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Sample records for paraffin-coated cs vapor

  1. Hybrid optical pumping of K and Rb atoms in a paraffin coated vapor cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenhao; Peng, Xiang; Budker, Dmitry; Wickenbrock, Arne; Pang, Bo; Zhang, Rui; Guo, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Dynamic hybrid optical pumping effects with a radio-frequency-field-driven nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (RF NMOR) scheme are studied in a dual-species paraffin coated vapor cell. By pumping K atoms and probing $^{87}$Rb atoms, we achieve an intrinsic magnetic resonance linewidth of 3 Hz and the observed resonance is immune to power broadening and light-shift effects. Such operation scheme shows favorable prospects for atomic magnetometry applications.

  2. Is light narrowing possible with dense-vapor paraffin coated cells for atomic magnetometers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Runqi; Balabas, Mikhail; Hovde, Chris; Li, Wenhao; Roig, Hector Masia; Wang, Tao; Wickenbrock, Arne; Zhivun, Elena; You, Zheng; Budker, Dmitry

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the operation of an all-optical rubidium-87 atomic magnetometer with amplitude-modulated light. To study the suppression of spin-exchange relaxation, three schemes of pumping were implemented with room-temperature and heated paraffin coated vacuum cells. Efficient pumping and accumulation of atoms in the F=2 ground state were obtained. However, the sought-for narrowing of the resonance lines has not been achieved. A theoretical analysis of the polarization degree is presented to illustrate the absence of light narrowing due to radiation trapping at high temperature.

  3. Spatial transport of atomic coherence in electromagnetically induced absorption with a paraffin-coated Rb vapor cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon-Seok; Moon, Han Seb

    2014-06-30

    We report the spatial transport of spontaneously transferred atomic coherence (STAC) in electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA), which resulted from moving atoms with the STAC of the 5S(1/2) (F = 2)-5P(3/2) (F' = 3) transition of (87)Rb in a paraffin-coated vapor cell. In our experiment, two channels were spatially separate; the writing channel (WC) generated STAC in the EIA configuration, and the reading channel (RC) retrieved the optical field from the spatially transported STAC. Transported between the spatially separated positions, the fast light pulse of EIA in the WC and the delayed light pulse in the RC were observed. When the laser direction of the RC was counter-propagated in the direction of the WC, we observed direction reversal of the transported light pulse in the EIA medium. Furthermore, the delay time, the magnitude, and the width of the spatially transported light pulse were investigated with respect to the distance between the two channels.

  4. Rubidium dimers in paraffin-coated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, V M; Windes, D; Corsini, E; Ledbetter, M P; Karaulanov, T; Budker, D; Jarmola, A; Auzinsh, M; Rangwala, S A; Jackson Kimball, D F

    2010-01-01

    Measurements were made to determine the density of rubidium dimer vapor in paraffin-coated cells. The number density of dimers and atoms in similar paraffin-coated and uncoated cells was measured by optical spectroscopy. Due to the relatively low melting point of paraffin, a limited temperature range of 43-80 0 C was explored, with the lower end corresponding to a dimer density of less than 10 7 cm -3 . With 1 min integration time, a sensitivity to dimer number density of better than 10 6 cm -3 was achieved. No significant difference in dimer density between the cells was observed.

  5. Observation of prolonged coherence time of the collective spin wave of an atomic ensemble in a paraffin-coated 87Rb vapor cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shuo; Luo Xiaoming; Chen Liqing; Ning Bo; Chen Shuai; Wang Jingyang; Zhong Zhiping; Pan Jianwei

    2009-01-01

    We report a prolonged coherence time of the collective spin wave of a thermal 87 Rb atomic ensemble in a paraffin-coated cell. The spin wave is prepared through a stimulated Raman process. The long coherence time is achieved by prolonging the lifetime of the spins with paraffin coating and minimize dephasing with optimal experimental configuration. The observation of the long-time-delayed-stimulated Stokes signal in the writing process suggests the prolonged lifetime of the prepared spins; a direct measurement of the decay of anti-Stokes signal in the reading process shows the coherence time is up to 300 μs after minimizing dephasing. This is 100 times longer than the reported coherence time in the similar experiments in thermal atomic ensembles based on the Duan-Lukin-Cirac-Zoller and its improved protocols. This prolonged coherence time sets the upper limit of the memory time in quantum repeaters based on such protocols, which is crucial for the realization of long-distance quantum communication. The previous reported fluorescence background in the writing process due to collision in a sample cell with buffer gas is also reduced in a cell without buffer gas.

  6. Characterization of Cs vapor cell coated with octadecyltrichlorosilane using coherent population trapping spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafiz, Moustafa Abdel; Maurice, Vincent; Chutani, Ravinder; Passilly, Nicolas; Gorecki, Christophe; Boudot, Rodolphe [FEMTO-ST, CNRS, UFC, 26 Chemin de l' Epitaphe, 25030 Besançon Cedex (France); Guérandel, Stéphane; Clercq, Emeric de [LNE-SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, 61 avenue de l' Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France)

    2015-05-14

    We report the realization and characterization using coherent population trapping (CPT) spectroscopy of an octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS)-coated centimeter-scale Cs vapor cell. The dual-structure of the resonance lineshape, with presence of a narrow structure line at the top of a Doppler-broadened structure, is clearly observed. The linewidth of the narrow resonance is compared to the linewidth of an evacuated Cs cell and of a buffer gas Cs cell of similar size. The Cs-OTS adsorption energy is measured to be (0.42 ± 0.03) eV, leading to a clock frequency shift rate of 2.7 × 10{sup −9}/K in fractional unit. A hyperfine population lifetime, T{sub 1}, and a microwave coherence lifetime, T{sub 2}, of 1.6 and 0.5 ms are reported, corresponding to about 37 and 12 useful bounces, respectively. Atomic-motion induced Ramsey narrowing of dark resonances is observed in Cs-OTS cells by reducing the optical beam diameter. Ramsey CPT fringes are detected using a pulsed CPT interrogation scheme. Potential applications of the Cs-OTS cell to the development of a vapor cell atomic clock are discussed.

  7. Characterization of Cs vapor cell coated with octadecyltrichlorosilane using coherent population trapping spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiz, Moustafa Abdel; Maurice, Vincent; Chutani, Ravinder; Passilly, Nicolas; Gorecki, Christophe; Boudot, Rodolphe; Guérandel, Stéphane; Clercq, Emeric de

    2015-01-01

    We report the realization and characterization using coherent population trapping (CPT) spectroscopy of an octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS)-coated centimeter-scale Cs vapor cell. The dual-structure of the resonance lineshape, with presence of a narrow structure line at the top of a Doppler-broadened structure, is clearly observed. The linewidth of the narrow resonance is compared to the linewidth of an evacuated Cs cell and of a buffer gas Cs cell of similar size. The Cs-OTS adsorption energy is measured to be (0.42 ± 0.03) eV, leading to a clock frequency shift rate of 2.7 × 10 −9 /K in fractional unit. A hyperfine population lifetime, T 1 , and a microwave coherence lifetime, T 2 , of 1.6 and 0.5 ms are reported, corresponding to about 37 and 12 useful bounces, respectively. Atomic-motion induced Ramsey narrowing of dark resonances is observed in Cs-OTS cells by reducing the optical beam diameter. Ramsey CPT fringes are detected using a pulsed CPT interrogation scheme. Potential applications of the Cs-OTS cell to the development of a vapor cell atomic clock are discussed

  8. Direct Vapor Growth of Perovskite CsPbBr3 Nanoplate Electroluminescence Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xuelu; Zhou, Hong; Jiang, Zhenyu; Wang, Xiao; Yuan, Shuangping; Lan, Jianyue; Fu, Yongping; Zhang, Xuehong; Zheng, Weihao; Wang, Xiaoxia; Zhu, Xiaoli; Liao, Lei; Xu, Gengzhao; Jin, Song; Pan, Anlian

    2017-10-24

    Metal halide perovskite nanostructures hold great promises as nanoscale light sources for integrated photonics due to their excellent optoelectronic properties. However, it remains a great challenge to fabricate halide perovskite nanodevices using traditional lithographic methods because the halide perovskites can be dissolved in polar solvents that are required in the traditional device fabrication process. Herein, we report single CsPbBr 3 nanoplate electroluminescence (EL) devices fabricated by directly growing CsPbBr 3 nanoplates on prepatterned indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes via a vapor-phase deposition. Bright EL occurs in the region near the negatively biased contact, with a turn-on voltage of ∼3 V, a narrow full width at half-maximum of 22 nm, and an external quantum efficiency of ∼0.2%. Moreover, through scanning photocurrent microscopy and surface electrostatic potential measurements, we found that the formation of ITO/p-type CsPbBr 3 Schottky barriers with highly efficient carrier injection is essential in realizing the EL. The formation of the ITO/p-type CsPbBr 3 Schottky diode is also confirmed by the corresponding transistor characteristics. The achievement of EL nanodevices enabled by directly grown perovskite nanostructures could find applications in on-chip integrated photonics circuits and systems.

  9. Thermal ionization and plasma state of high temperature vapor of UO2, Cs, and Na: Effect on the heat and radiation transport properties of the vapor phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karow, H.U.

    1979-01-01

    The paper deals with the question how far the thermophysical state and the convective and radiative heat transport properties of vaporized reactor core materials are affected by the thermal ionization existing in the actual vapor state. The materials under consideration here are: nuclear oxide fuel (UO 2 ), Na (as the LMFBR coolant material), and Cs (alkaline fission product, partly retained in the fuel of the core zone). (orig./RW) [de

  10. Radiative transport and collisional transfer of excitation energy in Cs vapors mixed with Ar or He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadla, Cedomil; Horvatic, Vlasta; Niemax, Kay

    2003-01-01

    This paper is a review (with a few original additions) on the radiative transport and collisional transfer of energy in laser-excited cesium vapors in the presence of argon or helium. Narrow-band excitation of lines with Lorentz, Doppler and Voigt profiles is studied in order to calculate effective rates for pumping of spectral lines with profiles comprising inhomogeneous broadening components. The radiative transport of excitation energy is considered, and a new, simple and robust, but accurate theoretical method for quantitative treatment of radiation trapping in relatively optically thin media is presented. Furthermore, comprehensive lists of experimental values for the excitation energy transfer cross-sections related to thermal collisions in Cs-Ar and Cs-He mixtures are given. Within the collected cross-section data sets, specific regularities with respect to the energy defect, as well as the temperature, are discerned. A particular emphasis is put on the radiative and collisional processes important for the optimization of resonance-fluorescence imaging atomic filters based on Cs-noble gas systems

  11. Dependence of EIA spectra on mutual coherence between coupling and probe fields in Cs atomic vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Mi Rang; Kim, Kyoung Dae; Park, Hyun Deok; Kim, Jung Bog [Korea National University of Education, Chungwon (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Han Seb [Korea Research Institute of the Standards and Science, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-01

    We observed the dependence of EIA spectra on the mutual coherence between the coupling and the probe fields in the D{sub 2}F{sub 9} = 4 {r_reversible} F{sub e} = 5 transition of Cs vapors at room temperature where the coupling and the probe fields were made from one laser source or two independent laser sources. By using one source having a high mutual coherence, we found EIA spectra linewidths much narrower than 0.1 {gamma} on the weak coupling field and the transparent spectra with linewidths narrower than 1 MHz within subnatural absorption on the strong coupling field. On the other hand, where the two sources which were nearly incoherent with each other were used, the absorption profiles showed the same dependence on the coupling power as the spectra for the one source, but their linewidths were broad, on the order of the natural linewidth.

  12. Laser energy-pooling processes in an optically thick Cs vapor near a dissipative surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, Jean-Marie; Le Bris, Karine; Gagne, Marie-Claude

    2002-01-01

    We characterize, for the first time to our knowledge, the laser-induced backward fluorescence (retrofluorescence) spectra that result from energy-pooling collisions between Cs atoms near a dissipative thin Cs layer on a glass substrate. We resolve, experimentally and theoretically, the laser spectroscopic problem of energy-pooling processes related to the nature of the glass-metallic vapor interface. Our study focused on the integrated laser-induced retrofluorescence spectra for the 455.5-nm (7 2 P 3/2 -6 2 S 1/2 ) and 852.2-nm (6 2 P 3/2 -6 2 S 1/2 ) lines as a function of laser scanning through pumping resonance at the 852.2-nm line. We experimentally investigate the retrofluorescence from 420 to 930 nm, induced by a diode laser tuned either in the wings or in the center of the pumping resonance line. We present a detailed theoretical model of the retrofluorescence signal based on the radiative transfer equation, taking into account the evanescent wave of the excited atomic dipole strongly coupled with a dissipative surface. Based on theoretical and experimental results, we evaluate the effective nonradiative transfer rate A(bar sign) 6 2 P 3/2 →6 2 S 1/2s f for atoms in the excited 6 2 P 3/2 level located in the near-field region of the surface of the cell. Values extracted from the energy-pooling process analysis are equivalent to those found directly from the 852.2-nm resonance retrofluorescence line. We show that the effective energy-pooling coefficients k-tilde 7 2 P 3/2 and k-tilde 7 2 P 1/2 are approximately equal. The agreement between theory and experiment is remarkably good, considering the simplicity of the model

  13. Study of compoisiton of saturated vapor of MF-CuF2 systems, where M=K, Rb, Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, I.V.; Korenev, Yu.M.

    1993-01-01

    Investigation into composition of saturated vapor of MF-CuF 2 systems where M=K, Rb, Cs is conducted using high-temperature mass-spectrometry. Existence of MCuF 3 molecules in gas phase is determined. MCuF 3(r) dissociation enthalpies are calculated using the first law-of thermodynamics and are compared with theoretically determined values. Value Δ D G 0 944 (CsCuF 3(r) =105.6±6.3 kj/mol is determined

  14. Influence of boron vapor on transport behavior of deposited CsI during heating test simulating a BWR severe accident condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Isamu, E-mail: sato.isamu@jaea.go.jp; Onishi, Takashi; Tanaka, Kosuke; Iwasaki, Maho; Koyama, Shin-ichi

    2015-06-15

    In order to evaluate influence of B on the release and transport of Cs and I during severe accidents, basic experiments have been performed on the interaction between deposited Cs/I compounds and vapor/aerosol B compounds. CsI and B{sub 2}O{sub 3} were utilized as a Cs/I compound and a B compound, respectively. Deposited CsI on the thermal gradient tube (TGT) at temperatures ranging from 423 K to 1023 K was reacted with vapor/aerosol B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and then observed how it changed Cs/I deposition profiles. As a result, vapor/aerosol B{sub 2}O{sub 3} stripped a portion of deposited CsI within a temperature range from 830 K to 920 K to make gaseous CsBO{sub 2} and I{sub 2}. In addition, gaseous I{sub 2} was re-deposited at a temperature range from 530 K to 740 K, while CsBO{sub 2} travelled through the sampling tubes and filters without deposition. It is evident that B enables Cs compounds such as CsBO{sub 2} to transport Cs to the colder regions.

  15. Investigation of pump-to-seed beam matching on output features of Rb and Cs vapor laser amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Binglin; Huang, Jinghua; Xu, Xingqi; Xia, Chunsheng; Pan, Bailiang

    2018-05-01

    Taking into account the beam radii of pump light and seed laser along the entire length of the cell and their intensities in the cross section, a physical model with ordinary differential equation methods for alkali vapor amplifiers is established. Applied to the reported optically pumped Rb and diode-pumped Cs vapor amplifiers, the model shows good agreement between the calculated and measured dependence of amplified power on the seed power. A larger width of the spontaneous emission region as compared to the widths of pump absorption and laser emission regions, which will result in very high energy losses, is observed in the cell. Influence of pump and seed beam waists on output performance is calculated, showing that the pump and seed beam should match each other not only in shape but also in size, thus an optimal combination of beam radii is very important for efficient operation of alkali vapor amplifiers.

  16. Dual-Phase CsPbBr3 -CsPb2 Br5 Perovskite Thin Films via Vapor Deposition for High-Performance Rigid and Flexible Photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Guoqing; Li, Huan; Li, Danting; Zhu, Zhifeng; Xu, Enze; Li, Guopeng; Yu, Linwei; Xu, Jun; Jiang, Yang

    2018-02-01

    Inorganic perovskites with special semiconducting properties and structures have attracted great attention and are regarded as next generation candidates for optoelectronic devices. Herein, using a physical vapor deposition process with a controlled excess of PbBr 2 , dual-phase all-inorganic perovskite composite CsPbBr 3 -CsPb 2 Br 5 thin films are prepared as light-harvesting layers and incorporated in a photodetector (PD). The PD has a high responsivity and detectivity of 0.375 A W -1 and 10 11 Jones, respectively, and a fast response time (from 10% to 90% of the maximum photocurrent) of ≈280 µs/640 µs. The device also shows an excellent stability in air for more than 65 d without encapsulation. Tetragonal CsPb 2 Br 5 provides satisfactory passivation to reduce the recombination of the charge carriers, and with its lower free energy, it enhances the stability of the inorganic perovskite devices. Remarkably, the same inorganic perovskite photodetector is also highly flexible and exhibits an exceptional bending performance (>1000 cycles). These results highlight the great potential of dual-phase inorganic perovskite films in the development of optoelectronic devices, especially for flexible device applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Toward a High-Stability Coherent Population Trapping Cs Vapor-Cell Atomic Clock Using Autobalanced Ramsey Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Hafiz, Moustafa; Coget, Grégoire; Petersen, Michael; Rocher, Cyrus; Guérandel, Stéphane; Zanon-Willette, Thomas; de Clercq, Emeric; Boudot, Rodolphe

    2018-06-01

    Vapor-cell atomic clocks are widely appreciated for their excellent short-term fractional frequency stability and their compactness. However, they are known to suffer on medium and long time scales from significant frequency instabilities, generally attributed to light-induced frequency-shift effects. In order to tackle this limitation, we investigate the application of the recently proposed autobalanced Ramsey (ABR) interrogation protocol onto a pulsed hot-vapor Cs vapor-cell clock based on coherent population trapping (CPT). We demonstrate that the ABR protocol, developed initially to probe the one-photon resonance of quantum optical clocks, can be successfully applied to a two-photon CPT resonance. The applied method, based on the alternation of two successive Ramsey-CPT sequences with unequal free-evolution times and the subsequent management of two interconnected phase and frequency servo loops, is found to allow a relevant reduction of the clock-frequency sensitivity to laser-power variations. This original ABR-CPT approach, combined with the implementation of advanced electronics laser-power stabilization systems, yields the demonstration of a CPT-based Cs vapor-cell clock with a short-term fractional frequency stability at the level of 3.1×10 -13τ-1 /2 , averaging down to the level of 6 ×10-15 at 2000-s integration time. These encouraging performances demonstrate that the use of the ABR interrogation protocol is a promising option towards the development of high-stability CPT-based frequency standards. Such clocks could be attractive candidates in numerous applications including next-generation satellite-based navigation systems, secure communications, instrumentation, or defense systems.

  18. Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study for transport behavior of CsI in heating test simulating a BWR severe accident condition: Chemical effects of boron vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okane, T., E-mail: okanet@spring8.or.jp [Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Hyogo, 679-5148 (Japan); Kobata, M. [Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Hyogo, 679-5148 (Japan); Sato, I. [Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan); Kobayashi, K. [Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Hyogo, 679-5148 (Japan); Osaka, M. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan); Yamagami, H. [Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Hyogo, 679-5148 (Japan); Faculty of Science, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto, 603-8555 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • We have clarified the temperature-dependent chemical forms of Cs/I products. • We have examined the CsI-decomposing effects of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} vapor. • The possibility of Cs re-evaporation from CsI-deposited surface is suggested. • We have demonstrated the usefulness of HAXPES on FP chemistry. - Abstract: Transport behavior of CsI in the heating test, which simulated a BWR severe accident, was investigated by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) with an emphasis on the chemical effect of boron vapors. CsI deposited on metal tube at temperatures ranging from 150 °C to 750 °C was reacted with vapor/aerosol B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and the chemical form of reaction products on the sample surface was examined from the HAXPES spectra of core levels, e.g., Ni 2p, Cs 3d and I 3d levels, and valence band. For the samples at ∼300 °C, while the chemical form of major product on the sample surface without an exposure to B{sub 2}O{sub 3} was suggested to be CsI from the HAXPES spectra, an intensity ratio of Cs/I was dramatically reduced at the sample surface after the reaction with B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The results suggest the possibility of significant decomposition of deposited CsI induced by the chemical reaction with B{sub 2}O{sub 3} at specific temperatures.

  19. Coherent Population Trapping Resonances in Cs Atomic Vapor Layers of Micrometric Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Krasteva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a novel behavior of the electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA resonance observed on the D2 line of Cs for atoms confined in cells with micrometric thickness. With the enhancement of light intensity, the EIA resonance amplitude suffers from fast reduction, and even at very low intensity (W < 1 mW/cm2, resonance sign reversal takes place and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT resonance is observed. Similar EIA resonance transformation to EIT one is not observed in conventional cm-size cells. A theoretical model is proposed to analyze the physical processes behind the EIA resonance sign reversal with light intensity. The model involves elastic interactions between Cs atoms as well as elastic interaction of atom micrometric-cell windows, both resulting in depolarization of excited state which can lead to the new observations. The effect of excited state depolarization is confirmed also by the fluorescence (absorption spectra measurement in micrometric cells with different thicknesses.

