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Sample records for parahaemolyticus play important

  1. Two type IV pili of Vibrio parahaemolyticus play different roles in biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shime-Hattori, Akiko; Iida, Tetsuya; Arita, Michiko; Park, Kwon-Sam; Kodama, Toshio; Honda, Takeshi

    2006-11-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus RIMD2210633 has two sets of type IV-A pilus genes. One set is similar to that found in other Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae (chitin-regulated pilus; ChiRP), and Vibrio vulnificus. The other is homologous to the genes for the mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA) pilus. In this study, we analyzed the effects of the deletions in the pilin genes for each type IV pilus (the ChiRP and the MSHA pilus) on biofilm formation. Although the MSHA pilin mutant formed aggregates, the number of bacteria that attached directly to the coverslip was reduced, suggesting that this pilus contributes to the bacterial attachment to the surface of the coverslip. In contrast, the ChiRP mutant attached to the surface of the coverslip, but did not form aggregates, suggesting that ChiRP plays a role in bacterial agglutination during biofilm formation. These results suggest that the two type IV pili of V. parahaemolyticus contribute to biofilm formation in different ways. Both mutants showed a lower fitness for adsorption onto chitin particles than that of the wild type. Collectively, these data suggest that the use of two type IV pili is a refined strategy of V. parahaemolyticus for survival in natural environments.

  2. Play's Importance in School

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    Sandberg, Anette; Heden, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute knowledge on and gain an understanding of elementary school teachers' perspectives on the function of play in children's learning processes. The study is qualitative with a hermeneutical approach and has George Herbert Mead as a theoretical frame of reference. Interviews have been carried out with seven…

  3. Chirality plays important roles in radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yumei

    2006-01-01

    The paper introduces the basic concept of chirality, target specific selectivity and their relationship in radiopharmaceuticals. If the ligands labeled by radionuclides have chiral center, the enantiomers must be separated, or the target specific selectivity will not be good. Chirality is one of the most important factors which must be considered in the study of the structure-activity relationship of radiopharmaceuticals. (authors)

  4. Bile Sensing: The Activation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bey-Hing Goh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria must develop resistance to various inhospitable conditions in order to survive in the human gastrointestinal tract. Bile, which is secreted by the liver, and plays an important role in food digestion also has antimicrobial properties and is able to disrupt cellular homeostasis. Paradoxically, although bile is one of the guts defenses, many studies have reported that bacteria such as Vibrio parahaemolyticus can sense bile and use its presence as an environmental cue to upregulate virulence genes during infection. This article aims to discuss how bile is detected by V. parahaemolyticus and its role in regulating type III secretion system 2 leading to human infection. This bile–bacteria interaction pathway gives us a clearer understanding of the biochemical and structural analysis of the bacterial receptors involved in mediating a response to bile salts which appear to be a significant environmental cue during initiation of an infection.

  5. [Characterization of haemolysis of the Vibrio parahaemolyticus no.93].

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    Su, S C; Lee, C Y

    1997-02-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a causative bacterium of food poisoning, and the haemolysin produced by this organism has been considered as one of the important virulence factors. In order to understand the pathogenic mechanism of this bacterium, the characteristics of haemolysin from Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from Taiwan were studied. One of the clinical strains, V. parahaemolyticus No.93, presents a weak hemolytic zone on 7% NaCl-Wagatsuma medium. The DNA hybridization results show that V. parahemolyticus has neither tdh nor trh gene. V. parahaemolyticus No.93 shows obviously hemolytic zone on 3%-NaCl Wagatsuma medium (human blood). The crude extracellular protein of V. parahaemolyticus No. 93 was evaluated for its heat tolerance and enzyme activities by media assay. The results show that this crude extracellular protein is thermolabile. The crude extracellular protein of V. parahaemolyticus No.93 was analyzed on 10% SDS-PAGE and an apparent band of 64 kDa protein was observed. Furthermore, the crude extracellular protein was analyzed by running gelatin-SDS-PAGE and hemoglobin-SDS-PAGE, and three clear zones on 62 kDa, 52 kDa and 41 kDa were observed on both SDS-PAGEs. Thus we propose that the crude extracellular protein of the V. parahaemolyticus No.93 can degrade gelatin as well as hemoglobin. Whether these protease being the virulence factors of Vibrio parahaemolyticus No.93 needs to be further studied.

  6. The Importance of play During Childhood: The Lesson for care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lack of knowledge on the importance of play for children has ledparents, care givers and pre-school teachers deny children their rights to play,instead they have placed more emphasis on reading and arithmetic. This paper isbased on literature review, and presents the developmental stages of childhood anddiscusses the ...

  7. THE IMPORTANCE OF PLAY DURING HOSPITALIZATION OF CHILDREN

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    Koukourikos, Konstantinos; Tzeha, Laila; Pantelidou, Parthenopi; Tsaloglidou, Areti

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Play constitutes an essential parameter of the normal psychosomatic development of children, as well as their statutory right. It is also an important means of communication in childhood. Objective: To review, detect and highlight all data cited regarding the role of play during the hospitalization of children. Methodology: Literature review was achieved by searching the databases Scopus, PubMed, Cinhal in English, using the following key words: therapeutic play, play therapy, hospitalized child, therapist. Results: During hospitalization, play either in the form of therapeutic play, or as in the form of play therapy, is proven to be of high therapeutic value for ill children, thus contributing to both their physical and emotional well-being and to their recovery. It helps to investigate issues related to the child’s experiences in the hospital and reduce the intensity of negative feelings accompanying a child’s admission to hospital and hospitalization. Play is widely used in pre-operative preparation and invasive procedures, while its use among children hospitalized for cancer is beneficial. Conclusion: The use of play in hospital may become a tool in the hands of healthcare professionals, in order to provide substantial assistance to hospitalized children, as long as they have appropriate training, patience, and will to apply it during hospitalization. PMID:26889107

  8. The pathogenesis, detection and prevention of Vibrio parahaemolyticus

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    Rongzhi eWang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a Gram-negative motile bacterium that inhabits marine and estuarine environments throughout the world, is a major food-borne pathogen that causes life-threatening diseases in humans after the consumption of raw or undercooked seafood. The global occurrence of V. parahaemaolyticus accentuates the importance of investigating its virulence factors and their effects on the human host. This review describes the virulence factors of V. parahaemolyticus reported to date, including hemolysin, urease, two type III secretion systems (T3SS and two type VI secretion systems (T6SS, which both cause both cytotoxicity in cultured cells and enterotoxicity in animal models. We describe various types of detection methods, based on virulence factors, that are used for quantitative detection of V. parahaemolyticus in seafood. We also discuss some useful preventive measures and therapeutic strategies for the diseases mediated by V. parahaemolyticus, which can reduce, to some extent, the damage to humans and aquatic animals attributable to V. parahaemolyticus. This review extends our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of V. parahaemolyticus mediated by virulence factors and the diseases it causes in its human host. It should provide new insights for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of V. parahaemolyticus infection.

  9. Characterization of microRNAs in Mud Crab Scylla paramamosain under Vibrio parahaemolyticus Infection

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    Li, Chuanbiao; Zhang, Zhao; Zhou, Lizhen; Wang, Shijia; Wang, Shuqi; Zhang, Yueling; Wen, Xiaobo

    2013-01-01

    Background Infection of bacterial Vibrio parahaemolyticus is common in mud crab farms. However, the mechanisms of the crab’s response to pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus infection are not fully understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that function as regulators of gene expression and play essential roles in various biological processes. To understand the underlying mechanisms of the molecular immune response of the crab to the pathogens, high-throughput Illumina/Solexa deep sequencing technology was used to investigate the expression profiles of miRNAs in S . paramamosain under V. parahaemolyticus infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Two mixed RNA pools of 7 tissues (intestine, heart, liver, gill, brain, muscle and blood) were obtained from V. parahaemolyticus infected crabs and the control groups, respectively. By aligning the sequencing data with known miRNAs, we characterized 421 miRNA families, and 133 conserved miRNA families in mud crab S . paramamosain were either identical or very similar to existing miRNAs in miRBase. Stem-loop qRT-PCRs were used to scan the expression levels of four randomly chosen differentially expressed miRNAs and tissue distribution. Eight novel potential miRNAs were confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis and the precursors of these novel miRNAs were verified by PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing in S . paramamosain . 161 miRNAs (106 of which up-regulated and 55 down-regulated) were significantly differentially expressed during the challenge and the potential targets of these differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted. Furthermore, we demonstrated evolutionary conservation of mud crab miRNAs in the animal evolution process. Conclusions/Significance In this study, a large number of miRNAs were identified in S . paramamosain when challenged with V. parahaemolyticus, some of which were differentially expressed. The results show that miRNAs might play some important roles in regulating gene expression in

  10. DREAM plays an important role in platelet activation and thrombogenesis

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    Kim, Kyungho; Tseng, Alan; Barazia, Andrew; Italiano, Joseph E.

    2017-01-01

    Downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a transcriptional repressor, is known to modulate pain responses. However, it is unknown whether DREAM is expressed in anucleate platelets and plays a role in thrombogenesis. By using intravital microscopy with DREAM-null mice and their bone marrow chimeras, we demonstrated that both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cell DREAMs are required for platelet thrombus formation following laser-induced arteriolar injury. In a FeCl3-induced thrombosis model, we found that compared with wild-type (WT) control and nonhematopoietic DREAM knockout (KO) mice, DREAM KO control and hematopoietic DREAM KO mice showed a significant delay in time to occlusion. Tail bleeding time was prolonged in DREAM KO control mice, but not in WT or DREAM bone marrow chimeric mice. In vivo adoptive transfer experiments further indicated the importance of platelet DREAM in thrombogenesis. We found that DREAM deletion does not alter the ultrastructural features of platelets but significantly impairs platelet aggregation and adenosine triphosphate secretion induced by numerous agonists (collagen-related peptide, adenosine 5′-diphosphate, A23187, thrombin, or U46619). Biochemical studies revealed that platelet DREAM positively regulates phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity during platelet activation. Using DREAM-null platelets and PI3K isoform-specific inhibitors, we observed that platelet DREAM is important for α-granule secretion, Ca2+ mobilization, and aggregation through PI3K class Iβ (PI3K-Iβ). Genetic and pharmacological studies in human megakaryoblastic MEG-01 cells showed that DREAM is important for A23187-induced Ca2+ mobilization and its regulatory function requires Ca2+ binding and PI3K-Iβ activation. These results suggest that platelet DREAM regulates PI3K-Iβ activity and plays an important role during thrombus formation. PMID:27903531

  11. NHE8 plays important roles in gastric mucosal protection

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    Xu, Hua; Li, Jing; Chen, Huacong; Wang, Chunhui

    2013-01-01

    Sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) 8 is an apically expressed membrane protein in the intestinal epithelial cells. It plays important roles in sodium absorption and bicarbonate secretion in the intestine. Although NHE8 mRNA has been detected in the stomach, the precise location and physiological role of NHE8 in the gastric glands remain unclear. In the current study, we successfully detected the expression of NHE8 in the glandular region of the stomach by Western blotting and located NHE8 protein at the apical membrane in the surface mucous cells by a confocal microscopic method. We also identified the expression of downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA) in the surface mucous cells in the stomach. Using NHE8−/− mice, we found that NHE8 plays little or no role in basal gastric acid production, yet NHE8−/− mice have reduced gastric mucosal surface pH and higher incidence of developing gastric ulcer. DRA expression was reduced significantly in the stomach in NHE8−/− mice. The propensity for gastric ulcer, reduced mucosal surface pH, and low DRA expression suggest that NHE8 is indirectly involved in gastric bicarbonate secretion and gastric mucosal protection. PMID:23220221

  12. Copy number variation plays an important role in clinical epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Heather; Shen, Yiping; Avallone, Jennifer; Sheidley, Beth R.; Pinsky, Rebecca; Bergin, Ann M.; Berry, Gerard T.; Duffy, Frank H.; Eksioglu, Yaman; Harris, David J.; Hisama, Fuki M.; Ho, Eugenia; Irons, Mira; Jacobsen, Christina M.; James, Philip; Kothare, Sanjeev; Khwaja, Omar; Lipton, Jonathan; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Markowitz, Jennifer; Maski, Kiran; Megerian, J. Thomas; Neilan, Edward; Raffalli, Peter C.; Robbins, Michael; Roberts, Amy; Roe, Eugene; Rollins, Caitlin; Sahin, Mustafa; Sarco, Dean; Schonwald, Alison; Smith, Sharon E.; Soul, Janet; Stoler, Joan M.; Takeoka, Masanori; Tan, Wen-Han; Torres, Alcy R.; Tsai, Peter; Urion, David K.; Weissman, Laura; Wolff, Robert; Wu, Bai-Lin; Miller, David T.; Poduri, Annapurna

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of copy number abnormalities detectable by chromosomal microarray (CMA) testing in patients with epilepsy at a tertiary care center. Methods We identified patients with ICD-9 codes for epilepsy or seizures and clinical CMA testing performed between October 2006 and February 2011 at Boston Children’s Hospital. We reviewed medical records and included patients meeting criteria for epilepsy. We phenotypically characterized patients with epilepsy-associated abnormalities on CMA. Results Of 973 patients who had CMA and ICD-9 codes for epilepsy or seizures, 805 patients satisfied criteria for epilepsy. We observed 437 copy number variants (CNVs) in 323 patients (1–4 per patient), including 185 (42%) deletions and 252 (58%) duplications. Forty (9%) were confirmed de novo, 186 (43%) were inherited, and parental data were unavailable for 211 (48%). Excluding full chromosome trisomies, CNV size ranged from 18 kb to 142 Mb, and 34% were over 500 kb. In at least 40 cases (5%), the epilepsy phenotype was explained by a CNV, including 29 patients with epilepsy-associated syndromes and 11 with likely disease-associated CNVs involving epilepsy genes or “hotspots.” We observed numerous recurrent CNVs including 10 involving loss or gain of Xp22.31, a region described in patients with and without epilepsy. Interpretation Copy number abnormalities play an important role in patients with epilepsy. Given that the diagnostic yield of CMA for epilepsy patients is similar to the yield in autism spectrum disorders and in prenatal diagnosis, for which published guidelines recommend testing with CMA, we recommend the implementation of CMA in the evaluation of unexplained epilepsy. PMID:24811917

  13. Vibrio parahaemolyticus- An emerging foodborne pathogen

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    S Nelapati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a halophilic gram negative, motile, oxidase positive, straight or curved rod-shaped, facultative anaerobic bacteria that occur naturally in the marine environment. They form part of the indigenous microflora of aquatic habitats of various salinity and are the major causative agents for some of the most serious diseases in fish, shellfish and penacid shrimp. This human pathogen causes acute gastroenteritis characterized by diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal cramps through consumption of contaminated raw fish or shellfish. V. parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of gastroenteritis due to the consumption of seafood worldwide. The incidence of V. parahaemolyticus infection has been increasing in many parts of the world, due to the emergence of O3:K6 serotype carrying the tdh gene which is responsible for most outbreaks worldwide. The pathogenicity of this organism is closely correlated with the Kanagawa phenomenon (KP + due to production of Kanagawa hemolysin or the thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH. The TDH and TRH (TDH-related hemolysin encoded by tdh and trh genes are considered to be important virulence factors. [Vet. World 2012; 5(1.000: 48-63

  14. Coal still plays an important role in Europe's energy business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.; Beer, G.

    2004-01-01

    European energy mix would be unimaginable without the coal as it is used to produce about 25 percent of the EU electricity and its importance will even increase after the enlargement. In many of the accession countries coal represents the main source of electricity. Reviews of electricity production in dependence of source, coal mining and share of brown coal on electricity production in European Union are presented

  15. Parent participation plays an important part in promoting physical activity

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    Anna-Karin Lindqvist

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although physical activity (PA is an important and modifiable determinant of health, in Sweden only 15% of boys and 10% of girls aged 15 years old achieve the recommended levels of PA 7 days per week. Adolescents’ PA levels are associated with social influence exerted by parents, friends, and teachers. The purpose of this study was to describe parents’ experiences of being a part of their adolescents’ empowerment-inspired PA intervention. A qualitative interview study was performed at a school in the northern part of Sweden. A total of 10 parents were interviewed, and the collected data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Three subthemes were combined into one main theme, demonstrating that parents are one important part of a successful PA intervention. The life of an adolescent has many options and demands that make it difficult to prioritize PA. Although parents felt that they were important in supporting their adolescent, a successful PA intervention must have multiple components. Moreover, the parents noted that the intervention had a positive effect upon not only their adolescents’, but also their own PA. Interventions aimed at promoting PA among adolescents should include measures to stimulate parent participation, have an empowerment approach, and preferably be school-based.

  16. Detection of Total and Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Shellfish Growing along the South Yellow Sea and the East China Sea.

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    Han, Feng; Gu, Run-Run; Shen, Xiao-Sheng; Chen, Yuan-Ge; Tian, Liang-Liang; Zhou, Wei-Feng; Cai, You-Qiong

    2017-10-17

    This study was conducted to monitor the densities of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in 300 samples of nine shellfish species harvested from the coasts of the South Yellow Sea and the East China Sea (N 23° to 34°, E 116° to 124°), People's Republic of China, between May and October 2015. Total V. parahaemolyticus densities were measured, and V. parahaemolyticus isolates were biochemically identified with probes for the thermostable direct hemolysin gene (tdh) and the thermostable direct hemolysin-related hemolysin gene (trh). We found that 202 of the 300 samples were positive for V. parahaemolyticus from all the sites: 58 of the 100 samples from the Fujian province, 71 of the 100 samples from the Zhejiang province, and 73 of the 100 samples from the Jiangsu province. In most (170) of the 300 samples, V. parahaemolyticus densities were 0.3 to 10 most probable number (MPN)/g; five lots exceeded 110 MPN/g, and two lots were estimated at 110 MPN/g. Among the 202 V. parahaemolyticus strains, only one was trh positive. Densities of V. parahaemolyticus in these shellfish were temperature dependent, with highest densities in June and July. Among the nine mollusk species, V. parahaemolyticus was most abundant in the agemaki clam (Sinonovacula constricta). The highest and lowest V. parahaemolyticus prevalences were found in oriental cyclina (Cyclina sinensis, 93.8%) and mussels (Mytilus edulis, 28.1%), respectively. Overall, although V. parahaemolyticus is widely distributed in marine environments, the density of V. parahaemolyticus was low and the prevalence of the main virulence factor was very low in shellfish along the coasts of the South Yellow Sea and East China Sea, which is important from a public health perspective. Data presented here will be useful for correlational research and can be utilized for developing risk management plans that establish food safety guidelines for V. parahaemolyticus in Chinese shellfish.

  17. Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease-Causing Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains Maintain an Antibacterial Type VI Secretion System with Versatile Effector Repertoires.

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    Li, Peng; Kinch, Lisa N; Ray, Ann; Dalia, Ankur B; Cong, Qian; Nunan, Linda M; Camilli, Andrew; Grishin, Nick V; Salomon, Dor; Orth, Kim

    2017-07-01

    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a newly emerging shrimp disease that has severely damaged the global shrimp industry. AHPND is caused by toxic strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus that have acquired a "selfish plasmid" encoding the deadly binary toxins PirA vp /PirB vp To better understand the repertoire of virulence factors in AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus , we conducted a comparative analysis using the genome sequences of the clinical strain RIMD2210633 and of environmental non-AHPND and toxic AHPND isolates of V. parahaemolyticus Interestingly, we found that all of the AHPND strains, but none of the non-AHPND strains, harbor the antibacterial type VI secretion system 1 (T6SS1), which we previously identified and characterized in the clinical isolate RIMD2210633. This finding suggests that the acquisition of this T6SS might confer to AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus a fitness advantage over competing bacteria and facilitate shrimp infection. Additionally, we found highly dynamic effector loci in the T6SS1 of AHPND-causing strains, leading to diverse effector repertoires. Our discovery provides novel insights into AHPND-causing pathogens and reveals a potential target for disease control. IMPORTANCE Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a serious disease that has caused severe damage and significant financial losses to the global shrimp industry. To better understand and prevent this shrimp disease, it is essential to thoroughly characterize its causative agent, Vibrio parahaemolyticus Although the plasmid-encoded binary toxins PirA vp /PirB vp have been shown to be the primary cause of AHPND, it remains unknown whether other virulent factors are commonly present in V. parahaemolyticus and might play important roles during shrimp infection. Here, we analyzed the genome sequences of clinical, non-AHPND, and AHPND strains to characterize their repertoires of key virulence determinants. Our studies reveal that an antibacterial type

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus VH3, Isolated from an Aquaculture Environment in Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Daniel; Jun, Jin Woo; D'Alvise, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important foodborne pathogen responsible for gastroenteritis outbreaks globally. It has also been identified as an important pathogen in aquatic organisms. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of V. parahaemolyticus, strain VH3, isolated from farmed juvenile greater...

  19. Natural transformation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: A rapid method to create genetic deletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimalapati, Suneeta; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Servage, Kelly; De Nisco, Nicole J; Dalia, Ankur B; Orth, Kim

    2018-03-19

    The Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an opportunistic human pathogen and the leading cause of seafood borne acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Recently, this bacterium was implicated as the etiologic agent of a severe shrimp disease with consequent devastating outcomes to shrimp farming. In both cases, acquisition of genetic material via horizontal transfer provided V. parahaemolyticus with new virulence tools to cause disease. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms of V. parahaemolyticus pathogenesis often requires manipulating its genome. Classically, genetic deletions in V. parahaemolyticus are performed using a laborious, lengthy, multi-step process. Herein, we describe a fast and efficient method to edit this bacterium's genome based on V. parahaemolyticus natural competence. Although this method is similar to one previously described, V. parahaemolyticus requires counter selection for curing of acquired plasmids due to its recalcitrant nature of retaining extrachromosomal DNA. We believe this approach will be of use to the Vibrio community. Importance Spreading of Vibrios throughout the world correlates with increased global temperatures. As they spread, they find new niches to survive, proliferate and invade. Therefore, genetic manipulation of Vibrios is of utmost importance for studying these species. Herein, we have delineated and validated a rapid method to create genetic deletions in Vibrio parahaemolyticus This study provides insightful methodology for studies with other Vibrio species. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Environmental determinants of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Benjamin J K; Jacobs, John M; Davis, Meghan F; Schwab, Kellogg J; DePaola, Angelo; Curriero, Frank C

    2017-08-25

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus naturally-occurs in brackish and marine waters and is one of the leading causes of seafood-borne illness. Previous work studying the ecology of V. parahaemolyticus is often limited in geographic extent and lacking a full range of environmental measures. This study used a unique, large dataset of surface water samples in the Chesapeake Bay ( n =1,385) collected from 148 monitoring stations from 2007 to 2010. Water was analyzed for over 20 environmental parameters with additional meteorological and surrounding land use data. V. parahaemolyticus -specific genetic markers thermolabile hemolysin ( tlh ), thermostable direct hemolysin ( tdh ), and tdh -related hemolysin ( trh ) were assayed using quantitative PCR (qPCR), and interval-censored regression models with non-linear effects were estimated to account for limits of detection and quantitation. tlh was detected in 19.6% of water samples; tdh or trh markers were not detected. Results confirmed previously reported positive associations for V. parahaemolyticus abundance with temperature and turbidity and negative associations with high salinity (> 10-23‰). Furthermore, the salinity relationship was determined to be a function of both low temperature and turbidity, with an increase of either nullifying the high salinity effect. Associations with dissolved oxygen and phosphate also appeared stronger when samples were taken nearby human developments. Renewed focus on the V. parahaemolyticus ecological paradigm is warranted to protect public health. Importance Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the leading causes of seafood-borne illness in the United States and across the globe. Exposure is often through consuming raw or undercooked shellfish. Given the natural presence of the bacterium in the marine environment, improved understanding of its environmental determinants is necessary for future preventative measures. This analysis of environmental Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of only a few that

  1. Vibrio parahaemolyticus: A Review on the Pathogenesis, Prevalence and Advance Molecular Identification Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengadesh eLetchumanan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium that is found in estuarine, marine and coastal environments. Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading causal agent of human acute gastroenteritis following the consumption of raw, undercooked or mishandled marine products. In rare cases, Vibrio parahaemolyticus causes wound infection, ear infection or septicaemia in individuals with pre-existing medical conditions. Vibrio parahaemolyticus has two hemolysins virulence factors that are thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh-a pore-forming protein that contributes to the invasiveness of the bacterium in humans, and TDH-related hemolysin (trh, which plays a similar role as thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh in the disease pathogenesis. In addition, the bacterium is also encodes for adhesions and type III secretion systems (T3SS1 and T3SS2 to ensure its survival in the environment. This review aims at discussing the Vibrio parahemolyticus growth and characteristics, pathogenesis, prevalence and advances in molecular identification techniques.

  2. Application of polymerase chain reaction for detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus associated with tropical seafoods and coastal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileep, V; Kumar, H S; Kumar, Y; Nishibuchi, M; Karunasagar, Indrani; Karunasagar, Iddya

    2003-01-01

    To study the incidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafoods, water and sediment by molecular techniques vs conventional microbiological methods. Of 86 samples analysed, 28 recorded positive for V. parahaemolyticus by conventional microbiological method, while 53 were positive by the toxR-targeted PCR, performed directly on enrichment broth lysates. While one sample of molluscan shellfish was positive for tdh gene, trh gene was detected in three enrichment broths of molluscan shellfish. Direct application of PCR to enrichment broths will be useful for the rapid and sensitive detection of potentially pathogenic strains of V. parahemolyticus in seafoods. Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important human pathogen responsible for food-borne gastroenteritis world-wide. As, both pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of V. parahaemolyticus exist in the seafood, application of PCR specific for the virulence genes (tdh & trh) will help in detection of pathogenic strains of V. parahaemolyticus and consequently reduce the risk of food-borne illness.

  3. Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from biofouling on commercial vessels and harbor structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla-Castellanos, Valeria J; Guerrero, Abraham; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Navarro-Barrón, Erick; Lizárraga-Partida, Marcial L

    2015-01-01

    Ballast water is a significant vector of microbial dissemination; however, biofouling on commercial vessel hulls has been poorly studied with regard to pathogenic bacteria transport. Biofouling on three commercial vessels and seven port structures in Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico, was examined by qPCR to identify and quantify Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a worldwide recognized food-borne human pathogen. Pathogenic variants (trh+, tdh+) of V. parahaemolyticus were detected in biofouling homogenates samples from several docks in Ensenada and on the hulls of ships with Japanese and South Korean homeports, but not in reference sampling stations. A total of 26 tdh+ V. parahaemolyticus colonies and 1 ORF8+/O3:K6 strain were also isolated from enriched biofouling homogenate samples confirming the qPCR analysis. Our results suggest that biofouling is an important reservoir of pathogenic vibrios. Thus, ship biofouling might be an overlooked vector with regard to the dissemination of pathogens, primarily pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus.

  4. Highly diverse recombining populations of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eEsteves

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae are ubiquitous to estuarine and marine environments. These two species can induce infections in humans. Therefore understanding the structure and dynamics of non-pandemic environmental populations in temperate regions, such as Mediterranean coastal systems, is important if we are to evaluate the risks of infection to humans.Environmental isolates of V. cholerae (n=109 and V. parahaemolyticus (n=89 sampled at different dates, stations and water salinities were investigated for virulence genes and by a multilocus sequence-based analysis (MLSA. V. cholerae isolates were all ctxA negative and only one isolate of V. parahaemolyticus displayed trh2 gene. Most Sequence Types (ST corresponded to unique ST isolated at one date or one station. Frequent recombination events were detected among different pathogenic species, V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae, Vibrio mimicus and Vibrio metoecus. Recombination had a major impact on the diversification of lineages. The genetic diversity assessed by the number of ST/strain was higher in low salinity conditions for V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae whereas the frequency of recombination events in V. cholerae was lower in low salinity. Mediterranean coastal lagoon systems housed V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus with genetic diversities equivalent to the worldwide diversity described so far. The presence of STs found in human infections as well as the frequency of recombination events in environmental vibrios populations could predict a potential epidemiological risk.

  5. Localization and expression of MreB in Vibrio parahaemolyticus under different stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Shen-Wen; Chen, Shau-Yan; Wong, Hin-chung

    2008-11-01

    MreB, the homolog of eukaryotic actin, may play a vital role when prokaryotes cope with stress by altering their spatial organization, including their morphology, subcellular architecture, and localization of macromolecules. This study investigates the behavior of MreB in Vibrio parahaemolyticus under various stresses. The behavior of MreB was probed using a yellow fluorescent protein-MreB conjugate in merodiploid strain SC9. Under normal growth conditions, MreB formed helical filaments in exponential-phase cells. The shape of starved or stationary-phase cells changed from rods to small spheroids. The cells differentiated into the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state with small spherical cells via a "swelling-waning" process. In all cases, drastic remodeling of the MreB cytoskeleton was observed. MreB helices typically were loosened and fragmented into short filaments, arcs, and spots in bacteria under these stresses. The disintegrated MreB exhibited a strong tendency to attach to the cytoplasmic membrane. The expression of mreB generally declined in bacteria in the stationary phase and under starvation but was upregulated during the initial periods of cold shock and VBNC state differentiation and decreased afterwards. Our findings demonstrated the behavior of MreB in the morphological changes of V. parahaemolyticus under intrinsic or extrinsic stresses and may have important implications for studying the cellular stress response and aging.

  6. The ability of algal organic matter and surface runoff to promote the abundance of pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Long Island Sound, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake D Thickman

    Full Text Available Food safety is a major concern in the shellfish industry, as severe illness can result from consuming shellfish that have accumulated waterborne pathogens. Shellfish harvesting areas are typically monitored for indicator bacteria such as fecal coliforms that serve as proxies for enteric pathogens although these indicators have shown little relation to some naturally occurring pathogenic bacteria such as Vibrio parahaemolyticus. To examine the dynamics and ecology of pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of V. parahaemolyticus and address the relevance of indicator bacteria in predicting V. parahaemolyticus concentrations, field surveys and experiments were carried out in western Long Island Sound, NY, USA, a region that has experienced recent outbreaks of shellfish contaminated with V. parahaemolyticus. Pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains were quantified via PCR detection of marker genes and most probable number techniques. Field survey data showed little correspondence between fecal coliforms and V. parahaemolyticus, but significant correlations between V. parahaemolyticus and an alternative indicator, enterococci, and between V. parahaemolyticus and short-term (48 h rainfall were observed. Experiments demonstrated that enrichment of seawater with phytoplankton-derived dissolved organic matter significantly increased the concentration of total V. parahaemolyticus and the presence pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus, but higher temperatures did not. Collectively, these study results suggest that fecal coliforms may fail to account for the full suite of important shellfish pathogens but that enterococci could provide a potential alternative or supplement to shellfish sanitation monitoring. Given the ability of algal-derived dissolved organic matter to promote the growth of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus, restricting nutrient inputs into coastal water bodies that promote algal blooms may indirectly decrease the proliferation of V. parahaemolyticus

  7. Environmental parameters influence on the dynamics of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus densities in Crassostrea virginica harvested from Mexico’s Gulf coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Hernández, Karla M.; Pardío-Sedas, Violeta T.; Lizárraga-Partida, Leonardo; Williams, José de J.; Martínez-Herrera, David; Flores-Primo, Argel; Uscanga-Serrano, Roxana; Rendón-Castro, Karla

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • V. parahaemolyticus densities in oysters were isolated in spring and winter seasons. • Pathogenic genes abundances varied with environmental parameters seasonal changes. • Water temperature modulated V. parahaemolyticus abundance during reduced salinities. • V. parahaemolyticus with potentially pathogenic genes raises important health issues. - Abstract: The influence of environmental parameters on the total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus seasonal densities in American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) was evaluated for 1 year. Harvesting site A yielded the highest mean densities of V. parahaemolyticus tlh+, tdh+/trh−, tdh−/trh+ and tdh+/trh+ during spring season at 2.57, 1.74, 0.36, and −0.40 log 10 MPN/g, respectively, and tdh+/orf8+ during winter season (0.90 log 10 MPN/g). V. parahaemolyticus tlh+ densities were associated to salinity (R 2 = 0.372, P < 0.022), tdh+/trh+ to turbidity (R 2 = 0.597, P < 0.035), and orf8+ to temperature, salinity, and pH (R 2 = 0.964, P < 0.001). The exposure to salinity and temperature conditions during winter and spring seasons regulated the dynamics of V. parahaemolyticus harboring potentially pathogenic genotypes within the oyster. The adaptive response of V. parahaemolyticus to seasonal environmental changes may lead to an increase in survival and virulence, threatening the seafood safety and increasing the risk of illness

  8. The Importance of Free Play in the Early Childhood Classroom: Perspectives from a Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Teaching is hard. It's the most rewarding, fulfilling job in the world, but it's also frustrating, infuriating, and really, really hard. In this article, the author reflects on the importance of free play in early childhood classrooms. If teachers want to create happy children who love learning, forcing them to sit at desks or tables through early…

  9. An Na+/H+ antiporter gene from wheat plays an important role

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    might play an important role in salt and osmotic stress tolerance in plant cells. [Yu J N, Huang J, ..... of TaNHX2 might be related to salt tolerance in wheat. TaNHX2 might also ... This work was supported by National Basic Research Project.

  10. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from retail shrimps in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchumanan, Vengadesh; Yin, Wai-Fong; Lee, Learn-Han; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine and estuarine bacterium that has been the leading cause of foodborne outbreaks which leads to a significant threat to human health worldwide. Consumption of seafood contaminated with V. parahaemolyticus causes acute gastroenteritis in individuals. The bacterium poses two main virulence factor including the thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) which is a pore-forming protein that contributes to the invasiveness of the bacterium in humans and TDH-related hemolysin (trh), which plays a similar role as tdh in the disease pathogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial resistance V. parahaemolyticus strains in shrimps purchased from wetmarkets and supermarkets. The toxR-based PCR assay indicated that a total of 57.8% (185/320) isolates were positive for V. parahaemolyticus. Only 10% (19/185) toxR-positive isolate exhibit the trh gene and none of the isolates were tested positive for tdh. The MAR index was measured for 14 common antimicrobial agents. The results indicated 98% of the isolates were highly susceptible to imipenem, ampicillin sulbactam (96%), chloramphenicol (95%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (93%), gentamicin (85%), levofloxacin (83%), and tetracycline (82%). The chloramphenicol (catA2) and kanamycin (aphA-3) resistance genes were detected in the resistant V. parahaemolyticus isolates. Our results demonstrate that shrimps are contaminated with V. parahaemolyticus, some of which carry the trh-gene thus being potential to cause food borne illness. The occurrence of multidrug resistance strains in the environment could be an indication of excessive usage of antibiotics in agriculture and aquaculture fields.

  11. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from retail shrimps in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengadesh eLetchumanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine and estuarine bacterium that has been the leading cause of foodborne outbreaks which leads to a significant threat to human health worldwide. Consumption of seafood contaminated with Vibrio parahaemolyticus causes acute gastroenteritis in individuals. The bacterium poses two main virulence factor including the thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh which is a pore-forming protein that contributes to the invasiveness of the bacterium in humans and TDH-related hemolysin (trh, which plays a similar role as thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh in the disease pathogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial resistance Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains in shrimps purchased from wetmarkets and supermarkets. The toxR-based PCR assay indicated that a total of 57.8% (185/320 isolates were positive for V. parahaemolyticus. Only 10% (19/185 toxR-positive isolate exhibit the TDH-related hemolysin (trh gene and none of the isolates were tested positive for thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh. The MAR index was measured for 14 common antimicrobial agents. The results indicated 98% of the isolates were highly susceptible to imipenem, ampicillin sulbactam (96%, chloramphenicol (95%, trimethoprim-sulfamet (93%, gentamicin (85%, levofloxacin (83% and tetracycline (82%. The chloramphenicol (catA2 and kanamycin (aphA-3 resistance genes were detected in the resistant V. parahaemolyticus isolates. Our results demonstrate that shrimps are contaminated with V. parahaemolyticus, some of which carry the trh-gene thus being potential to cause food borne illness. The occurrence of multidrug resistance strains in the environment could be an indication of excessive usage of antibiotics in agriculture and aquaculture fields.

  12. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from retail shrimps in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchumanan, Vengadesh; Yin, Wai-Fong; Lee, Learn-Han; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine and estuarine bacterium that has been the leading cause of foodborne outbreaks which leads to a significant threat to human health worldwide. Consumption of seafood contaminated with V. parahaemolyticus causes acute gastroenteritis in individuals. The bacterium poses two main virulence factor including the thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) which is a pore-forming protein that contributes to the invasiveness of the bacterium in humans and TDH-related hemolysin (trh), which plays a similar role as tdh in the disease pathogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial resistance V. parahaemolyticus strains in shrimps purchased from wetmarkets and supermarkets. The toxR-based PCR assay indicated that a total of 57.8% (185/320) isolates were positive for V. parahaemolyticus. Only 10% (19/185) toxR-positive isolate exhibit the trh gene and none of the isolates were tested positive for tdh. The MAR index was measured for 14 common antimicrobial agents. The results indicated 98% of the isolates were highly susceptible to imipenem, ampicillin sulbactam (96%), chloramphenicol (95%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (93%), gentamicin (85%), levofloxacin (83%), and tetracycline (82%). The chloramphenicol (catA2) and kanamycin (aphA-3) resistance genes were detected in the resistant V. parahaemolyticus isolates. Our results demonstrate that shrimps are contaminated with V. parahaemolyticus, some of which carry the trh-gene thus being potential to cause food borne illness. The occurrence of multidrug resistance strains in the environment could be an indication of excessive usage of antibiotics in agriculture and aquaculture fields. PMID:25688239

  13. Transcriptome analysis of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) challenged by Vibrio parahaemolyticus reveals unique immune-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhendong; Babu, V Sarath; Wan, Quanyuan; Zhou, Meng; Liang, Risheng; Muhammad, Asim; Zhao, Lijuan; Li, Jun; Lan, Jiangfeng; Lin, Li

    2018-06-01

    Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is an important cultural species worldwide. However, Vibrio spp. infections have caused a great economic loss in Pacific white shrimp culture industry. The immune responses of Pacific white shrimp to the Vibrio spp. is not fully characterized. In this study, the transcriptomic profiles of L. vannamei hemocytes were explored by injecting with or without Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Totally, 42,632 high-quality unigenes were obtained from RNAseq data. Comparative genome analysis showed 2258 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) following the Vibrio challenge, including 1017 up-regulated and 1241 down-regulated genes. Eight DEGs were randomly selected for further validation by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and the results showed that are consistent with the RNA-seq data. Due to the lack of predictable adaptive immunity, shrimps rely on an innate immune system to defend themselves against invading microbes by recognizing and clearing them through humoral and cellular immune responses. Here we focused our studies on the humoral immunity, five genes (SR, MNK, CTL3, GILT, and ALFP) were selected from the transcriptomic data, which were significantly up-regulated by V. parahaemolyticus infection. These genes were widely expressed in six different tissues and were up-regulated by both Gram negative bacteria (V. parahaemolyticus) and Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). To further extend our studies, we knock-down those five genes by dsRNA in L. vannamei and analyzed the functions of specific genes against V. parahaemolyticus and S. aureus by bacterial clearance analysis. We found that the ability of L. vannamei was significantly reduced in bacterial clearance when treated with those specific dsRNA. These results indicate that those five genes play essential roles in antibacterial immunity and have its specific functions against different types of pathogens. The obtained data will shed a new light on the immunity

  14. The Vibrio parahaemolyticus Type III Secretion Systems manipulate host cell MAPK for critical steps in pathogenesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Matlawska-Wasowska, Ksenia

    2010-12-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a food-borne pathogen causing inflammation of the gastrointestinal epithelium. Pathogenic strains of this bacterium possess two Type III Secretion Systems (TTSS) that deliver effector proteins into host cells. In order to better understand human host cell responses to V. parahaemolyticus, the modulation of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) activation in epithelial cells by an O3:K6 clinical isolate, RIMD2210633, was investigated. The importance of MAPK activation for the ability of the bacterium to be cytotoxic and to induce secretion of Interleukin-8 (IL-8) was determined.

  15. Ecological fitness and virulence features of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in estuarine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Charles R

    2017-03-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a commonly encountered and highly successful organism in marine ecosystems. It is a fast-growing, extremely versatile copiotroph that is active over a very broad range of conditions. It frequently occurs suspended in the water column (often attached to particles or zooplankton), and is a proficient colonist of submerged surfaces. This organism is an important pathogen of animals ranging from microcrustaceans to humans and is a causative agent of seafood-associated food poisoning. This review examines specific ecological adaptations of V. parahaemolyticus, including its broad tolerances to temperature and salinity, its utilization of a wide variety of organic carbon and energy sources, and its pervasive colonization of suspended and stationary materials that contribute to its success and ubiquity in temperate and tropical estuarine ecosystems. Several virulence-related features are examined, in particular the thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), the TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), and the type 3 secretion system, and the possible importance of these features in V. parahaemolyticus pathogenicity is explored. The impact of new and much more effective PCR primers on V. parahaemolyticus detection and our views of virulent strain abundance are also described. It is clear that strains carrying the canonical virulence genes are far more common than previously thought, which opens questions regarding the role of these genes in pathogenesis. It is also clear that virulence is an evolving feature of V. parahaemolyticus and that novel combinations of virulence factors can lead to emergent virulence in which a strain that is markedly more pathogenic evolves and propagates to produce an outbreak. The effects of global climate change on the frequency of epidemic disease, the geographic distribution of outbreaks, and the human impacts of V. parahaemolyticus are increasing and this review provides information on why this ubiquitous human pathogen has

  16. Development of a Real-Time Resistance Measurement for Vibrio parahaemolyticus Detection by the Lecithin-Dependent Hemolysin Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Guiming; Pu, Xiaoyun; Jiang, Dongneng; Liu, Linlin; Liu, Chang; Liu, Xiaobo

    2013-01-01

    The marine bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) causes gastroenteritis in humans via the ingestion of raw or undercooked contaminated seafood, and early diagnosis and prompt treatment are important for the prevention of V. parahaemolyticus-related diseases. In this study, a real-time resistance measurement based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), electrochemical ion bonding (Crystal violet and Mg2+), real-time monitoring, and derivative analysis was developed. V. parahaemolyticus DNA was first amplified by LAMP, and the products (DNA and pyrophosphate) represented two types of negative ions that could combine with a positive dye (Crystal violet) and positive ions (Mg2+) to increase the resistance of the reaction liquid. This resistance was measured in real-time using a specially designed resistance electrode, thus permitting the quantitative detection of V. parahaemolyticus. The results were obtained in 1–2 hours, with a minimum bacterial density of 10 CFU.mL−1 and high levels of accuracy (97%), sensitivity (96.08%), and specificity (97.96%) when compared to cultivation methods. Therefore, this simple and rapid method has a potential application in the detection of V. parahaemolyticus on a gene chip or in point-of-care testing. PMID:23991096

  17. Phloroglucinol-Mediated Hsp70 Production in Crustaceans: Protection against Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Artemia franciscana and Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikash; Baruah, Kartik; Nguyen, Dung Viet; Smagghe, Guy; Vossen, Els; Bossier, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The halophilic aquatic bacterium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, is an important aquatic pathogen, also capable of causing acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimp resulting in significant economic losses. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop anti-infective strategies to control AHPND. The gnotobiotic Artemia model is used to establish whether a phenolic compound phloroglucinol is effective against the AHPND strain V. parahaemolyticus MO904. We found that pretreatment with phloroglucinol, at an optimum concentration (30 µM), protects axenic brine shrimp larvae against V. parahaemolyticus infection and induced heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) production (twofolds or more) as compared with the control. We further demonstrated that the Vibrio-protective effect of phloroglucinol was caused by its prooxidant effect and is linked to the induction of Hsp70. In addition, RNA interference confirms that phloroglucinol-induced Hsp70 mediates the survival of brine shrimp larvae against V. parahaemolyticus infection. The study was validated in xenic Artemia model and in a Macrobrachium rosenbergii system. Pretreatment of xenic brine shrimp larvae (30 µM) and Macrobrachium larvae (5 µM) with phloroglucinol increases the survival of xenic brine shrimp and Macrobrachium larvae against subsequent V. parahaemolyticus challenge. Taken together, our study provides substantial evidence that the prooxidant activity of phloroglucinol induces Hsp70 production protecting brine shrimp, A. franciscana, and freshwater shrimp, M. rosenbergii, against the AHPND V. parahaemolyticus strain MO904. Probably, phloroglucinol treatment might become part of a holistic strategy to control AHPND in shrimp.

  18. MOTHER-CHILD AND FATHER-CHILD PLAY INTERACTION: THE IMPORTANCE OF PARENTAL PLAYFULNESS AS A MODERATOR OF THE LINKS BETWEEN PARENTAL BEHAVIOR AND CHILD NEGATIVITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menashe-Grinberg, Atara; Atzaba-Poria, Naama

    2017-11-01

    Based on the premise that father-child play is an important context for children's development and that fathers "specialize" in play, similarities and differences in the role of playfulness in the father-child and mother-child relationship were examined. Participants in this study included 111 families (children's age: 1-3 years). Father-child and mother-child play interactions were videotaped and coded for parental playfulness, sensitivity, structuring, and nonintrusiveness as well as child negativity. Results indicated that mothers and fathers did not differ in playfulness and that mothers and fathers who were higher in playfulness had children with lower levels of negativity. However, playfulness differently moderated the links between parents' and children's behaviors for mothers and fathers. A double-risk pattern was found for mothers, such that the links between child negativity and maternal sensitivity, structuring, and nonintrusiveness were significant only for the subgroup of mothers with low levels of playfulness. When mothers had high levels of playfulness, these effects were negligible. For fathers, a double-buffer pattern was revealed, indicating that the links between child negativity and paternal sensitivity and structuring were significant only for fathers with high levels of playfulness. When fathers had low levels of playfulness, these effects were negligible. These findings demonstrate the important role that parental playfulness has on parent-child interaction as well as the need to examine moderation patterns separately for fathers and mothers. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  19. Setting a good example: Regenerative energies play an important role in Schleswig-Holstein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rave, K.

    1995-01-01

    In Schleswig-Holstein the use of regenerative energies is supported more than in any other Land of Germany. Due to the fact that large regions of the Land are situated in strong breeze zones, wind power plays the most important role. Almost 50% of the overall German wind current is gained in Schleswig-Holstein. Furthermore solar energy and water power are also used directly. (orig.) [de

  20. The expression of heterologous MAM-7 in Lactobacillus rhamnosus reduces its intrinsic capacity to inhibit colonization of pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Sebastian; Munoz-Bergmann, Cristian A; Elola-Lopez, Ana; Quintana, Javiera; Segovia, Cristopher; Trombert, Annette N

    2016-01-07

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) is a Gram-negative, halophilic bacterium recognized as one of the most important foodborne pathogen. When ingested, V. parahaemolyticus causes a self-limiting illness (Vibriosis), characterized mainly by watery diarrhoea. Treatment is usually oral rehydration and/or antibiotics in complicated cases. Since 1996, the pathogenic and pandemic V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 serotype has spread worldwide, increasing the reported number of vibriosis cases. Thus, the design of new strategies for pathogen control and illness prevention is necessary. Lactobacillus sp. grouped Gram positive innocuous bacteria, part of normal intestinal microbiota and usually used as oral vaccines for several diarrheic diseases. Recombinants strains of Lactobacillus (RL) expressing pathogen antigens can be used as part of an anti-adhesion strategy where RL block the pathogen union sites in host cells. Thus, we aimed to express MAM-7 V. parahaemolyticus adhesion protein in Lactobacillus sp. to generate an RL that prevents pathogen colonization. We cloned the MAM-7 gene from V. parahaemolyticus RIMD 2210633 in Lactobacillus expression vectors. Recombinant strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus pSEC-MAM7 and L. rhamnosus pCWA-MAM7) adhered to CaCo-2 cells and competed with the pathogen. However, the L. rhamnosus wild type strain showed the best capacity to inhibit pathogen colonization in vitro. In addition, LDH-assay showed that recombinant strains were cytotoxic compared with the wild type isogenic strain. MAM-7 expression in lactobacilli reduces the intrinsic inhibitory capacity of L. rhamnosus against V. parahaemolyticus.

  1. Organic metabolites produced by Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification and action of several antibacterial metabolites produced by a fish pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain An3 from marine ecosystem of Goa has been demonstrated. Antibacterial activity of the crude cell extract of the test bacterium has been evaluated against indicator pathogenic bacterial strains such as ...

  2. LKR/SDH plays important roles throughout the tick life cycle including a long starvation period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banzragch Battur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lysine-ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase (LKR/SDH is a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing the first two steps of lysine catabolism in plants and mammals. However, to date, the properties of the lysine degradation pathway and biological functions of LKR/SDH have been very little described in arthropods such as ticks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated and characterized the gene encoding lysine-ketoglutarate reductase (LKR, EC 1.5.1.8 and saccharopine dehydrogenase (SDH, EC 1.5.1.9 from a tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis, cDNA library that encodes a bifunctional polypeptide bearing domains similar to the plant and mammalian LKR/SDH enzymes. Expression of LKR/SDH was detected in all developmental stages, indicating an important role throughout the tick life cycle, including a long period of starvation after detachment from the host. The LKR/SDH mRNA transcripts were more abundant in unfed and starved ticks than in fed and engorged ticks, suggesting that tick LKR/SDH are important for the starved tick. Gene silencing of LKR/SDH by RNAi indicated that the tick LKR/SDH plays an integral role in the osmotic regulation of water balance and development of eggs in ovary of engorged females. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Transcription analysis and gene silencing of LKR/SDH indicated that tick LKR/SDH enzyme plays not only important roles in egg production, reproduction and development of the tick, but also in carbon, nitrogen and water balance, crucial physiological processes for the survival of ticks. This is the first report on the role of LKR/SDH in osmotic regulation in animals including vertebrate and arthropods.

  3. IRBIT plays an important role in NHE3-mediated pHi regulation in HSG cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tien Manh; Park, Moon-Yong; Lee, Jiyeon; Bae, Jun-Seok; Hwang, Sung-Min; Choi, Se-Young; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Park, Kyungpyo

    2013-07-19

    Expression of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor-binding protein (IRBIT) has been reported in epithelial cells. However, its role in pHi regulation is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the role of IRBIT in pHi regulation, mediated by Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (NHEs), in salivary glands. We measured pHi recovery from cell acidification in BCECF-loaded salivary HSG cells. Western blot and co-immunoprecipitation (CO-IP) assays were also performed, showing that NHE1, 2 and 3 are expressed, and IRBIT binds to NHE3. HOE642, a specific NHE1 blocker, inhibited pHi recovery, but 40% pH(i) recovery was still observed even at the highest concentration of HOE642. Furthermore, pretreatment of the cells with siIRBIT significantly inhibited pHi recovery, indicating that NHE3 potentially plays a role in pHi recovery as well. The amount of membrane-localized NHE3 and its interaction with IRBIT are also significantly increased by cell acidification. In addition, we found that Ste20p-related proline alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) reverses the effect of IRBIT on membrane NHE3 translocation. Taken together, we conclude that IRBIT plays an important role in pHi regulation, mediated by NHE3, and further regulated by SPAK. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Microbial functional diversity plays an important role in the degradation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Samrat; Tribedi, Prosun

    2018-03-01

    Towards bioremediation of recalcitrant materials like synthetic polymer, soil has been recognized as a traditional site for disposal and subsequent degradation as some microorganisms in soil can degrade the polymer in a non-toxic, cost-effective, and environment friendly way. Microbial functional diversity is a constituent of biodiversity that includes wide range of metabolic activities that can influence numerous aspects of ecosystem functioning like ecosystem stability, nutrient availability, ecosystem dynamics, etc. Thus, in the current study, we assumed that microbial functional diversity could play an important role in polymer degradation in soil. To verify this hypothesis, we isolated soil from five different sites of landfill and examined several microbiological parameters wherein we observed a significant variation in heterotrophic microbial count as well as microbial activities among the soil microcosms tested. Multivariate analysis (principle component analysis) based on the carbon sources utilization pattern revealed that soil microcosms showed different metabolic patterns suggesting the variable distribution of microorganisms among the soil microcosms tested. Since microbial functional diversity depends on both microbial richness and evenness, Shannon diversity index was determined to measure microbial richness and Gini coefficient was determined to measure microbial evenness. The tested soil microcosms exhibited variation in both microbial richness and evenness suggesting the considerable difference in microbial functional diversity among the tested microcosms. We then measured polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) degradation in soil microcosms after desired period of incubation of PHB in soil wherein we found that soil microcosms having higher functional diversity showed enhanced PHB degradation and soil microcosms having lower functional diversity showed reduced PHB degradation. We also noticed that all the tested soil microcosms showed similar pattern in both

  5. Characterization of juvenile play in rats: importance of sex of self and sex of partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, Kathryn J; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile social play is observed in many mammalian species, and its disruption in several neuropsychiatric disorders has greatly increased interest in understanding the origins and sources of variability in this behavior. We quantified social play behavior in juvenile rats and investigated the impact of sex and familiarity of the play partner. Sex differences in play behavior were investigated by comparing males and females from either same- or mixed-sex pairs with data pooled over 12 days of analysis. Whether play was altered based on the sex of the play partner was assessed using a paired analysis to compare play with a same- or opposite-sex play partner for both males and females. Additionally, a repeated measures design was utilized to determine whether play changed with increasing age. On postnatal day 33, a novel play partner was introduced. We used a repeated measures analysis to compare postnatal day 33 with the previous day. These approaches were used to assess the effects of age, sex, sex of partner, and familiarity of partner on total social play behavior as well as how play was broken down into components, such as pouncing, pinning, chasing, and boxing. There were sex differences in total frequency of play, and specific parameters of play behavior, such as chasing, pouncing, pinning, and boxing. Additionally, males significantly altered their play behavior in response to the sex of their play partner, whereas females were more sensitive to the familiarity of the play partner. This study provides critical groundwork for uncovering factors that regulate social play behavior and can be used to guide future mechanistic based work.

  6. The European Commission: nuclear power has an important role to play

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    The European Commission (E.C.) thinks that nuclear power has an important role to play: first to reduce CO 2 emissions and secondly to reinforce energy self-reliance of the member states. The decision to introduce nuclear power in their energy mix belongs to every state but the E.C. has also highlighted that if adequate investment are quickly made 2 thirds of the electricity produced in the European Union in 2010 could by from low-carbon-emitting sources. Today with 148 reactors operating in 15 member countries nuclear power contributes to 1 third of the electricity produced. Another issue that is looming is the security of electricity supplying. A study has shown that the security level is worsening (particularly in winter) because of the greater part of wind energy in the energy mix as wind energy is not necessarily available when energy demand is peaking. The E.C. has proposed a new directive drawing a common standard frame for nuclear safety requirements concerning design, site selection, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Each member state will have the choice to implement stiffer regulations. The European Union must reduce its dependency on Russian gas by increasing its storing capacities, by easing gas exchanges between member states and by importing more liquefied natural gas. European member states will have to invert 1000*10 9 euros in gas and electrical power infrastructures in the next 25 years. (A.C.)

  7. Molecular Epidemiology and Genetic Variation of Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilan, Ronnie G.; Zamudio, Maria L.; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a foodborne pathogen that has become a public health concern at the global scale. The epidemiological significance of V. parahaemolyticus infections in Latin America received little attention until the winter of 1997 when cases related to the pandemic clone were detected in the region, changing the epidemic dynamics of this pathogen in Peru. With the aim to assess the impact of the arrival of the pandemic clone on local populations of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in Peru, we investigated the population genetics and genomic variation in a complete collection of non-pandemic strains recovered from clinical sources in Peru during the pre- and post-emergence periods of the pandemic clone. A total of 56 clinical strains isolated in Peru during the period 1994 to 2007, 13 strains from Chile and 20 strains from Asia were characterized by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) and checked for the presence of Variable Genomic Regions (VGRs). The emergence of O3:K6 cases in Peru implied a drastic disruption of the seasonal dynamics of infections and a shift in the serotype dominance of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus. After the arrival of the pandemic clone, a great diversity of serovars not previously reported was detected in the country, which supports the introduction of additional populations cohabitating with the pandemic group. Moreover, the presence of genomic regions characteristic of the pandemic clone in other non-pandemic strains may represent early evidence of genetic transfer from the introduced population to the local communities. Finally, the results of this study stress the importance of population admixture, horizontal genetic transfer and homologous recombination as major events shaping the structure and diversity of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:23696906

  8. Urease plays an important role in the chemotactic motility of Helicobacter pylori in a viscous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, H; Yoshiyama, H; Takeuchi, H; Mizote, T; Okita, K; Nakazawa, T

    1998-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori exhibits chemotactic responses to urea, flurofamide, acetohydroxamic acid, and sodium bicarbonate. In buffer, the chemotactic activities of a urease-positive strain were higher than those of the isogenic urease-negative strain. Moreover, the chemotactic activities of the urease-positive strain were increased in a viscous solution containing 3% polyvinylpyrrolidone, whereas those of the urease-negative mutant were not. These results are in accordance with the fact that the mutant strain did not show swarming in motility agar regardless of having flagella. Incubation of the wild-type strain with flurofamide resulted in partial inhibition of the chemotactic activities in the viscous solution. In addition, incubation with acetohydroxamic acid, a low-molecular-weight, diffusible urease inhibitor, resulted in complete loss of chemotactic activity in the viscous solution. The inhibition of the chemotactic activity by urease inhibitors paralleled the inhibition of urease. The chemotactic activity of H. pylori was also inhibited by the proton carrier carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, showing that H. pylori utilizes proton motive force for motility. These results indicate that cytoplasmic urease plays an important role in the chemotactic motility of H. pylori under a condition that mimics the ecological niche of the bacterium, the gastric mucous layer.

  9. Biotransformation effect of Bombyx Mori L. may play an important role in treating diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, La; Li, Yin; Guo, Xin-Feng; Liu, Xu-Sheng

    2016-11-01

    Compared with herbal drugs, medicine processed from animals (animal medicine) was thought to have more bioactive substances and higher activities. Biotransformation effect often plays an important role in their effect. However, researches about effect of animal medicine on diabetic nephropathy and applying animal medicine as natural bio-transformer were seldom reported. The purpose of this paper was to reveal the use of Bombyx Mori L. on diabetic nephropathy from ancient to modern times. The classical literature indicated that Saosi Decoction (), which contains Bombyx Mori L. or silkworm cocoon, was applied to treat disorders congruent with modern disease diabetic nephropathy from the Ming to Qing Dynasty in ancient China. Modern studies showed that Bombyx Mori L. contains four main active constituents. Among these, 1-deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ) and quercetin showed promising potential to be new agents in diabetic nephropathy treatment. The concentrations of 1-DNJ and the activities of quercetin in Bombyx Mori L. are higher than in mulberry leaves, because of the biotransformation in the Bombyx Mori L. body. However, these specifific components need further human and mechanistic studies to determine their therapeutic potential for this challenging condition.

