larger system for creating nutrigenomics networks from articles in the nutritional genomics domain. The algorithms presented consist of manually designed rules expressed either as regular expressions or in terms of sentence parse structure. A number of filters and NLP tools are also utilized within a pipelined algorithmic framework. Using this novel approach, our system performs extraction at a finer level of granularity than comparable systems, while generating results that surpass the current state of the art.

  10. Exploratory Study for Continuous-time Parameter Estimation of Ankle Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukreja, Sunil L.; Boyle, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a parallel pathway model to describe ankle dynamics was proposed. This model provides a relationship between ankle angle and net ankle torque as the sum of a linear and nonlinear contribution. A technique to identify parameters of this model in discrete-time has been developed. However, these parameters are a nonlinear combination of the continuous-time physiology, making insight into the underlying physiology impossible. The stable and accurate estimation of continuous-time parameters is critical for accurate disease modeling, clinical diagnosis, robotic control strategies, development of optimal exercise protocols for longterm space exploration, sports medicine, etc. This paper explores the development of a system identification technique to estimate the continuous-time parameters of ankle dynamics. The effectiveness of this approach is assessed via simulation of a continuous-time model of ankle dynamics with typical parameters found in clinical studies. The results show that although this technique improves estimates, it does not provide robust estimates of continuous-time parameters of ankle dynamics. Due to this we conclude that alternative modeling strategies and more advanced estimation techniques be considered for future work.

  11. Study on Material Parameters Identification of Brain Tissue Considering Uncertainty of Friction Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Fengjiao; Zhang, Guanjun; Liu, Jie; Wang, Shujing; Luo, Xu; Zhu, Feng

    2017-10-01

    Accurate material parameters are critical to construct the high biofidelity finite element (FE) models. However, it is hard to obtain the brain tissue parameters accurately because of the effects of irregular geometry and uncertain boundary conditions. Considering the complexity of material test and the uncertainty of friction coefficient, a computational inverse method for viscoelastic material parameters identification of brain tissue is presented based on the interval analysis method. Firstly, the intervals are used to quantify the friction coefficient in the boundary condition. And then the inverse problem of material parameters identification under uncertain friction coefficient is transformed into two types of deterministic inverse problem. Finally the intelligent optimization algorithm is used to solve the two types of deterministic inverse problems quickly and accurately, and the range of material parameters can be easily acquired with no need of a variety of samples. The efficiency and convergence of this method are demonstrated by the material parameters identification of thalamus. The proposed method provides a potential effective tool for building high biofidelity human finite element model in the study of traffic accident injury.

  12. Study on Identification of Material Model Parameters from Compact Tension Test on Concrete Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokes, Filip; Kral, Petr; Husek, Martin; Kala, Jiri

    2017-10-01

    Identification of a concrete material model parameters using optimization is based on a calculation of a difference between experimentally measured and numerically obtained data. Measure of the difference can be formulated via root mean squared error that is often used for determination of accuracy of a mathematical model in the field of meteorology or demography. The quality of the identified parameters is, however, determined not only by right choice of an objective function but also by the source experimental data. One of the possible way is to use load-displacement curves from three-point bending tests that were performed on concrete specimens. This option shows the significance of modulus of elasticity, tensile strength and specific fracture energy. Another possible option is to use experimental data from compact tension test. It is clear that the response in the second type of test is also dependent on the above mentioned material parameters. The question is whether the parameters identified within three-point bending test and within compact tension test will reach the same values. The presented article brings the numerical study of inverse identification of material model parameters from experimental data measured during compact tension tests. The article also presents utilization of the modified sensitivity analysis that calculates the sensitivity of the material model parameters for different parts of loading curve. The main goal of the article is to describe the process of inverse identification of parameters for plasticity-based material model of concrete and prepare data for future comparison with identified values of the material model parameters from different type of fracture tests.

  13. Thermal-Hydraulic Sensitivity Study of Intermediate Loop Parameters for Nuclear Hydrogen Production System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Hwa; Lee, Heung Nae; Park, Jea Ho [KONES Corp., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won Jae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Il; Yoo, Yeon Jae [Hyundai Engineering Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The heat generated from the VHTR is transferred to the intermediate loop through Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX). It is further passed on to the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) hydrogen production system (HPS) through Process Heat Exchanger (PHX). The IL provides the safety distance between the VHTR and HPS. Since the IL performance affects the overall nuclear HPS efficiency, it is required to optimize its design and operation parameters. In this study, the thermal-hydraulic sensitivity of IL parameters with various coolant options has been examined by using MARS-GCR code, which was already applied for the case of steam generator. Sensitivity study of the IL and PHX parameters has been carried out based on their thermal-hydraulic performance. Several parameters for design and operation, such as the pipe diameter, safety distance and surface area, are considered for different coolant options, He, CO{sub 2} and He-CO{sub 2} (2:8). It was found that the circulator work is the major factor affecting on the overall nuclear hydrogen production system efficiency. Circulator work increases with the safety distance, and decreases with the operation pressure and loop pipe diameter. Sensitivity results obtained from this study will contribute to the optimization of the IL design and operation parameters and the optimal coolant selection.

  14. Comparative Study of Plasma Parameters in Olive Ridley (Lepidochelys Olivacea and Hawksbill (Eretmochelys Imbricata During Nesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y.A. Alkindi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the role of plasma level parameters during nesting activity and provide data potentially useful to future studies on the dynamics of reproductive and stress hormones in the most endangered sea turtle species in the world. Plasma parameters in the sea turtles, olive ridley (Lipodochelys oliveacea and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata from Masirah Island, Oman, were analyzed relative to nesting stress. To date, no study has been conducted on plasma parameter levels in sea turtles during nesting. Field observations were conducted under ideal temperature conditions. At the time of sampling, there was no significant difference for cloacal, sand, air or water temperature for the two species. Electrolytes (Cl¯, Ca++, K+, Na+ and Mg++, cholesterol, urea, uric acid and osmolarity were measured during nesting. Both species were observed to spend between 1.5 and 2.00 hours on the nesting grounds. Some had successful oviposition and completed all nesting phases, while others with incomplete nesting phases failed to oviposit their  eggs. Under both conditions, the turtles of both species had an exhaustive and stressful nesting exercise. Plasma parameter values, both intra-specifically and inter-specifically, were not significantly different for oviposited and non-oviposited turtles. This may indicate that both species have the same physiological adjustment relative to plasma parameters whether or not the turtles oviposited their eggs.

  15. Studies of Some Parameters Affecting The Efficiency and Accuracy of The Neutron Activation Analysis Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Zaghloul, R.A.; Sroor, A.; Abdel Sabour, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    The present studies deal with the optimum physical conditions which seriously affect the neutron activation analysis technique efficiency. An experimental work for the efficiency calibration of hyper pure germanium detectors especially for environmental studies is presented. This work showed that the tested parameters, under consideration, distance, mass and measured time, reveal a significant effect on the obtained data. These results, intern, affect the accuracy of the measurements. Further work on the test of other parameters is planned in our laboratory using special treatments and applying special computer programs

  16. Statistical study of chorus wave distributions in the inner magnetosphere using Ae and solar wind parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, Homayon; Yearby, Keith; Balikhin, Michael; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir; Boynton, Richard

    2014-08-01

    Energetic electrons within the Earth's radiation belts represent a serious hazard to geostationary satellites. The interactions of electrons with chorus waves play an important role in both the acceleration and loss of radiation belt electrons. The common approach is to present model wave distributions in the inner magnetosphere under different values of geomagnetic activity as expressed by the geomagnetic indices. However, it has been shown that only around 50% of geomagnetic storms increase flux of relativistic electrons at geostationary orbit while 20% causes a decrease and the remaining 30% has relatively no effect. This emphasizes the importance of including solar wind parameters such as bulk velocity (V), density (n), flow pressure (P), and the vertical interplanetary magnetic field component (Bz) that are known to be predominately effective in the control of high energy fluxes at the geostationary orbit. Therefore, in the present study the set of parameters of the wave distributions is expanded to include the solar wind parameters in addition to the geomagnetic activity. The present study examines almost 4 years (1 January 2004 to 29 September 2007) of Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuation data from Double Star TC1 combined with geomagnetic indices and solar wind parameters from OMNI database in order to present a comprehensive model of wave magnetic field intensities for the chorus waves as a function of magnetic local time, L shell (L), magnetic latitude (λm), geomagnetic activity, and solar wind parameters. Generally, the results indicate that the intensity of chorus emission is not only dependent upon geomagnetic activity but also dependent on solar wind parameters with velocity and southward interplanetary magnetic field Bs (Bz < 0), evidently the most influential solar wind parameters. The largest peak chorus intensities in the order of 50 pT are observed during active conditions, high solar wind velocities, low solar wind densities, high

  17. Mathematical modelling of a self-polishing antifouling paint exposed to seawater: A parameter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Pedersen, M. S.; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2002-01-01

    , and to suggest ways of controlling biocide release rates. A case study with an antifouling paint based on the well-known tributyltin self-polishing copolymer system showed that the rate of paint polishing was influenced, to various degrees, by the following parameters: seawater pH and concentration of Na...

  18. Effect of anapanasati meditation technique through electrophotonic imaging parameters: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Guru; Itagi R, Kumar; Thaiyar M, Srinivasan; Kuldeep, Kushwah K

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness along with breathing is a well-established meditation technique. Breathing is an exquisite tool for exploring subtle awareness of mind and life itself. This study aimed at measuring changes in the different parameters of electrophotonic imaging (EPI) in anapanasati meditators. To carry out this study, 51 subjects comprising 32 males and 19 females of age 18 years and above (mean age 45.64 ± 14.43) were recruited voluntarily with informed consent attending Karnataka Dhyana Mahachakra-1 at Pyramid Valley International, Bengaluru, India. The design was a single group pre- post and data collected by EPI device before and after 5 days of intensive meditation. Results show significant changes in EPI parameter integral area with filter (physiological) in both right and left side, which reflects the availability of high functional energy reserve in meditators. The researchers observed similar trends without filter (psycho-physiological) indicating high reserves of energy at psycho-physiological level also. Activation coefficient, another parameter of EPI, reduced showing more relaxed state than earlier, possibly due to parasympathetic dominance. Integral entropy decreased in the case of psycho-physiological parameters left-side without filter, which indicates less disorder after meditation, but these changes were not significant. The study showed a reversed change in integral entropy in the right side without filter; however, the values on both sides with filter increased, which indicates disorder. The study suggests that EPI can be used in the recording functional physiological and psychophysiological status of meditators at a subtle level.

  19. Studying The Effect of Various Parameters on The Characteristics of The Dielectric and Metallic Photonic Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M.; Badawy, Z.M.; Abdel-Rahman, E.

    2015-01-01

    Transmittance characteristics of two types of photonic crystals have been analysed using the transfer matrix method. The first one is the dielectric photonic crystal (DPC), and the second is the metallic photonic crystal (MPC). The effect of the most parameters on the transmission spectra of the dielectric and metallic photonic crystals has been studied

  20. Sensitivity studies on parameters affecting gas release from an underground rock cavern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, E.; Pruess, K.

    1990-01-01

    A series of numerical simulation experiments is performed to quantify the effects of the release and migration of non-condensible gas in water-saturated fractured rock formations. The relative importance of multiphase parameters such as relative permeability, capillary pressure, intrinsic permeability, and porosity on system behavior is studied. 10 refs., 28 figs., 5 tabs

  1. Study of dose calculation and beam parameters optimization with genetic algorithm in IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chaomin; Tang Mutao; Zhou Linghong; Lv Qingwen; Wang Zhuoyu; Chen Guangjie

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the construction of dose calculation model and the method of automatic beam parameters selection in IMRT. Methods: The three-dimension convolution dose calculation model of photon was constructed with the methods of Fast Fourier Transform. The objective function based on dose constrain was used to evaluate the fitness of individuals. The beam weights were optimized with genetic algorithm. Results: After 100 iterative analyses, the treatment planning system produced highly conformal and homogeneous dose distributions. Conclusion: the throe-dimension convolution dose calculation model of photon gave more accurate results than the conventional models; genetic algorithm is valid and efficient in IMRT beam parameters optimization. (authors)

  2. Study of EBSD Experiment Parameters Influence on Computation of Polycrystalline Pole Figures and Orientation Distribution Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonova Anastasia O.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical model for a polycrystalline specimen and EBSD experiment is proposed. As the measurement parameters, the scanning step and the threshold disorientation angle are considered. To study the impact of the measurement parameters Pole Figures and Orientation Distribution Function of model specimen and corresponding ones, calculated from model EBSD measurements, are compared. The real EBSD experiment was also performed. The results of the model experiment are correlated with such detected in the real EBSD data. The most significant results are formulated in the given work.

  3. Calculation of fundamental parameters for the dynamical study of TRIGA-3-Salazar reactor (Mixed reactor core)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viais J, J.

    1994-01-01

    Kinetic parameters for dynamic study of two different configurations, 8 and 9, both with standard fuel, 20% enrichment and Flip (Fuel Life Improvement Program with 70% enrichment) fuel, for TRIGA Mark-III reactor from Mexico Nuclear Center, are obtained. A calculation method using both WIMS-D4 and DTF-IV and DAC1 was established, to decide which of those two configurations has the best safety and operational conditions. Validation of this methodology is done by calculate those parameters for a reactor core with new standard fuel. Configuration 9 is recommended to be use. (Author)

  4. Study of geometrical and operational parameters controlling the low frequency microjet atmospheric pressure plasma characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dan Bee; Rhee, J. K.; Moon, S. Y.; Choe, W.

    2006-01-01

    Controllability of small size atmospheric pressure plasma generated at low frequency in a pin to dielectric plane electrode configuration was studied. It was shown that the plasma characteristics could be controlled by geometrical and operational parameters of the experiment. Under most circumstances, continuous glow discharges were observed, but both the corona and/or the dielectric barrier discharge characteristics were observed depending on the position of the pin electrode. The plasma size and the rotational temperature were also varied by the parameters. The rotational temperature was between 300 and 490 K, being low enough to treat thermally sensitive materials

  5. Multi-parameter geometrical scaledown study for energy optimization of MTJ and related spintronics nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, I. A. H.; Alpha, C.; Gale, E.; Atia, D. Y.; Stein, A.; Isakovic, A. F.

    The scaledown of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) and related nanoscale spintronics devices poses unique challenges for energy optimization of their performance. We demonstrate the dependence of the switching current on the scaledown variable, while considering the influence of geometric parameters of MTJ, such as the free layer thickness, tfree, lateral size of the MTJ, w, and the anisotropy parameter of the MTJ. At the same time, we point out which values of the saturation magnetization, Ms, and anisotropy field, Hk, can lead to lowering the switching current and overall decrease of the energy needed to operate an MTJ. It is demonstrated that scaledown via decreasing the lateral size of the MTJ, while allowing some other parameters to be unconstrained, can improve energy performance by a measurable factor, shown to be the function of both geometric and physical parameters above. Given the complex interdependencies among both families of parameters, we developed a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm that can simultaneously lower energy of operation and the switching current density. Results we obtained in scaledown study and via PSO optimization are compared to experimental results. Support by Mubadala-SRC 2012-VJ-2335 is acknowledged, as are staff at Cornell-CNF and BNL-CFN.

  6. A magnetic resonance imaging study on the articulatory and acoustic speech parameters of Malay vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zourmand, Alireza; Mirhassani, Seyed Mostafa; Ting, Hua-Nong; Bux, Shaik Ismail; Ng, Kwan Hoong; Bilgen, Mehmet; Jalaludin, Mohd Amin

    2014-07-25

    The phonetic properties of six Malay vowels are investigated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the vocal tract in order to obtain dynamic articulatory parameters during speech production. To resolve image blurring due to the tongue movement during the scanning process, a method based on active contour extraction is used to track tongue contours. The proposed method efficiently tracks tongue contours despite the partial blurring of MRI images. Consequently, the articulatory parameters that are effectively measured as tongue movement is observed, and the specific shape of the tongue and its position for all six uttered Malay vowels are determined.Speech rehabilitation procedure demands some kind of visual perceivable prototype of speech articulation. To investigate the validity of the measured articulatory parameters based on acoustic theory of speech production, an acoustic analysis based on the uttered vowels by subjects has been performed. As the acoustic speech and articulatory parameters of uttered speech were examined, a correlation between formant frequencies and articulatory parameters was observed. The experiments reported a positive correlation between the constriction location of the tongue body and the first formant frequency, as well as a negative correlation between the constriction location of the tongue tip and the second formant frequency. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is an effective tool for the dynamic study of speech production.

  7. Impact parameter sensitive study of inner-shell atomic processes in the experimental storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumberidze, A.; Kozhuharov, C.; Zhang, R. T.; Trotsenko, S.; Kozhedub, Y. S.; DuBois, R. D.; Beyer, H. F.; Blumenhagen, K.-H.; Brandau, C.; Bräuning-Demian, A.; Chen, W.; Forstner, O.; Gao, B.; Gassner, T.; Grisenti, R. E.; Hagmann, S.; Hillenbrand, P.-M.; Indelicato, P.; Kumar, A.; Lestinsky, M.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Petridis, N.; Schury, D.; Spillmann, U.; Trageser, C.; Trassinelli, M.; Tu, X.; Stöhlker, Th.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we present a pilot experiment in the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI devoted to impact parameter sensitive studies of inner shell atomic processes for low-energy (heavy-) ion-atom collisions. The experiment was performed with bare and He-like xenon ions (Xe54+, Xe52+) colliding with neutral xenon gas atoms, resulting in a symmetric collision system. This choice of the projectile charge states was made in order to compare the effect of a filled K-shell with the empty one. The projectile and target X-rays have been measured at different observation angles for all impact parameters as well as for the impact parameter range of ∼35-70 fm.

  8. The Influence Study of Ultrasonic honing parameters to workpiece surface temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic vibration honing(UVH, a machine technology, has a lot of advantages. Lower grinding temperature is a significant character and is beneficial for both processing and workpiece surface. But the high temperature caused by big honing pressure becomes the main factor to produce workpiece heat damage in grinding zone. In various honing parameter combinations, the showing effect is different. Based on the thermodynamics classical theory, established the heat transfer equation for grinding zone, simplified the model and obtained the two-dimenssion temperature field expression for workpiece, then simulated the temperature changing trend in a variety of conditions. It is shown that themain temp is in a range of 700K to 1200K. In addition, the variation is huge for every parameter. The study provides a theoretical basis for deeply seeking reasonable machining parameter and obtaining better workpiece quality.

  9. An experimental study of symmetric and asymmetric peak-fitting parameters for alpha-particle spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Sanchez, A.; Vera Tome, F.; Caceres Marzal, D.; Bland, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    A pulse-height spectrum of alpha-particle emissions at discrete energies can be fitted by the peak-shape functions generated by combining asymmetric truncated exponential functions with a symmetric Gaussian distribution. These functions have been applied successfully by several workers. A correlation was previously found between the variance of the symmetric Gaussian portion of the fitting function, and the parameter characterising the principal exponential tailing function. The results of a more detailed experimental study are reported, which involve varying the angle and the distance between the source and the detector. This analysis shows that the parameters of the symmetric and asymmetric parts of the fitted functions seem to depend on either the detector or the source. These parameters are influenced by the energy loss suffered by the alpha-particles as well as by the efficiency of charge collection in the solid-state detector. (orig.)

  10. Sensitivity study of steam explosion characteristics to uncertain input parameters using TEXAS-V code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishchenko, Dmitry; Basso, Simone; Kudinov, Pavel; Bechta, Sevostian

    2014-01-01

    Release of core melt from failed reactor vessel into a pool of water is adopted in several existing designs of light water reactors (LWRs) as an element of severe accident mitigation strategy. Corium melt is expected to fragment, solidify and form a debris bed coolable by natural circulation. However, steam explosion can occur upon melt release threatening containment integrity and potentially leading to large early release of radioactive products to the environment. There are many factors and parameters that could be considered for prediction of the fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) energetics, but it is not clear which of them are the most influential and should be addressed in risk analysis. The goal of this work is to assess importance of different uncertain input parameters used in FCI code TEXAS-V for prediction of the steam explosion energetics. Both aleatory uncertainty in characteristics of melt release scenarios and water pool conditions, and epistemic uncertainty in modeling are considered. Ranges of the uncertain parameters are selected based on the available information about prototypic severe accident conditions in a reference design of a Nordic BWR. Sensitivity analysis with Morris method is implemented using coupled TEXAS-V and DAKOTA codes. In total 12 input parameters were studied and 2 melt release scenarios were considered. Each scenario is based on 60,000 of TEXAS-V runs. Sensitivity study identified the most influential input parameters, and those which have no statistically significant effect on the explosion energetics. Details of approach to robust usage of TEXAS-V input, statistical enveloping of TEXAS-V output and interpretation of the results are discussed in the paper. We also provide probability density function (PDF) of steam explosion impulse estimated using TEXAS-V for reference Nordic BWR. It can be used for assessment of the uncertainty ranges of steam explosion loads for given ranges of input parameters. (author)

  11. EX VIVO STUDY OF QUANTITATIVE ULTRASOUND PARAMETERS IN FATTY RABBIT LIVERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Goutam; Lavarello, Roberto J.; Kemmerer, Jeremy P.; Miller, Rita J.; Oelze, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects more than 30% of Americans, and with increasing problems of obesity in the United States, NAFLD is poised to become an even more serious medical concern. At present, accurate classification of steatosis (fatty liver) represents a significant challenge. In this study, the use of high-frequency (8 to 25 MHz) quantitative ultrasound (QUS) imaging to quantify fatty liver was explored. QUS is an imaging technique that can be used to quantify properties of tissue giving rise to scattered ultrasound. The changes in the ultrasound properties of livers in rabbits undergoing atherogenic diets of varying durations were investigated using QUS. Rabbits were placed on a special fatty diet for 0, 3, or 6 weeks. The fattiness of the livers was quantified by estimating the total lipid content of the livers. Ultrasonic properties, such as speed of sound, attenuation, and backscatter coefficients, were estimated in ex vivo rabbit liver samples from animals that had been on the diet for varying periods. Two QUS parameters were estimated based on the backscatter coefficient: effective scatterer diameter (ESD) and effective acoustic concentration (EAC), using a spherical Gaussian scattering model. Two parameters were estimated based on the backscattered envelope statistics (the k parameter and the μ parameter) according to the homodyned K distribution. The speed of sound decreased from 1574 to 1565 m/s and the attenuation coefficient increased from 0.71 to 1.27 dB/cm/MHz, respectively, with increasing fat content in the liver. The ESD decreased from 31 to 17 μm and the EAC increased from 38 to 63 dB/cm3 with increasing fat content in the liver. A significant increase in the μ parameter from 0.18 to 0.93 scatterers/mm3 was observed with increasing fat content in the liver samples. The results of this study indicate that QUS parameters are sensitive to fat content in the liver. PMID:23062376

  12. Noise disturbance in open-plan study environments : a field study on noise sources, student tasks and room acoustic parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat-Eggen, P.E.; van Heijst, A.W.M.; Hornikx, M.C.J.; Kohlrausch, A.G.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain more insight in the assessment of noise in open-plan study environments and to reveal correlations between noise disturbance experienced by students and the noise sources they perceive, the tasks they perform and the acoustic parameters of the open-plan study

  13. Sleep Parameters in Short Daily versus Conventional Dialysis: An Actigraphic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludimila D’Avila e Silva Allemand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have observed worse sleep quality in patients undergoing conventional dialysis as compared to daily dialysis. Our aim was to compare the sleep parameters of patients undergoing daily or conventional dialysis using an objective measure (actigraphy. This cross-sectional study was performed in three dialysis centers, including a convenience sample (nonprobability sampling of 73 patients (36 patients on daily hemodialysis and 37 patients on conventional hemodialysis. The following parameters were evaluated: nocturnal total sleep time (NTST, expressed in minutes; wake time after sleep onset (WASO, expressed in minutes; number of nighttime awakenings; daytime total sleep time (DTST, expressed in minutes; number of daytime naps; and nighttime percentage of sleep (% sleep. The Mini-Mental State Examination and the Beck Depression Inventory were also administered. The mean age was 53.4  ±  17.0 years. After adjustment of confounding factors using multiple linear regression analysis, no difference in actigraphy parameters was detected between the groups: NTST (p=0.468, WASO (p=0.88, % sleep (p=0.754, awakenings (p=0.648, naps (p=0.414, and DTST (p=0.805. Different from previous studies employing qualitative analysis, the present assessment did not observe an influence of hemodialysis modality on objective sleep parameters in chronic renal patients.

  14. Experimental design for estimating parameters of rate-limited mass transfer: Analysis of stream tracer studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Brian J.; Harvey, Judson W.

    1997-01-01

    Tracer experiments are valuable tools for analyzing the transport characteristics of streams and their interactions with shallow groundwater. The focus of this work is the design of tracer studies in high-gradient stream systems subject to advection, dispersion, groundwater inflow, and exchange between the active channel and zones in surface or subsurface water where flow is stagnant or slow moving. We present a methodology for (1) evaluating and comparing alternative stream tracer experiment designs and (2) identifying those combinations of stream transport properties that pose limitations to parameter estimation and therefore a challenge to tracer test design. The methodology uses the concept of global parameter uncertainty analysis, which couples solute transport simulation with parameter uncertainty analysis in a Monte Carlo framework. Two general conclusions resulted from this work. First, the solute injection and sampling strategy has an important effect on the reliability of transport parameter estimates. We found that constant injection with sampling through concentration rise, plateau, and fall provided considerably more reliable parameter estimates than a pulse injection across the spectrum of transport scenarios likely encountered in high-gradient streams. Second, for a given tracer test design, the uncertainties in mass transfer and storage-zone parameter estimates are strongly dependent on the experimental Damkohler number, DaI, which is a dimensionless combination of the rates of exchange between the stream and storage zones, the stream-water velocity, and the stream reach length of the experiment. Parameter uncertainties are lowest at DaI values on the order of 1.0. When DaI values are much less than 1.0 (owing to high velocity, long exchange timescale, and/or short reach length), parameter uncertainties are high because only a small amount of tracer interacts with storage zones in the reach. For the opposite conditions (DaI ≫ 1.0), solute

  15. A study of optimal parameter setting for aMC@NLO + Pythia8 matched setup

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    This note presents a study to arrive at the optimum tune of Pythia8 generator's parton shower and multiple parton interaction parameters for aMC@NLO + Pythia8 matched setup. Published distributions from ATLAS Run 1 data at 7 TeV for three different processes, inclusive jet, Z~boson and $t\\bar{t}$ production were studied. Additionally, the effect of using two different parton recoil modes in shower, global and local recoil are also investigated.

  16. PARAMETER REPEATABILITY FOR ECONOMY. A CASE STUDY OF A SIMPLE LINEAR ELECTRICAL DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Drapella

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first installment of a projected three-part study devoted to both input and output parameter randomness that electrical circuit designers deal with in their work. Parts of the study will differ in the complexity of schemes considered. This paper aims at presenting the methodology while leaving aside the analysis of complex circuits. Therefore, only voltage dividers have been taken into consideration. Four probability distributions of resistor values have been tried: uniform, Gaussian, Laplace and triangular.

  17. A geometric parameter study of piezoelectric coverage on a rectangular cantilever energy harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, R; McWilliam, S; Popov, A A

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a versatile model for optimizing the performance of a rectangular cantilever beam piezoelectric energy harvester used to convert ambient vibrations into electrical energy. The developed model accounts for geometric changes to the natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping in the structure. This is achieved through the combination of finite element modelling and a distributed parameter electromechanical model, including load resistor and charging capacitor models. The model has the potential for use in investigating the influence of numerous geometric changes on harvester performance, and incorporates a model for accounting for changes in damping as the geometry changes. The model is used to investigate the effects of substrate and piezoelectric layer length, and piezoelectric layer thickness on the performance of a microscale device. Findings from a parameter study indicate the existence of an optimum sample length due to increased mechanical damping for longer beams and improved power output using thicker piezoelectric layers. In practice, harvester design is normally based around a fixed operating frequency for a particular application, and improved performance is often achieved by operating at or near resonance. To achieve unbiased comparisons between different harvester designs, parameter studies are performed by changing multiple parameters simultaneously with the natural frequency held fixed. Performance enhancements were observed using shorter piezoelectric layers as compared to the conventional design, in which the piezoelectric layer and substrate are of equal length

  18. A new approach to study interaction parameters in cyanobiphenyl liquid crystal binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javadian, Soheila; Dalir, Nima; Gilani, Ali Ghanadzadeh; Kakemam, Jamal; Yousefi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The phase transition of 7CB and 5CB liquid crystals studied using the DSC. • This work includes the determination of the eutectic in the 7CB/5CB mixture. • The excess functions and interaction parameters calculated in the 7CB/5CB mixtures. • The P ∗ randomicity parameter used to describe the phase transitions of C–N and N–I. • A small amount of P ∗ showed a non-random identity of the C–N phase transition. - Abstract: The phase transition of heptylcyanobiphenyl 7CB and pentylcyanobiphenyl 5CB liquid crystals was investigated using the differential scanning calorimetry DSC technique. Then, the phase transition of different compositions of 7CB/5CB binary mixture was studied to determine the eutectic point. The phase diagram of mentioned binary system in 7CB mole fraction of 0.45 at T = 273.45 K is in good agreement with that of predicted from Schroder–van Laar equation. The thermodynamic excess functions and interaction parameters were calculated to describe the phase transition physically using the non-random mixing for the first time. The P ∗ randomicity parameter was used to describe the phase transitions of C–N and N–I in which a small amount of P ∗ shows a non-random identity of C–N phase transition. Contrarily, the P ∗ is greater in N–I phase transition showing a random mixing process

  19. Thermodynamic study of fluid in terms of equation of state containing physical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasare, S. B.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a simple condition for one mole fluid by considering the thermodynamics of molecules pointing towards the effective potential for the cluster. Efforts are made to estimate new physical parameter f in liquid state using the equation of state containing only two physical parameters such as the hard sphere diameter and binding energy. The temperature dependence of the structural properties and the thermodynamic behavior of the clusters are studied. Computations based on f predict the variation of numbers of particles at the contact point of the molecular cavity (radial distribution function). From the thermodynamic profile of the fluid, the model results are discussed in terms of the cavity due to the closed surface along with suitable energy. The present calculation is based upon the sample thermodynamic data for n-hexanol, such as the ultrasonic wave, density, volume expansion coefficient, and ratio of specific heat in the liquid state, and it is consistent with the thermodynamic relations containing physical parameters such as size and energy. Since the data is restricted to n-hexanol, we avoid giving the physical meaning of f, which is the key parameter studied in the present work. (paper)

  20. Study of Material Densification of In718 in the Higher Throughput Parameter Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordner, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is a powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process used increasingly in the aerospace industry to reduce the cost, weight, and fabrication time for complex propulsion components. Previous optimization studies for SLM using the Concept Laser M1 and M2 machines at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center have centered on machine default parameters. The objective of this project is to characterize how heat treatment affects density and porosity from a microscopic point of view. This is performs using higher throughput parameters (a previously unexplored region of the manufacturing operating envelope for this application) on material consolidation. Density blocks were analyzed to explore the relationship between build parameters (laser power, scan speed, and hatch spacing) and material consolidation (assessed in terms of density and porosity). The study also considers the impact of post-processing, specifically hot isostatic pressing and heat treatment, as well as deposition pattern on material consolidation in the higher energy parameter regime. Metallurgical evaluation of specimens will also be presented. This work will contribute to creating a knowledge base (understanding material behavior in all ranges of the AM equipment operating envelope) that is critical to transitioning AM from the custom low rate production sphere it currently occupies to the world of mass high rate production, where parts are fabricated at a rapid rate with confidence that they will meet or exceed all stringent functional requirements for spaceflight hardware. These studies will also provide important data on the sensitivity of material consolidation to process parameters that will inform the design and development of future flight articles using SLM.

  1. Noise disturbance in open-plan study environments: a field study on noise sources, student tasks and room acoustic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braat-Eggen, P Ella; van Heijst, Anne; Hornikx, Maarten; Kohlrausch, Armin

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to gain more insight in the assessment of noise in open-plan study environments and to reveal correlations between noise disturbance experienced by students and the noise sources they perceive, the tasks they perform and the acoustic parameters of the open-plan study environment they work in. Data were collected in five open-plan study environments at universities in the Netherlands. A questionnaire was used to investigate student tasks, perceived sound sources and their perceived disturbance, and sound measurements were performed to determine the room acoustic parameters. This study shows that 38% of the surveyed students are disturbed by background noise in an open-plan study environment. Students are mostly disturbed by speech when performing complex cognitive tasks like studying for an exam, reading and writing. Significant but weak correlations were found between the room acoustic parameters and noise disturbance of students. Practitioner Summary: A field study was conducted to gain more insight in the assessment of noise in open-plan study environments at universities in the Netherlands. More than one third of the students was disturbed by noise. An interaction effect was found for task type, source type and room acoustic parameters.

  2. The reaction between iodine and organic coatings under severe PWR accident conditions. An experimental parameter study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellmann, S; Funke, F; Greger, G U; Bleier, A; Morell, W [Siemens AG, Power Generation Group, Erlangen (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    An extensive experimental parameter study was performed on the deposition and on the resuspension kinetics in the reaction system iodine/organically coated surfaces. Both reactions in the gas phase and in the liquid phase were investigated and kinetic rate constants suitable for modelling were derived. Previous experimental studies on the reaction of iodine with organic coated surfaces were mostly limited to temperatures below 100{sup o}C. Thus, this parameter study aims at filling a gap and providing kinetic data on heterogeneous reactions with organic surfaces in the accident-relevant temperature range of 100-160{sup o}C. Two types of laboratory experiments carried out at Siemens/KWU using coatings representative for German power plants (epoxy-tape paint), namely gas phase tests and liquid phase tests. (author) 6 figs., 6 tabs., 5 refs.

  3. A Study on Stability of Limit Cycle Walking Model with Feet: Parameter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggwon Jeon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two kinds of feet, namely, curved and flat feet, are added to limit cycle walking model to investigate its stability properties. Although both models are already proposed and are investigated, most previous works are focused on efficiency and gait behaviors. Only the stability properties of the simplest walking model conceived Garcia et al. are well defined. Therefore, there is still a need for a precise research on the effect of feet, especially in the view of local stability, bifurcation route to chaos, global stability, falling boundary and energy balance line. Therefore, this article revisits the stability analysis of limit cycle walking model with various foot shape. To analyze the effects of feet, we re-derive the equation of motion of modified models by adding one more parameter of foot shape than the simplest walking model. Also, the falling boundary and energy balance line of modified models are derived to get proper initial conditions for stable walking and to explain global stability. Simulation results show us that the curved feet can enlarge both stable walking range and area of basin of attraction while the case of flat feet depends on foot shape parameter.

  4. ¹⁸F-FDG PET metabolic parameters and MRI perfusion and diffusion parameters in hepatocellular carcinoma: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Jun Ahn

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Glucose metabolism, perfusion, and water diffusion may have a relationship or affect each other in the same tumor. The understanding of their relationship could expand the knowledge of tumor characteristics and contribute to the field of oncologic imaging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between metabolism, vasculature and cellularity of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, using multimodality imaging such as ¹⁸F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET, dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE-MRI, and diffusion weighted imaging(DWI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one patients with advanced HCC underwent ¹⁸F-FDG PET, DCE-MRI, and DWI before treatment. Maximum standard uptake values (SUV(max from ¹⁸F-FDG-PET, variables of the volume transfer constant (K(trans from DCE-MRI and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC from DWI were obtained for the tumor and their relationships were examined by Spearman's correlation analysis. The influence of portal vein thrombosis on SUV(max and variables of K(trans and ADC was evaluated by Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: SUV(max showed significant negative correlation with K(trans(max (ρ = -0.622, p = 0.002. However, variables of ADC showed no relationship with variables of K(trans or SUV(max (p>0.05. Whether portal vein thrombosis was present or not did not influence the SUV max and variables of ADC and K(trans (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: In this study, SUV was shown to be correlated with K(trans in advanced HCCs; the higher the glucose metabolism a tumor had, the lower the perfusion it had, which might help in guiding target therapy.

  5. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and calcaneal ultrasound parameters among Inuit women from Nuuk (Greenland): a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunescu, Alexandra-Cristina; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Dodin, Sylvie; Pedersen, Henning S; Mulvad, Gert; Côté, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    The traditional diet of Inuit people comprises large amounts of fish and marine mammals that are rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Results from in vitro studies, laboratory animal experiments and population studies suggest that omega-3 PUFA intake and a high omega-3/omega-6 ratio exert a positive effect on bone health. This longitudinal study was conducted to examine the relationship between omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA status and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters in Greenlandic Inuit women. The study included 118 Inuit women from Nuuk (Greenland), aged 49-64 years, whose QUS parameters measured at baseline (year 2000), along with PUFA status and covariates, and follow-up QUS measurements 2 years later (year 2002). QUS parameters [speed of sound (SOS); broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA)] were measured at the right calcaneus with a water-bath Lunar Achilles instrument. Omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA contents of erythrocyte membrane phospholipids were measured after transmethylation by gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector. Relationships between QUS parameters and different PUFAs were studied in multiple linear regression models. Increasing values of EPA, DHA and the omega-3/omega-6 PUFA ratio were associated with increased BUA values measured at follow-up (year 2002). These associations were still present in models adjusted for several confounders and covariates. We found little evidence of associations between PUFAs and SOS values. The omega-3 PUFA intake from marine food consumption seems to have a positive effect on bone intrinsic quality and strength, as revealed by higher BUA values in this group of Greenlandic Inuit women.

  6. Study of Material Consolidation at Higher Throughput Parameters in Selective Laser Melting of Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Tracie

    2016-01-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is a powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process used increasingly in the aerospace industry to reduce the cost, weight, and fabrication time for complex propulsion components. SLM stands poised to revolutionize propulsion manufacturing, but there are a number of technical questions that must be addressed in order to achieve rapid, efficient fabrication and ensure adequate performance of parts manufactured using this process in safety-critical flight applications. Previous optimization studies for SLM using the Concept Laser M1 and M2 machines at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center have centered on machine default parameters. The objective of this work is to characterize the impact of higher throughput parameters (a previously unexplored region of the manufacturing operating envelope for this application) on material consolidation. In phase I of this work, density blocks were analyzed to explore the relationship between build parameters (laser power, scan speed, hatch spacing, and layer thickness) and material consolidation (assessed in terms of as-built density and porosity). Phase II additionally considers the impact of post-processing, specifically hot isostatic pressing and heat treatment, as well as deposition pattern on material consolidation in the same higher energy parameter regime considered in the phase I work. Density and microstructure represent the "first-gate" metrics for determining the adequacy of the SLM process in this parameter range and, as a critical initial indicator of material quality, will factor into a follow-on DOE that assesses the impact of these parameters on mechanical properties. This work will contribute to creating a knowledge base (understanding material behavior in all ranges of the AM equipment operating envelope) that is critical to transitioning AM from the custom low rate production sphere it currently occupies to the world of mass high rate production, where parts are fabricated at a rapid

  7. Experimental study on characteristics of interfacial parameter distribution for upward bubbly flow in inclined tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Dianchuan; Yan Changqi; Sun Licheng; Liu Jingyu

    2013-01-01

    Experimental study on characteristics of interfacial parameter distribution for air-water bubbly flow in an inclined circular tube was performed by using the double sensor probe method. Parameters including radial distributions of local void fraction, bubble passing frequency, interfacial area concentration and bubble equivalent diameter were measured using the probe. The inner diameter of test section is 50 mm, and the liquid superficial velocity is 0.144 m/s, with the gas superficial velocity ranging from 0 to 0.054 m/is. The results show that bubbles obviously move toward the upper wall and congregate. The local interfacial area concentration, bubble passing frequency and void fraction have similar radial distribution profiles. Different from the vertical condition, for a cross-sectional area of the test section, the peak value near the upper side increases, while decreases or even disappears near the underside. The local parameter increases as the radial positions change from lower to upper location, and the increased slope becomes larger as the inclination angles increase. The equivalent bubble diameter doesn't vary with radial position, superficial gas velocity and inclination angle, and bubble aggregation and breaking up nearly doesn't occur. The mechanism of effects of inclination on local parameter distribution for bubbly flow is explained by analyzing the transverse force governing the bubble motion. (authors)

  8. Critical reappraisal of embryo quality as a predictive parameter for pregnancy outcome: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, R; Binda, M M; Van Kerkhoven, G; Frederickx, V; Serneels, A; Roziers, P; Lopes, A S; Gordts, S; Puttemans, P; Gordts, S

    2010-01-01

    Pilot study to analyse the efficacy and embryo morphology using a new human embryo culture medium (GM501) versus the conventional used medium (ISM1). Over a four-month period, all patients at the Leuven Institute of Fertility and Embryology (LIFE) were -randomly allocated to have their embryos cultured in either the standard sequential culture medium ISM1 (control) or in a new universal medium (GM501) (study group). Primary outcome parameters were clinical pregnancy and live birth rate. The secondary outcome parameter was the correlation of embryo fragmentation rate with pregnancy outcome. We did not observe any differences between the ISM1 control group and GM501 study group with regard to fertilization, pregnancy, implantation rates, ongoing pregnancy, and babies born. The number of embryos with a minimal fragmentation rate (less than 30%) was significantly higher in the GM501 study group. Although a significant higher embryo fragmentation rate was seen in In vitro culture of embryos in GM501, pregnancy outcome results were comparable to those of embryos cultured in ISM1. According to our results the value of embryo morphological criteria as a parameter for pregnancy outcome should be examined and discussed again.

  9. ESR study of advanced materials with new parameters frequency and pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Mizoguchi, K

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that electron spin resonance (ESR) is a useful technique to investigate the magnetic properties of electrons in condensed matter. The frequency, as an additional parameter to the temperature, gives us the possibility to study the anisotropic dynamics of charge carriers with spin, even in polycrystalline materials. Furthermore, the pressure provides us a way to discuss how interactions between the electrons and their environments are responsible for the novel physical properties in these advanced materials, such as ferromagnetisms, charge-density waves, superconductivity, and so on. Results obtained by using ESR with these parameters are overviewed. Studies as a function of the frequency are demonstrated, especially for the conductive polymers, polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole with various dopants for which single crystals are not available yet. Alkali-electro-sodalite (AES), a kind of zeolite with a regular electron lattice known as an s-electron Mott insulator, and fullerene compo...

  10. Study on Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of Gear System with Random Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Cao; Liu, Xiaoyuan; Fan, Li

    2018-03-01

    In order to study the dynamic characteristics of gear nonlinear vibration system and the influence of random parameters, firstly, a nonlinear stochastic vibration analysis model of gear 3-DOF is established based on Newton’s Law. And the random response of gear vibration is simulated by stepwise integration method. Secondly, the influence of stochastic parameters such as meshing damping, tooth side gap and excitation frequency on the dynamic response of gear nonlinear system is analyzed by using the stability analysis method such as bifurcation diagram and Lyapunov exponent method. The analysis shows that the stochastic process can not be neglected, which can cause the random bifurcation and chaos of the system response. This study will provide important reference value for vibration engineering designers.

  11. Preliminary study of the association between the elimination parameters of phenytoin and phenobarbital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methaneethorn, Janthima; Panomvana, Duangchit; Vachirayonstien, Thaveechai

    2017-09-26

    Therapeutic drug monitoring is essential for both phenytoin and phenobarbital therapy given their narrow therapeutic indexes. Nevertheless, the measurement of either phenytoin or phenobarbital concentrations might not be available in some rural hospitals. Information assisting individualized phenytoin and phenobarbital combination therapy is important. This study's objective was to determine the relationship between the maximum rate of metabolism of phenytoin (Vmax) and phenobarbital clearance (CLPB), which can serve as a guide to individualized drug therapy. Data on phenytoin and phenobarbital concentrations of 19 epileptic patients concurrently receiving both drugs were obtained from medical records. Phenytoin and phenobarbital pharmacokinetic parameters were studied at steady-state conditions. The relationship between the elimination parameters of both drugs was determined using simple linear regression. A high correlation coefficient between Vmax and CLPB was found [r=0.744; pphenobarbital. These proposed equations can be of use in aiding individualized drug therapy.

  12. Study of process parameters for reducing ammonium uranyl carbonate to uranium dioxide in fluidized bed furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitao Junior, C.B.

    1992-01-01

    This work consists of studying the process parameters of AUC (ammonium uranyl carbonate) to U O 2 (uranium dioxide) reduction, with good physical and chemical characteristics, in fluidized bed. Initially, it was performed U O 2 cold fluidization experiments with an acrylic column. Afterward, it was done AUC to U O 2 reduction experiments, in which the process parameters influence in the granulometry, specific surface area, porosity and fluoride amount on the U O 2 powder produced were studied. As a last step, it was done compacting and sintering tests of U O 2 pellets in order to appreciate the U O 2 powder performance, obtained by fluidized bed, in the fuel pellets fabrication. (author)

  13. Study of the characteristic parameters of the normal voices of Argentinian speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Bonzi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The voice laboratory permits to study the human voices using a method that is objective and noninvasive. In this work, we have studied the parameters of the human voice such as pitch, formant, jitter, shimmer and harmonic-noise ratio of a group of young people. This statistical information of parameters is obtained from Argentinian speakers. Received: 29 December 2013, Accepted: 27 May 2014; Reviewed by: J. Brum, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay; Edited by: E. Mizraji; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4279/PIP.060002 Cite as: E V Bonzi, G B Grad, A M Maggi, M R Muñoz, Papers in Physics 6, 060002 (2014

  14. An empirical study on the utility of BRDF model parameters and topographic parameters for mapping vegetation in a semi-arid region with MISR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-angle remote sensing has been proved useful for mapping vegetation community types in desert regions. Based on Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) multi-angular images, this study compares roles played by Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) model parameters with th...

  15. Theoretical study of Moessbauer hyperfine parameters of Fe bound to ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terra, J.; Guenzburger, D.

    1995-01-01

    The first-principles Discrete Variational method was employed to study the species formed by the interaction of an Fe atom and ammonia. Total energy calculations were performed for several configurations. The hyperfine parameters isomer shift, quadrupole splitting and magnetic hyperfine were calculated for the ground state found, and compared to reported experimental values obtained by Moessbauer spectroscopy in frozen ammonia. (author). 14 refs, 1 tab

  16. Long-time integrator for the study on plasma parameter fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalkind, V.M.; Tarasenko, V.P.

    1975-01-01

    A device measuring the absolute value (x) of a fluctuating quantity x(t) averaged over a large number of realizations is described. The specific features of the device are the use of the time selector (Δ t = 50 μs - 1 ms) and the large time integration constant (tau = 30 hrs). The device is meant for studying fluctuations of parameters of a pulse plasma with a small repetition frequency

  17. Study of parameters of simultaneous lasing on two lines sharing an upper level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikulev, A A

    2002-01-01

    Stationary lasing at two competing lines sharing an upper level is studied. Based on the expressions for the gain obtained earlier, the possible lasing regimes are considered (at one or two lines) and approximate formulas are derived for determining the output power in each line. These formulas are shown to be the generalisation of the Rigrod formula to the case of simultaneous lasing at several lines. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  18. Postural Sway Parameters and Gait Symmetry in Preschool Children: Cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane E de Sá

    Full Text Available Abstract The most important function of posture is to ensure the maintenance of control during the start and the continuation of human movement, moreover, posture serves as a reference for the production of precise movements. The aim of this study was to relate the postural sway parameters and gait symmetry in preschool children.This study is a cross-sectional study, conducted in 49 children with a mean age of 4.65 ± 0.44 years. Initially, height and body mass of children were measured using anthropometric scales. Next, an electronic baropodometer was used to evaluate the distribution of dynamic plantar pressure (gait and stabilometry (balance.A Student t test or Mann-Whitney test for comparing two groups was used. To correlate variables, a Pearson's correlation or Spearman's correlation coefficient was used. The stabilometric parameters showed no significant difference between an eyes open test and eyes closed test in preschool child. We found a moderate relationship between axis inclination and cadence symmetry (R=0.40;p=0.007. Postural sway parameters have relationship cadence symmetry of the gait in preschool children.

  19. On the direct detection of multi-component dark matter: sensitivity studies and parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Garcia, Juan; Scaffidi, Andre; White, Martin; Williams, Anthony G.

    2017-11-01

    We study the case of multi-component dark matter, in particular how direct detection signals are modified in the presence of several stable weakly-interacting-massive particles. Assuming a positive signal in a future direct detection experiment, stemming from two dark matter components, we study the region in parameter space where it is possible to distinguish a one from a two-component dark matter spectrum. First, we leave as free parameters the two dark matter masses and show that the two hypotheses can be significantly discriminated for a range of dark matter masses with their splitting being the critical factor. We then investigate how including the effects of different interaction strengths, local densities or velocity dispersions for the two components modifies these conclusions. We also consider the case of isospin-violating couplings. In all scenarios, we show results for various types of nuclei both for elastic spin-independent and spin-dependent interactions. Finally, assuming that the two-component hypothesis is confirmed, we quantify the accuracy with which the parameters can be extracted and discuss the different degeneracies that occur. This includes studying the case in which only a single experiment observes a signal, and also the scenario of having two signals from two different experiments, in which case the ratios of the couplings to neutrons and protons may also be extracted.

  20. Preoperative Biometric Parameters Predict the Vault after ICL Implantation: A Retrospective Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qian-Yin; Xu, Wen; Liang, Guan-Lu; Wu, Jing; Shi, Jun-Ting

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between the preoperative biometric parameters of the anterior segment and the vault after implantable Collamer lens (ICL) implantation via this retrospective study. Retrospective clinical study. A total of 78 eyes from 41 patients who underwent ICL implantation surgery were included in this study. Preoperative biometric parameters, including white-to-white (WTW) diameter, central corneal thickness, keratometer, pupil diameter, anterior chamber depth, sulcus-to-sulcus diameter, anterior chamber area (ACA) and central curvature radius of the anterior surface of the lens (Lenscur), were measured. Lenscur and ACA were measured with Rhinoceros 5.0 software on the image scanned with ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). The vault was assessed by UBM 3 months after surgery. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was employed to identify the variables that were correlated with the vault. The results showed that the vault was correlated with 3 variables: ACA (22.4 ± 4.25 mm2), WTW (11.36 ± 0.29 mm) and Lenscur (9.15 ± 1.21 mm). The regressive equation was: vault (mm) = 1.785 + 0.017 × ACA + 0.051 × Lenscur - 0.203 × WTW. Biometric parameters of the anterior segment (ACA, WTW and Lenscur) can predict the vault after ICL implantation using a new regression equation. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Parameter studies to determine sensitivity of slug impact loads to properties of core surrounding structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gvildys, J.

    1985-01-01

    A sensitivity study of the HCDA slug impact response of fast reactor primary containment to properties of core surrounding structures was performed. Parameters such as the strength of the radial shield material, mass, void, and compressibility properties of the gas plenum material, mass of core material, and mass and compressibility properties of the coolant were used as variables to determine the magnitude of the slug impact loads. The response of the reactor primary containment and the partition of energy were also given. A study was also performed using water as coolant to study the difference in slug impact loads

  2. Video raster stereography back shape reconstruction: a reliability study for sagittal, frontal, and transversal plane parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, J; Reer, R; Braumann, K M

    2015-02-01

    As reliability of raster stereography was proved only for sagittal plane parameters with repeated measures on the same day, the present study was aiming at investigating variability and reliability of back shape reconstruction for all dimensions (sagittal, frontal, transversal) and for different intervals. For a sample of 20 healthy volunteers, intra-individual variability (SEM and CV%) and reliability (ICC ± 95% CI) were proved for sagittal (thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, pelvis tilt angle, and trunk inclination), frontal (pelvis torsion, pelvis and trunk imbalance, vertebral side deviation, and scoliosis angle), transversal (vertebral rotation), and functional (hyperextension) spine shape reconstruction parameters for different test-retest intervals (on the same day, between-day, between-week) by means of video raster stereography. Reliability was high for the sagittal plane (pelvis tilt, kyphosis and lordosis angle, and trunk inclination: ICC > 0.90), and good to high for lumbar mobility (0.86 < ICC < 0.97). Apart from sagittal plane spinal alignment, there was a lack of certainty for a high reproducibility indicated by wider ICC confidence intervals. So, reliability was fair to high for vertebral side deviation and the scoliosis angle (0.71 < ICC < 0.95), and poor to good for vertebral rotation values as well as for frontal plane upper body and pelvis position parameters (0.65 < ICC < 0.92). Coefficients for the between-day and between-week interval were a little lower than for repeated measures on the same day. Variability (SEM) was less than 1.5° or 1.5 mm, except for trunk inclination. Relative variability (CV) was greater in global trunk position and pelvis parameters (35-98%) than in scoliosis (14-20%) or sagittal sway parameters (4-8 %). Although we found a lower reproducibility for the frontal plane, raster stereography is considered to be a reliable method for the non-invasive, three-dimensional assessment of spinal alignment in normal non

  3. On the study of level density parameters for some deformed light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonmezoglu, S.

    2005-01-01

    The nuclear level density, which is the number of energy levels/MeV at an excitation energy Ex , is a characteristic property of every nucleus. Total level densities are among the key quantities in statistical calculations in many fields, such as nuclear physics, astrophysics, spallation s neutrons measurements, and studies of intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions. The nuclear level density is an important physical quantity both from the fundamental point of view as well as in understanding the particle and gamma ray emission in various reactions. In light and heavy deformed nucleus, the gamma-ray energies drop with decreasing spin in a very regular fashion. The nuclear level density parameters have been usually used in investigation of the nuclear level density. This parameter itself changes with excitation energy depending on both shell effect in the single particle model and different excitation modes in the collective models. In this study, the energy level density parameters of some deformed light nucleus (40 C a, 47 T i, 59 N i, 79 S e, 80 B r) are determined by using energy spectrum of the interest nucleus for different band. In calculation of energy-level density parameters dependent upon excitation energy of nuclei studied, a model was considered which relies on the fact that energy levels of deformed light nuclei, just like those of deformed heavy nuclei, are equidistant and which relies on collective motions of their nucleons. The present calculation results have been compared with the corresponding experimental and theoretical results. The obtained results are in good agreement with the experimental results

  4. Statistical study of waves distribution in the inner magnetosphere using geomagnetic indices and solar wind parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, H.; Yearby, K.; Balikhin, M. A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Agapitov, O. V.

