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Sample records for paraguay

  1. Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    In 1986, the population of Paraguay stood at 4 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.7%. The infant mortality rate was 64/1000 live births and life expectancy was 62 years. The literacy rate was 81%. Of the labor force of 1.2 million, 44% were employed in the agricultural sector, 34% were in industry and commerce, 18% were in the services sector, and 4% were employed by the government. The gross national product (GNP) was US $3.31 billion in 1985, with an annual growth rate of 5% and a per capita GNP of $660. The inflation rate was 25.2% in 1985. Paraguay is a constitutional republic with a powerful executive branch. Since assuming power in 1954, President Alfredo Stroessner has been concerned with the re-establishment of internal order as a basis for economic development. The Colorado Party, the military, and the government bureaucracy are the pillars of the Stroessner regime. Although this regime has brought stability and economic growth, this has been achieved at considerable cost to political rights and individual liberties. Obstacles to development have included fluctuating prices for major export items, the long and expensive river or land routes that foreign trade must traverse, a small domestic market, and internal and external trade barriers. Despite these limitations, agricultural production has grown rapidly, especially cotton and soybeans for export. Paraguay has exceptional hydroelectric potential and is expected to become the world's largest exporter of hydroelectric energy within the next decade. The country's stable government, conservative fiscal policies, and laissezfaire approach to trade and investment have brought economic improvement to a broad segment of society. In addition, the government has attempted to ameliorate rural poverty with a land program.

  2. Experiencia Educacional en Paraguay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Blanca Pavon.

    Full Text Available La experiencia educacional que presentaré concierne al grupo indígena de los guaraníes del Paraguay que se autodenominan Karaguy  jara, que quiere decir  "dueños del monte". También se denominan Avá chiiripá. Esta etnia vive en la región oriental del Paraguay. en un triángulo que se extiende hacia el Brasil. En este mismo sector viven también los Paitauytera, los Mbya y los llamados Ache o Guayaki o Atchi. Se supone .que existen alrededor de 4.500 Avá Chiripá en la región oriental del Paraguay. Viven en pequeñas comunidades y han perdido su hábitat selvático natural casi en su totalidad.

  3. Paraguay: population and the economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1986-01-01

    Paraguay's political conflicts and development experiences have been accompanied by compensatory population movements; however, economic and population policies of the past are not adequate to address the current economic challenges. The principal structural problem is dependence on international commodity prices. Since late 1984, the international prices for soya and cotton have declined more than 50%; these 2 products account for 83% of official exports. The external debt has grown significantly in the past 5 years and is increasingly difficult to service. A major problem the government faces in servicing the debt and maintaining economic growth is its inability to get control of foreign exchange. Much of Paraguay's external trade is contraband, with the dollars passing into the black market. As a result of the illegal economy, government earnings have been insufficient to cover expenses. Unemployment stands at 12% because of general economic decline, cuts in government expenditure, and the reduction of investment in hydroelectricity. Occupation of new land, the classic solution by the Paraguayan peasantry, is no longer a viable option since all land is now utilized. About 20-25% of Paraguayans live outside the country, expecially in Argentina. In 1986, a commission drafted an Adjustment Plan that recommended a devaluation of the official gurani rate, tax increases, higher tariffs for public services, and incentives to invest in priority areas; however, this plan has not been implemented to date.

  4. The right to health in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torales, Julio; Villalba-Arias, Jorge; Ruiz-Díaz, César; Chávez, Emilia; Riego, Viviana

    2014-08-01

    Access to facilities, services and opportunities designed to meet the needs of health is a fundamental human right and is the key for people to enjoy other human rights. However, in Paraguay, this right is still far from becoming reality. The status of the country is the most disadvantaged when compared to the average condition of the Mercosur (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela). Health, as a human right, expands as a social, economic, and political matter. Inequality, poverty, exploitation, violence and injustice are at the root of its poor quality and the consequent shortcomings that emerge from it. Access to health in Paraguay must be further developed using a human rights framework linking it with improving quality of life for all citizens. Such an approach means that potentially powerful barriers and interests must be questioned and contested wherever appropriate and that political and economic priorities must change drastically.

  5. Area Handbook Series: Paraguay: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    interna- tionally popular; lyrics in Spanish and Guarani were a hallmark of Paraguayan culture. 64 The Society and Its Environment Sociolinguist Joan...the Paraguayan econo- my in the 1980s was Guillermo F. Peroni and Martin Burt’s Paraguay: Laws and Economy. Two more critical essays were Ricardo

  6. [Secondary glaucoma in Paraguay. Etiology and incidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohl, A; Pozzi, S; Wattiez, R; Roesen, B; Miño de Kaspar, H; Klauss, V

    1999-06-01

    Glaucoma is the third-most-frequent cause of blindness in the world, with a total of 5.2 million blind people as a result of this disease; 80% live in developing countries. In Paraguay, after cataract it is the second-most-frequent-cause. Early detection of the risk factors and groups can help to avoid progress of this disease. Trauma, cataract and infectious uveitis represent special risks for developing secondary glaucoma, which is a more frequent cause of blindness in third-world countries than in industrialized nations. Until now there has been little data regarding the causes, disease course, and options for therapy. Therefore, secondary glaucoma was examined in Paraguay to obtain information on the situation in Latin America. The aim of the study was to explore the causes of secondary glaucoma for programs concerning prevention and therapy. From November 1996 to February 1997 patients with secondary glaucoma were examined at the University Hospital of Asunción, Paraguay. After the clinical examination the secondary glaucomas were classified. Patients with primary glaucoma were included in the same period of time as well in order to get the rate of secondary glaucoma. Altogether 293 patients were examined: 61 with secondary and 232 with primary glaucoma. The causes of secondary glaucoma in 73 eyes were: 20 (27%) with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma, 19 (26%) with post-traumatic glaucoma, 16 (22%) with neovascular glaucoma, 4 (5%) with lens-related glaucoma, 3 (4%) with glaucoma associated with ocular surgery, 2 (3%) with pigmentary and 2 (3%) with corticoid-induced glaucoma. A ratio of 4:1 primary glaucomas to secondary glaucomas was found. The development of special measures for prevention and early therapy is only possible if the causes of this severe disease are explored. The results of this study represent basic information and could help to introduce of prevention programs.

  7. OSMUNDACEAE EN ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY Y URUGUAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo D. Arana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se actualiza la taxonomía y distribución de las Osmundaceae, familia de helechos que habitan bosques y humedales subtropicales de la Argentina, Paraguay y Uruguay. Actualmente la familia comprende cuatro géneros, dos de ellos, con una especie cada uno, estan presentes en la región estudiada. Se acepta Osmunda spectabilis como una especie válida, diferente de O. regalis , la que no se encuentra presente en el área de estudio. Se reconoce a nivel de género a Osmundastrum con una única especie O. cinnamomeum var. cinnamomeum . Se incluyen una clave para los géneros, descripciones, la sinonimia relevante para América del Sur, distribuciones e ilustraciones de las especies. Se lectotipifica a Osmunda imbricata, Osmunda palustris y Osmunda spectabilis var. brasiliensis .

  8. Variaciones en el comportamiento electoral en Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DUARTE RECALDE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El proceso electoral en Paraguay se ha visto condicionado históricamente por el control de la Asociación Nacional Republicana, partido hegemónico durante los años del régimen de Stroessner y los años de la transición democrática. Por este motivo, la alternancia al mando del Poder Ejecutivo ocurrida en el año 2008, como resultado del proceso electoral, marcó un hito en la historia política del país y resaltó la importancia del análisis del comportamiento electoral de los paraguayos, sus tendencias y los elementos coyunturales y estructurales que las condicionan. En el presente trabajo se describen los parámetros de comportamiento electoral en las tres últimas elecciones generales celebradas en el país considerando los índices de volatilidad electoral resultantes de estos comicios y los niveles de participación efectiva registrados, analizándolos a partir del contexto sociopolítico en que se desarrollan.

  9. Stateness and quality of democracy in Paraguay Estatalidad y calidad de la democracia en Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego ABENTE BRUN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the fact that in all existing indices of the quality of democracy Paraguay fares rather poorly, the author explores how «stateness» accounts for that poor performance. He argues that together with a pattern of truncated modernization that produced an invertebrate society conducive to generalized clientelism and the constitutional and institutional framework that reinforces and perpetuates it, the weakness of the State imposes additional severe constraints. These constraints manifest themselves in two dimensions: the weakness of the state apparatus and its narrow social base in terms of «state-for-the nation or the people».Partiendo de los índices existentes que sitúan al Paraguay entre las democracias de más baja calidad en América Latina, se explora el impacto de la estatalidad en esa baja calidad de la democracia. Se sostiene que, además de la modernización truncada que resultó en una sociedad invertebrada proclive a la proliferación de un clientelismo generalizado y la arquitectura constitucional e institucional que la refuerza y perpetúa, la debilidad del Estado impone limitaciones adicionales muy severas al desarrollo de una democracia de calidad. Estas limitaciones se manifiestan en dos dimensiones: la debilidad del Estado como aparato y su estrecha base social en términos de «Estado-para-la Nación o pueblo».

  10. Embarazo adolescente en un Hospital de Paraguay durante el 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Cabañas Acosta, Beatriz Mercedes; Escobar Salinas, Jorge Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: Describir las características epidemiológicas del embarazo adolescente en el Hospital Regional de Coronel Oviedo, Paraguay.Material y Métodos: Estudio observacional descriptivo de corte transversal, con muestreo no probabilístico de casos consecutivos, con revisión de historias clínicas de las embarazadas adolescentes que acudieron al Hospital Regional de Coronel Oviedo, Paraguay entre los meses enero y diciembre del año 2011.Resultados: Se incluyeron 167 historias clínicas de mujer...

  11. Lung cancer: patient profile in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguero, M.; Gauna, C.; Pereira, R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the profile that comes to query the patient with cancer Lung in Paraguay, as well as therapeutic limitations found in stadiums advanced. Material and Methods: A retrospective analysis of medical records of patients who consulted was held at the Institute of Cancer in 2008. Inclusion criteria: patients with histologically confirmed attending their first consultation in the period from January 2008 to December 2008. Data Collection: sex, age, origin, occupation, toxic habits, reason was analyzed consultation, ECOG, histology, stage and treatment performed. Results: Of 59 patients studied there is a predominance of males (83%) from mostly in rural areas. The average age is 61 years. Of risk factors (Snuff, environmental exposure) 100% of women do not have such and only 2.3% of men; It is more frequent association of the two factors cited. Dyspne a (44%) is The most common symptom, followed by pain (20.3%), Cough / hemoptysis (17%) and finally headache (6.7%). The histological prevalence is a non-small cell cancer (98.3%) and among the Adenocarcinoma heads the frequency (56.8%), Squamous Cell Carcinoma (24.1%) and carcinoma differentiated ((19.1%), there is only one record of a Oat Cell Carcinoma. The stadium's presentation common is the Est. IV (44%) being the most frequent sites Liver metastases (26.7%) and Brain (23%) come in relatively general condition, mostly with ECOG 2 (30.5%) .. In As for treatment: one patient was performing a partial lobectomy operable; They performed chemotherapy or radiotherapy alone 24.5% and 16.9% respectively, the combination of both 10% and made no treatment, rejected or made exclusive palliative care 46% of the sample. Of 25 patients who received chemotherapy and 92% received 1st line Paclitaxel + Carboplatin and of them only 16% showed greater than 50% response. Only 6 patients performed 2nd line with Gemzitabina + cisplatin; and only one patient performed The 3rd line (Vinorelbine + Gemzitabina) and 4

  12. Computing and Education in Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowsky, Manuel

    Although the report is specifically about Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, the considerations presented are valid for all of Latin America. In September, 1969, Argentina had approximately 200 electronic computers. The annual growth is estimated at 15-20% and the implementation of teleprocessing and time-sharing systems have made evident the…

  13. Attitudinal Dimensions of Guarani-Spanish Bilingualism in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gynan, Shaw N.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a study of language attitudes in Paraguay's unique Spanish-Guarani bilingual situation. Suggests issues of public opinion that language policy makers should consider in determining the roles of the two languages, especially with respect to literacy education. (Author/VWL)

  14. Fostering Early Math Comprehension: Experimental Evidence from Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund-Hadley, Emma; Parker, Susan W.; Hernandez-Agramonte, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that preschool children need to learn pre-math skills to build a foundation for primary- and secondary-level mathematics. This paper presents the results from the early stages of a pilot mathematics program implemented in Cordillera, Paraguay. In a context of significant gaps in teacher preparation and pedagogy, the program uses…

  15. Pobreza y distribución del ingreso en Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Indart

    2000-01-01

    El presente trabajo analiza las políticas económicas implementadas en Paraguay, durante el período de liberalización de la economía, al igual que la evolución de la distribución del ingreso y la incidencia de la pobreza, particularmente en el sector rural.

  16. Globalización de la educacion superior en Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Alfredo Recalde; Willian Cantero Lusardi; Juan Angel Jara Acosta

    2013-01-01

    El inicio del  desarrollo e innovación del  sistema de Educación Superior en Paraguay nació en el año 1889 con la creación de la Universidad Nacional de Asunción,  siendo  la primera universidad Nacional  en el país y en 1960 la Universidad Católica Nuestra Señora de la Asunción, la primera universidad privada; desde entonces fue postergada la creación de Universidades en Paraguay por más de  100 años, causa el sistema de gobierno político implementado en aquel entonces, al no haber centro de...

  17. Globalización de la educacion superior en Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alfredo Recalde

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El inicio del  desarrollo e innovación del  sistema de Educación Superior en Paraguay nació en el año 1889 con la creación de la Universidad Nacional de Asunción,  siendo  la primera universidad Nacional  en el país y en 1960 la Universidad Católica Nuestra Señora de la Asunción, la primera universidad privada; desde entonces fue postergada la creación de Universidades en Paraguay por más de  100 años, causa el sistema de gobierno político implementado en aquel entonces, al no haber centro de estudios especializados también se postergo el desarrollo intelectual de las personas,  desde 1989 con la caída del sistema dictatorial se han abierto un abanico de posibilidades con la apertura de universidades privadas y públicas. Actualmente el Paraguay cuenta con 52 universidades en pleno funcionamiento de las cuales, 8 son universidades públicas  y 44 de administración privada, a esto podemos agregar un total de 11 carreras acreditadas a nivel MERCOSUR, certificaciones otorgadas mediante el Sistema de Acreditación Regional de Carreras Universitarias (ARCU-SUR, por la Agencia Nacional de Evaluación y Acreditación de la Educación Superior (ANEAES. Es evidente el cambio cuali – cuantitativo experimentado por el sistema de Educación Superior en Paraguay, acompañando de la mano a las tecnologías de la información y la educación que hacen una Globalización eficaz y eficiente del conocimiento.

  18. The Alto Paraguay Alkaline Province: petrographic, geochemical and geochronological characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez Fernandez, Victor

    1996-01-01

    The Alto Paraguay Province is located at the border of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraguay, between the coordinates 21 deg 10 ' to 23 deg 25 ' of Southern latitude and 57 deg 10 ' to 58 deg 00 ' , having the city of Porto Murtinho as the main reference point. The geotectonic domain of the area is governed by the precambric units of the Southern extreme of the Amazonic craton which developed a long and accentuated activity, giving rise to folds and important faults, that in several cases seem to have exerted an effective control of the magmatic manifestations. Radiometric data indicate that the emplacement of the syenitic bodies took place in the Permo-Triassic period, with a major incidence in the interval 260-240 Ma, representing thus, an important phase of alkaline magmatic affinity associated to the Parana Basin which is believed is to be unique, since the other known areas (Central, Amambay and Rio Apa Provinces, Paraguay, Velasco Province, Bolivia) are considerably younger (140-120 Ma). Syenitic rocks from the Alto Paraguay Province show wide variation in the ratio 87 Sr/ 86 Sr (0.703361 - 0.707734). Excluding the Cerro Boggiani rocks (0.703837-0.707734), values for the nepheline syenites (0.703361-0.703672) general lower than those of the other syenites types. Alkaline syenites cover the interval 0.703510- 0.703872, while quartz syenites and syenogranites are 0.704562 and 0.707076, respectively. geologic evidence, in addition to petrographic, geochemical and isotopic (Sr) data, suggest that the syenitic rocks have been derived from an unique mantelic parental liquid, by fractional crystallization and assimilation processes, which are assumed to be occurred during the emplacement of the magma in the crust. (author)

  19. Distribution and status of the Rufous-tailed Jacamar Galbula ruficauda (Aves: Galbulidae in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Centrón

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rufous-tailed Jacamar Galbula ruficauda is known from few records in Paraguay, all during the last 20 years. The species has been recorded in the northern Chaco and Paraguayan Pantanal, with all confirmed records from Alto Paraguay department. Here we summarise all reports and localities of the species in Paraguay to date. The species is categorized as Data Deficient at the national level, but may be more widely distributed than is currently recognised.

  20. Le coton biologique au Paraguay. 2. Production et contraintes agronomiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvie, P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic cotton production in Paraguay. 2. Agronomic limitations for a novel industry. Two main limiting factors to organic cotton production are soil fertility and pest (arthropods and diseases management. Paraguay has begun to produce organic cotton since 2003. An exploratory study was carried out in order to have a better knowledge of the way the organic cotton production has developed and to identify economic (first paper and agronomic limitations (this paper. In addition, this paper provides an analysis of the production of cotton-seed. The study was achieved in 2008 during the cotton harvest period by interviewing the actors from the farm to the industrial level. With more than 200 tons of cotton-seed produced since 2006-2007, Paraguay has reached the second position of South-American producers of organic cotton, behind Peru. In 2007-2008, the recorded average yield of 492 kg.ha-1 of cotton-seed has been underestimated because of sales of organic cotton to the conventional industry. Fertilization and insect pest management, especially for the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis, were based on biological approaches at the whole cropping system level. Management practices included the use of made-in-farm inputs with, according to users, a fair level of efficacy but whose actual effects are mostly poorly known. We recommend in-depth studies firstly to identify the biological pathways involved when necessary, secondly to assess the qualitative and quantitative diversity of farmers practices, and thirdly to integrate their impacts at different space and time scales.

  1. Assessment of satellite-based precipitation estimates over Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreggioni Weiberlen, Fiorella; Báez Benítez, Julián

    2018-04-01

    Satellite-based precipitation estimates represent a potential alternative source of input data in a plethora of meteorological and hydrological applications, especially in regions characterized by a low density of rain gauge stations. Paraguay provides a good example of a case where the use of satellite-based precipitation could be advantageous. This study aims to evaluate the version 7 of the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA V7; 3B42 V7) and the version 1.0 of the purely satellite-based product of the Climate Prediction Center Morphing Technique (CMORPH RAW) through their comparison with daily in situ precipitation measurements from 1998 to 2012 over Paraguay. The statistical assessment is conducted with several commonly used indexes. Specifically, to evaluate the accuracy of daily precipitation amounts, mean error (ME), root mean square error (RMSE), BIAS, and coefficient of determination (R 2) are used, and to analyze the capability to correctly detect different precipitation intensities, false alarm ratio (FAR), frequency bias index (FBI), and probability of detection (POD) are applied to various rainfall rates (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mm/day). Results indicate that TMPA V7 has a better performance than CMORPH RAW over Paraguay. TMPA V7 has higher accuracy in the estimation of daily rainfall volumes and greater precision in the detection of wet days (> 0 mm/day). However, both satellite products show a lower ability to appropriately detect high intensity precipitation events.

  2. Planning Education for Regional Economic Integration: The Case of Paraguay and MERCOSUR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Noel

    This paper examines the possible impact of MERCOSUR on Paraguay's economic and educational systems. MERCOSUR is a trade agreement among Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay, under which terms all import tariffs among the countries will be eliminated by 1994. The countries will enter into a common economic market. The worst-case scenario…

  3. Teen pregnancy in a Hospital in Paraguay in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Mercedes Cabañas Acosta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the epidemiological characteristics of teenage pregnancy in the Regional Hospital of Coronel Oviedo, Paraguay. Material and Methods: Descriptive, observational cross-sectional study with consecutive non-probability sampling of cases, review of medical records of pregnant teenagers who attended the Regional Hospital of Coronel Oviedo, Paraguay between january and december 2011. Results: 167 medical records of pregnant adolescents were included, which accounted for 40.7% of all births attended in 2011. The age range was between 13 and 19 years, with an average age of 17.47 ± 1.42. 64.1% were of urban origin. 86.8% did not use contraception and 50.9% had a free union. The observed complications were: premature rupture of membrane at 10.2%, urinary tract infection at 8.4% and fetal death in 0.6% of cases. Conclusion: The prevalence of teenage pregnancy in this study was 40.7%; most women did not use any contraceptive method. The most common complication in this type of pregnancy was premature rupture of membrane.

  4. Survey of bat populations from Mexico and Paraguay for rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeler-Gordon, L L; Smith, J S

    2001-07-01

    A mammalian survey was conducted in Mexico (October 1994-January 1996) and in Paraguay (August 1996-March 1997); a complete specimen was collected for each bat in the survey, including primary voucher specimen, ectoparasites, karyotype, and various frozen tissues. The surveys combined provided 937 brain samples (65 bat species) for rabies diagnosis. One male Lasiurus ega, collected in Paraguay, tested positive for the rabies virus (overall prevalence rate of 0.1%). Nucleotide sequence from a 300 bp region of the rabies nucleoprotein gene was compared with sequence obtained from representative rabies virus samples in the repository at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, Georgia, USA). Rabies virus extracted from the brain material of L. ega differed by only one nucleotide from a 300 bp consensus sequence (>99% homology) derived from samples for the variant of rabies virus transmitted by Lasiurus cinereus. Lasiurus ego differed by approximately 15% for the variant transmitted by Desmodus rotundus. Phylogenetic analysis found no evidence to suggest L. ego is a reservoir for rabies antigenic variant 6. The most likely explanation for rabies in L. ega was infection following contact with a rabid L. cinereus.

  5. Estatalidad y calidad de la democracia en Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego ABENTE BRUN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de los índices existentes que sitúan al Paraguay entre las democracias de más baja calidad en América Latina, se explora el impacto de la estatalidad en esa baja calidad de la democracia. Se sostiene que, además de la modernización truncada que resultó en una sociedad invertebrada proclive a la proliferación de un clientelismo generalizado y la arquitectura constitucional e institucional que la refuerza y perpetúa, la debilidad del Estado impone limitaciones adicionales muy severas al desarrollo de una democracia de calidad. Estas limitaciones se manifiestan en dos dimensiones: la debilidad del Estado como aparato y su estrecha base social en términos de «Estado-para-la Nación o pueblo».

  6. Capital intelectual en mercados en desarrollo. El caso de Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Sosa Arias, Mario Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Lo que ha motivado el presente trabajo de tesis y que podremos observar con mayor profundidad a medida que avancemos en los capítulos, es cómo dar respuestas a los problemas de baja competitividad que enfrenta el Paraguay; puesto que tiene una de las economías más pequeñas, medida en términos de producto interno bruto per cápita, PIB per cápita, superficie y población, de América del Sur. A pe sar de ello, el país tiene un enorme potencial económico, el cual hasta ahora no ha podido ser aprov...

  7. HLA polymorphism in a Guarani-Indian population from Paraguay and its usefulness for the Hispano-Indian admixture study in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, O; Busson, M; Charron, D; Loiseau, P

    2011-02-01

    In this study we investigated the human leucocyte antigen-A (HLA-A), -B and DRB1 polymorphism of Native American population of Paraguay, the Guarani Indians. We found that the HLA variability consisted of 5 HLA-A, 7 HLA-B and 6 HLA-DRB1 groups of alleles and of several specific alleles (B*1504, B*3505, B*3912, B*4004, B*5104, DRB1*0411, DRB1*1413) common in other Native American populations. The comparison of the HLA polymorphism of the Guaranis from Paraguay with the «Mestizos» of Paraguay and the Spaniards showed that the «Mestizos» of Paraguay are genetically very distant from the Guarani Indians of Paraguay but much more close to the Spaniards. This can be explained, at least in part, by the history of the country. Our results are of importance in transplantation, in particular in the search for an unrelated donor for a Paraguayan patient requiring hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Terrorism, Diasporas, and Permissive Threat Environments. A Study of Hizballah's Fundraising Operations in Paraguay and Ecuador

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meehan, Howard V

    2004-01-01

    .... The focus of analysis is how host-nation characteristics, geo-strategic variables, and diaspora characteristics influence the nature and significance of Hizballah's fundraising operations in Paraguay and Ecuador...

  9. Report of the project ARCAL XLIII: Paraguay: industrial application of tracer techniques and nuclear control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta Cabello, Rodolfo

    2000-12-01

    Paraguay needs to improve the productivity in several service industries. Main interest has been devoted to introducing new alternative techniques for the evaluation of the processes of water treatment plants for human consumption and waste waters [es

  10. Insecticidal activity of neem oil against Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Hemiptera: Psyllidae nymphs on Paraguay tea seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Formentini

    Full Text Available Abstract Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Paraguay tea ampul is one of the most important pests of Paraguay tea plants, and prohibition of synthetic insecticide use for control of this pest has led to the search for alternative methods. This laboratory study aimed to compare different control strategies for G. spegazziniana, utilizing a commercial neem seed oil product. Paraguay tea seedlings were treated with neem oil solution both pre- and post-infestation with 5th instar nymphs. The systemic action of neem oil was also evaluated by treating plant soil with the neem oil solution, followed by transfer of the insects to plants 24 h post-treatment. Spray treatments were effective against the pest, especially post-infestation (80% mortality, demonstrating the potential of neem oil for control of the Paraguay tea ampul. No significant effects were observed with respect to systemic activity.

  11. Education in radiation protection in the National Customs of Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordon, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    According to the IAEA-TECDOC-1312, as it is required by international agreements, the displacement of radioactive material within and among States should be subject to strict regulatory, administrative, safety and technical controls to ensure conditions of technological and physical safety. The Customs Office is one of the institutions responsible for monitoring shipments crossing international borders. Increasing illicit trafficking of radioactive materials, the use of ionizing radiation generating equipment for checking loads, and trade in radioactive substances have informed the need for education in radiation protection of customs officials. Thus, based on a course on radiation protection for Customs officials, organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency, in March 2008 was initiated a course of radiation protection, of 30 hours Carrera Tecnica del Centro de Formacion y Capacitacion Aduanera de Paraguay, which highlights the basic chapters and for transporting, nomenclature, new equipment emitting ionizing radiation and smuggling. Since then, to date, at least 10 groups have completed the training. Within the training program for customs officials, was incorporated a course for radiation protection of operators of baggage scanners with a four-hour program. Finally, since from 2011 and periodically, at various country customs, a workshop on Illicit trafficking of radioactive and nuclear materials is performed. The results of these courses have been very positive, as well as know the proper procedures for dealing with ionizing radiation has increased the safety culture within the institution

  12. Calidad de vida en adultos del Paraguay con enfermedad celiaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Emilio Real-Delor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad celiaca altera el estado emocional, las relaciones sociales, la autonomía y la percepción de la salud, afectando la calidad de vida relacionada a la salud. Los objetivos fueron determinar la calidad de vida relacionada a la salud en adolescentes y adultos con enfermedad celiaca e investigar los factores que la afectan. Se realizó un estudio observacional, prospectivo, realizado en adolescentes y adultos del Paraguay portadores de enfermedad celiaca con al menos 6 meses en dieta sin gluten. Se aplicó el cuestionario CD-QOL. Fueron incluidos 114 sujetos, con edad media 30±10 años, siendo 58% del sexo femenino. La calidad de vida fue buena en 25%, regular en 49% y mala en 26%. Los factores asociados significativamente a mejor calidad de vida fueron el sexo femenino, el grupo etario >30 años y realizar actividades fuera del hogar. Se concluye que la calidad de vida de los celiacos adolescentes y adultos es regular en 49% de los encuestados.

  13. Fostering Early Math Comprehension: Experimental Evidence from Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Naslund-Hadley

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that preschool children need to learn pre-math skills to build a foundation for primary- and secondary-level mathematics. This paper presents the results from the early stages of a pilot mathematics program implemented in Cordillera, Paraguay. In a context of significant gaps in teacher preparation and pedagogy, the program uses interactive audio segments that cover the entire preschool math curriculum. Since Paraguayan classrooms tend to be bilingual, the audio and written materials use a combination of Spanish and Guaraní. Based on an experimental evaluation since the program’s implementation, we document positive and significant improvements of 0.16 standard deviations in standardized test scores. The program helped narrow learning gaps between low- and high-performing students, and between students with trained teachers and those whose teachers lack formal training in early childhood education. Moreover, the program improved learning equally among both Guaraní- and Spanish-speaking students. But not all learning gaps narrowed as a result of the program. Although girls improved significantly, boys improved much more, ultimately increasing the gender gap. To close this gender gap, the program has been modified to encourage girls’ increased participation in the classroom and general interest in math

  14. New perspective for radiation protection in diagnostic procedure in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosky, R.A.; Gamarra, M.

    2001-01-01

    The Government in Paraguay approved by Decree Law 10754, dated October 6, 2000, its National Regulation on Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources, based on the IAEA Safety Standards 115. The primary goal of Patient Protection is to ensure that both Regulatory Authorities and all Responsible parties in Medical Practices observe procedural process in conducting their responsibilities on regulatory and administrative affairs. On one side the Government, 'Department de Proteccion Radiologica', under the Health Ministry and Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, and on the other side, the medical practitioner who prescribes or conducts diagnostic or therapeutic treatment, both ensure that the exposure of patients be the minimum. This document describes how the Regulatory Authorities intend to implement this recent act and on the other hand take the advantage of this Conference to understand better this subject, especially on the following subjects: essential requirement for licensing, inspection and enforcement programme in the country's capital and in the interior, where there are more difficulties; workers and medical training and lessons learned applying to developing countries. (author)

  15. Selected trace and minor elements in sandstones from Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facetti-Masulli, J.F.; Gonzalez, E.; Kump, P.

    2010-01-01

    Selected trace and minor elements analyzed by XRF in sandstone samples were Rb-Sr-Zr-Nb-Ba-La-Ce-Nd as well as Ti-Mn-Fe with which they are often correlated. Refractory elements like REE are considered useful indicators of geochemical processes and, in this case, of provenance. Usually they maintain their original relationships and are transferred almost directly into sediments. The values here found, absolute and normalized, show correlations among the samples, allowing the establishment of their origin. Most of them in the spidergram patterns display positive spikes of Zr, and negative anomalies at Nb, Sr, Ti: differences in their height/depth could be in relation with the different Series or Formations. Strikingly, spidergrams of samples collected from the Patino Formation show marked negative anomalies interalia of Ba, as well as positive spikes of Nb and Zr, very similar to those found in magmatic specimens from Misiones, Carapegua-Acahay and Alto Paraguay Province and quite different from the other analyzed samples. In addition a remarkable presence of Precambrian signatures were found in the analyzed sandstones from the Paleozoic. (orig.)

  16. Selected trace and minor elements in sandstones from Paraguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facetti-Masulli, J.F.; Gonzalez, E. [Hydroconsult SRL, Asuncion (Paraguay); Kump, P. [J. Stefan Inst., Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-07-01

    Selected trace and minor elements analyzed by XRF in sandstone samples were Rb-Sr-Zr-Nb-Ba-La-Ce-Nd as well as Ti-Mn-Fe with which they are often correlated. Refractory elements like REE are considered useful indicators of geochemical processes and, in this case, of provenance. Usually they maintain their original relationships and are transferred almost directly into sediments. The values here found, absolute and normalized, show correlations among the samples, allowing the establishment of their origin. Most of them in the spidergram patterns display positive spikes of Zr, and negative anomalies at Nb, Sr, Ti: differences in their height/depth could be in relation with the different Series or Formations. Strikingly, spidergrams of samples collected from the Patino Formation show marked negative anomalies interalia of Ba, as well as positive spikes of Nb and Zr, very similar to those found in magmatic specimens from Misiones, Carapegua-Acahay and Alto Paraguay Province and quite different from the other analyzed samples. In addition a remarkable presence of Precambrian signatures were found in the analyzed sandstones from the Paleozoic. (orig.)

  17. La renegociación de Itaipú: una nueva oportunidad para el Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSTAVO ROJAS

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Después de casi un año de negociaciones,
    Paraguay y Brasil definieron las bases de un acuerdo
    sobre la Hidroeléctrica de Itaipú. Con este acuerdo,
    Paraguay triplicaría el ingreso que recibe por la venta
    de energía eléctrica al Brasil. Más allá de ello, los
    autores notan las nuevas posibilidades que genera
    este acuerdo, que redefine la relación bilateral con
    el Brasil.

  18. El ascenso de la soja en Paraguay : Un estudio de la demanda mundial por la soja

    OpenAIRE

    Almerfors, Jacqueline

    2008-01-01

    La producción de soja ha crecido significativamente durante un periodo de 6 años en Paraguay llegado a una cosecha record de 6,2 millones de toneladas en 2007. Este aumento se debe a factores globales como la demanda creciente por la soja para la Unión Europea que va destinada a la producción del biocombustible. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido investigar cual fue la causa que conllevo al aumento de la producción de soja en Paraguay. Con la ayuda de principalmente dos publicaciones, Republ...

  19. On the status of Dusky-legged Guan Penelope obscura Temminck, 1815 (Aves: Cracidae in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Smith

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite repeated references to the species in Paraguay, the status of the Dusky-legged Guan Penelope obscura in the country has been the subject of much debate. In an attempt to clarify the available data, a thorough review of literature records is provided and details of new and previously unpublished records that confirm that the nominate subspecies is present in Paraguay are given. With the species limits in the obscura complex poorly defined, we provide a brief discussion of the potential importance of Paraguayan populations for the conservation of the species.

  20. Proyecciones de rabia canina en Argentina, Bolivia y Paraguay, usando series de tiempo

    OpenAIRE

    SCORTTI, M.; CATTAN, P.; CANALS, M.

    1997-01-01

    Se estudió el número de casos mensuales de rabia canina en Argentina (1971-1993), Bolivia (1987-1993) y Paraguay (1976-1993), a fin de identificar fluctuaciones regulares y predecir el comportamiento futuro de la rabia en dichos países. Los métodos empleados consistieron en análisis de series de tiempo, incluyendo el análisis armónico de Fourier y los modelos multiplicativos ARIMA-SARIMA de Box-Jenkins. Se evidenciaron ciclos en Argentina y Paraguay. La estacionalidad ocurrió a fines de invie...

  1. Tecnología digital en Bibliotecas en Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Rosas de Maidana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La motivación para este trabajo de investigación es hacer entrega del diagnóstico del uso de la tecnología digital en bibliotecas en el Paraguay, tomando como muestra aquellas que se ubican en los centros referentes o cabeceras de educación, en el país denominadas instituciones centro. Objetivando la labor investigativa en mejorar la disponibilidad y el acceso al material informativo en beneficio de la educación e investigación. Para la recolección de datos se utiliza la técnica de la observación y la entrevista no estructurada con el personal de la biblioteca, y a referentes nacionales en desarrollo de tecnología. De este modo, se presenta la incursión de la tecnología, dando apreciaciones nacionales en los conceptos TIC, brecha digital y alfabetización informacional. A conocimiento que las bibliotecas son centros para la información, recreo y cultura, el uso y la aplicación de la tecnología digital es considerado apropiado y necesario en el apoyo a la gestión bibliotecaria, con uso de la tecnológica. La calidad y la excelencia en la gestión bibliotecaria está dada en los servicios que ella presenta a su entorno, su comunidad, por ende, el usufructo de la tecnología ubica a la unidad de información o Biblioteca como referente del avance país en aras a ser protagonista de las innovaciones tecnológicas con el crecimiento del conocimiento de la ciudadanía en la alfabetización, comunicación y uso de la información facilitado por la misma. Se logra la incursión paulatina de los ciudadanos a la tecnología, con objetivos de la labor investigativa, en el fomento de la distribución de la información a través de la tecnología, desarrollando bases de datos y la conformación de redes en pos a la mejora de la disponibilidad y acceso a los materiales de información. Resultante de este proceso el efecto cooperativo y colaborativo de la unidades de información en la acopio de información en bien directo a la comunidad

  2. Tecnología digital en Bibliotecas en Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Rosas de Maidana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La motivación para este trabajo de investigación es hacer entrega del diagnóstico del uso de la tecnología digital en bibliotecas en el Paraguay, tomando como muestra aquellas que se ubican en los centros referentes o cabeceras de educación, en el país denominadas instituciones centro. Objetivando la labor investigativa en mejorar la disponibilidad y el acceso al material informativo en beneficio de la educación e investigación. Para la recolección de datos se utiliza la técnica de la observación y la entrevista no estructurada con el personal de la biblioteca, y a referentes nacionales en desarrollo de tecnología. De este modo,, se presenta la incursión de la tecnología, dando apreciaciones nacionales en los conceptos TIC, brecha digital y alfabetización informacional. A conocimiento que las bibliotecas son centros para la información, recreo y cultura, el uso y la aplicación de la tecnología digital es considerado apropiado y necesario en el apoyo a la gestión bibliotecaria, con uso de la tecnológica. La calidad y la excelencia en la gestión bibliotecaria está dada en los servicios que ella presenta a su entorno, su comunidad, por ende, el usufructo de la tecnología ubica a la unidad de información o Biblioteca como referente del avance país en aras a ser protagonista de las innovaciones tecnológicas con el crecimiento del conocimiento de la ciudadanía en la alfabetización, comunicación y uso de la información facilitado por la misma. Se logra la incursión paulatina de los ciudadanos a la tecnología, con objetivos de la labor investigativa, en el fomento de la distribución de la información a través de la tecnología, desarrollando bases de datos y la conformación de redes en pos a la mejora de la disponibilidad y acceso a los materiales de información. Resultante de este proceso el efecto cooperativo y colaborativo de la unidades de información en la acopio de información en bien directo a la comunidad

  3. Repression to Reform: Education in the Republic of Paraguay, 1811-1850.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Jerry W.

    1983-01-01

    A social question faced by Latin American countries when they gained their independence from Spain was that of education. An extreme example of the difficulties encountered can be found in Paraguay where education was affected by the events of independence and by a new phenomenon, the Spanish American dictator. (RM)

  4. Additions to the reptile fauna of Paraguay with notes on a small herpetological collection from Amambay

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDiarmid, Roy W.; Foster, Mercedes S.

    1987-01-01

    Specimens in a small collections of reptiles and amphibians from Parque Nacional Cerro Cora, Departamento Amambay, Paraguay are reported. Included are the first records of Bachia bresslaui, Phrynops gibbus, and Ololygon fuscomarginata for that country. Brief notes on morphology, distribution, and natural history of species collected are included. The systematic status of Phrynops tuberculatus vanderhaegei is evaluated.

  5. Regulatory activity of the 'Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica' of Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez G, F.

    2004-12-01

    The norm that governs to the practice with sources of ionizing radiations, in Paraguay, it is the National Regulation from Security for the Protection Against the Ionizing Radiations for the Security of the Radiation Sources. In the document are described the bases for the authorization, the inspection, the sanction and coercive methods for the correct execution of the Regulation [es

  6. Parent Socialization, Family Economic Well-Being, and Toddlers' Cognitive Development in Rural Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Ann M. Berghout; Blevins-Knabe, Belinda; de Aquino, Cyle Nielsen; de Burro, Elizabeth Urbieta; Park, Kyung-Eun; Bayley, Bruce; Christensen, Matthew; Leavitt, Spencer; Merrill, Junius; Taylor, Denise; George, Anne Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the specific factors relative to healthy socialization and economic well-being that predicted toddler mental development in rural Paraguay. Thirty toddlers and their primary caregivers were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II), the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) to…

  7. Anatomía foliar y caulinar de Stemodia hassleriana (Scrophulariaceae, una especie endémica del Paraguay Foliar and caulinar anatomy of Stemodia hassleriana (Scrophulariaceae, a species endemic to Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de las Mercedes Sosa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia la anatomía foliar y caulinar de Stemodia hassleriana Chodat, especie endémica del Paraguay. Esta especie se distingue de las restantes Stemodia del Paraguay por presentar el tallo con colénquima y seis costillas notorias. Se describe y compara la estructura anatómica de la hoja y el tallo con la de otras especies del género. Se ilustran algunos caracteres útiles para su reconocimiento.Foliar and caulinar anatomy of Stemodia hassleriana Chodat, a species endemic to Paraguay is studied. This species is distinguished from the remaining species of Stemodia from Paraguay since it presents the stems with collenchyma and six notorious ribs. Stem and leaves anatomical structures are described and compared with other species of the genus. Some useful characters for the recognition of this species are illustrated.

  8. A new species of Amaralia Fowler (Siluriformes: Aspredinidae) from the Paraná-Paraguay River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, John P; Carvalho, Tiago P

    2016-03-11

    A new species of the banjo catfish genus Amaralia is described from the Paraná-Paraguay River Basin in central-western Brazil, Paraguay and northern Argentina. Amaralia oviraptor is distinguished from its single and allopatric congener, Amaralia hypsiura, by the greater number of dorsal-fin rays (3 vs. 2); by the absence of lateral contact between middle and posterior nuchal plates (vs. middle and posterior nuchal plates contacting each other laterally); and by a longer cleithral process (17.4-19.5 % of SL, mean 18.2 % vs. 14.0-17.2 % of SL, mean=15.5 %). Comments on the peculiar oophagic diet of Amaralia and an extended diagnosis of the genus are provided.

  9. Paraguay - Real Property Tax : Key to Fiscal Decentralization and Better Land Use, Volume 2. Technical Anneses

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This study has at its origin the land question in Paraguay, namely that land ownership is highly concentrated and has become a source of social conflict in the rural areas where one-half of the population lives. A central thesis of the study is that the existing patterns of land use and ownership, in particular, the very large land holdings (Zatifundio), are a reflection in part of the alm...

  10. Implementation of quality control systems in laboratories in Paraguay by the participants of ARCAL LXXVI project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva, Z.

    2004-12-01

    In the Project ARCAL LXXVII, was realized the National Course of Control of Quality of Analytic Laboratories, from 12 to 16 of April in the CNEA, Paraguay, as a result of the one mentioned course was elaborated this project whose purpose is to elaborate the necessary documentation to fulfill the requirements of administration in the Analytic Laboratories to be adapted to the system of quality according to the ISO 17025 [es

  11. Female Land Rights and Rural Household Incomes in Brazil, Paraguay and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Diana Deere; Rosa Luz Durán; Merrilee Mardon; Tom Masterson

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the determinants of female land rights and their impact on household income levels among owner-operated farms in Brazil, Paraguay and Peru. Previous studies in Latin America suggest that the gender of the household head is not a significant predictor of household income, not unsurprising given the ambiguities with which self-declared headship is associated. We hypothesize that female land rights, by increasing women's options, are a positive determinant of household income...

  12. Notes on the distribution of the genus Pseudopaludicola Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926 (Anura: Leptodactylidae) in Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Lavilla, Esteban; Caballero-Gini, Andrea; Bueno-Villafañe, Diego; Cardozo, Darío

    2016-01-01

    Four species of Pseudopaludicola, Pseudopalud­icola boliviana, P. falcipes, P. mystacalis and P. ternetzi, are usually cited for Paraguay. However, after analyzing 407 specimens assigned to this genus in herpetological collections of the country, we conclude that there are no specimens of P. falcipes in Paraguayan collections or vouchers cited in the literature, and almost all individuals referred to P. ternetzi are most probably P. ameghini. At the same time, a recently described species, P....

  13. Presencia de rotavirus en adultos con diarrea en Asunción, Paraguay Incidence of rotavirus in adults with diarrhea in Asunción, Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martínez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Desde octubre de 2001 a marzo de 2004 se analizaron 533 heces de individuos mayores de 18 años con cuadros de diarrea, identificándose rotavirus en 92 (17,3% de ellas. La infección por rotavirus en adultos no mostró un grupo etáreo más afectado y se presentó a lo largo de todo el año sin diferencias significativas en las frecuencias trimestrales. En Paraguay, en los niños menores de 5 años, presenta un pico estacional entre los meses de junio y octubre. Los datos presentados refuerzan la necesidad de tener en cuenta a rotavirus en el diagnóstico diferencial de las diarreas en adultos.From October 2001 to March 2004, 92 out of 533 (17.3% fecal samples of patients over 18 years of age were positive for rotavirus. There were not differences of rotavirus incidence between age groups. Although in Paraguay, rotavirus infections in children less than 5 years old present a seasonal peak pattern (since June to October, in adults rotavirus was present throughout the year with the same frequency. Results presented here reinforce the notion that rotavirus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of diarrhea in adults.

  14. NIVEL DE NOMOFOBIA EN ESTUDIANTES DE MEDICINA DE PARAGUAY, AÑO 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César M. Matoza-Báez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El término “nomofobia” se refiere al miedo o incertidumbre que se manifiesta al no tener a mano o funcionando el teléfono móvil. Objetivos: Determinar el nivel de nomofobia en estudiantes de Medicina del Paraguay, teniendo en cuenta el sexo, el grupo etario y el rendimiento académico. Metodología: Diseño descriptivo de corte transversal. La muestra de tipo no probabilístico por conveniencia. Se utilizaron 234 encuestas de carácter anónimo y voluntario. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando el paquete estadístico SPSS 15. Resultados: El 43,6% representa un nivel de nomofobia leve; el 40,6%, moderado y el 15,8%, severo. Conclusión: Se encontró una alta prevalencia de nomofobia en estudiantes de Medicina de Paraguay. Palabras Claves: Nomofobia, estudiante de medicina, Paraguay, celular

  15. [Public health impact of a remote diagnosis system implemented in regional and district hospitals in Paraguay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Pedro; Velázquez, Miguel; Benítez, Gualberto; Ortellado, José; Rivas, Ronald; Barrios, Antonio; Hilario, Enrique

    2017-06-08

    Determine the viability of a remote diagnosis system implemented to provide health care to remote and scattered populations in Paraguay. The study was conducted in all regional and general hospitals in Paraguay, and in the main district hospitals in the country's 18 health regions. Clinical data, tomographic images, sonography, and electrocardiograms (ECGs) of patients who needed a diagnosis by a specialized physician were entered into the system. This information was sent to specialists in diagnostic imaging and in cardiology for remote diagnosis and the report was then forwarded to the hospitals connected to the system. The cost-benefit and impact of the remote diagnosis tool was analyzed from the perspective of the National Health System. Between January 2014 and May 2015, a total of 34 096 remote diagnoses were made in 25 hospitals in the Ministry of Health's telemedicine system. The average unit cost of remote diagnosis was US$2.6 per ECG, tomography, and sonography, while the unit cost of "face-to-face" diagnosis was US$11.8 per ECG, US$68.6 per tomography, and US$21.5 per sonography. As a result of remote diagnosis, unit costs were 4.5 times lower for ECGs; 26.4 times lower for tomography, and 8.3 times lower for sonography. In monetary terms, implementation of the remote diagnosis system during the 16 months of the study led to average savings of US$2 420 037. Paraguay has a remote diagnosis system for electrocardiography, tomography, and sonography, using low-cost information and communications technologies (ICTs) based on free software that is scalable to other types of remote diagnostic studies of interest for public health. Implementation of remote diagnosis helped to strengthen the integrated network of health services and programs, enabling professionals to optimize their time and productivity, while improving quality, increasing access and equity, and reducing costs.

  16. Fruit Flies of the Genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) From Some Localities of Paraguay: New Records, Checklist, and Illustrated Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Osmar René; Fariña, Nelson Librado; Lopes, Gleidyane Novaes; Uramoto, Keiko; Zucchi, Roberto Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study deals with fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) collected in McPhail traps in the municipalities of Concepción, Belén, Horqueta, Loreto (state of Concepción) and Santa Rosa (state of Misiones), Paraguay. In total, 17 species were captured, 9 of which are new records for Paraguay. All morphological characters used for species identification are illustrated. RESUMEN. Se estudió las especies de moscas de las frutas del género Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae), colectadas en trampas tipo McPhail en las localidades de Concepción, Belén, Horqueta (Departamento de Concepción) y Santa Rosa (Departamento de Misiones). En total fueron capturadas 17 especies, de las cuales nueve especies corresponden a nuevos registros para el Paraguay. Todos los caracteres morfológicos para la identificación de las especies fueron ilustrados. PMID:25525098

  17. Equidad en el empleo: diagnósticos de Argentina, Colombia, Paraguay y Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Natalia

    2005-01-01

    Pares es el emblema del Proyecto "Iniciativa Regional para la Igualdad de las Mujeres en el Ámbito Laboral" orientada a aumentar las capacidades locales en el área del derecho de la mujer al trabajo con medidas de promoción de la igualdad de género, específicamente para el acceso de las mujeres a empleos remunerados en los sectores no agrícolas en la Argentina, Colombia, Paraguay y Perú. Los países seleccionados forman parte de la Red Mujer y Hábitat de América Latina y el Caribe. La direcció...

  18. Neoelmis guarani Shepard & Barr, a sexually dimorphic new species from Paraguay (Insecta: Coleoptera: Elmidae: Elminae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, William D; Barr, Cheryl B

    2016-02-22

    Neoelmis guarani new species is described and illustrated from specimens collected in streams of the Cordillera de los Altos, southeast of Asunción and near the towns of Piribebuy and Chololó, Paraguay. Males and females of this species exhibit strong secondary sexual dimorphism not found in other known species of Neoelmis. Males have striking modifications of the pro- and mesothoracic legs and bear a pair of ventrally projecting processes on both the mesoventrite and the second abdominal ventrite. Females have the elytra modified with a pair of dorsal projections.

  19. Tailoring wheat management to ENSO phases for increased wheat production in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Ramirez-Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reported regional wheat yields in Paraguay vary from 1 to 3 t/ha from year to year, but appear not to be correlated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO phases. Historical weather data from two locations in representative wheat-growing regions of Paraguay, Encarnación-Itapúa and Ciudad del Este-Alto Paraná combined with crop modeling, were analyzed to optimize nitrogen (N fertilizer application rates according to the ENSO phase of a growing season. The ENSO phase of a growing season was defined based on the average of the sea surface temperature (SST anomalies in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific region for the period June–October using the El Niño region 3.0 index (Niño 3.0. Simulated average yields in Alto Paraná were higher in the drier and cooler La Niña wheat-growing seasons (average of 3.5 t/ha compared to the other phases (average of 3.2 t/ha and in Itapúa, in Neutral seasons (average of 3.8 t/ha compared to the other phases (average of 3.7 t/ha. Accordingly, optimal N fertilizer applications ranged between 20 and 60 kg N/ha between phases depending on the sowing date, soil type and initial amount of soil water content. Applying an ENSO or General Circulation Model (GCM-based forecast for ENSO-season-type specific N fertilizer applications resulted in benefits of >100 US$/ha when compared with current farmers’ practice of consistently low N fertilizer applications in Paraguay. When N management based on forecasts was compared with optimized N application without forecast, the benefits of the forecast was only up to 8 US$/ha. The ENSO-persistence-based forecast showed higher values than the GCM-based forecasts with two lead-times but lower skill. Using climate information can significantly increase current wheat yields and gross margins in Paraguay by tailoring N fertilizer applications to the Niño 3.0-defined ENSO phases, which can be forecasted with moderate skill at the beginning of the growing season.