  10. MiR-378 Plays an Important Role in the Differentiation of Bovine Preadipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Yang-Yang; Gao, Yan; Zhang, Lian-Jiang; Chen, Hong-Yan; Zhou, Qian; Chai, Meng-Long; Li, Qing-Ying; Jiang, Hao; Yuan, Bao; Dai, Li-Sheng; Zhang, Jia-Bao

    2015-01-01

    Adipocyte, the main cellular component of white adipose tissue, plays a vital role in energy balance in higher eukaryotes. In recent years, adipocytes have also been identified as a major endocrine organ involved in immunological responses, vascular diseases, and appetite regulation. In farm animals, fat content and categories are closely correlated with meat quality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenous single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules, participate in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through regulating the transcription or translation of target mRNAs. MiR-378 plays an important role in a number of biological processes, including cell growth, cell differentiation, tumor cell survival and angiogenesis. In the present study, bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay were used to identify and validate the target genes of miR-378. In vitro cell transfection, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), western blot analysis, Oil Red O staining, and triglyceride content measurement were conducted to analyze the effects of miR-378 on bovine preadipocyte differentiation. MiR-378 was induced during adipocyte differentiation. In the differentiated adipocytes overexpressing miR- 378, the volume of lipid droplets was enlarged, and the triglyceride content was increased. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of the adipocyte differentiation marker genes, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), were significantly elevated in the differentiated, mature adipocytes. In contrast, the mRNA expression level of preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref-1) was markedly reduced. E2F transcription factor 2 (E2F2) and Ras-related nuclear (RAN)-binding protein 10 (RANBP10) were the two target genes of miR-378. The mRNA expression levels of E2F2 and RANBP10 did not significantly change in bovine preadipocytes overexpressing miR-378. However, the

  11. Anxiety and perceived psychological stress play an important role in the immune response after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jason P; Walsh, Neil P; Diment, Philip C; Roberts, Ross

    2018-01-01

    There are common pathways by which psychological stress and exercise stress alter immunity. However, it remains unknown whether psychological stress plays a role in the in vivo immune response to exercise. We examined the relationship between anxiety and perceived psychological stress reported before exercise and in vivo immunity after exercise using skin sensitisation with Diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP). In a randomised design, sixty four, thoroughly familiarised, males completed widely used psychological instruments to assess state-anxiety and perceived psychological stress before exercise, and ran either 30 minutes at 60% (30MI) or 80% (30HI) V . O2peak, 120 minutes at 60% (120MI) V . O2peak or rested (CON) before DPCP sensitisation. Cutaneous recall to DPCP was measured as the dermal thickening response to a low-dose series DPCP challenge 4-weeks after sensitisation. After accounting for exercise (R2 = 0.20; P stress (ΔR2 = 0.13; P stress on in vivo immunity after exercise. Moreover, correlations were of comparable strength for the relationship between physiological stress (heart rate training impulse) and the summed dermal response to DPCP (r = -0.37; 95% CI: -0.05 to -0.62; P = 0.01), and state-anxiety and the summed dermal response to DPCP (r = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.63; P stress levels before exercise play animportant role in determining the strength of the in vivo immune response after exercise. These findings indicate a similar strength relationship for the level of state-anxiety prior to exercise and the level of physiological stress during exercise with the in vivo immune response after exercise. Future research is required to investigate exercise-immune responses in athletes, military personnel and others in physically demanding occupations experiencing higher levels of psychological stress than those reported in this study e.g. related to important competition, military operations and major life events. Nevertheless, the present findings support the

  12. MiR-378 Plays an Important Role in the Differentiation of Bovine Preadipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yuan Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adipocyte, the main cellular component of white adipose tissue, plays a vital role in energy balance in higher eukaryotes. In recent years, adipocytes have also been identified as a major endocrine organ involved in immunological responses, vascular diseases, and appetite regulation. In farm animals, fat content and categories are closely correlated with meat quality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a class of endogenous single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules, participate in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through regulating the transcription or translation of target mRNAs. MiR-378 plays an important role in a number of biological processes, including cell growth, cell differentiation, tumor cell survival and angiogenesis. Methods: In the present study, bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay were used to identify and validate the target genes of miR-378. In vitro cell transfection, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR, western blot analysis, Oil Red O staining, and triglyceride content measurement were conducted to analyze the effects of miR-378 on bovine preadipocyte differentiation. Results: MiR-378 was induced during adipocyte differentiation. In the differentiated adipocytes overexpressing miR-378, the volume of lipid droplets was enlarged, and the triglyceride content was increased. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of the adipocyte differentiation marker genes, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP, were significantly elevated in the differentiated, mature adipocytes. In contrast, the mRNA expression level of preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref-1 was markedly reduced. E2F transcription factor 2 (E2F2 and Ras-related nuclear (RAN-binding protein 10 (RANBP10 were the two target genes of miR-378. The mRNA expression levels of E2F2 and RANBP10 did not significantly change in bovine preadipocytes

  13. Overview of Play: Its Uses and Importance in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifter, Karin; Foster-Sanda, Suzanne; Arzamarski, Caley; Briesch, Jacquelyn; McClure, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Play is a natural activity of early childhood, which has great relevance to the fields of early intervention, early childhood special education, and early childhood education. Within these fields, ongoing tensions persist in how play is described and used. These tensions compromise activities of assessment, intervention, and curriculum development…

  14. T3SS effector VopL inhibits the host ROS response, promoting the intracellular survival of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela de Souza Santos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of antimicrobial reactive oxygen species by the nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase complex is an important mechanism for control of invading pathogens. Herein, we show that the gastrointestinal pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus counteracts reactive oxygen species (ROS production using the Type III Secretion System 2 (T3SS2 effector VopL. In the absence of VopL, intracellular V. parahaemolyticus undergoes ROS-dependent filamentation, with concurrent limited growth. During infection, VopL assembles actin into non-functional filaments resulting in a dysfunctional actin cytoskeleton that can no longer mediate the assembly of the NADPH oxidase at the cell membrane, thereby limiting ROS production. This is the first example of how a T3SS2 effector contributes to the intracellular survival of V. parahaemolyticus, supporting the establishment of a protective intracellular replicative niche.

  15. The right thalamus may play an important role in anesthesia-awakening regulation in frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhu Fan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Previous studies have shown that the mammalian thalamus is a key structure for anesthesia-induced unconsciousness and anesthesia-awakening regulation. However, both the dynamic characteristics and probable lateralization of thalamic functioning during anesthesia-awakening regulation are not fully understood, and little is known of the evolutionary basis of the role of the thalamus in anesthesia-awakening regulation. Methods An amphibian species, the South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis was used in the present study. The frogs were immersed in triciane methanesulfonate (MS-222 for general anesthesia. Electroencephalogram (EEG signals were recorded continuously from both sides of the telencephalon, diencephalon (thalamus and mesencephalon during the pre-anesthesia stage, administration stage, recovery stage and post-anesthesia stage. EEG data was analyzed including calculation of approximate entropy (ApEn and permutation entropy (PE. Results Both ApEn and PE values differed significantly between anesthesia stages, with the highest values occurring during the awakening period and the lowest values during the anesthesia period. There was a significant correlation between the stage durations and ApEn or PE values during anesthesia-awakening cycle primarily for the right diencephalon (right thalamus. ApEn and PE values for females were significantly higher than those for males. Discussion ApEn and PE measurements are suitable for estimating depth of anesthesia and complexity of amphibian brain activity. The right thalamus appears physiologically positioned to play an important role in anesthesia-awakening regulation in frogs indicating an early evolutionary origin of the role of the thalamus in arousal and consciousness in land vertebrates. Sex differences exist in the neural regulation of general anesthesia in frogs.

  16. Outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Sequence Type 120, Peru, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Gavilan, Ronnie G; Toro, Magaly; Zamudio, Maria L; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2016-07-01

    In 2009, an outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus occurred in Piura, Cajamarca, Lambayeque, and Lima, Peru. Whole-genome sequencing of clinical and environmental samples from the outbreak revealed a new V. parahaemolyticus clone. All the isolates identified belonged to a single clonal complex described exclusively in Asia before its emergence in Peru.

  17. Molecular analysis of the emergence of pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, EF; Cohen, AL; Naughton, LM

    2008-01-01

    Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is abundant in the aquatic environment particularly in warmer waters and is the leading cause of seafood borne gastroenteritis worldwide. Prior to 1995, numerous V. parahaemolyticus serogroups were associated with disease, however, in that year an O3:K6 serogrou...

  18. Playing in childhood: importance and singularities for children with visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Mara Zancanaro Pieczkowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated what kind of playing and how visually impaired children play in the family and educational contexts, aiming at understanding playing and the role of toys in these children‟s development. The study was based on the historical-cultural perspective, mainly considering Vygotsky‟s studies. Empirical material was collected from five families with blind or short-sighted children and from the specialized institution these children attend. We adopted semi-structured interviews with parents and educators and observation of the relevant contexts. The data collected was categorized and theorized through content analysis. We concluded that the mediation of another person during playing enables the visually impaired child to develop confidence to explore the physical space, objects and to elaborate concepts.

  19. Prevalence study of Vibrio species and frequency of the virulence genes of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from fresh and salted shrimps in Genaveh seaport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Hosseini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio species are important seafood-borne pathogens that are responsible for 50-70% of gasteroenteritis. The present study was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of Vibrio species and the distribution of tdh, tlh and trh virulence genes in Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from fresh and salted shrimp samples. Totally, 60 fresh and salted shrimp samples were collected from the Genaveh seaport. Microbial culture was used to isolate Vibrio species. In addition, the presences of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholera, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio harveyi and the virulence genes of V. parahaemolyticus were studied using the PCR method. Results showed that 20% of fresh and 23.33% of salted shrimp samples were positive for Vibrio species. In studied samples, V. vulnificus had the highest prevalence rate (8.33%, while V. cholera had the lowest prevalence rate (1.66%. From a total of 4 detected V. parahaemolyticus, all of them had tlh gene (100%. The distribution of tdh and trh genes in isolated V. parahaemolyticus strains were 50% and 25%, respectively. High prevalence of Vibrio species and especially virulent V. parahaemolyticus in samples confirmed the lack of hygienic condition in the production and distribution centers of shrimp.

  20. Comparison of the Effects of Environmental Parameters on the Growth Variability of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Coupled with Strain Sources and Genotypes Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingxuan; Liu, Haiquan; Pan, Yingjie; Xie, Jing; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Microbial growth variability plays an important role on food safety risk assessment. In this study, the growth kinetic characteristics corresponding to maximum specific growth rate (μmax) of 50 V. parahaemolyticus isolates from different sources and genotypes were evaluated at different temperatures (10, 20, 30, and 37°C) and salinity (0.5, 3, 5, 7, and 9%) using the automated turbidimetric system Bioscreen C. The results demonstrated that strain growth variability increased as the growth conditions became more stressful both in terms of temperature and salinity. The coefficient of variation (CV) of μmax for temperature was larger than that for salinity, indicating that the impact of temperature on strain growth variability was greater than that of salinity. The strains isolated from freshwater aquatic products had more conspicuous growth variations than those from seawater. Moreover, the strains with tlh (+) /tdh (+) /trh (-) exhibited higher growth variability than tlh (+) /tdh (-) /trh (-) or tlh (+) /tdh (-) /trh (+), revealing that gene heterogeneity might have possible relations with the growth variability. This research illustrates that the growth environments, strain sources as well as genotypes have impacts on strain growth variability of V. parahaemolyticus, which can be helpful for incorporating strain variability in predictive microbiology and microbial risk assessment.

  1. Radiosensitivity of Salmonella spp and Vibrio parahaemolyticus artificially incorporated by oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana).; Radiossensibilidade de Salmonella spp e Vibrio parahaemolyticus incorporadas artificialmente por ostras (Crassostrea brasiliana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakabi, Miyoko

    2001-07-01

    Irradiation is considered one of the most efficient technological process to reduce the number of microorganisms in food. It can be used to improve the safety of food products as well as their shelf life. Oysters are considered one of the most important vehicle of pathogenic bacteria due to their feeding characteristic and because they are usually ingested raw. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gamma radiation process on high levels of Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis and Vibrio parahaemolyticus incorporated by oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana) as well as on the survival of the animals and sensory attributes. The oysters were submitted to gamma radiation treatment ({sup 60}Co) with doses ranging from 0.5 kGy to 3.0 kGy. At least four trials were conducted for each serotype. The dose of 3.0 kGy was, generally, sufficient to reduce the level of Salmonella serotypes in 6 log while for V.parahaemolyticus the dose as 1.o kGy. Animals were not killed and sensory attributes were not changed by the highest irradiation dose. Therefore, 3.0 kGy is a dose that is effective on the inactivation of Salmonella spp and V.parahaemolyticus in oysters without changing their odour, flavour and appearance. (author)

  2. Soil water content plays an important role in soil-atmosphere exchange of carbonyl sulfide (OCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhigang; Behrendt, Thomas; Bunk, Rüdiger; Wu, Dianming; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is a quite stable gas in the troposphere and is transported up to the stratosphere, where it contributes to the sulfate aerosol layer (Crutzen 1976). The tropospheric concentration seems to be quite constant, indicating a balance between sinks and sources. Recent work by Sandoval-Soto et al. (2005) demonstrated the enormous strength of the vegetation sink and the urgent needs to understand the sinks and sources. The role of soils is a matter of discussion (Kesselmeier et al., 1999; Van Diest and Kesselmeier, 2008; Maseyk et al., 2014; Whelan et al., 2015). To better understand the influence of soil water content and OCS mixing ratio on OCS fluxes, we used an OCS analyzer (LGR COS/CO Analyzer 907-0028, Los Gatos, CA, USA) coupled with automated soil chamber system (Behrendt et al., 2014) to measure the OCS fluxes with a slow drying of four different types of soil (arable wheat soil in Mainz, blueberry soil in Waldstein, spruce soil in Waldstein and needle forest soil in Finland). Results showed that OCS fluxes as well as the optimum soil water content for OCS uptake varied significantly for different soils. The net production rates changed significantly with the soil drying out from 100% to about 5% water holding capacity (WHC), implying that soil water content play an important role in the uptake processes. The production and uptake processes were distinguished by the regression of OCS fluxes under different OCS mixing ratios. OCS compensation points (CP) were found to differ significantly for different soil types and water content, with the lowest CP at about 20% WHC, implying that when estimating the global budgets of OCS, especially for soils fluxes, soil water content should be taken into serious consideration. References Crutzen, P. J. 1976, Geophys. Res. Lett., 3, 73-76. Sandoval-Soto, L. et al., 2005, Biogeosciences, 2, 125-132. Kesselmeier, J. et al., 1999, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 11577-11584. Van Diest, H. and Kesselmeier, J. 2008

  3. 78 FR 77771 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Love and Play: A Pair of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8571] Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Love and Play: A Pair of Paintings by Fragonard-- Toledo Museum of Art and Thyssen-Bornemisza... the exhibition ``Love and Play: A Pair of Paintings by Fragonard--Toledo Museum of Art and Thyssen...

  4. Phloroglucinol-Mediated Hsp70 Production in Crustaceans: Protection against Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Artemia franciscana and Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The halophilic aquatic bacterium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, is an important aquatic pathogen, also capable of causing acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND in shrimp resulting in significant economic losses. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop anti-infective strategies to control AHPND. The gnotobiotic Artemia model is used to establish whether a phenolic compound phloroglucinol is effective against the AHPND strain V. parahaemolyticus MO904. We found that pretreatment with phloroglucinol, at an optimum concentration (30 µM, protects axenic brine shrimp larvae against V. parahaemolyticus infection and induced heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 production (twofolds or more as compared with the control. We further demonstrated that the Vibrio-protective effect of phloroglucinol was caused by its prooxidant effect and is linked to the induction of Hsp70. In addition, RNA interference confirms that phloroglucinol-induced Hsp70 mediates the survival of brine shrimp larvae against V. parahaemolyticus infection. The study was validated in xenic Artemia model and in a Macrobrachium rosenbergii system. Pretreatment of xenic brine shrimp larvae (30 µM and Macrobrachium larvae (5 µM with phloroglucinol increases the survival of xenic brine shrimp and Macrobrachium larvae against subsequent V. parahaemolyticus challenge. Taken together, our study provides substantial evidence that the prooxidant activity of phloroglucinol induces Hsp70 production protecting brine shrimp, A. franciscana, and freshwater shrimp, M. rosenbergii, against the AHPND V. parahaemolyticus strain MO904. Probably, phloroglucinol treatment might become part of a holistic strategy to control AHPND in shrimp.

  5. Importance of Night Dreams in Ibsen's Plays A Psychoanalytic study of The Vikings of Helgeland and Little Eyolf

    OpenAIRE

    Bardzimashvili, Nino

    2014-01-01

    The topic for my thesis is the importance of night dreams in Henrik Ibsen's plays. My study of the subject is based on two plays, The Vikings of Helgeland and Little Eyolf. The first one is a historical play written in 1857 and is usually discussed in relationship with nationalism and the political events in 19th century Norway. The second one is known as a "family romance" and was written in 1894. These two plays represent different periods of Henrik Ibsen's writing and hence it is...

  6. Molecular Typing of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains Isolated from Mollusks in the North Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Shamsur; Carraro, Roberta; Cardazzo, Barbara; Carraro, Lisa; Meneguolo, Davide Boscolo; Martino, Maria Elena; Andreani, Nadia Andrea; Bordin, Paola; Mioni, Renzo; Barco, Lisa; Novelli, Enrico; Balzan, Stefania; Fasolato, Luca

    2017-08-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an emerging foodborne pathogen in the Mediterranean, usually associated with shellfish consumption. The increase in the number of outbreaks in Europe is primarily associated with the global warming of the ocean that has a great impact on the spread and genetic selection of waterborne pathogens. The primary role of Italy in Europe's mollusk production, together with the fact that cases of infections with V. parahaemolyticus are not always notified to the European community, highlighted the necessity of acquiring new information about the epidemiological involvement of shellfish products. The aim of the study was to provide useful insights into the first steps of the Risk Assessment associated with V. parahaemolyticus through the molecular characterization of isolates from commercialized mollusks. A total of 102 strains identified as V. parahaemolyticus were investigated as part of a larger sampling (1-year survey) from several shellfish species collected from the Venice lagoon and the North Adriatic sea. All strains were characterized by multilocus sequence typing and tested for the presence of virulence genes (trh and tdh). The study of sampling/environmental factors and epidemiological analyses was performed to describe the behaviors of the different genetic populations. The population structure analysis highlighted three genetic clusters that could be subject to temperature selection during cold (≤15°C) and warm (>16°C) seasons. Moreover, other factors, such as molluscan species (clams/mussels), probably played a role in the distribution of genetic clusters. Although few strains carried the virulence factors (n = 6 trh + ), epidemiological links with clinical isolates and a local dissemination of some sequence types were underlined. This work provides a useful background on the genotype spread as a first step in the Hazard Identification in light of future climate changes.

  7. The importance and possibilities of role playing on children surgery classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goremykin I.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the first experience in the implementation into the pedagogical process of one of the methods of active training — role playing. The need for intensification of medical education process is linked primarily to the rapid increase in the volume required to provide students with information and the lack of training time. The analysis showed that the game significantly increases the level of students' knowledge, but require substantial modernization of the educational process.

  8. Did large animals play an important role in global biogeochemical cycling in the past?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, C.

    2014-12-01

    In the late Pleistocene (~50-10,000 years ago), ninety-seven genera of large animals (>44kg) (megafauna) went extinct, concentrated in the Americas and Australia. The loss of megafauna had major effects on ecosystem structure, seed dispersal and land surface albedo. However, the impact of this dramatic extinction on ecosystem nutrient biogeochemistry, through the lateral transport of dung and bodies, has never been explored. Here we explore these nutrient impacts using a novel mathematical framework that analyses this lateral transport as a diffusion-like process and demonstrates that large animals play a disproportionately large role in the horizontal transfer of nutrients across landscapes. For example, we estimate that the extinction of the Amazonian megafauna led to a >98% reduction in the lateral transfer flux of the limiting nutrient phosphorus (P) with similar, though less extreme, decreases in all continents outside of Africa. This resulted in strong decreases in phosphorus availability in Eastern Amazonia away from fertile floodplains, a decline which may still be ongoing, and current P limitation in the Amazon basin may be partially a relic of an ecosystem without the functional connectedness it once had. More broadly, the Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions resulted in major and ongoing disruptions to terrestrial biogeochemical cycling at continental scales and increased nutrient heterogeneity globally.

  9. Antibiotic resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from coastal seawater and sediment in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drais, Ashraf Abbas; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2016-11-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is widely recognized pathogenic Vibrio species due to numerous outbreaks and its' wide occurrence in the marine environment. A total of 50 Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates were isolated from seawater and sediments in Malaysia were tested for sensitivity to 19 antibiotics using disc diffusion method. It was found that all isolates were resistant towards ampicillin (10 μg), penicillin (10 μg), methicillin (5 μg), and novobiocin (5 μg); but exhibit sensitivity to chloramphenicol (30 μg) and gentamicin (100 μg). The low percentage of sensitivity towards antibiotics was observed with the following antibiotics; amoxicillin 10μg (98%), fluconazole 25μg (98%), erythromycin 15 μg (92%), vancomycin 30 μg (92%), bacitracin 10 μg (84%), carbenicillin 100 μg (84%), cephalothin 30 μg (52%), nitrofurantion 200 μg (52%), ciprofloxacin 5 μg (40%), tetracycline 30 μg (20%), kanamycin 30 μg (10%), nalidixic acid 30 μg (10%) and streptomycin 20 μg (6%). Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index was found to be 0.42-0.78. All the isolates were multi-resistant to these antibiotics. This indicates that the isolates originate from high-risk source of contamination where antibiotics are often used. Thus, there is a need for supervised use of antibiotics and frequent surveillance of V. parahaemolyticus strains for antimicrobial resistance. The presence of V. parahaemolyticus in coastal water with a high value of multiple antibiotic resistance indexes (MARI) can increase the risk of exposure to human and regular monitoring program for this potential human pathogenic bacterium is important.

  10. Proteins Play Important Role in Intercellular Adhesion Affecting on Fruit Textural Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahadur Adhikari, Khem; Shomer, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    Fruit textural quality is becoming a major quality parameter for export, postharvest preservation, handling and processing. The main determinant of textural quality is intercellular adhesion (ICA) as attributed by the cell wall (CW) and its components. The importance of CW protein in ICA strength......Fruit textural quality is becoming a major quality parameter for export, postharvest preservation, handling and processing. The main determinant of textural quality is intercellular adhesion (ICA) as attributed by the cell wall (CW) and its components. The importance of CW protein in ICA...... strengthening was exempli ed in Medjoul date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit, as a model. Fruit mesocarp sensitively responded to culture environment which was assayed in vitro at pH 3.5( pKa) in presence of organic acid molecules. The max penetration force, as a measure of ICA strength, of p...

  11. Exosomes play an important role in the process of psoralen reverse multidrug resistance of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Xu, Chengfeng; Hua, Yitong; Sun, Leitao; Cheng, Kai; Jia, Zhongming; Han, Yong; Dong, Jianli; Cui, Yuzhen; Yang, Zhenlin

    2016-12-01

    Release of exosomes have been shown to play critical roles in drug resistance by delivering cargo. Targeting the transfer of exosomes from resistant cells to sensitive cells may be an approach to overcome some cases of drug resistance. In this study, we investigated the potential role of exosomes in the process of psoralen reverse multidrug resistance of MCF-7/ADR cells. Exosomes were isolated by differential centrifugation of culture media from MCF-7/ADR cells (ADR/exo) and MCF-7 parental cells (S/exo). Exosomes were characterized by morphology, exosomal markers and size distribution. The ability of ADR/exo to transfer multidrug resistance was assessed by MTT and real-time quantitative PCR. The different formation and secretion of exosomes were detected by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Then we performed comparative transcriptomic analysis using RNA-Seq technology and real-time quantitative PCR to better understand the gene expression regulation in exosmes formation and release after psoralen treatment. Our data showed that exosomes derived from MCF-7/ADR cells were able to promote active sequestration of drugs and could induce a drug resistance phenotype by transferring drug-resistance-related gene MDR-1 and P-glycoprotein protein. Psoralen could reduce the formation and secretion of exosomes to overcome drug resistance. There were 21 differentially expressed genes. Gene ontology (GO) pathway analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that the most significantly expressed genes were linked to PPAR and P53 signaling pathways which were related to exosomes formation, secretion and cargo sorting. Psoralen can affect the exosomes and induce the reduction of resistance transmission via exosomes might through PPAR and P53 signaling pathways, which might provide a novel strategy for breast cancer resistance to chemotherapy in the future.

  12. Peptidoglycan crosslinking relaxation plays an important role in Staphylococcus aureus WalKR-dependent cell viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Delaune

    Full Text Available The WalKR two-component system is essential for viability of Staphylococcus aureus, a major pathogen. We have shown that WalKR acts as the master controller of peptidoglycan metabolism, yet none of the identified regulon genes explain its requirement for cell viability. Transmission electron micrographs revealed cell wall thickening and aberrant division septa in the absence of WalKR, suggesting its requirement may be linked to its role in coordinating cell wall metabolism and cell division. We therefore tested whether uncoupling autolysin gene expression from WalKR-dependent regulation could compensate for its essential nature. Uncoupled expression of genes encoding lytic transglycosylases or amidases did not restore growth to a WalKR-depleted strain. We identified only two WalKR-regulon genes whose expression restored cell viability in the absence of WalKR: lytM and ssaA. Neither of these two genes are essential under our conditions and a ΔlytM ΔssaA mutant does not present any growth defect. LytM is a glycyl-glycyl endopeptidase, hydrolyzing the pentaglycine interpeptide crossbridge, and SsaA belongs to the CHAP amidase family, members of which such as LysK and LytA have been shown to have D-alanyl-glycyl endopeptidase activity, cleaving between the crossbridge and the stem peptide. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that peptidoglycan crosslinking relaxation through crossbridge hydrolysis plays a crucial role in the essential requirement of the WalKR system for cell viability.

  13. The expression of heterologous MAM-7 in Lactobacillus rhamnosus reduces its intrinsic capacity to inhibit colonization of pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Beltran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative, halophilic bacterium recognized as one of the most important foodborne pathogen. When ingested, V. parahaemolyticus causes a self-limiting illness (Vibriosis, characterized mainly by watery diarrhoea. Treatment is usually oral rehydration and/or antibiotics in complicated cases. Since 1996, the pathogenic and pandemic V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 serotype has spread worldwide, increasing the reported number of vibriosis cases. Thus, the design of new strategies for pathogen control and illness prevention is necessary. Lactobacillus sp. grouped Gram positive innocuous bacteria, part of normal intestinal microbiota and usually used as oral vaccines for several diarrheic diseases. Recombinants strains of Lactobacillus (RL expressing pathogen antigens can be used as part of an anti-adhesion strategy where RL block the pathogen union sites in host cells. Thus, we aimed to express MAM-7 V. parahaemolyticus adhesion protein in Lactobacillus sp. to generate an RL that prevents pathogen colonization RESULTS: We cloned the MAM-7 gene from V. parahaemolyticus RIMD 2210633 in Lactobacillus expression vectors. Recombinant strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus pSEC-MAM7 and L. rhamnosus pCWA-MAM7 adhered to CaCo-2 cells and competed with the pathogen. However, the L. rhamnosus wild type strain showed the best capacity to inhibit pathogen colonization in vitro. In addition, LDH-assay showed that recombinant strains were cytotoxic compared with the wild type isogenic strain CONCLUSIONS: MAM-7 expression in lactobacilli reduces the intrinsic inhibitory capacity of L. rhamnosus against V. parahaemolyticus

  14. Antibacterial activity of food-grade chitosan against Vibrio parahaemolyticus biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ting; Liao, Zhenlin; Lei, Huan; Fang, Xiang; Wang, Jie; Zhong, Qingping

    2017-09-01

    Biofilm is a community composed of microbes and the extracellular polymeric substances. This special architecture poses a significant public health risk as it increases the fitness of bacteria in harsh conditions and renders bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents and cleaning. In this study, we investigated the inhibition and eradication effects of chitosan on the biofilm of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, an important food-borne pathogen. The crystal violet staining, [2, 3-bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5- sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] (XTT) reduction method, phenol-sulfuric acid method, fluorescence microscope and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) observation were conducted. The results indicated that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of chitosan was 1.25 mg/mL. Sub-MIC of chitosan could significantly inhibit biofilm formation, reduce the metabolic activities and the secretion of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS). Moreover, chitosan at 4MIC could eradicate 85.06% mature biofilm of V. parahaemolyticus, and decrease 81.43% EPS in mature biofilm. These results were also confirmed by the visual images obtained from fluorescence microscopy and CLSM. This study elucidated that chitosan was not only effective to prevent biofilm formation, but also eradicate mature biofilms of V. parahaemolyticus. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Radiosensitivity of Salmonella spp and Vibrio parahaemolyticus artificially incorporated by oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakabi, Miyoko

    2001-01-01

    Irradiation is considered one of the most efficient technological process to reduce the number of microorganisms in food. It can be used to improve the safety of food products as well as their shelf life. Oysters are considered one of the most important vehicle of pathogenic bacteria due to their feeding characteristic and because they are usually ingested raw. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gamma radiation process on high levels of Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis and Vibrio parahaemolyticus incorporated by oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana) as well as on the survival of the animals and sensory attributes. The oysters were submitted to gamma radiation treatment ( 60 Co) with doses ranging from 0.5 kGy to 3.0 kGy. At least four trials were conducted for each serotype. The dose of 3.0 kGy was, generally, sufficient to reduce the level of Salmonella serotypes in 6 log while for V.parahaemolyticus the dose as 1.o kGy. Animals were not killed and sensory attributes were not changed by the highest irradiation dose. Therefore, 3.0 kGy is a dose that is effective on the inactivation of Salmonella spp and V.parahaemolyticus in oysters without changing their odour, flavour and appearance. (author)

  16. Impacts of Climatic Variability on Vibrio parahaemolyticus Outbreaks in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hsin-I; Jan, Man-Ser; Chi, Hui-Ju

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate and quantify the relationship between climate variation and incidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Taiwan. Specifically, seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models (including autoregression, seasonality, and a lag-time effect) were employed to predict the role of climatic factors (including temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, ocean temperature and ocean salinity) on the incidence of V. parahaemolyticus in Taiwan between 2000 and 2011. The results indicated that average temperature (+), ocean temperature (+), ocean salinity of 6 months ago (+), maximum daily rainfall (current (−) and one month ago (−)), and average relative humidity (current and 9 months ago (−)) had significant impacts on the incidence of V. parahaemolyticus. Our findings offer a novel view of the quantitative relationship between climate change and food poisoning by V. parahaemolyticus in Taiwan. An early warning system based on climate change information for the disease control management is required in future. PMID:26848675

  17. Impacts of Climatic Variability on Vibrio parahaemolyticus Outbreaks in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-I Hsiao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate and quantify the relationship between climate variation and incidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Taiwan. Specifically, seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models (including autoregression, seasonality, and a lag-time effect were employed to predict the role of climatic factors (including temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, ocean temperature and ocean salinity on the incidence of V. parahaemolyticus in Taiwan between 2000 and 2011. The results indicated that average temperature (+, ocean temperature (+, ocean salinity of 6 months ago (+, maximum daily rainfall (current (− and one month ago (−, and average relative humidity (current and 9 months ago (− had significant impacts on the incidence of V. parahaemolyticus. Our findings offer a novel view of the quantitative relationship between climate change and food poisoning by V. parahaemolyticus in Taiwan. An early warning system based on climate change information for the disease control management is required in future.

  18. Impacts of Climatic Variability on Vibrio parahaemolyticus Outbreaks in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hsin-I; Jan, Man-Ser; Chi, Hui-Ju

    2016-02-03

    This study aimed to investigate and quantify the relationship between climate variation and incidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Taiwan. Specifically, seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models (including autoregression, seasonality, and a lag-time effect) were employed to predict the role of climatic factors (including temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, ocean temperature and ocean salinity) on the incidence of V. parahaemolyticus in Taiwan between 2000 and 2011. The results indicated that average temperature (+), ocean temperature (+), ocean salinity of 6 months ago (+), maximum daily rainfall (current (-) and one month ago (-)), and average relative humidity (current and 9 months ago (-)) had significant impacts on the incidence of V. parahaemolyticus. Our findings offer a novel view of the quantitative relationship between climate change and food poisoning by V. parahaemolyticus in Taiwan. An early warning system based on climate change information for the disease control management is required in future.

  19. The kidneys play an important role in the clearance of rFVIIa in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Bill; Appa, Rupa S.; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    study was to evaluate the importance of the kidneys in the clearance process of rFVIIa after iv administration to rats using a nephrectomy model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A nephrectomized rat model was established and validated using inulin, a compound primarily cleared by the kidneys, as a test substance...... of mixed effects methods, where a pharmacokinetic model was used to simultaneously model all data from healthy, sham operated, and nephrectomized rats. RESULTS: Nephrectomized animals showed stable rectal temperature, SpO2 and pulse and as expected, clearance of inulin was essentially abolished compared...

  20. Gravity Plays an Important Role in Muscle Development and the Differentiation of Contractile Protein Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Gregory A.; Haddad, Fadia; Baldwin, Kenneth M.

    2003-01-01

    Several muscles in the body exist mainly to work against gravity. Whether gravity is important in the development of these muscles is not known. By examining the basic proteins that compose muscle, questions about the role of gravity in muscle development can be answered. Myosin heavy chains (MHCs) are a family of proteins critically important for muscle contraction. Several types of MHCs exist (e.g., neonatal, slow, fast), and each type is produced by a particular gene. Neonatal MHCs are produced early in life. Slow MHCs are important in antigravity muscles, and fast MHCs are found in fast-twitch power muscles. The gene that is turned on or expressed will determine which MHC is produced. Early in development, antigravity skeletal muscles (muscles that work against gravity) normally produce a combination of the neonatal/embryonic MHCs. The expression of these primitive MHCs is repressed early in development; and the adult slow and fast MHC genes become fully expressed. We tested the hypothesis that weightbearing activity is critical for inducing the normal expression of the slow MHC gene typically expressed in adult antigravity muscles. Also, we hypothesized that thyroid hormone, but not opposition to gravity, is necessary for expressing the adult fast IIb MHC gene essential for high-intensity muscle performance. Groups of normal thyroid and thyroid-deficient neonatal rats were studied after their return from the 16-day Neurolab mission and compared to matched controls. The results suggest: (1) Weightlessness impaired body and limb skeletal muscle growth in both normal and thyroid-deficient animals. Antigravity muscles were impaired more than those used primarily for locomotion andor nonweightbearing activity. (2) Systemic and muscle expression of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), an important body and tissue growth factor, was depressed in flight animals. (3) Normal slow, type I MHC gene expression was markedly repressed in the normal thyroid flight group. (4

  1. Memory, not just perception, plays an important role in terrestrial mammalian migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracis, Chloe; Mueller, Thomas

    2017-05-31

    One of the key questions regarding the underlying mechanisms of mammalian land migrations is how animals select where to go. Most studies assume perception of resources as the navigational mechanism. The possible role of memory that would allow forecasting conditions at distant locations and times based on information about environmental conditions from previous years has been little studied. We study migrating zebra in Botswana using an individual-based simulation model, where perceptually guided individuals use currently sensed resources at different perceptual ranges, while memory-guided individuals use long-term averages of past resources to forecast future conditions. We compare simulated individuals guided by perception or memory on resource landscapes of remotely sensed vegetation data to trajectories of GPS-tagged zebras. Our results show that memory provides a clear signal that best directs migrants to their destination compared to perception at even the largest perceptual ranges. Zebras modelled with memory arrived two to four times, or up to 100 km, closer to the migration destination than those using perception. We suggest that memory in addition to perception is important for directing ungulate migration. Furthermore, our findings are important for the conservation of migratory mammals, as memory informing direction suggests migration routes could be relatively inflexible. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Impacts of Climatic Variability on Vibrio parahaemolyticus Outbreaks in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Hsin-I Hsiao; Man-Ser Jan; Hui-Ju Chi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate and quantify the relationship between climate variation and incidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Taiwan. Specifically, seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models (including autoregression, seasonality, and a lag-time effect) were employed to predict the role of climatic factors (including temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, ocean temperature and ocean salinity) on the incidence of V. parahaemolyticus in Taiwan between 2000 and 201...

  3. Socio-economic status plays important roles in childhood cancer treatment outcome in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, Saskia; Gunawan, Stefanus; Wolters, Emma; van de Ven, Peter; Sitaresmi, Mei; Dongen, Josephine van; Veerman, Anjo; Mantik, Max; Kaspers, Gertjan

    2012-01-01

    The influence of parental socio-economic status on childhood cancer treatment outcome in low-income countries has not been sufficiently investigated. Our study examined this influence and explored parental experiences during cancer treatment of their children in an Indonesian academic hospital. Medical charts of 145 children diagnosed with cancer between 1999 and 2009 were reviewed retrospectively. From October 2011 until January 2012, 40 caretakers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Of all patients, 48% abandoned treatment, 34% experienced death, 9% had progressive/ relapsed disease, and 9% overall event-free survival. Prosperous patients had better treatment outcome than poor patients (Pfate or God (55%). Causes of cancer were thought to be destiny (35%) or God's punishment (23%). Alternative treatment could (18%) or might (50%) cure cancer. Most parents (95%) would like more information about cancer and treatment. More contact with doctors was desired (98%). Income decreased during treatment (55%). Parents lost employment (48% fathers, 10% mothers), most of whom stated this loss was caused by their child's cancer (84% fathers, 100% mothers). Loss of income led to financial difficulties (63%) and debts (55%). Treatment abandonment was most important reason for treatment failure. Treatment outcome was determined by parental socio-economic status. Childhood cancer survival could improve if financial constraints and provision of information and guidance are better addressed.

  4. Intracellularly Induced Cyclophilins Play an Important Role in Stress Adaptation and Virulence of Brucella abortus

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Fernández, Lucía; DelVecchio, Vito G.; Briones, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Brucella is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes the worldwide zoonotic disease brucellosis. Brucella virulence relies on its ability to transition to an intracellular lifestyle within host cells. Thus, this pathogen must sense its intracellular localization and then reprogram gene expression for survival within the host cell. A comparative proteomic investigation was performed to identify differentially expressed proteins potentially relevant for Brucella intracellular adaptation. Two proteins identified as cyclophilins (CypA and CypB) were overexpressed in the intracellular environment of the host cell in comparison to laboratory-grown Brucella. To define the potential role of cyclophilins in Brucella virulence, a double-deletion mutant was constructed and its resulting phenotype was characterized. The Brucella abortus ΔcypAB mutant displayed increased sensitivity to environmental stressors, such as oxidative stress, pH, and detergents. In addition, the B. abortus ΔcypAB mutant strain had a reduced growth rate at lower temperature, a phenotype associated with defective expression of cyclophilins in other microorganisms. The B. abortus ΔcypAB mutant also displays reduced virulence in BALB/c mice and defective intracellular survival in HeLa cells. These findings suggest that cyclophilins are important for Brucella virulence and survival in the host cells. PMID:23230297

  5. Central dopaminergic neurotransmission plays an important role in thermoregulation and performance during endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyan; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    Dopamine (DA) has been widely investigated for its potential role in determining exercise performance. It was originally thought that DA's ergogenic effect was by mediating psychological responses. Recently, some studies have also suggested that DA may regulate physiological responses, such as thermoregulation. Hyperthermia has been demonstrated as an important limiting factor during endurance exercise. DA is prominent in the thermoregulatory centre, and changes in DA concentration have been shown to affect core temperature regulation during exercise. Some studies have proposed that DA or DA/noradrenaline (NA) reuptake inhibitors can improve exercise performance, despite hyperthermia during exercise in the heat. DA/NA reuptake inhibitors also increase catecholamine release in the thermoregulatory centre. Intracerebroventricularly injected DA has been shown to improve exercise performance through inhibiting hyperthermia-induced fatigue, even at normal ambient temperatures. Further, caffeine has been reported to increase DA release in the thermoregulatory centre and improves endurance exercise performance despite increased core body temperature. Taken together, DA has been shown to have ergogenic effects and increase heat storage and hyperthermia tolerance. The mechanisms underlying these effects seem to involve limiting/overriding the inhibitory signals from the central nervous system that result in cessation of exercise due to hyperthermia.

  6. On play and playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Dusko

    2013-12-01

    The paper offers a review of the development of the concept of play and playing. The true beginnings of the development of the theories of play are set as late as in the 19th century. It is difficult to define play as such; it may much more easily be defined through its antipode--work. In the beginning, play used to be connected with education; it was not before Freud's theory of psychoanalysis and Piaget's developmental psychology that the importance of play in a child's development began to be explained in more detail. The paper further tackles the role of play in the adult age. Detailed attention is paid to psychodynamic and psychoanalytic authors, in particular D. W. Winnicott and his understanding of playing in the intermediary (transitional) empirical or experiential space. In other words, playing occupies a space and time of its own. The neuroscientific concept of playing is also tackled, in the connection with development as well.

  7. First impression at stroke onset plays an important role in early hospital arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Yasuyuki; Wada, Kuniyasu; Shibazaki, Kensaku; Inoue, Takeshi; Ueno, Yuji; Yamashita, Shinji; Kimura, Kazumi

    2006-01-01

    Treatment for acute ischemic stroke should be administered as soon as possible after symptom onset. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not the patient's and bystander's first impression at stroke onset was associated with hospital arrival time. To investigate the factors influencing the prehospital delay, we prospectively interviewed consecutive stroke patients and bystanders about their first impression at the stroke onset and assessed the methods of transportation, and clinical characteristics. Early arrival was defined as a hospital arrival of within 2 h from stroke onset. One hundred thirty patients were enrolled: 82% were ischemic stroke and 18% were cerebral hemorrhage. The median interval between symptom onset and the hospital arrival was 7.5 h and 30% of patients presented within 2 h of stroke onset. First impression of stroke (odds ratios [OR] 4.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.54-13.5, p=0.006), presence of consciousness disturbance (OR 4.29, CI 1.39-13.3, p=0.011), arrival through other facilities (OR 0.25, CI 0.08-0.76, p=0.015), a history of diabetes (OR 0.23, CI 0.06-0.80, p=0.028) and nocturnal onset (OR 0.19, CI 0.04-0.88, p=0.042) independently contributed to the early arrival. The first impression of patients and bystanders at stroke onset is important in order to reach hospital earlier in Japan. Public educational systems such as those, which advertise stroke warning signs, are necessary.

  8. Impact of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) co-infection on survival of penaeid shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Song, Xiaoling; Huang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is an important viral pathogen that infects farmed penaeid shrimp, and the threat of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection to shrimp farming has become increasingly severe. Viral and bacterial cross or superimposed infections may induce higher shrimp mortality. We used a feeding method to infect Litopenaeus vannamei with WSSV and then injected a low dose of V. parahaemolyticus (WSSV+Vp), or we first infected L. vannamei with a low-dose injection of V. parahaemolyticus and then fed the shrimp WSSV to achieve viral infection (Vp+WSSV). The eff ect of V. parahaemolyticus and WSSV co-infection on survival of L. vannamei was evaluated by comparing cumulative mortality rates between experimental and control groups. We also spread L. vannamei hemolymph on thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose agar plates to determine the number of Vibrio, and the WSSV copy number in L. vannamei gills was determined using an absolute quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. LvMyD88 and Lvakt gene expression levels were detected in gills of L. vannamei by real-time PCR to determine the cause of the diff erent mortality rates. Our results show that (1) the cumulative mortality rate of L. vannamei in the WSSV+Vp group reached 100% on day 10 after WSSV infection, whereas the cumulative mortality rate of L. vannamei in the Vp+WSSV group and the WSSV-alone control group approached 100% on days 11 and 13 of infection; (2) the number of Vibrio in the L. vannamei group infected with V. parahaemolyticus alone declined gradually, whereas the other groups showed significant increases in the numbers of Vibrio ( P<0.05); (3) the WSSV copy numbers in the gills of the WSSV+Vp, Vp+WSSV, and the WSSV-alone groups increased from 105 to 107 /mg tissue 72, 96, and 144 h after infection, respectively. These results suggest that V. parahaemolyticus infection accelerated proliferation of WSSV in L. vannamei and vice versa. The combined accelerated proliferation of both V

  9. Occurrence and distribution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Sakazaki et al) related organisms in the Laccadive Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Ramaiah, N.; Chandramohan, D.

    water samples of Minicoy lagoon during January, 1982. V. parahaemolyticus like organisms contributed upto 94.4% of total viable counts in the offshore stations and 5.3% in lagoon stations. Although typical V. parahaemolyticus were not recorded from...

  10. Occurrence and distribution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and related organisms in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    water samples of Minicoy lagoon during January, 1982. V. parahaemolyticus like organisms contributed upto 94.4% of total viable counts in the offshore stations and 5.3% in lagoon stations. Although typical V. parahaemolyticus were not recorded from...

  11. Ecology of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus on the French Atlantic coast. Effects of temperature, salinity, turbidity and chlorophyll a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie, Deter; Solen, Lozach; Antoine, Véron; Jaufrey, Chollet; Annick, Derrien; Dominique, Hervio-Heath

    2010-04-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the principal bacterial causes for seafood-borne gastroenteritis in the world. In the present study, three sites located on the French Atlantic coast were monitored monthly for environmental parameters over 1 year. The presence of total and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in sediment, water and mussel samples was detected following enrichment by culture and real-time PCR (toxR gene, tdh, trh1 and trh2 virulence genes). Using generalized linear models, we showed that the presence of V. parahaemolyticus in water could be explained by a combination of mean temperature over the 7 days before the day of sampling (P turbidity (P = 0.058). In mussels, an effect of chlorophyll a (P = 0.005) was detected when an effect of the mean salinity over the 7 days before sampling was significant for the sediment (P < 0.001). We did not detect any significant effect of phytoplanktonic blooms or of the number of culturable bacteria on V. parahaemolyticus presence. No sample was revealed positive for tdh. The presence of trh1 and trh2 was positively influenced by the mean temperature during the 2 days before the day of sampling (P < 0.001 and P = 0.032). The importance of these ecological parameters is discussed in relation to the biology of V. parahaemolyticus.

  12. Incidence of urea-hydrolyzing Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Willapa Bay, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysner, C A; Abeyta, C; Stott, R F; Lilja, J L; Wekell, M M

    1990-04-01

    A high incidence (71.5%) of Vibrio parahaemolyticus was found in samples of water, oysters, and sediment from a Washington State estuary which produces a significant amount of commercial product. Strains of V. parahaemolyticus capable of hydrolyzing urea comprised 58.4% of all V. parahaemolyticus isolates tested. Values for fecal coliforms were within certification criteria for commercial harvest and were not correlated with levels of V. parahaemolyticus.

  13. Vibrio parahaemolyticus type VI secretion system 1 is activated in marine conditions to target bacteria, and is differentially regulated from system 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dor Salomon

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine bacterium that thrives in warm climates. It is a leading cause of gastroenteritis resulting from consumption of contaminated uncooked shellfish. This bacterium harbors two putative type VI secretion systems (T6SS. T6SSs are widespread protein secretion systems found in many Gram-negative bacteria, and are often tightly regulated. For many T6SSs studied to date, the conditions and cues, as well as the regulatory mechanisms that control T6SS activity are unknown. In this study, we characterized the environmental conditions and cues that activate both V. parahaemolyticus T6SSs, and identified regulatory mechanisms that control T6SS gene expression and activity. We monitored the expression and secretion of the signature T6SS secreted proteins Hcp1 and Hcp2, and found that both T6SSs are differentially regulated by quorum sensing and surface sensing. We also showed that T6SS1 and T6SS2 require different temperature and salinity conditions to be active. Interestingly, T6SS1, which is found predominantly in clinical isolates, was most active under warm marine-like conditions. Moreover, we found that T6SS1 has anti-bacterial activity under these conditions. In addition, we identified two transcription regulators in the T6SS1 gene cluster that regulate Hcp1 expression, but are not required for immunity against self-intoxication. Further examination of environmental isolates revealed a correlation between the presence of T6SS1 and virulence of V. parahaemolyticus against other bacteria, and we also showed that different V. parahaemolyticus isolates can outcompete each other. We propose that T6SS1 and T6SS2 play different roles in the V. parahaemolyticus lifestyles, and suggest a role for T6SS1 in enhancing environmental fitness of V. parahaemolyticus in marine environments when competing for a niche in the presence of other bacterial populations.

  14. Autophagy plays an important role in protecting Pacific oysters from OsHV-1 and Vibrio aestuarianus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Pierrick; Moreau, Kevin; Segarra, Amélie; Tourbiez, Delphine; Travers, Marie-Agnès; Rubinsztein, David C; Renault, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Recent mass mortality outbreaks around the world in Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, have seriously affected the aquaculture economy. Although the causes for these mortality outbreaks appear complex, infectious agents are involved. Two pathogens are associated with mass mortality outbreaks, the virus ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) and the bacterium Vibrio aestuarianus. Here we describe the interactions between these 2 pathogens and autophagy, a conserved intracellular pathway playing a key role in innate immunity. We show for the first time that autophagy pathway is present and functional in Pacific oysters and plays an important role to protect animals from infections. This study contributes to better understand the innate immune system of Pacific oysters.

  15. Genetic factors may play a prominent role in the development of coronary heart disease dependent on important environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, C; Chang, Z; Magnusson, P K E; Ingelsson, E; Pedersen, N L

    2014-01-01

    Astract Song C, Chang Z, Magnusson PKE, Ingelsson E, Pedersen NL (Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Uppsala University, Uppsala; Sweden). Genetic factors may play a prominent role in the developmentofcoronary heart diseasedependenton important environmental factors. J InternMed2014; 275: 631–639. Objective The aim of the study was to examine whether various lifestyle factors modify genetic influences on coronary heart disease (CHD). Design The effect of lifestyle factors [including smoking, sedentary lifestyle, alcohol intake and body mass index (BMI)] on risk of CHD was evaluated via Cox regression models in a twin study of gene–environment interaction. Using structure equation modelling, we estimated genetic variance of CHD dependent on lifestyle factors. Subjects In total, 51 065 same-sex twins from 25 715 twin pairs born before 1958 and registered in the Swedish Twin Registry were eligible for this study. During the 40-year follow-up, 7264 incident CHD events were recorded. Results Smoking, sedentary lifestyle and above average BMI were significantly associated with increased CHD incidence. The heritability of CHD decreased with increasing age, as well as with increasing levels of BMI, in both men and women. Conclusions The difference in the genetic component of CHD as a function of BMI suggests that genetic factors may play a more prominent role for disease development in the absence of important environmental factors. Increased knowledge of gene–environment interactions will be important for a full understanding of the aetiology of CHD. PMID:24330166

  16. A Real-Time PCR with Melting Curve Analysis for Molecular Typing of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Peiyan; Wang, Henghui; Luo, Jianyong; Yan, Yong; Chen, Zhongwen

    2018-05-23

    Foodborne disease caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a serious public health problem in many countries. Molecular typing has a great scientific significance and application value for epidemiological research of V. parahaemolyticus. In this study, a real-time PCR with melting curve analysis was established for molecular typing of V. parahaemolyticus. Eighteen large variably presented gene clusters (LVPCs) of V. parahaemolyticus which have different distributions in the genome of different strains were selected as targets. Primer pairs of 18 LVPCs were distributed into three tubes. To validate this newly developed assay, we tested 53 Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains, which were classified in 13 different types. Furthermore, cluster analysis using NTSYS PC 2.02 software could divide 53 V. parahaemolyticus strains into six clusters at a relative similarity coefficient of 0.85. This method is fast, simple, and conveniently for molecular typing of V. parahaemolyticus.

  17. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolated from Short Mackerels (Rastrelliger brachysoma) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chia W; Malcolm, Tan T H; Kuan, Chee H; Thung, Tze Y; Chang, Wei S; Loo, Yuet Y; Premarathne, Jayasekara M K J K; Ramzi, Othman B; Norshafawatie, Mohd F S; Yusralimuna, Nordin; Rukayadi, Yaya; Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2017-01-01

    Numerous prevalence studies and outbreaks of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection have been extensively reported in shellfish and crustaceans. Information on the quantitative detection of V. parahaemolyticus in finfish species is limited. In this study, short mackerels ( Rastrelliger brachysoma ) obtained from different retail marketplaces were monitored with the presence of total and pathogenic strains of V. parahaemolyticus . Out of 130 short mackerel samples, 116 (89.2%) were detected with the presence of total V. parahaemolyticus and microbial loads of total V. parahaemolyticus ranging from 10 5 MPN/g. Prevalence of total V. parahaemolyticus was found highest in wet markets (95.2%) followed by minimarkets (89.1%) and hypermarkets (83.3%). Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains ( tdh + and/or trh +) were detected in 16.2% (21 of 130) of short mackerel samples. The density of tdh + V. parahaemolyticus strains were examined ranging from 3.6 to >10 5 MPN/g and microbial loads of V. parahaemolyticus strains positive for both tdh and trh were found ranging from 300 to 740 MPN/g. On the other hand, antibiotic susceptibility profiles of V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from short mackerels were determined through disc diffusion method in this study. Assessment of antimicrobial susceptibility profile of V. parahaemolyticus revealed majority of the isolates were highly susceptible to ampicillin sulbactam, meropenem, ceftazidime, and imipenem, but resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin. Two isolates (2.99%) exhibited the highest multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index value of 0.41 which shown resistance to 7 antibiotics. Results of the present study demonstrated that the occurrence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains in short mackerels and multidrug resistance of V. parahaemolyticus isolates could be a potential public health concerns to the consumer. Furthermore, prevalence data attained from the current study can be further used to develop a microbial risk

  18. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolated from Short Mackerels (Rastrelliger brachysoma) in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chia W.; Malcolm, Tan T. H.; Kuan, Chee H.; Thung, Tze Y.; Chang, Wei S.; Loo, Yuet Y.; Premarathne, Jayasekara M. K. J. K.; Ramzi, Othman B.; Norshafawatie, Mohd F. S.; Yusralimuna, Nordin; Rukayadi, Yaya; Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2017-01-01

    Numerous prevalence studies and outbreaks of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection have been extensively reported in shellfish and crustaceans. Information on the quantitative detection of V. parahaemolyticus in finfish species is limited. In this study, short mackerels (Rastrelliger brachysoma) obtained from different retail marketplaces were monitored with the presence of total and pathogenic strains of V. parahaemolyticus. Out of 130 short mackerel samples, 116 (89.2%) were detected with the presence of total V. parahaemolyticus and microbial loads of total V. parahaemolyticus ranging from 105 MPN/g. Prevalence of total V. parahaemolyticus was found highest in wet markets (95.2%) followed by minimarkets (89.1%) and hypermarkets (83.3%). Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains (tdh+ and/or trh+) were detected in 16.2% (21 of 130) of short mackerel samples. The density of tdh+ V. parahaemolyticus strains were examined ranging from 3.6 to >105 MPN/g and microbial loads of V. parahaemolyticus strains positive for both tdh and trh were found ranging from 300 to 740 MPN/g. On the other hand, antibiotic susceptibility profiles of V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from short mackerels were determined through disc diffusion method in this study. Assessment of antimicrobial susceptibility profile of V. parahaemolyticus revealed majority of the isolates were highly susceptible to ampicillin sulbactam, meropenem, ceftazidime, and imipenem, but resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin. Two isolates (2.99%) exhibited the highest multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index value of 0.41 which shown resistance to 7 antibiotics. Results of the present study demonstrated that the occurrence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains in short mackerels and multidrug resistance of V. parahaemolyticus isolates could be a potential public health concerns to the consumer. Furthermore, prevalence data attained from the current study can be further used to develop a microbial risk

  19. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolated from Short Mackerels (Rastrelliger brachysoma in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia W. Tan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous prevalence studies and outbreaks of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection have been extensively reported in shellfish and crustaceans. Information on the quantitative detection of V. parahaemolyticus in finfish species is limited. In this study, short mackerels (Rastrelliger brachysoma obtained from different retail marketplaces were monitored with the presence of total and pathogenic strains of V. parahaemolyticus. Out of 130 short mackerel samples, 116 (89.2% were detected with the presence of total V. parahaemolyticus and microbial loads of total V. parahaemolyticus ranging from <3 to >105 MPN/g. Prevalence of total V. parahaemolyticus was found highest in wet markets (95.2% followed by minimarkets (89.1% and hypermarkets (83.3%. Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains (tdh+ and/or trh+ were detected in 16.2% (21 of 130 of short mackerel samples. The density of tdh+ V. parahaemolyticus strains were examined ranging from 3.6 to >105 MPN/g and microbial loads of V. parahaemolyticus strains positive for both tdh and trh were found ranging from 300 to 740 MPN/g. On the other hand, antibiotic susceptibility profiles of V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from short mackerels were determined through disc diffusion method in this study. Assessment of antimicrobial susceptibility profile of V. parahaemolyticus revealed majority of the isolates were highly susceptible to ampicillin sulbactam, meropenem, ceftazidime, and imipenem, but resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin. Two isolates (2.99% exhibited the highest multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR index value of 0.41 which shown resistance to 7 antibiotics. Results of the present study demonstrated that the occurrence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains in short mackerels and multidrug resistance of V. parahaemolyticus isolates could be a potential public health concerns to the consumer. Furthermore, prevalence data attained from the current study can be further used to develop a

  20. Vibrio Parahaemolyticus: The Threat of Another Vibrio Acquiring Pandemic Potential

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramamurthy, T.; Nair, G.B.

    investigations of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oysters following outbreaks in Washington, Texas, and New York. (1997 and 1998). Appl. Envrion. Microbiol. 66, 4649- 4654. DePaola, A., Ulaszek, J., Kaysner, C. A., Tenge, B. J., Nordstrom, J. L., Wells, J., Puhr, N...-710. Andrews, L. S., DeBlanc, S., Veal, C. D., Park, D. L., 2003. Response of Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 to a hot water/ cold shock pasteurization process. Food Addit. Contam. 20, 331-334. Bag, P. K., Nandi, S., Bhadra, R. K., Ramamurthy, T., Bhattacharya, S...

  1. The European Commission: nuclear power has an important role to play; Commission Europeenne: le nucleaire a un role important a jouer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2008-11-15

    The European Commission (E.C.) thinks that nuclear power has an important role to play: first to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and secondly to reinforce energy self-reliance of the member states. The decision to introduce nuclear power in their energy mix belongs to every state but the E.C. has also highlighted that if adequate investment are quickly made 2 thirds of the electricity produced in the European Union in 2010 could by from low-carbon-emitting sources. Today with 148 reactors operating in 15 member countries nuclear power contributes to 1 third of the electricity produced. Another issue that is looming is the security of electricity supplying. A study has shown that the security level is worsening (particularly in winter) because of the greater part of wind energy in the energy mix as wind energy is not necessarily available when energy demand is peaking. The E.C. has proposed a new directive drawing a common standard frame for nuclear safety requirements concerning design, site selection, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Each member state will have the choice to implement stiffer regulations. The European Union must reduce its dependency on Russian gas by increasing its storing capacities, by easing gas exchanges between member states and by importing more liquefied natural gas. European member states will have to invert 1000*10{sup 9} euros in gas and electrical power infrastructures in the next 25 years. (A.C.)

  2. Dimer monomer transition and dimer re-formation play important role for ATM cellular function during DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Fengxia; Zhang, Minjie; Li, Xiaohua; Yang, Caiyun; Meng, Hao; Wang, Dong; Chang, Shuang; Xu, Ye; Price, Brendan; Sun, Yingli

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ATM phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. • The PETPVFRLT box of ATM plays a key role in its dimer dissociation in DNA repair. • The dephosphorylation of ATM is critical for dimer re-formation after DNA repair. - Abstract: The ATM protein kinase, is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks, mediates responses to ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. Here we show that ATM is held inactive in unirradiated cells as a dimer and phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. Cellular irradiation induces rapid intermolecular autophosphorylation of serine 1981 that causes dimer dissociation and initiates cellular ATM kinase activity. ATM cannot phosphorylate the substrates when it could not undergo dimer monomer transition. After DNA repair, the active monomer will undergo dephosphorylation to form dimer again and dephosphorylation is critical for dimer re-formation. Our work reveals novel function of ATM dimer monomer transition and explains why ATM dimer monomer transition plays such important role for ATM cellular activity during DNA repair

  3. A Petunia Homeodomain-Leucine Zipper Protein, PhHD-Zip, Plays an Important Role in Flower Senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoxiao; Donnelly, Linda; Sun, Daoyang; Rao, Jingping; Reid, Michael S.; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO), and ABA (NCED) biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29) was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA) and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold). Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence. PMID:24551088

  4. Doing what comes naturally: a special workforce plays an important role in a new on-site remediation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsters, S.

    1999-01-01

    A bioremediation system developed by Calgary-based Unique Oilfield Technology Services (UNOTEC) that uses naturally occurring bacteria and fungi to decompose oilfield waste is described. In essence, UNOTEC creates a suitable work environment for microorganisms by mixing drilling residue with organic oil absorbent and bulking agent, and the micro-organisms do the rest. The key ingredient in the mix is canola meal which has been shown to have the ability to immobilize oil and prevent leaching in the containment mixtures following land treatment, due to its oleophilic qualities, which are a function of its origin as an oil seed. Canola meal contains large amounts of protein, hence it is an important source of nitrogen. Since nitrogen is considered essential for stimulating growth in microorganisms, the meal plays a critical role as a catalyst for microbial activity in the containment mix. Details of applying the technology, and on-going experiments demonstrating its efficiency are described. 10 photos

  5. A Petunia homeodomain-leucine zipper protein, PhHD-Zip, plays an important role in flower senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoxiao; Donnelly, Linda; Sun, Daoyang; Rao, Jingping; Reid, Michael S; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO), and ABA (NCED) biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29) was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA) and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold). Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence.