    2013-12-01

    The interaction of gyroresonant wave particles with chorus waves largely determine the dynamics of the Earth's radiation belts that effects the acceleration and loss of radiation belt electrons. The common approach is to present model waves distribution in the inner magnetosphere under different values of geomagnetic activity as expressed by the geomagnetic indices. However it is known that solar wind parameters such as bulk velocity (V) and density (n) are more effective in the control of high energy fluxes at the geostationary orbit. Therefore in the present study the set of parameters of the wave distribution is expanded to include the solar wind parameters in addition to the geomagnetic indices. The present study examines almost four years (01, January, 2004 to 29, September, 2007) of Cluster STAFF-SA, Double Star TC1 and OMNI data in order to present a combined model of wave magnetic field intensities for the chorus waves as a function of magnetic local time (MLT), L-shell (L*), geomagnetic activity, and solar wind velocity and density. Generally, the largest wave intensities are observed during average solar wind velocities (3006cm-3. On the other hand the wave intensity is lower and limited between 06:00 to 18:00 MLT for V700kms-1.

  5. Study on uncertainty evaluation methodology related to hydrological parameter of regional groundwater flow analysis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Ryutaro; Munakata, Masahiro; Ohoka, Masao; Kameya, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    In the safety assessment for a geological disposal of radioactive waste, it is important to develop a methodology for long-term estimation of regional groundwater flow from data acquisition to numerical analyses. In the uncertainties associated with estimation of regional groundwater flow, there are the one that concerns parameters and the one that concerns the hydrologeological evolution. The uncertainties of parameters include measurement errors and their heterogeneity. The authors discussed the uncertainties of hydraulic conductivity as a significant parameter for regional groundwater flow analysis. This study suggests that hydraulic conductivities of rock mass are controlled by rock characteristics such as fractures, porosity and test conditions such as hydraulic gradient, water quality, water temperature and that there exists variations more than ten times in hydraulic conductivity by difference due to test conditions such as hydraulic gradient or due to rock type variations such as rock fractures, porosity. In addition this study demonstrated that confining pressure change caused by uplift and subsidence and change of hydraulic gradient under the long-term evolution of hydrogeological environment could possibly produce variations more than ten times of magnitude in hydraulic conductivity. It was also shown that the effect of water quality change on hydraulic conductivity was not negligible and that the replacement of fresh water and saline water caused by sea level change could induce 0.6 times in current hydraulic conductivities in case of Horonobe site. (author)

  6. Study of electron vibrational interaction parameters in chlorophosphate activated with Eu2+ ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhoyar, Priyanka D.; Dhoble, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of theoretical study of photoluminescence of Eu 2+ ions activated chlorophosphate M 5.17 (PO 4 ) 3 Cl 5 :Eu 2+ with M = Ca, Sr and Ba estimating electron-vibrational interaction (EVI) parameters such as Huang–Rhys factor, effective phonon energy, Stokes shift and zero phonon line position. Validity of the calculated result was established by modeling the emission line which was found to be in good agreement with the measured photoluminescence spectrum of Eu 2+ doped chorophosphates. - Highlights: • The EVI parameters such as Huang–Rhys factor, effective phonon energy and zero phonon line position were estimated. • Eu 2+ ion emission observed in chlorophosphate. • Material analyzed in this work have intermediate Huang–Rhys factor, high Stokes shift and low effective phonon energy

  7. Study on Flexural Creep Parameters of Overlayed Particleboard by Natural and Melaminated Veneers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Najafi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effects of natural and artificial veneer on flexural creep behavior of particleboard was investigated. Particleboard panels were prepared from Pars Neopan industries with 660 kg/m3 density and then overlaid by natural and melamine veneers. Their creep behavior was compared to control particleboard. For evaluating maximum bending load in static flexural test, specimens were cut from panels according to ASTM D 1037 with dimensions of 370×50×16 mm. Then, The flexural creep tests at 20% and 40% of failure bending load was applied to test specimens. Results of flexural tests indicated that the MOR and MOE values of veneered particleboard were highest. Results of creep showed that levels of stresses are effective on all creep parameters, but showed less effect on relative creep. Also, creep parameters less effective on specimens overlaid by natural veneer.

  8. Study of operational parameters on the performance of micro PEMFCs with different flow fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, S.-S.; Yang, S.-H.; Kuo, J.-K.; Huang, C.-F.; Tsai, H.-H.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of different operating parameters on micro PEMFC performances were experimentally studied for three different flow field configurations (interdigitated, mesh, and serpentine). Experiments with different cell operating temperatures and different backpressures on the H 2 flow channels, as well as various combinations of these parameters, have been conducted for three different flow geometries. The micro PEMFCs were designed and fabricated inhouse through a deep UV lithography technique and the SU-8 photoresist was used as microstructure material for the fuel cell flow field plates. Results are presented in the form of polarization VI curves and PI curves under different operating conditions. The possible transport mechanisms associated with the parametric effects were discussed. In addition, it was found that among the three flow patterns considered, significant improvements can be reached with a specified flow geometry

  9. Studies on water quality parameters due to operation of PHWR at KAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Mukesh; John, Jaison T.; Joshi, C.P.; Vyas, P.V.; Hegde, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    The paper elucidates the effect of water quality due to operation of Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor located at Kakrapar as water is the essential commodity for all living beings. It is the main concern in recent times for environmental protection, there is a pressure on all type of industries including nuclear power stations to discharge various types of effluents in such a manner that pollution in surrounding environment is kept to the minimum. Owing the wastewater discharge modes of Kakrapar atomic power station behavior of effluents resulting impact on environment and general public will be guided by the water quality of the aquatic system. To ensure the quality of water, the study of water quality parameters are taken up and the investigated parameters showed no degradation in ecosystem due to the operation of PHWR at KAPS. (author)

  10. Dielectric and electro-optical parameters of two ferroelectric liquid crystals: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar Misra, Abhishek; Kumar Srivastava, Abhishek; Shukla, J P; Manohar, Rajiv

    2008-01-01

    Dielectric relaxation and an electro-optical study of two ferroelectric liquid crystals having different spontaneous polarizations (Felix 16/100 and Felix 17/000) showing SmC* and SmA phases have been performed in the temperature range 30-80 compfn C. The experimental data have been used to determine different relaxation parameters, viz. distribution parameter, relaxation frequency, dielectric strength and rotational viscosity. The Goldstone mode of dielectric permittivity has been well observed for both the samples under investigation. The activation energy of both the samples has also been determined by the best theoretical fitting of the Arrhenius plot. We have also evaluated the optical response time and anchoring energy coefficients from electro-optical measurement techniques for these samples.

  11. An optimal generic model for multi-parameters and big data optimizing: a laboratory experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utama, D. N.; Ani, N.; Iqbal, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    Optimization is a process for finding parameter (parameters) that is (are) able to deliver an optimal value for an objective function. Seeking an optimal generic model for optimizing is a computer science study that has been being practically conducted by numerous researchers. Generic model is a model that can be technically operated to solve any varieties of optimization problem. By using an object-oriented method, the generic model for optimizing was constructed. Moreover, two types of optimization method, simulated-annealing and hill-climbing, were functioned in constructing the model and compared to find the most optimal one then. The result said that both methods gave the same result for a value of objective function and the hill-climbing based model consumed the shortest running time.

  12. Study on determination of durability analysis process and fatigue damage parameter for rubber component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Seong In; Cho, Il Je; Woo, Chang Su; Kim, Wan Doo

    2011-01-01

    Rubber components, which have been widely used in the automotive industry as anti-vibration components for many years, are subjected to fluctuating loads, often failing due to the nucleation and growth of defects or cracks. To prevent such failures, it is necessary to understand the fatigue failure mechanism for rubber materials and to evaluate the fatigue life for rubber components. The objective of this study is to develop a durability analysis process for vulcanized rubber components, that can predict fatigue life at the initial product design step. The determination method of nonlinear material constants for FE analysis was proposed. Also, to investigate the applicability of the commonly used damage parameters, fatigue tests and corresponding finite element analyses were carried out and normal and shear strain was proposed as the fatigue damage parameter for rubber components. Fatigue analysis for automotive rubber components was performed and the durability analysis process was reviewed

  13. Genome-wide association study of swine farrowing traits. Part I: genetic and genomic parameter estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J F; Rempel, L A; Rohrer, G A

    2012-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine genetic and genomic parameters among swine (Sus scrofa) farrowing traits. Genetic parameters were obtained using MTDFREML. Genomic parameters were obtained using GENSEL. Genetic and residual variances obtained from MTDFREML were used as priors for the Bayes C analysis of GENSEL. Farrowing traits included total number born (TNB), number born alive (NBA), number born dead (NBD), number stillborn (NSB), number of mummies (MUM), litter birth weight (LBW), and average piglet birth weight (ABW). Statistically significant heritabilities included TNB (0.09, P = 0.048), NBA (0.09, P = 0.041), LBW (0.20, P = 0.002), and ABW (0.26, P NBA (0.97, P NBA-LBW (0.56, P NBA (0.06), NBD (0.00), NSB (0.01), MUM (0.00), LBW (0.11), and ABW (0.31). Limited information is available in the literature about genomic parameters. Only the GP estimate for NSB is significantly lower than what has been published. The GP estimate for ABW is greater than the estimate for heritability found in this study. Other traits with significant heritability had GP estimates half the value of heritability. This research indicates that significant genetic markers will be found for TNB, NBA, LBW, and ABW that will have either immediate use in industry or provide a roadmap to further research with fine mapping or sequencing of areas of significance. Furthermore, these results indicate that genomic selection implemented at an early age would have similar annual progress as traditional selection, and could be incorporated along with traditional selection procedures to improve genetic progress of litter traits.

  14. Study of the lattice parameter evolution of PWR irradiated MOX fuel by X-Ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavier, B.

    1995-01-01

    Fuel irradiation leads to a swelling resulting from the formation of gaseous (Kr, Xe) or solid fission products which are found either in solution or as solid inclusions in the matrix. This phenomena has to be evaluated to be taken into account in fuel cladding Interaction. Fuel swelling was studied as a function of burn up by measuring the corresponding cell constant evolution by X-Ray diffraction. This study was realized on Mixed Oxide Fuels (MOX) irradiated in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) at different burn-up for 3 initial Pu contents. Lattice parameter evolutions were followed as a function of burn-up for the irradiated fuel with and without an annealing thermal treatment. These experimental evolutions are compared to the theoretical evolutions calculated from the hard sphere model, using the fission product concentrations determined by the APPOLO computer code. Contribution of varying parameters influencing the unit cell value is discussed. Thermal treatment effects were checked by metallography, X-Ray diffraction and microprobe analysis. After thermal treatment, no structural change was observed but a decrease of the lattice parameter was measured. This modification results essentially from self-irradiation defect annealing and not from stoichiometry variations. Microprobe analysis showed that about 15% of the formed Molybdenum is in solid solution In the oxide matrix. Micrographs showed the existence of Pu packs in the oxide matrix which induces a broadening of diffraction lines. The RIETVELD method used to analyze the X-Ray patterns did not allow to characterize independently the Pu packs and the oxide matrix lattice parameters. Nevertheless, with this method, the presence of micro-strains in the irradiated nuclear fuel could be confirmed. (author)

  15. History of water quality parameters - a study on the Sinos River/Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konzen, G B; Figueiredo, J A S; Quevedo, D M

    2015-05-01

    Water is increasingly becoming a valuable resource, constituting one of the central themes of environmental, economic and social discussions. The Sinos River, located in southern Brazil, is the main river from the Sinos River Basin, representing a source of drinking water supply for a highly populated region. Considering its size and importance, it becomes necessary to conduct a study to follow up the water quality of this river, which is considered by some experts as one of the most polluted rivers in Brazil. As for this study, its great importance lies in the historical analysis of indicators. In this sense, we sought to develop aspects related to the management of water resources by performing a historical analysis of the Water Quality Index (WQI) of the Sinos River, using statistical methods. With regard to the methodological procedures, it should be pointed out that this study performs a time analysis of monitoring data on parameters related to a punctual measurement that is variable in time, using statistical tools. The data used refer to analyses of the water quality of the Sinos River (WQI) from the State Environmental Protection Agency Henrique Luiz Roessler (Fundação Estadual de Proteção Ambiental Henrique Luiz Roessler, FEPAM) covering the period between 2000 and 2008, as well as to a theoretical analysis focusing on the management of water resources. The study of WQI and its parameters by statistical analysis has shown to be effective, ensuring its effectiveness as a tool for the management of water resources. The descriptive analysis of the WQI and its parameters showed that the water quality of the Sinos River is concerning low, which reaffirms that it is one of the most polluted rivers in Brazil. It should be highlighted that there was an overall difficulty in obtaining data with the appropriate periodicity, as well as a long complete series, which limited the conduction of statistical studies such as the present one.

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Peripubertal Serum Organochlorine Concentrations and Semen Parameters in Young Men: The Russian Children’s Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Sergeyev, Oleg; Burns, Jane S.; Williams, Paige L.; Lee, Mary M.; Korrick, Susan A.; Smigulina, Luidmila; Revich, Boris; Hauser, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposures to endocrine-disrupting chemicals during critical phases of testicular development may be related to poorer semen parameters. However, few studies have assessed the association between childhood organochlorine (OC) exposure and adult semen parameters. Objective: We examined whether peripubertal serum OC concentrations are associated with semen parameters among young Russian men. Methods: From 2003 through 2005, 516 boys were enrolled at age 8–9 years and followed for up to 10 years. Serum OCs were measured in the enrollment samples using high-resolution mass spectrometry. At 18–19 years, 133 young men provided 1 or 2 semen samples (256 samples) collected approximately 1 week apart, which were analyzed for volume, sperm concentration, and motility. Unadjusted and adjusted linear mixed models were used to examine the associations of quartiles of lipid-standardized concentrations of dioxins [2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)], furans, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and corresponding toxic equivalents (TEQs) with semen parameters. Results: The median (range) for TCDD was 2.9 (0.4–12.1) pg/g lipid and PCDD TEQ was 8.7 (1.0–36.0) pg TEQ/g lipid. Higher quartiles of TCDD and PCDD TEQs were associated with lower sperm concentration, total sperm count, and total motile sperm count (p-trends ≤ 0.05). The highest quartile of peripubertal serum TCDD concentrations was associated with a decrease (95% CI) of 40% (18, 66%), 29% (3, 64%), and 30% (2, 70%) in sperm concentration, total sperm count, and total motile sperm count, respectively, compared with the lowest quartile. Similar associations were observed for serum PCDD TEQs with semen parameters. Serum PCBs, furans, and total TEQs were not associated with semen parameters. Conclusion: Higher peripubertal serum TCDD concentrations and PCDD TEQs were associated with poorer semen parameters. Citation: Mínguez-Alarcón L, Sergeyev O, Burns JS

  17. Comparative study of trapping parameters of LiF(TLD-100) from different production batches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bos, A.J.J.; Piters, T.M.; Vries, W. de; Hoogenboom, J.E. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Interfaculty Reactor Institute)

    1990-01-01

    Computerised glow curve analysis has been used to determine the trapping parameters of the main peaks of the thermoluminescent (TL) material LiF(TLD-100). The TL material (solid state chips) originated from six different production batches with at least 19 chips per batch. The maxima of glow peaks 2 to 5 are found at the same temperature within very small limits. The activation energy and frequency factor of the main glow peak (peak 5) of TLD-100 originating from two batches differ significantly from those of the other four investigated batches. Nevertheless, the sensitivity of glow peak 5 is more or less the same for all batches. The trapping parameters of glow peaks 2 to 4 of TLD-100 vary little from batch to batch. The measured half-life of peak 2 differed strongly from batch to batch. For all investigated peaks no correlation has been found between glow peak sensitivity and trapping parameters. The results of this study suggest that both defect concentration and nature of the trapping centres vary from batch to batch. It would appear that as a consequence of selection by the manufacturer, the differences between the batches in terms of total light output are small. (author).

  18. Ultraviolet germicidal efficacy as a function of pulsed radiation parameters studied by spore film dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stefan; Holtschmidt, Hans; Ott, Günter

    2018-01-01

    Disinfection by pulsed ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a commonly used method, e.g. in industry or medicine and can be carried out either with lasers or broadband UV radiation sources. Detrimental effects to biological materials depending on parameters such as pulse duration τ or pulse repetition frequency f p are well-understood for pulsed coherent UV radiation, however, relatively little is known for its incoherent variant. Therefore, within this work, it is the first time that disinfection rates of pulsed and continuous (cw) incoherent UV radiation studied by means of spore film dosimetry are presented, compared with each other, and in a second step further investigated regarding two pulse parameters. After analyzing the dynamic range of the Bacillus subtilis spore films with variable cw radiant exposures H=5-100Jm -2 a validation of the Bunsen-Roscoe law revealed its restricted applicability and a 28% enhanced detrimental effect of pulsed compared to cw incoherent UV radiation. A radiant exposure H=50Jm -2 and an irradiance E=0.5Wm -2 were found to be suitable parameters for an analysis of the disinfection rate as a function of τ=0.5-10ms and f p =25-500Hz unveiling that shorter pulses and lower frequencies inactivate more spores. Finally, the number of applied pulses as well as the experiment time were considered with regard to spore film disinfection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Virtual walks in spin space: A study in a family of two-parameter models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullick, Pratik; Sen, Parongama

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the dynamics of classical spins mapped as walkers in a virtual "spin" space using a generalized two-parameter family of spin models characterized by parameters y and z [de Oliveira et al., J. Phys. A 26, 2317 (1993), 10.1088/0305-4470/26/10/006]. The behavior of S (x ,t ) , the probability that the walker is at position x at time t , is studied in detail. In general S (x ,t ) ˜t-αf (x /tα) with α ≃1 or 0.5 at large times depending on the parameters. In particular, S (x ,t ) for the point y =1 ,z =0.5 corresponding to the Voter model shows a crossover in time; associated with this crossover, two timescales can be defined which vary with the system size L as L2logL . We also show that as the Voter model point is approached from the disordered regions along different directions, the width of the Gaussian distribution S (x ,t ) diverges in a power law manner with different exponents. For the majority Voter case, the results indicate that the the virtual walk can detect the phase transition perhaps more efficiently compared to other nonequilibrium methods.

  20. The study of optimization on process parameters of high-accuracy computerized numerical control polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Ren; Huang, Shih-Pu; Tsai, Tsung-Yueh; Lin, Yi-Jyun; Yu, Zong-Ru; Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Young, Hong-Tsu

    2017-09-01

    Spherical lenses lead to forming spherical aberration and reduced optical performance. Consequently, in practice optical system shall apply a combination of spherical lenses for aberration correction. Thus, the volume of the optical system increased. In modern optical systems, aspherical lenses have been widely used because of their high optical performance with less optical components. However, aspherical surfaces cannot be fabricated by traditional full aperture polishing process due to their varying curvature. Sub-aperture computer numerical control (CNC) polishing is adopted for aspherical surface fabrication in recent years. By using CNC polishing process, mid-spatial frequency (MSF) error is normally accompanied during this process. And the MSF surface texture of optics decreases the optical performance for high precision optical system, especially for short-wavelength applications. Based on a bonnet polishing CNC machine, this study focuses on the relationship between MSF surface texture and CNC polishing parameters, which include feed rate, head speed, track spacing and path direction. The power spectral density (PSD) analysis is used to judge the MSF level caused by those polishing parameters. The test results show that controlling the removal depth of single polishing path, through the feed rate, and without same direction polishing path for higher total removal depth can efficiently reduce the MSF error. To verify the optical polishing parameters, we divided a correction polishing process to several polishing runs with different direction polishing paths. Compare to one shot polishing run, multi-direction path polishing plan could produce better surface quality on the optics.

  1. Kinetic study of the anaerobic biodegradation of alkyl polyglucosides and the influence of their structural parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Francisco; Fernández-Arteaga, Alejandro; Lechuga, Manuela; Jurado, Encarnación; Fernández-Serrano, Mercedes

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports a study of the anaerobic biodegradation of non-ionic surfactants alkyl polyglucosides applying the method by measurement of the biogas production in digested sludge. Three alkyl polyglucosides with different length alkyl chain and degree of polymerization of the glucose units were tested. The influence of their structural parameters was evaluated, and the characteristics parameters of the anaerobic biodegradation were determined. Results show that alkyl polyglucosides, at the standard initial concentration of 100 mgC L(-1), are not completely biodegradable in anaerobic conditions because they inhibit the biogas production. The alkyl polyglucoside having the shortest alkyl chain showed the fastest biodegradability and reached the higher percentage of final mineralization. The anaerobic process was well adjusted to a pseudo first-order equation using the carbon produced as gas during the test; also, kinetics parameters and a global rate constant for all the involved metabolic process were determined. This modeling is helpful to evaluate the biodegradation or the persistence of alkyl polyglucosides under anaerobic conditions in the environment and in the wastewater treatment.

  2. A study of operating parameters on the linear spark ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ocktaeck; Hung, Nguyen Ba; Oh, Seokyoung; Kim, Gangchul; Song, Hanho; Iida, Norimasa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An experimental and simulation study of a linear engine is conducted. • The effects of operating parameters on the generating power are investigated. • The air gap length has a significant influence on the generating power. • The generating power of the linear engine is optimized with the value of 111.3 W. • There are no problems for the linear engine after 100 h of durable test. - Abstract: In this paper, we present our experiment and simulation study of a free piston linear engine based on operating conditions and structure of the linear engine for generating electric power. The free piston linear engine includes a two-stroke free piston engine, linear generators, and compressors. In the experimental study, the effects of key parameters such as input caloric value, equivalence ratio, spark timing delay, electrical resistance, and air gap length on the piston dynamics and electric power output are investigated. Propane is used as a fuel in the free piston linear engine, and it is premixed with the air to make a homogeneous charge before go into the cylinder. The air and fuel mass flow rate are varied by a mass flow controller. The experimental results show that the maximum generating power is found with the value of 111 W at the input caloric value of 5.88 kJ/s, spark timing delay of 1.5 ms, equivalence ratio of 1.0, electric resistance of 30 Ω, and air gap length of 1.0 mm. In order to check the durability of the linear engine, a durable test is conducted during 100 h. The experimental results show that there are no problems for the linear engine after about one hundred hours of the durable test. Beside experimental study, a simulation study is conducted to predict operating behavior of the linear engine. In the simulation study, the two-stroke free piston linear engine is modeled and simulated through a combination of three mathematical models including a dynamic model, a linear alternator model and a thermodynamic model. These

  3. Rock Physics and Petrographic Parameters Relationship Within Siliciclastic Rocks: Quartz Sandstone Outcrop Study Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafriyono, S.; Caesario, D.; Swastika, A.; Adlan, Q.; Syafri, I.; Abdurrokhim, A.; Mardiana, U.; Mohamad, F.; Alfadli, M. K.; Sari, V. M.

    2018-03-01

    Rock physical parameters value (Vp and Vs) is one of fundamental aspects in reservoir characterization as a tool to detect rock heterogenity. Its response is depend on several reservoir conditions such as lithology, pressure and reservoir fluids. The value of Vp and Vs is controlled by grain contact and contact stiffness, a function of clay mineral content and porosity also affected by mineral composition. The study about Vp and Vs response within sandstone and its relationship with petrographic parameters has become important to define anisotrophy of reservoir characteristics distribution and could give a better understanding about local diagenesis that influence clastic reservoir properties. Petrographic analysis and Vp-Vs calculation was carried out to 12 core sample which is obtained by hand-drilling of the outcrop in Sukabumi area, West Java as a part of Bayah Formation. Data processing and interpretation of sedimentary vertical succession showing that this outcrop comprises of 3 major sandstone layers indicating fluvial depositional environment. As stated before, there are 4 petrographic parameters (sorting, roundness, clay mineral content, and grain contact) which are responsible to the differences of shear wave and compressional wave value in this outcrop. Lithology with poor-sorted and well- roundness has Vp value lower than well-sorted and poor-roundness (sub-angular) grain. For the sample with high clay content, Vp value is ranging from 1681 to 2000 m/s and could be getting high until 2190 to 2714 m/s in low clay content sample even though the presence of clay minerals cannot be defined neither as matrix nor cement. The whole sample have suture grain contact indicating telogenesis regime whereas facies has no relationship with Vp and Vs value because of the different type of facies show similar petrographic parameters after diagenesis.

  4. Study on Adaptive Parameter Determination of Cluster Analysis in Urban Management Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, J. Y.; Jing, C. F.; Du, M. Y.; Fu, Y. L.; Dai, P. P.

    2017-09-01

    The fine management for cities is the important way to realize the smart city. The data mining which uses spatial clustering analysis for urban management cases can be used in the evaluation of urban public facilities deployment, and support the policy decisions, and also provides technical support for the fine management of the city. Aiming at the problem that DBSCAN algorithm which is based on the density-clustering can not realize parameter adaptive determination, this paper proposed the optimizing method of parameter adaptive determination based on the spatial analysis. Firstly, making analysis of the function Ripley's K for the data set to realize adaptive determination of global parameter MinPts, which means setting the maximum aggregation scale as the range of data clustering. Calculating every point object's highest frequency K value in the range of Eps which uses K-D tree and setting it as the value of clustering density to realize the adaptive determination of global parameter MinPts. Then, the R language was used to optimize the above process to accomplish the precise clustering of typical urban management cases. The experimental results based on the typical case of urban management in XiCheng district of Beijing shows that: The new DBSCAN clustering algorithm this paper presents takes full account of the data's spatial and statistical characteristic which has obvious clustering feature, and has a better applicability and high quality. The results of the study are not only helpful for the formulation of urban management policies and the allocation of urban management supervisors in XiCheng District of Beijing, but also to other cities and related fields.

  5. STUDY ON ADAPTIVE PARAMETER DETERMINATION OF CLUSTER ANALYSIS IN URBAN MANAGEMENT CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Fu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The fine management for cities is the important way to realize the smart city. The data mining which uses spatial clustering analysis for urban management cases can be used in the evaluation of urban public facilities deployment, and support the policy decisions, and also provides technical support for the fine management of the city. Aiming at the problem that DBSCAN algorithm which is based on the density-clustering can not realize parameter adaptive determination, this paper proposed the optimizing method of parameter adaptive determination based on the spatial analysis. Firstly, making analysis of the function Ripley's K for the data set to realize adaptive determination of global parameter MinPts, which means setting the maximum aggregation scale as the range of data clustering. Calculating every point object’s highest frequency K value in the range of Eps which uses K-D tree and setting it as the value of clustering density to realize the adaptive determination of global parameter MinPts. Then, the R language was used to optimize the above process to accomplish the precise clustering of typical urban management cases. The experimental results based on the typical case of urban management in XiCheng district of Beijing shows that: The new DBSCAN clustering algorithm this paper presents takes full account of the data’s spatial and statistical characteristic which has obvious clustering feature, and has a better applicability and high quality. The results of the study are not only helpful for the formulation of urban management policies and the allocation of urban management supervisors in XiCheng District of Beijing, but also to other cities and related fields.

  6. Study of Sperm Parameters and Sperm Fertility in Mice were Exposed to Tamoxifen during Embryonic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Soleimanirad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tamoxifen is steroidal drug, which mainly treats breast cancer and also used to stimulate ovulation. The purpose of the present study was the evaluation of sperm parameters and fertility of mice whose mothers had received tamoxifen during pregnancy. Methods: In this study, 30 female and 15 male mice of NMRI were selected for mating. After mating female mice were randomly divided into two groups, the first group (control and second group (experimental. All of which contained 15 mice. From the day 13th day of pregnancy, experimental group has received tamoxifen with the dosage of 5 mg/kg for 7 days. After childbirth of the mated mice, male infants were selected. After reaching the age of puberty (6-8Weeks, adult mice were sacrificed by the cervical dislocation. After take sperm, sperm parameters (count, normality and motility, and sperm fertility was performed. In this study SPSS software and statistical t-test was used (p <0.001. Results: Studies showed that sperm parameters and sperm fertilization were significantly different. The number of sperm in the control group was 83.50±28.20 million, and in the experimental group was 60±14.14 million. There was a decrease in average sperm count in the experimental group compared with the control group (p <0.001. Our findings from in vitro fertilization culture media showed that embryos formation and oocyte disruption between control and experimental groups significantly different (p <0.001. Conclusion: The results showed that tamoxifen exposure during development can cause histological changes in the seminiferous tubules, which can lead to infertility.

  7. The FERMI (at) Elettra Technical Optimization Study: Preliminary Parameter Set and Initial Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, John; Corlett, John; Doolittle, Larry; Fawley, William; Lidia, Steven; Penn, Gregory; Ratti, Alex; Staples, John; Wilcox, Russell; Wurtele, Jonathan; Zholents, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the FERMI (at) Elettra Technical Optimization Study is to produce a machine design and layout consistent with user needs for radiation in the approximate ranges 100 nm to 40 nm, and 40 nm to 10 nm, using seeded FEL's. The Study will involve collaboration between Italian and US physicists and engineers, and will form the basis for the engineering design and the cost estimation

  8. Experimental study of dual fuel engine performance using variable LPG composition and engine parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnajjar, Emad; Selim, Mohamed Y.E.; Hamdan, Mohammad O.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of using variable LPG is studied. • Five fuels with propane to butane % volume ratio are: 100-70-55-25-0. • 100% Propane composition shows the highest noise levels with similar performance. • At 45° BTDC injection timing 55% Propane LPG the only fuel experience knocking. • LPG fuels gave similar engine performance, with differences in levels of noise. - Abstract: The present work investigates experimentally the effect of LPG fuel with different composition and engine parameters on the performance of a dual compression engine. Five different blends of LPG fuels are used with Propane to Butane volume ratio of 100:0, 70:30, 55:45, 25:75, and 0:100. A single cylinder, naturally aspirated, four strokes, indirectly injected, water cooled modified Ricardo E6 engine, is used in this study. The study is carried out by measuring the cylinder pressure, engine load, engine speed, crank angle, and the fuel’s flow rate. The engine performance under variable LPG fuel composition, engine load, pilot fuel injection timing, compression ratio, pilot fuel mass and engine speed, are estimated by comparing the following engine parameters: the cylinder maximum pressure, the indicated mean effective pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise, and the thermal efficiency. The experimental data indicates that the engine parameters are playing a major role on the engine’s performance. Different LPG fuel composition did not show a major effect on the engine efficiency but directly impacted the levels of generated combustion noise

  9. STUDY OF THE PARAMETERS OF EFFICIENCY IN CENTRES FOR REPAIR OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Stoyanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper makes a thorough study of the parameters of efficiency in the centers for the repair of agricultural machinery, considering production and technological structure, the basic principles for design of the process of service, the quantitative indicators for servicing. It presents a theoretical model for the management of services in the service business, taking into account the basic system requirements for maintenance of agricultural machinery, the main elements of the standards of customer service, choice of forms for maintenance of agricultural machinery. Opportunities are proposed for the optimization of repair activities in the centers for repair of agricultural machinery.

  10. Scaling study of edge plasma parameters using a multi-device database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsui, H.Y.W.; Miner, W.H.; Wootton, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    A database consisting of edge equilibrium, turbulence and transport related plasma parameters has been compiled. Scaling laws for edge density, electron temperature, and radial particle flux are derived in an initial study using a subset of data obtained from tokamaks Phaedrus-T, Tokamak de Varennes, TEXT and TEXT-U. A comparison of edge particle transport in divertor and limiter plasmas shows that the magnetic topology of a separatrix or a divertor improves particle confinement. The particle diffusion coefficient varies radially in a manner opposite to that of Bohm diffusion. ((orig.))

  11. Development of multiple performance indices and system parameter study for the design of a MEMS accelerometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Il; Choi, Chan Kyu; Yoo, Hong Hee

    2012-01-01

    For the design of a MEMS accelerometer, proper performance indices should be defined and employed. Performance indices are obtained using either an experimental method or a numerical method. In the present study, a vibration analysis model of a MEMS accelerometer is introduced to calculate three performance indices: sensitivity, measurable acceleration range, and measurable frequency range. The accuracy of the vibration analysis model is first validated by comparing its modal and transient results with those of a commercial finite element code. Measurable acceleration and frequency ranges versus allowable errors for electrical and mechanical sensitivities are obtained and the effects of system parameter variations on the three performance indices are investigated

  12. Parameter studies on the effect of pulse shape on the dynamic plastic deformation of a hexagon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngdahl, C.K.

    1973-10-01

    Results of a parameter study on the dynamic plastic response of a hexagonal subassembly duct subjected to an internal pressure pulse of arbitrary shape are presented. Plastic distortion of the cross section and large-deformation geometric effects that result in redistribution of the internal forces between bending and membrane stresses in the hexagon wall are included in the analytical model. Correlation procedures are established for relating permanent plastic deformation to simple properties of the pressure pulse, for both the small- and large-deformation ranges. Characteristic response times are determined, and the dynamic load factor for large-deformation plastic response is computed

  13. Study of the parameters of nanoscale layers in nanoheterostructures based on II–VI semiconductor compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karavaev, M. B., E-mail: estonianchameleon@gmail.com; Kirilenko, D. A.; Ivanova, E. V.; Popova, T. B.; Sitnikova, A. A.; Sedova, I. V.; Zamoryanskaya, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    Wide-gap ZnSe-based nanoheterostructures grown by molecular-beam epitaxy are studied by local cathodoluminescence and X-ray microanalysis. It is shown that the used methods allow nondestructive determination of the depth, elemental composition, and geometrical parameters of the nanoscale ZnCdSe layer. The accuracy of the results is verified by transmission electron microscopy. The research techniques are based on the possibility of varying the primary electron-beam energy, which results in changes in the regions of characteristic X-ray and cathodoluminescence generation.

  14. Model Study of Wave Overtopping of Marine Structure for a Wide Range of Geometric Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the study described in this paper is to enable estimation of wave overtopping rates for slopes/ramps given by a wide range of geometric parameters when subjected to varying wave conditions. To achieve this a great number of model tests are carried out in a wave tank using irregul...... 2-D waves. On the basis of the first part of these tests an exponential overtopping expression for a linear slope, including the effect of limited draught and varying slope angle, is presented. The plans for further tests with other slope geometries are described....

  15. Studying Air Quality Dynamics using A Linear Genetic Programming Approach over Remotely Sensed Atmospheric Parameters: case study (Cairo, Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Askary, H. M.; Sheta, W.; Prasad, A. K.; Ali, H.; Abdel rahman, M.; El-Desouki, A.; Kafatos, M.

    2011-12-01

    For the past nine years starting from 2000, Cairo and the Delta region have been going through seriously high air pollution episodes that take place from October till November, locally known as the "Black Cloud". These temperature inversion episodes are attributed to Cairo's topography, complex climate systems, in addition to its economic growth and industrial activity and the long range transport from Europe. Carbon monoxide, ozone, methane, and water vapor are four major parameters that give an indication to the levels of pollution due to their interactions in the atmosphere. Carbon monoxide is especially an excellent tracer for pollution sources and pathways in the troposphere. The Nile Delta is known to be the most populous region of Egypt with major agricultural and industrial activities. The region suffers from intense episodes of natural and anthropogenic pollution especially during Spring (MAM), Summer (JJA), Fall (SON), and Winter (DJF) seasons. Previous studies found that the summer season shows long range transport of pollutants from Europe which is widely accepted. Recent studies attribute the local biomass burning in open fields to be the major culprit behind increased levels of pollution over major cities of the Delta region (such as Cairo) especially during the Fall season. Such episodes result in dense fog and haze which is locally known as "Black Cloud". We have analyzed multiple satellite datasets such as MODIS higher resolution daily aerosol parameters, vertical profiles from AIRS (meteorological and other parameters), HYSPLIT and GOCART models, and ground collected data (AOD, PM10, SO2 and NO2) to study the cause of Fall-time pollution over the Delta region. In this research we analysed aerosol, water vapor and cloud properties, over Cairo and the Greater Delta region starting from March 1st 2000 till May 31st 2010. The parameters involved in this analysis include nine parameters noted as P0 to P8 namely: Angstrom Exponent Land Mean, Atmospheric

  16. Study and optimization of thermo-physical parameters for a solar-still performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaabi, A.; Zaidi, H.

    2006-01-01

    The thermo-physical parameters of a static solar still with a greenhouse effect were studied. The simulation was conducted for each component of the still at the same initial temperature and time step. Analyzed parameters included the solar collector; brine; absorber; and insulator. The thermophysical changes of different still components were analyzed as well as their impacts on the solar still's output. The aim of the study was to enhance distilled water production. A Gauss-Seidel iterative method was used to solve thermophysical equations. Results of the study showed that maximum hourly production of distilled water was reached at 13:00 PM, when temperatures differences between the brine and the inner side of the still had a significant impact on system productivity. Three types of material were tested: copper, aluminum, and steel. Copper gave improved production, higher thermal conductivity; higher heat, and an improved coefficient of absorption. Production of distilled water increased when a black layer of nickel was added to the still. It was concluded that solar still efficiency increased when the absorber had a high thermal conductivity and a high specific heat. 14 refs., 6 figs

  17. A study of metal artifacts on MR imaging. Evaluation of scanning parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashiro, Mitsuaki

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate scanning parameters on MR imaging for reducing metal artifacts using phantom study. Metal artifacts on sagittal images, perpendicular to static magnetic direction showed round shape in the relationship between shape of metal artifacts on MR images and scanning direction. Metal artifacts on both axial and coronal images, parallel to static magnetic direction showed oval shape in the direction of X-axis. In spin echo sequences, the largest dimension of metal artifacts was coronal image, followed by axial image and then sagittal image. In gradient echo sequences, the largest dimension of metal artifacts was axial image, followed by coronal image and then sagittal image. The best scanning plane for reducing metal artifacts was perpendicular to static magnetic direction. In scanning sequences, the largest dimensions of metal artifacts were gradient echo sequences, followed by T2-weighted spin echo sequence and then proton density-weighted and T1-weighted spin echo sequences. Large flip angle increased much metal artifacts on both axial and coronal images in gradient echo sequences. Small flip angle was useful for reducing metal artifacts on both axial and coronal images. The influence of flip angle on metal artifacts in sagittal images perpendicular static magnetic direction was less than for images in coronal and axial planes on gradient echo sequences. These results suggested that a study of metal artifacts on MR imaging about evaluation of scanning parameters was useful to reduce metal artifacts on MR images. (K.H.)

  18. Sleep respiratory parameters in children with idiopathic epilepsy: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogou, Maria; Haidopoulou, Katerina; Eboriadou, Maria; Pavlidou, Efterpi; Hatzistylianou, Maria; Pavlou, Evaggelos

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to explore and compare through polysomnography respiratory sleep parameters between children with idiopathic epilepsy and healthy children. Our cross-sectional study included 40 children with idiopathic epilepsy and 27 healthy children, who underwent overnight polysomnography. Data about sleep respiratory parameters were obtained and statistically analyzed. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. The prevalence of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome was significantly higher in the epilepsy group (35% vs 7.4%, pepilepsy group was 10.6 (95% Confidence Intervals: 3.08-37.08) in comparison to the control group. The mean value of the obstructive apnea-hypopnea index was significantly higher in children with epilepsy compared to healthy children (2.46±1.22 vs 1.21±0.83, p=0.027). The mean values of central apnea index and desaturation index were comparable between these two groups. Longest apnea duration was significantly higher in the group of poor seizure control. All other sleep respiratory variables did not differ significantly between children with poor and good seizure control and between children with generalized and focal epilepsy. Children with epilepsy seem to present more prominent sleep breathing instability in comparison to healthy children, which mainly includes a predisposition to obstructive respiratory events. More studies are needed to investigate the relationship between sleep apneas and seizure control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of mini trampoline exercise on male gymnasts' physiological parameters: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakollukçu, M; Aslan, C S; Paoli, A; Bianco, A; Sahin, F N

    2015-01-01

    There are limited studies that indicate the effects of trampoline exercise on strength and other physiological parameters. This study aims to determine whether twelve weeks of trampoline exercise would have any effects on the physical and physiological parameters of male gymnasts. A number of 20 intercollegiate competitive male gymnasts (as experimental group) and 20 non-athlete male (as control group) participated voluntarily. Their anthropometric characteristics and the anaerobic power were measured and their back strength, vertical jump, standing long jump and 20 meter sprint performances were measured. As a result; whereas 12 weeks of trampoline exercise improved standing long jump (before 242.35±3.40 cm; after 251.70±2.95 cm) and also vertical jump, 20 meter sprint speed and anaerobic power of subjects. We did not observe significant changes on back strength performances (before 148.32±5.73 kg; after 148.10±5.71). The trampoline exercise protocol improved significantly speed, jump and anaerobic performances of the experimental group, while did not induced any changes on back strength performances. More studies are necessary to confirm the interesting results coming from this pilot intervention.

  20. Dissociative symptoms and sleep parameters--an all-night polysomnography study in patients with insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Kloet, Dalena; Giesbrecht, Timo; Franck, Erik; Van Gastel, Ann; De Volder, Ilse; Van Den Eede, Filip; Verschuere, Bruno; Merckelbach, Harald

    2013-08-01

    Dissociative disorders encompass a range of symptoms varying from severe absent-mindedness and memory problems to confusion about one's own identity. Recent studies suggest that these symptoms may be the by-products of a labile sleep-wake cycle. In the current study, we explored this issue in patients suffering from insomnia (N=46). We investigated whether these patients have raised levels of dissociative symptoms and whether these are related to objective sleep parameters. Patients stayed for at least one night in a specialized sleep clinic, while sleep EEG data were obtained. In addition, they completed self-report measures on dissociative symptoms, psychological problems, and sleep characteristics. Dissociative symptom levels were elevated in patients suffering from insomnia, and were correlated with unusual sleep experiences and poor sleep quality. Longer REM sleep periods and less time spent awake during the night were predictive of dissociation. This is the first study to show that insomnia patients have raised dissociative symptom levels and that their dissociative symptoms are related to objective EEG parameters. These findings are important because they may inspire sleep-related treatment methods for dissociative disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. MALIGNANT OBSTRUCTIVE JAUNDICE: A STUDY OF INVESTIGATIVE PARAMETERS AND ITS OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilakdas S. Shetty

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Obstructive jaundice is a surgical condition that occurs when there is an obstruction to the passage of conjugated bilirubin from the liver cells to the intestine. This study has studied five clinical and nine laboratory parameters in patients presenting with malignant obstructive jaundice along with their radiological findings. By studying these parameters, the prognosis of patients with malignant obstructive jaundice and the best possible intervention could be predicted. AIM To study the various aetiopathological aspects associated with obstructive jaundice and investigative parameters of these patients thereby evaluating the prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS This observational study has been conducted in a tertiary institute by collecting data of 50 cases of malignant obstructive jaundice admitted to the surgical wards of BYL Nair Hospital from August 2011 to August 2014 with followup of 3 months to obtain mortality data. Male and female patients above 18 years and below 80 years of age with histologically proven malignant obstructive jaundice were included as part of this study. Data of retrospective cases were obtained from Medical Record section without disclosing the address or identification of the patient. RESULTS In this study, a total of 50 cases of histologically proven malignant obstructive jaundice were evaluated. 50 patients were studied out of which 33 were male and 17 were female. Majority of the patients were in the age group of 61-70 years i.e. 21 of them. 11 patients were between 41-50 years of age, 10 were less than 40 years of age and 8 were between 51-60 years. The most common presentation of the patients was with yellowish discolouration of sclera and urine (YDS/YDU seen in 44 patients followed by pruritus seen in 38 patients. Dilated Common Bile Duct with/without pancreatic duct dilatation was the most common finding on sonography followed by a mass seen in the head of the pancreas. Moderately differentiated

  2. Study of design parameters for minimizing the cost of electricity of tokamak fusion power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokimatsu, K.; Yamaji, K.; Katsurai, M.; Okano, K.; Yoshida, T.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of the design parameters on the cost of electricity (COE) is studied through a parameter survey in order to minimize the COE. Three kinds of operating modes are considered; first stability (FS), second stability (SS) and reversed shear (RS). The COE is calculated by a coupled physics-engineering-cost computer system code. Deuterium-tritium type, 1000 MW(e) at electric bus bar, steady state tokamak reactors with aspect ratios A from 3 to 4.5 are assumed. Several criteria are used for the parameter survey; for example, (a) the thermal to electrical conversion efficiency is assumed to be 34.5% using water as a coolant; (b) the average neutron wall load must not exceed 5 MW/m 2 for plasma major radius R p >5 m; (c) a 2 MeV neutral beam injector (NBI) is applied. It is found that the RS operating mode most minimizes the COE among the three operating modes by reducing the cost of the current drive and the coils and structures. The cost-minimized RS reactor can attain high f bs , high β N and low q 95 at the same time, which results in a short R p of 5.1 m, a low B max of the maximum magnetic toroidal field (TF) of the TF coils of 13 T and a low A of 3.0. It can be concluded that this cost-minimized RS reactor is the most cost-minimized within the frameworks of this study. This cost-minimized RS reactor has two advantages: one is that a B max =13 T TF coil can be made by use of ITER coil technology and the other is that the same cooling technology as that of ITER (water cooling) can be used. (author)

  3. Parameter study of a screw-pinch reactor with circular cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustraan, M.; Franken, W.M.P.; Klippel, H.Th.; Muysken, M.; Verschuur, K.A.

    1977-04-01

    In the framework of system studies on pulsed high-β fusion reactors, a parameter study of a reactor based on a screw pinch with a circular cross-section has been performed. The plasma is heated to ignition in two stages. First, the cold plasma is heated by fast implosion in order to guarantee pitch conservation of the inward moving magnetic field lines. The relevant implosion theory has been generalized to a β<1 plasma. In the second stage, an adiabatic compression heats the plasma to the ignition temperature at which point α-particle heating takes over. For stability reasons, β is kept below 0.25. The choice of a particular set of basic parameter values is justified by global design considerations of the reactor. These considerations, e.g. on blanket design and electrotechnical requirements, are presented in some detail. A computer program searches for optimal reactors, i.e. for which at a given thermal output the net efficiency is a maximum. The parameters of a Reference Screw-Pinch Reactor and some other numerical examples are given. The main conclusions are: the net efficiency, although increasing with output energy, is low because of ohmic losses in the compression coil system; the application of sustained fields generated by superconducting coils to reduce these ohmic losses is problematical; a belt-shaped screw pinch in which higher values of β may be reached, improves the net efficiency and alleviates the technical requirements; heating by implosion and adiabatic compression of a plasma with values of β as low as considered here, is inefficient. Therefore, other means of heating the plasma to ignition may be attractive

  4. Numerical study of the evaporation process and parameter estimation analysis of an evaporation experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schneider-Zapp

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Evaporation is an important process in soil-atmosphere interaction. The determination of hydraulic properties is one of the crucial parts in the simulation of water transport in porous media. Schneider et al. (2006 developed a new evaporation method to improve the estimation of hydraulic properties in the dry range. In this study we used numerical simulations of the experiment to study the physical dynamics in more detail, to optimise the boundary conditions and to choose the optimal combination of measurements. The physical analysis exposed, in accordance to experimental findings in the literature, two different evaporation regimes: (i a soil-atmosphere boundary layer dominated regime (regime I close to saturation and (ii a hydraulically dominated regime (regime II. During this second regime a drying front (interface between unsaturated and dry zone with very steep gradients forms which penetrates deeper into the soil as time passes. The sensitivity analysis showed that the result is especially sensitive at the transition between the two regimes. By changing the boundary conditions it is possible to force the system to switch between the two regimes, e.g. from II back to I. Based on this findings a multistep experiment was developed. The response surfaces for all parameter combinations are flat and have a unique, localised minimum. Best parameter estimates are obtained if the evaporation flux and a potential measurement in 2 cm depth are used as target variables. Parameter estimation from simulated experiments with realistic measurement errors with a two-stage Monte-Carlo Levenberg-Marquardt procedure and manual rejection of obvious misfits lead to acceptable results for three different soil textures.

  5. Can establishment success be determined through demographic parameters? A case study on five introduced bird species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sanz-Aguilar

    Full Text Available The dominant criterion to determine when an introduced species is established relies on the maintenance of a self-sustaining population in the area of introduction, i.e. on the viability of the population from a demographic perspective. There is however a paucity of demographic studies on introduced species, and establishment success is thus generally determined by expert opinion without undertaking population viability analyses (PVAs. By means of an intensive five year capture-recapture monitoring program (involving >12,000 marked individuals we studied the demography of five introduced passerine bird species in southern Spain which are established and have undergone a fast expansion over the last decades. We obtained useful estimates of demographic parameters (survival and reproduction for one colonial species (Ploceus melanocephalus, confirming the long-term viability of its local population through PVAs. However, extremely low recapture rates prevented the estimation of survival parameters and population growth rates for widely distributed species with low local densities (Estrilda troglodytes and Amandava amandava but also for highly abundant yet non-colonial species (Estrilda astrild and Euplectes afer. Therefore, determining the establishment success of introduced passerine species by demographic criteria alone may often be troublesome even when devoting much effort to field-work. Alternative quantitative methodologies such as the analysis of spatio-temporal species distributions complemented with expert opinion deserve thus their role in the assessment of establishment success of introduced species when estimates of demographic parameters are difficult to obtain, as is generally the case for non-colonial, highly mobile passerines.

  6. Influence of occlusal loading on peri-implant clinical parameters. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer-Chover, Hilario; Viña-Almunia, José; Romero-Millán, Javier; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; García-Mira, Berta; Peñarrocha-Diago, María

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the relation between occlusal loading and peri-implant clinical parameters (probing depth, bleeding on probing, gingival retraction, width of keratinized mucosa, and crevicular fluid volume) in patients with implant-supported complete fixed prostheses in both arches. This clinical study took place at the University of Valencia (Spain) dental clinic. It included patients attending the clinic for regular check-ups during at least 12 months after rehabilitation of both arches with implant-supported complete fixed ceramo-metallic prostheses. One study implant and one control implant were established for each patient using the T-Scan®III computerized system (Tesco, South Boston, USA). The maxillary implant closest to the point of maximum occlusal loading was taken as the study implant and the farthest (with least loading) as the control. Occlusal forces were registered with the T-Scan® III and then occlusal adjustment was performed to distribute occlusal forces correctly. Peri-implant clinical parameters were analyzed in both implants before and two and twelve months after occlusal adjustment. Before occlusal adjustment, study group implants presented a higher mean volume of crevicular fluid (51.3 ± 7.4 UP) than the control group (25.8 ± 5.5 UP), with statistically significant difference. Two months after occlusal adjustment, there were no significant differences between groups (24.6 ± 3.8 UP and 26 ± 4.5 UP respectively) (p=0.977). After twelve months, no significant differences were found between groups (24.4 ± 11.1 UP and 22.5 ± 8.9 UP respectively) (p=0.323). For the other clinical parameters, no significant differences were identified between study and control implants at any of the study times (p>0.05). Study group implants receiving higher occlusal loading presented significantly higher volumes of crevicular fluid than control implants. Crevicular fluid volumes were similar in both groups two and twelve months after occlusal adjustment.

  7. Membrane reactor for water detritiation: a parametric study on operating parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarade, J.; Liger, K.; Troulay, M.; Perrais, C. [CEA, DEN, DTN/STPA/LIPC, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Joulia, X.; Meyer, X.M. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France)

    2015-03-15

    This paper presents the results of a parametric study done on a single stage finger-type packed-bed membrane reactor (PBMR) used for heavy water vapor de-deuteration. Parametric studies have been done on 3 operating parameters which are: the membrane temperature, the total feed flow rate and the feed composition through D{sub 2}O content variations. Thanks to mass spectrometer analysis of streams leaving the PBMR, speciation of deuterated species was achieved. Measurement of the amounts of each molecular component allowed the calculation of reaction quotient at the packed-bed outlet. While temperature variation mainly influences permeation efficiency, feed flow rate perturbation reveals dependence of conversion and permeation properties to contact time between catalyst and reacting mixture. The study shows that isotopic exchange reactions occurring on the catalyst particles surface are not thermodynamically balanced. Moreover, the variation of the heavy water content in the feed exhibits competition between permeation and conversion kinetics.

  8. A study on physics parameters and flux behaviour for a fast critical facility using ''Baker'' model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Leilah, M.M.; Hussein, A.Z.; Gaafar, M.A.; Hamouda, I.F.

    1983-01-01

    Comparative study was performed to emphasize the effects of using different nuclear data systems and methods on the various parameters of the fast reactor. Multigroup libraries as 11 (ANL-5800) and 26 (BNAB-64) energy group systems of nuclear data constants were used in the present work. The calculations were carried out for both infinite dilution (self-shielding factor F= 1) and self-shielded cross sections. Various computer codes were elaborated and derived to meet the conditional requirements for such calculations. The important output of these calculations are the neutron spectra, neutron balance, fission and capture rate distributions, critical mass, breeding ratio in each region and total breeding ratio of the reactor. Five different cases of study were considered employing two systems of constants, infinite dilution and self-shielded cross-sections and treating stainless steel of the reactor as to be substituted by iron. Moreover, calculations have been concerned for averaged one group nuclear data constants which were condensed from the 11 and 26 group systems. Comparisons of the multigroup results with those of the group were made. The condensation process for averaging to one group was done to estimate the effect of such physical simplification on the calculated parameters. The present work results have been compared with many published works. Fair agreements are obtained, which varified the consistance and completeness of the methods implemented and used

  9. MRI quality control: six imagers studied using eleven unified image quality parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihalainen, T.; Sipilae, O.; Savolainen, S.