  20. Rapid and sensitive determination of radiocesium (Cs-135, Cs-137) in the presence of excess barium by electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) with potassium thiocyanate as modifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, M.; Probst, T.U.; Berryman, N.G.

    2001-01-01

    An electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric (ETV-ICP-MS) method based on selective volatilization of cesium with KSCN as modifier has been developed for determination of radiocesium, i.e. 135 Cs and 137 Cs, in the presence of isobaric barium. A 10000 times excess of barium, which was volatilized at a temperature of 1100 C, resulted only in a 1% signal increase in the signal of mass 135 amu. The recommended concentration of KSCN is 0.3 mM, and pretreatment and volatilization temperatures are 400 C and 1100 C, respectively. A ramp time of 1 s is recommended for the volatilization step. The achieved limit of detection for 135 Cs is 0.2 pg/mL (10 μBq/mL) and 4 fg (0.2 μBq) absolute for a sample volume of 20 μL. This means a limit of detection for 137 Cs of 0.2 pg/mL (0.6 Bq/mL) and of 4 fg (0.01 Bq) absolute. Signal variations of 135 Cs and 137 Cs, respectively, in spiked samples with various matrices were investigated. (orig.)

  1. Experimental and theoretical investigations of Cs-Ba vapor tacitron inverter for power conditioning in space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Genk, M.; Murray, C.; Wernsman, B.

    1993-01-01

    The operation characteristics of the Cs-Ba tacitron as a switch are investigated experimentally in three modes: (a) breakdown mode, (b) I-V mode, and (c) current modulation mode. The switching frequency, grid potentials for ignition and extinguishing of discharge, and the Cs pressure and emission conditions (Ba pressure and emitter temperature) for stable current modulation are determined. The experimental data is also used to determine the off-time required for successful ignition, and the effects of the aforementioned operation parameters on the ignition duty cycle threshold for stable modulation. Operation parameters measured include switching frequency up to 20 kHz, hold-off voltage up to 180 V, current densities in excess of 15 A/cm 2 , switch power density of 1 kW/cm 2 . and a switching efficiency in excess of 90% at collector C: realer than 30 V. The voltage drop strongly depends on the Cs pressure and to a lesser extent on the emission conditions. Increasing the Cs pressure and/or the emission current lowers the voltage drop, however, for the same initial Cs pressure and emission conditions, the voltage drop in the I-V mode is usually lower than that during current modulation. As long as the discharge current is kept lower that the.emission current, the voltage drop during stable current modulation could be as low as 3 V

  2. Simple-design ultra-low phase noise microwave frequency synthesizers for high-performing Cs and Rb vapor-cell atomic clocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    François, B. [FEMTO-ST, CNRS, Université de Franche-Comté, 26 chemin de l’Epitaphe, 25030 Besançon (France); INRIM, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Calosso, C. E.; Micalizio, S. [INRIM, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Abdel Hafiz, M.; Boudot, R. [FEMTO-ST, CNRS, Université de Franche-Comté, 26 chemin de l’Epitaphe, 25030 Besançon (France)

    2015-09-15

    We report on the development and characterization of novel 4.596 GHz and 6.834 GHz microwave frequency synthesizers devoted to be used as local oscillators in high-performance Cs and Rb vapor-cell atomic clocks. The key element of the synthesizers is a custom module that integrates a high spectral purity 100 MHz oven controlled quartz crystal oscillator frequency-multiplied to 1.6 GHz with minor excess noise. Frequency multiplication, division, and mixing stages are then implemented to generate the exact output atomic resonance frequencies. Absolute phase noise performances of the output 4.596 GHz signal are measured to be −109 and −141 dB rad{sup 2}/Hz at 100 Hz and 10 kHz Fourier frequencies, respectively. The phase noise of the 6.834 GHz signal is −105 and −138 dB rad{sup 2}/Hz at 100 Hz and 10 kHz offset frequencies, respectively. The performances of the synthesis chains contribute to the atomic clock short term fractional frequency stability at a level of 3.1 × 10{sup −14} for the Cs cell clock and 2 × 10{sup −14} for the Rb clock at 1 s averaging time. This value is comparable with the clock shot noise limit. We describe the residual phase noise measurements of key components and stages to identify the main limitations of the synthesis chains. The residual frequency stability of synthesis chains is measured to be at the 10{sup −15} level for 1 s integration time. Relevant advantages of the synthesis design, using only commercially available components, are to combine excellent phase noise performances, simple-architecture, low-cost, and to be easily customized for signal output generation at 4.596 GHz or 6.834 GHz for applications to Cs or Rb vapor-cell frequency standards.

  3. Photovoltaic Performance of Vapor-Assisted Solution-Processed Layer Polymorph of Cs3Sb2I9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anupriya; Boopathi, Karunakara Moorthy; Mohapatra, Anisha; Chen, Yang Fang; Li, Gang; Chu, Chih Wei

    2018-01-24

    The presence of toxic lead (Pb) remains a major obstruction to the commercial application of perovskite solar cells. Although antimony (Sb)-based perovskite-like structures A 3 M 2 X 9 can display potentially useful photovoltaic behavior, solution-processed Sb-based perovskite-like structures usually favor the dimer phase, which has poor photovoltaic properties. In this study, we prepared a layered polymorph of Cs 3 Sb 2 I 9 through solution-processing and studied its photovoltaic properties. The exciton binding energy and exciton lifetime of the layer-form Cs 3 Sb 2 I 9 were approximately 100 meV and 6 ns, respectively. The photovoltaic properties of the layered polymorph were superior to those of the dimer polymorph. A solar cell incorporating the layer-form Cs 3 Sb 2 I 9 exhibited an open-circuit voltage of 0.72 V and a power conversion efficiency of 1.5%-the highest reported for an all-inorganic Sb-based perovskite.

  4. Investigation of anti-Relaxation coatings for alkali-metal vapor cells using surface science techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seltzer, S. J.; Michalak, D. J.; Donaldson, M. H.; Balabas, M. V.; Barber, S. K.; Bernasek, S. L.; Bouchiat, M.-A.; Hexemer, A.; Hibberd, A. M.; Jackson Kimball, D. F.; Jaye, C.; Karaulanov, T.; Narducci, F. A.; Rangwala, S. A.; Robinson, H. G.; Shmakov, A. K.; Voronov, D. L.; Yashchuk, V. V.; Pines, A.; Budker, D.

    2010-10-11

    Many technologies based on cells containing alkali-metal atomic vapor benefit from the use of antirelaxation surface coatings in order to preserve atomic spin polarization. In particular, paraffin has been used for this purpose for several decades and has been demonstrated to allow an atom to experience up to 10?000 collisions with the walls of its container without depolarizing, but the details of its operation remain poorly understood. We apply modern surface and bulk techniques to the study of paraffin coatings in order to characterize the properties that enable the effective preservation of alkali spin polarization. These methods include Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, atomic force microscopy, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We also compare the light-induced atomic desorption yields of several different paraffin materials. Experimental results include the determination that crystallinity of the coating material is unnecessary, and the detection of C=C double bonds present within a particular class of effective paraffin coatings. Further study should lead to the development of more robust paraffin antirelaxation coatings, as well as the design and synthesis of new classes of coating materials.

  5. [Energy pooling collisions for K(4P) + Cs(5D) in a K-Cs mixture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihemaiti, Pulati; Dai, Kang; Lu, Xin-hong; Shen, Yi-fan

    2005-04-01

    The rate coefficients for energy-pooling collisions K(4P) + Cs(5D) --> Cs(6S) + K(4D, 6S) in the K-Cs vapor mixture were measured relative to a known energy-pooling rate coefficient of a homonuclear reaction [i. e., Cs(6P) + Cs(5D) --> Cs(6S) + Cs (7D(J))]. Populations of the Cs(6P, 5D) and K(4P) states were produced by photodissociation of K2 and Cs2 molecules through the use of a dye laser radiation. The resulting fluorescence included the direct components emitted in the decay of the excited states produced by photodissociation and the induced components arising from the collisionally populated states. By combining relative intensities of the components with the effective lifetimes of Cs(6P) and K(4P) states, the rate coefficients (in units of 10(-9) cm3 x s(-1)) for the heteronuclear energy-pooling were found to be 2.6 and 3.6, respectively. The contribution to the rate coefficients from other processes are discussed.

  6. CS Informativeness Governs CS-US Associability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ryan D.; Gallistel, C. R.; Jensen, Greg; Richards, Vanessa L.; Fairhurst, Stephen; Balsam, Peter D

    2012-01-01

    In a conditioning protocol, the onset of the conditioned stimulus (CS) provides information about when to expect reinforcement (the US). There are two sources of information from the CS in a delay conditioning paradigm in which the CS-US interval is fixed. The first depends on the informativeness, the degree to which CS onset reduces the average expected time to onset of the next US. The second depends only on how precisely a subject can represent a fixed-duration interval (the temporal Weber fraction). In three experiments with mice, we tested the differential impact of these two sources of information on rate of acquisition of conditioned responding (CS-US associability). In Experiment 1, we show that associability (the inverse of trials to acquisition) increases in proportion to informativeness. In Experiment 2, we show that fixing the duration of the US-US interval or the CS-US interval or both has no effect on associability. In Experiment 3, we equated the increase in information produced by varying the C̅/T̅ ratio with the increase produced by fixing the duration of the CS-US interval. Associability increased with increased informativeness, but, as in Experiment 2, fixing the CS-US duration had no effect on associability. These results are consistent with the view that CS-US associability depends on the increased rate of reward signaled by CS onset. The results also provide further evidence that conditioned responding is temporally controlled when it emerges. PMID:22468633

  7. Satellite bands of the RbCs molecule in the range of highly excited states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakić, Mario; Beuc, Robert; Skenderović, Hrvoje, E-mail: hrvoje@ifs.hr [Institute of Physics, Bijenička cesta 46, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia); Bouloufa-Maafa, Nadia; Dulieu, Olivier; Vexiau, Romain [Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, ENS Cachan, Université Paris-Saclay, Bât. 505, Campus d’Orsay, Orsay Cedex 91405 (France); Pichler, Goran [Physics Department, Kuwait University, PO Box 5969, Safat—13060 (Kuwait)

    2016-05-28

    We report on the observation of three RbCs satellite bands in the blue and green ranges of the visible spectrum. Absorption measurements are performed using all-sapphire cell filled with a mixture of Rb and Cs. We compare high resolution absorption spectrum of Rb-Cs vapor mixture with pure Rb and Cs vapor spectra from the literature. After detailed analysis, the new satellite bands of RbCs molecule at 418.3 nm, 468.3, and 527.5 nm are identified. The origin of these bands is discussed by direct comparison with difference potentials derived from quantum chemistry calculations of RbCs potential energy curves. These bands originate from the lower Rydberg states of the RbCs molecule. This study thus provides further insight into photoassociation of lower Rydberg molecular states, approximately between Cs(7s) + Rb(5s) and Cs(6s) + Rb(6p) asymptotes, in ultracold gases.

  8. Pulsed vapor source for use in ion sources for heavy-ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiloh, J.; Chupp, W.; Faltens, A.; Keefe, D.; Kim, C.; Rosenblum, S.; Tiefenback, M.

    1980-01-01

    A pulsed cesium vapor source for use in ion sources for high-current heavy-ion accelerators is described. The source employs a vacuum spark in Cs and its properties are measured with a hot-filament Cs detector

  9. Knudsen cell mass spectrometric study of the Cs2IOH(g) molecule thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roki, F-Z.; Ohnet, M-N.; Fillet, S.; Chatillon, C.; Nuta, I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The pronounced ionic character leads to only dissociative ionization processes. • Ions formed are same as those coming from pure dimmers. • De-convolution of the ions origin needs accurate thermodynamic values for the pure gas phase. • Mass spectrometric interpretation has to be performed gradually and as a function of suitable condensed compositions. • Thermal functions have to be fully estimated. -- Abstract: The gas phase of the CsI + CsOH system is analyzed by high temperature Knudsen cell mass spectrometry in order to confirm the existence of the Cs 2 IOH(g) complex molecule. The mass spectrometric analysis is quite complex since such molecules undergo dissociative ionization into fragment ions that mix with the same ions from dimers of the pure compounds in the same vapor phase. Varying the chemical conditions for vaporization by using different CsI + CsOH mixture contents showed that the ionization of the Cs 2 IOH(g) molecule led to five different fragment ions, Cs 2 OH + , Cs 2 I + , Cs + , CsOH + and CsI + . This complex ionization pattern was studied in relation with previous assessed values for the vaporization of CsOH and CsI pure compounds in which monomer and dimer molecules are predominant. The equilibrium constant for the reaction CsI(g) + CsOH(g) = Cs 2 IOH(g) was determined and, after modeling the structure of the Cs 2 IOH molecule, the enthalpy of formation was determined using the third law of thermodynamics, as follows: Δ f H°(Cs 2 IOH, g, 298.15 K) = −578 ± 14.7 kJ · mole −1

  10. Mass spectrometric study of vaporization of cesium tellurate and tellurite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, G.A.; Fokina, L.A.; Mouldagalieva, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The process of vaporization of cesium tellurate and tellurite was studied by the Knudsen effusion method with a mass spectrometric analysis of the vapor composition. The thermal dissociation of Cs 2 TeO 4 to Cs 2 TeO 3 and the congruent vaporization of Cs 2 TeO 3 were established. Thermodynamic functions for gaseous Cs 2 TeO 3 have been calculated. The standard enthalpy of sublimation Δ s H (298.15)=268.1±13.0 kJ mol -1 was determined by the 2nd and 3rd laws of thermodynamics. The enthalpy of formation Δ f H (298.15)=-725.1±13.0 kJ mol -1 for gaseous Cs 2 TeO 3 and the enthalpy of atomization Δ at H (298.15)=1841.3±15.0 kJ mol -1 have been computed. ((orig.))

  11. Vapor pressure and specific electrical conductivity in the solid and molten H2O-CsH2PO4-CsPO3 system—a novel electrolyte for water electrolysis at ~ 225–400 °C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey Valerievich; Berg, Rolf W.; Bjerrum, Niels J.

    2018-01-01

    Cesium dihydrogen phosphate, CsH2PO4 (CDP) was studied for water electrolysis at ~ 225–400 °C. In the presence of sufficient humidity, CDP is structurally disordered and super-protonic conducting with conductivities reaching 0.2–0.25 S cm−1, when determined in suitable H-shaped sealed conductivity...... on internal reference gases. Pressures up to ~ 49 bar were estimated, much higher than previously expected. Conductivities were given as polynomials and plotted in solid and liquid states. Water splitting electrolysis 2H2O → 2H2 + O2 was demonstrated by Raman at ~ 355 °C under a water pressure of ~ 23 bar...... in a quartz cell with platinum electrodes, showing molten CDP to have significant potential for water electrolysis....

  12. Improving CS regulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesse, R.J.; Scheer, R.M.; Marasco, A.L.; Furey, R.

    1980-10-01

    President Carter issued Executive Order 12044 (3/28/78) that required all Federal agencies to distinguish between significant and insignificant regulations, and to determine whether a regulation will result in major impacts. This study gathered information on the impact of the order and the guidelines on the Office of Conservation and Solar Energy (CS) regulatory practices, investigated problems encountered by the CS staff when implementing the order and guidelines, and recommended solutions to resolve these problems. Major tasks accomplished and discussed are: (1) legislation, Executive Orders, and DOE Memoranda concerning Federal administrative procedures relevant to the development and analysis of regulations within CS reviewed; (2) relevant DOE Orders and Memoranda analyzed and key DOE and CS staff interviewed in order to accurately describe the current CS regulatory process; (3) DOE staff from the Office of the General Counsel, the Office of Policy and Evaluation, the Office of the Environment, and the Office of the Secretary interviewed to explore issues and problems encountered with current CS regulatory practices; (4) the regulatory processes at five other Federal agencies reviewed in order to see how other agencies have approached the regulatory process, dealt with specific regulatory problems, and responded to the Executive Order; and (5) based on the results of the preceding four tasks, recommendations for potential solutions to the CS regulatory problems developed. (MCW)

  13. Vapor pressure and thermodynamics of beryllium carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinehart, G.H.; Behrens, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    The vapor pressure of beryllium carbide has been measured over the temperature range 1388 to 1763 K using Knudsen-effusion mass spectrometry. Vaporization occurs incongruently according to the reaction Be 2 C(s) = 2Be(g) + C(s). The equilibrium vapor pressure above the mixture of Be 2 C and C over the experimental temperature range is (R/J K -1 mol -1 )ln(p/Pa) = -(3.610 +- 0.009) x 10 5 (K/T) + (221.43 +- 1.06). The third-law enthalpy change for the above reaction obtained from the present vapor pressures is ΔH 0 (298.15 K) = (740.5 +- 0.1) kJ mol -1 . The corresponding second-law result is ΔH 0 (298.15 K) = (732.0 +- 1.8) kJ mol -1 . The enthalpy of formation for Be 2 C(s) calculated from the present third-law vaporization enthalpy and the enthalpy of formation of Be(g) is ΔH 0 sub(f)(298.15 K) = -(92.5 +- 15.7) kJ mol -1 . (author)

  14. CS Bond formation by

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-02-02

    Feb 2, 2017 ... a thiol substituent at position-2 of the quinazoline ring. ... coupling reactions represent great contribution to the recent growth of organic synthesis.2 ... Difficulties in C-S ...... Experimental Advances (Amsterdam: Elsevier) 19; (b).

  15. Mobile vapor recovery and vapor scavenging unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, C.A.; Steppe, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a mobile anti- pollution apparatus, for the recovery of hydrocarbon emissions. It comprises a mobile platform upon which is mounted a vapor recovery unit for recovering vapors including light hydrocarbons, the vapor recovery unit having an inlet and an outlet end, the inlet end adapted for coupling to an external source of hydrocarbon vapor emissions to recover a portion of the vapors including light hydrocarbons emitted therefrom, and the outlet end adapted for connection to a means for conveying unrecovered vapors to a vapor scavenging unit, the vapor scavenging unit comprising an internal combustion engine adapted for utilizing light hydrocarbon in the unrecovered vapors exiting from the vapor recovery unit as supplemental fuel

  16. Petroleum Vapor Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    One type of vapor intrusion is PVI, in which vapors from petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel enter a building. Intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor spaces is of concern.

  17. Experimental investigation of the influence of Mo contained in stainless steel on Cs chemisorption behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Lemma, F.G.; Nakajima, K., E-mail: nakajima.kunihisa@jaea.go.jp; Yamashita, S.; Osaka, M., E-mail: ohsaka.masahiko@jaea.go.jp

    2017-02-15

    Chemisorption phenomena can affect fission products (FP) retention in a nuclear reactor vessel during a severe accident (SA). Detailed information on the FP chemisorbed deposits, especially for Cs, are important for a rational decommissioning of the reactor following a SA, as for the Fukushima Daiichi Power Station. Moreover the retention of Cs will influence the source term assessment and thus improved models for this phenomenon are needed in SA codes. This paper describes the influence on Cs chemisorption of molybdenum contained in stainless steel (SS) type 316. In our experiments it was observed that Cs-Mo deposits (CsFe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3}, Cs{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}) were formed together with CsFeSiO{sub 4}, which is the predominant compound formed by chemisorption. The Cs-Mo deposits were found to revaporize from the SS sample at 1000 °C, and thus could contribute to the source term. On the other hand, CsFeSiO{sub 4} will be probably retained in the reactor during a SA due to its stability. - Highlights: • The influence of Mo contained in SS on CsOH chemisorption was investigated. • Cs chemisorbed deposits were submitted to revaporization tests. • CsFeSiO{sub 4} was the main chemisorbed compound and stable at high temperature. • Cs{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} and Cs{sub 4}Fe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} were the Cs-Mo deposited phases detected. • Cs-Mo deposits re-vaporization can contribute to the accident late stage release.

  18. Molecular CsF 5 and CsF 2 +

    KAUST Repository

    Rogachev, Andrey Yu.; Miao, Mao-sheng; Merino, Gabriel; Hoffmann, Roald

    2015-01-01

    D5h star-like CsF5, formally isoelectronic with known XeF5− ion, is computed to be a local minimum on the potential energy surface of CsF5, surrounded by reasonably large activation energies for its exothermic decomposition to CsF+2 F2, or to CsF3 (three isomeric forms)+F2, or for rearrangement to a significantly more stable isomer, a classical Cs+ complex of F5−. Similarly the CsF2+ ion is computed to be metastable in two isomeric forms. In the more symmetrical structures of these molecules there is definite involvement in bonding of the formally core 5p levels of Cs.

  19. Molecular CsF 5 and CsF 2 +

    KAUST Repository

    Rogachev, Andrey Yu.

    2015-06-03

    D5h star-like CsF5, formally isoelectronic with known XeF5− ion, is computed to be a local minimum on the potential energy surface of CsF5, surrounded by reasonably large activation energies for its exothermic decomposition to CsF+2 F2, or to CsF3 (three isomeric forms)+F2, or for rearrangement to a significantly more stable isomer, a classical Cs+ complex of F5−. Similarly the CsF2+ ion is computed to be metastable in two isomeric forms. In the more symmetrical structures of these molecules there is definite involvement in bonding of the formally core 5p levels of Cs.