  6. A Petunia homeodomain-leucine zipper protein, PhHD-Zip, plays an important role in flower senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Chang

    Full Text Available Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO, and ABA (NCED biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29 was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold. Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence.

  7. Phosphorylation of CaMKII in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus plays an important role in sleep-wake regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Su-Ying; Li, Sheng-Jie; Cui, Xiang-Yu; Zhang, Xue-Qiong; Yu, Bin; Sheng, Zhao-Fu; Huang, Yuan-Li; Cao, Qing; Xu, Ya-Ping; Lin, Zhi-Ge; Yang, Guang; Song, Jin-Zhi; Ding, Hui; Wang, Zi-Jun; Zhang, Yong-He

    2016-02-01

    The Ca(2+) modulation in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) plays an important role in sleep-wake regulation. Calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) is an important signal-transducing molecule that is activated by Ca(2+) . This study investigated the effects of intracellular Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling in the DRN on sleep-wake states in rats. Maximum and minimum CaMKII phosphorylation was detected at Zeitgeber time 21 (ZT 21; wakefulness state) and ZT 3 (sleep state), respectively, across the light-dark rhythm in the DRN in rats. Six-hour sleep deprivation significantly reduced CaMKII phosphorylation in the DRN. Microinjection of the CAMKII activation inhibitor KN-93 (5 or 10 nmol) into the DRN suppressed wakefulness and enhanced rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and non-REM sleep (NREMS). Application of a high dose of KN-93 (10 nmol) increased slow-wave sleep (SWS) time, SWS bouts, the mean duration of SWS, the percentage of SWS relative to total sleep, and delta power density during NREMS. Microinjection of CaCl2 (50 nmol) in the DRN increased CaMKII phosphorylation and decreased NREMS, SWS, and REMS. KN-93 abolished the inhibitory effects of CaCl2 on NREMS, SWS, and REMS. These data indicate a novel wake-promoting and sleep-suppressing role for the Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling pathway in DRN neurons. We propose that the intracellular Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) plays wake-promoting and sleep-suppressing role in rats. Intra-DRN application of KN-93 (CaMKII activation inhibitor) suppressed wakefulness and enhanced rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and non-REMS (NREMS). Intra-DRN application of CaCl2 attenuated REMS and NREMS. We think these findings should provide a novel cellular and molecular mechanism of sleep-wake regulation. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  8. The hot oyster: levels of virulent Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains in individual oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Savannah L; Lovell, Charles R

    2017-02-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-associated gastroenteritis and is most commonly transmitted by raw oysters. Consequently, detection of virulent strains of this organism in oysters is a primary concern for seafood safety. Vibrio parahaemolyticus levels were determined in 110 individual oysters harvested from two sampling sites in SC, USA. The majority of oysters (98%) contained low levels of presumptive V. parahaemolyticus However, two healthy oysters contained presumptive V. parahaemolyticus numbers that were unusually high. These two 'hot' oysters contained levels of presumptive V. parahaemolyticus within the gills that were ∼100-fold higher than the average for other oysters collected at the same date and location. Current V. parahaemolyticus detection practices require homogenizing a dozen oysters pooled together to determine V. parahaemolyticus numbers, a procedure that would dilute out V. parahaemolyticus in these 'hot' oysters. This study demonstrates the variability of V. parahaemolyticus densities taken from healthy, neighboring individual oysters in the environment. Additionally, environmental V parahaemolyticus isolates were screened for the virulence-related genes, tdh and trh, using improved polymerase chain reaction primers and protocols. We detected these genes, previously thought to be rare in environmental isolates, in approximately half of the oyster isolates. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Occurrence and molecular characterisation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in crustaceans commercialised in Venice area, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caburlotto, Greta; Suffredini, Elisabetta; Toson, Marica; Fasolato, Luca; Antonetti, Paolo; Zambon, Michela; Manfrin, Amedeo

    2016-03-02

    Infections due to the pathogenic human vibrios, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio vulnificus, are mainly associated with consumption of raw or partially cooked bivalve molluscs. At present, little is known about the presence of Vibrio species in crustaceans and the risk of vibriosis associated with the consumption of these products. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and concentration of the main pathogenic Vibrio spp. in samples of crustaceans (n=143) commonly eaten in Italy, taking into account the effects of different variables such as crustacean species, storage conditions and geographic origin. Subsequently, the potential pathogenicity of V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from crustaceans (n=88) was investigated, considering the classic virulence factors (tdh and trh genes) and four genes coding for relevant proteins of the type III secretion systems 2 (T3SS2α and T3SS2β). In this study, the presence of V. cholerae and V. vulnificus was never detected, whereas 40 samples (28%) were positive for V. parahaemolyticus with an overall prevalence of 41% in refrigerated products and 8% in frozen products. The highest prevalence and average contamination levels were detected in Crangon crangon (prevalence 58% and median value 3400 MPN/g) and in products from the northern Adriatic Sea (35%), with the samples from the northern Venetian Lagoon reaching a median value of 1375 MPN/g. While genetic analysis confirmed absence of the tdh gene, three of the isolates contained the trh gene and, simultaneously, the T3SS2β genes. Moreover three possibly clonal tdh-negative/trh-negative isolates carried the T3SS2α apparatus. The detection of both T3SS2α and T3SS2β apparatuses in V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from crustaceans emphasised the importance of considering new genetic markers associated with virulence besides the classical factors. Moreover this study represents the first report dealing with Vibrio spp. in

  10. Comparative genomic analysis of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: serotype conversion and virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Ana I

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common cause of foodborne disease. Beginning in 1996, a more virulent strain having serotype O3:K6 caused major outbreaks in India and other parts of the world, resulting in the emergence of a pandemic. Other serovariants of this strain emerged during its dissemination and together with the original O3:K6 were termed strains of the pandemic clone. Two genomes, one of this virulent strain and one pre-pandemic strain have been sequenced. We sequenced four additional genomes of V. parahaemolyticus in this study that were isolated from different geographical regions and time points. Comparative genomic analyses of six strains of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from Asia and Peru were performed in order to advance knowledge concerning the evolution of V. parahaemolyticus; specifically, the genetic changes contributing to serotype conversion and virulence. Two pre-pandemic strains and three pandemic strains, isolated from different geographical regions, were serotype O3:K6 and either toxin profiles (tdh+, trh- or (tdh-, trh+. The sixth pandemic strain sequenced in this study was serotype O4:K68. Results Genomic analyses revealed that the trh+ and tdh+ strains had different types of pathogenicity islands and mobile elements as well as major structural differences between the tdh pathogenicity islands of the pre-pandemic and pandemic strains. In addition, the results of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis showed that 94% of the SNPs between O3:K6 and O4:K68 pandemic isolates were within a 141 kb region surrounding the O- and K-antigen-encoding gene clusters. The "core" genes of V. parahaemolyticus were also compared to those of V. cholerae and V. vulnificus, in order to delineate differences between these three pathogenic species. Approximately one-half (49-59% of each species' core genes were conserved in all three species, and 14-24% of the core genes were species-specific and in different

  11. Hepcidin is directly regulated by insulin and plays an important role in iron overload in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heyang; Li, Hongxia; Jiang, Xin; Shi, Wencai; Shen, Zhilei; Li, Min

    2014-05-01

    Iron overload is frequently observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesize that hepcidin may be directly regulated by insulin and play an important role in iron overload in DM2. We therefore examined the hepatic iron content, serum iron parameters, intestinal iron absorption, and liver hepcidin expression in rats treated with streptozotocin (STZ), which was given alone or after insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet. The direct effect of insulin on hepcidin and its molecular mechanisms were furthermore determined in vitro in HepG2 cells. STZ administration caused a significant reduction in liver hepcidin level and a marked increase in intestinal iron absorption and serum and hepatic iron content. Insulin obviously upregulated hepcidin expression in HepG2 cells and enhanced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 protein synthesis and DNA binding activity. The effect of insulin on hepcidin disappeared when the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway was blocked and could be partially inhibited by U0126. In conclusion, the current study suggests that hepcidin can be directly regulated by insulin, and the suppressed liver hepcidin synthesis may be an important reason for the iron overload in DM2.

  12. Nutrition metabolism plays an important role in the alternate bearing of the olive tree (Olea europaea L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Turktas

    Full Text Available The olive tree (Olea europaea L. is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between "on year" and "off year" leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree.

  13. Nutrition Metabolism Plays an Important Role in the Alternate Bearing of the Olive Tree (Olea europaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turktas, Mine; Inal, Behcet; Okay, Sezer; Erkilic, Emine Gulden; Dundar, Ekrem; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel; Unver, Turgay

    2013-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits) are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between ”on year” and “off year” leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree. PMID:23555820

  14. Ruminal Prevotella spp. may play an important role in the conversion of plant lignans into human health beneficial antioxidants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L B Schogor

    Full Text Available Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG, the most abundant lignan in flaxseed, is metabolized by the ruminal microbiota into enterolignans, which are strong antioxidants. Enterolactone (EL, the main mammalian enterolignan produced in the rumen, is transferred into physiological fluids, with potentially human health benefits with respect to menopausal symptoms, hormone-dependent cancers, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis and diabetes. However, no information exists to our knowledge on bacterial taxa that play a role in converting plant lignans into EL in ruminants. In order to investigate this, eight rumen cannulated cows were used in a double 4 × 4 Latin square design and fed with four treatments: control with no flax meal (FM, or 5%, 10% and 15% FM (on a dry matter basis. Concentration of EL in the rumen increased linearly with increasing FM inclusion. Total rumen bacterial 16S rRNA concentration obtained using Q-PCR did not differ among treatments. PCR-T-RFLP based dendrograms revealed no global clustering based on diet indicating between animal variation. PCR-DGGE showed a clustering by diet effect within four cows that had similar basal ruminal microbiota. DNA extracted from bands present following feeding 15% FM and absent with no FM supplementation were sequenced and it showed that many genera, in particular Prevotella spp., contributed to the metabolism of lignans. A subsequent in vitro study using selected pure cultures of ruminal bacteria incubated with SDG indicated that 11 ruminal bacteria were able to convert SDG into secoisolariciresinol (SECO, with Prevotella spp. being the main converters. These data suggest that Prevotella spp. is one genus playing an important role in the conversion of plant lignans to human health beneficial antioxidants in the rumen.

  15. Características de Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolados de mexilhões (Perna perna comercializados em Niterói, Rio de Janeiro Characteristics of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from mussels (Perna perna commercialized at Niterói, Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Soares Pereira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O ecossistema marinho é o habitat natural de bactérias como Vibrio parahaemolyticus, um importante patógeno causador de gastrenterite humana associada ao consumo de alimentos marinhos. Na presente investigação, foi avaliada a presença de V. parahaemolyticus a partir de 86 amostras de mexilhões in natura e pré-cozidos. Vibrio parahaemolyticus foi isolado a partir de 11,6% dos mexilhões in natura e pré-cozidos avaliados. Todas as cepas avaliadas demonstraram-se urease positivas e 28,5% Kanagawa positivas sugerindo um potencial patogênico para o homem. Houve a predominância do sorotipo O10:K52 e a identificação da cepa emergente O3:K6. Esses resultados apontam para a relevância epidemiológica de V. parahaemolyticus em casos de gastrenterite humana após consumo de mexilhões sem cozimento adequado (100ºC/15min. Além disso, é importante alertar as autoridades de Vigilância Sanitária no Brasil quanto a sua presença na cadeia alimentar e seus riscos para a Saúde Pública.The marine ecosystem is the natural habitat of bacteria like Vibrio parahaemolyticus, an important pathogen that cause human gastroenteritis associated with seafood consumption. In the present investigation, the presence of V. parahaemolyticus in 86 in natura and precooked mussel samples was evaluated. Vibrio parahaemolyticus was isolated from 11.6% of the in natura and precooked mussels. All strains tested were urease-positive and 28.5% were Kanagawa-positive, which suggests that they have pathogenic potential for humans. There was predominance of the O10:K52 serotype and the emerging O3:K6 strain was identified. These results show the epidemiological relevance of V. parahaemolyticus in cases of human gastroenteritis following mussel consumption without adequately cooking them (100°C/15min. Moreover, it is important to alert the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance authorities regarding their presence in the food chain and their public health risks.

  16. A thioredoxin-dependent peroxiredoxin Q from Corynebacterium glutamicum plays an important role in defense against oxidative stress.

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    Tao Su

    Full Text Available Peroxiredoxin Q (PrxQ that belonged to the cysteine-based peroxidases has long been identified in numerous bacteria, but the information on the physiological and biochemical functions of PrxQ remain largely lacking in Corynebacterium glutamicum. To better systematically understand PrxQ, we reported that PrxQ from model and important industrial organism C. glutamicum, encoded by the gene ncgl2403 annotated as a putative PrxQ, played important roles in adverse stress resistance. The lack of C. glutamicum prxQ gene resulted in enhanced cell sensitivity, increased ROS accumulation, and elevated protein carbonylation levels under adverse stress conditions. Accordingly, PrxQ-mediated resistance to adverse stresses mainly relied on the degradation of ROS. The physiological roles of PrxQ in resistance to adverse stresses were corroborated by its induced expression under adverse stresses, regulated directly by the stress-responsive ECF-sigma factor SigH. Through catalytical kinetic activity, heterodimer formation, and bacterial two-hybrid analysis, we proved that C. glutamicum PrxQ catalytically eliminated peroxides by exclusively receiving electrons from thioredoxin (Trx/thioredoxin reductase (TrxR system and had a broad range of oxidizing substrates, but a better efficiency for peroxynitrite and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that the conserved Cys49 and Cys54 are the peroxide oxidation site and the resolving Cys residue, respectively. It was also discovered that C. glutamicum PrxQ mainly existed in monomer whether under its native state or functional state. Based on these results, a catalytic model of PrxQ is being proposed. Moreover, our result that C. glutamicum PrxQ can prevent the damaging effects of adverse stresses by acting as thioredoxin-dependent monomeric peroxidase could be further applied to improve the survival ability and robustness of the important bacterium during fermentation process.

  17. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella spp. in seafood products using multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mehdi; Maktabi, Siavash; Ghorbanpour, Masoud

    2012-02-01

    Although several etiological agents can be transmitted through seafood consumption, Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella spp. are considered among the most important pathogens in terms of public health and disease. In this study, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), as a rapid and cost-effective method, was used to determine the prevalence of these pathogens in 245 samples of raw/fresh, frozen, and ready-to-eat (RTE) seafood products marketed in Iran. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in raw/fresh fish and shrimp samples was 1.4%, whereas 2.9% of the raw/fresh fish and 7.1% of the shrimp samples were contaminated with V. parahaemolyticus. No contamination with L. monocytogenes and V. parahaemolyticus was found in frozen and RTE seafood products. The prevalence of S. aureus was found to be higher than other investigated pathogens. S. aureus was detected in 5% of the raw/fresh samples of fish and shrimp, 17.5% of the frozen, and 12.3% of the RTE samples. Further, our findings indicate that 2.9% of the fish samples, 4.3% of the shrimp samples, and 1.5% of the RTE samples were contaminated with Salmonella spp. Owing to the potential hazard of these pathogenic bacteria, multiplex PCR can provide a rapid and cost-effective method for the surveillance of these pathogens in seafood products.

  18. High-throughput deep sequencing reveals that microRNAs play important roles in salt tolerance of euhalophyte Salicornia europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Juanjuan; Wang, Jinhui; Fan, Pengxiang; Jia, Weitao; Nie, Lingling; Jiang, Ping; Chen, Xianyang; Lv, Sulian; Wan, Lichuan; Chang, Sandra; Li, Shizhong; Li, Yinxin

    2015-02-26

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in plant development processes and play pivotal roles in plant adaptation to environmental stresses. Salicornia europaea, a salt mash euhalophyte, is a suitable model plant to study salt adaptation mechanisms. S. europaea is also a vegetable, forage, and oilseed that can be used for saline land reclamation and biofuel precursor production on marginal lands. Despite its importance, no miRNA has been identified from S. europaea thus far. Deep sequencing was performed to investigate small RNA transcriptome of S. europaea. Two hundred and ten conserved miRNAs comprising 51 families and 31 novel miRNAs (including seven miRNA star sequences) belonging to 30 families were identified. About half (13 out of 31) of the novel miRNAs were only detected in salt-treated samples. The expression of 43 conserved and 13 novel miRNAs significantly changed in response to salinity. In addition, 53 conserved and 13 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed between the shoots and roots. Furthermore, 306 and 195 S. europaea unigenes were predicted to be targets of 41 conserved and 29 novel miRNA families, respectively. These targets encoded a wide range of proteins, and genes involved in transcription regulation constituted the largest category. Four of these genes encoding laccase, F-box family protein, SAC3/GANP family protein, and NADPH cytochrome P-450 reductase were validated using 5'-RACE. Our results indicate that specific miRNAs are tightly regulated by salinity in the shoots and/or roots of S. europaea, which may play important roles in salt tolerance of this euhalophyte. The S. europaea salt-responsive miRNAs and miRNAs that target transcription factors, nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat proteins and enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis as well as carbon and nitrogen metabolism may be applied in genetic engineering of crops with high stress tolerance, and genetic modification of biofuel crops with high biomass and regulatable

  19. Roles of thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH) in Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Pendru

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood borne bacterial gastroenteritis in the world, often associated with the consumption of raw or undercooked seafood. However, not all strains of V. parahaemolyticus are pathogenic. The thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) or TDH-related hemolysin (TRH) encoded by tdh and trh genes, respectively, are considered major virulence factors in V. parahaemolyticus. However, about 10% of clinical strains do not contain tdh and/or trh. Environmental isolates of V. parahaemolyticus lacking tdh and/or trh are also highly cytotoxic to human gastrointestinal cells. Even in the absence of these hemolysins, V. parahaemolyticus remains pathogenic indicating other virulence factors exist. This mini review aims at discussing the possible roles of tdh and trh genes in clinical and environmental isolates of V. parahaemolyticus.

  20. Draft genome sequence of pathogenic bacteria Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain Ba94C2, associated with acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease isolate from South America

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    Leda Restrepo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a pathogenic bacteria which has been associated to the early mortality syndrome (EMS also known as hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND causing high mortality in shrimp farms. Pathogenic strains contain two homologous genes related to insecticidal toxin genes, PirA and PirB, these toxin genes are located on a plasmid contained within the bacteria. Genomic sequences have allowed the finding of two strains with a divergent structure related to the geographic region from where they were found. The isolates from the geographic collection of Southeast Asia and Mexico show variable regions on the plasmid genome, indicating that even though they are not alike they still conserve the toxin genes. In this paper, we report for the first time, a pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strain in shrimp from South America that showed symptoms of AHPND. The genomic analysis revealed that this strain of V. parahaemolyticus found in South America appears to be more related to the Southeast Asia as compared to the Mexican strains. This finding is of major importance for the shrimp industry, especially in regards to the urgent need for disease control strategies to avoid large EMS outbreaks and economic loss, and to determine its dispersion in South America. The whole-genome shotgun project of V. parahaemolyticus strain Ba94C2 have been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession PRJNA335761.

  1. Marine Bacillus spp. associated with the egg capsule of Concholepas concholepas (common name "loco") have an inhibitory activity toward the pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyton, Yanett; Riquelme, Carlos

    2010-10-01

    The pandemic bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus, isolated from seawater, sediment, and marine organisms, is responsible for gastroenteric illnesses in humans and also cause diseases in aquaculture industry in Chile and other countries around the world. In this study, bacterial flora with inhibitory activity against pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus were collected from egg capsules of Concholepas concholepas and evaluated. The 16S rRNA fragment was sequenced from each isolated strain to determine its identity using the GenBank database. A phylogenetic analysis was made, and tests for the productions of antibacterial substance were performed using the double-layer method. Forty-five morphotypes of bacterial colonies were isolated, 8 of which presented an inhibitory effect on the growth of V. parahaemolyticus. 16S rRNA sequence and phylogenetic analysis show that these strains constitute taxa that are phylogenetically related to the Bacillus genus and are probably sister species or strains of the species Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus licheniform, or Bacillus sp. It is important to determine the nature of the antibacterial substance to evaluate their potential for use against the pathogen species V. parahaemolyticus.

  2. Affective temperaments play an important role in the relationship between child abuse and the diagnosis of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Takeshi; Tanichi, Masaaki; Saito, Taku; Nakagawa, Shin; Masuya, Jiro; Tanabe, Hajime; Yoshino, Aihide; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2018-04-01

    In previous studies, various components such as environmental and genetic factors have been shown to contribute to the development of bipolar disorder (BD). This study investigated how multiple factors, including child abuse, adult life events, and affective temperaments, are interrelated and how they affect the diagnosis of BD. A total of 170 healthy controls and 75 BD patients completed the following self-administered questionnaires: the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 evaluating the severity of depressive symptoms; the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS) evaluating child abuse; the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) evaluating affective temperaments; and the Life Experiences Survey (LES) evaluating negative and positive adult life events. The data were subjected to univariate analysis, multivariable analysis, and structural equation modeling. The structural equation modeling showed that the diagnosis of BD was indirectly predicted by the neglect and sexual abuse scores of the CATS through four affective temperaments (depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious) of the TEMPS-A and directly predicted by these four affective temperaments. This study suggested that affective temperament plays an important role as a mediator in the influence of child abuse on BD diagnosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Abnormal expression of Nrf2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of adenomyosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Du, Baoying; Zhou, Hao; Shen, Fengxian; Li, Juan; Xie, Zhenwei

    2017-01-01

    To explore the expression level of Nrf2 in adenomyosis and study the mechanism of abnormal expression of Nrf2 in the pathogenesis of adenomyosis. Western blot, immunohistochemistry(IHC) and real time PCR were used to measure Nrf2 expression levels in tissue and cell samples. Knockdown and overexpression of Nrf2 were used to investigate the variation of migration ability of endometrial glandular cells as well as the regulatory mechanism. Nrf2 protein levels were significantly higher in the eutopic and ectopic endometrial glands when compared with control cases using IHC and western blot methods. (pendometrial glandular cells. With increased expression of Nrf2, cell scratch assay showed that the agonist-treated group migrated significantly faster than the control group, with MMP9 protein level markedly elevated. In contrast, Nrf2 siRNA-treated group migrated slower than the control group, with decreased expression of MMP9 protein. All of the scratching healing spaces and protein levels between the treated and control groups were statistically significant (p< 0.05). Abnormal expression of Nrf2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of adenomyosis. Specified reduction of Nrf2 expression could prove to be a new therapeutic target in the clinical treatment of adenomyosis.

  4. Matrix Metallopeptidase 14 Plays an Important Role in Regulating Tumorigenic Gene Expression and Invasion Ability of HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Hui; Wang, Juan-Juan; Li, Min; Zheng, Han-Xi; Xu, Lan; Chen, You-Guo

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the functional effect of matrix metallopeptidase 14 (MMP14) on cell invasion in cervical cancer cells (HeLa line) and to study the underlying molecular mechanisms. Expression vector of short hairpin RNA targeting MMP14 was treated in HeLa cells, and then, transfection efficiency was verified by a florescence microscope. Transwell assay was used to investigate cell invasion ability in HeLa cells. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analysis were used to detect the expression of MMP14 and relative factors in messenger RNA and protein levels, respectively. Matrix metallopeptidase 14 short hairpin RNA expression vector transfection obviously decreased MMP14 expression in messenger RNA and protein levels. Down-regulation of MMP14 suppressed invasion ability of HeLa cells and reduced transforming growth factor β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor B expressions. Furthermore, MMP14 knockdown decreased bone sialoprotein and enhanced forkhead box protein L2 expression in both RNA and protein levels. Matrix metallopeptidase 14 plays an important role in regulating invasion of HeLa cells. Matrix metallopeptidase 14 knockdown contributes to attenuating the malignant phenotype of cervical cancer cell.

  5. Macrophages as IL-25/IL-33-responsive cells play an important role in the induction of type 2 immunity.

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    Zhonghan Yang

    Full Text Available Type 2 immunity is essential for host protection against nematode infection but is detrimental in allergic inflammation or asthma. There is a major research focus on the effector molecules and specific cell types involved in the initiation of type 2 immunity. Recent work has implicated an important role of epithelial-derived cytokines, IL-25 and IL-33, acting on innate immune cells that are believed to be the initial sources of type 2 cytokines IL-4/IL-5/IL-13. The identities of the cell types that mediate the effects of IL-25/IL-33, however, remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrate that macrophages as IL-25/IL-33-responsive cells play an important role in inducing type 2 immunity using both in vitro and in vivo approaches. Macrophages produced type 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 in response to the stimulation of IL-25/IL-33 in vitro, or were the IL-13-producing cells in mice administrated with exogenous IL-33 or infected with Heligmosomoides bakeri. In addition, IL-33 induced alternative activation of macrophages primarily through autocrine IL-13 activating the IL-4Rα-STAT6 pathway. Moreover, depletion of macrophages attenuated the IL-25/IL-33-induced type 2 immunity in mice, while adoptive transfer of IL-33-activated macrophages into mice with a chronic Heligmosomoides bakeri infection induced worm expulsion accompanied by a potent type 2 protective immune response. Thus, macrophages represent a unique population of the innate immune cells pivotal to type 2 immunity and a potential therapeutic target in controlling type 2 immunity-mediated inflammatory pathologies.

  6. Variability of Total and Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus Densities in Northern Gulf of Mexico Water and Oysters▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, A. M.; DePaola, A.; Bowers, J. C.; Krantz, J. A.; Nordstrom, J. L.; Johnson, C. N.; Grimes, D. J.

    2007-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is indigenous to coastal environments and a frequent cause of seafood-borne gastroenteritis in the United States, primarily due to raw-oyster consumption. Previous seasonal-cycle studies of V. parahaemolyticus have identified water temperature as the strongest environmental predictor. Salinity has also been identified, although it is evident that its effect on annual variation is not as pronounced. The effects of other environmental factors, both with respect to the seasonal cycle and intraseasonal variation, are uncertain. This study investigated intraseasonal variations of densities of total and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus organisms in oysters and overlying waters during the summer of 2004 at two sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Regression analyses indicated significant associations (P turbidity in water and in oysters at the Mississippi site but not at the Alabama site. Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus organisms in Mississippi oyster and water samples were detected in 56% (9 out of 16) and 78% (43 out of 55) of samples, respectively. In contrast, 44% (7 out of 16) of oyster samples and 30% (14 out of 47) of water samples from Alabama were positive. At both sites, there was greater sample-to-sample variability in pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus densities than in total V. parahaemolyticus densities. These data suggest that, although total V. parahaemolyticus densities may be very informative, there is greater uncertainty when total V. parahaemolyticus densities are used to predict the risk of infection by pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus than previously recognized. PMID:17921270

  7. Variability of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus densities in northern Gulf of Mexico water and oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, A M; DePaola, A; Bowers, J C; Krantz, J A; Nordstrom, J L; Johnson, C N; Grimes, D J

    2007-12-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is indigenous to coastal environments and a frequent cause of seafood-borne gastroenteritis in the United States, primarily due to raw-oyster consumption. Previous seasonal-cycle studies of V. parahaemolyticus have identified water temperature as the strongest environmental predictor. Salinity has also been identified, although it is evident that its effect on annual variation is not as pronounced. The effects of other environmental factors, both with respect to the seasonal cycle and intraseasonal variation, are uncertain. This study investigated intraseasonal variations of densities of total and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus organisms in oysters and overlying waters during the summer of 2004 at two sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Regression analyses indicated significant associations (P turbidity in water and in oysters at the Mississippi site but not at the Alabama site. Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus organisms in Mississippi oyster and water samples were detected in 56% (9 out of 16) and 78% (43 out of 55) of samples, respectively. In contrast, 44% (7 out of 16) of oyster samples and 30% (14 out of 47) of water samples from Alabama were positive. At both sites, there was greater sample-to-sample variability in pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus densities than in total V. parahaemolyticus densities. These data suggest that, although total V. parahaemolyticus densities may be very informative, there is greater uncertainty when total V. parahaemolyticus densities are used to predict the risk of infection by pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus than previously recognized.

  8. Interactions between the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus and red-tide dinoflagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Kyeong Ah; Jeong, Hae Jin

    2011-06-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common pathogenic bacterium in marine and estuarine waters. To investigate interactions between V. parahaemolyticus and co-occurring redtide dinoflagellates, we monitored the daily abundance of 5 common red tide dinoflagellates in laboratory culture; Amphidinium carterae, Cochlodinium ploykrikoides, Gymnodinium impudicum, Prorocentrum micans, and P. minimum. Additionally, we measured the ingestion rate of each dinoflagellate on V. parahaemolyticus as a function of prey concentration. Each of the dinoflagellates responded differently to the abundance of V. parahaemolyticus. The abundances of A. carterae and P. micans were not lowered by V. parahaemolyticus, whereas that of C. polykrikodes was lowered considerably. The harmful effect depended on bacterial concentration and incubation time. Most C. polykrikoides cells died after 1 hour incubation when the V. parahaemolyticus concentration was 1.4×107 cells ml-1, while cells died within 2 days of incubation when the bacterial concentration was 1.5×106 cells ml-1. With increasing V. parahaemolyticus concentration, ingestion rates of P. micans, P. minimum, and A. carterae on the prey increased, whereas that on C. polykrikoides decreased. The maximum or highest ingestion rates of P. micans, P. minimum, and A. carterae on V. parahaemolyticus were 55, 5, and 2 cells alga-1 h-1, respectively. The results of the present study suggest that V. parahaemolyticus can be both the killer and prey for some red tide dinoflagellates.

  9. Importance of clinical examination in diagnostics of Osgood-Schlatter Disease in boys playing soccer or basketball

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    Amela Halilbasic

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osgood–Schlatter disease is an irritation of the patellar tendon at the tibial tubercle. Sports with jumps, running, and repeated contractions of knee extension apparatus are considered to be importantexternal risk-factors which could cause Osgood–Schlatter disease.Objectives of the study are to draw attention to the importance of clinical examination in diagnostics of Osgood–Schlatter disease in boys playing soccer or basketball.Methods: The research included data obtained from 120 boys, average age of 14 years. Examinees were split into two groups, one with young athletes which regularly have soccer or basketball trainings and thesecond one with boys who do not participating in sports. We performed anthropological measurements and clinical examinations of both knees and hips for both groups. For the statistical analysis we used pointbiserialcorrelation coefficient.Results: Based on clinical examination, Osgood–Schlatter disease was diagnosed in 51 examinees (42.5%. In “athletic group” Osgood–Schlatter disease had 31 boys or 52%, comparing with “non-athletic group” wherewe found 20 adolescents with disease (33%. Number of boys with Osgood–Schlatter disease was higher for 19% in “athletic group” comparing with “non-athletic group”. Comparing incidence rate for boys in both groups with diagnosed II and III level of Osgood–Schlatter disease we found that rate is higher in “athletic group” 2.25 times comparing with “non-athletic group”.Conclusions: Clinical examination is critical method in the process of diagnosing Osgood–Schlatter disease especially for identifying II and III level of this disease.

  10. Autophagy plays an important role in Sunitinib-mediated cell death in H9c2 cardiac muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yuqin; Xue Tao; Yang Xiaochun; Zhu Hong; Ding Xiaofei; Lou Liming; Lu Wei; Yang Bo; He Qiaojun

    2010-01-01

    Sunitinib, which is a multitargeted tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, exhibits antiangiogenic and antitumor activity, and extends survival of patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma (mRCC) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). This molecule has also been reported to be associated with cardiotoxicity at a high frequency, but the mechanism is still unknown. In the present study, we observed that Sunitinib showed high anti-proliferative effect on H9c2 cardiac muscle cells measured by PI staining and the MTT assay. But apoptotic markers (PARP cleavage, caspase 3 cleavage and chromatin condensation) were uniformly negative in H9c2 cells after Sunitinib treatment for 48 h, indicating that another cell death pathway may be involved in Sunitinib-induced cardiotoxicity. Here we found Sunitinib dramatically increased autophagic flux in H9c2 cells. Acidic vesicle fluorescence and high expression of LC3-II in H9c2 cells identified autophagy as a Sunitinib-induced process that might be associated with cytotoxicity. Furthermore, knocking down Beclin 1 by RNA-interference to block autophagy in H9c2 cells revealed that the death rate was decreased when treated with Sunitinib in comparison to control cells. These results confirmed that autophagy plays an important role in Sunitinib-mediated H9c2 cells cytotoxicity. Taken together, the data presented here strongly suggest that autophagy is associated with Sunitinib-induced cardiotoxicity, and that inhibition of autophagy constitutes a viable strategy for reducing Sunitinib-induced cardiomyocyte death thereby alleviating Sunitinib cardiotoxicity.

  11. Orexin receptor-1 in the locus coeruleus plays an important role in cue-dependent fear memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soya, Shingo; Shoji, Hirotaka; Hasegawa, Emi; Hondo, Mari; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Mieda, Michihiro; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2013-09-04

    The noradrenergic (NA) projections arising from the locus ceruleus (LC) to the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis have been implicated in the formation of emotional memory. Since NA neurons in the LC (LC-NA neurons) abundantly express orexin receptor-1 (OX1R) and receive prominent innervation by orexin-producing neurons, we hypothesized that an OX1R-mediated pathway is involved in the physiological fear learning process via regulation of LC-NA neurons. To evaluate this hypothesis, we examined the phenotype of Ox1r(-/-) mice in the classic cued and contextual fear-conditioning test. We found that Ox1r(-/-) mice showed impaired freezing responses in both cued and contextual fear-conditioning paradigms. In contrast, Ox2r(-/-) mice showed normal freezing behavior in the cued fear-conditioning test, while they exhibited shorter freezing time in the contextual fear-conditioning test. Double immunolabeling of Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase showed that double-positive LC-NA neurons after test sessions of both cued and contextual stimuli were significantly fewer in Ox1r(-/-) mice. AAV-mediated expression of OX1R in LC-NA neurons in Ox1r(-/-) mice restored the freezing behavior to the auditory cue to a comparable level to that in wild-type mice in the test session. Decreased freezing time during the contextual fear test was not affected by restoring OX1R expression in LC-NA neurons. These observations support the hypothesis that the orexin system modulates the formation and expression of fear memory via OX1R in multiple pathways. Especially, OX1R in LC-NA neurons plays an important role in cue-dependent fear memory formation and/or retrieval.

  12. The novel zinc cluster regulator Tog1 plays important roles in oleate utilization and oxidative stress response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thepnok, Piyasuda; Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok; Soontorngun, Nitnipa, E-mail: nitnipa.soo@kmutt.ac.th

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • TOG1 deletion results in defective growth on non-fermentable carbon sources. • Removal of TOG1 sensitizes cells to oxidative stress. • Tog1 directly binds and activates expression of oleate utilizing genes. • The Δtog1 cells display reduced peroxisomal content in oleate culture. • S. cerevisiae zinc cluster Tog1 is a novel activator of oleate utilization. - Abstract: Many zinc cluster proteins have been shown to play a role in the transcriptional regulation of glucose-repressible genes during glucose exhaustion and diauxic shift. Here, we studied an additional member of this family called Yer184c (herein called Tog1) for transcriptional regulator of oleate. Our results showed that a Δtog1 strain displays impaired growth with several non-fermentable carbons. Tog1 is also implicated in oxidative stress tolerance. Importantly, during the glucose–oleate shift, combined results from quantitative real time-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments showed that Tog1 acts as a direct activator of oleate utilizing genes, encoded key enzymes in β-Oxidation and NADPH regeneration (POX1, FOX2, POT1 and IDP2), the glyoxylate shunt (MLS1 and ICL1), and gluconeogenesis (PCK1 and FBP1). A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the Δtog1 strain assayed with oleate also revealed a substantial decrease in peroxisome abundance that is vital for fatty acid oxidation. Overall, our results clearly demonstrated that Tog1 is a newly characterized zinc cluster regulator that functions in the complex network of non-fermentable carbon metabolism in Saccharomycescerevisiae.

  13. FIP1 Plays an Important Role in Nitrate Signaling and Regulates CIPK8 and CIPK23 Expression in Arabidopsis

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    Chao Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Unraveling the molecular mechanisms of nitrate regulation and deciphering the underlying genetic network is vital for elucidating nitrate uptake and utilization in plants. Such knowledge could lead to the improvement of nitrogen-use efficiency in agriculture. Here, we report that the FIP1 gene (factor interacting with poly(A polymerase 1 plays an important role in nitrate signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. FIP1 encodes a putative core component of the polyadenylation factor complex. We found that FIP1 interacts with the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 30-L (CPSF30-L, which is also an essential player in nitrate signaling. The induction of nitrate-responsive genes following nitrate treatment was inhibited in the fip1 mutant. The nitrate content was also reduced in fip1 seedlings due to their decreased nitrate uptake activity. Furthermore, the nitrate content was higher in the roots but lower in the roots of fip1, which may result from the downregulation of NRT1.8 and the upregulation of the nitrate assimilation genes. In addition, qPCR analyses revealed that FIP1 negatively regulated the expression of CIPK8 and CIPK23, two protein kinases involved in nitrate signaling. In the fip1 mutant, the increased expression of CIPK23 may affect nitrate uptake, resulting in its lower nitrate content. Genetic and molecular evidence suggests that FIP1 and CPSF30-L function in the same nitrate-signaling pathway, with FIP1 mediating signaling through its interaction with CPSF30-L and its regulation of CIPK8 and CIPK23. Analysis of the 3′-UTR of NRT1.1 showed that the pattern of polyadenylation sites was altered in the fip1 mutant. These findings add a novel component to the nitrate regulation network and enhance our understanding of the underlying mechanisms for nitrate signaling.

  14. Central neuropeptide Y plays an important role in mediating the adaptation mechanism against chronic stress in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Babygirija, Reji; Zheng, Jun; Shi, Bei; Sun, Weinan; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Zhang, Fan; Cao, Yu

    2018-02-07

    Exposure to continuous life stress often causes gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Studies have shown that neuropeptide Y (NPY) counteracts the biological actions of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF), and is involved in the termination of the stress response. However, in chronic repeated restraint stress (CRS) conditions, the actions of NPY on GI motility remain controversial. To evaluate the role of NPY in mediation of the adaptation mechanism and GI motility in CRS conditions, a CRS rat model was set up. Central CRF and NPY expression levels were analyzed, serum corticosterone and NPY concentrations were measured, and GI motor function was evaluated. The NPY Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP-3226 was centrally administered before stress loading, and on days, 1-5, of repeated stress, the central CRF and the serum corticosterone concentrations were measured. In addition, gastric and colonic motor functions were evaluated. The elevated central CRF expression and corticosterone concentration caused by acute stress began to fall after 3 days of stress loading, while central NPY expression and serum NPY began to increase. GI dysmotility also returned to a normal level. Pretreatment with BIBP-3226 abolished the adaptation mechanism, and significantly increased CRF expression and the corticosterone concentration, which resulted in delayed gastric emptying and accelerated fecal pellet output. Inhibited gastric motility and enhanced distal colonic motility were also recorded. CRS-produced adaptation, over-expressed central CRF, and GI dysmotility observed in acute restraint stress were restored to normal levels. Central NPY via the Y1 receptor plays an important role in mediating the adaptation mechanism against chronic stress. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  15. Abnormal expression of Nrf2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of adenomyosis.

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    Ning Chen

    Full Text Available To explore the expression level of Nrf2 in adenomyosis and study the mechanism of abnormal expression of Nrf2 in the pathogenesis of adenomyosis.Western blot, immunohistochemistry(IHC and real time PCR were used to measure Nrf2 expression levels in tissue and cell samples. Knockdown and overexpression of Nrf2 were used to investigate the variation of migration ability of endometrial glandular cells as well as the regulatory mechanism.Nrf2 protein levels were significantly higher in the eutopic and ectopic endometrial glands when compared with control cases using IHC and western blot methods. (p< 0.05. However, there was no statistical difference in Nrf2 mRNA expression levels between the adenomyosis and control groups. Using an agonist and Nrf2 siRNA, we regulated the Nrf2 protein levels of primary cultured endometrial glandular cells. With increased expression of Nrf2, cell scratch assay showed that the agonist-treated group migrated significantly faster than the control group, with MMP9 protein level markedly elevated. In contrast, Nrf2 siRNA-treated group migrated slower than the control group, with decreased expression of MMP9 protein. All of the scratching healing spaces and protein levels between the treated and control groups were statistically significant (p< 0.05.Abnormal expression of Nrf2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of adenomyosis. Specified reduction of Nrf2 expression could prove to be a new therapeutic target in the clinical treatment of adenomyosis.

  16. C1 metabolism plays an important role during formaldehyde metabolism and detoxification in petunia under liquid HCHO stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Tang, Lijuan; Sun, Huiqun; Han, Shuang; Wang, Xinjia; Zhou, Shengen; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2014-10-01

    Petunia hybrida is a model ornamental plant grown worldwide. To understand the HCHO-uptake efficiency and metabolic mechanism of petunia, the aseptic petunia plants were treated in HCHO solutions. An analysis of HCHO-uptake showed that petunia plants effectively removed HCHO from 2, 4 and 6 mM HCHO solutions. The (13)C NMR analyses indicated that H(13)CHO was primarily used to synthesize [5-(13)C]methionine (Met) via C1 metabolism in petunia plants treated with 2 mM H(13)CHO. Pretreatment with cyclosporin A (CSA) or l-carnitine (LC), the inhibitors of mitochondrial permeability transition pores, did not affect the synthesis of [5-(13)C]Met in petunia plants under 2 mM H(13)CHO stress, indicating that the Met-generated pathway may function in the cytoplasm. Under 4 or 6 mM liquid H(13)CHO stress, H(13)CHO metabolism in petunia plants produced considerable amount of H(13)COOH and [2-(13)C]glycine (Gly) through C1 metabolism and a small amount of [U-(13)C]Gluc via the Calvin Cycle. Pretreatment with CSA or LC significantly inhibited the production of [2-(13)C]Gly in 6 mM H(13)CHO-treated petunia plants, which suggests that chloroplasts and peroxisomes might be involved in the generation of [2-(13)C]Gly. These results revealed that the C1 metabolism played an important role, whereas the Calvin Cycle had only a small contribution during HCHO metabolism and detoxification in petunia under liquid HCHO stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Can Brazil play a more important role in global tuberculosis drug production? An assessment of current capacity and challenges.

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    Gemal, Andre; Keravec, Joel; Menezes, Alexandre; Trajman, Anete

    2013-03-27

    Despite the existence of effective treatment, tuberculosis is still a global public health issue. The World Health Organization recommends a six-month four-drug regimen in fixed-dose combination formulation to treat drug sensitive tuberculosis, and long course regimens with several second-line drugs to treat multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. To achieve the projected tuberculosis elimination goal by 2050, it will be essential to ensure a non-interrupted supply of quality-assured tuberculosis drugs. However, quality and affordable tuberculosis drug supply is still a significant challenge for National Tuberculosis Programs. Quality drug production requires a combination of complex steps. The first challenge is to guarantee the quality of tuberculosis active pharmaceutical ingredients, then ensure an adequate manufacturing process, according to international standards, to guarantee final product's safety, efficacy and quality. Good practices for storage, transport, distribution and quality control procedures must follow. In contrast to other high-burden countries, Brazil produces tuberculosis drugs through a strong network of public sector drug manufacturers regulated by a World Health Organization-certified national sanitary authority. The installed capacity for production surpasses the 71,000 needed treatments in the country. However, in order to be prepared to act as a global supplier, important bottlenecks are to be overcome. This article presents an in-depth analysis of the current status of production of tuberculosis drugs in Brazil and the bottlenecks and opportunities for the country to sustain national demand and play a role as a potential global supplier. Raw material and drug production, quality control, international certification and pre-qualification, political commitment and regulatory aspects are discussed, as well recommendations for tackling these bottlenecks. This discussion becomes more important as new drugs and regimens to treat tuberculosis are

  18. Genome plasticity of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: microevolution of the 'pandemic group'

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    Liu Xiumei

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outbreak of V. parahaemolyticus infections occurred since 1996 was linked to a proposed clonal complex, the pandemic group. The whole genome sequence provides an unprecedented opportunity for dissecting genome plasticity and phylogeny of the populations of V. parahaemolyticus. In the present work, a whole-genome cDNA microarray was constructed to compare the genomic contents of a collection of 174 strains of V. parahaemolyticus. Results Genes that present variably in the genome accounted for about 22% of the whole gene pool on the genome. The phylogenetic analysis of microarray data generated a minimum spanning tree that depicted the phylogenetic structure of the 174 strains. Strains were assigned into five complexes (C1 to C5, and those in each complex were related genetically and phylogenetically. C3 and C4 represented highly virulent clinical clones. C2 and C3 constituted two different clonal complexes 'old-O3:K6 clone' and 'pandemic clone', respectively. C3 included all the 39 pandemic strains tested (trh-, tdh+ and GS-PCR+, while C2 contained 12 pre-1996 'old' O3:K6 strains (trh+, tdh- and GS-PCR- tested herein. The pandemic clone (post-1996 'new' O3:K6 and its derivates O4:K68, O1:K25, O1:KUT and O6:K18 might be emerged from the old-O3:K6 clone, which was promoted by acquisition of toxRS/new sequence and genomic islands. A phylogenetic intermediate O3:K6 clade (trh-, tdh- and GS-PCR+ was identified between the pandemic and old-O3:K6 clones. Conclusion A comprehensive overview of genomic contents in a large collection of global isolates from the microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization data enabled us to construct a phylogenetic structure of V. parahaemolyticus and an evolutionary history of the pandemic group (clone of this pathogen.

  19. Bactericidal effect of lactoferrin and lactoferrin chimera against halophilic Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon-Sicairos, N.; Canizalez-Roman, A.; de la Garza, M.; Reyes-Lopez, M.; Zazueta-Beltran, J.; Nazmi, K.; Gomez-Gil, B.; Bolscher, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Infections caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus, an halophilic member of the genus Vibrio, have increased globally in the last 5 years. Diarrhea caused by V. parahaemolyticus results from eating raw or undercooked seafood. The aim of this work was to investigate whether lactoferrin and some

  20. Repetitive sequences and epigenetic modification: inseparable partners play important roles in the evolution of plant sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Yuan, Jin-Hong; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Gao, Wu-Jun

    2016-05-01

    The present review discusses the roles of repetitive sequences played in plant sex chromosome evolution, and highlights epigenetic modification as potential mechanism of repetitive sequences involved in sex chromosome evolution. Sex determination in plants is mostly based on sex chromosomes. Classic theory proposes that sex chromosomes evolve from a specific pair of autosomes with emergence of a sex-determining gene(s). Subsequently, the newly formed sex chromosomes stop recombination in a small region around the sex-determining locus, and over time, the non-recombining region expands to almost all parts of the sex chromosomes. Accumulation of repetitive sequences, mostly transposable elements and tandem repeats, is a conspicuous feature of the non-recombining region of the Y chromosome, even in primitive one. Repetitive sequences may play multiple roles in sex chromosome evolution, such as triggering heterochromatization and causing recombination suppression, leading to structural and morphological differentiation of sex chromosomes, and promoting Y chromosome degeneration and X chromosome dosage compensation. In this article, we review the current status of this field, and based on preliminary evidence, we posit that repetitive sequences are involved in sex chromosome evolution probably via epigenetic modification, such as DNA and histone methylation, with small interfering RNAs as the mediator.

  1. Development of a loop-mediated Isothermal amplification assay for sensitive and rapid detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus

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    Kawahara Ryuji

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine seafood-borne pathogen causing gastrointestinal disorders in humans. Thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH are known as major virulence determinants of V. parahaemolyticus. Most V. parahaemolyticus isolates from the environment do not produce TDH or TRH. Total V. parahaemolyticus has been used as an indicator for control of seafood contamination toward prevention of infection. Detection of total V. parahaemolyticus using conventional culture- and biochemical-based assays is time-consuming and laborious, requiring more than three days. Thus, we developed a novel and highly specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay for the sensitive and rapid detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Results The assay provided markedly more sensitive and rapid detection of V. parahaemolyticus strains than conventional biochemical and PCR assays. The assay correctly identified 143 V. parahaemolyticus strains, but did not detect 33 non-parahaemolyticus Vibrio and 56 non-Vibrio strains. Sensitivity of the LAMP assay for direct detection of V. parahaemolyticus in pure cultures and in spiked shrimp samples was 5.3 × 102 CFU per ml/g (2.0 CFU per reaction. The sensitivity of the LAMP assay was 10-fold more sensitive than that of the conventional PCR assay. The LAMP assay was markedly faster, requiring for amplification 13–22 min in a single colony on TCBS agar from each of 143 V. parahaemolyticus strains and less than 35 min in spiked shrimp samples. The LAMP assay for detection of V. parahaemolyticus required less than 40 min in a single colony on thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose (TCBS agar and 60 min in spiked shrimp samples from the beginning of DNA extraction to final determination. Conclusion The LAMP assay is a sensitive, rapid and simple tool for the detection of V. parahaemolyticus and will facilitate the surveillance for control of contamination of V

  2. Induction of C-Mip by IL-17 Plays an Important Role in Adriamycin-Induced Podocyte Damage

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    Yanbo Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Although the disturbance of T lymphocyte and glomerular podocyte exerts a crucial function in the pathogenesis of proteinuria, the potential link is still unclear. Methods: The balance of Treg and Th17 cells, and the expression of IL-17/IL-17R and c-mip were investigated in adrimycin-induced nephropathy (AN mice. The effect and mechanism of IL-17 on podocyte were explored in cultured podocytes. Results: The proportion of Th17 cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, the amount of IL-17 in serum and kidney cortical homogenates, and the expression of IL-17R and c-mip in glomerular podocyte were increased obviously in AN mice. In cultured podocytes, recombinant IL-17 led to an induction of apoptosis and cytoskeletal disorganization, an overproduction of c-mip while down-regulation of phosphor-nephrin, and an increased binding of c-mip to NF-κB/RelA. Silence of c-mip prevented podocyte apoptosis and reduction of phosphor-nephrin by prompting nuclear translocation of NF-κB/RelA in IL-17 treated cells. Persistent activation of NF-κB up-regulated pro-survival protein Bcl-2 and decreased podocyte apoptosis, but had no effect on phosphor-nephrin level. Conclusion: These findings demonstrated that induction of IL-17 released by Th17 cells plays a key role in podocytopathy most likely through down-regulation of phosphor-nephrin and Bcl-2 level via overproduction of c-mip.

  3. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from seafoods in Lagos Lagoon Nigeria

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    Chigozie Oramadike

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a total of 90 seafood samples; croaker fish (Pseudotolithus senegalensis, shrimps (Penaeus notialis and blue crab (Callinectes sapidus collected from landing sites along the Lagos Lagoon in Nigeria were examined for the prevalence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus using both biochemical and molecular methods. Biochemical identification of the isolates was confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. The presence of the virulence-associated tdh (thermostable direct haemolysin, trh1 (thermostable-related haemolysin and trh2 genes in the V. parahaemolyticus isolates was also detected by the PCR method. PCR products from the V.16S primers were sequenced. Antibiotics susceptibility of the isolates was also determined. About, eight isolates were presumptively identified as V. parahaemolyticus, PCR identified five and none of the isolates were positive for the genes tdh or trh. The five isolates sequenced were identified as different strains of V. parahaemolyticus. V. parahaemolyticus_RIMD_2210633 = 2MKSHa remained resistant to all antimicrobials tested. However, only V. parahaemolyticus_MP-2_AY911391 = TBSHy showed strong sensitivity to all the antimicrobials with ampicillin (minimum inhibitory concentration-4 μg/ml. In addition, the other three isolates showed sensitivity for Tetracycline, Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin and Ceftazidime. Ampicillin resistance in most of the isolates suggests low efficiency of ampicillin in management of V. parahaemolyticus infection.

  4. Nod-Like Receptor Protein-3 Inflammasome Plays an Important Role during Early Stages of Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M.; Mirza, Rita E.; Koh, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    The Nod-like receptor protein (NLRP)-3 inflammasome/IL-1β pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory skin diseases, but its biological role in wound healing remains to be elucidated. Since inflammation is typically thought to impede healing, we hypothesized that loss of NLRP-3 activity would result in a downregulated inflammatory response and accelerated wound healing. NLRP-3 null mice, caspase-1 null mice and C57Bl/6 wild type control mice (WT) received four 8 mm excisional cutaneous wounds; inflammation and healing were assessed during the early stage of wound healing. Consistent with our hypothesis, wounds from NLRP-3 null and caspase-1 null mice contained lower levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α compared to WT mice and had reduced neutrophil and macrophage accumulation. Contrary to our hypothesis, re-epithelialization, granulation tissue formation, and angiogenesis were delayed in NLRP-3 null mice and caspase-1 null mice compared to WT mice, indicating that NLRP-3 signaling is important for early events in wound healing. Topical treatment of excisional wounds with recombinant IL-1β partially restored granulation tissue formation in wounds of NLRP-3 null mice, confirming the importance of NLRP-3-dependent IL-1β production during early wound healing. Despite the improvement in healing, angiogenesis and levels of the pro-angiogenic growth factor VEGF were further reduced in IL-1β treated wounds, suggesting that IL-1β has a negative effect on angiogenesis and that NLRP-3 promotes angiogenesis in an IL-1β-independent manner. These findings indicate that the NLRP-3 inflammasome contributes to the early inflammatory phase following skin wounding and is important for efficient healing. PMID:25793779

  5. Environmental Determinants of the Occurrence and Distribution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the Rias of Galicia, Spain▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime; Lozano-Leon, Antonio; Varela-Pet, Jose; Trinanes, Joaquin; Pazos, Yolanda; Garcia-Martin, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    Infections associated with Vibrio parahaemolyticus on the coast of Galicia (in northwestern Spain) were reported to be linked to large outbreaks of illness during 1999 and 2000. Little information is available about the ecological factors that influence the emergence of V. parahaemolyticus infections in this temperate region. We carried out a 3-year study to investigate the occurrence and distribution of V. parahaemolyticus at 26 sites located in the four main rias of Galicia in association with environmental and oceanographic variables. V. parahaemolyticus was detected in all the areas investigated and throughout the complete period of study with an overall incidence of 12.5%. Salinity was the primary factor governing the temporal and spatial distribution of V. parahaemolyticus, whereas seawater temperature had a secondary effect and only modulated the abundance in periods and areas of reduced salinities. Higher occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus was observed during periods of lower salinity in autumn, with a total of 61 positive samples (18%) and a mean density of 1,234 most probable number/100 g. V. parahaemolyticus was primarily detected in areas of reduced salinity close to freshwater discharge points, where it was found in up to 45% of the samples. Characterization of the isolates obtained from the study resulted in the first identification of two pathogenic tdh-positive strains of V. parahaemolyticus recovered from the marine environment in Galicia. These isolates showed serotypes identical to and DNA profiles indistinguishable from those of the clinical clone of V. parahaemolyticus dominant in infections in Spain in the last 10 years. PMID:17981951

  6. Pathogenesis of Congenital Rubella Virus Infection in Human Fetuses: Viral Infection in the Ciliary Body Could Play an Important Role in Cataractogenesis

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    Thong Van Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation: Our study based on the pathological examination demonstrated that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of human fetuses. This fact was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and direct detection of viral RNA in multiple organs. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report demonstrating that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of the human body. Importantly, virus infection of the ciliary body could play an important role in cataractogenesis.

  7. Temporal and Spatial Variation in the Abundance of Total and Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Shellfish in China.

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    Haihong Han

    Full Text Available We investigated the abundance of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shellfish sampled from four provinces in China during May 2013 and March 2014 using the most probable number-polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR method. Total V. parahaemolyticus was detected in 67.7% of 496 samples. A total of 38.1% and 10.1% of samples exceeded 1,000 MPN g(-1 and 10,000 MPN g(-1, respectively. V. parahaemolyticus densities followed a seasonal and geographical trend, with Guangxi and Sichuan shellfish possessing total V. parahaemolyticus levels that were 100-fold higher than those of the Liaoning and Shandong regions. Moreover, the levels of V. parahaemolyticus were at least 10-fold higher in the summer and autumn than in the cooler seasons. Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus levels were generally lower than total V. parahaemolyticus levels by several log units and tended to be high in samples contaminated with high total V. parahaemolyticus levels. The aqua farms had a lower prevalence but higher abundance of total V. parahaemolyticus compared to retail markets. The catering markets showed the lowest levels of total V. parahaemolyticus, but 20.0% of samples exceeded 1,000 MPN g(-1. The levels of both total and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in oysters were higher than in clams. The log-transformed abundance of V. parahaemolyticus was significantly correlated with both water temperature and air temperature but not water salinity. These results provide baseline contamination data of V. parahaemolyticus in shellfish in China, which can be applied to local risk assessments to prioritize risk control to key sectors and evaluate the effectiveness of future control measures.

  8. Cartilage link protein 1 (Crtl1), an extracellular matrix component playing an important role in heart development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirrig, Elaine E; Snarr, Brian S; Chintalapudi, Mastan R; O'neal, Jessica L; Phelps, Aimee L; Barth, Jeremy L; Fresco, Victor M; Kern, Christine B; Mjaatvedt, Corey H; Toole, Bryan P; Hoffman, Stanley; Trusk, Thomas C; Argraves, W Scott; Wessels, Andy

    2007-10-15

    To expand our insight into cardiac development, a comparative DNA microarray analysis was performed using tissues from the atrioventricular junction (AVJ) and ventricular chambers of mouse hearts at embryonic day (ED) 10.5-11.0. This comparison revealed differential expression of approximately 200 genes, including cartilage link protein 1 (Crtl1). Crtl1 stabilizes the interaction between hyaluronan (HA) and versican, two extracellular matrix components essential for cardiac development. Immunohistochemical studies showed that, initially, Crtl1, versican, and HA are co-expressed in the endocardial lining of the heart, and in the endocardially derived mesenchyme of the AVJ and outflow tract (OFT). At later stages, this co-expression becomes restricted to discrete populations of endocardially derived mesenchyme. Histological analysis of the Crtl1-deficient mouse revealed a spectrum of cardiac malformations, including AV septal and myocardial defects, while expression studies showed a significant reduction in versican levels. Subsequent analysis of the hdf mouse, which carries an insertional mutation in the versican gene (CSPG2), demonstrated that haploinsufficient versican mice display septal defects resembling those seen in Crtl1(-/-) embryos, suggesting that reduced versican expression may contribute to a subset of the cardiac abnormalities observed in the Crtl1(-/-) mouse. Combined, these findings establish an important role for Crtl1 in heart development.