    2004-01-01

    Quality control of the magnetic resonance imagers of different vendors in the clinical environment is non-harmonised, and comparing the performance is difficult. The purpose of this study was to develop and apply a harmonised long-term quality control protocol for the six imagers in our organisation in order to assure that they fulfil the same basic image quality requirements. The same Eurospin phantom set and identical imaging parameters were used with each imager. Values of 11 comparable parameters describing the image quality were measured. Automatic image analysis software was developed to objectively analyse the images. The results proved that the imagers were operating at a performance level adequate for clinical imaging. Some deficiencies were detected in image uniformity and geometry. The automated analysis of the Eurospin phantom images was successful. The measurements were successfully repeated after 2 weeks on one imager and after half a year on all imagers. As an objective way of examining the image quality, this kind of comparable and objective quality control of different imagers is considered as an essential step towards harmonisation of the clinical MRI studies through a large hospital organisation. (orig.)

  10. Effect of Sugammadex on Postoperative Bleeding and Coagulation Parameters After Septoplasty: A Randomized Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taş, Nilay; Korkmaz, Hakan; Yağan, Özgür; Korkmaz, Mukadder

    2015-01-01

    Backround Sugammadex is a reversal agent with well known advantages but it’s effects on haemostasis and bleeding have been a topic of interest. Septoplasty is a common surgical procedure with postoperative respiratory complications and bleeding. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of sugammadex on postoperative coagulation parameters and bleeding after septoplasty procedure. Material/Methods In this randomized controlled study, fifty patients were grouped into two groups; neostigmine (Group N) vs. sugammadex (Group S). For the evaluation of PT, aPTT and INR, blood samples were taken for at the postoperative 120th minutes and alteration of these values with respect to preoperative values were documented. Postoperative bleeding was measured by evaluating the amount of blood absorbed on the nasal tip dressing during 3 hours postoperatively. Results Postoperative bleeding amount was significantly higher in the Group S compared to Group N (p=0.013). No significant difference was observed between two groups according to coagulation parameters (PT; p=0.953, aPTT; p=0.734, INR; p=0.612). Conclusions Sugammadex was associated with higher amount of postoperative bleeding than neostigmine in septoplasty patients. In surgical procedures having high risk of bleeding the safety of sugammadex need to be verified. PMID:26271275

  11. Impact of spectral nudging and domain size in studies of RCM response to parameter modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Separovic, Leo; Laprise, Rene [Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Centre pour l' Etude et la Simulation du Climat a l' Echelle Regionale (ESCER), Montreal, QC (Canada); Universite du Quebec a Montreal (UQAM), Montreal, QC (Canada); Elia, Ramon de [Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Centre pour l' Etude et la Simulation du Climat a l' Echelle Regionale (ESCER), Montreal, QC (Canada); Consortium Ouranos, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2012-04-15

    The paper aims at finding an RCM configuration that facilitates studies devoted to quantifying RCM response to parameter modification. When using short integration times, the response of the time-averaged variables to RCM modification tend to be blurred by the noise originating in the lack of predictability of the instantaneous atmospheric states. Two ways of enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio are studied in this work: spectral nudging and reduction of the computational domain size. The approach followed consists in the analysis of the sensitivity of RCM-simulated seasonal averages to perturbations of two parameters controlling deep convection and stratiform condensation, perturbed one at a time. Sensitivity is analyzed within different simulation configurations obtained by varying domain size and using the spectral nudging option. For each combination of these factors multiple members of identical simulations that differ exclusively in initial conditions are also generated to provide robust estimates of the sensitivities (the signal) and sample the noise. Results show that the noise magnitude is decreased both by reduction of domain size and the spectral nudging. However, the reduction of domain size alters some sensitivity signals. When spectral nudging is used significant alterations of the signal are not found. (orig.)

  12. Study on processing parameters of glass cutting by nanosecond 532 nm fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Gao, Fan; Xiong, Baoxing; Zhang, Xiang; Yuan, Xiao

    2018-03-01

    The processing parameters of soda-lime glass cutting with several nanosecond 532 nm pulsed fiber laser are studied in order to obtain sufficiently large ablation rate and better processing quality. The influences of laser processing parameters on effective cutting speed and cutting quality of 1 2 mm thick soda-lime glass are studied. The experimental results show that larger laser pulse energy will lead to higher effective cutting speed and larger maximum edge collapse of the front side of the glass samples. Compared with that of 1.1 mm thick glass samples, the 2.0 mm thick glass samples is more difficult to cut. With the pulse energy of 51.2 μJ, the maximum edge collapse is more than 200 μm for the 2.0 mm thick glass samples. In order to achieve the high effective cutting speed and good cutting quality at the same time, the dual energy overlapping method is used to obtain the better cutting performance for the 2.0 mm thick glass samples, and the cutting speed of 194 mm/s and the maximum edge collapse of less than 132 μm are realized.

  13. Numerical study of on-fiber metal film geometry on behavior of dual parameter SFBG sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzy, Behnam; Foroozmehr, Ehsan; Alemohammad, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a numerical model for simulating a dual parameter super-structure FBG (SFBG) with on-fiber deposited thin films is developed. A periodic on-fiber thin coating of silver on FBG sensors provides the ability of measuring two parameters of strain and temperature simultaneously. The model consists of a mechanical model to determine the strain of the sensor caused by different loading conditions, coupled with an optical model to calculate the reflected spectrum of the SFBG sensor. A guideline is introduced for designing a SFBG by studying the effect of coating period, coating duty cycle, and coating thickness. The results show that the sideband spacing in such SFBGs is only affected by the coating period while the Bragg peak sensitivity does not depend on coating period. Also the coating duty cycle and the coating thickness can affect both sensitivity of the Bragg peak and the measuring range of a sensor. The validity of the results was studied by comparing with previously reported data. (paper)

  14. Diurnal variation of hematology parameters in healthy young males: the Bispebjerg study of diurnal variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette P; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Hansen, Anne-Louise S

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of time of day on the circulating concentrations of 21 hematology parameters.......To evaluate the influence of time of day on the circulating concentrations of 21 hematology parameters....

  15. The effect of posture and repetition on urodynamic parameters: A prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Joon Jeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of posture and repetition of filling cystometry on urodynamic parameters. Materials and Methods: Seventy-one men with benign prostatic hyperplasia participated in a urodynamic study between September 2015 and August 2016 and were randomly assigned to a supine to supine (group SS, n=16, erect to erect (group EE, n=16, supine to erect (group SE, n=19 or erect to supine (group ES, n=20 group. The patients underwent filling cystometry twice. We evaluated the effect of posture and the effect of repetition on filling cystometric parameters. We also evaluated the correlation between overactive bladder (OAB and detrusor overactivity (DO and between maximum voided volume (MVV and maximum cystometric capacity (MCC for each posture and filling cystometry time. Results: There was a decrease in bladder sensation and occurrence of DO, and an increase in bladder compliance and MCC in the supine posture group compared to that in the erect posture group. A more significant decrease in bladder sensation and occurrence of DO as well as an increase in MCC was seen during the second filling cystometry than the first one. The supine posture during first filling cystometry showed a better correlation between OAB and DO and between MVV and MCC than erect posture. Conclusions: There were clear effects of posture and filling cystometry repetition on urodynamic parameters. The supine posture and repeated filling cystometry caused the bladder to be less sensitive and less overactive. The supine posture showed a better correlation to OAB symptoms than erect posture during first filling cystometry.

  16. Pre-segmented 2-Step IMRT with subsequent direct machine parameter optimisation – a planning study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratengeier, Klaus; Meyer, Jürgen; Flentje, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Modern intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) mostly uses iterative optimisation methods. The integration of machine parameters into the optimisation process of step and shoot leaf positions has been shown to be successful. For IMRT segmentation algorithms based on the analysis of the geometrical structure of the planning target volumes (PTV) and the organs at risk (OAR), the potential of such procedures has not yet been fully explored. In this work, 2-Step IMRT was combined with subsequent direct machine parameter optimisation (DMPO-Raysearch Laboratories, Sweden) to investigate this potential. In a planning study DMPO on a commercial planning system was compared with manual primary 2-Step IMRT segment generation followed by DMPO optimisation. 15 clinical cases and the ESTRO Quasimodo phantom were employed. Both the same number of optimisation steps and the same set of objective values were used. The plans were compared with a clinical DMPO reference plan and a traditional IMRT plan based on fluence optimisation and consequent segmentation. The composite objective value (the weighted sum of quadratic deviations of the objective values and the related points in the dose volume histogram) was used as a measure for the plan quality. Additionally, a more extended set of parameters was used for the breast cases to compare the plans. The plans with segments pre-defined with 2-Step IMRT were slightly superior to DMPO alone in the majority of cases. The composite objective value tended to be even lower for a smaller number of segments. The total number of monitor units was slightly higher than for the DMPO-plans. Traditional IMRT fluence optimisation with subsequent segmentation could not compete. 2-Step IMRT segmentation is suitable as starting point for further DMPO optimisation and, in general, results in less complex plans which are equal or superior to plans generated by DMPO alone

  17. Study of the Effective Parameters on the Making Use of Protective Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Tabaraie

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and objectives

    Noise threats health of many groups of industrial workers and causes hearing loss. Use of personal protective device is the best control method to protect against hazardous conditions. Hence, this investigation was carried out to determine situation of using of protective devices and effective parameters on it, in Qom province workers community in 2006.

     

    Methods

    This research is descriptive-sectional study. Sample volume was designed 378 persons working in factories in Qom. First of all, list of Qom factories with noise pollution problems, were collected and 30 important factories among them were selected randomly. In the second stage, 378 persons were selected randomly from workers. The interest information was obtained by questionnaire and collected data were analyzed by SPSS software.

     

    Results

    The obtained results showed that, 83.6% of workers have been using ear protective devices. 296 of them, which were using ear protective devices, had an occupational hygienist in their workplaces. This research also showed that, 109 workers that used ear protective devices, had moderate knowledge level. Moreover, 82.5% of trained workers have used ear protective devices. The statistical analysis of the results showed that there were no significant relationship between use of ear protective devices and existence of occupational hygienist in workplace, knowledge and age of workers, worker’s antecedent, physical health of workers and kind of ear protective devices (p> 0.05. 

     

    Conclusion

    These results showed that among all considered parameters; only four parameters were effective in using ear protective devices; education of workers before employment, head workman and employer’s knowledge level, factories facilitation and kind of ear protective devices.

     

  18. Study of the parameters affecting operator doses in interventional radiology using Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koukorava, C.; Carinou, E.; Ferrari, P.; Krim, S.; Struelens, L.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements performed within the ORAMED project helped to evaluate the dose levels to the operators’ hands, wrists, legs and eye lenses, during several types of interventional radiology (IR) and cardiology (IC) procedures, and also to determine the parameters that affect the doses. However, the study of the effect of each parameter separately, was possible only through Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, as in clinical practice many of those parameters change simultaneously. The influence of the protective equipment, the beam projections, the beam quality, the field size and the position of the operator according to the position of access of the catheter was investigated, using anthropomorphic phantoms in setups that represent realistic IR/IC procedures. The proper use of protective shields was found to be the most important way of reducing extremity and eye lens exposure during such examinations. Ceiling suspended shields can reduce the doses to the eye lenses up to 97%, but they can also reduce hand doses about 70% when placed correctly. The highest exposure to the operator is observed for left anterior oblique (LAO) and cranial projections. Additionally, for overcouch irradiations the eyes and the hands are about 6 times more exposed compared to the cases where the tube is below the operating table. For the lateral LAO projection, placing the ceiling suspended shield at the left side of the operator is twice more effective for the protection of the eyes compared to the cases where it is placed above the patient. Finally, beam collimation was found to play an important role in the reduction of the hands and wrists doses, especially when the operator is close to the irradiation field.

  19. Study and parameters survey for iodine-125 source dosimetry to be applied in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Eduardo Santana de

    2011-01-01

    The use of brachytherapy technique with iodine-125 seeds to prostate cancer treatment has been used for decades with good clinical outcomes. To aim the Brazilian population necessities, IPEN-CNEN/SP developed the iodine-125 seed prototype with national technology. The objectives of this work are the development and the study of dosimetric procedures associates with the experimental acquisition of the useful parameters for the iodine-125 dosimetric characterization and to evaluate if the developed procedures, in this work, have the basic conditions to determinate the dosimetric analysis, that are fundamental for clinical procedures. The dosimeters selected for the analysis are the TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti), initially these dosimeters were submitted for two selection steps to choose the dosimeters more reproducible for the dosimetric analysis. The two steps were the selection by the mass of the dosimeters and the reproducibility after four irradiation series in a Cobalt-60 irradiator (CTR-IPEN). Afterwards these steps, the dosimeters were irradiated in linear accelerator with 6 MV energy (Service of Radiotherapy - Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein) to yield the individual calibration factors to each dosimeter. After, the dosimeters were used to the irradiations with iodine-125 seed, 6711 model, (GE-Healthcare). The irradiations and others analysis with iodine-125 seeds yield the useful values for the determination of the parameters suggested by the AAPM (American Association of Physicists in Medicine): constant of dose rate, geometry function, dose radial function and anisotropy function. The results showed good agreement with the values published by the literature, for the same iodine- 125 model, this fact confirms that the realized parameters will be able to be used for the IPEN-CNEN iodine-125 seeds dosimetry and quality control. (author)

  20. Meta-Learning Approach for Automatic Parameter Tuning: A Case Study with Educational Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, M. M.; Luna, J. M.; Romero, C.; Ventura, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes to the use of a meta-learning approach for automatic parameter tuning of a well-known decision tree algorithm by using past information about algorithm executions. Fourteen educational datasets were analysed using various combinations of parameter values to examine the effects of the parameter values on accuracy classification.…

  1. Study of gain variation as a function of physical parameters of GEM foil

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at LHC has planned to upgrade the TPC by replacing the MWPC with GEM based detecting elements to restrict the IBF to a tolerable value. However the variation of the gain as a function of physical parameters of industrially produced large size GEM foils is needed to be studied as a part of the QA procedure for the detector. The size of the electron avalanche and consequently the gain for GEM based detectors depend on the electric field distribution inside the holes. Geometry of a hole plays an important role in defining the electric field inside it. In this work we have studied the variation of the gain as a function of the hole diameters using Garfield++ simulation package.

  2. Parameter sensitivity study of a Field II multilayer transducer model on a convex transducer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæk, David; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Willatzen, Morten

    2009-01-01

    A multilayer transducer model for predicting a transducer impulse response has in earlier works been developed and combined with the Field II software. This development was tested on current, voltage, and intensity measurements on piezoceramics discs (Bæk et al. IUS 2008) and a convex 128 element...... ultrasound imaging transducer (Bæk et al. ICU 2009). The model benefits from its 1D simplicity and hasshown to give an amplitude error around 1.7‐2 dB. However, any prediction of amplitude, phase, and attenuation of pulses relies on the accuracy of manufacturer supplied material characteristics, which may...... is a quantitative calibrated model for a complete ultrasound system. This includes a sensitivity study aspresented here.Statement of Contribution/MethodsThe study alters 35 different model parameters which describe a 128 element convex transducer from BK Medical Aps. The changes are within ±20 % of the values...

  3. Effective parameters and neutrography dispersion in the RP-10 reactor: Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Alcides; Ticona, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a breakthrough in the study of the most important effective parameters, alternative to the standards, of the neutrography acquisition system, considering an irradiation point source and an effective register distance, as well as the dispersive effect that some kind of materials can produce when free neutrons impact them. It was observed that they do not only depend on the shape and distance from the object to the photographic screen or the neutron beam divergence, but also on the constitution of these materials. Hydrogenated materials as well as micro and nano structured solids are capable to produce significant neutron scattering. The study is developed through the analysis of images obtained by neutrography using the neutron beam of the RP-10 nuclear reactor. False color applications to the intensity of the neutron flux which gives a color contrast and simulation of 3D images intensities have helped to interpret the obtained information. (authors).

  4. Studying the dependence of quality of coal fine briquettes on technological parameters of their production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Н. Александрова

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study characterizes the role of coal in the fuel and energy balance of the Far East Region and points out the issue of losses of coal fines in the processes of coal mining, transportation and processing. To solve the problem of losses of coal fines, the mined coal is sorted into different size classes and fuel briquettes are produced from coal fines. Physical foundations are presented in short of briquetting solid combustible mineral resources. The dependences and variations of briquette compression strength limit are studied vs. charge humidity and briquetting pressure. Optimal parameters are retrieved for briquetting coal fines. The principal technological scheme is given of the process of briquette production. The developed technological solutions include sorting regular coal and briquetting coal fines, as well as the involvement of technogenic carbon-containing wastes from the hydrolysis production lines, plus residuals from oil refining.

  5. Study of Fuel Rods Axial Enrichment Distribution Effect on the Neutronic Parameters of the Reactor Core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazirandeh, A.; Nasiri, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of the fuel burn up is an important issue in nuclear reactor fuel management and technology. Radial enrichment distribution in the reactor core is a conventional method and axial enrichment is constant along the fuel rod. In this article, the effects of axial enrichment distribution variation on neutronic parameters of PWR core are studied. The axial length of the core is divided into ten sections, considering axial enrichment variation and leaving the existing radial enrichment distribution intact. This study shows that the radial and axial power peaking factors are decreased as compared with the typical conventional core. In addition, the first core lifetime lasts 30 days longer than normal PWR core. Moreover, at the same time boric acid density is 0.2 g/kg at the beginning of the cycle. The flux shape is also flat at the beginning of the cycle for the proposed configuration of the axially enrichment distribution.

  6. Studies on formability of sintered aluminum composites during hot deformation using strain hardening parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumesh Narayan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Formability is the limit to which a material can be deformed before failure and is upmost importance in powder metallurgy (PM forming process. This is because the presence of porosity in the PM part after the sintering process. In this study two key strain hardening parameters are used to study the workability behavior or determining the failure zone. This can be used for design of PM parts and most importantly the die design as repressing needs to be employed before pores appear as cracks on the free surface. It is nearly impossible to produce defect free parts if this failure occurs. The hot formability behavior of aluminum metal matrix composites (MMC's that is, Al-4TiC, Al-4WC, Al-4Fe3C and Al-4Mo2C (by weight percentage are presented in this paper.

  7. Relationship Between Dual Time Point FDG PET and Immunohistochemical Parameters in Preoperative Colorectal Cancer: Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jai Hyuen; Lee, Won Ae; Park, Seok Gun; Park, Dong Kook; Namgung, Hwan

    2012-01-01

    The clinical availability of 2 deoxy 2 [18F] fluoro D glucose (FDG) dual time point positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (DTPP) has been investigated in diverse oncologic fields. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the relationship between various immunohistopathologic markers reflecting disease progression of colorectal cancer and parameters extracted from FDG DTPP in colorectal cancer patients. Forty seven patients with histologically confirmed colorectal cancer were analyzed in this preliminary study. FDG DTPP consisted of an early scan 1 h after FDG injection and a delayed scan 1.5 h after the early scan. Based on an analysis of FDG DTPP, we estimated the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) of tumors on the early and delayed scans (SUV earlya nd SUV delayed, respectively). The retention index (RI) was calculated as follows: (SUV delayed- SUV early) x 100/ SUV early. The clinicopathological findings (size and T and N stages) and immunohistochemical factors [glucose transporter 1 (GLUT 1), hexokinase 2 (HK 2), p53, P504S, and β catenin] were analyzed by visual analysis. The RIs calculated from the SUVs ranged from -1.8 to 73.4 (31.8±15.5). The RIs were significantly higher in patients with high T stages (T3 and T4) than with low T stages (T1 and T2; P earlya nd SUV delayeda nd clinicopathologic parameters in this study. The RIs obtained from preoperative colorectal cancers had a significant relationship to tumor size, T staging, GLUT 1, and p53, in contrast to SUV earlyo r SUV delayed. Compared with previous reports, our results showed that RI can better predict GLUT 1 expression than HK 2 and other immunohistochemical markers. This study demonstrated that the RI might have the potential to be applied as a prognostic marked in preoperative colorectal cancer

  8. Comparison of parameters affecting GNP-loaded choroidal melanoma dosimetry; Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharabiani, Marjan; Asadi, Somayeh; Barghi, Amir Rahnamai; Vaezzadeh, Mehdi

    2018-04-01

    The current study reports the results of tumor dosimetry in the presence of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with different sizes and concentrations. Due to limited number of works carried out on the brachytherapy of choroidal melanoma in combination with GNPs, this study was performed to determine the optimum size and concentration for GNPs which contributes the highest dose deposition in tumor region, using two phantom test cases namely water phantom and a full Monte Carlo model of human eye. Both water and human eye phantoms were simulated with MCNP5 code. Tumor dosimetry was performed for a typical point photon source with an energy of 0.38 MeV as a high energy source and 103Pd brachytherapy source with an average energy of 0.021 MeV as a low energy source in water phantom and eye phantom respectively. Such a dosimetry was done for different sizes and concentrations of GNPs. For all of the diameters, increase in concentration of GNPs resulted in an increase in dose deposited in the region of interest. In a certain concentration, GNPs with larger diameters contributed more dose to the tumor region, which was more pronounced using eye phantom. 100 nm was reported as the optimum size in order to achieve the highest energy deposition within the target. This work investigated the optimum parameters affecting macroscopic dose enhancement in GNP-aided brachytherapy of choroidal melanoma. The current work also had implications on using low energy photon sources in the presence of GNPs to acquire the highest dose enhancement. This study is conducted through four different sizes and concentrations of GNPs. Considering the sensitivity of human eye tissue, in order to report the precise optimum parameters affecting radiosensitivity, a comprehensive study on a wide range of sizes and concentrations are required.

  9. Study of the effects of breed on some innate immunity parameters in rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genova Krasimira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out on 26 rams from the breeds Karakachan and Copper-Red Shoumen. The non-specific immune parameters, phagocytic activity of leukocytes, bactericidal activity of phagocytes systems (oxygen-dependent and oxygen independent and total plasma protein level were evaluated. Phagocytic response was evaluated against S. aureus 209-P with a certain percentage of active phagocytes (phagocytic index and the number of absorbed particles per one phagocytic cells (phagocyte number. Phagocytosis completion index was defined as the percentage of the microbial cells that have been destroyed by phagocytes after incubation. State of the oxygen-dependent bactericidal systems of phagocytes was assessed in vitro using the NBT test, which reflects the ability of superoxide restore NBT in diphormazane. NBT test was evaluated by the degree of reduction in spontaneous and stimulated reactions, taking into account the intracellular deposits diphormazane. Our studies and results shows that the rams from the two local Bulgarian breeds have a high activity of innate immune parameters and that’s may be useful and important in the breeding programs as an indicator of resistance and highly tolerance to oxidative stress.

  10. Parameter study of temperature distribution in a work-piece during dry hyperbaric GTA-welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulfs, H.

    1989-01-01

    In a sensitivity study the influence of initial and boundary welding parameters upon the spatial and temporal temperature distribution in a work-piece during dry hyperbaric GTA-welding is investigated. It will be shown that at constant arc current a variation of pressure (1-60 bar), arc length (3-10 mm), welding speed (1-2.5 mm/s) or the initial temperature (20-200deg C) of the work-piece to some extend significantly influences the size of melt and heat affected zone as well as the maximum temperature and cooling behaviour of the work-piece; compared to this no mentionable effects of shielding gas temperature (20-300deg C) or flow rate (10-500 dm N 3 /min) on the thermal condition of the work-piece can be recognized. The discovered relationships have been approximated by simple correlations, which can be used for parameter optimization and process control. (orig.) With 33 figs., 4 tabs [de

  11. Numerical Study of Flow Characteristics in a Solid Particle Incinerator for Various Design Parameters of Injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Jin Woo; Kim, Su Ho; Sohn, Chae Hoon [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The flow characteristics in a solid particle incinerator are investigated numerically for high burning rate of wastes. The studied incinerator employs both a swirl flow used in the furnace of power plants and a design concept applied to a rocket combustor. As the first step, the non-reactive flow field is analyzed in the incinerator with primary and secondary injectors through which solid fuel and air are injected. The deflection angle of a primary injector, inclination angle of a secondary injector, and gap between the two types of injectors are selected as design parameters. The swirl number is adopted for evaluating the degree of swirl flow and estimated over wide ranges of three parameters. The swirl number increases with deflection angle, but it is affected little by inclination angle. Recirculation zones are formed near the injectors, and their size affects the swirl number. The swirl number decreases with the zonal size of recirculation. From the numerical results, the design points can be found with strong swirl flow.

  12. Effect of textiles structural parameters on surgical healing; a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwa, A. Ali

    2017-10-01

    Medical Textiles is one of the most rapidly expanding sectors in the technical textile market. The huge growth of medical textiles applications was over the last 12 years. “Biomedical Textiles” is a subcategory of medical textiles that narrows the field down to those applications that are intended for active tissue contact, tissue regeneration or surgical implantation. Since the mid-1960s, the current wave of usage is coming as a result of new fibers and new technologies for textile materials construction. “Biotextiles” term include structures composed of textile fibers designed for use in specific biological environments. Medical Textile field was utilizing different materials, textile techniques and structures to provide new medical products with high functionality in the markets. There are other processes that are associated with textiles in terms of the various treatments and finishing. The aim of this article is to draw attention to the medical field in each of Vitro and Vivo trend, and its relation with textile structural parameters, with regard to the fiber material, production techniques, and fabric structures. Also, it is focusing on some cases studies which were applied in our research which produced with different textile parameters. Finally; an overview is presented about modern and innovative applications of the medical textiles.

  13. STUDY ON QUALITY PARAMETERS AND ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF GRAIN MILL PRODUCTS REGION IN TRANSYLVANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glevitzky Mirel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at determining the main quality parameters of grain mill products in the Transylvania region, also studying and emphasizing the enzymatic activity of flour. Determination of quality characteristics of grain mill products entails establishing physical, chemical and sensory parameters and assessing them against the limits imposed by law. Analysis was performed on samples formed by mixing basic medium extracted from different batches. Incremental size, sampling tools, how to extract them, the training sample and laboratory environments, packaging and labeling of samples were performed according to STAS 1068 69. Determination of the fall (Falling Number, an empirical test that relies on the ability of endogenous ?-amylase to reduce viscosity of the treated warm flour suspension is used, large scale milling and bakery industry to predict and assess the Baking quality of flour. In sprouted wheat, characterised by a low Falling number, dextrin produced by the action of ?-amylase leads to a sticky bread core. Experiments suggest that the values fall turnover (FN does not shrink in direct proportion to the percentage of germinating seeds. Amylolytic activity depends on the stage of sprouting of grains. Lack of ?-amylase activity can be corrected by adding malt grain ?-amylase or fungal ?-amylase.

  14. Parameter study of high-β tokamak reactors with circular and strongly elongated cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, H.

    1977-05-01

    A simplified reactor model is used to study the influence of critical β-values on economy parameters and dimensions of possible long time pulsed tokamak reactors. Various betas deduced from stability and equilibrium MHD theory are introduced and put into the scaling in context with technological constraints, as maximum B-field, core constraint, maximum wall loading a.o. The plasma physical concepts treated comprise circular and strongly elongated cross section and approximated FCT equilibria. The computational results are presented as plots of possible economy parameter ranges (magnet energy, wall loading, volumina, investment costs per unit power) dependent on β for suitably chosen hierarchies of the constraints. - A burn time reduction by the build ups of α-pressure may be possible for the pressure profile sensitive high-β equilibria (FCT). Burn times in the 1O sec range, resulting from simple estimates, would about cancel the economic advantages of reactors with high-β equilibria compared to a β = 5% standardreactor (UWMAK I). (orig.) [de

  15. Study of the kinetics parameters for subcritical media driven by source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.M.; Maiorino, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study of reactor kinetics focusing on the methodology of calculation and the experimental measurements of the so-called kinetic parameters. A comparison between the methodology based on the Dulla's formalism and the classical method is made. The objective is to exhibit the dependence of the parameters on sub criticality level and perturbation. Two different slab type systems were considered: thermal one and fast one, both with homogeneous media. One group diffusion model was used for the fast reactor, and for the thermal system, two group diffusion model, considering, in both case only one precursor's family. For reason of simplicity, several additional assumptions were made for calculation of two group method: no up-scattering, fission reaction occurring only in thermal group, etc. The solutions for subcritical systems were obtained using the expansion method, and for critical systems, the methods presented in classical textbooks of reactor physics were applied. The numerical results presented their dependence on sub criticality level and perturbation. (author)

  16. Description and comparative study of physico-chemical parameters of the teleost fish skin mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, Francisco A; Cuartero, María; Del Mar Collado-González, María; Arizcún, Marta; Díaz Baños, F Guillermo; Meseguer, José; Cuesta, Alberto; Esteban, María A

    2015-01-01

    The study of mucosal surfaces, and in particular the fish skin and its secreted mucus, has been of great interest recently among immunologists. Measurement of the viscosity and other physico-chemical parameters (protein concentration, pH, conductivity, redox potential, osmolality and density) of the skin mucus can help to understand its biological functions. We have used five marine species of teleost: gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.), European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.), shi drum (Umbrina cirrosa L.), common dentex (Dentex dentex L.) and dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus L.), all of them with commercial interest in the aquaculture of the Mediterranean area. Mucus showed a direct shear- and temperature-dependent viscosity, with a non-Newtonian behavior, which differed however between two groups: one with higher viscosity (D. labrax, U. cirrosa, D. dentex) and the other with lower viscosity (S. aurata, E. marginatus). In addition, there was a clear interrelation between density and osmolality, as well as between density and temperature. Taking into account that high values of viscosity should improve the barrier effect against pathogens but low values of viscosity are needed for good locomotion characteristics, our results may help elucidate the relationship between physico-chemical and biological parameters of skin mucus, and disease susceptibility.

  17. Prediction of Radionuclide transfer based on soil parameters: application to vulnerability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roig, M.; Vidal, M.; Rauret, G.

    1998-01-01

    The multi factorial character of the radiocaesium and radiostrontium soil-to-plan transfer, which depends on the radionuclide level in the soil solution amplified by a plant factor, prevents from establishing univariate relationships between transfer factors and soil and/or plant parameters. The plant factor is inversely proportional to the level of competitive species in the soil solution (Ca and Mg, for radiostrontium, and K and NH 4 for radiocaesium). Radionuclide level in soil solution depends on the radionuclide available fraction and its distribution coefficient. For radiostrontium, this may be obtained from the Cationic Exchange Capacity (CEC), whereas for radiocaesium the Specific Interception Potential should be calculate, both corrected by the concentrations of the competitive species and selectivity coefficients. Therefore, the transfer factor eventually depends on soil solution composition, the available fraction and the number of sorption sites, as well as on the plant factor. For a given plant, a relative sequence of transfer can be set up based solely on soil parameters, since the plant factor is cancelled. This prediction model has been compared with transfer data from experiments with Mediterranean, mineral soils, contaminated with a thermo generated aerosol, and with podzolic and organic soils, contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout. These studies revealed that it was possible to predict a relative scale of transfer for any type of soil, also allowing a scale of soil vulnerability to radiostrontium and radiocaesium contamination to be set up. (Author)

  18. Studying Effect of Water Quality Parameters on Coagulation Efficiency by Moringa Oleifera Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Parvini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance and efficiency of Moringa seeds from different sources on turbidity. A protein analysis test was done for each source; then two different methods of extraction were compared to examine the coagulation activity for the Moringa's active ingredient. The results of sodium chloride (NaCI extraction in comparison to distilled water extraction of the Moringa olifera seeds showed that the salt solution extraction technique was more efficient than the distilled water for extracting the active coagulant ingredient.  The above mentioned findings were used to examine the effects of other parameters such as pH, calcium and magnesium hardness, bicarbonate-alkalinity, and salinity independently on turbidity removal with an optimum dosage of 1% NaCI extract of dry shelled Moringa seeds. The obtained results showed that the water quality parameters had no significant effect on the coagulation potential of the NaCI extract of the shelled Moringa seeds and was almost amenable to a wide range of water environment condition.

  19. Techno-economic sensitivity study of heliostat field parameters for micro-gas turbine CSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Willem A.; Gauché, Paul; Dinter, Frank; Myburgh, J. T.

    2017-06-01

    Concentrating solar power systems based on micro-gas turbines potentially offer numerous benefits should they become commercially viable. Heliostat fields for such systems have unique requirements in that the number of heliostats and the focal ratios are typically much lower than conventional central receiver systems. This paper presents a techno-economic sensitivity study of heliostat field parameters for a micro-gas turbine central receiver system. A 100 kWe minitower system is considered for the base case and a one-at-a-time strategy is used to investigate parameter sensitivities. Increasing heliostat focal ratios are found to have significant optical performance benefits due to both a reduction in astigmatic aberrations and a reduction in the number of facet focal lengths required; confirming the hypothesis that smaller heliostats offer a techno-economic advantage. Fixed Horizontal Axis tracking mechanism is shown to outperform the conventional Azimuth Zenith tracking mechanism in high density heliostat fields. Although several improvements to heliostat field performance are discussed, the capex fraction of the heliostat field for such system is shown to be almost half that of a conventional central receiver system and optimum utilization of the higher capex components, namely; the receiver and turbine subsystems, are more rewarding than that of the heliostat field.

  20. Efficacy of Heartfulness Meditation in Moderating Vital Parameters - A Comparison Study of Experienced and New meditators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Amarnath G

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyse and compare the effect of a 30-minute Heartfulness meditation session on vital parameters of experienced and new meditators. Methodology: The study conducted on a mixed group of participants include both experienced and new meditators of various age groups, Body Mass Index (BMI; patients with known illness as well as healthy volunteers. Variations in heart rate, respiratory rate and systolic blood pressure is recorded before and after a 30-minute heartfulness meditation session and analysed statistically. Results: At baseline, average heart rate (HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP is significantly lower in experienced meditators compared to new meditators. Heartfulness meditation is highly significant in moderating HR, RR and SBP. Conclusion: A 30-minute session of Heartfulness meditation produces significant relaxation of the autonomic nervous system and favourably moderates basic vital parameters across all groups. This influence is higher in New meditators particularly the younger group probably because stress is more amplified due to greater responsibilities in life and meditation is an effective tool in reducing stress. The enthusiasm and open mindedness of youth to try new things is also contributing factor for getting better benefits from the heartfulness meditation session. In the case of experienced meditators, the elderly group showed greater changes, probably because they put in the time and effort to pursue the practice of meditation seriously, and thus able to derive a greater benefit.

  1. Study of the methodology for sensitivity calculations of fast reactors integral parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renke, C.A.C.

    1981-06-01

    A study of the methodology for sensitivity calculations of integral parameters of fast reactors for the adjustment of multigroup cross sections is presented. A description of several existent methods and theories is given, with special emphasis being regarded to variational perturbation theory, integrant of the sensitivity code VARI-1D used in this work. Two calculational systems are defined and a set of procedures and criteria is structured gathering the necessary conditions for the determination of the sensitivity coefficients. These coefficients are then computed by both the direct method and the variational perturbation theory. A reasonable number of sensitivity coefficients are computed and analyzed for three fast critical assemblies, covering a range of special interest of the spectrum. These coefficients are determined for severa integral parameters, for the capture and fission cross sections of the U-238 and Pu-239, covering all the energy up to 14.5 MeV. The nuclear data used were obtained the CARNAVAL II calculational system of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear. An optimization for sensitivity computations in a chainned sequence of procedures is made, yielding the sensitivities in the energy macrogroups as the final stage. (Author) [pt

  2. Studying influence of two effective parameters on network losses in transmission expansion planning using DCGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shayeghi, H.; Jalilzadeh, S.; Mahdavi, M.; Hadadian, H.

    2008-01-01

    Transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) is a basic part of power network planning that determines where, when and how many new transmission lines should be added to the network. Its task is to minimize the network construction and operational cost, while meeting imposed technical, economic and reliability constraints. Up till now, various methods have been proposed for solution of the static transmission network expansion planning (STNEP) problem. But, in all of them, the effect of two important parameters i.e., inflation rate and load growth factor on network losses has not been investigated. Thus, in this paper, STNEP is being studied considering the effect of inflation rate and load growth factor on the network losses in a transmission network with different voltage levels using a decimal codification genetic algorithm (DCGA). The effectiveness of the proposed idea is tested on the Garver's six-bus network. The results evaluation reveals that the inflation rate and load growth factor have important effect on the network losses and subsequent network arrangement. In addition, considering the effect of two above-mentioned parameters (inflation rate and load growth factor) in expansion planning of transmission networks with various line voltage levels is caused that the total expansion cost of the network (expansion costs and the operational cost) is calculated more exactly and therefore the network satisfies the requirements of delivering electric power more safely and reliably to load centers

  3. Systematic study of influence of growth parameters on island morphology during molecular beam epitaxy growth: A Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar Prasad Shrestha; Park, C.-Y.

    2006-05-01

    We have made a systematic study of influence of diffusion flux ratio (D/F), diffusional anisotropy (DA) and sticking anisotropy (SA) on island morphology to show the influence of each growth parameter on island morphology in presence of the other growth parameters. Our results show that the influence of D/F ratio and DA on island morphology depends on the sticking anisotropy of the adatoms. At the intermediate anisotropic case, increase in D/F ratio results in transition of the island morphology from 1d nature to 2 d nature. In anisotropic diffusion case, D/F ratio can change the growth direction of the island morphology. We also find that only sticking anisotropy is not sufficient to produce elongated islands, low D/F ratio is also essential. (author)

  4. Headache symptoms and indoor environmental parameters: Results from the EPA BASE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen E Tietjen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of migraine and headache symptoms in a national sample of US office employees. Also, we explored the association of headache symptoms with indoor environmental parameters of the work place. Background: Sick building syndrome (SBS, which includes headache, is a common global phenomenon, but the underlying environmental cause is uncertain. Materials and Methods: We used data from the 1994-1998 US Environmental Protection Agency′s (EPA Building Assessment and Survey Evaluation, a cross-sectional study of workers employed in 100 public and private office buildings across 25 states. The study used a self-administered questionnaire to assess headache frequency and prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosed (SRPD migraine. Indoor environmental parameters (IEP were collected per EPA protocol from each building over a 1-week period and included carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, temperature, relative humidity, particulate matter, volatile organic compound, illuminance, and sound level. The standards of American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers were used to categorize IEP as either within- or out-of-comfort range for human dwelling. These limits delineate whether a parameter value is safe for human dwelling. Out-of-comfort range IEPs are associated with SBS and other human diseases. SRPD migraine and headache frequency were the primary outcome measures of the study. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed for the purpose of assessing the association between the outcome variable and IEPs. Results: Of the 4326 participants, 66% were females and 60% were between 30 and 49 years. Headache frequency during the last 4 weeks was as follows: None in 31%, 1-3 days in 38%, 1-3 days per week in 18%, and every or almost every workday in 8%. Females had higher SRPD migraine prevalence compared to males (27% vs. 11%, P<0.001 and were more

  5. A systemic study on key parameters affecting nanocomposite coatings on magnesium substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ian; Wang, Sebo Michelle; Silken, Christine; Liu, Huinan

    2016-05-01

    Nanocomposite coatings offer multiple functions simultaneously to improve the interfacial properties of magnesium (Mg) alloys for skeletal implant applications, e.g., controlling the degradation rate of Mg substrates, improving bone cell functions, and providing drug delivery capability. However, the effective service time of nanocomposite coatings may be limited due to their early delamination from the Mg-based substrates. Therefore, the objective of this study was to address the delamination issue of nanocomposite coatings, improve the coating properties for reducing the degradation of Mg-based substrates, and thus improve their cytocompatibility with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The surface conditions of the substrates, polymer component type of the nanocomposite coatings, and post-deposition processing are the key parameters that contribute to the efficacy of the nanocomposite coatings in regulating substrate degradation and bone cell responses. Specifically, the effects of metallic surface versus alkaline heat-treated hydroxide surface of the substrates on coating quality were investigated. For the nanocomposite coatings, nanophase hydroxyapatite (nHA) was dispersed in three types of biodegradable polymers, i.e., poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA), or poly(caprolactone) (PCL) to determine which polymer component could provide integrated properties for slowest Mg degradation. The nanocomposite coatings with or without post-deposition processing, i.e., melting, annealing, were compared to determine which processing route improved the properties of the nanocomposite coatings most significantly. The results showed that optimizing the coating processes addressed the delamination issue. The melted then annealed nHA/PCL coating on the metallic Mg substrates showed the slowest degradation and the best coating adhesion, among all the combinations of conditions studied; and, it improved the adhesion density of BMSCs

  6. Sex determination of human mandible using metrical parameters by computed tomography: A prospective radiographic short study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj N Kallalli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sex determination of unidentified human remains is very important in forensic medicine, medicolegal cases, and forensic anthropology. The mandible is the largest and hardest facial bone that commonly resists postmortem damage and forms an important source of personal identification. Additional studies have demonstrated the applicability of facial reconstruction using three-dimensional computed tomography scan (3D-CT for the purpose of individual identification. Aim: To determine the sex of human mandible using metrical parameters by CT. Materials and Methods: The study included thirty subjects (15 males and 15 females, with age group ranging between 10 and 60 years obtained from the outpatient department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Narsinhbhai Patel Dental College and Hospital. CT scan was performed on all the subjects, and the data obtained were reconstructed for 3D viewing. After obtaining 3D-CT scan, a total of seven mandibular measurements, i.e., gonial angle (G-angle, ramus length (Ramus-L, minimum ramus breadth and gonion-gnathion length (G-G-L, bigonial breadth, bicondylar breadth (BIC-Br, and coronoid length (CO-L were measured; collected data were analyzed using SPSS statistical analysis program by Student's t-test. Results: The result of the study showed that out of seven parameters, G-angle, Ramus-L, G-G-L, BIC-Br, and CO-L showed a significant statistical difference (P < 0.05, with overall accuracy of 86% for males and 82% for females. Conclusion: Personal identification using mandible by conventional methods has already been proved but with variable efficacies. Advanced imaging modalities can aid in personal identification with much higher accuracy than conventional methods.

  7. Associations between apparent diffusion coefficient and electromyography parameters in myositis-A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Hans-Jonas; Emmer, Alexander; Kornhuber, Malte; Surov, Alexey

    2018-05-01

    MRI is widely used in several muscle disorders. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is an emergent imaging modality sensitive to microstructural alterations in tissue. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is used to quantify the random motion of water molecules. Electromyography (EMG) is a clinically used diagnostic tool in myositis. The aim of this study was to elucidate possible associations between ADC values and EMG findings in myositis patients. Seven patients (eight investigated muscles) with myositis (mean age 51.43 ± 19 years) were included in this study. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology in every case. DWI was obtained with a 1.5-T scanner using two b-values 0 and 1000 s/mm². In all patients, a needle electromyography (EMG) was performed within 3 days to the MRI. The following EMG parameters were studied: motor unit action potential (MUAP) amplitudes and durations, as well as pathological spontaneous activity. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to analyze associations between investigated parameters. The estimated mean ADC mean value was 1.51 ± 0.29 × 10 -3  mm²/s, mean ADC min was 1.28 ± 0.27 × 10 -3  mm²/s, and mean ADC max was 1.73 ± 0.28 × 10 -3  mm²/s. Correlation analysis identified significant associations between ADC mean and duration of the MUAP (p   = .78 P = .0279) and between ADC min and duration of the MUAP (p = .85, P = .01). There were no significant differences according to pathological spontaneous activity. ADC mean and ADC min showed strong positive correlations with the duration of the MUAP in myositis patients. Both modalities might similarly reflect muscle fiber loss in myositis patients.

  8. Aromatherapy for reducing colonoscopy related procedural anxiety and physiological parameters: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pei-Hsin; Peng, Yen-Chun; Lin, Yu-Ting; Chang, Chi-Sen; Ou, Ming-Chiu

    2010-01-01

    Colonoscopy is generally tolerated, some patients regarding the procedure as unpleasant and painful and generally performed with the patient sedated and receiving analgesics. The effect of sedation and analgesia for colonoscopy is limited. Aromatherapy is also applied to gastrointestinal endoscopy to reduce procedural anxiety. There is lack of information about aromatherapy specific for colonoscopy. In this study, we aimed to performed a randomized controlled study to investigate the effect of aromatherapy on relieve anxiety, stress and physiological parameters of colonoscopy. A randomized controlled trail was carried out and collected in 2009 and 2010. The participants were randomized in two groups. Aromatherapy was then carried out by inhalation of Sunflower oil (control group) and Neroli oil (Experimental group). The anxiety index was evaluated by State Trait Anxiety Inventory-state (STAI-S) score before aromatherapy and after colonoscopy as well as the pain index for post-procedural by visual analogue scale (VAS). Physiological indicators, such as blood pressure (systolic and diastolic blood pressure), heart rate and respiratory rate were evaluated before and after aromatherapy. Participates in this study were 27 subjects, 13 in control group and 14 in Neroli group with average age 52.26 +/- 17.79 years. There was no significance of procedural anxiety by STAI-S score and procedural pain by VAS. The physiological parameters showed a significant lower pre- and post-procedural systolic blood pressure in Neroli group than control group. Aromatic care for colonoscopy, although with no significant effect on procedural anxiety, is an inexpensive, effective and safe pre-procedural technique that could decrease systolic blood pressure.

  9. Study of heat treatment parameters for large-scale hydraulic steel gate track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-zhou Cao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance external hardness and strength, a large-scale hydraulic gate track should go through heat treatment. The current design method of hydraulic gate wheels and tracks is based on Hertz contact linear elastic theory, and does not take into account the changes in mechanical properties of materials caused by heat treatment. In this study, the heat treatment parameters were designed and analyzed according to the bearing mechanisms of the wheel and track. The quenching process of the track was simulated by the ANSYS program, and the temperature variation, residual stress, and deformation were obtained and analyzed. The metallurgical structure field after heat treatment was predicted by the method based on time-temperature-transformation (TTT curves. The results show that the analysis method and designed track heat treatment process are feasible, and can provide a reference for practical projects.

  10. Study of the influence of ionizing radiation on biometrical parameters of eggplantand tomato at different doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guliyeva, L.M.; Eminova, N.M.; Jafarov, E.S.; Babayev, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : The problem of influence of low-dose of ionizing radiation on plants for a long time attracted attention of researchers. Increasing interest in this issue is caused by many circumstances, especially by global radiation contamination of environment. By this time in radiobiology it has been gained great data about the negative effects of ionizing radiation on plants. It is well known that at the time of germination seed is very susceptible to a variety of physical and chemical agents which are capable of impacting their development. It is appropriate to conduct studies reflecting changes in biometrical parameters of agricultural plants importance for Azerbaijan. It was seen that radiation influence increases the productivity of the plants, the size of the stems, fruits, and the color more saturated

  11. Optimisation of parameters for co-precipitation of uranium and plutonium - results of simulation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, N.K.; Velvandan, P.V.; Murugesan, S.; Ahmed, M.K.; Koganti, S.B.

    1999-01-01

    Preparation of plutonium oxide from plutonium nitrate solution generally proceeds via oxalate precipitation route. In a nuclear fuel reprocessing scheme this step succeeds the partitioning step (separation of uranium and plutonium). Results of present studies confirm that it is possible to avoid partitioning step and recover plutonium and uranium as co-precipitated product. This also helps in minimising the risk of proliferation of fissile material. In this procedure, the solubility of uranium oxalate in nitric acid is effectively used. Co-precipitation parameters are optimised with simulated solutions of uranium nitrate and thorium nitrate (in place of plutonium). On the basis of obtained results a reconversion flow-sheet is designed and reported here. (author)

  12. Further study on source parameters at Quirke Mine, Elliot Lake, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.

    1991-01-01

    A further analysis on source parameters for thirty-seven mining-induced seismic events at Quirke Mine, Elliot Lake, Ontario, has been carried out to study the self-similarity assumption in scaling law of seismic spectrum for mining-induced microearthquakes, and to understand the focal mechanism in the mine. Evidence from high P-wave energy in a ratio E p /E s of 5% to 30%, and about 80% of the events with E s /E p L ). For the same total seismic energy, the apparent stress is limited by 80 GN.m and 800 GN.m of seismic moment. The observed stress drop is dependent on the seismic moment, which implies a breakdown in scaling law for events induced by mining. An analysis of peak particle velocity and acceleration presents the evidence for seismic attenuation over the fractured zone above the rock burst area in the mine

  13. Influence of Extreme Storage Conditions on Extra Virgin Olive Oil Parameters: Traceability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Escudero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reflects the effect of extreme storage conditions on several extra virgin olive oil (EVOO varieties (arbequina, hojiblanca, and picual. The conditions were simulated in the laboratory, by means of heating treatments in stove at different temperatures (40 and 60°C and times (two and three weeks. The aim is the evaluation of the deterioration of the quality parameters and minority components, which are responsible for the nutritional and therapeutic properties (fatty acids, polyphenols, pigments, and tocopherols, and organoleptic qualities. The quality criteria and limits used in this work are according to International Olive Council. The results contribute to the control of the traSceability for the commercialization of the EVOO.

  14. Correlation studies between the results of workplace monitoring and biological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.H.

    1987-10-01

    Some nuclear-based and non-nuclear analytical techniques have been used to look for correlations between the results of workplace monitoring and biological parameters of exposed workers in various workplace environments. The analytical competence of the external beam thick and thin target particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis has been established for elemental analysis of air particulates and biological materials. The capability of low-energy photon spectrometry (LEPS) has also been demonstrated. Using the methods of PIXE and flame AAS, some studies have been performed on the elemental composition of air particulates, human head hair, nail and urine collected in different workplace environments in Dhaka. This report contains a brief account of this research along with an outline of future research projects to be carried out in this and other related areas. 13 refs, 5 figs, 7 tabs

  15. The Comparative Analysis of Biochemical Parameters in Patients with Pleural Effusions: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kutluk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The differentiation of exudative from transudative effusion is important to lead the clinician in making further biochemical analysis for possible etiology and in choosing the appropriate treatment strategy. The aim of the study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of biochemical parameters together with Light%u2019s criteria to differentiate exudative from transudative effusions. Material and Method: The LDH, total protein, albumin, adenosine deaminase (ADA, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, Lipoprotein-A, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of patients with unknown etiology were measured both in plasma and pleural fluid. Mann-Whitney U was used to compare the groups and p < 0.05 was accepted as statistical significance. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated for each biochemical parameter. The ROC analysis was used to estimate the optimum cut-off value for the highest sensitivity and specificity.Results: Pleural LDH (p=0.001, total protein (p=0.001, albumin (p=0.001, triglyceride (p=0.001, total cholesterol (p=0.001, HDL-cholesterol (p=0.042, VLDL-cholesterol (p=0.001, LDL-cholesterol (p=0.001, apolipoprotein A1 (p=0.021, and HDL-cholesterol/LDL-cholesterol ratio (p=0.048 were found significant in differentiating exudative from transudative effusions. Discussion: The study showed that the use of pleural LDH, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol levels together is more significant than Light%u2019s criteria. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of this test were 99%, 94.1%, and 96.2% respectively.

  16. Exergy analysis and parameter study on a novel auto-cascade Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Junjiang; Zhao, Li

    2012-01-01

    A novel auto-cascade Rankine cycle (ARC) is proposed to reduce thermodynamics irreversibility and improve energy utilization. Like the Kalina cycle, the working fluid for the ARC is zeotropic mixture, which can improve the system efficiency due to the temperature slip that zeotropic mixtures exhibit during phase change. Unlike the Kalina cycle, two expanders are included in the ARC rather than a expander and a throttling valve in the Kalina cycle, which means more work can be obtained. Using the exhaust gas as the heat source and water as the heat sink, a program is written by Matlab 2010a to carry out exergy analysis and parameter study on the ARC. Results show that the R245fa mass fraction in the primary circuit exists an optimum value with respect to the minimum total cycle irreversibility. The largest exergy loss occurs in evaporator, followed by the superheater, condenser, regenerator and IHE (Internal heat exchanger). As the R245fa mass fraction increases, the exergy losses of different components vary diversely. With the evaporation pressure rises, the total cycle irreversibility decreases and work output increases. Separator temperature has a greater influence on the system performance than superheating temperature. Compared with ORC (organic Rankine cycle) and Kalina cycle in the literature, the ARC has proven to be thermodynamically better. -- Highlights: ► We have proposed a novel auto-cascade Rankine cycle (ARC) system. ► The zeotropic mixture Isopentane/R245fa is employed in this system. ► Exergy analysis and parameter study on the ARC are presented. ► Compared with ORC and Kalina cycle in the literature, the ARC has proven to be thermodynamically better.

  17. Global Source Parameters from Regional Spectral Ratios for Yield Transportability Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W. S.; Fisk, M. D.; Stead, R. J.; Begnaud, M. L.; Rowe, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    We use source parameters such as moment, corner frequency and high frequency rolloff as constraints in amplitude tomography, ensuring that spectra of well-studied earthquakes are recovered using the ensuing attenuation and site term model. We correct explosion data for path and site effects using such models, which allows us to test transportability of yield estimation techniques based on our best source spectral estimates. To develop a background set of source parameters, we applied spectral ratio techniques to envelopes of a global set of regional distance recordings from over 180,000 crustal events. Corner frequencies and moment ratios were determined via inversion using all event pairs within predetermined clusters, shifting to absolute levels using independently determined regional and teleseismic moments. The moment and corner frequency results can be expressed as stress drop, which has considerable scatter, yet shows dramatic regional patterns. We observe high stress in subduction zones along S. America, S. Mexico, the Banda Sea, and associated with the Yakutat Block in Alaska. We also observe high stress at the Himalayan syntaxes, the Pamirs, eastern Iran, the Caspian, the Altai-Sayan, and the central African rift. Low stress is observed along mid ocean spreading centers, the Afar rift, patches of convergence zones such as Nicaragua, the Zagros, Tibet, and the Tien Shan, among others. Mine blasts appear as low stress events due to their low corners and steep rolloffs. Many of these anomalies have been noted by previous studies, and we plan to compare results directly. As mentioned, these results will be used to constrain tomographic imaging, but can also be used in model validation procedures similar to the use of ground truth in location problems, and, perhaps most importantly, figure heavily in quality control of local and regional distance amplitude measurements.