  20. 137Cs in man organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.; Barkhudarov, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Considered are the levels of 137 Cs content in the organism of adult urban population of the USSR and the main regularities of their alterations during 1962-1974. The non-uniform distribution of levels of 137 Cs buildup in adult population is shown to be connected with soil and geographic conditions. Food stuffs of local production have a noticeable effect on the levels of 137 Cs buildup in the organism of urban population. Calculation methods are used to study 137 Cs administration in a human organism. No significant difference is found between the indexes of 137 Cs content in the organism of rural and urban population. Presented are the levels of 137 Cs content in the organisms of inhabitants of such regions as Far North and Byelorussian-Ukrainian woodlands. Given are the reasons for the increased content of 137 Cs in the organism of rural population of these zones

  1. Theoretical study of the Cs isotope exchange reaction of CsI + Cs' → Cs + ICs' (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takanori; Hashimoto, Masashi; Yokoyama, Keiichi

    2015-12-01

    To discuss the exchange reaction of Cs isotope by CsI + Cs' → Cs + ICs', the structure and chemical properties of Cs 2 I intermediate and potential energy surface of the entrance reaction are calculated using M06/def2-TZVPPD density functional calculation. The calculation shows that the reaction to the intermediate has no barrier and the two Cs-I bonds of Cs 2 I are chemically equivalent. These results suggest that the rate of the Cs exchange reaction of CsI + Cs' → Cs + ICs' is as high as the collision rate. (author)

  2. Frameworks in CS1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we argue that introducing object-oriented frameworks as subject already in the CS1 curriculum is important if we are to train the programmers of tomorrow to become just as much software reusers as software producers. We present a simple, graphical, framework that we have successfull...... point for introducing graphical user interface frameworks such as Java Swing and AWT as the students are not overwhelmed by all the details of such frameworks right away but given a conceptual road-map and practical experience that allow them to cope with the complexity....

  3. CS Seminar Videos

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Derek; Tona, Glen; Gibb, Kyle; Parbadia, Sivani

    2013-01-01

    Main site for our project can be found at this URL: http://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/19036. From here you can find videos of all the CS seminars and distinguished lectures given this semester. Each video has its own abstract and description. The files attached in this section are a final report in both raw Word Document and archival PDF formats and a presentation in both raw Powerpoint and archival PDF formats. Computer Science seminars are a very educational and interesting as...

  4. Frameworks in CS1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2002-01-01

    point for introducing graphical user interface frameworks such as Java Swing and AWT as the students are not overwhelmed by all the details of such frameworks right away but given a conceptual road-map and practical experience that allow them to cope with the complexity.......In this paper we argue that introducing object-oriented frameworks as subject already in the CS1 curriculum is important if we are to train the programmers of tomorrow to become just as much software reusers as software producers. We present a simple, graphical, framework that we have successfully...

  5. Determination of Cs-134 and Cs-137 rain water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, M.F.; Mazzilli, B.

    1988-01-01

    In order to setting an environmental monitoring program at IPEN, was developed a fast and simple methodology for concentration of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in rain water. This procedure consists in the precipitation of cesium and others cathions of its family (NH 4 + , K + and Rb + ) by ammonium molybdophosphate. The measures of the desintegration rates of Cs-134 and Cs-137 was done by gamma spectrometry in a Ge(Li) detector. After setting up the ideal experimental conditions, the procedure was used to analyze four samples of rain water. (author) [pt

  6. Foundation Fireworks CS4

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, N; Heerema, Matt; Mallott, Chuch; King, R; Erskine, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Are you a web designer who is looking for a new and quicker way to prototype and create for the web? Perhaps you are a programmer who finds most design tools to be overkill for what you need to get done. Or, maybe you're an old Fireworks pro, who wants to keep up to date on the latest changes in Creative Suite 4. Either way, this book has something for you. * Coverage of all that's new and powerful for the Web designer and developer in Fireworks CS4* Targets developers who want design tools that don't get in their way and designers who want development tools that don't constrain their creativi

  7. Frameworks in CS1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2002-01-01

    point for introducing graphical user interface frameworks such as Java Swing and AWT as the students are not overwhelmed by all the details of such frameworks right away but given a conceptual road-map and practical experience that allow them to cope with the complexity.......In this paper we argue that introducing object-oriented frameworks as subject already in the CS1 curriculum is important if we are to train the programmers of tomorrow to become just as much software reusers as software producers. We present a simple, graphical, framework that we have successfully...... used to introduce the principles of object-oriented frameworks to students at the introductory programming level. Our framework, while simple, introduces central abstractions such as inversion of control, event-driven programming, and variability points/hot-spots. This has provided a good starting...

  8. P-T and T-x projections of phase diagram of CsF-ZrF4 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasev, N.M.; Korenev, Yu.M.; Sidorov, L.N.

    1980-01-01

    The CsF-ZrF 4 system has been investigated by the Knudsen effusion method and mass-spectral analysis of vaporization products. A molecular composition of vapour was determined. CsF, Cs 2 F 2 , ZrF 4 , Cs 2 ZrF 6 , CsZrF 5 , CsZr 2 F 9 molecules were found in the saturated vapour of the system. Heats of phase transitions and partial pressures of the molecules detected were determined depending on the melt compositions. Dissociation enthalpies of complex molecules were calculated. P-T and T-x projections of the state diagram of the CsF-ZrF 4 system were constructed

  9. Analyses of CsI aerosol deposition tests in WIND project with ART and VICTORIA codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuchi, Y.; Shibazaki, H.; Kudo, T.

    2000-01-01

    Deposition behavior of cesium iodide (CsI) was analyzed with ART and VICTORIA-92 codes for a test of the aerosol re-vaporization test series performed in WIND project at JAERI. In the test analyzed, CsI aerosol was injected into piping of test section where metaboric acid (HBO 2 ) was placed in advance on the floor area. It was confirmed in the present analysis that similar results on the CsI deposition were obtained between ART and VICTORIA when influences of chemical interactions were negligibly small. The analysis with VICTORIA agreed satisfactorily with the test results in analytical cases that cesium metaborate (CsBO 2 ) was injected into the test section instead of CsI to simulate the pre-existence of HBO 2 effect. (author)

  10. Activity standardization of 134Cs and 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sochorová, Jana; Auerbach, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the results from a primary standardization of 137 Cs using two independent methods – efficiency tracing using PC-NaI coincidence and the TDCR method. The nuclides 60 Co and 134 Cs were used as the tracers. Primary standardization of the 134 Cs is also discussed. The efficiency extrapolation was carried out by measuring samples of varying mass and using the wet extrapolation method. The results obtained are in good agreement; the differences did not exceed 0.5%. The advantages, pitfalls and also possibilities for improvement of the procedures are discussed

  11. 1+ collective states of 124Cs and 126Cs nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, S.P.; Kuliev, A.A.; Salamov, D.I.

    1977-01-01

    Within the framework of the random phase approximation β-decay properties of the 1 + states of 124 Cs and 126 Cs have been investigated. Greatly collectivized 1 + states in odd-odd nuclei are produced by the spin-dependent charge-exchange nucleon interaction. For numerical calculations the scheme of single-particle levels in the deformed Saxon-Woods potential has been used

  12. Hyperfine relaxation of an optically pumped cesium vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornos, J.; Amare, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The relaxation of hyperfine orientation indirectly induced by optical pumping with a σ-polarized D 1 -light in a cesium vapor in the presence of Ar is experimentally studied. The detection technique ensures the absence of quadrupole relaxation contributions in the relaxation signals. The results from the dependences of the hyperfine relaxation rate on the temperature and argon pressure are: diffusion coefficient of Cs in Ar, D 0 = 0.101 +- 0.010 cm 2 s -1 at 0 0 C and 760 Torr; relaxation cross section by Cs-Ar collisions, σ/sub c/ = (104 +- 5) x 10 -23 cm 2 ; relaxation cross section by Cs-Cs (spin exchange) collisions, σ/sub e//sub x/ = (1.63 +- 0.13) x 10 -14 cm 2

  13. Learning Flash CS4 Professional

    CERN Document Server

    Shupe, Rich

    2009-01-01

    Learning Flash CS4 Professional offers beginners and intermediate Flash developers a unique introduction to the latest version of Adobe's powerful multimedia application. This easy-to-read book is loaded with full-color examples and hands-on tasks to help you master Flash CS4's new motion editor, integrated 3D system, and character control using the new inverse kinematics bones animation system. No previous Flash experience is necessary.

  14. Fuel vapor pressure (FVAPRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.E.

    1979-04-01

    A subcode (FVAPRS) is described which calculates fuel vapor pressure. This subcode was developed as part of the fuel rod behavior modeling task performed at EG and G Idaho, Inc. The fuel vapor pressure subcode (FVAPRS), is presented and a discussion of literature data, steady state and transient fuel vapor pressure equations and estimates of the standard error of estimate to be expected with the FVAPRS subcode are included

  15. Physical model for vaporization

    OpenAIRE

    Garai, Jozsef

    2006-01-01

    Based on two assumptions, the surface layer is flexible, and the internal energy of the latent heat of vaporization is completely utilized by the atoms for overcoming on the surface resistance of the liquid, the enthalpy of vaporization was calculated for 45 elements. The theoretical values were tested against experiments with positive result.

  16. Petroleum Vapor - Field Technical

    Science.gov (United States)

    The screening approach being developed by EPA OUST to evaluate petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) requires information that has not be routinely collected in the past at vapor intrusion sites. What is the best way to collect this data? What are the relevant data quality issues and ...

  17. Piezoelectric trace vapor calibrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkouteren, R. Michael; Gillen, Greg; Taylor, David W.

    2006-01-01

    The design and performance of a vapor generator for calibration and testing of trace chemical sensors are described. The device utilizes piezoelectric ink-jet nozzles to dispense and vaporize precisely known amounts of analyte solutions as monodisperse droplets onto a hot ceramic surface, where the generated vapors are mixed with air before exiting the device. Injected droplets are monitored by microscope with strobed illumination, and the reproducibility of droplet volumes is optimized by adjustment of piezoelectric wave form parameters. Complete vaporization of the droplets occurs only across a 10 deg. C window within the transition boiling regime of the solvent, and the minimum and maximum rates of trace analyte that may be injected and evaporated are determined by thermodynamic principles and empirical observations of droplet formation and stability. By varying solution concentrations, droplet injection rates, air flow, and the number of active nozzles, the system is designed to deliver--on demand--continuous vapor concentrations across more than six orders of magnitude (nominally 290 fg/l to 1.05 μg/l). Vapor pulses containing femtogram to microgram quantities of analyte may also be generated. Calibrated ranges of three explosive vapors at ng/l levels were generated by the device and directly measured by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). These data demonstrate expected linear trends within the limited working range of the IMS detector and also exhibit subtle nonlinear behavior from the IMS measurement process

  18. Improvements to vapor generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Arthur; Monroe, Neil.

    1976-01-01

    A supporting system is proposed for vapor generators of the 'supported' type. Said supporting system is intended to compensate the disparities of thermal expansion due to the differences in the vertical dimensions of the tubes in the walls of the combustion chamber and their collectors compared to that of the balloon tanks and the connecting tube clusters of vaporization, the first one being longer than the second ones. Said system makes it possible to build said combustion chamber higher than the balloon tanks and the tube clusters of vaporization. The capacity of steam production is thus enhanced [fr

  19. Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA regulates the vapor pressure of gasoline sold at retail stations during the summer ozone season to reduce evaporative emissions from gasoline that contribute to ground-level ozone and diminish the effects of ozone-related health problems.

  20. R-22 vapor explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.P.; Armstrong, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Previous experimental and theoretical studies of R-22 vapor explosions are reviewed. Results from two experimental investigations of vapor explosions in a medium scale R-22/water system are reported. Measurements following the drop of an unrestrained mass of R-22 into a water tank demonstrated the existence of two types of interaction behavior. Release of a constrained mass of R-22 beneath the surface of a water tank improved the visual resolution of the system thus allowing identification of two interaction mechansims: at low water temperatures, R-22/water contact would produce immediate violent boiling; at high water temperatures a vapor film formed around its R-22 as it was released, explosions were generated by a surface wave which initiated at a single location and propagated along the vapor film as a shock wave. A new vapor explosion model is proposed, it suggests explosions are the result of a sequence of three independent steps: an initial mixing phase, a trigger and growth phase, and a mature phase where a propagating shock wave accelerates the two liquids into a collapsing vapor layer causing a high velocity impact which finely fragments and intermixes the two liquids

  1. Surface conductivity of the single crystal aluminum oxide in vacuum and caesium vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilchenko, A.V.; Izhvanov, O.L.

    1996-01-01

    Results of measurements of surface conductivity of single-crystal aluminum oxide samples in vacuum and cesium vapors at T=620 endash 830 K and P Cs =0.13 endash 2 Pa are shown in the paper. Analysis of caesium vapor influence is carried out and ultimate characteristics of samples conductivity under operation conditions in thermionic nuclear power system (NPP) TFE are estimated. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  2. 'Wash-out' of Cs-134 and Cs-137 from river sediment; 'Ispiranja' Cs-134 i Cs-137 iz recnog sedimenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skrbic, Z; Conkic, Lj; Bikit, I; Veskovic, M; Slivka, J; Marinkov, L [Institut za Fiziku, Novi Sad Univ. (Yugoslavia)

    1988-07-01

    Natural elimination and 'wash out' period of the Cs-134 and Cs-137 from the river sediment has been investigated. Obtained results suggest the possibility to describe these processes by exponential low and determination of the corresponding half lives. (author)

  3. Vapor pressures and enthalpies of vaporization of azides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verevkin, Sergey P.; Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N.; Algarra, Manuel; Manuel Lopez-Romero, J.; Aguiar, Fabio; Enrique Rodriguez-Borges, J.; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We prepared and measured vapor pressures and vaporization enthalpies of 7 azides. → We examined consistency of new and available in the literature data. → Data for geminal azides and azido-alkanes selected for thermochemical calculations. - Abstract: Vapor pressures of some azides have been determined by the transpiration method. The molar enthalpies of vaporization Δ l g H m of these compounds were derived from the temperature dependencies of vapor pressures. The measured data sets were successfully checked for internal consistency by comparison with vaporization enthalpies of similarly structured compounds.

  4. Environmental sciences: general. 2. Water Adsorption/Absorption by CsOH Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggs, C.A.; Ghosh, T.K.; Tompson, R.V.; Loyalka, S.K.; Viswanath, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    Cesium hydroxide in aerosol form is likely to be a significant source of radio-cesium released during a reactor transient. Cesium hydroxide particles are hydrophilic and absorb/adsorb water rapidly. The result is a rapid growth of cesium hydroxide wetted agglomerates that can deposit on surfaces by gravitational settling. However, they can also react with iodine gas to form CsI according to Eq. (1). The rapid absorption/adsorption of water by CsOH may increase the rate of absorption of iodine by CsOH. Iodine may attach itself to adsorbed water molecules on CsOH and facilitate the reaction by bringing iodine to CsOH. Thus, the iodine removal mechanism from the pressurized water reactor containment atmosphere may change: I 2(g) + 4CsOH (s) ↔ 2CsI (s) + 2CsO (s) + 2H 2 O (l) . (1) Despite the importance of CsOH as an aerosol material released during a reactor transient, we have been unable to find any isotherm data of water on cesium hydroxide in the literature. The significant hydrophilic nature of CsOH, together with its being the strongest base currently known, present challenges to collection of water adsorption data. The objective in this research was to experimentally obtain isotherm data of water vapor on CsOH for a range of temperatures and pressures on macroscopic samples using an electro-balance. These data then may be used to predict the amount of water vapor adsorbed on CsOH at other temperatures and pressures by existing models. The adsorption apparatus using a Cahn 2000 electro-balance is shown in Fig. 1. The water adsorption/absorption data on CsOH at different relative pressures of water vapor were obtained gravimetrically. A detailed description of the experimental system is given in Hassan et al. An∼70-mg sample of CsOH.H 2 O (s) was placed onto a platinum weighing dish in the hang-down tube of the balance. The sample was regenerated by heating it at 100 deg. C under a vacuum of 3.5x10 -2 mm Hg for 24 h to remove adsorbed water and other gases

  5. P-T-x phase diagrams of MeF-UF4(Me=Li-Cs) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, Yu.M.; Rykov, A.N.; Varkov, M.V.; Novoselova, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    Vapor composition and general pressure at three-phase equilibria in the MeF-UF 4 (Me=Li-Cs) systems are calculated using the values of independent component activities obtained earlier together with the data on fusibility diagrams. P-T and T-x projections of phase diagrams of these systems are constructed

  6. Uptake and distribution of 137Cs, stable Cs and K in rice plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Hirofumi; Hasegawa, Hidenao

    2003-01-01

    The uptake and distributions of 137 Cs, stable Cs and K were determined for rice plant components, including polished rice, rice bran, hulls, leaves, stems, and roots. The distribution of 137 Cs in polished rice and rice bran was similar to that of stable Cs, while that of K was different. The concentration ratios of Cs/K in leaves increased in older leaf blade positions, which meant that the translocation rate of stable Cs, was slower than that of K. At harvest the dry weight of polished rice accounted for 34% of the entire rice plant, while the distributions of stable Cs in the polished rice and the non-edible parts were 7 and 93%, respectively. These findings suggest that the transfer and distribution of stable Cs in rice plants are different from those of K, and the behavior of stable Cs provides a useful analogue in predicting the fate of 137 Cs in an agricultural environment. (author)

  7. Stability and Performance of CsPbI2Br Thin Films and Solar Cell Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Silvia; Hutter, Oliver S; Phillips, Laurie J; Yates, Peter J; Kundu, Biswajit; Durose, Ken

    2018-01-31

    In this manuscript, the inorganic perovskite CsPbI 2 Br is investigated as a photovoltaic material that offers higher stability than the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials. It is demonstrated that CsPbI 2 Br does not irreversibly degrade to its component salts as in the case of methylammonium lead iodide but instead is induced (by water vapor) to transform from its metastable brown cubic (1.92 eV band gap) phase to a yellow phase having a higher band gap (2.85 eV). This is easily reversed by heating to 350 °C in a dry environment. Similarly, exposure of unencapsulated photovoltaic devices to water vapor causes current (J SC ) loss as the absorber transforms to its more transparent (yellow) form, but this is also reversible by moderate heating, with over 100% recovery of the original device performance. NMR and thermal analysis show that the high band gap yellow phase does not contain detectable levels of water, implying that water induces the transformation but is not incorporated as a major component. Performances of devices with best efficiencies of 9.08% (V OC = 1.05 V, J SC = 12.7 mA cm -2 and FF = 68.4%) using a device structure comprising glass/ITO/c-TiO 2 /CsPbI 2 Br/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au are presented, and further results demonstrating the dependence of the performance on the preparation temperature of the solution processed CsPbI 2 Br films are shown. We conclude that encapsulation of CsPbI 2 Br to exclude water vapor should be sufficient to stabilize the cubic brown phase, making the material of interest for use in practical PV devices.

  8. Vaporization of irradiated droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, R.L.; O'Rourke, P.J.; Zardecki, A.

    1986-01-01

    The vaporization of a spherically symmetric liquid droplet subject to a high-intensity laser flux is investigated on the basis of a hydrodynamic description of the system composed of the vapor and ambient gas. In the limit of the convective vaporization, the boundary conditions at the fluid--gas interface are formulated by using the notion of a Knudsen layer in which translational equilibrium is established. This leads to approximate jump conditions at the interface. For homogeneous energy deposition, the hydrodynamic equations are solved numerically with the aid of the CON1D computer code (''CON1D: A computer program for calculating spherically symmetric droplet combustion,'' Los Alamos National Laboratory Report No. LA-10269-MS, December, 1984), based on the implict continuous--fluid Eulerian (ICE) [J. Comput. Phys. 8, 197 (1971)] and arbitrary Lagrangian--Eulerian (ALE) [J. Comput. Phys. 14, 1227 (1974)] numerical mehtods. The solutions exhibit the existence of two shock waves propagating in opposite directions with respect to the contact discontinuity surface that separates the ambient gas and vapor

  9. Vapor liquid fraction determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This invention describes a method of measuring liquid and vapor fractions in a non-homogeneous fluid flowing through an elongate conduit, such as may be required with boiling water, non-boiling turbulent flows, fluidized bed experiments, water-gas mixing analysis, and nuclear plant cooling. (UK)

  10. Heat of vaporization spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Multilayer desorption measurements of various substances adsorbed on a stainless steel substrate are found to exhibit desorption profiles consistent with a zeroth order desorption model. The singleness of the desorption transients together with their narrow peak widths makes the technique ideally suited for a heat of vaporization spectrometer for either substance analysis or identification

  11. Enthalpy of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures: An Inexpensive Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battino, Rubin; Dolson, David A.; Hall, Michael A.; Letcher, Trevor M.