  20. NIVEL DE NOMOFOBIA EN ESTUDIANTES DE MEDICINA DE PARAGUAY, AÑO 2015

    OpenAIRE

    César M. Matoza-Báez; María S. Carballo-Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: El término “nomofobia” se refiere al miedo o incertidumbre que se manifiesta al no tener a mano o funcionando el teléfono móvil. Objetivos: Determinar el nivel de nomofobia en estudiantes de Medicina del Paraguay, teniendo en cuenta el sexo, el grupo etario y el rendimiento académico. Metodología: Diseño descriptivo de corte transversal. La muestra de tipo no probabilístico por conveniencia. Se utilizaron 234 encuestas de carácter anónimo y voluntario. Los datos fueron analizado...

  1. Methodological approach to the comparative study between digital libraries in Mozambique, Brazil and Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Moreiro González

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article exposes the results of a PhD thesis that it intends to investigate the social impact of digital libraries, comparatively in Brazil, Mozambique and Paraguay. The study outlines the integrated systems of the Libraries of the Universities of São Paulo, Eduardo Mondlane and National de Asuncion, trough checking qualitative and quantitative indicators of the impact from digital libraries, uses as methodology the survey and interview applied to its users, students, teachers, librarians, support staff and directors. The results aim to foster the creation of other similar libraries, reduce the digital gap and contribute significantly to the sustainable development of each country.

  2. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Paraguay 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Paraguay carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  3. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Paraguay 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Paraguay carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  4. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes of the post-paleozoic magmatism from eastern Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comin-Chiaramonti, P; Gasparon, M; Gomes, C.B; Antonini, P

    2001-01-01

    The Parana Angola-Namibia igneous province (PAN) is characterized by Early Cretaceous flood tholeiites and tholeiitic dyke swarms associated with alkaline rocks of Early and Late Cretaceous ages, respectively, and with scarce post-Mesozoic magmatic rocks (Comin-Chiaramonti et al., 1997; 1999; Marques et al., 1999). The Eastern Paraguay, at the westernmost side of the Parana Basin, is of special interest because: (1) it is located between two main cratonic blocks, i.e. the southernmost tip of the Amazon Craton, and the northermost exposure of the Rio de La Plata Craton; (2) it was the site of repeated Na-K-alkaline magmatism since Late-Permian-Triassic times (i.e.: 250-240 Ma, Na-alkaline; c. 145 Ma, K-alkaline; 128-126 Ma, K-alkaline; 120-90 Ma, Na-alkaline; 61-33 Ma, Na-alkaline; cf. Comin-Chiaramonti and Gomes, 1996; Comin-Chiaramonti et al., 1999), and of Early Cretaceous tholeiitic magmatism, both low- and high-Ti variants, L-Ti and H-Ti, respectively (133-131 Ma; cf. Marzoli et al., 1999); (3) the younger sodic magmatic rocks are closely associated in space to the potassic analogues (Comin- Chiaramonti et al., 1999). The paper aims discussing the most important Sr- Nd-Pb isotope features of the alkaline and tholeiitic magmas from Eastern Paraguay in comparison with the PAN analogues (au)

  5. MICROSPOROGÉNESIS DE TRES ESPECIES DEL SUBGÉNERO PASSIFLORA (PASSIFLORA, PASSIFLORACEAE DE PARAGUAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pereira Sühsner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tuvo por objeto caracterizar cariológicamente las especies del género Passiflora L., subgénero Passiflora, del Distrito Félix Pérez Cardozo, Guairá, Paraguay. Por primera vez, se da a conocer el número cromosómico en meiosis 2n = 9II para P. alata Curtis y P. caerulea L. También, se confirma el número cromosómico de 2n = 9II para P. edulis Sims. El comportamiento meiótico en todas las especies estudiadas fue normal, con segregación regular de los cromosomas. La asociación cromosómica frecuentemente encontrada en diacinesis y metafase I fue de bivalentes. Las pocas irregularidades meióticas observadas consistieron en cromosomas rezagados en anafase I y fases asincrónicas en meiosis II, sin embargo, la viabilidad de polen es alta, entre 78,83% y 98,6%. Los resultados confirman x = 9 como número básico para el subgénero Passiflora. Este estudio es una importante contribución al conocimiento sobre la citogenética de las especies de Passiflora subg Passiflora de Paraguay.

  6. Participatory communication for tuberculosis control in prisons in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisbord, Silvio

    2010-03-01

    To assess the challenges in reducing tuberculosis (TB) in prisons in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay and propose ways to address them through communication interventions. Challenges to two central goals of TB control--early diagnosis of positive cases and successful application of the directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS) strategy--were examined. Data were gathered (through in-depth, structured interviews) and focus groups were conducted in the prisons that housed the largest number of male inmates in each country. Interviewees and focus group participants included program directors, administrative personnel, correctional health and security staff, and incarcerated people who were or had been under treatment for TB and had participated as 'peers' in health services. The findings showed a range of entrenched obstacles for adequate TB control. Stigmatizing attitudes and low knowledge about TB among inmates and key prison personnel discouraged people living in prisons from seeking diagnosis and treatment. Systemic problems in prison health services, along with squalid living conditions, lack of coordination between national TB programs and prison health systems, and insufficient allocation of resources to health prevented the provision of adequate TB prevention and care. In addressing the barriers to effective TB control in prison systems in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay, a participatory approach to communication is necessary.

  7. Taxonomic status of Paraguay's only endemic bird, the Chaco Nothura Nothura chacoensis (Aves: Tinamidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Floyd E; RodrÍguez, Oscar; Thalman, Erika R; Castellanos, Emily A; Sterling, John

    2018-03-08

    The Chaco Nothura Nothura chacoensis Conover is endemic to the Chaco of western Paraguay. Originally described as a subspecies of the Spotted Nothura N. maculosa (Temminck), it has been regarded by many authorities as a distinct species based on alleged sympatry with N. maculosa. However, an earlier study revealed no differences in cytochrome b sequences between the two taxa. We reanalyzed the geographic distribution and morphological variation of N. chacoensis and N. maculosa in western Paraguay based on museum specimens. There is no locality where specimens of both taxa were collected, thus there is no evidence for sympatry. Morphologically the two taxa did not differ in any size or shape variable. Plumage characters overlapped in a few specimens. We recorded vocalizations from at least four individuals of N. chacoensis within its known range. Its typical territorial song was a very rapid, relatively monotone trill that was virtually identical with the most frequent territorial song of N. maculosa in length, number of notes, rate of notes, and emphasized frequency, and differed substantially from the songs of other species of Nothura. Based on distributional, morphological, biochemical, and especially vocalization data, we conclude that N. chacoensis should be regarded as a subspecies of N. maculosa.

  8. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF PHLEBOTOMINAE IN PUERTO IGUAZU-MISIONES, ARGENTINA-BRAZIL-PARAGUAY BORDER AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Soledad Santini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The first Argentinian autochthonous human case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL was confirmed in Posadas (Misiones in 2006. Since then, the disease has increased its incidence and geographical distribution. In the 2006-2012 period, 107 human cases were detected (11 deaths. The presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis was detected in peridomiciles in Puerto Iguazú urban area in 2010; some of these findings were associated with households where cases of canine VL had already been reported. The objective of this study was to ascertain the abundance and spatial distribution of Lu. longipalpis in Puerto Iguazú City, on the Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay border. Lu. longipalpis proved to be exclusively urban and was found in 31% of the households sampled (n = 53, 67% of which belonged to areas of low abundance, 20% to areas of moderate abundance and 13% to areas of high abundance. Nyssomyia whitmani was the only species found both in urban and peri-urban environments, and Migonemyia migonei was registered only on the outskirts of the city. Due to the fact that Puerto Iguazú is considered to be at moderate risk at the moment, it is necessary to intensify human and canine case controls, as well as take integrated prevention and control measures regarding the environment, vectors and reservoirs on the Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay border area.

  9. Total lead concentration in new decorative enamel paints in Lebanon, Paraguay and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C Scott; Speranskaya, Olga; Brosche, Sara; Gonzalez, Hebe; Solis, Daniela; Kodeih, Naji; Roda, Sandy; Lind, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Lead concentrations in new enamel decorative paints were determined in three countries in different areas of the world where data were not previously available. The average total lead concentration of the enamel decorative paints purchased in Lebanon, Paraguay and Russia was 24,500ppm (ppm, dry weight), more than 270 times the current limit of 90ppm in Canada and in the United States. Sixty-three percent of these paints contained concentrations greater than 90ppm. Fifty-nine percent contained concentrations greater than 600ppm, the current limit in some countries. The maximum concentrations found were 236,000ppm in Lebanon, 169,000ppm in Paraguay and 52,900ppm in Russia. An average of 29% of the samples contained exceedingly high lead concentrations, >=10,000ppm. Five brands of paint were sampled in each of Lebanon and Paraguay and seven in Russia. Three colors from each brand were analyzed. For five of the six samples of the two brands in Lebanon with affiliations outside the country, the lead concentrations ranged from 1360ppm to 135,000ppm. In Lebanon the maximum concentration in the Egypt-affiliated brand (Sipes) was 135,000ppm and the maximum for the USA-affiliated brand (Dutch Boy) was 32,400ppm. Lead was not detected in any paints from the three of the four brands of paint purchased in Paraguay that had headquarters/affiliations in other countries (Brazil-Coralit), Germany (Suvinil) and USA (Novacor)). Two of the three paints from each of the other Paraguay brands contained high levels of lead with the maximum concentrations of 108,000 and 168,000ppm; one of these brands was manufactured under a license from ICI in the Netherlands. All of the paints purchased in Russia were from Russian brands and were manufactured in Russia. All three paints from one brand contained below detection levels of lead. The maximum levels of lead in the other six brands in Russia ranged from 3230 to 52,900ppm. The two brands with the highest lead concentration, TEKS and LAKRA

  10. Políticas de población y salud reproductiva en el Paraguay Population policies and reproductive health in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Simancas

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available El acelerado crecimiento de la población, su conformación por edades y su distribución espacial han despertado en el Paraguay una creciente preocupación pública. Experimentamos una transición demográfica moderada, conformada por las consecuencias de la modernización y el ritmo dispar de los cambios económicos y sociales. Al disminuir la mortalidad y persistir patrones de alta natalidad, se conforma una estructura de edades que consolida el crecimiento demográfico, con un aumento centrado en la población dependiente. A fines de los sesenta se percibió la necesidad de abordar de forma sistemática la problemática de población, principalmente en el marco de la planificación económica, implantando al mismo tiempo la planificación familiar como instrumento de salud pública, antecedente de lo que es hoy salud reproductiva. La percepción de los gobiernos nacionales sobre el tema de población fue y es ambivalente, porque se considera el crecimiento poblacional como un factor siempre positivo, producto de una visión economicista que absolutiza las consecuencias de un mercado interno reducido. La inexistencia de un plan de desarrollo, el déficit de gestión y la insuficiente capacitación tornan dudosa la posibilidad de definir políticas o programas de población orgánicamente articulados, excepto en el ámbito de la salud reproductiva.The population's high growth rate, age profile, and geographical distribution have aroused increasing public concern in Paraguay. The country is involved in a moderate demographic transition, compatible with the consequences of modernity and the uneven rate of both social and economic changes. Reduction of mortality and the persistence of high birth rate patterns result in an age structure that consolidates demographic growth, with an increased focus on the dependent population. In the late 1960s the need for a systematic approach to population problems was perceived within the framework of economic

  11. Causes and Model Skill of the Persistent Intense Rainfall and Flooding in Paraguay during the Austral Summer 2015-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss-Gollin, J.; Munoz, A. G.; Pastén, M.

    2017-12-01

    During the austral summer 2015-16 severe flooding displaced over 150,000 people on the Paraguay River system in Paraguay, Argentina, and Southern Brazil. This flooding was out of phase with the typical seasonal cycle of the Paraguay River, and was driven by repeated intense rainfall events in the Lower Paraguay River basin. Using a weather typing approach within a diagnostic framework, we show that enhanced moisture inflow from the low-level jet and local convergence associated with baroclinic systems favored the development of mesoscale convective activity and enhanced precipitation. The observed circulation patterns were made more likely by the cross-timescale interactions of multiple climate mechanisms including the strong, mature El Niño event and an active Madden-Julien Oscillation in phases four and five. We also perform a comparison of the rainfall predictability using seasonal forecasts from the Latin American Observatory of Climate Events (OLE2) and sub-seasonal forecasts produced by the ECMWF. We find that the model output precipitation field exhibited limited skill at lead times beyond the synoptic timescale, but that a Model Output Statistics (MOS) approach, in which the leading principal components of the observed rainfall field are regressed on the leading principal components of model-simulated rainfall fields, substantially improves spatial representation of rainfall forecasts. Possible implications for flood preparedness are briefly discussed.

  12. The Global Politics of Policy Circulation in Higher Education: A Case Study of Paraguay 1998-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britez, Rodrigo Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with the idea of global policy transfer, as it has increasingly appeared in the literature of policy studies, and has been used to understand recent educational policy transformations around the world. To carry out this investigation, I have conducted a case study of higher education in Paraguay in order to determine…

  13. The genera Boiruna and Clelia (serpentes: pseudoboini in Paraguay and Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman J. Scott Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Snakes of the pseudoboine genera Clelia, which is probably polyphyletic, and Boiruna are distributed from southern Argentina, southern Brazil, and Uruguay northwards into central México. Six members occur in Paraguay and Argentina: B. maculata, Clelia bicolor, C. clelia, C. plumbea, C. quimi, and C. rustica. Historically, there has been taxonomic confusion among the larger species (B. maculata, C. clelia, C. plumbea, and C. rustica and between the small species (C. bicolor and C. quimi. All of the species except C. rustica have distinct ontogenetic color changes. Species can be distinguished on the bases of size, color, hemipenial spines, and loreal, supralabial, and ventral scale counts. Much of the morphological evolutionary differentiation in Boiruna and Clelia seems to have taken place in the snout region, as evidenced by the differing proportions of the scales of the loreal region. Boiruna maculata has the widest ecological amplitude. It is broadly distributed in most vegetation types north of the 38th parallel in central Argentina, being absent only from the deltaic sediments of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina and the broad valleys and rolling hills of eastern Paraguay. Clelia bicolor is most common in the Paraguay and Paraná river valleys, with a few records from the Andean foothills in northern Argentina. Clelia clelia is distributed along the Río Paraguay and the lower Paraná, and is also found throughout much of eastern Paraguay. Clelia plumbea is apparently parapatric with C. clelia along the Río Paraná in southeastern Paraguay and Misiones Province, Argentina. The ranges of C. quimi to the east and C. bicolor in the west about in this same region without apparent overlap. There are no vouchered records of Clelia rustica from Paraguay. In Argentina, it is a species of temperate climates; north of the 30th parallel, it occurs in the Andean foothills and the wet forests of Misiones Province. Southwards, it is widely distributed

  14. Education in radiation protection in the National Customs of Paraguay; Educacion en proteccion radiologica en la Direccion Nacional de Aduanas del Paraguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordon, Oscar, E-mail: obordon@aduana.gov.py, E-mail: obordon@yahoo.com [Direccion Nacional de Aduanas, Departamento de Seguridad Radiologica, Administracion de Aduana de Gical, Mariano Roque Alonso (Paraguay)

    2013-07-01

    According to the IAEA-TECDOC-1312, as it is required by international agreements, the displacement of radioactive material within and among States should be subject to strict regulatory, administrative, safety and technical controls to ensure conditions of technological and physical safety. The Customs Office is one of the institutions responsible for monitoring shipments crossing international borders. Increasing illicit trafficking of radioactive materials, the use of ionizing radiation generating equipment for checking loads, and trade in radioactive substances have informed the need for education in radiation protection of customs officials. Thus, based on a course on radiation protection for Customs officials, organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency, in March 2008 was initiated a course of radiation protection, of 30 hours Carrera Tecnica del Centro de Formacion y Capacitacion Aduanera de Paraguay, which highlights the basic chapters and for transporting, nomenclature, new equipment emitting ionizing radiation and smuggling. Since then, to date, at least 10 groups have completed the training. Within the training program for customs officials, was incorporated a course for radiation protection of operators of baggage scanners with a four-hour program. Finally, since from 2011 and periodically, at various country customs, a workshop on Illicit trafficking of radioactive and nuclear materials is performed. The results of these courses have been very positive, as well as know the proper procedures for dealing with ionizing radiation has increased the safety culture within the institution.

  15. Knowledge of the Guarani language in medical students at a university hospital in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Hassel Jimmy; Delgadillo, Lorena; Campuzano de Rolon, Ana; Jiménez, Diana; de Samudio, Angélica; Agüero, Adriana; Radice, César; Jiménez-Britez, Gustavo

    2018-04-10

    Paraguay is a bilingual country and knowledge of the guarani language is an important communication tool for the doctor- patient relationship. To determine the degree of and the factors that influence the knowledge of the Guaraní language in medical students at a University Hospital in Paraguay. Observational, cross-sectional, analytical study in which an anonymous questionnaire was applied to the final year medical students of a University Hospital of Paraguay. The baseline characteristics of the medical students and their degree of knowledge of the Guarani language were described. The association between the characteristics of the students and the degree of knowledge of the Guarani language was evaluated with the Chi square association test and the logistic regression model. We included 264 students in the survey. Eighty two percent come from the capital, 72% made their pre-university studies in the capital; 92% studied Guaraní in primary and secondary education; 67.9% do not interpret Guarani correctly; 8.5% understand and express themselves totally in Guaraní. Of these, 86% refer to have the greater learning of the language in their home; 75.2% of respondents believe that primary and secondary education did not help in learning the language. The degree of knowledge of the language (speaks and understands the Guarani language correctly) varies according to: the origin of the student, the inland regions or the capital (31.25% vs. 2.5%, adjusted OR = 0.24, 95% confidence interval: 0.06 to 0.92, p = 0.003); the location of primary and secondary school: inland versus capital (25.6% vs. 1%, adjusted OR: 0.08, 95% confidence interval: 0.01 to 0.53, p = 0.009). The degree of knowledge of the Guaraní language of the students is lower compared to the general population; those who best understand and express themselves were born or studied in the interior of the country. The majority considers that primary and secondary education contribute little in the learning of

  16. Stratigraphy and stable isotope geochemistry of the carbonate sequence from the Paraguay belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Roberto Ventura.; Alvarenga, Carlos Jose Souza de; Dantas, Elton Luiz

    2001-01-01

    Two main Neoproterozoic carbonate sequences occur central Brazil both of which are stratiphicaly above glacial derived sediments. An older carbonate sequence occurs over the Sao Francisco Craton and in the surrounding folded belts (Rio Preto, Aracuai Ribeira and Brasilia). These carbonates overlie glacial diamictites that were related to the 'Sturtian' event dated between 0.7 and 0.9 Ga (Toulkeridis et al. 1999, Santos et al., 2000). A second carbonate sequence is described in the Paraguay Belt and postdated Vendian/Varegian glaciation sediments from the end of the Neoproterozoic. This glacial event has been reported in many studies concerning the Gondwana and the Laurentia supercontinent (Trompette, 1996; Condon and Prave, 2000; Myrow and Kaufman, 1999). In the Paraguay Belt the Vendian- Varangian glaciation rocks are characterized by a glaciomarine sequence, that occur at the border of the basin, and by glacial derived turbidites deposits, that occur in the deeper parts of the basin (Alvarenga and Trompette, 1992). Near the city of Corumba this glaciomarine sequence is overlaid by carbonate rocks containing Ediacaran-like fauna in which has been described Corumbella werneri and Cloudina Lucianoi (Hahn et al., 1982; Walde et al., 1982; Zaine and Fairchild, 1985; 1987). These carbonates have been interpreted as cap carbonates and the age of their fossils have been attributed to the Vendian Superior (590-545 MA) (Alvarenga and Trompette, 1992, Trompette 1996). Isotope stratigraphy studies have been widely used to study cap carbonate rocks that overlie Sturtian and Vendian- Varagian glaciogenic rocks. Stratigraphic correlation of these units is usually difficult because their lack fossils and there is no precise dating method that could be applied to these rocks. Hence, most studies concerning Neoproterozoic carbonates have concentrated on their stromatilites and microfossils content as well as on carbon isotope variations. In the present study, we present new carbon

  17. HOW TO INCREASE THE COMPETITIVENESS OF SMALL SOY FARMERS IN PARAGUAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAYKELL LEITE DA COSTA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is today the most traded commodity in the global market. Soy is a plant of great importance to human nutrition, animal feed and industries. Based on research efforts conducted in the main soy producing region in Paraguay, the study aimed to characterize the agents involved in the national soy industry and present an overview of the relations between them, particularly between business companies and farmers, with emphasis on small farmers. Emphasis will be given to contractual relations and how they impact the activity. The results indicate that contractual arrangements, formal or not, are tools that contribute to stable relations between the parties, especially in a business so dependent on exogenous factors, as is the case of agriculture. Therefore, it is crucial that the public and/or private organizations encourage the use of contracts to reduce costs and keep the agents in the productive activity.

  18. A climate analysis using CORDEX simulations in a cooperation framework: the case of Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercogliano, Paola; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Ciervo, Fabio; Montesarchio, Myriam; Zollo, Alessandra Lucia; Villani, Veronica; Barbato, Giuliana; Vendemia, Rosalba; Polato, Raul; Baez, Julian; Pasten, Max

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, changes in climate have entailed variations in surface temperature and precipitation patterns in various countries of the South America, among which Paraguay. Climate change-attributed effects on weather impacts, such as river and urban floods, droughts and heat waves could severely affect the actual conditions of the country. In fact, Paraguay exhibits significant vulnerabilities to climate changes, especially because of its dependence on commodities production (e.g. agriculture, livestock, etc.) and its infrastructural and logistic asset not yet fully formed. In this context, climate change analysis can be an important technical support for practitioners to assist - under uncertainty - national/regional planning, financial resources managing and development (e.g. land-use practices, population growth, economic and community behavior, health, etc.). Moreover, actions in adaptation, disaster risk reduction (DRR), social protection and impacts mitigation may involve high costs if not properly contextualized. The assessment of 21st century climate change and development of whatever response strategies requires climate scenarios at high resolution, including an accurate evaluation of projection uncertainties (i.e. robustness of the analysis). This should ensure adequate insights into the potential impacts of climate change and allow practitioners, usually ill equipped to consider uncertain climate outputs into a broader context (e.g. planning, designing, managing), to make appropriate choices. In the framework of CORDEX initiative, Paraguay is included into the SOUTH-AMERICA-CORDEX one. Three climate simulations over this area are available at the spatial resolution of 0.44° (about 50km), obtained with RCM SMHI-RCA4 (forced by GCMs ICHEC-EC-EARTH and MPI-M-MPI-ESM-LR) and RCM MPI-CSC-REMO2009 (forced by MPI-M-MPI-ESM-LR). Simulations over the 21st century have been performed according with IPCC RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The plausibility of

  19. Efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer applied at corn sowing in contrasting growing seasons in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telmo Jorge Carneiro Amado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to select soil management practices that increase the nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE in agro-ecosystems, the different indices of agronomic fertilizer efficiency must be evaluated under varied weather conditions. This study assessed the NUE indices in no-till corn in southern Paraguay. Nitrogen fertilizer rates from 0 to 180 kg ha-1 were applied in a single application at corn sowing and the crop response investigated in two growing seasons (2010 and 2011. The experimental design was a randomized block with three replications. Based on the data of grain yield, dry matter, and N uptake, the following fertilizer indices were assessed: agronomic N-use efficiency (ANE, apparent N recovery efficiency (NRE, N physiological efficiency (NPE, partial factor productivity (PFP, and partial nutrient balance (PNB. The weather conditions varied largely during the experimental period; the rainfall distribution was favorable for crop growth in the first season and unfavorable in the second. The PFP and ANE indices, as expected, decreased with increasing N fertilizer rates. A general analysis of the N fertilizer indices in the first season showed that the maximum rate (180 kg ha-1 obtained the highest corn yield and also optimized the efficiency of NPE, NRE and ANE. In the second season, under water stress, the most efficient N fertilizer rate (60 kg ha-1 was three times lower than in the first season, indicating a strong influence of weather conditions on NUE. Considering that weather instability is typical for southern Paraguay, anticipated full N fertilization at corn sowing is not recommended due the temporal variability of the optimum N fertilizer rate needed to achieve high ANE.

  20. Nutritional profile in children under five years of Afro-descendant communities in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Sánchez-Bernal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Paraguay, little is known about the Afro-descendant population. It is important to know about their nutritional status, mainly in childhood, to guide appropriate action. Objective: To determine the nutritional profile of children under five years from the African descendants’ communities in Paraguay and its associated factors. Material and methods: A cross-sectional and observational design with analytical component was developed. It involved healthy male and female children under five years old, with at least one African descendant as immediate family. Dietary habits and nutritional status (WHO criteria were assessed. WHO Anthro and SPSS 16.0 software were used. Results: 150 children were included. The median of age was 26.9 months (1.2-59.9 m, and 50.7% were males. The median maternal age was 28.3 years (16-49 years. Children with Exclusive Breast Feeding (EBF, n=119 had a mean duration of 3.5±1.8 months (1-7m. 26.9% were exclusively breastfed during six months. The starting of complementary feeding was on average 5.2 months. The underweight prevalence (UW, zP/E 0.05. Children with UW had a lower average of age of onset of complementary feeding (1.7 vs 4.9 months, p˂0.0001 compare with their pairs without malnutrition. Conclusion: Chronic malnutrition was the most prevalent chronic disease affecting over 1 in 10 children. Early initiation of complementary feeding could be a risk factor for malnutrition.

  1. Primera cita de Pseudopaludicola boliviana Parker, 1927, para el Brasil y nuevos registros para el Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobo, Fernando

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available BRASIL, RORAIMA: 1- Ilha de Maracá (03°25'N; 61°40'W. MZUSP 66294-297, 65751-752, 65741, 65728-732, 65680, 65645-652, 65597-611, 65583-85, 65520-521, 62437-441. 2- Surumu (04° 12'N; 60°47'W. MZUSP 21819-821, 65838-840, 65860-889. 3- Caracaraña, (03°51'N; 59°46'W. MZUSP 67080. 4- Boa Vista, (02°49'N; 60°40'W. MZUSP 66058-068. 5- Bonfim (03°20'N; 59°50'W. ZUSP 66304-307. MATOGROSSO: Vila Bela da Santissima Trindade (15°01'S;59°57'W. MZUSP 52102-103, 52108-115,52117-121. MATOGROSSODO SUL: Estancia Caimán (19°57'S; 50° 25'W. MZUSP 65095-100. PARAGUAY, DEP. CAAGUAZÚ: 24 kms. al N de Cnel Oviedo (Cnel Oviedo: 25°25'S;56°27'W MHNP 1386-97. DEP. CONCEPCIÓN: 85 kms. al NE de Concepción (Concepción: 23°25'S; 57°17'W MHNP 1398. DEP. CENTRAL: Villeta (25°28'S; 57°36'W MHNP 1399. DEP. SAN PEDRO: Villa del Rosario (24°27'S; 57°03'W MHNP 1400-02. DEP. PTE. RAYES: 1.- Estancia La Golondrina, MHNP 1570-74; 2.- Estancia Juan de Zalazar, Embarcadero, MHNP 1276. DEP. AMAMBAY: 20 kms. al S. de Bella Vista (Bella Vista: 22°08'S; 56°31'W MHNP 1182. DEP. CORDILLERA: Caraguatay, Estancia Saladillo, Cordillera (25°14'S; 56°52'W USNM 205604-605. DEP. ALTO PARAGUAY: Primavera (24°10'S; 58°01'W MACN-CENAl 2326-2337.

  2. Refractive error study in young subjects: results from a rural area in Paraguay

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    Isabel Signes-Soler

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the distribution of refractive error in young subjects in a rural area of Paraguay in the context of an international cooperation campaign for the prevention of blindness. METHODS: A sample of 1466 young subjects (ranging from 3 to 22 years old, with a mean age of 11.21±3.63 years old, were examined to assess their distance visual acuity (VA and refractive error. The first screening examination performed by trained volunteers, included visual acuity testing, autokeratometry and non-cycloplegic autorefraction. Inclusion criteria for a second complete cycloplegic eye examination by an optometrist were VA <20/25 (0.10 logMAR or 0.8 decimal and/or corneal astigmatism ≥1.50 D. RESULTS: An uncorrected distance VA of 0 logMAR (1.0 decimal was found in 89.2% of children. VA <20/25 and/or corneal astigmatism ≥1.50 D was found in 3.9% of children (n=57, with a prevalence of hyperopia of 5.2% (0.2% of the total in this specific group. Furthermore, myopia (spherical equivalent ≤-0.5 D was found in 37.7% of the refracted children (0.5% of the total. The prevalence of refractive astigmatism (cylinder ≤-1.50 D was 15.8% (0.6% of the total. Visual impairment (VI (0.05≤VA≤0.3 was found in 12/114 (0.4% of the refracted eyes. Main causes for VI were refractive error (58%, retinal problems (17%, 2/12, albinism (17%, 2/12 and unknown (8%, 1/12. CONCLUSION: A low prevalence of refractive error has been found in this rural area of Paraguay, with higher prevalence of myopia than of hyperopia.

  3. Prevalence and causes of blindness in an urban area of Paraguay

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    Fernando Yaacov-Peña

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and causes of blindness in Piribebuy, Paraguay. METHODS: A population based study was conducted from September to November 2007 in Piribebuy, Paraguay. Based on the city map, seven clusters were randomly selected, containing 22 to 36 squares (423 to 578 houses each, where all subjects > 40 years old who agreed to participate were included in the study. Presenting vision acuity (VA was obtained for each eye, with 'E' Snellen charts 6 meters far from the patient with appropriate light. Eyes with VA<20/60 were also tested with the pinhole. Objective and subjective refraction was performed, followed by examination of anterior segment under the slit-lamp, Goldmann applanation tonometry, and pupil dilatation with 0.5% tropicamide plus 0.5% phenylephrine, followed by evaluation of the posterior pole. Best corrected visual acuity was used to classify the patients as follows: blindness was defined as visual acuity of the better eye <20/400, low vision as 20/400

  4. Paraguay; Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes: FATF Recommendations for Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses assessment results on the observance of standards and codes on the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) recommendations for antimoney laundering and combating the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT) for Paraguay. The assessment reveals that the substantial U.S. dollar contraband trade that occurs on the borders shared with Argentina and Brazil facilitates money laundering in Paraguay. Achievements in the implementation of Paraguay’s AML framework remain modest since the crimin...

  5. Participatory communication for tuberculosis control in prisons in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay Comunicación participativa para el control de la tuberculosis en cárceles de Bolivia, Ecuador y Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio Waisbord

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the challenges in reducing tuberculosis (TB) in prisons in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay and propose ways to address them through communication interventions. METHODS: Challenges to two central goals of TB control-early diagnosis of positive cases and successful application of the directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS) strategy-were examined. Data were gathered (through in-depth, structured interviews) and focus groups were conducted in the prisons that housed...

  6. The Alto Paraguay Alkaline Province: petrographic, geochemical and geochronological characteristics; Provincia alcalina Alto Paraguai: caracteristicas petrograficas, geoquimicas e geocronologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez Fernandez, Victor

    1996-12-31

    The Alto Paraguay Province is located at the border of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraguay, between the coordinates 21 deg 10{sup `}to 23 deg 25{sup `}of Southern latitude and 57 deg 10{sup `} to 58 deg 00{sup `}, having the city of Porto Murtinho as the main reference point. The geotectonic domain of the area is governed by the precambric units of the Southern extreme of the Amazonic craton which developed a long and accentuated activity, giving rise to folds and important faults, that in several cases seem to have exerted an effective control of the magmatic manifestations. Radiometric data indicate that the emplacement of the syenitic bodies took place in the Permo-Triassic period, with a major incidence in the interval 260-240 Ma, representing thus, an important phase of alkaline magmatic affinity associated to the Parana Basin which is believed is to be unique, since the other known areas (Central, Amambay and Rio Apa Provinces, Paraguay, Velasco Province, Bolivia) are considerably younger (140-120 Ma). Syenitic rocks from the Alto Paraguay Province show wide variation in the ratio {sup 87} Sr/{sup 86} Sr (0.703361 - 0.707734). Excluding the Cerro Boggiani rocks (0.703837-0.707734), values for the nepheline syenites (0.703361-0.703672) general lower than those of the other syenites types. Alkaline syenites cover the interval 0.703510- 0.703872, while quartz syenites and syenogranites are 0.704562 and 0.707076, respectively. geologic evidence, in addition to petrographic, geochemical and isotopic (Sr) data, suggest that the syenitic rocks have been derived from an unique mantelic parental liquid, by fractional crystallization and assimilation processes, which are assumed to be occurred during the emplacement of the magma in the crust. (author) 124 refs., 52 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Development and assessment of a distribution network of hydro-methane, methanol, oxygen and carbon dioxide in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivarolo, M.; Marmi, S.; Riveros-Godoy, G.; Magistri, L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate different transporting modes of hydro-methane, methanol, CO 2 and O 2 . • We determine the best transportation technology from an economic point of view. • The best pathway to distribute the hydro-methane depends on quantity and distance. • Methanol distribution presents the lowest cost delivery. - Abstract: This paper summarizes key results of the analysis of different transport modes of hydro-methane, methanol, carbon dioxide and oxygen in Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina. Hydro-methane is produced in Paraguay and can be used to fuel natural gas vehicles, substituting gasoline and diesel which are at the moment imported from foreign countries. Methanol, also produced in Paraguay, is delivered to Brazil, which is one of the Countries with the highest demand in the region. Oxygen can be sold to Argentina for medical and industrial use. Carbon dioxide is delivered throughout Paraguay. The aim of this study is to determine the best transportation technology from an economic and strategic point of view, minimizing costs associated to products distribution. Several scenarios are investigated; each scenario is associated with different delivery modes. A model is developed to estimate both capital and variable costs for different transportation technologies (pipeline, trucks, ships) in order to choose the lowest-cost delivery mode for each product, depending on distances and flow rates. Four different analysis are performed for each scenario, varying the number of vehicles which must be fueled by hydro-methane and considering its influence on the results. The methodology presented here has a general value, thus it can be easily employed for the economic analysis of different fuels and distribution networks, also placed in different scenarios

  8. The Alto Paraguay Alkaline Province: petrographic, geochemical and geochronological characteristics; Provincia alcalina Alto Paraguai: caracteristicas petrograficas, geoquimicas e geocronologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez Fernandez, Victor

    1997-12-31

    The Alto Paraguay Province is located at the border of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraguay, between the coordinates 21 deg 10{sup `}to 23 deg 25{sup `}of Southern latitude and 57 deg 10{sup `} to 58 deg 00{sup `}, having the city of Porto Murtinho as the main reference point. The geotectonic domain of the area is governed by the precambric units of the Southern extreme of the Amazonic craton which developed a long and accentuated activity, giving rise to folds and important faults, that in several cases seem to have exerted an effective control of the magmatic manifestations. Radiometric data indicate that the emplacement of the syenitic bodies took place in the Permo-Triassic period, with a major incidence in the interval 260-240 Ma, representing thus, an important phase of alkaline magmatic affinity associated to the Parana Basin which is believed is to be unique, since the other known areas (Central, Amambay and Rio Apa Provinces, Paraguay, Velasco Province, Bolivia) are considerably younger (140-120 Ma). Syenitic rocks from the Alto Paraguay Province show wide variation in the ratio {sup 87} Sr/{sup 86} Sr (0.703361 - 0.707734). Excluding the Cerro Boggiani rocks (0.703837-0.707734), values for the nepheline syenites (0.703361-0.703672) general lower than those of the other syenites types. Alkaline syenites cover the interval 0.703510- 0.703872, while quartz syenites and syenogranites are 0.704562 and 0.707076, respectively. geologic evidence, in addition to petrographic, geochemical and isotopic (Sr) data, suggest that the syenitic rocks have been derived from an unique mantelic parental liquid, by fractional crystallization and assimilation processes, which are assumed to be occurred during the emplacement of the magma in the crust. (author) 124 refs., 52 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Modeling the potential distribution of the invasive golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei in the Upper Paraguay River system using limnological variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD Oliveira

    Full Text Available The invasive golden mussel, Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857, was introduced into the La Plata River estuary and quickly expanded upstream to the North, into the Paraguay and Paraná rivers. An ecological niche modeling approach, based on limnological variables, was used to predict the expansion of the golden mussel in the Paraguay River and its tributaries. We used three approaches to predict the geographic distribution: 1 the spatial distribution of calcium concentration and the saturation index for calcium carbonate (calcite; 2 the Genetic Algorithm for Rule-Set Production (GARP model; and the 3 Maximum Entropy Method (Maxent model. Other limnological variables such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and Total Suspended Solids (TSS were used in the latter two cases. Important tributaries of the Paraguay River such as the Cuiabá and Miranda/Aquidauana rivers exhibit high risk of invasion, while lower risk was observed in the chemically dilute waters of the middle basin where shell calcification may be limited by low calcium concentrations and carbonate mineral undersaturation.

  10. Plantas medicinales empleadas por pacientes diabéticos en Paraguay

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    Mabel MAIDANA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Un gran porcentaje de la población mundial, utiliza plantas medicinales para hacer frente a sus necesidades de salud. En Paraguay se utiliza un gran número de especies vegetales con fines medicinales, para diferentes afecciones, entre ellas la diabetes. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar las plantas medicinales empleadas por pacientes que consultan el Programa Nacional de Diabetes, Centro de Salud Nº 9, de Asunción, que forma parte de un programa de Atención Farmacéutica, desarrollado dentro del marco de la Tesis Doctoral: “Evaluación de un programa de Atención Farmacéutica en paceintes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2”. Se realizaron encuestas a 61 pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2, que consultaron en el mencionado programa, entre octubre y diciembre del año 2011. De los 61 pacientes entrevistados, 17 eran hombres y 44 mujeres, la edad promedio fue de 55 años ± 10,6 años, el 45,9% vive en Asunción y 54,1% en diferentes ciudades del Departamento Central. El 78,1% utiliza plantas medicinales sin prescripción médica, el 18,8% no las utiliza y el 3,1% no contestó la pregunta. Los pacientes mencionaron 33 especies vegetales empleadas con fines medicinales. Las mismas se encuentran distribuidas en 25 familias, siendo la Asteraceae la familia mayormente representada con el 21,6%; la parte más utilizada es la hoja, (48,5%, la forma de empleo más reportada fue el tereré, bebida tradicional de Paraguay semejante al mate (infusión de yerba mate, pero frío; con el 51,5%. Las 5 especies más reportadas fueron: Moringa oleífera (Fabaceae; Artemisia absinthium, Tithonia diversifolia, Baccharis trimera y Stevia rebaudiana todas de la familia Asteraceae. Los pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 que emplean plantas medicinales, lo hacen de forma concomitante con medicamentos de síntesis, de los cuales el 47% son para el sistema cardiovascular, el 26% son antidiabéticos y el 17% para el sistema nervioso.

  11. Sterculiaceae of Paraguay. I. Ayenia, Byttneria, Guazuma, Helicteres, Melochia and Sterculia

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    Carmen L. Cristóbal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic revision of the Sterculiaceae family in Paraguay is presented here, including 56 species and 4 varieties, a total of 59 taxa three of which are endemic. They belong to 7 genera, the same that grow in Argentina, with a variable number of species, ranging from 1 like in Sterculia and Guazuma to 16 such as Byttneria andMelochia. The family is distributed along all the area in very diverse habitats, like gallery forests, fertile lands, but also on calcarate, saltpetrous or sandy soils. The habit is generally shrubby to sub-shrubby, rarely arborescent or climbing. The plants are unarmed or spinose such in some Byttneria species. The project to revise this family stimulated the attention in the field work. As result was foundAyenia magna, member of the section Cybiostigma. Its more southern area was Trinidad in the coast of Venezuela, and now it has been found at Cerro León, in the north of western Paraguay. Another interesting finding is Ayenia spinulosa, which has been only known by the type specimen. This species grows on calcarate soils of the Concepción department. A generous amount of specimens make possible that this taxa can be represented in many herbaria of the world. The Sterculiaceae flowers are always small, usually agglomerate at the leafs axils, and in many cases morphologically complex. The petals are reddish or violet, rarely yellow like inWaltheria, or white. In Melochia it can be longistyle, brevistyle or mesostyle. The leaves are petiolate, estipulate, with stellate, single or glandular hairs. The appearance of the plants and the indument are similar to many Malvaceae, due to which it is necessary to examine this family at the herbaria. The anthers are dithecal and enlarged in Sterculiaceae, while in Malvaceae are monothecal and rounded. The text includes the description, synonymy and illustration of each taxon, keys to distinguish each one and its geographic distribution represented on 11 maps. The

  12. Detección neonatal en el Paraguay. Brechas para su cobertura universal

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    Marta Ascurra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available La cobertura universal en los programas de detección neonatal (DN es una obligación de todos los países, de manera a ofrecer a la población los servicios de detección y tra-tamiento oportunos sin necesidad de que la misma incurra en gastos considerables ni pago directo al momento de recibir el servicio. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar las brechas para la universalización de la cobertura de la DN en Paraguay. La unidad de análisis fue el Programa de Prevención de la Fibrosis Quística y Retardo Mental (PPFQRM. Se evaluaron los tres ejes de la cobertura universal sanitaria (CUS propues-to por la OMS: amplitud o proporción cubierta, profundidad definida por el número de patologías incluidas en la DN, nivel de protección financiera; así como las brechas para el logro de la universalización de la cobertura de la DN. La información se obtuvo del PPFQRM, Dirección General de Estadísticas Vitales y de la Dirección General de Estadísti-ca, Encuesta y Censo. Se encontró que los estudios de diagnóstico y tratamiento están garantizados por la Ley 2138/2003. La amplitud tuvo un aumento significativo de 0,8% en 1999 a 76,1% en 2.014. Existe necesidad de ampliar las patologías incluidas en la DN en el PPFQRM (hipotiroidismo congénito, fenilcetonuria y fibrosis quística. Se pudo comprobar los grandes esfuerzos e inversiones que el Paraguay está realizando para el logro de la universalización de la DN; con lo cual se contribuirá a romper el círculo de pobreza, considerando que la discapacidad genera pobreza y la pobreza discapacidad.

  13. Re-emergence of rabies virus maintained by canid populations in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarilla, A C F; Pompei, J C A; Araujo, D B; Vázquez, F A; Galeano, R R; Delgado, L M; Bogado, G; Colman, M; Sanabria, L; Iamamoto, K; Garcia, R; Assis, D; Recalde, R; Martorelli, L F; Quiñones, E; Cabello, A; Martini, M; Cosivi, O; Durigon, E L; Favoretto, S R

    2018-02-01

    Paraguay has registered no human cases of rabies since 2004, and the last case in dogs, reported in 2009, was due to a variant maintained in the common vampire bat "Desmodus rotundus". In 2014, a dog was diagnosed as positive for rabies with aggression towards a boy and all required measures of control were successfully adopted. Epidemiological investigation revealed that the dog was not vaccinated and had been attacked by a crab-eating fox, "zorro" (Cerdocyon thous). The sample was diagnosed by the Official Veterinary Service of the Country and sent to the Center on Rabies Research from the University of São Paulo, Brazil, for antigenic and genetic characterization. A second sample from a dog positive for rabies in the same region in 2015 and 11 samples from a rabies outbreak from Asuncion in 1996 were also characterized. The antigenic profile of the samples, AgV2, was compatible with one of the variants maintained by dogs in Latin America. In genetic characterization, the samples segregated in the canine (domestic and wild species)-related group in an independent subgroup that also included samples from Argentina. These results and the epidemiology of the case indicate that even with the control of rabies in domestic animals, the virus can still circulate in wildlife and may be transmitted to domestic animals and humans, demonstrating the importance of continuous and improved surveillance and control of rabies, including in wild species, to prevent outbreaks in controlled areas. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Linguistic contact in the 18th Century in America: Spanish and Portuguese in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis RAMÍREZ LUENGO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although Spanish and Portuguese coexist in several areas of America, almost all studies have focused on the contact situation in the North of Uruguay, and this contact has been hardly considered from a historical point of view. This work tries to mitigate this lack of knowledge in presenting several texts from Paraguay in the 18th century, which show a clear influence from Portuguese. A philological edition of such documents is provided here and a study of linguistic characteristics possibly due to Portuguese influence is made. Our aim is twofold: 1 to describe the linguistic variety used in these written texts in comparison with the synchronic and diachronic data which are already available regarding the Portuguese Dialects in Uruguay (DPU and some other areas; 2 to provide data which could be helpful to understand the idiosyncratic characteristics of the linguistic contact of these two Romance languages and the significance of Portuguese in the shaping (of some linguistic varieties of American Spanish.

  15. Characteristics and conditions of the recharging water in the Guarani Aquifer System in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risiga, A.; Venecio, M.; Sosa, D.; Lenzi, L.

    2007-01-01

    In order to evaluate the characteristics and conditions of the water recharging The Sistema Acuifero Guarani (SAG) in Eastern Paraguay, and their relation to hydrological and environmental issues, this work focussed on the aquifers integrating that System, Independence Group, Misiones Formation and the Basalts of Alto Parana Formation.The regional climatic characterization for the period 1901/2000 was elaborated with monthly precipitation information from a grid of spatially distributed data, and a series Hydric balance on a monthly basis was made with available information from the whole record length at each station in the studied area, which shows the predominance of annual excesses s in all the gauging stations.The infiltration and hydraulic conductivity tests performed in different soils evidence values of basic infiltration and hydraulic conductivity oscillating between 3 and 9 mm/h.The previously compiled information and the one elaborated for the project were integrated into a geographic information system.Besides, three causes originating potential risk of soil, surface water and groundwater contamination were identified: the increasing use of agr i-chemicals, the deficit in basic sanitary infrastructure and the absence of monitoring and adequate environmental conditions in the industrial activities and effluent removal.Therefore, there is the need to work with a monitoring network, to implement actions of environmental control and to encourage more detailed studies to enable the follow up and control of recharge water

  16. Presence of Political Parties and Deputies in Internet in Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanina Welp

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Latinobarómetro, political parties are the institutions which less confidence receive from Latin Americans. This is not a particularity of Latin America, but a documented problem of Western consolidated democracies.In this context, in Europe and United States, among others, the use of digital media become a tool to overcome the crisis of representation, given their capacities to renovate politics, and because they allow the offering of more publicity of public matters as well as the opening up of new channels of participation and communication between citizens and representatives. But to what extent and with which features is this adoption happening in Latin America? Based on the study of the online presence of political parties and deputies of Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay (webs, blogs, Facebook and Twitter, this article explores the levels of digital media adoption and the influence of variables such as the internet diffusion in the country, the crisis of representation and the characteristics of political parties (institutionalization, ideology, size, role of leaders explaining the extension and characteristics of this adoption. 

  17. De beatas y beaterios jesuitas de la provincia del Paraguay, siglos XVII–XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Page

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available En las Constituciones de la Compañía de Jesús se estableció que no se podrían incorporar mujeres a su comunidad. Sin embargo, en todo el mundo se crearon congregaciones femeninas independientes que siguieron las reglas jesuitas. Aquí se dan algunos ejemplos para alcanzar el objetivo del artículo, que es indagar sobre las beatas que fueron destacadas en la documentación de los jesuitas de la provincia del Paraguay; se admiten las dificultades que implica no contar con otras fuentes. De esta manera se dan a conocer algunas mujeres prácticamente desconocidas en la historiografía religiosa y, a su vez, el interés en sus ámbitos, los beaterios, que permiten contribuir al conocimiento del modo de vida espiritual que llevaban. Solo se mencionó uno de éstos en los inventarios de las temporalidades de toda la provincia, por lo que se pretende indagar sobre el origen, la descripción y el destino del edificio.

  18. CROP OF TRANSGENIC SOY-BEAN. PEASANT AND INDIGENOUS COMMUNITY EFFECTS OF EUSTERN PARAGUAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Florencio Centurión Mereles

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Word offers us a critical glance about the economic and socio-cultural impacts of the transgenic crops in peasant and indigenous communities of the eastern region of Paraguay, it is given special attention to the use of Roundup, with the undoubted environment cost and the uncertain risks to human and animal health. The impacts and interactions that the techno-commoditization of the organisms genetically modified OGM have on the affected populations and the environment-species, soil, water, woods, flora, fauna is discussed in the Word.The extent of use of glyphosate on transgenic crops would involve not only the environment of the crop, but go to generate profound cultural changes, technological, of management, environmental, economical, social and legal, whose effects we already see them come with the decline of peasant and indigenous communities, that at not finding adequate strategies to face them, collapse as collectivity. The Word contains important elements to renew the debate and the critical thought in relation to the problematic of transgenic crop and its impact in indigenous and peasant populations.

  19. Cytogenetic analysis in Thoracocharax stellatus (Kner, 1858 (Characiformes, Gasteropelecidae from Paraguay River Basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thoracocharax stellatus (Characiformes, Gasteropelecidae is a small Neotropical species of fish, widely distributed in several rivers of South America. Evidence for karyotype heteromorphysm in populations from different geographical regions has been reported for this species. In this way, populations of T. stellatus from the Paraguay River basin were cytogenetically characterized and the results were compared with other studies performed in the same species but from different basins. The results showed a diploid number of 2n = 54 for T. stellatus, with chromosomes arranged in 6 metacentric (m, 6 submetacentric (sm, 2 subtelocentric (st and 40 acrocentric (a, for both sexes, with a simple Nucleolus Organiser Region (NOR system reported by the techniques of silver nitrate impregnation and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH using 18S rDNA sequences as probe. The distribution of constitutive heterochromatin, observed by the C-band technique and Chromomycin A3 staining showed great similarity among the analyzed populations and consists mainly of discrete blocks in the pericentromeric and telomeric regions of most chromosomes. The presence of female heterogamety was also observed indicating a ZZ/ZW system with W chromosome almost totally heterochromatic. The results also show cytogenetic diversity of the group and are useful to understand the mechanisms of karyotype evolution of the family.