  18. Input Uncertainty and its Implications on Parameter Assessment in Hydrologic and Hydroclimatic Modelling Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, S.; Sharma, A.

    2005-12-01

    present. SIMEX is based on theory that the trend in alternate parameters can be extrapolated back to the notional error free zone. We illustrate the utility of SIMEX in a synthetic rainfall-runoff modelling scenario and an application to study the dependence of uncertain distributed sea surface temperature anomalies with an indicator of the El Nino Southern Oscillation, the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). The errors in rainfall data and its affect is explored using Sacramento rainfall runoff model. The rainfall uncertainty is assumed to be multiplicative and temporally invariant. The model used to relate the sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) to the SOI is assumed to be of a linear form. The nature of uncertainty in the SSTA is additive and varies with time. The SIMEX framework allows assessment of the relationship between the error free inputs and response. Cook, J.R., Stefanski, L. A., Simulation-Extrapolation Estimation in Parametric Measurement Error Models, Journal of the American Statistical Association, 89 (428), 1314-1328, 1994.

  19. Theoretical study of temperature dependent acoustic attenuation and non-linearity parameters in alkali metal hydride and deuteride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Rishi Pal [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Singh, Rajendra Kumar, E-mail: rksingh_17@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2010-11-01

    Temperature dependence of acoustic attenuation and non-linearity parameters in lithium hydride and lithium deuteride have been studied for longitudinal and shear modes along various crystallographic directions of propagation in a wide temperature range. Lattice parameter and repulsive parameters have been used as input data and interactions up to next nearest neighbours have been considered to calculate second and third order elastic constants which in turn have been used for evaluating acoustic attenuation and related parameters. The results have been discussed and compared with available data. It is hoped that the present results will serve to stimulate the determination of the acoustic attenuation of these compounds at different temperatures.

  20. A study of the effects of collector and environment parameters on the performance of a solar powered solid adsorption refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.; Wang, R.Z.

    2002-01-01

    Based on the heat and mass transfer model validated by experiment, the performance of the plate solar ice-maker is analyzed systemically with the opinion of two-type characteristic parameters, which includes parametric effects of adsorbent bed of solar ice-maker and outer parameters referring to circumstance. A large number of simulations were undertaken to test the performance of the refrigerator for various collector design parameters and environmental parameters. These works are beneficial to further study the optimization design of a solar cooling system. (Author)

  1. Application feasibility study of evaluation technology for long-term rock behavior. 2. Parameter setting of variable compliance type model and application feasibility study for rock behavior evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shin; Noda, Masaru; Niunoya, Sumio; Hata, Koji; Matsui, Hiroya; Mikake, Shinichiro

    2012-01-01

    Creep phenomenon is one of the long-term rock behaviors. In many of rock-creep studies, model and parameter have been verified in 2D analysis using model parameter acquired by uniaxial compression test etc considering rock types. Therefore, in this study model parameter was set by uniaxial compression test with classified rock samples which were taken from pilot boring when the main shaft was constructed. Then, comparison between measured value and 3D excavation analysis with identified parameter was made. By and large, the study showed that validity of identification methodology of parameter to identify reproduction of measured value and analysis method. (author)

  2. A study of process parameters on workpiece anisotropy in the laser engineered net shaping (LENSTM) process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Shubham; Rao, Balkrishna C.

    2017-06-01

    The process of laser engineered net shaping (LENSTM) is an additive manufacturing technique that employs the coaxial flow of metallic powders with a high-power laser to form a melt pool and the subsequent deposition of the specimen on a substrate. Although research done over the past decade on the LENSTM processing of alloys of steel, titanium, nickel and other metallic materials typically reports superior mechanical properties in as-deposited specimens, when compared to the bulk material, there is anisotropy in the mechanical properties of the melt deposit. The current study involves the development of a numerical model of the LENSTM process, using the principles of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and the subsequent prediction of the volume fraction of equiaxed grains to predict process parameters required for the deposition of workpieces with isotropy in their properties. The numerical simulation is carried out on ANSYS-Fluent, whose data on thermal gradient are used to determine the volume fraction of the equiaxed grains present in the deposited specimen. This study has been validated against earlier efforts on the experimental studies of LENSTM for alloys of nickel. Besides being applicable to the wider family of metals and alloys, the results of this study will also facilitate effective process design to improve both product quality and productivity.

  3. Study on human physiological parameters for monitoring of mental works in the nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Ken-ichi; Yoshino, Kenji; Ishii, Keiichiro; Nakasa, Hiroyasu; Shigeta, Sadayoshi.

    1982-01-01

    To prevent outbreaks of the wrong operation and judgement in the nuclear power plant, human conditions of body and mind should be taken into consideration particularly for the mental works such as inspection and monitoring. To estimate human conditions quantitatively by the measurement of human physiological parameters, this paper presents the following experimental results. (1) Physiological parameters are estimated from both sides of biological meanings and the applicability to field works. (2) Time variation of the parameters is investigated in mental simulation tests in order to select a good indicator of mental fatigue. (3) Correlation analysis between mental fatigue indexes and physiological parameters shows that the heart rate is a best indicator. (author)

  4. Strategies for automatic online treatment plan reoptimization using clinical treatment planning system: A planning parameters study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Taoran; Wu, Qiuwen; Zhang, You; Vergalasova, Irina; Lee, W. Robert; Yin, Fang-Fang; Wu, Q. Jackie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Adaptive radiation therapy for prostate cancer using online reoptimization provides an improved control of interfractional anatomy variations. However, the clinical implementation of online reoptimization is currently limited by the low efficiency of current strategies and the difficulties associated with integration into the current treatment planning system. This study investigates the strategies for performing fast (∼2 min) automatic online reoptimization with a clinical fluence-map-based treatment planning system; and explores the performance with different input parameters settings: dose-volume histogram (DVH) objective settings, starting stage, and iteration number (in the context of real time planning).Methods: Simulated treatments of 10 patients were reoptimized daily for the first week of treatment (5 fractions) using 12 different combinations of optimization strategies. Options for objective settings included guideline-based RTOG objectives, patient-specific objectives based on anatomy on the planning CT, and daily-CBCT anatomy-based objectives adapted from planning CT objectives. Options for starting stages involved starting reoptimization with and without the original plan's fluence map. Options for iteration numbers were 50 and 100. The adapted plans were then analyzed by statistical modeling, and compared both in terms of dosimetry and delivery efficiency.Results: All online reoptimized plans were finished within ∼2 min with excellent coverage and conformity to the daily target. The three input parameters, i.e., DVH objectives, starting stage, and iteration number, contributed to the outcome of optimization nearly independently. Patient-specific objectives generally provided better OAR sparing compared to guideline-based objectives. The benefit in high-dose sparing from incorporating daily anatomy into objective settings was positively correlated with the relative change in OAR volumes from planning CT to daily CBCT. The use of the

  5. SU-E-J-263: Repeatability of SUV and Texture Parameters in Serial PET Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, J; Humm, J; Nehmeh, S; Schoder, H [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Standardized uptake values (SUV) are standard quantitative PET measures of FDG tumor uptake used,and are used as a tool to monitor response to therapy. Textural analysis is emerging as a new tool for assessing intratumoral heterogeneity which may allow better tissue characterization and improved prediction of response and survival rate.Understanding what variations may be expected in these parameters is key in order to make decisions based on how the change throughout the course of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess repeatability in SUV measures and texture parameters,and establish criteria that differentiate changes associated with treatment rather than statistical variability. Methods: Eighty patients,167 random lesions total,were scanned in a GE Discovery STE PET/CT Scanner. One field-of-view was chosen centered on the largest lesion observed in a clinical whole-body FDG PET.Immediately following,a gated 9 min scan was acquired in list mode,without changing the patient’s position between any scans. Data was replayed into 3 time bins,3 min each,in order to insure equivalent noise characteristics in each replicate.Data was reconstructed into 128×128×47 square matrices.One VOI was drawn over each lesion for each patient and used to segment all 3 replicates. The mean.max and peak SUV were calculated for each VOI and replicate. First-order textural features were also calculated (skewness and kurtosis). Repeatability was calculated as the average standard deviation over the mean for the 3 repeated measurements for each lesion. Results: The average percent error in the SUV max,peak and mean were 3.4%(0– 12.9%),1.9% (0–7.5%),2.8% (0–12.2%),respectively.For skewness and kurtosis they were 10.9% and 17.8%. Conclusion: We have shown that there is a large variation in %error in SUV measures across patients. SUVpeak is the least variable and kurtosis and skewness parameters are less reliable thatn SUVs.Higher order textures are be.

  6. SU-E-J-263: Repeatability of SUV and Texture Parameters in Serial PET Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J; Humm, J; Nehmeh, S; Schoder, H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Standardized uptake values (SUV) are standard quantitative PET measures of FDG tumor uptake used,and are used as a tool to monitor response to therapy. Textural analysis is emerging as a new tool for assessing intratumoral heterogeneity which may allow better tissue characterization and improved prediction of response and survival rate.Understanding what variations may be expected in these parameters is key in order to make decisions based on how the change throughout the course of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess repeatability in SUV measures and texture parameters,and establish criteria that differentiate changes associated with treatment rather than statistical variability. Methods: Eighty patients,167 random lesions total,were scanned in a GE Discovery STE PET/CT Scanner. One field-of-view was chosen centered on the largest lesion observed in a clinical whole-body FDG PET.Immediately following,a gated 9 min scan was acquired in list mode,without changing the patient’s position between any scans. Data was replayed into 3 time bins,3 min each,in order to insure equivalent noise characteristics in each replicate.Data was reconstructed into 128×128×47 square matrices.One VOI was drawn over each lesion for each patient and used to segment all 3 replicates. The mean.max and peak SUV were calculated for each VOI and replicate. First-order textural features were also calculated (skewness and kurtosis). Repeatability was calculated as the average standard deviation over the mean for the 3 repeated measurements for each lesion. Results: The average percent error in the SUV max,peak and mean were 3.4%(0– 12.9%),1.9% (0–7.5%),2.8% (0–12.2%),respectively.For skewness and kurtosis they were 10.9% and 17.8%. Conclusion: We have shown that there is a large variation in %error in SUV measures across patients. SUVpeak is the least variable and kurtosis and skewness parameters are less reliable thatn SUVs.Higher order textures are be

  7. Study of the correlation of IVIM parameter maps with FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delso, Gaspar, E-mail: gaspar.delso@usz.ch [GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI (United States); Lee, Sangwoo [GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI (United States); Porto, Miguel; Hüllner, Martin; Veit-Haibach, Patrick [Department of Medical Imaging, University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-01-11

    Intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) is a magnetic resonance technique to quantify the influence of microscopic perfusion-related motion and differentiate it from pure molecular diffusion. IVIM has the potential to provide valuable clinical information about microcirculation in the capillary network of healthy tissues as well as malignant tumors. Our goal was to study the correlation of IVIM parameter maps with concurrent FDG-PET data, in view of their potential use in clinical PET/MR protocols. Methods: Data were acquired from ten oncology patients using a tri-modality setup and fitted with a bi-exponential model. The fitting was first solved in the least squares sense and then again using iteratively reweighted least squares. The resulting parameter maps were compared with PET FDG data by an experienced radiologist. Results: Among the pathologies encountered in our patient population were lesions of the liver, spleen, kidney, abdominal wall, prostate and cervix. The qualitative comparison with PET confirmed that IVIM maps provide complementary information about functional inhomogeneity within the tumor. Visual inspection by experienced radiologists showed improved reading of tumor heterogeneity in six of our ten patients when considering FDG uptake together with perfusion fraction maps. The use of a large set of b values was instrumental for data validation and outlier rejection. Robust fitting was shown to increase the accuracy of the fit in 70% of the voxels, leading to average changes of IVIM parametric maps: perfusion fraction f∈[3.9×10{sup –3}, 4.7×10{sup −2}], diffusion coefficient D ∈[−1.2×10{sup −4}, −3.0×10{sup −6}] and pseudo-diffusion coefficient D{sup *}∈[−1.6×10{sup −1}, −9.2×10{sup −3}]. Conclusions: The results suggest that IVIM imaging could be successfully integrated in clinical PET/MR protocols. Clinical validation shows the complementarity of obtained parameter maps with concurrent FDG PET data. Ongoing work is

  8. Polarized neutron scattering study of the multiple order parameter system NdB4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metoki, N.; Yamauchi, H.; Matsuda, M.; Fernandez-Baca, J. A.; Watanuki, R.; Hagihala, M.

    2018-05-01

    Neutron polarization analysis has been carried out in order to clarify the magnetic structures of multiple order parameter f -electron system NdB4. We confirmed the noncollinear "all-in all-out" structure (Γ4) of the in-plane moment, which is in good agreement with our previous neutron powder diffraction study. We found that the magnetic moment along the c -axis mc showed diagonally antiferromagnetic structure (Γ10), inconsistent with previously reported "vortex" structure (Γ2). The microscopic mixture of these two structures with q⃗0=(0 ,0 ,0 ) appears in phase II and remains stable in phases III and IV, where an incommensurate modulation coexists. The unusual magnetic ordering is phenomenologically understood via Landau theory with the primary order parameter Γ4 coupled with higher-order secondary order parameter Γ10. The magnetic moments were estimated to be 1.8 ±0.2 and 0.2 ±0.05 μB at T =7.5 K for Γ4 and Γ10, respectively. We also found a long-period incommensurate modulation of the q⃗1=(0 ,0 ,1 /2 ) antiferromagnetic structure of mc with the propagation q⃗s 1=(0.14 ,0.14 ,0.1 ) and q⃗s 2=(0.2 ,0 ,0.1 ) in phase III and IV, respectively. The amplitude of sinusoidal modulation was about mc=1.0 ±0.2 μB at T =1.5 K. The local (0 ,0 ,1 /2 ) structure consists of in-plane ferromagnetic and out-of-plane antiferromagnetic coupling of mc, opposite to the coexisting Γ10. The mc of Γ10 is significantly enhanced up to 0.6 μB at T =1.5 K, which is accompanied by the incommensurate modulations. The Landau phenomenological approach indicates that the higher-order magnetic and/or multipole interactions based on the pseudoquartet f -electron state play important roles.

  9. Thermoforming of glass fibre reinforced polypropylene: A study on the influence of different process parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Alexander; Winkelbauer, Jonas; Hinterhölzl, Roland; Drechsler, Klaus

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the forming behaviour of glass fibre reinforced polypropylene and to identify the influence of several process parameters on the resulting part quality. For this purpose, a complex forming tool was designed, consisting of several areas with single and double curvature. The specimens were produced from unidirectional (UD) tape using the Fiberforge RELAY2000® automated tape laying machine and a subsequent consolidation step. They were then fixed in a support frame, pre-heated in an infrared oven, and formed in the forming tool, which was mounted into a hydraulic heating press. The investigated process parameters were the number and force of the springs in the support frame, the tool temperature and the forming pressure and speed. The layups of the specimens were [0/90/0/90/0¯]s and [0/45/90/-45/0¯]s. After the forming process, the parts were analysed in terms of their quality, with a special focus on wrinkles, undulations, gaps and surface roughness. In addition to optical analysis with a statistical evaluation of the results, 3D scans of the specimens at different steps of the forming process were made to gain an impression of the forming mechanisms and the development of failures. The ATOS system of GOM was used for these 3D scans. The results show that the undulations were influenced by the tool temperature and the spring force. By contrast, the surface quality was most strongly dependent on the forming pressure, which also influenced the size and the number of gaps. The forming speed affected the gaps as well. The tool temperature had the largest influence on the development of wrinkles. As expected, the quasi-isotropic layup showed distinctly more wrinkles and undulations, but it also presented a better surface quality than the orthotropic layup.

  10. Effect of fixed orthodontic appliances on salivary microbial parameters at 6 months: a controlled observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine MARET

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the microbial changes in children with fixed orthodontic appliances compared with a control group of children without orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods: Ninety-five children, aged between 12 and 16 years, participated in this study. Forty-eight subjects were fitted with fixed orthodontic appliances and forty-seven were free of any such appliances. The follow-up was 6 months for all children. The association between orthodontic appliances and high levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp was assessed with logistic regression models, taking age, sex, pH and buffer capacity into account. Results: Differences at baseline between the two groups were not statistically significant. We found that wearing a fixed orthodontic appliance was associated with high levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp (adjusted OR: 6.65, 95% CI [1.98-22.37]; 9.49, 95% CI [2.57-35.07], respectively, independently of other variables. Conclusion: The originality of the present epidemiological study was to evaluate the evolution of salivary microbial parameters in a population of children with fixed orthodontic appliances. Our results show an increase of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp values during the follow-up. The whole dental workforce should be aware that preventive measures are of paramount importance during orthodontic treatment.

  11. Spatially explicit inference for open populations: estimating demographic parameters from camera-trap studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Beth; Reppucci, Juan; Lucherini, Mauro; Royle, J Andrew

    2010-11-01

    We develop a hierarchical capture-recapture model for demographically open populations when auxiliary spatial information about location of capture is obtained. Such spatial capture-recapture data arise from studies based on camera trapping, DNA sampling, and other situations in which a spatial array of devices records encounters of unique individuals. We integrate an individual-based formulation of a Jolly-Seber type model with recently developed spatially explicit capture-recapture models to estimate density and demographic parameters for survival and recruitment. We adopt a Bayesian framework for inference under this model using the method of data augmentation which is implemented in the software program WinBUGS. The model was motivated by a camera trapping study of Pampas cats Leopardus colocolo from Argentina, which we present as an illustration of the model in this paper. We provide estimates of density and the first quantitative assessment of vital rates for the Pampas cat in the High Andes. The precision of these estimates is poor due likely to the sparse data set. Unlike conventional inference methods which usually rely on asymptotic arguments, Bayesian inferences are valid in arbitrary sample sizes, and thus the method is ideal for the study of rare or endangered species for which small data sets are typical.

  12. Study of ion plating parameters, coating structure, and corrosion protection for aluminum coatings on uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egert, C.M.; Scott, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    A study of ion-plating parameters (primarily deposition rate and substrate bias voltage), coating structure, and the corrosion protection provided by aluminum coatings on uranium is presented. Ion plating at low temperatures yields a variety of aluminum coating structures on uranium. For example, aluminum coatings produced at high deposition rates and low substrate bias voltages are columnar with voids between columns, as expected for high-rate vapor deposition at low temperatures. On the other hand, low deposition rate and high bias voltage produce a modified coating with a dense, noncolumnar structure. These results are not in agreement with other studies that have found no relationship between deposition rate and coating structure in ion plating. This discrepancy is probably due to the high deposition rates used in these studies. An accelerated, water vapor corrosion test indicates that the columnar aluminum coatings provide some corrosion protection despite their porous nature; however, the dense noncolumnar coatings provide significantly greater protection. These results indicate that ion-plated aluminum coatings produced at low deposition rates and high substrate bias voltages creates dense coating structures that are most effective in protecting uranium from corrosion

  13. PERSPECTIVES OF FACTORIAL ANALYSIS IN STUDYING ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN IMMUNE SYSTEM PARAMETERS AND CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN GASTRIC CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Solovyeva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When studying functional features of immune system, a lot of quantitative and functional parameters are determined. A multifactorial analysis allows of detecting interdependent immunological parameters and defining them as significant factors. In present study, four factors are revealed, which are associated with certain clinical characteristics of gastric cancer (tumor invasion depth, lymph node status and distant metastases, tumor stage, histological type. The data obtained are of interest, with regard of systemic approach to functional studies of immune functions.

  14. An Experimental Study of the Local Parameters of a Damaged Cantilever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, A.; Brincker, Rune; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    of results from experimental tests with six hollow section steel cantilevers containing a fatigue crack introduced from a narrow laser cut slot. The modal parameters have been identified for different size and location of a crack. The modal parameters have been estimated by mean of frequency domain and time...

  15. An Experimental Study of the Modal Parameters of a Damaged Cantilever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, A.; Brincker, Rune; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    of results from experimental tests with six hollow section steel cantilevers containing a fatigue crack introduced from a narrow laser cut slot. The modal parameters have been identified for different size and location of a crack. The modal parameters have been estimated by mean of frequency domain and time...

  16. Study on feed forward neural network convex optimization for LiFePO4 battery parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuepeng; Zhao, Dongmei

    2017-08-01

    Based on the modern facility agriculture automatic walking equipment LiFePO4 Battery, the parameter identification of LiFePO4 Battery is analyzed. An improved method for the process model of li battery is proposed, and the on-line estimation algorithm is presented. The parameters of the battery are identified using feed forward network neural convex optimization algorithm.

  17. A study of the parameters affecting the effectiveness of Moringa oleifera in drinking water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, M.; Craven, T.; Mkandawire, T.; Edmondson, A. S.; O'Neill, J. G.

    The powder obtained from the seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree has been shown to be an effective primary coagulant for water treatment. When the seeds are dried, dehusked, crushed and added to water, the powder acts as a coagulant binding colloidal particles and bacteria to form agglomerated particles (flocs), which settle allowing the clarified supernatant to be poured off. Very little research has been undertaken on the parameters affecting the effectiveness of M. oleifera, especially in Malawi, for purification of drinking water and there is a great need for further testing in this area. Conclusive data needs to be compiled to demonstrate the effects of various water parameters have on the efficiency of the seeds. A parametric study was undertaken at Leeds Metropolitan University, UK, with the aim to establish the most appropriate dosing method; the optimum dosage for removal of turbidity; the influence of pH and temperature; together with the shelf life of the M. oleifera seeds. The study revealed that the most suitable dosing method was to mix the powder into a concentrated paste, hence forming a stock suspension. The optimum M. oleifera dose, for turbidity values between 40 and 200 NTU, ranged between 30 and 55 mg/l. With turbidity set at 130 NTU and a M. oleifera dose within the optimum range at 50 mg/l, pH levels were varied between 4 and 9. It was discovered that the coagulant performance was not too sensitive to pH fluctuations when conditions were within the optimum range. The most efficient coagulation, determined by the greatest reduction in turbidity, occurred at pH 6.5. Alkaline conditions were overall more favourable than acidic conditions; pH 9 had an efficiency of 65% of optimum, whilst at pH 5 the efficiency dropped to around 55%. The efficiency further dropped at pH 4, where the powder only produced results of around 10% of optimum conditions. A temperature range of 4-60 °C was studied in this research. Colder waters (<15 °C) were found to

  18. A Combined Linkage and Exome Sequencing Analysis for Electrocardiogram Parameters in the Erasmus Rucphen Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Claudia T; Zorkoltseva, Irina V; Amin, Najaf; Demirkan, Ayşe; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Kors, Jan A; van den Berg, Marten; Stricker, Bruno H; Uitterlinden, André G; Kirichenko, Anatoly V; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Willemsen, Rob; Oostra, Ben A; Axenovich, Tatiana I; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Isaacs, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) measurements play a key role in the diagnosis and prediction of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. ECG parameters, such as the PR, QRS, and QT intervals, are known to be heritable and genome-wide association studies of these phenotypes have been successful in identifying common variants; however, a large proportion of the genetic variability of these traits remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to discover loci potentially harboring rare variants utilizing variance component linkage analysis in 1547 individuals from a large family-based study, the Erasmus Rucphen Family Study (ERF). Linked regions were further explored using exome sequencing. Five suggestive linkage peaks were identified: two for QT interval (1q24, LOD = 2.63; 2q34, LOD = 2.05), one for QRS interval (1p35, LOD = 2.52) and two for PR interval (9p22, LOD = 2.20; 14q11, LOD = 2.29). Fine-mapping using exome sequence data identified a C > G missense variant (c.713C > G, p.Ser238Cys) in the FCRL2 gene associated with QT (rs74608430; P = 2.8 × 10 -4 , minor allele frequency = 0.019). Heritability analysis demonstrated that the SNP explained 2.42% of the trait's genetic variability in ERF ( P = 0.02). Pathway analysis suggested that the gene is involved in cytosolic Ca 2+ levels ( P = 3.3 × 10 -3 ) and AMPK stimulated fatty acid oxidation in muscle ( P = 4.1 × 10 -3 ). Look-ups in bioinformatics resources showed that expression of FCRL2 is associated with ARHGAP24 and SETBP1 expression. This finding was not replicated in the Rotterdam study. Combining the bioinformatics information with the association and linkage analyses, FCRL2 emerges as a strong candidate gene for QT interval.

  19. A combined linkage and exome sequencing analysis for electrocardiogram parameters in the Erasmus Rucphen Family study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Tamar Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrocardiogram (ECG measurements play a key role in the diagnosis and prediction of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. ECG parameters, such as the PR, QRS, and QT intervals, are known to be heritable and genome-wide association studies (GWAS of these phenotypes have been successful in identifying common variants; however, a large proportion of the genetic variability of these traits remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to discover loci potentially harboring rare variants utilizing variance component linkage analysis in 1547 individuals from a large family-based study, the Erasmus Rucphen Family Study (ERF. Linked regions were further explored using exome sequencing. Five suggestive linkage peaks were identified: two for QT interval (1q24, LOD = 2.63; 2q34, LOD = 2.05, one for QRS interval (1p35, LOD = 2.52 and two for PR interval (9p22, LOD = 2.20; 14q11, LOD = 2.29. Fine-mapping using exome sequence data identified a C > G missense variant (c.713C>G, p.Ser238Cys in the FCRL2 gene associated with QT (rs74608430; P = 2.8 ×10-4, minor allele frequency = 0.019. Heritability analysis demonstrated that the SNP explained 2.42% of the trait’s genetic variability in ERF (P = 0.02. Pathway analysis suggested that the gene is involved in cytosolic Ca2+ levels (P = 3.3 × 10-3 and AMPK stimulated fatty acid oxidation in muscle (P = 4.1 ×10-3. Look-ups in bioinformatics resources showed that expression of FCRL2 is associated with ARHGAP24 and SETBP1 expression. This finding was not replicated in the Rotterdam study. Combining the bioinformatics information with the association and linkage analyses, FCRL2 emerges as a strong candidate gene for QT interval.

  20. Operational parameters study of IPR-R1 TRIGA research reactor using virtual instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Antonio Juscelino; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias; Lameiras, Fernando Soares, E-mail: ajp@cdtn.br, E-mail: amir@cdtn.br, E-mail: fsl@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The instrumentation of nuclear reactors is designed with the principle of reliability, redundancy and diversification of control systems. Reliable monitoring of the parameters involved in the chain reaction is of great importance regarding efficiency and operational safety of the installation. The main goal of the simulation system in this proposed paper is to provide the study and improvement in understanding how these operational variables are interrelated and their behavior especially those related to neutronic and thermohydraulics. The work will be developed using the software LabVIEW ® (Laboratory Virtual Instruments Engineering Workbench). The program will enable the study of the variables involved in the operation of the installation throughout its operating range, for instance, a few mW up to 250 kW. The IPR-R1 TRIGA is a research nuclear reactor placed in open pool and cooled by light water with natural circulation. It is located at the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN), in Belo Horizonte Brazil. The developing system employs the modern concept of virtual instruments (VIs), using microprocessors and visual interface on video monitors. LabVIEW ® breaks the paradigm of text-based programming language, for programming based on icons. The system will enable the use of this reactor in training and personnel training in the nuclear field. The work follows the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which has encouraged its members to develop strategic plans in order to use their research reactors. (author)

  1. Effect of pistachio diet on lipid parameters, endothelial function, inflammation, and oxidative status: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Ibrahim; Baltaci, Yasemin; Bagci, Cahit; Davutoglu, Vedat; Erel, Ozcan; Celik, Hakim; Ozer, Orhan; Aksoy, Nur; Aksoy, Mehmet

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested that nuts have favorable effects beyond lipid lowering. We aimed to investigate effect of the Antep pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) on blood glucose, lipid parameters, endothelial function, inflammation, and oxidation in healthy young men living in a controlled environment. A Mediterranean diet was administered to normolipidemic 32 healthy young men (mean age 22 y, range 21-24) for 4 wk. After 4 wk, participants continued to receive the Mediterranean diet but pistachio was added for 4 wk by replacing the monounsaturated fat content constituting approximately 20% of daily caloric intake. Fasting blood samples and brachial endothelial function measurements were performed at baseline and after each diet. Compared with the Mediterranean diet, the pistachio diet decreased glucose (Ppistachio diet significantly improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation (P=0.002, 30% relative increase), decreased serum interleukin-6, total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide, and malondialdehyde and increased superoxide dismutase (Ppistachio diet improved blood glucose level, endothelial function, and some indices of inflammation and oxidative status in healthy young men. These findings are in accordance with the idea that nuts, in particular pistachio nuts, have favorable effects beyond lipid lowering that deserve to be evaluated with prospective follow-up studies. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Optimization Parameters and Some Electronic Properties of AlSb Diamondoids: A Density Function Theory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder M. Abduljalil

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Density function theory with LSDA/3-21G basis set is used to investigate the optimization parameters such as (angles and bonds and some electronic properties include (cohesive energy, energy gap and lattice constant of AlSb at nano diamantine and different size of(Linear, Ring, Diamantine and Tetramantine. The results of the present work show that the angles of AlSbH nano molecule in range (96,21-126.05 Å are near to standard angle of diamond (109.47 Å. Therefore, it is found that the cohesive energy for molecules of studied in decrease state with increase size but the energy gap decreased in gradually shape from (5.2-2.1eV with increase of the number of atoms, that typical is on the lattice constant. It is finally shown that the size molecules has direct effect on electronic properties to material studied that can used this material in different applications and according to the purpose asked for

  3. Sensitivity of risk parameters to human errors in reactor safety study for a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Hall, R.E.; Swoboda, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    Sensitivities of the risk parameters, emergency safety system unavailabilities, accident sequence probabilities, release category probabilities and core melt probability were investigated for changes in the human error rates within the general methodological framework of the Reactor Safety Study (RSS) for a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). Impact of individual human errors were assessed both in terms of their structural importance to core melt and reliability importance on core melt probability. The Human Error Sensitivity Assessment of a PWR (HESAP) computer code was written for the purpose of this study. The code employed point estimate approach and ignored the smoothing technique applied in RSS. It computed the point estimates for the system unavailabilities from the median values of the component failure rates and proceeded in terms of point values to obtain the point estimates for the accident sequence probabilities, core melt probability, and release category probabilities. The sensitivity measure used was the ratio of the top event probability before and after the perturbation of the constituent events. Core melt probability per reactor year showed significant increase with the increase in the human error rates, but did not show similar decrease with the decrease in the human error rates due to the dominance of the hardware failures. When the Minimum Human Error Rate (M.H.E.R.) used is increased to 10 -3 , the base case human error rates start sensitivity to human errors. This effort now allows the evaluation of new error rate data along with proposed changes in the man machine interface

  4. Study of computerized spirometric parameters of traffic police personnel of Saurashtra region, Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makwana, Amit H; Solanki, Jayesh D; Gokhale, Pradnya A; Mehta, Hemant B; Shah, Chinmay J; Gadhavi, Bhakti P

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution due to road traffic is a serious health hazard and air quality crisis in cities is mainly due to vehicular emission. Thus the persons who are continuously exposed are at an increased risk. The study was carried out to evaluate the extent of impairment in lung function in traffic police personnel compared to matched unexposed control group. A cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the spirometric parameters of 100 traffic police personnel, aged 20-55 years, working in Saurashtra region, as compared to matched control group, consisting of 100 unexposed males. Measurement of lung volumes and capacities was done with SPIROEXCEL. The statistical analysis was carried out with Graph pad instat 3. Traffic police personnel had significantly declined forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1), slow vital capacity (SVC) and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) when compared with predictive normal values, which is probably due to exposure to vehicular exhaust. Comparison of test values between groups showed significantly reduced FVC, MVV and increased FEV1/FVC ratio and insignificantly declined FEV1 and SVC in cases as compared to controls. Traffic personnel with longer duration of exposure showed significantly reduced lung functions than those with shorter duration. Smokers showed lower test values as compared to non-smokers with significance only in unexposed group. The effect of pollution by vehicular exhausts may be responsible for these pulmonary function impairments and traffic police personnel should be offered personal protective or preventive measures.

  5. Operational parameters study of IPR-R1 TRIGA research reactor using virtual instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Antonio Juscelino; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias; Lameiras, Fernando Soares

    2013-01-01

    The instrumentation of nuclear reactors is designed with the principle of reliability, redundancy and diversification of control systems. Reliable monitoring of the parameters involved in the chain reaction is of great importance regarding efficiency and operational safety of the installation. The main goal of the simulation system in this proposed paper is to provide the study and improvement in understanding how these operational variables are interrelated and their behavior especially those related to neutronic and thermohydraulics. The work will be developed using the software LabVIEW ® (Laboratory Virtual Instruments Engineering Workbench). The program will enable the study of the variables involved in the operation of the installation throughout its operating range, for instance, a few mW up to 250 kW. The IPR-R1 TRIGA is a research nuclear reactor placed in open pool and cooled by light water with natural circulation. It is located at the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN), in Belo Horizonte Brazil. The developing system employs the modern concept of virtual instruments (VIs), using microprocessors and visual interface on video monitors. LabVIEW ® breaks the paradigm of text-based programming language, for programming based on icons. The system will enable the use of this reactor in training and personnel training in the nuclear field. The work follows the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which has encouraged its members to develop strategic plans in order to use their research reactors. (author)

  6. A Pilot Study of Correlation between Intelligence Quotient, Social Quotient, and Ayurveda Parameters in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Satyam; Balsavar, Anuradha; Beniwal, R. P.; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Intelligence quotient (IQ) and social quotient (SQ) are comparable in predicting intelligence status. The latter is assessed whenever IQ testing is not possible. According to Ayurveda, Buddhi (intelligence) is affected by Prakriti (body constitution) which depends on the predominance of Tridosha and Triguna. There is a paucity of studies to examine their association. The study was designed to examine correlation among IQ, SQ, performance quotient (PQ) and maladaptive behaviour; and to find out their relationship with primary (Anubandhya) and secondary (Anubandha) doshas with intelligence in children with mild to moderate intellectual disability. Methodology: Children (n = 120) were recruited from outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital as part of a clinical trial of a novel Ayurveda formulation. Stanford Binet Scale, Vineland Social Maturity Scale, Seguin Form Board Test, and Maladaptive Behavior Schedule-II were administered. Ayurvedic parameters were assessed clinically by Ayurveda practitioner. Separate regression analyses were carried out to look for associations. Results: IQ and SQ were positively correlated (P = 0.01). Maladaptive behavior and SQ were negatively correlated (0.05). SQ was associated with secondary dosha (P = 0.002) and stage of disease (Roga Kriyakala) (P = 0.015). IQ was also associated with secondary dosha (P = 0.008). Conclusion: SQ and IQ are positively correlated. The correlation of Anubandha (secondary) dosha was high on IQ and SQ. PMID:29403134

  7. Lipase mediated synthesis of rutin fatty ester: Study of its process parameters and solvent polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisali, C; Belur, Prasanna D; Regupathi, Iyyaswami

    2017-10-01

    Lipophilization of antioxidants is recognized as an effective strategy to enhance solubility and thus effectiveness in lipid based food. In this study, an effort was made to optimize rutin fatty ester synthesis in two different solvent systems to understand the influence of reaction system hydrophobicity on the optimum conditions using immobilised Candida antartica lipase. Under unoptimized conditions, 52.14% and 13.02% conversion was achieved in acetone and tert-butanol solvent systems, respectively. Among all the process parameters, water activity of the system was found to show highest influence on the conversion in each reaction system. In the presence of molecular sieves, the ester production increased to 62.9% in tert-butanol system, unlike acetone system. Under optimal conditions, conversion increased to 60.74% and 65.73% in acetone and tert-butanol system, respectively. This study shows, maintaining optimal water activity is crucial in reaction systems having polar solvents compared to more non-polar solvents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Pilot Study of Correlation between Intelligence Quotient, Social Quotient, and Ayurveda Parameters in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Satyam; Balsavar, Anuradha; Beniwal, R P; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N

    2018-01-01

    Intelligence quotient (IQ) and social quotient (SQ) are comparable in predicting intelligence status. The latter is assessed whenever IQ testing is not possible. According to Ayurveda, Buddhi (intelligence) is affected by Prakriti (body constitution) which depends on the predominance of Tridosha and Triguna. There is a paucity of studies to examine their association. The study was designed to examine correlation among IQ, SQ, performance quotient (PQ) and maladaptive behaviour; and to find out their relationship with primary (Anubandhya) and secondary (Anubandha) doshas with intelligence in children with mild to moderate intellectual disability. Children ( n = 120) were recruited from outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital as part of a clinical trial of a novel Ayurveda formulation. Stanford Binet Scale, Vineland Social Maturity Scale, Seguin Form Board Test, and Maladaptive Behavior Schedule-II were administered. Ayurvedic parameters were assessed clinically by Ayurveda practitioner. Separate regression analyses were carried out to look for associations. IQ and SQ were positively correlated ( P = 0.01). Maladaptive behavior and SQ were negatively correlated (0.05). SQ was associated with secondary dosha ( P = 0.002) and stage of disease (Roga Kriyakala) ( P = 0.015). IQ was also associated with secondary dosha ( P = 0.008). SQ and IQ are positively correlated. The correlation of Anubandha (secondary) dosha was high on IQ and SQ.

  9. A prospective study of power cycles based on the expected sodium fast reactor parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, L. E.; Linares, J. I.; Moratilla, B. Y.; Perez, G. D.

    2010-01-01

    One of the main issues that has not been solved yet in the frame of Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) is to choose the most appropriate power conversion system. This paper explores the performance of different power cycles, from traditional to innovative layouts trying to find the optimized solution. Based on the expected reactor parameters (i.e., inlet and outlet coolant temperatures, 395 deg.C and 545 deg.C, respectively), a subcritical Rankine similar to those of fossil power plant cycles has been proposed as a reference layout. Then, alternative layouts based on innovative Rankine and Brayton cycles have been investigated. Two Rankine supercritical layouts have been modeled and analyzed: one of them, adopted from the Supercritical Water Reactor of GIV (one reheater, nine pre-heaters and one moisture separator) and the other similar to some fossil plants (two reheaters, nine pre-heaters with no moisture separator). Simple Brayton cycle configurations based on Helium has been also studied. Several layouts have been modeled to study the effects of: inter-cooling between compression stages, absence of an intermediate loop and coupling of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC). (authors)

  10. Study on the Influence of the Work Hardening Models Constitutive Parameters Identification in the Springback Prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.C.; Menezes, L. F.; Alves, J.L.; Chaparro, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to determine the influence of the work hardening model in the numerical prediction of springback. This study will be performed according with the specifications of the first phase of the 'Benchmark 3' of the Numisheet'2005 Conference: the 'Channel Draw'. Several work hardening constitutive models are used in order to allow a better description of the different material mechanical behavior. Two are classical pure isotropic hardening models described by a power law (Swift) or a Voce type saturation equation. Those two models were also combined with a non-linear (Lemaitre and Chaboche) kinematic hardening rule. The final one is the Teodosiu microstructural hardening model. The study is performed for two commonly used steels of the automotive industry: mild (DC06) and dual phase (DP600) steels. The mechanical characterization, as well as the constitutive parameters identification of each work hardening models, was performed by LPMTM, based on an appropriate set of experimental data such as uniaxial tensile tests, monotonic and Bauschinger simple shear tests and orthogonal strain path tests, all at various orientations with respect to the rolling direction. All the simulations were carried out with the CEMUC's home code DD3IMP (contraction of 'Deep Drawing 3-D IMPlicit code')

  11. A Study of the Usability of Ergonomic Camera Vest Based on Spirometry Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirazeh Arghami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Being a cameraman is one of those occupations that expose people to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs. Therefore, control measures should be taken to protect cameramen’s health. To solve the given problem, a vest was designed for cameramen to prevent MSDs by reducing the pressure and contact stress while carrying the camera on their shoulder. However, the usability of vest had to be considered. The aim of this study was to determine the usability of the proposed vest using the spirometry parameters indicator. Methods: In this experimental study, 120 spirometry experiments were conducted with 40 male volunteer subjects with and without designed vest. Data were analyzed using SPSS- 16 with dependent t-test, at 0.05 significance level. Results: Based on the spirometry results, there is a significant difference between Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1 and heart rate in activity with and without vest (p<0.001. Conclusion: The results suggest that the promising impact of this invention on the health of cameramen makes this domestically designed camera vest a good option for mass production.

  12. A Study on the Effect of Electrodeposition Parameters on the Morphology of Porous Nickel Electrodeposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Srijan; Patra, Arghya; Jena, Sambedan; Das, Karabi; Das, Siddhartha

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the electrodeposition of nickel foam by dynamic hydrogen bubble-template method is optimized, and the effects of key deposition parameters (applied voltage and deposition time) and bath composition (concentration of Ni2+, pH of the bath, and roles of Cl- and SO4 2- ions) on pore size, distribution, and morphology and crystal structure are studied. Nickel deposit from 0.1 M NiCl2 bath concentration is able to produce the honeycomb-like structure with regular-sized holes. Honeycomb-like structure with cauliflower morphology is deposited at higher applied voltages of 7, 8, and 9 V; and a critical time (>3 minutes) is required for the development of the foamy structure. Compressive residual stresses are developed in the porous electrodeposits after 30 seconds of deposition time (-189.0 MPa), and the nature of the residual stress remains compressive upto 10 minutes of deposition time (-1098.6 MPa). Effect of pH is more pronounced in a chloride bath compared with a sulfate bath. The increasing nature of pore size in nickel electrodeposits plated from a chloride bath (varying from 21 to 48 μm), and the constant pore size (in the range of 22 to 24 μm) in deposits plated from a sulfate bath, can be ascribed to the striking difference in the magnitude of the corresponding current-time profiles.

  13. Polydatin administration improves serum biochemical parameters and oxidative stress markers during chronic alcoholism: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Maria Caterina; Passavanti, Maria Beatrice; Aurilio, Caterina; Sansone, Pasquale; Aurilio, Rossella; DE Maria, Salvatore; Lama, Stefania; Federico, Alessandro; Ravagnan, Gianpietro; Caraglia, Michele; Stiuso, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Polydatin, a hydroxystilbene derived from the rhizome of Polygonum cuspidatum, elicits hepatoprotective and neuroprotective effects through its anti-oxidant properties. The present study aimed to determine the effects of oral administration of polydatin in alcoholic patients in order to improve liver biochemical parameters, serum oxidative stress and mental state. We enrolled 20 chronic alcoholic patients hospitalized for rehabilitative therapy. The patients were divided into two groups receiving the following treatment regimes for two weeks: administration of an anti-oxidant nutritional supplement containing glutathione and vitamin C (group 1), or glutathione, vitamin C and polydatin (group 2). The results of the present study show that elevated plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels in patients after two weeks of alcohol withdrawal were significantly reduced by polydatin (group 2), when compared to group 1. Polydatin also significantly reduced lipid peroxidation levels. Finally, our preliminary data resulting from the analysis of the Mini-Mental Status suggest that polydatin improves cognitive performance. Daily dietary administration of polydatin should be considered for prevention and treatment of liver disease and cognitive impairment in alcoholic patients. Copyright © 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  14. Process intensification for biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L. seeds: Supercritical reactive extraction process parameters study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Steven; Lee, Keat Teong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Investigation of supercritical reactive extraction process for biodiesel production. ► Focus is given on optimizing methyl esters yield for Jatropha curcas L. seeds. ► Influence of process parameters to the reaction are discussed thoroughly. ► Comparison between the novel reaction with conventional process are studied. ► High methyl esters yield can be obtained without pre-extraction and catalyst. -- Abstract: In a bid to increase the cost competitiveness of biodiesel production against mineral diesel, process intensification has been studied for numerous biodiesel processing technologies. Subsequently, reactive extraction or in situ transesterification is actively being explored in which the solid oil-bearing seeds are used as the reactant directly with short-chain alcohol. This eliminates separate oil extraction process and combines both extraction and transesterification in a single unit. Supercritical reactive extraction takes one step further by substituting the role of catalyst with supercritical conditions to achieve higher yield and shorter processing time. In this work, supercritical reactive extraction with methanol was carried out in a high-pressure batch reactor to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from Jatropha curcas L. seeds. Material and process parameters including space loading, solvent to seed ratio, co-solvent (n-hexane) to seed ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time and mixing intensity were varied one at a time and optimized based on two responses i.e. extraction efficiency, M extract and FAME yield, F y . The optimum responses for supercritical reactive extraction obtained were 104.17% w/w and 99.67% w/w (relative to 100% lipid extraction with n-hexane) for M extract and F y respectively under the following conditions: 54.0 ml/g space loading, 5.0 ml/g methanol to seeds ratio, 300 °C, 9.5 MPa (Mega Pascal), 30 min reaction time and without n-hexane as co-solvent or any agitation source. This proved that

  15. Study of the fractal dimension of the wind and its relationships with turbulent and stability parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijera, Manuel; Maqueda, Gregorio; Cano, José L.; López, Pilar; Yagüe, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    The wind velocity series of the atmospheric turbulent flow in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), in spite of being highly erratic, present a self-similarity structure (Frisch, 1995; Peitgen et., 2004; Falkovich et., 2006). So, the wind velocity can be seen as a fractal magnitude. We calculate the fractal dimension (Komolgorov capacity or box-counting dimension) of the wind perturbation series (u' = u- ) in the physical spaces (namely velocity-time). It has been studied the time evolution of the fractal dimension along different days and at three levels above the ground (5.8 m, 13.5 m, 32 m). The data analysed was recorded in the experimental campaign SABLES-98 (Cuxart et al., 2000) at the Research Centre for the Lower Atmosphere (CIBA) located in Valladolid (Spain). In this work the u, v and w components of wind velocity series have been measured by sonic anemometers (20 Hz sampling rate). The fractal dimension versus the integral length scales of the mean wind series have been studied, as well as the influence of different turbulent parameters. A method for estimating these integral scales is developed using the normalized autocorrelation function and a Gaussian fit. Finally, it will be analysed the variation of the fractal dimension versus stability parameters (as Richardson number) in order to explain some of the dominant features which are likely immersed in the fractal nature of these turbulent flows. References - Cuxart J, Yagüe C, Morales G, Terradellas E, Orbe J, Calvo J, Fernández A, Soler MR, Infante C, Buenestado P, Espinalt A, Joergensen HE, Rees JM, Vilá J, Redondo JM, Cantalapiedra IR and Conangla L (2000) Stable atmospheric boundary-layer experiment in Spain (SABLES98): a report. Boundary- Layer Meteorol 96:337-370 - Falkovich G and Kattepalli R. Sreenivasan (2006) Lessons from Hidrodynamic Turbulence. Physics Today 59: 43-49 - Frisch U (1995) Turbulence the legacy of A.N. Kolmogorov Cambridge University Press 269pp - Peitgen H, Jürgens H and

  16. Total and fission cross-sections of 239Pu - statistical study of resonance parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrien, H.; Blons, J.; Eggermann, C.; Michaudon, A.; Paya, D.; Ribon, P.

    1967-01-01

    The authors measured the total and fission cross-sections of 239 Pu with the linear accelerator at Saclay as a pulsed source of neutrons. The total cross-section was measured in the range from 4 to 700 eV and the best resolution used was 1.5 ns/m; the fission cross-section was measured between 4 eV and 6 keV, the best resolution having been 6 ns/m. The transmission measurements on five samples were made at the temperature of liquid nitrogen, and comparisons made with supplementary experiments at ambient temperature made it possible to determine the Doppler broadening factor (Δ = η√E). The resonances were identified from 4 to 500 eV in the total cross-section; the average level spacing was of the order of 2.4 eV. It would appear that, in this energy range, nearly all the levels were identified. The resonance parameters were determined by analysis of shape in conjunction with a least-squares programme on an IBM-7094 computer. The existence of a large number of broad resonances corresponding to very large fission widths has been shown to exist. Statistical study of the fission widths actually shows the existence of two families of resonances, one corresponding to a mean Γ f of the order of 45 meV and the other to a mean Γ/f of about 750 meV. The authors were therefore able to postulate a classification of resonances in terms of two spin states, the level population ratio in each family being: (2J 1 +1)/(2J 2 +1) = 1/3; J 1 = 0 corresponds to the broad resonances and J 2 = 1 to the narrow ones. The partial widths for radiative capture fluctuate slightly around a mean value of 40 meV. By using a multilevel programme, the authors were able to investigate the extent to which the existence of large fission widths might give rise to fictitious resonances (quasi-resonances) and perturbations and also to make a statistical study of the resonance parameters. (author) [fr

  17. Genetic parameters and genome-wide association study of hyperpigmentation of the visceral peritoneum in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chenglong; Qu, Hao; Wang, Jie; Wang, Yan; Ma, Jie; Li, Chunyu; Yang, Chunfen; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning; Shu, Dingming

    2013-05-16

    Hyperpigmentation of the visceral peritoneum (HVP) has recently garnered much attention in the poultry industry because of the possible risk to the health of affected animals and the damage it causes to the appearance of commercial chicken carcasses. However, the heritable characters of HVP remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic parameters of HVP by genome-wide association study (GWAS) in chickens. HVP was found to be influenced by genetic factors, with a heritability score of 0.33. HVP had positive genetic correlations with growth and carcass traits, such as leg muscle weight (rg = 0.34), but had negative genetic correlations with immune traits, such as the antibody response to Newcastle disease virus (rg = -0.42). The GWAS for HVP using 39,833 single nucleotide polymorphisms indicated the genetic factors associated with HVP displayed an additive effect rather than a dominance effect. In addition, we determined that three genomic regions, involving the 50.5-54.0 Mb region of chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosome 1 (GGA1), the 58.5-60.5 Mb region of GGA1, and the 10.5-12.0 Mb region of GGA20, were strongly associated (P HVP in chickens. Variants in these regions explained >50% of additive genetic variance for HVP. This study also confirmed that expression of BMP7, which codes for a bone morphogenetic protein and is located in one of the candidate regions, was significantly higher in the visceral peritoneum of Huiyang Beard chickens with HVP than in that of chickens without pigmentation (P HVP is a quantitative trait with moderate heritability. Genomic variants resulting in HVP were identified on GGA1 and GGA20, and expression of the BMP7 gene appears to be upregulated in HVP-affected chickens. Findings from this study should be used as a basis for further functional validation of candidate genes involved in HVP.

  18. Study of Body Composition and Metabolic Parameters in HIV-1 Male Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurudath Gundurao Sreekantamurthy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. HIV patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART containing protease inhibitors (PIs had been often associated with lipodystrophy. However, there are only few studies on association of nucleoside and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI and NNRTI with lipodystrophy. Study Design. One hundred and one HIV male patients were categorised into ART naïve (n=22, zidovudine (n=22, stavudine (n=18, tenofovir (n=15, and PIs (n=24 based HAART. Their clinicoepidemiological data had been entered in preformed pro forma. The body composition, using TANITA machine and metabolic parameters like lipid profile, blood sugars was analysed. Results. Clinically, lipoatrophy of face was most prevalent in HIV patients on stavudine (15 patients, 83.3% and PIs (20 patients, 83.3% based HAART. The mean BMI among study population was in normal range. Excess visceral fat was most prevalent among patients on PIs, 4 patients (16.7%. The waist-hip ratio was significantly higher in PIs (P=0.01 based HAART. There was no significant difference among different study populations in terms of BMI (P=0.917, body water (P=0.318, body fat (P=0.172, bone mass (P=0.200, and muscle mass (P=0.070. Hypertriglyceridiemia was found in stavudine, tenofovir, and protease inhibitors regimens. Low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL was found zidovudine, stavudine, and PIs regimens. Fasting and postprandial hyperglycaemia was found PIs and impaired glucose tolerance in stavudine regimen. Conclusion. Patients on PIs were associated with truncal obesity and lipoatrophy of face, along with dyslipidemia and hyperglycaemia. Stavudine based regimen is associated with hypertriglyceridiemia and low HDL along with lipoatrophy of face.