    2007-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive method to determine the enthalpy of vaporization of liquids by measuring vapor pressure as a function of temperature is described. The vapor pressures measured with the stopcock cell were higher than the literature values and those measured with the sidearm rubber septum cell were both higher and lower than literature…

  12. Adobe Photoshop CS6 bible

    CERN Document Server

    Dayley, Brad

    2012-01-01

    The comprehensive, soup-to-nuts guide to Photoshop, fully updated Photoshop CS6, used for both print and digital media, is the industry leader in image-editing software. The newest version adds some exciting new features, and this bestselling guide has been revised to cover each of them, along with all the basic information you need to get started. Learn to use all the tools, including the histogram palette, Lens Blur, Match Color, and the color replacement tool, as well as keyboard shortcuts. Then master retouching and color correction, work with Camera Raw images, prepare photos for print

  13. Reactive barriers for 137Cs retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumhansl, James L.; Brady, Patrick V.; Anderson, Howard L.

    2000-01-01

    137 Cs was dispersed globally by cold war activities and, more recently, by the Chernobyl accident. Engineered extraction of 137 Cs from soils and groundwaters is exceedingly difficult. Because the half life of 137 Cs is only 30.2 years, remediation might be more effective (and less costly) if 137 Cs bioavailability could be demonstrably limited for even a few decades by use of a reactive barrier. Essentially permanent isolation must be demonstrated in those few settings where high nuclear level wastes contaminated the environment with 135 Cs (half life 2.3x10 6 years) in addition to 137 Cs. Clays are potentially a low-cost barrier to Cs movement, though their long-term effectiveness remains untested. To identify optimal clays for Cs retention Cs resorption was measured for five common clays: Wyoming Montmorillonite (SWy-1), Georgia Kaolinites (KGa-1 and KGa-2), Fithian Illite (F-Ill), and K-Metabentonite (K-Mbt). Exchange sites were pre-saturated with 0.16 M CsCl for 14 days and readily exchangeable Cs was removed by a series of LiNO 3 and LiCl washes. Washed clay were then placed into dialysis bags and the Cs release to the deionized water outside the bags measured. Release rates from 75 to 139 days for SWy-1, K-Mbt and F- 111 were similar; 0.017 to 0.021% sorbed Cs released per day. Both kaolinites released Cs more rapidly (0.12 to 0.05% of the sorbed Cs per day). In a second set of experiments, clays were doped for 110 days and subjected to an extreme and prolonged rinsing process. All the clays exhibited some capacity for irreversible Cs uptake so most soils have some limited ability to act as a natural barrier to Cs migration. However, the residual loading was greatest on K-Mbt (∼ 0.33 wt% Cs). Thus, this clay would be the optimal material for constructing artificial reactive barriers

  14. Determination of {sup 135}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in environmental samples: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, B.C., E-mail: ben.russell@npl.co.uk [GAU-Radioanalytical, Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom); National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Croudace, Ian W.; Warwick, Phil E. [GAU-Radioanalytical, Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-26

    Radionuclides of caesium are environmentally important since they are formed as significant high yield fission products ({sup 135}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) and activation products ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 136}Cs) during nuclear fission. They originate from a range of nuclear activities such as weapons testing, nuclear reprocessing and nuclear fuel cycle discharges and nuclear accidents. Whilst {sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 136}Cs are routinely measurable at high sensitivity by gamma spectrometry, routine detection of long-lived {sup 135}Cs by radiometric methods is challenging. This measurement is, however, important given its significance in long-term nuclear waste storage and disposal. Furthermore, the {sup 135}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio varies with reactor, weapon and fuel type, and accurate measurement of this ratio can therefore be used as a forensic tool in identifying the source(s) of nuclear contamination. The shorter-lived activation products {sup 134}Cs and {sup 136}Cs have a limited application but provide useful early information on fuel irradiation history and have importance in health physics. Detection of {sup 135}Cs (and {sup 137}Cs) is achievable by mass spectrometric techniques; most commonly inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), as well as thermal ionisation (TIMS), accelerator (AMS) and resonance ionisation (RIMS) techniques. The critical issues affecting the accuracy and detection limits achievable by this technique are effective removal of barium to eliminate isobaric interferences arising from {sup 135}Ba and {sup 137}Ba, and elimination of peak tailing of stable {sup 133}Cs on {sup 135}Cs. Isobaric interferences can be removed by chemical separation, most commonly ion exchange chromatography, and/or instrumental separation using an ICP-MS equipped with a reaction cell. The removal of the peak tailing interference is dependent on the instrument used for final measurement. This review summarizes and compares the analytical procedures

  15. Vapor pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of linear aliphatic alkanediamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozdeev, Vasiliy A.; Verevkin, Sergey P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We measured vapor pressure of diamines H 2 N-(CH 2 ) n -NH 2 with n = 3 to 12. → Vaporization enthalpies at 298 K were derived. → We examined consistency of new and available in the literature data. → Enthalpies of vaporization show linear dependence on numbers n. → Enthalpies of vaporization correlate linearly with Kovat's indices. - Abstract: Vapor pressures and the molar enthalpies of vaporization of the linear aliphatic alkanediamines H 2 N-(CH 2 ) n -NH 2 with n = (3 to 12) have been determined using the transpiration method. A linear correlation of enthalpies of vaporization (at T = 298.15 K) of the alkanediamines with the number n and with the Kovat's indices has been found, proving the internal consistency of the measured data.

  16. Constrained Vapor Bubble Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Shripad; Plawsky, Joel; Wayner, Peter C., Jr.; Zheng, Ling; Wang, Ying-Xi

    2002-11-01

    Microgravity experiments on the Constrained Vapor Bubble Heat Exchanger, CVB, are being developed for the International Space Station. In particular, we present results of a precursory experimental and theoretical study of the vertical Constrained Vapor Bubble in the Earth's environment. A novel non-isothermal experimental setup was designed and built to study the transport processes in an ethanol/quartz vertical CVB system. Temperature profiles were measured using an in situ PC (personal computer)-based LabView data acquisition system via thermocouples. Film thickness profiles were measured using interferometry. A theoretical model was developed to predict the curvature profile of the stable film in the evaporator. The concept of the total amount of evaporation, which can be obtained directly by integrating the experimental temperature profile, was introduced. Experimentally measured curvature profiles are in good agreement with modeling results. For microgravity conditions, an analytical expression, which reveals an inherent relation between temperature and curvature profiles, was derived.

  17. Cs-137 migration in soil near NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silant'ev, A.N.; Shkuratova, I.G.; Khatskevich, R.N.

    1984-01-01

    A convective-diffusion model has been employed for describing Cs-137 migration in soil. The migration parameters were determined by comparing the calculated vertical distribution profiles with the experimental ones. The migration parameters dependence on the soil state has been studied. Cs-137 penetration rate was found to be function of the soil type, surface state, soil wetness and orography. The obtained values are presented. A method is suggested for revealing the soil surface contamination by Cs-137 produced during NPP operation with distinguishing it from the global contamination background. For this purpose Cs-137 content in the upper 5 mm soil layer is estimated [ru

  18. Vapor condensation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Manabu; Hirayama, Fumio; Kurosawa, Setsumi; Yoshikawa, Jun; Hosaka, Seiichi.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention enables to separate and remove 14 C as CO 3 - ions without condensation in a vapor condensation can of a nuclear facility. That is, the vapor condensation device of the nuclear facility comprises (1) a spray pipe for spraying an acidic aqueous solution to the evaporation surface of an evaporation section, (2) a spray pump for sending the acidic aqueous solution to the spray pipe, (3) a tank for storing the acidic aqueous solution, (4) a pH sensor for detecting pH of the evaporation section, (5) a pH control section for controlling the spray pump, depending on the result of the detection of the pH sensor. With such a constitution, the pH of liquid wastes on the vaporization surface is controlled to 7 by spraying an aqueous solution of dilute sulfuric acid to the evaporation surface, thereby enabling to increase the transfer rate of 14 C to condensates to 60 to 70%. If 14 C is separated and removed as a CO 2 gas from the evaporation surface, the pH of the liquid wastes returns to the alkaline range of 9 to 10 and the liquid wastes are returned to a heating section. The amount of spraying the aqueous solution of dilute sulfuric acid can be controlled till the pH is reduced to 5. (I.S.)

  19. The vapor pressures of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.; Atkinson, David A.; Grate, Jay W.; Hotchkiss, Peter

    2013-01-05

    The vapor pressures of many explosive compounds are extremely low and thus determining accurate values proves difficult. Many researchers, using a variety of methods, have measured and reported the vapor pressures of explosives compounds at single temperatures, or as a function of temperature using vapor pressure equations. There are large variations in reported vapor pressures for many of these compounds, and some errors exist within individual papers. This article provides a review of explosive vapor pressures and describes the methods used to determine them. We have compiled primary vapor pressure relationships traceable to the original citations and include the temperature ranges for which they have been determined. Corrected values are reported as needed and described in the text. In addition, after critically examining the available data, we calculate and tabulate vapor pressures at 25 °C.

  20. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  1. Properties of Cs-intercalated single wall carbon nanotubes investigated by 133Cs Nuclear Magnetic resonance

    KAUST Repository

    Schmid, Marc R.; Mahfouz, Remi; Bouhrara, Mohamed; Saih, Youssef; Mehring, Michael; Basset, Jean-Marie; Goze-Bac, Christophe; Abou-Hamad, Edy

    2012-01-01

    present within the carbon nanotube bundles. At high concentrations, the Cs (β)+ ions seem to occupy well defined positions relative to the carbon lattice. As a matter of fact, the Korringa relaxation behavior suggests a strong hyperfine coupling between Cs

  2. Temperature and Pressure Dependence of the Reaction S plus CS (+M) -> CS2 (+M)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glarborg, Peter; Marshall, Paul; Troe, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Experimental data for the unimolecular decomposition of CS2 from the literature are analyzed by unimolecular rate theory with the goal of obtaining rate constants for the reverse reaction S + CS (+M) -> CS2 (+M) over wide temperature and pressure ranges. The results constitute an important input...

  3. Vertical profile of 137Cs in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstić, D; Nikezić, D; Stevanović, N; Jelić, M

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, a vertical distribution of 137Cs in undisturbed soil was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Soil samples were taken from the surroundings of the city of Kragujevac in central Serbia during spring-summer of 2001. The sampling locations were chosen in such a way that the influence of soil characteristics on depth distribution of 137Cs in soil could be investigated. Activity of 137Cs in soil samples was measured using a HpGe detector and multi-channel analyzer. Based on vertical distribution of 137Cs in soil which was measured for each of 10 locations, the diffusion coefficient of 137Cs in soil was determined. In the next half-century, 137Cs will remain as the source of the exposure. Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident, and more than 30 years after nuclear probes, the largest activity of 137Cs is still within 10 cm of the upper layer of the soil. This result confirms that the penetration of 137Cs in soil is a very slow process. Experimental results were compared with two different Green functions and no major differences were found between them. While both functions fit experimental data well in the upper layer of soil, the fitting is not so good in deeper layers. Although the curves obtained by these two functions are very close to each other, there are some differences in the values of parameters acquired by them.

  4. 137Cs concentration in some Philippine foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    dela Cruz, B.; Marzan, A.M.; Lagmay, N.; Anden, A.

    1977-01-01

    The current investigation being made by the Philippine Atomic Research Center on the 137 Cs content of the different foods commonly used by the Filipinos is described and preliminary results are reported. The 137 Cs content is determined radiochemically only for the edible portion of the food

  5. {sup 137}Cs in northern Adriatic sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barisic, D; Lulic, S; Vdovic, N; Vertacnik, A [Center for Marine Research - Department Zagreb, ' Ruder Boskovic' Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Juracic, M [Department of Geology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1996-01-01

    The activity of {sup 137}Cs in shallow northern Adriatic sediments was obtained on the basis of measurement results from 25 sediment box cores, sampled during the Adriatic Scientific COoperation Program (ASCOP) 16 cruise in the summer 1990. {sup 137}Cs was determined in surface sediments (0-3 cm) and 12-15 cm-deep sediment. It was found that the lowest caesium concentrations correspond to sands, which are spread along the Croatian coast. Parallel to the Italian coast, {sup 137}Cs concentrations in pelites are the highest. It seems that the influence of Po River is significant for {sup 137}Cs activities in recent marine sediments along Italian coast south of Po River delta. Significantly higher {sup 137}Cs activities in 0-3 cm sediment layer can be attributed to the deposition caused by Chernobyl accident. (author)

  6. 137Cs in northern Adriatic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisic, D.; Lulic, S.; Vdovic, N.; Vertacnik, A.; Juracic, M.

    1996-01-01

    The activity of 137 Cs in shallow northern Adriatic sediments was obtained on the basis of measurement results from 25 sediment box cores, sampled during the Adriatic Scientific COoperation Program (ASCOP) 16 cruise in the summer 1990. 137 Cs was determined in surface sediments (0-3 cm) and 12-15 cm-deep sediment. It was found that the lowest caesium concentrations correspond to sands, which are spread along the Croatian coast. Parallel to the Italian coast, 137 Cs concentrations in pelites are the highest. It seems that the influence of Po River is significant for 137 Cs activities in recent marine sediments along Italian coast south of Po River delta. Significantly higher 137 Cs activities in 0-3 cm sediment layer can be attributed to the deposition caused by Chernobyl accident. (author)

  7. Cs2UPd3Se6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George N. Oh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Dicaesium uranium(IV tripalladium(II hexaselenide, Cs2UPd3Se6, crystallizes in the space group Fmmm in the Ba2NaCu3O6 structure type. The asymmetric unit comprises the following atoms with site symmetries as shown: U1 (mm2, Cs1 (222, Cs2 (m2m, Pd1 (.m., Pd2 (2mm, Se1 (m.., and Se2 (1. This layered structure contains six edge-sharing square-planar [PdSe4] units that form a hexagon. These, in turn, edge-share with [USe6] trigonal–prismatic units, forming an extended layer parallel to (010. The layers are stacked along [010]. They are staggered, and are separated by the Cs atoms. The Cs atoms are either coordinated in a square antiprism of Se atoms or are ten-coordinate, with one square face and the opposite face hexagonal.

  8. Biokinetic model for 137 Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Dunstana Rabelo de

    1995-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to provide a realistic biokinetic model for 137 Cs metabolism. This model was based on the retention of cesium in 57 people contaminated in the Goiania accident, ages 1 to 73 y old, complemented by data obtained in an experiment with beagle dogs, and data taken from the open literature. Cesium is distributed among all tissues and organs of the body. Its main retention site is the skeletal muscle tissue. Mathematically, cesium retention in the body may be described by a sum of three terms exponential equation. The first term represents the fraction which is rapidly eliminated in urine. This fraction is weight dependent (negative correlation). The second term represents the retention of cesium in tissues and organs of the body. For children and adolescents, the second term biological half-life is a function of the weight. For adults, it is correlated with sex. Men present a higher retention of cesium than women. The third term correspond to a retention fraction of the order of 0,1% of the initial body burden. It is characterized by a very long half-life and represents a subcellular retention of cesium in the skeletal muscle tissue. During pregnancy the transfer factor from the mother to the fetus is correlated to the amount of cesium in the blood and it is equal to 1, if the intake of cesium occurs pregnancy. (author)

  9. A study on vapor explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, N.; Shoji, M.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out for vapor explosions of molten tin falling in water. For various initial metal temperatures and subcooling of water, transient pressure of the explosions, relative frequency of the explosions and the position where the explosions occur were measured in detail. The influence of ambient pressure was also investigated. From the results, it was concluded that the vapor explosion is closely related to the collapse of a vapor film around the molten metal. (author)

  10. Analysis of 137Cs radionuclides activities in Cs-zeolite using gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noviarty; Ginting, Aslina Br; Anggraini, Dian; Rosika K

    2013-01-01

    137 Cs Radionuclide activity analysis has been carried out. The objective is to determine the activity of the 137 Cs radionuclide in Cs-zeolite are packaged in the form of point source. Analysis of 137 Cs Radionuclide activities in Cs zeolite samples was determined by measuring intensity of the isotope 137 Cs gamma energy at 661.7 keV use-y spectrometer. Before measurement the sample, was first carried out measurements of 137 Cs radionuclide in certified point standards from Amersham, to determine the efficiency value. Result the standard sample measurement obtained the efficiency value of 43.98%. Efficiency values obtained are used in the calculation of sample activity. On the measurement of the intensity of the sample obtained results dose rate 196.4537 cps with a standard deviation of 0.5274. By using standard measurement efficiency values obtained by the calculation of the average activity of the radionuclide 137 Cs in Cs-zeolite 524.9082 Bq. Deviation measurements were below 5% (0.27% ) so that the analysis of the activity of radionuclide 137 Cs in Cs-zeolite samples using gamma spectrometer can be accepted with a 95% confidence level. (author)

  11. Study on the effect of deposition rate and concentration of Eu on the fluorescent lifetime of CsI: Tl thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yijun; Guo, Lina [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, Chengdu 610054 (China); Liu, Shuang, E-mail: shuangliu@uestc.edu.cn [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, Chengdu 610054 (China); Wang, Qianfeng; Zhang, Shangjian; Liu, Yong [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, Chengdu 610054 (China); Zhong, Zhiyong [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2017-06-21

    Although there are many new scintillators being developed recently, CsI: Tl is still very efficient among them. The fluorescent lifetime is a very important parameter of CsI: Tl thin film and two series of experiments have been conducted to learn about it. Our experiments, however, have demonstrated that the deposition rate and the codoping of Eu{sup 2+} will significantly influence its fluorescent lifetime. In order to increase the efficiency of the imaging system, we intend to obtain a higher fluorescent lifetime for CsI: Tl thin film by controlling these two conditions. - Highlights: • We used vacuum vapor deposition method to grow the high-quality thin films. • The relationship between the deposition rate and the fluorescent lifetime of CsI: Tl thin film was tested. • Concentration of Eu on fluorescent lifetime of the CsI: Tl thin film was studied.

  12. A novel vanadosilicate with hexadeca-coordinated Cs+ ions as a highly effective Cs+ remover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Shuvo Jit; Moon, Won Kyung; Choi, Do Young; Hwang, In Chul; Yoon, Kyung Byung

    2014-01-01

    The effective removal of 137 Cs + ions from contaminated groundwater and seawater and from radioactive nuclear waste solutions is crucial for public health and for the continuous operation of nuclear power plants. Various 137 Cs + removers have been developed, but more effective 137 Cs + removers are still needed. A novel microporous vanadosilicate with mixed-valence vanadium (V 4+ and V 5+ ) ions is now reported, which shows an excellent ability for Cs + capture and immobilization from groundwater, seawater, and nuclear waste solutions. This material is superior to other known materials in terms of selectivity, capacity, and kinetics, and at very low Cs + concentrations, it was found to be the most effective material for the removal of radioactive Cs + ions under the test conditions. This novel vanadosilicate also contains hexadeca-coordinated Cs + ions, which corresponds to the highest coordination number ever described.

  13. Molecular CsF{sub 5} and CsF{sub 2}{sup +}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogachev, Andrey Yu. [Illinois Institute of Technology, IL (United States). Dept. of Biological and Chemical Sciences; Miao, Mao-sheng [California State Univ., Northridge, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Beijing Computational Science Research Center (China); Merino, Gabriel [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Merida (Mexico). Dept. de Fisica Aplicada; Hoffmann, Roald [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology

    2015-07-06

    D{sub 5h} star-like CsF{sub 5}, formally isoelectronic with known XeF{sub 5}{sup -} ion, is computed to be a local minimum on the potential energy surface of CsF{sub 5}, surrounded by reasonably large activation energies for its exothermic decomposition to CsF + 2F{sub 2}, or to CsF{sub 3} (three isomeric forms) + F{sub 2}, or for rearrangement to a significantly more stable isomer, a classical Cs{sup +} complex of F{sub 5}{sup -}. Similarly the CsF{sub 2}{sup +} ion is computed to be metastable in two isomeric forms. In the more symmetrical structures of these molecules there is definite involvement in bonding of the formally core 5p levels of Cs.

  14. Nuclear system vaporization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.; Wieloch, A.

    1998-01-01

    A particular case of the hot nuclei de-excitation is the total nuclear dislocation into light particles (n, p, d, t, 3 He and α). Such events were first observed at bombarding energies lower than 100 MeV/nucleon due to high detection performances of the INDRA multidetector. The light system Ar + Ni was studied at several bombarding energies ranging from 32 to 95 MeV/nucleon. The events associated to a total vaporization of the system occur above the energy threshold of ∼ 50 MeV/nucleon. A study of the form of these events shows that we have essentially two sources. The excitation energy of these sources may be determined by means of the kinematic properties of their de-excitation products. A preliminary study results in excitation energy values of the order 10 - 14 MeV/nucleon. The theoretical calculation based on a statistical model modified to take into account high excitation energies and excited levels in the lightest nuclei predicts that the vaporization of the two partner nuclei in the Ar + Ni system takes place when the excitation energy exceeds 12 MeV/nucleon what is qualitatively in agreement with the values deduced from calorimetric analysis

  15. Transfer of 137Cs to wild vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Nobuhiko; Natsuhori, Masahiro; Mezawa, Akane; Kawakami, Akira

    1998-01-01

    For the evaluation of internal radiation dose, it is needed to estimate the amount of radionuclide incorporated to human body using a simulation model. 137 Cesium (Cs) is easily transferred associating with food intake as well as potassium and so, Cs is an important nuclide for evaluation of internal radiation. 137 Cs concentrations in wild vegetables are higher than those of cultured vegetables and milk. Therefore, the transfer coefficients of 137 Cs from soil to wild vegetables were estimated in this study. Wild vegetables and soils of their farms were collected in the Hakkoda Mountain range of Aomori Prefecture. The levels of 137 Cs in wild vegetables were 0.42-18.35 (Bq/kg), whereas those in cabbage and spinach were 0.08 and 0.01 (Bq/kg), respectively, indicating that the Cs level is dozens to several hundreds times higher in wild vegetables than cultured ones. And the transfer coefficient was estimated as 0.003-0.94 for the former and 0.001-0.8 for the latter. On the other hand, 1 37 Cs levels of the soils on which wild vegetables grew was 28.0 Bq/kg and it was 3.9 Bq/kg for the farm soil. Furthermore, the effects of water content and pH of the soil on the transfer coefficient were studied. (M.N.)