  20. Landscape responses of bats to habitat fragmentation in Atlantic forest of paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorresen, P.M.; Willig, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on populations or communities is critical to effective conservation and restoration. This is particularly important for bats because they provide vital services to ecosystems via pollination and seed dispersal, especially in tropical and subtropical habitats. Based on more than 1,000 h of survey during a 15-month period, we quantified species abundances and community structure of phyllostomid bats at 14 sites in a 3,000-km2 region of eastern Paraguay. Abundance was highest for Artibeus lituratus in deforested landscapes and for Chrotopterus auritus in forested habitats. In contrast, Artibeus fimbriatus, Carollia perspicillata, Glossophaga soricina, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Pygoderma bilabiatum, and Sturnira lilium attained highest abundance in moderately fragmented forest landscapes. Forest cover, patch size, and patch density frequently were associated with abundance of species. At the community level, species richness was highest in partly deforested landscapes, whereas evenness was greatest in forested habitat. In general, the highest diversity of bats occurred in landscapes comprising moderately fragmented forest habitat. This underscores the importance of remnant habitat patches to conservation strategies.

  1. Brote de intoxicación alimentaria asociado al consumo de leche ultrapasteurizada en la República del Paraguay Foodborne outbreak associated with consumption of ultrapasteurized milk in the Republic of Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Weiler

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante marzo de 2007 ocurrió un brote epidémico asociado al consumo de leche ultrapasteurizada que afectó a las ciudades de San Lorenzo, Ciudad del Este y Asunción, de la República del Paraguay. Las personas afectadas fueron 400, de las cuales 60 requirieron hospitalización. Se aisló S. aureus subespecie aureus de 5 pacientes, 3 operarios y 3 muestras de leche. Todas las cepas fueron productoras de enterotoxinas. Las aislamientos de 3 pacientes, de un operario y de las muestras de leche portaron los genes que codifican las enterotoxinas C (sec y D (sed, y presentaron un patrón único de macrorrestricción (SmaI-PFGE. Se identificó a la leche como fuente de intoxicación y a un operario de la línea de producción como origen de la contaminación. Este es el primer brote de ETA denunciado en Paraguay en el cual se pudo aislar, caracterizar y subtipificar el agente etiológico en la planta de elaboración, en el alimento y en las personas afectadas.During March 2007 there was an epidemic outbreak associated with the consumption of ultrapasteurized milk. Four hundred people were affected and 60 required hospitalization. S. aureus subspecies aureus was isolated from 5 patients, 3 operators and 3 milk samples. All strains produced enterotoxins. Strains isolated from 3 patients, one operator and all the milk samples carried the genes encoding enterotoxins C (sec and D (sed, and showed an indistinguishable macrorestriction pattern (SmaI-PFGE. Milk was identified as the source of intoxication and a production line operator as the source of contamination. This is the first foodborne outbreak reported in Paraguay whose agent was isolated, characterized and subtypified in the production plant, the food and the affected people.

  2. [Antituberculosis-drug resistance in the border of Brazil with Paraguay and Bolivia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Marli; Cunha, Eunice Atsuko Totumi; Evangelista, Maria do Socorro Nantua; Basta, Paulo Cesar; Marques, Ana Maria Campos; Croda, Julio; de Andrade, Sonia Maria Oliveira

    2017-04-20

    To estimate the rate of drug resistance among pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and specifically in the border areas with Paraguay and Bolivia, as well as to identify associated risk factors. The present cross-sectional, epidemiological study focused on PTB cases recorded between January 2007 and December 2010 in the State Reportable Disease Information System with results of susceptibility tests to rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, and streptomycin. Dependent variables were development of resistance to a single drug or any combination of drugs. Independent variables were being a new or treated case, living in border areas, presence/absence of diabetes, and history of alcoholism. There were 789 TBP cases with susceptibility testing. The following characteristics were associated with resistance: treated case (P = 0.0001), border region (P = 0.0142), alcoholism (P = 0.0451), and diabetes (P = 0.0708). The rates of combined, primary, and acquired resistance for the state were 16.3%, 10.6%, and 39.0%, vs. 22.3%, 19.2%, and 37.5% for the border region. The rates of combined, primary, and acquired multidrug resistance for the state were 1.8%, 0.6%, and 6.3%, vs. 3.1%, 1.2%, and 12.5% for the border region. In the border region, the state should investigate drug resistance in all patients with respiratory symptoms, determine the pattern of resistance in confirmed cases, adopt directly observed treatment for cases of PTB, and develop health actions together with neighboring countries. Across the state, the levels of acquired resistance should be monitored, with investigation of resistance in all treated cases and implementation of directly observed treatment especially among patients with diabetes or alcoholism.

  3. Heritability and Fitness Correlates of Personality in the Ache, a Natural-Fertility Population in Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Drew H.; Walker, Robert S.; Blomquist, Gregory E.; Hill, Kim R.; Hurtado, A. Magdalena; Geary, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The current study assessed the heritability of personality in a traditional natural-fertility population, the Ache of eastern Paraguay. Self-reports (n = 110) and other-reports (n = 66) on the commonly used Big Five Personality Inventory (i.e., extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness) were collected. Self-reports did not support the Five Factor Model developed with Western samples, and did not correlate with other-reports for three of the five measured personality factors. Heritability was assessed using factors that were consistent across self- and other-reports and factors assessed using other-reports that showed reliabilities similar to those found in Western samples. Analyses of these items in combination with a multi-generation pedigree (n = 2,132) revealed heritability estimates similar to those found in most Western samples, although we were not able to separately estimate the influence of the common environment on these traits. We also assessed relations between personality and reproductive success (RS), allowing for a test of several mechanisms that might be maintaining heritable variation in personality. Phenotypic analyses, based largely on other-reports, revealed that extraverted men had higher RS than other men, but no other dimensions of personality predicted RS in either sex. Mothers with more agreeable children had more children, and parents mated assortatively on personality. Of the evolutionary processes proposed to maintain variation in personality, assortative mating, selective neutrality, and temporal variation in selection pressures received the most support. However, the current study does not rule out other processes affecting the evolution and maintenance of individual differences in human personality. PMID:23527163

  4. Knowledge and attitudes about periodontal disease in medicine students of the University of the Pacific, Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisse Virginia Díaz Reissner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periodontal disease (PD triggers loss of dental support. Knowledge is essential to develop proper planning and control of care. The doctor must know aspects of the pathology and refer the patient to the dentist. Objective: To evaluate knowledge and attitudes about PD in medical students enrolled in the Universidad del Pacífico (Asunción campus, Paraguay-20I5. Methodology: It was a descriptive study with a survey on knowledge and attitudes towards PD and oral hygiene habits. Aspects such as responsible factor, indicative sign, effective measure of prevention and control and relationship with diabetes and smoking, were evaluated. Results: 133 students participated in the study; 68.5% under 20 years old. 97.2% recognized the microbial plaque as a causative factor, 80.27% recognized brushing as an effective measure of control and 60.6% as a pathognomonic sign for gingival bleeding. 60.6% mentioned a relationship with diabetes and 92.4% with smoking. 93.6% mentioned the social affectation due to the disease and 85.53% saw the relevance of the pathology in health. As for the attitude; 88.71% recognized the need for doctor's participation in prevention and 97.4% who must know the problem, although only 80.9% agreed with the oral examination by the doctor. Conclusion: A good level of knowledge was observed in the study population. The attitudes were adequate, but it is recommended to encourage the practice of preventive actions, starting with an examination, from the degree with the purpose of promoting a co-responsibility in the prevention of oral pathologies in conjunction with the dentist.

  5. Occurrence and fate of pesticides in the Argentine stretch of the Paraguay-Paraná basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchegoyen, M A; Ronco, A E; Almada, P; Abelando, M; Marino, D J

    2017-02-01

    The Argentine stretch of the del Plata basin crosses regions devoted to extensive and intensive agriculture mostly with chemical pest control. The utilization of pesticides in the region has increased 900% in the last two decades associated with the introduction of biotech crops and direct-seeding techniques. Our objective was to study the occurrence, concentration, and fate of pesticides in surface water and bottom sediments of the principal tributaries and main watercourse of the Paraguay-Paraná River. We sampled 22 sites in the distal positions of the main affluents and main watercourse of the Paraná and report here results from two monitoring campaigns (2010-2012). Surface water and bottom sediments were analyzed according to standardized methods by matrix-solid-phase dispersion and liquid-liquid extraction, respectively. Twenty-three pesticide compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography. The results from both campaigns indicated a generalized but variable distribution in the concentrations detected throughout the basin. The ranges of total measured pesticide concentrations in water and sediments were, respectively, 0.004-6.62 μg/l and 0.16-221.3 μg/kg dry weight. Endosulfans, cypermethrin, and chlorpyrifos were ubiquitous compounds in both environmental compartments and quantitatively the most relevant. All concentrations detected in water were over the recommended guidelines for the protection of aquatic biota. The partitioning indicated a higher affinity for the sediments. Agricultural activity is the source of pesticide-pollution loads, transported by tributaries that reach the main watercourse and alter the quality of the aquatic ecosystem.

  6. Post-introduction economic evaluation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Ecuador, Honduras, and Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagna O. Constenla

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:A decision-analytic model was constructed to evaluate the economic impact of post-introduction pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV programs in Ecuador, Honduras, and Paraguay from the societal perspective. METHODS: Hypothetical birth cohorts were followed for a 20-year period in each country. Estimates of disease burden, vaccine effectiveness, and health care costs were derived from primary and secondary data sources. Costs were expressed in 2014 US$. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the impact of model input uncertainties. RESULTS: Over the 20 years of vaccine program implementation, the health care costs per case ranged from US$ 764 854 to more than US$ 1 million. Vaccination prevented more than 50% of pneumococcal cases and deaths per country. At a cost of US$ 16 per dose, the cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY averted for the 10-valent PCV (PCV10 and the 13-valet PCV (PCV13 ranged from US$ 796 (Honduras to US$ 1 340 (Ecuador and from US$ 691 (Honduras to US$ 1 166 (Ecuador respectively. At a reduced price (US$ 7 per dose, the cost per DALY averted ranged from US$ 327 (Honduras to US$ 528 (Ecuador and from US$ 281 (Honduras to US$ 456 (Ecuador for PCV10 and PCV13 respectively. Several model parameters influenced the results of the analysis, including vaccine price, vaccine efficacy, disease incidence, and costs. CONCLUSIONS: The economic impact of post-introduction PCV needs to be assessed in a context of uncertainty regarding changing antibiotic resistance, herd and serotype replacement effects, differential vaccine prices, and government budget constraints.

  7. Post-introduction economic evaluation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Ecuador, Honduras, and Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constenla, Dagna O

    2015-11-01

    A decision-analytic model was constructed to evaluate the economic impact of post-introduction pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) programs in Ecuador, Honduras, and Paraguay from the societal perspective. Hypothetical birth cohorts were followed for a 20-year period in each country. Estimates of disease burden, vaccine effectiveness, and health care costs were derived from primary and secondary data sources. Costs were expressed in 2014 US$. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the impact of model input uncertainties. Over the 20 years of vaccine program implementation, the health care costs per case ranged from US$ 764 854 to more than US$ 1 million. Vaccination prevented more than 50% of pneumococcal cases and deaths per country. At a cost of US$ 16 per dose, the cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted for the 10-valent PCV (PCV10) and the 13-valet PCV (PCV13) ranged from US$ 796 (Honduras) to US$ 1 340 (Ecuador) and from US$ 691 (Honduras) to US$ 1 166 (Ecuador) respectively. At a reduced price (US$ 7 per dose), the cost per DALY averted ranged from US$ 327 (Honduras) to US$ 528 (Ecuador) and from US$ 281 (Honduras) to US$ 456 (Ecuador) for PCV10 and PCV13 respectively. Several model parameters influenced the results of the analysis, including vaccine price, vaccine efficacy, disease incidence, and costs. The economic impact of post-introduction PCV needs to be assessed in a context of uncertainty regarding changing antibiotic resistance, herd and serotype replacement effects, differential vaccine prices, and government budget constraints.

  8. Green-manure turnip for soybean based no-tillage farming systems in eastern Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubota Aki

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A no-tillage soybean-wheat cropping system has been practiced for many years on the "Terra Rossa" soils of eastern Paraguay. Soil compactness and soil erosion have recently been identified as potential problems. This study examines the effect of replacing unprofitable wheat by green-manure turnip (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg. on soil properties and soybean production. Gaseous phase, porosity, bulk density, water saturation, cone index, pH, exchangeable-cations, available-phosphorus (P and aggregate size distribution of the soil were measured. Contrary to initial expectations, turnip did not reduce soil compactness. Instead, turnip stabilized the aggregate structure of the surface soil. Positive effects of turnip on subsequent soybean growth and yield were detected in a rather dry year but not in an exceptionally wet year. In a second part of this study, nutrient return from turnip and wheat residues were compared. Turnip produced 10.7 t ha-1 of shoot dry matter, and absorbed 294, 27, 302, 175, and 33 kg ha-1 of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg, respectively. Wheat absorbed 98, 11, 67, 11, and 7 kg ha-1 of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg, respectively. About 75% of the N absorbed by wheat was removed from the field at harvest whereas most nutrients in the turnip residue were returned to the soil before planting of soybeans with positive effects on soil fertility. Additional benefits of green-manure turnip would include a reduced chance for erosion through improvements in aggregate structure and through a more complete soil cover.

  9. Hydro-methane and methanol combined production from hydroelectricity and biomass: Thermo-economic analysis in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivarolo, M.; Bellotti, D.; Mendieta, A.; Massardo, A.F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate H 2 /O 2 production from large hydraulic plant by water electrolysis. • We produce methanol and hydro-methane from H 2 /O 2 obtained. • We investigate two different configurations of the plant. • We perform a thermo-economic analysis for three scenarios in Paraguay. • We find plants optimal size using a time-dependent thermo-economic approach. - Abstract: A thermo-economic analysis regarding large scale hydro-methane and methanol production from renewable sources (biomass and renewable electricity) is performed. The study is carried out investigating hydrogen and oxygen generation by water electrolysis, mainly employing the hydraulic energy produced from the 14 GW Itaipu Binacional Plant, owned by Paraguay and Brazil. Oxygen is employed in biomass gasification to synthesize methanol; the significant amount of CO 2 separated in the process is mixed with hydrogen produced by electrolysis in chemical reactors to produce hydro-methane. Hydro-methane is employed to supply natural gas vehicles in Paraguay, methanol is sold to Brazil, that is the largest consumer in South America. The analysis is performed employing time-dependent hydraulic energy related to the water that would normally not be used by the plant, named “spilled energy”, when available; in the remaining periods, electricity is acquired at higher cost by the national grid. For the different plant lay-outs, a thermo-economic analysis has been performed employing two different software, one for the design point and one for the time-dependent one entire year optimization, since spilled energy is strongly variable throughout the year. Optimal sizes for the generation plants have been determined, investigating the influence of electricity cost, size and plant configuration

  10. Relaciones entre Brasil y Paraguay durante los gobiernos de Nicanor Duarte Frutos y Fernando Lugo (2003 – 2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Artwik Onieva, Agnieszka María

    2014-01-01

    Trabajo de Conclusión de Curso presentado a la Universidad Federal de la Integración Latinoamericana como requisito para la obtención del título de Bacharel en Relaciones Internacionales e Integración. Orientador: Prof. Dr. Fabio Borges Co-orientador: Prof. Dr.a Tereza Spyer. Las relaciones entre Brasil y Paraguay han crecido vertiginosamente en las últimas décadas, desde la aproximación política-económica que ambos experimentaron a partir de la década del setenta durante el gobierno mi...

  11. System Design and Analysis of Electricity Provision for a Desalination Plant: A Study for Pozo Colorado, Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Zeiner, Ingerid

    2014-01-01

    Fresh water scarcity and drinking water quality is a challenge in Pozo Colorado, a district in the northern part of Paraguay. The area has groundwater resources that have not yet been exploited, but this water is saline and undrinkable unless it is treated. Establishing a brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO) desalination plant that produces potable water could be a solution to the problem. With high solar intensity in the region, a grid-connected battery back-up PV system could provide a rel...

  12. ANÁLISIS BACTERIOLÓGICO DE BILLETES CIRCULANTES EN LA UNIVERSIDAD DEL PACÍFICO PARAGUAY. 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalia Aguilera –Benítez; Amanda Fretes– Gómez; Janira Medina– Meza

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: Los billetes de algodón poseen una estructura porosa que le permite alojar diferentes tipos de detritus y que posibilitaría la colonización microbiana de dicho papel. Objetivos: Describir la presencia y tipo de contaminación bacteriana en dos variedades de billetes circulantes en Paraguay, en el año 2013. Materiales y métodos: Se recolectaron 50 billetes de cinco mil guaraníes (25 de polímero y 25 de algodón) proveídos por estudiantes mediante un muestreo por conveniencia. El an...

  13. Anemia y deficiencia de hierro en mujeres en edad reproductiva usuarias del Hospital Regional de Villa Hayes, Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Riveros; Gloria Echagüe; Santiago Evers; Laura Mendoza

    2015-01-01

    La anemia es un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. En Paraguay, existen datos limitados sobre la frecuencia de anemia en mujeres en edad reproductiva no gestantes. Este estudio piloto descriptivo de corte transverso tuvo como objetivo determinar la frecuencia de anemia y deficiencia de hierro, el estado nutricional, hábitos alimentarios y tóxicos en 99 mujeres no gestantes en edad reproductiva de 18 a 48 años que acudieron al Hospital Regional de Villa Hayes en Octubre del 2.014. La a...

  14. Desmitificando la violencia e inseguridad en relación a la pobreza y la desigualdad. El caso de Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Patricia Cerna; Carlos A. Peris

    2017-01-01

    La violencia e inseguridad en Paraguay guardan relación con delitos a la propiedad privada. La nación guaraní es un territorio pacífico con algunas demarcaciones violentas. En esta investigación se presenta un panorama comparativo de las zonas más y menos conflictivas pretendiendo, así, desmitificar la violencia y dejar de relacionarla con la escasez de recursos y la desigualdad, para tomar otros factores explicativos como la corrupción, la existencia de mercados ilegales, la relación entre p...

  15. La emigración catalana a Paraguay entre finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX: Sociedad, cultura, política

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Raya, Eva

    2015-01-01

    [spa] A diferencia de otros casos, la emigración española y catalana a Paraguay durante el periodo de migraciones masivas no ha sido tratada en profundidad hasta el momento. Con esta investigación se pretende contribuir a llenar el vacío historiográfico existente. El objetivo principal de este trabajo es abordar la realidad del colectivo de inmigrantes catalanes que se asentaron en Paraguay entre finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX, para conocer, a través de este colectivo, el fe...

  16. Mortality Rate and Predictors in Children Under 15 Years Old Who Acquired HIV from Mother to Child Transmission in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Gloria; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa; Rutherford, George W; Munoz, Sergio; Hills, Nancy; Samudio, Tania; Galeano, Fernando; Kawabata, Anibal; González, Carlos Miguel Rios

    2018-02-17

    We estimated mortality rate and predictors of death in children and adolescents who acquired HIV through mother-to-child transmission in Paraguay. In 2000-2014, we conducted a cohort study among children and adolescents aged  9 g/dL (HR 2.27, 95% CI 1.01-5.10). The mortality of HIV-infected children and adolescents in Paraguay is high, and anemia is associated with mortality. Improving prenatal screening to find cases earlier and improving pediatric follow-up are needed.

  17. “INSEGUROS, POBRES Y FELICES”. LA SEGURIDAD PRIVADA COMO RESPUESTA AL INCREMENTO DE LA PERCEPCIÓN DE INSEGURIDAD CIUDADANA EN PARAGUAY

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Aníbal Peris Castiglioni; Sarah Patricia Cerna Villagra

    2015-01-01

    En Paraguay uno puede sentirse inseguro, ser pobre pero a la vez ser feliz, al menos así lo demuestran las encuestas de opinión sobre esta nación sudamericana. Para comprender la curiosa afirmación, el presente trabajo tiene como objetivo relacionar los factores de: a) el incremento de la percepción de inseguridad ciudadana con; b) altos niveles de pobreza y desigualdad y; c) deficientes capacidades estatales con la expansión de la seguridad corporativa en Paraguay. Entre los principales h...

  18. First baseline of circulating genotypic lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in patients from the brazilian borders with Argentina and Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Luzia Neri C; Marcondes, Nadir R; Leite, Clarice Q Fijimura; Santos, Adolfo C Barreto; Pavan, Fernando Rogério; Baldin, Vanessa Pietrowski; Castilho, Aline Lemes; Siqueira, Vera Lúcia D; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Berghs, Henri; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti

    2014-01-01

    At the triple border Brazil/Paraguay/Argentina there is easy mobility from one city to another for economic and tourism activities. This constant and fast population mobility is mainly to visit Iguazu Falls, in the Iguazu River, on the border of the Brazilian state of Paraná and the Argentina. As the incidence of tuberculosis is high in this setting, our study aimed to establish a first baseline of circulating genotypic lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This study included 120 patients from 10 cities in southwestern Paraná, Brazil with pulmonary symptoms, from July 2009 to July 2011. Information about sex, age, clinical features and address was collected by reviewing the national tuberculosis notification database. Of these, 96 (80%) isolates were identified as M. tuberculosis and 22 (22.9%) were drug resistant (20, 20.8% INH mono-resistant and 2, 2.1% multidrug-resistant). All isolates were subjected to genotyping by Spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing. The distribution of the isolates analyzed by spoligotyping revealed 30 distinct patterns. The four mainly detected clades were Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM), ill-defined T, Haarlem (H) and S. The MIRU-VNTR showed 85 distinct patterns. Spoligotyping combined to MIRU-VNTR allowed 90 distinct patterns. Our study demonstrated that there is significant molecular diversity in circulating M. tuberculosis, with predominance of the LAM and T clades in cities of southwestern Paraná, Brazil, bordering Argentina and Paraguay.

  19. Relaciones hispano-paraguayas durante la Primera Guerra Mundial: el «Banco de España y Paraguay» en Asunción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalla-Corte Caballero, Gabriela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1895, Spanish migrant Camilo Pérez y Pérez decided to settle in Asunción, capital of the Republic of Paraguay, and was responsible for encouraging international relations through the creation of the «Bank of Spain and Paraguay». He was also named Revista Comercial Iberoamericana Mercurio correspondent and «Casa de América» representative, both Americanist entities established in Barcelona. The project came to an end few years later after World War I, and correspondence is nowadays preserved in the Pavilion of the Republic at University of Barcelona.En 1895 el migrante español Camilo Pérez y Pérez decidió establecerse en la capital de la República del Paraguay, Asunción, y se encargó de fomentar las relaciones internacionales a través de la creación del «Banco de España y Paraguay». También fue nombrado corresponsal de la Revista Comercial Iberoamericana Mercurio, y delegado de la «Casa de América», ambas entidades americanistas barcelonesas. El proyecto llegó a su fin pocos años después del fin de la Primera Guerra, y la correspondencia se conserva hoy día en el Pabellón de la República de la Universidad de Barcelona.

  20. Business strategy in the electric sector: trading in the paraguay electric sector; Estrategias de negocios en el sector electrico: comercializacion en el sistema electrico paraguayo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardozo, Carlos M.; Soto, Ruben E. Brasa [Itaipu Binacional - Usina Hidroelectrica de Itaipu, Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: cartin@itaipu.gov.py

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents an suitable analysis for a energy tradder which intends to operate in the paraguay electric market. First, the paper describes the main conceptual aspects and afterwards, formulate hypothesis on the possible highlights on the operative modes of negotiation and finally some results obtained based on hypothesis and simulation.

  1. Participatory communication for tuberculosis control in prisons in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay Comunicación participativa para el control de la tuberculosis en cárceles de Bolivia, Ecuador y Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Waisbord

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the challenges in reducing tuberculosis (TB in prisons in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay and propose ways to address them through communication interventions. METHODS: Challenges to two central goals of TB control-early diagnosis of positive cases and successful application of the directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS strategy-were examined. Data were gathered (through in-depth, structured interviews and focus groups were conducted in the prisons that housed the largest number of male inmates in each country. Interviewees and focus group participants included program directors, administrative personnel, correctional health and security staff, and incarcerated people who were or had been under treatment for TB and had participated as "peers" in health services. RESULTS: The findings showed a range of entrenched obstacles for adequate TB control. Stigmatizing attitudes and low knowledge about TB among inmates and key prison personnel discouraged people living in prisons from seeking diagnosis and treatment. Systemic problems in prison health services, along with squalid living conditions, lack of coordination between national TB programs and prison health systems, and insufficient allocation of resources to health prevented the provision of adequate TB prevention and care. CONCLUSION: In addressing the barriers to effective TB control in prison systems in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay, a participatory approach to communication is necessary.OBJETIVOS: Identificar los desafíos para reducir la tuberculosis (TB en cárceles de Bolivia, Ecuador y Paraguay y recomendar vías para solucionarlos mediante intervenciones informativas. MÉTODOS: Se analizaron las dificultades para alcanzar dos metas centrales del control de la TB: el diagnóstico temprano de los casos positivos y la aplicación exitosa del tratamiento bajo supervisión directa de curso corto. Se obtuvieron datos (mediante entrevistas estructuradas en

  2. La información publicada en la prensa internacional como elemento configurador de la imagen de los países: el caso de Paraguay / The information published in the international press as a configurator element of the countries image: the case of Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonia Strauck Franco

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa presente investigación estudia la información publicada sobre Paraguay en los medios de comunicación on line más importantes de América Latina y Europa, teniendo en cuenta la importancia que tiene la realidad publicada en el proceso de la configuración de la imagen internacional de un país. El estudio realiza un profundo análisis del contenido publicado sobre Paraguay durante el año 2010, con el objetivo de indagar sobre la percepción del país en este escenario, pudiendo reconocer que existen determinados contextos y coyunturas que influyen en el tratamiento de la información y en la cobertura que realizan los medios de comunicación, identificando a su vez cualidades asociadas a Paraguay que podrían constituirse como elementos configuradores para el planteamiento de una gestión estratégica de la imagen país.AbstractThis research studies the information published about Paraguay in the largest online mediasof Latin America and Europe, taking into account the importance of the reality published atthe process of shaping the international country image.This study makes a deep analysis of the content posted about Paraguay in 2010, with the aim of investigating the perception of the country at this stage, being able to recognize that there are certain contexts and situations that influence in the information processing and in the coverage of the media, and also identify qualities associated with Paraguay that could be used as a potential constitutors elements for the strategic management of the country image.

  3. Impact of an online training program in hospital workers’ smoking cessation interventions in Bolivia, Guatemala and Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Martínez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine changes in hospital workers’ interventions before and after online training. Method: Pre-post evaluation of the self-reported performance of the 5A's by hospital workers from the three organizations involved. We assessed individual, behavioural, and organisational-level factors through a questionnaire that included 43 items (0 = none to 10 = most possible completed before and 6 months after the training. Medians and interquartile ranges were calculated. To examine changes, the non-parametric test for paired data (Wilcoxon was used. Results: 202 professionals (76 in Bolivia, 79 in Guatemala, and 47 in Paraguay finished the course, of these 99 (28, 42, and 29 respectively completed both questionnaires before and after the training. Overall, there was an increase in the performance of each of the 5A components [Ask (7 to 9: Advise (7 to 9; Assess (6 to 8; Assist (2 to 7; and Arrange a follow up (0.52 to 5; all p <0.001]. Doctors, former smokers, and those from Paraguay obtained higher scores. The level of perception of the participants degree of preparedness, level of competence and familiarity with resources increased (p <0.001. Conclusion: The online training had a positive impact on the implementation of the brief intervention. Online education on smoking cessation is feasible and effective in improving smoking cessation interventions in these countries. Resumen: Objetivo: Examinar los cambios en las intervenciones de los trabajadores antes y después de la formación. Método: Evaluación pre-post de la intervención breve autorreportada para dejar de fumar (5A. Se evaluaron factores individuales, de comportamiento y de nivel organizativo mediante un cuestionario de 43 ítems (de 0 = nada a 10 = completamente. Los cuestionarios se completaron antes y 6 meses después de la formación. Se calcularon medianas y rangos intercuartílicos. Para examinar los cambios se utilizó la prueba no paramétrica para datos apareados

  4. Desmitificando la violencia e inseguridad en relación a la pobreza y la desigualdad. El caso de Paraguay

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    Sarah Patricia Cerna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available La violencia e inseguridad en Paraguay guardan relación con delitos a la propiedad privada. La nación guaraní es un territorio pacífico con algunas demarcaciones violentas. En esta investigación se presenta un panorama comparativo de las zonas más y menos conflictivas pretendiendo, así, desmitificar la violencia y dejar de relacionarla con la escasez de recursos y la desigualdad, para tomar otros factores explicativos como la corrupción, la existencia de mercados ilegales, la relación entre política y narcotráfico, la criminalización de la pobreza y el fracaso del sistema penitenciario.

  5. Distribution and Diversity of the Cryptic Ant Genus Oxyepoecus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae in Paraguay with Descriptions of Two New Species

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    T. Delsinne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the diversity and distribution of the ant genus Oxyepoecus in Paraguay. Oxyepoecus inquilinus is recorded for the first time, and new distribution data are given for O. rastratus and O. vezenyii. Published data for O. bruchi, O. rastratus, O. reticulatus, and O. vezenyii are summarized. Two new species are described (O. bidentatus n. sp. and O. striatus n. sp., and a key to the workers of the seven Paraguayan Oxyepoecus species is provided. At Teniente Enciso National Park, four species cooccur. This locality appears as a promising site for studies documenting the biology of this poorly known ant genus, and because of the IUCN “vulnerable“ Red List classification of O. inquilinus, the importance of the Teniente Enciso National Park for biological conservation is clearly established.

  6. PREVALENCIA DE BOCIO ENDEMICO POR EL METODO ECOGRAFICO, DETERMINACION DE YODURIAS y YODO EN SAL EN ESCOLARES DEL PARAGUAY.

    OpenAIRE

    Jara Y, Jorge A; Pretell, Eduardo A; Zaracho de Irazusta, Juana; Goetting, Sonia; Riveros, Claudia

    2004-01-01

    Paraguay, país mediterráneo ubicado en el corazón de America del Sur, con una superficie de 406.542 Km2 y con una población de 5,8 millones de habitantes importa toda la sal que consume de países cercanos como la Argentina, Brasil y Chile. En el presente estudio observacional, de tipo descriptivo utiliza el método ecográfico para determinar el tamaño y las características de la glándula tiroides, se examinaron 1034 escolares de ambos sexos de 13 distritos del país y fue realizado durante 3 me...

  7. K-Ar ages of alkaline rock from Southern Brazil and Eastern Paraguay: compilation and adaptation of new decay constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoki, I.K.; Garda, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    A compilation of 295 geochronological data of 52 alkaline occurrences from Southern Brazil and Eastern Paraguay is presented. These data, mostly available in previous publications, were recalculated, using the new constants recommended by STEIGER and JAEGER (1977) for the K-Ar method. The estimated analytical error of the age determined using experimental parameters is also indicated (COX and DALRYMPLE, 1967). This paper aims, specifically, at making ages published prior to 1977 compatible with recent data, allowing, for example, comparisons between ages obtained from a single alkaline massif or from neighbouring massifs. By calculating K-Ar ages using the constants recommended by STEIGER and JAEGER (op. cit.), there occurs an increase of 2.1 to 2.4% in the value of the age calculated with the previous constants. (author) [pt

  8. Los inicios del “ministerio de negros” en la provincia jesuítica del Paraguay

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    Tardieu, Jean Pierre

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This work tries to contribute to fill up an emptiness on the study of the population of African origin and, generally, slave in an area in which, traditionally, its presence was even refused. The interest is focused on the process of evangelization carried out by the jesuits, because they were they who took care primarily of such ministry between the slaves. Firstly, are studied some canonical problems, considered by the Church and the jesuits, around the baptism and catechizing of the enslaved population; next, the fundamental aspects of this practice are reviewed based on the documentation shown in the Anuas Letters of the Jesuit Province of Paraguay.

    Este trabajo intenta contribuir a rellenar un vacío sobre el estudio de la población de origen africano y, por lo general, esclava en un área en la que, tradicionalmente, se negaba incluso su presencia. El interés recae sobre el proceso de evangelización llevado a cabo por los jesuitas, pues fueron ellos quienes se ocuparon prioritariamente de tal ministerio entre los esclavos. Primeramente, se ponen de relieve algunos problemas canónicos que se planteó la Iglesia, y en particular los jesuitas, en torno al bautismo y catequización de la población esclava; a continuación, se revisan los aspectos fundamentales de la práctica catequética: medios utilizados, aprendizaje de lenguas, creación de cofradías, etc., tomando como documentación de base las Cartas Anuas de la Provincia Jesuítica del Paraguay.

  9. First baseline of circulating genotypic lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in patients from the brazilian borders with Argentina and Paraguay.

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    Luzia Neri C Machado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: At the triple border Brazil/Paraguay/Argentina there is easy mobility from one city to another for economic and tourism activities. This constant and fast population mobility is mainly to visit Iguazu Falls, in the Iguazu River, on the border of the Brazilian state of Paraná and the Argentina. As the incidence of tuberculosis is high in this setting, our study aimed to establish a first baseline of circulating genotypic lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study included 120 patients from 10 cities in southwestern Paraná, Brazil with pulmonary symptoms, from July 2009 to July 2011. Information about sex, age, clinical features and address was collected by reviewing the national tuberculosis notification database. Of these, 96 (80% isolates were identified as M. tuberculosis and 22 (22.9% were drug resistant (20, 20.8% INH mono-resistant and 2, 2.1% multidrug-resistant. All isolates were subjected to genotyping by Spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing. The distribution of the isolates analyzed by spoligotyping revealed 30 distinct patterns. The four mainly detected clades were Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM, ill-defined T, Haarlem (H and S. The MIRU-VNTR showed 85 distinct patterns. Spoligotyping combined to MIRU-VNTR allowed 90 distinct patterns. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study demonstrated that there is significant molecular diversity in circulating M. tuberculosis, with predominance of the LAM and T clades in cities of southwestern Paraná, Brazil, bordering Argentina and Paraguay.

  10. Le coton biologique au Paraguay. 1. Construction de la filière et contraintes économiques

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    Martin, J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic cotton production in Paraguay. 1. Some economic limitations for a novel industry. Paraguay, whose small farmers are traditionally cotton growers, has begun to crop and process organic cotton since 2003. An exploratory study was carried out in order to have a better knowledge of the way the organic cotton production has developed and to detect eventual economic limitations. The study was achieved in 2008 during the cotton harvest period by interviewing the actors from the farm to the industrial level. The organic cotton industry was built by a single company in a favorable national (20 years of organic production for a diversity of crops and international (an increasing demand for organic products, including cotton context. This single company applied a strategy of creating alliances with NGOs, public authorities and other private operators, in order to increase farm production – by adding new farmers – and textile manufacture and trade worldwide. We detected three kinds of economic limitations. Firstly, organic cotton production still remained largely dependent on the conventional cotton industry for the supply of seed. Secondly, the cumbersome certification process at farm level and its cost associated with increased logistic problems derived from the increase in geographical dispersion of small producers appeared to seriously limit the possibilities for expansion. Thirdly, although the price paid for organic cotton was 12-14% higher in 2008, the obligation for the farmers to sell drier cotton and a longer buying process resulting in delayed cash payments led many farmers to sale a large part of their organic cotton to conventional buyers. We recommend in-depth studies on these three topics to acquire a better knowledge of their extent in terms of intensities and variations, and to propose measures to mitigate them.

  11. «Yvy marae’y»: the conflict of the State with the indigenous villages in Paraguay «Yvy marae’y»: el conflicto del estado con los pueblos indígenas en Paraguay

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    Sarah Patricia CERNA VILLAGRA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The 1992 Constitution recognizes the existence of people prior to the formation of the Paraguayan State and in that sense it gives them certain rights that protect their territory, identity and culture. This declaration of purpose constitutes a break with the previous model of dominant and exclusionary state policies toward indigenous peoples. However, the rights of indigenous peoples continue without respected, in spite of the space won in terms of social and political organizations, the struggle continues in this constant «search of the land without evil». This paper aims to describe the current situation of indigenous peoples from an analysis of access to public services, economic status, employability, employment discrimination and public policy. It also attempts to explain the factors that have influenced in the lack of consolidation of the indigenous movement in Paraguay.La Constitución Nacional de 1992 reconoce la existencia de pueblos anteriores a la conformación del Estado paraguayo y, en ese sentido, les otorga una serie de derechos que protegen sus territorios, identidad y cultura. Esta declaración de intenciones constituye un quiebre con respecto al modelo anterior de políticas estatales dominantes y excluyentes hacia los pueblos indígenas. No obstante, los derechos de los pueblos indígenas siguen sin respetarse, y a pesar de los espacios ganados en cuanto a organizaciones sociales y políticas, la lucha continúa en esa búsqueda constante de la tierra sin mal. Este trabajo busca describir la situación actual de los pueblos indígenas a partir de un análisis del acceso a los servicios públicos, la situación económica, la empleabilidad, la discriminación laboral y las políticas públicas. Asimismo, intenta explicar los factores que han influido en la escasa consolidación del movimiento indígena en Paraguay.

  12. Genotyping of human parvovirus B19 in clinical samples from Brazil and Paraguay using heteroduplex mobility assay, single-stranded conformation polymorphism and nucleotide sequencing

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    Marcos César Lima de Mendonça

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Heteroduplex mobility assay, single-stranded conformation polymorphism and nucleotide sequencing were utilised to genotype human parvovirus B19 samples from Brazil and Paraguay. Ninety-seven serum samples were collected from individuals presenting with abortion or erythema infectiosum, arthropathies, severe anaemia and transient aplastic crisis; two additional skin samples were collected by biopsy. After the procedure, all clinical samples were classified as genotype 1.

  13. Impacto en la salud pública del sistema de telediagnóstico implementado en Paraguay

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    Pedro Galván

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Objetivo Determinar la viabilidad y puesta en marcha de un sistema de telediagnóstico para dar asistencia sanitaria a poblaciones remotas y dispersas del Paraguay. Métodos El estudio fue realizado en todos los hospitales regionales, generales y principales hospitales distritales de las 18 regiones sanitarias del Paraguay. En el sistema se registraron los datos clínicos y las imágenes tomográficas, ecográficas y trazados electrocardiográficos del paciente que precisaba de un diagnóstico por parte de un médico especialista. Esta información se transmitió a los especialistas en imagenología y en cardiología para su diagnóstico remoto y posterior envío del informe a los hospitales conectados al sistema. Se analizó el costo-beneficio e impacto de la herramienta de telediagnóstico desde la perspectiva del Sistema Nacional de Salud. Resultados Entre enero de 2014 y mayo de 2015 se realizaron 34 096 telediagnósticos distribuidos en 25 hospitales a través del Sistema de Telemedicina del Ministerio de Salud. El costo unitario promedio del diagnóstico remoto fue de USD 2,6 (dólares estadounidenses para electrocardiograma (ECG, tomografía y ecografía, mientras que el costo unitario para el diagnóstico “cara a cara” fue de UDS 11,8 para ECG; USD 68,6 para tomografía y USD 21,5 para ecografía. La reducción del costo mediante el diagnóstico remoto fue de 4,5 veces para ECG; 26,4 veces para tomografía y de 8,3 veces para ecografía. En términos monetarios, la implementación del sistema de telediagnóstico, durante los 16 meses del estudio, significó un ahorro promedio de USD 2 420 037. Conclusión Paraguay cuenta con un sistema de telediagnóstico para electrocardiografía, tomografía y ecografía aplicando las tecnologías de la información y comunicación (TIC de bajo costo, basadas en software libre y escalable a otros tipos de estudios diagnósticos a distancia; de interés para la salud pública. Con una

  14. Espacios nacionales y espacios regionales. Conflictos y concertaciones en las fronteras chaqueñas de Argentina, Bolivia y Paraguay

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    Figallo, Beatriz J.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available From the end of the nineteenth century until the middle of the twentieth, the Gran Chaco was a zone of conflict. Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay exercised varied and competing influences in the region, reflecting the intentions of each nation to incorporate the Chaco forcibly as part of larger projects of industrialisation and colonisation. This study examines the implementation of these projects, as well as the resistance they generated in the face of the violence visited upon the inhabitants of the region, whether indigenous peoples, mestizos, or whites. From an anthropological perspective, the work also reassesses conflicts in the Chaco region as a problem in the history of inter-American relations, where non-governmental actors determine links between people and government. The article goes on to consider the national and regional contexts to conflict, in which frontiers and boundaries are further concepts and realities to be assessed.

    Desde fines del siglo XIX y hasta mediados del XX, el Gran Chaco constituyó, en procesos asimétricos ejercidos por los estados que terminaron dividiéndose su jurisdicción, la Argentina, Bolivia y Paraguay, una región de disputas, que incluyó guerras, militarización de límites, forzada incorporación en los desarrollos industrializadores y colonizadores. Este trabajo busca conocer la ejecución de aquellas políticas y las resistencias generadas, en espacios que fueron tanto de concertaciones, como de conflictos frente al poder y a la violencia ejercida sobre sus pobladores, indios, mestizos y blancos. El objetivo es también contribuir a enriquecer la historia de las relaciones interamericanas, a través de una perspectiva antropológica, en donde actores no estatales configuran vínculos entre pueblos y gobiernos, y asimismo de una mirada que se dirija simultáneamente hacia la consideración de los contextos nacionales y regionales, en donde fronteras y límites son nociones y realidades a

  15. [Cases of acute pesticide poisoning in Colonia Puerto Pirapó, Itapúa, Paraguay, February, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrozo, María Esther; Ocampos, Sandra; Galeano, Rosa; Ojeda, Andrea; Cabello, Agueda; De Assis, Dalva

    2017-06-01

    In Paraguay, pesticides are the causative agent in 13.7% of poisonings, especially organophosphorus compounds. Such poisoning produces the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase generating three possible clinical conditions: acute poisoning, intermediate syndrome or late neurotoxicity. We present 15 cases of acute poisoning, ten women and five men from a rural community between 5 and 67 years of age, whose symptoms began after using water contaminated by pesticides from the community network. The most common symptoms were nausea and vomiting, followed by abdominal pain, headache, fever, itching, red eyes and sweating. Five patients underwent blood tests for blood count, renal and liver function and serum cholinesterase, with results within the reference values; just one patient had high liver enzymes.In two samples from the community water supply network the active compound detected was profenophos. It is essential to train primary health care personnel to identify cases of acute pesticide poisoning in a timely manner to provide appropriate treatment, especially in rural areas. Additionally, it is necessary that responsible institutions monitor compliance with environmental regulations in these areas to avoid such incidents.

  16. Fractionation and potential toxic risk of metals from superficial sediment in Itaipu Lake--boundary between Brazil and Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalwa, Miguel; Quináia, Sueli Pércio; Pletsch, Adelmo L; Techy, Laura; Felsner, Maria Lurdes

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate fractions of metals (labile and pseudo-total) extracted from sediment samples collected in Itaipu Lake (boundary between Brazil and Paraguay) and to assess the dynamics and mobility of these fractions by identifying the same bioavailability and ecological risk to metals in the aquatic environment. The concentrations of metal ions were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. There was a correlation between the metal ions, both in the labile and the pseudo-total, with regard to particle size. To assess metals concentrations in sediment, numerical sediment-quality guidelines were applied. The concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, iron, manganese, lead, and zinc in all sediment samples are lower than the proposed probable effects level (PEL), thus possibly indicating that there are no harmful effects from these metals. In contrast, concentrations of copper, chromium, and nickel exceeded the PEL in some samples, thus indicating that these stations are at potential risk. The level of contamination in sediments of Itaipu Lake for all metals was evaluated using contamination factor, degree of contamination, and sum-of-metals toxic unit.

  17. NUEVAS EXPERIENCIAS DE DESARROLLO DE LAS PRÁCTICAS DE INFORMACIÓN DE LOS DERECHOS HUMANOS EN PARAGUAY

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    Julia Helena Fernández Albertini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available La información es el puntapié inicial del acceso a la Justicia, ambos derechos humanos fundamentales, especialmente para las personas en situación de vulnerabilidad. El proceso democrático latinoamericano ha madurado hacia la formalización de este derecho en leyes nacionales, en diversos instrumentos declarativos, y en jurisprudencia internacional, como ser el caso Claude Reyes y otros vs. Chile en el ámbito del sistema interamericano de protección de los Derechos Humanos. Considerando esto, la Corte Suprema de Justicia de Paraguay, acompaña un  proceso país de cambios estructurales referidos al acceso a la información, un despertar ciudadano y una nueva ley que reglamenta la Carta Magna. Desde el organismo judicial se cuenta con acciones concretas y fundamentales como el Acuerdo y sentencia Nº 1306 y el desarrollo de políticas institucionales de procesamiento de información orientadas a la transparencia, la toma informada de decisiones y por sobre todo, con una mirada distinta, en la que el centro, son las personas.

  18. Salud bucal en nativos Maká de 12 a 15 años, Mariano Roque Alonso, Paraguay

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    Claudia Patricia Burgos Florentín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir el estado de salud bucal en nativos Maká de 12 a 15 años de edad que residen en la ciudad de Mariano Roque Alonso, Paraguay. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional descriptivo de corte transversal en 59 niños de 12 a 15 años, evaluados por medio de la inspección oral y la aplicación de un cuestionario para indagar aspectos relativos a factores de riesgo presentes. Resultados: El Índice CPO-D fue de 10.5, se pudo constatar la ausencia del componente de piezas obturadas. El 94.9% presentó gingivitis leve. Se halló una prevalencia de 30.5% de Fluorosis y lesiones no cariosas en un 11% de la población examinada. Conclusión: los resultados de los índices obtenidos para medir las condiciones bucales se encuentran por encima de la meta establecida por la OMS; demuestrando un importante deterioro en el estado bucal de los niños nativos Maká.

  19. Identification of the sex pheromone of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae from Asunción, Paraguay

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    Caballero Norath

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania (L. infantum (Nicolle, the causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL in the New World. Male Lu. longipalpis have secretory glands which produce sex pheromones in either abdominal tergites 4 or 3 and 4. These glands are sites of sex pheromone production and each pheromone type may represent true sibling species. In Latin America, apart from Lu. pseudolongipalpis Arrivillaga and Feliciangeli from Venezuela, populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. can be identified by their male-produced sex pheromones: (S-9-methylgermacrene-B, 3-methyl-α-himachalene and the two cembrenes, 1 and 2. In this study, we present the results of a coupled gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analysis of the pheromones of males Lu. longipalpis captured in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in Asunción, Paraguay. Our results show that Lu. longipalpis from this site produce (S-9-methylgermacrene-B which has also been found in Lu. longipalpis from different areas of Brazil, Colombia and Central America.

  20. Identification of the sex pheromone of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Asunción, Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazil, Reginaldo P; Caballero, Norath Natalia; Hamilton, James Gordon C

    2009-01-01

    The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania (L.) infantum (Nicolle), the causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in the New World. Male Lu. longipalpis have secretory glands which produce sex pheromones in either abdominal tergites 4 or 3 and 4. These glands are sites of sex pheromone production and each pheromone type may represent true sibling species. In Latin America, apart from Lu. pseudolongipalpis Arrivillaga and Feliciangeli from Venezuela, populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. can be identified by their male-produced sex pheromones: (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B, 3-methyl-α-himachalene and the two cembrenes, 1 and 2. In this study, we present the results of a coupled gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analysis of the pheromones of males Lu. longipalpis captured in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in Asunción, Paraguay. Our results show that Lu. longipalpis from this site produce (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B which has also been found in Lu. longipalpis from different areas of Brazil, Colombia and Central America. PMID:19883505

  1. Identification of the sex pheromone of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Asunción, Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazil, Reginaldo P; Caballero, Norath Natalia; Hamilton, James Gordon C

    2009-11-02

    The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania (L.) infantum (Nicolle), the causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in the New World. Male Lu. longipalpis have secretory glands which produce sex pheromones in either abdominal tergites 4 or 3 and 4. These glands are sites of sex pheromone production and each pheromone type may represent true sibling species. In Latin America, apart from Lu. pseudolongipalpis Arrivillaga and Feliciangeli from Venezuela, populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. can be identified by their male-produced sex pheromones: (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B, 3-methyl-alpha-himachalene and the two cembrenes, 1 and 2.In this study, we present the results of a coupled gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analysis of the pheromones of males Lu. longipalpis captured in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in Asunción, Paraguay. Our results show that Lu. longipalpis from this site produce (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B which has also been found in Lu. longipalpis from different areas of Brazil, Colombia and Central America.

  2. La introducción de la escala de inteligencia de Stanford-Binet en el Paraguay

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    José E. García

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Aunque las primeras estrategias para evaluar la habilidad intelectual encuentran antecedentes milenarios en la antigua China, los intentos de medición en el periodo moderno comienzan con el psicólogo inglés Francis Galton en la década de 1880, mediante la aplicación de medidas fisiológicas para estimar el talento humano. A comienzos del siglo XX, los psicólogos franceses Alfred Binet y Théodore Simon construyeron las primeras escalas métricas para estimar la inteligencia de los niños. Estas fueron modificadas posteriormente en los Estados Unidos por Lewis Terman, quien publicó la revisión más conocida e influyente. En América Latina y otras regiones las adaptaciones locales se dieron en la misma época. En Paraguay, el test Stanford-Binet fue introducido en el decenio de 1920 por el maestro Ramón Indalecio Cardozo. Este no se limitó a una reproducción acrítica, sino que realizó algunas modificaciones para adaptarlo a las condiciones locales y mejorar la confiabilidad cultural de las pruebas. Este artículo estudia la introducción del test Stanford-Binet al contexto general de la educación paraguaya y los ajustes que llevó a cabo Cardozo. Para conseguirlo, se procede a una revisión de fuentes primarias y secundarias, colocando las ideas y los conceptos en el debido contexto histórico. También contribuye a ampliar otros trabajos anteriores centrados en la obra de este autor y en la psicología durante el periodo pre-universitario paraguayo. ABSTRACT: Although the first strategies to evaluate the human intellectual skills find millennial precedents in the ancient China, the attempts of measurement in the modern period began with the English psychologist Francis Galton in the decade of 1880, applying physiological measurements to estimate the human talent. At the beginning of the XXth century, the French psychologists Alfred Binet and Théodore Simon constructed the first metric scales to calculate children

  3. Five different types of thyroid gammagraphics images in patients with Graves's illness dealt with 131I in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jara Yorg, J.A; Ruiz Perez V

    2006-01-01

    Thyroid disease is frequent in Paraguay, a country with a prevalence of goiter 48,6% in general population located in the center of South America. Grave's disease constitutes the most common thyroid hyper function observed whose treatment can be carried out with medication (propilthiouracil, metamizole, etc.), surgery or iodine 131( 131 I). We analyzed 70 patients this type of hyperthyroidism treated with the 131 I, in its clinical aspect pre and post treatment, ultrasound and nuclear scan findings of the gland thyroid, the hormonal respond F4, T3, TSH, thyroid antibodies TPOab, TGab, TRab. Besides the diffuse classic image observed in the thyroid scan and by ultrasonography of the gland, in Grave's disease, 4 types of images were identified with nodules (multi nodular, hot nodule, cold nodule and miliar). The group with diffuse increase in size form was the most numerous (50%) continued by the variety multi nodular (30%), Marin-Lenhart's Sx (hot nodule) 14%, miliar 3%, and cold nodule 3%. Three months after the treatment with the radioiodine was observed the decrease of the size and thyroid volume in 68% of the patients, thyroid uptake with 131 I diminished in 75%. All patients had an increase of weight of 20% and 87% of then were feminine. The signs and symptoms were normalized in 88,5% of the patients. The levels of FT4 were normalized in 73, 8%, T3 in 66%, TSH in 47,7%, TPOab in 83%, TGab in 90%, and TRab in 84%.A received a single dose of 131 I was used it in 93% of the patient. The cost of the 131 I in the Clinic Hospital was half of the cost of the surgery, and at private level the fourth part but cheap (au)

  4. Geoprocesamiento aplicado al analisis del uso de la tierra en el municipio de San Pedro de Ycuamandyyú , Paraguay

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    Oscar Agustín Figueredo Torres

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El municipio de San Pedro de Ycuamandyyú está ubicado en el noroeste de la región oriental del Paraguay. Los objetivos de este trabajo constituyen la elaboración y el análisis del mapa del uso de la tierra para la planificación de actividades forestales en la zona, para los cuales se utilizaron técnicas de cartografía, sensores remotos y (SIG Sistemas de Informaciones Geográficas, que posibilitaron el análisis de informaciones provenientes de imágenes satelitales LANDSAT TM 5, de cartas topográficas y de (GPS Sistema de Posicionamiento Global, que permitió el procesamiento de datos en el programa Idrisi 2.0 para la confección de un mapa que posibilitó el análisis sobre la situación del uso de la tierra en el municipio. Se distinguió categorías predominantes como praderas altas o campos naturales, uso agropecuario y praderas bajas o bañados, siendo la cobertura forestal con valor inferior al 25%. Se concluyó que el municipio presenta bastantes áreas de campos naturales y uso agropecuario que podrían utilizarse para actividades de reforestación, sea con especies nativas o exóticas de rápido crecimiento con la finalidad de obtener valores de cobertura forestal en equilibrio con las demás categorías de uso de la tierra.