  9. Enhancer of zeste homologue 2 plays an important role in neuroblastoma cell survival independent of its histone methyltransferase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate-Eya, Laurel T; Gierman, Hinco J; Ebus, Marli E; Koster, Jan; Caron, Huib N; Versteeg, Rogier; Dolman, M Emmy M; Molenaar, Jan J

    2017-04-01

    Neuroblastoma is predominantly characterised by chromosomal rearrangements. Next to V-Myc Avian Myelocytomatosis Viral Oncogene Neuroblastoma Derived Homolog (MYCN) amplification, chromosome 7 and 17q gains are frequently observed. We identified a neuroblastoma patient with a regional 7q36 gain, encompassing the enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2) gene. EZH2 is the histone methyltransferase of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) that forms the catalytic subunit of the polycomb repressive complex 2. H3K27me3 is commonly associated with the silencing of genes involved in cellular processes such as cell cycle regulation, cellular differentiation and cancer. High EZH2 expression correlated with poor prognosis and overall survival independent of MYCN amplification status. Unexpectedly, treatment of 3 EZH2-high expressing neuroblastoma cell lines (IMR32, CHP134 and NMB), with EZH2-specific inhibitors (GSK126 and EPZ6438) resulted in only a slight G1 arrest, despite maximum histone methyltransferase activity inhibition. Furthermore, colony formation in cell lines treated with the inhibitors was reduced only at concentrations much higher than necessary for complete inhibition of EZH2 histone methyltransferase activity. Knockdown of the complete protein with three independent shRNAs resulted in a strong apoptotic response and decreased cyclin D1 levels. This apoptotic response could be rescued by overexpressing EZH2ΔSET, a truncated form of wild-type EZH2 lacking the SET transactivation domain necessary for histone methyltransferase activity. Our findings suggest that high EZH2 expression, at least in neuroblastoma, has a survival function independent of its methyltransferase activity. This important finding highlights the need for studies on EZH2 beyond its methyltransferase function and the requirement for compounds that will target EZH2 as a complete protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cadmium stress assessment based on the electrocardiogram characteristics of zebra fish (Danio rerio): QRS complex could play an important role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Na; Ji, Lizhen; Song, Jie; Ma, Jingchun; Li, Shangge; Ren, Zongming; Xu, Fei; Zhu, Jianping

    2017-10-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) of zebra fish (Danio rerio) expresses cardiac features that are similar to humans. Here we use sharp microelectrode measurements to obtain ECG characteristics in adult zebra fish and analyze the effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) on the heart. We observe the overall changes of ECG parameters in different treatments (0.1 TU, 0.5 TU and 1.0 TU CdCl 2 ), including P wave, Q wave, R wave, S wave, T wave, PR interval (atrial contraction), QRS complex (ventricular depolarization), ST segment, and QT interval (ventricular repolarization). The trends of the ECG parameters showed some responses to the concentration and exposure time of CdCl 2 , but it was difficult to obtain more information about the useful indicators in water quality assessment depending on tendency analysis alone. A self-organizing map (SOM) showed that P values, R values, and T values were similar; R wave and T wave amplitude were similar; and most important, QRS value was similar to the CdCl 2 stress according to the classified data patterns including CdCl 2 stress (E) and ECG components based on the Ward linkage. It suggested that the duration of QRS complex was related to environmental stress E directly. The specification and evaluation of ECG parameters in Cd 2+ pollution suggested that there is a markedly significant correlation between QRS complex and CdCl 2 stress with the highest r (0.729) and the smallest p (0.002) among all ECG characteristics. In this case, it is concluded that QRS complex can be used as an indicator in the CdCl 2 stress assessment due to the lowest AIC data abased on the linear regression model between the CdCl 2 stress and ECG parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Unit cost of healthcare services at 200-bed public hospitals in Myanmar: what plays an important role of hospital budgeting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Thet Mon; Saw, Yu Mon; Khaing, Moe; Win, Ei Mon; Cho, Su Myat; Kariya, Tetsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Eiko; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2017-09-19

    Cost information is important for efficient allocation of healthcare expenditure, estimating future budget allocation, and setting user fees to start new financing systems. Myanmar is in political transition, and trying to achieve universal health coverage by 2030. This study assessed the unit cost of healthcare services at two public hospitals in the country from the provider perspective. The study also analyzed the cost structure of the hospitals to allocate and manage the budgets appropriately. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at 200-bed Magway Teaching Hospital (MTH) and Pyinmanar General Hospital (PMN GH), in Myanmar, for the financial year 2015-2016. The step-down costing method was applied to calculate unit cost per inpatient day and per outpatient visit. The costs were calculated by using Microsoft Excel 2010. The unit costs per inpatient day varied largely from unit to unit in both hospitals. At PMN GH, unit cost per inpatient day was 28,374 Kyats (27.60 USD) for pediatric unit and 1,961,806 Kyats (1908.37 USD) for ear, nose, and throat unit. At MTH, the unit costs per inpatient day were 19,704 Kyats (19.17 USD) for medicine unit and 168,835 Kyats (164.24 USD) for eye unit. The unit cost of outpatient visit was 14,882 Kyats (14.48 USD) at PMN GH, while 23,059 Kyats (22.43 USD) at MTH. Regarding cost structure, medicines and medical supplies was the largest component at MTH, and the equipment was the largest component at PMN GH. The surgery unit of MTH and the eye unit of PMN GH consumed most of the total cost of the hospitals. The unit costs were influenced by the utilization of hospital services by the patients, the efficiency of available resources, type of medical services provided, and medical practice of the physicians. The cost structures variation was also found between MTH and PMN GH. The findings provided the basic information regarding the healthcare cost of public hospitals which can apply the efficient utilization of the

  12. The importance of play in promoting healthy child development and maintaining strong parent-child bond: focus on children in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milteer, Regina M; Ginsburg, Kenneth R

    2012-01-01

    Play is essential to the social, emotional, cognitive, and physical well-being of children beginning in early childhood. It is a natural tool for children to develop resiliency as they learn to cooperate, overcome challenges, and negotiate with others. Play also allows children to be creative. It provides time for parents to be fully engaged with their children, to bond with their children, and to see the world from the perspective of their child. However, children who live in poverty often face socioeconomic obstacles that impede their rights to have playtime, thus affecting their healthy social-emotional development. For children who are underresourced to reach their highest potential, it is essential that parents, educators, and pediatricians recognize the importance of lifelong benefits that children gain from play.

  13. Aspects of vibrio parahaemolyticus(SAK) in fish preservation by irradiation 1. The presence of vibrio parahaemolyticus(SAK) in coastal areas of Sumatra and Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhadi, F.

    1984-01-01

    A study was carried out on the presence of vibrio parahaemolyticus in samples of sediment and seafoods originating from the eastern coast of Sumatra and the north coastal areas of Java. In a total of 2.434 samples of sediment and seafoods, 79 (3,3%) were found to contain vibrio parahaemolyticus. Among the 467 sediment samples, 1.650 fish, 133 shellfish, 123 shrimps, and 61 crab samples, 22 (4.7%), 41 (2.5%), 12 (9.0%), 2 (1,6%) and 2 (3.3%) were positive for vibrio parahaemolyticus, respectively. Based on the sampling areas, the high incidence of vibrio parahaemolyticus was found in samples collected from Riau (5.4%), while the samples from East Java was only about 0.4%. The contamination level of vibrio parahaemolyticus in samples collected from coastal areas of Sumatra and Java is relatively lower compared with the data obtained from some other coastal areas in the United States and Japan. (author)

  14. Identification and characterization of a type III secretion-associated chaperone in the type III secretion system 1 of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeda, Yukihiro; Okayama, Kanna; Kimura, Tomomi; Dryselius, Rikard; Kodama, Toshio; Oishi, Kazunori; Iida, Tetsuya; Honda, Takeshi

    2009-07-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus causes human gastroenteritis. Genomic sequencing of this organism has revealed that it has two sets of type III secretion systems, T3SS1 and T3SS2, both of which are important for its pathogenicity. However, the mechanism of protein secretion via T3SSs is unknown. A characteristic of many effectors is that they require specific chaperones for efficient delivery via T3SSs; however, no chaperone has been experimentally identified in the T3SSs of V. parahaemolyticus. In this study, we identified candidate T3SS1-associated chaperones from genomic sequence data and examined their roles in effector secretion/translocation and binding to their cognate substrates. From these experiments, we concluded that there is a T3S-associated chaperone, VecA, for a cytotoxic T3SS1-dependent effector, VepA. Further analysis using pulldown and secretion assays characterized the chaperone-binding domain encompassing the first 30-100 amino acids and an amino terminal secretion signal encompassing the first 5-20 amino acids on VepA. These findings will provide a strategy to clarify how the T3SS1 of V. parahaemolyticus secretes its specific effectors.

  15. Structured Parent-Child Observations Predict Development of Conduct Problems: the Importance of Parental Negative Attention in Child-Directed Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Andrew P; McMahon, Robert J; King, Kevin M

    2017-04-01

    Structured observations of parent-child interactions are commonly used in research and clinical settings, but require additional empirical support. The current study examined the capacity of child-directed play, parent-directed play, and parent-directed chore interaction analogs to uniquely predict the development of conduct problems across a 6-year follow-up period. Parent-child observations were collected from 338 families from high-risk neighborhoods during the summer following the child's first-grade year. Participating children were 49.2 % female, 54.4 % white, and 45.6 % black, and had an average age of 7.52 years at the first assessment. Conduct problems were assessed via parent report and teacher report at five assessment points between first grade and seventh grade. Latent growth curve modeling was used to analyze predictors of conduct problem trajectory across this 6-year follow-up period. When race, sex, socioeconomic status, and maternal depressive symptoms were controlled, parental negative attention during child-directed play predicted higher levels of parent-reported conduct problems concurrently and after a 6-year follow-up period. Parental negative attention during child-directed play also predicted higher teacher-reported conduct problems 6 years later. Findings support the use of child-directed play and parent-directed chore analogs in predicting longitudinal development of conduct problems. The presence of parental negative attention during child-directed play appears to be an especially important predictor of greater conduct problems over time and across multiple domains. Additionally, the potential importance of task-incongruent behavior is proposed for further study.

  16. Risk assessment of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood: interpretative summary and technical report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2011-01-01

    "Vibrio parahaemolyticus are common causes of diarrhoeal disease worldwide. These marine micro-organisms, native in estuarine waters globally, concentrate in the gut of filter-feeding molluscan shellfish, such as oysters, clams and mussels...

  17. Vibrio population structure - Genetic and population structure analysis of clinical and environmental Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) is a marine bacterium capable of causing severe gastroenteritis in humans, usually through the consumption of raw shellfish. Before...

  18. Variability of Total and Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus Densities in Northern Gulf of Mexico Water and Oysters▿

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, A. M.; DePaola, A.; Bowers, J. C.; Krantz, J. A.; Nordstrom, J. L.; Johnson, C. N.; Grimes, D. J.

    2007-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is indigenous to coastal environments and a frequent cause of seafood-borne gastroenteritis in the United States, primarily due to raw-oyster consumption. Previous seasonal-cycle studies of V. parahaemolyticus have identified water temperature as the strongest environmental predictor. Salinity has also been identified, although it is evident that its effect on annual variation is not as pronounced. The effects of other environmental factors, both with respect to the se...

  19. HEAT TREATMENT FOR THE PRECOOCKED SHRIMPS PRODUCTION: VIBRIO PARAHAEMOLYTICUS RISK ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Serracca

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common microflora of marine and estuarine waters known to be associated with gastroenteritis due to consumption of raw seafood, cooked food contaminated through direct contact (cross contamination or improperly cooked. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two different heat processes in reducing microbial load of V. parahaemolyticus. Data show a 4 Log10/g reduction of bacterial load after 3,30 and 15 minutes at 95 °C.

  20. Development of a rapid immunochromatographic assay to detect contamination of raw oysters with enteropathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Junko; Yonekita, Taro; Kawatsu, Kentaro

    2018-01-02

    Thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH) are major virulence factors of enteropathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus. TDH and TRH are bacterial exotoxins, and their presence in culture medium serves as a specific marker for detecting this significant pathogen. Here, we developed and evaluated an immunochromatographic assay (TDH/TRH-ICA) to simultaneously or individually detect TDH and TRH. The TDH/TRH-ICA detected TDH in all broth cultures of 47 V. parahaemolyticus strains carrying tdh. The genes encoding TRH are classified as variants trh1 and trh2, and TRH was detected in all broth cultures of 25 V. parahaemolyticus strains carrying trh1 and certain proportion (5/31) of broth cultures of V. parahaemolyticus strains carrying trh2. In contrast, TDH and TRH were not detected in broth cultures of 12 non-enteropathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains without tdh and trh. It was difficult to detect TRH2 using the TDH/TRH-ICA. However, TRH2 may not serve as a suitable marker for detecting enteropathogenic V. parahaemolyticus, and evidence indicates that TRH2 may not contribute to enteropathogenesis. Further, a screening method using a combination of TDH/TRH-ICA and SPP medium supplemented with 1.5% NaCl (modified-SPP medium) detected oyster samples artificially spiked with 1.1-22 colony-forming units of enteropathogenic V. parahaemolyticus per 25g of oysters within approximately 8.5h, including the enrichment culture. The assay may serve as a method that facilitates the rapid and easy detection of raw oysters contaminated with enteropathogenic V. parahaemolyticus. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Incidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in U.S. coastal waters and oysters.

    OpenAIRE

    DePaola, A; Hopkins, L H; Peeler, J T; Wentz, B; McPhearson, R M

    1990-01-01

    Oyster and seawater samples were collected seasonally from May 1984 through April 1985 from shellfish-growing areas in Washington, California, Texas, Louisiana, Alabama, Florida, South Carolina, Virginia, and Rhode Island which had been designated as approved or prohibited by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. Fecal coliforms counts, aerobic plate counts, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus densities were determined for the samples. Mean V. parahaemolyticus density was more than 100 times gre...

  2. Prevalence and quantification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in raw salad vegetables at retail level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunung, Robin; Margaret, Selina; Jeyaletchumi, Ponniah; Chai, Lay C; Tuan Zainazor, Tuan C; Ghazali, Farinazleen M; Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Son, Radu

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the biosafety of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in raw salad vegetables at wet market and supermarket in Malaysia. A combination of Most Probable Number - Polymerase Chain Reaction (MPN-PCR) method was applied to detect the presence of V. parahaemolyticus and to enumerate their density in the food samples. The study analyzed 276 samples of common vegetables eaten raw in Malaysia (Wild cosmos = 8; Japanese parsley = 21; Cabbage = 30; Lettuce = 16; Indian pennywort = 17; Carrot = 31; Sweet potato = 29; Tomato = 38; Cucumber = 28; Four winged bean = 26; Long bean = 32). The samples were purchased from two supermarkets (A and B) and two wet markets (C and D). The occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus detected was 20.65%, with higher frequency of V. parahaemolyticus in vegetables obtained from wet markets (Wet market C = 27.27%Wet Market D = 32.05%) compared to supermarkets (Supermarket A = 1.64%; Supermarket B = 16.67%). V. parahaemolyticus was most prevalent in Indian pennywort (41.18%). The density of V. parahaemolyticus in all the samples ranged from 2400 MPN/g, mostly Malaysia.

  3. Biochemical fingerprinting of Vibrio parahaemolyticus by the PhenePlate system: comparison between pandemic and non-pandemic serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mokhlasur; Bhuiyan, N A; Kuhn, I; Ramamurthy, T; Rahman, M; Mollby, R; Nair, G Balakrish

    2006-10-01

    During recent years a pandemic clone of Vibrio parahaemolyticus has emerged. Isolates of this clone are distributed among several serotypes, but are genotypically related. In the present study, a phenotyping method (biochemical fingerprinting) was used to characterize pandemic and non-pandemic isolates belonging to V. parahaemolyticus. It was found that the pandemic isolates showed a high level of phenotypic homogeneity and a majority of the pandemic isolates belonged to the same biochemical phenotype, whereas non-pandemic V. parahemolyticus isolates were more heterogeneous. In conclusion, biochemical fingerprinting of V. parahaemolyticus can be used as a first screening method to differentiate between pandemic and non-pandemic isolates of V. parahaemolyticus.

  4. First detection of AmpC β-lactamase bla(CMY-2) on a conjugative IncA/C plasmid in a Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolate of food origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruichao; Lin, Dachuan; Chen, Kaichao; Wong, Marcus Ho Yin; Chen, Sheng

    2015-07-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important causative agent of gastroenteritis, with the consumption of contaminated seafood being the major transmission route. Resistance to penicillin is common among V. parahaemolyticus strains, whereas cephalosporin resistance remains rare. In an attempt to assess the current prevalence and characteristics of antibiotic resistance of this pathogen in common food samples, a total of 54 (17% of the total samples) V. parahaemolyticus strains were isolated from 318 meat and seafood samples purchased from supermarkets and wet markets in Shenzhen, China, in 2013. These isolates exhibited high-level resistance to ampicillin, yet they were mostly susceptible to other antimicrobials, except for two that were resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. The β-lactamase gene blaPER-1 was detectable in one strain, V. parahaemolyticus V43, which was resistant to both third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. Compared to other blaPER-1-positive V. parahaemolyticus strains reported in our previous studies, strain V43 was found to harbor an ∼200-kb conjugative plasmid carrying genes that were different from the antimicrobial resistance genes reported from the previous studies. The β-lactamase gene blaCMY-2 was detectable for the first time in another V. parahaemolyticus isolate, V4, which was resistant to third-generation cephalosporins. This blaCMY-2 gene was shown to be located in an ∼150-kb IncA/C-type conjugative plasmid with a genetic structure consisting of traB-traV-traA-ISEcp1-blaCMY-2-blc-sugE-encR-orf1-orf2-orf3-orf4-dsbC-traC, which is identical to that of other IncA/C conjugative plasmids in Enterobacteriaceae, albeit with a different size. These findings indicate that the transmission of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC β-lactamase genes via conjugative plasmids can mediate the development of extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance in V. parahaemolyticus, thereby posing a potential threat to public health

  5. Multiple enzymatic profiles of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated from oysters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Albuquerque Costa

    Full Text Available The enzymatic characterization of vibrios has been used as a virulence indicator of sanitary interest. The objective of this study was to determine the enzymatic profile of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains (n = 70 isolated from Crassostrea rhizophorae oysters. The strains were examined for the presence of gelatinase (GEL, caseinase (CAS, elastase (ELAS, phospholipase (PHOS, lipase (LIP, amilase (AML and DNase. All enzymes, except elastase, were detected in more than 60% of the strains. The most recurrent enzymatic profiles were AML + DNase + PHOS + GEL + LIP (n = 16; 22.9% and AML + CAS + DNase + PHOS + GEL + LIP (n = 21; 30%. Considering the fact that exoenzyme production by vibrios is closely related to virulence, one must be aware of the bacteriological risk posed to human health by the consumption of raw or undercooked oysters.

  6. Modeling Transfer of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus During Peeling of Raw Shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xingning; Pang, Haiying; Wang, Wen; Fang, Weihuan; Fu, Yingchun; Li, Yanbin

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to qualify the transfer of Vibrio parahaemolyticus during the shrimp peeling process via gloves under 3 different scenarios. The 1st 2 scenarios provided quantitative information for the probability distribution of bacterial transfer rates from (i) contaminated shrimp (6 log CFU/g) to non-contaminated gloves (Scenario 1) and (ii) contaminated gloves (6 log CFU/per pair) to non-contaminated shrimp (Scenario 2). In Scenario 3, bacterial transfer from contaminated shrimp to non-contaminated shrimp in the shrimp peeling process via gloves was investigated to develop a predictive model for describing the successive bacterial transfer. The range of bacterial transfer rate (%) in Scenarios 1 and 2 was 7% to 91.95% and 0.04% to 12.87%, respectively, indicating that the bacteria can be transferred from shrimp to gloves much easier than that from gloves to shrimp. A Logistic (1.59, 0.14) and Triangle distribution (-1.61, 0.12, 1.32) could be used to describe the bacterial transfer rate in Scenarios 1 and 2, respectively. In Scenario 3, a continuously decay patterning with fluctuations as the peeling progressed has been observed at all inoculation levels of the 1st shrimp (5, 6, and 7 log CFU/g). The bacteria could be transferred easier at 1st few peels, and the decreasing bacterial transfer was found in later phase. Two models (exponential and Weibull) could describe the successive bacterial transfer satisfactorily (pseudo-R 2 > 0.84, RMSE peeling process. The bacterial transfer rate distribution and predictive model derived from this work could be used in risk assessment of V. parahaemolyticus to ensure peeled shrimp safety. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains of Pandemic Serotypes Identified from Clinical and Environmental Samples from Jiangsu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjiao eLi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus has emerged as a major foodborne pathogen in China, Japan, Thailand and other Asian countries. In this study, 72 strains of V. parahaemolyticus were isolated from clinical and environmental samples between 2006 and 2014 in Jiangsu, China. The serotypes and six virulence genes including thermostable direct hemolysin (TDR and TDR-related hemolysin (TRH genes were assessed among the isolates. Twenty five serotypes were identified and O3:K6 was one of the dominant serotypes. The genetic diversity was assessed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST analysis, and 48 sequence types (STs were found, suggesting this V. parahaemolyticus group is widely dispersed and undergoing rapid evolution. A total of 25 strains of pandemic serotypes such as O3:K6, O5:K17 and O1:KUT were identified. It is worth noting that the pandemic serotypes were not exclusively identified from clinical samples, rather, nine strains were also isolated from environmental samples; and some of these strains harbored several virulence genes, which may render those strains pathogenicity potential. Therefore, the emergence of these environmental pandemic V. parahaemolyticus strains may poses a new threat to the public health in China. Furthermore, six novel serotypes and 34 novel STs were identified among the 72 isolates, indicating that V. parahaemolyticus were widely distributed and fast evolving in the environment in Jiangsu, China. The findings of this study provide new insight into the phylogenic relationship between V. parahaemolyticus strains of pandemic serotypes from clinical and environmental sources and enhance the MLST database; and our proposed possible O- and K- antigen evolving paths of V. parahaemolyticus may help understand how the serotypes of this dispersed bacterial population evolve.

  8. Prevalence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oyster and clam culturing environments in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei-Ting; Jong, Koa-Jen; Lin, Yu-Ren; Tsai, Shing-en; Tey, Yao Hsien; Wong, Hin-chung

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the most prevalent gastroenteritis pathogen in Taiwan and some other Asian countries, and it frequently occurs in oysters and other seafood. This study monitors changes in the density of V. parahaemolyticus and environmental parameters in oyster and hard clam aquacultural environments in Taiwan. Water, sediment and shellfish samples were collected from five sampling sites in 2008-2010, and analyzed for environmental physiochemical parameters, numbers of indicator bacteria (total aerobic counts, total coliforms and fecal coliforms), Vibrio and V. parahaemolyticus present. The results for open oyster farms and hard clam ponds did not differ significantly. V. parahaemolyticus was detected in 77.5, 77.5, 70.8 and 68.8% of the water, sediment, oyster and clam samples, respectively. The densities of V. parahaemolyticus were significantly higher in shellfish than in sediment or water samples, with mean values of 1.33, 1.04 and -0.02 Log CFU/g, respectively. Among these five sampling sites, Shengang and Fangyuan yielded significantly different data from those obtained at the other three sites. As determined by linear multiple regression, V. parahaemolyticus density in water samples depended significantly on the precipitation and Vibrio count, while the V. parahaemolyticus density in the sediment or shellfish samples depended significantly on the salinity of the seawater. Among 1076 isolates examined, a total of three putative pathogenic isolates were identified from 2.5% of the examined samples, and these isolates exhibited hemolytic or urease activities and the presence of gene markers for tdh, trh, type III secretion system (T3SS) 1 (vcrD1) or T3SS2α (vcrD2). The results herein may facilitate the assessment of risk associated with this pathogen in Taiwan and other geographically similar regions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Remote sensing measurements of sea surface temperature as an indicator of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oyster meat and human illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Stephanie; Paduraru, Peggy; Romero-Barrios, Pablo; Henderson, Sarah B; Galanis, Eleni

    2017-08-31

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) is a naturally occurring bacterium found in marine environments worldwide. It can cause gastrointestinal illness in humans, primarily through raw oyster consumption. Water temperatures, and potentially other environmental factors, play an important role in the growth and proliferation of Vp in the environment. Quantifying the relationships between environmental variables and indicators or incidence of Vp illness is valuable for public health surveillance to inform and enable suitable preventative measures. This study aimed to assess the relationship between environmental parameters and Vp in British Columbia (BC), Canada. The study used Vp counts in oyster meat from 2002-2015 and laboratory confirmed Vp illnesses from 2011-2015 for the province of BC. The data were matched to environmental parameters from publicly available sources, including remote sensing measurements of nighttime sea surface temperature (SST) obtained from satellite readings at a spatial resolution of 1 km. Using three separate models, this paper assessed the relationship between (1) daily SST and Vp counts in oyster meat, (2) weekly mean Vp counts in oysters and weekly Vp illnesses, and (3) weekly mean SST and weekly Vp illnesses. The effects of salinity and chlorophyll a were also evaluated. Linear regression was used to quantify the relationship between SST and Vp, and piecewise regression was used to identify SST thresholds of concern. A total of 2327 oyster samples and 293 laboratory confirmed illnesses were included. In model 1, both SST and salinity were significant predictors of log(Vp) counts in oyster meat. In model 2, the mean log(Vp) count in oyster meat was a significant predictor of Vp illnesses. In model 3, weekly mean SST was a significant predictor of weekly Vp illnesses. The piecewise regression models identified a SST threshold of approximately 14 o C for both model 1 and 3, indicating increased risk of Vp in oyster meat and Vp illnesses at higher

  10. Prevalence and molecular typing of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from seafood in Shanghai using multilocus sequence typing (MLST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a gram-negative bacterium that inhabits coastal and marine environments. Thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh), tdh-related hemolysin (trh) and the type III secretion system are considered the potential virulent factors of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus. The frequency of str...

  11. Effects of Intertidal Harvest Practices on Levels of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus Bacteria in Oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J L; Kinsey, T P; Johnson, L W; Porso, R; Friedman, B; Curtis, M; Wesighan, P; Schuster, R; Bowers, J C

    2016-08-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus can grow rapidly in shellfish subjected to ambient air conditions, such as during intertidal exposure. In this study, levels of total and pathogenic (tdh(+) and/or trh(+)) V. parahaemolyticus and total V. vulnificus were determined in oysters collected from two study locations where intertidal harvest practices are common. Samples were collected directly off intertidal flats, after exposure (ambient air [Washington State] or refrigerated [New Jersey]), and after reimmersion by natural tidal cycles. Samples were processed using a most-probable-number (MPN) real-time PCR method for total and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus In Washington State, the mean levels of V. parahaemolyticus increased 1.38 log MPN/g following intertidal exposure and dropped 1.41 log MPN/g after reimmersion for 1 day, but the levels were dependent upon the container type utilized. Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus levels followed a similar trend. However, V. vulnificus levels increased 0.10 log MPN/g during intertidal exposure in Washington but decreased by >1 log MPN/g after reimmersion. In New Jersey, initial levels of all vibrios studied were not significantly altered during the refrigerated sorting and containerizing process. However, there was an increase in levels after the first day of reimmersion by 0.79, 0.72, 0.92, and 0.71 log MPN/g for total, tdh(+) and trh(+) V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus, respectively. The levels of all targets decreased to those similar to background after a second day of reimmersion. These data indicate that the intertidal harvest and handling practices for oysters that were studied in Washington and New Jersey do not increase the risk of illness from V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus are the leading causes of seafood-associated infectious morbidity and mortality in the United States. Vibrio spp. can grow rapidly in shellfish subjected to ambient

  12. Prevalence of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the Maryland Coastal Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascuale, V. O.

    2016-02-01

    The bacterial family of Vibrionaceae is indigenous in the marine estuarine environments such as the Maryland Coastal Bays. Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus are both pathogenic bacteria. Understanding the distribution of Vibrio species is crucial because of the health concerns associated with the bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall abundance of bacteria with a focus on Vibrio species in the Maryland Coastal Bays. Seawater samples were collected from 10 different sites that differ with regard to water quality. The total bacteria count (TBC) was determined by two methods: Total plate count and Epifluorescence microscopy. The most-probable-number (MPN) methodology was used to estimate the population of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus. In addition to the bacteriological analysis, the environmental parameters of temperature and salinity were measured using YSI 6600 multiparameter meter. The average total bacteria count was 2.21 log CFU ml-1. Vibrio vulnificus comprised 5% of the total bacteria count while Vibrio parahaemolyticus comprised only 2% of the total bacteria count. Vibrio vulnificus ranged from 0.30 to 2.48 log MPN ml-1 at the sites tested. Lower Vibrio parahaemolyticus count was observed at the sites with a range of 0.30 to 1.97 log MPN ml-1. There was no significant correlation between the environmental parameters and the Vibrio spp. Since both Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus peak in the summer, there is a potential for a risk of wound infections and gastrointestinal illness based on this data.

  13. Characterization of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus isolated from oysters and mussels in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Virginia Ribeiro Rojas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine bacterium, responsible for gastroenteritis in humans. Most of the clinical isolates produce thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH encoded by tdh and trh genes respectively. In this study, twenty-three V. parahaemolyticus, previously isolated from oysters and mussels were analyzed by PCR using specific primers for the 16S rRNA and virulence genes (tdh, trh and tlh and for resistance to different classes of antibiotics and PFGE. Nineteen isolates were confirmed by PCR as V. parahaemolyticus. The tlh gene was present in 100% of isolates, the tdh gene was identified in two (10.5% isolates, whereas the gene trh was not detected. Each isolate was resistant to at least one of the nine antimicrobials tested. Additionally, all isolates possessed the blaTEM-116 gene. The presence of this gene in V. parahaemolyticus indicates the possibility of spreading this gene in the environment. Atypical strains of V. parahaemolyticus were also detected in this study.

  14. Prevalence and distribution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in finfish from Cochin (south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammanamveetil A.M. Hatha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Finfish samples obtained from four retail outlets in Cochin between June 2009 and June 2010 were investigated for the occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A total of 182 samples were collected and suspect isolates were identified using standard biochemical tests and were further confirmed by a species-specific tlh gene. V. parahaemolyticus was detected in 45.1% of samples, with demersal fish being more affected than pelagic species. The bacterium was isolated more frequently from the skin and gills of pelagic fish, while the intestine yielded greater numbers of V. parahaemolyticus in demersal fish. The highest incidence of antibiotic resistance was recorded against ampicillin and streptomycin, followed by carbenicillin, cefpodoxime, cephalothin, colistin and amoxycillin; the lowest was against nalidixic acid, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin. Multiple drug resistance was prevalent among isolates. Although only a fraction of strains are pathogenic for humans, the time-temperature abuse in markets provides ample scope for these strains to multiply to dangerous levels. The multidrug resistant nature of the strains adds to the gravity of the problem. High V. parahaemolyticus incidence rates in market finfish samples from areas in and around Cochin clearly indicates that control measures should be adopted to reduce post-harvest contamination in seafood and time-temperature abuse in markets to diminish the risk of V. parahaemolyticus infection associated with seafood destined for human consumption.

  15. Development of a toxR-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detecting Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Beilei

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of seafood-related bacterial gastroenteritis and outbreaks worldwide. Sensitive and specific detection methods are needed to better control V. parahaemolyticus infections. This study aimed at developing a highly specific and sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay for detecting V. parahaemolyticus in oysters. A set of five LAMP primers, two outer, two inner, and one loop were designed based on the published V. parahaemolyticus toxR sequence. Specificity of the assay was evaluated using a panel of 36 V. parahaemolyticus and 39 other strains. The assay sensitivity was determined using serial dilutions of V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 27969 culture ranging from 108 CFU/ml to extinction. The assay was also tested in experimentally inoculated oyster samples. Results The toxR-based LAMP assay was able to specifically detect all of the 36 V. parahaemolyticus strains without amplification from 39 other strains. The detection limit was 47-470 cells per reaction in pure culture, up to 100-fold more sensitive than that of toxR-PCR. When applied in spiked oysters, the assay was able to detect 1.1 × 105 V. parahaemolyticus cells per gram of oyster without enrichment, up to 100-fold more sensitive than that of toxR-PCR. Standard curves generated for detecting V. parahaemolyticus in both pure culture and spiked oyster samples showed good linear relationship between cell numbers and the fluorescence or turbidity signals. Conclusions The toxR-based LAMP assay developed in this study was sensitive, specific, and quantitative, holding great potential for future field detection of V. parahaemolyticus in raw oysters.

  16. A nuclear-encoded chloroplast protein harboring a single CRM domain plays an important role in the Arabidopsis growth and stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwanuk; Lee, Hwa Jung; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jeon, Young; Pai, Hyun-Sook; Kang, Hunseung

    2014-04-16

    Although several chloroplast RNA splicing and ribosome maturation (CRM) domain-containing proteins have been characterized for intron splicing and rRNA processing during chloroplast gene expression, the functional role of a majority of CRM domain proteins in plant growth and development as well as chloroplast RNA metabolism remains largely unknown. Here, we characterized the developmental and stress response roles of a nuclear-encoded chloroplast protein harboring a single CRM domain (At4g39040), designated CFM4, in Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of CFM4-GFP fusion proteins revealed that CFM4 is localized to chloroplasts. The loss-of-function T-DNA insertion mutants for CFM4 (cfm4) displayed retarded growth and delayed senescence, suggesting that CFM4 plays a role in growth and development of plants under normal growth conditions. In addition, cfm4 mutants showed retarded seed germination and seedling growth under stress conditions. No alteration in the splicing patterns of intron-containing chloroplast genes was observed in the mutant plants, but the processing of 16S and 4.5S rRNAs was abnormal in the mutant plants. Importantly, CFM4 was determined to possess RNA chaperone activity. These results suggest that the chloroplast-targeted CFM4, one of two Arabidopsis genes encoding a single CRM domain-containing protein, harbors RNA chaperone activity and plays a role in the Arabidopsis growth and stress response by affecting rRNA processing in chloroplasts.

  17. The Importance of Play in Early Childhood Education: A Critical Perspective on Current Policies and Practices in Germany and Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Faas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to reflect international reform movements in a system- and culture-comparative perspective, the following article investigates the early childhood education systems in Germany and in Hong Kong, with reference to the respective social and educational roots, pedagogical development lines, and basic educational approaches. In addition, current developments, policies, and practices are described. The basic structural requirements of the respective systems will be presented, and the different reviews and implementation of international developments in Germany and Hong Kong will be explained. Special emphasis is placed on the importance of play in early childhood education. In this context, a current qualitative study of the authors is presented, which examines different perspectives on learning at play. The results of this exploratory study show that the interpretations and discussions of international reform approaches in different cultural settings are sometimes very different. The statements of the German and Chinese participants indicate that international developments are assessed primarily in the context of national educational traditions and structures. Against this backdrop, it is assumed that international reform movements—despite some assimilations—will have different effects in national education systems.

  18. Suspension of oysters reduces the populations of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, K M; Supan, J; Ramirez, A; Johnson, C N

    2015-09-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) and Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) are associated with the consumption of raw oysters and cause illnesses ranging from simple gastroenteritis to life-threatening septicaemia. These halophilic bacteria are frequently found in marine and estuarine systems, accumulating within the tissues of a number of aquatic organisms and passing on to humans after consumption, through contaminated water, or via open wounds. As benthic organisms capable of filtering 40 gallons of water per hour, sediment is an important source of potentially pathogenic vibrios in oysters destined for raw consumption. This research used off-bottom oyster culture to reduce vibrio concentrations in oysters. Colony hybridization was used to enumerate Vp and Vv in bottom and suspended oysters. Vv and Vp concentrations were generally lower in oysters suspended off-bottom, and suspension decreased vibrio loads in oysters by an average of 13%. Suspension of oysters reduced vibrio concentrations. This study found that oyster suspension significantly reduced some populations of potentially pathogenic vibrios. These results indicate that oyster suspension could be a viable approach for preharvest treatment to reduce illness in consumers of raw oysters. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    ? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty...

  20. Incidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in U.S. coastal waters and oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaola, A; Hopkins, L H; Peeler, J T; Wentz, B; McPhearson, R M

    1990-08-01

    Oyster and seawater samples were collected seasonally from May 1984 through April 1985 from shellfish-growing areas in Washington, California, Texas, Louisiana, Alabama, Florida, South Carolina, Virginia, and Rhode Island which had been designated as approved or prohibited by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. Fecal coliforms counts, aerobic plate counts, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus densities were determined for the samples. Mean V. parahaemolyticus density was more than 100 times greater in oysters than in water, whereas density of fecal coliforms was approximately 10 times higher in oysters. Seasonal and geographical distributions of V. parahaemolyticus were related to water temperature, with highest densities in samples collected in the spring and the summer along the Gulf coast. The synthetic DNA probe for thermostable direct hemolysin hybridized with 2 of 50 isolates, 1 of which was positive by the Kanagawa test.

  1. A pan-European ring trial to validate an International Standard for detection of Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in seafoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnell, R E; Stockley, L; Keay, W; Rosec, J-P; Hervio-Heath, D; Van den Berg, H; Leoni, F; Ottaviani, D; Henigman, U; Denayer, S; Serbruyns, B; Georgsson, F; Krumova-Valcheva, G; Gyurova, E; Blanco, C; Copin, S; Strauch, E; Wieczorek, K; Lopatek, M; Britova, A; Hardouin, G; Lombard, B; In't Veld, P; Leclercq, A; Baker-Austin, C

    2018-02-10

    Globally, vibrios represent an important and well-established group of bacterial foodborne pathogens. The European Commission (EC) mandated the Comite de European Normalisation (CEN) to undertake work to provide validation data for 15 methods in microbiology to support EC legislation. As part of this mandated work programme, merging of ISO/TS 21872-1:2007, which specifies a horizontal method for the detection of V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae, and ISO/TS 21872-2:2007, a similar horizontal method for the detection of potentially pathogenic vibrios other than V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus was proposed. Both parts of ISO/TS 21872 utilized classical culture-based isolation techniques coupled with biochemical confirmation steps. The work also considered simplification of the biochemical confirmation steps. In addition, because of advances in molecular based methods for identification of human pathogenic Vibrio spp. classical and real-time PCR options were also included within the scope of the validation. These considerations formed the basis of a multi-laboratory validation study with the aim of improving the precision of this ISO technical specification and providing a single ISO standard method to enable detection of these important foodborne Vibrio spp.. To achieve this aim, an international validation study involving 13 laboratories from 9 countries in Europe was conducted in 2013. The results of this validation have enabled integration of the two existing technical specifications targeting the detection of the major foodborne Vibrio spp., simplification of the suite of recommended biochemical identification tests and the introduction of molecular procedures that provide both species level identification and discrimination of putatively pathogenic strains of V. parahaemolyticus by the determination of the presence of theromostable direct and direct related haemolysins. The method performance characteristics generated in this have been included in revised

  2. Temperature Effect Study on Growth and Survival of Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Jinjiang Oyster (Crassostrea rivularis with Rapid Count Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus in oysters during postharvest storage increases the possibility of its infection in humans. In this work, to investigate the growth or survival profiles in different media, pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in APW, Jinjiang oyster (JO, Crassostrea rivularis slurry, and live JO were studied under different temperatures. All the strain populations were counted through our double-layer agar plate (DLAP method. In APW, the pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus showed continuous growth under 15, 25, and 35°C, while a decline in behavior was displayed under 5°C. The similar survival trend of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in JO slurry and live JO was observed under 5, 25, and 35°C, except the delayed growth or decline profile compared to APW. Under 15°C, they displayed decline and growth profile in JO slurry and live JO, respectively. These results indicate the different sensitivity of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in these matrices to temperature variation. Furthermore, nonpathogenic V. parahaemolyticus displayed little difference in survival profiles when inoculated in live JO under corresponding temperatures. The results indicate that inhibition or promotion effect could be regulated under different storage temperature for both pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. Besides, the DLAP method showed the obvious quickness and efficiency during the bacteria count.

  3. The spread of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in tissues of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei analyzed by PCR and histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimmakthong, Umaporn; Sukkarun, Pimwarang

    2017-12-01

    V. parahaemolyticus are bacteria that cause the Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND), or Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS), in shrimp. To further understand the pathogenesis mechanisms of V. parahaemolyticus infection in shrimp, the spreading of this bacterium in various tissues was investigated. The spread of infection in shrimp that were exposed to seawater bacteria was studied by PCR and histopathology at 1 min, 1, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after exposure. The PCR results showed that V. parahaemolyticus was at its most widespread at 6 h after exposure, at which point V. parahaemolyticus was found in the gills, hepatopancreas, intestine, muscles, and hemolymph. However, examinations after 6 h of infection found only small amounts of V. parahaemolyticus in hepatopancreas and intestines. Histopathology of the hepatopancreas showed abnormalities on gross examination at 1 min-72 h after exposure. This study indicates that V. parahaemolyticus can spread quickly by using the hepatopancreas as the target tissue. After 6 h of infection, V. parahaemolyticus was eliminated by immune system while their toxins still caused damage to shrimp tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The comER Gene Plays an Important Role in Biofilm Formation and Sporulation in both Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Yu, Yiyang; Wang, Luyao; Luo, Yuming; Guo, Jian-Hua; Chai, Yunrong

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria adopt alternative cell fates during development. In Bacillus subtilis, the transition from planktonic growth to biofilm formation and sporulation is controlled by a complex regulatory circuit, in which the most important event is activation of Spo0A, a transcription factor and a master regulator for genes involved in both biofilm formation and sporulation. In B. cereus, the regulatory pathway controlling biofilm formation and cell differentiation is much less clear. In this study, we show that a novel gene, comER, plays a significant role in biofilm formation as well as sporulation in both B. subtilis and B. cereus. Mutations in the comER gene result in defects in biofilm formation and a delay in spore formation in the two Bacillus species. Our evidence supports the idea that comER may be part of the regulatory circuit that controls Spo0A activation. comER likely acts upstream of sda, a gene encoding a small checkpoint protein for both sporulation and biofilm formation, by blocking the phosphor-relay and thereby Spo0A activation. In summary, our studies outlined a conserved, positive role for comER, a gene whose function was previously uncharacterized, in the regulation of biofilm formation and sporulation in the two Bacillus species.

  5. TmCactin plays an important role in Gram-negative and -positive bacterial infection by regulating expression of 7 AMP genes in Tenebrio molitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yong Hun; Jung Kim, Yu; Beom Park, Ki; Hwan Seong, Jeong; Gon Kim, Soo; Park, Soyi; Young Noh, Mi; Seok Lee, Yong; Soo Han, Yeon

    2017-01-01

    Cactin was originally identified as an interactor of the Drosophila IκB factor Cactus and shown to play a role in controlling embryonic polarity and regulating the NF-κB signaling pathway. While subsequent studies have identified the roles for Cactin in the mammalian immune response, the immune function of Cactin in insects has not been described yet. Here, we identified a Cactin gene from the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (TmCactin) and characterized its functional role in innate immunity. TmCactin was highly expressed in prepupa to last instar stages, and its expression was high in the integument and Malpighian tubules of last instar larvae and adults. TmCactin was induced in larvae after infection with different pathogens and detectable within 3 hours of infection. The highest levels of TmCactin expression were detected at 9 hours post infection. TmCactin RNAi significantly decreased the survival rates of larvae after challenge with Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, but had no significant effect after challenge with Candida albicans. Furthermore, TmCactin RNAi significantly reduced the expression of seven antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs) after bacterial challenge. Our results suggest that TmCactin may serve as an important regulator of innate immunity, mediating AMP responses against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in T. molitor. PMID:28418029

  6. Tyrosine411 and Arginine410 of Human Serum Albumin Play an Important Role in the Binding of Sodium 4-Phenylbutyrate to Site II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enokida, Taisuke; Yamasaki, Keishi; Okamoto, Yuko; Taguchi, Kazuaki; Ishiguro, Takako; Maruyama, Toru; Seo, Hakaru; Otagiri, Masaki

    2016-06-01

    Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PB) has many pharmacological activities; therefore extending its clinical use to the treatment of a wider variety of diseases would be desirable. However, our knowledge of the binding of PB to plasma proteins is not extensive. To address this issue in more detail, we characterized the protein binding of PB. Binding experiments showed that PB mainly binds to human serum albumin (HSA) in plasma. PB was also found to bind to a single site on HSA, which was identified as site II by fluorescent probe displacement experiment. Furthermore, an appropriate alkyl chain length and a carboxylic group in the PB structure were required for PB binding to HSA, suggesting that hydrophobic (and van der Waals) and electrostatic interactions are involved as binding modes. The contributions of hydrogen bonding and/or van der Waals interactions were also indicated by thermodynamic analyses. Tyrosine411 and arginine410 were identified as being involved in the binding of PB to site II, based on binding experiments using chemically modified- and mutant-HSA preparations. In conclusion, the available evidence indicates that PB binds to site II of HSA with assistance by multiple forces and that tyrosine411 and arginine410 both play important roles in this phenomenon. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The long-term effect of zinc soil contamination on selected free amino acids playing an important role in plant adaptation to stress and senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlíková, Daniela; Zemanová, Veronika; Procházková, Dagmar; Pavlík, Milan; Száková, Jiřina; Wilhelmová, Naďa

    2014-02-01

    Increased endogenous plant cytokinin (CK) content through transformation with an isopentyl transferase (ipt) gene has been associated with improved plant stress tolerance. The objective of this study is to determine amino acid changes associated with elevated CK production in ipt transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L., cv. Wisconsin 38). Nontransformed (WT) and transformed tobacco plants with ipt gene controlled by senescence-activated promoter (SAG) were exposed to zinc soil contamination (tested levels Zn1=250, Zn2=500, Zn3=750 mg kg(-1) soil). The Zn effect on plant stress metabolism resulted in changes in levels of selected free amino acids playing an important role in adaptation to stress and plant senescence (alanine, leucine, proline, methionine and γ-aminobutyrate) and differed for transformed and nontransformed tobacco plants. Analyses of amino acids confirmed that SAG tobacco plants had improved zinc tolerance compared with the WT plants. The enhanced Zn tolerance of SAG plants was associated with the maintenance of accumulation of proline, methionine and γ-aminobutyrate. The concentrations of leucine and alanine did not show significant differences between plant lines. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. The comER Gene Plays an Important Role in Biofilm Formation and Sporulation in both Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Yu, Yiyang; Wang, Luyao; Luo, Yuming; Guo, Jian-hua; Chai, Yunrong

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria adopt alternative cell fates during development. In Bacillus subtilis, the transition from planktonic growth to biofilm formation and sporulation is controlled by a complex regulatory circuit, in which the most important event is activation of Spo0A, a transcription factor and a master regulator for genes involved in both biofilm formation and sporulation. In B. cereus, the regulatory pathway controlling biofilm formation and cell differentiation is much less clear. In this study, we show that a novel gene, comER, plays a significant role in biofilm formation as well as sporulation in both B. subtilis and B. cereus. Mutations in the comER gene result in defects in biofilm formation and a delay in spore formation in the two Bacillus species. Our evidence supports the idea that comER may be part of the regulatory circuit that controls Spo0A activation. comER likely acts upstream of sda, a gene encoding a small checkpoint protein for both sporulation and biofilm formation, by blocking the phosphor-relay and thereby Spo0A activation. In summary, our studies outlined a conserved, positive role for comER, a gene whose function was previously uncharacterized, in the regulation of biofilm formation and sporulation in the two Bacillus species. PMID:27446060

  9. Combined Transcriptomic Analysis Revealed AKR1B10 Played an Important Role in Psoriasis through the Dysregulated Lipid Pathway and Overproliferation of Keratinocyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlu Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA-seq has enabled in-depth analysis of the pathogenesis of psoriasis on the transcriptomic level, and many biomarkers have been discovered to be related to the immune response, lipid metabolism, and keratinocyte proliferation. However, few studies have combined analysis from various datasets. In this study, we integrated different psoriasis RNA-seq datasets to reveal the pathogenesis of psoriasis through the analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs, pathway analysis, and functional annotation. The revealed biomarkers were further validated through proliferation phenotypes. The results showed that DEGs were functionally related to lipid metabolism and keratinocyte differentiation dysregulation. The results also showed new biomarkers, such as AKR1B10 and PLA2G gene families, as well as pathways that include the PPAR signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, alpha-linoleic acid metabolism, and glycosphingolipid biosynthesis. Using siRNA knockdown assays, we further validated the role that the AKR1B10 gene plays in proliferation. Our study demonstrated not only the dysfunction of the AKR1B10 gene in lipid metabolizing but also its important role in the overproliferation and migration of keratinocyte, which provided evidence for further therapeutic uses for psoriasis.

  10. Protein kinase a dependent phosphorylation of apical membrane antigen 1 plays an important role in erythrocyte invasion by the malaria parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Leykauf

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Apicomplexan parasites are obligate intracellular parasites that infect a variety of hosts, causing significant diseases in livestock and humans. The invasive forms of the parasites invade their host cells by gliding motility, an active process driven by parasite adhesion proteins and molecular motors. A crucial point during host cell invasion is the formation of a ring-shaped area of intimate contact between the parasite and the host known as a tight junction. As the invasive zoite propels itself into the host-cell, the junction moves down the length of the parasite. This process must be tightly regulated and signalling is likely to play a role in this event. One crucial protein for tight-junction formation is the apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1. Here we have investigated the phosphorylation status of this key player in the invasion process in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. We show that the cytoplasmic tail of P. falciparum AMA1 is phosphorylated at serine 610. We provide evidence that the enzyme responsible for serine 610 phosphorylation is the cAMP regulated protein kinase A (PfPKA. Importantly, mutation of AMA1 serine 610 to alanine abrogates phosphorylation of AMA1 in vivo and dramatically impedes invasion. In addition to shedding unexpected new light on AMA1 function, this work represents the first time PKA has been implicated in merozoite invasion.

  11. H2O2 plays an important role in the lifestyle of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides during interaction with cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, Ygor R G; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Barreto, Ana L H; Freire-Filho, Francisco R; Oliveira, Jose T A

    2015-08-01

    Plant-fungus interactions usually generate H(2)O(2) in the infected plant tissue. H(2)O(2) has a direct antimicrobial effect and is involved in the cross-linking of cell walls, signaling, induction of gene expression, hypersensitive cell death and induced systemic acquired resistance. This has raised the hypothesis that H(2)O(2) manipulation by pharmacological compounds could alter the lifestyle of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides during interaction with the BR-3-Tracuateua cowpea genotype. The primary leaves of cowpea were excised, infiltrated with salicylic acid (SA), glucose oxidase + glucose (GO/G), catalase (CAT) or diphenyliodonium chloride (DPI), followed by spore inoculation on the adaxial leaf surface. SA or GO/G-treated plantlets showed increased H(2)O(2) accumulation and lipid peroxidation. The fungus used a subcuticular, intramural necrotrophic strategy, and developed secondary hyphae associated with the quick spread and rapid killing of host cells. However, CAT or DPI-treated leaves exhibited decreased H(2)O(2) concentration and lipid peroxidation and the fungus developed intracellular hemibiotrophic infection with vesicles, in addition to primary and secondary hyphal formation. These results suggest that H(2)O(2) plays an important role in the cowpea (C. gloeosporioides) pathosystem given that it affected fungal lifestyle during interaction. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A conserved neuronal DAF-16/FoxO plays an important role in conveying pheromone signals to elicit repulsion behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Donha; Hahm, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Saeram; Ha, Go; Chang, Gyeong-Eon; Jeong, Haelim; Kim, Heekyeong; Kim, Sunhee; Cheong, Eunji; Paik, Young-Ki

    2017-08-03

    Animals use pheromones as a conspecific chemical language to respond appropriately to environmental changes. The soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans secretes ascaroside pheromones throughout the lifecycle, which influences entry into dauer phase in early larvae, in addition to sexual attraction and aggregation. In adult hermaphrodites, pheromone sensory signals perceived by worms usually elicit repulsion as an initial behavioral signature. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal pheromone sensory process from perception to repulsion in adult hermaphrodites remain poorly understood. Here, we show that pheromone signals perceived by GPA-3 is conveyed through glutamatergic neurotransmission in which neuronal DAF-16/FoxO plays an important modulatory role by controlling glutaminase gene expression. We further provide evidence that this modulatory role for DAF-16/FoxO seems to be conserved evolutionarily by electro-physiological study in mouse primary hippocampal neurons that are responsible for glutamatergic neurotransmission. These findings provide the basis for understanding the nematode pheromone signaling, which seems crucial for adaptation of adult hermaphrodites to changes in environmental condition for survival.

  13. Chondroitin 4-O-Sulfotransferase Is Indispensable for Sulfation of Chondroitin and Plays an Important Role in Maintaining Normal Life Span and Oxidative Stress Responses in Nematodes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumikawa, Tomomi; Dejima, Katsufumi; Watamoto, Yukiko; Nomura, Kazuko H.; Kanaki, Nanako; Rikitake, Marika; Tou, Mai; Murata, Daisuke; Yanagita, Eri; Kano, Ai; Mitani, Shohei; Nomura, Kazuya; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS)/chondroitin (Chn) chains are indispensable for embryonic cell division and cytokinesis in the early developmental stages in Caenorhabditis elegans and mice, whereas heparan sulfate (HS) is essential for axon guidance during nervous system development. These data indicate that the fundamental functions of CS and HS are conserved from worms to mammals and that the function of CS/Chn differs from that of HS. Although previous studies have shown that C. elegans produces HS and non-sulfated Chn, whether the organism produces CS remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that C. elegans produces a small amount of 4-O-sulfated Chn and report the identification of C41C4.1, an orthologue of the human chondroitin 4-O-sulfotransferase gene. Loss of C41C4.1 in C. elegans resulted in a decline in 4-O-sulfation of CS and an increase in the number of sulfated units in HS. C41C4.1 deletion mutants exhibited reduced survival rates after synchronization with sodium hypochlorite. Collectively, these results show for the first time that CS glycans are present in C. elegans and that the Chn 4-O-sulfotransferase responsible for the sulfation plays an important role in protecting nematodes from oxidative stress. PMID:27645998

  14. Chondroitin 4-O-Sulfotransferase Is Indispensable for Sulfation of Chondroitin and Plays an Important Role in Maintaining Normal Life Span and Oxidative Stress Responses in Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumikawa, Tomomi; Dejima, Katsufumi; Watamoto, Yukiko; Nomura, Kazuko H; Kanaki, Nanako; Rikitake, Marika; Tou, Mai; Murata, Daisuke; Yanagita, Eri; Kano, Ai; Mitani, Shohei; Nomura, Kazuya; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2016-10-28

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS)/chondroitin (Chn) chains are indispensable for embryonic cell division and cytokinesis in the early developmental stages in Caenorhabditis elegans and mice, whereas heparan sulfate (HS) is essential for axon guidance during nervous system development. These data indicate that the fundamental functions of CS and HS are conserved from worms to mammals and that the function of CS/Chn differs from that of HS. Although previous studies have shown that C. elegans produces HS and non-sulfated Chn, whether the organism produces CS remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that C. elegans produces a small amount of 4-O-sulfated Chn and report the identification of C41C4.1, an orthologue of the human chondroitin 4-O-sulfotransferase gene. Loss of C41C4.1 in C. elegans resulted in a decline in 4-O-sulfation of CS and an increase in the number of sulfated units in HS. C41C4.1 deletion mutants exhibited reduced survival rates after synchronization with sodium hypochlorite. Collectively, these results show for the first time that CS glycans are present in C. elegans and that the Chn 4-O-sulfotransferase responsible for the sulfation plays an important role in protecting nematodes from oxidative stress. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. The role of play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, B.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Play is seen as an activity that is fun, voluntary, offers escape, and is fundamentally exciting. Play is however, more than that; it is a working model of flexibility! There is a vital link between play, psychological development and learning. Moreover, the importance of play has gained importance

  16. Predatory bacteria as natural modulators of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in seawater and oysters

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study shows that naturally occurring Vibrio predatory bacteria (VPB) exert a major role in controlling pathogenic vibrios in seawater and shellfish. The growth and persistence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) and Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) were assessed in natural seawater and in the Eastern oyster...

  17. Development of a recombinase polymerase amplification assay for Vibrio parahaemolyticus detection with an internal amplification control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan-Lan; Wei, Shuang; Gooneratne, Ravi; Mutukumira, Anthony N; Ma, Xue-Jun; Tang, Shu-Ze; Wu, Xi-Yang

    2018-04-01

    A novel RPA-IAC assay using recombinase polymerase and an internal amplification control (IAC) for Vibrio parahaemolyticus detection was developed. Specific primers were designed based on the coding sequence for the toxR gene in V. parahaemolyticus. The recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) reaction was conducted at a constant low temperature of 37 °C for 20 min. Assay specificity was validated by using 63 Vibrio strains and 10 non-Vibrio bacterial species. In addition, a competitive IAC was employed to avoid false-negative results, which co-amplified simultaneously with the target sequence. The sensitivity of the assay was determined as 3 × 10 3 CFU/mL, which is decidedly more sensitive than the established PCR method. This method was then used to test seafood samples that were collected from local markets. Seven out of 53 different raw seafoods were detected as V. parahaemolyticus-positive, which were consistent with those obtained using traditional culturing method and biochemical assay. This novel RPA-IAC assay provides a rapid, specific, sensitive, and more convenient detection method for V. parahaemolyticus.

  18. Environmental Conditions Associated with Elevated Vibrio parahaemolyticus Concentrations in Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin A Urquhart

    Full Text Available Reports from state health departments and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicate that the annual number of reported human vibriosis cases in New England has increased in the past decade. Concurrently, there has been a shift in both the spatial distribution and seasonal detection of Vibrio spp. throughout the region based on limited monitoring data. To determine environmental factors that may underlie these emerging conditions, this study focuses on a long-term database of Vibrio parahaemolyticus concentrations in oyster samples generated from data collected from the Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire over a period of seven consecutive years. Oyster samples from two distinct sites were analyzed for V. parahaemolyticus abundance, noting significant relationships with various biotic and abiotic factors measured during the same period of study. We developed a predictive modeling tool capable of estimating the likelihood of V. parahaemolyticus presence in coastal New Hampshire oysters. Results show that the inclusion of chlorophyll a concentration to an empirical model otherwise employing only temperature and salinity variables, offers improved predictive capability for modeling the likelihood of V. parahaemolyticus in the Great Bay Estuary.

  19. Transcriptional profiling of Medicago truncatula under salt stress identified a novel CBF transcription factor MtCBF4 that plays an important role in abiotic stress responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Zhen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salt stress hinders the growth of plants and reduces crop production worldwide. However, different plant species might possess different adaptive mechanisms to mitigate salt stress. We conducted a detailed pathway analysis of transcriptional dynamics in the roots of Medicago truncatula seedlings under salt stress and selected a transcription factor gene, MtCBF4, for experimental validation. Results A microarray experiment was conducted using root samples collected 6, 24, and 48 h after application of 180 mM NaCl. Analysis of 11 statistically significant expression profiles revealed different behaviors between primary and secondary metabolism pathways in response to external stress. Secondary metabolism that helps to maintain osmotic balance was induced. One of the highly induced transcription factor genes was successfully cloned, and was named MtCBF4. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MtCBF4, which belongs to the AP2-EREBP transcription factor family, is a novel member of the CBF transcription factor in M. truncatula. MtCBF4 is shown to be a nuclear-localized protein. Expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula was induced by most of the abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, cold, and abscisic acid, suggesting crosstalk between these abiotic stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing MtCBF4 enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress, and activated expression of downstream genes that contain DRE elements. Over-expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula also enhanced salt tolerance and induced expression level of corresponding downstream genes. Conclusion Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis revealed complex mechanisms exist in plants in response to salt stress. The novel transcription factor gene MtCBF4 identified here played an important role in response to abiotic stresses, indicating that it might be a good candidate gene for genetic improvement to produce stress-tolerant plants.