  19. Study on Developing Degradation Model for Nuclear Power Plants With Ageing Elements Affected on Operation Parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Won; Lim, Sung Won; Lee, Un Chul; Kim, Man Woong; Kim, Kab; Ryu, Yong Ho

    2009-01-01

    As a part of development the evaluation system of safety margin effects for degradation of CANDU reactors, it is required that the degradation model represents the distribution of each ageing factor's value during operating year. Unfortunately, it is not easy to make an explicit relation between the RELAP-CANDU parameters and ageing mechanism because of insufficient data and lack of applicable models. So, operating parameter related with ageing is used for range determination of ageing factor. Then, relation between operating parameter and ageing elements is analyzed and ageing constant values for degradation model are determined. Also the other ageing factor is derived for more accurate ageing analysis

  20. Study of the equation of state and determination of molecular parameters of some fluorinated gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morizot, Pierre

    1972-01-01

    Volumetric and dielectric techniques are used to determine non-ideality and molar polarization of UF 6 , MoF 6 , WF 6 and ClF 3 . Comparisons are made between these dielectric non-ideality parameters and those obtained by MAGNUSON and volumetry method. It is demonstrated that dielectric non-ideality parameters are unsettled by an adsorption phenomena on the electrodes. The volumetric second virial coefficients are interpreted with known transport coefficients to determine molecular parameters of the three hexafluorides. Using viscosity data, the existence of a dimerization in the vapor of ClF 3 was demonstrated. Its effect on the observed second virial coefficient was evaluated. (author) [fr

  1. What predicts inattention in adolescents? An experience-sampling study comparing chronotype, subjective, and objective sleep parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Timo; Krkovic, Katarina; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-10-01

    Many adolescents sleep insufficiently, which may negatively affect their functioning during the day. To improve sleep interventions, we need a better understanding of the specific sleep-related parameters that predict poor functioning. We investigated to which extent subjective and objective parameters of sleep in the preceding night (state parameters) and the trait variable chronotype predict daytime inattention as an indicator of poor functioning. We conducted an experience-sampling study over one week with 61 adolescents (30 girls, 31 boys; mean age = 15.5 years, standard deviation = 1.1 years). Participants rated their inattention two times each day (morning, afternoon) on a smartphone. Subjective sleep parameters (feeling rested, positive affect upon awakening) were assessed each morning on the smartphone. Objective sleep parameters (total sleep time, sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset) were assessed with a permanently worn actigraph. Chronotype was assessed with a self-rated questionnaire at baseline. We tested the effect of subjective and objective state parameters of sleep on daytime inattention, using multilevel multiple regressions. Then, we tested whether the putative effect of the trait parameter chronotype on inattention is mediated through state sleep parameters, again using multilevel regressions. We found that short sleep time, but no other state sleep parameter, predicted inattention to a small effect. As expected, the trait parameter chronotype also predicted inattention: morningness was associated with less inattention. However, this association was not mediated by state sleep parameters. Our results indicate that short sleep time causes inattention in adolescents. Extended sleep time might thus alleviate inattention to some extent. However, it cannot alleviate the effect of being an 'owl'. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Parameter study of simplified dragonfly airfoil geometry at Reynolds number of 6000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David-Elie; Seifert, Avraham

    2010-10-21

    Aerodynamic study of a simplified Dragonfly airfoil in gliding flight at Reynolds numbers below 10,000 is motivated by both pure scientific interest and technological applications. At these Reynolds numbers, the natural insect flight could provide inspiration for technology development of Micro UAV's and more. Insect wings are typically characterized by corrugated airfoils. The present study follows a fundamental flow physics study (Levy and Seifert, 2009), that revealed the importance of flow separation from the first corrugation, the roll-up of the separated shear layer to discrete vortices and their role in promoting flow reattachment to the aft arc, as the leading mechanism enabling high-lift, low drag performance of the Dragonfly gliding flight. This paper describes the effect of systematic airfoil geometry variations on the aerodynamic properties of a simplified Dragonfly airfoil at Reynolds number of 6000. The parameter study includes a detailed analysis of small variations of the nominal geometry, such as corrugation placement or height, rear arc and trailing edge shape. Numerical simulations using the 2D laminar Navier-Stokes equations revealed that the flow accelerating over the first corrugation slope is followed by an unsteady pressure recovery, combined with vortex shedding. The latter allows the reattachment of the flow over the rear arc. Also, the drag values are directly linked to the vortices' magnitude. This parametric study shows that geometric variations which reduce the vortices' amplitude, as reduction of the rear cavity depth or the reduction of the rear arc and trailing edge curvature, will reduce the drag values. Other changes will extend the flow reattachment over the rear arc for a larger mean lift coefficients range; such as the negative deflection of the forward flat plate. These changes consequently reduce the drag values at higher mean lift coefficients. The detailed geometry study enabled the definition of a corrugated airfoil

  3. Temperature sensitivity of void nucleation and growth parameters for single crystal copper: a molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, S; Chavan, V M; Warrier, M; Chaturvedi, S

    2011-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the void nucleation and growth is studied using the molecular dynamics (MD) code LAMMPS (Large-Scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator). Single crystal copper is triaxially expanded at 5 × 10 9  s −1 strain rate keeping the temperature constant. It is shown that the nucleation and growth of voids at these atomistic scales follows a macroscopic nucleation and growth (NAG) model. As the temperature increases there is a steady decrease in the nucleation and growth thresholds. As the melting point of copper is approached, a double-dip in the pressure–time profile is observed. Analysis of this double-dip shows that the first minimum corresponds to the disappearance of the long-range order due to the creation of stacking faults and the system no longer has a FCC structure. There is no nucleation of voids at this juncture. The second minimum corresponds to the nucleation and incipient growth of voids. We present the sensitivity of NAG parameters to temperature and the analysis of double-dip in the pressure–time profile for single crystal copper at 1250 K

  4. Study of Microstructural Parameters of Screen Printed ZnO Thick Film Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. PATIL

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the compositional, morphological and structural properties of ZnO thick films prepared by a standard screen printing method and fired between 650 oC to 900 oC for 2 hours in an air atmosphere. The material characterization was done using X-ray energy dispersive analysis (EDX, X-ray diffraction (XRD and a scanning electron microscope (SEM. The deposited films were polycrystalline in nature having the wurtzite (hexagonal structure with a preferred orientation along the (101 plane. The result shows that the wt. % of Zn was found to be 80.39, 82.66 and 83.47 % for firing temperatures of 700, 800 and 900 oC respectively may be due to the release of excess oxygen. The effect of the firing temperature on structural parameters such as the crystallite size, specific surface area, texture coefficient, RMSmicrostrain, dislocation density and stacking fault probability have been studied. The results indicate that grain growth can be increased by increasing the firing temperature which is responsible for decreasing the RMSmicrostrain, stacking fault probability and dislocation density in ZnO thick films. The crystallite size changes from 18.58 nm to 37.23 nm with respect to the increase in the firing temperature.

  5. Studies on Pidotimod Enantiomers With Chiralpak-IA: Crystal Structure, Thermodynamic Parameters and Molecular Docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaorui; Su, Xin; Wang, Yue; Chen, Yadong; Shen, Weiyang

    2015-11-01

    Pidotimod, a synthetic dipeptide, has two chiral centers with biological and immunological activity. Its enantiomers were characterized by x-ray crystallographic analysis. A chiral stationary phase (CSP) Chiralpak-IA based on amylose derivatized with tris-(3, 5-dimethylphenyl carbamate) was used to separate pidotimod enantiomers. The mobile phase was prepared in a ratio of 35:65:0.2 of methyl-tert-butyl-ether and acetonitrile trifluoroaceticacid. In addition, thermodynamics and molecular docking methods were used to explain the enantioseparation mechanism by Chiralpak-IA. Thermodynamic studies were carried out from 10 to 45 °C. In general, both retention and enantioselectivity decreased as the temperature increased. Thermodynamic parameters indicate that the interaction force between the pidotimod enantiomer (4S, 2'R) and IA CSP is stronger and their complex model is more stable. According to GOLD molecular docking simulation, Van der Waals force is the leading cause of pidotimod enantiomers separation by IA CSP. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Short communication: study of immune parameters in three Greek dairy sheep breeds during the periparturient period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, G; Fragou, S; Chronopoulou, R; Kominakis, A; Rogdakis, E; Politis, I

    2007-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether immunosuppression occurs in 3 different Greek dairy sheep breeds during the periparturient period. A total of 33 ewes from 3 breeds [i.e., the low-producing Boutsiko breed (n = 11), which is highly adaptable to harsh environments; the high-producing but environmentally fragile Chios breed (n = 11); and an intermediate synthetic breed (50% Boutsiko, 25% Arta, and 25% Chios, n = 11)] were used. Blood samples were collected at 18 and 2 d before parturition and at 15 d after parturition. Total cell-associated and membrane-bound urokinase plasminogen activator (U-PA) activity, free U-PA binding sites on cellular membranes, and superoxide anion (SA) production by activated phagocytes were determined. Results indicated that all immune parameters measured remained constant during the periparturient period for the Boutsiko breed. In contrast, there were reductions in total cell-associated and membrane-bound U-PA activity by both monocytes-macrophages and neutrophils and in SA production by monocytes-macrophages at d 2 before parturition for the Chios breed. In the synthetic breed, there were reductions in total cell-associated and membrane-bound U-PA activity by monocytes-macrophages and in SA production by both monocytes-macrophages and neutrophils at d 15 after parturition. Thus, mild immunosuppression during the periparturient period was observed in the 2 breeds with the highest milk production.

  7. Experimentally verified inductance extraction and parameter study for superconductive integrated circuit wires crossing ground plane holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourie, Coenrad J; Wetzstein, Olaf; Kunert, Juergen; Meyer, Hans-Georg; Toepfer, Hannes

    2013-01-01

    As the complexity of rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) circuits increases, both current and power consumption of the circuits become important design criteria. Various new concepts such as inductive biasing for energy efficient RSFQ circuits and inductively coupled RSFQ cells for current recycling have been proposed to overcome increasingly severe design problems. Both of these techniques use ground plane holes to increase the inductance or coupling factor of superconducting integrated circuit wires. New design tools are consequently required to handle the new topographies. One important issue in such circuit design is the accurate calculation of networks of inductances even in the presence of finite holes in the ground plane. We show how a fast network extraction method using InductEx, which is a pre- and post-processor for the magnetoquasistatic field solver FastHenry, is used to calculate the inductances of a set of SQUIDs (superconducting quantum interference devices) with ground plane holes of different sizes. The results are compared to measurements of physical structures fabricated with the IPHT Jena 1 kA cm −2 RSFQ niobium process to verify accuracy. We then do a parameter study and derive empirical equations for fast and useful estimation of the inductance of wires surrounded by ground plane holes. We also investigate practical circuits and show excellent accuracy. (paper)

  8. Efficiency of Calatonia on clinical parameters in the immediate post-surgery period: a clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Ferreira Lasaponari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess the efficiency of the Calatonia technique about clinical parameters and pain in the immediate post-surgical phase. METHOD: a randomised study was carried out with 116 patients subjected to a cholecystectomy, by laparoscopy, divided into an experimental group (58 patients and a placebo group (58 patients. The experimental group received the Calatonia technique, while the placebo was only subjected to non-intentional touches. RESULTS: The placebo group and the experimental group were considered homogeneous in terms of the variables: sex, age, physical status classification, duration of surgical procedures and also the time spent recovering in the Post-Anaesthetic Recovery Room. The only variable to show a statistically significant difference was the axillary temperature of the body. In relation to pain, the experimental group showed significant results, and hence it is possible to deduce that the relaxation caused by the Calatonia technique brought some relief of the general situation of pain. CONCLUSION: The application of Calatonia can take up the function of a resource complementary to assistance in the period immediately after surgery. Brazilian Register of Clinical Trials, UTN U1111-1129-9629.

  9. Investigation of Collimator Influential Parameter on SPECT Image Quality: a Monte Carlo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banari Bahnamiri Sh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obtaining high quality images in Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT device is the most important goal in nuclear medicine. Because if image quality is low, the possibility of making a mistake in diagnosing and treating the patient will rise. Studying effective factors in spatial resolution of imaging systems is thus deemed to be vital. One of the most important factors in SPECT imaging in nuclear medicine is the use of an appropriate collimator for a certain radiopharmaceutical feature in order to create the best image as it can be effective in the quantity of Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM which is the main parameter in spatial resolution. Method: In this research, the simulation of the detector and collimator of SPECT imaging device, Model HD3 made by Philips Co. and the investigation of important factors on the collimator were carried out using MCNP-4c code. Results: The results of the experimental measurments and simulation calculations revealed a relative difference of less than 5% leading to the confirmation of the accuracy of conducted simulation MCNP code calculation. Conclusion: This is the first essential step in the design and modelling of new collimators used for creating high quality images in nuclear medicine

  10. Experimental study on plasma parameters in the mushroom limiter shadow in the T-10 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alferov, A.A.; Vershkov, V.A.; Grashin, S.A.; Chankin, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    Plasma parameters in the shadow of mashroom limiter installed in the lower tokamak outlet are studied. Investigation into asymmetry of plasma fluxes to the ion and electrone limiter sides leads to a consumption concerning two meachanisms of its occurrance-toroidal plasma rotation and prevailing plasma departure to the wall through the external torus encirclement. Asymmetry of plasma drift potentials near the limiter observed during the experiment leads to current drift through the limiter close to Spitzer j s one. It is shown that with the increase of mean plasma density the plasma density in the limiter channels grows and its temperature is decreased so the charged particle losses for the limiter are weakly dependent on the mean density which is connected with plasma confinement degradation under the density reduction. A complete flux of charged particles to the limiter is comparable to their flux from plasma filament. Plasma flux into the channels is close to ambipolar one and the power fluxes to neutralization plates are of the order of 10 j s Te/e. Neutral gas pressure dependence in the volume under the limiter on the plasma fluxes to channels is nonlinear, the maximum pressure achieves 3x10 -2 T

  11. Effects of upper body parameters on biped walking efficiency studied by dynamic optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang An

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Walking efficiency is one of the considerations for designing biped robots. This article uses the dynamic optimization method to study the effects of upper body parameters, including upper body length and mass, on walking efficiency. Two minimal actuations, hip joint torque and push-off impulse, are used in the walking model, and minimal constraints are set in a free search using the dynamic optimization. Results show that there is an optimal solution of upper body length for the efficient walking within a range of walking speed and step length. For short step length, walking with a lighter upper body mass is found to be more efficient and vice versa. It is also found that for higher speed locomotion, the increase of the upper body length and mass can make the walking gait optimal rather than other kind of gaits. In addition, the typical strategy of an optimal walking gait is that just actuating the swing leg at the beginning of the step.

  12. Neuronavigation accuracy dependence on CT and MR imaging parameters: a phantom-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poggi, S; Pallotta, S; Russo, S; Gallina, P; Torresin, A; Bucciolini, M

    2003-01-01

    Clinical benefits from neuronavigation are well established. However, the complexity of its technical environment requires a careful evaluation of different types of errors. In this work, a detailed phantom study which investigates the accuracy in a neuronavigation procedure is presented. The dependence on many different imaging parameters, such as field of view, slice thickness and different kind of sequences (sequential and spiral for CT, T1-weighted and T2-weighted for MRI), is quantified. Moreover, data based on CT images are compared to those based on MR images, taking into account MRI distortion. Finally, the contributions to global accuracy coming from image acquisition, registration and navigation itself are discussed. Results demonstrate the importance of imaging accuracy. Procedures based on CT proved to be more accurate than procedures based on MRI. In the former, values from 2 to 2.5 mm are obtained for 95% fractiles of cumulative distribution of Euclidean distances between the intended target and the reached one while, in the latter, the measured values range from 3 to 4 mm. The absence of imaging distortion proved to be crucial for registration accuracy in MR-based procedures

  13. A study of some political problems considering current geographical analytical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Adolfo Dupuy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to study some of the main problems presented, on different scales, by current politics, considering the spatial implications as well as various parameters offered lately by the geographical science. The proposal is supported by the theoretical bases developed from Emmanuel Wallerstein and Peter Taylor's statement about a world system structured as a world economy, based on the capitalist mode of production. Conversely, it attempts to provide a theoretical explanation for the dynamics experienced by the territories upon thee basis of such world system's mechanics. According to these assumptions, an analysis is proposed of some of the main phenomena resulting from the previous analysis and its spatial implications, such as the current power relations in the system, the subsistence of traditional power factors (Nation-states, ethnically based cultural configurations and the appearance of new ones (the forming of transnational blocs and associations, new social movements, new forms of local participation, the importance of hegemonic and counter-hegemonic discourses in the construction of symbolic representations and of the mass media in such processes or the new cultural identity and hybridization chart from population mobility.

  14. A study of photon interaction parameters in some commonly used solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Tejbir; Kaur, Paramjeet; Singh, Parjit S

    2007-01-01

    Various parameters of dosimetric interest such as mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and electron densities of some commonly used solvents such as acetonitrile (C 4 H 3 N), butanol (C 4 H 9 OH), chlorobenzene (C 6 H 5 Cl), diethylether (C 4 H 10 O), ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH), methanol (CH 3 OH), propanol (C 3 H 7 OH) and water (H 2 O) were computed in the wide energy range of 10 keV-100 GeV. A comparative study of two different methods used to compute effective atomic numbers has been done. It is observed that in the intermediate energy region (0.1-5 MeV), the mass attenuation coefficient values becomes almost the same for all the solvents, and the effective atomic number and electron density show almost constant values, whereas significant variation is observed in both lower (10-100 keV) and higher (5 MeV-100 GeV) energy regions for all the solvents, which may be due to the dominance of different partial interaction processes in different energy regions

  15. Design Parameters of Vortex Pumps: A Meta-Analysis of Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Gerlach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vortex pumps can impel solid-containing fluids and are therefore widely applied, from wastewater transport to the food industry. Despite constant efforts to improve vortex pumps, however, they have remained relatively inefficient compared to conventional centrifugal pumps. To find an optimized design of vortex pumps, this paper provides a systematic analysis on experimental studies that investigated how variations in geometric parameters influence vortex pump characteristics, in particular the pump head, the pressure coefficient and the efficiency for best point operation. To this end, an extensive literature search was conducted, and eighteen articles with 53 primary investigations were identified and meta-integrated. This showed that it is not yet clarified how vortex pumps operate. Two different assumptions of the underlying operating principle of a vortex pump lead to diverging design principles. From the results of this meta-analysis, we deduce recommendations for a more efficient design of a vortex pump and emphasize further aspects on the underlying operating principle of a vortex pump.

  16. Sensitivity and uncertainty studies of the CRAC2 code for selected meteorological models and parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, R.C.; Kocher, D.C.; Hicks, B.B.; Hosker, R.P. Jr.; Ku, J.Y.; Rao, K.S.

    1985-01-01

    We have studied the sensitivity of results from the CRAC2 computer code, which predicts health impacts from a reactor-accident scenario, to uncertainties in selected meteorological models and parameters. The sources of uncertainty examined include the models for plume rise and wet deposition and the meteorological bin-sampling procedure. An alternative plume-rise model usually had little effect on predicted health impacts. In an alternative wet-deposition model, the scavenging rate depends only on storm type, rather than on rainfall rate and atmospheric stability class as in the CRAC2 model. Use of the alternative wet-deposition model in meteorological bin-sampling runs decreased predicted mean early injuries by as much as a factor of 2-3 and, for large release heights and sensible heat rates, decreased mean early fatalities by nearly an order of magnitude. The bin-sampling procedure in CRAC2 was expanded by dividing each rain bin into four bins that depend on rainfall rate. Use of the modified bin structure in conjunction with the CRAC2 wet-deposition model changed all predicted health impacts by less than a factor of 2. 9 references

  17. Studies on Prolonging Storage life and Maintaining Fruit Quality Parameters of Zaghloul Dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElSalhy, F.T.

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation ( 1, 2 and 3 kGy) and some natural plant extracts i.e. aloe, ambrosia, cinnamon, chamomile, clove or nigella on prolonging the storage life and some parameters of Zaghloul dates quality under cold storage (5 ±2 C, 90-95 % RH). The weight loss %, decay %, T.S.S. %, total sugars and non-reducing sugars % of Zaghloul dates were increased in most cases with prolonging the storage time. Meanwhile, titratable acidity %, reducing sugars % and tannins content were decreased during storage period (56 days). However, the lowest values of weight loss % and decay % were recorded by aloe extract treatment while the highest values of T.S.S., total sugars, non-reducing sugars, titratable acidity %, reducing sugars % and tannins content were scored by gamma irradiation at 3 kGy. It could be concluded that using irradiation at 3 kGy, aloe, cinnamon or clove can keep the dates (Zaghloul variety) fresh even after 56 days at cold storage with good quality and safety levels of microbes

  18. Parameter Sensitivity Study for Typical Expander-Based Transcritical CO2 Refrigeration Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A sensitivity study was conducted for three typical expander-based transcritical CO2 cycles with the developed simulation model, and the sensitivities of the maximum coefficient of performance (COP to the key operating parameters, including the inlet pressure of gas cooler, the temperatures at evaporator inlet and gas cooler outlet, the inter-stage pressure and the isentropic efficiency of expander, were obtained. The results showed that the sensitivity to the gas cooler inlet pressure differs greatly before and after the optimal gas cooler inlet pressure. The sensitivity to the intercooler outlet temperature in the two-stage cycles increases sharply to near zero and then keeps almost constant at intercooler outlet temperature of higher than 45 °C. However, the sensitivity stabilizes near zero when the evaporator inlet temperature is very low of −26.1 °C. In two-stage compression with an intercooler and an expander assisting in driving the first-stage compressor (TEADFC cycle, an abrupt change in the sensitivity of maximum COP to the inter-stage pressure was observed, but disappeared after intercooler outlet temperature exceeds 50 °C. The sensitivity of maximum COP to the expander isentropic efficiency increases almost linearly with the expander isentropic efficiency.

  19. Numerical study for determining PF coil system parameters in MHD equilibrium of KT-2 tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, J.; Hong, S.H.; Lee, K.W.; Hong, B.G.; In, S.R.; Kim, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    The KT-2 is a large-aspect-ratio medium-sized divertor tokamak in the conceptual design phase and planned to be operational in 1998 at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Plasma equilibrium in tokamak can be acquired by controlling the current of poloidal field (PF) coils in appropriate geometries and positions. In this study, the authors have performed numerical calculations to achieve the various equilibrium conditions fitting given plasma shapes and satisfying PF current limitations. Usually an ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equation is used to obtain the equilibrium solution of tokamak plasma, and it is practical to take advantage of a numerical method in solving the MHD equation because it has nonlinear source terms. Two equilibrium codes have been applied to find a double-null configuration of free-boundary tokamak plasma in KT-2: one is of the authors' own developing and the other is a free-boundary tokamak equilibrium code (FBT) that has been used mainly for the verification of developed code's results. PF coil system parameters including their positions and currents are determined for the optimization of input power required when the specifications of KT-2 tokamak are met. Then, several sets of equilibrium conditions during the tokamak operation are found to observe the changes of poloidal field currents with the passing of operation time step, and the basic stability problems related with the magnetic field structure is also considered

  20. Periodontal parameters following orthodontic treatment in patients with aggressive periodontitis: A before-after clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorsand, Afshin; Paknejad, Mojgan; Yaghobee, Siamak; Ghahroudi, Amir Alireza Rasouli; Bashizadefakhar, Hourieh; Khatami, Masoomeh; Shirazi, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Background: The success of combined periodontal and orthodontic approach in the treatment of aggressive periodontitis patients with the pathologic extruded anterior teeth is a main concern and stability of the treatment results is an important factor to evaluate the treatment. The present study investigated the periodontal parameters at the end of the orthodontic treatment in patients with the aggressive periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Eight patients with an aggressive periodontal disease, extruded maxillary incisors, infrabony defects and probing depth of ≥5 mm were enrolled in this clinical trial (before, after). After periodontal therapy, orthodontic treatment was carried out for intrusion and alignment of teeth. Plaque index (PI), probing pocket depth (PPD), distance between incisal edge and interdental papilla, root length (RL), and defect dimensions (depth and width) were examined at the end of treatment and three as well as 6 months afterward. The data were subjected to repeated measure ANOVA test. P orthodontic approach would be a successful treatment with acceptable stability in the case of regular follow-up visits and controlled oral hygiene habits. PMID:24379862

  1. A Parameter Study for Modeling Mg ii h and k Emission during Solar Flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio da Costa, Fatima [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kleint, Lucia, E-mail: frubio@stanford.edu [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, 5210, Windisch (Switzerland)

    2017-06-20

    Solar flares show highly unusual spectra in which the thermodynamic conditions of the solar atmosphere are encoded. Current models are unable to fully reproduce the spectroscopic flare observations, especially the single-peaked spectral profiles of the Mg ii h and k lines. We aim to understand the formation of the chromospheric and optically thick Mg ii h and k lines in flares through radiative transfer calculations. We take a flare atmosphere obtained from a simulation with the radiative hydrodynamic code RADYN as input for a radiative transfer modeling with the RH code. By iteratively changing this model atmosphere and varying thermodynamic parameters such as temperature, electron density, and velocity, we study their effects on the emergent intensity spectra. We reproduce the typical single-peaked Mg ii h and k flare spectral shape and approximate the intensity ratios to the subordinate Mg ii lines by increasing either densities, temperatures, or velocities at the line core formation height range. Additionally, by combining unresolved upflows and downflows up to ∼250 km s{sup −1} within one resolution element, we reproduce the widely broadened line wings. While we cannot unambiguously determine which mechanism dominates in flares, future modeling efforts should investigate unresolved components, additional heat dissipation, larger velocities, and higher densities and combine the analysis of multiple spectral lines.

  2. Analysis of groundwater discharge with a lumped-parameter model, using a case study from Tajikistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdniakov, S. P.; Shestakov, V. M.

    A lumped-parameter model of groundwater balance is proposed that permits an estimate of discharge variability in comparison with the variability of recharge, by taking into account the influence of aquifer parameters. Recharge-discharge relationships are analysed with the model for cases of deterministic and stochastic recharge time-series variations. The model is applied to study the temporal variability of groundwater discharge in a river valley in the territory of Tajikistan, an independent republic in Central Asia. Résumé Un modèle global de bilan d'eau souterraine a été développé pour estimer la variabilité de l'écoulement par rapport à celle de la recharge, en prenant en compte l'influence des paramètres de l'aquifère. Les relations entre recharge et écoulement sont analysées à l'aide du modèle pour des variations des chroniques de recharge soit déterministes, soit stochastiques. Le modèle est appliquéà l'étude de la variabilité temporelle de l'écoulement souterrain vers une rivière, dans le Tadjikistan, une république indépendante d'Asie centrale. Resumen Se propone un modelo de parámetros concentrados para realizar el balance de aguas subterráneas, el cual permite estimar la variabilidad en la descarga con respecto a la variabilidad en la recarga, en función de los parámetros que caracterizan el acuífero. Las relaciones entre recarga y descarga se analizan con el modelo para distintos casos de series temporales de recarga, tanto deterministas como estocásticas. El modelo se aplica al estudio de la variabilidad temporal de la descarga en un valle aluvial de Tadyikistán, una república independiente del Asia Central.

  3. The reaction between iodine and silver under severe PWR accident conditions. An experimental parameter study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funke, F; Greger, G U; Bleier, A; Hellmann, S; Morell, W [Siemens AG, Power Generation Group, Erlangen (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    An extensive experimental parameter study was performed on the kinetics in the reaction system I{sub 2}/Ag and I{sup -}/Ag in a laboratory-scale apparatus.Starting with I{sub 2} or I{sup -} solutions and silver powder suspensions, the decrease of soluted I{sub 2} or I{sup -}, respectively, due to fixation on the silver particles, was monitored as function of time using the radioactive tracer I-131. The measured data were analyzed using a model of first order kinetics with respect to the iodine concentration. However, the analysis using first order kinetics had to be performed separately in an early, fast reaction phase and in a late, slow reaction phase. The reason for this unexpected behaviour was not identified. Thus, rate constant, two for each test, were deduced from 14 I{sub 2}/Ag main tests and from 36 I{sup -}/Ag tests. No dependencies of the rate constants were found on the parameters temperature, initial iodine concentration, presence of boric acid, type of silver educt, and pretreatment of the silver educt prior to the tests. However, the stirring of the reaction solution generally enhanced the kinetics highlighting the importance of mass transfer. The I{sup -}/Ag reaction proceeded only if there was no inertization of the reaction solution by sparging with nitrogen. The temperature-independent rate constant for the early, fast I{sub 2}/Ag reaction phase is 2E-5 m/s. However, a smaller rate constant of 6E-6 m/s is recommended for use in source term calculations with IMPAIR, which already contains a first order model. Analogously, the temperature-independent I{sup -}/Ag reaction rate constant is 8E-6 m/s in an early, fast reaction phase. For use in source term calculations, a smaller rate constant of 2E-6 m/s is recommended. The lower bound of the I{sup -}/Ag rate constant was 3E-8 m/s which could be used in very conservative source term calculations. (author) 20 figs., 6 tabs., 15 refs.

  4. Study of the size effect by accurately determining the crystal parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguin, Remy

    1973-01-01

    The size factor η = da/adC was measured by comparing the variations in the crystal parameter as a function of the concentration, samples of Al of various degrees of purity and Al - V and Al - Cu alloys with concentrations of less than 1 000 ppm being used. The results confirm the experimental results obtained with alloys supersaturated by ultra-rapid tempering but are not consistent with theoretical values, which appear to be too large for the case of transition elements in solution in Al. The parameter was determined from Kossel diagrams obtained using an electron probe microanalyzer. The measurement methods were developed and generalized by plotting curves representing the variation of the parameter as a function of temperature between 20 and 60 deg. C. Values were obtained for the parameter at given temperatures (± 0.1 deg. C) with an accuracy of Δa/a ≅ 8.10 -6 . (author) [fr

  5. Thermal study of bare tips with various system parameters and incision sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osher, Robert H; Injev, Valentine P

    2006-05-01

    To identify major and minor surgeon-controlled parameters that affect incision temperature when performing microincision lens removal using the Alcon Infiniti Vision System. In vitro research and development laboratory, Alcon Research, Irvine, California, USA. Phacoemulsification was performed in eye-bank cadaver eyes and the following parameters evaluated: incision, duty cycle, ultrasound (US) power, aspiration flow rate (AFR), vacuum, pulse, bottle height and balanced salt solution temperature, and tip design/size. Each parameter was varied while the others remained constant. The resulting temperature of the incision and US tip was measured using a thermal camera. Major contributors to elevated incision temperature included incision size, US power, duty cycle, AFR, vacuum setting, tip design, and presence of an ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD). Minor contributors included pulse frequency, bottle height, and temperature of the infusate. Microincision lens removal can be performed at safe temperatures with the knowledgeable selection of surgeon-controlled parameters.

  6. STUDY OF IDENTIFICATION OF TWO-PHASE FLOW PARAMETERS BY PRESSURE FLUCTUATION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Burian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with identification of parameters of simple pool boiling in a vertical rectangular channel by analysis of pressure fluctuation. In this work is introduced a small experimental facility about 9 kW power, which was used for simulation of pool boiling phenomena and creation of steam-water volume. Several pressure fluctuations measurements and differential pressure fluctuations measurements at warious were carried out. Main changed parameters were power of heaters and hydraulics resistance of channel internals. Measured pressure data was statistically analysed and compared with goal to find dependencies between parameters of two-phase flow and statistical properties of pressure fluctuation. At the end of this paper are summarized final results and applicability of this method for parameters determination of two phase flow for pool boiling conditions at ambient pressure.

  7. Evolution of peripheral vs metabolic perfusion parameters during septic shock resuscitation. A clinical-physiologic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, Glenn; Pedreros, Cesar; Veas, Enrique; Bruhn, Alejandro; Romero, Carlos; Rovegno, Maximiliano; Neira, Rodolfo; Bravo, Sebastian; Castro, Ricardo; Kattan, Eduardo; Ince, Can

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Perfusion assessment during septic shock resuscitation is difficult and usually complex determinations. Capillary refill time (CRT) and central-to-toe temperature difference (Tc-toe) have been proposed as objective reproducible parameters to evaluate peripheral perfusion. The comparative

  8. Nordic working group on CCF studies. Parameter estimation within the activities of the Nordic CCF Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, G.

    2002-01-01

    This is a presentation of a project programme for assessment of CCF events and adoption of international data derived in the ICDE project to conditions in Sweden and Finland. The overall objective with the working group is to: - Support safety by studying potential and real CCF events and report conclusions and recommendations that can improve the understanding of these events eventually resulting in increased safety; - The result is intended for application in NPP operation, maintenance, inspection and risk assessments. The work is divided into one quantitative and one qualitative part with the following specific objectives: Qualitative objectives: Compile experiences data and generate insights in terms of relevant failure mechanisms and effective CCF protection measures. The results shall be presented as a guide with checklists and recommendations on how to identify current CCF protection standard and improvement possibilities regarding CCF defenses decreasing the CCF vulnerability. Quantitative objectives: Prepare a Nordic C-book where quantitative insights as Impact Vectors and CCF parameters for different redundancy levels are presented. Uncertainties in CCF data shall be reduced as much as possible. The high redundancy systems sensitivity to CCF events demand a well structured quantitative analysis in support of best possible and realistic CCF parameter estimates, if possible, plant specific. Model survey and review: This survey shah examine available models and their applicability for use on the data. Several models exist and are used in the Nordic PSAs. Data survey and review: This survey shall examine available data sources and their applicability. The survey shah review ICDE and other sources and Provide a background for the decision on what data to be used. A possible outcome is of course that the ICDE data are shown to cover all other sources, but there are possibilities the ICDE data shall be combined with some other source. The situation also differs

  9. Study of Nash equilibrium by increasing game parameters in 3-player quantum game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Goudarzi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available  Using the quantum game formalism in 3-player system, we calculate the Nash equilibrium in quantum Prisoners’ Dilemma by increasing parameters of unitary operator. Since, the entanglement plays an important role in quantum states of particles quantum game, actually its effect on the obtained results of Nash equilibrium is investigated. It is shown that increasing the parameters enhances the game payoff function.

  10. Optimization Of Blasting Design Parameters On Open Pit Bench A Case Study Of Nchanga Open Pits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mwango Bowa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In hard rock mining blasting is the most productive excavation technique applied to fragment insitu rock to the required size for efficient loading and crushing. In order to blast the insitu rock to the desired fragment size blast design parameter such as bench height hole diameter spacing burden hole length bottom charge specific charge and rock factor are considered. The research was carried out as a practical method on Nchanga Open Pits NOP ore Bench to optimize the blasting design parameters that can yield the required fragmentation size thereby reducing the shovel loading times and maximizing efficiency of the subsequent mining unit operations such as hauling and crushing. Fragmentation characteristics such as the mean fragment size were measured by means of a digital measuring tape and predicated using the Kuznetsov equation and rock factor value of ore bench was calculated using Lilly 1986 equations by means of rock characteristics. Traditional blasting design parameters were acquired for NOP and modified using Langerfors and Sharma P.A approaches. Several blast operations were conducted using both traditional and modified blasting design parameters on the same ore bench with the same geological conditions. Loading times of the shovel and fragment sizes were obtained after the blasts from ore bench where both the traditional and modified blasting design parameters were applied. Results show that mean fragment size and loading times were reduced from 51cm and 12minutes to 22cm and 3minutes where traditional and modified blasting design parameters were applied respectively.

  11. Radiographic study of the hip joint to determine anthropometric parameters for Indian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagaria, Vaibhav; Deshpande, Shirish; Kuthe, Abhay; Rasalkar, Darshana D.; Paunipagar, Bhawan K.; Madhugiri, Tanushree Subhash

    2012-01-01

    Hip replacement surgeries are on the rise in India. However, for these surgeries, most of the implants used are imported and manufactured entirely to suit the geometrical considerations of the western population. Studies in the past have shown that there are anatomical variations in the hip joint for different ethnic backgrounds and geographical locations. There is paucity of anthropometric hip joint data related to Indian population and anthropometric variations in skeletal geometry between Asian and Western counterparts have not yet been thoroughly reviewed and considered for implant manufacturing. The purpose of this anthropometric study is to determine any anatomical variations in the normal hip joint among the Indian population and to statistically compare the mean values with the existing data on western population. 422 Hip radiographs of 211 individuals (141 males and 70 females) with normal and healthy hip joints were evaluated to obtain the horizontal offset, vertical offset and neck shaft angle. For males, mean neck shaft angle was 127.68° (SD = 3.94), horizontal offset was 34.60 mm (SD = 6.55) and vertical offset was 39.17 mm (SD = 5.86). For females, mean neck shaft angle was 125.92° (SD = 4.75), horizontal offset was 32.96 mm (SD = 7.04) and vertical offset was 36.38 mm (SD = 6.28). When these parameters were compared to the data available from western world, there were significant anatomical variations and it was evident that there is a need to evaluate existing implants in relation to this data and possibly design the implants suited and relevant to Indian population.

  12. Study of computerized spirometric parameters of traffic police personnel of Saurashtra region, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit H Makwana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Air pollution due to road traffic is a serious health hazard and air quality crisis in cities is mainly due to vehicular emission. Thus the persons who are continuously exposed are at an increased risk. The study was carried out to evaluate the extent of impairment in lung function in traffic police personnel compared to matched unexposed control group. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the spirometric parameters of 100 traffic police personnel, aged 20-55 years, working in Saurashtra region, as compared to matched control group, consisting of 100 unexposed males. Measurement of lung volumes and capacities was done with SPIROEXCEL. The statistical analysis was carried out with Graph pad instat 3. Results: Traffic police personnel had significantly declined forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1, slow vital capacity (SVC and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV when compared with predictive normal values, which is probably due to exposure to vehicular exhaust. Comparison of test values between groups showed significantly reduced FVC, MVV and increased FEV1/FVC ratio and insignificantly declined FEV1 and SVC in cases as compared to controls. Traffic personnel with longer duration of exposure showed significantly reduced lung functions than those with shorter duration. Smokers showed lower test values as compared to non-smokers with significance only in unexposed group. Conclusion: The effect of pollution by vehicular exhausts may be responsible for these pulmonary function impairments and traffic police personnel should be offered personal protective or preventive measures.

  13. Study on design and cutting parameters of rotating needles for core biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Marco; Ren, Huaqing; Cao, Jian; Ehmann, Kornel

    2018-06-15

    Core needle biopsies are widely adopted medical procedures that consist in the removal of biological tissue to better identify a lesion or an abnormality observed through a physical exam or a radiology scan. These procedures can provide significantly more information than most medical tests and they are usually performed on bone lesions, breast masses, lymph nodes and the prostate. The quality of the samples mainly depends on the forces exerted by the needle during the cutting process. The reduction of these forces is critical to extract high-quality tissue samples. The most critical factors that affect the cutting forces are the geometry of the needle tip and its motion while it is penetrating the tissue. However, optimal needle tip configurations and cutting parameters are not well established for rotating insertions. In this paper, the geometry and cutting forces of hollow needles are investigated. The fundamental goal of this study is to provide a series of guidelines for clinicians and surgeons to properly select the optimal tip geometries and speeds. Analytical models related to the cutting angles of several needle tip designs are presented and compared. Several needle tip geometries were manufactured from a 14-gauge cannula, commonly adopted during breast biopsies. The needles were then tested at different speeds and on different phantom tissues. According to these experimental measurements recommendations were formulated for rotating needle insertions. The findings of this study can be applied and extended to several biopsy procedures in which a cannula is used to extract tissue samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Study of parameters of the nearest neighbour shared algorithm on clustering documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustika Rukmi, Alvida; Budi Utomo, Daryono; Imro’atus Sholikhah, Neni

    2018-03-01

    Document clustering is one way of automatically managing documents, extracting of document topics and fastly filtering information. Preprocess of clustering documents processed by textmining consists of: keyword extraction using Rapid Automatic Keyphrase Extraction (RAKE) and making the document as concept vector using Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). Furthermore, the clustering process is done so that the documents with the similarity of the topic are in the same cluster, based on the preprocesing by textmining performed. Shared Nearest Neighbour (SNN) algorithm is a clustering method based on the number of "nearest neighbors" shared. The parameters in the SNN Algorithm consist of: k nearest neighbor documents, ɛ shared nearest neighbor documents and MinT minimum number of similar documents, which can form a cluster. Characteristics The SNN algorithm is based on shared ‘neighbor’ properties. Each cluster is formed by keywords that are shared by the documents. SNN algorithm allows a cluster can be built more than one keyword, if the value of the frequency of appearing keywords in document is also high. Determination of parameter values on SNN algorithm affects document clustering results. The higher parameter value k, will increase the number of neighbor documents from each document, cause similarity of neighboring documents are lower. The accuracy of each cluster is also low. The higher parameter value ε, caused each document catch only neighbor documents that have a high similarity to build a cluster. It also causes more unclassified documents (noise). The higher the MinT parameter value cause the number of clusters will decrease, since the number of similar documents can not form clusters if less than MinT. Parameter in the SNN Algorithm determine performance of clustering result and the amount of noise (unclustered documents ). The Silhouette coeffisient shows almost the same result in many experiments, above 0.9, which means that SNN algorithm works well

  15. Reporting of various methodological and statistical parameters in negative studies published in prominent Indian Medical Journals: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charan, J; Saxena, D

    2014-01-01

    Biased negative studies not only reflect poor research effort but also have an impact on 'patient care' as they prevent further research with similar objectives, leading to potential research areas remaining unexplored. Hence, published 'negative studies' should be methodologically strong. All parameters that may help a reader to judge validity of results and conclusions should be reported in published negative studies. There is a paucity of data on reporting of statistical and methodological parameters in negative studies published in Indian Medical Journals. The present systematic review was designed with an aim to critically evaluate negative studies published in prominent Indian Medical Journals for reporting of statistical and methodological parameters. Systematic review. All negative studies published in 15 Science Citation Indexed (SCI) medical journals published from India were included in present study. Investigators involved in the study evaluated all negative studies for the reporting of various parameters. Primary endpoints were reporting of "power" and "confidence interval." Power was reported in 11.8% studies. Confidence interval was reported in 15.7% studies. Majority of parameters like sample size calculation (13.2%), type of sampling method (50.8%), name of statistical tests (49.1%), adjustment of multiple endpoints (1%), post hoc power calculation (2.1%) were reported poorly. Frequency of reporting was more in clinical trials as compared to other study designs and in journals having impact factor more than 1 as compared to journals having impact factor less than 1. Negative studies published in prominent Indian medical journals do not report statistical and methodological parameters adequately and this may create problems in the critical appraisal of findings reported in these journals by its readers.

  16. Parameter study for child injury mitigation in near-side impacts through FE simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Marianne; Pipkorn, Bengt; Lövsund, Per

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of crash-related car parameters on head and chest injury measures for 3- and 12-year-old children in near-side impacts. The evaluation was made using a model of a complete passenger car that was impacted laterally by a barrier. The car model was validated in 2 crash conditions: the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) and the US New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) side impact tests. The Small Side Impact Dummy (SID-IIs) and the human body model 3 (HBM3) (Total HUman Model for Safety [THUMS] 3-year-old) finite element models were used for the parametric investigation (HBM3 on a booster). The car parameters were as follows: vehicle mass, side impact structure stiffness, a head air bag, a thorax-pelvis air bag, and a seat belt with pretensioner. The studied dependent variables were as follows: resultant head linear acceleration, resultant head rotational acceleration, chest viscous criterion, rib deflection, and relative velocity at head impact. The chest measurements were only considered for the SID-IIs. The head air bag had the greatest effect on the head measurements for both of the occupant models. On average, it reduced the peak head linear acceleration by 54 g for the HBM3 and 78 g for the SID-IIs. The seat belt had the second greatest effect on the head measurements; the peak head linear accelerations were reduced on average by 39 g (HBM3) and 44 g (SID-IIs). The high stiffness side structure increased the SID-IIs' head acceleration, whereas it had marginal effect on the HBM3. The vehicle mass had a marginal effect on SID-IIs' head accelerations, whereas the lower vehicle mass caused 18 g higher head acceleration for HBM3 and the greatest rotational acceleration. The thorax-pelvis air bag, vehicle mass, and seat belt pretensioner affected the chest measurements the most. The presence of a thorax-pelvis air bag, high vehicle mass, and a seat belt pretensioner all reduced the chest viscous criterion

  17. [Multicenter clinical study on umbilical cord arterial blood gas parameters for diagnosis of neonatal asphyxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    To obtain the normal range of statistics of umbilical artery blood gas parameters of the newborns for diagnosis of neonatal asphyxia. From March 2008 through September 2009, 17 978 singleton term appropriate for gestational age (AGA) or larger than gestational age (LGA) newborns in six hospitals of five provinces/autonomous regions were consecutively enrolled in this prospective study. The normal ranges of umbilical artery blood gas parameters were obtained from 17 645 newborns with 1 min Apgar score ≥ 8. The correlations between umbilical artery blood pH, BE and prenatal high-risk factors, Apgar scores, and organ damage were analyzed. The diagnostic criteria for asphyxia included the following: (1) Having high-risk factors that might cause asphyxia; (2) 1 min Apgar score ≤ 7 (the respiratory depression must be present); (3) At least one organ showed evidence of hypoxic damage; (4) Other causes of low Apgar score were excluded. The study focused on the distributive characteristics of umbilical artery blood pH (clinically corrected by Eisenberg formula) and BE values of the asphyxiated and non-asphyxiated cases in low Apgar score group, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of different selected pH and BE threshold spots within their distributing ranges. Among the 17 978 singleton term AGA or LGA newborns, the statistically normal range of umbilical artery blood pH, BE for the 17 645 cases with 1 min Apgar scores ≥ 8 were 7.20 ± 0.20 (x(-) ± 1.96 s) and -7.64 ± 10.02 (x(-) ± 1.96 s), respectively. The pH well correlated positively with BE (r = 0.734, P blood pH and BE values correlated positively with the Apgar scores. The umbilical artery blood pH and BE values correlated negatively with organ damage (r = 1, the P values = 0.000 for both). Among the 333 low Apgar score cases, the umbilical artery blood pH corrected values and BE values of the asphyxiated group (163 cases) were 7.011 ± 0.09 (x(-) ± s) and -14.98 ± 2.99 (x(-) ± s), being lower than

  18. Studying the physics potential of long-baseline experiments in terms of new sensitivity parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mandip

    2016-01-01

    We investigate physics opportunities to constraint the leptonic CP-violation phase δ_C_P through numerical analysis of working neutrino oscillation probability parameters, in the context of long-baseline experiments. Numerical analysis of two parameters, the “transition probability δ_C_P phase sensitivity parameter (A"M)” and the “CP-violation probability δ_C_P phase sensitivity parameter (A"C"P),” as functions of beam energy and/or baseline have been carried out. It is an elegant technique to broadly analyze different experiments to constrain the δ_C_P phase and also to investigate the mass hierarchy in the leptonic sector. Positive and negative values of the parameter A"C"P, corresponding to either hierarchy in the specific beam energy ranges, could be a very promising way to explore the mass hierarchy and δ_C_P phase. The keys to more robust bounds on the δ_C_P phase are improvements of the involved detection techniques to explore lower energies and relatively long baseline regions with better experimental accuracy.

  19. A Pilot Study: Cardiac Parameters in Children Receiving New-Generation Antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Mai; Spencer, Andrea E; Kenworthy, Tara; Chan, James; Fitzgerald, Maura; Rosales, Ana Maria; Kagan, Elana; Saunders, Alexandra; Biederman, Joseph

    2017-06-01

    Because of concerns about potential associations between high doses of citalopram and QTc prolongation in adults, this study examined whether such associations are operant in children. We hypothesized that therapeutic doses of nontricyclic antidepressant medications (non-TCAs) prescribed to children would be cardiovascularly safe. The sample consisted of 49 psychiatrically referred children and adolescents 6 to 17 years old of both sexes treated with a non-TCA (citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, bupropion, duloxetine, venlafaxine, mirtazapine). To standardize the doses of different antidepressants, we converted doses of individual medicines into "citalopram equivalent doses" (CEDs) based on dosing recommendation for individual antidepressants. Correlation analysis was carried out to compare the continuous and weight-based CED to variables of interest. A QTc grouping was defined as normal, borderline, or abnormal, and CED was compared across QTc groupings using linear regression. An antidepressant dosage group was defined as low or high dose, and a t test compared variables of interest across dosage groups. No significant associations were found between total or weight-corrected CEDs of any antidepressant examined and QTc or any other electrocardiogram or blood pressure parameters. In patients taking citalopram or escitalopram, a significant correlation was found between PR interval and total daily dose, which disappeared when weight-based doses were used or when corrected by age. Although limited by a relatively small sample size, these results suggest that therapeutic doses of non-TCA antidepressants when used in children do not seem to be associated with prolonged QTc interval or other adverse cardiovascular effects.

  20. Study of hyperfine parameters in Co-doped tin dioxide using PAC spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Juliana M.; Carbonari, Artur W.; Martucci, Thiago; Costa, Messias S.; Saxena, Rajendra N.; Vianden, R.; Kessler, P.; Geruschke, T.; Steffens, M.

    2011-01-01

    PAC technique has been used to measure the hyperfine interactions in nano-structured powder samples of semiconducting SnO 2 doped with Co. The aim of this work is to compare the results of PAC measurements using two different techniques of introducing the radioactive 111 In probe nuclei in the sample of SnO 2 doped with Co. The perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy is used for the measurements of the magnetic hyperfine field (MHF) and the electric field gradient (EFG) at 111 Cd sites in SnO 2 doped with 1% and 2% Co. The measurement of EFG is used to study the defects introduced in the semiconductor material and also for the identification of different phases formed within the compound. The techniques utilized for introducing the radioactive 111 In in the sample are the ion-implantation using radioactive ion beam of 111 In and the chemical process in which 111 InCl 3 solution is added during the preparation of SnO 2 doped with Co using sol gel method. The ion-implantation of 111 In in SnO 2 doped with Co was carried out using the University of Bonn ion-implanter with beam energy of 160 keV. The PAC measurements were carried out with four BaF 2 detector gamma spectrometer in the temperature range of 10-295 K. The results show no significant difference in the values of hyperfine parameters. Both techniques show practically the same electric quadrupole interaction for the substitutional site. The results were compared with previous PAC and Moessbauer measurements of SnO 2 powder samples using 111 In- 111 Cd probe. (author)

  1. Laboratory Photoionization Fronts in Nitrogen Gas: A Numerical Feasibility and Parameter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, William J.; Keiter, P. A.; Lefevre, H.; Patterson, C. R.; Davis, J. S.; van Der Holst, B.; Powell, K. G.; Drake, R. P.

    2018-05-01

    Photoionization fronts play a dominant role in many astrophysical situations but remain difficult to achieve in a laboratory experiment. We present the results from a computational parameter study evaluating the feasibility of the photoionization experiment presented in the design paper by Drake et al. in which a photoionization front is generated in a nitrogen medium. The nitrogen gas density and the Planckian radiation temperature of the X-ray source define each simulation. Simulations modeled experiments in which the X-ray flux is generated by a laser-heated gold foil, suitable for experiments using many kJ of laser energy, and experiments in which the flux is generated by a “z-pinch” device, which implodes a cylindrical shell of conducting wires. The models are run using CRASH, our block-adaptive-mesh code for multimaterial radiation hydrodynamics. The radiative transfer model uses multigroup, flux-limited diffusion with 30 radiation groups. In addition, electron heat conduction is modeled using a single-group, flux-limited diffusion. In the theory, a photoionization front can exist only when the ratios of the electron recombination rate to the photoionization rate and the electron-impact ionization rate to the recombination rate lie in certain ranges. These ratios are computed for several ionization states of nitrogen. Photoionization fronts are found to exist for laser-driven models with moderate nitrogen densities (∼1021 cm‑3) and radiation temperatures above 90 eV. For “z-pinch”-driven models, lower nitrogen densities are preferred (<1021 cm‑3). We conclude that the proposed experiments are likely to generate photoionization fronts.

  2. Ultrasonography as a prognostic and objective parameter in Achilles tendinopathy: A prospective observational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakkegaard, Mads; Johannsen, Finn E.; Højgaard, Betina; Langberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To study prospectively whether structural changes determined by ultrasound scanning (US) can be used as prognostic markers for outcome in patients with symptomatic Achilles tendinopathy (AT) and to investigate whether there exists an association between US findings and pain measured by visual analog scale (VAS) and a general assessment score (GA). Methods: 92 consecutive patients with AT symptoms were recruited from two outpatient clinics in rheumatology. The patients underwent a conservative treatment protocol consisting of reduced activities, controlled rehabilitation including eccentric exercises of the calf muscles and if needed supplemented with corticosteroid injections. The patients were examined clinically and by US (tendon thickness, hyper- and hypoechogenicity, calcification, bursitis, calcaneusspure, tenosynovitis, gray scale and color Doppler focusing on increased flow intra- or peritendinous). The clinical and US examination were performed at entry, 1, 2, 3 and at 6 month. Results: 42 women and 50 men were included (mean age of 47 years). They had symptoms for more than 13 months and a symptomatic Achilles tendon mean thickness of 7.4 ± 2.3 mm. Heterogeneity at the initial examination was found to be a prognostic marker for the clinical outcome. Tendon thickness, hypoechogenicity and increased flow at any time point were significantly correlated to pain at function, palpatory pain and morning pain at the same time points. A reduction in tendon thickness was statistically associated with a decrease in palpatory pain. Conclusion: Heterogeneity is a prognostic marker in AT. Tendon thickness, hypoechogenicity and increased Doppler activity can be used as objective outcome parameters for the treatment effect of AT

  3. Study of hyperfine parameters in Co-doped tin dioxide using PAC spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Juliana M.; Carbonari, Artur W.; Martucci, Thiago; Costa, Messias S.; Saxena, Rajendra N. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Vianden, R.; Kessler, P.; Geruschke, T.; Steffens, M., E-mail: vianden@hiskp.uni-bonn.d [Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitaet Bonn (HISKP- Bonn) (Germany). Helmholtz - Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik

    2011-07-01

    PAC technique has been used to measure the hyperfine interactions in nano-structured powder samples of semiconducting SnO{sub 2} doped with Co. The aim of this work is to compare the results of PAC measurements using two different techniques of introducing the radioactive {sup 111}In probe nuclei in the sample of SnO{sub 2} doped with Co. The perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy is used for the measurements of the magnetic hyperfine field (MHF) and the electric field gradient (EFG) at {sup 111}Cd sites in SnO{sub 2} doped with 1% and 2% Co. The measurement of EFG is used to study the defects introduced in the semiconductor material and also for the identification of different phases formed within the compound. The techniques utilized for introducing the radioactive {sup 111}In in the sample are the ion-implantation using radioactive ion beam of {sup 111}In and the chemical process in which {sup 111}InCl{sub 3} solution is added during the preparation of SnO{sub 2} doped with Co using sol gel method. The ion-implantation of {sup 111}In in SnO{sub 2} doped with Co was carried out using the University of Bonn ion-implanter with beam energy of 160 keV. The PAC measurements were carried out with four BaF{sub 2} detector gamma spectrometer in the temperature range of 10-295 K. The results show no significant difference in the values of hyperfine parameters. Both techniques show practically the same electric quadrupole interaction for the substitutional site. The results were compared with previous PAC and Moessbauer measurements of SnO{sub 2} powder samples using {sup 111}In-{sup 111}Cd probe. (author)

  4. Ultrasonography as a prognostic and objective parameter in Achilles tendinopathy: A prospective observational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakkegaard, Mads, E-mail: mbakkegaard@hotmail.com [Department of Rheumatology, Holbæk Hospital, Smedelundsgade 60, 4300 Holbæk (Denmark); Johannsen, Finn E., E-mail: f.e.johannsen@dadlnet.dk [Private Department of Rheumatology, Furesø-reumatologerne, Farum and ISMC, Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen, Bispebjerg Hospital, Bispebjerg Bakke 23, 2. Tværvej, Indgang 8, 1. sal, 2400 København NV (Denmark); Højgaard, Betina, E-mail: beho@kora.dk [Danish Institute for Local and Regional Government Research, Købmagergade 22, 1150 København K (Denmark); Langberg, Henning, E-mail: henninglangberg@gmail.com [Institute of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health and Centre for Healthy Ageing, Faculty of Heath Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5, bygn. 24, postboks 2099, 1014 København (Denmark)

    2015-03-15

    Objectives: To study prospectively whether structural changes determined by ultrasound scanning (US) can be used as prognostic markers for outcome in patients with symptomatic Achilles tendinopathy (AT) and to investigate whether there exists an association between US findings and pain measured by visual analog scale (VAS) and a general assessment score (GA). Methods: 92 consecutive patients with AT symptoms were recruited from two outpatient clinics in rheumatology. The patients underwent a conservative treatment protocol consisting of reduced activities, controlled rehabilitation including eccentric exercises of the calf muscles and if needed supplemented with corticosteroid injections. The patients were examined clinically and by US (tendon thickness, hyper- and hypoechogenicity, calcification, bursitis, calcaneusspure, tenosynovitis, gray scale and color Doppler focusing on increased flow intra- or peritendinous). The clinical and US examination were performed at entry, 1, 2, 3 and at 6 month. Results: 42 women and 50 men were included (mean age of 47 years). They had symptoms for more than 13 months and a symptomatic Achilles tendon mean thickness of 7.4 ± 2.3 mm. Heterogeneity at the initial examination was found to be a prognostic marker for the clinical outcome. Tendon thickness, hypoechogenicity and increased flow at any time point were significantly correlated to pain at function, palpatory pain and morning pain at the same time points. A reduction in tendon thickness was statistically associated with a decrease in palpatory pain. Conclusion: Heterogeneity is a prognostic marker in AT. Tendon thickness, hypoechogenicity and increased Doppler activity can be used as objective outcome parameters for the treatment effect of AT.