  5. Geoprocesamiento aplicado al analisis del uso de la tierra en el municipio de San Pedro de Ycuamandyyú, Paraguay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Agustín Torres Figueredo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El municipio de San Pedro de Ycuamandyyú está ubicado en el noroeste de la región oriental del Paraguay. Los objetivos de este trabajo constituyen la elaboración y el análisis del mapa del uso de la tierra para la planificación de actividades forestales en la zona, para los cuales se utilizaron técnicas de cartografía, sensores remotos y (SIG Sistemas de Informaciones Geográficas, que posibilitaron el análisis de informaciones provenientes de imágenes satelitales LANDSAT TM 5, de cartas topográficas y de (GPS Sistema de Posicionamiento Global, que permitió el procesamiento de datos en el programa Idrisi 2.0 para la confección de un mapa que posibilitó el análisis sobre la situación del uso de la tierra en el municipio. Se distinguió categorías predominantes como praderas altas o campos naturales, uso agropecuario y praderas bajas o bañados, siendo la cobertura forestal con valor inferior al 25%. Se concluyó que el municipio presenta bastantes áreas de campos naturales y uso agropecuario que podrían utilizarse para actividades de reforestación, sea con especies nativas o exóticas de rápido crecimiento con la finalidad de obtener valores de cobertura forestal en equilibrio con las demás categorías de uso de la tierra.

  6. A new distribution range of Ateles chamek (Humboldt 1812) in an ecotone of three biomes in the Paraguay River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos-Filho, Manoel; Bernardo, Christine Steiner São; Van der Laan Barbosa, Henry Willian; Gusmão, Almério Câmara; Jerusalinsky, Leandro; Canale, Gustavo Rodrigues

    2017-07-01

    Historical records of Ateles chamek (black-faced black spider monkey) suggest that the species range extends further south of the known species distribution, within an ecotonal region between the Amazonia, Cerrado and Pantanal biomes in Brazil. Ecotones are zones of habitat transition with high species richness that remain undersampled as conservationists often prioritize biodiversity hotspots. Thus, distribution ranges may be inaccurately measured when species occur in ecotonal zones. We report the first precise records of A. chamek in 24 new localities surveyed in the ecotonal zone of the Upper Paraguay River Basin, and we present subgroup encounter rates in the 11 largest patches (>70 ha) along 207 km of the line transects surveyed. The new records represent an expansion of the distribution of A. chamek approximately 200 km to the south, increasing the known extent of its occurrence by 10.8%. Local tributaries may not be barriers for spider monkeys, which are able to swim and cross slow-moving rivers. However, the dry forests of the Cerrado and the flooded areas of the Pantanal, formed by grassland and scarce trees, may be habitat barriers for A. chamek. The populations living in this ecotonal zone are relatively abundant (1.1-6.67 subgroup sightings/10 km) compared to the heavily hunted continuous forests of northern Amazonia. Furthermore, these values are similar to those for other Ateles spp. inhabiting forests with low or no hunting pressure. We highlight the need for specific conservation action to protect the spider monkeys living in these landscapes, which are threatened by agriculture expansion.

  7. Search for constituents with neurotrophic factor-potentiating activity from the medicinal plants of paraguay and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yushan; Ohizumi, Yasushi

    2004-07-01

    20 medicinal plants of Paraguay and 3 medicinal plants of Thailand were examined on nerve growth factor (NGF)-potentiating activities in PC12D cells. The trail results demonstrated that the methanol extracts of four plants, Verbena littoralis, Scoparia dulcis, Artemisia absinthium and Garcinia xanthochymus, markedly enhanced the neurite outgrowth induced by NGF from PC12D cells. Furthermore, utilizing the bioactivity-guided separation we successfully isolated 32, 4 and 5 constituents from V. littoralis, S. dulcis and G. xanthochymus, respectively, including nine iridoid and iridoid glucosides (1-9), two dihydrochalcone dimers (10 and 11), two flavonoids and three flavonoid glycosides (12-16), two sterols (17 and 18), ten triterpenoids (19-28), five xanthones (29-33), one naphthoquinone (34), one benzenepropanamide (35), four phenylethanoid glycosides (36-39) and two other compounds (40 and 41). Among which, 15 compounds (1-4, 10-11, 14-18, 29-31 and 34) were new natural products. The results of pharmacological trails verified that littoralisone (1), gelsemiol (5), 7a-hydroxysemperoside aglucone (6), verbenachalcone (10), littorachalcone (11), stigmast-5-ene 3beta,7alpha,22alpha-triol (18), ursolic acid (19), 3beta-hydroxyurs-11-en-28,13beta-olide (24), oleanolic acid (25), 2alpha,3beta-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (26), 1,4,5,6-tetrahydroxy-7,8-di(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone (29), 1,2,6-trihydroxy-5-methoxy-7-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone (30), 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxy-4,7,8-tri(3-methyl-2-butenyl)xanthone (31), 12b-hydroxy-des-D-garcigerrin A (32), garciniaxanthone E (33) and (4R)-4,9-dihydroxy-8-methoxy-alpha-lapachone (34) elicited marked enhancement of NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12D cells. These substances may contribute to the basic study and the medicinal development for the neurodegenerative disorder.

  8. GEOPROCESAMIENTO APLICADO AL ANALISIS DEL USO DE LA TIERRA EN EL MUNICIPIO DE SAN PEDRO DE YCUAMANDYYÚ, PARAGUAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Agustín Torres Figueredo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available El municipio de San Pedro de Ycuamandyyú está ubicado en el noroeste de la región oriental del Paraguay. Los objetivos de este trabajo constituyen la elaboración y el análisis del mapa del uso de la tierra para la planificación de actividades forestales en la zona, para los cuales se utilizaron técnicas de cartografía, sensores remotos y (SIG Sistemas de Informaciones Geográficas, que posibilitaron el análisis de informaciones provenientes de imágenes satelitales LANDSAT TM 5, de cartas topográficas y de (GPS Sistema de Posicionamiento Global, que permitió el procesamiento de datos en el programa Idrisi 2.0 para la confección de un mapa que posibilitó el análisis sobre la situación del uso de la tierra en el municipio. Se distinguió categorías predominantes como praderas altas o campos naturales, uso agropecuario y praderas bajas o bañados, siendo la cobertura forestal con valor inferior al 25%. Se concluyó que el municipio presenta bastantes áreas de campos naturales y uso agropecuario que podrían utilizarse para actividades de reforestación, sea con especies nativas o exóticas de rápido crecimiento con la finalidad de obtener valores de cobertura forestal en equilibrio con las demás categorías de uso de la tierra.

  9. Anemia y deficiencia de hierro en mujeres en edad reproductiva usuarias del Hospital Regional de Villa Hayes, Paraguay

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    Jessica Riveros

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available La anemia es un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. En Paraguay, existen datos limitados sobre la frecuencia de anemia en mujeres en edad reproductiva no gestantes. Este estudio piloto descriptivo de corte transverso tuvo como objetivo determinar la frecuencia de anemia y deficiencia de hierro, el estado nutricional, hábitos alimentarios y tóxicos en 99 mujeres no gestantes en edad reproductiva de 18 a 48 años que acudieron al Hospital Regional de Villa Hayes en Octubre del 2.014. La anemia se determinó tomando como punto de corte una concentración de hemoglobina <12 g/dL. La deficiencia de hierro se evaluó según la saturación de la transferrina. Además, se evaluó el índice de masa corporal (IMC y los hábitos nutricionales a través de una encuesta. La frecuencia de anemia fue de 15,1% (IC95% 8,7-23,8%, de éste el 33,3% (IC95% 12,8-61,6% correspondió a anemia ferropénica. Se observó asociación entre la presencia de anemia y los niveles disminuidos tanto del hematocrito (<38% como del número de glóbulos rojos (<4,2x 106/uL. Todas las mujeres con anemia ferropénica tenían peso <64 kg e IMC <24,5 kg/m2. Además, se detectó una alta frecuencia de sobrepeso y obesidad (45,4%, alto consumo de grasas, y bajo consumo de legumbres, frutas y verduras. A partir de estos resultados, se sugiere mantener la vigilancia e implementar programas que incluyan a estas mujeres, tanto para evitar deficiencias nutricionales como excesos.

  10. Análisis de los factores que han llevado a la perdida de la legitimidad de los partidos tradicionales en Colombia y paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Borda Herrera, Santiago Enrique

    2008-01-01

    La deslegitimación de los partidos políticos tradicionales en Colombia y Paraguay constituye un viaje de teorías y percepciones alrededor de la corresponsabilidad de la representación política que recae sobre electores y elegidos. A través de un estudio de la historia política y de los partidos en dos sistemas aparentemente distintos como lo son el sistema consociacional colombiano del frente nacional y el bipartidismo paraguayo durante la dictadura de Strossner se evidencia un desgaste inst...

  11. Coopetición en un destino turístico de frontera entre Argentina, Brasil y Paraguay: el caso Poloiguassu

    OpenAIRE

    Chim-Miki, Adriana Fumi; Batista-Canino, Rosa María; Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria; Medina-Brito, Pino; Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es analizar el comportamiento de los participantes de la red de coopetición formada alrededor del Instituto PoloIguassu bajo la perspectiva de la cooperar por un beneficio común. Esta red es un eje que considera la existencia de recursos compartidos para el desarrollo sostenible de la región fronteriza entre Argentina, Brasil y Paraguay. La investigación es cualitativa, desarrolla un estudio de caso que utiliza técnicas de análisis de contenido de informes oficial...

  12. In Paraguay, both IUDs and contraceptive pills come with "strings attached" En Paraguay, la provisión de dispositivos intrauterinos y de píldoras anticonceptivas está sujeta a demasiadas condiciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn S. Chin-Quee

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Según informes anecdóticos, la provisión de servicios de planificación familiar y salud reproductiva en América Latina se ve gravemente obstaculizada por el hecho de que los proveedores de dichos servicios hacen caso omiso de las pautas establecidas para los servicios de planificación familiar. En este estudio, que se llevó a cabo en Paraguay entre 1998 y 2000, se evaluó en qué medida los proveedores de servicios observaban las pautas revisadas y posteriormente publicadas y diseminadas. Los investigadores encontraron indicios de que las nuevas pautas no se observaban en el contexto de la atención continuada de mujeres que usaban dispositivos intrauterinos (DIU o anticonceptivos orales. Contrario a lo que dichas pautas recomiendan, los proveedores de servicios imponían condiciones, haciendo, por ejemplo, que las usuarias de DIU regresaran a la clínica hasta cinco veces durante el primer año después de la colocación del dispositivo. Las usuarias de anticonceptivos orales también enfrentaron obstáculos, entre ellos el de verse limitadas a no más de dos ciclos de pastillas cada vez, aunque las usaran con regularidad. Según estos resultados, las exigencias que rodean a la provisión y al seguimiento no fomentan, sino que desalientan el uso continuado de DIU y de anticonceptivos orales y podrían llevar a la suspensión de estos métodos por temor a que el DIU no sea seguro y estable o por la incomodidad de tener que volver a la clínica varias veces a recoger las pastillas. Los ministerios de salud en América Latina deben redoblar sus esfuerzos por educar a los proveedores de servicios de planificación familiar en cuanto al contenido y la razón fundamental de las recomendaciones vinculadas con las pautas nacionales. Asimismo, siempre que se disponga de los resultados de investigaciones, estos se deben presentar a los proveedores de servicios para reforzar ante ellos la credibilidad de las recomendaciones y demostrarles que las

  13. [The odysseys of Ulysses. A study of tales in a normal working day of the family doctor in Paraguay, Mexico, Peru, and Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez-Montiel, Brenda Beatriz; Gutiérrez-Islas, Elizabeth; Bolaños-Maldonado, Margarita; Samarín, Elena; Turabián, José Luis

    2014-02-01

    To examine the professional profile of the family doctor in different countries and the social welfare context where their work is carried out. Qualitative Methodology of production of field diaries of a normal day. Primary Heath Care of Toledo and Tenerife in Spain, and Paraguay, Mexico, and Peru. Non-random sampling, intentional, followed by snowball sample until data saturation. Participants wrote a diary of a typical day's work, their circumstances and socio-health context, and were studied by content analysis. Techniques to control the biases were used the check the participants and the triangulation between the obtained results and the existing bibliography, and data found on the Internet daily. We performed a mental map to transcribe the results graphically and in a comprehensive form. A total of 24 diaries of a normal day were obtained (9 doctors in Spain, 7 in Mexico, 4 in Paraguay, and 4 in Peru). We found some similarities, but many differences between countries. In contexts of humble but spirited, rural, with traditional roots and undemanding, there was a wider range of tasks of the family doctor, the coexistence of public and private work, and modern and traditional medicine, with greater presence of family and community care, more physician satisfaction and better patient-physician relationship. The professional profile of the family doctor is diverse and a context-dependent variable, and is not derived directly from external theory of family medicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Situación económica y militar de Argentina entre 1852 y el inicio de la guerra del Paraguay

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    Sergio Fernando Sánchez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El texto en general aborda el análisis de la situación financiera, económica y militar entre 1852 y el inicio de la guerra del Paraguay. Del análisis resulta una situación desfavorable para la participación de Argentina en la guerra. Hipótesis que se valida a partir del análisis de los principales eventos financieros y militares que caracterizaron al período objeto de estudio. La argumentación comienza con una breve presentación del Estado de Buenos Aires, continúa con la identificación de la deuda que generaron y trasladaron el gobierno nacional en 1862. Evalúa los alcances del pacto fiscal constitucional de 1853, la reforma constitucional de 1860, y la situación económica respecto de las cuentas nacionales a partir de 1862. Finalmente, expone la situación militar, desde Pavón hasta la organización del Ejército Nacional de Campaña que se empeñó en el teatro de operaciones del Paraguay.

  15. Trypanosoma cruzi Lineages Detected in Congenitally Infected Infants and Triatoma infestans from the Same Disease-Endemic Region under Entomologic Surveillance in Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Puerto, Florencia; Sánchez, Zunilda; Nara, Eva; Meza, Graciela; Paredes, Berta; Ferreira, Elizabeth; Russomando, Graciela

    2010-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi II is associated with Chagas disease in the southern part of South America. We analyzed T. cruzi variants in field-collected triatomines and congenitally infected infants living in the same disease-endemic region in Paraguay. Results of polymerase chain reactions for T. cruzi kinetoplast DNA and satellite DNA were positive in 83 triatomine feces samples and 58 infant blood samples. However, lineages were detected in 33 and 38 samples, respectively. Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes were determined in 56 (97%) blood samples after hybridization by using specific probes. The Tc I genotype was not detected. The prevalent sublineage was Tc IId in triatomines (27 of 33) and infant blood (36 of 58) as assessed by amplification of the 24Sα ribosomal RNA and the mini-exon region genes. The Tc IIc genotype was detected in 20 infant blood samples and in 1 triatomine. This study shows T. cruzi II is the predominant lineage circulating in triatomines and humans in endemic areas of eastern region of Paraguay. PMID:20207861

  16. Trypanosoma cruzi lineages detected in congenitally infected infants and Triatoma infestans from the same disease-endemic region under entomologic surveillance in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Puerto, Florencia; Sánchez, Zunilda; Nara, Eva; Meza, Graciela; Paredes, Berta; Ferreira, Elizabeth; Russomando, Graciela

    2010-03-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi II is associated with Chagas disease in the southern part of South America. We analyzed T. cruzi variants in field-collected triatomines and congenitally infected infants living in the same disease-endemic region in Paraguay. Results of polymerase chain reactions for T. cruzi kinetoplast DNA and satellite DNA were positive in 83 triatomine feces samples and 58 infant blood samples. However, lineages were detected in 33 and 38 samples, respectively. Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes were determined in 56 (97%) blood samples after hybridization by using specific probes. The Tc I genotype was not detected. The prevalent sublineage was Tc IId in triatomines (27 of 33) and infant blood (36 of 58) as assessed by amplification of the 24Salpha ribosomal RNA and the mini-exon region genes. The Tc IIc genotype was detected in 20 infant blood samples and in 1 triatomine. This study shows T. cruzi II is the predominant lineage circulating in triatomines and humans in endemic areas of eastern region of Paraguay.

  17. Erosion rates and landscape evolution of the lowlands of the Upper Paraguay river basin (Brazil) from cosmogenic 10Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupim, Fabiano do Nascimento; Bierman, Paul R.; Assine, Mario Luis; Rood, Dylan H.; Silva, Aguinaldo; Merino, Eder Renato

    2015-04-01

    The importance of Earth's low sloping areas in regard to global erosion and sediment fluxes has been widely and vigorously debated. It is a crucial area of research to elucidate geologically meaningful rates of land-surface change and thus the speed of element cycling on Earth. However, there are large portions of Earth where erosion rates have not been well or extensively measured, for example, the tropical lowlands. The Cuiabana lowlands are an extensive low-altitude and low-relief dissected metamorphic terrain situated in the Upper Paraguay river basin, central-west Brazil. Besides exposures of highly variable dissected metamorphic rocks, flat residual lateritic caps related to a Late Cenozoic planation surface dominate interfluves of the Cuiabana lowlands. The timescale over which the lowlands evolved and the planation surface developed, and the rate at which they have been modified by erosion, are poorly known. Here, we present measurements of in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be in outcropping metamorphic bedrock and clastic-lateritic caps to quantify rates of erosion of the surface and associated landforms in order to better understand the Quaternary landscape evolution of these lowlands. Overall, slow erosion rates (mean 10 m/Ma) suggest a stable tectonic environment in these lowlands. Erosion rates vary widely between different lithologies (range 0.57 to 28.3 m/Ma) consistent with differential erosion driving regional landform evolution. The lowest erosion rates are associated with the low-relief area (irregular plains), where clastic-laterite (mean 0.67 m/Ma) and quartzite (mean 2.6 m/Ma) crop out, whereas the highest erosion rates are associated with dissection of residual hills, dominated by metasandstone (mean 11.6 m/Ma) and phyllite (mean 27.6 m/Ma). These data imply that the Cuiabana lowland is comprised of two dominant landform sets with distinct and different dynamics. Because the planation surface (mostly lowlands) is lowering and losing mass more

  18. Prevalencia de factores de riesgo cardiovascular en una población adulta ambulatoria urbana: estudio AsuRiesgo, Paraguay

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    Graciela Chaves

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Las enfermedades cardiovasculares son la principal causa de mortalidad en el mundo. Aunque la mayoría son prevenibles, su prevalencia sigue aumentando. El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar la prevalencia de factores de riesgo cardiovascular en una población hospitalaria ambulatoria urbana y adulta de Asunción, Paraguay. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un análisis transversal de todos los pacientes incluidos en el estudio prospectivo de prevención cardiovascular AsuRiesgo dirigido al cambio del estilo de vida a un estilo de vida saludable. Se invitó a participar a personas de 18 y más años de edad que se encontraban en las zonas de espera de consultorios de un hospital terciario. Se obtvuvo información anamnésica, antropométrica y de laboratorio. Resultados: Se incluyeron 18 287 pacientes de 51 ± 16 años de edad, de los cuales 67,5% fueron mujeres. La media de peso corporal fue 77,5 ± 16,2 kg y el índice de masa corporal, 29,7 ± 5,9 kg/m². Las prevalencias de antecedentes de infarto de miocardio, accidente vascular cerebral, diabetes mellitus e hipertensión fueron, respectivamente, 2,6, 3, 13,3 y 53%, y las del hábito de fumar, dieta no saludable, sedentarismo y estrés psicológico, 29,3, 41,2, 58,2 y 56,6%. Por último, la prevalencia global de obesidad y sobrepeso fue 79,6%, las de prehipertensión e hipertensión arterial sistémica, 39 y 25%, respectivamente, y la del síndrome metabólico, 34,7%. CONCLUSIONES: Si bien las prevalencias del hábito de fumar, hipertensión arterial sistémica y diabetes mellitus fueron bajas, las de obesidad, sedentarismo, estrés psicológico, dieta no saludable y síndrome metabólico fueron muy elevadas, lo cual justifica una acción global para prevenir discapacidades o fallecimientos por enfermedad isquémica cardiaca o cerebral. La implementación urgente de los programas con estos fines a escala nacional es imperativa.

  19. ANÁLISIS BACTERIOLÓGICO DE BILLETES CIRCULANTES EN LA UNIVERSIDAD DEL PACÍFICO PARAGUAY. 2013

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    Nathalia Aguilera –Benítez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los billetes de algodón poseen una estructura porosa que le permite alojar diferentes tipos de detritus y que posibilitaría la colonización microbiana de dicho papel. Objetivos: Describir la presencia y tipo de contaminación bacteriana en dos variedades de billetes circulantes en Paraguay, en el año 2013. Materiales y métodos: Se recolectaron 50 billetes de cinco mil guaraníes (25 de polímero y 25 de algodón proveídos por estudiantes mediante un muestreo por conveniencia. El análisis consistió en el aislamiento bacteriológico presente en superficies de billetes. Fueron sumergidos e incubados a 37° durante 24 hs. en caldo de infusión cerebro corazón (BHI y posteriormente sembrados en placas de agar Sangre y MacConkey. Finalmente se procedió a la tipificación de los aislamientos obtenidos. Resultados: El 74%(37/50 de los billetes evaluados presentaron contaminación bacteriana; las frecuencias fueron del 100%(25/25 y 48%(12/25 respectivamente para los de algo­dón y polímero. En el primer grupo se aislaron con mayor frecuencia bacterias de la familia Enterobacteriaceae en el 61%(17/28 y del género Staphylococcus spp. en el 39%(11/28. En el segundo grupo se aislaron Staphylococcus spp. en el 44%(11/25 y Escherichia coli en 4 %(1/25. Conclusión: El estudio ha permitido evidenciar que los billetes contribuyen a la proliferación y transmisión de microorganismos al ser humano, pudiendo causar daños a la salud según estado inmunológico de la persona. Se evidenció que billetes de algodón presentan mayor frecuencia y variabilidad de contaminación por bacterias. Palabras Clave: Microbiología, Dinero, Bacterias, aislamiento & purificación.

  20. Systematic revision of the Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle, 1841 species complex in the Paraná-Paraguay basin, with description of two new ocellated species (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes: Potamotrygonidae

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    Thiago Silva Loboda

    Full Text Available A systematic revision of the Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle, 1841 species complex in the Paraná-Paraguay basin based on morphological characters was undertaken. Morphological systems analyzed include external morphology, coloration, dermal denticles, and spines, canals of the ventral lateral-line system, and skeletal components. Potamotrygon motoro is widely distributed in the Paraná-Paraguay basin and some of its diagnostic characters are: ocelli present on dorsal disc tricolored, well-defined and evenly distributed, with diameter similar or greater than eye-length; ventral coloration with relatively large whitish central region, with gray or brown area predominant on outer ventral disc margins; dermal denticles well-developed and star-shaped over central disc; labial grooves absent; monognathic heterodonty present in upper and lower jaws of adults. Potamotrygon pauckei Castex, 1963 and Potamotrygon labradori Castex, Maciel & Achenbach, 1963, are synonymized with P. motoro; Potamotrygon alba Castex, 1963, is a nomen dubium in accordance with previous authors. Additionally, two new ocellated species of Potamotrygon from the Paraná-Paraguay basin are described: Potamotrygon pantanensis, sp. nov. and Potamotrygon amandae, sp. nov. These are described and compared with P. motoro and other congeners. Potamotrygon pantanensis, sp. nov. is described from the northern Pantanal region; Potamotrygon amandae, sp. nov. is widespread in the Paraná-Paraguay basin.

  1. Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 17 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, and…

  2. The quality of democracy in Paraguay: progress on winding roads La calidad de la democracia paraguaya: un avance sobre caminos tortuosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel BARREDA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of growing concern for analyzing the quality of young democracies, this article focuses on the Paraguayan case. A democracy sometimes neglected by the academic literature. However, Paraguay is drawing attention as a consequence of Colorado’s Party defeat (in office since 1947 in the 2008 presidential election. A theoretical and methodological thinking about the concept of the quality of democracy together with an empirical research have been done in this article. Five essential dimensions have been taken into consideration: political rights and civil liberties; rule of law; accountability; responsiveness and political participation. The main conclusion is that Paraguay has a low quality democracy, far away from the rest of Latin American countries. This statement is backed up by three different explanations that are, at the same time, interlinked. These are the following: socioeconomic factors, features of its own political institutions (above all, the widespread clientelism and, finally, political parties’ interests and strategies.En el marco de una preocupación cada vez mayor por analizar la calidad de las nuevas democracias, este artículo se ocupa de examinar el caso de Paraguay. Se trata de una democracia poco atendida en la literatura especializada aunque su interés está creciendo como consecuencia de la derrota electoral del Partido Colorado (en el poder desde 1947 en las presidenciales de abril de 2008. Para llevar a cabo este trabajo, se parte de una reflexión teórica y metodológica en torno a la noción y la medición empírica de la calidad democrática. Al realizar el análisis de la democracia paraguaya se atiende a cinco dimensiones fundamentales: derechos políticos y libertades civiles, Estado de Derecho, rendición de cuentas, responsiveness y participación. La conclusión general es que es una democracia de baja calidad, distanciada del promedio latinoamericano. Para explicar este bajo nivel de

  3. FROM TRADITIONAL PRACTICES TO REDUCTION PRACTICES: RITUALS OF HEALING, GRIEF AND BURIAL AT THE JESUIT-GUARANI REDUCTIONS (JESUIT PROVINCE OF PARAGUAY, 17TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Cristina Deckmann Fleck

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to evince and analyze the impact of the Christian conceptions of sickness and death on the Guarani indian sensibility and its translation in terms of representations and social practices in the Jesuitical reductions. The analysis of the records made by the missionaries, especially the Cartas Ânuas of the Jesuitical Province of Paraguay regarding the period from 1609 to 1675, revealed that, on the one hand, the Guarani kept traditional practices of their religious sensibility – as is evinced in the resignification of the "copious crying" and the funereal laments –, and, on the other hand, that the missionaries, besides incorporating the native pharmacopoeia and many of the indian healing practices, skillfully manipulated the cures and the "bien morir", a strategy that was fundamental to the success of the civilization-conversion project of the Companhia de Jesus alongside the Guarani.

  4. Guerra y finanzas en la Argentina unificada, 1864-1872: la guerra del Paraguay y la misión De la Riestra en Londres

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    Juan Carlos Garavaglia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio analiza uno de los aspectos de la cuestión financiera ar - gentina ligada a la Guerra del Paraguay (1865/1870: la misión que se encarga a Norberto de la Riestra para lanzar en Londres un empréstito de 2.500.000£ a los efectos de financiar parcialmente los gastos que insumi - ría el conflicto. Este hecho puntual nos permite abrir una ventana hacia varias cuestiones estrechamente relacionadas: la deuda externa e interna de la Argentina, las formas de financiamiento de esas deudas y los nexos con los altibajos de la economía mundial en las puertas de la gran crisis desatada de 1873/1876.

  5. Tourism as Regional Integrator in the Tri-Cities of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil, Ciudad del Este (Paraguay and Puerto Iguazú (Argentina

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    Edson Belo Clemente de Souza

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the territorial dynamics generated by tourism in the tri-cities of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil, Ciudad del Este (Paraguay and Puerto Iguazú (Argentina. This dynamic, generated by the number of visitors, can be seen in the four main tourist sites: the Iguaçu National Park (Brazil, the Iguazu National Park (Argentina the Itaipú Binacional Hydroelectric Power Plant and the Jesuit Ruins. Tourism has been an integration factor between these three cities, which form a transborder region; nevertheless, Foz do Iguaçu plays a central role for the services it offers and the number of existing objects.

  6. Mind the gap between high school and university! A field qualitative survey at the National University of Caaguazú (Paraguay

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    Siri A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Anna Siri,1,2  Nicola Luigi Bragazzi,1–3 Hicham Khabbache,4 María Maddalena Spandonari,5 Luis Alberto Cáceres,5 1Department of Mathematics (DIMA, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy; 2UNESCO CHAIR “Anthropology of Health – Biosphere and Healing System”, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy; 3Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy; 4Faculty of Literature and Humanistic Studies, Sais, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Fez, Morocco; 5Administrative Direction, Universidad Nacional de Caaguazú, Coronel Oviedo, Paraguay Abstract: Paraguay has eight public universities and 45 private universities. The National University of Caaguazú (Universidad Nacional de Caaguazú or UNCA, with its main campus located in Coronel Oviedo, is one of the most recently founded public universities, being established in 2007. The UNCA has launched a project aiming at exploring the potentiality of its educational system, as well as its gaps. In particular, the UNCA wants to assess the effectiveness of preparatory courses for preparing students for admission to the degree course in medicine (Cursos Probatorios de Ingreso or CPI, in order to identify the main strong and weak points of the system, the popularity and usefulness of CPI as perceived by the students, the students’ and teachers’ opinions regarding the limits of school, and their suggestions. This paper is based on a field survey and highlights the care that must be taken in order to develop conditions respectful of the wellbeing of those participating in the educational context. Keywords: university students, school-university transition, social inclusion, drop-out, preparatory courses

  7. Etapas del modelo conductual de los estilos de vida propuestos por las guías alimentarias del Paraguay en adultos

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    Macarena Morínigo Martínez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Las etapas del modelo conductual de las personas describen el cumplimiento o no de las recomendaciones para una vida sana. Por ello, se planteó una investigación observacional descriptiva cuyo objetivo fue evaluar las etapas del modelo conductual de los estilos de vida propuestos por las Guías Alimentarias del Paraguay en adultos que residen en el barrio Salvador del Mundo de Asunción. Las variables de interés fueron las etapas de cambio, medidas a partir del modelo de Prochaska, para el consumo de sal, ingesta de bebidas alcohólicas, actividad física y manipulación de alimentos, tres de ellas están relacionadas al no cumplimiento y dos al cumplimiento de las recomendaciones. El 92,9% (91/98 de los adultos no cumple con las recomendaciones de actividad física y el 71,4% (70/98 con las recomendaciones de consumo de sal. El 46,9% (46/98 cumple con la recomendación para el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas, aunque el 74,5% (73/98 refirió su consumo. Ningún encuestado cumple con las recomendaciones de lavado y manipulación de alimentos. Es preocupante el alto porcentaje de adultos que no cumple las recomendaciones, agravado por la no intención de cambio. Por lo tanto, se puede concluir que el objetivo inicial de las guías alimentarias del Paraguay de orientar a la población sobre los estilos de vida adecuados no se cumple. Debido a esto, se debe promover la revisión del medio de implementación de las mismas para alcanzar a un sector mayor de la población, y así lograr la adopción de mejores estilos de vida.

  8. Mantle xenoliths from Nemby, Eastern Paraguay: O-Sr-Nd isotopes and trace elements of hosted clinopyroxenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comin-Chiaramonti, P; Antonini, P; Girardi, V.A.V; Gomes, C.B; Laurora, S; Zanetti, A

    2001-01-01

    The Nemby spinel peridotites (Asuncion- Sapucai-Villarrica Graben, Central Eastern Paraguay) are variable in major element compositions, ranging from relatively 'fertile' to very depleted in basaltic component. Some of the xenoliths have exceeding high K 2 O (HK suite, distinct from the low K 2 O, LK-suite) and incompatible element (IE) contents compared with the composition of lherzolites which underwent partial melting during 'basalt-extraction'. The IE contents of clinopyroxenes encompass world-wide occurrences. This suggests that processes, other than depletion, occurred. Demarchi et al. (1988) have shown that K is mostly partitioned into glassy patches (blebs) in the xenoliths and glassy drops in clinopyroxenes. The blebs have been interpreted as derived from the breakdown of volatile-bearing wet phases, such as amphibole and/or phlogopite, which melted during ascent to the surface; the glassy drops in clinopyroxenes are generally interpreted as products of incongruent partial melting induced by decompression (Comin- Chiaramonti et al., 1986). Both probably represent the remnants of hydrous phases such as micas and/or amphiboles, and/or products induced by the influx of small-volume, volatile-rich melts (Petrini et al., 1994). In summary, most of the major element chemistry of the Nemby xenoliths (except for K 2 O and to a lesser extent for Na 2 O) are consistent with residual compositions after variable degrees of partial melting and metasomatic effects shown by alkali and IE enrichments in both whole rock and in clinopyroxene. Clinopyroxenes display variable REE enrichments, more evident in those crystals characterized by spongy texture and abundance of glassy drops. A possible explanation for the progressive enrichment of samples characterized by similar HREE and different LREE abundances is different ion-exchange processes (cf. 'simple mixing metasomatism model' of Song and Frey, 1989; Sen et al., 1993) due to the passage of LREE-rich chemical front on

  9. ¿De qué se ríe el pueblo? La crisis del régimen stronista en las caricaturas del semanario del partido revolucionario febrerista en Paraguay (1984-1987

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    Lorena Marina Soler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza el humor gráfico del semanario El Pueblo del Partido Revolucio-nario Febrerista en Paraguay en los tramos fina-les del régimen stronista (1984-1987 y, especí-ficamente, el papel que jugaron las ilustraciones y caricaturas como espacio de subversión al orden político. Propone como hipótesis que el fenómeno editorial del semanario se debió al encuentro de una mirada renovadora de un dibujante extranjero que en un horizonte de apertura democrática hizo que los nuevos sec-tores medios y urbanos de Asunción encontra-ran en el humor y la risa la manera de escapar de la opacidad conservadora impuesta por el stronismo.Palabras clave: Paraguay, dictadura, Stroessner, resistencia, humor gráfico.___________________Abstract: The articule analyces the graphic hu-mor of El Pueblo weekly written by “Partido Revolucionario Febrerista” in Paraguay towards the end of the Stroessner regime (1984/1987 and, specifically, the role played by the art-works and cartoons as a place for political sub-version. It also proposes as hypotheses that the publishing phenomenon of the weekly was due to the meeting of a renewed look of a foreign artist in a horizon of democratic opening that made Asunción´s new urban-middle class found humor andlaugh as a way to escape from the conservative opacity imposed by the stronismo.Keywords: Paraguay, dictartorship, Stroessner, resistance, graphic humor.

  10. Actitudes lingüísticas en Paraguay. Identidad lingüística de los hablantes de lengua materna castellana en Asunción

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    Ana Beatriz Chiquito

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo analiza las actitudes lingüísticas de hablantes nativos de español de la Ciudad de Asunción, hacia el español del Paraguay y el de los otros países hispanohablantes. El artículo hace parte de los resultados del Proyecto LIAS (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, financiado por El Consejo Noruego de Investigación (RCN. La recolección de los datos se realizó en la capital del país, entrevistando a una muestra de 400 informantes estratificada con las variables de edad, sexo y nivel socioeconómico. El artículo resalta la particularidad del bilingüismo del país y la situación de diglosia entre el guaraní y el castellano; el mayor prestigio del castellano de Asunción frente al habla de las ciudades fronterizas con Brasil y Argentina, en las cuales se hablan el portugués brasileño, el guaraní y el español argentino, además del español paraguayo. Los resultados del estudio confirman el prestigio del castellano, cuyo papel oficial se mantiene, a pesar del creciente prestigio del guaraní, impulsado por las nuevas leyes de educación bilingüe y el establecimiento de la Academia de la Lengua Guaraní. Abstract This article analyzes the linguistic attitudes of native Spanish speakers of Asunción, towards Spanish spoken in Paraguay and in the other Spanish-speaking countries. It is a result of the LIAS-Project (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, funded by The Research Council of Norway (RCN. The data were gathered in the capital of the country, interviewing a stratified sample of 400 respondents, based on the variables of age, sex and socioeconomic status. The article highlights the special situation of bilingualism in the country and the diglosic relationship between Guarani and Spanish; the higher prestige of the Spanish variety spoken in Asunción, compared to the ones spoken in the Paraguayan cities on the border with Brazil and Argentina

  11. Destino del nitrógeno aplicado en un cultivo de sésamo (Sesamum indicum L. en un suelo degradado de Paraguay: Fate of nitrogen applied to a sesame crop (Sesamum indicum L. in a degraded soil of Paraguay

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    Alba Liz González

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available En Paraguay el cultivo de sésamo (Sesamum indicum L. es cada vez menos productivo debido a la degradación de la fertilidad de los suelos. La fertilización nitrogenada eleva los rendimientos en suelos pobres en este nutriente, pero su eficiencia aún no es bien conocida. En el estudio se utilizó la técnica isotópica para determinar el destino del N aplicado a un cultivo de sésamo. En el campo experimental de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias de la Universidad Nacional de Asunción, Paraguay, en un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar se estudió la eficiencia en la aplicación de N como fertilizante y abono verde (lupino + avena negra con y sin laboreo del suelo. El N fue aplicado como urea-15N (5% enriquecimiento a razón de 50 kg/ha. Los resultados mostraron contenidos (kg/ha de N en granos (84, materia seca (104 y suelo hasta 15 cm (938. El 20% del N aplicado fue absorbido por la planta, 42% permaneció en el suelo y 38% no pudo contabilizarse y posiblemente se perdió por lixiviación y volatilización. La técnica de dilución isotópica fue útil para determinar el destino del N aplicado, pero sobreestimó el aporte de los abonos verdes en el contenido de N en el suelo.

  12. Primer reporte de un caso importado de Malaria por Plasmodium ovale curtisi en Paraguay, confirmado por diagnóstico molecular

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    Florencia del Puerto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available En países donde el Plasmodium ovale no es común, los microscopistas tienden a identificarlo de manera errónea como Plasmodium vivax. En este trabajo reportamos la identificación de la especie P. ovale curtisi por el método de PCR múltiple semianidada (SnM-PCR y la secuenciación de la subunidad pequeña del gen del ARN 18S, en un paciente paraguayo de 44 años de edad que vino en el 2.013 de Guinea Ecuatorial, África Occidental, a quien se le diagnosticó una infección por P. vivax por microscopía convencional. El empleo de métodos moleculares para la identificación de casos importados de infección con especies del género Plasmodium es uno de los objetivos principales en el control y la prevención de la malaria en Paraguay, teniendo en cuenta que el país se encuentra en fase de pre-eliminación de la enfermedad.

  13. Two new species of the Hypostomus cochliodon group (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from the rio Paraguay basin, with a redescription of Hypostomus cochliodonKner, 1854

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    Luiz F. C. Tencatt

    Full Text Available Hypostomus cochliodon group is a monophyletic clade of 20 valid species of Neotropical armored catfishes that is widely distributed throughout South America. Recently, specimens identified as H. cochliodon from the type locality and nearby localities were examined, and found to include representatives of more than one species. A redescription of H. cochliodon is provided, with a description of two new species, one from the Bodoquena Plateau and another from several localities of the rio Paraguay basin. A lectotype for H. cochliodon is designated herein, since the previous designation is invalid. Hypostomus cochliodon is diagnosed from all other species of the H. cochliodon group by having the opercle almost completely covered laterally by thick layer of skin, the absence of buccal papilla, weak to moderately developed keels on the lateral plates of the body and by the color pattern of its body and fins. Hypostomus basilisko, new species, is distinguished from the remaining species of the H. cochliodon group by the absence of spots on the body, highly developed keels and spoon-shaped teeth. Hypostomus khimaera, new species, is distinguished from the other species of the H. cochliodon group by having a dark tan stripe along the midline of the flank, black spots on the body and/or fins and teeth with mesial cusp and not spoon-shaped.

  14. Acuerdos Científicos Comparados entre Investigadores de Ciencias Sociales y Naturales Categorizados del PRONII 2011/13 de Paraguay

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    Norma Coppari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudiosobre los acuerdos científicos a los que adhieren los investigadores naturales y sociales paraguayos, en el que participan 183 cientificos categorizados por el PRONII/CONACYT de Paraguay en sus convocatorias de 2011, n1=251, y 2013, n2=347. Se aplicó una encuesta con recordación asistida sobre 4 reglas o acuerdos. El diseño es descriptivo, de corte transversal, con análisis cuantitativo. El 82% de la muestra reconoce acuerdos científicos, 8% no los admite y 10% duda de su existencia. Al solicitar que mencionen dichos acuerdos, 77% nombra al menos uno, 5% no los recuerda y 18% niega su existencia. Con la técnica de recordación asistida, 85% reconoce la inteligibilidad del mundo, 96% la actitud crítica, 95% la aptitud metodológica y la comunicación abierta.

  15. Description of two new species of Hisonotus Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889 (Ostariophysi, Loricariidae from the rio Paraná-Paraguay basin, Brazil

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    Fábio Roxo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Hisonotus are described from the rio Paraná-Paraguay basin in Brazil. The most remarkable features of the new species are the odontodes forming longitudinally aligned rows (one odontode after the other, but not necessarily forming parallel series on the head and trunk (vs. odontodes not forming longitudinally aligned rows, a pair of rostral plates at the tip of the snout (vs. a single rostral plate, the functional v-shaped spinelet (vs. spinelet non-functional, square-shaped, or absent. These features suggest close phylogenetic relationships with Hisonotus bockmanni, H. insperatus, H. luteofrenatus and H. piracanjuba. Additionally, both new species are distinguished from their congeners by characters related to head length and depth, orbital diameter, suborbital depth, caudal peduncle depth, pectoral-fin spine length, snout length and counts of teeth. Hisonotus paresi sp. n. further differs from its congeners bycontrasting dark geometric spots on the anterodorsal region of the body, a character lacking in H.oliveirai sp. n. The variation in number and shape of the rostral plate, posterior rostrum plates, infraorbitals and the preopercle in both new species and in H. insperatus are discussed.

  16. Memória e representação da fronteira Brasil / Paraguai = Memory and representation of Brazil / Paraguay borderland

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    Leoné Astride Barzotto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende analisar aspectos da memória e da representação da fronteira Brasil-Paraguai a partir de autores sul-mato-grossenses que visam retratar essa região transfronteiriça em sua literatura, seja em seus aspectos naturais (fauna, flora, tipografia, seja no registro de acontecimentos importantes que marcam a história/economia/política/cultura dessa região. Para tal, enfocaremos de que modo esses escritores demonstram os resquícios de lembranças e quais elementos tendem a representar aquilo que é peculiarmente regional.This article intends to analyse some aspects of memory and representation of Brasil-Paraguay borderland from the perspective of local writers in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul who try to demonstrate this transfrontiering region in their literature, either in the natural aspects (fauna, flora, tipography or in the register of relevant happenings that are remarkable for the history/economy/politics/culture of the region. Thus, we focus on these writers to reveal reminiscence and elements that tend to representate themselves as peculiarly regional.

  17. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Republic of Paraguay and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Paraguay and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 12 June 2002. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 15 September 2004, the date on which the Agency received from Paraguay written notification that Paraguay's statutory and/or constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  18. Prevalencia de anemia en la población pediátrica de una comunidad rural del Paraguay y su asociación con el estado nutricional

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Zavala M.; Fabrizio Vire; Leilah Graciela Cabral P.; Fabrizio Achon F.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: La anemia prevalece como un problema de salud pública en la población pediátrica de países en desarrollo. El objetivo fue determinar la prevalencia de anemia en niños de la comunidad de Yvyraty (Paraguarí, Paraguay) y evaluar su asociación con el estado nutricional. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, de corte transverso con componente analítico. Se colectaron datos antropométricos y se extrajo sangre a una muestra de 94 niños entre 2 y 18 años. Para determina...

  19. La relación entre el crimen organizado transnacional en la triple frontera y la politica exterior de seguridad de Brasil, Argentina y Paraguay entre 1996 y 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Marín Osorio, Iván Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Esta monografía analiza la influencia del Crimen Organizado Transnacional en la Triple Frontera compartida por Argentina, Brasil y Paraguay y sus decisiones en Política Exterior durante 1996 y 2006. Se explica cómo el Crimen Organizado Transnacional y sus efectos en la gobernabilidad de los Estados pueden ser un motivo para el análisis de la situación como un Complejo de Seguridad Regional. A partir de la conceptualización de Seguridad Regional de Barry Buzan y Ole Waever y de Robert Stewart ...

  20. Pantanal of Cáceres: granulometric composition of bottom sediments in the Paraguay River between the outfall of the Cabaçal River and the city of Cáceres, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Gustavo Roberto dos Santos Leandro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to verify the granulometric composition of bottom sediments along the longitudinal profile of the Paraguay River between the outfall of the Cabaçal River and the city of Cáceres, Mato Grosso, comprised by the geographic coordinates 15°58’00’’ and 16°50’00’’ South Latitude and 57°40’00’’ and 57°44’00’’ West Longitude. Work activity was conducted to characterize the sites and sediments collection with Van Veen sediment sampler (seven samples; textural analysis of the sediments by the pipetting and sieving method (the method uses a combination of sieving and sedimentation. The Paraguay River exhibits a meandering style with two distinct periods (periodic flooding regime and drought that associated with of bottom sediments alternate processes of erosion, transport and deposition from the discernible changes in the complex landscaping. Thus, the concentration of sand in the bed load transported in the channel (five samples is related to environmental elements and land use. The fine sediments are transferred to the features (bays and ponds and flood plain; the intense fluvial dynamics and the course (alluvial deposition areas contribute to changes in channel and morphologic features (capacity transport and sediment depositions.

  1. Estimación de la incidencia de VIH en población adulta de Paraguay con el modelo matemático MoT

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    Margarita Samudio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar la incidencia del VIH en la población adulta del Paraguay para 2014, y analizar su distribución con la incertidumbre asociada según comportamiento de riesgo. MÉTODOS: Se aplicó el modelo de ONUSIDA según modos de transmisión (MoT. Los datos se obtuvieron de la revisión detallada de documentos elaborados entre 1996 y 2013. Se realizó el análisis de incertidumbre de los valores estimados. RESULTADOS: La incidencia estimada para 2014 fue 0,091% (3 081 nuevas infecciones. Tanto el porcentaje de nuevas infecciones (74,75%, intervalo de confianza de 95%: 64,19-81,47 como la tasa de incidencia por 10 000 personas (9 518 fueron mayores en el grupo de hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH y el segundo grupo más afectado fue el de personas que tienen sexo heterosexual estable (9,9%. La transmisión heterosexual se produjo en 23% de nuevos casos y 8% de ellos corresponde a parejas (hombres y mujeres de personas con comportamiento de alto riesgo de transmisión del VIH. El 1% está relacionado con el trabajo sexual de mujeres y el uso de drogas inyectables. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados de la estimación de la incidencia de VIH y su distribución entre los grupos en riesgo son congruentes con los de los informes a escala nacional y con la población de HSH, la que acumula más casos de la epidemia. Las acciones de prevención deben dirigirse a este grupo para producir un impacto importante en el curso de la epidemia en el país. Además, se recomienda ampliar y fortalecer las actividades preventivas en las parejas estables de grupos en riesgo y en la población general.

  2. Uso de plantas medicinales en la atención primaria de salud en Paraguay: algunas consideraciones para su uso seguro y eficaz

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    Nélida Soria

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available La incorporación de las plantas medicinales en la Atención Primaria de Salud (APS, constituye un gran desafío. Según la OMS, el uso de las plantas medicinales constituye una terapia más natural, más inocua, efectiva, de un costo racional y asequible a las poblaciones. Para establecer el uso seguro y eficaz es necesaria la correcta identificación taxonómica de las especies y el origen de las mismas. El objetivo del estudio fue identificar taxonómicamente las plantas medicinales utilizadas por pacientes que consultaron en los servicios de Unidad de Salud Familiar (USF de la IV Región Sanitaria del Guairá, Paraguay, de agosto a diciembre de 2.011, además del hábitat de procedencia de las mismas. Los pacientes fueron encuestados sobre las plantas medicinales utilizadas y el modo de empleo de las mismas. Las encuestas fueron acompañadas por muestras de las plantas medicinales utilizadas que posteriormente fueron identificadas taxonómicamente. Se identificaron 56 especies utilizadas para diversos fines medicinales, de las cuales las más mencionadas fueron menta’i (Mentha x piperita, ñangapiry (Eugenia uniflora, salviarã (Lippia alba, koku (Allophylus edulis, typycha curaty (Scoparia dulcis y ka’are (Chenopodium ambrosioides. Dos especies están consideradas en la literatura como tóxicas: “mil hombres” (Aristolochia triangularis y “cepacaballo” (Xanthium spinosum y una especie ka’oveti (Solanum granulosum-leprosum fue mencionada por primera vez para fines medicinales. Dos de las especies utilizadas son tóxicas y su empleo debe evitarse; de ahí la importancia de la correcta identificación taxonómica de las plantas medicinales utilizadas por la población paraguaya, de manera a dar a conocer su toxicidad potencial.