  16. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions.

  17. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions

  18. 137Cs distribution in guava trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosquera, B.; Veiga, R.; Mangia, L.; Carvalho, C.; Estellita, L.; Uzeda, D.; Facure, A.; Violini, B.; Anjos, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents results of 137 Cs concentration measured from a guava tree cultivated after the first decontamination work of one of the sites where the worst Brazilian radiological accident occurred. The present work aims to verify how the 137 Cs is transported and distributed along the tropical trees. Bi-dimensional analyses of the radial distribution of 137 Cs in the main trunk are also presented. Neither symmetrical nor homogeneous behaviors of the specific activity distribution in the tree rings were observed. (author)

  19. {sup 137}Cs distribution in guava trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosquera, B.; Veiga, R.; Mangia, L.; Carvalho, C.; Estellita, L.; Uzeda, D.; Facure, A.; Violini, B.; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2004-09-15

    This paper presents results of {sup 137}Cs concentration measured from a guava tree cultivated after the first decontamination work of one of the sites where the worst Brazilian radiological accident occurred. The present work aims to verify how the {sup 137}Cs is transported and distributed along the tropical trees. Bi-dimensional analyses of the radial distribution of {sup 137}Cs in the main trunk are also presented. Neither symmetrical nor homogeneous behaviors of the specific activity distribution in the tree rings were observed. (author)

  20. CsI and some new photocathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S.; Peskov, V.

    1993-06-01

    A discussion of the possible sources of discrepancies in the measurements of the quantum efficiency of CsI photocathodes is presented. We propose that the major causes for disagreements in QE are due to the QE dependence on the current density extracted from the photocathode, on the electric field, and on the temperature of the photocathode. Preliminary results on TMAE enhanced GaAs and Si, plus TMAE protected CsTe and SbCs photocathodes, operated in gas, are also presented

  1. Coordination polyhedra CsCln in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serezhkin, V.N.; Serezhkina, L.B.

    1999-01-01

    Characteristics of the Voronoi-Dirichlet polyhedrons are estimated for 133 crystallographic cesium atoms in chlorides Cs x M y Cl z (M=Cd, Sc, V, Nb, Mo, W, Ru, Re, etc.). It is found that cesium atoms have coordination numbers 6,8,9,10, 11 and 12 as regards the chlorine atoms. The results of cesium atom coordination sphere examination by the crossing spheres method are presented. Metal-metal interactions (including Cs-Cs) in the structure of certain chlorides are revealed

  2. Regeneration of Used Frying Palm Oil with Coffee Silverskin (CS), CS Ash (CSA) and Nanoparticles of CS (NCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Samir Abd-Elmonem A; El-Anany, Ayman Mohammed; Ali, Rehab Farouk M

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to evaluate the efficiency of coffee silverskin (CS), CS ash (CSA) and nanoparticles of CS (NCS) in regeneration the quality of used frying palm oil. The adsorbents were mixed individually with used frying palm oil at level 4% (w/v) for 60 min. The properties of CS, CSA and NCS adsorbents were studied using (SEM) scanning electron microscopy technique. Some of physico-chemical characteristics of used frying palm oil (UFPO) and UFPO treated with adsorbents were determined. The results showed that the CS ash particles composed of irregular spherical and semispherical grains with deep cavities. The size of particles of CS ash ranged in diameter from 1.1 to 1.7 µm. The morphology of NCS consisted of cluster-type spherical nanoparticles and flakes. The particle size of NCS varies from 0.9 to 1.7 µm. Purification treatments caused marked (poil compared to untreated oil. The treatment of UFPO with 4% of adsorbents caused significant reductions in the content of free fatty acids ranged from 51.2 to 65.0%. The lowest level of peroxide (2.1 meq/kg) was recorded for UFPO treated with 4% of NCS. The highest reductions (72.8; 70.0%) in p-anisidine value were observed in UFPO treated with 4% of CSA and NCS, respectively. Treatment of UFPO with 4% of CS, CSA and NCS significantly lowered the polar content from 13.9% to 6.3, 4.8 and 3.9%, respectively. The results also indicate that CSA and NCS have nearly the same adsorption efficiency in lowering polymer content of UFPO. Filtration treatment of UFPO with 4% of CS, CSA and NCS markedly lowered the viscosity and colour values of treated UFPO.

  3. Properties of Cs-intercalated single wall carbon nanotubes investigated by 133Cs Nuclear Magnetic resonance

    KAUST Repository

    Schmid, Marc R.

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated Cs-intercalated single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) using 133Cs Nuclear Magnetic resonance. We show that there are two types of Cs cations depending on the insertion level. Indeed, at low concentrations, Static spectra analysis shows that the Cs (α)+ species are fully ionized, i.e. α equal ca.1, while at higher concentrations a second paramagnetically shifted line appears, indicating the formation of Cs (β)+ ions with β < α ∼ +1. At low concentrations and low temperatures the Cs (α)+ ions exhibit a weak hyperfine coupling to the SWCNT conduction electrons, whereas, at higher temperatures, a thermally activated slow-motion diffusion process of the Cs (α)+ ions occurs along the interstitial channels present within the carbon nanotube bundles. At high concentrations, the Cs (β)+ ions seem to occupy well defined positions relative to the carbon lattice. As a matter of fact, the Korringa relaxation behavior suggests a strong hyperfine coupling between Cs nuclei and conduction electrons in the carbon nanotubes and a partial charge transfer, which suggest a plausible Cs(6s)-C(2p) hybridization. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical vapor composites (CVC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reagan, P.

    1993-01-01

    The Chemical Vapor Composite, CVC trademark , process fabricates composite material by simply mixing particles (powders and or fibers) with CVD reactants which are transported and co-deposited on a hot substrate. A key feature of the CVC process is the control provided by varing the density, geometry (aspect ratio) and composition of the entrained particles in the matrix material, during deposition. The process can fabricate composite components to net shape (± 0.013 mm) on a machined substrate in a single step. The microstructure of the deposit is described and several examples of different types of particles in the matrix are illustrated. Mechanical properties of SiC composite material fabricated with SiC powder and fiber will be presented. Several examples of low cost ceramic composite products will be shown. (orig.)

  5. Iron bromide vapor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, V. B.; Shiyanov, D. V.; Trigub, M. V.; Dimaki, V. A.; Evtushenko, G. S.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the characteristics of a pulsed gas-discharge laser on iron bromide vapor generating radiation with a wavelength of 452.9 nm at a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 5-30 kHz. The maximum output power amounted to 10 mW at a PRF within 5-15 kHz for a voltage of 20-25 kV applied to electrodes of the discharge tube. Addition of HBr to the medium produced leveling of the radial profile of emission. Initial weak lasing at a wavelength of 868.9 nm was observed for the first time, which ceased with buildup of the main 452.9-nm line.

  6. Vapor-droplet flow equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, C.T.

    1975-01-01

    General features of a vapor-droplet flow are discussed and the equations expressing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy for the vapor, liquid, and mixture using the control volume approach are derived. The phenomenological laws describing the exchange of mass, momentum, and energy between phases are also reviewed. The results have application to development of water-dominated geothermal resources

  7. 135Cs activity and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio in environmental samples before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guosheng; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-04-07

    (135)Cs/(137)Cs is a potential tracer for radiocesium source identification. However, due to the challenge to measure (135)Cs, there were no (135)Cs data available for Japanese environmental samples before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. It was only 3 years after the accident that limited (135)Cs values could be measured in heavily contaminated environmental samples. In the present study, activities of (134)Cs, (135)Cs, and (137)Cs, along with their ratios in 67 soil and plant samples heavily and lightly contaminated by the FDNPP accident were measured by combining γ spectrometry with ICP-MS/MS. The arithmetic means of the (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio (1.033 ± 0.006) and (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratio (0.334 ± 0.005) (decay corrected to March 11, 2011), from old leaves of plants collected immediately after the FDNPP accident, were confirmed to represent the FDNPP derived radiocesium signature. Subsequently, for the first time, trace (135)Cs amounts before the FDNPP accident were deduced according to the contribution of global and FDNPP accident-derived fallout. Apart from two soil samples with a tiny global fallout contribution, contributions of global fallout radiocesium in other soil samples were observed to be 0.338%-52.6%. The obtained (135)Cs/(137)Cs database will be useful for its application as a geochemical tracer in the future.

  8. Vapor pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of aliphatic propanediamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verevkin, Sergey P.; Chernyak, Yury

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We measured vapor pressure of four aliphatic 1,3-diamines. ► Vaporization enthalpies at 298 K were derived. ► We examined consistency of new and available data in the literature. ► A group-contribution method for prediction was developed. - Abstract: Vapor pressures of four aliphatic propanediamines including N-methyl-1,3-propanediamine (MPDA), N,N-dimethyl-1,3-propanediamine (DMPDA), N,N-diethyl-1,3-propanediamine (DEPDA) and N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyl-1,3-propanediamine (4MPDA) were measured using the transpiration method. The vapor pressures developed in this work and reported in the literature were used to derive molar enthalpy of vaporization values at the reference temperature 298.15 K. An internal consistency check of the enthalpy of vaporization was performed for the aliphatic propanediamines studied in this work. A group-contribution method was developed for the validation and prediction vaporization enthalpies of amines and diamines.

  9. A Citizen's Guide to Vapor Intrusion Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide describes how vapor intrusion is the movement of chemical vapors from contaminated soil and groundwater into nearby buildings.Vapors primarily enter through openings in the building foundation or basement walls.

  10. Vapor pressure measured with inflatable plastic bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Deflated plastic bag in a vacuum chamber measures initial low vapor pressures of materials. The bag captures the test sample vapors and visual observation of the vapor-inflated bag under increasing external pressures yields pertinent data.

  11. New technology of CRDM-CS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasushi Nozaki; Hiroyuki Ukon; Toshiaki Matsumura; Yoshihiro Sakurai; Sigenori Hatazawa; Hitoshi Yamagishi; Katsuji Kaneizumi; Hisashi Yasuda

    2005-01-01

    Control Rod Drive Mechanism Control System (CRDM-CS) for PWR Nuclear Power Plant was developed as a domestic product in 1975 and it has been applied to the commercial power plants. Since then, the CRDM-CS has been continuously improved through applying a double-hold-system, an intensified monitoring system, etc. As the result of these modifications unexpected rod drops have never occurred more than ten years in Japanese PWR plants. The system is still so high reliable, however, the technologies of employed devices are old-fashioned and we face on the difficulty to keep spare-parts these days. On the other hand, there are new movements to seek after the plant life extension of 60 years. These situations require a modernized CRDM-CS to accomplish the reliability in accordance to the plant life extension. to comply the above-mentioned object we developed a new CRDM-CS applied with following technologies; 1) Digitalized logic cabinet, 2) I.G.B.T in the main circuit of power cabinet, 3) Standardized cabinet by employing the unit structure, 4) Unnecessary DC hold power cabinet. These measures can play an important role in cost cutting and space reduction in replacing CRDM-CS. The concepts in developing the new CRDM-CS, the applied technologies to the power cabinet, the system structure and characteristics of the logic cabinet and the outline of verification test and result are discussed in this paper. (authors)

  12. Fast CsI-phoswich detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenbrunner, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    An improved phoswich radiation detector used pure CsI crystal and a fast plastic scintillator and a single photomultiplier tube. The plastic is arranged to receive incident radiation, and that which passed through then strikes the CsI crystal. Scintillation light from both the plastic and CsI crystal are applied to the photomultiplier tube, with the light from the plastic passing through the crystal without absorption therein. Electronics are provided for analyzing the output of the photomultiplier tube to discriminate responses due to the plastic and the CsI crystal, through short gate and long gate integration, to produce results which are indicative of the characteristics of the different types of incident radiation, even in the presence of large amounts of radiation. The phoswich detector has excellent timing resolution. The scintillators of the CsI- phoswich were chosen for their fast risetimes, of about 3 ns for NE102A, and 30 ns for the pure CsI. 5 figs

  13. 137Cs metabolism in pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, D.R.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Oliveira, C.A.N.; Bertelli, L.

    2000-01-01

    Data from two pregnant women contaminated with 137 Cs, body burdens of 0.2 and 300 MBq, respectively at the time of the Goiania accident, were compared. The first one, with lower body burden was exposed during the fourth month of pregnancy, while the second became pregnant three years and eight months after 137 Cs intake. For the first woman 137 Cs concentrations were equal for the mother, infant and placenta, indicating an easy and homogeneous transport of 137 Cs from mother to foetus. The whole body monitoring data from the second woman, who became pregnant four years after intake, did not show a reduction in biological half-life during the pregnancy. Cs concentration in the mother was found to be 13 times higher than in the infant. One possible reason for this result is that four years after intake, Cs is supposed to be concentrated mainly in skeletal muscle tissue. During the pregnancy the blood flux becomes higher in most of the organs and tissues except brain, liver and skeletal muscle tissue. (author)

  14. Concentration of 134Cs and 137Cs in Malaysian palm products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yii Mei Wo; Nor Aza Hassan; Narizan Sanusi

    2008-08-01

    Until today, countries importing food products from Malaysia, in region such as Indian Continental, Middle East, Central Europe and Central America still require the products to be tested for the radioactive contamination particularly for 134 Cs and 137 Cs. Information extracted from 3371 analytical results observed on isotopic concentration for 134 Cs and 137 Cs in the exported Malaysia origins palm products between years 2002 until 2007 had been summarized and reported in this work. Data shown that the concentration level of the concerned radio nuclides are below the minimum detectable activity and also well below maximum permissible limits adopted by Malaysian Government and also the international bodies. (Author)

  15. Comments on H- volume production in Cs-seeded ion sources. Appendix I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable interest was generated at the IAEA Negative Ion Beam Workshop in Grenoble, France, in March, 1985, by a report from the Kurchatov Institute on the development of a 2-ampere steady-state H - ion source, in which the ions were volume-produced in a discharge in H 2 , seeded with Cs vapor. The mechanism primarily responsible for this remarkably high current from a volume production source was not yet understood, but it was tentatively presumed to involve the collisional energy transfer from electronically excited Cs 6p atoms into H 2 vibrations. In any case, it was apparently different from the surface-plasma interactions that have been assumed to control the H - production in the Dudnikov-Dimov type sources

  16. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-01-01

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft 3 /min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft 3 /min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm

  17. The lithium vapor box divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R J; Schwartz, J; Myers, R

    2016-01-01

    It has long been recognized that volumetric dissipation of the plasma heat flux from a fusion power system is preferable to its localized impingement on a material surface. Volumetric dissipation mitigates both the anticipated very high heat flux and intense particle-induced damage due to sputtering. Recent projections to a tokamak demonstration power plant suggest an immense upstream parallel heat flux, of order 20 GW m −2 , implying that fully detached operation may be a requirement for the success of fusion power. Building on pioneering work on the use of lithium by Nagayama et al and by Ono et al as well as earlier work on the gas box divertor by Watkins and Rebut, we present here a concept for a lithium vapor box divertor, in which lithium vapor extracts momentum and energy from a fusion-power-plant divertor plasma, using fully volumetric processes. At the high powers and pressures that are projected this requires a high density of lithium vapor, which must be isolated from the main plasma in order to avoid lithium build-up on the chamber walls or in the plasma. Isolation is achieved through a powerful multi-box differential pumping scheme available only for condensable vapors. The preliminary box-wise calculations are encouraging, but much more work is required to demonstrate the practical viability of this scheme, taking into account at least 2D plasma and vapor flows within and between the vapor boxes and out of the vapor boxes to the main plasma. (paper)

  18. Vaporization thermodynamics and enthalpy of formation of aluminum silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, R.G.; Rinehart, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    The vaporization thermodynamics of aluminum silicon carbide was investigated using Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry. Vaporization occurred incongruently to give Al(g), SiC(s), and graphite as reaction products. The vapor pressure of aluminum above (Al 4 SiC 4 + SiC + C) was measured using graphite effusion cells with orifice areas between 1.1 X 10 -2 and 3.9 X 10 -4 cm 2 . The vapor pressure of aluminum obtained between 1427 and 1784 K using an effusion cell with the smallest orifice area, 3.9 X 10 -4 cm 2 , is expressed as log p (Pa) = - (18567 + or - 86) (K/T) + (12.143 + or - 0.054) The third-law calculation of the enthalpy change for the reaction Al 4 SiC 4 (s) = 4Al(g) + SiC(hex) + 3C(s) using the present aluminum pressures gives ΔH 0 (298.15 K) = (1455 + or - 79) kJ /SUP ./ mol -1 . The corresponding second-law result is ΔH 0 (298.15 K) = (1456 + or - 47) kJ /SUP ./ mol -1 . The standard enthalpy of formation of Al 4 SiC 4 (s) from the elements calculated from the present vaporization enthalpy (third-law calculation) and the enthalpies of formation of Al(g) and hexagonal SiC is ΔH 0 /SUB f/ (298.15 K) = -(221 + or - 85) kJ /SUP ./ mol -1 . The standard enthalpy of formation of Al 4 SiC 4 (s) from its constituent carbides Al 4 C 3 (s) and SiC(c, hex) is calculated to be ΔH 0 (298.15 K) = (38 + or - 92) KJ /SUP ./ mol -1

  19. Dimers in nucleating vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushnikov, A. A.; Kulmala, M.

    1998-09-01

    The dimer stage of nucleation may affect considerably the rate of the nucleation process at high supersaturation of the nucleating vapor. Assuming that the dimer formation limits the nucleation rate, the kinetics of the particle formation-growth process is studied starting with the definition of dimers as bound states of two associating molecules. The partition function of dimer states is calculated by summing the Boltzmann factor over all classical bound states, and the equilibrium population of dimers is found for two types of intermolecular forces: the Lennard-Jones (LJ) and rectangular well+hard core (RW) potentials. The principle of detailed balance is used for calculating the evaporation rate of dimers. The kinetics of the particle formation-growth process is then investigated under the assumption that the trimers are stable with respect to evaporation and that the condensation rate is a power function of the particle mass. If the power exponent λ=n/(n+1) (n is a non-negative integer), the kinetics of the process is described by a finite set of moments of particle mass distribution. When the characteristic time of the particle formation by nucleation is much shorter than that of the condensational growth, n+2 universal functions of a nondimensional time define the kinetic process. These functions are calculated for λ=2/3 (gas-to-particle conversion in the free molecular regime) and λ=1/2 (formation of islands on surfaces).