  20. Complement Factor B is the Downstream Effector of Toll-Like Receptors and Plays an Important Role in a Mouse Model of Severe Sepsis¶

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lin; Feng, Yan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Ming; Chen, Chan; Cai, Jiayan; Gong, Yu; Wang, Larry; Thurman, Joshua M.; Wu, Xiaobo; Atkinson, John P.; Chao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Severe sepsis involves massive activation of the innate immune system and leads to high mortality. Previous studies have demonstrated that various types of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate a systemic inflammatory response and contribute to organ injury and mortality in animal models of severe sepsis. However, the downstream mechanisms responsible for TLR-mediated septic injury are poorly understood. Here, we show that activation of TLR2, TLR3 and TLR4 markedly enhanced complement factor B (cfB) synthesis and release by macrophages and cardiac cells. Polymicrobial sepsis, created by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in a mouse model, augmented cfB levels in the serum, peritoneal cavity and major organs including the kidney and heart. CLP also led to the alternative pathway (AP) activation, C3 fragment deposition in the kidney and heart, and cfB-dependent C3dg elevation. Bacteria isolated from septic mice activated the serum AP via a factor D-dependent manner. MyD88 deletion attenuated cfB/C3 up-regulation as well as cleavage induced by polymicrobial infection. Importantly, during sepsis, absence of cfB conferred a protective effect with improved survival and cardiac function, and markedly attenuated acute kidney injury. cfB deletion also led to increased neutrophil migratory function during the early phase of sepsis, decreased local and systemic bacterial load, attenuated cytokine production and reduced neutrophil reactive oxygen species production. Together, our data indicate that cfB acts as a downstream effector of TLR signaling and plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of severe bacterial sepsis. PMID:24154627

  1. TLR9 played a more important role than TLR2 in the combination of maltose-binding protein and BCG-induced Th1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Weihua; Wang, Fang; Liu, Guomu; Zhang, Nannan; Yuan, Hongyan; Jie, Jing; Tai, Guixiang

    2016-11-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that maltose-binding protein (MBP) combined with BCG induced synergistic mouse Th1 activation in vivo. Here, to explore the mechanism of MBP combined with BCG on Th1 activation, mouse purified CD4 + T cells were stimulated with MBP and BCG in vitro. The results showed that MBP combined with BCG synergistically increased IFN-γ production, accompanied with the upregulation of TLR2/9 expressions, suggesting that TLR2/9 were involved in the combination-induced Th1 activation. Next, TLR2 antibodies and TLR9 inhibitor were used to further analyze the effects of TLRs in Th1 activation. Results showed TLR2 antibody partly decreased MBP combined with BCG-induced IFN-γ production, MyD88 expression and IκB phosphorylation, indicating that TLR2-mediated MyD88-dependent pathway was involved in the MBP combined with BCG-induced Th1 activation. Moreover, MBP combined with BCG-induced Th1 activation was completely abrogated by TLR9 inhibitor, suggesting that TLR9-mediated MyD88-dependent pathway played a more important role than TLR2 in the combination-induced Th1 activation. Further study showed that TLR9 inhibitor downregulated TLR2 expression, suggesting that TLR9 signaling regulated TLR2 activation to favor Th1 resonse induced by MBP combined with BCG. Collectively, we demonstrated for the first time that the cross-talk of TLR2 and TLR9 triggered Th1 activation collaboratively and our findings provided valuable information about designing more effective adjuvant for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lung fibroblasts may play an important role in clearing apoptotic bodies of bronchial epithelial cells generated by exposure to PHMG-P-containing solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Jung; Park, Sung-Jin; Kim, Sanghwa; Lee, Kyuhong; Chang, Jaerak

    2018-04-01

    Polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) has been widely used in the industry owing to its excellent biocidal, anti-corrosive, and anti-biofouling properties. In Korea, consumers exposed to PHMG-phosphate (PHMG-P)-containing humidifier disinfectant have begun to suffer from fibrotic lung injury-related symptoms for unknown reasons. However, no appropriate treatment has yet been found because the detail toxic mechanism has not been identified. Herein, we first studied the toxic mechanism of PHMG-P-containing solution using human normal bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cells). When exposed for 24 h, PHMG-P-containing solution rapidly decreased cell viability from around 6 h after exposure and significantly increased of the phosphatidylserine exposure and the LDH release. At 6 h of exposure, the material contained in the solution was found to be bound to the cell membrane and the inner wall of vacuoles, and damaged the cell membrane and organelles. In addition, a significant increase of IFN-γ was observed among cytokines, the expression of apoptosis-, autophagy-, and membrane and DNA damage-related proteins was also enhanced. Meanwhile, the level of intracellular ROS and the secretion of IL-8 and CXCL-1, which are chemokines for professional phagocytes, decreased. Thus, we treated dead BEAS-2B cells to lung fibroblasts (HFL-1), non-professional phagocytes, and then we observed that the dead cells rapidly attached to HFL-1 cells and were taken up. Additionally, increased secretion of IL-8 and CXCL-1 was observed in the cells. Based on these results, we suggest that pulmonary exposure to PHMG-P induces apoptosis of bronchial epithelial cells and lung fibroblasts might play an important role in the clearance of the apoptotic debris. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Surface Layer Homology Domain-Containing Proteins of Alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 Play an Important Role in Alkaline Adaptation via Peptidoglycan Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinami, Shun; Ito, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    It is well known that the Na + cycle and the cell wall are essential for alkaline adaptation of Na + -dependent alkaliphilic Bacillus species. In Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4, surface layer protein A (SlpA), the most abundant protein in the surface layer (S-layer) of the cell wall, is involved in alkaline adaptation, especially under low Na + concentrations. The presence of a large number of genes that encode S-layer homology (SLH) domain-containing proteins has been suggested from the genome sequence of B. pseudofirmus OF4. However, other than SlpA, the functions of SLH domain-containing proteins are not well known. Therefore, a deletion mutant of the csaB gene, required for the retention of SLH domain-containing proteins on the cell wall, was constructed to investigate its physiological properties. The csaB mutant strain of B. pseudofirmus OF4 had a chained morphology and alkaline sensitivity even under a 230 mM Na + concentration at which there is no growth difference between the parental strain and the slpA mutant strain. Ultra-thin section transmission electron microscopy showed that a csaB mutant strain lacked an S-layer part, and its peptidoglycan (PG) layer was disturbed. The slpA mutant strain also lacked an S-layer part, although its PG layer was not disturbed. These results suggested that the surface layer homology domain-containing proteins of B. pseudofirmus OF4 play an important role in alkaline adaptation via peptidoglycan synthesis.

  4. Transcriptional profiling of Medicago truncatula under salt stress identified a novel CBF transcription factor MtCBF4 that plays an important role in abiotic stress responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Salt stress hinders the growth of plants and reduces crop production worldwide. However, different plant species might possess different adaptive mechanisms to mitigate salt stress. We conducted a detailed pathway analysis of transcriptional dynamics in the roots of Medicago truncatula seedlings under salt stress and selected a transcription factor gene, MtCBF4, for experimental validation. Results A microarray experiment was conducted using root samples collected 6, 24, and 48 h after application of 180 mM NaCl. Analysis of 11 statistically significant expression profiles revealed different behaviors between primary and secondary metabolism pathways in response to external stress. Secondary metabolism that helps to maintain osmotic balance was induced. One of the highly induced transcription factor genes was successfully cloned, and was named MtCBF4. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MtCBF4, which belongs to the AP2-EREBP transcription factor family, is a novel member of the CBF transcription factor in M. truncatula. MtCBF4 is shown to be a nuclear-localized protein. Expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula was induced by most of the abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, cold, and abscisic acid, suggesting crosstalk between these abiotic stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing MtCBF4 enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress, and activated expression of downstream genes that contain DRE elements. Over-expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula also enhanced salt tolerance and induced expression level of corresponding downstream genes. Conclusion Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis revealed complex mechanisms exist in plants in response to salt stress. The novel transcription factor gene MtCBF4 identified here played an important role in response to abiotic stresses, indicating that it might be a good candidate gene for genetic improvement to produce stress-tolerant plants. PMID:21718548

  5. 15-lipoxygenase metabolites play an important role in the development of a T-helper type 1 allergic inflammation induced by double-stranded RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, S G; Moon, H-G; Kim, Y-S; Choi, J-P; Shin, T-S; Hong, S-W; Tae, Y-M; Kim, S-H; Zhu, Z; Gho, Y S; Kim, Y-K

    2009-06-01

    We recently demonstrated that the T-helper type 1 (Th1) immune response plays an important role in the development of non-eosinophilic inflammation induced by airway exposure of an allergen plus double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). However, the role of lipoxygenase (LO) metabolites in the development of Th1 inflammation is poorly understood. To evaluate the role of LO metabolites in the development of Th1 inflammation induced by sensitization with an allergen plus dsRNA. A Th2-allergic inflammation mouse model was created by an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide-depleted ovalbumin (OVA, 75 microg) and alum (2 mg) twice, and the Th1 model was created by intranasal application of OVA (75 microg) and synthetic dsRNA [10 microg of poly(I : C)] four times, followed by an intranasal challenge with 50 microg of OVA four times. The role of LO metabolites was evaluated using two approaches: a transgenic approach using 5-LO(-/-) and 15-LO(-/-) mice, and a pharmacological approach using inhibitors of cysteinyl leucotriene receptor-1 (cysLTR1), LTB4 receptor (BLT1), and 15-LO. We found that the Th1-allergic inflammation induced by OVA+dsRNA sensitization was similar between 5-LO(-/-) and wild-type (WT) control mice, although Th2 inflammation induced by sensitization with OVA+alum was reduced in the former group. In addition, dsRNA-induced Th1 allergic inflammation, which is associated with down-regulation of 15-hydroxyeicosateraenoic acids production, was not affected by treatment with cysLTR1 or BLT1 inhibitors, whereas it was significantly lower in 12/15-LO(-/-) mice compared with WT control mice. Moreover, dsRNA-induced allergic inflammation and the recruitment of T cells following an allergen challenge were significantly inhibited by treatment with a specific 15-LO inhibitor (PD146176). 15-LO metabolites appear to be important mediators in the development of Th1-allergic inflammation induced by sensitization with an allergen plus dsRNA. Our findings suggest that the

  6. Exploring the Genomic Traits of Non-toxigenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains Isolated in Southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Castillo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-borne gastroenteritis worldwide. As reported in other countries, after the rise and fall of the pandemic strain in Chile, other post-pandemic strains have been associated with clinical cases, including strains lacking the major toxins TDH and TRH. Since the presence or absence of tdh and trh genes has been used for diagnostic purposes and as a proxy of the virulence of V. parahaemolyticus isolates, the understanding of virulence in V. parahaemolyticus strains lacking toxins is essential to detect these strains present in water and marine products to avoid possible food-borne infection. In this study, we characterized the genome of four environmental and two clinical non-toxigenic strains (tdh-, trh-, and T3SS2-. Using whole-genome sequencing, phylogenetic, and comparative genome analysis, we identified the core and pan-genome of V. parahaemolyticus of strains of southern Chile. The phylogenetic tree based on the core genome showed low genetic diversity but the analysis of the pan-genome revealed that all strains harbored genomic islands carrying diverse virulence and fitness factors or prophage-like elements that encode toxins like Zot and RTX. Interestingly, the three strains carrying Zot-like toxin have a different sequence, although the alignment showed some conserved areas with the zot sequence found in V. cholerae. In addition, we identified an unexpected diversity in the genetic architecture of the T3SS1 gene cluster and the presence of the T3SS2 gene cluster in a non-pandemic environmental strain. Our study sheds light on the diversity of V. parahaemolyticus strains from the southern Pacific which increases our current knowledge regarding the global diversity of this organism.

  7. Clinical, epidemiological, and spatial characteristics of Vibrio parahaemolyticus diarrhea and cholera in the urban slums of Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanungo Suman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is not much information on the differences in clinical, epidemiological and spatial characteristics of diarrhea due to V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus from non-coastal areas. We investigated the differences in clinical, epidemiological and spatial characteristics of the two Vibrio species in the urban slums of Kolkata, India. Methods The data of a cluster randomized cholera vaccine trial were used. We restricted the analysis to clusters assigned to placebo. Survival analysis of the time to the first episode was used to analyze risk factors for V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea or cholera. A spatial scan test was used to identify high risk areas for cholera and for V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea. Results In total, 54,519 people from the placebo clusters were assembled. The incidence of cholera (1.30/1000/year was significantly higher than that of V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea (0.63/1000/year. Cholera incidence was inversely related to age, whereas the risk of V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea was age-independent. The seasonality of diarrhea due to the two Vibrio species was similar. Cholera was distinguished by a higher frequency of severe dehydration, and V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea was by abdominal pain. Hindus and those who live in household not using boiled or treated water were more likely to have V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea. Young age, low socioeconomic status, and living closer to a project healthcare facility were associated with an increased risk for cholera. The high risk area for cholera differed from the high risk area for V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea. Conclusion We report coexistence of the two vibrios in the slums of Kolkata. The two etiologies of diarrhea had a similar seasonality but had distinguishing clinical features. The risk factors and the high risk areas for the two diseases differ from one another suggesting different modes of transmission of these two pathogens.

  8. Acquired type III secretion system determines environmental fitness of epidemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the interaction with bacterivorous protists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Matz

    Full Text Available Genome analyses of marine microbial communities have revealed the widespread occurrence of genomic islands (GIs, many of which encode for protein secretion machineries described in the context of bacteria-eukaryote interactions. Yet experimental support for the specific roles of such GIs in aquatic community interactions remains scarce. Here, we test for the contribution of type III secretion systems (T3SS to the environmental fitness of epidemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Comparisons of V. parahaemolyticus wild types and T3SS-defective mutants demonstrate that the T3SS encoded on genome island VPaI-7 (T3SS-2 promotes survival of V. parahaemolyticus in the interaction with diverse protist taxa. Enhanced persistence was found to be due to T3SS-2 mediated cytotoxicity and facultative parasitism of V. parahaemolyticus on coexisting protists. Growth in the presence of bacterivorous protists and the T3SS-2 genotype showed a strong correlation across environmental and clinical isolates of V. parahaemolyticus. Short-term microcosm experiments provide evidence that protistan hosts facilitate the invasion of T3SS-2 positive V. parahaemolyticus into a coastal plankton community, and that water temperature and productivity further promote enhanced survival of T3SS-2 positive V. parahaemolyticus. This study is the first to describe the fitness advantage of GI-encoded functions in a microbial food web, which may provide a mechanistic explanation for the global spread and the seasonal dynamics of V. parahaemolyticus pathotypes, including the pandemic serotype cluster O3:K6, in aquatic environments.

  9. Sirtuin 3, a new target of PGC-1alpha, plays an important role in the suppression of ROS and mitochondrial biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Kong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3 is one of the seven mammalian sirtuins, which are homologs of the yeast Sir2 gene. SIRT3 is the only sirtuin with a reported association with the human life span. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha plays important roles in adaptive thermogenesis, gluconeogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration. PGC-1alpha induces several key reactive oxygen species (ROS-detoxifying enzymes, but the molecular mechanism underlying this is not well understood.Here we show that PGC-1alpha strongly stimulated mouse Sirt3 gene expression in muscle cells and hepatocytes. Knockdown of PGC-1alpha led to decreased Sirt3 gene expression. PGC-1alpha activated the mouse SIRT3 promoter, which was mediated by an estrogen-related receptor (ERR binding element (ERRE (-407/-399 mapped to the promoter region. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed that ERRalpha bound to the identified ERRE and PGC-1alpha co-localized with ERRalpha in the mSirt3 promoter. Knockdown of ERRalpha reduced the induction of Sirt3 by PGC-1alpha in C(2C(12 myotubes. Furthermore, Sirt3 was essential for PGC-1alpha-dependent induction of ROS-detoxifying enzymes and several components of the respiratory chain, including glutathione peroxidase-1, superoxide dismutase 2, ATP synthase 5c, and cytochrome c. Overexpression of SIRT3 or PGC-1alpha in C(2C(12 myotubes decreased basal ROS level. In contrast, knockdown of mSIRT3 increased basal ROS level and blocked the inhibitory effect of PGC-1alpha on cellular ROS production. Finally, SIRT3 stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis, and SIRT3 knockdown decreased the stimulatory effect of PGC-1alpha on mitochondrial biogenesis in C(2C(12 myotubes.Our results indicate that Sirt3 functions as a downstream target gene of PGC-1alpha and mediates the PGC-1alpha effects on cellular ROS production and mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, SIRT3 integrates cellular energy

  10. Designing Out the Play: Accessibility and Playfulness in Inclusive Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Raymond; Beckett, Angharad

    2017-01-01

    Play is an important part of child development, yet disabled children are often excluded from the opportunity to play, either due to lack of accessible toys and games, or social pressures. This paper presents a case study reflecting on the development of Button Bash: a switch accessible game intended to encourage inclusive play between disabled and non-disabled children. In particular, the paper focuses on how changes intended to make the game more accessible tended to make it less playful, and reflects on the relationship between playfulness and accessibility.

  11. Enhancing Playful Teachers' Perception of the Importance of ICT Use in the Classroom: The Role of Risk Taking as a Mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, A. Lin; Low, Ee Ling; Ng, Pak Tee; Yeung, Alexander S.; Cai, Li

    2015-01-01

    In today's world, teaching and learning processes inevitably involve the application of information and communication technology (ICT). It seems reasonable to expect personal attributes such as cognitive playfulness to be associated with consistent application of ICT. Using survey responses from Singapore students in a teacher education programme…

  12. Playful Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels; Pors, Justine Grønbæk

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the implications of current attempts by organizations to adapt to a world of constant change by introducing the notion of playful organizational membership. To this end we conduct a brief semantic history of organizational play and argue that when organizations play, employees...... are expected to engage in playful exploration of alternative selves. Drawing on Niklas Luhmann's theory of time and decision-making and Gregory Bateson's theory of play, the article analyses three empirical examples of how games play with conceptions of time. We explore how games represent an organizational...

  13. Play, Playfulness, Creativity and Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bateson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Play, as defined by biologists and psychologists, is probably heterogeneous. On the other hand, playfulness may be a unitary motivational state. Playful play as opposed to activities that merge into aggression is characterized by positive mood, intrinsic motivation, occurring in a protected context and easily disrupted by stress. Playful play is a good measure of positive welfare. It can occupy a substantial part of the waking-life of a young mammal or bird. Numerous functions for play have been proposed and they are by no means mutually exclusive, but some evidence indicates that those individual animals that play most are most likely to survive and reproduce. The link of playful play to creativity and hence to innovation in humans is strong. Considerable evidence suggests that coming up with new ideas requires a different mindset from usefully implementing a new idea.

  14. Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawver, Timothy; Blankenship, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Play therapy is a treatment modality in which the therapist engages in play with the child. Its use has been documented in a variety of settings and with a variety of diagnoses. Treating within the context of play brings the therapist and the therapy to the level of the child. By way of an introduction to this approach, a case is presented of a six-year-old boy with oppositional defiant disorder. The presentation focuses on the events and interactions of a typical session with an established patient. The primary issues of the session are aggression, self worth, and self efficacy. These themes manifest themselves through the content of the child’s play and narration of his actions. The therapist then reflects these back to the child while gently encouraging the child toward more positive play. Though the example is one of nondirective play therapy, a wide range of variation exists under the heading of play therapy. PMID:19724720

  15. Eating oysters without risk of vibriosis: application of a bacteriophage against Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jin Woo; Kim, Hyoun Joong; Yun, Sae Kil; Chai, Ji Young; Park, Se Chang

    2014-10-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a major cause of foodborne illness and related with the consumption of raw contaminated seafood, especially oysters. To evaluate the effectiveness of various applications of a bacteriophage (phage), pVp-1, against a multiple-antibiotic-resistant V. parahaemolyticus pandemic strain (CRS 09-17), we designed artificial contamination models that are most likely to be encountered during oyster processing. When live oysters were treated with bath immersion with pVp-1 after CRS 09-17 challenge, the growth of bacterial strain was significantly reduced. After 72h of phage application with bath immersion, bacterial growth reduction was observed to be 8.9×10(6)CFU/ml (control group) to 1.4×10CFU/ml (treatment group). When pVp-1 was surface-applied on the flesh of oysters after CRS 09-17 inoculation, bacterial growth was properly inhibited. After 12h of phage application on the surface of oysters, bacterial growth inhibition was revealed to be 1.44×10(6)CFU/ml (control group) to 1.94CFU/ml (treatment group). This is the first report, to the best of our knowledge, of oyster surface-application of a phage against a multiple-antibiotic-resistant V. parahaemolyticus pandemic strain, and our successful phage application to various situations emphasizes the potential use of the phage to avoid V. parahaemolyticus infection from aquaculture to consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Combined treatment of UVA irradiation and antibiotics induces greater bactericidal effects on Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Yanfei; Nakahashi, Mutsumi; Mawatari, Kazuaki; Shimohata, Takaaki; Uebanso, Takashi; Harada, Yumi; Tsunedomi, Akari; Emoto, Takahiro; Akutagawa, Masatake; Kinouchi, Yohsuke; Takahashi, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The presence of antibiotics in the environment and their subsequent impact on the development of multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria has raised concerns globally. Consequently, much research is focused on a method to produce a better disinfectant. We have established a disinfectant system using UVA-LED that inactivates pathogenic bacteria. We assessed the bactericidal efficiency of a combination of UVA-LED and antibiotics against Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Combined use of antibiotic drugs and U...

  17. Development and validation of a predictive model for the growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in post-harvest shellstock oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Salina; DaSilva, Ligia; DePaola, Angelo; Bowers, John; White, Chanelle; Munasinghe, Kumudini Apsara; Brohawn, Kathy; Mudoh, Meshack; Tamplin, Mark

    2013-01-15

    Information is limited about the growth and survival of naturally-occurring Vibrio parahaemolyticus in live oysters under commercially relevant storage conditions harvested from different regions and in different oyster species. This study produced a predictive model for the growth of naturally-occurring V. parahaemolyticus in live Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) harvested from the Chesapeake Bay, MD, USA and stored at 5-30 °C until oysters gapped. The model was validated with model-independent data collected from Eastern oysters harvested from the Chesapeake Bay and Mobile Bay, AL, USA and Asian (C. ariakensis) oysters from the Chesapeake Bay, VA, USA. The effect of harvest season, region and water condition on growth rate (GR) was also tested. At each time interval, two samples consisting of six oysters each were analyzed by a direct-plating method for total V. parahaemolyticus. The Baranyi D-model was fitted to the total V. parahaemolyticus growth and survival data. A secondary model was produced using the square root model. V. parahaemolyticus slowly inactivated at 5 and 10 °C with average rates of -0.002 and -0.001 log cfu/h, respectively. The average GRs at 15, 20, 25, and 30 °C were 0.038, 0.082, 0.228, and 0.219 log cfu/h, respectively. The bias and accuracy factors of the secondary model for model-independent data were 1.36 and 1.46 for Eastern oysters from Mobile Bay and the Chesapeake Bay, respectively. V. parahaemolyticus GRs were markedly lower in Asian oysters. Harvest temperature, salinity, region and season had no effect on GRs. The observed GRs were less than those predicted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's V. parahaemolyticus quantitative risk assessment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Purification and antibacterial mechanism of fish-borne bacteriocin and its application in shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) for inhibiting Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xinran; Du, Jingfang; Jie, Yu; Zhang, Bolin; Bai, Fengling; Zhao, Hongfei; Li, Jianrong

    2017-08-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus: is recognized as the main cause of gastroenteritis associated with consumption of seafood. Bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus plantarum FGC-12 isolated from golden carp intestine had strong antibacterial activity toward V. parahaemolyticus. The fish-borne bacteriocin was purified by a three-step procedure consisting of ethyl acetate extraction, gel filtration chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Its molecular weight was estimated at 4.1 kDa using SDS-PAGE. The fish-borne bacteriocin reached the maximum production at stationary phase after 20 h. It was heat-stable (30 min at 121 °C) and remained active at pH range from 3.0 to 5.5, but was sensitive to nutrasin, papain and pepsin. Its minimum inhibitory concentration for V. parahaemolyticus was 6.0 mg/ml. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the fish-borne bacteriocin disrupted cell wall of V. parahaemolyticus. The antibacterial mechanism of the fish-borne bacteriocin against V. parahaemolyticus might be described as action on membrane integrity in terms of the leakage of electrolytes, the losses of Na + K + -ATPase, AKP and proteins. The addition of the fish-borne bacteriocin to shrimps leaded V. parahaemolyticus to reduce 1.3 log units at 4 °C storage for 6 day. Moreover, a marked decline in total volatile base nitrogen and total viable counts was observed in bacteriocin treated samples than the control. It is clear that this fish-borne bacteriocin has promising potential as biopreservation for the control of V. parahaemolyticus in aquatic products.

  19. The immune response of Taiwan abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta and its susceptibility to Vibrio parahaemolyticus at different salinity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Winton; Juang, Feng-Ming; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2004-03-01

    Addition of NaCl at 2.5% to 3.5% to tryptic soy broth (TSB) significantly increased the growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Taiwan abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta held in 30 per thousand seawater were injected with V. parahaemolyticus grown in TSB containing NaCl at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5% at a dose of 1.6 x 10(5)colony-forming units (cfu) abalone(-1). After 48 h, the cumulative mortality was significantly higher for the abalone challenged with V. parahaemolyticus grown in 2.5% than those grown in 0.5 and 1.5% NaCl. In other experiments, abalones held in 30 per thousand seawater were injected with TSB-grown V. parahaemolyticus (1.6 x 10(5)cfu abalone(-1)), and then transferred to 20, 25, 30 and 35 per thousand seawater. All abalones held in 20 per thousand were killed in 48 h. The mortality of V. parahaemolyticus-injected abalone held in 30 per thousand was significantly lower over 24-120 h. Abalone held in 30 per thousand seawater and then transferred to 20, 25, 30 and 35 per thousand were examined for THC (total haemocyte count), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of V. parahemolyticus after 24 and 72 h. The THC increased directly related with salinity levels. Phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of V. parahaemolyticus decreased significantly for the abalone in 20, 25 and 35 per thousand. It is concluded that the abalone transferred from 30 per thousand to 20, 25 and 35 per thousand had reduced immune ability and decreased resistance against V. parahaemolyticus infection.

  20. Análisis histopatológico en Litopenaeus vannamei infectado con Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Peña-Navarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir los principales resultados histopatológicos obtenidos de las diversas respuestas inmunológicas y efectos citopáticos en L. vannamei, después de una infección inducida con V. parahaemolyticus. La inoculación bacterial se realizó en el Centro de Investigación en Ciencias del Mar y Limnología de la Universidad de Costa Rica, entre junio y agosto del 2011. Para la investigación se utilizaron 40 camarones extraídos de fincas ubicadas en la Península de Nicoya; a cada uno se le inyectó en promedio 2,0x106 UFC de V. parahaemolyticus. Al finalizar el periodo de infección, se realizaron los análisis histopatológicos en branquias, epitelio subcuticular, hepatopáncreas, intestino, órgano linfoide, tejido hematopoyético, músculo estriado, tejido nervioso, corazón, entre otras. Los principales hallazgos a nivel histológico fueron hemocitos melanizados, infiltración hemocítica, melanosis, esferoides tipo A, B y C, mionecrosis coagulativa, fagocitosis, picnosis, entre otras, útiles para determinar el estado sanitario de los camarones y en particular, el efecto citopático de V. parahaemolyticus en infecciones sistémicas.

  1. Characterization by PCR of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates collected during the 1997-1998 Chilean outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova, José Luis; Astorga, Josefa; Silva, Wally; Riquelme, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Between November 1997 and April 1998, several human gastroenteritis cases were reported in Antofagasta, a city in the north of Chile. This outbreak was associated with the consumption of shellfish, and the etiologic agent responsible was identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus. This was the first report of this bacterium causing an epidemic in Chile. V. parahaemolyticus was the only pathogenic bacterium isolated from patient stools and from shellfish samples. These isolates were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the pR72H gene, a species-specific sequence. Based on the pR72H gene amplification pattern, at least three different isolates of V. parahaemolyticus were found. Two isolates (named amplicons A and C) generated PCR products of approximately 400 bp and 340 bp respectively, while another type of isolate designated B, did not generate a PCR product, regardless of which method of DNA purification was used. Sequence analysis of the amplicons A and C shows that they have an 80 bp and 183 bp conserved region at the 5' end of the gene. However, both isolates have different sequences at their 3' terminus and are also different from the pR72H sequence originally reported. Using this PCR assay we demonstrated that these three isolates were found in clinical samples as well as in shellfish. The warm seawater caused by the climatological phenomena "El Niño" perhaps favored the geographic dispersion of the bacterium (bacterial bloom) occurring in Antofagasta that occurred during that time of year.

  2. Specific detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus by fluorescence quenching immunoassay based on quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Zhang, Junxian; Bai, Haili; Li, Xuan; Lv, Pintian; Guo, Ailing

    2014-07-01

    In this study, anti-Vibrio parahaemolyticus polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were prepared through intradermal injection immune and lymphocyte hybridoma technique respectively. CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized at pH 9.3, 98 °C for 1 h with stabilizer of 2.7:1. The fluorescence intensity was 586.499, and the yield was 62.43%. QD probes were successfully prepared under the optimized conditions of pH 7.4, 37 °C for 1 h, 250 μL of 50 mg/mL EDC · HCl, 150 μL of 4 mg/mL NHS, buffer system of Na2HPO4-citric acid, and 8 μL of 2.48 mg/mL polyclonal antibodies. As gold nanoparticles could quench fluorescence of quantum dots, the concentration of V. parahaemolyticus could be detected through measuring the reduction of fluorescence intensity in immune sandwich reaction composed of quantum dot probe, gold-labeled antibody, and the sample. For pure culture, fluorescence intensity of the system was proportional with logarithm concentration of antigen, and the correlation coefficient was 99.764%. The fluorescence quenching immunoassay based on quantum dots is established for the first time to detect Vibrio parahaemolyticus. This method may be used as rapid testing procedure due to its high simplicity and sensitivity.

  3. The "Learning Through Play" project. Importance of interdisciplinary work among children born prematurely and their family groups in an area of high socio-environmental risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobar, Flor L; Lencina, Manuel J

    2017-12-01

    Several socio-environmental risk factors causea large number of children born prematurely, and without neurological disorders, to have low scores in their development, particularly in the cognitive and socio-emotional skills areas, thus evidencing a potential future risk. Strengthening bonds with the family and caregivers is critical for their adequate development. This article reports on the experience of an interdisciplinary team from Hospital Eva Perón de Tucumán, who designed a program called "Learning Through Play"for the promotion of child development and aimed at parents of preterm infants seen at the Follow-up Outpatient Clinic and the Department of Social Services, with the collaboration of the Department of Nutrition. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  4. Deep cerebellar nuclei play an important role in two-tone discrimination on delay eyeblink conditioning in C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiro Sakamoto

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN-lesioned mice develop conditioned responses (CR on delay eyeblink conditioning when a salient tone conditioned stimulus (CS is used, which suggests that the cerebellum potentially plays a role in more complicated cognitive functions. In the present study, we examined the role of DCN in tone frequency discrimination in the delay eyeblink-conditioning paradigm. In the first experiment, DCN-lesioned and sham-operated mice were subjected to standard simple eyeblink conditioning under low-frequency tone CS (LCS: 1 kHz, 80 dB or high-frequency tone CS (HCS: 10 kHz, 70 dB conditions. DCN-lesioned mice developed CR in both CS conditions as well as sham-operated mice. In the second experiment, DCN-lesioned and sham-operated mice were subjected to two-tone discrimination tasks, with LCS+ (or HCS+ paired with unconditioned stimulus (US, and HCS- (or LCS- without US. CR% in sham-operated mice increased in LCS+ (or HCS+ trials, regardless of tone frequency of CS, but not in HCS- (or LCS- trials. The results indicate that sham-operated mice can discriminate between LCS+ and HCS- (or HCS+ and LCS-. In contrast, DCN-lesioned mice showed high CR% in not only LCS+ (or HCS+ trials but also HCS- (or LCS- trials. The results indicate that DCN lesions impair the discrimination between tone frequency in eyeblink conditioning. Our results suggest that the cerebellum plays a pivotal role in the discrimination of tone frequency.

  5. Playful Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel

    these practices, which compose the taxonomy of tablet play. My contribution lies in identifying and proposing a series of theoretical concepts that complement recent theories related to play and digital literacy studies. The data collected through observations informed some noteworthy aspects, including how...... with tablets’ physical and digital affordances shape children’s digital play. This thesis presents how young children’s current practices when playing with tablets inform digital experiences in Denmark and Japan. Through an interdisciplinary lens and a grounded theory approach, I have identified and mapped...... vocabulary in children’s digital play experiences. These early digital experiences set the rules for the playgrounds and assert digital tablets as twenty-first-century toys, shaping young children’s playful literacy....

  6. Playful Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The video Playful Interaction describes a future architectural office, and envisions ideas and concepts for playful interactions between people, materials and appliances in a pervasive and augmented working environment. The video both describes existing developments, technologies and designs...... as well as ideas not yet implemented such as playful modes of interaction with an augmented ball. Playful Interaction has been used as a hybrid of a vision video and a video prototype (1). Externally the video has been used to visualising our new ideas, and internally the video has also worked to inspire...

  7. Mediatized play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    Children’s play must nowadays be understood as a mediatized field in society and culture. Media – understood in a very broad sense - holds severe explanatory power in describing and understanding the practice of play, since play happens both with, through and inspired by media of different sorts........ In this presentation the case of ‘playing soccer’ will be outlined through its different mediated manifestations, including soccer games and programs on TV, computer games, magazines, books, YouTube videos and soccer trading cards....

  8. Play Practices and Play Moods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop a view of play as a relation between play practices and play moods based on an empirical study of children's everyday life and by using Bateson's term of ‘framing’ [(1955/2001). In Steps to an ecology of mind (pp. 75–80). Chicago: University of Chicago Press......], Schmidt's notion of ‘commonness’ [(2005). Om respekten. København: Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitets Forlag; (2011). On respect. Copenhagen: Danish School of Education University Press] and Heidegger's term ‘mood’ [(1938/1996). Time and being. Cornwall: Wiley-Blackwell.]. Play mood is a state of being...... in which we are open and ready, both to others and their production of meaning and to new opportunities for producing meaning. This play mood is created when we engage with the world during play practices. The article points out four types of play moods – devotion, intensity, tension and euphorica – which...

  9. The risk of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections associated with consumption of raw oysters as affected by processing and distribution conditions in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The steadily increased consumption of raw oysters in Taiwan warrants an assessment of the risk (probability of illness) of raw oyster consumption attributed by Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of V. parahaemolyticus infection associated with raw oyster consumpt...

  10. Effects of storage conditions before or after high-hydrostatic pressure on inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in oysters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of storage conditions on subsequent high-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in oyster meat was investigated. Live oysters were inoculated with V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus to ca. 7-8 log MPN/g by feeding and stored at different conditi...

  11. The large first periplasmic loop of SecD and SecF plays an important role in SecDF functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouwen, N; Piwowarek, M; Berrelkamp, G; Driessen, AJM

    A remarkable feature of proteins of the SecD and SecF family involved in protein translocation is that they possess a very large first periplasmic domain. Here we report that this large first periplasmic domain is not required for the SecD-SecF interaction but that it is important for catalyzing

  12. Does constructive neutral evolution play an important role in the origin of cellular complexity? Making sense of the origins and uses of biological complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speijer, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Recently, constructive neutral evolution has been touted as an important concept for the understanding of the emergence of cellular complexity. It has been invoked to help explain the development and retention of, amongst others, RNA splicing, RNA editing and ribosomal and mitochondrial respiratory

  13. Occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in retail raw oysters from the eastern coast of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changchai, Nuttawee; Saunjit, Sudarat

    2014-05-01

    Occurrence, population density and virulence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in 240 retail raw oysters collected monthly between March 2010 and February 2011 from Ang Sila coast, Chon Buri Province, Thailand were determined using most probable number (MPN) multiplex PCR. Multiplex PCR detected V. parahaemolyticus in 219 raw oyster samples, of which 29 samples contained the virulence tdh. MPN values for V. parahaemolyticus and pathogenic strains in most samples ranged from 10 to 10(2) and from 3 to 10 MPN/g, respectively. The presence of V. vulnificus was found in 53 oyster samples in amounts between 10 and 10(2) MPN/g. Of 1,087 V. parahaemolyticus isolates, 14 and 2 isolates carried tdh and virulence trh, respectively but none with both genes. However, none of the presumptive isolates was shown to be V. vulnificus. The detection of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in raw oysters has rendered high awareness of risk in consumption of raw or undercooked oysters.

  14. Preliminary stochastic model for managing Vibrio parahaemolyticus and total viable bacterial counts in a Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Piquer, Judith; Bowman, John P; Ross, Tom; Estrada-Flores, Silvia; Tamplin, Mark L

    2013-07-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus can accumulate and grow in oysters stored without refrigeration, representing a potential food safety risk. High temperatures during oyster storage can lead to an increase in total viable bacteria counts, decreasing product shelf life. Therefore, a predictive tool that allows the estimation of both V. parahaemolyticus populations and total viable bacteria counts in parallel is needed. A stochastic model was developed to quantitatively assess the populations of V. parahaemolyticus and total viable bacteria in Pacific oysters for six different supply chain scenarios. The stochastic model encompassed operations from oyster farms through consumers and was built using risk analysis software. Probabilistic distributions and predictions for the percentage of Pacific oysters containing V. parahaemolyticus and high levels of viable bacteria at the point of consumption were generated for each simulated scenario. This tool can provide valuable information about V. parahaemolyticus exposure and potential control measures and can help oyster companies and regulatory agencies evaluate the impact of product quality and safety during cold chain management. If coupled with suitable monitoring systems, such models could enable preemptive action to be taken to counteract unfavorable supply chain conditions.

  15. Playing Shakespeare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashian, Kathleen Ryniker

    1993-01-01

    Describes a yearlong project at 12 Catholic middle schools in the Diocese of Arlington, Virginia, to incorporate the plays of William Shakespeare into the curriculum. Teachers attended university lectures and directed students in performances of the plays. Concludes that Shakespeare can be understood and enjoyed by middle school students. (BCY)

  16. The Pedagogy of Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    Play is important. Environmental educators Sobel and Louv write about the relationship between children and outside play and suggest that early transcendental experiences within nature allow children to develop empathetic orientations towards the natural world. Children who play out-of-doors develop an appreciation for the environment and…

  17. The Photographic History of Greenland’s Glaciers – and how the historical data plays an important role in today’s glacier research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Anders Anker; Kjeldsen, Kristian Kjellerup; Korsgaard, Niels Jákup

    As the Greenland Ice Sheet and Greenland's glaciers are continuing to loss mass at high rates, knowledge of their past response to climatic changes is ever important. By harvesting the archives for images, both terrestrial and airborne, we are able to expand the record of glacier observation...... by several decades, thus supplying crucial knowledge on glacier behavior to important climatic transitions such as the end of the Little Ice Age and the early 20th Century warming. Here we show how a large collection of historical aerial images portray the glacial response to the Little Ice Age deglaciation...... in Greenland and document frontal change throughout the 20th Century. A detailed story of the LIA-deglaciation is told by supplementing with terrestrial photos that capture the onset of retreat and high resolution aerial images that portray geomorphological evidence of the Little Ice Age maximum extent...

  18. Transcription factor σB plays an important role in the production of extracellular membrane-derived vesicles in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hwa Lee

    Full Text Available Gram-negative bacteria produce extracellular outer membrane vesicles (OMVs that interact with host cells. Unlike Gram-negative bacteria, less is known about the production and role of extracellular membrane vesicles (MVs in Gram-positive bacteria. The food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes can survive under extreme environmental and energy stress conditions and the transcription factor σ(B is involved in this survival ability. Here, we first determined the production of MVs from L. monocytogenes and evaluated whether general stress transcription factor σ(B affected production of MVs in L. monocytogenes. L. monocytogenes secreted MVs during in vitro broth culture. The wild-type strain actively produced MVs approximately nine times more and also produced more intact shapes of MVs than those of the isogenic ΔsigB mutant. A proteomic analysis showed that 130 and 89 MV proteins were identified in the wild-type and ΔsigB mutant strains, respectively. Wild-type strain-derived MVs contained proteins regulated by σ(B such as transporters (OpuCA and OpuCC, stress response (Kat, metabolism (LacD, translation (InfC, and cell division protein (FtsZ. Gene Ontology (GO enrichment analysis showed that wild-type-derived MV proteins corresponded to several GO terms, including response to stress (heat, acid, and bile resistance and extracellular polysaccharide biosynthetic process, but not the ΔsigB mutant. Internalin B (InlB was almost three times more contained in MVs derived from the wild-type strain than in MVs derived from the ΔsigB mutant. Taken together, these results suggest that σ(B plays a pivotal role in the production of MVs and protein profiles contained in MVs. L. monocytogenes MVs may contribute to host infection and survival ability under various stressful conditions.

  19. Proteomics of Fusarium oxysporum race 1 and race 4 reveals enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and ion transport that might play important roles in banana Fusarium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Yi, Xiaoping; Peng, Ming; Zeng, Huicai; Wang, Dan; Li, Bo; Tong, Zheng; Chang, Lili; Jin, Xiang; Wang, Xuchu

    2014-01-01

    Banana Fusarium wilt is a soil-spread fungal disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum. In China, the main virulence fungi in banana are F. oxysporum race 1 (F1, weak virulence) and race 4 (F4, strong virulence). To date, no proteomic analyses have compared the two races, but the difference in virulence between F1 and F4 might result from their differentially expressed proteins. Here we report the first comparative proteomics of F1 and F4 cultured under various conditions, and finally identify 99 protein species, which represent 59 unique proteins. These proteins are mainly involved in carbohydrate metabolism, post-translational modification, energy production, and inorganic ion transport. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that among the 46 proteins identified from F4 were several enzymes that might be important for virulence. Reverse transcription PCR analysis of the genes for 15 of the 56 proteins revealed that their transcriptional patterns were similar to their protein expression patterns. Taken together, these data suggest that proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism and ion transport may be important in the pathogenesis of banana Fusarium wilt. Some enzymes such as catalase-peroxidase, galactosidase and chitinase might contribute to the strong virulence of F4. Overexpression or knockout of the genes for the F4-specific proteins will help us to further understand the molecular mechanism of Fusarium-induced banana wilt.

  20. High mobility group box associated with cell proliferation appears to play an important role in hepatocellular carcinogenesis in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shugo; Takeshita, Kentaro; Asamoto, Makoto; Takahashi, Satoru; Kandori, Hitoshi; Tsujimura, Kazunari; Saito, Fumiyo; Masuko, Kazuo; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2009-01-31

    To identify genes important in hepatocellular carcinogenesis, especially processes involved in malignant transformation, we focused on differences in gene expression between adenomas and carcinomas by DNA microarray. Eighty-one genes for which expression was specific in carcinomas were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software and Gene Ontology, and found to be associated with TP53 and regulators of cell proliferation. In the genes associated with TP53, we selected high mobility group box (HMGB) for detailed analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of HMGBs in carcinomas to be significantly higher than in other lesions among both human and rat liver, and a positive correlation between HMGBs and TP53 was detected in rat carcinomas. Knock-down of HMGB 2 expression in a rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line by RNAi resulted in inhibition of cell growth, although no effects on invasion were evident in vitro. These results suggest that acquisition of malignant potential in the liver requires specific signaling pathways related to high cell proliferation associated with TP53. In particular, HMGBs appear to have an important role for progression and cell proliferation associated with loss of TP53 function in rat and in human hepatocarcinogenesis.

  1. High mobility group box associated with cell proliferation appears to play an important role in hepatocellular carcinogenesis in rats and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shugo; Takeshita, Kentaro; Asamoto, Makoto; Takahashi, Satoru; Kandori, Hitoshi; Tsujimura, Kazunari; Saito, Fumiyo; Masuko, Kazuo; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2009-01-01

    To identify genes important in hepatocellular carcinogenesis, especially processes involved in malignant transformation, we focused on differences in gene expression between adenomas and carcinomas by DNA microarray. Eighty-one genes for which expression was specific in carcinomas were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software and Gene Ontology, and found to be associated with TP53 and regulators of cell proliferation. In the genes associated with TP53, we selected high mobility group box (HMGB) for detailed analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of HMGBs in carcinomas to be significantly higher than in other lesions among both human and rat liver, and a positive correlation between HMGBs and TP53 was detected in rat carcinomas. Knock-down of HMGB 2 expression in a rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line by RNAi resulted in inhibition of cell growth, although no effects on invasion were evident in vitro. These results suggest that acquisition of malignant potential in the liver requires specific signaling pathways related to high cell proliferation associated with TP53. In particular, HMGBs appear to have an important role for progression and cell proliferation associated with loss of TP53 function in rat and in human hepatocarcinogenesis

  2. Does constructive neutral evolution play an important role in the origin of cellular complexity? Making sense of the origins and uses of biological complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speijer, Dave

    2011-05-01

    Recently, constructive neutral evolution has been touted as an important concept for the understanding of the emergence of cellular complexity. It has been invoked to help explain the development and retention of, amongst others, RNA splicing, RNA editing and ribosomal and mitochondrial respiratory chain complexity. The theory originated as a welcome explanation of isolated small scale cellular idiosyncrasies and as a reaction to 'overselectionism'. Here I contend, that in its extended form, it has major conceptual problems, can not explain observed patterns of complex processes, is too easily dismissive of alternative selectionist models, underestimates the creative force of complexity as such, and--if seen as a major evolutionary mechanism for all organisms--could stifle further thought regarding the evolution of highly complex biological processes. Copyright © 2011 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Investigation of Vibrio alginolyticus, V. harveyi, and V. parahaemolyticus in large yellow croaker, Pseudosciaena crocea (Richardson reared in Xiangshan Bay, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Large yellow croaker (LYC, Pseudosciaena crocea is an economically important fish species of mariculture in China. The variation of yearly production of LYC has been increasingly related to the outbreaks of fish diseases. Moreover, Vibrio infections have been identified in this fish frequently. To understand the pattern of Vibrio infections in LYC, we conducted a culture-independent survey of Vibrios in farmed LYC populations using a multiplex PCR method targeting Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The results showed that three fish pathogenic Vibrios had been detected in LYC populations at each sampling with a prevalence ranging from 6.7% to 73.3% but no single species dominated the Vibrio infection. The findings indicate that three Vibrio species still have impact on health status of farmed LYC and LYC aquaculture requires more efficacious prophylactic strategies. Keywords: Vibrio, Large yellow croaker, Multiplex PCR, Epidemiology

  4. Vitamin D deficiency plays an important role in cardiac disease and affects patient outcome: Still a myth or a fact that needs exploration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher Fanari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that a low vitamin D status may be an important and hitherto neglected factor of cardiovascular disease. This review is an overview of the current body of literature, and presents evidence of the mechanisms through which vitamin D deficiency affects the cardiovascular system in general and the heart in particular. Available data indicate that the majority of congestive heart failure patients have 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency. Furthermore, the low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level has a higher impact on hypertension, coronary artery disease an on the occurrence of relevant cardiac events. A serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level below 75 nmol/l (30 ng/l is generally regarded as vitamin D insufficiency in both adults and children, while a level below 50 nmol/l (20 ng/l is considered deficiency. Levels below 50 nmol/l (20 ng/l are linked independently to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  5. Dyssynergic defecation may play an important role in postoperative Hirschsprung's disease patients with severe persistent constipation: analysis of a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinds, Rob J; Eggink, Maura C; Heineman, Erik; Broens, Paul M A

    2014-10-01

    After surgery for Hirschsprung's disease (HD) the majority of patients have satisfactory clinical outcomes. Nevertheless, a substantial number of patients remain who suffer from severe persistent constipation. Current consensus attributes these complaints to the hallmarks of HD. In non-HD patients a cause for severe constipation is dyssynergic defecation. Retrospectively, we reviewed the medical records of ten postoperative HD patients with severe persistent constipation who had undergone extensive anorectal function tests to diagnose the reason for the constipation. We analyzed the results of these tests. During the last three years, ten postoperative HD patients with severe persistent constipation were given extensive anorectal function tests. All ten patients were diagnosed with dyssynergic defecation. The ages at the time of diagnosis ranged from 7 to 19years with a median age of 12years. Signs of an enlarged rectum were seen in all ten patients, with a maximum measured value of 845mL. Patients with HD may also suffer from dyssynergic defecation. It is important to consider this possibility when dealing with severe persistent constipation in postoperative HD patients. Viable options for treating dyssynergic defecation are available that could prevent irreversible long-term complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. AMP-activated protein kinase plays an important evolutionary conserved role in the regulation of glucose metabolism in fish skeletal muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo J Magnoni

    Full Text Available AMPK, a master metabolic switch, mediates the observed increase of glucose uptake in locomotory muscle of mammals during exercise. AMPK is activated by changes in the intracellular AMP:ATP ratio when ATP consumption is stimulated by contractile activity but also by AICAR and metformin, compounds that increase glucose transport in mammalian muscle cells. However, the possible role of AMPK in the regulation of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle has not been investigated in other vertebrates, including fish. In this study, we investigated the effects of AMPK activators on glucose uptake, AMPK activity, cell surface levels of trout GLUT4 and expression of GLUT1 and GLUT4 as well as the expression of enzymes regulating glucose disposal and PGC1α in trout myotubes derived from a primary muscle cell culture. We show that AICAR and metformin significantly stimulated glucose uptake (1.6 and 1.3 fold, respectively and that Compound C completely abrogated the stimulatory effects of the AMPK activators on glucose uptake. The combination of insulin and AMPK activators did not result in additive nor synergistic effects on glucose uptake. Moreover, exposure of trout myotubes to AICAR and metformin resulted in an increase in AMPK activity (3.8 and 3 fold, respectively. We also provide evidence suggesting that stimulation of glucose uptake by AMPK activators in trout myotubes may take place, at least in part, by increasing the cell surface and mRNA levels of trout GLUT4. Finally, AICAR increased the mRNA levels of genes involved in glucose disposal (hexokinase, 6-phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase and citrate synthase and mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α and did not affect glycogen content or glycogen synthase mRNA levels in trout myotubes. Therefore, we provide evidence, for the first time in non-mammalian vertebrates, suggesting a potentially important role of AMPK in stimulating glucose uptake and utilization in the skeletal muscle of fish.

  7. The Correlation between Early Stages of Life Exposed to Chinese Famine and Cognitive Decline in Adulthood: Nutrition of Adulthood Plays an Important Role in the Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Hongguo; Xi, Yuandi; An, Yu; Tao, Lingwei; Zhang, Xiaona; Yu, Huiyan; Wang, Ying; Qin, Zhongsheng; Xiao, Rong

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether people exposed to the Chinese Famine in fetal period or in multiple stages of childhood are associated with cognitive decline in adulthood. Furthermore, the nutritional environment of adulthood was explored as an important factor in this correlation. Methods: 1162 adults born between 1952 and 1964 were recruited. They were divided into five groups which were non-exposed group, fetal-exposed group, early childhood-exposed group, mid childhood-exposed group and late childhood-exposed group. Cognitive function was measured by using a comprehensive neuropsychological battery test, including Montreal cognitive assessment-Beijing version, mini-mental state examination, auditory verbal learning test, digit span forward, digit span backward, trail making test, and digit symbol test. Semi-quantified food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess the dietary nutrition in their adulthood. The dietary nutrient consumption pattern was identified by Two-step and K-means cluster analysis. Results: The significant differences in cognitive function were manifested in different groups. Compared with non-exposed group, subjects in fetal-exposed group had a higher risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (OR 1.51 95% CI 1.02–2.23, P = 0.039) and global cognitive decline (OR 1.68 59% CI 1.02–2.77, P = 0.044). The similar result was also observed in subjects of early childhood-exposed group. Otherwise, subjects who were classified in high nutrient consumption pattern had higher risk of cognitive decline. Moreover, the higher consumption of several nutrients such as fat, carbohydrate and manganese were associated with worse performance on digit span forward, digit span backward, trail making test A, trail making test B and digit symbol. Conclusion: Early stages of life exposed to the Chinese Famine were associated with higher risk of cognitive decline in adulthood. The stronger associations were manifested in the

  8. The Correlation between Early Stages of Life Exposed to Chinese Famine and Cognitive Decline in Adulthood: Nutrition of Adulthood Plays an Important Role in the Link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguo Rong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether people exposed to the Chinese Famine in fetal period or in multiple stages of childhood are associated with cognitive decline in adulthood. Furthermore, the nutritional environment of adulthood was explored as an important factor in this correlation.Methods: 1162 adults born between 1952 and 1964 were recruited. They were divided into five groups which were non-exposed group, fetal-exposed group, early childhood-exposed group, mid childhood-exposed group and late childhood-exposed group. Cognitive function was measured by using a comprehensive neuropsychological battery test, including Montreal cognitive assessment-Beijing version, mini-mental state examination, auditory verbal learning test, digit span forward, digit span backward, trail making test, and digit symbol test. Semi-quantified food frequency questionnaire (FFQ was used to assess the dietary nutrition in their adulthood. The dietary nutrient consumption pattern was identified by Two-step and K-means cluster analysis.Results: The significant differences in cognitive function were manifested in different groups. Compared with non-exposed group, subjects in fetal-exposed group had a higher risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI (OR 1.51 95% CI 1.02–2.23, P = 0.039 and global cognitive decline (OR 1.68 59% CI 1.02–2.77, P = 0.044. The similar result was also observed in subjects of early childhood-exposed group. Otherwise, subjects who were classified in high nutrient consumption pattern had higher risk of cognitive decline. Moreover, the higher consumption of several nutrients such as fat, carbohydrate and manganese were associated with worse performance on digit span forward, digit span backward, trail making test A, trail making test B and digit symbol.Conclusion: Early stages of life exposed to the Chinese Famine were associated with higher risk of cognitive decline in adulthood. The stronger associations were manifested

  9. Postphenomenological Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammar, Emil

    This paper aims to identify an understanding of digital games in virtual environments by using Don Ihde’s (1990) postphenomenological approach to how technology mediates the world to human beings in conjunction with Hans-Georg Gadamer’s (1993) notion of play . Through this tentatively proposed am...... amalgamation of theories I point towards an alternative understanding of the relationship between play and game as not only dialectic, but also as socially and ethically relevant qua the design and implementation of the game as technology....

  10. Characterization by PCR of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates collected during the 1997-1998 Chilean outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ LUIS CÓRDOVA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Between November 1997 and April 1998, several human gastroenteritis cases were reported in Antofagasta, a city in the north of Chile. This outbreak was associated with the consumption of shellfish, and the etiologic agent responsible was identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus. This was the first report of this bacterium causing an epidemic in Chile. V. parahaemolyticus was the only pathogenic bacterium isolated from patient stools and from shellfish samples. These isolates were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification of the pR72H gene, a species-specific sequence. Based on the pR72H gene amplification pattern, at least three different isolates of V. parahaemolyticus were found. Two isolates (named amplicons A and C generated PCR products of approximately 400 bp and 340 bp respectively, while another type of isolate designated B, did not generate a PCR product, regardless of which method of DNA purification was used. Sequence analysis of the amplicons A and C shows that they have an 80 bp and 183 bp conserved region at the 5'end of the gene. However, both isolates have different sequences at their 3' terminus and are also different from the pR72H sequence originally reported. Using this PCR assay we demonstrated that these three isolates were found in clinical samples as well as in shellfish. The warm seawater caused by the climatological phenomena "El Niño" perhaps favored the geographic dispersion of the bacterium (bacterial bloom occurring in Antofagasta that occurred during that time of year

  11. Playful Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Justine Grønbæk; Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    intact. In its final sections, the article discusses what happens to conditions of decision-making when organisations do not just see undecidability as a given condition, but as a limited resource indispensable for change and renewal. The article advances discussions of organisational play by exploring...

  12. Clay Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Liz; Steffan, Dana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to use clay as a potential material for young children to explore. As teachers, the authors find that their dialogue about the potential of clay as a learning medium raises many questions: (1) What makes clay so enticing? (2) Why are teachers noticing different play and conversation around the clay table as compared to…

  13. Sweet Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Shuk-kwan S.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article features Sweet play math, a "math by the month" activity that involves decorating and making sugar cubes. Teachers may want to substitute straws, paper squares, alphabet blocks, or such commercially made manipulatives as Unifix[R] cubes for the real sweets. Given no allergy concerns, teachers and students alike would enjoy some sweet…

  14. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects of the v......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...... of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer...

  15. Playing Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Juan E.

    The acceptance of animation technologies is increasing. Video games, such as Sony PlayStation (SONY, 2002), have become part of the culture for young people from kindergarten through undergraduate school. Animation technologies have been implemented into educational systems in the form of animated pedagogical agents (Johnson, 2000). The research…

  16. Aesthetic Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The present article explores the role of music-related artefacts and technologies in children’s lives. More specifically, it analyzes how four 10- to 11-year old girls use CDs and DVD games in their music-play activities and which developmental themes and potentials may accrue from such activitie...

  17. Water Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Jane E.; Smith, Brandy A.

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of activities to develop sensory awareness, spatial thinking, and physical dexterity, operationalized through hands-on science lessons such as water play, have long been part of early childhood education. This practical article addresses Next Generation Science Standards K-2 ETS1-3 and K-2 ETS1-2 by having four-year-old…

  18. Effect of ionizing radiation on macrophage stimulating property of Vibrio parahaemolyticus lipopolysaccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandekar, J R; Nene, S P; Nerkar, D P

    1988-09-01

    Effect of gamma radiation on the macrophage stimulating ability of Vibrio parahaemolyticus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was examined. Radiodetoxified LPS (RLPS) when injected (ip) in mice stimulated peritoneal macrophages as was evident from the enhancement of their acid hydrolases and cellular RNA contents. RLPS also stimulated the phagocytic activities of macrophages. The stimulation of macrophages was slightly less as compared to that observed with n ative LPS. Thus, treatment of LPS with 15 kGy dose of gamma radiation results in a slight reduction in its macrophage stimulating ability. (author). 3 tabs., 22 refs.

  19. Playing facilitator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmøller, Ellen; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    event called InnoEvent, addressed to students in the fields of multimedia and healthcare. Being interested in studying games and role-play as tools to support independent learning in the field of design thinking and team-building, following Dewey’s (1938) theory of learning experience, we ran two...... workshops based on two classic role-play games: The Silent Game (Brandt, 2006) and The Six Thinking Hats (de Bono, 1985). These games were created to support students in learning design thinking in groups and are assigned positive values in literature, hence we expected a smooth process. However, our...... experience was rather characterized by conflictual negotiations with the students. Data from our observations and from interviews with group representatives show that the students took a discontinuous learning path, characterised by a false start, failure, and a thorough reconsideration of their work...

  20. A new group of cosmopolitan bacteriophages induce a carrier state in the pandemic strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastías, Roberto; Higuera, Gastón; Sierralta, Walter; Espejo, Romilio T

    2010-04-01

    A clonal population of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3 : K6 serovar has spread in coastal waters, causing outbreaks worldwide since 1996. Bacteriophage infection is one of the main factors affecting bacterial strain concentration in the ocean. We studied the occurrence and properties of phages infecting this V. parahaemolyticus pandemic strain in coastal waters. Analysing 143 samples, phages were found in 13. All isolates clustered in a closely related group of podophages with at least 90% nucleotide sequence identity in three essential genes, despite distant geographical origins. These bacteriophages were able to multiply on the V. parahaemolyticus pandemic strain, but the impact on host concentration and subsequent growth was negligible. Infected bacteria continued producing the phage but were not lysogenized. The phage genome of prototype strain VP93 is 43 931 nucleotides and contains 337 bp direct terminal repeats at both ends. VP93 is the first non-Pseudomonas phage related to the PhiKMV-like subgroup of the T7 supergroup. The lack of a major effect on host growth suggests that these phages exert little control on the propagation of the pandemic strain in the environment. This form of phage growth can be modelled if phage-sensitive and -resistant cells that convert to each other with a high frequency are present in clonal cultures of pandemic V. parahaemolyticus.

  1. Effect of lime juice on Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella enterica inactivation during the preparation of the raw fish dish ceviche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathurand, Prateek; Schaffner, Donald W

    2013-06-01

    Ceviche is a raw fish dish common in Peru and other Latin American counties. The most characteristic feature of ceviche is the use of lime juice for marinating or "cooking" the raw fish. Confirmed cases of cholera in Peru, New Jersey, and Florida have been associated with ceviche. Although the effect of organic acids on pathogenic bacteria has been well characterized, few data exist on the effect of these acids in seafood systems. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of lime juice marination on pathogens likely to be present in ceviche. Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillet pieces were inoculated with Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella enterica (>7 log CFU/g) and incubated at 25 and 4°C for 30 or 120 min in the presence of fresh lime juice at concentrations typical for the preparation of ceviche. Similar levels of cells were also inoculated into fresh lime juice without tilapia. Surviving cells were enumerated on selective (xylose lysine Tergitol 4 and thiosulfate-bile-citrate-sucrose) and nonselective (tryptic soy agar) media. V. parahaemolyticus levels were reduced to below detection limits (∼5-log reduction) under all conditions studied. Salmonella strains on tilapia were much more resistant to inactivation and were only slightly reduced (∼1- to 2-log reduction). Salmonella and V. parahaemolyticus inoculated directly into lime juice without tilapia were all reduced to below detection limits (∼5-log reduction). A typical ceviche recipe reduces V. parahaemolyticus risk significantly but is less effective for control of S. enterica.