  3. Terror y violencia durante la Guerra del Paraguay: ‘La masacre de 1869’ y las familias de Concepción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidia R. Areces

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Terror and violence during the Paraguayan War:  ‘La masacre de 1869’ and the families of ConcepciónThis paper addresses the massacre that took place  in the District of Concepción between April and  May 1869, one of many ordered by Marshal Francisco S. López during the last months of the Paraguayan War. The object here is to interpret the  killings and other extreme measures carried out in  the context of a conflict without mercy. Such  measures interrupted the state of law and opened  the way for arbitrary and unjust acts and the demonstration of the abusive power of a leader who  exercised unscrupulous violence. The explanations, in one way or another, would seem to conclude that his behaviour was irrational. However,  the paper aims to understand the different forms  of rationality that produced the outbreaks of violence. It intends to reveal a fiercer and more complex history from the treatment, on a local scale,  of a universal issue: ‘the violence of war’.Resumen:El artículo aborda la masacre llevada a cabo en el Departamento de Concepción entre los meses de  abril y mayo de 1869, una de las tantas que ordenó el Mariscal Francisco S. López durante los  últimos meses de la Guerra del Paraguay. El objetivo es interpretar las matanzas y otras medidas  extremas implementadas en el marco de una contienda sin cuartel. Con ellas se rompió el estado  de derecho, se abrió el cauce a las arbitrariedades  y a las injusticias y a la demostración del abusivo  poderío de un gobernante del cual emanaba una  violencia ejercida sin escrúpulos. Pareciera que  las explicaciones, de una manera u otra, concluyen en lo irracional de su conducta. Sin embargo, lo que se trata de comprender son las formas de  racionalidad que hacen brotar la violencia. La  intención es develar una historia más encarnada y  compleja a partir del tratamiento, en una escala  local, de un tema universal: ‘la violencia de la

  4. Comportamento de Hedypathes betulinus (Klug, 1825 em erva-mate em campo Behavior of Hedypathes betulinus (Klug, 1825 on the Paraguay tea plants

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    Jerson Vanderlei Carús Guedes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o comportamento de cópula, postura, alimentação e deslocamento da broca da erva-mate, Hedypathes betulinus (Klug, 1825, na área experimental da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Essas características da broca foram avaliadas por um período de quatro dias através de observações visuais (de hora em hora, em duas gaiolas teladas colocadas sobre um ramo da planta, e contendo dois casais do inseto/gaiola. Observou-se que o macho, quando acompanhado de uma fêmea, tenta copular imediatamente, realizando cópulas durante todos os perí odos do dia, principalmente entre 14 e 18h, e em toda a extensão do ramo. A postura ocorreu nos ramos de 15-20mm de diâmetro. A maior intensidade de alimentação ocorreu no período compreendido entre 10 e 18h, sendo preferencialmente realizada em ramos de 30-40mm de diâmetro. O inseto apresentou comportamento sedentário e de fácil localizaç ;ão em função de sua limitada e lenta movimentação. Esses resultados são importantes para localização, amostragem, catação manual e manejo da praga.A trial was carried out in the experimental area of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria to study the behaviour of mating, egg-laying, feeding and movement of Hedypathes betulinus (Klug, 1825 in the Paraguay tea (Ilex paraguariensis. These characteristics were monitored during four days (hourly in two screen cages, each envolving a branch of a plant and containing two adult couples of H. betulinus. When approaching a female, the male tried to copulate immediately and usually mated several times during the day mainly between 2:00 and 6:00pm and on along the branch. Egg-laying was more frequent on branches between 15 and 20mm in diameter. Feeding ocorred more intensivel y fron 10:00am to 6:00p.m preferently on branches between 30 and 4mm in diameter The adults showed limited movement and sedentary behaviour.

  5. The text of the Agreement of 22 February 1978 between Paraguay and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    The full text of the agreement between Paraguay and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and the treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America is presented

  6. Democracy and Representation in Paraguay

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    Liliana Rocío Duarte-Recalde

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the electoral accountability dimension as a constitutive mechanism of Paraguayan democracy since 1989, analyzing the factors that limit the representation contained in the administration of the Paraguayan government as a result of the electoral process. We provide an analytic contrast between the democratic principles that guide the Paraguayan electoral institutions and the way their designs are enforced, identifying the gap between formal and informal rules as determinants of political representation. We also describe the barriers that prevent effective access of the population to political participation and competition, the advantages possessed by traditional political parties and interest groups, as well as their implications for democracy. We also review the degree to which elected officials are representative of historically excluded social groups as a result, emphasizing the way women, indigenous and peasant communities have potentially limited power to exercise political influence due to limitations to participation by structural and institutional factors.

  7. Two new Grasses from Paraguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1922-01-01

    Paspalum plumosum, HENR. nov. spec., — Perenne, dense caespitosum. Culmi stricte erecti, 6—9 dm alti, graciles, simplices, teretes, laeves pauci-nodes, nodis paullulo pilosis. Foliorum vaginae subarctae, apice hiantes, leviter compressae, laeves, glabrae, nitentes, striatae, sordide

  8. Implementación de un sistema de televigilancia epidemiológica comunitaria mediante tecnologías de la información y la comunicación en Paraguay

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    Pedro Galván

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Exponer los resultados preliminares de la aplicación del sistema Bonis en la televigilancia epidemiológica comunitaria en Paraguay. MÉTODOS: Estudio de viabilidad y puesta en marcha realizado en una Unidad de Salud Familiar (USF ubicada en el Bañado Sur de la ciudad de Asunción, a orillas del río Paraguay. En el sistema se registran automáticamente los datos de la persona que hace la notificación telefónica y los síntomas presentes, y se clasifican y priorizan los presuntos casos de dengue. Esta información va a agentes comunitarios que hacen el seguimiento y a especialistas encargados de la vigilancia epidemiológica. RESULTADOS: Entre abril de 2010 y agosto de 2011 se registraron 1 028 llamadas al sistema. De los 157 casos febriles informados, se realizó la visita domiciliaria a 140 (89,2%, en las que se confirmaron 52 (37,1% casos de fiebre y dolor de cabeza o corporal y 58 (41,4% casos de dolor de cabeza o corporal sin fiebre. Los agentes comunitarios derivaron a 49 (35,0% de ellos a consulta médica y toma de muestra de sangre y tomaron la muestra en la propia vivienda a 19, de los que 56 (82,3% resultaron positivos para dengue y 12 (17,4% para influenza. CONCLUSIONES: Paraguay cuenta con un sistema de televigilancia epidemiológica comunitaria basada en las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC, de bajo costo, basado en software libre y escalable a otros síntomas o trastornos sanitarios de interés. Para viabilizar su aceptación y aplicación se deben desarrollar programas de educación para fortalecer la gestión y la promoción de la salud comunitaria.

  9. Diabetes gestacional, hipotiroidismo y concentración urinaria de yodo en embarazadas. Yodurias en escolares en Paraguay: Exceso de yodo en la sal y riesgo de hiper e hipotiroidismo

    OpenAIRE

    Jara Yorg, Jorge Antonio; Pretell, Eduardo A; Ovelar, Elsi; Sánchez Bernal, S; Mendoza, L; Jara Mark, A; Jara Ruiz, Jessica M; Jara Ruiz, Elías; Ortellado, José; Acuña, Vicente; Brizuela, Félix; Rodriguez, Amada; Santos, Jorge; Peña, Giuliana; Arevalos, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    El principal indicador del impacto de la yodación de la sal de consumo humano es la concentración urinaria de yodo la cual es útil en el monitoreo de la sal. En la encuesta del año 1988 realizada en el Paraguay, se alcanzó una prevalencia de bocio de 48,6% en la población escolar con un déficit de yodo en la sal, pero el año 2000 en el estudio del proyecto de Tiroides Móvil, se redujo por el método ecográfico a 17%. Ese mismo año la mediana de los niveles urinarios en niños escolares de 6-12 ...

  10. Frecuencia de enteroparásitos en niños y niñas del primer ciclo de la educación escolar básica de Escuelas Públicas de Ciudad del Este, Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Elena Cardozo Ocampos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades parasitarias tienen amplia distribución mundial, y a pesar de los esfuerzos de los organismos de salud, siguen siendo un problema especialmente en los países en vias de desarrollo como el nuestro. El objetivo del presente trabajo, debidamente evaluado por la Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de la Bioética en Paraguay, fue la de determinar la tasa de frecuencia de enteroparásitos en niños y niñas del primer ciclo de la Educación Escolar Básica de Ciudad del Este (Paraguay. En el periodo de setiembre a diciembre del año 2006, fueron visitadas 48 escuelas públicas, durante el cual se recolectó muestras de materia fecal de 388 niños y niñas, entre 7 a 9 años, escogidos aleatoriamente. Las muestras colectadas fueron examinadas por cuatro métodos para la búsqueda de enteroparásitos, el Directo en fresco, Faust, Ritchie and Lutz. El porcentaje de las muestras positivas fue de 94,23%, donde fueron identificados siete tipos de protozoarios y cinco tipos de helmintos. La frecuencia de los enteroparasitos hallados en la población estudiada de la forma en la que sigue: Giardia duodenalis 67%; Entamoeba coli 52%; Blastocystis hominis 45%; Endolimax nana 31%; Chilomastix mesnili 8 %; Iodamoeba butschilii 3% ; Entamoeba histolytica 2% ; Hymenolepis nana 12%; Enterobius vermicularis 1%; Strongyloides stercoralis 2%; Ascaris lumbricoides 1% ; Uncinarias 2%.

  11. Jugar en contextos tecnológicos: uso y disfrute de Internet por niños y niñas de 8 a 10 años en Argentina, Paraguay y Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Trinidad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Para este artículo tomamos como fuente de análisis los hallazgos de la investigación comparativa «Uso y disfrute de internet por niños de 8 a 10 años en tres escuelas de Argentina, Paraguay y Perú». Allí encontramos que más allá de las diferencias y particularidades de los contextos nacionales, estos tienen en común que el uso y disfrute que los menores hacen de internet está marcado según clase, género, edad y nivel socioeconómico. En este caso analizaremos de qué manera estas variables intervienen y se combinan en el consumo cultural que los niños y las niñas hacen en contextos tecnológicos, dirigiendo sus deseos, fantasías y preferencias.

  12. Combatir el comunismo con humor. El diario Patria en el marco de la celebración del XIIº congreso anual de la Liga Anticomunista Mundial en Paraguay (1979

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    Lorena Soler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo se propone estudiar las representaciones y los discursos que pusieron en circulación las derechas stronistas en el diario Patria, órgano oficial del Partido Colorado, en el marco del XIIº Congreso de la Liga Anticomunista Mundial (World Anti-Communist League, WACL –realizado en Asunción, en abril de 1979–, analizando el recurso del humor político como artefacto de lucha ideológica. Asumimos que la socialización de las elites políticas locales en una red trasnacional anticomunista supuso diálogos y préstamos para la relaboración, con cierta autonomía, de las identidades de derechas en una coyuntura histórica específica, signada por la Segunda Guerra Fría, el ascenso de Jimmy Carter al gobierno de EE.UU., la crisis interna del régimen stronista y los problemas diplomáticos de Paraguay con ese país por las denuncias de ilícitos y el conocimiento internacional de las violaciones a los derechos humanos. La investigación se apoya en documentos desclasificados, periódicos de la época y en el mencionado Patria.

  13. Identificación de stocks pesqueros de la corvina de río (Plagioscion ternetzi de los ríos Paraguay y Paraná, mediante el análisis morfométrico de sus otolitos

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    Esteban Avigliano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available La identificación de stocks pesqueros es un requisito básico para el manejo y la gestión de la pesca. El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir por primera vez los otolitos de la corvina de Río P. ternetzi y evaluar la existencia de diferentes stocks pesqueros entre dos áreas de la Cuenca del Plata, cuenca baja del Río Paraguay y el Río Paraná medio. Con este fin, cinco índices morfométricos aplicados sobre los otolitos sagittae (rectangularidad, circularidad AO/LO, SS/SO y PS/PO fueron comparados entre los sitios de estudio. Los otolitos sagittae son semicirculares y presentan bordes lisos. El sulcus acusticus es de tipo heterosulcoide y curvo, con abertura pseudoostio-caudal. Se observaron diferencias significativas para circularidad, rectangularidad, SS/SO y PS/PO (t- test, P 69%. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que las poblaciones de esta especie de los ríos Paraguay y Paraná estarían parcialmente separadas, aunque mantendrían flujo de individuos entre las mismas.

  14. An Early Psychology of Science in Paraguay

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    José E. García

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The psychology of science is a field of research emerged in the late 80’s and its basic interest is the study of the conditions determining the rise and development of scientists and researchers. However, in spite of its apparent novelty, it is feasible to find background widely disseminated in the work of previous authors. One of them is R. Ross, who wrote an article in the Paraguayan journal Letras in 1915. Ross argued that geniuses’ production is one of the most valuable potentials to which a nation can aspire and has a relevance degree higher than any kind of wealth. His argument agrees with considerations related to the subjective processes leading creative inspiration, the generation of new ideas and the relations between genius and insanity, a view that fits the ideas of the Italian physician Cesare Lombroso. The article concludes that Ross’ ideas may be identified as a distant background for the psychology of science, although it has not reached a later continuity in the work of other Paraguayan authors. The methodology adopted is both descriptive and critical, with a contextual analysis of the primary sources that are relevant to the problem.

  15. An Early Psychology of Science in Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, José E.

    2016-01-01

    The psychology of science is a field of research emerged in the late 80's and its basic interest is the study of the conditions determining the rise and development of scientists and researchers. However, in spite of its apparent novelty, it is feasible to find background widely disseminated in the work of previous authors. One of them is R. Ross,…

  16. Non-preference of the red mite Oligonychus yothersi McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae for oviposition on leaves of Paraguay tea progenies (Ilex paraguariensis/ Não-preferência do ácaro-vermelho, Oligonychus yothersi McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae, para oviposição em folhas de progênies de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis

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    José Djair Vendramim

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The oviposition preference of the red mite Oligonychus yothersi McGregor was evaluated under laboratory in 52 Paraguay tea progenies and one control collected in a local farm. The experiments were conducted on Paraguay tea leaf discs infested with one adult female mite/disc, incubated in a climate chamber (25±1ºC, 14h photophase for five days. Evaluations were performed daily, by counting the number of eggs laid in the period, the number of female escapes in the first 48 hours, as well as the number of eggs laid before the escaping. It was verified that discrimination by the mite occurred on two groups of progenies, in relation to the number of eggs: one group was different from the control (53.8% of the progenies and the other was identical to it (46.2% of the progenies. In the first group, 60.7% of progenies were less oviposited while a higher number of eggs/female than the control was verified in 39.3% of them. In 57.7% of progenies there was escape of some mites (10 to 40%, and in 10 of these progenies no eggs were laid. The data provide evidences that in some of the progenies evaluated there is resistance by non-preference to oviposition of the Paraguay tea red mite.A preferência para oviposição do ácaro-vermelho, Oligonychus yothersi McGregor, foi avaliada em condições de laboratório em 52 progênies de erva-mate e uma testemunha coletada em uma propriedade da região. Os experimentos foram realizados em discos foliares de erva-mate (2 cm de diâmetro, infestados com uma fêmea adulta do ácaro, e incubados a 25±1ºC e 14h de fotofase, durante cinco dias. As avaliações foram realizadas diariamente, contando-se o número de ovos depositados no período, número de fêmeas que fugiram nas primeiras 48 horas e número de ovos depositados antes da fuga. Verificou-se que houve discriminação do ácaro em dois grupos de progênies, em relação ao número de ovos, um que diferiu em relação à testemunha (53,8% de progênies e

  17. Morphological variation in populations of Tetragonopterus argenteus Cuvier, 1817 (Characiformes, Characidae from Madeira and Paraguay river basins Variação morfológica em populações de Tetragonopterus argenteus Cuvier, 1817 (Characiformes, Characidae das bacias dos rios Madeira e Paraguai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Massaharu Ohara

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The saua Tetragonopterus argenteus is endemic to South America. It has a wide geographic distribution and occurs in different Brazilian basins, such as those of the Madeira and Paraguay rivers. In this work, it was noticed that populations from these basins have morphological variations between them, indicating a possible geographic isolation. Specimens were studied using twelve morphological characters that were submitted to the canonical variates and body proportion analysis. In the canonical variate analysis, the populations from the Madeira and Paraguay river basins were differentiated by caudal peduncle depth, eye diameter, pre-ventral distance, body height, snout length and head length. In the body proportion analysis, the population of Madeira river basin presented head length, orbital diameter, pre-dorsal distance, dorsal-fin length, pre-ventral distance, body height and caudal peduncle height, smaller than those of the population from Paraguay river basin. These results allowed the recognition of intra-specific variation amplitude, that could become an important instrument for management and conservation of this species. O sauá Tetragonopterus argenteus é endêmico da América do Sul, apresenta ampla distribuição geográfica e ocorre em várias bacias brasileiras, entre elas as dos rios Madeira e Paraguai. Neste trabalho foi observado que as populações dessas bacias apresentam variações morfológicas que, provavelmente, representam isolamento geográfico. Exemplares foram estudados através de 12 caracteres morfológicos e submetidos às análises de variáveis canônicas e de proporções corporais. Na análise das variáveis canônicas, as populações das bacias dos rios Madeira e Paraguai diferenciaram-se pelo diâmetro do olho, distância pré-ventral, altura do corpo, comprimento do focinho, altura do pedúnculo caudal e comprimento da cabeça. Na análise das proporções corporais, a população da bacia do rio Madeira

  18. The repair of ground cover of Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline near Paraguay River crossing, in a swamp soft soil region, using geo synthetics reinforced backfilling; Reparo da cobertura do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil junto ao Rio Paraguai, em trecho com solo mole, utilizando aterro reforcado com geosinteticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Cesar Augusto; Jorge, Kemal Vieira; Bechuate Filho, Pedro [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Gerencia Regional Centro Oeste (CRGO); Teixeira, Sidnei H.C. [Geohydrotech Engenharia S.C. Ltda., Braganca Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    TBG - Transportadora Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil S.A, executes routine maintenance works at the Gas Pipeline Right of Way, seeking its integrity. In the wetlands of Pantanal, near the Paraguay river crossing, the organic-alluvial soil was submitted to the process of subsidence. This process, associated with the river water flow erosion, shrank the soil volume and diminished or extinguished the pipeline land cover. The pipeline was exposed to the environment, and submitted to tension stresses and the risk of low cycle fatigue during the floods. The cathodic protection system also had to be evaluated, specially in the drought. To mitigate the problem, the embankment technique was adopted using sandy soil, reinforced with polyester geo-webs and with woven polipropene geo-textiles. The solution also used geo-webs with soil-cement as protection elements against the degradation of the geo-textiles blankets. Some monitoring works are associated with those interventions: monitoring of cathodic protection; topographical verification of horizontal and vertical displacements of the pipeline; levels of land covering, and rainfalls and flood measurement. The base of the embankment was built with hydraulic transported soil, and at the end consistently supported the gas pipeline. (author)

  19. Temporal changes in fish species composition of headwater streams of the upper Paraguay and Paraná basins, Brazil = Alteração temporal na composição de espécies de peixes em riachos de cabeceira das bacias do alto Paraguai e Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yzel Rondon Súarez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in headwater streams in the Paraguay and Paraná river basins, with bi-monthly samples from January to November 2004, aiming to quantify the influence of environmental factors on the temporal rate of turnover in species composition of the fish communities. The environmental variables explained 73.5% of the variation in beta diversity and 52.5% of the variation in mean dissimilarity. Altitude was the only environmental descriptor that significantly explained the variation in beta diversity and mean dissimilarity in both basins.O presente estudo foi realizado em riachos de cabeceira nas bacias dos rios Paraguai e Paraná, por amostragens bimestrais de janeiro a novembro de 2004, com o objetivo de se quantificar a influência dos fatores ambientais sobre a taxa de alteração temporal na composição de espécies nas comunidades de peixes. As variáveis ambientais utilizadas explicaram 73,5% da variação na taxa de alteração na composição de espécies, utilizando a diversidade beta e 52,5% da variação na taxa de alteração pelo coeficiente de Jaccard. A altitude dos locais amostrados foi o único preditor significativo da taxa de alteração temporal na composição de espécies para ambas as bacias.

  20. Análise espaço-temporal da cobertura vegetal e uso da terra na Interbacia do Rio Paraguai Médio-MT, Brasil Spatio-temporal analysis of vegetation cover and land use in the middle Paraguay River Interbasin-MT, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyla Poliana Miranda Pessoa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma análise espaço-temporal da cobertura vegetal e do uso da terra na Interbacia do Rio Paraguai Médio-MT, Brasil, pelo geoprocessamento de imagens Landsat TM, dos anos 1991, 2001 e 2011. As imagens foram georreferenciadas, classificadas e processadas no software Spring e as classes temáticas, quantificadas e editadas no software ArcGis. Foram mapeadas sete classes, sendo as mais expressivas a vegetação nativa, a pastagem e a cana-de-açúcar. Os resultados indicaram alterações em todas as classes durante os últimos 20 anos, com a diminuição de 22,89% da vegetação nativa, relacionada com o aumento de 58,42% da pastagem e 490,26% de monocultura de cana-de-açúcar. Foi verificado o conflito de uso da terra, principalmente em áreas de mata ciliar, fato que pode influenciar negativamente na conservação da interbacia e, consequentemente, do pantanal mato-grossense.This study analyzed spatial and temporal land use changes in the Middle Paraguay River Interbasin-MT, Brazil using Landsat images from 1991, 2001 and 2011. Images were geo-referenced, classified and processed using Spring software, and thematic classes were edited and quantified using ArcGis software. Seven map classes were identified, and native vegetation, pasture and sugarcane were the most significant ones. The results showed changes in all classes during the past 20 years, primarily a 22.89% decrease of native vegetation, a 58.42% increase in pasture and 490.26% increase of sugarcane monoculture. We verified land use conflicts, mostly in riparian areas, which may negatively influence Interbasin and, consequently, Pantanal conservation in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

  1. Recomendação de adubação nitrogenada para trigo em sucessão ao silho e soja sob sistema plantio direto no Paraguai Nitrogen fertilizer recommendation for no-till wheat in succession to corn and soybean in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Wendling

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O nitrogênio (N é um dos nutrientes mais requeridos pelo trigo e, muitas vezes, não é suprido nem na quantidade nem na época ideal. Devido à importância da adubação nitrogenada no trigo e à carência de informações disponíveis no Paraguai, foi desenvolvido este trabalho com o objetivo de propor uma recomendação nitrogenada para trigo sob sistema plantio direto. Cinco experimentos em rede foram realizados a campo, durante dois anos, em três departamentos do Paraguai, abrangendo os principais solos (Oxisols, Inceptisols e Ultisols e regiões produtoras (Alto Paraná, Itapúa e Missiones. Os tratamentos utilizados no trigo (Triticum aestivum foram cinco doses de N (0, 30, 60, 90 e 120 kg ha-1 após o milho (Zea mays e a soja (Glycine max, sendo também investigado o efeito residual de N aplicado no milho (0, 60, 120, 180 e 240 kg ha-1 na nutrição do trigo, em parcelas de 5 x 8 m, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com três repetições. O trigo respondeu economicamente, em média, à dose de 35 kg ha-1 de N após a soja para produtividades em torno de 3.100 kg ha-1; após o milho, respondeu economicamente, em média, até 30 kg ha-1 de N, atingindo produtividade de 2.100 kg ha-1. No solo com teor de matéria orgânica maior que 4 %, verificou-se capacidade de suprir, sem adubação nitrogenada mineral, quantidade suficiente de N para alcançar produtividades de até 2.500 kg ha-1. O trigo respondeu à adubação residual de N aplicado no milho, elevando a produtividade de 1.800 (0 kg ha-1 para 2.300 kg ha-1 (com a dose estimada de 213 kg ha-1 de N aplicado no milho, na média de todos os locais.Nitrogen is one of the nutrients wheat needs most, but is often not supplied neither in the right quantity nor at the right time. Because of the importance of nitrogen fertilization and the lack of information available in Paraguay, this study was developed to establish a nitrogen fertilizer recommendation for wheat under no-till. Six

  2. Attitudes Toward Guarani and Spanish: A Pilot Study in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Nancy C.

    This study analyzes the language attitudes of the Paraguayan people toward their two languages, Guarani and Spanish. To study the bilingual situation in the South American country, a pilot survey was carried out in the capital city addressing the major topics of language attitudes, language usage, and language varieties. The goals of the survey…

  3. Illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive material in Paraguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facetti, J.F. [Institute of Strategic Studies, Asuncion (Paraguay)], E-mail: jfacetti@yahoo.com

    2009-07-01

    Full text: In order to be effective, a defence system must be designed on the basis of real conflict hypotheses, that is, on the basis of well identified real possibilities of occurrence of aggressions against national interests. Threat assessment and analysis depend on complete and correct information. By making an accurate appreciation of the strategic situation we can identify quite precisely current or potential conflicts that could genuinely affect national interests and be prepared to meet them in the form best suited to their nature, rationally using the budget resources allocated to defence. Lack of preparation to counterattack real threats implies being absolutely defenceless. On the other hand, being prepared without knowing exactly what for is a waste of people's money. A growing concern, not only of G8 countries but also of affected countries, is governance and lawless areas, or areas where the State is absent. The concept of lawless areas in particular has been time and again used by the Ministries of Foreign Affairs of several European countries, by the Pentagon and by the US Department of State to refer to lawless areas or areas without government in Latin America, Africa, Asia and even Central Europe, where presumably there exist groups of terrorists and traffickers of weapons and other illicit materials. In such as areas some terrorist group can be actively seeking nuclear weapons or the materials and knowledge need to make them or to make Radiation Dispersion Artefacts RDA, improvised nuclear artefacts (INA). At the end of March 2008 the Colombian Police seized at least 66 pounds (30 kg) of uranium from the terrorist group FARC. This is new for Latin America and could bring the FARC into the major leagues of black market terrorist transactions. In Latin America, one of these areas is the Tri-Border Area; the other is the Leticia-Tabatinga area between Colombia and Brazil. Recently, the countries of the 3 + 1 Agreement signed a joint declaration ratifying the inexistence of terrorist groups operating in these areas, but confirming the existence of strong evidence of the remittance of foreign currency to extremist Arab groups. Illegal activities in this area are notorious: weapons trafficking, money laundering, drug trafficking, and other types of traffic (nuclear and radioactive materials) cannot be dismissed. The problem is that authorities from no country would wish to have nuclear or radiological materials stolen or misplaced in them and then used to fabricate a 'dirty' bomb to perpetrate attacks. This document analyzes the situation of sector policies (international binding and non-binding agreements legal instruments, internal security policies, defence programs and plans, etc.); global and national threats; the nature of actions taken by the Paraguayan Government through effective mechanisms for coordination including planning, implementation and monitoring, and relevant collaborative actions implemented with the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA. (author)

  4. Illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive material in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facetti, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In order to be effective, a defence system must be designed on the basis of real conflict hypotheses, that is, on the basis of well identified real possibilities of occurrence of aggressions against national interests. Threat assessment and analysis depend on complete and correct information. By making an accurate appreciation of the strategic situation we can identify quite precisely current or potential conflicts that could genuinely affect national interests and be prepared to meet them in the form best suited to their nature, rationally using the budget resources allocated to defence. Lack of preparation to counterattack real threats implies being absolutely defenceless. On the other hand, being prepared without knowing exactly what for is a waste of people's money. A growing concern, not only of G8 countries but also of affected countries, is governance and lawless areas, or areas where the State is absent. The concept of lawless areas in particular has been time and again used by the Ministries of Foreign Affairs of several European countries, by the Pentagon and by the US Department of State to refer to lawless areas or areas without government in Latin America, Africa, Asia and even Central Europe, where presumably there exist groups of terrorists and traffickers of weapons and other illicit materials. In such as areas some terrorist group can be actively seeking nuclear weapons or the materials and knowledge need to make them or to make Radiation Dispersion Artefacts RDA, improvised nuclear artefacts (INA). At the end of March 2008 the Colombian Police seized at least 66 pounds (30 kg) of uranium from the terrorist group FARC. This is new for Latin America and could bring the FARC into the major leagues of black market terrorist transactions. In Latin America, one of these areas is the Tri-Border Area; the other is the Leticia-Tabatinga area between Colombia and Brazil. Recently, the countries of the 3 + 1 Agreement signed a joint declaration ratifying the inexistence of terrorist groups operating in these areas, but confirming the existence of strong evidence of the remittance of foreign currency to extremist Arab groups. Illegal activities in this area are notorious: weapons trafficking, money laundering, drug trafficking, and other types of traffic (nuclear and radioactive materials) cannot be dismissed. The problem is that authorities from no country would wish to have nuclear or radiological materials stolen or misplaced in them and then used to fabricate a 'dirty' bomb to perpetrate attacks. This document analyzes the situation of sector policies (international binding and non-binding agreements legal instruments, internal security policies, defence programs and plans, etc.); global and national threats; the nature of actions taken by the Paraguayan Government through effective mechanisms for coordination including planning, implementation and monitoring, and relevant collaborative actions implemented with the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA. (author)

  5. Domestic gas contribution to natural radon concentration in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronel, G.; Sajo B, L.

    1996-01-01

    The technique for measuring the concentration of radon in gas sold commercially for domestic use is presented. It is shown that the contribution is not significant, 5.5±1.4 (Bq/m 3 ), nevertheless it could reach in some cases significant values of intervention (200 Bq/m 3 ). The results indicate that the additional dose to which the population is exposed is approximately 26% of the natural background calculated in approximately 0,28 mSv/year. By assuming a lineal proportionality between dose and risk, the increase of the possibility of catching lethal leukemia or cancer is 16 cases for every million of population. (authors). 8 refs., 1 fig

  6. Radiation protection officers in customs : an experience in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oscar Bordon

    2008-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 events unleashed an offensive of the United States government to detect devices that could suppose a terrorist threat. One U.S. program entitled the Container Security Initiative affected all the customs in the world. All the countries desiring commerce with the USA must be signatory to the program; otherwise its products will not arrive to the U.S. ports. With that imposition Customs began to invest more in non-intrusive means of detection. The introduction of new equipment into the Customs environment forced the institution to enter a new area called radiation protection. The beginning was difficult due to the lack of knowledge concerning procedures in the ionizing radiation field. Not one legal regulation was known. Fortunately, the regulatory authority followed the purchase of the scanner and communicated the necessity of a license to operate and demanded that a qualified person in the radiation protection area be hired. Initially the main goal required the officer to obtain the license; however, this took some time because neither national nor international norms for scanners in Customs existed. At that time the recommendations of the regulatory authority were essential. Therefore, several procedures were adapted, thus reinforcing the necessity of specific rules for scanners in Customs. The support of the Customs director was essential. A department of radiation protection was created. Immediately a series of informative classes about radiation protection was administered producing changes in the minds of the employees, especially concerning the safety of working with ionizing radiation. This paper discusses the role of the radiation protection officer within Customs, the difficulties of this position, and the benefits that the collaboration of the officer can bring towards the construction of a safety culture in this institution. (author)

  7. Paraguay at its Centenary: the Creation of a Mestizo Nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Telesca

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This text studies the articulation of identity carried out by Paraguayan intellectuals after the war against the Triple Alliance (1864-1870 and in the eve of celebrating the centennial of their independence (1811. The author shows how a previous identity, based on a concept of mestizo race, but white in its own way, superior to the rest of the continent and allowing the soldiers’ heroism in war, was transformed into a mainly political use of mixed races as the foundations of a strong nation.

  8. Denial of shipments of radioactive materials in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More Torres, Luis E.; Romero de Gonzalez, V.; Lopez Caceres, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Denials, Delays and Abandonment of the Radioactive Materials is a problem at world level that has been increased in the last times with more emphasis starting from the attack of September 11 the 2001 in the USA. From then radioactive materials have been denial or delayed and until abandoned. The materials of short periods used mainly in nuclear medicine as the 99m Tc or the 131 I, when they are rejected, delayed it usually causes the lost of the material because it has surpassed their useful life and in many cases they are abandoned. The rejections, delays and later abandonment of the materials in special of Medical use have originated serious damages for the nuclear medicine patients as much of diagnoses as of treatments, in Teleterapia for many patients of cancer who could not be treated. In the petroliferous prospecting and Industry has originated numerous economic damages due to the delays since most of the used sources they are of long period but the delay causes an important increase in the cost. (author)

  9. Quality control in radioimmunoassay for Argentina, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroga, S.

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this project was the development of an External Quality Control Programme on Radioimmunoassay among laboratories from Argentina and other Latinoamerican countries. The purpose of this programme was to improve the performance of the participating laboratories in order to increase the diagnostic value of patient results. The number of returns of this programme (Buenos Aires I) were compared against those of the previous one (Programme I) (Contract 2737/RB) to determine if the objectives were fulfilled. The preparation of the samples and the evaluation of the results of the first six samples were analyzed in the progress report sent on December 30th, 1983 and were reanalysed including late results

  10. The ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    20u209S, 60u209W Parque Defensores del Chaco 20u149S, 60u129W ALTO PARANÁ Ciudad del Este 25u329S, 54u379W BOQUERÓN Colonia Fernheim 22u149S, 59u509W...female, host unknown, Parque Defensores del Chaco, 5 December 1981, coll. J. A. Kochalka), RML 119014 (two males and one female, ex Catagonus wagneri...Moro, 22 June 2002, coll. M. Cunningham), RML 123661 (one female, ex Pa. onca, Parque Defensores del Chaco, 16 July 2003, coll. M. Cunningham), RML

  11. The Political Situation in Paraguay Two Years after the Coup

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    President Rodriguez attended the inaugurations of Presidents Collor, Menem, Lacalle, Aylwin of Chile, and Paz Zamora of Bolivia. By August 1991, King...other parties are normally involved in the international relations areas. Presidents Rodriguez and Paz Zamorra have visited each other’s capitals, and...FBIS 12 July, 1991, pp. 31-34. 13. Carlos Maria Lezcano and Carlos Martini, " Intervencion Politica de Las Fuerzas Armadas Despues del Golpe del 2 y 3 de

  12. Homicídios juvenis e informalidade em um município brasileiro da tríplice fronteira Brasil, Paraguai e Argentina Juvenile homicides and informal work in a Brazilian city in the Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina tri-border area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano de Andrade

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a distribuição espacial da mortalidade juvenil por homicídio para o sexo masculino no Município de Foz do Iguaçu (Estado do Paraná, situado na tríplice fronteira Brasil, Paraguai e Argentina, no período de 2000 a 2007. MÉTODOS: Os dados foram obtidos no Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM e no Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE. Os programas ArcGIS® 9.2 e GeoDaTM foram utilizados para analisar 873 óbitos distribuídos em 11 áreas de expansão demográfica (AEDs. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se uma autocorrelação espacial negativa (I = -0,3563; P = 0,0250, demonstrando altas taxas de homicídio em todas as AEDs, mas dissimilares entre si. Dentre 14 diferentes indicadores socioeconômicos, a ocupação no setor informal e a ocupação no setor formal apresentaram autocorrelação espacial negativa (I = -0,2574; P = 0,0360 e positiva (I = 0,2574; P = 0,0310, respectivamente, indicando que quanto maior o número de empregos informais em uma determinada AED menor a taxa de homicídios nas AEDs vizinhas. Identificaram-se nesse estudo altas taxas de homicídios juvenis, ocupação informal e importação de homicídios juvenis de outras AEDs para a AED 6, próxima à fronteira com o Paraguai. CONCLUSÕES: A elevada taxa de homicídios de jovens em algumas regiões do município é influenciada pelo alto grau de ocupação informal, indicando um grave problema social, que é o desemprego associado à falta de qualificação profissional.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the spatial distribution of juvenile homicide mortality for males in the city of Foz do Iguaçu (state of Paraná, located in the Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina tri-border area, between 2000 and 2007. METHODS: The data were obtained from the Ministry of Health's Mortality Information System (SIM and the Brazilian Geography and Statistics Institute (IBGE. Spatial analysis of 873 deaths distributed in 11 demographic expansion areas (AEDs was

  13. Intenciones reproductivas y factores asociados con los nacimientos no planeados, Paraguay, 1995-2008 Reproductive intentions and factors related to unplanned births, Paraguay, 1995-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mercedes Melian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir las intenciones reproductivas de las mujeres paraguayas entre 1995 y 2008 y determinar las características asociadas con los embarazos no deseados e inoportunos. MÉTODOS:. Estudio descriptivo exploratorio basado en datos secundarios de las encuestas nacionales de demografía y salud reproductiva de 1995, 2004 y 2008. Se analizaron los cambios en las características sociodemográficas de las mujeres, el uso de métodos anticonceptivos y la fecundidad, así como de la proporción de nacimientos deseados, inoportunos y no deseados. Mediante dos modelos de regresión logística multifactorial se determinaron las características asociadas con los embarazos no deseados o inoportunos. RESULTADOS: En 2008, la tercera parte (33,3% de los nacimientos no fueron planeados (25,6% inoportunos y 7,7% no deseados. La edad estuvo asociada de forma directa y significativa al deseo de postergar el último nacimiento; el nivel de escolaridad se asoció inversamente con la posibilidad de tener nacimientos inoportunos; y residir en áreas urbanas, con los nacimientos no deseados. El no estar casada o unida a una pareja estable estuvo asociado con considerar el último nacimiento como no deseado o inoportuno, tanto en las mujeres solteras como en las separadas, divorciadas o viudas. CONCLUSIONES: A pesar del mejoramiento del nivel de escolaridad de las mujeres, su mayor incorporación al trabajo remunerado, el aumento del uso de métodos anticonceptivos y la disminución de la fecundidad, todavía existen grupos de mujeres que no pueden satisfacer sus ideales reproductivos y están expuestas a embarazos no deseados o inoportunos.OBJECTIVE: To describe the reproductive intentions of Paraguayan women over the period from 1995 to 2008 and determine the characteristics associated with unwanted and mistimed pregnancies. METHODS: An exploratory, descriptive study was conducted using secondary data from national demographic and reproductive health surveys from 1995, 2004, and 2008. The study examined the socio-demographic characteristics of the women, the use of contraceptive methods, and fertility, as well as the proportion of wanted, mistimed, and unwanted births. Using two multifactorial logistic regression models, the characteristics associated with unwanted or mistimed pregnancies were determined. RESULTS: In 2008, one-third (33.3% of the births were unplanned (25.6% mistimed and 7.7% unwanted. Age was directly and significantly associated with the woman having wanted to postpone her most recent birth; level of schooling was inversely related to the possibility of having mistimed births; and living in urban areas was associated with unwanted births. Not being married or in a stable relationship was associated with regarding the most recent birth as unwanted or mistimed, not only among single women, but also among those separated, divorced, and widowed. CONCLUSIONS: Despite improvements in women's levels of schooling, their increasing access to paid employment, the growing use of contraceptive methods, and reductions in fertility, there are still groups of women who are unable to fulfill their reproductive intentions and are at risk of having unwanted or mistimed pregnancies.

  14. Renal en Paraguay anti-HLA antibodies monitoring in patients with chronic renal failure on waiting list for renal transplant in Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Prieto; Claudia Cabañas; Verónica Villagra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Anti-HLA antibodies determination in the serum of patients on a waiting list for renal transplant is essential to optimize donor selection as well as for the induction and maintenance immunosuppression scheme, according to immunological risk. These antibodies could be present before transplantation as a result of being exposed to blood transfusions, pregnancies and previous transplants. The objective of the study was to determine immunization against HLA antigens, associated fac...

  15. Electricity law for the Paraguay Republic: an analysis of the proposed regimen; Ley de electricidad para la Republica del Paraguay: un analisis del regimen propuesto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardozo Filho, Carlos M.; Brasa Soto, Ruben E. [Usina Hidroelectrica de Itaipu, Asuncion (Paraguay)

    2001-07-01

    In September 2000 the Energy Ministry concluded the elaboration of the electricity law for the Paraguayan electrical system, which should be exposed for its corresponding analysis, approval and promulgation. In this direction, this present work makes a detailed analysis of that, having as premise the following main points: aspects of its elaboration; proposed structure; opening of the Paraguayan electrical market; external interferences; businesses opportunities; protection to the consumers; protection to the investors and other relevant themes. Finally, the work is concluded presenting some suggestions and recommendations.

  16. Renal en Paraguay anti-HLA antibodies monitoring in patients with chronic renal failure on waiting list for renal transplant in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Prieto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anti-HLA antibodies determination in the serum of patients on a waiting list for renal transplant is essential to optimize donor selection as well as for the induction and maintenance immunosuppression scheme, according to immunological risk. These antibodies could be present before transplantation as a result of being exposed to blood transfusions, pregnancies and previous transplants. The objective of the study was to determine immunization against HLA antigens, associated factors and their impact on the waiting list for a renal transplant. Methods: In this observational retrospective cross sectional study, 254 patients on the waiting list for renal transplant were included. These patients attended the Public Health central laboratory between July 2013 and July 2015. Results: 30% of the 254 studied patients presented anti-HLA antibodies. The most significant sensitizing event was the exposure to a previous transplant (p=<0.05. Multiparous women were in second place, 69% of them presenting positive PRA (panel reactive antibodies (p=<0.05. Finally 24% of poly transfused patients presented anti-HLA antibodies (p=<0.05. Conclusions: During the 2 year of the study, 51 patients were transplanted, presenting only one of them anti-HLA antibodies before transplantation. This results clearly indicate that the immunization against HLA represents a barrier for transplantation access.

  17. Pain therapy with Samario 153-EDTM in prostate cancer. Pilot experience in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jara Yorg, Jorge

    2001-07-01

    To relieve the skeletal pain in metastasis disseminated in bones, numerous radiotracers have been used without achieving important clinical acceptance. The SAMARIUM 153 EDT (Etilendiaminetrametilen acid phosphonic) is a radiopharmaceutic that is chemically and biologically stable and preferably concentrates on the skeletal metastasis [es

  18. La República de los historiadores del Paraguay posbélico

    OpenAIRE

    Telesca, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    En ocasión del bicentenario de la adopción de la República como sistema de gobierno, e independiente tanto de España como de Buenos Aires, este artículo reflexiona sobre como los historiadores paraguayos de fines de siglo XIX reflexionaron sobre el tema, relacionándolo con la adopción de un nuevo sistema de gobierno con la constitución de 1870 (calco de la argentina). Fil: Telesca, Ignacio. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico - CONICET ...

  19. Rural water sustainability in Latin America and the Caribbean. The sanitation boards in Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Prado, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    El agua es un recurso esencial y vector fundamental para el desarrollo sostenible. La falta de acceso a agua potable tiene impactos clave en la salud, la economía y la educación, especialmente en poblaciones vulnerables. Sin embargo, el acceso no garantiza un nivel adecuado de servicio, asequible, equitativo y universal. Importantes esfuerzos en el ámbito internacional han impulsado la agenda para mejorar el acceso a agua potable, especialmente en las zonas rurales donde históricamente los ni...

  20. The language policies about the Guarani in Paraguay and the imaginary bilingualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Palha Colaça

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo que aqui se apresenta é um recorte de nossa tese de doutorado, em que analisamos discursivamente a construção do lugar que ocupa o guarani no Paraguai, como língua oficial na atualidade. Para tanto, filiamo-nos às pesquisas desenvolvidas no âmbito da História das Ideias Linguísticas (AUROUX, 1998, 2009 [1992], 2010 [1994]; ORLANDI, 1983, 1988, 2008 [1990], em seu entrelaçamento com a Análise do Discurso de linha francesa (PÊCHEUX, 1988 [1975], 1990 [1969]; 2010 [1994], para construir nossa reflexão e avançar nos estudos referentes ao tema. Objetivando compreender os sentidos produzidos acerca do imaginário de bilinguismo, analisamos as ações da Secretaria de Políticas Linguísticas, a partir da descrição de três projetos, dentre os quais selecionamos o intitulado Rohayhu Che Ñe’ẽ: una semana en lengua guaraní. Observamos o funcionamento dos discursos sobre o guarani no espaço de enunciação (GUIMARÃES, 2005 paraguaio e, também, no latino-americano, por sua incorporação como língua oficial de trabalho do Mercosul. Pela análise empreendida, foi possível verificar como a memória (PÊCHEUX, 2007 sobre as línguas se inscreve na produção de políticas de línguas sobre o bilinguismo, pela promoção de um bilinguismo imaginário. No jogo das relações de forças travadas no embate entre as línguas, nas textualidades analisadas, materializam-se os efeitos de sentidos produzidos ideológica e historicamente, em um processo que segue promovendo a língua. --- http://dx.doi.org/10.12957/matraga.2016.21231

  1. Host association of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) corn and rice strains in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juárez, M.L.; Murua, M.G.; García, M.G.; Ontivero, M.; Vera, M.T.; Vilardi, J.C.; Groot, A.T.; Castagnaro, A.P.; Gastaminza, G.; Willink, E.

    2012-01-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) is composed of two genetically distinct strains, the so-called corn strain and the rice strain. Whether the two strains differ in their host use is unclear, because laboratory experiments have not been able to show consistent host performance or preference

  2. Conserving the grassland Important Bird Areas (IBAs) of southern South America: Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian S. Di Giacomo; Santiago Krapovickas

    2005-01-01

    In the southern part of South America, knowledge about bird species distribution is still not used as a tool for land use planning and conservation priority-setting. BirdLife International’s Important Bird Areas (IBA) Program is an appropriate vehicle for analyzing existing information about birds, and to generate new data where necessary. IBA inventories...

  3. Werte, existentielle Schuld und Hilfsbereitschaft gegenüber Indios und landlosen Bauern in Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Manfred; Behner, Robert; Müller, Lothar; Montada, Leo

    1992-01-01

    Die Untersuchung ist eine Replikation vorangegangener Studien zur psychologischen Verarbeitung eigener Bevorteilung in Relation zur Benachteiligung anderer. 80 paraguayischen Studierenden wurden Benachteiligungsepisoden von landlosen Bauern (Campesinos) und Indianern geschildert. Die Probanden sollten anhand vorgegebener Reaktionsmöglichkeiten angeben, wie sie die geschilderten Benachteiligungen beurteilen (z.B. als wie ungerecht), welche Emotionen diese bei ihnen auslösen (z.B. Schuldgefühle...

  4. Preliminary study on element mass fraction determination on catfish samples from Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Edson G.; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Frutos, Sixto A.; Insaurralde, Mario S.

    2013-01-01

    South American catfish (Pseudoplatystoma), commonly known in Spanish as atigrado or surubi and in Portuguese as surubim or pintado is a large fish that typically reaches 1 m long and weighs 60 kg to 80 kg and may be found at the basins of the Amazon, the Sao Francisco and de la Plata rivers, usually in riverbeds and deep wells. Being a much appreciated fish for human consumption, it is quite sought after by fishermen who have been contributing to the reduction of the stocks. This fact attracted the attention of the Paraguayan authorities to the point of imposing restrictions to free fishing and commercialization. This study aims to assist the conservation efforts towards this fish by investigating its exposure to possible pollutants. Preliminary results on element determination on six samples of catfish from Paraguayan rivers are presented. Cs, Co, Fe, Se and Zn were determined by applying an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis method. While these element levels were lower than the legislation for human consumption, the elements As, Cr e La were not detected in the samples as they are below the detection limit of the method employed. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was used to investigate the presence of Cd, Hg and Pb in the samples. Hg was detected in the samples while Cd and Pb were below the detection limit of the method. (author)

  5. Experience of gynecological braquitherapy in the Instituto Nacional del Cancer of Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggiari, G.; Almiron, M.; Guggiari, P.A.; Resquin, T.; Ramos, A.

    2004-05-01

    In April 2002 the first braquitherapy was carried out in the National Cancer Institute. With the support of the IAEA, a remote controlled equipment of braquitherapy of low dose was installed and it was qualified to the all technical staff as well as the visit from expert of USA, Spain, Italy, France, Argentina and Brazil. The first 100 braquitherapy was evaluated in patients with diagnose (dx.) of cancer (cea) of uterine neck and endometry [es

  6. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in lowland tapirs maintained ex situ in Brazil and Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Naegeli Gondim

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Lowland Tapir ( Tapirus terrestris is the second largest South American land mammal. It is strictly herbivorous and its exposure to Toxoplasma gondii should be indicative of environmental contamination by oocysts.In the present study antibodies to T. gondii in 47 Brazilian tapirs maintained ex situ in 10 Brazilian and in one Paraguayan institution were sought in serum samples by the modified agglutination test (MAT ≥25. None of the animals presented clinical signs during the study. From 47 animals 35 (74.5% were positive with titers of 25 in 8, 50 in 6, 100 in 12, 200 in 5, 400 in 1 and 800 in 3. One animal had samples collected on twice, and 19 were born in captivity. There was no association between occurrence of T. gondii antibodies and gender, and positive animals were reported in all institutions. The high occurrence of seropositive tapirs born ininstitutions (54.3% confirmed the high exposure of these mammals to T. gondii in captivity. Only two cases ofabortion were reported, but it was not possible to correlate these abortions to T. gondii infection.

  7. Engaging Students in Applied Research: Experiences from Collaborative Research and Learning in Brazil and Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez-Leon, Marcela; Burke, Brian; Radonic, Lucero

    2009-01-01

    A critical interest of applied anthropology is to educate students to be theoretically grounded and capable of assuming a level of social responsibility that extends beyond academia. In this paper, we reflect on the issue of student preparation for work in the policy arena by focusing on the experiences of a five-year applied research project that…

  8. Preliminary study on element mass fraction determination on catfish samples from Paraguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Edson G.; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A., E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br, E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.br, E-mail: mariliasemmler@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Frutos, Sixto A.; Insaurralde, Mario S., E-mail: tony8013@hotmail.com, E-mail: insaurraldemar9@hotmail.com [Universidad Nacional de Asuncion (FCV/UNA), San Lorenzo (Paraguay). Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias. Departamento de Pesca y Acuicultura

    2013-07-01

    South American catfish (Pseudoplatystoma), commonly known in Spanish as atigrado or surubi and in Portuguese as surubim or pintado is a large fish that typically reaches 1 m long and weighs 60 kg to 80 kg and may be found at the basins of the Amazon, the Sao Francisco and de la Plata rivers, usually in riverbeds and deep wells. Being a much appreciated fish for human consumption, it is quite sought after by fishermen who have been contributing to the reduction of the stocks. This fact attracted the attention of the Paraguayan authorities to the point of imposing restrictions to free fishing and commercialization. This study aims to assist the conservation efforts towards this fish by investigating its exposure to possible pollutants. Preliminary results on element determination on six samples of catfish from Paraguayan rivers are presented. Cs, Co, Fe, Se and Zn were determined by applying an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis method. While these element levels were lower than the legislation for human consumption, the elements As, Cr e La were not detected in the samples as they are below the detection limit of the method employed. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was used to investigate the presence of Cd, Hg and Pb in the samples. Hg was detected in the samples while Cd and Pb were below the detection limit of the method. (author)

  9. Visual acuity and refraction by age for children of three different ethnic groups in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa Janine Carter

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To characterize refractive errors in Paraguayan children aged 5-16 years and investigate effect of age, gender, and ethnicity. METHODS:The study was conducted at 3 schools that catered to Mennonite, indigenous, and mixed race children. Children were examined for presenting visual acuity, autorefraction with and without cycloplegia, and retinoscopy. Data were analyzed for myopia and hyperopia (SE ≤-1 D or -0.5 D and ≥2 D or ≥3 D and astigmatism (cylinder ≥1 D. Spherical equivalent (SE values were calculated from right eye cycloplegic autorefraction data and analyzed using general linear modelling. RESULTS: There were 190, 118, and 168 children of Mennonite, indigenous and mixed race ethnicity, respectively. SE values between right/left eyes were nonsignificant. Mean visual acuity (VA without correction was better for Mennonites compared to indigenous or mixed race children (right eyes: 0.031, 0.090, and 0.102 logMAR units, respectively; P<0.000001. There were 2 cases of myopia in the Mennonite group (1.2% and 2 cases in the mixed race group (1.4% (SE ≤-0.5 D. The prevalence of hyperopia (SE ≥2 D was 40.6%, 34.2%, and 46.3% for Mennonite, indigenous and mixed race children. Corresponding astigmatism rates were 3.2%, 9.5%, and 12.7%. Females were slightly more hyperopic than males, and the 9-11 years age group was the most hyperopic. Mennonite and mixed race children were more hyperopic than indigenous children. CONCLUSIONS: Paraguayan children were remarkably hyperopic and relatively free of myopia. Differences with regard to gender, age, and ethnicity were small.