  20. VERA-CS Verification & Validation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downar, Thomas [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report summarizes the current status of VERA-CS Verification and Validation for PWR Core Follow operation and proposes a multi-phase plan for continuing VERA-CS V&V in FY17 and FY18. The proposed plan recognizes the hierarchical nature of a multi-physics code system such as VERA-CS and the importance of first achieving an acceptable level of V&V on each of the single physics codes before focusing on the V&V of the coupled physics solution. The report summarizes the V&V of each of the single physics codes systems currently used for core follow analysis (ie MPACT, CTF, Multigroup Cross Section Generation, and BISON / Fuel Temperature Tables) and proposes specific actions to achieve a uniformly acceptable level of V&V in FY17. The report also recognizes the ongoing development of other codes important for PWR Core Follow (e.g. TIAMAT, MAMBA3D) and proposes Phase II (FY18) VERA-CS V&V activities in which those codes will also reach an acceptable level of V&V. The report then summarizes the current status of VERA-CS multi-physics V&V for PWR Core Follow and the ongoing PWR Core Follow V&V activities for FY17. An automated procedure and output data format is proposed for standardizing the output for core follow calculations and automatically generating tables and figures for the VERA-CS Latex file. A set of acceptance metrics is also proposed for the evaluation and assessment of core follow results that would be used within the script to automatically flag any results which require further analysis or more detailed explanation prior to being added to the VERA-CS validation base. After the Automation Scripts have been completed and tested using BEAVRS, the VERA-CS plan proposes the Watts Bar cycle depletion cases should be performed with the new cross section library and be included in the first draft of the new VERA-CS manual for release at the end of PoR15. Also, within the constraints imposed by the proprietary nature of plant data, as many as possible of the FY17

  1. Effect of cesium salt of tungstophosphoric acid (Cs-TPA) on the properties of sulfonated polyether ether ketone (SPEEK) composite membranes for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, Hacer; Inan, Tuelay Y.; Unveren, Elif [The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUeBiTAK), Marmara Research Center, Chemistry Institute, P.K. 21, 41470 Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey); Kaya, Metin [DEMIRDOeKUeM A.S. 4 Eyluel Mah, ismet inoenue Cad. No:245 Bozueyuek/Bilecik (Turkey)

    2010-08-15

    We have prepared composite membranes for fuel cell applications. Cesium salt of tungstophosphoric acid (Cs-TPA) particles was synthesized by aqueous solutions of tungstophosphoric acid and cesium hydroxide and, Cs-TPA particles and sulfonated (polyether ether ketone) (SPEEK) with two sulfonation degrees (DS), 60 and 70%have been used. We examined both the effects of Cs-TPA in SPEEK membranes as functions of sulfonation degrees of SPEEK and the content of Cs-TPA. The performance of the composite membranes was evaluated in terms of water uptake, ion exchange capacity, proton conductivity, chemical stability, hydrolytic stability, thermal stability and methanol permeability. The morphology of the membranes was investigated with SEM micrographs. Increasing sulfonation degree of SPEEK from 60 to 70 caused agglomeration of the Cs-TPA particles. The methanol permeability was reduced to 4.7 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2}/s for SPEEK (DS: 60%)/Cs-TPA membrane with 10 wt.% Cs-TPA concentration, and acceptable proton conductivity of 1.3 x 10{sup -1} S/cm was achieved at 80 C under 100% RH. The weight loss at 900 C increased with the addition of inorganic particles, as expected. The hydrolytic stability of the SPEEK/Cs-TPA based composite membranes was improved with the incorporation of the Cs-TPA particles into the matrix. We also noted that SPEEK60/Cs-TPA composite membranes were hydrolytically more stable than SPEEK70/Cs-TPA composite membranes. On the other hand, Methanol, water vapor, and hydrogen permeability values of SPEEK60 composite membranes were found to be lower than that of Nafion {sup registered}. (author)

  2. Relative injectivity and CS-modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ahmed Kamal

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show that a direct decomposition of modules M⊕N, with N homologically independent to the injective hull of M, is a CS-module if and only if N is injective relative to M and both of M and N are CS-modules. As an application, we prove that a direct sum of a non-singular semisimple module and a quasi-continuous module with zero socle is quasi-continuous. This result is known for quasi-injective modules. But when we confine ourselves to CS-modules we need no conditions on their socles. Then we investigate direct sums of CS-modules which are pairwise relatively inective. We show that every finite direct sum of such modules is a CS-module. This result is known for quasi-continuous modules. For the case of infinite direct sums, one has to add an extra condition. Finally, we briefly discuss modules in which every two direct summands are relatively inective.

  3. Separation of 134Cs and 137Cs from 125I solution for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, Ramu; Dash, Ashutosh; Banerjee, Dayamoy

    2015-01-01

    While neutron irradiation of natural Xe gas followed by wet chemical dissolution of activation products constitutes a successful paradigm for the small scale production 125 I, the concomitant production of 134 Cs and 137 Cs emerged as the primary impediment which necessitates purification of 125 I solution. This paper describes an ion-exchange chromatographic technique using Resorcinol Formaldehyde (RF) resin to purify 125 I solution from 134 Cs and 137 Cs impurities. A thorough investigation of the adsorption parameters of RF resin was carried out to arrive at the experimental conditions resulting optimum retention of 134 Cs and 137 Cs impurities. Based on the experimental findings, an optimized separation procedure was developed in which the neutron irradiated dissolved products at pH ∝ 13 was passed through a chromatography column containing RF resin where in 134 Cs and 137 Cs impurities gets adsorbed leaving behind 125 I to appear in the effluent. The overall recovery of 125 I was >90% with acceptable purity amenable for clinical applications.

  4. Tubing For Sampling Hydrazine Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Josh; Taffe, Patricia S.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Wyatt, Jeffrey R.

    1993-01-01

    Report evaluates flexible tubing used for transporting such hypergolic vapors as those of hydrazines for quantitative analysis. Describes experiments in which variety of tubing materials, chosen for their known compatibility with hydrazine, flexibility, and resistance to heat.

  5. Vapor trap for liquid metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T

    1968-05-22

    In a pipe system which transfers liquid metal, inert gas (cover gas) is packed above the surface of the liquid metal to prevent oxidization of the liquid. If the metal vapor is contained in such cover gas, the circulating system of the cover gas is blocked due to condensation of liquid metal inside the system. The present invention relates to an improvement in vapor trap to remove the metal vapor from the cover gas. The trap consists of a cylindrical outer body, an inlet nozzle which is deeply inserted inside the outer body and has a number of holes to inject the cove gas into the body, metal mesh or steel wool which covers the exterior of the nozzle and on which the condensation of the metal gas takes place, and a heater wire hich is wound around the nozzle to prevent condensation of the metal vapor at the inner peripheral side of the mesh.

  6. Molecular structures and thermodynamic properties of 12 gaseous cesium-containing species of nuclear safety interest: Cs 2, CsH, CsO, Cs 2O, CsX, and Cs 2X 2 (X = OH, Cl, Br, and I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Michael; Xerri, Bertrand; Canneaux, Sébastien; Cantrel, Laurent; Louis, Florent

    2012-01-01

    Ab initio electronic structure calculations at the coupled cluster level with a correction for the triples extrapolated to the complete basis set limit have been made for the estimation of the thermochemical properties of Cs 2, CsH, CsO, Cs 2O, CsX, and Cs 2X 2 (X = OH, Cl, Br, and I). The standard enthalpies of formation and standard molar entropies at 298 K, and the temperature dependence of the heat capacities at constant pressure were evaluated. The calculated thermochemical properties are in good agreement with their literature counterparts. For Cs 2, CsH, CsOH, Cs 2(OH) 2, CsCl, Cs 2Cl 2, CsBr, CsI, and Cs 2I 2, the calculated ΔfH298K∘ values are within chemical accuracy of the most recent experimental values. Based on the excellent agreement observed between our calculated ΔfH298K∘ values and their literature counterparts, the standard enthalpies of formation at 298 K are estimated to be the following: ΔfH298K∘ (CsO) = 17.0 kJ mol -1 and ΔfH298K∘ (Cs 2Br 2) = -575.4 kJ mol -1.

  7. Tuning of the Hanle effect from EIT to EIA using spatially separated probe and control beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Mangesh; Bharti, Vineet; Natarajan, Vasant

    2018-05-14

    We demonstrate a technique for continuous tuning of the Hanle effect from electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) to electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) by changing the polarization ellipticity of a control beam. In contrast to previous work in this field, we use spatially separated probe and control beams. The experiments are done using magnetic sublevels of the F g  = 4 → F e  = 5 closed hyperfine transition in the 852 nm D 2 line of 133 Cs. The atoms are contained in a room temperature vapor cell with anti-relaxation (paraffin) coating on the walls. The paraffin coating is necessary for the atomic coherence to be transported between the beams. The experimental results are supported by a density-matrix analysis of the system, which also explains the observed amplitude and zero-crossing of the resonances. Such continuous tuning of the sign of a resonance has important applications in quantum memory and other precision measurements.

  8. The Godparent Plan: A Pedagogical Strategy for CS1 Accompaniment and CS2 Pedagogical Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Guillermo Feijóo-García

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Courses such as CS1 and CS2 can present an interesting pedagogical challenge when it comes to the theory-practice relationship, along with aspects that involve the course's logistics, the programming language used, and the characteristics of the students involved in the process. This study presents an innovative didactic approach, oriented towards the accompaniment of CS1 students by CS2 students at Universidad El Bosque, Colombia, seeking with this Godparent Plan, to provide a personalized accompaniment to first semester students, whereby CS2 students enhance their domain over concepts and skills while accompanying, explaining and teaching younger peers. The results of this study are favorable, outlining a didactic scheme that can be adapted and replicated in other curricular scenarios.

  9. Derivation of 137Cs deposition density from measurement of 137Cs inventories in undisturbed soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hien, P.D.; Hiep, H.T.; Quang, N.H.; Huy, N.Q.; Binh, N.T.; Hai, P.S.; Long, N.Q.; Bac, V.T

    2012-01-01

    The 137 Cs inventories in undisturbed soils were measured for 292 locations across the territory of Vietnam. the logarithmic inventory values were regressed against characteristics of sampling sites, such as geographical coordinates, annual rainfall and physico-chemical parameters of soil. The regression model containing latitude and annual rainfall as determinants could explain 76% of the variations in logarithmic inventory values across the territory. The model part was interpreted as the logarithmic 137 Cs deposition density. At the 95% confidence level, 137 Cs deposition density could be predicted be the model ± 7% relative uncertainty. the latitude mean 137 Cs deposition density increases northward from 237 Bq m -2 to 1097 Bq m -2 , while the corresponding values derived from the UNSCEAR (1969) global pattern are 300 Bq m -2 and 600 Bq m -2 . High 137 Cs inputs were found in high-rainfall areas in northern and central parts of the territory. (author)

  10. 135Cs/137Cs isotopic composition of environmental samples across Europe: Environmental transport and source term emission applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, Mathew S.; Snyder, Darin C.

    2016-01-01

    135 Cs/ 137 Cs isotopic analyses represent an important tool for studying the fate and transport of radiocesium in the environment; in this work the 135 Cs/ 137 Cs isotopic composition in environmental samples taken from across Europe is reported. Surface soil and vegetation samples from western Russia, Ukraine, Austria, and Hungary show consistent aged thermal fission product 135 Cs/ 137 Cs isotope ratios of 0.58 ± 0.01 (age corrected to 1/1/15), with the exception of one sample of soil-moss from Hungary which shows an elevated 135 Cs/ 137 Cs ratio of 1.78 ± 0.12. With the exception of the outlier sample from Hungary, surface soil/vegetation data are in quantitative agreement with values previously reported for soils within the Chernobyl exclusion zone, suggesting that radiocesium at these locations is primarily composed of homogenous airborne deposition from Chernobyl. Seawater samples taken from the Irish Sea show 135 Cs/ 137 Cs isotope ratios of 1.22 ± 0.11 (age corrected to 1/1/15), suggesting aged thermal fission product Cs discharged from Sellafield. The differences in 135 Cs/ 137 Cs isotope ratios between Sellafield, Chernobyl, and global nuclear weapons testing fallout indicate that 135 Cs/ 137 Cs isotope ratios can be utilized to discriminate between and track radiocesium transport from different nuclear production source terms, including major emission sources in Europe. - Highlights: • 135 Cs/ 137 Cs useful for tracking anthropogenic environmental radiocesium releases. • European surface soils/vegetation have uniform ratio consistent with Chernobyl. • 135 Cs/ 137 Cs in Irish sea represents thermal fission ratio distinct from Chernobyl. • Can distinguish between major source terms in Europe based on 135 Cs/ 137 Cs.

  11. CS EMISSION NEAR MIR-BUBBLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, C.; Devine, Kathryn; Quintanar, N.; Candelaria, T.

    2016-01-01

    We survey 44 young stellar objects located near the edges of mid-IR-identified bubbles in CS (1–0) using the Green Bank Telescope. We detect emission in 18 sources, indicating young protostars that are good candidates for being triggered by the expansion of the bubble. We calculate CS column densities and abundances. Three sources show evidence of infall through non-Gaussian line-shapes. Two of these sources are associated with dark clouds and are promising candidates for further exploration of potential triggered star formation. We obtained on-the-fly maps in CS (1–0) of three sources, showing evidence of significant interactions between the sources and the surrounding environment

  12. Radiochemical determination of 137Cs in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastner, Geraldo F.; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Monteiro, Roberto P.G.

    2013-01-01

    A determination of radionuclides in food samples is important in commodities in order to attend to regulatory requirements for international trade. As a long-lived radioisotope of cesium, 137 Cs is produced as a result of human nuclear activities and than its contamination level evaluation among others radionuclides in foods is necessary. A methodology for the determination of 137 Cs in foods, pork and fish, is described. The procedures covered homogenization and freeze-drying of the samples. The 137 Cs was measured by gamma spectrometry using Canberra 50% HPGe detector. The counting was carried out with Monte Carlo software for detection conditions optimization including geometry and chemical data information. A certified sample, SRM IAEA-375, was analyzed in order to evaluate the reliability of the method, and the results showed good agreement between the measured and certified values. (author)

  13. Retention of 137Cs in three humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soegaard-Hansen, J.; Lauridsen, B.

    1992-01-01

    In two experiments the retention of 137 Cs after a single intake have been measured with whole-body counting. In the first experiment, two persons ingested a prepared liquid solution of 137 CsCl. In the second experiment these two persons together with a third person ingested 137 Cs naturally incorporated in a piece of meat. The obtained data have been fitted to a retention function with a small compartment having a fast excretion rate and a large compartment having a slow excretion rate, as given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The effective biological half-lives were in both experiments significantly different from the value given by ICRP. (au)

  14. 137Cs in Norwegian Lapps, spring 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerlund, E.A.; Gjertsen, L.; Lind, B.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements show that the body burden of 137 in Lapps in Norway fell from 1965 to 1975 with an apparent half-life of 4-5 years. Since then the reduction has been considerably slower due to fallout from Chinese nuclear weapon tests. The content of 137 Cs in reindeer meat follows the same pattern. Seasonal variations occur due to the migration of the reindeer between winter grazing on lichen with a high 137 Cs content and summer grazing on grass with a lower 137 Cs content. For annual dose calculations it is found that whole body mearurements at the end of March or the beginning of April give good values. Radiation doses to Lapps working small holdings are about 3/4 of those of nomadic reindeer-herding Lapps. (JIW)

  15. CS EMISSION NEAR MIR-BUBBLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, C. [Manchester University, Department of Physics, 604 E. College Ave., North Manchester, IN 46962 (United States); Devine, Kathryn [College of Idaho, Department of Physics, 2112 Cleveland Blvd, Caldwell, ID 83605 (United States); Quintanar, N. [Texas A and M University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, 401 Joe Routt Blvd, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Candelaria, T., E-mail: cwatson@manchester.edu, E-mail: KDevine@collegeofidaho.edu, E-mail: nrquintanar@tamu.edu, E-mail: tcandela@nmt.edu [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Department of Physics, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2016-02-10

    We survey 44 young stellar objects located near the edges of mid-IR-identified bubbles in CS (1–0) using the Green Bank Telescope. We detect emission in 18 sources, indicating young protostars that are good candidates for being triggered by the expansion of the bubble. We calculate CS column densities and abundances. Three sources show evidence of infall through non-Gaussian line-shapes. Two of these sources are associated with dark clouds and are promising candidates for further exploration of potential triggered star formation. We obtained on-the-fly maps in CS (1–0) of three sources, showing evidence of significant interactions between the sources and the surrounding environment.

  16. Cs-137 for irradiation of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessel, T.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1973, the Geiselbullach sewage treatment works have been continuously operating their first system for gamma irradiation of sewage sludge. Within the framework of a German-American agreement, nine Cs-137 sources with a total activity of 56.000 Ci have been made available to the works free of charge in 1983, in order to test in practice and to demonstrate the applicability of these radiation sources in comparison to the Co-60 sources exclusively used up to then. This first study on the applicability of Cs-137 as a radiation source for sewage sludge treatment revealed no findings or effects speaking against Cs-137 as a radiation source for this purpose. (orig./RB) [de

  17. WESF (173)Cs gamma ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, B. T.

    1984-10-01

    The Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESP) at Hanford, Washington has been separating cesium from stored liquid defense waste since 1945. This is done to alleviate the heat generated by the decay of radioactive Cs137. The cesium is converted to CsCl, doubly encapsulated in 316l stainless steel, and placed in storage. The potential utility of these Cs137 capsules as gamma radiation sources was demonstrated. Registration of the capsule with the NRC as a sealed gamma source would facilitate the licensing of non-DOE irradiation facilities using this source. To grant this registration, the NRC requires characteristics of the capsule. It must also be demonstrated that the capsule will maintain its integrity under both normal circumstances and specified abnormal conditions. The required information is provided through collation of results of studies and tests done previously by other laboratories.

  18. Modulated pumping in Cs with picosecond pulse trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmitz, H.; Harde, H.; Kattau, W.

    1986-01-01

    Two different experimental arrangements were used for periodic excitation detection of coherence. Cs vapor in a gas cell was resonantly excited on the D 2 line by a train of ultrashort light pulses of circular polarization. To reduce transit-time broadening, additional buffer gas was contained in the cell and the light beam from a laser was expanded to a cross section of about 1.5 cm 2 . The resulting atomic coherence amplitude which was due to the periodic excitation of atoms could then be measured by different means. The experimental set-up is shown which takes advantage of the fact that atomic coherence gives rise to an oscillating optical anisotropy in the sample. The atomic splitting is measured by the 9th harmonic of the injection laser pulse rate with a width of less than 50 Hz. The experiments demonstrate the ultrahigh frequency resolution is possible with optical pulse train interference spectroscopy which allows one to sensitively detect small pressure shifts in the hyperfine frequency caused by buffer gases in the gas cell

  19. Phonon dispersion curves for CsCN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, N.K.; Singh, Preeti; Rini, E.G.; Galgale, Jyostna; Singh, R.K.

    2004-01-01

    The motivation for the present work was gained from the recent publication on phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) of CsCN from the neutron scattering technique. We have applied the extended three-body force shell model (ETSM) by incorporating the effect of coupling between the translation modes and the orientation of cyanide molecules for the description of phonon dispersion curves of CsCN between the temperatures 195 and 295 K. Our results on PDCs in symmetric direction are in good agreement with the experimental data measured with inelastic neutron scattering technique. (author)

  20. Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6

    CERN Document Server

    Ekert, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Designed to be practical and engaging, Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6 is a project-based book to help you truly augment your skills and become a film editing hotshot.If you're just starting out or even migrating from existing video editing software, then this book is for you. With rapid progression through practical examples constructed to be both engaging and useful, Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6 is ideal for learning the sometimes complex workflows of this powerful application.

  1. Study of the 137Cs Stabilizer Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAO Yan;WANG Yan-ling;XU Zhi-jian;XU Liang;REN Chun-xia;TAN Xiao-ming;CUI Hong-qi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The attenuation laws of the Cesium -137 γ-ray penetrating the ceramic core、stainless steel and tungsten steel were studied. The radioactivity of the 137Cs stabilizer source was determined through the surface dose rate of 137Cs stabilizer sources. In addition, the adsorption properties of the ceramic core were studied to improve the stability of the output rate, and established a production line. The application results showed that the output rate of ray source was accurate and was of a good consistency. At present, the source had been used in logging lithology, and achieved the realization of domestic product.

  2. The Photoshop CS4 Companion for Photographers

    CERN Document Server

    Story, Derrick

    2009-01-01

    "Derrick shows that Photoshop can be friendly as well as powerful. In part, he does that by focusing photographers on the essential steps of an efficient workflow. With this guide in hand, you'll quickly learn how to leverage Photoshop CS4's features to organize and improve your pictures."-- John Nack, Principal Product Manager, Adobe Photoshop & BridgeMany photographers -- even the pros -- feel overwhelmed by all the editing options Photoshop provides. The Photoshop CS4 Companion for Photographers pares it down to only the tools you'll need most often, and shows you how to use those tools as

  3. CS model coil experimental log book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, Gen; Sugimoto, Makoto; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Hiroshi

    2001-02-01

    Charging test of the ITER CS Model Coil which is the world's largest superconducting pulse coil and the CS Insert Coil had started at April 11, 2000 and had completed at August 18, 2000. In the campaign, total shot numbers were 356 and the size of the data file in the DAS (Data Acquisition System) was over 20 GB. This report is a database that consists of the log list and the log sheets of every shot. One can access the database, make a search, and browse results via Internet (http://1ogwww.naka.jaeri.go.jp). The database will be useful to quick search to choose necessary shots. (author)

  4. Melting temperature, vapor density, and vapor pressure of molybdenum pentafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Jr, R F; Douglas, T B [National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C. (USA). Inst. for Materials Research

    1977-12-01

    A sample of MoF/sub 5/ was prepared by reaction of MoF/sub 6/(g) and Mo(c). Melting curves of temperature against time established the melting temperature at zero impurity to be 318.85 K, the enthalpy of fusion to be 6.1 kJ mol/sup -1/ (+ - 5 per cent), and the cryoscopic impurity of the sample to be 0.15 mole per cent. In the presence of MoF/sub 6/(g) which was added to suppress disproportionation, the vapor density of MoF/sub 5/ over the liquid was measured by the transpiration method at 343, 363, and 383 K, the total MoF/sub 5/ that evaporated being determined by permanganate titration. The total vapor pressure of MoF/sub 5/ oligomers over the liquid was measured by a simple static method at 373 and 392 K, while melting temperatures were taken alternately to monitor possible contamination of the sample. Although the vapor pressures were adjusted for disproportionation, solution of MoF/sub 6/ in MoF/sub 5/ (1), and wall adsorption of MoF/sub 6/ their percentage uncertainty is probably several times that of the vapor densities. A combination of the two properties indicates the average extent of association of the saturated vapor to be near 2, which is the value for the dimer species (MoF/sub 5/)/sub 2/.