  5. Safety in intrahospital transportation: evaluation of respiratory and hemodynamic parameters. A prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Franco Mazza

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Intrahospital transportation of mechanically ventilated patients is a high-risk situation. We aimed to determine whether transfers could be safely performed by using a transportation routine. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study with "before and after" evaluation. METHODS: Mechanically ventilated patients who needed transportation were included. Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were measured before and after transportation. Statistical analysis consisted of variance analysis and paired Student's t test. Results were considered significant if P 5, FiO2 > 0.4 and vasoactive drug use comprised 42.4%, 24.3%, 21.6% and 33.0% of cases, respectively. Mean duration of transportation was 43.4 ± 18.9 minutes. Complications occurred in 32.4%. There was a significant increase in CO2 (before transportation, 29.6 ± 7.3 and after transportation, 34.9 ± 7.0; P = 0.000; a trend towards improved PO2/FiO2 ratio (before transportation, 318.0 ± 137.0 and after transportation, 356.8 ± 119.9; P = 0.053; increased heart rate (before transportation, 80.9 ± 18.7 and after transportation, 85.5 ± 17.6; P = 0.08; and no significant change in mean arterial blood pressure (P = 0.93. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that intrahospital transportation can be safely performed. Our low incidence of complications was possibly related to both the presence of a multidisciplinary transportation team and proper equipment.

  6. A validation of the first genome-wide association study of calcaneus ultrasound parameters in the European Male Ageing Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Thang S

    2011-01-01

    . Conclusions We found suggestive evidence of association between a single SNP located in the 3'UTR of WDR77 with calcaneal ultrasound parameters. The majority of SNPs, associated with QUS parameters in the Framingham Study, were not replicated in an independent population sample of European men.

  7. Case Study: On Objective Functions for the Peak Flow Calibration and for the Representative Parameter Estimation of the Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungwook Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective function is usually used for verification of the optimization process between observed and simulated flows for the parameter estimation of rainfall–runoff model. However, it does not focus on peak flow and on representative parameter for various rain storm events of the basin, but it can estimate the optimal parameters by minimizing the overall error of observed and simulated flows. Therefore, the aim of this study is to suggest the objective functions that can fit peak flow in hydrograph and estimate the representative parameter of the basin for the events. The Streamflow Synthesis And Reservoir Regulation (SSARR model was employed to perform flood runoff simulation for the Mihocheon stream basin in Geum River, Korea. Optimization was conducted using three calibration methods: genetic algorithm, pattern search, and the Shuffled Complex Evolution method developed at the University of Arizona (SCE-UA. Two objective functions of the Sum of Squared of Residual (SSR and the Weighted Sum of Squared of Residual (WSSR suggested in this study for peak flow optimization were applied. Since the parameters estimated using a single rain storm event do not represent the parameters for various rain storms in the basin, we used the representative objective function that can minimize the sum of objective functions of the events. Six rain storm events were used for the parameter estimation. Four events were used for the calibration and the other two for validation; then, the results by SSR and WSSR were compared. Flow runoff simulation was carried out based on the proposed objective functions, and the objective function of WSSR was found to be more useful than that of SSR in the simulation of peak flow runoff. Representative parameters that minimize the objective function for each of the four rain storm events were estimated. The calibrated observed and simulated flow runoff hydrographs obtained from applying the estimated representative

  8. Comparative study; physiological and biochemical parameters of normal and induced dehydrated condition of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, S.; Bukhari, I.

    2008-01-01

    Biochemical and physiological parameters like body weight, blood pH. Blood glucose, total lipids total protein, globulin, albumin and albumin/globulin ratio were determined in twelve rabbits each normal and after the induction of diseased condition i.e. dehydration. Statistically significant differences were identified when the comparison made between normal rabbits and their respective dehydrated group. Blood glucose total lipid packed cell. Volume and globulin increased significantly where where as body weight, albumin and albumin/globulin ratio decreased significantly. These differences in the physiological and biochemical parameters in disease induced condition require the necessity for analyzing this condition for the changes in the pharmacokinetics parameter like, absorption distribution metabolism and excretion leading to alteration in the pharmacokinetics of drug. (author)

  9. A Study of Transmission Control Method for Distributed Parameters Measurement in Large Factories and Storehouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujing Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the characteristics of parameters dispersion in large factories, storehouses, and other applications, a distributed parameter measurement system is designed that is based on the ring network. The structure of the system and the circuit design of the master-slave node are described briefly. The basic protocol architecture about transmission communication is introduced, and then this paper comes up with two kinds of distributed transmission control methods. Finally, the reliability, extendibility, and control characteristic of these two methods are tested through a series of experiments. Moreover, the measurement results are compared and discussed.

  10. A Study on Criticality Safety Parameters of New Fuel Storage Rack Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Joon Gi; Kim, Hyeong Heon [KEPCO E and C, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The dry new fuel storage rack shall maintain the subcritical condition (i.e., k-eff < 0.95) when fully flooded with water and the k-eff will not exceed 0.98 even assuming that the optimum moderation causes the highest reactivity. Thus, the design parameters of the new fuel rack are determined optimally by considering both the full density water flooding condition and the optimum moderation condition. The behavior of the keff as the variation of design parameter of the new fuel rack was investigated as the function of the moderating water density

  11. A study on regularization parameter choice in near-field acoustical holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Jesper; Hansen, Per Christian

    2008-01-01

    a regularization parameter. These parameter choice methods (PCMs) are attractive, since they require no a priori knowledge about the noise. However, there seems to be no clear understanding of when one PCM is better than the other. This paper presents comparisons of three PCMs: GCV, L-curve and Normalized......), and the Equivalent Source Method (ESM). All combinations of the PCMs and the NAH methods are investigated using simulated measurements with different types of noise added to the input. Finally, the comparisons are carried out for a practical experiment. This aim of this work is to create a better understanding...... of which mechanisms that affect the performance of the different PCMs....

  12. A Study on Criticality Safety Parameters of New Fuel Storage Rack Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joon Gi; Kim, Hyeong Heon

    2012-01-01

    The dry new fuel storage rack shall maintain the subcritical condition (i.e., k-eff < 0.95) when fully flooded with water and the k-eff will not exceed 0.98 even assuming that the optimum moderation causes the highest reactivity. Thus, the design parameters of the new fuel rack are determined optimally by considering both the full density water flooding condition and the optimum moderation condition. The behavior of the keff as the variation of design parameter of the new fuel rack was investigated as the function of the moderating water density

  13. Effect of maternal exercises on biophysical fetal and maternal parameters: a transversal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Caroline Mombaque Dos; Santos, Wendel Mombaque Dos; Gallarreta, Francisco Maximiliano Pancich; Pigatto, Camila; Portela, Luiz Osório Cruz; Morais, Edson Nunes de

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the acute effects of maternal and fetal hemodynamic responses in pregnant women submitted to fetal Doppler and an aerobic physical exercise test according to the degree of effort during the activity and the impact on the well-being. Transversal study with low risk pregnant women, obtained by convenience sample with gestational age between 26 to 34 weeks. The participants carry out a progressive exercise test. After the exercise session, reduced resistance (p=0.02) and pulsatility indices (p=0.01) were identified in the umbilical artery; however, other Doppler parameters analyzed, in addition to cardiotocography and fetal biophysical profile did not achieve significant change. Maternal parameters obtained linear growth with activity, but it was not possible to establish a standard with the Borg scale, and oxygen saturation remained stable. A short submaximal exercise had little effect on placental blood flow after exercise in pregnancies without complications, corroborating that healthy fetus maintains homeostasis even in situations that alter maternal hemodynamics. Avaliar os efeitos agudos de respostas hemodinâmicas maternas e fetais em gestantes submetidas a Doppler fetal e a um teste de exercício físico aeróbio, de acordo com o grau de esforço durante a atividade e o impacto sobre o bem-estar. Estudo transversal desenvolvido com gestantes de baixo risco, por amostra de conveniência com idade gestacional entre 26 e 34 semanas. As participantes realizam um teste de esforço progressivo. Na artéria umbilical, após sessão de exercício físico, identificou-se a redução do índice de resistência (p=0,02) e do índice de pulsatilidade (p=0,01), mas os demais parâmetros Doppler analisados, além da cardiotocografia e do perfil biofísico fetal, não obtiveram alteração significativa. Os parâmetros maternos obtiveram crescimento linear com a atividade, mas não foi possível estabelecer padrão com a escala de Borg, e a saturação de oxig

  14. Investigation of Thermophysical Parameters Properties for Enhancing Overpressure Mechanism Estimation. Case Study: Miri Area, West Baram Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adha, Kurniawan; Yusoff, Wan Ismail Wan; Almanna Lubis, Luluan

    2017-10-01

    Determining the pore pressure data and overpressure zone is a compulsory part of oil and gas exploration in which the data can enhance the safety with profit and preventing the drilling hazards. Investigation of thermophysical parameters such as temperature and thermal conductivity can enhance the pore pressure estimation for overpressure mechanism determination. Since those parameters are dependent on rock properties, it may reflect the changes on the column of thermophysical parameters when there is abnormally in pore pressure. The study was conducted in “MRI 1” well offshore Sarawak, where a new approach method designed to determine the overpressure generation. The study was insisted the contribution of thermophysical parameters for supporting the velocity analysis method, petrophysical analysis were done in these studies. Four thermal facies were identified along the well. The overpressure developed below the thermal facies 4, where the pressure reached 38 Mpa and temperature was increasing significantly. The velocity and the thermal conductivity cross plots shows a linear relationship since the both parameters mainly are the function of the rock compaction. When the rock more compact, the particles were brought closer into contact and making the sound wave going faster while the thermal conductivity were increasing. In addition, the increment of temperature and high heat flow indicated the presence of fluid expansion mechanism. Since the shale sonic velocity and density analysis were the common methods in overpressure mechanism and pore pressure estimation. As the addition parameters for determining overpressure zone, the presence of thermophysical analysis was enhancing the current method, where the current method was the single function of velocity analysis. The presence of thermophysical analysis will improve the understanding in overpressure mechanism determination as the new input parameters. Thus, integrated of thermophysical technique and velocity

  15. Residual waters treatment by heterogeneous photocatalysis: a study of experimental parameters applied to the photoelectrocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique de Santana

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of electrochemically-assisted heterogeneous photo-catalysis will be discussed. Several operational parameters will also be discussed, in order to achieve optimum efficiency of this photo-degradation system, such as: the influence of variables as support electrolyte, applied potential, dye initial concentration, pH and choice of a UV source on dye degradation.

  16. Experimental study of some homeostatic parameters at late times after exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chertkov, K.S.; Andrianova, I.E.; Atamanova, O.M.; Filimonova, G.I.; Nesterova, T.A.; Sbitneva, M.F.; Glushkov, V.A.; Chotij, V.G.; Stejmatskaya, Z.A.

    1994-01-01

    Following radiation damage from LD 50 - LD 97 , changes in blood, immune and endocrine parameters were revealed and followed up in dogs at the time of late effects development, 3-18 months after exposure. The changes result from post-radiation immunodeficiency and resemble those observed in residents of radioactive contaminate areas or in men participated in Chernobyl accident amelioration

  17. Experimental parameter study for passive vortex generators on a 30% thick airfoil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldacchino, D.; Simao Ferreira, C.; De Tavernier, D.A.M.; Timmer, W.A.; van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2018-01-01

    Passive vane-type vortex generators (VGs) are commonly used on wind turbine blades to mitigate the effects of flow separation. However, significant uncertainty surrounds VG design guidelines. Understanding the influence of VG parameters on airfoil performance requires a systematic approach

  18. Induction studies with Escherichia coli expressing recombinant interleukin-13 using multi-parameter flow cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shitu, J. O.; Woodley, John; Wnek, R.

    2009-01-01

    The expression of interleukin-13 (IL13) following induction with IPTG in Escherichia coli results in metabolic changes as indicated by multi-parameter flow cytometry and traditional methods of fermentation profiling (O-2 uptake rate, CO2 evolution rate and optical density measurements). Induction...

  19. Study of the effects of atmospheric parameters on ground radon concentration by track technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tidjani, Adams

    1988-01-01

    Radon emanation was continuously monitored for 24 months, accompanied by measurements of atmospheric parameters. Integrated measurments of radon concentrations have been performed with LR-115 cellulose nitrate track detectors. The monitoring was conducted at 16 sites distributed around the Dakar University area. Observed changes in radon concentration are interpreted as being caused by changes in meteorological conditions and ocean tides. (author)

  20. Study of Chromatic parameters of Line, Total, Middle graphs and Graph operators of Bipartite graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarathinam, R.; Parvathi, N.

    2018-04-01

    Chromatic parameters have been explored on the basis of graph coloring process in which a couple of adjacent nodes receives different colors. But the Grundy and b-coloring executes maximum colors under certain restrictions. In this paper, Chromatic, b-chromatic and Grundy number of some graph operators of bipartite graph has been investigat

  1. Experimental study on two-phase flow parameters of subcooled boiling in inclined annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Ho; Kim, Moon Oh; Park, Goon Cherl

    1999-01-01

    Local two-phase flow parameters of subcooled flow boiling in inclined annulus were measured to investigate the effect of inclination on the internal flow structure. Two-conductivity probe technique was applied to measured local gas phasic parameters, including void by fraction, vapor bubble frequency, chord length, vapor bubble velocity and interfacial area concentration. Local liquid velocity was measured by Pitot tube. Experiments were conducted for three angles of inclination: 0 o (vertical), 30 o , 60 o . The system pressure was maintained at atmospheric pressure. The range of average void fraction was up to 10 percent and the average liquid superficial velocities were less than 1.3 m/sec. The results of experiments showed that the distributions of two-phase flow parameters were influenced by the angle of channel inclination. Especially, the void fraction and chord length distributions were strongly affected by the increase of inclination angle, and flow pattern transition to slug flow was observed depending on the flow conditions. The profiles of vapor velocity, liquid velocity and interfacial area concentration were found to be affected by the non-symmetric bubble size distribution in inclined channel. Using the measured distributions of local phasic parameters, an analysis for predicting average void fraction was performed based on the drift flux model and flowing volumetric concentration. And it was demonstrated that the average void fraction can be more appropriately presented in terms of flowing volumetric concentration. (Author). 18 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

  2. A STUDY OF SOME SOFTWARE PARAMETERS IN TIME-SHARING SYSTEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review is made of some existing time-sharing computer systems and an exploration of various software characteristics is conducted. This...of the various parameters upon the average response cycle time, the average number in the queue awaiting service , the average length of time a user is

  3. Modelling of NOx emissions from pressurized fluidized bed combustion - A parameter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    1997-01-01

    velocity, the bubble size, the bubble rise velocity and the gas interchange coefficient between bubble and dense phase. The most important combustion parameters are the rates of CO and CH4 combustion and the CO/(CO + CO2) ratio from char combustion. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  4. A New Extant Respirometric Assay to Estimate Intrinsic Growth Parameters Applied to Study Plasmid Metabolic Burden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seoane, Jose Miguel; Sin, Gürkan; Lardon, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    mathematical treatment, or wake-up pulses prior to the analysis.. Identifiability and sensitivity analysis were performed to confirm the robustness of the new approach for obtaining unique and accurate estimates of growth kinetic parameters. The new experimental design was applied to establish the. metabolic...

  5. Experimental studies of parameters affecting the heat generation in friction stir welding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijajlović Miroslav M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat generation is a complex process of transformation of a specific type of energy into heat. During friction stir welding, one part of mechanical energy delivered to the welding tool is consumed in the welding process, another is used for deformational processes etc., and the rest of the energy is transformed into heat. The analytical procedure for the estimation of heat generated during friction stir welding is very complex because it includes a significant number of variables and parameters, and many of them cannot be fully mathematically explained. Because of that, the analytical model for the estimation of heat generated during friction stir welding defines variables and parameters that dominantly affect heat generation. These parameters are numerous and some of them, e. g. loads, friction coefficient, torque, temperature, are estimated experimentally. Due to the complex geometry of the friction stir welding process and requirements of the measuring equipment, adequate measuring configurations and specific constructional solutions that provide adequate measuring positions are necessary. This paper gives an overview of the process of heat generation during friction stir welding, the most influencing parameters on heat generation, constructional solutions for the measuring equipment needed for these experimental researches and examples of measured values.

  6. A comparative study of parameters used in design and operation of desalination experimental facility versus the process parameters in a commercial desalination plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanra, M.S.; Verma, R.K.; Ramani, M.P.S.

    1982-01-01

    Desalination Experimental Facility (DEF) based on multistage flash desalination process has been set up by the Desalination Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay. The design parameters of DEF and materials used for various equipment and parts of DEF are mentioned. DEF was operated for 2300 hours in six operational runs. The range of operational parameters maintained during operation and observations on the performance of the materials of construction are given. Detailed comparison has been made for the orocess parameters in DEF and those in a large size plant. (M.G.B.)

  7. The study of two, three and four dimensional nonlinear dynamics of nuclear fission reactors and effective parameters on its behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajik, M.; Ghasemizad, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this research, new physical fission reactor parameters which have very sensitive effects on the qualitative behavior of a reactor, are introduced. Therefore, the two, the nonlinear dynamics of two, three and four dimensional, considering almost the effective parameters are formulated for describing nuclear fission reactor systems. Using both analytical and numerical methods, the stability and instability of the given dynamical equations and the conditions of stability are studied in these systems. We have shown that the two parameters of the mean energy residence time in fuel and coolant and also their ratios have the most qualitative effects on the dynamical behaviour of a typical nuclear fission reactor. Increasing or decreasing of these parameters from a captain limit can lead to stability or un stability in a given system

  8. Satellite mapping of surface biophysical parameters at the biome scale over the North American grasslands: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, B.K.; Meyer, D.J.; Tieszen, L.L.; Mannel, S.

    2002-01-01

    Quantification of biophysical parameters is needed by terrestrial process modeling and other applications. A study testing the role of multispectral data for monitoring biophysical parameters was conducted over a network of grassland field sites in the Great Plains of North America. Grassland biophysical parameters [leaf area index (LAI), fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR), and biomass] and their relationships with ground radiometer normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were established in this study (r2=.66–.85) from data collected across the central and northern Great Plains in 1995. These spectral/biophysical relationships were compared to 1996 field data from the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in northeastern Oklahoma and showed no consistent biases, with most regression estimates falling within the respective 95% confidence intervals. Biophysical parameters were estimated for 21 “ground pixels” (grids) at the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in 1996, representing three grazing/burning treatments. Each grid was 30×30 m in size and was systematically sampled with ground radiometer readings. The radiometric measurements were then converted to biophysical parameters and spatially interpolated using geostatistical kriging. Grid-based biophysical parameters were monitored through the growing season and regressed against Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) NDVI (r2=.92–.94). These regression equations were used to estimate biophysical parameters for grassland TM pixels over the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in 1996. This method maintained consistent regression development and prediction scales and attempted to minimize scaling problems associated with mixed land cover pixels. A method for scaling Landsat biophysical parameters to coarser resolution satellite data sets (1 km2) was also investigated.

  9. MRI Texture Analysis Reflects Histopathology Parameters in Thyroid Cancer - A First Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Hans-Jonas; Schob, Stefan; Höhn, Anne Kathrin; Surov, Alexey

    2017-12-01

    Thyroid cancer represents the most frequent malignancy of the endocrine system with an increasing incidence worldwide. Novel imaging techniques are able to further characterize tumors and even predict histopathology features. Texture analysis is an emergent imaging technique to extract extensive data from an radiology images. The present study was therefore conducted to identify possible associations between texture analysis and histopathology parameters in thyroid cancer. The radiological database was retrospectively reviewed for thyroid carcinoma. Overall, 13 patients (3 females, 23.1%) with a mean age of 61.6 years were identified. The MaZda program was used for texture analysis. The T1-precontrast and T2-weighted images were analyzed and overall 279 texture feature for each sequence was investigated. For every patient cell count, Ki67-index and p53 count were investigated. Several significant correlations between texture features and histopathology were identified. Regarding T1-weighted images, S(0;1)Sum Averg correlated the most with cell count (r=0.82). An inverse correlations with S(5;0)AngScMom, S(5;0)DifVarnc S(5;0), DiffEntrp and GrNonZeros (r=-0.69, -0.66, -0.69 and -0.63, respectively) was also identified. For T2-weighted images, Variance with r=0.63 was the highest coefficient, WavEnLL_S3 correlated inversely with cell count (r=-0.57). WavEnLL_S2 derived from T1-weighted images was the highest coefficient r=-0.80, S(0;5)SumVarnc was positively with r=0.74. Regarding T2-weighted images WavEnHL_s-1 was inverse correlated with Ki67 index (r=-0.77). S(1;0)Correlat was with r=0.75 the best correlation with Ki67 index. For T1-weighed images S(5;0)SumofSqs was the best with r=0.65 with p53 count. For T2-weighted images S(1;-1)SumEntrp was the inverse correlation with r=-0.72, whereas S(0;4)AngScMom correlated positively with r=0.63. MRI texture analysis derived from conventional sequences reflects histopathology features in thyroid cancer. This technique

  10. Arsenic mobilization in an oxidizing alkaline groundwater: Experimental studies, comparison and optimization of geochemical modeling parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeznezami, Saeedreza; Lam, Jacquelyn R.; Xiang, Yang; Reynolds, Matthew D.; Davis, James A.; Lin, Tiffany; Jay, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) mobilization and contamination of groundwater affects millions of people worldwide. Progress in developing effective in-situ remediation schemes requires the incorporation of data from laboratory experiments and field samples into calibrated geochemical models. In an oxidizing aquifer where leaching of high pH industrial waste from unlined surface impoundments led to mobilization of naturally occurring As up to 2 mg L −1 , sequential extractions of solid phase As as well as, batch sediment microcosm experiments were conducted to understand As partitioning and solid-phase sorptive and buffering capacity. These data were combined with field data to create a series of geochemical models of the system with modeling programs PHREEQC and FITEQL. Different surface complexation modeling approaches, including component additivity (CA), generalized composite (GC), and a hybrid method were developed, compared and fitted to data from batch acidification experiments to simulate potential remediation scenarios. Several parameters strongly influence the concentration of dissolved As including pH, presence of competing ions (particularly phosphate) and the number of available sorption sites on the aquifer solids. Lowering the pH of groundwater to 7 was found to have a variable, but limited impact (<63%) on decreasing the concentration of dissolved As. The models indicate that in addition to lowering pH, decreasing the concentration of dissolved phosphate and/or increasing the number of available sorption sites could significantly decrease the As solubility to levels below 10 μg L −1 . The hybrid and GC modeling results fit the experimental data well (NRMSE<10%) with reasonable effort and can be implemented in further studies for validation. - Highlights: • Samples were collected from an oxidizing aquifer where high pH waste has led to mobilization of naturally occurring As. • Three surface complexation modeling approaches were used in modeling adsorption

  11. Optical absorption and gamma-radiation-shielding parameter studies of Tm3+-doped multicomponent borosilicate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayana, G.; Sayyed, M. I.; Baki, S. O.; Lira, A.; Dong, M. G.; Kaky, Kawa M.; Kityk, I. V.; Mahdi, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    Different concentrations (0.1‒2.0 mol%) of Tm3+-doped multicomponent borosilicate glasses with 10 mol% Li2O (alkali) or MgO (alkaline) have been synthesized and their optical absorption and radiation shielding features were studied. For both Li2O and MgO series 0.5 mol% Tm3+-doped glass samples, the evaluated Ωλ ( λ = 2, 4, and 6) Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters from experimental oscillator strengths were used in estimating the radiative transition probabilities ( A R), branching ratios ( β R), and radiative lifetimes ( τ R) for several emission transitions. Using the XCOM software, the mass attenuation coefficients ( µ/ ρ) for all the fabricated glasses were evaluated within the 0.015‒10 MeV energy range. Also, the ( µ/ ρ) values were calculated at 0.356, 0.662, 1.173, and 1.33 MeV photon energies by MCNP5 simulation code and the results were compared with those obtained by XCOM. The ( µ/ ρ) values for Li2O, as well as MgO series glasses, increase with the addition of Tm2O3 and these values for MgO series glasses are slightly higher with respect to Li2O series glasses. From the ( µ/ ρ) values, effective atomic number ( Z eff), half-value layer (HVL), and mean free path (MFP) were calculated and the HVL and MFP results revealed that high-energy photons have more penetration into a glass sample compared to low-energy photons. Further, geometric progression (GP) fitting method was utilized to calculate the exposure buildup factor (EBF) within the 0.015‒15 MeV energy range. The 2.0 mol% Tm2O3-doped glasses show a better ability to attenuate gamma-rays in comparison to other glass samples, so the addition of Tm2O3 content leads to improvement of the shielding efficiency of the prepared glasses.

  12. Parameter design and experimental study of a bifunctional isolator for optical payload protection and stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-yuan; Guan, Xin; Cao, Dong-jing; Tang, Shao-fan; Chen, Xiang; Liang, Lu; Zheng, Gang-tie

    2017-11-01

    With the raise of resolution, optical payloads are becoming increasingly sensitive to satellite jitter. An approach where the entire spacecraft is pointed with great accuracy requires sophisticated and expensive bus design. In an effort to lower the overall cost of space missions that require highly stable line-of-sight pointing, a method of separating the bus and the payload with low frequency isolators is proposed. This isolation system can block the transmission of disturbance and allow relatively large bus motion. However, if the isolator is linear then there is a trade-off between isolation and static deflection as the launch and the on-orbit stage have difference requirements on the isolation frequency. Otherwise, an extra locking system should be appended to protect the payload before getting into orbit, as the STABLE isolation system[1] and the MIM isolation system[2] did. To overcome this limitation, an alternative approach is to design a nonlinear isolator with high-static stiffness during launch and low dynamic stiffness on orbit. Several specially designed nonlinear isolators have achieved low dynamic stiffness with large static load capacity. Virgin[3] considered a structure made from a highly deformed elastic element to achieve a softening spring. Platus[4] exploited the buckling of beams under axial load in a specific configuration to achieve a negative stiffness in combination with a positive stiffness, and hence low-dynamic stiffness. Others have achieved the same by connecting linear springs with positive stiffness in parallel with elements of negative stiffness[5] [7]. In the present study, a bifunctional isolator has been developed for optical payloads. The isolator have good performance both during launch and on orbit because of its specially designed nonlinear stiffness and damping. The isolator works in a linear part with low stiffness and small damping ratio under the micro-vibration and microgravity on orbit. The transmissibility

  13. Study of b→e channel and measurement of B0-antiB0 mixing parameter with L3 parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jezequel, S.

    1992-04-01

    This thesis is based on the analysis of the 1990 and 1991 LEP data taken with the L3 detector. It measures the mixing parameter of the B 0 - anti B 0 system. It consists on the comparison of the relative numbers of dileptons with same signs. After having recalled the theoretical background and previous measurements, it describes precisely the selection of prompt electrons from B hadrons. The muon's one is recalled. Different methods are presented to extract the mixing parameter

  14. Study and survey of assembling parameters to a radioactive source production laboratory used to verify equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauglitz, Erica; Nagatomy, Helio Rissei; Moura, Eduardo S.; Zeituni, Carlos Alberto; Hilario, Katia A. Fonseca; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Karam Junior, Dib

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the survey of parameters for the installation and implementation of a laboratory for radioactive sources production at immobilized resin. These sources are used in nuclear medicine for verification of dose calibrators, as the standard guidelines of the National Commission of Nuclear CNEN-NE-3.05 'Radioprotection and safety requirements for nuclear medicine services.' The radioisotopes used for this purpose are: Co-57, Cs-137 and Ba-133, with activities of 185 MBq, 9.3 MBq and 5.4 MBq, respectively. The parameters for the assembly of the laboratory shall be defined according to guidelines that guide the deployment of radiochemical laboratories and standards of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy. (author)

  15. Numerical study of crucial parameters in tilt casting for titanium aluminides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerical modeling of the tilt casting process for TiAl alloys was investigated to achieve a tranquil mould filling and TiAl castings free of defects. Titanium alloys are very reactive in molten state, so they are widely melted in cold crucible, e.g. the Induction Skull Melting (ISM furnace. Then the crucible holding the molten metal together with the mould is rotated to transfer the metal into the mould — ISM+ tilt casting. This paper emphasizes the effect of crucial parameters on mould filling and solidification of the castings during tilt casting. All crucial parameters, such as rotation rate, rotation profile, venting, initial mould temperature, casting orientation, feeder design, change of radius in 'T' junction and mould insulation have been discussed using numerical modeling data. Simulations were performed using a 3D CFD code PHYSICA implemented with front tracking, heat transfer algorithms and a turbulence model (which accounts for an advancing solid front.

  16. Parameter study on performance of building cooling by night-time ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai; Manz, H.; Heiselberg, Per

    2008-01-01

    of different parameters such as building construction, heat gains, air change rates, heat transfer coefficients and climatic conditions including annual variations on the number of overheating degree hours (operative room temperature >26 °C) was evaluated. Climatic conditions and air flow rate during night......Especially for commercial buildings in moderate climates, night-time ventilation seems to be a simple and energy-efficient approach to improve thermal comfort in summer. However, due to uncertainties in the prediction of thermal comfort in buildings with night-time ventilation, architects...... and engineers are still hesitant to apply this technique. In order to reduce the uncertainties, the most important parameters affecting night ventilation performance need to be identified. A typical office room was therefore modelled using a building energy simulation programme (HELIOS), and the effect...

  17. A critical experimental study of integral physics parameters in simulated LMFBR meltdown cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.K.; Wade, D.C.; Bucher, R.G.; Smith, D.M.; McKnight, R.D.; Lesage, L.G.

    1978-01-01

    Integral physics parameters of several representative, idealized meltdown LMFBR configurations were measured in mockup critical assemblies on the ZPR-9 reactor at Argonne National Laboratory. The experiments were designed to provide data for the validation of analytical methods used in the neutronics part of LMFBR accident analysis. Large core distortions were introduced in these experiments (involving 18.5% core volume) and the reactivity worths of configuration changes were determined. The neutronics parameters measured in the various configurations showed large changes upon core distortion. Both diffusion theory and transport theory methods were shown to mispredict the experimental configuration eigenvalues. In addition, diffusion theory methods were shown to result in a non-conservative misprediction of the experimental configuration change worths. (author)

  18. Study of design parameters affecting the motion of DNA for nanoinjection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Regis A; Jensen, Brian D; Howell, Larry L; Black, Justin L; Burnett, Sandra H

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of various parameters on the attraction and repulsion of DNA to and from a silicon lance. An understanding of DNA motion is crucial for a new approach to insert DNA, or other foreign microscopic matter, into a living cell. The approach, called nanoinjection, uses electrical forces to attract and repel the desired substance to a micromachined lance designed to pierce the cell membranes. We have developed mathematical models to predict the trajectory of DNA. The mathematical model allows investigation of the attraction/repulsion process by varying specific parameters. We find that the ground electrode placement, lance orientation and lance penetration significantly affect attraction or repulsion efficiency, while the gap, lance direction, lance tip width, lance tip half-angle and lance tip height do not. (paper)

  19. Study and survey of assembling parameters to a radioactive source production laboratory used to verify equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, Erica; Nagatomy, Helio Rissei; Moura, Eduardo S.; Zeituni, Carlos Alberto; Hilario, Katia A. Fonseca; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M., E-mail: egauglitz@ipen.b, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Karam Junior, Dib, E-mail: dib.karan@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the survey of parameters for the installation and implementation of a laboratory for radioactive sources production at immobilized resin. These sources are used in nuclear medicine for verification of dose calibrators, as the standard guidelines of the National Commission of Nuclear CNEN-NE-3.05 'Radioprotection and safety requirements for nuclear medicine services.' The radioisotopes used for this purpose are: Co-57, Cs-137 and Ba-133, with activities of 185 MBq, 9.3 MBq and 5.4 MBq, respectively. The parameters for the assembly of the laboratory shall be defined according to guidelines that guide the deployment of radiochemical laboratories and standards of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy. (author)

  20. Study of an effective structural system with rational parameters based on main energy principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toporkova Katerina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effective architectural and construction system with rational parameters based on main energy principles applied to construction of buildings and constructions with a small-step and large-step frames, representing the metal frame of full factory production collected in spatial system on high-strength bolts and previously strained combined prestressed concrete slabs which formed without timbering is proposed in this paper. The main constructive and technological features of the proposed frame, which allows reducing construction period, increasing working efficiency, and reducing labor intensity by using factory-made materials, quick erection of all process elements through the use of highstrength bolts is considered. The advantages of this constructive system in comparison with alternative systems are shown. The basic concepts of "rational decisions" to the design, namely, the objective of the optimal management of the structure parameters, which can not only improve its basic performance indicators, but also, and most importantly, improve operational reliability, is presented.

  1. Studies on seasonal variation in water quality parameters of Rana Pratap Sagar lake (1996-99)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, R.; Rout, D.; Purohit, K.C.

    2000-01-01

    Water- chemistry monitoring identifies the concentration and patterns of fluctuation in chemical constituents. This information is essential to project future trends monitoring in Lake Water chemistry to identify any potential for affecting plant operation through scaling or corrosion of the circulating and service-water system equipment. Regular water chemistry monitoring provides a useful record of past. This record helps in identification of conditions that would impair station operations before their onset, allowing remedial action to be undertaken before plant performance is significantly affected. Preventive action to control the parameters influencing the corrosion, scaling and bio-fouling in the cooling system, in turn, eliminates excessive maintenance and premature replacement that otherwise would result from damage caused by unforeseen changes in the cooling water. This paper highlights the systematic monitoring approach for the variation of chemical parameters influenced by the seasonal changes in a total period of four years. (author)

  2. Improving metabolic parameters of antipsychotic child treatment (IMPACT) study: rationale, design, and methods

    OpenAIRE

    Reeves, Gloria M; Keeton, Courtney; Correll, Christoph U; Johnson, Jacqueline L; Hamer, Robert M; Sikich, Linmarie; Hazzard, Lindsey; Alderman, Cheryl; Scheer, Abigail; Mabe, Micah; Kapoor, Sandeep; Sheridan, Eva; Borner, Irmgard; Bussell, Kristin; Pirmohamed, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Background Youth with serious mental illness may experience improved psychiatric stability with second generation antipsychotic (SGA) medication treatment, but unfortunately may also experience unhealthy weight gain adverse events. Research on weight loss strategies for youth who require ongoing antipsychotic treatment is quite limited. The purpose of this paper is to present the design, methods, and rationale of the Improving Metabolic Parameters in Antipsychotic Child Treatment (IMPACT) stu...

  3. STUDY OF POND WATER QUALITY BY THE ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND WATER QUALITY INDEX

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Jena; Satish Dixit; Ravi ShrivastavaSapana Gupta; Sapana Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Water quality index (WQI) is a dimensionless number that combines multiple water quality factors into a single number by normalizing values to subjective rating curves. Conventionally it has been used for evaluating the quality of water for water resources suchas rivers, streams and lakes, etc. The present work is aimed at assessing the Water Quality Index (W.Q.I) ofpond water and the impact of human activities on it. Physicochemical parameters were monitored for the calculation of W.Q.I for ...

  4. Study of the sensitivity of integral parameters related to 232 Thorium cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, L.N.F.; Menezes, A.

    1986-01-01

    The THOR critical assembly is used to test 232 Th basic nuclear data from ENDL-78, ENDF/B-IV, INDL-83, JENDL-1 and JENDL-2. The FORSS and UNISENS systems are used to calculate integral parameters and sensitivity profiles. The results show that 232 Th from JENDL-2 is superior to the others, with ENDL-78 showing the worst performance. The discrepancies can be credited to the different evaluations for the 232 Thorium scattering cross section. (Author) [pt

  5. Study of vector boson decay and determination of the Standard Model parameters at hadronic colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amidei, D.

    1991-01-01

    The power of the detectors and the datasets at hadronic colliders begins to allow measurement of the electroweak parameters with a precision that confronts the perturbative corrections to the theory. Recent measurements of M z , M w , and sin θ w by CDF and UA2 are reviewed, with some emphasis on how experimental precision is achieved, and some discussion of the import for the specifications of the Standard Model. 14 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Cyriax's deep friction massage application parameters: Evidence from a cross-sectional study with physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Paula; Simões, Daniela; Paço, Maria; Pinho, Francisco; Duarte, José Alberto; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2017-12-01

    Deep friction massage is one of several physiotherapy interventions suggested for the management of tendinopathy. To determine the prevalence of deep friction massage use in clinical practice, to characterize the application parameters used by physiotherapists, and to identify empirical model-based patterns of deep friction massage application in degenerative tendinopathy. observational, analytical, cross-sectional and national web-based survey. 478 physiotherapists were selected through snow-ball sampling method. The participants completed an online questionnaire about personal and professional characteristics as well as specific questions regarding the use of deep friction massage. Characterization of deep friction massage parameters used by physiotherapists were presented as counts and proportions. Latent class analysis was used to identify the empirical model-based patterns. Crude and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed. The use of deep friction massage was reported by 88.1% of the participants; tendinopathy was the clinical condition where it was most frequently used (84.9%) and, from these, 55.9% reported its use in degenerative tendinopathy. The "duration of application" parameters in chronic phase and "frequency of application" in acute and chronic phases are those that diverge most from those recommended by the author of deep friction massage. We found a high prevalence of deep friction massage use, namely in degenerative tendinopathy. Our results have shown that the application parameters are heterogeneous and diverse. This is reflected by the identification of two application patterns, although none is in complete agreement with Cyriax's description. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The development of a novel knowledge-based weaning algorithm using pulmonary parameters: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Hasan; Kilic, Ugur

    2018-03-01

    Weaning is important for patients and clinicians who have to determine correct weaning time so that patients do not become addicted to the ventilator. There are already some predictors developed, such as the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI), the pressure time index (PTI), and Jabour weaning index. Many important dimensions of weaning are sometimes ignored by these predictors. This is an attempt to develop a knowledge-based weaning process via fuzzy logic that eliminates the disadvantages of the present predictors. Sixteen vital parameters listed in published literature have been used to determine the weaning decisions in the developed system. Since there are considered to be too many individual parameters in it, related parameters were grouped together to determine acid-base balance, adequate oxygenation, adequate pulmonary function, hemodynamic stability, and the psychological status of the patients. To test the performance of the developed algorithm, 20 clinical scenarios were generated using Monte Carlo simulations and the Gaussian distribution method. The developed knowledge-based algorithm and RSBI predictor were applied to the generated scenarios. Finally, a clinician evaluated each clinical scenario independently. The Student's t test was used to show the statistical differences between the developed weaning algorithm, RSBI, and the clinician's evaluation. According to the results obtained, there were no statistical differences between the proposed methods and the clinician evaluations.

  8. Role of perisynaptic parameters in neurotransmitter homeostasis - computational study of a general synapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendyam, Sandeep; Mohan, Ashwin; Kalivas, Peter W.; Nair, Satish S.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular neurotransmitter concentrations vary over a wide range depending on the type of neurotransmitter and location in the brain. Neurotransmitter homeostasis near a synapse is achieved by a balance of several mechanisms including vesicular release from the presynapse, diffusion, uptake by transporters, non-synaptic production, and regulation of release by autoreceptors. These mechanisms are also affected by the glia surrounding the synapse. However, the role of these mechanisms in achieving neurotransmitter homeostasis is not well understood. A biophysical modeling framework was proposed to reverse engineer glial configurations and parameters related to homeostasis for synapses that support a range of neurotransmitter gradients. Model experiments reveal that synapses with extracellular neurotransmitter concentrations in the micromolar range require non-synaptic neurotransmitter sources and tight synaptic isolation by extracellular glial formations. The model was used to identify the role of perisynaptic parameters on neurotransmitter homeostasis, and to propose glial configurations that could support different levels of extracellular neurotransmitter concentrations. Ranking the parameters based on their effect on neurotransmitter homeostasis, non-synaptic sources were found to be the most important followed by transporter concentration and diffusion coefficient. PMID:22460547

  9. A study of evolution/suppression parameters of equatorial postsunset plasma instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Oyekola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Evening equatorial pre-reversal vertical ion E×B drift (VZP and the peak of the ionospheric F2 maximum altitude (hmF2P of the postsunset equatorial F-layer, which are the essential parameters requisite for the generation or inhibition of postsunset bottomside equatorial irregularities were deduced from ionosonde observations made in the Africa region (Ouagadougou: ~3° N dip latitude between January 1987 and December 1990 for solar activity minimum, medium, and maxima (F10.7=85, 141, 214, and 190, respectively for quiet geomagnetic conditions. We investigate variations of evening equatorial pre-reversal drift and the corresponding altitude at four levels of solar activity. Our observations show strong variations with solar variability. Correlation analysis between these parameters indicates that the correlation coefficient value between hmF2P versus VZP decreases considerably with increasing solar flux value. There seems to be no significant link between these parameters under high solar activity, especially for solar intensity F10.7>200 units. We conclude that meridional neutral wind in the F-region contributes substantially to the variations of the pre-reversal vertical plasma drifts enhancement and the peak hmF2, particularly the electrodynamics during twilight high solar flux conditions.

  10. Efficient cascaded parameter scan approach for studying top-off safety in storage rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Li

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new algorithm, which we call the cascaded parameter scan method, to efficiently carry out the scan over magnet parameters in the safety analysis for top-off injection in synchrotron radiation storage rings. In top-off safety analysis, one must track particles populating phase space through a beam line containing magnets and apertures and clearly demonstrate that, for all possible magnet settings and errors, all particles are lost on scrapers within the properly shielded region. In the usual approach, if one considers m magnets and scans each magnet through n setpoints, then one must carry out n^{m} tracking runs. In the cascaded parameter scan method, the number of tracking runs is reduced to n×m. This reduction of exponential to linear dependence on the number of setpoints n greatly reduces the required computation time and allows one to more densely populate phase space and to increase the number n of setpoints scanned for each magnet.

  11. A study of solar and interplanetary parameters of CMEs causing major geomagnetic storms during SC 23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Oprea

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse 25 Earth-directed and strongly geoeffective interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs which occurred during solar cycle 23, using data provided by instruments on SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer and geomagnetic stations. We also examine the in situ parameters, the energy transfer into magnetosphere, and the geomagnetic indexes. We compare observed travel times with those calculated by observed speeds projected into the plane of the sky and de-projected by a simple model. The best fit was found with the projected speeds. No correlation was found between the importance of a flare and the geomagnetic Dst (disturbance storm time index. By comparing the in situ parameters with the Dst index we find a strong connection between some of these parameters (such as Bz, Bs · V and the energy transfer into the magnetosphere with the strength of the geomagnetic storm. No correlation was found with proton density and plasma temperature. A superposed epoch analysis revealed a strong dependence of the Dst index on the southward component of interplanetary magnetic field, Bz, and to the Akasofu coupling function, which evaluates the energy transfer between the ICME and the magnetosphere. The analysis also showed that the geomagnetic field at higher latitudes is disturbed before the field around the Earth's equator.

  12. Long-term prospective cohort study on dental implants: clinical and microbiological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Henri; Bogen, Omer; Séverac, François; Elkaim, René; Davideau, Jean-Luc; Huck, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present prospective cohort study is to evaluate clinical and microbiological data of dental implants after at least 8 years of follow-up. A total of 110 patients and 232 implants were included at baseline and followed during 1 year. Fifty-two patients and 108 implants could be evaluated at the final examination. Clinical and microbiological data were taken at baseline, 1 year and at least 8 years. The mean follow-up time was 10.8 ± 1.7 years. Plaque index was, respectively, 0.50 ± 0.50 at baseline, 0.50 ± 0.50 at 1 year and 0.33 ± 0.67 at ≥8 years. Gingival index was, respectively, 1.08 ± 0.19 at baseline, 1.01 ± 0.39 at 1 year and 0.22 ± 0.47 at ≥8 years. Sulcular bleeding index was, respectively, 0.17 ± 0.22 at baseline, 0.11 ± 0.33 at 1 year and 0.17 ± 0.22 at ≥8 years. Probing depth was, respectively, 2.67 ± 0.75 at baseline, 3.00 ± 0.83 at 1 year and 2.74 ± 1.00 at ≥8 years. Clinical attachment level was, respectively, 3.75 ± 1.17 at baseline, 4.00 ± 1.06 at 1 year and 4.00 ± 1.17 at ≥8 years. Peri-implant mucositis was detected around 60.2% of implants in 73.1% of patients, while peri-implantitis was affecting 12% of implants in 15.4% of patients. Some bacteria species were associated with worsened clinical parameters. About 69.4% of implants (75/108) and 67.3% of the patients (35/52) were considered as success in the present prospective cohort study after a mean follow-up of 10.8 years. Microbial follow-up may help to identify patients at risk for peri-implant disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Correlative study of the parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and angiogenesis in breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Guangyu; Xiao Xiangsheng; Liu Yong; Yao Yiping; Li Wei; Zhao Wenrong; Li Peng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI)-derived parameters and tumor angiogenesis in malignant and benign breast lesions. Methods: Fifty-one patients with malignant and benign breast lesions underwent DCE-MRI using a Philips Intera 1.5 T MR System and dedicated breast coil prospectively before operation. DCE-MRI derived parameters such as steepest slope (S max )), peak height (PH), time-to-peak (T peak ) were calculated based on time-signal intensity curve. The micro-vessel density (MVD) was counted and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression was assessed in these patients after operation with immunohistochemical staining method. The parameters were correlated statistically with MVD counts and VEGF expression in breast cancer. The MVD counts and VEGF expression were also compared among the patients with breast cancer (29 cases), with fibroadenoma (12 cases), mastopathy (10 cases) and the normal tissue (10 cases). Results: The enhancement parameters S max (r=0.807, P peak (69 ± 38) correlated negatively with MVD counts (r=-0.425, P< 0.05). The mean value of MVD (65.09±15.81/200 times field) in patients with breast cancer were significantly higher than those with fibroadenoma, mastopathy or normal tissue (P=0.043, 0.018, 0.002 respectively). 69% (20/29 cases) of breast cancers demonstrated positive VEGF expression, which were significantly more than that of fibroadenoma, mastopathy or normal tissue (P=0.035, 0.007, 0.001 respectively). Moreover, the MVD counts (60.38±24.14) in the peripheral region of breast cancer were more than those in central region (37.64±16.52; t=2.635, P=0.016). There was a significant difference in MVD counts between breast cancers with metastasis to axillary lymph nodes (73.23±23.02) and those without metastasis (59.34±18.03), (t=2.303, P=0.031). Conclusions: Some parameters derived from DCE-MRI correlated positively with MVD counts and VEGF expression in patients with breast

  14. Computer controlled automated assay for comprehensive studies of enzyme kinetic parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Bonowski

    Full Text Available Stability and biological activity of proteins is highly dependent on their physicochemical environment. The development of realistic models of biological systems necessitates quantitative information on the response to changes of external conditions like pH, salinity and concentrations of substrates and allosteric modulators. Changes in just a few variable parameters rapidly lead to large numbers of experimental conditions, which go beyond the experimental capacity of most research groups. We implemented a computer-aided experimenting framework ("robot lab assistant" that allows us to parameterize abstract, human-readable descriptions of micro-plate based experiments with variable parameters and execute them on a conventional 8 channel liquid handling robot fitted with a sensitive plate reader. A set of newly developed R-packages translates the instructions into machine commands, executes them, collects the data and processes it without user-interaction. By combining script-driven experimental planning, execution and data-analysis, our system can react to experimental outcomes autonomously, allowing outcome-based iterative experimental strategies. The framework was applied in a response-surface model based iterative optimization of buffer conditions and investigation of substrate, allosteric effector, pH and salt dependent activity profiles of pyruvate kinase (PYK. A diprotic model of enzyme kinetics was used to model the combined effects of changing pH and substrate concentrations. The 8 parameters of the model could be estimated from a single two-hour experiment using nonlinear least-squares regression. The model with the estimated parameters successfully predicted pH and PEP dependence of initial reaction rates, while the PEP concentration dependent shift of optimal pH could only be reproduced with a set of manually tweaked parameters. Differences between model-predictions and experimental observations at low pH suggest additional protonation

  15. MRI Texture Analysis Reflects Histopathology Parameters in Thyroid Cancer – A First Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jonas Meyer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECT: Thyroid cancer represents the most frequent malignancy of the endocrine system with an increasing incidence worldwide. Novel imaging techniques are able to further characterize tumors and even predict histopathology features. Texture analysis is an emergent imaging technique to extract extensive data from an radiology images. The present study was therefore conducted to identify possible associations between texture analysis and histopathology parameters in thyroid cancer. METHODS: The radiological database was retrospectively reviewed for thyroid carcinoma. Overall, 13 patients (3 females, 23.1% with a mean age of 61.6 years were identified. The MaZda program was used for texture analysis. The T1-precontrast and T2-weighted images were analyzed and overall 279 texture feature for each sequence was investigated. For every patient cell count, Ki67-index and p53 count were investigated. RESULTS: Several significant correlations between texture features and histopathology were identified. Regarding T1-weighted images, S(0;1Sum Averg correlated the most with cell count (r = 0.82. An inverse correlations with S(5;0AngScMom, S(5;0DifVarnc S(5;0, DiffEntrp and GrNonZeros (r = −0.69, −0.66, −0.69 and −0.63, respectively was also identified. For T2-weighted images, Variance with r = 0.63 was the highest coefficient, WavEnLL_S3 correlated inversely with cell count (r = −0.57. WavEnLL_S2 derived from T1-weighted images was the highest coefficient r = −0.80, S(0;5SumVarnc was positively with r = 0.74. Regarding T2-weighted images WavEnHL_s-1 was inverse correlated with Ki67 index (r = −0.77. S(1;0Correlat was with r = 0.75 the best correlation with Ki67 index. For T1-weighed images S(5;0SumofSqs was the best with r = 0.65 with p53 count. For T2-weighted images S(1;−1SumEntrp was the inverse correlation with r = −0.72, whereas S(0;4AngScMom correlated positively with r = 0.63. CONCLUSIONS: MRI texture analysis

  16. Statistical study of interplanetary condition effect on geomagnetic storms: 2. Variations of parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolaev, Yu. I.; Lodkina, I. G.; Nikolaeva, N. S.; Yermolaev, M. Yu.

    2011-02-01

    We investigate the behavior of mean values of the solar wind’s and interplanetary magnetic field’s (IMF) parameters and their absolute and relative variations during the magnetic storms generated by various types of the solar wind. In this paper, which is a continuation of paper [1], we, on the basis of the OMNI data archive for the period of 1976-2000, have analyzed 798 geomagnetic storms with D st ≤ -50 nT and their interplanetary sources: corotating interaction regions CIR, compression regions Sheath before the interplanetary CMEs; magnetic clouds MC; “Pistons” Ejecta, and an uncertain type of a source. For the analysis the double superposed epoch analysis method was used, in which the instants of the magnetic storm onset and the minimum of the D st index were taken as reference times. It is shown that the set of interplanetary sources of magnetic storms can be sub-divided into two basic groups according to their slowly and fast varying characteristics: (1) ICME (MC and Ejecta) and (2) CIR and Sheath. The mean values, the absolute and relative variations in MC and Ejecta for all parameters appeared to be either mean or lower than the mean value (the mean values of the electric field E y and of the B z component of IMF are higher in absolute value), while in CIR and Sheath they are higher than the mean value. High values of the relative density variation sN/ are observed in MC. At the same time, the high values for relative variations of the velocity, B z component, and IMF magnitude are observed in Sheath and CIR. No noticeable distinctions in the relationships between considered parameters for moderate and strong magnetic storms were observed.