  2. H-NS represses transcription of the flagellin gene lafA of lateral flagella in Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Yiquan; Yin, Zhe; Wang, Jie; Zhu, Yongzhe; Peng, Haoran; Zhou, Dongsheng; Qi, Zhongtian; Yang, Wenhui

    2018-01-01

    Swarming motility is ultimately mediated by the proton-powered lateral flagellar (laf) system in Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Expression of laf genes is tightly regulated by a number of environmental conditions and regulatory factors. The nucleoid-associated DNA-binding protein H-NS is a small and abundant protein that is widely distributed in bacteria, and H-NS-like protein-dependent expression of laf genes has been identified in Vibrio cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus. The data presented here show that H-NS acts as a repressor of the swarming motility in V. parahaemolyticus. A single σ 28 -dependent promoter was detected for lafA encoding the flagellin of the lateral flagella, and its activity was directly repressed by H-NS. Thus, H-NS represses swarming motility by directly acting on lafA. Briefly, this work revealed a novel function for H-NS as a repressor of the expression of lafA and swarming motility in V. parahaemolyticus.

  3. Characterization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from oysters in Korea: Resistance to various antibiotics and prevalence of virulence genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang-Ho; Shin, YuJin; Jang, SeokCheol; Yu, HongSik; Kim, SuKyung; An, Sera; Park, Kunbawui; So, Jae-Seong

    2017-05-15

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, found frequently in oysters, is the most prevalent gastroenteritis-causing pathogen in Korea and in several other Asian countries. This study monitored changes in the environmental parameters and occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus in oyster aquaculture sites. Of the 44 presumed V. parahaemolyticus isolates obtained, when tested against 16 antibiotics, 90.9, 86.4, and 75.0% of the 44 isolates exhibited resistance to vancomycin, ampicillin, and streptomycin, respectively. PCR analysis for the presence of the toxR gene confirmed 31 of the 44 isolates as being positive V. parahaemolyticus strains. The toxR positive isolates were tested for the presence of thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) and tdh-related hemolysin (trh) virulence genes. Only 9.1% toxR positive isolate exhibit the trh gene and none of the isolates were tested positive for tdh. The occurrence of multi drug resistance strains in the environment could be an indication of excessive usage of antibiotics in agriculture and aquaculture fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Exploring the Genomic Traits of Non-toxigenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains Isolated in Southern Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo Bermúdez, Daniel Elías; Pérez-Reytor, Diliana; Plaza, Nicolás

    2018-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-borne gastroenteritis worldwide. As reported in other countries, after the rise and fall of the pandemic strain in Chile, other post-pandemic strains have been associated with clinical cases, including strains lacking the major toxins TDH...

  5. Playing Possum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Euli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our society is drenched in the catastrophe; where the growth of financial crisis, environmental cataclysm and militarization represents its gaudiest and mortifying phenomena. Humans struggle with depression, sense of impotence, anguish towards a future considered a threat.  A possibility to keep us alive can be represented by the enhancement of our ability in ‘playing Possum’, an exercise of desisting and renitence: to firmly say ‘no’. To say no to a world that proposes just one way of being and living free, that imposes as the only unavoidable possible destiny.

  6. Playful Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the design of future services for children in Danish public libraries is discussed, in the light of new challenges and opportunities in relation to new media and technologies. The Danish government has over the last few years initiated and described a range of initiatives regarding...... in the library, the changing role of the librarians and the library space. We argue that intertwining traditional library services with new media forms and engaging play is the core challenge for future design in physical public libraries, but also that it is through new media and technology that new...

  7. Late Modern Play Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg

    2008-01-01

    and the Danish University of Education (among others) have been working with different kind of products, all referred to as PlAYWARE. Playware combines modern technology and knowledge about play culture in order to produce playful experiences for its players. This paper will exemplify how the concept of play can...... from one generation to the next. Because older children are no longer present as younger children grow up, the traditional "cultural leaders" are gone. They have taken with them much of the inspiration for play as well as important knowledge about how to organise a game. In that sense we can say...

  8. Inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in oysters by high-hydrostatic pressure and mild heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mu; Huang, Yaoxin; Chen, Haiqiang

    2012-10-01

    Several recent outbreaks associated with oysters have heightened safety concerns of raw shellfish consumptions, with the majority being attributed to Vibrio spp. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of high-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) followed by mild heating on the inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in live oysters. Inoculated oysters were randomly subjected to: a) pressurization at 200-300 MPa for 2 min at 21 °C, b) mild heat treatment at 40, 45 or 50 °C for up to 20 min and c) pressure treatment of 200-300 MPa for 2 min at 21 °C followed by heat treatment at 40-50 °C. Counts of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus were then determined using the most probable number (MPN) method. Pressurization at 200-300 MPa for 2 min resulted in various degrees of inactivation, from 1.2 to >7 log MPN/g reductions. Heat treatment at 40 and 45 °C for 20 min only reduced V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus by 0.7-2.5 log MPN/g while at 50 °C for 15 min achieved >7 log MPN/g reduction. HHP and mild heat had synergistic effects. Combinations such as HHP at 250 MPa for 2 min followed by heat treatment at 45 °C for 15 min and HHP at 200 MPa for 2 min followed by heat treatment at 50 °C for 5 min reduced both V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus to non-detectable levels by the MPN method (oysters (negative enrichment results). This study demonstrated the efficiency of HHP followed by mild heat treatments on inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus and could help the industry to establish parameters for processing oysters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. SURVEY ON V. CHOLERAE, V. VULNIFICUS AND V. PARAHAEMOLYTICUS IN BIVALVE MOLLUSCS OF THE ADRIATIC SEA AND PROPOSAL OF AN ANALYTICAL PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Valeri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bivalve molluscs from Adriatic sea were analyzed for V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae e V. vulnificus presence. The isolates on TCBS Agar and m-CPC Agar were selected on the basis of a new biochemical screening, that showed a good performance, because among 2344 strains from primary culture only 237 (10% were presumptively assigned to the species of interest. The PCR analyses was performed for the target genes toxR hlyA, ctxA, tcpI (V. cholerae, toxR, tl, tdh, trh (V. parahaemolyticus, vvhA and viuB (V. vulnificus. Among the 9 strains confirmed to belong to V. parahaemolyticus specie, 6 were sucrose positive. On 215 samples of molluscs only 5 resulted positive for V. parahaemolyticus being toxR+, tl+, although non pathogenic (tdh-, trh-, and none for V. cholerae e V. vulnificus.

  10. Vibrio ecology in PNW - The Ecology of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the Pacific Northwest: Implications for risk assessment and early warning systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Over the past decade, there has been a significant increase in Vibrio parahaemolyticus-related gastroenteritis from the consumption of raw oysters harvested in...

  11. Why do Dolphins Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan A. Kuczaj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Play is an important aspect of dolphin life, perhaps even an essential one. Play provides opportunities for dolphin calves to practice and perfect locomotor skills, including those involved in foraging and mating strategies and behaviors. Play also allows dolphin calves to learn important social skills and acquire information about the characteristics and predispositions of members of their social group, particularly their peers. In addition to helping dolphin calves learn how to behave, play also provides valuable opportunities for them to learn how to think. The ability to create and control play contexts enables dolphins to create novel experiences for themselves and their playmates under relatively safe conditions. The behavioral variability and individual creativity that characterize dolphin play yield ample opportunities for individual cognitive development as well as social learning, and sometimes result in innovations that are reproduced by other members of the group. Although adults sometimes produce innovative play, calves are the primary source of such innovations. Calves are also more likely to imitate novel play behaviors than are adults, and so calves contribute significantly to both the creation and transmission of novel play behaviors within a group. Not unexpectedly, then, the complexity of dolphin play increases with the involvement of peers. As a result, the opportunity to observe and/or interact with other dolphin calves enhances the effects of play on the acquisition and maintenance of flexible problem solving skills, the emergence and strengthening of social and communicative competencies, and the establishment of social relationships. It seems that play may have evolved to help young dolphins learn to adapt to novel situations in both their physical and social worlds, the beneficial result being a set of abilities that increases the likelihood that an individual survives and reproduces.

  12. Effects of pre- or post-processing storage conditions on high-hydrostatic pressure inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mu; Huang, Yaoxin; Gurtler, Joshua B; Niemira, Brendan A; Sites, Joseph E; Chen, Haiqiang

    2013-05-15

    The effects of storage conditions on subsequent high-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in oysters were investigated. Live oysters were inoculated with V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus to ca. 7-8 log MPN/g by feeding and stored at varying conditions (i.e., 21 or 35 °C for 5h, 4 or 10 °C for 1 and 2 days and -18 °C for 2 weeks). Oyster meats were then treated at 225-300 MPa for 2 min at 4, 21 or 35 °C. HHP at 300 MPa for 2 min achieved a >5-log MPN/g reduction of V. parahaemolyticus, completely inactivating V. vulnificus (negative by enrichment) in oysters. Treatment temperatures of 4, 21 and 35 °C did not significantly affect pressure inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus (P>0.05). Cold storage at -18, 4 and 10 °C, prior to HHP, decreased V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus populations by 1.5-3.0 log MPN/g, but did not increase their sensitivity to subsequent HHP treatments. The effects of cold storage after HHP on inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus in oysters were also determined. Oysters were inoculated with V. parahaemolyticus and stored at 21 °C for 5h or 4 °C for 1 day. Oyster meats were then treated at 250-300 MPa for 2 min at 21 or 35 °C and stored for 15 days in ice or in a freezer. V. parahaemolyticus populations in HHP-treated oysters gradually decreased during post-HHP ice or frozen storage. A validation study using whole-shell oysters was conducted to determine whether the presence of oyster shells influenced HHP inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus. No appreciable differences in inactivation between shucked oyster meat and whole-shell oysters were observed. HPP at 300 MPa for 2 min at 21 °C, followed by 5-day ice storage or 7-day frozen storage, and HPP at 250 MPa for 2 min at 21 °C, followed by 10-day ice or 7-day frozen storage, completely inactivated V. parahaemolyticus in whole-shell oysters (>7 log reductions). The combination of HHP at a relatively low pressure

  13. An evaluation of the use of remotely sensed parameters for prediction of incidence and risk associated with Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Gulf Coast oysters (Crassostrea virginica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, A M B; Depaola, A; Bowers, J; Ladner, S; Grimes, D J

    2007-04-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently published a Vibrio parahaemolyticus risk assessment for consumption of raw oysters that predicts V. parahaemolyticus densities at harvest based on water temperature. We retrospectively compared archived remotely sensed measurements (sea surface temperature, chlorophyll, and turbidity) with previously published data from an environmental study of V. parahaemolyticus in Alabama oysters to assess the utility of the former data for predicting V. parahaemolyticus densities in oysters. Remotely sensed sea surface temperature correlated well with previous in situ measurements (R(2) = 0.86) of bottom water temperature, supporting the notion that remotely sensed sea surface temperature data are a sufficiently accurate substitute for direct measurement. Turbidity and chlorophyll levels were not determined in the previous study, but in comparison with the V. parahaemolyticus data, remotely sensed values for these parameters may explain some of the variation in V. parahaemolyticus levels. More accurate determination of these effects and the temporal and spatial variability of these parameters may further improve the accuracy of prediction models. To illustrate the utility of remotely sensed data as a basis for risk management, predictions based on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration V. parahaemolyticus risk assessment model were integrated with remotely sensed sea surface temperature data to display graphically variations in V. parahaemolyticus density in oysters associated with spatial variations in water temperature. We believe images such as these could be posted in near real time, and that the availability of such information in a user-friendly format could be the basis for timely and informed risk management decisions.

  14. Food-borne outbreaks, distributions, virulence, and antibiotic resistance profiles of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Korea from 2003 to 2016: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunbawui Park

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the most common causes of seafood-borne illnesses in Korea, either directly or indirectly, by consuming infected seafood. Many studies have demonstrated the antibiotic susceptibility profile of V. parahaemolyticus. This strain has developed multiple antibiotic resistance, which has raised serious public health and economic concerns. This article reviews the food-borne outbreaks, distributions, virulence, and antibiotic resistance profiles of V. parahaemolyticus in Korea during 2003–2016. Main body V. parahaemolyticus infections appeared to be seasonally dependent, because 69.7% of patient infections occurred in both August and September during 2003–2016. In addition, the occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus in marine environments varies seasonally but is particularly high in July, August, and September. V. parahaemolyticus isolated from aquaculture sources on the Korean coast varied in association with virulence genes, some did not possess either the tdh (thermostable direct hemolysin or trh (tdh-related hemolysin genes, and a few were positive for only the trh gene or both genes. The high percentage of ampicillin resistance against V. parahaemolyticus in the aquatic environment suggests that ampicillin cannot be used to effectively treat infections caused by this organism. Short conclusion This study shows that the observed high percentage of multiple antibiotic resistance to V. parahaemolyticus is due to conventionally used antibiotics. Therefore, monitoring the antimicrobial resistance patterns at a national level and other solutions are needed to control aquaculture infections, ensure seafood safety, and avoid threats to public health caused by massive misuse of antibiotics.

  15. Word Play: Scaffolding Language Development through Child-Directed Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, Barbara A.; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill L.

    2017-01-01

    Play is an important activity in young children's lives. It is how children explore their world and build knowledge. Although free play, which is play that is totally child directed, contributes to children's learning, self-regulation and motivation, adults' participation in children's play is critical in their development, especially their…

  16. Enumeration of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the viable but nonculturable state using direct plate counts and recognition of individual gene fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffitt, Kimberly J; Noriea, Nicholas F; Johnson, Crystal N; Grimes, D Jay

    2011-05-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a gram-negative, halophilic bacterium indigenous to marine and estuarine environments and it is capable of causing food and water-borne illness in humans. It can also cause disease in marine animals, including cultured species. Currently, culture-based techniques are used for quantification of V. parahaemolyticus in environmental samples; however, these can be misleading as they fail to detect V. parahaemolyticus in a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state which leads to an underestimation of the population density. In this study, we used a novel fluorescence visualization technique, called recognition of individual gene fluorescence in situ hybridization (RING-FISH), which targets chromosomal DNA for enumeration. A polynucleotide probe labeled with Cyanine 3 (Cy3) was created corresponding to the ubiquitous V. parahaemolyticus gene that codes for thermolabile hemolysin (tlh). When coupled with the Kogure method to distinguish viable from dead cells, RING-FISH probes reliably enumerated total, viable V. parahaemolyticus. The probe was tested for sensitivity and specificity against a pure culture of tlh(+), tdh(-), trh(-)V. parahaemolyticus, pure cultures of Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio fischeri, and a mixed environmental sample. This research will provide additional tools for a better understanding of the risk these environmental organisms pose to human health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. RAW TROPICAL OYSTERS AS VEHICLES FOR MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Albuquerque COSTA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The following study aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains from fresh and frozen oysters Crassostrea rhizophorae sold in Fortaleza-Brazil. An antibiogram was performed on 87 isolates using nine antibiotics: gentamicin (Gen 10 µg, ampicillin (Amp 10 µg, penicillin G (Pen 10U, ciprofloxacin (Cip 5 µg, chloramphenicol (Chl 30 µg, nalidixic acid (Nal 30 µg, tetracycline (Tet 30 µg, vancomycin (Van 30 µg and erythromycin (Ery 15 µg. All strains were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and 85 (97.7% were multi-resistant, with predominance of the Van+ Pen+Amp resistance profile (n = 46. Plasmid resistance to Pen, Amp and Ery was detected. Thus, the risk that raw oyster consumption poses to the health of consumers is highlighted, due to the fact that these bivalves may host antibacterial-resistant microorganisms.

  18. Ultraviolet sensitivity of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a causative bacterium of food poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozu, K.; Ohnishi, T.

    1977-01-01

    A pathogenic strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, strain WP1, is about 5 times more sensitive to killing by ultraviolet light than is the non-pathogenic strain WP28, but WP1 cells have an efficient liquid-holding recovery. The cellular DNA of both strains is fragmented shortly after ultraviolet irradiation, but the fragment DNA is converted in a short time to the initial large molecular size in WP28 cells. In WP1 cells, however, the DNA molecules were degraded rapidly without any apparent rejoining in a growth condition. Post-irradiation liquid-holding made the DNA of WP1 cells stable, as supported by the recovery of DNA synthetic activity in these cells. (author)

  19. Combined treatment of UVA irradiation and antibiotics induces greater bactericidal effects on Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yanfei; Nakahashi, Mutsumi; Mawatari, Kazuaki; Shimohata, Takaaki; Uebanso, Takashi; Harada, Yumi; Tsunedomi, Akari; Emoto, Takahiro; Akutagawa, Masatake; Kinouchi, Yohsuke; Takahashi, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The presence of antibiotics in the environment and their subsequent impact on the development of multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria has raised concerns globally. Consequently, much research is focused on a method to produce a better disinfectant. We have established a disinfectant system using UVA-LED that inactivates pathogenic bacteria. We assessed the bactericidal efficiency of a combination of UVA-LED and antibiotics against Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Combined use of antibiotic drugs and UVA irradiation was more bactericidal than UVA irradiation or antibacterial drugs alone. The bactericidal synergy was observed at low concentrations of each drug that are normally unable to kill the bacteria. This combination has the potential to become a sterilization technology.

  20. Playful Collaboration (Or Not)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel; Sproedt, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how playing games can be used to teach intangible social interaction across boundaries, in particular within open collaborative innovation. We present an exploratory case study of how students learned from playing a board game in a graduate course of the international...... and interdisciplinary Innovation and Business master's program in Denmark. We identify several important themes related to the process of learning through playing and the social dynamics of open collaborative innovation, while we also highlight possible caveats of “playing” and practicing open innovation. Our findings...

  1. Pretend Play and Creative Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Sandra W.; Wallace, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    The authors contend that many cognitive abilities and affective processes important in creativity also occur in pretend play and that pretend play in childhood affects the development of creativity in adulthood. They discuss a variety of theories and observations that attempt to explain the importance of pretend play to creativity. They argue that…

  2. Probiotic modulation of the gut bacterial community of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus CAIM 170

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irasema E Luis-Villaseñor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of two probiotic mixtures was studied using the fingerprints of the bacterial community of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles exposed to probiotics and challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus CAIM 170. Fingerprints were constructed using 16S rRNA gene and the PCR-SSCP (Single strand conformation polymorphism technique, and the probiotics used were an experimental Bacillus mixture (Bacillus tequilensis YC5-2 + B. endophyticus C2-2 and YC3-B and the commercial probiotic Alibio. The DNA for PCR-SSCP analyses was extracted directly from the guts of shrimps treated for 20 days with the probiotics and injected with 2.5*10(5 CFU g-1 of V. parahaemolyticus one week after suspension of the probiotic treatment. Untreated shrimps served as positive (injected with V. parahaemolyticus and negative (not injected controls Analysis of the bacterial community carried out after inoculation and 12 and 48 h later confirmed that V. parahaemolyticus was present in shrimps of the positive control , but not in the negative control or treated with the probiotic mixtures. A significant difference in the diversity of the bacterial community was observed between times after infection. The band patterns in 0-12 h were clustered into a different group from that determined after 48 h, and suggested that during bacterial infection the guts of whiteleg shrimp were dominated by gamma proteobacteria represented by Vibrio sp. and Photobacterium sp. Our results indicate that the experimental and the commercial mixtures are suitable to modulate the bacterial community of L. vannamei and could be used as a probiotic to control vibriosis in juvenile shrimp.

  3. Preliminary study of transplanting as a process for reducing levels of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shellstock oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, William C; Nelson, Chris; Hochman, Mona; Schwarz, John

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly strict standards for harvest of oysters for the raw, half-shell market (designated as "white tag") should increase the proportion of oysters not meeting these standards (designated as "green tag"). Transplanting of green tag oysters into highsalinity waters (>20 practical salinity units) was explored as a means of returning Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus levels to levels present on initial harvest. In summer 2011, oysters originally harvested in Louisiana were transplanted on two separate occasions (n = 2) to two sites in Mississippi Sound, AL: Sandy Bay and Dauphin Island. Oysters were tested for V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus densities (by using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration enrichment method) after 2, 7, and 14 days deployed, with baseline samples taken (i) at the time of original harvest and iced, (ii) from oysters refrigerated within 1 h of harvest at oysters not refrigerated during the harvest trip (green tag) but refrigerated after an 8-h trip. White and green tag oysters were sampled ∼24 h on arrival in Bon Secour, AL, put on ice, and shipped for analysis. Among baseline samples, there were no significant differences in V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus densities, although the densities in the green tag oysters tended to be highest. After transplanting, V. vulnificus densities were significantly highest on day 2, with no significant differences among any of the other days within a site. On day 2, Sandy Bay had significantly greater densities of V. vulnificus than the Dauphin Island site, but no other days differed from time zero. For Vibrio parahaemolyticus, densities were greatest on day 2 and lowest at time zero, but this did not differ significantly from abundance on day 14. Average survival was 83.4% (± 3.13 SD), with no differences between sites. These preliminary results indicate that high-salinity transplanting could be an effective method of converting green tag oysters to oysters suitable for

  4. Inhibiting Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Morganella morganii with Aqueous Methanol Extracts of Punica granatum and Galla chinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Morganella morganii are closely related to foodborne illnesses caused by the consumption of seafood and ready-to-eat (RTE) food. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) have been widely studied as complementary and alternative medicines, and many of them have been verified to have antimicrobial properties. The purpose of this research was to study antimicrobial effects of plant extracts as potential preservatives in seafood products and to ident...

  5. 2D-DIGE and MALDI TOF/TOF MS analysis reveal that small GTPase signaling pathways may play an important role in cadmium-induced colon cell malignant transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jian; Zhou, Zhongping; Zheng, Jianzhou; Zhang, Zhuyi; Lu, Rongzhu; Liu, Hanqing; Shi, Haifeng; Tu, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal present in the environment and in industrial materials. Cadmium has demonstrated carcinogenic activity that induces cell transformation, but how this occurs is unclear. We used 2D-DIGE and MALDI TOF/TOF MS combined with bioinformatics and immunoblotting to investigate the molecular mechanism of cadmium transformation. We found that small GTPases were critical for transformation. Additionally, proteins involved in mitochondrial transcription, DNA repair, and translation also had altered expression patterns in cadmium treated cells. Collectively, our results suggest that activation of small GTPases contributes to cadmium-induced transformation of colon cells. - Highlights: • Colon epithelial cell line is firstly successfully transformed by cadmium. • 2D-DIGE is applied to visualize the differentially expressed proteins. • RhoA plays an important role in cadmium induced malignant transformation. • Bioinformatic and experimental methods are combined to explore new mechanisms.

  6. 2D-DIGE and MALDI TOF/TOF MS analysis reveal that small GTPase signaling pathways may play an important role in cadmium-induced colon cell malignant transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jian, E-mail: lujian@ujs.edu.cn [School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Institute of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zhou, Zhongping [School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Institute of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zheng, Jianzhou [Department of Respiration Medicine, Changzhou No.2 People' s Hospital, Changzhou 213003 (China); Zhang, Zhuyi [School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Institute of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Lu, Rongzhu [School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Liu, Hanqing [School of Pharmacy, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Shi, Haifeng [Institute of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Tu, Zhigang, E-mail: tuzg_ujs@ujs.edu.cn [Institute of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal present in the environment and in industrial materials. Cadmium has demonstrated carcinogenic activity that induces cell transformation, but how this occurs is unclear. We used 2D-DIGE and MALDI TOF/TOF MS combined with bioinformatics and immunoblotting to investigate the molecular mechanism of cadmium transformation. We found that small GTPases were critical for transformation. Additionally, proteins involved in mitochondrial transcription, DNA repair, and translation also had altered expression patterns in cadmium treated cells. Collectively, our results suggest that activation of small GTPases contributes to cadmium-induced transformation of colon cells. - Highlights: • Colon epithelial cell line is firstly successfully transformed by cadmium. • 2D-DIGE is applied to visualize the differentially expressed proteins. • RhoA plays an important role in cadmium induced malignant transformation. • Bioinformatic and experimental methods are combined to explore new mechanisms.

  7. Rapid detection and E-test antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from seafood and environmental sources in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Othrubi, Saleh M; Hanafiah, Alfizah; Radu, Son; Neoh, Humin; Jamal, Rahaman

    2011-04-01

    To find out the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafoods and environmental sources. The study was carried out at the Center of Excellence for Food Safety Research, University Putra Malaysia; Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia; Medical Molecular Biology Institute; and University Kebansaan Malaysia Hospital, Malaysia between January 2006 and August 2008. One hundred and forty-four isolates from 400 samples of seafood (122 isolates) and seawater sources (22 isolates) were investigated for the presence of thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh+) and TDH-related hemolysin (trh+) genes using the standard methods. The E-test method was used to test the antimicrobial susceptibility. The study indicates low occurrence of tdh+ (0.69%) and trh+ isolates (8.3%). None of the isolates tested posses both virulence genes. High sensitivity was observed against tetracycline (98%). The mean minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the isolates toward ampicillin increased from 4 ug/ml in 2004 to 24 ug/ml in 2007. The current study demonstrates a low occurrence of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the marine environment and seafood. Nonetheless, the potential risk of vibrio infection due to consumption of Vibrio parahaemolyticus contaminated seafood in Malaysia should not be neglected.

  8. To play is necessary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Vargas

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This work tries to contemplate on playing, leaving of the observations on the children's games accomplished during the apprenticeship and the articulation of those with some theoretical ones that have been dedicating if to the study of the game, of the childhood and of the Infantile Education. It was possible, through the apprenticeship registrations and of the observations to live many moments in that the two groups, 3A and 3B, they played incorporating objects and creating characters in your games. He/she gave way, we sought focar the game of the do-of-bill, contemplating on your importance for the children in the first childhood, and that possibilities she brings us in the amplification of the infantile experiences. Another important aspect in this article is to contemplate on the teacher's practice in the Infantile Education, and, through our observations on playing of the children noticed the teachers' involvement in the children's games.

  9. Environmental parameters influence on the dynamics of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus densities in Crassostrea virginica harvested from Mexico's Gulf coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Hernández, Karla M; Pardío-Sedas, Violeta T; Lizárraga-Partida, Leonardo; Williams, José de J; Martínez-Herrera, David; Flores-Primo, Argel; Uscanga-Serrano, Roxana; Rendón-Castro, Karla

    2015-02-15

    The influence of environmental parameters on the total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus seasonal densities in American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) was evaluated for 1 year. Harvesting site A yielded the highest mean densities of V. parahaemolyticus tlh+, tdh+/trh-, tdh-/trh+ and tdh+/trh+ during spring season at 2.57, 1.74, 0.36, and -0.40 log10 MPN/g, respectively, and tdh+/orf8+ during winter season (0.90 log10 MPN/g). V. parahaemolyticus tlh+ densities were associated to salinity (R(2)=0.372, Pturbidity (R(2)=0.597, P<0.035), and orf8+ to temperature, salinity, and pH (R(2)=0.964, P<0.001). The exposure to salinity and temperature conditions during winter and spring seasons regulated the dynamics of V. parahaemolyticus harboring potentially pathogenic genotypes within the oyster. The adaptive response of V. parahaemolyticus to seasonal environmental changes may lead to an increase in survival and virulence, threatening the seafood safety and increasing the risk of illness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Aislamiento e identificación de Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3: K6 en pescados y moluscos bivalvos procedentes de un mercado pesquero de Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Aliaga

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la presencia de Vibrio parahaemolyticus serotipo O3:K6 en pescados y moluscos bivalvos procedentes de un mercado pesquero de Lima. Material y Métodos: Se analizaron 254 muestras entre pescados y moluscos bivalvos siguiendo la técnica descrita por Yukiko Harakudo et al, que consta de un paso de enriquecimiento, siembra en medio cromogénico, evaluación de fermentación de glucosa y la prueba de tolerancia a sales. Las cepas identificadas como Vibrio parahaemolyticus fueron serotipificadas usando anticuerpos monoclonales y evaluadas en su potencial patogénico en medio de Wagatsuma. Resultados: Se aislaron 15 cepas de V. parahaemolyticus, 9(7,5% en pescados y 6(4,5% en moluscos bivalvos. Tres (20% presentaron fenómeno de Kanagawa positivo indicando la producción de la hemolisina termoestable directa (TDH. Una cepa TDH-positiva aislada en una muestra pescado fue serotipo O3:K6. Conclusiones: Vibrio parahaemolyticus se encuentra distribuido en los recursos hidrobiológicos estudiados con mayor frecuencia en pescados, a partir de los cuales se encontró el serovar O3:K6. Este es el primer reporte de la cepa pandémica O3:K6 de Vibrio parahaemolyticus aislada de fuente no humana en el Perú. (Rev Med Hered 2010;21:139-145.

  11. PRODUCTOS NATURALES COMO ESTIMULADORES DEL SISTEMA INMUNOLÓGICO DE Litopenaeus vannamei, INFECTADO CON Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Pe\\u00F1a-Navarro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la respuesta inmunológica de Litopenaeus vannamei con manano-oligosacáridos (T1, ajo (T2 y un compuesto de extractos de plantas (T3 después de ser infectados con Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Se realizaron dos bioensayos con una duración de seis (1x106 UFC y catorce (3x106 UFC días en el Centro de Investigación en Ciencias del Mar y Limnología de la Universidad de Costa Rica durante el 2011. Para esta investigación se extrajeron 120 camarones para cada periodo experimental de fincas ubicadas en la Península de Nicoya. Al finalizar la dosificación de los productos se evaluó la ganancia de peso y la conversión alimenticia. Luego de la infección con V. parahaemolyticus se realizaron hemogramas, coagulación, bacteriología de hemolinfa y mortalidad acumulada. Los parámetros inmunológicos no mostraron diferencias estadísticas (P>0,05 entre tratamientos en ningún periodo, sin embargo a los seis días T1 mostró los mejores resultados con 41,07x105 hemocitos/ml; una coagulación de 34,40 s y 4,44x103 UFC/ ml. En el periodo de catorce días T2 obtuvo los mejores valores (55,76x105 hemocitos/ml; una coagulación de 34,20 s y15,4x103 UFC/ml. La mortalidad acumulada se presentó a las diez horas de inoculación, hubo menor cantidad de muertes en T1 y T3 (76,2% a los seis días, mientras que a los catorce días fue para T1 (93,2%. La ganancia de peso y la conversión alimenticia resultaron con diferencias estadísticas (P<0,05 solo para el bioensayo que se extendió por seis días, donde T2 presentó una biomasa de 54,3 g, un incremento en la ganancia de peso de 19,3% y una conversión alimenticia de 1,4.

  12. Vibrio parahaemolyticus produtores de urease isolados a partir de ostras (Crassostrea rizophorae coletadas in natura em restaurantes e mexilhões (Perna perna de banco natural Vibrio parahaemolyticus urease positive isolated from in natura oysters (Crassostrea rizophorae collected at restaurants and mussels (Perna perna harvested from natural habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chistiane Soares Pereira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A presença de Vibrio parahaemolyticus foi avaliada em 50 amostras de moluscos bivalves marinhos compostas por 40 amostras de ostras coletadas em 15 restaurantes do Rio de Janeiro e 10 amostras de mexilhões capturados de banco natural em Ponta de Itaipú - Niterói. Foram empregadas a técnica do Número Mais Provável (NMP para a enumeração de V. parahaemolyticus utilizando Caldo Glicosado Salgado com Teepol (GSTB e Água Peptonada Alcalina (APA com 3% de cloreto de sódio (NaCl. Paralelamente foi realizada técnica de enriquecimento em APA com 1 e 3% de NaCl. Decorrido o período de incubação de ambas as técnicas, foi realizado plaqueamento em ágar TCBS (Tiossulfato Citrato Bile Sacarose. Todas as cepas de V. parahaemolyticus isoladas através das duas técnicas foram testadas para o fenômeno de Kanagawa e, quanto à produção de urease. Do total de 141 cepas de V. parahaemolyticus isoladas, 62% revelaram-se urease positivas e, dentre estas, os sorotipos predominantes foram O10:K?, O11:K? e O3:K57 dentre o total de 24 sorotipos urease positivos identificados. Embora todas as cepas de V. parahaemolyticus tenham sido Kanagawa negativas, os resultados apontam elevada incidência desta espécie em ostras comercializadas em restaurantes.The presence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus were detected in 50 marine bivalve mollusks composed by 40 oysters samples collected at 15 restaurants in Rio de Janeiro City and 10 wild mussels' samples harvested in Ponta de Itaipu-Niterói. The Most Probable Number (MPN technique was employed for the enumeration of V. parahaemolyticus, using glucose salt teepol broth (GSTB and alcaline peptone water (APW with 3% NaCl. At the same time, the samples were submitted on direct plating with APW added 1 and 3% NaCl. Both techniques were followed by plating onto TCBS agar. All the V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated were tested for Kanagawa phenomenon and they were also tested for the presence of urease. A total of 141 V

  13. Playing and gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg; Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hanghøj, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    The paper develops an approach of playing and gaming activities through the perspective of both activities as mood activities . The point of departure is that a game - is a tool with which we, through our practices, achieve different moods. This based on an empirical study of children's everyday...... lives, where the differences emerge through actual practices, i.e. through the creation of meaning in the specific situations. The overall argument is that it is not that important whether it is a playing or a gaming activity - it is however crucial to be aware of how moods occur and what their optimal...... dimensions: practices and moods. Practice is the concept of all the doing in the activities. Moods are the particular concept of sense and feeling of being, which is what we are drawn to when we are playing or gaming....

  14. Inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in hard clams (Mercanaria mercanaria) by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and the effect of HHP on the physical characteristics of hard clam meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mootian, Gabriel K; Flimlin, George E; Karwe, Mukund V; Schaffner, Donald W

    2013-02-01

    Shellfish may internalize dangerous pathogens during filter feeding. Traditional methods of depuration have been found ineffective against certain pathogens. The objective was to explore high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) as an alternative to the traditional depuration process. The effect of HHP on the survival of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in live clams (Mercanaria mercanaria) and the impact of HHP on physical characteristics of clam meat were investigated. Clams were inoculated with up to 7 log CFU/g of a cocktail of V. parahaemolyticus strains via filter feeding. Clams were processed at pressures ranging from 250 to 552 MPa for hold times ranging between 2 and 6 min. Processing conditions of 450 MPa for 4 min and 350 MPa for 6 min reduced the initial concentration of V. parahaemolyticus to a nondetectable level (5 log reductions. The volume of clam meat (processed in shell) increased with negligible change in mass after exposure to pressure at 552 MPa for 3 min, while the drip loss was reduced. Clams processed at 552 MPa were softer compared to those processed at 276 MPa. However, all HHP processed clams were found to be harder compared to unprocessed. The lightness (L*) of the meat increased although the redness (a*) decreased with increasing pressure. Although high pressure-processed clams may pose a significantly lower risk from V. parahaemolyticus, the effect of the accompanied physical changes on the consumer's decision to purchase HHP clams remains to be determined. Shellfish may contain dangerous foodborne pathogens. Traditional methods of removing those pathogen have been found ineffective against certain pathogens. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of high hydrostatic pressure on V. parahaemolyticus in clams. Processing conditions of 450 MPa for 4 min and 350 MPa for 6 min reduced the initial concentration of V. parahaemolyticus to a nondetectable level, achieving >5 log reductions. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. In vitro antagonistic activity and the protective effect of probiotic Bacillus licheniformis Dahb1 in zebrafish challenged with GFP tagged Vibrio parahaemolyticus Dahv2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girija, Vairavan; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Vijayakumar, Sekar; Gobi, Narayanan; Del Valle Herrera, Marian; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Santhanam, Perumal

    2018-01-01

    In vitro antagonistic activity and the protective effect of probiotic Bacillus licheniformis Dahb1 in zebrafish (Danio rerio) challenged with GFP tagged Vibrio parahaemolyticus Dahv2 was studied. The cell free extract of probiotic B. licheniformis Dahb1 at 100 μg mL -1 showed growth inhibition of V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 in vitro. B. licheniformis Dahb1 also inhibited the biofilm growth of GFP tagged V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 at 100 μg mL -1 in vitro. The growth and survival of zebrafish was tested using probiotic B. licheniformis Dahb1. Weight (1.28 g) of zebrafish that received the cell free extract was much higher than in control (1.04 g). The mortality of zebrafish infected with GFP tagged V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 at 10 7 Cfu mL -1 (Group IV) was 100%, whereas a complete survival of zebrafish that received the cell free extract of B. licheniformis Dahb1 at 10 7 Cfu mL -1 (Group VII) was observed after 30 days. The number of GFP tagged V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 colonies in the intestine and gills significantly reduced after treatment with the cell free extract of B. licheniformis Dahb1. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the fluorescent colonies of GFP tagged V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 was observed after treatment with the cell free extract of B. licheniformis Dahb1 under confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). In conclusion, the cell free extract of B. licheniformis Dahb1 could prevent Vibrio infection by enhancing the growth and survival of zebrafish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The ecology of Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio cholerae, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in North Carolina estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Karen Dyer; Oliver, James D

    2008-04-01

    While numerous studies have characterized the distribution and/or ecology of various pathogenic Vibrio spp., here we have simultaneously examined several estuarine sites for Vibrio vulnificus, V. cholerae, and V. parahaemolyticus. For a one year period, waters and sediment were monitored for the presence of these three pathogens at six different sites on the east coast of North Carolina in the United States. All three pathogens, identified using colony hybridization and PCR methods, occurred in these estuarine environments, although V. cholerae occurred only infrequently and at very low levels. Seventeen chemical, physical, and biological parameters were investigated, including salinity, water temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, levels of various inorganic nutrients and dissolved organic carbon, as well as total vibrios, total coliforms, and E. coli. We found each of the Vibrio spp. in water and sediment to correlate to several of these environmental measurements, with water temperature and total Vibrio levels correlating highly (P<0.0001) with occurrence of the three pathogens. Thus, these two parameters may represent simple assays for characterizing the potential public health hazard of estuarine waters.

  17. Forecasting the Human Pathogen Vibrio Parahaemolyticus in Shellfish Tissue within Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, M. M.; DeRosia-Banick, K.

    2016-02-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) is a marine bacterium that occurs naturally in brackish and saltwater environments and may be found in higher concentrations in the warmest months. Vp is a growing threat to producing safe seafood. Consumption of shellfish with high Vp levels can result in gastrointestinal human illnesses. Management response to Vp-related illness outbreaks includes closure of shellfish growing areas. Water quality observations, Vp measurements, and model forecasts are key components to effective management of shellfish growing areas. There is a clear need for observations within the growing area themselves. These areas are offshore of coastal stations and typically inshore of the observing system moorings. New field observations in Long Island Sound (LIS) shellfish growing areas are described and their agreement with high-resolution satellite sea surface temperature data is discussed. A new dataset of Vp concentrations in shellfish tissue is used to determine the LIS-specific Vp vs. temperature relationship following methods in the FDA pre-harvest Vp risk model. This information is combined with output from a high-resolution hydrodynamic model of LIS to make daily forecasts of Vp levels. The influence of river inflows, the role of heat waves, and predictions for future warmer climates are discussed. The key elements of this observational-modeling approach to pathogen forecasting are extendable to other coastal systems.

  18. Antibiotic resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from pond-reared Litopenaeus vannamei marketed in Natal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Maria Rodrigues de Melo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten out of fifty fresh and refrigerated samples of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei collected from retailers in Natal (Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil tested positive for Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The Kanagawa test and multiplex PCR assays were used to detect TDH and TRH hemolysins and the tdh, trh and tlh genes, respectively. All strains were Kanagawa-negative and tlh-positive. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done for seven antibiotics by the agar diffusion technique. Five strains (50% presented multiple antibiotic resistance to ampicillin (90% and amikacin (60%, while two strains (20% displayed intermediate-level resistance to amikacin. All strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol. Intermediate-level susceptibility and/or resistance to other antibiotics ranged from 10 to 90%, with emphasis on the observed growing intermediate-level resistance to ciprofloxacin. Half our isolates yielded a multiple antibiotic resistance index above 0.2 (range: 0.14-0.29, indicating a considerable risk of propagation of antibiotic resistance throughout the food chain.

  19. Structural studies of a polysaccharide from Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain AN-16000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Carolina; Zaccheus, Mona; Weintraub, Andrej; Ansaruzzaman, Mohammad; Widmalm, Göran

    2016-09-02

    The structure of a polysaccharide from Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain AN-16000 has been investigated. The sugar and absolute configuration analysis revealed d-Glc, d-GalN, d-QuiN and l-FucN as major components. The PS was subjected to dephosphorylation with aqueous 40% HF to obtain an oligosaccharide that was analyzed by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The HR-MS spectrum of the oligosaccharide revealed a pentasaccharide composed of two Glc residues, one QuiNAc and one GalNAc, one FucNAc, as well as a glycerol moiety. The structure of the PS was determined using (1)H, (13)C, (15)N and (31)P NMR spectroscopy; inter-residue correlations were identified by (1)H,(13)C-heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation, (1)H,(1)H-NOESY and (1)H,(31)P-hetero-TOCSY experiments. The PS backbone has the following teichoic acid-like structure: →3)-d-Gro-(1-P-6)-β-d-Glcp-(1→4)-α-l-FucpNAc-(1→3)-β-d-QuipNAc-(1→ with a side-chain consisting of α-d-Glcp-(1→6)-α-d-GalpNAc-(1→ linked to the O3 position of the FucNAc residue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Predictive models for the effect of storage temperature on Vibrio parahaemolyticus viability and counts of total viable bacteria in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Piquer, Judith; Bowman, John P; Ross, Tom; Tamplin, Mark L

    2011-12-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an indigenous bacterium of marine environments. It accumulates in oysters and may reach levels that cause human illness when postharvest temperatures are not properly controlled and oysters are consumed raw or undercooked. Predictive models were produced by injecting Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) with a cocktail of V. parahaemolyticus strains, measuring viability rates at storage temperatures from 3.6 to 30.4°C, and fitting the data to a model to obtain parameter estimates. The models were evaluated with Pacific and Sydney Rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) containing natural populations of V. parahaemolyticus. V. parahaemolyticus viability was measured by direct plating samples on thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS) agar for injected oysters and by most probable number (MPN)-PCR for oysters containing natural populations. In parallel, total viable bacterial counts (TVC) were measured by direct plating on marine agar. Growth/inactivation rates for V. parahaemolyticus were -0.006, -0.004, -0.005, -0.003, 0.030, 0.075, 0.095, and 0.282 log₁₀ CFU/h at 3.6, 6.2, 9.6, 12.6, 18.4, 20.0, 25.7, and 30.4°C, respectively. The growth rates for TVC were 0.015, 0.023, 0.016, 0.048, 0.055, 0.071, 0.133, and 0.135 log₁₀ CFU/h at 3.6, 6.2, 9.3, 14.9, 18.4, 20.0, 25.7, and 30.4°C, respectively. Square root and Arrhenius-type secondary models were generated for V. parahaemolyticus growth and inactivation kinetic data, respectively. A square root model was produced for TVC growth. Evaluation studies showed that predictive growth for V. parahaemolyticus and TVC were "fail safe." The models can assist oyster companies and regulators in implementing management strategies to minimize V. parahaemolyticus risk and enhancing product quality in supply chains.

  1. Creativity and Playfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Skovbjerg, Helle Marie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This article explores how student behavior and interactions change when teachers use “producing games” as a primary pedagogical strategy (Papert, 1980; Ejsing-Duun and Karoff, 2014). Based on student and teacher actions and responses, as well as on students' production—observed during f...... fieldwork—this paper emphasizes the importance of understanding how students explore creativity and playfulness while producing in learning situations....

  2. Rapid proliferation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae during freshwater flash floods in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Kevin; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Mosser, Thomas; Rodier, Claire; Tournoud, Marie-George; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Colwell, Rita R; Monfort, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae of the non-O1/non-O139 serotype are present in coastal lagoons of southern France. In these Mediterranean regions, the rivers have long low-flow periods followed by short-duration or flash floods during and after heavy intense rainstorms, particularly at the end of the summer and in autumn. These floods bring large volumes of freshwater into the lagoons, reducing their salinity. Water temperatures recorded during sampling (15 to 24°C) were favorable for the presence and multiplication of vibrios. In autumn 2011, before heavy rainfalls and flash floods, salinities ranged from 31.4 to 36.1‰ and concentrations of V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, and V. cholerae varied from 0 to 1.5 × 10(3) most probable number (MPN)/liter, 0.7 to 2.1 × 10(3) MPN/liter, and 0 to 93 MPN/liter, respectively. Following heavy rainstorms that generated severe flash flooding and heavy discharge of freshwater, salinity decreased, reaching 2.2 to 16.4‰ within 15 days, depending on the site, with a concomitant increase in Vibrio concentration to ca. 10(4) MPN/liter. The highest concentrations were reached with salinities between 10 and 20‰ for V. parahaemolyticus, 10 and 15‰ for V. vulnificus, and 5 and 12‰ for V. cholerae. Thus, an abrupt decrease in salinity caused by heavy rainfall and major flooding favored growth of human-pathogenic Vibrio spp. and their proliferation in the Languedocian lagoons. Based on these results, it is recommended that temperature and salinity monitoring be done to predict the presence of these Vibrio spp. in shellfish-harvesting areas of the lagoons. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Toxicological responses of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix exposed to excess dissolved iron or challenged by Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Qing; Zhang, Yong; Peng, Hui-Fang; Ke, Cai-Huan; Huang, He-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe accumulated in hepatopancreas tissues after iron-enriched exposure. • Ferritin expression was positively correlated with iron concentration in seawater. • Ferritin appears to be involved in iron homeostasis and immune defense mechanism of M. meretrix. • mRNAs of cytokine genes responded faster than antioxidant enzyme genes in immune defense mechanism. • The study gives a new potential biomarker for monitoring iron levels in seawater. - Abstract: The responses of genes encoding defense components such as ferritin, the lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha factor (LITAF), the inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB (IκB), metallothionein, and glutathione peroxidase were assessed at the transcriptional level in order to investigate the toxicological and immune mechanism of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix (HCMM) following challenge with iron or a bacterium (Vibrio parahaemolyticus). Fe dissolved in natural seawater led to an increase of Fe content in both the hepatopancreas and gill tissue of HCMM between 4 and 15 days of exposure. The ferritin gene responded both transcriptionally as indicated by real-time quantitative PCR and translationally as shown by western blotting results to iron exposure and both transcriptional and translational ferritin expression in the hepatopancreas had a positive correlation with the concentration of dissolved iron in seawater. Both iron and V. parahaemolyticus exposure triggered immune responses with similar trends in clam tissues. There was a significant post-challenge mRNA expression of LITAF and IκB at 3 h, ferritin at 24 h, and metallothionein and glutathione peroxidase at 48 h. This behavior might be linked to their specific functions in physiological processes. These results suggested that similar signaling pathways were triggered during both iron and V. parahaemolyticus challenges. Here, we indicated that the ferritin of Meretrix meretrix was an intermediate in the pathway of iron homeostasis

  4. Toxicological responses of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix exposed to excess dissolved iron or challenged by Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qing [State Key Laboratory of Stress Cell Biology, School of Life Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, School of Ocean and Earth Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Zhang, Yong [Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and the Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Peng, Hui-Fang [State Key Laboratory of Stress Cell Biology, School of Life Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Ke, Cai-Huan, E-mail: chke@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, School of Ocean and Earth Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Huang, He-Qing, E-mail: hqhuang@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Stress Cell Biology, School of Life Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, School of Ocean and Earth Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and the Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Fe accumulated in hepatopancreas tissues after iron-enriched exposure. • Ferritin expression was positively correlated with iron concentration in seawater. • Ferritin appears to be involved in iron homeostasis and immune defense mechanism of M. meretrix. • mRNAs of cytokine genes responded faster than antioxidant enzyme genes in immune defense mechanism. • The study gives a new potential biomarker for monitoring iron levels in seawater. - Abstract: The responses of genes encoding defense components such as ferritin, the lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha factor (LITAF), the inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB (IκB), metallothionein, and glutathione peroxidase were assessed at the transcriptional level in order to investigate the toxicological and immune mechanism of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix (HCMM) following challenge with iron or a bacterium (Vibrio parahaemolyticus). Fe dissolved in natural seawater led to an increase of Fe content in both the hepatopancreas and gill tissue of HCMM between 4 and 15 days of exposure. The ferritin gene responded both transcriptionally as indicated by real-time quantitative PCR and translationally as shown by western blotting results to iron exposure and both transcriptional and translational ferritin expression in the hepatopancreas had a positive correlation with the concentration of dissolved iron in seawater. Both iron and V. parahaemolyticus exposure triggered immune responses with similar trends in clam tissues. There was a significant post-challenge mRNA expression of LITAF and IκB at 3 h, ferritin at 24 h, and metallothionein and glutathione peroxidase at 48 h. This behavior might be linked to their specific functions in physiological processes. These results suggested that similar signaling pathways were triggered during both iron and V. parahaemolyticus challenges. Here, we indicated that the ferritin of Meretrix meretrix was an intermediate in the pathway of iron homeostasis

  5. Pesquisa qualitativa em Educação Matemática a distância: aspectos importantes do uso do Role Playing Game como procedimento metodológico de pesquisa Qualitative research in distance Mathematics Education: important aspects of the Role Playing Game as research methodological procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Rosa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo evidencia aspectos do Role Playing Game (RPG, jogo de representação de personagens, que o tornam um importante procedimento de investigação em termos de Pesquisa Qualitativa em Educação (no caso, Educação Matemática a Distância. Esse jogo foi adotado em uma pesquisa (ROSA, 2008 que estudou as relações estabelecidas entre a construção de identidades online e o ensino e a aprendizagem do conceito de Integral Definida (conceito do Cálculo Diferencial e Integral em um curso a distância. Assim, a partir dessa investigação que utilizou o RPG jogado a distância, via chat, como procedimento de coleta de dados, discutimos a inserção desse jogo como procedimento metodológico de pesquisa em Educação Matemática a Distância e caracterizamos como esse processo liga-se a questões referentes à Pesquisa Qualitativa nesse novo cenário: o ciberespaço. Logo, assumimos que adotar o RPG como procedimento de pesquisa favorece tanto o pesquisador, quanto os sujeitos investigados, em termos de mostrarem-se como "diferentes" mesmo sendo "os mesmos" (ROSA, 2008 e isso potencializa a produção do conhecimento matemático, bem como a análise das ações e possibilidades educacionais vislumbradas pelo ser online que se apresenta no ambiente natural apresentado. Também apontamos a adoção do RPG como fator que impele e amplia a concepção pós-estruturalista de Educação que, em ambientes virtuais, cada vez mais, vem destacando e estabelecendo uma amplitude de investigação que transforma esse espaço imaginativo e surpreendente em um ambiente natural de pesquisa.This article highlights aspects of the Role Playing Game (RPG, which make an important procedure in terms of research on Qualitative Research in Distance Education (in this case, Mathematics Education. This game was used in a research (ROSA, 2008 that studied the relations between the construction of online identities and teaching and learning of the concept of

  6. Preoperative Short Form Health Survey Score Is Predictive of Return to Play and Minimal Clinically Important Difference at a Minimum 2-Year Follow-up After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Chang, Brenda; Voleti, Pramod B; Berkanish, Patricia; Cohn, Matthew R; Altchek, David W; Allen, Answorth A; Williams, Riley J

    2017-10-01

    There is increased interest in understanding the preoperative determinants of postoperative outcomes. Return to play (RTP) and the patient-reported minimal clinically important difference (MCID) are useful measures of postoperative outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). To define the MCID after ACLR and to investigate the role of preoperative outcome scores for predicting the MCID and RTP after ACLR. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. There were 294 active athletes enrolled as part of an institutional ACL registry with a minimum 2-year follow-up who were eligible for inclusion. A questionnaire was administered to elicit factors associated with RTP. Patient demographic and clinical data as well as patient-reported outcome measures were captured as part of the registry. Outcome measures included the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective knee evaluation form, Lysholm scale, and 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS). Preoperative outcome score thresholds predictive of RTP were determined using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) with area under the curve (AUC) analysis. The MCID was calculated using a distribution-based method. Multivariable logistic models were fitted to identify predictors for achieving the MCID and RTP. At a mean (±SD) follow-up of 3.7 ± 0.7 years, 231 patients were included from a total 294 eligible patients. The mean age and body mass index were 26.7 ± 12.5 years and 23.7 ± 3.2 kg/m 2 , respectively. Of the 231 patients, 201 (87.0%) returned to play at a mean time of 10.1 months. Two-year postoperative scores on all measures were significantly increased from preoperative scores (IKDC: 50.1 ± 15.6 to 87.4 ± 10.7; Lysholm: 61.2 ± 18.1 to 89.5 ± 10.4; SF-12 PCS: 41.5 ± 9.0 to 54.7 ± 4.6; SF-12 MCS: 53.6 ± 8.1 to 55.7 ± 5.7; P predictive of RTP were the following: IKDC, 60.9; Lysholm, 57.0; SF-12 PCS, 42

  7. Play Therapy: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Maggie L.; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Jessee, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the current issues in play therapy and its implications for play therapists. A brief history of play therapy is provided along with the current play therapy approaches and techniques. This article also touches on current issues or problems that play therapists may face, such as interpreting children's play, implementing…

  8. Binning of shallowly sampled metagenomic sequence fragments reveals that low abundance bacteria play important roles in sulfur cycling and degradation of complex organic polymers in an acid mine drainage community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, G. J.; Andersson, A.; Banfield, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    not expected to reflect the tetranucleotide frequency signature of the host genome. Four unknown tetranucleotide frequency clusters with significant sequence (6 Mb total) were noted and analyzed further. Based on phylogenetic markers and BLAST results, these clusters represent low abundance bacteria including Acintobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. Functional analysis of these clusters revealved that the low- abundance bacteria harbor genes that could potentially encode important ecosystem functions such as sulfur utilization (e.g. polysulfide reductase) and polymer degradation (e.g. chitinase and glycoside hydrolase). We conclude that ESOM clustering of tetranucleotide frequency patterns is an effective method for rapidly binning shotgun community genomic sequences and a valuable tool for analyzing minor community members, which despite their low abundance may play crucial ecological roles.

  9. The Power of Outdoor Play and Play in Natural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemple, Kristen M.; Oh, JiHyun; Kenney, Elizabeth; Smith-Bonahue, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Young children's outdoor play serves important and diverse purposes, including physical exercise and opportunities for growth in all developmental areas. Unfortunately, the amount of time that children spend engaged in unstructured, child-directed outdoor play has diminished significantly in the past generation. In this article, the authors…

  10. Insight Into the Origin and Evolution of the Vibrio parahaemolyticus Pandemic Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romilio T. Espejo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus that emerged in 1995 caused the first known pandemic involving this species. This strain comprises clonal autochthonous ocean-dwelling bacteria whose evolution has occurred in the ocean environment. The low sequence diversity in this population enabled the discovery of information on its origin and evolution that has been hidden in bacterial clones that have evolved over a long period. Multilocus sequencing and microarray analysis, together with phylogenetic analysis, of pandemic and pre-pandemic isolates has suggested that the founder clone was an O3:K6 non-pathogenic strain that initially acquired a toxRS/new region and subsequently acquired at least seven novel genomic islands. Sequencing and comparison of whole genomes later confirmed these early observations, and it confirmed that most of the genetic changes occurred via gene conversion involving horizontally transmitted DNA. The highly clonal population rapidly diversified, especially in terms of antigenicity, and 27 serotypes have already been reported. Comparisons of the core genomes derived from the founder clone indicate that there are only a few hundred single-nucleotide variations between isolates. However, when the whole genome is considered (the core plus non-core genome and from any clonal frame, the amount of DNA with a different clonal frame can reach up to 4.2% and the number of single-nucleotide variations can reach several hundred thousand. Altogether, these and previous observations based on multilocus sequence typing, microarray analysis, and whole-genome sequencing indicate the large contribution made by DNA with different clonal genealogy to genome diversification. The evidence also indicates that horizontal gene transfer (HGT caused the emergence of new pathogens. Furthermore, the extent of HGT seems to depend on the vicissitudes of the life of each bacterium, as exemplified by differences in thousands of base pairs acquired by HGT

  11. A survey of oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in New Zealand for Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirs, M; Depaola, A; Fyfe, R; Jones, J L; Krantz, J; Van Laanen, A; Cotton, D; Castle, M

    2011-05-27

    A microbiological survey was conducted to determine the levels of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) and Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) collected from commercial growing areas in the North Island, New Zealand. The survey was intended to be geographically representative of commercial growing areas of Pacific oysters in New Zealand, while selecting the time frame most likely to coincide with the increased abundance of pathogenic vibrio species. Vp was detected in 94.8% of oyster samples examined (n=58) with a geometric mean concentration of 99.3 MPN/g, while Vv was detected in 17.2% of oyster samples examined with a geometric mean concentration of 7.4 MPN/g. The frequency of Vp positive samples was 1.7 fold greater than reported in a study conducted three decades ago in New Zealand. Potentially virulent (tdh positive) Vp was detected in two samples (3.4%, n=58) while no trh (another virulence marker) positive samples were detected. 16S rRNA genotype could be assigned only to 58.8% of Vv isolates (8:1:1 A:B:AB ratio, n=10). There was a good agreement [98.2% of Vp (n=280) and 94.4% of Vv (n=18) isolates] between molecular tests and cultivation based techniques used to identify Vibrio isolates and there was a significant (R(2)=0.95, Pcultivation. There was no significant correlation between any of the environmental parameters tested and Vp or Vv concentrations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative transcriptomic analysis provides insights into antibacterial mechanisms of Branchiostoma belcheri under Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Lin; Zhu, Qian-Hua; Liang, Ming-Zhong; Wang, Feng; Guo, Jun; Deng, Xian-Yu; Chen, Jun-Yuan; Wang, Yu-Jun; Lin, Lian-Bing

    2018-05-01

    Amphioxus, a basal chordate, is widely considered to be an existing proxy of the invertebrate ancestor of vertebrates, and it exhibits susceptibility to various pathogen infections and pathogenic mimic challenges. Here, in order to understand more clearly its antibacterial mechanisms, we analyzed the ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-depleted transcriptome of Chinese amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri) infected with Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. p.) via next-generation deep sequencing technology (RNA-seq). We identified a total of 3214 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by comparing V. p.-infected and control transcriptome libraries, including 2219 significantly up-regulated and 995 significantly down-regulated DEGs in V. p.-infected amphioxus. The DEGs with the top 10 most dramatic expression fold changes after V. p. infection, as well as 53 immune-related DEGs (IRDs) belonging to four primary categories of innate immunity were analyzed further. Through gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis, DEGs were found to be primarily related to immune processes, apoptosis, catabolic and metabolic processes, binding and enzyme activity, while pathways involving bacterial infection, immune signaling, immune response, cancer, and apoptosis were overrepresented. We validated the RNA-seq results by detecting the expression levels of 10 IRDs using qRT-PCR, and we surveyed the dynamic variation in gene expression for these IRDs at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after V. p. Subsequently, according to the RNA-seq results, the presence of a primitive Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated antibacterial immune signaling pathway was predicted in B. belcheri. This study provides valuable information regarding antibacterial immunity for further research into the evolution of immunity in vertebrates and broadens our understanding of the innate immune response against bacterial invasion in amphioxus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship of aquatic environmental factors with the abundance of Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio mimicus and Vibrio vulnificus in the coastal area of Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Robles, A; Acedo Félix, E; Gomez-Gil, B; Quiñones Ramírez, E I; Nevárez-Martínez, M; Noriega-Orozco, L

    2013-12-01

    Members of the genus Vibrio are common in aquatic environments. Among them are V. cholerae, V. vulnificus, V. parahaemolyticus and V. mimicus. Several studies have shown that environmental factors, such as temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen, are involved in their epidemiology. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to determine if there is a correlation between the presence/amount of V. cholerae, V, vulnificus, V. parahaemolyticus and V. mimicus and the environmental conditions of the seawater off the coast of Guaymas, México. Quantification of all four pathogenic bacteria was performed using the most probable number method, and suspected colonies were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Correlations were found using principal component analysis. V. parahaemolyticus was the most abundant and widely distributed bacteria, followed by V. vulnificus, V. mimicus and V. cholerae. Positive correlations between V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. mimicus with temperature, salinity, electric conductivity, and total dissolved solids were found. The abundance of V. cholerae was mainly affected by the sampling site and not by physicochemical parameters.