  10. HLA-DRB1 alleles in four Amerindian populations from Argentina and Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is one of the biological systems of major polymorphisms. The study of HLA class II variability has allowed the identification of several alleles that are characteristic to Amerindian populations, and it is an excellent tool to define the relations and biological affinities among them. In this work, we analyzed the allelic distribution of the HLA-DRB1 class II locus in four Amerindian populations: Mapuche (n = 34) and Tehuelche (n = 23) from the Patagonian region of Argentina, and Wichi SV (n = 24) and Lengua (n = 17) from the Argentinean and Paraguayan Chaco regions, respectively. In all of these groups, relatively high frequencies of Amerindian HLA-DRB1 alleles were observed (DRB1*0403, DRB1*0407, DRB1*0411, DRB1*0417, DRB1*0802, DRB1*0901, DRB1*1402, DRB1*1406 and DRB1*1602). However, we also detected the presence of non-Amerindian variants in Mapuche (35%) and Tehuelche (22%). We compared our data with those obtained in six indigenous groups of the Argentinean Chaco region and in a sample from Buenos Aires City. The genetic distance dendrogram showed a clear-cut division between the Patagonian and Chaco populations, which formed two different clusters. In spite of their linguistic differences, it can be inferred that the biological affinities observed are in concordance with the geographic distributions and interethnic relations established among the groups studied. PMID:21637670

  11. Notas sobre retenciones sintácticas en el español del Paraguay

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    Germán de Granda

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Ya en 1945 Charles E. Kanyl resaltó, muy justamente, la escasez de estudios sobre la sintaxis del español de América. Tres décadas más tarde Wolfgang Roth , en un contexto metodológico muy diferente, coincide, sin embargo, con el juicio emitido por Kan y y, también, con su diagnóstico de los factores condicionantes de tal situación: la insuficiencia en las técnicas de registro de los rasgos lingüísticos de esta índole y el especial carácter de la tradiciónliteraria hispanoamericana, con su peculiar distanciamiento entre lalengua oral y la escrita, a los cuales por su parte añade, con acierto, la práctica inexistencia (hasta estos últimos años de investigaciones locales orientadas de acuerdo con los planteamientos teóricos de la sociolingüística diacrónica.

  12. Planificacion linguistica y constitucion de un bloque regional: El caso del Mercosur (Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uraguay) y de Chile (Language Planning and the Constitution of a Regional Bloc: The Case of Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay) and Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chareille, Samantha

    2003-01-01

    The common market of the South is a new linguistic and cultural area. The resurgence of innermost identities within member states proves that Mercosur identity can neither be universal nor specific. The outcome of this quest for identity will depend on the ability to carefully handle an area of cultural diversity and a place of common allegiance…

  13. Fitoplancton del embalse Yacyretá (Argentina-Paraguay a una década de su llenado Phytoplankton of the Yacyretá Reservoir (Argentina-Paraguay after a decade from its filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Meichtry de Zaburlín

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la estructura y dinámica del fitoplancton del embalse Yacyretá en relación con las principales variables limnológicas durante el periodo diciembre de 2004 a noviembre de 2005, a 10 años del llenado del embalse. Las muestras cualitativas y cuantitativas fueron recolectadas en 6 estaciones, previamente seleccionadas siguiendo un criterio de zonación longitudinal. Se analizó la densidad, composición, riqueza, diversidad específica, equitatividad y grupos taxonómicos dominantes. Durante el período de estudio, el embalse Yacyretá no presentó estratificación térmica y la concentración de oxígeno disuelto fue alta en toda la columna de agua. Se registraron 200 especies distribuidas en 9 clases. El número de especies por muestra osciló entre 14 y 45 taxa y la diversidad específica entre 1.55 y 4.61 bits. La densidad varió entre 66 y 10 060 ind/ml, con dominancia de Cryptophyceae y Bacillariophyceae en las distintas regiones del embalse. Al inicio del otoño y final de la primavera, se registró un aumento en la densidad de Cyanobacteria en las estaciones con mayor tiempo de residencia del agua. La composición y densidad del fitoplancton presentó una marcada variación espacial y temporal determinada principalmente, por las variaciones del régimen hidrosedimentológico del río Paraná.In this study, we analyzed the structure and dynamics of the phytoplankton of the Yacyretá Reservoir and its relationship with the main limnological variables between December 2004 and November 2005, 10 years after the filling of the reservoir. Qualitative and quantitative samples were collected at 6 sampling stations, following a longitudinal zonation criterion. Density, composition, specific richness, diversity, equitability and dominance were analyzed. During the studied period, the Yacyretá Reservoir did not present thermal stratification, and the dissolved oxygen concentration in the water column was high. Two hundred species in 9 algae classes were recorded. The number of species per sample varied between 14 and 45 taxa and the specific diversity between 1.55 y 4.61 bits. Density ranged among 66 and 10 060 ind/ml, with dominance of Cryptophyceae and Bacillariophyceae in different regions of the reservoir. An increase in the Cyanobacteria density at the begining of Autumn and at the end of Spring, mainly in the stations with longer time of permanence of water, was recorded. During the analysis period the composition and density of the phytoplankton presented a noticeable spatial and temporal variation, determined mainly by the hydrosedimentologic cycle variations.

  14. La introducción de la escala de inteligencia de Stanford-Binet en el Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    José E. García

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN: Aunque las primeras estrategias para evaluar la habilidad intelectual encuentran antecedentes milenarios en la antigua China, los intentos de medición en el periodo moderno comienzan con el psicólogo inglés Francis Galton en la década de 1880, mediante la aplicación de medidas fisiológicas para estimar el talento humano. A comienzos del siglo XX, los psicólogos franceses Alfred Binet y Théodore Simon construyeron las primeras escalas métricas para estimar la inteligencia de los niños...

  15. El Estado y la garantía del derecho a la alimentación adecuada en Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Fukuoka, Milena

    2012-01-01

    El estudio contiene un análisis conceptual y normativo del derecho a la alimentación adecuada, y expone las principales características de las políticas alimentarias en Sudamérica. Efectúa un monitoreo del cumplimiento de las obligaciones del Estado paraguayo con relación al derecho a la alimentación adecuada, en base al PIDESC y a las Directrices Voluntarias sobre el Derecho a la Alimentación de la FAO. Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Sociales

  16. Decentralized power plants. Steam engines in an agriculture cooperative in Paraguay, plant extension in cooperation with the GTZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    About 1 cent are the running costs to generate 1 kWh - less than three years is the time for return of investment: tThat are the facts of steam engines using tungfruit shells as a fuel. The more oil prices are rising the more efficiently will such plants work. The way an agricultural cooperative in Paraquay changed their power supply is a good example for varying decentralized power plants - and how to save oil.

  17. Ecology of rodent-associated hantaviruses in the Southern Cone of South America: Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, R Eduardo; Polop, Jaime J; Owen, Robert D; Mills, James N

    2012-04-01

    Thirteen hantavirus genotypes, associated with at least 12 sigmodontine reservoir rodents, have been recognized in the four countries that represent the Southern Cone of South America. Host-virus relationships are not as well defined as in North America; several Southern Cone hantaviruses appear to share a common host and some viruses do not occur throughout the range of their host. Although hantavirus-host relationships in the Southern Cone are less strictly concordant with the single-host-single-virus pattern reported elsewhere, recent studies suggest that much of the ambiguity may result from an incomplete understanding of host and hantavirus systematics. Although some Southern Cone host species are habitat generalists, some sympatric species are habitat specialists, helping to explain how some strict host-virus pairings may be maintained. In some cases, host population densities were higher in peridomestic habitats and prevalence of hantavirus infection was higher in host populations in peridomestic habitats. Seasonal and multiyear patterns in climate and human disturbance affect host population densities, prevalence of infection, and disease risk to humans. Unusually high hantavirus antibody prevalence in indigenous human populations may be associated with frequent and close contact with host rodents. Ongoing studies are improving our understanding of hantavirus-host ecology and providing tools that may predict human risk.

  18. Terrorism, Diasporas, and Permissive Threat Environments. A Study of Hizballah’s Fundraising Operations in Paraguay and Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    126 “Ecuador: FARC Leader Reyes Escapes Police Surveillance in Quito,” El Comercio [ Internet version-www], 11...Ecuador: FARC Leader Reyes Escapes Police Surveillance in Quito,” El Comercio [ Internet version-www], 11 Jan 04. FBIS Document ID...to facilitate legal business, including the Internet and e-commerce channels.”35 The identification of a mutually beneficial relationship existing

  19. Cytotaxonomy of two species of genus Chrysolaena H. Robinson, 1988 (Vernonieae, Asteraceae) from Northeast Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico, Gisela M. Via Do; Dematteis, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Chromosome counts and karyotypes of two species of Chrysolaena H. Robinson 1988 are presented in this paper. Mitotic analysis revealed that both taxa have x=10, a basic chromosome number considered characteristic of the genus. The chromosome number and the karyotype of Chrysolaena cristobaliana are reported for the first time, as well as a new cytotype and the karyotype of Chrysolaena sceptrum. Chrysolaena cristobaliana showed heptaploid cytotype with 2n=7x=70 and a karyotype composed of 46 m + 24 sm chromosomes. On the other hand, Chrysolaena sceptrum presented tetraploid cytotype with 2n=4x=40 and a karyotype with 30 m + 10 sm chromosomes. Accessory chromosomes were observed in cells of both species. The chromosome analysis showed that these species differ in the chromosome number and the total chromosome length, although they showed similar chromosome morphology and asymmetry indexes. The results support the use of chromosome data in taxonomic treatments of the American members of the tribe Vernonieae. PMID:25147624

  20. Cases of acute pesticide poisoning in Colonia Puerto Pirapó, Itapúa, Paraguay, February, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esther Pedrozo

    2017-06-01

    In two samples from the community water supply network the active compound detected was profenophos. It is essential to train primary health care personnel to identify cases of acute pesticide poisoning in a timely manner to provide appropriate treatment, especially in rural areas. Additionally, it is necessary that responsible institutions monitor compliance with environmental regulations in these areas to avoid such incidents.

  1. Reforming Municipal Budgeting and Financial Management in a South American City: A Case Study of Asuncion, Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel BALLARD

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing frequency, the two highly interrelated subjects of municipal budgeting and effective financial management are becoming ever more central to discussions of local governance reform in Latin America. Among the most important factors contributing to this are the growing concern throughout the hemisphere about the decentralization of governmental services and the expanding influence of elected mayors. For at least a decade, governments from Mexico to Argentina, have been discussing and, in some cases, actually carrying out, efforts to decentralize to the local level public service provision in such important program areas as economic development, education, health services and housing.

  2. Characterization of the early development of Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae from the Paraguay River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda F. Andrade

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study described the initial development of Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum, as well as changes in growth patterns. Morphometric and meristic variables were analyzed during embryonic, larval and juvenile periods, even as allometric growth coefficients for larvae and juveniles. Eggs showed an average diameter of 1.79 mm and broad perivitelline space (23.41%. The total length (TL of the larvae ranged from 3.05 to 25.72 mm, and the total number of myomeres ranged from 45 to 50 (preanal = 13-16 and postanal = 30-35. Initial pigmentation is poor, concentrated at the extremities of the yolk sac. In the flexion stage, the pigmentation intensifies and forms a longitudinal stripe extending from the snout to the operculum and two longitudinal stripes on the body, one dorsal and the other ventral, that unite at the caudal peduncle. At first, there is a differential growth of the head and tail, and then there is the growth of the body, which shows changes in the ontogenetic priorities of feeding, swimming, and breathing capacities. Our results are very important for ecology, systematics, and hatchering, especially in terms of ontogenetic variation in morphology, growth, feeding, behavior, and mortality of P. reticulatum.

  3. Estado nutricional y aspectos alimentarios de mujeres indígenas del departamento de Presidente Hayes, Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Echagüe; Valentina Díaz; Laura Mendoza; Pamela Mongelos; Graciela Giménez; Malvina Paez; Florentina Laspina; Amalia Castro; María Isabel Rodríguez; Patricia Araújo; Wilberto Castro; Ramón Marecos; Santiago Evers; Gerardo Deluca; Alejandra Picconi

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: Las comunidades indígenas presentan un mayor riesgo de inseguridad alimentaria y malnutrición, menor disponibilidad de recursos, y una creciente dependencia de alimentos más baratos aunque con un alto grado de procesamiento. Objetivo: Identificar el estado nutricional y aspectos alimentarios en mujeres indígenas de tres comunidades del Departamento de Presidente Hayes, Chaco Paraguayo. Metodología: Estudio observacional de diseño transversal con componente analítico, que incluyó...

  4. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Lowland Tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) maintained ex-situ in Brazil and Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to Toxoplasma gondii, by the presence of antibodies to the parasite, was documented in 47 Brazilian tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) maintained ex-situ in 10 Brazilian and in one Paraguayan Institution. One animal had samples collected on two occasions (November 2010 and October 2011), and 19 (4...

  5. Genetic diversity of the floury race of maize Avati Morotî from the Guaraní tribe in Paraguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlando Noldin, O.; Revilla, P.; Ordás, B.

    2016-11-01

    Avati Morotî is a race of floury maize widely used by the Guarani people in South America, whose variability and potential value for breeding has been neglected so far. The objective of this research was to explore the genetic variability within the main Paraguayan race Avati Morotî. We studied the genetic variability available in the 20 accessions of Paraguayan Avati Morotî included in the South American core collection made by CIMMYT. Thirty individuals per accession were genotyped with 30 SSR (simple sequence repeat); we determined genetic diversity and made a cluster analysis in order to define genetic relationships among accessions. Mean of polymorphic loci (0.96), alleles per locus (3.57), alleles per polymorphic locus (3.65), expected (0.48) and observed (0.43) heterozygosity, and coefficient of consanguinity (0.12) revealed that Avati Morotî contains a genetic diversity comparable to the most variable maize races of maize. The cluster analysis classified the 20 populations in eight groups, five of them with a single accession, and a large group representing a central pool of germplasm. These results indicate that there is a large variability available in this race, and encourage the collection of more samples of Avati Morotî, particularly in marginal areas that were scarcely sampled. (Author)

  6. Arquitectura contemporánea y sostenibilidad: The Architect is present, Solano Benítez en Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    MARTÍNEZ ARLANDIS, SERGIO

    2018-01-01

    [ES] El cambio climático y el crecimiento de la población están provocando que la vida en la Tierra sea cada vez más insostenible. Es por ello que urge la necesidad de generar cambios mediante los cuales podamos asegurar que la decadencia del planeta en el que vivimos pierda la velocidad con la que hoy en día avanza. La arquitectura al igual que muchas otras disciplinas, están tomando conciencia buscando nuevas soluciones para hacer que las formas y estilos de vida sociales supongan un menor ...

  7. “La mano nella terra”. Spaesamento e redenzione di un “conquistatore conquistato” nel Paraguay del XVI secolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Di Meglio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In her short story “La mano en la tierra” Josefina Pla outlines a “postmodern” portrait of the sixteenth-century hidalgo Don Blas, whose language is initially marked by the difference between Western hegemonic discourse and the subdued and subaltern Otherness of the natives. However, he gradually realizes not only the estrangement effect of his contact with the guarani people, but also a sense of displacement due both to the semantic crisis caused by contamination and his sense of alienation within his own family. Only at the end, thanks to the blue colour of his mestizo son’s eyes, does he recognize himself as a foreigner among foreigners, as half of a world which is completed by the Other, and reach a reconciliation that opens the door to the counter-conquest of future Americans.

  8. Estado nutricional y aspectos alimentarios de mujeres indígenas del departamento de Presidente Hayes, Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Echagüe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las comunidades indígenas presentan un mayor riesgo de inseguridad alimentaria y malnutrición, menor disponibilidad de recursos, y una creciente dependencia de alimentos más baratos aunque con un alto grado de procesamiento. Objetivo: Identificar el estado nutricional y aspectos alimentarios en mujeres indígenas de tres comunidades del Departamento de Presidente Hayes, Chaco Paraguayo. Metodología: Estudio observacional de diseño transversal con componente analítico, que incluyó a 81 mujeres de 15 a 44 años de edad, de las etnias Maká y Toba Qom. Previo consentimiento informado, se realizó la valoración nutricional y la entrevista para obtener los datos sociodemográficos y alimentarios. Resultados: Las mujeres indígenas presentaron una frecuencia de sobrepeso de 30,8% y obesidad del 21,0%, mientras que el 1,2 % presentó desnutrición. No encontramos diferencia significativa entre las etnias, en relación al sobrepeso y obesidad, (p>0,05. Observamos que las indígenas tenían una alta ingesta de frutas, azúcares y mieles. El 87 y 88% de las mujeres indígenas de ambas etnias estudiadas refirieron no consumir lácteos y derivados y entre 65 y 69% refirieron no consumir verduras. Conclusiones: Observamos un elevado porcentaje de obesidad y sobrepeso, un bajo consumo de lácteos y verduras y un alto consumo de azúcares, relacionados posiblemente a cambios en los aspectos alimentarios y sus costumbres, influenciados por la cercanía a las zonas urbanas y el acceso a alimentos de menor precio y mayor contenido energético.

  9. Soutien organisationnel de la phase 2 de l'ITT : Desarrollo ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening territorial development and local management mechanisms in Paraguay. Paraguay is a country with high levels of political and administrative centralization. View moreStrengthening territorial development and local management mechanisms in Paraguay ...

  10. Desdoblamientos del estructuralismo cepalino para el análisis de la economía paraguaya: proyección Brasil - Paraguay entre 1992-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Cáceres, Wendy Marluz; Silva, Rodrigo Luiz Medeiros da; Gouvêa, Marina Machado de Magalhaes

    2014-01-01

    Anais do III Encontro de Iniciação Científica da Unila - Sessão de Ciências Econômicas e Desenvolvimento Rural e Segurança Alimentar - 06/11/14 – 13h30 às 16h50 - Unila-PTI - Bloco 09 – Espaço 03 – Sala 02 El surgimiento del imperialismo, según Lenin, va desde finales del siglo XIX y comienzos del siglo XX, periodo en el cual surgen los monopolios y se expanden por el mundo a través de la inversión de los propios procesos productivos. Este movimiento da origen a la formación de ce...

  11. La ciudad de Encarnación, Paraguay. Intervención urbana a gran escala y nuevos procesos socio-espaciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Fernando Brites

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda el análisis de las recientes transformaciones que ha experimentado la ciudad Paraguaya de Encarnación a partir de los efectos de las obras complementarias de la represa hidroeléctrica Yacyretá, y su plan de desarrollo urbano. Se sostiene que hay un cambio en los patrones de ocupación del suelo urbano no solo por el crecimiento del embalse del río Paraná, y las consecuentes acciones de relocalización, sino por la emergencia de nuevos procesos de renovación y revalorización urbana derivadas de obras públicas de alta calidad urbanística. El cambio se valió de un discurso del desarrollo urbano que se espacializó en la costa ribereña, planteando una necesaria discontinuidad con el orden urbano anterior.

  12. Actio Libera in Causa in Paraguay in the light of the german penal dogmatic: a decision between criminal policy and the legality principlempire to Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Cañete Prette

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Paraguayan Criminal Code prescribes culpability as a necessary condition for the imposition of a sanction/punishment. Likewise, in its art. 23, it establishes that, whoever at the moment of the commission of a crime or offense, by cause of a grave perturbation to its consciousness, is not aware of the anti-juridical nature of its acts, shall be deemed irreproachable, and henceforth shall be free from the imposition of a sanction. Given that said norm does not contemplate an exemption, this allows the perpetrator to escape the ius puniendi, when he/she purposefully provokes the state of irreproachability to perpetrate the planned act. This is the problem which the actio libera in causa seeks to provide an answer for. The application of the said theory is however neither anchored in the Paraguayan doctrine or case law. Under this considerations, the present article seeks to contribute to this discussion by carrying out a legal analysis of the application of the action libera in causa in the light of the theories discussed in the German criminal law scholarship, looking to shed light on the potential legal consequences that the application or rejection of the action libera in causa would have considering the current state of the Paraguayan criminal laws/Paraguayan criminal legal system.

  13. Elisa Alicia Lynch: a Dama de Aço do Paraguai * Elisa Alicia Lynch: the Steel ‘S Lady of Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Frota, Luciara Silveira de Aragão e

    2015-01-01

    Este trabalho mostra uma nova visão da irlandesa Elisa Alicia Lynch, longe da figura de prostituta manipuladora que incitou o Marechal Solano López no começo da Guerra do Paraguai. Dentro de uma corrente revisionista histórica, apoiada em Marc Bloch, propõe uma nova análise de seu papel na vida de Solano López e do Paraguai, comentando a literatura sobre o assunto.

  14. Taxonomic Treatment of Solanum Section Petota (Wild Potatoes) in Catálogo de Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, y sur del Brasil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanum section Petota (Solanaceae), which includes the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its wild relatives, contains over 150 wild species distributed from the southwestern U.S.A. (38°N) to central Argentina and adjacent Chile (41°S). This catalog includes all species from the Southern Con...

  15. Sociabilidad y vida cotidiana: los rituales del festejo de amistad durante el stronismo en Paraguay = Daily life practices and political sociability: the rituals of celebration of the cruzada de la amistad during the stronism in Paraguay = Sociabilidade e vida quotidiana: os rituais da celebração da amizade durante o stronismo no Paraguai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soler, Lorena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available “La Cruzada Mundial de la Amistad” é uma organização civil fundada em 20 de junho de 1958 pelo médico Ramón Artemio Bracho em Puerto Pinasco (Chaco, Paraguai, desenvolvida sob a égide do regime stronista (1954-1989 e de diferentes agências internacionais. A Cruzada, desde suas práticas altruístas, procurou recriar uma sociabilidade política a partir da ritualização da celebração da amizade no âmbito ideológico da Guerra Fria. A este respeito, o artigo procura investigar, através da pesquisa da imprensa escrita da época e do órgão de divulgação da organização (a revista Yuacjhu, a recriação da vida diária com o objetivo de gerar adesões à ordem autoritária stronista. A nossa intenção é contribuir para o estudo de como as ideologias das ordens políticas de direita permearam as práticas cotidianas dos sujeitos e deram sentido às ações de diferentes registros da vida socia

  16. A prospective study demonstrating the effect of 5% povidone-iodine application for anterior segment intraocular surgery in Paraguay Estudio prospectivo demostrando el efecto de la instilación de yodo povidona al 5% previo a cirugía de segmento anterior en Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena P. Quiroga

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the conjunctival bacterial flora in cataract surgery patients and the effect of presurgical irrigation with 5% povidone-iodine solution. METHODS: Three samples from the inferior conjunctival fornix of the eye to be operated were obtained at baseline before washing (T0 with 10 ml 5% povidone-iodine solution, immediately after washing (T1, and upon completion of surgery (T2. Bacteria from the samples were inoculated in blood agar, chocolate agar, and thioglycolate broth. RESULTS: A total of 221 patients (n=224 eyes with a mean age of 67 ± 13 years were included in the study. Bacteria from the (T0 samples were successfully grown in 73.2% of the thioglycolate agars, 21.0% of the blood agars, and 19.2% of the chocolate agars. Compared with T1 samples, the use of povidone-iodine wash translated into a 60.8% reduction (from 73.2% to 12.5% in colonization of the conjunctiva (pOBJETIVO: Determinar la flora bacteriana de la conjuntiva en los pacientes a ser sometidos a cirugía de catarata y el efecto del lavado prequirúrgico con yodo povidona al 5% sobre dichos microorganismos. MÉTODOS: Se tomaron 3 muestras del fondo de saco conjuntival del ojo a ser operado de catarata antes (T0 de la irrigación de la conjuntiva con 10 ml de yodo povidona al 5%, como control, inmediatamente después (T1 y al término de la cirugía (T2. Se realizaron cultivos en agar sangre, agar chocolate y en caldo de tioglicolato. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron en el estudio 221 pacientes (n=24 ojos con un promedio de edad de 67 ± 13 años. El porcentaje de crecimiento bacteriano en (T0 fue de 73,2% en tioglicolato, 21% en agar sangre y 19,2 % en agar chocolate. Al compararlo con (T1 el efecto de la yodo povidona se tradujo en una reducción del 60,8% (de 73,2% a 12,5% en la colonización conjuntival (p<0.001. Entre las muestras de los tiempos T1 y T2 no hubo diferencia significativa en cuanto al crecimiento bacteriano. CONCLUSIÓN: El lavado conjuntival con yodo povidona al 5% reduce de forma efectiva la flora conjuntival por lo cual se recomienda fuertemente como método preoperatorio, como una de las medidas preventivas de la endoftalmitis posquirúrgica en cirugías de catarata.

  17. The influence of the 220 kv and 66 kv power electric systems and the subsystem of their servitude range in the 'chaco central' ecosystem in Paraguay; Relacion de tendido electrico de 220 kV y 66kV en el ecosistema del chaco central del Paraguay y el subsistema de su franja de servidumbre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta E, Hugo Cesar [ANDE - Administracion Nacional de Electricidad, Assuncion (Paraguay)

    2001-07-01

    According to the report from DOP/EL, in a medium period of time it has been registered nine disconnections of the 66 kv power transmission line located in the Chaco zone occurred in the nocturnal period. Those disconnections affected negatively the milky processes of Colinas Menonitas, deteriorating more than 20,000 liters of milk for each cut of the electric energy service. DMA/IM has accomplished a investigation job together with DOM/FO and has found the main reasons for those disconnections, so based on them it has recommended possible solutions related to the problem.

  18. All projects related to | Page 35 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Ghana. Program: Climate Change. Total Funding: CA$ 1,000,000.00. Strengthening territorial development and local management mechanisms in Paraguay. Project. Paraguay is a country with high levels of political and administrative centralization. Region: Paraguay, North and Central America, South America.

  19. Problemas y desafíos de la traducción de las lenguas indígenas. Los casos toba y maká de la región del Gran Chaco (Argentina y Paraguay)

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Messineo; Temis Lucía Tacconi

    2017-01-01

    Este trabajo trata sobre los problemas de la traducción entendida como una actividad translingüística e intercultural que involucra tomar decisiones no solo en el nivel lingüístico (estructural) sino también en el comunicativo y performativo del lenguaje. Con el propósito de abarcar estos dos niveles, seleccionamos, por un lado, dos categorías gramaticales de las lenguas toba y maká: los marcadores de posesión alienable y la evidencialidad. Dado que se trata de categorías no referenciales y p...

  20. Problemas y desafíos de la traducción de las lenguas indígenas. Los casos toba y maká de la región del Gran Chaco (Argentina y Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Messineo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo trata sobre los problemas de la traducción entendida como una actividad translingüística e intercultural que involucra tomar decisiones no solo en el nivel lingüístico (estructural sino también en el comunicativo y performativo del lenguaje. Con el propósito de abarcar estos dos niveles, seleccionamos, por un lado, dos categorías gramaticales de las lenguas toba y maká: los marcadores de posesión alienable y la evidencialidad. Dado que se trata de categorías no referenciales y pragmáticas, sus significados culturales podrían perderse en el proceso de traducción. Por otro lado, seleccionamos dos rasgos del arte verbal toba y maká que evidencian que el discurso oral indígena posee su propia estructura y organización, aun cuando pueda parecer errático o azaroso. Estos rasgos son la estructura prosódica del consejo toba y la repetición de los conectores discursivos en la narrativa toba y maká. Así también, el interés teórico de este trabajo es reflexionar sobre el modelo de lengua que subyace tanto a la descripción lingüística como a la traducción. Nuestro análisis está basado en un corpus de datos de primera mano recogidos durante sucesivos trabajos de campo en comunidades tobas y makás de la región del Gran Chaco.

  1. Dos décadas de seguimiento exitoso de la primera ablación de arritmias por catéter de radiofrecuencia realizado en la historia de la medicina del Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Antonio Centurión

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available La técnica de mapeo endocárdico durante el estudio electrofisiológico ha sido extensamente empleada en el análisis de las taquicardias paroxísticas supraventriculares (TPS. Mediante este mapeo endocárdico y el análisis meticuloso de los electrogramas endocárdicos y los respectivos intervalos de conducción, es posible localizar el sitio de origen de las arritmias y así facilitar su tratamiento ablativo por medio de catéteres de radiofrecuencia. Se describe el caso de un hombre de 29 años con síndrome de Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW que manifiestó que presentaba varios episodios documentados de TPS con serio compromiso hemodinámico que motivaba su frecuente internación en terapia intensiva. El mapeo electrofisiológico endocárdico meticuloso demostró la presencia de un haz anómalo de Kent auriculoventricular izquierdo en posición posteroseptal. El período refractario absoluto del haz anómalo de Kent fue de 240 ms. La primera emisión de radiofrecuencia a través de un catéter adecuadamente posicionado previo terminó la taquicardia. La taquicardia permaneció no inducible a partir de entonces. En estas dos décadas de seguimiento clínico, el paciente no ha presentado ni un solo episodio de taquicardia. La curación definitiva generada por la ablación del haz anómalo de Kent ha proporcionado un cambio drástico, total y beneficioso en la calidad de vida al paciente. Los beneficios clínicos y socioeconómicos son mayores cuanto más temprano en la evolución se realice el procedimiento de ablación de arritmias.

  2. Gaps in National Labour Rights for Women and Girls: inventory of gaps in labour legislation regarding women’s labour rights in Egypt, Guatemala, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Mozambique, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besamusca, J.; Tijdens, K.

    2015-01-01

    From 2012 to 2016, the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC), the WageIndicator Foundation and the Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies (AIAS) are running the Labour Rights for Women project with national trade union confederations and WageIndicator teams in twelve developing

  3. Patrimonio audiovisual iberoamericano Online (2013-2017). España, Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Chile, Ecuador,El Salvador, Guatemala, México, Paraguay, Perú, Uruguay, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    López-Yepes, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    Methodology of scientific research, informative documentation-cinematographic information management, journalistic, advertising, radio, television, social networks ... Archives, libraries, documentation centers and services, university audiovisual areas, specialized media

  4. The War of the Triple Alliance (1864-1870): A Historical Case Study on the Causes of Regional Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    The U.S. Library of Congress and the U.S. National Archives are valuable sources, as well as the Biblioteca Nacional del Paraguay (National Library of...2009). 66 Dom Pedro spoke Hebrew, and Arabic, and could read Sanskrit ( Biblioteca Virtual de Paraguay), and he visited the United States in his...27 “Enciclopedia Escolar de la Historia del Paraguay,” Revista ABC Color, February 13, 2000, vol. 6

  5. AS RELAÇÕES BRASIL - PARAGUAI: do litígio da fronteira brasileiro-paraguaia (1962 à Ata das Cataratas (1966

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaz Espósito Neto

    2013-09-01

    The relationship between BRAZIL - PARAGUAY: Litigation of the Brazilian-Paraguayan border (1962 Ata das Cataratas (1966 In the early 60s, Brazil and Paraguay disputed the sovereignty of a small region near Sete Quedas falls, also known as Salto de Guaira. This territorial problem was solved onlywith the Itaipu Treaty (1973 and the construction of abinational hydroelectric on the site. However, the Ata das Cataratas (1966 treaty inspired thelegal framework of the Treaty of 1973 and the Itaipu. This article presents the evolution of the Sete Quedas border dispute between Brazil and Paraguay. Keywords: sete Quedas.relationships Brazil –Paraguay. Itaipu

  6. 19 CFR 4.22 - Exemptions from special tonnage taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belgium Belize Bermuda Bolivia Brazil Bulgaria Burma Canada Chile Colombia... Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay People's Republic of China Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Qatar...

  7. 15 CFR 748.14 - Import Certificate for firearms destined for Organization of American States member countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, St. Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint...

  8. All projects related to Brazil | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay ... URUGUAY, Climate change, ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY, BRAZIL, COASTAL WATERS ... SURVEYS, CONSUMER EDUCATION, HEALTH LEGISLATION.

  9. Floods, Droughts and Farming on the Plains of Argentina and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-04-01

    Floods, Droughts and Farming on the Plains of Argentina and Paraguay, Pampas and Chaco Regions ... End Date. April 1, 2015 ... Argentina, South America, Paraguay, North and Central America ... IDRC is now accepting applications for this year's IDRC Doctoral Research Awards (IDRA). ... Careers · Contact Us · Site map.

  10. Mürgised sojaoad : mmmm, kui halb! / Silvia Lotman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lotman, Silvia, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    Sojaoa kasvatamisest Lõuna-Ameerikas ja Paraguays, kus on suures osas erastatud maad maha müüdud välismaistele suurkorporatsioonidele, mis kasutavad maad põllumajandustööstuseks. Pestitsiidide kasutamisest, mürgitamisjuhtudest ja kohtuotsusest, kus Paraguay ülemkohus mõistis süüdi Herman Schlenderi ja Alfredo Lautenschlageri

  11. 75 FR 11808 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Listing the Boa Constrictor, Four Python Species, and Four Anaconda...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ..., pond and stream, and swamp habitats, including extensive use of Nigerian mangrove habitats. In the arid... Paraguay Rivers in Brazil; and extending south as far as the Tropic of Capricorn in northeast Paraguay. The... is the Itenez/Guapore River in Bolivia along the border with Brazil, as well as the Baures River...

  12. New World Pouzozlia and Boehmeria (Urticaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilmot-Dear, Christine Melanie; Friis, Ib

    2011-01-01

    The paper supplements a revision of the New World species of Boehmeria and Pouzozia published by the authors in 1996. Pouzolzia amambaiensis sp. nov. is described from recent material from Paraguay near the border with Brazil and represents a new generic record for Paraguay. Also recorded...

  13. Environ: E00818 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00818 Paraguay tea Medicinal herb Caffeine [CPD:C07481], Theobromine [CPD:C07480]...018], Iron [CPD:C00023], Calcium [CPD:C00076], Potassium [CPD:C00238] [DR:D08403] Ilex paraguariensis [TAX:185542] ... Aquifoliaceae Paraguay tea leaves ...

  14. Relações de saúde e trabalho em assentamento rural do MST na região de fronteira Brasil-Paraguai Health and work relations in a rural settlement of the MST in the Brazil-Paraguay border region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Espíndola Fontoura Júnior

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o presente artigo, busca-se relatar e analisar as relações entre saúde e trabalho de pequenos produtores rurais do Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra (MST. Quanto à metodologia, adotou-se o aporte da investigação participativa e as bases da educação popular. O estudo realizado tornou possível uma compreensão de saúde e de trabalho mediante as narrativas dos trabalhadores e histórias relativas às lutas coletivas contra a exclusão e a violência no campo. Constataram-se importantes aspectos próprios a esse grupo populacional, como o sentido de conquista da propriedade da terra, os conflitos advindos da 'militância' e as diferenças de gênero e geração. Com base nos relatos, analisaram-se também os acidentes e os riscos relacionados à atividade de trabalho no assentamento rural, principalmente a exposição ao agrotóxico. Confirmaram-se, ainda, a solidariedade e a cooperação como valores importantes e como base de novas relações, um modo distinto de organização social coletiva do trabalho.In this article, we aim to report on and analyze the relationship between health and work of small farmers of the Landless Workers Movement (MST. So far as the methodology is concerned, we used participatory research and the basics of popular education. The study allowed for an understanding of health and work based on the workers' narratives, stories relating to collective struggles against exclusion and violence in the countryside. Important aspects related to this population group as were discovered, such as, for example, the sense of conquest of land ownership, the conflicts arising from 'activism,' and the differences of gender and generations. From the reports that were provided, we also examined the accidents and risks related to work in the rural settlement, particularly exposure to pesticides. It was also found that solidarity and cooperation are important values, basic elements for new relations and a distinctive mode of social organization of collective.

  15. A oposição à atuação brasileira no Paraguai pós-guerra da tríplice aliança: o caso do jornal La voz del pueblo (1870 = The opposition to brazilian performance in Paraguay post war of triple alliance: the case of the newspaper La voz del pueblo (1870

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Em março de 1870, o presidente paraguaio Francisco Solano Lopez foi assassinado por tropas brasileiras em Cerro Corá, norte do Paraguai. Este episódio marcou o término da guerra entre a Tríplice Aliança (Brasil, Argentina e Uruguai e o Paraguai. A partir de então, o país derrotado ficou ocupado política e militarmente por tropas aliadas até 1876, sendo este período marcado pela desorganização política e social daquela nação. Durante os anos 1869 e 1870, enquanto estava em questão o caráter da Constituição que iria reger o país no futuro, surgiram, em Assunção, os primeiros jornais independentes, os quais deram início à imprensa privada paraguaia. Um destes jornais foi La Voz del Pueblo, órgão representante do Club del Pueblo, pró- Argentina e que assumiu uma postura crítica em relação à atuação das autoridades civis e militares brasileiras em solo guarani. Este artigo objetiva analisar a atuação do referido jornal no conturbado momento político em que circulou, durante os meses de março a setembro de 1870. Embora tenha circulado durante um curto período, este jornal constitui importante fonte histórica para o estudo do Paraguai nos meses que se sucederam à morte de Solano Lopez e antecederam a aprovação da Constituição Nacional, em novembro de 1870

  16. O estabelecimento de colônias agrícolas civis e militares na província do Piauí no pós-guerra do Paraguai (1865-1888 = The establishment of military and civil agricultural colonies in the province of Piauí in after Paraguay war period (1865-1888

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo, Johny Santana de

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo pretende analisar a ação do governo imperial e provincial a fim de promover a ocupação do território do sul e sudoeste do Piauí através da criação de colônias civis e militares, processo amplamente desenvolvido entre os anos de 1870 a 1889 cujo um dos objetivos era assentar os ex-combatentes que retornavam da guerra do Paraguai e cujas promessas contidas no decreto 3. 371 de 1865 previam a distribuição de terras em colônias agrícolas civis e militares. Outra questão de relevância na proposta do estudo esta relacionada ao objetivo do governo imperial e provincial em reavivar os antigos projetos de criação de colônias agrícolas, amplamente defendidas pelo General Couto Magalhães e por Francisco Adolfo de Varnhagen

  17. Stevia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are available as sweeteners in Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan, Russia, Israel, Mexico, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela, Colombia, ... There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking stevia if you are pregnant or ...

  18. All projects related to | Page 70 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: POLICY MAKING, HEALTH CONDITIONS, FOOD, LATIN AMERICA, HEALTH ... Region: Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Paraguay, Peru, Canada. Program: ... that improve the supply and demand of fruits and vegetables in public schools.

  19. Addressing the Emergence and Spread of Leishmaniasis in the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-04-19

    The border areas of Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay have the highest burden of the disease in the region. Its emergence ... End Date. April 19, 2018 ... Call for proposals: Innovations for the economic inclusion of marginalized youth. IDRC and ...

  20. Strengthen the use of scientific evidence to inform climate policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Country(s). Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Paraguay, Uruguay ... IDRC at the ICLEI Resilient Cities 2018 conference. IDRC joins more than ... Call for proposals: Innovations for the economic inclusion of marginalized youth. IDRC and the ...

  1. Land Use, Biofuels and Rural Development in the La Plata Basin ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Yet the environmental, social and economic impacts on the basin remain largely unknown and ... Argentina, South America, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, North and Central America ... IDRC at the ICLEI Resilient Cities 2018 conference.

  2. What we do | Page 15 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 141 - 150 of 1605 ... Topic(s): Poverty alleviation, TRAINING, NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, CONSUMPTION, WOMEN, FINANCIAL ANALYSIS, FINANCIAL SERVICES, SELF EMPLOYED. Region(s): Americas, Brazil, South America, Colombia, Mexico, North and Central America, Paraguay, El Salvador, Latin ...

  3. All projects related to Uruguay | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    English · Français ... Business Cooperation and Regional Productive Development in Chile, El Salvador, Paraguay, and Uruguay (TTI). Project. Several studies have shown that some forms of collaborative business networking can have a ...

  4. Eksdiktaatori suguvõsa pürib tagasi võimule / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2006-01-01

    Paraguay nõuab Brasiilias viibiva kauaaegse diktaatori Alfredo Stroessneri väljaandmist. Tema tütrepoeg Alfredo Dominguez Stroessner on alustanud poliitilist tegevust. Lisa: Miljon dollarit päästis arestist

  5. : tous les projets | Page 303 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , RESEARCH RESULTS, POLICY MAKING. Région: Bolivia, South America, Ecuador, Guatemala, North and Central America, Honduras, Peru, Paraguay, El Salvador. Programme: Initiative Think tank. Financement total : CA$ 15,106,220.00.

  6. : tous les projets | Page 243 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: Climate change, ADAPTATION TO CHANGE, DROUGHT, FLOODS, HYDROLOGY, AGRICULTURAL LAND, CULTIVATED LAND, LAND USE, PLANNING. Région: Argentina, South America, Paraguay, North and Central America. Programme: Changements climatiques. Financement total : CA$ 391,900.00.

  7. 75 FR 76653 - Export Control Modernization: Strategic Trade Authorization License Exception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... paper to Regulatory Policy Division, Bureau of Industry and Security, Room 2705, U.S. Department of..., Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Rwanda, Saint Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia...

  8. 78 FR 59743 - Bureau of Consular Affairs; Registration for the Diversity Immigrant (DV-2015) Visa Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... result in Web site delays. No late entries or paper entries will be accepted. The law allows only one... Dominica Grenada Guatemala Guyana Honduras Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia...

  9. South American Youth and Integration : Typical Situations and Youth ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South American Youth and Integration : Typical Situations and Youth ... IDRC partner the World Economic Forum is building a hub for inclusive growth ... Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay) and their perception of rights, democracy and regional.

  10. Cocaine smuggling from Bolivia to Atlantic ports may exploit commercial trade on Mercosur Hidrovia, lacking a waterways management strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Bolivian cocaine production has been increasing and Argentine traffickers are playing a greater role in direct exportation of Bolivian cocaine to the United States and Europe. Development of the Paraguay-Parana river system (Hidrovia) into an efficie...

  11. Chagas Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... countries such as: Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay or Venezuela ■ Have seen the bug, ...

  12. Find an ENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Republic Congo, The Dem Rep Of ... Palau Palestinian Territory Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Reunion ...

  13. : tous les projets | Page 344 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: AGRICULTURAL POLICY, COTTON, SMALLHOLDERS. Région: Argentina, South America, Brazil, Paraguay, North and Central America ... Sujet: INDUSTRIAL CROPS, EXPORT ORIENTED INDUSTRIES, FOOD STANDARDS, QUALITY CONTROL, TESTING. Région: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Malaysia.

  14. What we do | Page 34 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This knowledge can be used as a tool for addressing pressing global challenges. We share it ... Siblings paddling to school. Story ... Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, West Indies, North And Central America, South America, Mexico, Paraguay.

  15. 75 FR 41073 - South American Cactus Moth Regulations; Quarantined Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ...) that is indigenous to Argentina, southern Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. It is a serious quarantine... notice to the owner, person in possession, or person responsible for the management of the land to be...

  16. Building equitable health systems in Latin America | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The region's segmented health systems make it difficult to provide equal access to ... to reorganize healthcare systems in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. ... Involving urban communities in controlling dengue fever in Latin America.

  17. All projects related to | Page 9 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Think Tank Initiative's (TTI) Phase 2 capacity development strategy focuses on strengthening policy research institutions to ensure long-term organizational sustainability. Region: Bolivia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Paraguay, Peru, North and Central America. Program: Think Tank Initiative.

  18. Travelers' Health: Yellow Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paraguay Peru 2 Suriname Trinidad and Tobago 2 Venezuela 2 1 Countries or areas where “a risk ... Vision Using this Site Legal Link to Us Policies FOIA Accessibility Privacy No FEAR Act Inspector General ...

  19. Electricity in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeze, Paul

    1998-12-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: The Political and Economic Environment; Natural Resources; The Financial Situation; Argentina; Belize; Bolivia; Brazil; Chile; Columbia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; El Salvador; French Guyana; Guatemala; Guyana; Honduras; Nicaragua; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Surinam; Uruguay; Venezuela. (Author)

  20. Zika Travel Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colombia , Ecuador , French Guiana , Guyana , Paraguay , Peru , Suriname , Venezuela Areas with Interrupted Transmission Zika was previously found ... Vision Using this Site Legal Link to Us Policies FOIA Accessibility Privacy No FEAR Act Inspector General ...

  1. Reported Cases of HPS (Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Paraguay, Panama and Uruguay and Venezuela. Large outbreaks have been rare and have usually ... Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton ...

  2. All projects related to canada | Page 14 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Zambia is experiencing a crisis in terms of the size and deployment of its health workforce. Start Date: January 13, ... Co-management of Natural Resources across Radical Differences : Case Study of the Yshiro (Paraguay). Project. Previous ...

  3. Procrastination in Recognizing the Rights of Domestic Workers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mussie_Mezgebo

    Migrating out of Poverty Research Program Consortium Arts B, University of ..... Paraguay, Panama, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Philippines, Guyana, .... inclusion of job description; the rate of pay or compensation for overtime and.

  4. All projects related to Argentina | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Program: Governance and Justice ... Region: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Paraguay, Uruguay ... Program: Canada-Israel Health Research Program ... and Twitter are having a direct bearing on social inclusion and opportunity in many ...

  5. All projects related to | Page 226 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-20

    End Date: May 20, 2016. Topic: WATER CONSUMPTION, POPULATION GROWTH, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, SOUTH AMERICA, WATER MANAGEMENT, GOVERNMENT POLICY, LAND USE. Region: Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay. Program: Climate Change. Total Funding: CA$ ...

  6. All projects related to argentina | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Program: Governance and Justice ... Region: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Paraguay, Uruguay ... Program: Food, Environment, and Health ... and Twitter are having a direct bearing on social inclusion and opportunity in many spheres of ...

  7. By, With, and Through: The Theory and Practice of Special Operations Capacity-Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    agricultural matters; legal and immigration matters; and, developmental and humanitarian aid matters.”109 Ultimately, short of war, the Department...Cone ( Chile , Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay).269 Within these regions, USSOUTHCOM focused intently on partnership, engagement, and capacity

  8. Capacity Building for a New Social and Economic Policy Strategy in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Capacity Building for a New Social and Economic Policy Strategy in Paraguay. The elections of 20 April 2008 put an end to 61 years of single-party rule in Paraguay. With the arrival of the new administration, one of IDRC's long-time partners - the Centro de Análisis y Difusión de la Economía Paraguya-CADEP) - saw its ...

  9. Influence Operations: Redefining the Indirect Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    United States, France , Israel, Canada, Greece, Argentina, Spain, Thailand, UAE, Senegal, England, Panama, Paraguay, Brazil, Mali, Sierra Leone...the secular and reformist Amal was focused on becoming the new bourgeoisie in Beirut. Over a period of five years, Hezbollah‘s direct military...Paraguay, Africa, France , Canada, and even in the United States. Hezbollah-funded mosques and madrassas are obvious mediums, but they also serve as

  10. Guarani Paraguayo [Encyclopedia entry

    OpenAIRE

    Drude, S.

    2005-01-01

    Guaraní , Paraguaisches Guaraní, Eigen-Bez. Avañe’ẽ, Sprache in Paraguay (über 3,5 Mio. Sprecher, 95 % der Bev.), NO-Argentinien (bis zu 1 Mio. Sprecher) und S-Brasilien. Das zu den Tupí-Guaraní-Sprachen zählende G. ist eine der größten → Indianersprachen S-Amerikas (nach Ketschua und vor Aimara) und die einzige, die überwiegend von Nicht-Indianern gebraucht wird. Seit den 1990-Jahren ist das G. in Paraguay als Nationalsprache anerkannt und wird auch in Schulen verwendet. Das G. wurde durch d...

  11. Las artes audiovisuales paraguayas entre 1960 y 1970

    OpenAIRE

    Mercado, Noelia; Tabarrozzi, Marcos Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    En los últimos años, Paraguay ha tenido un gran desarrollo cinematográfico, lo que invita a analizar el cine sobre el que se erigen las producciones actuales, sobre todo, considerando que Paraguay tuvo la dictadura más larga de América Latina. Desde 1953 hasta 1989 Alfredo Stroessner gobernó las tierras paraguayas, ejerciendo un gran control y censura sobre las producciones audiovisuales, tanto nacionales como extranjeras, que circulaban en el país. Este trabajo, por lo tanto, busca recuperar...

  12. Tubular wells perforation manual for investigation and training of Guarani Aquifer System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Environmental protection and sustainable development of the Aquifer Guarani System project is a initiative by Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uruguay with the aim to raise the knowledge, legal and institutional sustainable management from 2003-2008 period. The Guarani consortium integrated by Tahal Engineers Ltda.(Israel), SEINCO SRL. (Uruguay), Hidrocontrol S:A:(Paraguay), Arcadis Hidroambiente S.A. (Argentina) have shown in Tubular wells perforation for investigation and training of Guarani Aquifer System manual their first product. This Manual includes technical especifications focused in Guarani Aquifer System harmessing building

  13. Desarrollo de una embarcación turística ecológica propulsada con energía solar fotovoltaica

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Lao, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Dada la particularidad del presente proyecto, realizado en Paraguay para su posterior presentación en España, se va a proceder a una breve descripción del contexto donde se va a desarrollar con el fin de dar a conocer que motivó su emprendimiento. En primer lugar se menciona donde será su futuro emplazamiento, el embalse de Itaipú. Se trata de uno de los desarrollos tecnológicos de mayor envergadura que se han realizado en la historia del Paraguay. Está formado sobre el cauce de uno de ...