  17. A study of evolution/suppression parameters of equatorial postsunset plasma instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Oyekola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Evening equatorial pre-reversal vertical ion E×B drift (VZP and the peak of the ionospheric F2 maximum altitude (hmF2P of the postsunset equatorial F-layer, which are the essential parameters requisite for the generation or inhibition of postsunset bottomside equatorial irregularities were deduced from ionosonde observations made in the Africa region (Ouagadougou: ~3° N dip latitude between January 1987 and December 1990 for solar activity minimum, medium, and maxima (F10.7=85, 141, 214, and 190, respectively for quiet geomagnetic conditions. We investigate variations of evening equatorial pre-reversal drift and the corresponding altitude at four levels of solar activity. Our observations show strong variations with solar variability. Correlation analysis between these parameters indicates that the correlation coefficient value between hmF2P versus VZP decreases considerably with increasing solar flux value. There seems to be no significant link between these parameters under high solar activity, especially for solar intensity F10.7>200 units. We conclude that meridional neutral wind in the F-region contributes substantially to the variations of the pre-reversal vertical plasma drifts enhancement and the peak hmF2, particularly the electrodynamics during twilight high solar flux conditions.

  18. Influence of coronal mass ejections on parameters of high-speed solar wind: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugay, Yulia; Slemzin, Vladimir; Rodkin, Denis; Yermolaev, Yuri; Veselovsky, Igor

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the case of disagreement between predicted and observed in-situ parameters of the recurrent high-speed solar wind streams (HSSs) existing for Carrington rotation (CR) 2118 (December 2011) in comparison with CRs 2117 and 2119. The HSSs originated at the Sun from a recurrent polar coronal hole (CH) expanding to mid-latitudes, and its area in the central part of the solar disk increased with the rotation number. This part of the CH was responsible for the equatorial flank of the HSS directed to the Earth. The time and speed of arrival for this part of the HSS to the Earth were predicted by the hierarchical empirical model based on EUV-imaging and the Wang-Sheeley-Arge ENLIL semi-empirical replace model and compared with the parameters measured in-situ by model. The predicted parameters were compared with those measured in-situ. It was found, that for CR 2117 and CR 2119, the predicted HSS speed values agreed with the measured ones within the typical accuracy of ±100 km s-1. During CR 2118, the measured speed was on 217 km s-1 less than the value predicted in accordance with the increased area of the CH. We suppose that at CR 2118, the HSS overtook and interacted with complex ejecta formed from three merged coronal mass ejections (CMEs) with a mean speed about 400 km s-1. According to simulations of the Drag-based model, this complex ejecta might be created by several CMEs starting from the Sun in the period between 25 and 27 December 2011 and arriving to the Earth simultaneously with the HSS. Due to its higher density and magnetic field strength, the complex ejecta became an obstacle for the equatorial flank of the HSS and slowed it down. During CR 2117 and CR 2119, the CMEs appeared before the arrival of the HSSs, so the CMEs did not influence on the HSSs kinematics.

  19. The logic of comparative life history studies for estimating key parameters, with a focus on natural mortality rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, John M; Then, Amy Y.-H.; Babcock, Elizabeth A.; Hall, Norman G.; Hewitt, David A.; Hesp, Sybrand A.

    2016-01-01

    There are a number of key parameters in population dynamics that are difficult to estimate, such as natural mortality rate, intrinsic rate of population growth, and stock-recruitment relationships. Often, these parameters of a stock are, or can be, estimated indirectly on the basis of comparative life history studies. That is, the relationship between a difficult to estimate parameter and life history correlates is examined over a wide variety of species in order to develop predictive equations. The form of these equations may be derived from life history theory or simply be suggested by exploratory data analysis. Similarly, population characteristics such as potential yield can be estimated by making use of a relationship between the population parameter and bio-chemico–physical characteristics of the ecosystem. Surprisingly, little work has been done to evaluate how well these indirect estimators work and, in fact, there is little guidance on how to conduct comparative life history studies and how to evaluate them. We consider five issues arising in such studies: (i) the parameters of interest may be ill-defined idealizations of the real world, (ii) true values of the parameters are not known for any species, (iii) selecting data based on the quality of the estimates can introduce a host of problems, (iv) the estimates that are available for comparison constitute a non-random sample of species from an ill-defined population of species of interest, and (v) the hierarchical nature of the data (e.g. stocks within species within genera within families, etc., with multiple observations at each level) warrants consideration. We discuss how these issues can be handled and how they shape the kinds of questions that can be asked of a database of life history studies.

  20. Study of the external parameters influence on the channel discharge radius in Hg lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristea, M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the plasma electric conductivity and the channel radius for high-pressure mercury arc discharge are calculated. The examined model emphasizes some correlations between various external parameters (current intensity, silicon tube diameter and working pressure) and the channel discharge radius. After model validation, the temperature distribution in the discharge zone is obtained and then the electrons and ions distribution, the electric carriers mobility and the electric conductivity for different lamp characteristics are calculated. The applied numerical simulation shows a linear increase of the channel radius with the tube radius Rw increasing, and a very week pressure dependence (in the range 0.5 - 5 atm.)

  1. Study on Parameter Identification of Assembly Robot based on Screw Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Shi; Xiaodong, Zhang

    2017-11-01

    The kinematic model of assembly robot is one of the most important factors affecting repetitive precision. In order to improve the accuracy of model positioning, this paper first establishes the exponential product model of ER16-1600 assembly robot on the basis of screw theory, and then based on iterative least squares method, using ER16-1600 model robot parameter identification. By comparing the experiment before and after the calibration, it is proved that the method has obvious improvement on the positioning accuracy of the assembly robot.

  2. Impact of structural parameters on the radon exhalation of building materials: Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelofs, L.M.M.

    1993-01-01

    Samples of mortar and sand-lime pieces with different percentages of fly ash are hardened at different relative humidities. The porosity distribution, the moisture and the radon exhalation of these samples are determined. Based on the data of the above-mentioned analyses, the thickness of the adsorbed water layer in the water-filled pores is estimated. The correlation between the structural parameters and the radon exhalation is investigated. If the radon exhalation process can be modelled, the radiation risk of applying fly ash in building materials can be controlled or reduced. The results do not yet show a clear indication. The applied methods have to be considered in more detail

  3. Influence of newly designed monorail pressure sensor catheter on coronary diagnostic parameters: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rupak K; Peelukhana, Srikara V; Goswami, Ishan

    2014-02-07

    The decision to perform intervention on a patient with coronary stenosis is often based on functional diagnostic parameters obtained from pressure and flow measurements using sensor-tipped guidewire at maximal vasodilation (hyperemia). Recently, a rapid exchange Monorail Pressure Sensor catheter of 0.022″ diameter (MPS22), with pressure sensor at distal end has been developed for improved assessment of stenosis severity. The hollow shaft of the MPS22 is designed to slide over any standard 0.014″ guidewire (G14). Hence, influence of MPS22 diameter on coronary diagnostic parameters needs investigation. An in vitro experiment was conducted to replicate physiologic flows in three representative area stenosis (AS): mild (64% AS), intermediate (80% AS), and severe (90% AS), for two arterial diameters, 3mm (N2; more common) and 2.5mm (N1). Influence of MPS22 on diagnostic parameters: fractional flow reserve (FFR) and pressure drop coefficient (CDP) was evaluated both at hyperemic and basal conditions, while comparing it with G14. The FFR values decreased for the MPS22 in comparison to G14, (Mild: 0.87 vs 0.88, Intermediate: 0.68 vs 0.73, Severe: 0.48 vs 0.56) and CDP values increased (Mild: 16 vs 14, Intermediate: 75 vs 56, Severe: 370 vs 182) for N2. Similar trend was observed in the case of N1. The FFR values were found to be well above (mild) and below (intermediate and severe) the diagnostic cut-off of 0.75. Therefore, MPS22 catheter can be used as a possible alternative to G14. Further, irrespective of the MPS22 or G14, basal FFR (FFRb) had overlapping ranges in close proximity for clinically relevant mild and intermediate stenoses that will lead to diagnostic uncertainty under both N1 and N2. However, CDPb had distinct ranges for different stenosis severities and could be a potential diagnostic parameter under basal conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Studies on the physico-chemical parameters of Omi water body of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Omi water body, the physico-chemical parameters such as dissolved oxygen ranged from 1.4 to 4.8 mg/L; pH, 6.7 to 7.2; temperature, 26.5 to 31.5°C; alkalinity, 24.2 to 25.4 ppm; conductivity, 23.0 to 28.3 Ohms/cm; turbidity 0.11 to 0.15 m; and free carbon dioxide from 3.5 to 4.5 mg/L. Dissolved oxygen, pH and water ...

  5. Study of technological parameters influence on homogeneity of rubber mixings by means of radiotracer methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koczorowska, E.

    1995-01-01

    The radiotracer methods have been worked out for analysis of physico-chemical phenomena. The analysis were carried out for rubber mixings in technological conditions and played a deciding role for quality of manufacturing assortment. The 35 S and 65 Zn have been used as radiotracers. Analysis of different technological parameters influence on behaviour of soluble and polymerized sulfur, zinc compounds as well as other components of the rubber mixing enables to formulate the conclusions important for rubber industry and technology from view point of quality of manufacturing products

  6. THE ANALISYS OF THE PHOTOVOLTAIC AND ELECTRIC PARAMETERS OF A COOLING HYBRID SYSTEM. CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARE R.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the interdependence between photovoltaic and electric parameters of a solar thermoelectric cooler. It emphasises the importance of the solar radiation during two experiments made in the same day, in different weather conditions. Also, it is shown that while the photovoltaic power is directly dependent on the photovoltaic current intensity, the electric power varies along with the voltage. All these have great influence upon the battery – the main component responsible for the operation of the cooling hybrid system.

  7. Tire-road noise: an experimental study of tire and road design parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; Weegerink, Thijs; de Boer, Andries

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire manufacturers. Usually, the parameters influencing exterior tire-road noise are often examined separately, whereas it is the tire-road interaction which obviously causes the actual noise. An integral...

  8. Is correction necessary when clinically determining quantitative cerebral perfusion parameters from multi-slice dynamic susceptibility contrast MR studies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salluzzi, M; Frayne, R; Smith, M R

    2006-01-01

    Several groups have modified the standard singular value decomposition (SVD) algorithm to produce delay-insensitive cerebral blood flow (CBF) estimates from dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion studies. However, new dependences of CBF estimates on bolus arrival times and slice position in multi-slice studies have been recently recognized. These conflicting findings can be reconciled by accounting for several experimental and algorithmic factors. Using simulation and clinical studies, the non-simultaneous measurement of arterial and tissue concentration curves (relative slice position) in a multi-slice study is shown to affect time-related perfusion parameters, e.g. arterial-tissue-delay measurements. However, the current clinical impact of relative slice position on amplitude-related perfusion parameters, e.g. CBF, can be expected to be small unless any of the following conditions are present individually or in combination: (a) high concentration curve signal-to-noise ratios, (b) small tissue mean transit times, (c) narrow arterial input functions or (d) low temporal resolution of the DSC image sequence. Recent improvements in magnetic resonance (MR) technology can easily be expected to lead to scenarios where these effects become increasingly important sources of inaccuracy for all perfusion parameter estimates. We show that using Fourier interpolated (high temporal resolution) residue functions reduces the systematic error of the perfusion parameters obtained from multi-slice studies

  9. Parameter study of global and cluster synchronization in arrays of dry friction oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marszal, Michał, E-mail: michal.marszal@p.lodz.pl; Stefański, Andrzej

    2017-04-18

    Highlights: • Synchronization properties in arrays of coupled dry friction oscillators are investigated. • Master stability function in form of two-oscillator probe is used for predicting synchronization thresholds. • Two network topologies are checked: open and closed nearest neighbor coupling. • Regions of complete and cluster synchronization are found in parameter space. - Abstract: We investigate synchronization thresholds in arrays of identical classic stick-slip dry friction oscillators connected in a nearest neighbor fashion in closed and open ring network. Friction force is modeled by smoothened Stribeck model. Arrays of different length are checked in two parameter space (i.e., coupling coefficient vs. excitation frequency) for complete synchronization as well as cluster synchronization. Synchronization thresholds obtained by brute force numerical integration are compared with possible synchronization regions using the concept called master stability function in the form of two-oscillator reference probe. The results show existence of both complete synchronization and cluster synchronization regions in the investigated systems and confirm that two-oscillator probe can be applied for prediction of synchronization thresholds in systems with stick-slip phenomenon.

  10. A comparative study on optimization of machining parameters by turning aerospace materials according to Taguchi method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altin Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of cutting tool coating material and cutting speed on cutting forces and surface roughness were investigated by Taguchi experimental design. Main cutting force, Fz is considered as a criterion. The effects of machining parameters were investigated using Taguchi L18 orthogonal array. Optimal cutting conditions were determined using the signal-to-noise (S/N ratio which is calculated for average surface roughness and cutting force according to the “the smaller is better” approach. Using results of analysis of variance (ANOVA and signal-to-noise (S/N ratio, effects of parameters on both average surface roughness and cutting forces were statistically investigated. It was observed that feed rate and cutting speed had higher effect on cutting force in Hastelloy X, while the feed rate and cutting tool had higher effect on cutting force in Inconel 625. According to average surface roughness the cutting tool and feed rate had higher effect in Hastelloy X and Inconel 625.

  11. A study of two estimation approaches for parameters of Weibull distribution based on WPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.F.; Xie, M.; Tang, L.C.

    2007-01-01

    Least-squares estimation (LSE) based on Weibull probability plot (WPP) is the most basic method for estimating the Weibull parameters. The common procedure of this method is using the least-squares regression of Y on X, i.e. minimizing the sum of squares of the vertical residuals, to fit a straight line to the data points on WPP and then calculate the LS estimators. This method is known to be biased. In the existing literature the least-squares regression of X on Y, i.e. minimizing the sum of squares of the horizontal residuals, has been used by the Weibull researchers. This motivated us to carry out this comparison between the estimators of the two LS regression methods using intensive Monte Carlo simulations. Both complete and censored data are examined. Surprisingly, the result shows that LS Y on X performs better for small, complete samples, while the LS X on Y performs better in other cases in view of bias of the estimators. The two methods are also compared in terms of other model statistics. In general, when the shape parameter is less than one, LS Y on X provides a better model; otherwise, LS X on Y tends to be better

  12. Parameter and state estimation in a Neisseria meningitidis model: A study case of Niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowong, S.; Mountaga, L.; Bah, A.; Tewa, J. J.; Kurths, J.

    2016-12-01

    Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) is a major cause of bacterial meningitidis outbreaks in Africa and the Middle East. The availability of yearly reported meningitis cases in the African meningitis belt offers the opportunity to analyze the transmission dynamics and the impact of control strategies. In this paper, we propose a method for the estimation of state variables that are not accessible to measurements and an unknown parameter in a Nm model. We suppose that the yearly number of Nm induced mortality and the total population are known inputs, which can be obtained from data, and the yearly number of new Nm cases is the model output. We also suppose that the Nm transmission rate is an unknown parameter. We first show how the recruitment rate into the population can be estimated using real data of the total population and Nm induced mortality. Then, we use an auxiliary system called observer whose solutions converge exponentially to those of the original model. This observer does not use the unknown infection transmission rate but only uses the known inputs and the model output. This allows us to estimate unmeasured state variables such as the number of carriers that play an important role in the transmission of the infection and the total number of infected individuals within a human community. Finally, we also provide a simple method to estimate the unknown Nm transmission rate. In order to validate the estimation results, numerical simulations are conducted using real data of Niger.

  13. Sensitivity study and parameter optimization of OCD tool for 14nm finFET process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhensheng; Chen, Huiping; Cheng, Shiqiu; Zhan, Yunkun; Huang, Kun; Shi, Yaoming; Xu, Yiping

    2016-03-01

    Optical critical dimension (OCD) measurement has been widely demonstrated as an essential metrology method for monitoring advanced IC process in the technology node of 90 nm and beyond. However, the rapidly shrunk critical dimensions of the semiconductor devices and the increasing complexity of the manufacturing process bring more challenges to OCD. The measurement precision of OCD technology highly relies on the optical hardware configuration, spectral types, and inherently interactions between the incidence of light and various materials with various topological structures, therefore sensitivity analysis and parameter optimization are very critical in the OCD applications. This paper presents a method for seeking the optimum sensitive measurement configuration to enhance the metrology precision and reduce the noise impact to the greatest extent. In this work, the sensitivity of different types of spectra with a series of hardware configurations of incidence angles and azimuth angles were investigated. The optimum hardware measurement configuration and spectrum parameter can be identified. The FinFET structures in the technology node of 14 nm were constructed to validate the algorithm. This method provides guidance to estimate the measurement precision before measuring actual device features and will be beneficial for OCD hardware configuration.

  14. Study on Parameter Optimization Design of Drum Brake Based on Hybrid Cellular Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In consideration of the significant role the brake plays in ensuring the fast and safe running of vehicles, and since the present parameter optimization design models of brake are far from the practical application, this paper proposes a multiobjective optimization model of drum brake, aiming at maximizing the braking efficiency and minimizing the volume and temperature rise of drum brake. As the commonly used optimization algorithms are of some deficiency, we present a differential evolution cellular multiobjective genetic algorithm (DECell by introducing differential evolution strategy into the canonical cellular genetic algorithm for tackling this problem. For DECell, the gained Pareto front could be as close as possible to the exact Pareto front, and also the diversity of nondominated individuals could be better maintained. The experiments on the test functions reveal that DECell is of good performance in solving high-dimension nonlinear multiobjective problems. And the results of optimizing the new brake model indicate that DECell obviously outperforms the compared popular algorithm NSGA-II concerning the number of obtained brake design parameter sets, the speed, and stability for finding them.

  15. An Empirical Study of Parameter Estimation for Stated Preference Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The stated preference experimental design can affect the reliability of the parameters estimation in discrete choice model. Some scholars have proposed some new experimental designs, such as D-efficient, Bayesian D-efficient. But insufficient empirical research has been conducted on the effectiveness of these new designs and there has been little comparative analysis of the new designs against the traditional designs. In this paper, a new metro connecting Chengdu and its satellite cities is taken as the research subject to demonstrate the validity of the D-efficient and Bayesian D-efficient design. Comparisons between these new designs and orthogonal design were made by the fit of model and standard deviation of parameters estimation; then the best model result is obtained to analyze the travel choice behavior. The results indicate that Bayesian D-efficient design works better than D-efficient design. Some of the variables can affect significantly the choice behavior of people, including the waiting time and arrival time. The D-efficient and Bayesian D-efficient design for MNL can acquire reliability result in ML model, but the ML model cannot develop the theory advantages of these two designs. Finally, the metro can handle over 40% passengers flow if the metro will be operated in the future.

  16. A specific and correlative study of natural atmospheric radioactivity, condensation nuclei and some electrical parameters in marine or urban sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gac, Jacqueline.

    1980-02-01

    In order to determine the correlations between the following atmospheric parameters: radon and condensation nuclei concentrations, total conductivity and space charge, we analysed their behavior over a long period, in connection with meteorological data. We simulaneously studied the equilibrium state between 222 Rn and its short-lived daughters pointing out a radioactive desequilibrium as a function of the meteorological conditions. Simultaneously, we established average experimental curves of cumulated particle size distributions of natural radioactivity in the air, differentiating urban and marine influences. Finally, a comparison between the various parameters showed that the total conductivity greatly depends on condensation nuclei and radon concentrations in the air [fr

  17. A study of calculation methodology and experimental measurements of the kinetic parameters for source driven subcritical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Min

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a theoretical study of reactor kinetics focusing on the methodology of calculation and the experimental measurements of the so-called kinetic parameters. A comparison between the methodology based on the Dulla's formalism and the classical method is made. The objective is to exhibit the dependence of the parameters on subcriticality level and perturbation. Two different slab type systems were considered: thermal one and fast one, both with homogeneous media. One group diffusion model was used for the fast reactor, and for the thermal system, two groups diffusion model, considering, in both case, only one precursor's family. The solutions were obtained using the expansion method. Also, descriptions of the main experimental methods of measurements of the kinetic parameters are presented in order to put a question about the compatibility of these methods in subcritical region. (author)

  18. Study on spatial distribution of plasma parameters in a magnetized inductively coupled plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Hee-Woon; Lee, Woohyun; Kim, Ji-Won; Whang, Ki-Woong, E-mail: kwhang@snu.ac.kr [Plasma Laboratory, Inter-University Semiconductor Research Center, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyuk [Samsung Electronics Co., Banwol-dong, Hwaseong 445-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Wanjae [Tokyo Electron Miyagi Ltd., Taiwa-cho, Kurokawa-gun, Miyagi 981-3629 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Spatial distributions of various plasma parameters such as plasma density, electron temperature, and radical density in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and a magnetized inductively coupled plasma (M-ICP) were investigated and compared. Electron temperature in between the rf window and the substrate holder of M-ICP was higher than that of ICP, whereas the one just above the substrate holder of M-ICP was similar to that of ICP when a weak (<8 G) magnetic field was employed. As a result, radical densities in M-ICP were higher than those in ICP and the etch rate of oxide in M-ICP was faster than that in ICP without severe electron charging in 90 nm high aspect ratio contact hole etch.

  19. Structural parameters of polyethylenes obtained using a palladium catalyst: dilute solution and solid state studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneghetti, Simoni Plentz; Lutz, Pierre J.; Duval, M.; Kress, Jacky; Lapp, A.

    2001-01-01

    Polyethylenes were obtained using palladium catalyst [(Ar N=C(Me)-C(Me)=N Ar) Pd(CH 2 ) 3 (COOMe)] + BAr' 4 - (VERSIPOL TM ); Ar2,6-i-Pr 2 -C 6 H 3 and Ar'3,5-(CF 3 ) 2 -C 6 H 3 . The combination of dilute solution and solid state characterization of these polyethylenes revealed strong differences between structural parameters of samples prepared under almost identical conditions except ethylene pressure (6, 3 and 1 bar). These differences can be explained by the fact that samples prepared at 6 bar are almost linear, with only a few short branches, whereas those synthesized at 1 bar are highly branched or even hyper branched. (author)

  20. Ellipsometry study of optical parameters of AgIn5S8 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Mehmet; Gasanly, Nizami

    2015-12-01

    AgIn5S8 crystals grown by Bridgman method were characterized for optical properties by ellipsometry measurements. Spectral dependence of optical parameters; real and imaginary parts of the pseudodielectric function, pseudorefractive index, pseudoextinction coefficient, reflectivity and absorption coefficient were obtained from ellipsometry experiments carried out in the 1.2-6.2 eV range. Direct band gap energy of 1.84 eV was found from the analysis of absorption coefficient vs. photon energy. The oscillator energy, dispersion energy and zero-frequency refractive index, high-frequency dielectric constant values were found from the analysis of the experimental data using Wemple-DiDomenico and Spitzer-Fan models. Crystal structure and atomic composition ratio of the constituent elements in the AgIn5S8 crystal were revealed from structural characterization techniques of X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy.

  1. Ellipsometry study of optical parameters of AgIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isik, Mehmet, E-mail: mehmet.isik@atilim.edu.tr [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Atilim University, 06836 Ankara (Turkey); Gasanly, Nizami [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Virtual International Scientific Research Centre, Baku State University, 1148 Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2015-12-01

    AgIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} crystals grown by Bridgman method were characterized for optical properties by ellipsometry measurements. Spectral dependence of optical parameters; real and imaginary parts of the pseudodielectric function, pseudorefractive index, pseudoextinction coefficient, reflectivity and absorption coefficient were obtained from ellipsometry experiments carried out in the 1.2–6.2 eV range. Direct band gap energy of 1.84 eV was found from the analysis of absorption coefficient vs. photon energy. The oscillator energy, dispersion energy and zero-frequency refractive index, high-frequency dielectric constant values were found from the analysis of the experimental data using Wemple-DiDomenico and Spitzer-Fan models. Crystal structure and atomic composition ratio of the constituent elements in the AgIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} crystal were revealed from structural characterization techniques of X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy.

  2. THE STUDY OF SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE MYELOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bularda Morozan Mihai

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of some biochemical parameters obtained in the laboratory of “Elena Beldiman” Emergency Hospital Barlad, and in the”Dr. Stoian –Dr. Ungureanu”Private Medical Practice on 10 patients diagnosed with multiple myeloma during 2005-2011. Numerous researches over serum proteins with the help of various methods ( refractometry have shown the presence of some changes in protein fractions of blood serum. These changes express the change of the normal ratio between these fractions, that means disorders in colloidal structure of blood. The results of the electrophoresis analysis, also in accordance with those from the scholarly literature, show that the changes in the condition of the blood serum are due to the increase in the globulins fractions which is linked to the growth of the immunological processes, the antibodies synthesis being especially closely linked to gammaglobulinic fraction

  3. Prematurity and Related Biochemical Outcomes: Study of Bone Mineralization and Renal Function Parameters in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Singh Chauhan

    2011-01-01

    phosphorus levels were found to be significantly decreased, and serum ALP, creatinine, and electrolytes were found to be significantly increased (<0.001 at 28–30 weeks as compared to controls, but serum calcium and phosphorous levels were found to be insignificantly decreased, whereas serum ALP activities were found to be insignificantly increased at 28–30 weeks as compared to 30–32 weeks of gestational age in preterm babies. It can be concluded that high serum ALP activity and low serum calcium and phosphorus levels are associated with preterm babies. A significant difference in the mean values of these renal function parameters was also obtained, except for serum sodium and potassium.

  4. Study of the impact of environmental parameters on the operation of CMS RPCs

    CERN Document Server

    Assran, Yasser

    2011-01-01

    CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) is a general purpose detector designed to run at the highest luminosity at Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN, Geneva, Switzerland. The muon system of the CMS experiment relies on Drift Tubes (DT), Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC) and Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC). RPCs are dedicated for the first level muon trigger and they are characterized by bakelite electrodes delimited in a specialized gas volume filled with operational gas mixture. This analysis has been done for the RPC chambers installed in CMS experiment at CERN. The Currents of CMS RPCs chambers are analyzed as a function of environmental parameters such as Temperature, Humidity and pressure, which are important for the operation of the muon detector system. A novel Neural Network approach has been used to analyze the data and to build a model using experimental measurements and combining the results of the simulations. Data from RPC Chambers in CMS experiment are taken and compared to the results from neural Network.

  5. Comparative Study on Quality Parameters of Royal Jelly, Apilarnil and Queen Bee Larvae Triturate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica MARGAOAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Given their beneficial effects in terms of health, the natural products, especially beehive products, have drawn the attention of consumers since long time ago. In order to guarantee the quality of these products on the market, their chemical composition needs to be analyzed. Thus, this current research had as objective the establishment of quality parameters for beehive brood food derived products: apilarnil and queen bee larvae triturate. These two products were compared with royal jelly which is the basis of brood food in the first 3 days of larval stage. The carbohydrates were determined by HPLC-IR and allowed the identification of seven carbohydrate compounds, predominantly glucose, fructose and sucrose. The lipid profile was analyzed by the Soxhlet method. The total protein content was determined by the Kjeldahl method. Free amino acids were analyzed by LC-MS. A total of 31 amino acids were identified of which nine are essential amino acids for humans.Â

  6. Optimisation of process parameters in friction stir welding based on residual stress analysis: a feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2010-01-01

    The present paper considers the optimisation of process parameters in friction stir welding (FSW). More specifically, the choices of rotational speed and traverse welding speed have been investigated using genetic algorithms. The welding process is simulated in a transient, two......-dimensional sequentially coupled thermomechanical model in ANSYS. This model is then used in an optimisation case where the two objectives are the minimisation of the peak residual stresses and the maximisation of the welding speed. The results indicate that the objectives for the considered case are conflicting......, and this is presented as a Pareto optimal front. Moreover, a higher welding speed for a fixed rotational speed results, in general, in slightly higher stress levels in the tension zone, whereas a higher rotational speed for a fixed welding speed yields somewhat lower peak residual stress, however, a wider tension zone...

  7. Further Studies of Forest Structure Parameter Retrievals Using the Echidna® Ground-Based Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahler, A. H.; Yao, T.; Zhao, F.; Yang, X.; Schaaf, C.; Wang, Z.; Li, Z.; Woodcock, C. E.; Culvenor, D.; Jupp, D.; Newnham, G.; Lovell, J.

    2012-12-01

    Ongoing work with the Echidna® Validation Instrument (EVI), a full-waveform, ground-based scanning lidar (1064 nm) developed by Australia's CSIRO and deployed by Boston University in California conifers (2008) and New England hardwood and softwood (conifer) stands (2007, 2009, 2010), confirms the importance of slope correction in forest structural parameter retrieval; detects growth and disturbance over periods of 2-3 years; provides a new way to measure the between-crown clumping factor in leaf area index retrieval using lidar range; and retrieves foliage profiles with more lower-canopy detail than a large-footprint aircraft scanner (LVIS), while simulating LVIS foliage profiles accurately from a nadir viewpoint using a 3-D point cloud. Slope correction is important for accurate retrieval of forest canopy structural parameters, such as mean diameter at breast height (DBH), stem count density, basal area, and above-ground biomass. Topographic slope can induce errors in parameter retrievals because the horizontal plane of the instrument scan, which is used to identify, measure, and count tree trunks, will intersect trunks below breast height in the uphill direction and above breast height in the downhill direction. A test of three methods at southern Sierra Nevada conifer sites improved the range of correlations of these EVI-retrieved parameters with field measurements from 0.53-0.68 to 0.85-0.93 for the best method. EVI scans can detect change, including both growth and disturbance, in periods of two to three years. We revisited three New England forest sites scanned in 2007-2009 or 2007-2010. A shelterwood stand at the Howland Experimental Forest, Howland, Maine, showed increased mean DBH, above-ground biomass and leaf area index between 2007 and 2009. Two stands at the Harvard Forest, Petersham, Massachusetts, suffered reduced leaf area index and reduced stem count density as the result of an ice storm that damaged the stands. At one stand, broken tops were

  8. Application study of evolutionary operation methods in optimization of process parameters for mosquito coils industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, E.; Tambunanand, M. M.; Syahputri, K.

    2018-02-01

    Evolutionary Operation Methods (EVOP) is a method that is designed used in the process of running or operating routinely in the company to enables high productivity. Quality is one of the critical factors for a company to win the competition. Because of these conditions, the research for products quality has been done by gathering the production data of the company and make a direct observation to the factory floor especially the drying department to identify the problem which is the high water content in the mosquito incense coil. PT.X which is producing mosquito coils attempted to reduce product defects caused by the inaccuracy of operating conditions. One of the parameters of good quality insect repellent that is water content, that if the moisture content is too high then the product easy to mold and broken, and vice versa if it is too low the products are easily broken and burn shorter hours. Three factors that affect the value of the optimal water content, the stirring time, drying temperature and drying time. To obtain the required conditions Evolutionary Operation (EVOP) methods is used. Evolutionary Operation (EVOP) is used as an efficient technique for optimization of two or three variable experimental parameters using two-level factorial designs with center point. Optimal operating conditions in the experiment are stirring time performed for 20 minutes, drying temperature at 65°C, and drying time for 130 minutes. The results of the analysis based on the method of Evolutionary Operation (EVOP) value is the optimum water content of 6.90%, which indicates the value has approached the optimal in a production plant that is 7%.

  9. A study of parameters in spiral CT volumetry using balloon phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hak Jong; Han, Joon Koo

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of threshold values, reconstruction interval, slice thickness and table speed on the spiral CT volumetry. Two phantoms made of a balloon and diluted contrast media underwent spiral CT scanning with section thicknesses of 5, 7 and 10 mm and table speeds of 5, 8 and 10 mm with scans of 5 mm section thickness, 7, 10, and 14 mm with scans of 7 mm section thickness, and 10, 15, and 20 mm with scans of 10 mm section thickness. The volumetric values of phantom A and B were obtained at varying threshold values and a reconstruction interval of 5 and 10 mm for all scans. Volumes were also determined with the threshold value fixed and a reconstruction interval of 1, 5, 7 and 10 mm, respectively. Three-dimensional display and volumetric measurements were obtained using reconstructed images. The effects of threshold value, reconstruction interval, slice thickness and table speed on volumetry were analyzed. Volumetric values varied according to threshold values. Where a threshold value was low, value increased as pitch increased, but where a the threshold value was high, value decreased as pitch increased. With varying threshold values, measurement errors in CT volumetry were 1.6 to 9.0%. Volume decreased as reconstruction interval increased. Where the table speed/ slice thickness ratio was constant, volume was constant though slice thickness differed. At fixed threshold values, variation in the reconstruction interval was statistically more significant than variation in slice thickness or table speed (p<0.05, Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA). Among serveral spiral scanning and image reconstruction parameters including threshold value, reconstruction interval, slice thickness, and table speed, threshold value most affected the result obtained. At fixed threshold values, the reconstruction interval used had more effect on CT volumetry than other parameters

  10. Near Work Related Parameters and Myopia in Chinese Children: the Anyang Childhood Eye Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Ming Li

    Full Text Available To examine the associations of near work related parameters with spherical equivalent refraction and axial length in Chinese children.A total of 1770 grade 7 students with mean age of 12.7 years were examined with cycloplegic autorefraction and axial length. Questions were asked regarding time spent in near work and outdoors per day, and near work related parameters.Multivariate models revealed the following associations with greater odds of myopia: continuous reading (> 45min, odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.8; close television viewing distance (≤ 3m, OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.3; head tilt when writing, OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.7, and desk lighting using fluorescent vs. incandescent lamp, OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-2.0. These factors, together with close reading distance and close nib-to-fingertip distance were significantly associated with greater myopia (P<0.01. Among near work activities, only reading more books for pleasure was significantly associated with greater myopia (P=0.03. Television viewing distance (≤ 3 m, fluorescent desk light, close reading distance (≤20 cm and close nib-to-fingertip distance (≤ 2 cm were significantly associated with longer axial length (P<0.01. Reading distance, desk light, and reading books for pleasure had significant interaction effects with parental myopia.Continuous reading, close distances of reading, television viewing and nib-to-fingertip, head tilt when writing, reading more books for pleasure and use of fluorescent desk light were significantly associated with myopia in 12-year-old Chinese children, which indicates that visual behaviors and environments may be important factors mediating the effects of near work on myopia.

  11. A Study on the Effects of Sympathetic Skin Response Parameters in Diagnosis of Fibromyalgia Using Artificial Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Ozhan; Yildiz, Murat; Arslan, Evren; Yildiz, Sedat; Bilgin, Suleyman; Akkus, Selami; Koyuncuoglu, Hasan R; Koklukaya, Etem

    2016-03-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), usually observed commonly in females over age 30, is a rheumatic disease accompanied by extensive chronic pain. In the diagnosis of the disease non-objective psychological tests and physiological tests and laboratory test results are evaluated and clinical experiences stand out. However, these tests are insufficient in differentiating FMS with similar diseases that demonstrate symptoms of extensive pain. Thus, objective tests that would help the diagnosis are needed. This study analyzes the effect of sympathetic skin response (SSR) parameters on the auxiliary tests used in FMS diagnosis, the laboratory tests and physiological tests. The study was conducted in Suleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Medicine, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic in Turkey with 60 patients diagnosed with FMS for the first time and a control group of 30 healthy individuals. In the study all participants underwent laboratory tests (blood tests), certain physiological tests (pulsation, skin temperature, respiration) and SSR measurements. The test data and SSR parameters obtained were classified using artificial neural network (ANN). Finally, in the ANN framework, where only laboratory and physiological test results were used as input, a simulation result of 96.51 % was obtained, which demonstrated diagnostic accuracy. This data, with the addition of SSR parameter values obtained increased to 97.67 %. This result including SSR parameters - meaning a higher diagnostic accuracy - demonstrated that SSR could be a new auxillary diagnostic method that could be used in the diagnosis of FMS.

  12. Correlation of the controlled attenuation parameter with indices of liver steatosis in overweight or obese individuals: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraioli, Giovanna; Tinelli, Carmine; Lissandrin, Raffaella; Zicchetti, Mabel; Faliva, Milena; Perna, Simone; Perani, Guido; Alessandrino, Francesco; Calliada, Fabrizio; Rondanelli, Mariangela; Filice, Carlo

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical relevance of the controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) by analyzing the correlations between CAP and indirect indices of liver steatosis in obese or overweight individuals. Consecutive participants were prospectively enrolled. BMI, waist circumference, hepatic steatosis index, fatty liver index, percent fat mass and regional fat masses as assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), fat signal fraction as assessed by MRI, and CAP were obtained. Pearson's r coefficient was used to test the correlation between two study variables. A total of 88 individuals were studied. They included 31 men [age, 50.4 years (12.9 years); BMI, 30.7 kg/m (4.8 kg/m)] and 57 women [age, 49.0 years (12.6 years); BMI, 31.4 kg/m (5.6 kg/m)]. DXA, anthropometric parameters, and fatty liver index were moderately correlated with CAP in men. In women, there was a moderate correlation of CAP with the hepatic steatosis index and anthropometric parameters and only a slight or fair correlation of CAP with DXA parameters. CAP and fat signal fraction showed a good correlation (r=0.65 in men, P=0.002; r=0.68 in women, P=0.0009). Measurement of CAP is a reliable method for noninvasive assessment of liver steatosis, showing a correlation with other indirect markers of central obesity and a good correlation with MRI results.

  13. A Sensitivity Study for an Evaluation of Input Parameters Effect on a Preliminary Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Hyun-Me; Kim, Min Kyu; Choi, In-Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sheen, Dong-Hoon [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The tsunami hazard analysis has been based on the seismic hazard analysis. The seismic hazard analysis has been performed by using the deterministic method and the probabilistic method. To consider the uncertainties in hazard analysis, the probabilistic method has been regarded as attractive approach. The various parameters and their weight are considered by using the logic tree approach in the probabilistic method. The uncertainties of parameters should be suggested by analyzing the sensitivity because the various parameters are used in the hazard analysis. To apply the probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis, the preliminary study for the Ulchin NPP site had been performed. The information on the fault sources which was published by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) had been used in the preliminary study. The tsunami propagation was simulated by using the TSUNAMI{sub 1}.0 which was developed by Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES). The wave parameters have been estimated from the result of tsunami simulation. In this study, the sensitivity analysis for the fault sources which were selected in the previous studies has been performed. To analyze the effect of the parameters, the sensitivity analysis for the E3 fault source which was published by AESJ was performed. The effect of the recurrence interval, the potential maximum magnitude, and the beta were suggested by the sensitivity analysis results. Level of annual exceedance probability has been affected by the recurrence interval.. Wave heights have been influenced by the potential maximum magnitude and the beta. In the future, the sensitivity analysis for the all fault sources in the western part of Japan which were published AESJ would be performed.

  14. Preliminary study of environmental parameters associated with the feasibility of a polygeneration plant at Kennedy Space Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, G.D.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of a polygeneration plant at Kennedy Space Center was studied. Liquid hydrogen and gaseous nitrogen are the two principal products in consideration. Environmental parameters (air quality, water quality, biological diversity and hazardous waste disposal) necessary for the feasibility study were investigated. A National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) project flow sheet was to be formulated for the environmental impact statement. Water quality criteria for Florida waters were to be established

  15. Studying the Effects of Mobile Phone Waves on Electro Cardiogram Parameters of Students in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Komeili, Gholamreza; Nabizadeh Sarabandi, Sima

    2012-01-01

    Background The increasing use of mobile phones in recent years has caused concerns about the effects of electromagnetic waves of mobile phonesonhuman biological processes. Objectives This study was conducted in order to survey the effects of mobile electromagnetic waves on electro cardiogram parameters as heart rate, TP segment, PR interval, Time of QRS and T waves, and voltage of R wave. Patients and Methods In this quasi experimental study, 40 students, of Zahedan medical science University...

  16. Long-period and short-period variations of ionospheric parameters studied from complex observations performed on Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laso, B; Lobachevskii, L A; Potapova, N I; Freizon, I A; Shapiro, B S

    1980-09-01

    Cuban data from 1978 are used to study long-period (i.e., diurnal) variations of Doppler shift on a 3000 km path at frequencies of 10 and 15 MHz these variations are related to variations of parameters on the ionospheric path. Short-period variations were also studied on the basis of Doppler shift data and vertical sounding data in the 0.000111-0.00113 Hz frequency range. The relation between the observed variations and internal gravity waves are discussed.

  17. Parameter Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Heitzig, Martina; Cameron, Ian

    2011-01-01

    of optimisation techniques coupled with dynamic solution of the underlying model. Linear and nonlinear approaches to parameter estimation are investigated. There is also the application of maximum likelihood principles in the estimation of parameters, as well as the use of orthogonal collocation to generate a set......In this chapter the importance of parameter estimation in model development is illustrated through various applications related to reaction systems. In particular, rate constants in a reaction system are obtained through parameter estimation methods. These approaches often require the application...... of algebraic equations as the basis for parameter estimation.These approaches are illustrated using estimations of kinetic constants from reaction system models....

  18. Neutralized solar energetic particles in the inner heliosphere: a parameter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Klecker, Berndt; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Cipriani, Fabrice; Barabash, Stas; Wieser, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The large fluxes of solar energetic particles (SEPs) in Gradual Events, dominated by protons, are believed to be produced by the acceleration of shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). As SEPs propagate in the lower corona, there is a chance for them to be neutralized via the charge exchange and/or recombination processes and become energetic neutral atoms (ENAs). These ENAs retain the velocity of their parent SEPs and propagate in straight lines without the influence of the interplanetary magnetic field, and therefore might potentially serve as a new window to observe the particle acceleration processes in the solar corona. STEREO/Low Energy Telescope reported the first probable observation of hydrogen ENAs between 1.6 MeV - 5 MeV from the Sun prior to an X-class flare/CME [Mewaldt et al., 2009]. While such observations were somehow controversial, Wang et al. [2014] simulated the neutralization of solar energetic protons in the corona lower than 40 RS, and the result agreed with the STEREO observation. In this work, we further developed a production model of the ENA near the sun together with a transport model toward the inner planets, and explore the dependences of the ENA characteristics against the model parameters. These parameters include the angular width of the CME, its propagation direction with respect to the Sun-observer line, the propagation speed, the particle density in the corona, the abundances of O6+ and C4+, and the reaction rate of electron impact ionization in the loss of ENAs, and the heliospheric distance of the observer. The calculated ENA flux shows that at lower energy the expected ENA flux depends most sensitively on the CME apex angle and the CME propagation direction. At higher energy the dependence on the coronal density is more prominent. References Mewaldt, R. A., R. A. Leske, E. C. Stone, A. F. Barghouty, A. W. Labrador, C. M. S. Cohen, A. C. Cummings, A. J. Davis, T. T. von Rosenvinge, and M. E. Wiedenbeck (2009), STEREO

  19. Effect of Tracheostomy on Weaning Parameters in Difficult-to-Wean Mechanically Ventilated Patients: A Prospective Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chor-Kuan; Ruan, Sheng-Yuan; Lin, Feng-Ching; Wu, Chao-Ling; Chang, Hou-Tai; Jerng, Jih-Shuin; Wu, Huey-Dong; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Weaning parameters are commonly measured through an endotracheal tube in mechanically ventilated patients recovering from acute respiratory failure, however this practice has rarely been evaluated in tracheostomized patients. This study aimed to investigate changes in weaning parameters measured before and after tracheostomy, and to explore whether the data measured after tracheostomy were associated with weaning outcomes in difficult-to-wean patients. Methods In a two-year study period, we enrolled orotracheally intubated patients who were prepared for tracheostomy due to difficult weaning. Weaning parameters were measured before and after the conversion to tracheostomy and compared, and the post-tracheostomy data were tested for associations with weaning outcomes. Results A total of 86 patients were included. After tracheostomy, maximum inspiratory pressure (mean difference (Δ) = 4.4, 95% CI, 2.7 to 6.1, Ptracheostomy than those who were unsuccessfully weaned. Conclusions In conclusion, the conversion from endotracheal tube to tracheostomy significantly improved the measured values of weaning parameters in difficult-to-wean patients who subsequently weaned successfully from the mechanical ventilator. The change was significant only for airway resistance in patients who failed weaning. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01312142 PMID:26379127

  20. Characteristics of the technical parameters in the realization of computed tomography studies in pediatric patients in Bogota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triana, Gustavo; Romero, Javier; Rivero, Oscar; Sosa, Daniel; Patarroyo, Edith

    2005-01-01

    The use of Computed Tomography (CT) examinations for the diagnosis of common pathologies in pediatric patients has increase. This implies an increase in the radiation doses that pediatric patients received, therefore increasing the risk of secondary mortality due to cancer throughout life. In recent papers, the recommended radiation doses for pediatric patients in agreement with the concept ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) has settled down. This study evaluates the CT technical parameters of pediatric examinations in Bogota city, and review if they have been fitted with parameters recommended according to age and body weight. Materials and methods: A non-probabilistic sampling of 46 scanning tests were applied to children in six different institutions in Bogota; the technical parameters of kv and second mAs were checked of studies in abdomen, thorax and skeletal muscle system. Results: It was found that the technical parameters used in TC in children are higher of the recommended; the group of 4-year-old is the most affected by dos e of unnecessary radiation. Discussion and conclusions: The information from the protection of the radiation must be spread to the whole radiology personnel of the institutions that fulfill scanning tests of pediatric patients. ar zones that influences the wetland

  1. Application of Time-series Model to Predict Groundwater Quality Parameters for Agriculture: (Plain Mehran Case Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrdad Mirsanjari, Mir; Mohammadyari, Fatemeh

    2018-03-01

    Underground water is regarded as considerable water source which is mainly available in arid and semi arid with deficient surface water source. Forecasting of hydrological variables are suitable tools in water resources management. On the other hand, time series concepts is considered efficient means in forecasting process of water management. In this study the data including qualitative parameters (electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio) of 17 underground water wells in Mehran Plain has been used to model the trend of parameters change over time. Using determined model, the qualitative parameters of groundwater is predicted for the next seven years. Data from 2003 to 2016 has been collected and were fitted by AR, MA, ARMA, ARIMA and SARIMA models. Afterward, the best model is determined using information criterion or Akaike (AIC) and correlation coefficient. After modeling parameters, the map of agricultural land use in 2016 and 2023 were generated and the changes between these years were studied. Based on the results, the average of predicted SAR (Sodium Adsorption Rate) in all wells in the year 2023 will increase compared to 2016. EC (Electrical Conductivity) average in the ninth and fifteenth holes and decreases in other wells will be increased. The results indicate that the quality of groundwater for Agriculture Plain Mehran will decline in seven years.

  2. STUDIES OF CHANGES OF SOME BLOOD PARAMETERS AMONG WORKERS OF CEMENT OF EL MA EL ABIOD TEBESSA ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aouimeur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In Algeria, the industrial development engenders the appearance of the sanitary and environmental problems resulting from the pollution due to these certain industries such as the industry cimentière. With the aim of estimating the sanitary state of the workers of the cement works; a study was made for 30 workers of the cement works. This study is based on the determination of the values of 07 parameters hématologiques (red blood cells, haemoglobin, hématocrite, average spherical volume, The corpuscular concentration averages in haemoglobin, The corpuscular content averages in haemoglobin and the number of white blood cells and two parameters considered as markers premature of the inflammation (sedimentation speed and protein-C-reactive. These results are compared with two other populations, one of the inhabitants of the region and other one of the inhabitants far from the cement works avec 60 km. The statistical analyses are based on the comparison of the variances and the analysis in main constituent (ACP. The comparison of the variance of the various variable of the individuals show a resemblance between the workers and the inhabitants close to the cement works but significant differences appeared between both populations and those of the cement works for some parameters. The global analysis of these results with the ACP showed a general coherence. The observation of the groups allowed removing some peculiarities.This distribution shows the relation between the functional state and the variation of the parameters.

  3. A Multi-Year Study on Rice Morphological Parameter Estimation with X-Band Polsar Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Yuzugullu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice fields have been monitored with spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR systems for decades. SAR is an essential source of data and allows for the estimation of plant properties such as canopy height, leaf area index, phenological phase, and yield. However, the information on detailed plant morphology in meter-scale resolution is necessary for the development of better management practices. This letter presents the results of the procedure that estimates the stalk height, leaf length and leaf width of rice fields from a copolar X-band TerraSAR-X time series data based on a priori phenological phase. The methodology includes a computationally efficient stochastic inversion algorithm of a metamodel that mimics a radiative transfer theory-driven electromagnetic scattering (EM model. The EM model and its metamodel are employed to simulate the backscattering intensities from flooded rice fields based on their simplified physical structures. The results of the inversion procedure are found to be accurate for cultivation seasons from 2013 to 2015 with root mean square errors less than 13.5 cm for stalk height, 7 cm for leaf length, and 4 mm for leaf width parameters. The results of this research provided new perspectives on the use of EM models and computationally efficient metamodels for agriculture management practices.

  4. Geochemical sensitivity analysis: Identification of important geochemical parameters for performance assessment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, M.; Guzowski, R.; Rechard, R.; Erickson, K.

    1986-01-01

    The EPA Standard for geologic disposal of high level waste requires demonstration that the cumulative discharge of individual radioisotopes over a 10,000 year period at points 5 kilometers from the engineered barrier system will not exceed the limits prescribed in 40 CFR Part 191. The roles of the waste package, engineered facility, hydrogeology and geochemical processes in limiting radionuclide releases all must be considered in calculations designed to assess compliance of candidate repositories with the EPA Standard. In this talk, they will discuss the geochemical requirements of calculations used in these compliance assessments. In addition, they will describe the complementary roles of (1) simple models designed to bound the radionuclide discharge over the widest reasonable range of geochemical conditions and scenarios and (2) detailed geochemical models which can provide insights into the actual behavior of the radionuclides in the ground water. Finally, they will discuss development of sensitivity/uncertainty techniques designed to identify important site-specific geochemical parameters and processes using data from a basalt formation

  5. Carbon Nitrogen Co-Doped P25: Parameter Study on Photodegradation of Reactive Red 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azami M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic degradation rate of reactive red 4 (RR4 using carbon coated nitrogen doped TiO2 (C N co-doped TiO2 in photocatalysis process is main goal on this research. The main operating the parameters such as effect of initial dye concentration, catalyst loading, aeration flow rate and initial pH on degradation of RR4 under 45 W fluorescent lamp was investigated. photocatalytic activity of RR4 dye decreased with increasing RR4 dye concentration. The optimum loading is around 0.04 g and optimum aeration rate is about 25 mL min-1 of C N co-doped TiO2. Effect of pH was conducted based on the optimum loading and conclude that the photocatalytic degradation of RR4 became faster at pH 2 - 7. For the future work, the modification of doping with others element like non-metal or metal with C N co-doped TiO2 can be enhanced toward the higher efficieny of photodegradation under visible light. Moreover, the immobilized technique can be used in future to overcome the difficulty of filtration on suspension.

  6. Numerical study on injection parameters optimization of thin wall and biodegradable polymers parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, C.; Mendes, A.; Carreira, P.; Mateus, A.; Malça, C.

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, the molds industry searches new markets, with diversified and added value products. The concept associated to the production of thin walled and biodegradable parts mostly manufactured by injection process has assumed a relevant importance due to environmental and economic factors. The growth of a global consciousness about the harmful effects of the conventional polymers in our life quality associated with the legislation imposed, become key factors for the choice of a particular product by the consumer. The target of this work is to provide an integrated solution for the injection of parts with thin walls and manufactured using biodegradable materials. This integrated solution includes the design and manufacture processes of the mold as well as to find the optimum values for the injection parameters in order to become the process effective and competitive. For this, the Moldflow software was used. It was demonstrated that this computational tool provides an effective responsiveness and it can constitute an important tool in supporting the injection molding of thin-walled and biodegradable parts.

  7. Dimensional study of the caging order parameter at the glass transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Patrick; Ikeda, Atsushi; Parisi, Giorgio; Zamponi, Francesco

    2012-08-28

    The glass problem is notoriously hard and controversial. Even at the mean-field level, little is agreed upon regarding why a fluid becomes sluggish while exhibiting but unremarkable structural changes. It is clear, however, that the process involves self-caging, which provides an order parameter for the transition. It is also broadly assumed that this cage should have a gaussian shape in the mean-field limit. Here we show that this ansatz does not hold. By performing simulations as a function of spatial dimension d, we find the cage to keep a nontrivial form. Quantitative mean-field descriptions of the glass transition, such as mode-coupling theory, density functional theory, and replica theory, all miss this crucial element. Although the mean-field random first-order transition scenario of the glass transition is qualitatively supported here and non-mean-field corrections are found to remain small on decreasing d, reconsideration of its implementation is needed for it to result in a coherent description of experimental observations.

  8. A theoretical study of CsI:Tl columnar scintillator image quality parameters by analytical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyvas, N., E-mail: nkalyvas@teiath.gr; Valais, I.; Michail, C.; Fountos, G.; Kandarakis, I.; Cavouras, D.

    2015-04-11

    Medical X-ray digital imaging systems such as mammography, radiography and computed tomography (CT), are composed from efficient radiation detectors, which can transform the X-rays to electron signal. Scintillators are materials that emit light when excited by X-rays and incorporated in X-ray medical imaging detectors. Columnar scintillator, like CsI:T1 is very often used for X-ray detection due to its higher performance. The columnar form limits the lateral spread of the optical photons to the scintillator output, thus it demonstrates superior spatial resolution compared to granular scintillators. The aim of this work is to provide an analytical model for calculating the MTF, the DQE and the emission efficiency of a columnar scintillator. The model parameters were validated against published Monte Carlo data. The model was able to predict the overall performance of CsI:Tl scintillators and suggested an optimum thickness of 300 μm for radiography applications. - Highlights: • An analytical model for calculating MTF, DQE and Detector Optical Gain (DOG) of columnar phosphors was developed. • The model was fitted to published efficiency and MTF Monte Carlo data. • A good fit was observed for 300 µm columnar CsI:Tl thickness. • The performance of the 300 µm column thickness CsI:Tl was better in terms of MTF and DOG for radiographic applications.

  9. Systematic study of the elliptic flow parameter using a transport approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasim, Md.; Mohanty, B.