  5. Scoping studies of vapor behavior during a severe accident in a metal-fueled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.W.; Marchaterre, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Scoping calculations have been performed examining the consequences of fuel melting and pin failures for a reactivity-insertion type accident in a sodium-cooled, pool-type reactor fueled with a metal alloy fuel. The principal gas and vapor species released are shown to be Xe, Cs,and bond sodium contained within the fuel porosity. Fuel vapor pressure is insignificant, and there is no energetic fuel-coolant interaction for the conditions considered. Condensation of sodium vapor as it expands into the upper sodium pool in a jet mixing regime may occur as rapidly as the vapor emerges from the disrupted core (although reactor-material experiments are needed to confirm these high condensation rates). If the predictions of rapid direct-contact condensation can be verified experimentally for the sodium system, the implication is that the ability of vapor expansion to perform appreciable work on the system is largely eliminated. Furthermore, the ability of an expanding vapor bubble to transport fuel and fission product species to the cover gas region where they may be released to the containment is also largely eliminated. The radionuclide species except for fission gas are largely retained within the core and sodium pool

  6. Properties of CsI and CsI-TMAE photocathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S.; Peskov, V.; Hoeneisen, B.

    1992-06-01

    The importance of heating the CsI or CsI-TMAE photocathodes during preparation, as well as the importance of the gas environment on the quantum efficiency is presented. The dependence of the aging characteristics of these photocathodes on the operating temperature, on the presence of gas, and on the charge amplification of the chamber is also discussed. For CsI photocathodes charges in excess of 2x10 14 e - /mm 2 can be collected with little degradation of performance. A timing resolution of 0.55 ns is also achieved for single photoelectrons suggesting a possible time-of-flight detector

  7. Effect of 137Cs on immunological reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubik, V.M.

    1975-01-01

    An important role of 137 Cs as a new ecological factor was shown by analyzing 31 different studies. The radioisotope may at present be detected in the organisms of all inhabitants of this planet. The migration of 137 Cs along the chain lichen-deer-man leads to its accumulation in the organism of humans living in the Extreme North and taking venison in their food. Although the high sensitivity of immunological reactions to various unfavourable environmental factors is well known, data on the effect of incorporated 137 Cs on immunity are scanty. Experiments on animals showed changes in factors of nonspecific immunity (phagocytic reaction of blood neutrophils, bactericidal activity, lysozyme and complement titres of blood serum) and specific immunity (formation of antiviral antibodies). The blood of animals injured by the isotope displays complete and incomplete autoantibodies. The dependence of immunobiological changes on the dose absorbed by the organism is shown. The 137 Cs intake of inhabitants of the Extreme North who eat venison did not, with the absorbed dose equalling up to 50 Mrem per year, lead to changes in their immunological reactivity. (author)

  8. Flash CS4: The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Unlock the power of Flash and bring gorgeous animations to life onscreen. Flash CS4: The Missing Manual includes a complete primer on animation, a guided tour of the program's tools and capabilities, lots of new illustrations, and more details on working with video. Beginners will learn to use the software in no time, and experienced Flash designers will improve their skills.

  9. SR-XRF imaging of Cs highly accumulated in vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Izumi; Oda, Nahoko; Terada, Yasuko

    2011-01-01

    Accumulation of Cs in vegetables was studied with regard to the remediation of radioactive Cs from a nuclear plant accident in Fukushima. It was found that Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brassica campestris var. perviridis, and Lactuca sativa accumulated Cs to a level of more than 10000 ppm (dry weight) when they were cultivated in 1 mM Cs solution. Two-dimensional distributions of Cs were revealed by SR-XRF imaging showing a homogeneous distribution of Cs in the plant bodies. (author)

  10. Radiation damage in undoped CsI and CsI(Tl)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woody, C.L.; Kierstead, J.A.; Levy, P.W.; Stoll, S.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation damage has been studied in undoped CsI and CsI(TI) crystals using 60 Co gamma radiation for doses up to ∼ 4.2 x 10 6 . Samples from various manufacturers were measured ranging in size from 2.54 cm long cylinders to a 30 cm long block. Measurements were made on the change in optical transmission and scintillation light output as a function of dose. Although some samples showed a small change in transmission, a significant change in light output was observed for all samples. Recovery from damage was also studied as a function of time and exposure to UV light. A short lived phosphorescence was observed in undoped CsI, similar to the phosphorescence seen in CsI(TI)

  11. Ab Initio investigation of cesium monoxide of CsO and CsO+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zialenina, M.; Kelloe, V.; Cernusak, I.

    2015-01-01

    Cesium is material with a low work function and, accordingly, atomic Cs has a low value of ionization energy. Therefore cesium is regarded as a good source material for electrons in plasma heating module. One of plasma heating technologies using Cs grid is foreseen as a candidate for the tokamak within the framework of project ITER. Among the possible impurities that can coexist in this module are CsO or CsO + , due to presence of oxygen traces in the heating chamber. We conducted CCSD(T) energy calculations of the cesium oxide (X 2 Σ + ) and its cation (X 3 Σ - ). Here are presented the bond lengths and spectroscopic parameters of both species and ionization energy (IE). Our IE (6.88 eV) is in good agreement with previous theoretical results, experiment indicates substantially lower value (6.22 eV). (authors)

  12. Calculation of inelastic cross sections for H+ + Cs → H(n=2) + Cs+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valance, A.; Spiess, G.

    1975-01-01

    The cross sections for the processes H + +Cs → H(2p and 2s) +Cs + were calculated in the center of mass energy range 250--2400 eV using a simple pseudopotential formalism for the potential curves and coupling matrix elements and a perturbed stationary state (pss) formulation for the calculation of the cross sections. The results are found to be in reasonable agreement with experiment. (auth)

  13. Thermal plasma chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heberlein, J.; Pfender, E.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal plasmas, with temperatures up to and even exceeding 10 4 K, are capable of producing high density vapor phase precursors for the deposition of relatively thick films. Although this technology is still in its infancy, it will fill the void between the relatively slow deposition processes such as physical vapor deposition and the high rate thermal spray deposition processes. In this chapter, the present state-of-the-art of this field is reviewed with emphasis on the various types of reactors proposed for this emerging technology. Only applications which attracted particular attention, namely diamond and high T c superconducting film deposition, are discussed in greater detail. (orig.)

  14. The 134Cs uptake by sunflower (Helianthus anuus, Less) cultivated on soil contaminated with 134Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppy Intan Tjahaja; Putu Sukmabuana

    2008-01-01

    One of the methods for remediation of contaminated environment is phytoremediation techniques, i.e. the environmental remediation using plants. In this research the bioavailability of sunflower plant (Helianthus anuus, Less) in radiocaesium uptake from soil was studied for being considered as a phytoremediator later. Sunflower plants were cultivated on soil contaminated with 134 Cs with the concentrations of 29,3 kBq/kg ; 117,2 kBq/kg ; 557 kBq/kg for 45 days. As control the sunflowers were also cultivated on non contaminated soil. Observation was carried out every 5 days by sampling 3 plants and soils. The plant and soil samples were dried using infra red lamp for 24 hours, and then counted using gamma spectrometer. The counting results i.e. 134 Cs concentration on soil and plant parts were then analyzed to obtain transfer factor (TF) values. The highest TF values was reached on 26 th day, i.e. 0,87; 1,89 ; 2,82 for initial soil 134 Cs concentrations of 29,3 Bq/g ; 117,2 Bq/g ; 557 Bq/g, respectively. The TF values obtained expressed the capability of plants to accumulate 134 Cs from soils. The observation to the plants growth showed that the plants grew normally on the 134 Cs contaminated soil until the concentration of 557 Bq/g. The sunflower can be considered to be phytoremediator of andosol soil contaminated with Cs radionuclides. (author)

  15. Waste Tank Vapor Project: Tank vapor database development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seesing, P.R.; Birn, M.B.; Manke, K.L.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of the Tank Vapor Database (TVD) Development task in FY 1994 was to create a database to store, retrieve, and analyze data collected from the vapor phase of Hanford waste tanks. The data needed to be accessible over the Hanford Local Area Network to users at both Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The data were restricted to results published in cleared reports from the laboratories analyzing vapor samples. Emphasis was placed on ease of access and flexibility of data formatting and reporting mechanisms. Because of time and budget constraints, a Rapid Application Development strategy was adopted by the database development team. An extensive data modeling exercise was conducted to determine the scope of information contained in the database. a A SUN Sparcstation 1000 was procured as the database file server. A multi-user relational database management system, Sybase reg-sign, was chosen to provide the basic data storage and retrieval capabilities. Two packages were chosen for the user interface to the database: DataPrism reg-sign and Business Objects trademark. A prototype database was constructed to provide the Waste Tank Vapor Project's Toxicology task with summarized and detailed information presented at Vapor Conference 4 by WHC, PNL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Oregon Graduate Institute. The prototype was used to develop a list of reported compounds, and the range of values for compounds reported by the analytical laboratories using different sample containers and analysis methodologies. The prototype allowed a panel of toxicology experts to identify carcinogens and compounds whose concentrations were within the reach of regulatory limits. The database and user documentation was made available for general access in September 1994

  16. Estimated vapor pressure for WTP process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-01

    Design assumptions during the vacuum refill phase of the Pulsed Jet Mixers (PJMs) in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) equate the vapor pressure of all process streams to that of water when calculating the temperature at which the vacuum refill is reduced or eliminated. WTP design authority asked the authors to assess this assumption by performing calculations on proposed feed slurries to calculate the vapor pressure as a function of temperature. The vapor pressure was estimated for each WTP waste group. The vapor pressure suppression caused by dissolved solids is much greater than the increase caused by organic components such that the vapor pressure for all of the waste group compositions is less than that of pure water. The vapor pressure for each group at 145°F ranges from 81% to 98% of the vapor pressure of water. If desired, the PJM could be operated at higher temperatures for waste groups with high dissolved solids that suppress vapor pressure. The SO4 group with the highest vapor pressure suppression could be operated up to 153°F before reaching the same vapor pressure of water at 145°F. However, most groups would reach equivalent vapor pressure at 147 to 148°F. If any of these waste streams are diluted, the vapor pressure can exceed the vapor pressure of water at mass dilution ratios greater than 10, but the overall effect is less than 0.5%.

  17. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grate, Jay W.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.

    2012-12-01

    The generation of calibrated vapor samples of explosives compounds remains a challenge due to the low vapor pressures of the explosives, adsorption of explosives on container and tubing walls, and the requirement to manage (typically) multiple temperature zones as the vapor is generated, diluted, and delivered. Methods that have been described to generate vapors can be classified as continuous or pulsed flow vapor generators. Vapor sources for continuous flow generators are typically explosives compounds supported on a solid support, or compounds contained in a permeation or diffusion device. Sources are held at elevated isothermal temperatures. Similar sources can be used for pulsed vapor generators; however, pulsed systems may also use injection of solutions onto heated surfaces with generation of both solvent and explosives vapors, transient peaks from a gas chromatograph, or vapors generated by s programmed thermal desorption. This article reviews vapor generator approaches with emphasis on the method of generating the vapors and on practical aspects of vapor dilution and handling. In addition, a gas chromatographic system with two ovens that is configurable with up to four heating ropes is proposed that could serve as a single integrated platform for explosives vapor generation and device testing. Issues related to standards, calibration, and safety are also discussed.

  18. Biological effects of 137Cs, incorporated into organism of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monakhov, A.S.; Strekalov, S.A.; Sokolov, A.V.; Aver'yanova, T.K.

    1987-01-01

    Results of investigating mutagenous and hemotoxic effects of 137 Cs on blood lymphocytes of rats are presented. 137 Cs was orally administrated into organism of rats as 270 kBq/g chloride solution. 137 Cs mutagenous effect was studied on metaphase plates of rat blood lymphocytes in course of rats lifetime experiment. It is stated that 137 Cs inducing severe disturbances of genetic material in a great quantity of blood lymphocytes, causes their total killing

  19. Synthesis, thermal decomposition and sensitivity study of CsDNBF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shaozong; Zhang, Tonglai; Yang, Li; Zhang, Jianguo; Sun, Yuanhua [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2007-02-15

    CsDNBF (cesium 7-hydroxy-4,6-dinitro-5,7-dihydrobenzofuroxanide) was synthesized from the sodium salt of DNBF and cesium nitrate. The thermal decomposition process has been investigated and the results show that the solid residues at 240 C are RCOOCs, CsNCO, RNO{sub 2} and CsNO{sub 3}. The sensitivity results demonstrate that CsDNBF has better properties than KDNBF, which has been widely used. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. CS model coil experimental log book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishijima, Gen; Sugimoto, Makoto; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2001-02-01

    Charging test of the ITER CS Model Coil which is the world's largest superconducting pulse coil and the CS Insert Coil had started at April 11, 2000 and had completed at August 18, 2000. In the campaign, total shot numbers were 356 and the size of the data file in the DAS (Data Acquisition System) was over 20 GB. This report is a database that consists of the log list and the log sheets of every shot. One can access the database, make a search, and browse results via Internet (http://1ogwww.naka.jaeri.go.jp). The database will be useful to quick search to choose necessary shots. (author)

  1. Magnetic correlations in CsVBr3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shinichi; Kakurai, Kazuhisa; Endoh, Yasuo

    2001-01-01

    The static magnetic correlation function, S(q), in and S=3/2, one-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet, CsVBr 3 , was measured at temperatures between 40 K and 200 K above the three-dimensional ordering temperature (T N =20.3 K), on a chopper spectrometer install at a pulsed neutron source. The observed S(q) was well fitted to a Lorentzian function convoluted with the instrumental resolution function. The inverse correlation length, κ(T), determined as a half width of the correlation function, showed a linear temperature dependence in the observed temperature range, and, qualitatively well agreed with classical theory. This is consistent with current theory, also, with κ(T) reported for a similar system, CsVCl 3 . (author)

  2. 137Cs behaviour in fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte, L.; Quaggia, S.; Pompei, F.; Fratarcangeli, S.

    1989-01-01

    The results of measurements carried out during the period 1987-1988, to evaluate the levels of 137 Cs and 134 Cs contamination in fruit samples and in various components of fruit-trees have been reported. It has been demonstrated that, in the case of an accidental contamination of the air, the contamination of fruit is mainly due to the foliar translocation of radionuclide. Data of radioactivity content in fruits collected through a period of three years show that the radioactivity content in fruit diminishes exponentially. Rough estimates of ''translocation coefficient'' defined as the ratio (radionuclide concentration in fruit)/(radionuclide deposition on soil), and of the ''biological half time'' have been carried out in the case of hazel-nut, walnut, apple, chestnut and olive

  3. Teaching the Five Cs with Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimma Garn

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses teaching the five Cs (as noted in the following introduction, delineated in the “National Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century,” through a college content course based on cinema. It provides an overview of a 2009 Berkeley workshop, “Teaching Language and Culture with Film,” that addressed larger issues related to such courses within the curriculum, their design and teaching. The paper goes on to describe three Russian courses based on the same textbook, KinoTalk, yet designed for different student audiences: for traditional third year students and for various kinds of non-traditional students, for heritage speakers, and for former missionaries with two-years experience in the target country but minimal formal training in the language. In conclusion, the paper suggests ideas for further courses taught using the same textbook and for teaching the five Cs through language and cinema in general.

  4. Vapor generating unit blowdown arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, B.N.

    1978-01-01

    A vapor generating unit having a U-shaped tube bundle is provided with an orificed downcomer shroud and a fluid flow distribution plate between the lower hot and cold leg regions to promote fluid entrained sediment deposition in proximity to an apertured blowdown pipe

  5. On Gács' quantum algorithmic entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Takisaka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We define an infinite dimensional modification of lower-semicomputability of density operators by Gács with an attempt to fix some problem in the paper. Our attempt is partly achieved by showing the existence of universal operator under some additional assumption. It is left as a future task to eliminate this assumption. We also see some properties and examples which stimulate further research. In particular, we show that universal operator has certain nontrivial form if it exists.

  6. Flash CS3 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Flash CS3, the latest version of the premier tool for creating web animations and interactive web sites, can be intimidating to learn. This entertaining reference tutorial provides a reader-friendly animation primer and a guided tour of all the program's tools and capabilities. Beginners will learn to use the software in no time, and experienced users will quickly take their skills to the next level.

  7. 137Cs in Research Polygon 'Sumbar'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoko, B.; Marovic, G.; Babic, D.; Vickovic, I.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, Radiation Protection Unit of the Institute for Medical Reseach and Occupational Health started a radioactivity measurement programme in research polygon ''Sumbar''. The purpose of these investigations is to collect as many data as possible about the contamination of the polygon that is mainly covered by a forest of English oak (Quercus robur) and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus). Once contaminated, forests represent long-term sources of radiation exposure to specific population groups which are using them as a source of foodstuffs. After the Chernobyl accident, researchers have shown that there has been more variability in radionuclide activity concentration in forests than in agricultural ecosystems. In order to carry out a radioactivity screening of the polygon, we randomly chosed three sampling sites for collecting soil, grass and moss samples. Different species of mushrooms were collected over the whole polygon area. The average activity concentration of 137Cs in soil for two sampling sites is (123 @ 9) Bq kg -1 , while the result for the third site is lower by an order of magnitude ((16.1@0.5) Bq kg -1 ). The activity concentration of 137Cs in grass samples ranges from (0.43 @ 0.03) Bq kg -1 to (13.2 @ 0.1) Bq kg -1 , and in moss samples from (8.7 @ 0.2) Bq kg -1 to (57.8 @ 0.3) Bq kg - 1. In five collected mushroom species, the activity of 137Cs is in the range between (4.1 @ 0.5) Bq kg -1 and (610 @ 5) Bq kg -1 , the lowest and the highest values referreing to Clitocybe nebularis and Gymnopus dryophilus, respectively. Parasitic mushrooms exhibit activity below the minimum detection level. Our preliminary results show and confirm variability of the activity concentration of 137Cs in different parts of this ecosystem. (author)

  8. Fractionation of 137Cs and Pu in natural peatland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalík, Ján; Bartusková, Miluše; Hölgye, Zoltán; Ježková, Tereza; Henych, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    High Cs-137 concentrations in plants growing on peatland inspired us to investigate the quantity of its bioavailable fraction in natural peat. Our investigation aims to: a) estimate the quantity of bioavailable Cs-137 and Pu present in peat, b) verify the similarity of Cs-137 and K-40 behaviours, and c) perform a quantification of Cs-137 and Pu transfer from peat to plants. We analysed the vertical distribution of Cs-137 and Pu isotopes in the peat and their concentrations in plants growing on these places. Bioavailability of radionuclides was investigated by sequential extraction. Sequential analyses revealed that it was the upper layer which contained the majority of Cs-137 in an available form while deeper layers retained Cs-137 in immobile fractions. We can conclude that 18% of all Cs-137 in the peat is still bioavailable. Despite of the low quantity of bioavailable fraction of Cs-137 its transfer factor reached extremely high values. In the case of Pu, 64% of its total amount was associated with fulvic/humic acids which resulted in the high transfer factor from peat to plants. 27 years after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the significant part of radionuclides deposited in peatland is still bioavailable. - Highlights: • Decrease of exchangeable 137 Cs and its increase in residual fraction with depth. • High 137 Cs transfer factor contrary to its low quantity in bioavailable fractions. • Fulvic/humic acids are a more effective carrier for Pu than for Cs

  9. A simple method for the deconvolution of 134 Cs/137 Cs peaks in gamma-ray scintillation spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darko, E.O.; Osae, E.K.; Schandorf, C.

    1998-01-01

    A simple method for the deconvolution of 134 Cs / 137 Cs peaks in a given mixture of 134 Cs and 137 Cs using Nal(TI) gamma-ray scintillation spectrometry is described. In this method the 795 keV energy of 134 Cs is used as a reference peak to calculate the activity of the 137 Cs directly from the measured peaks. Certified reference materials were measured using the method and compared with a high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry measurements. The results showed good agreement with the certified values. The method is very simple and does not need any complicated mathematics and computer programme to de- convolute the overlapping 604.7 keV and 661.6 keV peaks of 134 Cs and 137 Cs respectively. (author). 14 refs.; 1 tab., 2 figs

  10. Development of certified matrix reference materials for quality assurance of screening 134Cs and 137Cs in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizu, H.; Yamada, T.

    2013-01-01

    A certified reference material using activated alumina powder certified for activity of 134 Cs and 137 Cs was developed. The results of the verification and the certification are described. The certified reference material can be used for quality assurance of screening activity measurements of 134 Cs and 137 Cs in food/foodstuffs. Commercially available equipments were experimentally tested using the CRM and another CRM including 40 K. The results of these tests are also shown. - Highlights: • CRM of 134 Cs and 137 Cs using activated alumina was developed. • CRM including 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 40 K was also developed. • Results of experimental performance test of commercial inspection equipments using CRMs were shown

  11. Cesium platinide hydride 4Cs{sub 2}Pt.CsH: an intermetallic double salt featuring metal anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smetana, Volodymyr [Ames Laboratory, US Department of Energy, and Critical Materials Institute, Ames, Iowa, 50011-3020 (United States); Mudring, Anja-Verena [Ames Laboratory, US Department of Energy, and Critical Materials Institute, Ames, Iowa, 50011-3020 (United States); Department of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, 50011-3111 (United States)

    2016-11-14

    With Cs{sub 9}Pt{sub 4}H a new representative of ionic compounds featuring metal anions can be added to this rare-membered family. Cs{sub 9}Pt{sub 4}H exhibits a complex crystal structure containing Cs{sup +} cations, Pt{sup 2-} and H{sup -} anions. Being a red, transparent compound its band gap is in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum and the ionic type of bonding is confirmed by quantum chemical calculations. This cesium platinide hydride can formally be considered as a double salt of the ''alloy'' cesium-platinum, or better cesium platinide, Cs{sub 2}Pt, and the salt cesium hydride CsH according to Cs{sub 9}Pt{sub 4}H≡4 Cs{sub 2}Pt.CsH. (copyright 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Hanford soil partitioning and vapor extraction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonge, D.; Hossain, A.; Cameron, R.; Ford, H.; Storey, C.