  14. N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone-degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa PsDAHP1 protects zebrafish against Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoj, Gopalakrishnan; Jayakumar, Rengarajan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Shanthi, Sathappan; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2015-01-01

    Four strains of N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (AHL)-degrading Pseudomonas spp., named PsDAHP1, PsDAHP2, PsDAHP3, and PsDAHP4 were isolated and identified from the intestine of Fenneropenaeus indicus. PsDAHP1 showed the highest AHL-degrading activity among the four isolates. PsDAHP1 inhibited biofilm-forming exopolysaccharide and altered cell surface hydrophobicity of virulent green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Vibrio parahaemolyticus DAHV2 (GFP-VpDAHV2). Oral administration of PsDAHP1 significantly reduced zebrafish mortality caused by GFP-VpDAHV2 challenge, and inhibited colonisation of GFP-VpDAHV2 in the gills and intestine of zebrafish as evidence by confocal laser scanning microscope and selective plating. Furthermore, zebrafish receiving PsDAHP1-containing feed had increased phagocytic cells of its leucocytes, increased serum activities of superoxide dismutase and lysozyme. The results suggest that Pseudomonas aeruginosa PsDAHP1 could protect zebrafish from V. parahaemolyticus infection by inhibiting biofilm formation and enhancing defence mechanisms of the fish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dynamic localization of MreB in Vibrio parahaemolyticus and in the ectopic host bacterium Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Shen-Wen; Chen, Shau-Yan; Wong, Hin-chung

    2008-11-01

    MreB, a homolog of eukaryotic actin, participates in morphogenesis, cell division, cell polarity, and chromosome segregation in prokaryotes. In this study, a yellow fluorescent protein conjugate (YFP-MreB(Vp)) was generated to investigate the behavior of MreB in merodiploid strain SC9 of the enteropathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Under normal growth conditions, YFP-MreB(Vp) formed helical filaments with a pitch of 0.64 +/- 0.09 microm in about 85% of exponential-phase cells, and different clusters, relaxed coils, and ring configurations were observed in a small proportion of the cells. Overexpression of YFP-MreB(Vp) substantially altered the structure of the MreB cytoskeleton and resulted in swollen and pleomorphic cells. Disturbing the activities of penicillin-binding proteins or adding magnesium suppressed the morphological distortions. These results indicate that mislocalization of cell wall-synthesizing machinery was responsible for morphological abnormality. By expressing YFP-MreB(Vp) in the ectopic host bacterium Escherichia coli, shrinkage, fragmentation, and annealing of MreB(Vp) filaments were directly observed. This work revealed the dynamic pattern of the localization of YFP-MreB(Vp) in V. parahaemolyticus and its relationship to cell morphogenesis, and the YFP-MreB(Vp)-E. coli system may be used to investigate the dynamic spatial structures of the MreB cytoskeleton in vivo.

  16. Evaluation of medicinal plants and colloidal silver efficiency against Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection in Litopenaeus vannamei cultured at low salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Covarrubias, María Soledad; García-Aguilar, Noemí; Bolan-Mejía, María Del; Puello-Cruz, Ana Carmela

    2016-11-22

    In shrimp aquaculture, reduction in the use of synthetic antibiotics is a priority due to the high incidence of resistant bacteria (Vibrio) in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. An increasing number of studies show bactericidal activity of natural treatments in aquaculture. The effectiveness of neem (Azadirachta indica) and oregano (Lippia berlandieri) aqueous extracts and colloidal silver against V. parahaemolyticus were evaluated in low salinity shrimp culture. Results show that aqueous extracts of oregano and neem each present a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 62.50 mg ml-1 and inhibitory halos of 12.0 to 19.0 mm. Colloidal silver gave a MIC of 2 mg ml-1, and the inhibitory halos were found to be between 11.8 and 18.8 mm, depending on treatment concentrations. An in vivo challenge test was conducted on white shrimp postlarvae cultured at low salinity (5 practical salinity units, PSU), and a significant increase (p colloidal silver 90%), when compared to the control (0%) in the challenge test. However, no significant differences were observed between treatments, suggesting that they all act as alternative bactericidal source agents against V. parahaemolyticus infections for L. vannamei postlarvae when cultured at 5 PSU.

  17. Design for Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feder, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of the new Design for Play initiative is to inspire and educate designers to design for the future of play. To create “play ambassadors” equipped with excellent tools, methods, approaches and mind-sets to design for the playful human being in an ever-changing world. To teach...... and inspire children to grow up to be creative designers of their own life and the world around them. The Design for Play research team will study the interplay between people, processes and products in design for play and support the development of playful designers, playful solutions and playful experiences...

  18. Abundance of Vibrio cholerae, V. vulnificus, and V. parahaemolyticus in oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) from Long Island sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jessica L; Lüdeke, Catharina H M; Bowers, John C; DeRosia-Banick, Kristin; Carey, David H; Hastback, William

    2014-12-01

    Vibriosis is a leading cause of seafood-associated morbidity and mortality in the United States. Typically associated with consumption of raw or undercooked oysters, vibriosis associated with clam consumption is increasingly being reported. However, little is known about the prevalence of Vibrio spp. in clams. The objective of this study was to compare the levels of Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oysters and clams harvested concurrently from Long Island Sound (LIS). Most probable number (MPN)-real-time PCR methods were used for enumeration of total V. cholerae, V. vulnificus, V. parahaemolyticus, and pathogenic (tdh(+) and/or trh(+)) V. parahaemolyticus. V. cholerae was detected in 8.8% and 3.3% of oyster (n = 68) and clam (n = 30) samples, with levels up to 1.48 and 0.48 log MPN/g in oysters and clams, respectively. V. vulnificus was detected in 97% and 90% of oyster and clam samples, with median levels of 0.97 and -0.08 log MPN/g, respectively. V. parahaemolyticus was detected in all samples, with median levels of 1.88 and 1.07 log MPN/g for oysters and clams, respectively. The differences between V. vulnificus and total and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus levels in the two shellfish species were statistically significant (P oysters than in hard clams. Additionally, the data suggest differences in vibrio populations between shellfish harvested from different growing area waters within LIS. These results can be used to evaluate and refine illness mitigation strategies employed by risk managers and shellfish control authorities. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Photorhabdus insect-related (Pir) toxin-like genes in a plasmid of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the causative agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) of shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jee Eun; Tang, Kathy F. J.; Tran, Loc H.; Lightner, Donald V.

    2016-01-01

    The 69 kb plasmid pVPA3-1 was identified in Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain 13-028/A3 that can cause acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND). This disease is responsible for mass mortalities in farmed penaeid shrimp and is referred to as early mortality syndrome (EMS). The plasmid has a GC content of 45.9% with a copy number of 37 per bacterial cell as determined by comparative quantitative PCR analyses. It consists of 92 open reading frames that encode mobilization proteins, replication enzymes, transposases, virulence-associated proteins, and proteins similar to Photorhabdus insect-related (Pir) toxins. In V. parahaemolyticus, these Pir toxin-like proteins are encoded by 2 genes ( pirA- and pirB-like) located within a 3.5 kb fragment flanked with inverted repeats of a transposase-coding sequence (1 kb). The GC content of these 2 genes is only 38.2%, substantially lower than that of the rest of the plasmid, which suggests that these genes were recently acquired. Based on a proteomic analysis, the pirA-like (336 bp) and pirB-like (1317 bp) genes encode for 13 and 50 kDa proteins, respectively. In laboratory cultures of V. parahaemolyticus 13-028/A3, both proteins were secreted into the culture medium. We developed a duplex PCR diagnostic method, with a detection limit of 105 CFU ml−1 and targeting pirA- and pirB-like genes in this strain of V. parahaemolyticus. This PCR protocol can reliably detect AHPND-causing strains of V. parahaemolyticus and does not cross react with non-pathogenic strains or with other species of Vibrio isolated from shrimp ponds. PMID:25667334

  20. Why do adult dogs 'play'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, John W S; Pullen, Anne J; Rooney, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Among the Carnivora, play behaviour is usually made up of motor patterns characteristic of predatory, agonistic and courtship behaviour. Domestic dogs are unusual in that play is routinely performed by adults, both socially, with conspecifics and with humans, and also asocially, with objects. This enhanced playfulness is commonly thought to be a side effect of paedomorphosis, the perpetuation of juvenile traits into adulthood, but here we suggest that the functions of the different types of play are sufficiently distinct that they are unlikely to have arisen through a single evolutionary mechanism. Solitary play with objects appears to be derived from predatory behaviour: preferred toys are those that can be dismembered, and a complex habituation-like feedback system inhibits play with objects that are resistant to alteration. Intraspecific social play is structurally different from interspecific play and may therefore be motivationally distinct and serve different goals; for example, dogs often compete over objects when playing with other dogs, but are usually more cooperative when the play partner is human. The majority of dogs do not seem to regard competitive games played with a human partner as "dominance" contests: rather, winning possession of objects during games appears to be simply rewarding. Play may be an important factor in sociality, since dogs are capable of extracting social information not only from games in which they participate, but also from games that they observe between third parties. We suggest that the domestic dog's characteristic playfulness in social contexts is an adaptive trait, selected during domestication to facilitate both training for specific purposes, and the formation of emotionally-based bonds between dog and owner. Play frequency and form may therefore be an indicator of the quality of dog-owner relationships. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Play at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier Sørensen, Bent; Spoelstra, Sverre

    2012-01-01

    The interest in organizational play is growing, both in popular business discourse and organization studies. As the presumption that play is dysfunctional for organizations is increasingly discarded, the existing positions may be divided into two camps; one proposes ‘serious play’ as an engine fo...... workplaces engage in play: play as a (serious) continuation of work, play as a (critical) intervention into work and play as an (uninvited) usurpation of work....

  2. Playing on the edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak-Sassenrath, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    and specific ways. For instance, gambling for money, party and drinking games, professional play and show sports, art installations, violent and military propaganda computer games, pervasive/mobile gaming, live-action role playing, festivals, performances, and games such as Ghosting and Planking. It is argued......Everything gets more interesting, challenging, or intense the closer it gets to the edge, and so does play. How edgy can play become and still be play? Based on Huizinga’s notion of play, this chapter discusses how a wide range of playful activities pushes the boundaries of play in different...... that in concert with a number of characteristics that mark an activity as play, play is essentially a subjective perspective and individual decision of the player. Huizinga calls this attitude the play spirit, which informs a player’s actions and is in turn sustained by them. Edgy digital or mobile games do...

  3. Effects of ambient exposure, refrigeration, and icing on Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus abundances in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J L; Lydon, K A; Kinsey, T P; Friedman, B; Curtis, M; Schuster, R; Bowers, J C

    2017-07-17

    Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) and V. parahaemolyticus (Vp) illnesses are typically acquired through the consumption of raw molluscan shellfish, particularly oysters. As Vibrio spp. are naturally-occurring bacteria, one means of mitigation of illness is achieved by limiting post-harvest growth. In this study, effects of ambient air storage, refrigeration, and icing of oysters on Vibrio spp. abundances were examined at two sites in Alabama (AL) [Dog River (DR) and Cedar Point (CP)] and one site in Delaware Bay, New Jersey (NJ). As the United States shellfish program recommendations include testing for total these organisms and gene targets, Vv and total (tlh) and pathogenic (tdh+ and trh+) Vp were enumerated from samples using MPN-real-time-PCR approaches. Mean Vv and Vp abundances in oysters from AL-DR were lowest in immediately iced samples (2.3 and -0.1 log MPN/g, respectively) and highest in the 5h ambient then refrigerated samples (3.4 and 0.5 log MPN/g, respectively). Similarly, in AL-CP Vv and Vp mean levels in oysters were lowest in immediately iced samples (3.6 and 1.2 log MPN/g, respectively) and highest in 5h ambient then refrigerated samples (5.1 and 3.2 log MPN/g, respectively). Mean levels of pathogenic Vp from AL sites were frequently below the limit of detection (oysters were highest in samples which were held for 7h in the shade (5.3 and 4.8 log MPN/g, respectively). Mean pathogenic Vp levels in oysters at initial harvest were also highest in oysters 7h in the shade (2.1 and 2.2 log MPN/g for tdh+ and trh+ Vp). Regardless of sampling location, Vibrio spp. levels were generally significantly (poysters exposed to 5h of air storage compared to the initially harvested samples. In addition, the data demonstrated that the use of layered ice resulted in lower Vibrio spp. levels in oysters, compared to those that were refrigerated post-harvest. These results suggest vibriosis risk can be mitigated by shorter storage times and more rapid cooling of oysters

  4. The Play of Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews the role of play within psychotherapy. She does not discuss the formal play therapy especially popular for young children, nor play from the Jungian perspective that encourages the use of the sand tray with adults. Instead, she focuses on the informal use of play during psychotherapy as it is orchestrated intuitively. Because…

  5. Play Therapy. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landreth, Garry; Bratton, Sue

    Play therapy is based on developmental principles and, thus, provides, through play, developmentally appropriate means of expression and communication for children. Therefore, skill in using play therapy is an essential tool for mental health professionals who work with children. Therapeutic play allows children the opportunity to express…

  6. Child's Play: Therapist's Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Rajakumari P.; Hirisave, Uma

    2014-01-01

    Play has been recognized as an essential component to children's healthy development. Schools of play therapy differ philosophically and technically, but they all embrace the therapeutic and developmental properties of play. This case report is an illustration of how a 6-year-old child with emotional disorder was facilitated to express concerns in child-centered play therapy. The paper discusses the therapist's narration of the child's play. PMID:24860228

  7. Play Therapy: Practice, Issues, and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homeyer, Linda E.; Morrison, Mary O.

    2008-01-01

    Play therapy is an effective means of responding to the mental health needs of young children and is widely accepted as a valuable and developmentally appropriate intervention. The authors discuss the importance of play in development, the therapeutic benefits of play, the rich history of play therapy, and recent research and current issues and…

  8. Pretend Play in the Early Childhood Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntire, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This article presents and summarizes recent resources related to pretend play in the early childhood classroom. These include "Contemporary Perspectives on Play in Early Childhood Education" by Olivia N. Sarachoe and Bernard Spodek; "Dramatic Play: Bring It Back" by Tammy Benson; and "The Importance of Being Playful" by Elena Bodrova and Deborah…

  9. Level playing field with political tact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onderstal, S.; Appelman, M.

    2004-01-01

    Businesses, interest groups and policy administrators plead for a level playing field. However, those administrators interpret the level playing field notion in different ways and thus create confusion. In this article the level playing field is explained and a framework discussed by means of which the government can study policy problems in which the level playing field is of importance [nl

  10. GFP tagged Vibrio parahaemolyticus Dahv2 infection and the protective effects of the probiotic Bacillus licheniformis Dahb1 on the growth, immune and antioxidant responses in Pangasius hypophthalmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobi, Narayanan; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Sekar, Vijayakumar; Shanthi, Sathappan; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Jayakumar, Rengarajan; Khudus Nazar, Abdul

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the pathogenicity of GFP tagged Vibrio parahaemolyticus Dahv2 and the protective effect of the probiotic strain, Bacillus licheniformis Dahb1 was studied on the Asian catfish, Pangasius hypophthalmus. The experiment was carried out for 24 days with three groups and one group served as the control (without treatment). In the first group, P. hypophthalmus was orally infected with 1 mL of GFP tagged V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 at two different doses (10(5) and 10(7) cfu mL(-1)). In the second group, P. hypophthalmus was orally administrated with 1 ml of the probiotic B. licheniformis Dahb1 at two different doses (10(5) and 10(7) cfu mL(-1)). In the third group, P. hypophthalmus was orally infected first with 1 mL of GFP tagged V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 followed by the administration of 1 mL of B. licheniformis Dahb1 (combined treatment) at two different doses (10(5) and 10(7) cfu mL(-1)). The growth, immune (myeloperoxidase, respiratory burst, natural complement haemolytic and lysozyme activity) and antioxidant (glutathione-S-transferase, reduced glutathione and total glutathione) responses of P. hypophthalmus were reduced after post infection of GFP tagged V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 compared to control. However, after administration with the probiotic B. licheniformis Dahb1 at 10(5) cfu mL(-1), P. hypophthalmus showed significant increase in the growth, immune and antioxidant responses compared to 10(7) cfu mL(-1). On the otherhand, the growth, immune and antioxidant responses of P. hypophthalmus infected and administrated with combined GFP tagged Vibrio + Bacillus at 10(5) cfu mL(-1) were relatively higher than that of GFP tagged V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 and control groups but lower than that of probiotic B. licheniformis Dahb1 groups. The results of the present study conclude that the probiotic B. licheniformis Dahb1 at 10(5) cfu mL(-1) has the potential to protect the P. hypophthalmus against V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 infection by enhancing the growth

  11. Alibis for Adult Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The social meanings of play sit at odds with norms of responsible and productive adult conduct. To be “caught” playing as an adult therefore risks embarrassment. Still, many designers want to create enjoyable, nonembarrassing play experiences for adults. To address this need, this article reads instances of spontaneous adult play through the lens of Erving Goffman’s theory of the interaction order to unpack conditions and strategies for nonembarrassing adult play. It identifies established frames, segregated audiences, scripts supporting smooth performance, managing audience awareness, role distancing, and, particularly, alibis for play: Adults routinely provide alternative, adult-appropriate motives to account for their play, such as child care, professional duties, creative expression, or health. Once legitimized, the norms and rules of play themselves then provide an alibi for behavior that would risk being embarrassing outside play.

  12. Separation of active and inactive fractions from starved culture of Vibrio parahaemolyticus by density dependent cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Binaya Bhusan; Kamiya, Eriko; Nishino, Tomohiko; Wada, Minoru; Nishimura, Masahiko; Kogure, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    The co-existence of physiologically different cells in bacterial cultures is a general phenomenon. We have examined the applicability of the density dependent cell sorting (DDCS) method to separate subpopulations from a long-term starvation culture of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The cells were subjected to Percoll density gradient and separated into 12 fractions of different buoyant densities, followed by measuring the cell numbers, culturability, respiratory activity and leucine incorporation activity. While more than 78% of cells were in lighter fractions, about 95% of culturable cells were present in heavier fractions. The high-density subpopulations also had high proportion of cells capable of forming formazan granules. Although this was accompanied by the cell specific INT-reduction rate, both leucine incorporation rates and INT-reduction rates per cell had a peak at mid-density fraction. The present results indicated that DDCS could be used to separate subpopulations of different physiological conditions.

  13. Variations of immune parameters in the lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus after infection with enteritis pathogen of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tingting; Zhang, Dong; Liu, Xin; Xiao, Dongxue

    2016-03-01

    Enteritis has been increasingly recognized as one of the major obstacles for the lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus mass culture success. In the present study, the intestinal bacteria strains of the lined seahorses H. erectus suffered from enteritis were isolated, then their pathogenicities were confirmed by artificial infection, and one pathogenic bacteria strain named DS3 was obtained. The median lethal dose (LD50) of strain DS3 for 10 days was determined. The seahorses with different infection levels of uninfected (control), early stage of infection (ESI) and late stage of infection (LSI) were respectively sampled at 0, 3, 6 and 9 days post infection, and 12 immune parameters in the plasma were analyzed. The strain DS3 identified with a biochemical test combined with a molecular method was Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and its LD50 for 10 days was 1.3 × 10(3) cfu/fish. Six parameters including monocytes/leucocytes, leucocytes phagocytic rate, interleukin-2, interferon-α, lysozyme and immunoglobulin M exhibited a generally similar variation trend: highest in the control, second in the ESI and lowest in the LSI throughout the entire experiment. In view of the infection level of V. parahaemolyticus to H. erectus is largely decided by the seahorse's own immune capacity, therefore, these immune parameters were high in the non- or slightly infected seahorses, and low in the severely infected individuals may be an indicator for immune level. These immune parameters may be reliable indicators for the juvenile and broodstock quality assessment. Moreover, clarification of the enteritis pathogen also provides guidances for targeted medicine choice for the lined seahorse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhancement of the immune response and protection against Vibrio parahaemolyticus by indigenous probiotic Bacillus strains in mud crab (Scylla paramamosain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui-Juan; Sun, Ling-Bin; Li, Chuan-Biao; Li, Zhong-Zhen; Zhang, Zhao; Wen, Xiao-Bo; Hu, Zhong; Zhang, Yue-Ling; Li, Sheng-Kang

    2014-12-01

    In a previous study, bacterial communities of the intestine in three populations of crabs (wild crabs, pond-raised healthy crabs and diseased crabs) were probed by culture-independent methods. In this study, we examined the intestinal communities of the crabs by bacterial cultivation with a variety of media. A total of 135 bacterial strains were isolated from three populations of mud crabs. The strains were screened for antagonistic activity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus using an agar spot assay. Antagonistic strains were then identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Three strains (Bacillus subtilis DCU, Bacillus pumilus BP, Bacillus cereus HL7) with the strongest antagonistic activity were further evaluated for their probiotic characteristics. The results showed that two (BP and DCU) of them were able to survive low pH and high bile concentrations, showed good adherence characteristics and a broad spectrum of antibiotic resistance. The probiotic effects were then tested by feeding juvenile mud crabs (Scylla paramamosain) with foods supplemented with 10(5) CFU/g of BP or DCU for 30 days before being subjected to an immersion challenge with V. parahaemolyticus for 48 h. The treated crabs showed significantly higher expression levels of immune related genes (CAT, proPO and SOD) and activities of respiratory burst than that in controlled groups. Crabs treated with BP and DCU supplemented diets exhibited survival rates of 76.67% and 78.33%, respectively, whereas survival rate was 54.88% in crabs not treated with the probiotics. The data showed that indigenous mud-associated microbiota, such as DCU and BP, have potential application in controlling pathogenic Vibriosis in mud crab aquaculture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genomic Variation and Evolution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus ST36 over the Course of a Transcontinental Epidemic Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Martinez-Urtaza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-related infections with illnesses undergoing a geographic expansion. In this process of expansion, the most fundamental change has been the transition from infections caused by local strains to the surge of pandemic clonal types. Pandemic clone sequence type 3 (ST3 was the only example of transcontinental spreading until 2012, when ST36 was detected outside the region where it is endemic in the U.S. Pacific Northwest causing infections along the U.S. northeast coast and Spain. Here, we used genome-wide analyses to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the V. parahaemolyticus ST36 clone over the course of its geographic expansion during the previous 25 years. The origin of this lineage was estimated to be in ~1985. By 1995, a new variant emerged in the region and quickly replaced the old clone, which has not been detected since 2000. The new Pacific Northwest (PNW lineage was responsible for the first cases associated with this clone outside the Pacific Northwest region. After several introductions into the northeast coast, the new PNW clone differentiated into a highly dynamic group that continues to cause illness on the northeast coast of the United States. Surprisingly, the strains detected in Europe in 2012 diverged from this ancestral group around 2000 and have conserved genetic features present only in the old PNW lineage. Recombination was identified as the major driver of diversification, with some preliminary observations suggesting a trend toward a more specialized lifestyle, which may represent a critical element in the expansion of epidemics under scenarios of coastal warming.

  16. Children, Time, and Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkind, David; Rinaldi, Carla; Flemmert Jensen, Anne

    Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003.......Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003....

  17. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  18. Play the MRI Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teachers' Questionnaire MRI Play MRI the Magnetic Miracle Game About the game In the MRI imaging technique, strong magnets and ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  19. Play the Tuberculosis Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questionnaire Tuberculosis Play Tuberculosis Experiments & Discoveries About the game Discover and experience some of the classic methods ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  20. Play the Electrocardiogram Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Electrocardiogram Play the ECG Game About the game ECG is used for diagnosing heart conditions by ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  1. [Play therapy in hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Katharina; Grothues, Dirk; Leitzmann, Michael; Gruber, Hans; Melter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The following article presents an overview of current research studies on play therapy in the hospital. It highlights individual diagnoses for which play therapy has shown reasonable success. The aim of this review is to describe the current status of the scientific debate on play therapy for sick children in order to allow conclusions regarding the indications for which play therapy is or might be useful.

  2. The play grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh, Rune; Johansen, Asger

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose The Play Grid, a model for systemizing different play types. The approach is psychological by nature and the actual Play Grid is based, therefore, on two pairs of fundamental and widely acknowledged distinguishing characteristics of the ego, namely: extraversion vs. intro...

  3. Play the Mosquito Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Malaria Play the Mosquito Game Play the Parasite Game About the games Malaria is one of the world's most common ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  4. Playing with the city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosca, Susana; Marquez, Israel

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and describe the phenomenon of videogame street art as a specific kind of street art. We consider its materiality and significance, and conceptualize it in the light of a double manifestation of play: the playful appropriation of the city by the artist and the fact...... that street art encapsulates the act of playing videogames in a visual form. Digital play spills out of our computer screens and occupies the urban space with the explicit intention of involving spectators, who are invited to play in symbolic ways that actualize nostalgic memories of gaming and can be related...

  5. Playing with social identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    as pretence, children’s play is understood as an activity involving rules of the social order (roles and positions) as well as identification processes (imagined situations). The theoretical argumentation builds on empirical examples obtained in two different Danish day-care centres. The chapter is informed...... by ethnographic observations and draws on illustrative examples with symbolic group play as well as game-play with rules (soccer) among 5 year old boys. Findings suggest that day-care children’s play, involves negotiation of roles, positioning and identification, and rules – and that these negotiations......This chapter offers support for Vygotsky’s claim that all play involves both an imagined situation as well as rules. Synthesising Schousboe’s comprehensive model of spheres of realities in playing (see Chapter 1, this volume) with Lev Vygotskys insight that all playing involve rules as well...

  6. pirABvp-Bearing Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio campbellii Pathogens Isolated from the Same AHPND-Affected Pond Possess Highly Similar Pathogenic Plasmids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Dong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND is a severe shrimp disease originally shown to be caused by virulent strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VPAHPND. Rare cases of AHPND caused by Vibrio species other than V. parahaemolyticus were reported. We compared an AHPND-causing V. campbellii (VCAHPND and a VPAHPND isolate from the same AHPND-affected pond. Both strains are positive for the virulence genes pirABvp. Immersion challenge test with Litopenaeus vannamei indicated the two strains possessed similar pathogenicity. Complete genome comparison showed that the pirABvp-bearing plasmids in the two strains were highly homologous, and they both shared high homologies with plasmid pVA1, the reported pirABvp-bearing plasmid. Conjugation and DNA-uptake genes were found on the pVA1-type plasmids and the host chromosomes, respectively, which may facilitate the dissemination of pirABvp. Novel variations likely driven by ISVal1 in the genetic contexts of the pirABvp genes were found in the two strains. Moreover, the VCAHPND isolate additionally contains multiple antibiotic resistance genes, which may bring difficulties to control its future outbreak. The dissemination of the pirABvp in non-parahaemolyticus Vibrio also rises the concern of missing detection in industrial settings since the isolation method currently used mainly targeting V. parahaemolyticus. This study provides timely information for better understanding of the causes of AHPND and molecular epidemiology of pirABvp and also appeals for precautions to encounter the dissemination of the hazardous genes.

  7. Učinak začina i različitih biljaka na preživljavanje i rast bakterije Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    OpenAIRE

    Filipović, Ivana; Zdolec, Nevijo; Dobranić, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the antibacterial activity of a total of 16 spices at a final concentration of 2.5 % against V. parahaemolyticus at two different temperatures, 5 and 37 ºC, was tested. Anise seed, chili, cloves, cinnamon, coriander seed, cumin, curry, garlic, ginger, oregano, paprika, black and white pepper, rosemary, thyme and turmeric, were collected from a retail store from the same producer. Prior to antibacterial screening, the spices were analyzed using standard microbiological procedure...

  8. Passive Immune-Protection of Litopenaeus vannamei against Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Infections with Anti-Vibrio Egg Yolk (IgY-Encapsulated Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojian Gao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio spp. are major causes of mortality in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei which is lacking adaptive immunity. Passive immunization with a specific egg yolk antibody (IgY is a potential method for the protection of shrimp against vibriosis. In this study, immune effects of the specific egg yolk powders (IgY against both V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus on white shrimp were evaluated. The egg yolk powders against V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus for passive immunization of white shrimp were prepared, while a tube agglutination assay and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA were used for detection of IgY titer. Anti-Vibrio egg yolk was encapsulated by β-cyclodextrin, which could keep the activity of the antibody in the gastrointestinal tract of shrimp. The results showed that the anti-Vibrio egg powders had an inhibiting effect on V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus in vitro. Lower mortality of infected zoeae, mysis, and postlarva was observed in groups fed with anti-Vibrio egg powders, compared with those fed with normal egg powders. The bacterial load in postlarva fed with specific egg powders in seeding ponds was significantly lower than those fed with normal egg powders in seeding ponds. These results show that passive immunization by oral administration with specific egg yolk powders (IgY may provide a valuable protection of vibrio infections in white shrimp.

  9. FairyPlay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Herdis

    2018-01-01

    in a play culture where children recycle them in transmitted, transformed and transgressive modes. His fairy tales function as raw materials – trash – for play-production, and these contemporary children muddle, mingle, remix their formulas and elements with other materials and adjust them to a play context......Hans Christian Andersen is a cultural icon in the Danish community, and his fairy tales are canonized as treasured Danish cultural heritage. However, situated as they are today in a crosscultural mix between folklore, booklore and medialore, they also may be analysed as useful, treasured trash...... through improvisations. So they perform what we shall name FairyPlay - just like Hans Christian Andersen himself did. We show Hans Christian Andersen as an intimate connoisseur of play culture, a homo ludens, a trash-sculptor and a thing-finder, like Pippi Longstocking and like children in play. Examples...

  10. Work Hard / Play Hard

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, J.; Johnson, V.; Henckel, D.

    2016-01-01

    Work Hard / Play Hard was a participatory performance/workshop or CPD experience hosted by interdisciplinary arts atelier WeAreCodeX, in association with AntiUniversity.org. As a socially/economically engaged arts practice, Work Hard / Play Hard challenged employees/players to get playful, or go to work. 'The game changes you, you never change the game'. Employee PLAYER A 'The faster the better.' Employer PLAYER B

  11. Where are kids getting their empty calories? Stores, schools, and fast-food restaurants each played an important role in empty calorie intake among US children during 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poti, Jennifer M; Slining, Meghan M; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-06-01

    Consumption of empty calories, the sum of energy from added sugar and solid fat, exceeds recommendations, but little is known about where US children obtain these empty calories. The objectives of this study were to compare children's empty calorie consumption from retail food stores, schools, and fast-food restaurants; to identify food groups that were top contributors of empty calories from each location; and to determine the location providing the majority of calories for these key food groups. This cross-sectional analysis used data from 3,077 US children aged 2 to 18 years participating in the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The empty calorie content of children's intake from stores (33%), schools (32%), and fast-food restaurants (35%) was not significantly different in 2009-2010. In absolute terms, stores provided the majority of empty calorie intake (436 kcal). The top contributors of added sugar and solid fat from each location were similar: sugar-sweetened beverages, grain desserts, and high-fat milk∗ from stores; high-fat milk, grain desserts, and pizza from schools; and sugar-sweetened beverages, dairy desserts, french fries, and pizza from fast-food restaurants. Schools contributed about 20% of children's intake of high-fat milk and pizza. These findings support the need for continued efforts to reduce empty calorie intake among US children aimed not just at fast-food restaurants, but also at stores and schools. The importance of reformed school nutrition standards was suggested, as prior to implementation of these changes, schools resembled fast-food restaurants in their contributions to empty calorie intake. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Where are kids getting their empty calories? Stores, schools, and fast food restaurants each play an important role in empty calorie intake among US children in 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poti, Jennifer M.; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.; Kenan, W.R.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of empty calories, the sum of energy from added sugar and solid fat, exceeds recommendations, but little is known about where US children obtain these empty calories. The objectives of this study were to compare children's empty calorie consumption from retail food stores, schools, and fast food restaurants; to identify food groups that were top contributors of empty calories from each location; and to determine the location providing the majority of calories for these key food groups. This cross-sectional analysis used data from 3,077 US children aged 2-18 years participating in the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The empty calorie content of children's intake from stores (33%), schools (32%), and fast food restaurants (35%) was not significantly different in 2009-2010. In absolute terms, stores provided the majority of empty calorie intake (436 kcal). The top contributors of added sugar and solid fat from each location were similar: sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs), grain desserts, and high-fat milk from stores; high-fat milk, grain desserts, and pizza from schools; and SSBs, dairy desserts, french fries, and pizza from fast food restaurants. Schools contributed about 20% of children's intake of high-fat milk and pizza. In conclusion, these findings support the need for continued efforts to reduce empty calorie intake among US children aimed not just at fast food restaurants, but also at stores and schools. The importance of reformed school nutrition standards was suggested, as prior to their implementation, schools resembled fast food restaurants in their contributions to empty calorie intake. PMID:24200654

  13. Chloroplastic thioredoxin-f and thioredoxin-m1/4 play important roles in brassinosteroids-induced changes in CO2 assimilation and cellular redox homeostasis in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Xia, Xiao-Jian; Shi, Kai; Zhou, Jie; Yu, Jing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast thioredoxins (TRXs) and glutathione function as redox messengers in the regulation of photosynthesis. In this work, the roles of chloroplast TRXs in brassinosteroids (BRs)-induced changes in cellular redox homeostasis and CO2 assimilation were studied in the leaves of tomato plants. BRs-deficient d ^im plants showed decreased transcripts of TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-x, while exogenous BRs significantly induced CO2 assimilation and the expression of TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-x. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the chloroplast TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-y genes individually increased membrane lipid peroxidation and accumulation of 2-Cys peroxiredoxin dimers, and decreased the activities of the ascorbate–glutathione cycle enzymes and the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in the leaves. Furthermore, partial silencing of TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-y resulted in decreased expression of genes involved in the Benson–Calvin cycle and decreased activity of the associated enzymes. Importantly, the BRs-induced increase in CO2 assimilation and the increased expression and activities of antioxidant- and photosynthesis-related genes and enzymes were compromised in the partially TRX-f- and TRX-m1/4-silenced plants. All of these results suggest that TRX-f and TRX-m1/4 are involved in the BRs-induced changes in CO2 assimilation and cellular redox homeostasis in tomato. PMID:24847092

  14. Free riders play fair

    OpenAIRE

    Takikawa, Hirohide

    2012-01-01

    After the demise of the social contract theory, the argument from fair play, which employs the principle of fair play, has been widely acknowledged as one of the most promising ways of justifying political obligation. First, I articulate the most promising version of the principle of fair play. Then, I show that free riders play fair, that is, that their moral fault lies not in unfairness but in the violation of a rule by appealing to the example of three-in-a-boat. Finally, I conclude that e...

  15. Designing for Immediate Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichlmair, Martin; Mech, Lena; Sicart, Miguel Angel

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with designing for immediate play, the experience that a player has when joining a game designed for being played without particular preparation. Museum games, urban games, casual sports, and ad-hoc multiplayer video games are kinds of games that facilitate immediate play...... offer using examples and expert opinions. While most practices and game examples mentioned in this paper are from non-digital games, a special focus is put on the role of technology in immediately playable experiences. Still, the examined design dimensions are independent of the technological foundation...... of the game. This paper provides a starting point for designing better immediate play situations....

  16. A pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 clone causing most associated diarrhea cases in the Pacific Northwest coast of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio De Jesus Hernández-Díaz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Between September and October of 2004, more than 1230 cases of gastroenteritis due to pandemic O3:K6 strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus were reported in the relatively small geographical area of Southern Sinaloa, a state located in Northwest Mexico. Since then, V. parahaemolyticus-associated gastroenteritis cases have gradually increased in prevalence spreading from south to north. The present study conducted an epidemiological surveillance of V. parahaemolyticus strains in both environmental and clinical samples along the Pacific coast of Sinaloa from 2011 to 2013. The genetic relatedness, serotype dominance and antibiotic resistance of isolates were investigated. A total of 46 strains were isolated from environmental samples (e.g., sediment, seawater and shrimp, whereas 249 strains were obtained from stools of patients with gastroenteritis. Nine different O serogroups and 16 serovars were identified. Serovars O3:K6 and O6:K46 were identified in both environmental and clinical strains. Whereas most environmental isolates carried the tdh gene (71.74%, 33/46, only three (6.52% belonged to pandemic clones (O3:K6, O3:KUT and OUT:KUT. In contrast, 81.1% (202/249 of clinical isolates belonged to pandemic serotypes, with O3:K6 (tdh, toxRS/new, and/or orf8 representing the predominant serovar (97%, 196/202. This prevalence of pathogenic (tdh and/or trh positive and O3:K6 pandemic V. parahaemolyticus isolates in this study were similar to those found from 2004-2010. As investigated by REP-PCR, genetic lineages of selected O3:K6 strains isolated in this study and some isolated earlier were nearly identical. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that most strains (93.8% were resistant to ampicillin but sensitive to chloramphenicol (98.8%. Multidrug resistance significantly increased from 8.6% (2004-2010 to 22.93% (2011-2013 (p< 0.05. Our data indicate that pandemic O3:K6 clone has endemically established in the Pacific Coast of

  17. Playfulness and Openness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela; Petersson, Eva

    2011-01-01

    What does it mean to design a playful learning tool? What is needed for a learning tool to be perceived by potential users as playful? These questions emerged reflecting on a Participatory Design process aimed at enhancing museum-learning practice from the perspective of primary school children...

  18. Play framework cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Reelsen, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at advanced developers who are looking to harness the power of Play 2.x. This book will also be useful for professionals looking to dive deeper into web development. Play 2 .x is an excellent framework to accelerate your learning of advanced topics.

  19. Five recent play dates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Mette Simonsen; Birkbak, Andreas; Jensen, Torben Elgaard

    2017-01-01

    An advantage of the playground metaphor is that it comes with the activity of going out on ‘play dates’ and developing friendships. In such playful relationships, there is always something at stake, but the interaction is also fun and inherently exploratory. In the following, we take a tour of five...

  20. Communication in Symbolic Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umek, Ljubica Marjanovic; Musek, Petra Lesnik; Kranjc, Simona

    2001-01-01

    Analyzed records of Slovene children's speech from a linguistic point of view and established differences in communication patterns with regard to the children's ages and the type of symbolic play. Found a shift in play from make-believe with regard to objects to roleplay related to social context. The older the child, the more language functions…

  1. Art of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel Cristina G.; Walker, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Play is a key element in cultural development, according to the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga. Nowadays many of us interact with other people in online games and social networks, through multiple digital devices. But harnessing playful activities for museum learning is mostly undeveloped. In thi...

  2. Play your part

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsey, Gaynor

    1978-01-01

    Play your part is a collection of then situations in which students have to take on the roles of particular people and express their opinions, feelings or arguments about the situation. Play your part is intended for use with advanced students of English.

  3. Return to Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Call it physical activity, call it games, or call it play. Whatever its name, it's a place we all need to return to. In the physical education, recreation, and dance professions, we need to redesign programs to address the need for and want of play that is inherent in all of us.

  4. Perioxidases play important roles in abscisic acid (ABA)-simulating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-14

    Nov 14, 2011 ... 1Department of Plant Physiology, Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra, Tr. A. Hlinku .... Ripnany is localized in Danube uplands on clayey brown soil with ... min dark adaptation, 2) chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics mea-.

  5. Perioxidases play important roles in abscisic acid (ABA)-simulating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaf photosynthetic activity limited by summer heat stress represents large constraint to production process of fruit trees. To cope with this problem, we tested photosystem II (PS II) thermostability in clonal apple tree rootstocks with different growth intensity - semi-vigorous-MM106 and dwarfing-J-TE-F experiencing summer ...

  6. The Importance of Play in Early Childhood Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the study leading to this paper, the task was to determine the possibility of the Department of Technical Education at the University of Zimbabwe in-servicing Early Childhood Development (ECD) teachers in Design and Technology (D&T) through short and long-term courses. Such courses would specifically relate to the ...

  7. Physical Activity Plays an Important Role in Body Weight Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Chaput

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging literature highlights the need to incorporate physical activity into every strategy intended to prevent weight gain as well as to maintain weight loss over time. Furthermore, physical activity should be part of any plan to lose weight. The stimulus of exercise provides valuable metabolic adaptations that improve energy and macronutrient balance regulation. A tight coupling between energy intake and energy expenditure has been documented at high levels of physical exercise, suggesting that exercise may improve appetite control. The regular practice of physical activity has also been reported to reduce the risk of stress-induced weight gain. A more personalized approach is recommended when planning exercise programs in a clinical weight loss setting in order to limit the compensatory changes associated to exercise-induced weight loss. With modern environment promoting overeating and sedentary behavior, there is an urgent need for a concerted action including legislative measures to promote healthy active living in order to curb the current epidemic of chronic diseases.

  8. Starch phosphorylation plays an important role in starch biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Xuan; Dees, Dianka; Dechesne, Annemarie; Huang, Xing Feng; Visser, Richard G.F.; Trindade, Luisa M.

    2017-01-01

    Starch phosphate esters are crucial in starch metabolism and render valuable functionality to starches for various industrial applications. A potato glucan, water dikinase (GWD1) was introduced in tubers of two different potato genetic backgrounds: an amylose-containing line Kardal and the

  9. Research plays an important role in achieving Zero Hunger | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-11-23

    Nov 23, 2017 ... And studies across most African countries show that women provide the ... For example, solar tent dryers reduce the time needed to dry fish while ... but the true test lies in how they will be applied as part of a common and ...

  10. Salvia miltiorrhiza aqueous root extract plays an important role in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and treated. Aqueous root extract of S. miltiorrhiza was introduced intraperitoneally to the treated group. Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan rating scale (BBB) was used to ... extract has therapeutic potential for the treatment of neuronal degeneration following SCI. ..... effects of Lycium barbarum Lynn on protecting retinal.

  11. Play vs. Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammar, Emil

    Through the theories of play by Gadamer (2004) and Henricks (2006), I will show how the relationship between play and game can be understood as dialectic and disruptive, thus challenging understandings of how the procedures of games determine player activity and vice versa. As such, I posit some...... analytical consequences for understandings of digital games as procedurally fixed (Boghost, 2006; Flannagan, 2009; Bathwaite & Sharp, 2010). That is, if digital games are argued to be procedurally fixed and if play is an appropriative and dialectic activity, then it could be argued that the latter affects...... and alters the former, and vice versa. Consequently, if the appointed procedures of a game are no longer fixed and rigid in their conveyance of meaning, qua the appropriative and dissolving nature of play, then understandings of games as conveying a fixed meaning through their procedures are inadequate...

  12. Can play be defined?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Can play be defined? There is reason to raise critical questions about the established academic demand that at phenomenon – also in humanist studies – should first of all be defined, i.e. de-lineated and by neat lines limited to a “little box” that can be handled. The following chapter develops....... Human beings can very well understand play – or whatever phenomenon in human life – without defining it....

  13. Cloning and analysis of the genes encoding the type IIS restriction-modification system HphI from Haemophilus parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubys, A; Lubienè, J; Kulakauskas, S; Stankevicius, K; Timinskas, A; Janulaitis, A

    1996-07-15

    The genomic region encoding the type IIS restriction-modification (R-M) system HphI (enzymes recognizing the asymmetric sequence 5'-GGTGA-3'/5'-TCACC-3') from Haemophilus parahaemolyticus were cloned into Escherichia coli and sequenced. Sequence analysis of the R-M HphI system revealed three adjacent genes aligned in the same orientation: a cytosine 5 methyltransferase (gene hphIMC), an adenine N6 methyltransferase (hphIMA) and the HphI restriction endonuclease (gene hphIR). Either methyltransferase is capable of protecting plasmid DNA in vivo against the action of the cognate restriction endonuclease. hphIMA methylation renders plasmid DNA resistant to R.Hindill at overlapping sites, suggesting that the adenine methyltransferase modifies the 3'-terminal A residue on the GGTGA strand. Strong homology was found between the N-terminal part of the m6A methyltransferasease and an unidentified reading frame interrupted by an incomplete gaIE gene of Neisseria meningitidis. The HphI R-M genes are flanked by a copy of a 56 bp direct nucleotide repeat on each side. Similar sequences have also been identified in the non-coding regions of H.influenzae Rd DNA. Possible involvement of the repeat sequences in the mobility of the HphI R-M system is discussed.

  14. General game playing

    CERN Document Server

    Genesereth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    General game players are computer systems able to play strategy games based solely on formal game descriptions supplied at ""runtime"" (n other words, they don't know the rules until the game starts). Unlike specialized game players, such as Deep Blue, general game players cannot rely on algorithms designed in advance for specific games; they must discover such algorithms themselves. General game playing expertise depends on intelligence on the part of the game player and not just intelligence of the programmer of the game player.GGP is an interesting application in its own right. It is intell

  15. Motivation, Creativity, Play & Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    on their needs and desires. This paper presents results from SoundScapes body of research which is utilising technology in assistive (re)habilitation from Virtual Interactive Space (VIS); furthermore the paper describes what emerges in play scenarios that utilise enabling technology. The involved study exhibits...... implementation of robotic physical movement synchronously manipulated from sourced data movement information of a human. SoundScapes is a concept based on non-verbal communication and stimulation through interactive play with sounds and images, which is being realised in the production of a non-wearable sensor...

  16. Cytokine profiles of HeLa and human diploid cells induced by different fractions of Vibrio parahaemolyticus cultures exposed to stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Bleotu, Coralia; Pîrcălăbioru, Gratiela; Israil, Anca Michaela; Dinu, Sorin; Rută, Simona Maria; Grancea, Camelia; Lazăr, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    Vibrio (V.) parahaemolyticus is an aquatic halophilic bacteria which produces gastroenteritis and in rare cases septicaemia after the consumption of raw or under-cooked contaminated seafood.The severity of diarrheal illness caused by this bacterium is closely related to the presence of two types of hemolysins (the thermostable direct hemolysin-TDH and TDH related hemolysin-TRH) and also of type III secretion system (TTSS) proteins. The TTSS type 1 induces a wide array of effects on infected HeLa cells such as autophagy, oncosis, cell rounding and lysis. Previous studies have shown that heat shock proteins have the ability to stimulate the production of interleukins in different cellular cultures. In our studies we have stimulated two cellular lines (HeLa and human diploid cells) with different V. parahaemolyticus culture fractions in order to observe the effect on cytokines production. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyze the expression of IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-alpha induced by the cell treatment with total cellular lysate, periplasmic fractions and culture supernatants extracted from V. parahaemolyticus exposed to normal and also to stress conditions. The ELISA assay of the cytokine profile of the HeLa and HDC cell lines stimulated with different bacterial fractions revealed that in the V. parahemolyticus cultures submitted to osmotic and heat shock stress are accumulating factors (probably heat shock proteins) which are exhibiting immunomodulatory activity, responsible for the induction of a pro-inflammatory response associated with increased levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha expression, however balanced by the stimulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 synthesis.

  17. Suitability of the molecular subtyping methods intergenic spacer region, direct genome restriction analysis, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for clinical and environmental Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdeke, Catharina H M; Fischer, Markus; LaFon, Patti; Cooper, Kara; Jones, Jessica L

    2014-07-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of infectious illness associated with seafood consumption in the United States. Molecular fingerprinting of strains has become a valuable research tool for understanding this pathogen. However, there are many subtyping methods available and little information on how they compare to one another. For this study, a collection of 67 oyster and 77 clinical V. parahaemolyticus isolates were analyzed by three subtyping methods--intergenic spacer region (ISR-1), direct genome restriction analysis (DGREA), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)--to determine the utility of these methods for discriminatory subtyping. ISR-1 analysis, run as previously described, provided the lowest discrimination of all the methods (discriminatory index [DI]=0.8665). However, using a broader analytical range than previously reported, ISR-1 clustered isolates based on origin (oyster versus clinical) and had a DI=0.9986. DGREA provided a DI=0.9993-0.9995, but did not consistently cluster the isolates by any identifiable characteristics (origin, serotype, or virulence genotype) and ∼ 15% of isolates were untypeable by this method. PFGE provided a DI=0.9998 when using the combined pattern analysis of both restriction enzymes, SfiI and NotI. This analysis was more discriminatory than using either enzyme pattern alone and primarily grouped isolates by serotype, regardless of strain origin (clinical or oyster) or presence of currently accepted virulence markers. These results indicate that PFGE and ISR-1 are more reliable methods for subtyping V. parahemolyticus, rather than DGREA. Additionally, ISR-1 may provide an indication of pathogenic potential; however, more detailed studies are needed. These data highlight the diversity within V. parahaemolyticus and the need for appropriate selection of subtyping methods depending on the study objectives.

  18. Play and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The power of play, so central to psychoanalytic theory and practice, is conjoined to the social psychological or socio-politically coloured concept of power, giving rise to many fruitful discussions of how these concepts manifest themselves in clinical work with children, groups and adults...

  19. Play framework essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Richard-Foy, Julien

    2014-01-01

    This book targets Java and Scala developers who already have some experience in web development and who want to master Play framework quickly and efficiently. This book assumes you have a good level of knowledge and understanding of efficient Java and Scala code.

  20. Efficacy of play therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Life-skills of Children Under Difficult Circumstances: The. Case of Two ... Goodman's Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire-a standardized instrument) were obtained from 17 ... From a developmental point of view, play ... preventing mild problems becoming worse, .... records) and a socially withdrawn child-for example ...

  1. The Activity of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichlmair, Martin

    This paper presents Activity Theory as a framework for understanding the action of playing games with the intention of building a foundation for the creation of new game design tools and methods. Activity Theory, an epistemological framework rooted in Soviet psychology of the first half of the 20...

  2. stage/page/play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    context. Contributors: Per Brask, Dario Fo, Jette Barnholdt Hansen, Pil Hansen, Sven Åke Heed, Ulla Kallenbach, Sofie Kluge, Annelis Kuhlmann, Kela Kvam, Anna Lawaetz, Bent Flemming Nielsen, Franco Perrelli, Magnus Tessing Schneider, Antonio Scuderi. stage/page/play is published as a festschrift...

  3. Impact of Hurricane Irene on Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus concentrations in surface water, sediment and cultured oysters in the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi S Shaw

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To determine if a storm event (i.e., high winds, large volumes of precipitation could alter concentrations of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in aquacultured oysters (Crassostrea virginica and associated surface water and sediment, this study followed a sampling timeline before and after Hurricane Irene impacted the Chesapeake Bay estuary in late August 2011. Aquacultured oysters were sampled from two levels in the water column: surface 0.3 m and near-bottom just above the sediment. Concentrations of each Vibrio spp. and associated virulence genes were measured in oysters with a combination of real-time PCR and most probable number enrichment methods, and in sediment and surface water with real-time PCR. While concentration shifts of each Vibrio species were apparent post-storm, statistical tests indicated no significant change in concentration change for either Vibrio species by location (surface or near bottom oysters or date sampled (oyster tissue, surface water and sediment concentrations. V. vulnificus in oyster tissue was correlated with total suspended solids (r=0.41, p=0.04, and V. vulnificus in sediment was correlated with secchi depth (r=-0.93, p< 0.01, salinity (r=-0.46, p=0.02, tidal height (r=-0.45, p=0.03, and surface water V. vulnificus (r=0.98, p< 0.01. V. parahaemolyticus in oyster tissue did not correlate with environmental measurements, but V. parahaemolyticus in sediment and surface water correlated with several measurements including secchi depth (r=-0.48, p=0.02[sediment]; r=-0.97 p< 0.01[surface water] and tidal height (r=-0.96. p< 0.01[sediment], r=-0.59,p< 0.01 [surface water]. The concentrations of Vibrio spp. were higher in oysters relative to other studies (average V. vulnificus 4x105 MPN g-1, V. parahaemolyticus 1x105 MPN g-1, and virulence-associated genes were detected in most oyster samples. This study provides a first estimate of storm-related Vibrio density changes in oyster tissues, sediment and

  4. Importance measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Cobo, A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following: general concepts of importance measures; example fault tree, used to illustrate importance measures; Birnbaum's structural importance; criticality importance; Fussel-Vesely importance; upgrading function; risk achievement worth; risk reduction worth

  5. Play or science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberoth, Andreas; Pedersen, Mads Kock; Sherson, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Crowdscience games may hold unique potentials as learning opportunities compared to games made for fun or education. They are part of an actual science problem solving process: By playing, players help scientists, and thereby interact with real continuous research processes. This mixes the two...... worlds of play and science in new ways. During usability testing we discovered that users of the crowdscience game Quantum Dreams tended to answer questions in game terms, even when directed explicitly to give science explanations. We then examined these competing frames of understanding though a mixed...... correlational and grounded theory analysis. This essay presents the core ideas of crowdscience games as learning opportunities, and reports how a group of players used “game”, “science” and “conceptual” frames to interpret their experience. Our results suggest that oscillating between the frames instead...

  6. Understanding Games as Played

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leino, Olli Tapio

    2009-01-01

    Researchers interested in player’s experience would assumedly, across disciplines, agree that the goal behind enquiries into player’s experience is to understand the how games’ features end up affecting the player’s experience. Much of the contemporary interdisciplinary research into player......’s experience leans toward the empirical-scientific, in the forms (neuro)psychology, sociology and cognitive science, to name a few. In such approaches, for example demonstrating correlation between physiological symptoms and an in-game event may amount to ‘understanding’. However, the experience of computer...... game play is a viable topic also for computer game studies within the general tradition of humanities. In such context, the idea of ‘understanding an experience’ invites an approach focusing on the experienced significance of events and objects within computer game play. This focus, in turn, suggests...

  7. Ravens at Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Bird Rose

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  ‘We were driving through Death Valley, an American-Australian and two Aussies, taking the scenic route from Las Vegas to Santa Cruz.’ This multi-voiced account of multispecies encounters along a highway takes up the challenge of playful and humorous writing that is as well deeply serious and theoretically provocative. Our travels brought us into what Donna Haraway calls the contact zone: a region of recognition and response. The contact zone is a place of significant questions: ‘Who are you, and so who are we? Here we are, and so what are we to become?’ Events were everything in this ecology of play, in which the movements of all the actors involved the material field in its entirety. We were brought into dances of approach and withdrawal, dances emerging directly, to paraphrase Brian Massumi, from the dynamic relation between a myriad of charged particles.

  8. Playful Collaboration (or Not)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores how games and play, which are deeply rooted in human beings as a way to learn and interact, can be used to teach certain concepts and practices related to open collaborative innovation. We discuss how playing games can be a source of creativity, imagination and fun, while it can...... also be conducive to deep learning. As such, a game can engage different dimensions of learning and embed elements of active, collaborative, cooperative and problem-based learning. Building on this logic, we present an exploratory case study of the use of a particular board game in a class of a course...... collaboration at the cost of individual performance and possible long-term collective performance as well....

  9. Play. Learn. Innovate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sproedt, Henrik

    study were to better understand the theoretical foundations and practical implications of complex social interaction in organizational innovation settings. As I did not find any existing models or hypotheses that I was interested in testing I set out to discover how I could grasp complex social...... evidence that play and games could be interesting perspectives to take in order to understand complex social interaction. I come to the conclusion that – in innovation settings – the social dynamics that affect the process are essentially about transformation of knowledge across boundaries. I propose......„Play. Learn. Innovate. – Grasping the Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovation“ the title of this thesis describes how the complex interplay of unexpected events led to some burning questions and eventually to this thesis, which one could call an innovation*1*. During several years...

  10. Cognitive-behavioral play therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knell, S M

    1998-03-01

    Discusses cognitive-behavioral play therapy (CBPT), a developmentally sensitive treatment for young children that relies on flexibility, decreased expectation for verbalizations by the child, and increased reliance on experiential approaches. The development of CBPT for preschool-age children provides a relatively unique adaptation of cognitive therapy as it was originally developed for adults. CBPT typically contains a modeling component through which adaptive coping skills are demonstrated. Through the use of play, cognitive change is communicated indirectly, and more adaptive behaviors can be introduced to the child. Modeling is tailored for use with many specific cognitive and behavioral interventions. Generalization and response prevention are important features of CBPT. With minor modifications, many of the principles of cognitive therapy, as delineated for use with adults, are applicable to young children. Case examples are presented to highlight the application of CBPT. Although CBPT has a sound therapeutic base and utilizes proven techniques, more rigorous empirical scrutiny is needed.

  11. Taking Play Seriously: Children and Play in Early Childhood Education--An Exciting Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillemyr, Ole Fredrik

    2009-01-01

    In the book the author presents from different perspectives what is understood by the phenomenon of children's play, why it is important, and how children's play challenge and stimulate the educator or caregiver in regard of educational values and practice, with the conclusion: play has to be taken seriously. A selection of theories is introduced…

  12. Play Initiating Behaviors and Responses in Red Colobus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worch, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Red colobus monkeys are playful primates, making them an important species in which to study animal play. The author examines play behaviors and responses in the species for its play initiation events, age differences in initiating frequency and initiating behavior, and the types of social play that result from specific initiating behaviors. Out…

  13. Play and playfulness, basic features of early childhood education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singer, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education, but that play curricula can have serious drawbacks. The starting point is the play theory of the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga, a radical critic of the focus on the educational benefits of play. According

  14. Children's Gendered Drawings of Play Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akseer, Tabasum; Lao, Mary Grace; Bosacki, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    According to child psychologists, vital links exist between children's drawings and their emotional, social, and cognitive development. Previous research has explored the important relations between drawings and play in educational settings. Given the vast research that explores the ambiguous topic of children's play, according to Richer (1990),…

  15. Turning training into play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarhus, Rikke; Grönvall, Erik; Larsen, Simon Bo

    2011-01-01

    participants generally found physical training both fun and socially engaging, and experienced improved fitness. We also argue that embodied gaming motivates seniors to do more than they think themselves capable of, and allows seniors with different mental and physical capabilities to play together. However......, there are also certain barriers, when seniors interact with the system. Speed and complexity of what is displayed on the screen are examples of barriers that affect the seniors’ satisfactory use of the technology. Based on these findings, we discuss how physical rehabilitation may be facilitated by computer...

  16. Playing Second Fiddle?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book poses the inconvenient question whether he European Union has become a secondary actor on the global arena, or whether it has perhaps for a long time already been playing second fiddle without wishing to admit it. What indicators would today, after a prolonged economic and socio......-political crisis in the Eurozone, imply that the EU can challenge the United States, China, or for that matter Russia, and take a position as a true global powerhouse? Has the train already left the station for what is still a very unique experiment, the European Union? Four different visions of Europes’s future...

  17. PlayStation purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Susan J; Leonard, Jane; Chamberlain, Alex J

    2010-08-01

    A 16-year-old boy presented with a number of asymptomatic pigmented macules on the volar aspect of his index fingers. Dermoscopy of each macule revealed a parallel ridge pattern of homogenous reddish-brown pigment. We propose that these lesions were induced by repetitive trauma from a Sony PlayStation 3 (Sony Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) vibration feedback controller. The lesions completely resolved following abstinence from gaming over a number of weeks. Although the parallel ridge pattern is typically the hallmark for early acral lentiginous melanoma, it may be observed in a limited number of benign entities, including subcorneal haematoma.

  18. Celadon Figurines Play Instruments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    This group of figurines, each 0.15m tall, were unearthed from a Tang Dynasty tomb in Changsha in 1977. Music was very developed in the Tang Dynasty. Colorful musical instruments and dances were popular both among the people and in the palace. These vivid-looking figurines wear pleated skirts with small sleeves and open chest, a style influenced by the non-Han nationalities living in the north and west of China. Some of the musical instruments were brought from the Western Regions. The figurines are playing the xiao (a vertical bamboo flute), the konghou (an

  19. Playful hyper responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hanne; Andersen, Niels Åkerstrøm

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 10–15 years, state-funded schools have begun to require parents to assume an undefined and infinite personal responsibility. In this article, we investigate how schools organize responsibility games to respond to this challenge and how these games affect the concept of responsibility....... We point to a dislocation in the way parents are assigned responsibility, because the definition of responsibility is not only a question of formulating rules or providing advice. We argue that what emerges is a kind of playful hyper responsibility that identifies responsibility as the participation...