  14. Molecular analysis reveals hidden diversity in Zungaro (Siluriformes: Pimelodidade): a genus of giant South American catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Antonio A; Ramirez, Jorge L; Galetti, Pedro M; Troy, Waldo P; Freitas, Patricia D

    2017-06-01

    The genus Zungaro contains some of the largest catfish in South America. Two valid species are currently recognized: Zungaro jahu, inhabiting the Paraná and Paraguay basins, and Zungaro zungaro, occurring in the Amazonas and Orinoco basins. Analysing Zungaro specimens from the Amazonas, Orinoco, Paraguay and Paraná basins, based on the sequencing of COI and D-loop, we found at least three MOTUs, indicating the existence of hidden diversity within this fish group. Considering the ecological and economic values of this fish, our results are surely welcomed for its conservation, disclosing new findings on its diversity and pointing out the necessity for a detailed taxonomic revision.

  15. Peace Corps Water/Sanitation Case Studies and Analyses. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Case Study CS-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, Diana E., Comp.

    This document provides an overview of Peace Corps water and sanitation activities, five case studies (Thailand, Yemen, Paraguay, Sierra Leone, and Togo), programming guidelines, and training information. Each case study includes: (1) background information on the country's geography, population, and economics; (2) information on the country's…

  16. International Networking for Sexuality Education: A Politically Sensitive Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhart, Katharina; von Kaenel, Andreas; Cerruti, Stella; Chequer, Pedro; Gomes, Rebeca; Herlt, Claudia; Horstick, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, six countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay) commenced work on a project to harmonise public policy on school sexuality education (SE) and the prevention of HIV. Inter-sectoral management committees for SE involving ministries of education, ministries of health and civil society were established, national policies…

  17. Search Results | Page 80 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 791 - 800 of 1804 ... ... Research Fund filter · Canada-Israel Health Research Program ... Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay) and their perception of rights, democracy and regional integration. ... social exclusion from economic, civil, cultural and political rights. ... in Asia, mainly due to the proliferation of mobile telephones.

  18. Arboviral Etiologies of Acute Febrile Illnesses in Western South America, 2000-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Ecuador, 6 Asociación Rayos del Sol, Asunción, Paraguay, 7 Instituto de Medicina Tropical ‘‘Alexander von Humboldt’’, Universidad Peruana Cayetano...younger than 18 years, written consent was obtained from a parent or legal guardian. Additionally, written assent was obtained from patients between 8

  19. Taxonomic novelties in Plantago section Virginica (Plantaginaceae) and an updated identification key

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassemer, Gustavo; Trevisan, Rafael; Meudt, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This study raises two rather poorly understood subspecies to the rank of species, and revalidates two subspecies in Plantago (Plantaginaceae) section Virginica. Plantago napiformis, formerly P. tomentosa subsp. napiformis, is an uncommon species from grasslands in northeastern Argentina, southern...... an updated identification key to all 22 Plantago species and subspecies in Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and northeastern Argentina....

  20. 78 FR 61621 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Threatened Status for the Western...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ..., Paraguay, Uruguay, eastern Bolivia, and northern Argentina (Ehrlich et al. 1992, pp. 129-130; AOU 1998, p... avian taxonomist and Fish and Wildlife Service employee at the National Museum of Natural History... Argentina, spending 5 months from late November through late April moving around an area 1,243 mi (2,000 km...

  1. All projects related to | Page 480 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-02-15

    This grant will support a study of the factors (aspects, instruments, sectors and mechanisms) influencing the design and coordination of regional innovation policies by Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur) countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela). Start Date: February 15, 2009. End Date: ...

  2. IDRC in Brazil

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Subscribe to the IDRC Bulletin: www.idrc.ca/idrcbulletin. BRAZIL. Macapá. Manaus. São Paulo. Belém. Fortaleza. Recife. Salvador. Rio de Janeiro. Porto. Alegre. Brasilia. ✪. ○. ○. ○. ○. ○. ○. ○. ○. ○. BOLIVIA. PERU. ECUADOR. COLOMBIA. VENEZUELA. CHILE. PARAGUAY. Atlantic Ocean. Pacific Ocean.

  3. Restoration practicesin Brazil's Atlantic rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge Correa de Lima Palidon; Maisa dos Santos Guapyassu

    2005-01-01

    The atlantic Rain Forst (Mata Atlantica) extends along the southern coast of Brazil and inland into Argentina and Paraguay. Originally covering 15% of the land area of Brazil, it was a region of an estimated 1.3 million km2 (MMA 2000). Today, remnants of the Atlantic Forest represents about 8% of the original area, or some 94,000 km2...

  4. A Description of Colloquial Guarani. Janua Linguarum. Series Practical, XXVII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregores, Emma; Suarez, Jorge A.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the phonological and grammatical structures of modern Guarani, as it is spoken today in Asuncion and neighboring regions of Paraguay. An introductory section considers the linguistic classification of Guarani, gives some background on its speakers, and discusses the sources used for this study. Part I,…

  5. Guarani Basic Course, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Robert W.; And Others

    This volume of the basic course in Guarani (the indigenous language of Paraguay) contains the core stage, or class-instructional phase, of the ten units presented in Volume One. These units contain explanations, exercises, dialogues, various types of pattern drills, suggestions for games and communication activities, and various types of…

  6. Guarani I and Work Book (For Peace Corps Volunteers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps (Paraguay).

    This workbook is designed for the Guarani language training of Peace Corps volunteers in Paraguay, and the content focuses on daily communication needs in that context. The workbook contains nine thematic instructional units based on performance objectives. A brief introduction gives an overview of Guarani's origins, distribution, and phonology.…

  7. Music as an Experience Integral to the Ethnicity of the "Mbyá"-Guarani of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittau Sevilla, Zulma M.

    2016-01-01

    The "Mbyá" culture forms a part of the Guaraní ethnic group that mainly inhabits the territories of south-eastern Brazil, in the Province of Misiones--Argentina, and the Republic of Paraguay. This article will focus mainly on field observations I have made in different communities in these countries, and which will try to synthetically…

  8. Guarani Basic Course, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Robert W.; And Others

    This is the first in a two-volume basic course in Guarani, the indigenous language of Paraguay. The volume consists of an introduction to the Guarani language, some general principles for adult language-learning, and ten instructional units. Because the goal of the course is to encourage and lead the learner to communicate in Guarani in class and…

  9. Paraguayan Language Policy and the Future of Guarani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gynan, Shaw N.

    2001-01-01

    In Paraguay, a majority of the population speaks Guarani, an indigenous language. Guarani is a co-official language along with Spanish and bilingual education has been implemented. Despite these positive measures, literacy education in Guarani is limited to urban areas. The challenge is how to find the political will and economic resources to…

  10. Search Results | Page 83 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 821 - 830 of 869 ... Canada 851 Apply Canada filter · Mexico 218 Apply Mexico filter · United States 203 Apply United States .... ROER4D (Research on Open Educational Resources for ... and hydrological changes in the plains of Argentina and Paraguay; ... development of a labor information system, the opening up of.

  11. Haiti Earthquake: Crisis and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    services, such as maternal child health, rehabilitation services, and chronic diseases including diabetes , heart disease, HIV, and tuberculosis...Prince Paraguay 5,000 kilos of food; 400 blankets; 13 volunteers Peru 54 tons of food and medicine Philippines $50,000 medical team Poland...5,000 kilos of food; 400 blankets; 13 volunteers Peru 54 tons of food and medicine Saint Lucia

  12. Regulating the sustainability of forest management in the Americas: Cross-country comparisons of forest legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen McGinley; Raquel Alvarado; Frederick Cubbage; Diana Diaz; Pablo J. Donoso; Laercio Antonio Jacovine Goncalves; Fabiano Luiz de Silva; Charles MacIntyre; Elizabeth. Monges Zalazar

    2012-01-01

    Based on theoretical underpinnings and an empirical review of forest laws and regulations of selected countries throughout the Americas, we examine key components of natural forest management and how they are addressed in the legal frameworks of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay, and the U.S. We consider forest policy...

  13. Boll weevil invasion process in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, is the most destructive cotton pest in the Western Hemisphere. In 1993, the pest was reported in Argentina, and in 1994 boll weevils were captured in cotton fields in the Formosa Province on the border between Argentina and Paraguay. The pest ha...

  14. African Journals Online: Singapore

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Pakistan, Palau, Palestine, State of, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Qatar, Romania, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saint Bartelemey, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia ...

  15. Search Results | Page 6 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 51 - 60 of 68 ... ... PRIVATE SECTOR 3 Apply PRIVATE SECTOR filter · REGIONAL INTEGRATION 3 ... Employment and Income in Bolivia, Paraguay and Peru : Analysis of the ... Colombia alone carries over 50 thousand different plant species. ... it difficult to provide equal access to services across multiple subsystems.

  16. Search Results | Page 150 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gender 422 Apply Gender filter · POLICY MAKING 267 Apply POLICY MAKING ... Employment and Income in Bolivia, Paraguay and Peru : Analysis of the Links ... In West Africa, private sector information and communication technology (ICT) ... in the fields of security reform and governance in different regions of the South.

  17. Espécies novas e chave para as espécies de Callia (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galileo Maria Helena M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available New species described: Callia marginata from Peru, C. punctata from Colombia, C. annulata from Ecuador, C. tristis from Bolivia, C. paraguaya from Paraguay; from Brazil: C. divisa and C. tomentosa (Mato Grosso, and C. lissonota (Rondônia. A key to the species of Callia is added.

  18. Self-Propelled Semi-Submersibles: The Next Great Threat to Regional Security and Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    December.27 The FARC is also coordinating with Chinese gangs in the tri-border area of Argentina, Paraguay and Brazil .28 These gangs could... mangrove swamps in Western Colombia you can be ten feet away from where somebody‘s building a semi-submersible and never see it.‖63 D. INSPECTION OF

  19. Country Reports on Terrorism 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    by stronger government responses. Ecuador and Panama have responded with a mix of containment and non-confrontation with Colombian narco-terrorist...Spanish government officials, security and military forces, politicians, and judicial figures, but the group also targeted journalists and tourist areas...Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Suriname Trinidad and

  20. Topics on the Pathology of Protozoan and Invasive Arthropod Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    significant morbidity and mortality in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador , Honduras, Paraguay, Peru, and Venezuela. It occurs less frequently in...The population at highest risk for CL is nonimmune expatriates such as tourists , soldiers, new settlers, and construction or agricultural workers...of 1933. U. S. Treasury Department, Public Health Service. National Institute of Health Bulletin No. 166. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing

  1. A tribute to Dr. Anthony C. Bellotti and his contributions to cassava entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony (Tony) Bellotti’s career as a humanitarian and entomologist followed a trajectory that took him to El Salvador with the Peace Corps (PC) in 1962, New Mexico State for a Masters, Paraguay (again with the Peace Corps), Cornell University for a PhD, and Colombia where he worked for the Centro I...

  2. The Enlisted Survival Tracking File (STF): A Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    1133.22D) - Sole surviving son ... T- Overweight /Overheiqht" . - Minority age V - Overage for Active Service X - notion Sickness/Nonsviamer . Q1 Not...PK Pakistan .- ( PH Panama - - PP Papua New Guinea PF .Paracel Islands . - PA Paraguay - PE Peru . - RP Philippines PC Pitcairn PL Poland ... PO

  3. Case studies in international tobacco surveillance: cigarette smuggling in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafey, O; Cokkinides, V; Cavalcante, T M; Teixeira, M; Vianna, C; Thun, M

    2002-09-01

    This article is the first in a series of international case studies developed by the American Cancer Society to illustrate use of publicly available surveillance data for regional tobacco control. A descriptive analysis of Brazil and Paraguay cigarette production and trade data from official sources. Per capita cigarette consumption for Brazil and its neighbour was calculated from 1970 to 1998 using data on production, imports, and exports from NATIONS, the National Tobacco Information Online System. A 63% decrease was observed in the estimate of per capita consumption of cigarettes in Brazil between 1986 and 1998 (from 1913 cigarettes per person in 1986 to 714 cigarettes per person in 1998) and a 16-fold increase in Paraguay was observed during the same period (from 678 cigarettes per person in 1986 to 10 929 cigarettes per person in 1998). Following Brazil's 1999 passage of a 150% cigarette export tax, cigarette exports fell 89% and Brazil's estimated per capita consumption rose to 1990 levels (based on preliminary data). Per capita consumption in Paraguay also fell to 1990 levels. These trends coincide with local evidence that large volumes of cigarettes manufactured in Brazil for export to Paraguay are smuggled back and consumed as tax-free contraband in Brazil. It is hoped that this case study will draw wider public attention to the problems that smuggling presents for tobacco control, help identify other countries confronting similar issues, and stimulate effective interventions.

  4. uruguay : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Plusieurs études ont montré que certaines formes de réseautage d'affaires collaboratif peuvent avoir une incidence positive sur l'innovation, les résultats financiers et le développement régional. Région: Chile, El Salvador, Paraguay, Uruguay. Programme: Initiative Think tank. Financement total : CA$ 250,000.00.

  5. : tous les projets | Page 29 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Plusieurs études ont montré que certaines formes de réseautage d'affaires collaboratif peuvent avoir une incidence positive sur l'innovation, les résultats financiers et le développement régional. Région: Chile, El Salvador, Paraguay, Uruguay. Programme: Think Tank Initiative. Financement total : CA$ 250,000.00.

  6. Chile : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Plusieurs études ont montré que certaines formes de réseautage d'affaires collaboratif peuvent avoir une incidence positive sur l'innovation, les résultats financiers et le développement régional. Région: Chile, El Salvador, Paraguay, Uruguay. Programme: Initiative Think tank. Financement total : CA$ 250,000.00.

  7. All projects related to | Page 476 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-03-31

    ... Mercosur countries (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay) and their perception of rights, democracy and regional integration. Start Date: March 31, 2008. End Date: January 1, 2010. Topic: YOUTH ORGANIZATIONS, YOUTH UNREST, SOCIAL PARTICIPATION. Region: Argentina, South America, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, ...

  8. South American Youth : Regional Democracy-Building Dialogue ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will undertake a comparative analysis of South American youth in the Mercosur countries (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay) and their perception of rights, democracy and regional integration. Researchers will examine the meaning that young people, adults and mediators of youth demands attribute to ...

  9. Santé | Page 12 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Bridging cultural and social divides for indigenous health in Peru. Langue English. Une mouche porteuse d'un parasite mortel hante la jungle des chutes d'Iguazu, qui marque la triple frontière entre le Brésil, l'Argentine et le Paraguay. Read more about Leishmaniose : maladie sans frontières. Langue ...

  10. Pouzolzia saxophila sp. nov. (Urticaceae tribe Boehmerieae) from Bahia, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilmot-Dear, Christine Melanie; Friis, Ib; Monro, Alex K.

    2015-01-01

    of xerophytic scrub vegetation on rocky outcrops in the Boa Nova National Park, Bahia, Brazil. The new species is somewhat similar to P. pringlei, a Mexican endemic, and to P. amambaiensis from the Brazil–Paraguay border, but also to the widespread Asiatic P. zeylanica. However, the similarities...

  11. Employment and Growth | Page 16 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment and Growth. Language English. Read more about Can Inclusive Growth Also Be Green? Language English. Read more about Fostering Entrepreneurship in the Caribbean. Language English. Read more about Capacity Building for a New Social and Economic Policy Strategy in Paraguay. Language English.

  12. Promoting PV in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogarin, Mauro

    2010-07-01

    The Euro Solar Programme is financed by the European Commission's Office of Cooperation and its main goal is to promote renewable energy in eight Latin American countries: Bolivia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay and Peru. (orig.)

  13. Biodiversity and its drivers and pressures of change in the wetlands of the Upper Paraguay–Guaporé Ecotone, Mato Grosso (Brazil)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Da Carolina Joana; Silva Sousa, Keid Nolan; Ikeda-Castrillon, Solange Kimie; Jongman, R.H.G.

    2015-01-01

    The biogeographic regions Amazonia and the Pantanal, two areas of high biodiversity importance, have a link to each other through an ecotone formed by the upstream part of the rivers Paraguay and Guaporé. The two river basins share part of their flora and fauna species and in this ecotone species

  14. Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Cubbage; S. Koesbandana; P Mac Donagh; R. Rubilar; G Balmelli; V. Morales Olmos; R. De La Torre; M. Murara; V.A. Hoeflich; H. Kotze; R Gonzalez; O. Carrero; G. Frey; T. Adams; J. Turner; R. Lord; J. Huang; C. MacIntyre; Kathleen McGinley; R. Abt; R. Phillips

    2010-01-01

    We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America e Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay e were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each...

  15. Latin America: Terrorism Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P

    2005-01-01

    .... In its annual report on worldwide terrorism, the State Department highlights threats in Colombia, Peru, and the tri-border region of Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay. The State Department also has designated four terrorist groups (three in Colombia and one in Peru) as Foreign Terrorist Organizations, and Cuba has been listed as a state sponsor of terrorism since 1982.

  16. 75 FR 31438 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ..., Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Chile, and Peru. Dated: May 28, 2010... Berhad; Mitsui O.S.K. Lines Ltd.; Nippon Yusen Kaisha; Safmarine Container Lines N.V.; Norasia Container... ports in Asia. Agreement No.: 012097. Title: Mitsui O.S.K. Lines/Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha U.S. Atlantic...

  17. Search Results | Page 18 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 171 - 180 of 209 ... Home · Project; Employment and Growth ... Kenya 14 Apply Kenya filter · Mexico 14 Apply Mexico filter · Argentina 13 ... African economies are finally experiencing a period of high economic growth, speeding up the slow ... Bolivia, Paraguay and Peru undertook structural reforms during the 1980s ...

  18. NARCOTERRORISM in Latin America, A Brazilian Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Souza Pinheiro, Alvaro

    2006-01-01

    .... It discusses broadly the illegal drug trade as it has evolved today and provides a view of narcoterrorist organizations. The situation in Colombia is addressed, and this is followed by a discussion of issues in the Tri-Border Area, where Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay meet. A detailed description of Brazil's actions to face up to the challenge of narcoterrorism is provided.

  19. A Program Showcase: Ludeteca Movil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a program that offers low-income children ages 2 to 12 years a space to grow and learn by providing access to toys, books, and educational materials. It is funded by donations of money, toys, and educational materials. The World Organization for Early Childhood Education (OMEP) Mobile Toy Library started in Paraguay in 2001…

  20. 21 CFR 1310.08 - Excluded transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded transactions. 1310.08 Section 1310.08 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECORDS AND REPORTS OF LISTED...) Colombia (6) Ecuador (7) French Guiana (8) Guyana (9) Panama (10) Paraguay (11) Peru (12) Suriname (13...

  1. Effect of harvest timing on leaf production and yield of diterpene glycosides in Stevia rebaudiana Bert: a specialty perennial crop for Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevia rebaundiana (Bertoni), a perennial shrub of the Asteraceae, is one of the most important sources of non-caloric natural sweeteners. Stevia’s plant extracts and glycosides have been used for several years in Paraguay and Brazil. Several studies suggest that Stevia and its glycosides exert ben...

  2. China : tous les projets | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'Argentine, le Brésil et le Paraguay, membres du Marché commun du cône sud ... GENDER ANALYSIS, GENDER EQUALITY, WOMEN'S RIGHTS, Gender ... Région: Argentina, South America, Brazil, Chile, North and Central America, China.

  3. Brazil : tous les projets | Page 7 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: North and Central America, South America, Brazil, Chile, Mexico ... partie du Marché commun du cône Sud ou Mercosur (l'Argentine, la Bolivie, le Brésil, le Paraguay, ... Sujet: VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN, HUMAN RIGHTS, POLICE.

  4. Le rôle du secteur privé dans la réduction de la corruption en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Étant donné la part de marché combinée de ces groupes en Amérique latine, il est ... Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Paraguay, Peru ... the resilience of all people, without which we cannot achieve women's empowerment.

  5. Distributions and phylogeographic data of rheophilic freshwater fishes provide evidences on the geographic extension of a central-brazilian amazonian palaeoplateau in the area of the present day Pantanal Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre C. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The analysis of the distribution patterns presented by examples of freshwater fishes restricted to headwater habitat: the anostomid Leporinus octomaculatus, the characins Jubiaba acanthogaster, Oligosarcus perdido, Moenkhausia cosmops, Knodus chapadae, Planaltina sp., the loricariid Hypostomus cochliodon, and the auchenipterid Centromochlus sp. provided evidences of a relatively recent shared history between the highlands of the upper rio Paraguay and adjoining upland drainage basins. Restricted to headwater of the uplands in the upper rio Paraguay and adjoining basins, these species provide biological evidence of the former extension of the central Brazilian plateau before the origin of the Pantanal Wetland. Disjunction took place due to an ecological barrier to these rheophilic taxa represented tectonic subsidence related to the origin of the Pantanal Wetland. Molecular analysis of Jubiaba acanthogaster revealed that the sample from the upper rio Xingu basin are the sister-group of a clade that includes samples from the upper rio Arinos (upper rio Tapajós plus the upper rio Paraguay basin, supporting the assumption that the origin of the upper rio Paraguay basin causing vicariance between this basin and the upper rio Tapajós is the least vicariant event in the evolutionary history of the group.

  6. How People Get Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preventing Seoul Virus Infection in Pet Rats and People FAQs: Seoul Virus Cleaning Up After Pet Rodents to Reduce the Risk of Seoul Virus ... Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Panama, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Can pets ... rodents into contact with people if they catch such animals and carry them ...

  7. Japanese Migration and the Americas: An Introduction to the Study of Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Gary; Brunette, Rachel

    This curriculum module introduces students to the study of migration, including a brief overview of some categories of migration and reasons why people migrate. As a case study, the module uses the Japanese migration experience in the United States, Peru, Brazil, Canada, Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay. The module introduces students to…

  8. The buffalo in Southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zava

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The number of buffaloes in the American continent is growing at the explosive rate of 12.7 % a year, well above all other continents. Within this context the different situations of the southern part of South America are described, those countries that two hundred years ago were part of the River Plate Viceroyship and the Chile General Command, both of them part of the Spanish empire. The first steps of buffaloes in Paraguay, Bolivia and Uruguay. The expansion of buffaloes in Argentina and their recent start up in Chile. The production systems in the region are described, principally Argentina and Paraguay. The major changes and expansion of agriculture in Argentina are displacing cattle production from the North towards the Tropics, where buffalo has proven to be very superior in productivity compared to cattle production thanks to its very good adaptation to the local conditions. In Paraguay, a totally subtropical country, something very similar is happening. Paraguay has consolidated its sales of buffalo hides and beef. Argentina is well on its way to having a very efficient buffalo beef marketing competing with cattle of the highest quality. Buffalo milk production is still not mature in these countries, although there are several projects underway in Uruguay, Bolivia and Argentina.

  9. Antibiotic prescriptions for suspected respiratory tract infection in primary care in South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordoba, Gloria; Caballero, Lidia; Sandholdt, Håkon

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe and compare antibiotic prescribing patterns for primary care patients with respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in four South American countries. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study. General practitioners (GPs) from Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay...... uncertainty and country variation requires greater support from the healthcare systems by providing GPs with evidence-based guidelines and tools to apply them....

  10. Search Results | Page 9 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 81 - 90 of 209 ... Capacity Building for a New Social and Economic Policy Strategy in Paraguay ... The global financial crisis of 2008 has aggravated poverty and ... Managing International Labour Migration in ASEAN ... to help African and Caribbean countries derive full benefit from integration into the global economy.

  11. agri-biotech applications' biosafety initiative

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    these workshops are: Mexico, Costa Rica, in Mexico being the recipient, Monsanto (USA). Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Brazil, technology donor, and Rockefeller Foundation. Malaysia, Thailand, the People's Republic of financial donor; (4) training of a Mexican. China, Indonesia and the Philippines. scientist in the USA in ...

  12. Six Latin American countries could join in new gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechelli, C.M.; Brandt, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a regional natural gas market in southern Latin America based on a common pipeline network is a clear possibility in the medium term. This paper is, therefore, important to summarize precisely the present status and outlook for the natural gas industry in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Uruguay, and Paraguay

  13. A bioclimatic approach to predict global regions with suitable climate space for Puccina psidii

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. W. Hanna; R. N. Graca; M. -S. Kim; A. L. Ross-Davis; R. D. Hauff; J. W. Uchida; C. Y. Kadooka; M. B. Rayamajhi; M. Arguedas Gamboa; D. J. Lodge; R. Medel Medel-Ortiz; A. Lopez Ramirez; P. G. Cannon; A. C. Alfenas; N. B. Klopfenstein

    2012-01-01

    Puccinia psidii, the cause of eucalypt-guava-'ohi'a-myrtle rust, can infect diverse plants within the Myrtaceae, and this rust pathogen has the potential to threaten numerous forest ecosystems worldwide. Known occurrence records from Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay, Costa Rica, USA (Hawaii, Florida, and Puerto Rico), and Japan were used to develop bioclimatic...

  14. Climate Change | Page 6 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · Agriculture and Environment. Climate Change. Language English. Read more about Floods, Droughts and Farming on the Plains of Argentina and Paraguay, Pampas and Chaco Regions. Language English. Read more about Using ICTs to Address Water Challenges in Uganda. Language English. Read more ...

  15. A taxonomic revision of the new world species of Sirthenea (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, L.

    1985-01-01

    The American species of Sirthenea are revised and keys to the 12 species and seven subspecies are given. Four new species and two new subspecies are described viz., S. ater (Brazil: Minas Geraes), S. dubia (Panama; Paraguay: Caaguazu. Argentina: Misiones; Entre Rios), S. ferdinandi (Argentina:

  16. Proyecto Kuatiahe'e: Saving a Language for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Almidio; Kirylo, James

    2005-01-01

    Nearly 20 years ago, the powerful motion picture The Mission, starring Robert De Niro and Jeremy Irons, was released, bringing worldwide exposure to the Guarani aboriginal people. Based on historical events from the 1700s and set in Paraguay, Brazil, and Argentina, the film was simultaneously moving and inspiring, yet also a disturbing…

  17. National energetic balance. Statistical compilation 1985-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Compiles the statistical information supplied by governmental and private institutions which integrate the national energetic sector in Paraguay. The first part, refers to the whole effort of energy; second, energy transformation centres and the last part presents the energy flows, consolidated balances and other economic-power indicators

  18. Search Results | Page 22 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 211 - 220 of 369 ... As many economies witness the sharpest fall in exports in decades, ... Brazil and Paraguay rank fifth in cotton production after China, India, the United Sates and Pakistan. ... State and Community Responses to Drug-related Violence in Mexico ... Labour Markets for Inclusive Growth in Latin America.

  19. Natural sweetener

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    grown commercially in many parts of Brazil, Paraguay, Central America, .... been introduced as a crop in a number of countries including Brazil, Korea, Mexico, United ... centered in China and the major market is in Japan [15]. ... sweetener, is creating opportunities for more farmers in Kenya and opening export markets.

  20. Voice and Biliteracy in Indigenous Language Revitalization: Contentious Educational Practices in Quechua, Guarani, and Maori Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H.

    2006-01-01

    This article considers instances of biliterate educational practice in contexts of indigenous language revitalization involving Quechua in the South American Andes, Guarani in Paraguay, and Maori in Aotearoa/New Zealand. In these indigenous contexts of sociohistorical and sociolinguistic oppression, the implementation of multilingual language…

  1. Migratory Fishes of South America: Biology, Fisheries, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2004-01-01

    Jan 1, 2004 ... Fish species that migrate within the great rivers of South America support important local fisheries but are little known outside their native range. This book represents the first collection of the work of local scientific experts on these remarkable fish. The authors cover the Upper Paraná, Paraguay-Paraná, ...

  2. All projects related to | Page 280 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-10-01

    The Pampas in Argentina and Chaco in Paraguay constitute one of South America's most important global grain suppliers. Start Date: October 1, 2011. End Date: April 1, 2015. Topic: Climate change, ADAPTATION TO CHANGE, DROUGHT, FLOODS, HYDROLOGY, AGRICULTURAL LAND, CULTIVATED LAND, LAND ...

  3. All projects related to | Page 623 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2006-05-27

    Topic: SOCIAL PARTICIPATION, Civil society, HEALTH SYSTEM, Evaluation. Region: Argentina, South America, Bolivia, Paraguay, ... There has been dramatic growth in telecentres and other local information and communication technology (ICT) projects in Sri Lanka. Start Date: May 27, 2006. End Date: March 17, 2010.

  4. : tous les projets | Page 434 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce projet permettra de mener une analyse comparative des perceptions qu'ont les jeunes des pays du MERCOSUR (Argentine, Brésil, Paraguay et Uruguay) des droits, de la démocratie et de l'intégration régionale. Date de début : 31 mars 2008. End Date: 1 janvier 2010. Sujet: YOUTH ORGANIZATIONS, YOUTH ...

  5. Biophysical and Biochemical Mechanisms in Synaptic Transmitter Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-31

    vesicle is normally released per active zone Sci USA 83. 3032 (1986) pared (15, 19, 20). In fact, in squid, the quantum 8 0 Shimomura 8 Musicki. V Kisni...8217, AND R. LLINAS• *Instituto de Biologia Celular Facultad de Medicina. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Paraguay 2155. Buenos Aires 1121. Argentina: and

  6. Educative Supervision in International Cooperation Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Ana; Valdivia-Moral, Pedro; Cachón, Javier; Prieto, Joel

    2015-01-01

    This present paper has got a clear goal: to contextualize education for development in the present moment, planning its evolution and the keys that characterize education collected from the most representative and up-to-date pieces of work. The experience that we present is integrated in a project developed in Paraguay that is expected to describe…

  7. Potential Use of Hydrogen as a Defense Logistics Fuel - Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    Barbuda Guam Paraguay Armenia Guinea Portugal Aruba Guinea-Bissau Puerto Rico Bahamas, The Guyana Reunion Belgium Haiti Saint Helena Belize Honduras...alterna- tive energy industry in Michigan. At a DOE program review in May 2004, NextEnergy made a presentation on its plans for a Microgrid and Hydrogen

  8. Three Essays on Education Policy: Empirical Analyses of the Challenges and Opportunities with For-Profit Colleges, Military Enlistment and Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    mention for organizing my continued enrollment once I moved out of the U.S. Maggie Clay has worked to keep me up to speed with all immigration formalities...Trinidad and Tobago Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Uruguay Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Europe America 135 Appendix 2

  9. All projects related to | Page 652 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: SOCIAL PARTICIPATION, Civil society, HEALTH SYSTEM, Evaluation. Region: Argentina, South America, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, North and Central America. Program: Maternal and Child Health. Total Funding: CA$ 408,000.00. Social Participation in Health in the Mercosur. Project. The Instituto de la Salud, ...

  10. "The implacable deafness of Imperial authorities”: Veterans demands after the Paraguayan War (1870-1889

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Santos de Souza

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available After the war in Paraguay, Brazilian government did not care for the rights granted to veterans, such as pensions, public jobs, land and finantial compensation. This became a serious problem for those veterans. Many faced the disorganization and lack of legal knowledge of the state bureaucracy.This article discusses the struggles of Veterans of Ceará for war rights.

  11. Addressing the Socioeconomic Impacts of Genetically Modified ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    But despite rapid diffusion of genetically modified (GM) cotton - and ... Argentina, South America, Brazil, Paraguay, North and Central America, China, India, Pakistan ... A Expansão Da Cultura Do Algodão Transgênico Na Região Do Norte De ...

  12. Repertorio de Servicios Iberoamericanos de Documentacion e Informacion Educativas = Repertorio de Servicos Ibero-Americanos de Documentacao e Informacao Educativas (Directory of Ibero-American Services for Educational Documentation and Information).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organizacion de Estados Iberoamericanos para la Educacion, la Ciencia y la Cultura, Madrid (Spain).

    This directory provides information on the location and functioning of educational documentation and information services in Spain and Portugal in Europe, and in the 18 Spanish-speaking countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Chile, Ecuador, El Salvader, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto…

  13. Western Hemisphere Defense Policy Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    El Salvador , Guatemala, Honduras, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay have contributed to or led multi-national security operations and United Nations (UN...critical support during the initial stages of the Haiti earthquake relief effort. As military forces often have a unique capability to respond

  14. 7 CFR 319.28 - Notice of quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the country of origin. Only Unshu orange trees may be grown in these areas, which must be kept...); Brazil; and Paraguay is prohibited. (2) To prevent the introduction into the United States of sweet orange scab (Elsinoe australis Bitanc. and Jenkins), the importation of fruits and peel of all species...

  15. Governing Portable Conservation and Development Landscapes: Reconsidering Evidence in the Context of the Mbaracayú Biosphere Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgert, Laureen

    2014-01-01

    Conservation-with-development landscapes, such as UNESCO's Man and Biosphere Reserves, differentiate between areas of "nature" and "society". In Paraguay's Mbaracayú Biosphere Reserve, as elsewhere, this model has been used to support governance that focuses on conservation in the "core area" and sustainable…

  16. African Journals Online: Rwanda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico ... Rwanda Journal, Series C: Mathematical Sciences, Engineering and Technology ... Rwanda Journal, Series F: Medicine and Health Sciences ... The Rwanda Journal of Health Sciences, a publication of Kigali Health Institute, ...

  17. Social Participation in Health in the Mercosur | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... primer encuentro, Buenos Aires, 4-5 mayo 2006, Paraguay, FUSAVI. 34772. Studies. Proyecto de investigación "participación ciudadana en salud en el MERCOSUR ampliado" : incorporación de la investigación en la página web de ISALUD. 34764. Studies. Programa de capacitación de recursos humanos en salud.

  18. Cognitive Development and Home Environment of Rural Paraguayan Infants and Toddlers Participating in Pastoral del Nino, an Early Child Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peairson, Shannon; Austin, Ann M. Berghout; de Aquino, Cyle Nielsen; de Burro, Elizabeth Urbieta

    2008-01-01

    Participants included 106 infants and toddlers living in rural Paraguay and their primary caregiver. Children ranged in age from birth to 24 months and belonged to two distinct groups, including 46 children who had never participated in Pastoral del Nino, an early child development program, and 60 children who had participated in Pastoral for at…

  19. New Records of Bee Genera (Hymenoptera: Apoidea from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor H. González

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The solitary bee genera Lophothygater Moure y Michener (Apidae, Eucerini and Tapinotaspoides Moure (Apidae, Tapinotaspidini are reported from northern Colombia for the first time. These genera were previously known from the central Brazilian Amazonian and Argentina and Paraguay, respectively.

  20. Publications | Page 354 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 3531 - 3540 of 6341 ... Technical report on employment and income in Peru, Bolivia and Paraguay : analysis of the links between labor demand and supply in urban and rural ... The hill people in Cambodia's Ratanakiri province set a powerful precedent that has served as a model for the country's land tenure laws.

  1. Pecluma recurvata (Kaulf.) M.G. Price (Polypodiopsida: Polypodiaceae): distribution extension in Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago, Augusto César; Xavier, Sergio; Pietrobom, Marcio Roberto; Barros, Iva

    2013-01-01

    Pecluma recurvata (Kaulf.) M. G. Price has been recorded in Argentina, Paraguay and Brazil (Atlantic Forest). Our work further extends the distribution of P. recurvata to northeastern Atlantic Forest in Brazil, in state of Pernambuco, representing a range extension of ca. 880 Km north.

  2. Multilocus genotypes indicate differentiation among Puccinia psidii populations from South America and Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. N. Graca; A. C. Alfenas; A. L. Ross-Davis; Ned Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim; T. L. Peever; P. G. Cannon; J. Y. Uchida; C. Y. Kadooka; R. D. Hauff

    2011-01-01

    Puccinia psidii is the cause of rust disease of many host species in the Myrtaceae family, including guava (Psidium spp.), eucalypt (Eucalyptus spp.), rose apple (Syzygium jambos), and 'ohi'a (Metrosideros polymorpha). First reported in 1884 on guava in Brazil, the rust has since been detected in South America (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Paraguay, Uruguay,...

  3. South-South Collaboration in Health Biotechnology

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5.3 The geography of China's health biotechnology collaboration ..... and Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay, for example, established ...... “Nations team up to share R&D skills in HIV/AIDS battle”, SciDev. ...... This reduces both dependence on international imports, and leads to the availability of ...

  4. Abstract The 1997 Watercourses Convention is the first and the only ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-05-21

    May 21, 1997 ... ... Israel, Mali, Mongolia, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Rwanda, ... China) that voted against the Convention are upper riparian for the ...... Article X (“Where export or re-export is to, or import is from, a State not a Party to.

  5. Latin America Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    A profile of Latin America (defined as consisting of the countries of Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela) emerges from this collection of black and white illustrative maps, tables, and…

  6. INVESTING IN KNOWLEDGE: IDRC's support for a generation of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    These awards include project/program-related awards and institution development ... of UNESCO ; former Ambassador to Morocco, USA, France and Germany Algeria ... Fogel's innovative social science research in Paraguay has informed ... Qasem's expertise in managing agricultural resources and educational systems is ...

  7. A successful case of biological invasion: the fish Cichla piquiti, an Amazonian species introduced into the Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EK. Resende

    Full Text Available The "tucunaré", Cichla piquiti, an exotic Amazonian fish has become established along the left bank of the Paraguay River in the Pantanal. It was introduced by escaping from culture ponds in the Upper Piquiri River and spread downstream, along the lateral flooded areas of that river, continuing through the clear waters of the left bank of the Paraguay River and reaching south as far as the Paraguai Mirim and Negrinho rivers. Adult spawners have been found in the region, meaning that it is a self-sustained population. Reproduction occurs in the period of low waters. They were found feeding on fishes of lentic environments belonging to the families Characidae, Cichlidae and Loricariidae. Until the end of 2004, its distribution was restricted to the left bank of the Paraguay River, but in March 2005, some specimens were found on the right bank, raising a question for the future: what will be the distribution area of the tucunaré in the Pantanal? Information about its dispersion is increasing: it is known to be in the Tuiuiú Lake, Pantanal National Park and in the Bolivian Pantanal, all of them on the right bank of the Paraguay River. The hypothesis that the "tucunaré" could not cross turbid waters, such as in the Paraguay River, was refuted by these recent findings. Possibly, the tucunaré's capacity to lay more than one batch of eggs in a reproductive period, as well as its care of eggs and young, lead them to establish themselves successfully in new environments, as has been observed in the Pantanal and other localities.

  8. The bloodsucking biting midges of Argentina (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo R Spinelli

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A key is presented for the identification of the adults of 54 species of bloodsucking ceratopogonids, 51 of which are known inhabitants of Argentina, and Culicoides uruguayensis Ronderos, C. pifanoi Ortiz, and C. trilineatus Fox, which are known to occur in bordering Uruguay and Paraguay. Wing photographs are provided of females of the 45 species of Culicoides. Three new species of Culicoides Latreille from Northeastern Argentina are described and illustrated: C. austroparaensis Spinelli, C. bachmanni Spinelli, and C. williamsi Spinelli. The following six species are recorded for the first time from Argentina and/or bordering localities in Paraguay: Leptoconops brasiliensis (Lutz, C. gabaldoni Ortiz, C. ginesi Ortiz, C. pifanoi Ortiz, C. pseudocrescentis Tavares and Luna Dias, and C. trilineatus; and C. estevezae Ronderos and Spinelli is newly recorded from Misiones province of Argentina. C. lopesi Barretto is excluded from the Argentinean ceratopogonid fauna.

  9. Um panorama da literatura relevante sobre Itaipu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaz Espósito Neto

    2013-08-01

    The Brazilian-Paraguayan hydroelectric of Itaipu is considered an important milestone in the relations between Brazil and Paraguay, as it has created a permanent bond between the two countries. Nowadays, Itaipu is still one of the most important generators of electric energy in the world, being responsible for over 25 percent of the energy generated in Brazil and about 95 percent of the electricity consumed in Paraguay. The various consequences of the construction of Itaipu, in particular the changes occurred in the power balance structure in Cone Sul are phenomena that have been largely studied, and there is a multiplicity of interpretations on the theme. This paper aims to provide an overview of the relevant literature on Itaipu.

  10. Hallazgo de Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera, Triatominae en el estado brasileño de "Rio Grande do Sul" Finding of Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera, Triatominae in the Brazilian State of "Rio Grande do Sul"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Salvatella

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma platensis Neiva 1913 (Hemiptera, Triatominae, especie ornitófila, con área de dispersión conocida en Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay y Uruguay es notificada en un primer registro para Brasil. Hallada en el municipio de Uruguaiana (Río Grande do Sul en nidos de Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817 (Passeriformes, Furnariidae donde cohabitaba con cricétidos de la especie Orizomys flavescens. Ningún ejemplar de los siete colectados se presentó infectado por Trypanosoma cruzi.Triatoma platensis, an ornitophilic species, found in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay is reported for the first time in Brazil. It was found in the county of Uruguaiana (Rio Grande do Sul in nests of Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817 (Passeriformes, Furnariidae where it cohabited with cricetids belonging to the species Orizomys flavescens. None of the seven individuals collected were infected by Trypanosoma cruzi.

  11. New distributional records and comments for the species of the genus Queda (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae Nuevos registros distribucionales y comentarios para las especies del género Queda (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo R. Trémouilles

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available New distributional records for the species of the genus Queda Sharp are presented based on the examination of the Dytiscid collection at the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales. The presence of the genus in Paraguay is herein reported for the first time. Some additional data on the identified species are also provided.Se aportan nuevos registros sobre distribución geográfica de las especies del género Queda Sharp, basados sobre el examen de la colección de Dytiscidae del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales. La presencia del género en el Paraguay es reportada aquí por primera vez. Se proporciona información adicional sobre las especies identificadas.

  12. De la letra de la constitución a la realidad de las prácticas: formas de construcción del estado y la ciudadanía en tres estados rioplatenses durante la primera mitad del siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchbinder, Pablo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the ambivalent relation between Constitutional Texts and Political Practices in three South American States during the XIX Century. The Study focuses on the Building of Citizenship, the changes of the system of local government, the military power and the Electoral System in Corrientes, Paraguay and Uruguay.

    El artículo examina la ambigua relación entre textos constitucionales y prácticas políticas en tres estados sudamericanos durante la primera mitad del siglo XIX. El estudio se centra especialmente en cuestiones tales como la construcción de la ciudadanía, el poder miliciano, los cambios en la organización municipal y la cuestión del sufragio en Corrientes, Paraguay y Uruguay.

  13. Descripción de un neotipo para Anolis meridionalis Boettger, 1885 (Sauria: Polychrotidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motte, Martha

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Anolis es uno de los géneros de lagartijas más grandes con más de 380 especies presentes en el Centro y Sur de América, lo cual dificulta muchas veces su identificación. Particularmente Anolis meridionalis fue descrito en base a un ejemplar procedente de Paraguay. Esta especie se encuentra ampliamente distribuida en Brasil, Paraguay y Bolivia. Sin embargo, debido a que la descripción original es pobre en caracteres diagnósticos y a que el holotipo se encuentra perdido, es difícil en ocasiones conocer la identidad de ejemplares de especies afines. Es por eso que en este trabajo se designa y describe un neotipo para Anolis meridionalis con la esperanza de que ayude a resolver los problemas taxonómicos de las especies más australes del género. Anolis is one of the largest genus of lizards with more than 380 species distributed in Central and South America, which often difficult their identification. Particularly Anolis meridionalis was described upon one specimen from Paraguay. This species is widely distributed in Brazil, Paraguay and Bolivia. Nevertheless, because the original description is poor in diagnostic characters and the holotype is currently lost, sometimes is difficult to know the identity of specimens of related species. For that reason in this work is designed and described a neotype for Anolis meridionalis with the hope that this helps to solve some taxonomic problems in the southernmost species of the genus.

  14. Latin America Report: Tables of Contents, JPRS-LAM-85-OOl, 2 January 1985 - JPRS-LAM-85-O56, 28 June 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-13

    INTER-AMERICAN AFFAIRS Cuban ’Diplomatic Couriers’ Seen Sowing Subversion in Latin America (Armando Cisneros; LA ESTRELLA , 14 Jan 85) Caribbean...Group Presents Alternatives to New Taxes (LA ESTRELLA DE PANAMA, 26 Feb 85) 103 - d - 132 PARAGUAY PERU Patria Scores State Department Human...Contadora, Foreign Debt (Nicolas Ardito Barletta, Miguel de la Madrid; LA ESTRELLA DE PANAMA, 26 May 85) 53 Madero: Any PRI-Generated Violence

  15. Revisional notes on the genus Melucha (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Coreidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Brailovsky

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Melucha grandicula sp. n. and M. perampla sp. n., (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Nematopodini are described from Bolivia, Colombia, Paraguay and Peru. Melucha quadrivittis Stål, 1862, stat. restit., is resurrected from synonymy under M. phyllocnemis (Burmeister, 1835. Melucha ruficornis Breddin, 1903, syn. n., is synonymized under M. lineatella (Fabricius, 1803. An identification key for the known species of Melucha Amyot & Serville, 1843 is given. New distributional records for some previously known species are added.

  16. Disease Vector Ecology Profile: Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    mi) border), on the south by Chile (160 km (99 mi) border), and in the west by the Pacific Ocean (2,414 km (1,497 mi) coast). Peru consists of three...1993), Brazil (1993), Paraguay (1996) and Chile (1997). Two isolates of hantavirus were reported in late 1996 from the rice rat, Oligoryzomys...Simuliidae. Fauna de Agua Dulce de la Republica Argentina. 38. (Insecta, Diptera, Simuliidae), Fascicle 2, 304 pp. +78 pp. of unnumbered figures

  17. Good prospects overcome domestic politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses the South American gas and oil industries. Opening ever wider to private investment, the continent is attracting a flood of foreign and local firms, pushing drilling and production rates still higher. This is despite a rash of political problems in many countries, including guerrillas, environmentalists, crooked officials and border disputes. Separate evaluations are given for Venezuela, Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Chile, and briefly for Falkland Islands, Paraguay, Suriname, and Barbados

  18. Pseudo-osteomyelitic crisis upon presentation of Gaucher disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisstein, J.S.; Steinbach, L.S.; Diamond, C.A.; Huang, S.J.; O'Donnell, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    We report on a 4-year-old boy adopted from Paraguay who presented with an acute onset of thigh pain. Initial clinical, imaging, and histopathologic findings suggested florid osteomyelitis. However, the development of pancytopenia on intravenous antibiotics prompted further investigation and the ultimate diagnosis of Gaucher disease. In retrospect, characteristic changes on conventional radiographic and MR images, as well as growth of a contaminant organism, pointed to the diagnosis of pseudo-osteomyelitis rather than osteomyelitis. (orig.)

  19. U.S.-Brazil Cooperation: Working Together to Shape the Global Strategic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    considered a strong offense to constitutional order and democracy in that country. Paraguay was suspended from MERCOSUR up to the next Presidential...and Vietnam,55 and the Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) with the EU. The North America Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ) has...round and convince countries to play more fairly in international commerce. The successful U.S. experience with NAFTA is another complementary point

  20. Latin America Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-17

    yesterday, the reserved market throughout the country for in- formatics has also been extended to computer software programs. The DIARIO OFICIAL ...Pemex Northern States Price Cuts 97 PARAGUAY Journalists Union Denounces Arrest of Members (EL DIARIO , 25 Oct 86) .....; .. 98 Police...topple the elected government in Man- • agua — including US$200 000 to the anti-San- dinista "Friends of the Democratic Centre in Central America". I

  1. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart A of... - Parties to the Montreal Protocol, and Nations Complying With, But Not Parties to, the Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls Pt. 82, Subpt. A, App. C Appendix C to Subpart A of Part... ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Panama ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Papua New Guinea ✓ ✓ Paraguay ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Peru ✓ ✓ ✓ Philippines ✓ ✓ ✓ Poland... 29. Colombia 30. Comoros 31. Congo 32. Congo, Democratic Republic of 33. Cook Islands 34. Cost Rica...

  2. Installaton of a fish migration channel for spawning at Itaipu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghetti, J.R.; Perez Chena, D.; Nogueira, S.V.G.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of installing a fish migration channel for spawning at the Itaipu hydroelectric station on the Parana river between Brazil and Paraguay is to improve fish recovery downstream from the dam. Preliminary data from the first phase has proved the efficiency of an experimental project, with the entry and ascendancy of fish in a migration channel ladder. These data now provide the technical basis for implementation of the complementary spawning channel stage. (author)

  3. The hydro digest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheil, Hermann [Itaipu Mondig, Power Generation Group (KWU), Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    2000-12-01

    Digest WK is an analysis and diagnostics system for turbine generators in large hydroelectric plant: it was developed from the Digest system which has been used in steam turbine plants for many years. The system is in use at the world's biggest hydro plant in Itaipu Binacional between Paraguay and Brazil. The system is described under the sub-headings of (a) monitoring concept; (b) the Digest WK system; (c) vibration monitoring; (d) generator temperature analysis and (e) outlook.

  4. Pengembangan Tanaman Pemanis Stevia Rebaudiana (Bertoni) Di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    DJAJADI, DJAJADI

    2014-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a bushy shrub of the Asteraceae family, indigenous plant of Paraguay. Now the plants are cultivated in some countries of Asia, Europe and Canada. The Stevia leaves have stevioside and rebaudioside which are the major metabolites and these compounds have sweetness characteristic 250 to 300 times of sucrose in sugar cane. As sweetener of foods and beverages, extracted leaves of Stevia has safety and functional properties for hum...

  5. The South American species of Hibiscus sect. Furcaria DC. (Malvaceae-Hibisceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Krapovickas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hibiscus section Furcaria from South America is revised. Ten new species from Brasil are described: H. Andersonii, H. capitalensis, H. chapadensis, H. Gregoryi, H. Hochreutineri, H. itirapinensis, H. matogrossensis, H. Nanuzae, H. Saddii, H. Windischii, and a new one from Perú: H. Chancoae. Two new names are proposed: H. Hilarianus from Brasil and H. amambayensis from Paraguay. A key is provided to distinguish the 40 species of section Furcaria known from South America

  6. DOCUMENTED RECORD OF A MIGRATING EASTERN SLATY THRUSH (Turdus subalaris) (TURDIDAE, PASSERIFORMES) IN WESTERN MATO GROSSO STATE, BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Breno Dias Vitorino; Angélica Vilas Boas da Frota; Renato da Silva Nunes

    2016-01-01

    The Eastern Slaty Thrush (Turdus subalaris) occurs in the meridional parts of South America, from Bolivia Southward to Argentina, Paraguay and South and Southeastern Brazil. During the winter on the continent, it performs migration little known toward areas of ecotone between Amazon and Cerrado, with little information on their area of wintering in the Mato Grosso state. In this study we report on a record documenting the species for the Alto Rio Guaporé basin, Western Mato Grosso, based on a...