    2015-01-01

    Elliptic flow parameter, v 2 is considered as a sensitive probe for early dynamics of the heavy-ion collision. In this work, we have discussed the effect of detector efficiency, procedure of centrality determination, effect of resonance decay and the procedure to correct event plane resolution on the measured v 2 by standard event plane method within the framework of a transport model. The measured value of v 2 depends on the efficiency in particle number counting by the detector. The effect of centrality determination is found to be negligible. The new method of event plane resolution correction for wide centrality bin yields results in v 2 values closer to the true value of the v 2 . The contributions from the resonance decay seems to decrease the value of v 2 of π and K within the ultra relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) model based calculation. We also propose a procedure to correct for an event bias effect on v 2 arising while comparing the minimum bias collision centrality v 2 values for different multi-strange hadrons. Finally, we have presented a model based confirmation of the recently proposed relation between v 2 obtained using event plane method and scalar product method to the true value of v 2 . (author)

  10. Experimental study on effects of drilling parameters on respirable dust production during roof bolting operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hua; Luo, Yi; McQuerrey, Joe

    2018-02-01

    Underground coalmine roof bolting operators exhibit a continued risk for overexposure to airborne levels of respirable coal and crystalline silica dust from the roof drilling operation. Inhaling these dusts can cause coal worker's pneumoconiosis and silicosis. This research explores the effect of drilling control parameters, specifically drilling bite depth, on the reduction of respirable dust generated during the drilling process. Laboratory drilling experiments were conducted and results demonstrated the feasibility of this dust control approach. Both the weight and size distribution of the dust particles collected from drilling tests with different bite depths were analyzed. The results showed that the amount of total inhalable and respirable dust was inversely proportional to the drilling bite depth. Therefore, control of the drilling process to achieve proper high-bite depth for the rock can be an important approach to reducing the generation of harmful dust. Different from conventional passive engineering controls, such as mist drilling and ventilation approaches, this approach is proactive and can cut down the generation of respirable dust from the source. These findings can be used to develop an integrated drilling control algorithm to achieve the best drilling efficiency as well as reducing respirable dust and noise.

  11. Numerical Modelling and Simulation of Dynamic Parameters for Vibration Driven Mobile Robot: Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharudin, M. E.; Nor, A. M.; Saad, A. R. M.; Yusof, A. M.

    2018-03-01

    The motion of vibration-driven robots is based on an internal oscillating mass which can move without legs or wheels. The oscillation of the unbalanced mass by a motor is translated into vibration which in turn produces vertical and horizontal forces. Both vertical and horizontal oscillations are of the same frequency but the phases are shifted. The vertical forces will deflect the bristles which cause the robot to move forward. In this paper, the horizontal motion direction caused by the vertically vibrated bristle is numerically simulated by tuning the frequency of their oscillatory actuation. As a preliminary work, basic equations for a simple off-centered vibration location on the robot platform and simulation model for vibration excitement are introduced. It involves both static and dynamic vibration analysis of robots and analysis of different type of parameters. In addition, the orientation of the bristles and oscillators are also analysed. Results from the numerical integration seem to be in good agreement with those achieved from the literature. The presented numerical integration modeling can be used for designing the bristles and controlling the speed and direction of the robot.

  12. Effect of temperature and geometric parameters on elastic properties of tungsten nanowire: A molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Sourav, E-mail: ssaha09@me.buet.ac.bd; Mojumder, Satyajit; Mahboob, Monon [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh); Islam, M. Zahabul [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2016-07-12

    Tungsten is a promising material and has potential use as battery anode. Tungsten nanowires are gaining attention from researchers all over the world for this wide field of application. In this paper, we investigated effect of temperature and geometric parameters (diameter and aspect ratio) on elastic properties of Tungsten nanowire. Aspect ratios (length to diameter ratio) considered are 8:1, 10:1, and 12:1 while diameter of the nanowire is varied from 1-4 nm. For 2 nm diameter sample (aspect ratio 10:1), temperature is varied (10 K ~ 1500 K) to observe elastic behavior of Tungsten nanowire under uniaxial tensile loading. EAM potential is used for molecular dynamic simulation. We applied constant strain rate of 10{sup 9} s{sup −1} to deform the nanowire. Elastic behavior is expressed through stress vs. strain plot. We also investigated the fracture mechanism of tungsten nanowire and radial distribution function. Investigation suggests peculiar behavior of Tungsten nanowire in nano-scale with double peaks in stress vs. strain diagram. Necking before final fracture suggests that actual elastic behavior of the material is successfully captured through atomistic modeling.

  13. Study and survey of assembling parameters to a radioactive source production laboratory used to verify equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauglitz, Erica

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of parameters for the proper and safe flooring, doors, windows, fume hoods and others, in a radiochemical laboratory. The layout of each item follows guidelines and national standards of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), aiming to ensure the radiological protection of workers and environment. The adequate items arrangement in the radiochemical laboratory ensures quality and safety in the production of 57 Co 137 Cs and 133 Ba radioactive sealed sources, with activities 185, 9.3 and 5.4 MBq, respectively. These sources are used to verify meter activity equipment and should be available throughout the Nuclear Medicine Center, following the recommendations of CNEN-NN-3.05 standard R equirements for Radiation Protection and Safety Services for Nuclear Medicine , to verify the activity of radiopharmaceuticals that are administered in patients, for diagnosis and therapy. Verification of measuring activity equipment will be used to perform accuracy, reproducibility and linearity tests, which should show results within the limits specified in the standard CNEN-NN-3.05. (author)

  14. Analytical study of optimal design and gain parameters of double-slot plasmonic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handapangoda, Dayan; Rukhlenko, Ivan D; Premaratne, Malin

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically analyze guided modes in optically active and passive double-slot plasmonic waveguides. We show that for one of the two different mode symmetries supported by the waveguide, a most productive guiding condition can be realized by adjusting the thicknesses of the layers to optimal values. We also derive approximate analytic expressions to calculate the optimal geometrical parameters of the waveguide. Interestingly, our analysis shows that the propagation losses associated with the inverse mode symmetry of the double-slot waveguide are comparatively low, regardless of the dimensions of the waveguide. We further show that the propagation losses become the smallest in the limiting case of a single-slot (metal–dielectric–metal (MDM)) waveguide. For both double- and single-slot waveguides, we show that the gain required to overcome the losses can be reduced by choosing a dielectric with a low refractive index. We also derive accurate analytical expressions to readily estimate the critical gain and modal gain of the waveguides. (paper)

  15. Benchmarking of copper(II) LFMM parameters for studying amyloid-β peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, Shaun T; Deeth, Robert J; Turner, Matthew; Platts, James A

    2018-04-01

    Ligand field molecular mechanics (LFMM) parameters have been benchmarked for copper (II) bound to the amyloid-β 1-16 peptide fragment. Several density functional theory (DFT) optimised small test models, representative of different possible copper coordination modes, have been used to test the accuracy of the LFMM copper bond lengths and angles, resulting in errors typically less than 0.1 Å and 5°. Ligand field molecular dynamics (LFMD) simulations have been carried out on the copper bound amyloid-β 1-16 peptide and snapshots extracted from the subsequent trajectory. Snapshots have been optimised using DFT and the semi-empirical PM7 method resulting in good agreement against the LFMM calculated geometry. Analysis of substructures within snapshots shows that the larger contribution of geometrical difference, as measured by RMSD, lies within the peptide backbone, arising from differences in DFT and AMBER, and the copper coordination sphere is reproduced well by LFMM. PM7 performs excellently against LFMM with an average RMSD of 0.2 Å over 21 tested snapshots. Further analysis of the LFMD trajectory shows that copper bond lengths and angles have only small deviations from average values, with the exception of a carbonyl moiety from the N-terminus, which can act as a weakly bound fifth ligand.

  16. The study on acquisition mode and reconstruction parameters of brain FDG PET images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Chuantao; Liu Yongchang; Guan Yihui; Zhao Jun; Lin Xiangtong

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of acquisition mode on the brain PET images. Methods: After changing conditions and parameters, the authors got brain PET images of different acquisition modes, different emission counts, different transmission times; and compared with the reference images the impacts of different acquisition modes, different acquisition conditions were assessed. Results: Compared with 2D mode, much higher background and noise were observed on the reconstruction images of 3D mode, and the bottoms of the brain structure were not well displayed. But the middle part of brain structure displayed well in 2D and 3D mode without difference; the gray/white radioactivity ratios were 2.108 +- 0.183 and 2.286 +- 0.232 under 2D and 3D mode, respectively. The gray/white radioactivity ratios with different emission counts were 2.108 +- 0.183, 2.215 +- 0.158, 2.161 +- 0.176, respectively, there was no evident difference among them. With transmission counts increasing, the segmented image outline of Hoffman phantom and brain structure became clear and integral. Conclusions: Different acquisition modes, different emission counts and different transmission times are of certain impacts on brain FDG PET images, and it should be paid more attention in clinical practice

  17. Trainability of hemodynamic parameters: A near-infrared spectroscopy based neurofeedback study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kober, Silvia Erika; Hinterleitner, Vanessa; Bauernfeind, Günther; Neuper, Christa; Wood, Guilherme

    2018-05-18

    We investigated the trainability of the hemodynamic response as assessed with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during one neurofeedback (NF) session. Forty-eight participants were randomly assigned to four different groups that tried to either increase or decrease oxygenated (oxy-Hb) or deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb) over the inferior frontal gyrus during imagery of swallowing movements. Deoxy-Hb could be successfully up-regulated while oxy-Hb could be successfully down-regulated during NF. Participants were not able to down-regulate deoxy-Hb or to up-regulate oxy-Hb. These results show that the natural course of oxy- and deoxy-Hb during movement imagery can be reinforced by providing real-time feedback of the corresponding NIRS parameter since deoxy-Hb generally increases and oxy-Hb decreases during imagery of swallowing. Furthermore, signal-to-noise ratio of deoxy-Hb but not of oxy-Hb improved during training. Our results provide new insights into the trainability of the hemodynamic response as assessed with NIRS and have an impact on the application of NIRS-based real-time feedback. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental study on operating parameters of miniature loop heat pipe with flat evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuangfeng; Huo Jiepeng; Zhang Xianfeng; Lin Zirong

    2012-01-01

    Miniature loop heat pipe (MLHP) with flat evaporator has been proved that it has the capability to fulfill the demand for the thermal management of high-power electronic system. To employ MLHP into practical application and obtain the best operating parameters, a copper-water MLHP with flat evaporator of 8 mm thick was fabricated and tested in the condition of different condenser locations and operating orientations. The results show that the condenser located close to the evaporator outlet and adverse orientation have positive impact on the operating temperature of the loop, but negative impact on the cooling capability of condenser. For better understanding of their effect on the heat transfer characteristics of MLHP, the start-up behaviors, thermal performance and the operating regimes are explored in detail. - Highlights: ► A copper-water MLHP with flat evaporator of only 8 mm thick was fabricated. ► The MLHP can be applied to electronic cooling. ► The effect of condenser locations was investigated for the first time. ► The experimental results were discussed and analyzed comprehensively. ► Some practical solutions for disadvantages of LHP operation were provided.

  19. Experimental studies on the effects of bolt parameters on the bearing characteristics of reinforced rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Zhang, Yidong; Ji, Ming; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Minglei

    2016-01-01

    Roadways supported by bolts contain support structures that are built into the rock surrounding the roadway, referred to as reinforced rocks in this paper. Using physical model simulation, the paper investigates the bearing characteristics of the reinforced rock under different bolt parameters with incrementally increased load. The experimental results show that the stress at the measurement point inside the structure varies with the kinetic pressure. The stress increases slowly as the load is initially applied, displays accelerated growth in the middle of the loading application, and decreases or remains constant in the later stage of the loading application. The change in displacement of the surrounding rock exhibits the following characteristics: a slow increase when the load is first applied, accelerated growth in the middle stage, and violent growth in the later stage. There is a good correlation between the change in the measured stress and the change in the surrounding rock displacement. Increasing the density of the bolt support and the length and diameter of the bolt improves the load-bearing performance of the reinforced rock, including its strength, internal peak stress, and residual stress. Bolting improves the internal structure of the surrounding rocks, and the deterioration of the surrounding rock decreases with the distance between the bolt supports.

  20. Parameters of medical proton beam of JINR and study on its medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhelepov, V.P.; Abazov, V.M.; Komarov, V.I.; Kuz'min, E.S.; Reshetnikov, G.P.; Savchenko, O.V.; Cherevatenko, E.P.; Ruderman, A.I.; Astrakhan, B.V.; Vajnberg, M.Sh.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments are described on irradiation of deep-lying tumours in man with a proton beam on the Dubna synchrocyclotron. A proton beam with an energy of 680 MeV is focused on a braking filter of liquid paraffin or water, 1.5 m thick. The slowed-down protons are cleared of impurity particles by the magnetic field and are transported for about 30 m to clinical premises located behind a 2 m concrete shield. The total intensity and maximum density of the proton flux with an energy of 185 MeV are about 10 9 s -1 and 5x10 7 cm -2 s -1 , respectively. The results of dose measurements showed that the maximum dose rate is about 300 rad/min at a proton energy of 185 MeV, and about 120 rad/min at 90 MeV. The contribution of the secondary particles to the dose distribution is about 10%. Patients can be irradiated either in the static regime, or in the rotation regime, when the patient rotates about a vertical axis passing through the tumour centre. While the patient is rotating, all the changes in the thickness of the tissues through which the beam passes before it reaches the tumour, are automatically compensated by a change in the thickness of the water absorber installed in front of the patient. Irradiations of patients with surface tumours showed that the proton beam parameters and the technical equipment of the systems meet the medical requirements

  1. A study of radiolabelling parameters of 1/5 fractionated cardiolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, M.; Snowdon, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Fractionation of Cardiolite (Dupont Pharma) has in recent times become increasingly popular in order to minimise costs in our funds-strapped public health system. We investigated the following parameters which are known to potentially affect 1/5 Cardiolite radiolabelling efficiency: 1. Radioactivity-4 to 12 GBq per vial. 2. Total volumes-2.5 and 6.5 mL per vial. 3. Boiling times-2 to 10 minutes. 4. Extra stannous chloride concentration-16 and 32 mg. 5. Quality control procedure-ITLC-SG v. Sep Pak Lite column chromatography. The addition of extra stannous chloride was essential to achieve radiochemical purity >90%. Increasing the total vial volume had a deleterious effect on radiochemical purity. A radiochemical purity >90% was achieved after four minutes boiling of 1/5 fractionated Cardiolite radiolabelled with an activity of up to 10 GBq [ 99m Tc] sodium pertechnetate provided 32 μg 99m Tc stannous chloride was added to the Cardiolite vial prior to the addition of sodium pertechnetate. The ITLC-SG quality control method gave a constantly higher radiochemical purity estimation (∼ 3%) than the Sep Pak Lite method. This was assumed to be due to a radiochemical impurity not detected by ITLC-SG but confirmed on HPLC via personal communication with the radiochemists from St George Hospital, Sydney

  2. Consideration of rainwater quality parameters for drinking purposes: A case study in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minju; Kim, Mikyeong; Kim, Yonghwan; Han, Mooyoung

    2017-09-15

    Rainwater, which is used for drinking purposes near Hanoi, Vietnam, was analysed for water quality based on 1.5 years of monitoring data. In total, 23 samples were collected from different points within two rainwater harvesting systems (RWHSs). Most parameters met the standard except micro-organisms. Coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were detected when the rainwater was not treated with ultraviolet (UV) light; however, analysis of rainwater after UV sterilisation showed no trace of micro-organisms. The RWHSs appear to provide drinking water of relatively good quality compared with surface water and groundwater. The superior quality of the rainwater suggests the necessity for new drinking rainwater standards because applying all of the drinking water quality standards to rainwater is highly inefficient. The traditionally implemented standards could cause more difficulties for developing countries using RWHSs installed decentralized as a source of drinking water, particularly in areas not well supplied with testing equipment, because such countries must bear the expense and time for these measures. This paper proposes the necessity of rainwater quality guideline, which could serve as a safe and cost-effective alternative to provide an access to safe drinking water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Study of thermal and electrical parameters of workpieces during spray coating by electrolytic plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khafizov, A A; Shakirov, Yu I; Valiev, R A; Valiev, R I; Khafizova, G M

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the results are presented of thermal and electrical parameters of products in the system bottom layer - intermediate layer when applying protective coatings of ferromagnetic powder by plasma spray produced in an electric discharge with a liquid cathode, on steel samples. Temperature distribution and gradients in coating and intermediate coating were examined. Detailed descriptions of spray coating with ferromagnetic powder by plasma jet obtained in electrical discharge with liquid cathode and the apparatus for obtaining thereof is provided. Problem has been solved by using of Fourier analysis. Initial data for calculations is provided. Results of numerical analysis are provided as temporal functions of temperature in contiguity between coating and intermediate coating as well as temporal function of the value Q=q-φ; where q is density of heat current directed to the free surface of intermediate coating, φ is density of heat current in contiguity between coating and intermediate coating. The analysis of data given shows that in the systems of contact heat exchange bottom layer-intermediate layer with close values of the thermophysical characteristics of constituting materials is observed a slow increase of the temperature of the contact as a function of time. (paper)

  4. Studi Pengaruh Stabilisasi Tanah Lempung Lunak Menggunakan Kolom Kapur Terhadap Parameter Kecepatan Penurunan Tanah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwan Apriyono

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Soft clay is kind of problem in building and highway foundation design. This type of soils, have low coefficient consolidation (Cv parameter. This condition will cause that soils have very long duration in consolidation process. Limes column stabilization method can be applicable to solve this problem.This research be conducted to analyzed coefficient consolidation behavior in limes column stabilization method. The change variety of coefficient consolidation w ill be observe due to variation of limes column diameter. The limes column stabilization method be wished to increase the value of coefficient consolidation so settlement process of the soil get more rapidly. This research was conducted through experimentalin laboratory, with box that have 40 cm in diameters and this height is 40 cm. Five various of diameters applied in this research and this affect to value of Cv would be examined. Those are 3 cm, 5 cm, 8 cm, 10 cm and 12 cm diameters The result of this research show that limes column could increasing the value of coefficient consolidation. The average change of Cv is 0,000051 (6,38 % compare w i th Cv without limes column stabilization. However, increasing of limes column diameters have no significant affects to the value of coefficient consolidation.

  5. Comparative study of methods to estimate hydraulic parameters in the hydraulically undisturbed Opalinus Clay (Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.; Matray, J.-M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses, (France); Yu, C.; Gonçalvès, J. [Aix Marseille Université UMR 6635 CEREGE Technopôle Environnement Arbois-Méditerranée Aix-en-Provence, Cedex 4 (France); and others

    2017-04-15

    The deep borehole (DB) experiment gave the opportunity to acquire hydraulic parameters in a hydraulically undisturbed zone of the Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland). Three methods were used to estimate hydraulic conductivity and specific storage values of the Opalinus Clay formation and its bounding formations through the 248 m deep borehole BDB-1: application of a Poiseuille-type law involving petrophysical measurements, spectral analysis of pressure time series and in situ hydraulic tests. The hydraulic conductivity range in the Opalinus Clay given by the first method is 2 × 10{sup -14}-6 × 10{sup -13} m s{sup -1} for a cementation factor ranging between 2 and 3. These results show low vertical variability whereas in situ hydraulic tests suggest higher values up to 7 × 10{sup -12} m s{sup -1}. Core analysis provides economical estimates of the homogeneous matrix hydraulic properties but do not account for heterogeneities at larger scale such as potential tectonic conductive features. Specific storage values obtained by spectral analysis are consistent and in the order of 10{sup -6} m{sup -1}, while formulations using phase shift and gain between pore pressure signals were found to be inappropriate to evaluate hydraulic conductivity in the Opalinus Clay. The values obtained are globally in good agreement with the ones obtained previously at the rock laboratory. (authors)

  6. A study of radiation parameters at Nabarlek uranium mine, N.T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, V.A.; Lokan, K.H.; Martin, L.J.

    1980-09-01

    Radiation parameters associated with the open pit mining of a small (10,000 tonnes), but high grade (2 per cent) uranium deposit at Nabarlek, N.T., have been investigated. External radiation levels, radon emanation rates and radon daughter levels were measured systematically during the development of the mine, and are correlated with ore grade, properties of the host rock and atmospheric conditions. Significant radon daughter concentrations were observed only under stable atmospheric conditions, usually during the night and were invariably associated with thermal inversions. The mean cumulative exposure to radon daughters was estimated from the measured levels to be 0.065 Working Level Months for exployees working in the pit for the entire four and a half months of mining. The mean cumulative external gamma ray exposure for the same employee group was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters to be 2.3 mSv (230 millirem). Data on long lived radionuclides in dust and on particle size distribution are also presented

  7. Exploratory study on the influence of climatological parameters on Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalés, Joaquim; Valero, Oliver; Espinal, Anna; López-Soria, Sergio; Nofrarías, Miquel; Calsamiglia, Maria; Sibila, Marina

    2012-11-01

    The objective of the present work was to elucidate the potential relationship between Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection and seroconversion dynamics and climatological conditions in four groups of pigs from the same farm born in different seasons of the year. Nasal swabs and blood samples were taken from 184 pigs at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 22 and 25 (slaughter age) weeks of age. Outside climatologic parameters, including temperature (°C), relative humidity (%), precipitation (l/m2) and wind speed (m/s) were recorded weekly from January 2003 to June 2004. Percentage of nPCR detection of M. hyopneumoniae in nasal swabs was associated significantly with the weekly precipitation rate [ P = 0.0018, OR = 1.31 (IC = 1.11-1.55)]; the higher the precipitation rate, the higher the probability of being M. hyopneumoniae nPCR-positive. On the other hand, the percentage of seropositive pigs had a significant association with mean weekly temperature rate [ P = 0.0012, OR = 0.89 [IC = 0.84-0.95]); the lower the temperature, the higher the probability of being M. hyopneumoniae seropositive. Animals born in autumn (when higher precipitations rates were recorded), entering finishing units in winter (when lower temperatures were recorded), and reaching slaughter in spring, had the highest probability of being infected by M. hyopneumoniae and the highest probability of being M. hyopneumoniae seropositive.

  8. A retrospective study on some reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches in Kenya : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Mutembei

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997. The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 ± 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05 higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively. Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01 increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 ± 99.6 and 183 ± 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7 % were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5 %of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 ± 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 ± 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3 % stillbirths, 0.9 % culls and 11.4 % mortalities.

  9. Influence of Growth Parameters on the Formation of Hydroxyapatite (HAp Nanostructures and Their Cell Viability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Manoj

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Morphology controlled hydroxyapatite (HAp nanostructures play a vital role in biomedical engineering, tissue regenerative medicine, biosensors, chemotherapeutic applications, environmental remediation, etc. The present work investigates the influence of temperature, pH and time on the growth of HAp nanostructures using a simple, cost effective and surfactant free chemical approach. The obtained HAp nanostructures were systematically investigated by analytical techniques such as XRD, FESEM, EDX, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. The XRD analysis showed that the hexagonal structure of the hydroxyapatite and average crystallite size was estimated from this analysis. The electron microscopic analysis confirmed the different morphologies obtained by varying the synthesis parameters such as temperature, pH and time. The elemental composition was determined through EDS analysis. FTIR and Raman spectroscopic analysis confirmed the presence of functional groups and the purity and crystallinity of the samples. The biocompatibility and adhesion nature of samples was examined with mouse preosteoblast cells. The obtained results demonstrated good biocompatibility and excellent focal adhesion.

  10. Risk of flooding: Activities, parameters and regional peculiarities, Case study: Varbitsa watershed basin, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubenov Todor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the activities overtaken during risk of flooding situations, in one of the more often flooding region - the watershed of Varbitsa river (Southeastern part of Bulgaria - has been performed. The main cognitive parameters for risk perception and risk definition, depending on regional, social and historical factors have been examined. The existing information and instructions for mass media communication in relation to the process of interaction in a disaster situation have been discussed. In connection to determination of the risky segments in the basin and plans for announcement, the prevention communication measures have been outlined. On the basis of the Bulgarian normative legislation, the activities concerning organization of communications in a risk-of-disaster situation and mutual aid between authorities, which are part of the Integrated Help System have been indicated. It has been accented on the necessity of a more effective realization of the action plans during natural disasters and especially flooding, in order to improve the partnership between authorities and participants in the communication process during risk-of-flooding situations.

  11. Ascorbic acid interference in the measurement of serum biochemical parameters: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinello, Flávia; da Silva, Edson Luiz

    2006-04-01

    To investigate the negative interference of ascorbic acid in serum biochemical tests in relation to the dose of vitamin C intake and to the time of blood collection. Healthy volunteers (n = 18) consumed daily doses of vitamin C (0.25-4.0 g) for 1 week and serum parameters were assayed prior to the experiment and on the eighth day of consumption. Blood samples were collected 4, 12 and 24 h after vitamin C intake. Serum levels of ascorbic acid increased significantly after vitamin C ingestion inhibiting urate and total bilirubin tests 4 and 12 h after intake (P cholesterol tests. Addition of ascorbic acid to serum inhibited the urate test to a similar extent to that observed after vitamin C intake. However, after ingesting vitamin C, the interference for the bilirubin test was greater than that of the in vitro interference. Commonly taken doses of supplementary vitamin C interfered negatively with the serum urate test based on the Trinder method, and with bilirubin metabolism.

  12. A study of effects of scattered reaction on physical parameters of a new gamma camera used in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maury, Martine.

    1979-01-01

    This work is devoted to the analysis of the performance of a new gamma camera. This camera is characterized by the introduction of an image amplifier between the crystal detector and the localization system which compound four photomultipliers. The appreciation of performances of this new instrument is based on the measure of the physical parameters usually studied in this purpose: energy resolution, spatial resolution, modulation transfert fonction and contrast, sensitivity and deadtime. Furthermore, we have studied the influence of scattered radiation on the value of these parameters. Two studies complete this work: the artificial deterioration of the energy resolution of the camera inserting a noise, to estimate the importance of the energy resolution on the image contrast; the scanning of pulse amplitude spectra obtained from brain of patients in order to evaluate the participation of scattered radiation in the peak's constitution. We present, at last, a quality control programm for scintillation camera [fr

  13. STUDY OF BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN AMNIOTIC FLUID FOR ASSESSMENT OF FOETAL MATURITY IN CASES OF NORMAL PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of foetal maturity had been proven of value in evaluating the foetal condition. Accurate assessment of foetal maturity is essential for the proper timing of delivery in various risk pregnancies. Amniotic Fluid analysis for foetal maturity had been of proven value. In the present study, study of biochemical parameters in amniotic fluid in respect of Creatinine, Uric Acid, Urea, Total Proteins, and Electrolytes i.e. Sodium, Potassium and Chloride has been done, along with Serum Electrolytes. Standard methodologies were adopted. The observations in the present study correlated with the works of Chadick et al and Pitkin and Zwirek. The levels of Creatinine, Uric Acid and Urea in Amniotic Fluid showed elevation, while Total Proteins and Serum Sodium showed a decline, as gestation progressed. The Serum and Amniotic Fluid Potassium and Chloride levels remain almost constant throughout the pregnancy. Thus, it is observed that the use of multiple parameters is desirable for accurate assessment of foetal maturity.

  14. Reproducibility of radionuclide gastroesophageal reflux studies using quantitative parameters and potential role of quantitative assessment in follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, S.; Khursheed, K.; Nasir, W.; Saeed, M.A.; Fatmi, S.; Jafri, S.; Asghar, S.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide gastroesophageal reflux studies have been widely used in the assessment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in infants and children. Various qualitative and quantitative parameters have been used for the interpretation of reflux studies but there is little consensus on the use of these parameters in routine gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphic studies. Aim of this study was to evaluate the methodological issues underlying the qualitative and quantitative assessment of gastroesophageal reflux and to determine the potential power of the reflux index calculation in follow-up assessment of the reflux positive patients. Methods: Total 147 patients suffering from recurrent lower respiratory tract infection, asthma and having strong clinical suspicion of GER were recruited in the study. Dynamic scintigraphic study was acquired for 30 minutes after oral administration of 99mTc phytate. Each study was analyzed three times by two nuclear medicine physicians. Clinical symptoms were graded according to predefined criteria and there correlation with severity reflux was done. Time activity curves were generated by drawing ROIs from esophagus. Reflux index was calculated by the standard formula and cut off value of 4% was used for RI calculation. Reflux indices were used for follow-up assessments in reflux positive patients. Kappa statistics and chi square test were used to evaluate the agreement and concordance between qualitative and quantitative parameters. Results: Tlae over all incidence of reflux in total study population was 63.94 %( 94 patients). The kappa value for both qualitative and quantitative parameters showed good agreement for intra and inter-observer reproducibility (kappa value > 0.75). Concordance between visual analysis and time activity curves was not observed. Reflux index and visuat interpretation shows concordance in the interpretation. The severity of clinical symptoms was directly related to the severity of the reflux observed in the

  15. REFINED SYSTEM PARAMETERS AND TTV STUDY OF TRANSITING EXOPLANETARY SYSTEM HAT-P-20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Leilei; Gu, Shenghong; Wang, Xiaobin; Cao, Dongtao; Wang, Yibo; Xiang, Yue [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Cameron, Andrew Collier [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Hui, Ho-Keung; Kwok, Chi-Tai [Ho Koon Nature Education cum Astronomical Centre, Sik Sik Yuen, Hong Kong (China); Yeung, Bill; Ng, Eric [Hong Kong Astronomical Society, Hong Kong (China); Horta, Ferran Grau, E-mail: wangxb@ynao.ac.cn [Observatori Ca l’Ou, C/de Dalt 18, Sant Martí Sesgueioles (Spain)

    2017-01-01

    We report new photometric observations of the transiting exoplanetary system HAT-P-20, obtained using CCD cameras at Yunnan Observatories and Ho Koon Nature Education cum Astronomical Centre, China, from 2010 to 2013, and Observatori Ca l’Ou, Sant Marti Sesgueioles, Spain, from 2013 to 2015. The observed data are corrected for systematic errors according to the coarse de-correlation and SYSREM algorithms, so as to enhance the signal of the transit events. In order to consistently model the star spots and transits of this exoplanetary system, we develop a highly efficient tool STMT based on the analytic models of Mandel and Agol and Montalto et al. The physical parameters of HAT-P-20 are refined by homogeneously analyzing our new data, the radial velocity data, and the earlier photometric data in the literature with the Markov chain Monte Carlo technique. New radii and masses of both host star and planet are larger than those in the discovery paper due to the discrepancy of the radius among K-dwarfs between predicted values by standard stellar models and empirical calibration from observations. Through the analysis of all available mid-transit times calculated with the normal model and spotted model, we conclude that the periodic transit timing variations in these transit events revealed by employing the normal model are probably induced by spot crossing events. From the analysis of the distribution of occulted spots by HAT-P-20b, we constrain the misaligned architecture between the planetary orbit and the spin of the host star.

  16. Preliminary study of reasonableness of important parameters used in deriving OILs for PWR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yongsheng, L.; Shongqi, S.

    2004-01-01

    Institute of nuclear energy technology, Tsinghua university, Beijing , China ,100084 Body of Abstract: This paper introduced the definition of operational intervention level (OIL) and the derived process of default OILs recommended by IAEA firstly. Then the paper focused on the reasonableness of two parameters, R1 and R2, which is assumed in derived process of default OIL1 and OIL2 in a reactor accident. The values of R1 and R2 were calculated by the calculating program of InterRas. The source item for computing includes the accidents PWR described in Wash-1400 and France severe accident source items, and furthermore the meteorological conditions for computing are classified to three classes, which are D stability class, A stability class, and F stability class with the mixing heights of 400 meters and 4 hour exposure to the plume. The wind speed is 3m/s, 2m/s and 1m/s correspond to the stability classes. The results show that the average values of R1 and R2 in the same accident series and different meteorological conditions derived by the calculating program of InterRas are close to the presumptive values. The results also indicated the rationalization of the default OIL1 and OIL2. On the other hand, the calculating results of different accidents have considerable disparity with the presumptive values in different distances and meteorological conditions, but the mutative trends are very well-regulated on distance and meteorological conditions. So the OILs recommended by IAEA are applicable to some specified conditions. At last the paper introduced the method of revising the default OILs in terms of measurement results. (Author)

  17. Seismic microzoning from synthetic ground motion parameters: Case study, Santiago de Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Leonardo; Vaccari, Franco; Panza, Giuliano F.; Pico, Ramon

    2003-08-01

    Synthetic seismograms (P - SV and SH waves) have been calculated along 6 profiles in Santiago de Cuba basin, with a cutoff frequency of 5 Hz, by using the hybrid approach (modal summation for a regional (ID) structure plus finite differences for a local (2D) structure embedded in the first). They correspond to a scenario earthquake of M S = 7 that may occur in Oriente fault zone, directly south of the city. As initial data for a seismic microzoning, the characterisation of earthquake effects has been made considering several relative (2D/1D) quantities (PGDR, PGVR, PGAR, DGAR, I A R etc.) and functions representative of the ground motion behaviour in soil (2D) with respect to bedrock (ID). The functions are the response spectra ratio RSR(f), already routinely used in this kind of work, and the elastic energy input ratio E I R(f), defined, for the first time, in this paper. These data, sampled at 105 sites within all the profiles have been classified in two steps, using logical combinatory algorithms: connected sets and compact sets. In the first step, from the original ground motion parameters or functions extracted from the synthetic seismograms, 9 sets have been classified and the partial results show the spatial distribution of the soil behaviour as function of the component of motion. In the second step, the results of the classification of the 9 sets have been used as input for a further classification that shows a spatial distribution of sites with a quasi-homogeneous integral ground motion behaviour. By adding the available geological surface data, a microzoning scheme of Santiago de Cuba basin has been obtained. (author)

  18. Quantitative gated SPECT- a comparative study of two algorithms for parameters of perfusion and LV function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Aim: To compare the perfusion and LV function parameters as quantified by 4D-MSPECT and ECT in the same patient group and a qualitative comparison of the reconstructed slices by two different experts. Materials and methods: Thirty-one consecutive patients underwent gated myocardial perfusion SPECT using a two-day protocol. The gated and ungated data were reconstructed by back projection method. Quantitative analysis was performed on the same set of reconstructed slices by 4D-MSPECT and Emory Cardiac Tool Box. The reconstructed slices were read qualitatively by two different experts on their respective systems. Polar map and functional analysis was performed in both softwares and the results were compared. Results: The concordance between the two experts qualitatively was seen in 78/93(84%) coronary territories. The polar map defects were comparable in LAD (r-value of 0.87) and LCX (r-value of 0.76) territories whereas RCA defects (r-value of 0.04) were not at all correlating. The defect severity showed concordance in 68/93 (73%) coronary territories. There was concordance between 4DMSPECT and the qualitative interpretation in 84/93 (90%) coronary territories whereas ECT showed concordance in only 70/93(75%) coronary territories. The overall sensitivity is marginally higher for ECT (100% vs. 96%) but the overall specificity is much higher with 4 DMSPECT (88% vs. 65%). ESV showed good correlation(r=0.94) of the two softwares with no significant difference in means. EDV and LVEF although had good correlation(r = 0.96 and 0.89) showed high difference in means (p<0.01). Conclusion: Between 4D-MSPECT and ECT, 4D-MSPECT is marginally superior to ECT with reference to qualitative interpretation in view of better specificity. The LVEF values between the two softwares should also not be used interchangeably. (author)

  19. Studies of stimulus parameters for seizure disruption using neural network simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William S; Kudela, Pawel; Cho, Jounhong; Bergey, Gregory K; Franaszczuk, Piotr J

    2007-08-01

    A large scale neural network simulation with realistic cortical architecture has been undertaken to investigate the effects of external electrical stimulation on the propagation and evolution of ongoing seizure activity. This is an effort to explore the parameter space of stimulation variables to uncover promising avenues of research for this therapeutic modality. The model consists of an approximately 800 mum x 800 mum region of simulated cortex, and includes seven neuron classes organized by cortical layer, inhibitory or excitatory properties, and electrophysiological characteristics. The cell dynamics are governed by a modified version of the Hodgkin-Huxley equations in single compartment format. Axonal connections are patterned after histological data and published models of local cortical wiring. Stimulation induced action potentials take place at the axon initial segments, according to threshold requirements on the applied electric field distribution. Stimulation induced action potentials in horizontal axonal branches are also separately simulated. The calculations are performed on a 16 node distributed 32-bit processor system. Clear differences in seizure evolution are presented for stimulated versus the undisturbed rhythmic activity. Data is provided for frequency dependent stimulation effects demonstrating a plateau effect of stimulation efficacy as the applied frequency is increased from 60 to 200 Hz. Timing of the stimulation with respect to the underlying rhythmic activity demonstrates a phase dependent sensitivity. Electrode height and position effects are also presented. Using a dipole stimulation electrode arrangement, clear orientation effects of the dipole with respect to the model connectivity is also demonstrated. A sensitivity analysis of these results as a function of the stimulation threshold is also provided.

  20. Study of the Hollow Waveguides Physical Parameters Determined the Beam Shape Conservation of the Delivered Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-David, M.; Inberg, A.; Katzir, A.; Croitoru, N.

    1999-01-01

    The modification of the laser source beam quality is one of the important factors effect the delivery of laser radiation by a waveguide. In this paper the results of input radiation coupling, radius of bending, length, cross section diameter, waveguide internal wall roughness and coupling lens focal length influence on the beam shape delivered from the flexible hollow waveguides are presented. The conditions for which the beam shape is near to that of the source were found. A theoretical model for the radiation propagation gives quantitative representation of relation between attenuation, beam profile, divergence and above indicated parameters was developed. In this model was supposed that the guiding is produced by multiple incidences on a metal (silver) layer and a dielectric (silver iodine) over layer, by refraction and reflection. The propagation of the rays was calculated using the physical laws of the geometrical optics. For the scattering calculations a random distribution of roughness centers on dielectric layer surface was considered. It was also supposed that the value of the cross section internal diameter (ID=d) was much larger than the transmitted wavelength. The experimental results have shown that losses due to absorption of the propagated radiation in the guiding layers, mainly (AgI), generate satellites of the laser source delivered fundamental Gaussian beam. Increasing of the hollow waveguide internal diameter decreases the attenuation and increases the deviation of beam shape from Gaussian. Off center coupling produce decreasing of the fundamental mode height and generation of the coupled Gaussian beam satellites. The waveguide internal wall roughness produce losses of the coupled radiation and beam profile deviations from that of the laser source. A good correspondence between the theoretical and experimental results obtained

  1. Study of hydrodynamic and mass transfer parameters in pulsed sieve-plate columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safdari, J.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most important liquid-liquid extractor in industry is pulsed column. The pulsed columns are generally classified into the following categories: 1-Pulsed perforated-plate column. 2- Pulsed packed column. The pulsed plate column is differential contactor with the application of mechanical energy and is used for a diverse range of processes. Probably its best known application has been in the nuclear fuel industry. The pulsed plate column consists of a cylindrical shell with settling zones at the top and the bottom of the column. The liquids are fed continuously to the column (flowing counter-currently) and are removed continuously from opposite ends of the column. In this work using a pilot pulsed plate column and two different chemical systems (toluene/acetone/water and n-butyl acetate/acetone/water) various experiments are carried out. In each experiment direction of mass transfer is from organic phase (dispersed phase) into aqueous phase (continuous phase) and the continuous phase is water. The main objects of this thesis are as follow: a- Investigation of effect of operating parameters on dispersed phase hold up, volumetric overall mass transfer coefficients based on dispersed and continuous phase, extraction efficiency, pressure drop of column and flooding velocities (maximum column capacities). Obtained results in this part show that if the calorimetric flow rate of aqueous phase or pulsation intensity increase, hold up, volumetric overall mass transfer coefficients based on both two phases and extraction efficiency will increase and flooding velocities will decrease. Also results show that if volumetric flow rate of organic phase increase, hold up, volumetric mass transfer coefficients based on both two phases and pressure drop will increase and extraction efficiency and flooding velocities will decrease. b- Investigation of effect of internal circulation inside drops in designing pulsed perforated-plate column

  2. Effect of x-ray tube current on the accuracy of cerebral perfusion parameters obtained by CT perfusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Kenya; Nanjo, Takafumi; Ii, Satoshi; Miyazaki, Shohei; Hirata, Masaaki; Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Kudo, Masayuki; Sasaki, Kousuke; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of x-ray tube current on the accuracy of cerebral perfusion parameters obtained by CT perfusion studies using multi-detector row CT (MDCT). Following the standard CT perfusion study protocol, continuous (cine) scans (1 s/rotation x 60 s) consisting of four 5 mm thick contiguous slices were performed using an MDCT scanner with a tube voltage of 80 kVp and a tube current of 200 mA. We generated the simulated images with tube currents of 50 mA, 100 mA and 150 mA by adding the corresponding noise to the raw scan data of the original image acquired above using a noise simulation tool. From the original and simulated images, we generated the functional images of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) in seven patients with cerebrovascular disease, and compared the correlation coefficients (CCs) between the perfusion parameter values obtained from the original and simulated images. The coefficients of variation (CVs) in the white matter were also compared. The CC values deteriorated with decreasing tube current. There was a significant difference between 50 mA and 100 mA for all perfusion parameters. The CV values increased with decreasing tube current. There were significant differences between 50 mA and 100 mA and between 100 mA and 150 mA for CBF. For CBV and MTT, there was also a significant difference between 150 mA and 200 mA. This study will be useful for understanding the effect of x-ray tube current on the accuracy of cerebral perfusion parameters obtained by CT perfusion studies using MDCT, and for selecting the tube current

  3. A population-based study of the associations of stroke occurrence with weather parameters in Siberia, Russia (1982-92).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigin, V L; Nikitin, Y P; Bots, M L; Vinogradova, T E; Grobbee, D E

    2000-03-01

    Previous studies have established a seasonal variation in stroke occurrence, but none have assessed the influence of inclement weather conditions on stroke incidence in a general population of Russia. We performed a stroke population-based study in the Oktiabrsky District of Novosibirsk, Siberia, Russia. Included in the analysis were 1929 patients with their first occurrence of ischemic stroke (IS), 215 patients with their first occurrence of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and 64 patients with their first occurrence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH): all patients were aged between 25 and 74 years. The cumulative daily occurrence of total strokes and stroke subtypes was evaluated in relation to aggregated daily mean values of ambient temperature, relative humidity and air pressure by means of Poisson regression analysis to estimate the rate ratio (RR) with corresponding confidence interval (CI) and to identify the weather parameters of most importance. In a multivariate analysis, with adjustment for the effects of season, solar and geomagnetic activity, and age of the patients, low ambient temperature (RR 1.32; 95% CI 1.05-1.66) and mean value of air pressure (RR 0.986; 95% CI 0.972-0.999) were important predictors of IS occurrence, while mild ambient temperature (RR 1.52; 95% CI 1. 04-2.22) was an important predictor of ICH occurrence. No relationship between SAH occurrence and any one of the weather parameters studied was revealed. There was no interaction between any meteorological variables that was statistically significant. Inclement weather conditions are associated with the occurrence of IS and ICH in Siberia, Russia. Among the meteorological parameters studied, low ambient temperature and mean air pressure are the most important predictors of IS occurrence, whereas the occurrence of ICH is associated with mild ambient temperature. There is no association between any one of the weather parameters studied and the occurrence of SAH.

  4. The effect of a hippotherapy session on spatiotemporal parameters of gait in children with cerebral palsy - pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikowska, Faustyna; Jóźwiak, Marek; Idzior, Maciej; Chen, Po-Jung Brian; Tarnowski, Dariusz

    2013-06-28

    Hippotherapy has been shown to produce beneficial effects by improving the most difficult motor functions, such as sitting, running, jumping, coordination, as well as balance and muscle strength in children with motor developmental delays. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of hippotherapy on spatiotemporal parameters of gait in cerebrally palsied children. 16 ambulatory cerebrally palsied children (GMFCS Level I-III; Female: 10, Male: 6; Age: 5.7-17.5 years old) qualified for hippotherapy were investigated. Basic spatiotemporal parameters of gait, including walking speed, cadence, step length, stride length and the left-right symmetry, were collected using a three-dimensional accelerometer device (DynaPort MiniMod) before and immediately after a hippotherapy session. The Wilcoxon test was used to verify the differences between pre- and post-session results. Changes of walking speed were statistically significant. With the exception of step length, all spatiotemporal parameters improved, i.e. were closer to the respective reference ranges after the session. However, these changes were not statistically significant. One session of hippotherapy may have a significant effect on the spatiotemporal parameters of gait in cerebrally palsied children.

  5. First third filling parameters of left ventricle assessed from gated equilibrium studies in patients with various heart diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adatepe, M.H.; Nichols, K.; Powell, O.M.; Isaacs, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    The authors determined the first third filling fraction (1/3 FF), the maximum filling rate (1/3 FR) and the mean filling rate (1/3 MFR) for the first third diastolic filling period of the left ventricle in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), valvular heart disease (VHD), pericardial effusion (PE), cardiomyopathies (CM), chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) and in 5 normals-all from resting gated equilibrium studies. Parameters are calculated from the third order Fourier fit to the LV volume curve and its derivative. 1/3 FF% = 1/3 diastolic count - end systolic count / 1/3 diastolic count x 100. Patients with CAD are divided into two groups: Group I with normal ejection fraction (EF) and wall motion (WM); Group II with abnormal EF and WM. Results are shown in the table. Abnormal filling parameters are found not only in CAD but in VHD, PE and CM. The authors conclude that the first third LV filling parameters are sensitive but non-specific indicators of filling abnormalities caused by diverse etiologic factors. Abnormal first third filling parameters may occur in the presence of a normal resting EF and WM in CAD.

  6. Study of Λ parameters and crossover phenomena in SU(N) x SU(N) sigma models in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigemitsu, J.; Kogut, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    The spin system analogues of recent studies of the string tension and Λ parameters of SU(N) gauge theories in 4 dimensions are carried out for the SU(N) x SU(N) and O(N) models in 2 dimensions. The relations between the Λ parameters of both the Euclidean and Hamiltonian formulation of the lattice models and the Λ parameter of the continuum models are obtained. The one loop finite renormalization of the speed of light in the lattice Hamiltonian formulations of the O(N) and SU(N) x SU(N) models is calculated. Strong coupling calculations of the mass gaps of these spin models are done for all N and the constants of proportionality between the gap and the Λ parameter of the continuum models are obtained. These results are contrasted with similar calculations for the SU(N) gauge models in 3+1 dimensions. Identifying suitable coupling constants for discussing the N → infinity limits, the numerical results suggest that the crossover from weak to strong coupling in the lattice O(N) models becomes less abrupt as N increases while the crossover for the SU(N) x SU(N) models becomes more abrupt. The crossover in SU(N) gauge theories also becomes more abrupt with increasing N, however, at an even greater rate than in the SU(N) x SU(N) spin models

  7. Analysis of a large number of clinical studies for breast cancer radiotherapy: estimation of radiobiological parameters for treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, M; Li, X Allen

    2003-01-01

    Numerous studies of early-stage breast cancer treated with breast conserving surgery (BCS) and radiotherapy (RT) have been published in recent years. Both external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and/or brachytherapy (BT) with different fractionation schemes are currently used. The present RT practice is largely based on empirical experience and it lacks a reliable modelling tool to compare different RT modalities or to design new treatment strategies. The purpose of this work is to derive a plausible set of radiobiological parameters that can be used for RT treatment planning. The derivation is based on existing clinical data and is consistent with the analysis of a large number of published clinical studies on early-stage breast cancer. A large number of published clinical studies on the treatment of early breast cancer with BCS plus RT (including whole breast EBRT with or without a boost to the tumour bed, whole breast EBRT alone, brachytherapy alone) and RT alone are compiled and analysed. The linear quadratic (LQ) model is used in the analysis. Three of these clinical studies are selected to derive a plausible set of LQ parameters. The potential doubling time is set a priori in the derivation according to in vitro measurements from the literature. The impact of considering lower or higher T pot is investigated. The effects of inhomogeneous dose distributions are considered using clinically representative dose volume histograms. The derived LQ parameters are used to compare a large number of clinical studies using different regimes (e.g., RT modality and/or different fractionation schemes with different prescribed dose) in order to validate their applicability. The values of the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and biologically effective dose (BED) are used as a common metric to compare the biological effectiveness of each treatment regime. We have obtained a plausible set of radiobiological parameters for breast cancer. This set of parameters is consistent with in vitro

  8. Study of experimentally undetermined neutrino parameters in the light of baryogenesis considering type I and type II Seesaw models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalita, Rupam

    2017-01-01

    We study to connect all the experimentally undetermined neutrino parameters namely lightest neutrino mass, neutrino CP phases and baryon asymmetry of the Universe within the framework of a model where both type I and type II seesaw mechanisms can contribute to tiny neutrino masses. In this work we study the effects of Dirac and Majorana neutrino phases in the origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry through the mechanism of leptogenesis. Type I seesaw mass matrix considered to a tri-bimaximal (TBM) type neutrino mixing which always gives non zero reactor mixing angle. The type II seesaw mass matrix is then considered in such a way that the necessary deviation from TBM mixing and the best fit values of neutrino parameters can be obtained when both type I and type II seesaw contributions are taken into account. We consider different contribution from type I and type II seesaw mechanism to study the effects of neutrino CP phases in the baryon asymmetry of the universe. We further study to connect all these experimentally undetermined neutrino parameters by considering various contribution of type I and type II seesaw. (author)

  9. A preliminary study for investigating idiopatic normal pressure hydrocephalus by means of statistical parameters classification of intracranial pressure recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisto, A; Bramanti, A; Galeano, M; Angileri, F; Campobello, G; Serrano, S; Azzerboni, B

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate Id-iopatic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (INPH) through a multidimensional and multiparameter analysis of statistical data obtained from accurate analysis of Intracranial Pressure (ICP) recordings. Such a study could permit to detect new factors, correlated with therapeutic response, which are able to validate a predicting significance for infusion test. The algorithm developed by the authors computes 13 ICP parameter trends on each of the recording, afterward 9 statistical information from each trend is determined. All data are transferred to the datamining software WEKA. According to the exploited feature-selection techniques, the WEKA has revealed that the most significant statistical parameter is the maximum of Single-Wave-Amplitude: setting a 27 mmHg threshold leads to over 90% of correct classification.

  10. Synthesis and Study on Effect of Parameters on Dry Sliding Wear Characteristics of AL-SI Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Uchenna OZIOKO

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of parameters on dry sliding wear characteristics of Al-Si alloys was studied. Aluminium-silicon alloys containing 7%, 12% and 14% weight of silicon were synthesized using casting method. Dry sliding wear characteristics of sample were studied against a hardened carbon steel (Fe-2.3%Cr-0.9%C using a pin-on-disc. Observations were recorded keeping two parameters (sliding distance, sliding speed and load constant against wear at room temperature. Microstructural characterization was done using optical microscope (OM and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Hardness and wear characteristics of different samples have shown near uniform behaviour. The wear rate decreased when the percentage of silicon increases. Wear was observed to increase at higher applied load, higher sliding speed and higher sliding distance. The wear characteristics of Al-14%Si was observed superior to those of Al-7%Si and Al-12%Si due to the degree of refinement of their eutectic silicon.

  11. Cell size spatial convergence analysis on GOTHIC distributed parameter models for studying hydrogen mixing behaviour in CANDU containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, K.; Wong, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Gas mixing phenomena can be modelled using distributed parameter codes such as GOTHIC, but the selection of the optimum cell size is an important user input. The tradeoff between accuracy and practical computation times affect the choice of cell sizes, where small cells provide better accuracy at the expense of longer computing time. A study on cell size effect on hydrogen distribution is presented for the problem of hydrogen mixing behaviour in a typical CANDU reactor containment following a severe reactor accident. Optimal cell sizes were found for different room volumes, hydrogen release profiles and elevations using spatial convergence criteria. The findings of this study provide the technical basis for the cell size selection in the GOTHIC distributed parameter models used for analysing hydrogen mixing behaviour. (author). 1 ref., 1 tab., 13 figs

  12. Relative Leukocyte Telomere Length, Hematological Parameters and Anemia - Data from the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Antje; Salewsky, Bastian; Buchmann, Nikolaus; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Demuth, Ilja

    2016-01-01

    The length of the chromosome ends, telomeres, is widely accepted as a biomarker of aging. However, the dynamic of the relationship between telomere length and hematopoietic parameters in the normal aging process, which is of particular interest with respect to age-related anemia, is not well understood. We have analyzed the relationship between relative leukocyte telomere length (rLTL) and several hematological parameters in the older group of the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II) participants. This paper also compares rLTL between both BASE-II age groups (22-37 and 60-83 years). Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes of BASE-II participants and used to determine rLTL by a quantitative PCR protocol. Standard methods were used to determine blood parameters, and the WHO criteria were used to identify anemic participants. Telomere length data were available for 444 younger participants (28.4 ± 3.1 years old; 52% women) and 1,460 older participants (68.2 ± 3.7 years old; 49.4% women). rLTL was significantly shorter in BASE-II participants of the older group (p = 3.7 × 10-12) and in women (p = 4.2 × 10-31). rLTL of older men exhibited a statistically significant, positive partial correlation with mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH; p = 0.012) and MCH concentration (p = 0.002). While these correlations were only observed in men, the rLTL of older women was negatively correlated with the number of thrombocytes (p = 0.015) in the same type of analysis. Among all older participants, 6% met the criteria to be categorized as 'anemic'; however, there was no association between anemia and rLTL. In the present study, we have detected isolated correlations between rLTL and hematological parameters; however, in all cases, rLTL explained only a small part of the variation of the analyzed parameters. In disagreement with some other studies showing similar data, we interpret the association between rLTL and some of the hematological parameters studied here to be

  13. Effect of fixed orthodontic appliances on salivary microbial parameters at 6 months : a controlled observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maret, Delphine; Marchal-Sixou, Christine; Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Hamel, Olivier; Georgelin-Gurgel, Marie; Van Der Sluis, Lucas; Sixou, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the microbial changes in children with fixed orthodontic appli