  20. Identification of the Vibrio parahaemolyticus type III secretion system 2-associated chaperone VocC for the T3SS2-specific effector VopC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeda, Yukihiro; Kodama, Toshio; Saito, Kazunobu; Iida, Tetsuya; Oishi, Kazunori; Honda, Takeshi

    2011-11-01

    The enteropathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus possesses two sets of type III secretion systems, T3SS1 and T3SS2. Effector proteins secreted by these T3SSs are delivered into host cells, leading to cell death or diarrhea. However, it is not known how specific effectors are secreted through a specific T3SS when both T3SSs are expressed within bacteria. One molecule thought to determine secretion specificity is a T3SS-associated chaperone; however, no T3SS2-specific chaperone has been identified. Therefore, we screened T3SS2 chaperone candidates by a pull-down assay using T3SS2 effectors fused with glutathione-S-transferase. A secretion assay revealed that the newly identified cognate chaperone VocC for the T3SS2-specific effector VopC was required for the efficient secretion of the substrate through T3SS2. Further experiments determined the chaperone-binding domain and the amino-terminal secretion signal of the cognate effector. These findings, in addition to the previously identified T3SS1-specific chaperone, VecA, provide a strategy to clarify the specificity of effector secretion through T3SSs of V. parahaemolyticus. 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of the presence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei estuarine-wild from southern Sinaloa and northern Nayarit by microbiological analysis and PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Méndez-Gómez, E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the incidence of human poisonings attributed to raw shrimp consumption in southern of Sinaloa and northern of Nayarit in recent years, white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was sampled from three wildestuaries where it’s been captured and one sample was taken from a sale center in order to determine the possible presence of toxigenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus, from May to December of 2012. Samples were analyzed by Biochemical test and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, they were also tested for the specific an toxicological identification, using molecular oligo nucleotides markers tlh, tdh and trh. The number of positives results were recorded to a table of most probable number (MPN.The number of samples positive for V. parahaemolyticus, weren’t toxigenic and it was demonstrated that they were below the limit established in the Mexican Official Standard NOM-242-SSA1-2009. In conclusion, the present study revealed that consumption of raw shrimp from the dates and sites sampled did not show to be a risk for human gastrointestinal diseases.

  2. Nystulian Play Therapy: Applications of Adlerian Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystul, Michael S.

    1980-01-01

    Nystulian Play Therapy is based on Adlerian strategies. Encouragement of and respect for the child are emphasized. Teacher and parent education are important parts of a comprehensive approach to affective positive change in the child. (JAC)

  3. Back to Sleep, Tummy to Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Back to Sleep, Tummy to Play Page Content ​What are the 2 most important things to remember about safe sleep practices? Healthy babies are safest when sleeping on ...

  4. To Play or Not to Play: Diverse Motives for Latino and Euro-American Parent-Child Play in a Children's Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBianca Fasoli, Allison

    2014-01-01

    A popular social discourse in the United States is that play is important for children's learning and that parental involvement maximizes play's learning potential. Past research has concluded that parents who hold this view of play are more likely to play with their children than those who do not. This study investigated the prevalence…

  5. Learning Arabic through play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Ibrahim, Zeinab; Karatsolis, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the use of educational games in the context of the “Arabiyyatii” research project, a three-year project funded through Qatar National Research Fund. The scope of the project is teaching Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) to kindergarten students (5-6 years old) that are native...... speakers of the Qatari dialect. Part of the new curriculum envisioned in the project includes the use of simple educational games, specifically designed and developed for tabletop surface computers. The paper presents a naturalistic study design, following the activities of 18 students for a period of 9...... weeks in the project. The paper presents three of the most played games by the students, along with analysis on collected data, focusing on students’ performance and attitudes towards the new curriculum. Results analysis provided an encouraging image, suggesting that the conducted activity was able...

  6. Farm Hall: The Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, David C.

    2013-03-01

    It's July 1945. Germany is in defeat and the atomic bombs are on their way to Japan. Under the direction of Samuel Goudsmit, the Allies are holding some of the top German nuclear scientists-among them Heisenberg, Hahn, and Gerlach-captive in Farm Hall, an English country manor near Cambridge, England. As secret microphones record their conversations, the scientists are unaware of why they are being held or for how long. Thinking themselves far ahead of the Allies, how will they react to the news of the atomic bombs? How will these famous scientists explain to themselves and to the world their failure to achieve even a chain reaction? How will they come to terms with the horror of the Third Reich, their work for such a regime, and their behavior during that period? This one-act play is based upon the transcripts of their conversations as well as the author's historical work on the subject.

  7. Mobilities at Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ungruhe, Christian

    2017-01-01

    So far, academic contributions have widely framed football in Africa as a means for migration from a western point of view. At a time, they presented particular and one-dimensional understandings of transnational links in the realm of football migration between Africa and Europe. Macro......-level perspective there is still an analytical gap between the ambitions and experiences of migrating players and economic power relations at play on the one hand and the socio-cultural embedding of the transnational connections in football migration on the other. In order to understand why and how football...... mobilities are indeed linked to ‘the transnational’ in migration there is a need to localize the phenomenon and investigate how local understandings of migration and mobility are lived and expressed in a transnational sport like football. By taking data from fieldwork among West African football migrants...

  8. Guidelines for social support to child play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitranić Nevena N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Play is a precious aspect of living and irreplaceable importance for not only child well-being and development but for adults and communities, too. Complex current living conditions often minimize the importance of child play and it becomes even more necessary that educational policies support it. The subject of the research is based on the role child play has in educational policy and the aim is formulation of measures and actions which can support child play in educational policy. We examined measures and actions of official educational policies and non government organizations of the United Kingdom of England and Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and Republic of Serbia. The results show that the problem is deeper than current nonexistence of systemic support to play in Serbia and open the question on which paradigm official educational policy in Serbia approaches to education, and the question of how to bring to awareness the importance of play in order to support it. Relaying on the frameworks of play support policy in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland we suggest some guidelines for social support of child play which might prove sensible and feasible in Serbia.

  9. Free time, play and game

    OpenAIRE

    Božović Ratko R.

    2008-01-01

    Free time and play are mutually dependent categories that are always realized together. We either play because we have free time or we have free time because we play (E. Fink). Play, no matter whether it is children's or artistic play or a spontaneous sports game (excluding professional sports) most fully complements human existence and thereby realizes free time as a time in freedom and freedom of time. Therefore, free time exists and is most prominent in play. Moreover, one game releases it...

  10. Imagination, Playfulness, and Creativity in Children's Play with Different Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo????ller, Signe?? Juhl?

    2015-01-01

    Based on a four-month experimental study of preschool children's play with creative-construction and social-fantasy toys, the author examines the in?uence of both types of toys on the play of preschool children. Her comparative analysis considers the impact of transformative play on the development of imagination during play activities and…

  11. Play the European card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, O.

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Otto Majewski, Chief Executive Officer of the Bayernwerk AG utility, in his capacity as Chairman of the European Nuclear Council pointed out at ENC 98 in Nice that national energy policies constituted a major danger to the use of nuclear power. At the same time, he indicated ways and means by which to evade that danger. The decisions taken in Sweden and in the Federal Republic of Germany to opt out of the use of nuclear power show that national energy policies can seriously jeopardize the use of nuclear power. Bayernwerk CEO Dr. Majewski urged nuclear power plant operators to counteract these tendencies by playing the European card. Nuclear power anyway was a classical topic of European cooperation which, in the past, had resulted in higher safety standards and in the development of the EPR. It should also be attempted, by working on European institutions, to strengthen the use of nuclear power, even on a national level. He invoked economic arguments against nuclear opponents, especially the preservation of competitiveness by means of lower electricity prices, and arguments of climate protection. (orig.) [de

  12. Characterization of Chemically-Induced Bacterial Ghosts (BGs Using Sodium Hydroxide-Induced Vibrio parahaemolyticus Ghosts (VPGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jung Park

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acellular bacterial ghosts (BGs are empty non-living bacterial cell envelopes, commonly generated by controlled expression of the cloned lysis gene E of bacteriophage PhiX174. In this study, Vibrio parahaemolyticus ghosts (VPGs were generated by chemically-induced lysis and the method is based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of sodium hydroxide (NaOH, acetic acid, boric acid, citric acid, maleic acid, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid. The MIC values of the respective chemicals were 3.125, 6.25, <50.0, 25.0, 6.25, 1.56, and 0.781 mg/mL. Except for boric acid, the lysis efficiency reached more than 99.99% at 5 min after treatment of all chemicals. Among those chemicals, NaOH-induced VPGs appeared completely DNA-free, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Besides, lipopolysaccharides (LPS extracted from the NaOH-induced VPGs showed no distinctive band on SDS-PAGE gel after silver staining. On the other hand, LPS extracted from wild-type bacterial cells, as well as the organic acids-induced VPGs showed triple major bands and LPS extracted from the inorganic acids-induced VPGs showed double bands. It suggests that some surface structures in LPS of the NaOH-induced VPGs may be lost, weakened, or modified by the MIC of NaOH. Nevertheless, Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay revealed that there is no significant difference in endotoxic activity between the NaOH-induced VPGs and wild-type bacterial cells. Macrophages exposed to the NaOH-induced VPGs at 0.5 × 106 CFU/mL showed cell viability of 97.9%, however, the MIC of NaOH did not reduce the cytotoxic effect of wild-type bacterial cells. Like Escherichia coli LPS, the NaOH-induced VPGs are an excellent activator of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and iNOS, anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10, and dual activities (IL-6 in the stimulated macrophage cells. On the other hand, the induction of TNF-α mRNA was remarkable in the macrophages exposed with wild-type cells. Scanning

  13. Playful Learning and Montessori Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S.

    2013-01-01

    Although Montessori education is often considered a form of playful learning, Maria Montessori herself spoke negatively about a major component of playful learning--pretend play, or fantasy--for young children. In this essay, the author discusses this apparent contradiction: how and why Montessori education includes elements of playful learning…

  14. Play Therapy in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landreth, Garry L.; Ray, Dee C.; Bratton, Sue C.

    2009-01-01

    Because the child's world is a world of action and activity, play therapy provides the psychologist in elementary-school settings with an opportunity to enter the child's world. In the play therapy relationship, toys are like the child's words and play is the child's language. Therefore, children play out their problems, experiences, concerns, and…

  15. Enhanced reality live role playing

    OpenAIRE

    Söderberg, Jonas; Waern, Annika; Åkesson, Karl-Petter; Björk, Staffan; Falk, Jennica

    2004-01-01

    Live role-playing is a form of improvisational theatre played for the experience of the performers and without an audience. These games form a challenging application domain for ubiquitous technology. We discuss the design options for enhanced reality live role-playing and the role of technology in live role-playing games.

  16. The Upside of Videogame Playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda A

    2012-12-01

    In our research on the relationship between videogame playing and cognitive outcomes we found that children (n=481, 12 year olds) who played videogames more were more creative than those who played them less. Here we summarize these findings and propose new research to identify mediating cognitive factors influenced by videogame playing.

  17. Detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae in oyster, Crassostrea rhizophorae, collected from a natural nursery in the Cocó river estuary, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil Isolamento de Vibrio parahaemolyticus e Vibrio cholerae em ostras, Crassostrea rhizophorae, coletadas em um criadouro natural no estuário do rio Cocó, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscarina Viana de Sousa

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Oysters are edible organisms that are often ingested partially cooked or even raw, presenting therefore a very high risk to the consumers' health, especially in tropical regions. The presence of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oysters sampled at an estuary in the Brazilian northeastern region was studied, with 300 oysters tested through an 8-months period. The salinity of the water at the sampling point varied between 3% and 27‰. V. cholerae was the most frequently detected species (33.3% of the samples, and of the 22 V. cholerae isolates, 20 were identified as non-O1/non-O139, with two of the colonies presenting a rough surface and most of remaining ones belonging to the Heiberg II fermentation group. V. parahaemolyticus was isolated from just one of the samples. Other bacteria such as Providencia spp., Klebsiella spp. and Morganella morganii were also isolated.As ostras são alimentos marinhos freqüentemente ingeridos crus ou parcialmente cozidos. Por esta razão, o risco para a saúde dos consumidores desses produtos é muito elevado, principalmente, quando são de regiões tropicais. Foi estudada a presença de Vibrio cholerae e Vibrio parahaemolyticus em ostras de um estuário na região Nordeste do Brasil. Trezentas ostras foram analisadas, em um período de 8 meses. A salinidade da água, no local de coleta, variou de 3 a 27‰. V. cholerae foi o vibrio mais freqüentemente detectado (33,3% das amostras. Dos 22 isolados, 20 foram identificados como V. cholerae não-O1/não-O139, duas delas apresentando forma rugosa sendo a maioria das demais pertencente ao tipo fermentativo Heiberg II. V. parahaemolyticus foi isolado em apenas umas das coletas. Foram, também, identificadas nas amostras isolados de Providencia spp., Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp. e Morganella morganii.

  18. Play and playfulness in early childhood education and care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer E.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education. The elements of play are pleasure, a sense of freedom, and the co-construction of shared meaning through the use of rules or rhythms. Play and learning are closely related in early childhood. But when the focus on the educational benefits of play becomes too strong, the most essential feature of play is lost: children’s pleasure. Young children in group settings often have to adapt to the teachers’ demands related to security, hygiene, and social norms and values. But the playfulness of the teachers helps to overcome differences in power in the caregiver-child relationship and prevents young children from becoming overburdened with strict rules and group discipline. Play and playfulness are a resource of shared pleasure and creativity in learning processes.

  19. Jakob Kelemina on Shakespeare's plays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Jurak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Among Slovene scholars in English and German studies Jakob Kelemina (19 July 1882- 14 May 1957 has a very important  place. Janez Stanonik justly places him among the founding fathers of the University of Ljubljana (Stanonik 1966: 332. From 1920 Kelemina was professor of Germanic philology and between 1920 and 1957 he was also the Chair of the Deparment ofGermanic Languages and Literatures at the Faculty of Arts of this university. The major part of Kelemina's research was devoted to German and Austrian literatures,  German  philology, German-Slovene cultural relations, and literary theory; his work in these fields has already been discussed  by severa! Slovene scholars. However, in the first two decades of the twentieth century Kelemina also wrote severa! book reviews of Slovene and Croatian translations of Shakespeare's plays as well as three introductory essays to Slovene translations  of Shakespeare's plays. They are considered  as the first serious studies on Shakespeare in Slovenia (Moravec 1974: 437, and have not been analysed yet. Therefore this topic presents the core of my study, together with an evaluation  of Kelemina's contribution  to Slovene translations  of Shakespeare's plays done by Oton Župančič (1878-1949 during the first half of the twentieth century. Župančič's translations  became the criterion  for all further translations  of Shakespeare's dramatic works in Slovene. Župančič is stili one of our most important  poets and translators of this time and Kelemina's advice and criticism undoubtedly  also helped him to achieve such a high standard in his translations. In the central part of my study I also include some new material (e.g. Kelernina's letters, which is relevant for our understanding  of his co-operation with Oton Župančič  and other Slovene authors and critics. In order to put Kelemina's work into a historical perspective I present at the beginning of my study a brief survey of the

  20. Preschoolers' Free Play--Connections with Emotional and Social Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Guida; Neto, Carlos; Rieffe, Carolien

    2016-01-01

    Play has an important role in various aspects of children's development. However, time for free play has declined substantially over the last decades. To date, few studies have focused on the relationship between opportunities for free play and children's social functioning. The aims of this study are to examine whether children´s free play is…

  1. Cats and Portals: Video Games, Learning, and Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul

    2008-01-01

    The author builds on arguments he has made elsewhere that good commercial video games foster deep learning and problem solving and that such games in fact promote mastery as a form of play. Here he maintains that some good video games engage players with an important type of play, namely of play as discovery, of play as surmising new possibilities…

  2. Ouroboros - Playing A Biochemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Rodrigues

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ouroboros: Playing A Biochemical RODRIGUES,D.T.1,2;GAYER, M.C.1,2; ESCOTO, D.F.1; DENARDIN, E.L.G.2, ROEHRS, R.1,2 1Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil 2Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil Introduction: Currently, teachers seek different alternatives to enhance the teaching-learning process. Innovative teaching methodologies are increasingly common tools in educational routine. The use of games, electronic or conventional, is an effective tool to assist in learning and also to raise the social interaction between students. Objective: In this sense our work aims to evaluate the card game and "Ouroboros" board as a teaching and learning tool in biochemistry for a graduating class in Natural Sciences. Materials and methods: The class gathered 22 students of BSc in Natural Sciences. Each letter contained a question across the board that was drawn to a group to answer within the allotted time. The questions related concepts of metabolism, organic and inorganic chemical reactions, bioenergetics, etc.. Before the game application, students underwent a pre-test with four issues involving the content that was being developed. Soon after, the game was applied. Then again questions were asked. Data analysis was performed from the ratio of the number of correct pre-test and post-test answers. Results and discussion: In the pre-test 18.1% of the students knew all issues, 18.1% got 3 correct answers, 40.9% answered only 2 questions correctly and 22.7% did not hit any. In post-test 45.4% answered all the questions right, 31.8% got 3 questions and 22.7% got 2 correct answers. The results show a significant improvement of the students about the field of content taught through the game. Conclusion: Generally, traditional approaches of chemistry and biochemistry are abstract and complex. Thus, through games

  3. Biomechanical aspects of playing surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, B M; Yeadon, M R

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss some biomechanical aspects of playing surfaces with special focus on (a) surface induced injuries, (b) methodologies used to assess surfaces and (c) findings from various sports. The paper concentrates primarily on questions related to load on the athlete's body. Data from epidemiological studies suggest strongly that the surface is an important factor in the aetiology of injuries. Injury frequencies are reported to be significantly different for different surfaces in several sports. The methodologies used to assess surfaces with respect to load or performance include material tests and tests using experimental subjects. There is only little correlation between the results of these two approaches. Material tests used in many standardized test procedures are not validated which suggests that one should exercise restraint in the interpretation of these results. Point elastic surfaces are widely studied while area elastic surfaces have received little attention to date. Questions of energy losses on sport surfaces have rarely been studied scientifically.

  4. Still playing the game?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Krueger, Norris

    2005-01-01

    This paper centres on the influence of human capital which constitutes the foundation of knowledge-based societies and bears on how entrepreneurs organize and manage new technology and knowledge-based ventures. It extends existing theory on human capital by suggesting that the choice of organizat......This paper centres on the influence of human capital which constitutes the foundation of knowledge-based societies and bears on how entrepreneurs organize and manage new technology and knowledge-based ventures. It extends existing theory on human capital by suggesting that the choice...... of organizational and leadership practices are influenced by one important type of human capital: namely socialization from being trained to compete in sports involving such factors as physical strength, speed, endurance, a competitive mind, strategizing and team spirit; all ingredients necessary in building a new...

  5. The role of play themes in non-directive play therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Virginia; Edge, Andrew

    2012-07-01

    Describing the processes underlying play therapy is important for evidence based practice in child therapy. Employing play themes to describe children's play session contents is in widespread use by practitioners, but an adequate classification of these themes for non-directive play therapy practice has not yet been established. This article sets out to fill this gap by first describing how themes can be distinguished and distilled from the contents of play therapy contents. Second, a classification of main themes and sub-themes with exemplars to illustrate these concepts which is compatible with non-directive play therapy practice is set out. Finally a pilot project with experienced play therapists to test this classification in practice is suggested, along with the research questions that will need to be investigated in the shorter and longer terms.

  6. Play and play occupation: a survey of paediatric occupational therapy practice in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Moore

    2017-04-01

    particular play-centred practice in the paediatric context. Originality/value - Play has been described as an important occupation in childhood, and consequently, it features in paediatric occupational therapy. However, little is known about the current place of play in occupational therapy practice. This study addresses this gap by considering the current place of play in occupational therapy practice in Ireland.

  7. Deep Learning for Video Game Playing

    OpenAIRE

    Justesen, Niels; Bontrager, Philip; Togelius, Julian; Risi, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we review recent Deep Learning advances in the context of how they have been applied to play different types of video games such as first-person shooters, arcade games, and real-time strategy games. We analyze the unique requirements that different game genres pose to a deep learning system and highlight important open challenges in the context of applying these machine learning methods to video games, such as general game playing, dealing with extremely large decision spaces...

  8. Characterization and PCR Detection Of Binary, Pir-Like Toxins from Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolates that Cause Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND in Shrimp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratchanok Sirikharin

    Full Text Available Unique isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VPAHPND have previously been identified as the causative agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND in shrimp. AHPND is characterized by massive sloughing of tubule epithelial cells of the hepatopancreas (HP, proposed to be induced by soluble toxins released from VPAHPND that colonize the shrimp stomach. Since these toxins (produced in broth culture have been reported to cause AHPND pathology in reverse gavage bioassays with shrimp, we used ammonium sulfate precipitation to prepare protein fractions from broth cultures of VPAHPND isolates for screening by reverse gavage assays. The dialyzed 60% ammonium sulfate fraction caused high mortality within 24-48 hours post-administration, and histological analysis of the moribund shrimp showed typical massive sloughing of hepatopancreatic tubule epithelial cells characteristic of AHPND. Analysis of the active fraction by SDS-PAGE revealed two major bands at marker levels of approximately 16 kDa (ToxA and 50 kDa (ToxB. Mass spectrometry analysis followed by MASCOT analysis revealed that both proteins had similarity to hypothetical proteins of V. parahaemolyticus M0605 (contig034 GenBank accession no. JALL01000066.1 and similarity to known binary insecticidal toxins called 'Photorhabdus insect related' proteins A and B (Pir-A and Pir-B, respectively, produced by the symbiotic, nematode bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. In in vivo tests, it was shown that recombinant ToxA and ToxB were both required in a dose dependent manner to cause AHPND pathology, indicating further similarity to Pir-A and -B. A single-step PCR method was designed for detection of the ToxA gene and was validated using 104 bacterial isolates consisting of 51 VPAHPND isolates, 34 non-AHPND VP isolates and 19 other isolates of bacteria commonly found in shrimp ponds (including other species of Vibrio and Photobacterium. The results showed 100% specificity and sensitivity for

  9. Teachers and Parents Play to Learn: Play-Based Instruction in Computer Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Denise

    2010-01-01

    Play is so important that it is declared as one of the human rights by the United Nations. Although it is focused on children, play does "not" stop there. In the 1990s the author designed and facilitated a blended curriculum for a Head Start Program. The instructional goal was to introduce and get the children to effectively and…

  10. In Defense of Play: Beginning the Dialog about the Power of Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myck-Wayne, Janice

    2010-01-01

    This article provides early childhood practitioners a way to develop a common understanding of the importance of play in the early learning experience of young children. Meaningful discussion among teachers, parents, administrators, and teacher candidates regarding play in early childhood education programs is critical to ensure the growth and…

  11. What Play Means to Us: Exploring Children's Perspectives on Play in an English Year 1 Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Opportunities for play and self-initiated activity, considered to be an important part of children's learning in early childhood settings, diminish as children progress into school. Previous studies suggest that losing time for play/self-initiated activity can impact negatively on children's attitudes to school learning. This article discusses the…

  12. Parental Involvement In Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlson, E. Lamonte

    1976-01-01

    Play therapy acts as a medium of expression for children. The purpose of this article is to outline a methodological approach as well as to emphasize the necessity of including the parent in the play therapy situation. (Author)

  13. Learning, Play, and Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning, Play, and Your Newborn KidsHealth / For Parents / Learning, ... Some Other Ideas Print What Is My Newborn Learning? Play is the chief way that infants learn ...

  14. Problematic game play: the diagnostic value of playing motives, passion, and playing time in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneer, Julia; Rieger, Diana

    2015-04-30

    Internet gaming disorder is currently listed in the DSM-not in order to diagnose such a disorder but to encourage research to investigate this phenomenon. Even whether it is still questionable if Internet Gaming Disorder exists and can be judged as a form of addiction, problematic game play is already very well researched to cause problems in daily life. Approaches trying to predict problematic tendencies in digital game play have mainly focused on playing time as a diagnostic criterion. However, motives to engage in digital game play and obsessive passion for game play have also been found to predict problematic game play but have not yet been investigated together. The present study aims at (1) analyzing if obsessive passion can be distinguished from problematic game play as separate concepts, and (2) testing motives of game play, passion, and playing time for their predictive values for problematic tendencies. We found (N = 99 males, Age: M = 22.80, SD = 3.81) that obsessive passion can be conceptually separated from problematic game play. In addition, the results suggest that compared to solely playing time immersion as playing motive and obsessive passion have added predictive value for problematic game play. The implications focus on broadening the criteria in order to diagnose problematic playing.

  15. Problematic Game Play: The Diagnostic Value of Playing Motives, Passion, and Playing Time in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kneer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Internet gaming disorder is currently listed in the DSM—not in order to diagnose such a disorder but to encourage research to investigate this phenomenon. Even whether it is still questionable if Internet Gaming Disorder exists and can be judged as a form of addiction, problematic game play is already very well researched to cause problems in daily life. Approaches trying to predict problematic tendencies in digital game play have mainly focused on playing time as a diagnostic criterion. However, motives to engage in digital game play and obsessive passion for game play have also been found to predict problematic game play but have not yet been investigated together. The present study aims at (1 analyzing if obsessive passion can be distinguished from problematic game play as separate concepts, and (2 testing motives of game play, passion, and playing time for their predictive values for problematic tendencies. We found (N = 99 males, Age: M = 22.80, SD = 3.81 that obsessive passion can be conceptually separated from problematic game play. In addition, the results suggest that compared to solely playing time immersion as playing motive and obsessive passion have added predictive value for problematic game play. The implications focus on broadening the criteria in order to diagnose problematic playing.

  16. Play and optimal welfare: Does play indicate the presence of positive affective states?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahloy-Dallaire, Jamie; Espinosa, Julia; Mason, Georgia

    2017-11-16

    Play is commonly used to assess affective states in both humans and non-human animals. Play appears to be most common when animals are well-fed and not under any direct threats to fitness. Could play and playfulness therefore indicate pre-existing positive emotions, and thence optimal animal welfare? We examine this question by surveying the internal and external conditions that promote or suppress play in a variety of species, starting with humans. We find that negative affective states and poor welfare usually do suppress play (although there are notable exceptions where the opposite occurs). Furthermore, research in children suggests that beyond the frequency or total duration of play, poor welfare may additionally be reflected in qualitative aspects of this heterogeneous behaviour (e.g. display of solitary over social play; and the 'fragmentation' of play bouts) that are often overlooked in animals. There are surprisingly few studies of play in subjects with pre-existing optimal welfare or in unambiguously highly positive affective states, making it currently impossible to determine whether play can distinguish optimal or good welfare from merely neutral welfare. This therefore represents an important and exciting area for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Play Therapy: Basics and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottman, Terry

    This book provides an atheoretical orientation to basic concepts involved in play therapy and an introduction to different skills used in play therapy. The demand for mental professionals and school counselors who have training and expertise in using play as a therapeutic tool when working with children has increased tremendously. In response to…

  18. Play Therapy in School Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trice-Black, Shannon; Bailey, Carrie Lynn; Kiper Riechel, Morgan E.

    2013-01-01

    Play therapy is an empirically supported intervention used to address a number of developmental issues faced in childhood. Through the natural language of play, children and adolescents communicate feelings, thoughts, and experiences. Schools provide an ideal setting for play therapy in many ways; however, several challenges exist in implementing…

  19. Play Memories and Place Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Anette

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective study examined play memories from childhood to adulthood of 478 university students between ages 20 and 62 as exhibited in drawings of play memories and questionnaire responses. The study focused on the role of the physical environment and place identity in play memories and individual identity development. Findings showed that…

  20. The Power of Play: Fostering Creativity and Innovation in Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Ann Medaille; Will Kurt; Lisa Kurt

    2010-01-01

    Play is a powerful method of fostering creativity and innovation in organizations. As libraries confront a rapidly changing information landscape, the need for innovation in meeting user needs is paramount. Libraries can embrace organizational play as a means of stimulating employee creativity and developing innovative products and services. This article discusses the work-play dichotomy, the definition of play, and the Millennial generation’s attitude toward play. Several important character...

  1. IMPORTANT NOTIFICATION

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Green plates, removals and importation of personal effects Please note that, as from 1 April 2009, formalities relating to K and CD special series French vehicle plates (green plates), removals and importation of personal effects into France and Switzerland will be dealt with by GS Department (Building 73/3-014, tel. 73683/74407). Importation and purchase of tax-free vehicles in Switzerland, as well as diplomatic privileges, will continue to be dealt with by the Installation Service of HR Department (Building 33/1-011, tel. 73962). HR and GS Departments

  2. From online to offline game/play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thea Juhl Roloff

    2015-01-01

    and teachers face. It can be a challenge for the digital immigrants to see the meanings of digital games, and why children (digital natives) should be introduced to digital games in such a young age. However, it is a fact that digital games are a part of children's everyday lives. If Digital Immigrants must......Children love to play digital games. But how should we relate to children's use of digital games. When children play they use signs from online games into offline games. There will in the paper be pointed out, media pedagogy weaknesses and strengths. And the media didactic challenges that pedagogs...... be able to motivate digital natives for play and learning, it is important to know the rules of the game/play...

  3. FATHER PLAY: IS IT SPECIAL?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Natasha J; Roggman, Lori

    2017-11-01

    Both mothers and fathers play with their children, but research on parent-child play interactions is conducted with mothers three times more often than it is with fathers. The articles in this special issue address this gap by focusing on the nature and quality of father-child play, across cultural contexts, and considering whether father play offers something unique and special for early human development, in infancy or early childhood. The studies show that fathers can be just as developmentally supportive as are mothers in terms of being playful and engaged with their children in ways that are related to greater child socioemotional competence, emotion regulation, and vocabulary, and to less aggression, anxiety, and negativity. We encourage future research to examine the cultural influences, family system dynamics, and specificity of timing and types of father-child play in relation to children's developmental competence. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  4. Well Played: The Origins and Future of Playfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gwen

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author synthesizes research from several disciplines to shed light on play's central role in healthy development. Gordon builds on research in attachment theory that correlates secure attachment in infancy with adult well-being to demonstrate how playfulness might be a lifelong outcome of secure attachment and a primary…

  5. Playing with the Multiple Intelligences: How Play Helps Them Grow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Scott G.

    2011-01-01

    Howard Gardner first posited a list of "multiple intelligences" as a liberating alternative to the assumptions underlying traditional IQ testing in his widely read study "Frames of Mind" (1983). Play has appeared only in passing in Gardner's thinking about intelligence, however, even though play instructs and trains the verbal, interpersonal,…

  6. Multispecies methods, technologies for play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ida Kathrine Hammeleff; Wirman, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses methodological considerations of user-centred design for non-human animals. These considerations are illustrated through a design research project that aims to apply digital technology to build games for orangutans’ enrichment. The article argues that design for other species......-human contributions in design. This method applies play as an interspecies co-creative act and can be used as a starting point for addressing questions of difference in play and designing games that allow for ambiguous play....

  7. Seductive play in digital games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ida Kathrine Hammeleff

    2015-01-01

    play. It is important here to point towards Baudrillard’s distinction between rules and the law. Rules are upheld by a pact between seducer and seduced or between player and game whereas the law relies on an idea of an end that can be transgressed. Rules on the other hand cannot be transgressed...... they can only be observed. If a player fails to observe the rules the pact between the player and the game is void and no game takes place (Baudrillard, 1990 [1979], p 140). This is in stark contrast to Sicart’s description of the rules of digital games as non-negotiable and ultimately upheld...... by the computer (Sicart, 2009, p. 27). This paper argues that this is exactly what distinguishes a game like I don't even game from more conventional digital games. I don't even game is completely empty of significance, and there are no non-negotiable rules governed by the system. As such the game only exists...

  8. Playing with a digital swing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Helle Marie

    2017-01-01

    Based on a field study in a kindergarten among children in Denmark, this paper explores playing activities on a digital swing, the SON-X Octavia (SON-X) and its Applause application. SON-X is an interactive sound unit that can be attached to any swing chain. Here, I explore the relationship between...... to highlight the features of swing play that children develop using the SON-X technology in terms of the danger-safety continuum. The feedback provided, it is found, enables children to independently manage risk and security within the limits of their playing activities; the digital swing supports play...

  9. Nosing Around: Play in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Horback

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The predominant method of measuring welfare in swine focuses on overt physical ailments, such as skin lesions, lameness, and body condition. An alternative metric for assessing welfare in swine can be to measure the frequency and duration of positive behavioral states, such as play. Given that play occurs only when an animal's primary needs (food, comfort, safety, etc. have been satisfied, it has been suggested that play may be a sensitive indicator for assessing the welfare of non-human animals. Play has primarily been described in young piglets and is assessed via the occurrence of specific play markers. These play markers include overt bursts of energy like scamper, or more subtle social behaviors like nose-to-body contact. This review describes four areas of play for swine: locomotor, object, sow-piglet, and, peer play. From sporadic leaping to combative wrestling, play behavior allows for the fine-tuning of reflexive behavior which can enhance physical development, enrich cognitive abilities, and facilitate the maintenance of social bonds.

  10. The Internet of Playful Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyeth, Peta; Brereton, Margot; Roe, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This one-day workshop brings together researchers and practitioners to share knowledge and practices on how people can connect and interact with the Internet of Things in a playful way. Open to participants with a diverse range of interests and expertise, and by exploring novel ways to playfully...... will be a road map to support the development of a Model of Playful Connectedness, focusing on how best to design and make playful networks of things, identifying the challenges that need to be addressed in order to do so....

  11. Considering play : From method to analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vught, J.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413532682; Glas, M.A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330981447

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with play as an important methodological issue when studying games as texts and is intended as a practical methodological guide. After considering text as both the structuring object as well as its plural processual activations, we argue that different methodological considerations

  12. Preschool Teachers' Language Use in Sociodramatic Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Sohyun

    2013-01-01

    Preschool teachers' language use has been described in recent research, as preschoolers' language development is found to be an important preparation for later reading development. Based on existing research on teachers' language use in sociodramatic play, however, it is still unclear how teachers use their language specifically in sociodramatic…

  13. Sport and Play in a Digital World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hilvoorde, I.M.

    Digital technology plays an important role in the everyday lives of people. New types of ‘digital sports’, (sport) gaming, exergaming, cybersport and eSports increase in popularity all over the world and are even challenging the modern and hegemonic concept of sport. Modern games can hardly be

  14. Importance classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumachi, Wataru; Kobayashi, Masahide

    2008-01-01

    Conventionally, the design of a nuclear reactor has been performed from a viewpoint of a safety function and the importance on earthquake-proof on the basis of not giving off the mainly included radioactivity outside. In this Niigataken-Chuetsuoki earthquake, there is almost no damage to the system, components and structure on safe also in the earthquake beyond assumption, and the validity of the design was checked. But, the situation peculiar to a big earthquake was also generated. The emergency plan room which should serve as a connection center with the exterior was not able to open a door and use at the beginning. Fire-extinguishing system piping fractured and self-defense fire fighting was not made. And so on. Discussion from the following three viewpoints was performed. 1st: The importance from a viewpoint which should maintain a function also with the disaster in case of an earthquake like an emergency plan room etc. 2nd: In the earthquake, since the safe system and un-safe system was influenced, the importance from a viewpoint which may have influence safely inquired when the un-safe system broke down. 3rd: Although it was not directly related safely, discussion from a viewpoint which influences fear of insecurity, such as taking out smoke, for example, was performed (author)

  15. Facilitating play through communication: significance of teeth exposure in the gorilla play face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Bridget M; Cherry, Lyndsay

    2012-02-01

    Primate facial expressions (FEs) likely play an important role in primate society: through facial signals, individuals can potentially send and receive information and may benefit from coordinating their behavior accordingly. Many primates use a relaxed open mouth (ROM) facial display or “play face” (PF) during play behavior, where the mouth is open but teeth are covered. In addition to this conventional PF, however, Western Lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) also use a full PF where the upper teeth are exposed. As the teeth are similarly exposed in the bared-teeth expression (which is a signal of appeasement, submission and/or affiliation), the full PF may be a blend of the PF and bared-teeth face, and have a different signal function to the PF alone. Focal animal sampling of captive Western Lowland gorillas (N=10) showed that the full PF was more often observed in intense rather than gentle play, and intense play bouts that featured the full PF were longer than those that featured only the PF. Both expressions were associated with an increase in affinitive behavior between sender and receiver postplay, but only the full PF was associated with an increase higher than that of play alone. Overall, the findings suggest that the full PF has an additional role in coordinating and maintaining play, possibly though reducing uncertainty in the receiver and confirming that play is only play.

  16. Children's expression through play therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubomirović Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Play as a child's expression, is a skill through which children speaks to adults. Play therapy is a broad field of therapeutic intervention based on the play in order to help the child to cope with problems. Through play, children learn to communicate with others, to express their feelings. Through play they learn and can improve their cognitive, emotional and social capabilities. Play therapy is a nondirective technique focused on the child. It is not focused on the problem, at present even the past, but focused on the expression of the child feelings, accepting the child, rather than correction. The focus has been on the wisdom of a child, not on expertise therapists, guiding the child through play rather than instructing. The aim of play therapy is to encourage healthy growth and development, developing skills in problem solving, reduction of undesirable behavior, confidence building and the development of self-control. This method is effective for a wide range of children's problems, such as the state of stress, anxiety, problem behavior, hyperkinetic syndrome, depression, loss, trauma, the problem of bonding situations parents divorced, somatic disorders, autism spectrum disorders, social problems.

  17. Young Children and War Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson-Paige, Nancy; Levin, Diane E.

    1988-01-01

    In a recent survey of parents and early childhood professionals the prevalence of war play among children and an increase in the amount of violence in children's play was noted. Outlines how the deregulation of children's television during the Reagan administration has affected children's exposure to violence in children's television programming.…

  18. Solitary Play: Some Functional Reconsiderations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Nancy V.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Solitary play in six kindergarten children was observed and coded for frequency and type in order to resolve iscrepancies in a Sex Birth Order interaction. Several facts concerning solitary play as indicative of independence and maturity are noted. (Author/ED)

  19. Playful Interfaces : Introduction and History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Nijholt, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this short survey we have some historical notes about human-computer interface development with an emphasis on interface technology that has allowed us to design playful interactions with applications. The applications do not necessarily have to be entertainment applications. We can have playful

  20. [Play therapy in social work with children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvarionas, Dziugas

    2002-01-01

    This article introduces the results of scientific research performed in 1995-1997 in Kaunas primary school with 1st and 2nd grade children exhibiting behavioral disorders. Play therapy, a quite novel method in the country, seeks better improvement and an achievement of a better relationship for disadvantaged children in educational process. Play group counseling, or play media counseling, is shown as an important method in working with early primary grade children, especially those who present behavioral problems in the classroom. Another important aspect of group play therapy is the concentrated relationship with the counselor. Primary school children, especially those who are disadvantaged respond more to warmth than to praise for being right and doing well. Data analysis allow us to assume that behavioral difficulties of primary school children are connected with a low rate of self-esteem and dissatisfaction with their vital activities. Main conclusions to correspond with hypothesis held for the research are: a) children exhibiting behavioral problems are less active in educational process; b) by means of systematic use of play group counseling method in school, problematic children are able to solve their difficulties and to optimize their academic improvement; c) there is a complementary relationship between child's self-esteem and his/her satisfaction with his/her vital activity.

  1. Teaching Play Skills to Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunhwa; Sainato, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Play is critical for the development of young children and is an important part of their daily routine. However, children with autism often exhibit deficits in play skills and engage in stereotypic behaviour. We reviewed studies to identify effective instructional strategies for teaching play skills to young children with autism.…

  2. Playful Postmodernism: Building with Diversity in the Postmodern Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Nancy; Barron, Mary; Holliman, Diane Carol; Karliner, Shelley; Walker, Uta M.

    2009-01-01

    The critical examination of language and the deconstruction of truth claims play an important role in how we build with diversity in our classrooms. We, as social work educators involved with playful postmodernism, recognize the significance of improvisation and playfulness in engaging the question: how is this examination and deconstruction done?…

  3. Multimodal Play and Adolescents: Notes on Noticing Laughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Lalitha

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I explore laughter as a form of multimodal play in which adolescents' engage across contexts and in various configurations. With a few recent exceptions, a focus on unscripted play is largely missing from ongoing research and discussion about the education of adolescents. Whereas the space to play has been vitally important to the…

  4. Case Study 1: Playful Team Reflection Using LEGO® Serious Play®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Teamwork and cooperation are important 21st century skills and therefore important parts of the higher education curriculum. Following Kolb's "experiential learning cycle" model a combination of project work and moderated reflection can help students to acquire these skills. This article elaborates how LEGO® Serious Play® (LSP) can be…

  5. Analysing playing using the note-time playing path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaff, Deborah L E; Schubert, Emery

    2011-03-01

    This article introduces a new method of data analysis that represents the playing of written music as a graph. The method, inspired by Miklaszewski, charts low-level note timings from a sound recording of a single-line instrument using high-precision audio-to-MIDI conversion software. Note onset times of pitch sequences are then plotted against the score-predicted timings to produce a Note-Time Playing Path (NTPP). The score-predicted onset time of each sequentially performed note (horizontal axis) unfolds in performed time down the page (vertical axis). NTPPs provide a visualisation that shows (1) tempo variations, (2) repetitive practice behaviours, (3) segmenting of material, (4) precise note time positions, and (5) time spent on playing or not playing. The NTPP can provide significant new insights into behaviour and cognition of music performance and may also be used to complement established traditional approaches such as think-alouds, interviews, and video coding.

  6. Unconventional imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on bitumens and bitumen products from Canadian oil sands and explores how they will affect the Canadian oil industry and the US refining industry. The falling production of crude, the growing demand for it, and the stagnating refining capacity in the US are reported, and Canadian and Mexican exports to the US, the definition of bitumens and bitumen quality, and the position of Canada as world leader in bitumen resources are considered. Bitumen production techniques, sales of bitumens and synthetic crude, the production outlook, and the quality and refining of bitumen and synthetic crude are examined. Plots illustrating North American crude refining capacity, production and demand for 1980-2000; US crude imports from Canada and Mexico (1981-2000), world proven oil reserves (2001), world bitumen resources, and Canadian oil production (1998-2000) are provided. Details of the composition of crudes and bitumens, and recent synthetic crude production are tabulated

  7. Playful biometrics: controversial technology through the lens of play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerbrok, Ariane

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the role of play in the context of technological emergence and expansion, particularly as it relates to recently emerging surveillance technologies. As a case study, I consider the trajectory of automated face recognition—a biometric technology of numerous applications, from its more controversial manifestations under the rubric of national security to a clearly emerging orientation toward play. This shift toward “playful” biometrics—or from a technology traditionally coded as “hard” to one now increasingly coded as “soft”—is critical insofar as it renders problematic the traditional modes of critique that have, up until this point, challenged the expansion of biometric systems into increasingly ubiquitous realms of everyday life. In response to this dynamic, I propose theorizing the expansion of face recognition specifically in relation to “play,” a step that allows us to broaden the critical space around newly emerging playful biometrics, as well as playful surveillance more generally. In addition, play may also have relevance for theorizing other forms of controversial technology, particularly given its potential role in processes of obfuscation, normalization, and marginalization.

  8. Distribution of pathogenic bacteria in imported frozen shrimps and their radiation decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harun or Rashid; Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of pathogenic vibrios and other bacteria in 8 samples of the imported frozen shrimps and the effects of irradiation on these bacteria were investigated. The total aerobic bacteria were determined to be 2 x 10 4 to 4 x 10 6 per gram. Coliforms were mainly consisted of Enterobacter, and no pathogenic species such as Salmonella and Escherichia were detected. Total 66 vibrios named V. parahaemolyticus, V, mimicus, V. alginolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. fluvialis and 4 strains of Listeria monocytogenes were isolated. The necessary doses for elimination of vibrio isolates and Aeromonas hydrophila were ca. 3 kGy in frozen shrimps, whereas ca. 3.5 kGy were required to reduce the number by 4 logs for L. monocytogenes. (author)

  9. Playing at School: An Inquiry Approach to Using an Experiential Play Lab in an Early Childhood Teacher Education Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemple, Kristen M.; Oh, Ji Hyun; Porter, Daniella

    2015-01-01

    Play is considered an important activity of the early childhood years. Research supports the contribution of play to children's development, learning, and well-being. In spite of this, time for play is being pushed out in many early childhood programs by greater time allotted to formal instruction in narrow academic skills to be tested eventually…

  10. Playful mediation and virtual sociality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihem NAJJAR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a space of sociability, virtual games, especially online role playing games, allow us to capture the interest of the playfulness in social life, but they are means by which users are able to experiment their relationship to others. The virtual games as a mediation device, constitute a "pretext" to forge friendships, develop love relationships, improve language skills, discover other cultures, etc. Based on a sociological survey of Tunisian Internet users (both sexes fans of virtual games we try to show how playful mediation is producing a multifaceted virtual sociality inherent in our contemporary societies.

  11. Non-Digital Game Playing by Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, W Ben; Sixsmith, Andrew; Kaufman, David

    2017-09-01

    Research on video games' effect on cognition and behaviour has been extensive, yet little research has explored non-digital forms of game playing, especially among older adults. As part of a larger survey on game playing, 886 respondents (≥ age 55) filled out questionnaires about non-digital game play. The study aims were to determine perceived benefits of non-digital game play and to determine socio-demographic factors that might predict perceived benefits. Survey results indicate that non-digital game playing is social in nature and common (73% of respondents) among older adults. Older adults play for fun, but also to help maintain their cognition. Regression analyses indicated various socio-demographic factors - age, education, gender, and race - were independently associated with perceived benefits from game playing. The results thus emphasize the importance of non-digital game playing in this population and suggest that efforts to facilitate game playing may improve social interactions and quality of life.

  12. Recent Advances in General Game Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świechowski, Maciej; Park, HyunSoo; Mańdziuk, Jacek; Kim, Kyung-Joong

    2015-01-01

    The goal of General Game Playing (GGP) has been to develop computer programs that can perform well across various game types. It is natural for human game players to transfer knowledge from games they already know how to play to other similar games. GGP research attempts to design systems that work well across different game types, including unknown new games. In this review, we present a survey of recent advances (2011 to 2014) in GGP for both traditional games and video games. It is notable that research on GGP has been expanding into modern video games. Monte-Carlo Tree Search and its enhancements have been the most influential techniques in GGP for both research domains. Additionally, international competitions have become important events that promote and increase GGP research. Recently, a video GGP competition was launched. In this survey, we review recent progress in the most challenging research areas of Artificial Intelligence (AI) related to universal game playing. PMID:26380375

  13. Recent Advances in General Game Playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świechowski, Maciej; Park, HyunSoo; Mańdziuk, Jacek; Kim, Kyung-Joong

    2015-01-01

    The goal of General Game Playing (GGP) has been to develop computer programs that can perform well across various game types. It is natural for human game players to transfer knowledge from games they already know how to play to other similar games. GGP research attempts to design systems that work well across different game types, including unknown new games. In this review, we present a survey of recent advances (2011 to 2014) in GGP for both traditional games and video games. It is notable that research on GGP has been expanding into modern video games. Monte-Carlo Tree Search and its enhancements have been the most influential techniques in GGP for both research domains. Additionally, international competitions have become important events that promote and increase GGP research. Recently, a video GGP competition was launched. In this survey, we review recent progress in the most challenging research areas of Artificial Intelligence (AI) related to universal game playing.

  14. Recent Advances in General Game Playing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Świechowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of General Game Playing (GGP has been to develop computer programs that can perform well across various game types. It is natural for human game players to transfer knowledge from games they already know how to play to other similar games. GGP research attempts to design systems that work well across different game types, including unknown new games. In this review, we present a survey of recent advances (2011 to 2014 in GGP for both traditional games and video games. It is notable that research on GGP has been expanding into modern video games. Monte-Carlo Tree Search and its enhancements have been the most influential techniques in GGP for both research domains. Additionally, international competitions have become important events that promote and increase GGP research. Recently, a video GGP competition was launched. In this survey, we review recent progress in the most challenging research areas of Artificial Intelligence (AI related to universal game playing.

  15. A multiverse play divides opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2015-03-01

    The stage lights rise. A man and woman meet in a cute way - "Do you know why it's impossible to lick the tips of your elbows?" she asks - they chat momentarily, and separate. The play is Constellations by Nick Payne.

  16. Play the Blood Typing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nobel's Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire The Blood Typing Game What happens if you get a blood ... learn about human blood types! Play the Blood Typing Game 28 September 2017 The mission based game ...

  17. Free-to-Play -liiketoimintamalli

    OpenAIRE

    Tähtö, E. (Elias)

    2016-01-01

    Tiivistelmä Tutkielmani tarkoitus on tutustua erilaisiin pelejen sisäisiin mikrotransaktioihin sekä monetisaatioon. Peliteollisuuden tämän hetken suosituimpana pelimuotona on niin sanotut Free-To-Play -pelit, joiden liikevaihto perustuu täysin käyttäjien suorittamiin mikrotransaktioihin, joilla ostetaan erilaisia pelin sisäisiä hyödykkeitä. Free-to-play -malli on ansaintamallina vielä aika uusi, vaikkakin mikrotransaktioita...

  18. Working across Disciplines to Understand Playful Learning in Educational Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Aalsvoort, Geerdina; Broadhead, Pat

    2016-01-01

    Educators stress the importance of play for children's cognitive, social, physical, and emotional development. In order to effectively advocate for the inclusion of play in education settings, it is important to fully understand it. Two researchers, one from England and one from the Netherlands, sought common ground for understanding what children…

  19. A dual-color flow cytometry protocol for the simultaneous detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella typhimurium using aptamer conjugated quantum dots as labels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Nuo; Wu, Shijia; Yu, Ye; Ma, Xiaoyuan; Xia, Yu; Chen, Xiujuan; Huang, Yukun; Wang, Zhouping

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Two bacteria were simultaneously detected using QD-apt as labels by flow cytometry. •QD-apt were used for recognition and fluorescence detection of two bacteria. •The method was applied successfully for bacteria detection in real samples. -- Abstract: A sensitive, specific method for the collection and detection of pathogenic bacteria was demonstrated using quantum dots (QDs) as a fluorescence marker coupled with aptamers as the molecular recognition element by flow cytometry. The aptamer sequences were selected using a bacterium-based SELEX strategy in our laboratory for Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella typhimurium that, when applied in this method, allows for the specific recognition of the bacteria from complex mixtures including shrimp samples. Aptamer-modified QDs (QD-apt) were employed to selectively capture and simultaneously detect the target bacteria with high sensitivity using the fluorescence of the labeled QDs. The signal intensity is amplified due to the high photostability of QDs nanoparticles, resulting in improved sensitivity over methods using individual dye-labeled probes. This proposed method is promising for the sensitive detection of other pathogenic bacteria in food stuff if suitable aptamers are chosen. The method may also provide another potential platform for the application of aptamer-conjugated QDs in flow cytometry

  20. A dual-color flow cytometry protocol for the simultaneous detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella typhimurium using aptamer conjugated quantum dots as labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Nuo; Wu, Shijia [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Yu, Ye [Zhangjiagang Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Zhangjiangang 215600 (China); Ma, Xiaoyuan; Xia, Yu; Chen, Xiujuan; Huang, Yukun [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Wang, Zhouping, E-mail: wangzp@jiangnan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)

    2013-12-04

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Two bacteria were simultaneously detected using QD-apt as labels by flow cytometry. •QD-apt were used for recognition and fluorescence detection of two bacteria. •The method was applied successfully for bacteria detection in real samples. -- Abstract: A sensitive, specific method for the collection and detection of pathogenic bacteria was demonstrated using quantum dots (QDs) as a fluorescence marker coupled with aptamers as the molecular recognition element by flow cytometry. The aptamer sequences were selected using a bacterium-based SELEX strategy in our laboratory for Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella typhimurium that, when applied in this method, allows for the specific recognition of the bacteria from complex mixtures including shrimp samples. Aptamer-modified QDs (QD-apt) were employed to selectively capture and simultaneously detect the target bacteria with high sensitivity using the fluorescence of the labeled QDs. The signal intensity is amplified due to the high photostability of QDs nanoparticles, resulting in improved sensitivity over methods using individual dye-labeled probes. This proposed method is promising for the sensitive detection of other pathogenic bacteria in food stuff if suitable aptamers are chosen. The method may also provide another potential platform for the application of aptamer-conjugated QDs in flow cytometry.

  1. Parent-Child Play across Cultures: Advancing Play Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L.; Davidson, Kimberly L.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue for a greater understanding of children's play across cultures through better integration of scientific thinking about the developed and developing societies, through consideration of socialization beliefs and goals, and, finally, through the use of more complex models in research investigations. They draw on…

  2. Why Play Outside? Problematising Outdoor Play as a Biopedagogical Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daniel B.; Barrett, Joe

    2017-01-01

    Although outdoor play has been widely recognised for the many benefits it affords children, some have rationalised the need for it based on goals related to physical health. More specifically, these instrumental goals have been closely related to obesity, overweight, and/or physical (in)activity. Adhering to obesity discourses and the notion of a…

  3. Motivations for Play in Computer Role-Playing Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    , but rather composed of multiple motivational drivers that are heavily interrelated and act in concert. Character uniqueness and Discovery & Immersion were the highest ranked motivational categories. Different levels of detail in motivations for playing single-/multi- Player RPGs were located...

  4. Elderly Labor Supply: Work or Play

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haider, Steven

    2001-01-01

    .... Despite this, we find that the wages of the elderly are low both relative to younger populations and relative to the wages they earned when they themselves were young. Among individuals over the age of 70, we find that changes in health status dominate labor market transitions. Overall. our findings suggest that non- pecuniary considerations play an important role in determining elderly labor supply decisions.

  5. Modular robotics for playful physiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2009-01-01

    We developed modular robotic tiles to be used for playful physiotherapy, which is supposed to motivate patients to engage in and perform physical rehabilitation exercises. We tested the modular robotic tiles for an extensive period of time (3 years) in daily use in a hospital rehabilitation unit e.......g. for cardiac patients. Also, the tiles were tested for performing physical rehabilitation of stroke patients in their private home. In all pilot test cases qualitative feedback indicate that the patients find the playful use of modular robotic tiles engaging and motivating for them to perform...

  6. Rapport. Play and Learn Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Maria Neumann; Søgaard, Karoline

    Erfaringer og anbefalinger fra innovationsprojektet Play and Learn, hvor pædagoger har arbejdet med sprogstimulering af børn fra 3-9 år. Legende læring i daglige rutiner og pædagogiske aktiviteter har været fokuspunktet.......Erfaringer og anbefalinger fra innovationsprojektet Play and Learn, hvor pædagoger har arbejdet med sprogstimulering af børn fra 3-9 år. Legende læring i daglige rutiner og pædagogiske aktiviteter har været fokuspunktet....

  7. Microbiological aspects of Indonesian irradiation research. An evaluation of G. Botulinum and V. Parahaemolyticus as potential hazards in Indonesian irradiated products. Part of a coordinated programme on the wholesomeness of the process of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhadi, F.

    1977-02-01

    A total of 2602 samples consisting of 511 sediment, 1753 various species of fish, 141 shellfish, 121 shrimp and 68 crab were collected from 69 fishing areas in the coastal water of North Java and East Sumatra for detecting the incidences of Cl. botulinum and V. parahaemolyticus. From these samples, 70 (2.69%) were positive for Cl. botulinum and 86 (3.3%) were V. parahaemolyticus positive. The positive samples of Cl. botulinum consisted of 15 type A, 13 type B, 20 type C, 19 type D and 7 type F. The incidences around the north coast of Java were mainly type C and D, whereas those around the east coast of Sumatra were mainly types A and B. Growth and toxin formation of Cl. botulinum type E (strain Iwanai) was completely inhibited in media containing 7.5% Na Cl and above. Radiation doses of 200 krad and above together with Na Cl content in the media of 5.0% can also inhibit growth and toxin formation of this type. Inoculated pack studies of Cl. botulinum type C in radurized salted mackerel showed that either a treatment with 300 krad or a Na Cl content of 10% was able to delay toxin formation in the fish held at room temperature for 6 weeks. Irradiating fish containing 5% Na Cl with 200 krad can also delay toxin formation in the fish held at room temperature for a minimum of 4 weeks. V. parahaemolyticus can easily be eliminated from radurized fish receiving a dose of 100 krad and above. The D-value of this microorganism in a fish media containing 3% Na Cl was approximately 20 krad

  8. Child-Centered Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanFleet, Rise; Sywulak, Andrea E.; Sniscak, Cynthia Caparosa

    2010-01-01

    Highly practical, instructive, and authoritative, this book vividly describes how to conduct child-centered play therapy. The authors are master clinicians who explain core therapeutic principles and techniques, using rich case material to illustrate treatment of a wide range of difficulties. The focus is on nondirective interventions that allow…

  9. Moral Education through Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalle, Salwa; Zakaria, Gamal Abdul Nasir; Nawi, Aliff

    2014-01-01

    This paper will discuss on how sand therapy (as one type of play therapies) can be applied as an additional technique or approach in counseling. The research questions for this study are to see what are the development, challenges faced by the therapist during the sessions given and how sand therapy can aid to the progress of the client. It is a…

  10. Playing Videogames: The Electronic Friend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selnow, Gary W.

    1984-01-01

    Concluded that the children in this study (ages 10-14) played video games in arcades for some of the same reasons they watched television: (1) escape; (2) a sense of personal involvement in the action; and (3) a source of or substitute for companionship. (PD)

  11. Building Curriculum during Block Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Blocks are not just for play! In this article, Nicole Andrews describes observing the interactions of three young boys enthusiastically engaged in the kindergarten block center of their classroom, using blocks in a building project that displayed their ability to use critical thinking skills, physics exploration, and the development of language…

  12. Love Games that Insects Play

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 1. Love Games that Insects Play - The Evolution of Sexual Behaviours in Insects ... Author Affiliations. K N Ganeshaiah1. Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Bangalore 560 065, India ...

  13. Teaching Shakespeare Through Play Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodder, Joseph H.

    1995-01-01

    A performance-oriented approach to teaching William Shakespeare's literature has been found to be effective and enthusiastically received by college students. Ten years of teaching Shakespeare through full play production has shown that the rewards, eloquently expressed in the testimony of students, more than compensate for extra work required of…

  14. Designing Play for Dark Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada-Rice, Dylan

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a knowledge-exchange network project that had the core aim of informing the development of a video game for hospitalized children. In order to do this, it brought together hospital play specialists, academics and representatives from the digital games industry to co-produce knowledge that could be used in the future…

  15. Interpretive Reproduction in Children's Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool…

  16. Obama Plays Cheerleader for STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2010-01-01

    Amid a struggling economy, a raft of foreign-policy headaches, and the tail end of a heated campaign season, President Barack Obama carved out time in his schedule last month to watch students in the State Dining Room demonstrate a solar-powered model car, a water-purification system, and a soccer-playing robot. The science fair was the fifth…

  17. Playing to (self-)rehabilitate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoche, Hendrik; Hald, Kasper; Richter, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    We designed and evaluated a whack-a-mole (WAM) style game (see Figure 1) in a clinical randomized controlled trial (RCT) with reminder-assisted but self-initiated use over the period of a month with 43 participants from a post-lesion pool. While game play did not moderate rehabilitative progress...

  18. Playing with Protons CREATIONS Demonstrator

    CERN Multimedia

    Alexopoulos, Angelos

    2017-01-01

    This document describes Playing with Protons, a CMS education initiative that seeks to enhance teachers’ pedagogical practice with creative, hands-on methodologies through which 10-12 year old students can, in turn, get engaged effectively with science, technology and innovation.

  19. Play and Space - Towards a Formal Definition of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a formal definition of the aspect of play generally known as ‘make-believe’. ‘Make-believe’ is defined in relation to theory of place and Dasein’s being- in-the-world as presented by Martin Heidegger in Being and time. From this point of view ‘make-believe’ can...

  20. Compassionate Play in The Ludic Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Dyer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2013 game designer Eric Zimmerman wrote a provocative manifesto entitled ‘Manifesto for a Ludic Century’ (2013a, in which Zimmerman declares the 21st Century’s dominant cultural form to be games. Consequently, Zimmerman proposes that the individual occupant of the century is therefore in a continuous state of game engagement. As such, this re-contextualisation of game space and play, indefinitely articulates the individual as a constant player and character, and thusly challenges the notions of selfhood. Importantly it should be noted, the state of a ludic century is explicitly assumed as a truth, however superficial it may appear. Accordingly, this paper is then afforded to be an extended hypothesis of the proposed ludic century, rather than a critical dissection and response to Zimmerman’s manifesto. This enables a hermeneutic framing of the questions: ‘What does it mean to live in a ludic century?’and ‘in what capacity may the self exist in the ludic century?’ These questions will attempt to distinguish play as an inherent cultural logic that extends beyond the limitations of explicit ‘gamification’ or instrumental play (Stenros et al., 2009; Zichermann, 2010. Concluding, it is claimed that the ludic century elicits a sustained delusion of self, as the player is confined to the designed game structure, which inhibits authentic engagement and interaction with environment and self. It is proposed that this evokes a form of suffering, the compassionate play within the ludic century.