  7. Latin America Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-05

    Agrarian Reform title with rights transferable under any legal form after authorization by MIDINRA [Minister of Agricultural-Livestock Development and...Government’s Domestic Indebtedness In Billions of Guaranis --- DEPOSITOS EN EL BCP (i) PRESTAMOS DEL BCP (2) s-\\’"v- FUENTE:BCP (3) DEUDANETAO...immediate commitments to the financial entities, there would be no lack of legal causes in this country to demand that Paraguay pay, even though over

  8. El Brasil y Alberdi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique de Gandia

    1968-12-01

    Full Text Available Alberdi fue amigo de Chile, del Paraguay, de España y de otras naciones; pero nunca lo fue del Brasil. Tenía hacia esta nación una desconfianza innata que lo llevaba a temores y suposiciones impropias de su talento. En marzo de 1865 publicó en París un opúsculo sobre Las disensiones de las Repúblicas del Plata y las maquinaciones del Brasil.

  9. Propuesta de un buscador para artículos indizados a SciELO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Hugo Arroyo-Hernández

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available La biblioteca electrónica SciELO “Scientific Electronic Library Online” (www.scielo.org permite el acceso gratuito a textos completos de revistas científicas y opera como una red de bibliotecas constituida por diferentes sitios web, en la cual participan 14 países (Argentina, Brasil, Bolivia, Chile, Costa Rica, Colombia, Cuba, España, México, Paraguay, Perú, Portugal, Sudáfrica y Venezuela (...

  10. Trafficking in Persons: U.S. Policy and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-14

    Morocco were moved down to Tier 2 from Tier 1.30 Tier 2, as in past years, includes the largest number of countries, 70 in 2008, (down from 75 in 2007...Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco , Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Romania...Eligibility for Federal Public Assistance: Policies and Trends, by Ruth Ellen Wasem. 77 For additional information on programs for refugees see CSR

  11. Nuclear right and South Market Common : health citizen protection and environment: comparative study Mercosur situation:critical analysis Uruguay situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, D

    1998-01-01

    The present work presents to general study on: the applications of nuclear techniques, technical fundamental for stablishment of to program of radiation protection, to comparative study legislation in radiation protection in the South Market Common (MERCOSUR)Argentina,Brazil,Paraguay,Uruguay as well as Treaties and Agreements. The author carries out a critical analysis from the situation to Institutional level in the Uruguay and it outlines some alternatives to improve the situation [es

  12. Renforcement en vue d'une nouvelle stratégie en matière de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les élections du 20 avril 2008 au Paraguay ont mis fin à soixante et un ans de domination unipartite. Avec l'avènement du nouveau gouvernement, un partenaire de longue date du CRDI, le Centro de Análisis y Difusión de la Economía Paraguaya (CADEP), a vu son directeur général accéder au poste de ministre des ...

  13. : tous les projets | Page 85 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce financement contribuera à renforcer le rôle du Centro de Análisis y Difusión de la Economía Paraguaya (CADEP) en tant qu'organisme crédible de recherche sur les politiques au Paraguay en favorisant sa capacité à fournir des recherches de qualité supérieure, influentes et utiles en matière de politiques. Région: ...

  14. The role of family network in circular migration and formation of transnational communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Marques, Denise Helena França

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of family arrangements that constitute the return migration of Brazilians from Paraguay can be identified as an important element in maintaining the circularity between the two countries and the consolidation of transnational space Brasiguaio. This paper describes the changes in vo....... Information from the Brazilian Demographic Censuses of 1991, 2000 and 2010 will be used to do so, and to estimate the direct and indirect effects of international migration return to that country....

  15. Résultats de recherche | Page 61 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Coopération entre entreprises et développement productif régional au Chili, au Salvador, au Paraguay et en Uruguay (ITT). Plusieurs études ont montré que certaines formes de réseautage d'affaires collaboratif peuvent avoir une incidence positive sur l'innovation, les résultats financiers et le développement régional.

  16. Soutien organisationnel de la phase 2 de l'ITT : Centro de Análisis y ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce financement contribuera à renforcer le rôle du Centro de Análisis y Difusión de la Economía Paraguaya (CADEP) en tant qu'organisme crédible de recherche sur les politiques au Paraguay en favorisant sa capacité à fournir des recherches de qualité supérieure, influentes et utiles en matière de politiques. Au sujet du ...

  17. Ce que nous faisons | Page 12 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Coopération entre entreprises et développement productif régional au Chili, au Salvador, au Paraguay et en Uruguay (ITT). Plusieurs études ont montré que certaines formes de réseautage d'affaires collaboratif peuvent avoir une incidence positive sur l'innovation, les résultats financiers et le développement régional.

  18. Soutien organisationnel de la phase 2 de l'ITT : Fundacio´n ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Plusieurs études ont montré que certaines formes de réseautage d'affaires collaboratif peuvent avoir une incidence positive sur l'innovation, les résultats financiers et le développement... Voir davantageCoopération entre entreprises et développement productif régional au Chili, au Salvador, au Paraguay et en Uruguay ...

  19. Résultats de recherche | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Coopération entre entreprises et développement productif régional au Chili, au Salvador, au Paraguay et en Uruguay (ITT). Plusieurs études ont montré que certaines formes de réseautage d'affaires collaboratif peuvent avoir une incidence positive sur l'innovation, les résultats financiers et le développement régional.

  20. Ce que nous faisons | Page 18 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Coopération entre entreprises et développement productif régional au Chili, au Salvador, au Paraguay et en Uruguay (ITT). Plusieurs études ont montré que certaines formes de réseautage d'affaires collaboratif peuvent avoir une incidence positive sur l'innovation, les résultats financiers et le développement régional.

  1. Soutien organisationnel de la phase 2 de l'ITT : Fundacio´n Doctor ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Plusieurs études ont montré que certaines formes de réseautage d'affaires collaboratif peuvent avoir une incidence positive sur l'innovation, les résultats financiers et le développement... Voir davantageCoopération entre entreprises et développement productif régional au Chili, au Salvador, au Paraguay et en Uruguay ...

  2. Brazil: Changing Patterns of Foreign Trade,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Exportacoes brasileiras: diagnostico e perspectivas,” in Revista Brasileira de Economia , Vol. 26, - No. 1, 1972,cited in The Economic and Social...given in Conjuntura Economica and Quem e Quem na economia brasileira. ____________ a - t - 4 . . - - —--—5— _— - —. — —- - - - - -- . - . .,~ - — 9...Paraguay , and Peru and an excess of imports from Argentina , Chile, Uruguay, and Venezuela; the trade with Mexico was approximately in balance. Both

  3. Pérou : tous les projets | Page 2 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dans le cadre de ce projet, on étudiera les efforts déployés par le secteur privé pour améliorer la conformité aux lois contre la corruption en Amérique latine. Sujet: CORRUPTION. Région: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Paraguay, Peru. Programme: Gouvernance et justice. Financement total : CA$ 622,300.00.

  4. Peru : tous les projets | Page 2 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dans le cadre de ce projet, on étudiera les efforts déployés par le secteur privé pour améliorer la conformité aux lois contre la corruption en Amérique latine. Sujet: CORRUPTION. Région: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Paraguay, Peru. Programme: Gouvernance et justice. Financement total : CA$ 622,300.00.

  5. Species status and new distribution records for Lithurgus huberi (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae, Lithurginae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Notes are provided on the morphology of males and females of the enigmatic Lithurgus huberi Ducke (Lithurginae: Lithurgini, a species historically believed to have been introduced into South America from Asia and to be a possible synonym of the more widespread L. atratus Smith. Distinctive differences are documented between L. huberi and L. atratus, perhaps indicative of separate species. In addition, we provide new records of L. huberi in Argentina and Paraguay.

  6. The rise of China and labor market adjustments in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Artuc, Erhan; Lederman, Daniel; Rojas, Diego

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of the rise of China on the trade of Latin American and Caribbean economies. The study proposes an index to measure the impact on trade, which suggests sizable effects, especially in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Honduras, Mexico, and Paraguay. The paper uses the index and a model of labor mobility, to calculate the impact of China's growth on labor markets in Ar...

  7. Résultats de recherche | Page 18 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... SCIENTIFIQUE ET TECHNIQUE 10 Apply POLITIQUE SCIENTIFIQUE ET ... Juristes et économistes internationaux contre la pauvreté (JEICP) est un ... Subventions pour la coopération en recherche entre le Canada et l'Afrique ... Brésil, Paraguay et Uruguay) des droits, de la démocratie et de l'intégration régionale. Projet.

  8. Drug Trafficking as a Lethal Regional Threat in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    and Bolivia. 28 Panama It produces marijuana and serves as a critical transit country for all drugs coming from South America to the United...Colombian drug cartels. Paraguay This is a marijuana producing country. Its production probably never leaves South America; it is believed to supply...broad diversification of their products. The Mexican DTOs went through great efforts to establish laboratories for the cheap synthetic drugs in Mexico

  9. Pérou : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les régimes à teneur élevée en sel sont une cause majeure de l'hypertension artérielle et un facteur prédominant des décès, et comptent pour près des deux tiers des accidents vasculaires cérébraux et de la moitié des incidents de maladie cardiaque dans le monde. Région: Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Paraguay, Peru.

  10. Peru : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les régimes à teneur élevée en sel sont une cause majeure de l'hypertension artérielle et un facteur prédominant des décès, et comptent pour près des deux tiers des accidents vasculaires cérébraux et de la moitié des incidents de maladie cardiaque dans le monde. Région: Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Paraguay, Peru.

  11. Brazil : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les régimes à teneur élevée en sel sont une cause majeure de l'hypertension artérielle et un facteur prédominant des décès, et comptent pour près des deux tiers des accidents vasculaires cérébraux et de la moitié des incidents de maladie cardiaque dans le monde. Région: Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Paraguay, Peru.

  12. ¿Existen instituciones jurídicas foráneas sobre protección a la maternidad que pueden ser incluidas en la normatividad colombiana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana María Gómez-Hoyos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este escrito se refiere concretamente a la presentación de algunas instituciones jurídicas sobre protección a la maternidad consagradas en las legislaciones de Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Perú, República Dominicana, Uruguay y Venezuela, y que Colombia no regula o lo hace en forma distinta,1 para determinar si es factible que nuestro país las adopte y las incluya en su normatividad laboral.

  13. International franchising decision-making: a model for country choice

    OpenAIRE

    Baena Graciá, Verónica; Cerviño Fernández, Julio

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines how a number of market conditions may drive diffusion of franchising. It considers a sample of 63 Spanish franchisors operating through 2321 franchisee outlets across 20 different Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, and Venezuela in January 2011. Results conclude that geographical and cultu...

  14. Cogestion des ressources naturelles en dépit de différences ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Si le projet proposé vise les collectivités Yshiro du Paraguay, un volet sera mené au Labrador en collaboration avec la nation innue et le gouvernement des Inuits du Nunatsiavut. Les trois cas combinés permettront de généraliser et de faire passer à grande échelle les résultats de la recherche sous forme de techniques et ...

  15. Communication of 31 March 2000 received from the Permanent Mission of the Argentine Republic to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of a letter dated 31 March 2000 from the Resident Representative of the Argentine Republic, including as attachment the declaration of the Advisory and Political Harmonisation Forum of MERCOSUR (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay), Bolivia and Chile, issued on 27 March 2000, with regard to the 30th Anniversary of the entry into force of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

  16. Ophiotaenia bungari n. sp. (Cestoda), a parasite of Bungarus fasciatus (Schneider) (Ophidia: Elapidae) from Vietnam, with comments on relative ovarian size as a new and potentially useful diagnostic character for proteocephalidean tapeworms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de Chambrier, A.; Binh, T. T.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 1 (2012), s. 39-50 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA ČR GA524/08/0885 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : PALEARCTIC REGION * EUCESTODA * identification * COLUBRIDAE * PHYLOGENY * EVOLUTION * PARAGUAY * FISHES Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.260, year: 2012

  17. Ce que nous faisons | Page 31 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Bourses doctorales pour renforcer le leadership en Afrique subsaharienne dans la recherche sur la prévention du VIH. L'Afrique demeure la région la plus durement touchée par l'épidémie ... conformité aux lois contre la corruption en Amérique latine. Argentine, Bolivie, Brésil, Chili, Colombie, Paraguay, Pérou. PROJECT ...

  18. Combined venomics, venom gland transcriptomics, bioactivities, and antivenomics of two Bothrops jararaca populations from geographic isolated regions within the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves Machado, Larissa; Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Jorge, Roberta Jeane B.; Leitão De Araújo, Moema; Alves, Maria Lúcia M.; Alvares, Diego Janisch; De Miranda, Joari; Nowatzki, Jenifer; de Morais Zani, Karen; Fernandes, Wilson; Tanaka Azevedo, Anita Mitico; Fernández, Julián; Zingali, Russolina B.; Gutiérrez, José María

    2016-01-01

    Bothrops jararaca is a slender and semi-arboreal medically relevant pit viper species endemic to tropical and subtropical forests in southern Brazil, Paraguay, and northern Argentina (Misiones). Within its geographic range, it is often abundant and is an important cause of snakebite. Although no subspecies are currently recognized, geographic analyses have revealed the existence of two well-supported B. jararaca clades that diverged during the Pliocene ~ 3.8 Mya and currently display a southe...

  19. Identification of microsatellite DNA markers for the giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J E; Vilas Boas, L A; Lemos, M V F; de Macedo Lemos, E G; Contel, E P B

    2005-01-01

    The giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) is found from Belize and Guatemala to Paraguay and Argentina. Its conservation status is considered vulnerable by IUCN. Here we report the isolation and characterization of six microsatellite loci. Positive loci for (GT)(n) were isolated using a magnetic bead hybridization selection protocol. The number of alleles per locus as well as the heterozygosity and PCR conditions are described. These loci will be useful for studying population structure, genetic diversity, and paternity in M. tridactyla wild populations.

  20. Estudio de la Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) como edulcorante natural y su uso en beneficio de la salud

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador-Reyes, Rebeca; Sotelo-Herrera, Medali; Paucar-Menacho, Luz

    2014-01-01

    Stevia, also known as "The miracle sweetener", is considered the best sugar substitute because it is up to 300 times sweeter and contains no calories. This shrub, grown in the forests of Brazil and Paraguay, has in its composition a high percentage of steviol glycosides (stevioside and rebaudioside A), which give it an intensely sweet taste and therapeutic properties against diabetes, hypertension and obesity also helps control weight, satiety and hunger. For its content in phenolic compounds...

  1. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. Summarizing Environmental Security Monthly Scanning, July 2006-June 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    to the Council. During the debate on April 17, 2007, China argued against this position along with Russia, Qatar , Indonesia, and South Africa...most likely long-term national security threats. The most vulnerable area is the Guarani aquifer that neighbors Uruguay, Brazil, and Paraguay. The...the world’s rivers and aquifers are shared among countries, conflicts are likely to be exacerbated, unless integrated cross-border water management

  2. Soft Means and Hard Ends: Assessing Hugo Chavez’s Efforts to Counter United States’ Preponderance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    initiative.126 The Banco Comercio Exterior (Bancoex) summarizes ALBA as such: “ALBA appeals to the egalitarian principles of justice and equality that...become a 127 Summary of information on the ALBA published by the Banco the Comercio Exterior by Teresa Arreaza, “ALBA: Bolivarian Alternatives for...66 68 69 74 74 76 76 85 89 89 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 LATAM Paraguay El Salvador Honduras Mexico Peru Brazil Chile Bolivia Columbia Argentina

  3. Integrative and sustantibility management of the underground water in America Latina. Sustantibility management of Raigon Aquifer. Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This work is a Project which was carried out with the participation of Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay. These countries carried out eleven hydrogeolical studies with conventional and isotopic methods.The aim of this project is improve the hydrogeologic knowledge. In Uruguay the interest of its study was The Raigon System Aquifer which was denominated as maintained gestion of Raigon Aquifer.

  4. Prise en compte des répercussions socioéconomiques de la culture ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Prise en compte des répercussions socioéconomiques de la culture du coton génétiquement modifié sur les petits agriculteurs du Mercosur. L'Argentine, le Brésil et le Paraguay, membres du Marché commun du cône sud (Mercosur), sont les cinquièmes producteurs de coton au monde, devancés uniquement par la Chine, ...

  5. CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES IN LATIN AMERICAN ADMINISTRATIVE JUSTICE

    OpenAIRE

    R. Perlingeiro

    2016-01-01

    This study consists of a critical comparative analysis of the administrative justice systems in eighteen Latin-American signatory countries of the American Convention on Human Rights (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the Dominican Republic, Uruguay, and Venezuela). According to this article, the excessive litigation in Latin-American courts that has seriously hampered the effectivenes...

  6. Do Riparian Buffers Protect Stream Invertebrate Communities in South American Atlantic Forest Agricultural Areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, L.; Marrochi, N.; Bonetto, C.; Liess, M.; Buss, D. F.; Vieira da Silva, C.; Chiu, M.-C.; Resh, V. H.

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the influence and relative importance of insecticides and other agricultural stressors in determining variability in invertebrate communities in small streams in intensive soy-production regions of Brazil and Paraguay. In Paraguay we sampled 17 sites on tributaries of the Pirapó River in the state of Itapúa and in Brazil we sampled 18 sites on tributaries of the San Francisco River in the state of Paraná. The riparian buffer zones generally contained native Atlantic forest remnants and/or introduced tree species at various stages of growth. In Brazil the stream buffer width was negatively correlated with sediment insecticide concentrations and buffer width was found to have moderate importance in mitigating effects on some sensitive taxa such as mayflies. However, in both regions insecticides had low relative importance in explaining variability in invertebrate communities, while various habitat parameters were more important. In Brazil, the percent coverage of soft depositional sediment in streams was the most important agriculture-related explanatory variable, and the overall stream-habitat score was the most important variable in Paraguay streams. Paraguay and Brazil both have laws requiring forested riparian buffers. The ample forested riparian buffer zones typical of streams in these regions are likely to have mitigated the effects of pesticides on stream invertebrate communities. This study provides evidence that riparian buffer regulations in the Atlantic Forest region are protecting stream ecosystems from pesticides and other agricultural stressors. Further studies are needed to determine the minimum buffer widths necessary to achieve optimal protection.

  7. The Phanuromyia galeata species group (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae, Telenominae: shining a lantern into an unexplored corner of Neotropical diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine C. Nesheim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Phanuromyia galeata species group is delineated and its species richness explored for the first time (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae, Telenominae. Fifteen species are described, all of which are new: Phanuromyia comata Nesheim & Masner, sp. n. (Brazil, P. constellata Nesheim, sp. n. (Paraguay, P. corys Nesheim & Masner, sp. n. (Brazil, P. cranos Nesheim & Masner, sp. n. (Bolivia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, P. cudo Nesheim & Masner, sp. n. (Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Panama, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, P. dissidens Nesheim & Masner, sp. n. (Bolivia, Brazil, French Guiana, P. galeata Nesheim & Masner, sp. n. (Belize, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Mexico, Peru, P. galerita Nesheim & Masner, sp. n. (Brazil, Ecuador, French Guiana, P. hjalmr Nesheim, sp. n. (Bolivia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Paraguay, Venezuela, P. krossotos Nesheim, sp. n. (Ecuador, P. odo Nesheim, sp. n. (Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, P. pauper Nesheim, sp. n. (Ecuador, Peru, P. princeps Nesheim, sp. n. (Brazil, Ecuador, French Guiana, P. tonsura Nesheim, sp. n. (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, P. tubulifer Nesheim & Masner, sp. n. (Brazil, Guyana.

  8. Brasiguaio Identities: An outcome of the pursuit of land across the Brazilian and Paraguayan shared border region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Estrada

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The movement of people between places is far from being a new or isolated phenomenon and is happening more often than before. This is also the case for individuals who moved from Brazil and Paraguay. Based on the existing literature as well as on data gathered in the landless camp Antônio Irmão, also known locally as the ‘Brasiguaios landless camp’ in Itaquiraí in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, this article explains how their search for a piece of land in either Brazil and Paraguay influenced the formation of the Brasiguaios identities. First, I briefly approach the foundation of transnationalism scholarship, which guided my research. Next, I demonstrate how land policies in Brazil and Paraguay, aimed at developing their respective border regions, played a role in the migration of Brazilians to Paraguayan and then the return of a number of them to Brazil. Last, I share the narrative of individuals in the Brasiguaio landless camp in the pursuit of land in either country. At the core of my argument is that the Brasiguaio identities of this landless group result from their pursuit of land rather than from migration processes.

  9. The role of river drainages in shaping the genetic structure of capybara populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, María Soledad; Quintana, Rubén Darío; Bolkovic, María Luisa; Cassini, Marcelo H; Túnez, Juan Ignacio

    2015-12-01

    The capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, is an herbivorous rodent widely distributed throughout most of South American wetlands that lives closely associated with aquatic environments. In this work, we studied the genetic structure of the capybara throughout part of its geographic range in Argentina using a DNA fragment of the mitochondrial control region. Haplotypes obtained were compared with those available for populations from Paraguay and Venezuela. We found 22 haplotypes in 303 individuals. Hierarchical AMOVAs were performed to evaluate the role of river drainages in shaping the genetic structure of capybara populations at the regional and basin scales. In addition, two landscape genetic models, isolation by distance and isolation by resistance, were used to test whether genetic distance was associated with Euclidean distance (i.e. isolation by distance) or river corridor distance (i.e. isolation by resistance) at the basin scale. At the regional scale, the results of the AMOVA grouping populations by mayor river basins showed significant differences between them. At the basin scale, we also found significant differences between sub-basins in Paraguay, together with a significant correlation between genetic and river corridor distance. For Argentina and Venezuela, results were not significant. These results suggest that in Paraguay, the current genetic structure of capybaras is associated with the lack of dispersion corridors through permanent rivers. In contrast, limited structuring in Argentina and Venezuela is likely the result of periodic flooding facilitating dispersion.

  10. A taxonomic revision of the Neotropical electric fish genus Brachyhypopomus (Ostariophysi: Gymnotiformes: Hypopomidae, with descriptions of 15 new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. R. Crampton

    Amazon basin; B. benjamini, new species, and B. verdii, new species, in the upper Amazon basin; B. bennetti, in the upper, central, and lower Amazon, lower Tocantins, and upper Madeira basins; B. bullocki in the Orinoco, Negro and Essequibo drainages; B. diazi in the Orinoco Llanos; B. flavipomus, new species, and B. hamiltoni, new species, in the central and upper Amazon basin; B. hendersoni, new species, in the central Amazon, lower Negro and Essequibo basins; B. pinnicaudatus in the central and lower Amazon, lower, upper Madeira, lower Tocantins and Mearim basins, and coastal French Guiana; and B. provenzanoi, new species, in the upper Orinoco and upper Negro basins. Five species are known from the Paraná-Paraguay-Uruguay basin and adjacent southern Atlantic drainages: B. bombilla in the lower Paraná, upper, central, and lower Paraguay, Uruguay and Patos-Mirim drainages; B. brevirostris in the upper Paraguay basin; B. draco in the lower Paraná, lower Paraguay, Uruguay, Patos-Mirim, and Tramandaí basins; B. gauderio in the lower Paraná, upper, central, and lower Paraguay, Uruguay, Patos-Mirim and Tramandaí basins; and B. walteri in the lower Paraná and upper Paraguay basins. Two species occur in small Atlantic drainages of southern Brazil: B. janeiroensis in the São João, Paraíba and small intervening drainages; and B. jureiae in the Ribeira de Iguape and Una do Prelado. One species occurs in the middle and upper São Francisco basin: B. menezesi, new species. Three species occur in trans-Andean drainages: B. diazi in Caribbean drainages of northern Venezuela; B. occidentalis in Atlantic and Pacific drainages of southern Costa Rica and Panama to Darién, and the Maracaibo, Magdalena, Sinú and Atrato drainages; and B. palenque, new species, in Pacific drainages of Ecuador.

  11. Aportes comunicacionales para un debate sobre ciudadanía y migra Communicational contributions to a debate on citizenship and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Halpern

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un conjunto de elementos descriptivos e interpretativos acerca de la experiencia de Ápe Paraguay, un proyecto político - comunicacional que, desde 2008, realiza un grupo de migrantes paraguayos en Argentina y en Paraguay y que, progresivamente ha crecido en cantidad de miembros de otros lugares del mundo. La declaración de su propuesta política, el contenido de su página Web, así como su producción radial en Internet y otras iniciativas enmarcadas en la utilización de tecnologías de la información y la comunicación y por fuera de ellas, nos han llevado a postular una serie de inquietudes acerca de las formas de producción de ciudadanía en la actualidad, así como de la politicidad de los migrantes paraguayos organizados en distintos lugares del planeta. Estas inquietudes nos permiten vincular aspectos organizativos de los migrantes paraguayos contemporáneos, la producción y reivindicación de identidades emergentes y la utilización de medios de comunicación como forma de construcción de sujetos legítimos allí donde la historia del Paraguay ha producido lejanía y castigo. En definitiva, tratamos de recuperar, desde algunos aportes de la Antropología Cultural y del campo de las Ciencias de la Comunicación, ciertas iniciativas de producción de ciudadanía que ponen en evidencia tanto las conflictividades inherentes a los procesos migratorios y como la lucha comunicacional de los migrantes en su reclamo por el acceso a derechos.This paper presents a set of descriptions and interpretations ofthe Ápe Paraguay experience, a political-communicational project carried outin Argentina and Paraguay by a group of Paraguayan migrants since 2008 which has gradually grown due to the inclusion of members from other parts of the world. It is their political statement, their website content and also their Internet radio broadcasting and other initiatives using and not using information and communication

  12. Taxonomic analysis of Paraguayan samples of Homonota fasciata Duméril & Bibron (1836 with the revalidation of Homonota horrida Burmeister (1861 (Reptilia: Squamata: Phyllodactylidae and the description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Cacciali

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Homonota is a Neotropical genus of nocturnal lizards characterized by the following combination of characters: absence of femoral pores, infradigital lamellae not dilated, claws without sheath, inferior lamellae laterally not denticulate, and presence of a ceratobranchial groove. Currently the genus is composed of 10 species assembled in three groups: two groups with four species, and the fasciata group with only two species. Here, we analyzed genetic and morphologic data of samples of Homonota fasciata from Paraguay; according to Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses, the Paraguay population represents an undescribed species. Additionally, morphological analysis of the holotype of H. fasciata (MNHN 6756 shows that it is morphologically different from the banded, large-scaled Homonota commonly referred to as “H. fasciata”. Given the inconsistency between morphological characters of the name-bearing type of H. fasciata and the species commonly referred to as H. fasciata, we consider them as different taxa. Thus, H. fasciata is a species inquirenda which needs further studies, and we resurrect the name H. horrida for the banded, large-scaled Homonota. The undescribed species from Paraguay is similar to H. horrida, but can be differentiated by the high position of the auditory meatus relative to the mouth commissure (vs. low position in H. horrida; and less developed tubercles on the sides of the head, including a narrow area between the orbit and the auditory meatus covered with small granular scales with or without few tubercles (vs. several big tubercles on the sides of the head even in the area between the orbit and the auditory meatus. The new species is distributed in the Dry Chaco in South America. With the formal description of this species, the actual diversity of the genus Homonota is increased to 12 species. Furthermore, we infer phylogenetic relationships for 11 of the 12 described species of the genus, based on 11

  13. Chagas disease: national survey of seroprevalence in children under five years of age conducted in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russomando, Graciela; Cousiño, Blanca; Sanchez, Zunilda; Franco, Laura X; Nara, Eva M; Chena, Lilian; Martínez, Magaly; Galeano, María E; Benitez, Lucio

    2017-05-01

    Since the early 1990s, programs to control Chagas disease in South America have focused on eradicating domiciliary Triatoma infestans, the main vector. Seroprevalence studies of the chagasic infection are included as part of the vector control programs; they are essential to assess the impact of vector control measures and to monitor the prevention of vector transmission. To assess the interruption of domiciliary vector transmission of Chagas disease by T. infestans in Paraguay by evaluating the current state of transmission in rural areas. A survey of seroprevalence of Chagas disease was carried out in a representative sample group of Paraguayans aged one to five years living in rural areas of Paraguay in 2008. Blood samples collected on filter paper from 12,776 children were tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Children whose serology was positive or undetermined (n = 41) were recalled to donate a whole blood sample for retesting. Their homes were inspected for current triatomine infestation. Blood samples from their respective mothers were also collected and tested to check possible transmission of the disease by a congenital route. A seroprevalence rate of 0.24% for Trypanosoma cruzi infection was detected in children under five years of age among the country's rural population. Our findings indicate that T. cruzi was transmitted to these children vertically. The total number of infected children, aged one to five years living in these departments, was estimated at 1,691 cases with an annual incidence of congenital transmission of 338 cases per year. We determined the impact of vector control in the transmission of T. cruzi, following uninterrupted vector control measures employed since 1999 in contiguous T. infestans-endemic areas of Paraguay, and this allowed us to estimate the degree of risk of congenital transmission in the country.

  14. La Psicología Experimental en dos universidades paraguayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. García

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Varias de las carreras de Psicología que actualmente funcionan en Paraguay incluyen cátedras de Psicología Experimental en sus mallas curriculares. Uno de los objetivos de estas cátedras es la aplicación del método de la experimentación para elaborar trabajos de investigación de sus estudiantes, con lo que cumplen el doble propósito del aprendizaje didáctico y el desarrollo de conocimiento nuevo. Sin embargo, en Paraguay estas cátedras deben realizarse en medio de una escasez muy aguda de recursos e infraestructura. Este trabajo discute de manera crítica tales problemas. En primer lugar, se hace una exposición sobre los antecedentes de la Psicología Experimental en el Paraguay. Luego, se detalla la producción de los estudiantes en dos universidades haciendo especial referencia a los temas que abordan las investigaciones y el tipo de estadística utilizada. Los trabajos fueron completados durante el segundo semestre de los años 2006, 2007 y 2008 en la Universidad de la Integración de las Américas (UNIDA, ubicada en Asunción (2006 y la Universidad Católica, sede Regional Itapúa (UCI en la ciudad de Encarnación (2006, 2007 y 2008. En la sección final del trabajo se identifican y discuten algunos de los problemas principales que dificultan la investigación psicológica en las universidades paraguayas con especial énfasis en la aplicación del método experimental

  15. Chagas disease: national survey of seroprevalence in children under five years of age conducted in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Russomando

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Since the early 1990s, programs to control Chagas disease in South America have focused on eradicating domiciliary Triatoma infestans, the main vector. Seroprevalence studies of the chagasic infection are included as part of the vector control programs; they are essential to assess the impact of vector control measures and to monitor the prevention of vector transmission. OBJECTIVE To assess the interruption of domiciliary vector transmission of Chagas disease by T. infestans in Paraguay by evaluating the current state of transmission in rural areas. METHODS A survey of seroprevalence of Chagas disease was carried out in a representative sample group of Paraguayans aged one to five years living in rural areas of Paraguay in 2008. Blood samples collected on filter paper from 12,776 children were tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Children whose serology was positive or undetermined (n = 41 were recalled to donate a whole blood sample for retesting. Their homes were inspected for current triatomine infestation. Blood samples from their respective mothers were also collected and tested to check possible transmission of the disease by a congenital route. FINDINGS A seroprevalence rate of 0.24% for Trypanosoma cruzi infection was detected in children under five years of age among the country’s rural population. Our findings indicate that T. cruzi was transmitted to these children vertically. The total number of infected children, aged one to five years living in these departments, was estimated at 1,691 cases with an annual incidence of congenital transmission of 338 cases per year. MAIN CONCLUSION We determined the impact of vector control in the transmission of T. cruzi, following uninterrupted vector control measures employed since 1999 in contiguous T. infestans-endemic areas of Paraguay, and this allowed us to estimate the degree of risk of congenital transmission in the country.

  16. Seguridad regional en el proceso de integración: Plan Cóndor (antecedente de la integración del Cono Sur)

    OpenAIRE

    Pasten, Gustavo

    2006-01-01

    En la historia de América Latina existen momentos históricos que dejaron hondas huellas en su haber. Uno de ellos lo constituye la “Operación Cóndor”, una alianza represiva entre los Servicios de Inteligencia, Fuerzas Armadas y de Seguridad de países como Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Bolivia, Uruguay, Brasil, y más tarde Ecuador, Perú y Venezuela quienes sufrieron su accionar durante las décadas del setenta y ochenta. La misma fue hasta ahora, el proceso de integración mas exitoso que ha conoc...

  17. Two new species of Creptotrema (Digenea: Allocreadiidae from South America Dos especies nuevas de Creptotrema (Digenea: Allocreadiidae de América del Sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen S. Curran

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new digenean species belonging in Creptotrema Travassos, Artigas and Pereira, 1928 are described from specimens stored in the invertebrate collection at the Museum of Natural History, Geneva, Switzerland. Creptotrema lamothei n. sp. is described from Ageneiosus brevifilis Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1840 (Siluriformes: Ageneiosidae, Auchenipterus nuchalis (Spix and Agassiz, 1829 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae, and Bryconops melanurus (Bloch, 1794 (Characiformes: Characidae in the Paraguay River, Paraguay. Creptotrema sucumbiosa n. sp. is described from Tetragonopterus argenteus Cuvier, 1816 (Characiformes: Characidae in Río Aquarico, Ecuador. Creptotrema lamothei differs from its congeners by having testes with irregular rather than entire outlines. Creptotrema sucumbiosa differs from its congeners by having a bilobed rather than entire ovary. Both C. lamothei and C. sucumbiosa differ from their other congeners by having relatively longer posttesticular spaces in their bodies, representing 25-30% and 24-28% of body length respectively, compared with approximately 6-19% in other species.Dos especies nuevas de digéneos pertenecientes a Creptotrema Travassos, Artigas y Pereira, 1928 fueron descritas de ejemplares depositados en la colección de invertebrados del Museo de Historia Natural de Ginebra, Suiza. Creptotrema lamothei n. sp. fue descrita en Ageneiosus brevifilis Valenciennes in Cuvier y Valenciennes, 1840 (Siluriformes: Ageneiosidae, Auchenipterus nuchalis (Spix y Agassiz, 1829 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae, y Bryconops melanurus (Bloch, 1794 (Characiformes: Characidae en el río Paraguay, Paraguay. Creptotrema sucumbiosa n. sp. fue descrita de Tetragonopterus argenteus, Cuvier 1816 (Characiformes: Characidae en el río Aquarico, Ecuador. Creptotrema lamothei difiere de sus congéneres por tener testículos con contornos irregulares en contraste con los que presentan contornos enteros. Creptotrema sucumbiosa difiere de

  18. The substation and power plant operator perspective of the operation decentralization and automation; Perspectiva del operador de subestacion y de usina ante la decentralizacion y automatizacion de la operacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleitas B, Nicanor; Bernal O, Jacinto; Valdes, Orlando [Administracion Nacional de Electricidad (ANDE), Asuncion (Paraguay)

    1998-07-01

    This paper, based on the sustainable growing of the Paraguay electricity market, the distance from the consumption centers, and the increasing of the power plant complexity running, concludes by the necessity of implementing, short and medium terms, modifications in the operational aspects, under the perspective of one of the obstacles represented by the resistance to changes of the operational personnel. The final objects of the modifications are: improvement of the electric services quality to consumers; better economical results for the company; controlling of the competition, and improvement the work conditions of the operational staff.

  19. CONDUCTA SEXUAL Y NIVEL DE CONOCIMIENTO SOBRE INFECCIONES DE TRANSMISIÓN SEXUAL EN ADOLESCENTES

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Alvarez Cabrera; Alejandra Müller Alfonzo; Víctor Vergara Jara

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: Conocer la conducta sexual y el nivel de conocimiento sobre infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) en adolescentes de instituciones educativas del distrito de Encarnación (Itapúa, Paraguay). Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, observacional, prospectivo, de corte transversal, cuantitativo. Se incluyeron a 533 alumnos. La información fue obtenida a través de una encuesta tipo cuestionario, que incluyó preguntas abiertas y cerradas, diseñada de acuerdo a las variables de interés, aplicada ...

  20. Analisis del sistema Paraguayo de investigacion agropecuaria

    OpenAIRE

    Ekboir, Javier M.; Parellada, Gabriel H.; Molina, Andres; Duarte, Cesar

    2003-01-01

    En la década del 90, el Gobierno paraguayo implementó, con poco éxito, varios planes de reforma del Estado. Actualmente conviven en Paraguay un Estado muy centralizado, con poca capacidad de implementar políticas modernas, y una economía muy descentralizada (a veces completamente fuera del control del gobierno y de la policía), que evoluciona gracias a las acciones e interacciones de agentes individuales y a las oportunidades creadas por la integración a los mercados fronterizos, tanto en los...

  1. Transformaciones del territorio Avá Guarani a partir de la construccion de la Usina Hidroelectrica Itaipu y por la actual expansion de la agricultura capitalista

    OpenAIRE

    Portillo Guillen, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Trabajo de conclusión de curso presentado al Instituto Latinoamericano de Economía, Sociedad y Política de la Universidad Federal De la Integración Latinoamericana como requisito parcial para la obtención del título de Bacharel en Ciencia Política y Sociología. Orientadora: Profa. Dra. SenildeAlcantara Guanaes Las comunidades Avá Guaraní, situada en el departamento de Alto Paraná (Paraguay) y del Oeste de Paraná (Brasil) han pasado por un proceso de desplazamiento sobre su territorio...

  2. Energy integration in south cone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, M.A.K.

    1990-01-01

    The economic development of a geo-political region is directly related to the energy resources available to its productive system. The analysis carried out in this paper focus a region limited by Paraguay, Uruguay, the Argentina north and the Brazilian south, the core of the so called South Cone. The region has a diversified energy matrix that assures strong connections between the countries. The main resources available are hydroelectric but the approach gives a strong emphasis in coal and natural gas. The outlined model of a self sustained development of the region can be used as the foundation of the independent economic development of South America. (author)

  3. THE PROTECTION OF MBYÁ-GUARANÍ CHILDHOOD RIGHTS. ETHNOGRAPHIC CONTRIBUTIONS FOR QUESTIONING THE FORMATIVE EXPERIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Padawer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes children rights regulations about the elimination of child labour in the South Cone countries where mbyá-guarani populations live (Paraguay, Brazil, and Argentina, and their relation to child participation in traditional productive activities, considering their formative aspect. It includes a discussion on the concepts incorporated in such rights regulations and their implications in a fieldwork carried out in San Ignacio (Southwest of the Misiones province, Argentina, as well as recent studies conducted by other researchers in these national contexts.

  4. Legislación y control de riesgos de salud en América Latina y el Caribe

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica Bolis

    2002-01-01

    Este estudio analiza la legislación en Latín América y el Caribe con el propósito de determinar en qué medida contribuyen, o no, a la eliminación de riesgos para la salud. Los países incluidos son: Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belice, Bolivia, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Jamaica, México, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Perú, República Dominicana, Trinidad y Tobago, Uruguay y Venezuela. La investigación se centró en las áreas de medicam...

  5. Características biológicas e inmunológicas del veneno de Bothrops cotiara (Serpentes: Viperidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo Rafael de Roodt; Judith Estévez; Jorge Adrián Dolab; Marcelo Víctor Manzanelli; Nicolás Piñeiro; Jorge Francisco Paniagua; Alejandro Urs Vogt

    2006-01-01

    Bothrops cotiara es una serpiente que se encuentra en la provincia de Misiones (Argentina), el Sur de Brasil y Paraguay. La información sobre las características clínicas de los accidentes por esta serpiente es muy escasa y existen pocos datos sobre su veneno y la capacidad neutralizante de las actividades tóxicas del mismo por antivenenos terapéuticos. En este trabajo se estudiaron características bioquímicas, actividades tóxicas y la reactividad inmunoquímica del veneno de B. cotiara. Seis ...

  6. La vegetación como indicador de la Geomorfología Fluvial

    OpenAIRE

    Juan José Neiff; Silvina Lorena Casco; Nora Indiana Basterra de Chiozzi

    2005-01-01

    Aguas abajo de la confluencia con el río Paraguay, el Paraná se expande en una ancha planicie lateral que, durante las inundaciones extraordinarias completa un área 2-10 veces mayor que el área ocupada por las aguas en los períodos de bajantes extraordinarias, en los que el curso queda aislado de la planicie inundable. El propósito de esta contribución es presentar las características más salientes de este tramo entrelazado del r&...

  7. Migration and dispersal of Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro STADLER

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio sobre la dispersión de Anthonomus grandis Boheman, el picudo del algodonero, en Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Bolivia, explora las características ecológicas y fisiológicas que han permitido a este insecto dispersarse y establecerse exitosamente en América del Sur. La plasticidad fenotípica de A. grandis se caracteriza por un tiempo de desarrollo flexible, ciclo de vida multivoltino con generaciones superpuestas, la capacidad de alimentarse con polen de diversas familias botánicas así como de otras fuentes de alimento y por su habilidad para migrar y dispersarse con la ayuda del viento. Todo esto hace de esta especie una plaga clave para el cultivo del algodón. Los cultivos de cítricos en Misiones, Argentina, son posibles sitios para la hibernación de esta especie. En esta región fueron capturadas grandes cantidades de individuos prediapausantes, provenientes de algodonales en post-cosecha en Paraguay, atraídos probablemente por compuestos volátiles de cítricos cultivados en la zona. La quiescencia facultativa que atraviesan los adultos ante condiciones adversas, conlleva a un retraso en el desarrollo que se relaciona con las condiciones desfavorables. Esto sugiere que la hibernación en A. grandis puede ser definida como «oligopausa», una forma intermedia de diapausa. Desde su introducción en Brasil en 1983 y hasta el 2006, el picudo se ha dispersado en dirección sudoeste hacia Argentina, a una velocidad promedio de 61 km año-1. Sin embargo, le ha insumido aproximadamente diez años cruzar 250 km, desde Paraguay hacia el centro de la zona algodonera de Argentina. Este progreso más lento se debe probablemente a las acciones llevadas a cabo en el marco del programa de erradicación del picudo del algodonero, por parte del gobierno de Argentina. La llegada del picudo al área central de cultivo de algodón en la Argentina, así como a otras áreas de cultivo en Paraguay y Argentina, confirma el hecho de que

  8. Mathematical models for the arrangement and the cleaning of the river basin and surroundings of the river sandy grounds to its passage by the city of Salta (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Antón Corrales, José Manuel; Grau Olive, Juan Bautista; Speroni, Colombo; Rios, Lisandro de los; Andina de la Fuente, Diego; Tarquis Alfonso, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    The province of Salta is located the Northwest of Argentina in the border with Bolivia, Chile and Paraguay. Its Capital is the city of Salta that concentrates half of the inhabitants of the province and has grown to 600000 hab., from a small active Spanish town well founded in 1583. The city is crossed by the Arenales River descending from close mountains at North, source of water and end of sewers. But with actual growing it has become a focus of infection and of remarkable unhealthiness. It...

  9. Preliminary Analysis of the Role of Wetlands and Rivers in the Groundwater Discharge of the Guarani Aquifer System in NE Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, L.; Rodriguez, L.; Manzano, M.; Valladares, A.; Agarwaal, P.; Araguas, L.

    2011-01-01

    The Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) is a transboundary aquifer occupying parts of Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Argentina, covering some 1200000 km''2. The location and magnitude of recharge and the magnitude of regional discharges are uncertain. Regional groundwater flow modeling suggests that some discharge may occur through selected reaches of the Parana and Uruguay rivers and their tributaries, and perhaps, through the Ibera wetland system within Argentina. Preliminary findings of hydrochemical and isotopic sampling and analysis from surface water and groundwater in the Southern GAS region, studying the role of rivers and wetlands in the aquifer discharge and revising the conceptual model, are presented.

  10. Report on results of medical survey of atomic bomb survivors residing in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuhashi, Akio; Monzen, Tetsuo; Inamizu, Tsutomu; Oguma, Nobuo; Yotsuya, Koichi; Ozaki, Shinpei; Takamatsu, Katsuro; Kawaguchi, Kiyoshi.

    1986-01-01

    Medical survey of A-bomb survivors was made from October 21 through November 7, 1985 in Brazil, Argentine, and Paraguay. One hundred fifty four A-bomb survivors were identified in these three countries. Of these A-bomb survivors, 133 (86 %) participated in this survey. Eighy six survivors came from Hiroshima and the other 47 from Nagasaki. The average age of them was 55.8 +- 11.1 yr for men and 56.3 +- 9.9 yr for women. Abnormal findings requiring detailed examinations and life instruction were seen in 56 % of the participants. Common findings were hypertension, heart disease, and obesity. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. El cultivo de la stevia revolucionará la agricultura andaluza

    OpenAIRE

    Benítez Villanueva, Gustavo; Hernández Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    La demanda creciente de los edulcorantes como sustitutos del azúcar y de los productos acalóricos o con bajas calorías de los consumidores españoles (entre 2008 y 2012 la demanda de edulcorantes creció en España un 36,5%) ha sido la base para la realización de este trabajo. En él se ha estudiado el cultivo de Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, una planta compuesta originaria de Paraguay de la que se obtiene un edulcorante natural y acalórico del mismo nombre, stevia. Se ha analizado la viabilidad del...

  12. Notes on winter feeding behavior and molt in Wilson's phalaropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, J.; Howe, M.

    1975-01-01

    Wilson's Phalaropes, Steganopus tricolor, migrate in late summer from the prairie regions of North America to their wintering grounds in the highlands of Peru and the inland and coastal waters of Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Argentina (Holmes 1939, Meyer de Schauensee 1970). Reports on these birds from their wintering habitat are few. This paper describes numbers, feeding behavior, and molt of Wilson's Phalaropes wintering in a freshwater marsh in central Argentina. Fieldwork in Argentina was conducted by the senior author. The junior author analyzed molt patterns of birds collected there and added data he collected in North Dakota in 1968 and 1969.

  13. Planeamiento Estratégico del Gobierno Electrónico (a nivel de un gobierno nacional)

    OpenAIRE

    Uzal, Roberto; Benítez Codas, Manuel; Montejano, Germán Antonio; Riesco, Daniel Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo aporta un método, conceptos y experiencias en el ámbito de uno de los más relevantes y menos tratados capítulos de la Ingeniería de Software: El Planeamiento Estratégico de Sistemas de Información. Se presenta, para la discusión en el ámbito académico, el proyecto de Planeamiento Estratégico de Gobierno Electrónico de la República del Paraguay. La originalidad de lo expuesto deriva del hecho de que no es frecuente tener la oportunidad de transmitir experiencias respecto del Plane...

  14. Study Moessbauer of chromites of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Ada; Velazquez, R.

    1997-01-01

    Coming natural chromites from South Africa they were studied by spectroscopy Moessbauer and X-rays diffraction. The ionic distribution of the ions of iron is reported in the area tetrahedral and octahedral in the structure showing that the pattern an orderly distribution, the chromites nearby to an inverse spinel. The microanalysis shows a certain variability in the composition in the coming specimen of the same area and could be the cause the apparent evolution of the chromite in the laterization process. We try to compare these results with a similar study coming f rom basaltic rocks of the Nemby Hill in oriental region of Paraguay [es

  15. The Health Status of Women in the Military: An Epidemiological Study of Active Duty Navy And Marine Corps Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    0 Not applicable LIFESTYLE: 59. Do you consider yourself now to be: 0 Overweight 0 Underweight 0 About the right weight 60. Would you like to...YADOR 34024 GUATEMALA CITY. GUATEMALA 34025 BEliZE CITY. BEliZE )1.030 RIO DE JANERIO. BRAZI: :M031 LIMA. PERU :w032 LA PAZ. 80I.MA :w033...ETA ISLAND) , !HOWARD AFBI (QUARRY HEIGHTS) CROOMANI PARAGUAY CASUNCIOH) PERU (LIMA) PHIUPPINES IM.AHI�I PORTUGAL (USBOH) ��ORES! PUERTO RICO

  16. Small money, big problems: how an investigation on small Latin American republics shaped the financial market for sovereign debt in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Ribas Miranda

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1875 the British Parliament set up a Committee to investigate frauds on loans underwritten by British and French banks to the Republics of Honduras, Costa Rica, Santo Domingo and Paraguay, reaching an amount of £12 million. The reports of the Committee and the press coverage issue revealed financial malpractices by banks and diplomats in order to induce millionaire defaults at expense of the bondholders, whilst the loan agents were living in luxuriant mansions in southern France. After the investigation, these shoddy practices were exposed to the public, reshaping the loan business for the rest of the century.

  17. Die Perzeption der deutschen Wiedervereinigung in Lateinamerika

    OpenAIRE

    Horsten, Christina

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation analyses the print media coverage of the fall of the Berlin Wall and the German Reunification during the years 1989 and 1990 in Chile, Nicaragua and Paraguay. The three countries in Latin-America just as the Federal Republic of Germany and the DDR provided stages for the Cold War and witnessed dramatic political changes in the context of a much discussed “global moment” during the period of investigation. The sources, on which the dissertation is founded, are articles, photo...

  18. La historia de una vida en situación de frontera: migración, superación y trabajo en el “circuito sacoleiro”.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Gustavo Cardin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The research undertaken, and now presented here, was aimed at constructing additional understandings of the phenomenon of migration and of the smuggling practices along the border between Brazil and Paraguay. By articulating local knowledge and historically established theories, and exploring the life histories and occupational trajectories in the narratives collected, the text denounces the difficulty of thinking about the world in terms of paradigms and explores the subtleties of everyday life and its potential in the construction of the reality of these lives.

  19. Schulzia chiribita n. sp. (Nematoda, Trichostrongylina, Molineoidea parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durette-Desset M.C.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A third species of the genus Schulzia Travassos, 1937 a parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian, Leptodactylidae originating from Peru is described. By the pattern of the caudal bursa, the specimens are closely related to the two other species. They are distinguished from Schulzia uzu Lent & Santos, 1989, parasite from Atelopus oxyrhynchus in Venezuela, by the shape of the ovejector and from Schulzia travassosi Durette-Desset, Baker & Vaucher, 1985, parasite from Bufo crucifer in Brasil, Bufo granulosus and Leptodactylus bufonius in Paraguay, by the shape of the spicules. The presence of a new species in Peru points out the wide geographic distribution of the genus in the Neotropical region.

  20. El género Morphnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehmann V. F. C.

    1943-08-01

    Full Text Available Nombres comunes: Aguila churuquera, Aguila miquera, Aguila copetona, Gavilán miquero,  Aguila-gavilán, Gavilán. real.  DISTRIBUCION: Desde Honduras, por Panamá, Colombia, Venezuela, las Guayanas, el Brasil, el Oriente del Ecuador y del Perú, hasta el Paraguay. En Colombia se encuentra en las selvas frondosas de las regiones cálidas: Llanos Orientales, Choco, Valle del Magdalena (parte selvosa , sur de la Guajira, Caquetá y Amazonia.