    1996-07-01

    This report describes the testing and results of laboratory experiments conducted to assist the carbon tetrachloride soil vapor extraction project operating in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Vapor-phase adsorption and desorption testing was performed using carbon tetrachloride and Hanford Site soils to estimate vapor-soil partitioning and reasonably achievable carbon tetrachloride soil concentrations during active vapor extractions efforts at the 200 West Area. (CCl 4 is used in Pu recovery from aqueous streams.)

  13. Vapor Pressure Data Analysis and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    near 8, 2000, and 200, respectively. The A (or a) value is directly related to vapor pressure and will be greater for high vapor pressure materials...1, (10) where n is the number of data points, Yi is the natural logarithm of the i th experimental vapor pressure value, and Xi is the...VAPOR PRESSURE DATA ANALYSIS AND STATISTICS ECBC-TR-1422 Ann Brozena RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DIRECTORATE

  14. Thermodynamic calculations for chemical vapor deposition of silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Kazuo; Fukuda, Kousaku; Ikawa, Katsuichi

    1985-03-01

    The composition of vapor and condensed phases at equilibrium and CVD phase diagrams were calculated for the CH 3 SiCl 3 -H 2 -Ar system using a computer code SOLGASMIX-PV, which is based on the free energy minimization method. These calculations showed that β-SiC, β-SiC+C(s), β-SiC+Si(s), β-SiC+Si(l), Si(s), Si(l), or C(s) would be deposited depending on deposition parameters. In the CH 3 SiCl 3 -Ar system, condensed phase was found to be β-SiC+C(s) or C(s). Comparing the calculated CVD phase diagrams with the experimental results from the literature, β-SiC+C(s) and β-SiC+Si(s) were deposited in the experiments at the high temperature (more than 2000K) and low temperature (less than 1700K) parts of a resion, respectively, where only β-SiC would be deposited in the calculations. These are remakable results to consider the deposition mechanism of silicon carbide. (author)

  15. Using Multiple Paths in NoCs for Guaranteed Resource Allocation and Improved Best Effort Performance in NoCs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ovadia, I.; Ha, Y.; Corporaal, H.

    2005-01-01

    Networks-on-Chips (NoCs) provide communication platforms to Systems-on-Chips (SoCs). In NoCs, channels are generally shared between traffic flows, resulting in contention. However, certain flows require delivery guarantees. Differentiated quality-of-service (QoS) is achieved by providing guaranteed

  16. Chemical Vapor-Deposited (CVD) Diamond Films for Electronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Diamond films have a variety of useful applications as electron emitters in devices such as magnetrons, electron multipliers, displays, and sensors. Secondary electron emission is the effect in which electrons are emitted from the near surface of a material because of energetic incident electrons. The total secondary yield coefficient, which is the ratio of the number of secondary electrons to the number of incident electrons, generally ranges from 2 to 4 for most materials used in such applications. It was discovered recently at the NASA Lewis Research Center that chemical vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond films have very high secondary electron yields, particularly when they are coated with thin layers of CsI. For CsI-coated diamond films, the total secondary yield coefficient can exceed 60. In addition, diamond films exhibit field emission at fields orders of magnitude lower than for existing state-of-the-art emitters. Present state-of-the-art microfabricated field emitters generally require applied fields above 5x10^7 V/cm. Research on field emission from CVD diamond and high-pressure, high-temperature diamond has shown that field emission can be obtained at fields as low as 2x10^4 V/cm. It has also been shown that thin layers of metals, such as gold, and of alkali halides, such as CsI, can significantly increase field emission and stability. Emitters with nanometer-scale lithography will be able to obtain high-current densities with voltages on the order of only 10 to 15 V.

  17. Estimating enthalpy of vaporization from vapor pressure using Trouton's rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Matthew; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2007-04-15

    The enthalpy of vaporization of liquids and subcooled liquids at 298 K (delta H(VAP)) is an important parameter in environmental fate assessments that consider spatial and temporal variability in environmental conditions. It has been shown that delta H(VAP)P for non-hydrogen-bonding substances can be estimated from vapor pressure at 298 K (P(L)) using an empirically derived linear relationship. Here, we demonstrate that the relationship between delta H(VAP)and PL is consistent with Trouton's rule and the ClausiusClapeyron equation under the assumption that delta H(VAP) is linearly dependent on temperature between 298 K and the boiling point temperature. Our interpretation based on Trouton's rule substantiates the empirical relationship between delta H(VAP) degree and P(L) degrees for non-hydrogen-bonding chemicals with subcooled liquid vapor pressures ranging over 15 orders of magnitude. We apply the relationship between delta H(VAP) degrees and P(L) degrees to evaluate data reported in literature reviews for several important classes of semivolatile environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorobenzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and -furans and illustrate the temperature dependence of results from a multimedia model presented as a partitioning map. The uncertainty associated with estimating delta H(VAP)degrees from P(L) degrees using this relationship is acceptable for most environmental fate modeling of non-hydrogen-bonding semivolatile organic chemicals.

  18. Distribution of 137Cs in the American Coot (Fulica americana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, C.M.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.; McDowell, S.G.; Whicker, F.W.

    1989-01-01

    Caesium-137 concentrations were determined for major tissue and organ components of Americal Coots (Fulica americana) wintering on two contaminated reactor cooling reservoirs on the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant. Concentrations reflected the relative contamination levels of the two reservoirs. A low ratio of 137 Cs in gut contents to that in muscle indicated that the coots used in the study were established winter residents and tissue 137 Cs had probably reached equilibrium with intake. The contributions of each component to the whole body weight and total 137 Cs body burden were calculated. Skeletal muscle exhibited the highest 137 Cs concentrations and comprised 35% of the total 137 Cs body burden. Gut contents represented 17% of the total body burden. Various other organs were intermediate and bone exhibited the lowest 137 Cs concentrations. Linear regressions were determined for 137 Cs concentrations in skeletal muscle, liver, kidney, gastrointestinal (GI) tract tissue and gut contents, as functions of whole-body concentrations. (author)

  19. Water culture of the rice containing Cs-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Keum, Dong Kwon; Lim, Kwang Muk; Jun, In; Park, Doo Won

    2008-10-01

    Pot experiments were carried out in a greenhouse in order to produce Cs-137-containing rice seeds as a source material for use in manufacturing reference rice samples of a high Cs-137 activity. Two kinds of soil were used and two pots were prepared for each kind of soil. Rice plants were water-cultured in the pots and Cs-137 was applied to the surface water to induce a Cs-137 contamination of rice seeds via a plant uptake of Cs-137. Mature rice plants were harvested and Cs-137-containing rice seeds were obtained after some treatment of the harvested plants. These produced rice seeds are going to be provided for the KRISS so as to be used in manufacturing reference rice samples for Cs-137

  20. 133Cs NMR investigation of 2D frustrated Heisenberg antiferromagnet, Cs2CuCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, M.-A.; Kundhikanjana, W.; Straub, A.; Mitrovic, V. F.; Reyes, A. P.; Kuhns, P.; Coldea, R.; Tylczynski, Z.

    2006-10-01

    We report 133Cs nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements on the 2D frustrated Heisenberg antiferromagnet Cs2CuCl4 down to 2 K and up to 15 T. We show that 133Cs NMR is a good probe of the magnetic degrees of freedom in this material. Cu spin degrees of freedom are sensed through a strong anisotropic hyperfine coupling. The spin excitation gap opens above the critical saturation field. The gap value was determined from the activation energy of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate in a magnetic field applied parallel to the Cu chains (\\skew3\\hat{b} axis). The values of the g-factor and the saturation field are consistent with the neutron-scattering and magnetization results. The measurements of the spin spin relaxation time are exploited to show that no structural changes occur down to the lowest temperatures investigated.

  1. Vapor deposition of tantalum and tantalum compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trkula, M.

    1996-01-01

    Tantalum, and many of its compounds, can be deposited as coatings with techniques ranging from pure, thermal chemical vapor deposition to pure physical vapor deposition. This review concentrates on chemical vapor deposition techniques. The paper takes a historical approach. The authors review classical, metal halide-based techniques and current techniques for tantalum chemical vapor deposition. The advantages and limitations of the techniques will be compared. The need for new lower temperature processes and hence new precursor chemicals will be examined and explained. In the last section, they add some speculation as to possible new, low-temperature precursors for tantalum chemical vapor deposition

  2. What Good is Raman Water Vapor Lidar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, David

    2011-01-01

    Raman lidar has been used to quantify water vapor in the atmosphere for various scientific studies including mesoscale meteorology and satellite validation. Now the international networks of NDACC and GRUAN have interest in using Raman water vapor lidar for detecting trends in atmospheric water vapor concentrations. What are the data needs for addressing these very different measurement challenges. We will review briefly the scientific needs for water vapor accuracy for each of these three applications and attempt to translate that into performance specifications for Raman lidar in an effort to address the question in the title of "What good is Raman water vapor Iidar."

  3. High temperature vapors science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hastie, John

    2012-01-01

    High Temperature Vapors: Science and Technology focuses on the relationship of the basic science of high-temperature vapors to some areas of discernible practical importance in modern science and technology. The major high-temperature problem areas selected for discussion include chemical vapor transport and deposition; the vapor phase aspects of corrosion, combustion, and energy systems; and extraterrestrial high-temperature species. This book is comprised of seven chapters and begins with an introduction to the nature of the high-temperature vapor state, the scope and literature of high-temp

  4. Importance Profiles for Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapes, Brian; Chandra, Arunchandra S.; Kuang, Zhiming; Zuidema, Paquita

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by the scientific desire to align observations with quantities of physical interest, we survey how scalar importance functions depend on vertically resolved water vapor. Definitions of importance begin from familiar examples of water mass I m and TOA clear-sky outgoing longwave flux I OLR, in order to establish notation and illustrate graphically how the sensitivity profile or "kernel" depends on whether specific humidity S, relative humidity R, or ln( R) are used as measures of vapor. Then, new results on the sensitivity of convective activity I con to vapor (with implied knock-on effects such as weather prediction skill) are presented. In radiative-convective equilibrium, organized (line-like) convection is much more sensitive to moisture than scattered isotropic convection, but it exists in a drier mean state. The lesson for natural convection may be that organized convection is less susceptible to dryness and can survive and propagate into regions unfavorable for disorganized convection. This counterintuitive interpretive conclusion, with respect to the narrow numerical result behind it, highlights the importance of clarity about what is held constant at what values in sensitivity or susceptibility kernels. Finally, the sensitivities of observable radiance signals I sig for passive remote sensing are considered. While the accuracy of R in the lower free troposphere is crucial for the physical importance scalars, this layer is unfortunately the most difficult to isolate with passive remote sensing: In high emissivity channels, water vapor signals come from too high in the atmosphere (for satellites) or too low (for surface radiometers), while low emissivity channels have poor altitude discrimination and (in the case of satellites) are contaminated by surface emissions. For these reasons, active ranging (LiDAR) is the preferred observing strategy.

  5. Vapor Pressure of Antimony Triiodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-07

    unlimited. iii Contents List of Figures iv 1. Introduction 1 2. Vapor Pressure 1 3. Experiment 3 4. Discussion and Measurements 5 5...SbI3 as a function of temperature ......................... 6 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 1 1. Introduction ...single-crystal thin films of n-type (Bi,Sb)2(Te,Se)3 materials presents new doping challenges because it is a nonequilibrium process. (Bi,Sb)2(Te,Se)3

  6. Sodium vapor charge exchange cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiddleston, H.R.; Fasolo, J.A.; Minette, D.C.; Chrien, R.E.; Frederick, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational sequential charge-exchange ion source yielding a 50 MeV H - current of approximately 8 mA is planned for use with the Argonne 500 MeV booster synchrotron. We report on the progress for development of a sodium vapor charge-exchange cell as part of that planned effort. Design, fabrication, and operating results to date are presented and discussed. (author)

  7. High Contrast Coherent Population Trapping Resonances in Cs Vapour Cells with a Simple-Architecture Laser System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaochi

    2013-01-01

    This thesis reports the development of a simple-architecture laser system resonant at 895 nm used for the detection of high-contrast coherent population trapping (CPT) resonances in Cs vapor cells. The laser system combines a distributed feedback-diode (DFB) laser, a pigtailed Mach-Zehnder intensity electro-optic modulator (EOM) driven at 4.596 GHz for the generation of optical sidebands frequency-split by 9.192 GHz and a Michelson delay-line system to produce a bi-chromatic optical field that alternates between right and left circular polarization. This polarization pumping scheme, first proposed by Happer's group in Princeton on K atoms, allows to optically pump a maximum number of Cs atoms into the 0-0 magnetic field insensitive clock transition. Advanced noise reduction techniques were implemented in order to stabilize the laser power, the optical carrier suppression at the output of the EOM and the DFB laser frequency. Using this system, we demonstrated the detection of CPT resonances with a contrast of 80% in cm-scale Cs vapor cells. This contrast was measured to be increased until a saturation effect with the laser power at the expense of the CPT line broadening. To circumvent this issue, we proposed with a simple setup Ramsey spectroscopy of CPT resonances in vapor cells to combine high-contrast and narrow line width of the CPT resonances. In this setup, the EOM is used both for optical sidebands generation and light switch to produce Ramsey interaction. Ramsey fringes of 166 Hz line width with a contrast better than 30% were detected with this setup. This laser system will be in a near future devoted to be used for the development of a high-performance CPT-based atomic clock. (author)

  8. Foundation Flash CS4 for Designers

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Tom

    2008-01-01

    In this book, you'll learn:* How to create effective animations using the new Motion Editor and animation tools * How to use the new 3D features to animate objects in 3D space * Best-practice tips and techniques from some of the top Flash practitioners on the planet * How to create captioned video and full-screen video, and deploy HD video using Flash * Techniques for using the Flash UI components as well as XML documents to create stunning,interactive presentations If you're a Flash designer looking for a solid overview of Flash CS4, this book is for you. Through the use of solid and practica

  9. Reactor Configuration Development for ARIES-CS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku LP

    2005-01-01

    New compact, quasi-axially symmetric stellarator configurations have been developed as part of the ARIES-CS reactor studies. These new configurations have good plasma confinement and transport properties, including low losses of α particles and good integrity of flux surfaces at high β. We summarize the recent progress by showcasing two attractive classes of configurations--configurations with judiciously chosen rotational transforms to avoid undesirable effects of low order resonances on the flux surface integrity and configurations with very small aspect ratios (∼2.5) that have excellent quasi-axisymmetry and low field ripples

  10. 137Cs - Brachytherapy sources : a technology scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, R.N.

    2001-01-01

    Cancer has emerged as one of the major cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. India houses world's second largest population and registers 4-5 lakhs new cancer cases every year. Cancer of cervix is most common form of malignancy among Indian women. Radiation therapy, especially intracavity brachytherapy in conjunction with other modalities like surgery, chemotherapy has been found to be highly effective for the management and control of cervical carcinoma at all stages. A technology has been developed indigenously for the fabrication of 137 Cs sources for brachytherapy applications

  11. Dreamweaver CS55 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    McFarland, David

    2011-01-01

    Dreamweaver is the tool most widely used for designing and managing professional-looking websites, but it's a complex program. That's where Dreamweaver CS5.5: The Missing Manual comes in. With its jargon-free explanations, 13 hands-on tutorials, and savvy advice from Dreamweaver expert Dave McFarland, you'll master this versatile program with ease. Get A to Z guidance. Go from building your first web page to creating interactive, database-driven sites.Build skills as you learn. Apply your knowledge through tutorials and downloadable practice files.Create a state-of-the-art website. Use powerf

  12. Adobe Photoshop CS5 for photographers

    CERN Document Server

    Evening, Martin

    2010-01-01

    With the new edition of this proven bestseller, Photoshop users can master the power of Photoshop CS5 with internationally renowned photographer and Photoshop hall-of-famer Martin Evening by their side.  In this acclaimed reference work, Martin covers everything from the core aspects of working in Photoshop to advanced techniques for professional results. Subjects covered include organizing a digital workflow, improving creativity, output, automating Photoshop, and using Camera RAW. The style of the book is extremely clear, with real examples, diagrams, illustrations, and step-by-step ex

  13. Flash CS5 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Once you know how to use Flash, you can create everything from simple animations to high-end desktop applications, but it's a complex tool that can be difficult to master on your own-unless you have this Missing Manual. This book will help you learn all you need to know about Flash CS5 to create animations that bring your ideas to life. Learn animation basics. Find everything you need to know to get started with FlashMaster the Flash tools. Learn the animation and effects toolset, with clear explanations and hands-on examplesUse 3D effects. Rotate and put objects in motion in three dimensions

  14. 137CS in cod from Barents sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellermann, H.-J.; Kanisch, G.; Krueger, A.

    2003-01-01

    After publication of the Yablovkov report about dumping of radioactive waste by the former Soviet Union the Institute for Fishery Ecology has analysed fish from Barents Sea for radioactivity. In all studies 137 Cs concentrations in cod fillet showed a clear dependance from fish length. Results from an analysis of covariance for cod of 70 cm length have minor changes within Barents Sea and indicate a rapid decay to a value as is expected for marine fish which is only influenced by global fallout. (orig.)

  15. Foundation Flash CS5 for Designers

    CERN Document Server

    Green, T

    2010-01-01

    Flash is one of the most engaging, innovative, and versatile technologies available - allowing the creation of anything from animated banners and simple cartoons to Rich Internet Applications, interactive videos, and dynamic user interfaces for web sites, kiosks, devices, or DVDs. The possibilities are endless, and now it just got better. Flash CS5 boasts a host of new features, including better support for mobile devices, a whole new animation engine enabling full manipulation of tweens and paths, custom easing, improved inverse kinematics, a revamped timeline, built-in 3D, and much more. Thi

  16. Hybridization of Single Nanocrystals of Cs4PbBr6 and CsPbBr3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerd, Chris de; Lin, Junhao; Gomez, Leyre; Fujiwara, Yasufumi; Suenaga, Kazutomo; Gregorkiewicz, Tom

    2017-09-07

    Nanocrystals of all-inorganic cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX 3 , X = Cl, Br, I) feature high absorption and efficient narrow-band emission which renders them promising for future generation of photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. Colloidal ensembles of these nanocrystals can be conveniently prepared by chemical synthesis. However, in the case of CsPbBr 3 , its synthesis can also yield nanocrystals of Cs 4 PbBr 6 and the properties of the two are easily confused. Here, we investigate in detail the optical characteristics of simultaneously synthesized green-emitting CsPbBr 3 and insulating Cs 4 PbBr 6 nanocrystals. We demonstrate that, in this case, the two materials inevitably hybridize, forming nanoparticles with a spherical shape. The actual amount of these Cs 4 PbBr 6 nanocrystals and nanohybrids increases for synthesis at lower temperatures, i.e., the condition typically used for the development of perovskite CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals with smaller sizes. We use state-of-the-art electron energy loss spectroscopy to characterize nanoparticles at the single object level. This method allows distinguishing between optical characteristics of a pure Cs 4 PbBr 6 and CsPbBr 3 nanocrystal and their nanohybrid. In this way, we resolve some of the recent misconceptions concerning possible visible absorption and emission of Cs 4 PbBr 6 . Our method provides detailed structural characterization, and combined with modeling, we conclusively identify the nanospheres as CsPbBr 3 /Cs 4 PbBr 6 hybrids. We show that the two phases are independent of each other's presence and merge symbiotically. Herein, the optical characteristics of the parent materials are preserved, allowing for an increased absorption in the UV due to Cs 4 PbBr 6 , accompanied by the distinctive efficient green emission resulting from CsPbBr 3 .

  17. A separate effect study of the influence of metallic fission products on CsI radioactive release from nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Lemma, F.G., E-mail: fidelma.dilemma@gmail.com [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Department of Radiation Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft, 2629 JB (Netherlands); Colle, J.Y., E-mail: jean-yves.colle@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Beneš, O. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Konings, R.J.M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Department of Radiation Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft, 2629 JB (Netherlands)

    2015-10-15

    The chemistry of cesium and iodine is of main importance to quantify the radioactive release in case of a nuclear reactor accident, or sabotage involving irradiated nuclear materials. We studied the interaction of CsI with different metallic fission products such as Mo and Ru. These elements can be released from nuclear fuel when exposed to oxidising conditions, as in the case of contact of overheated nuclear fuel with air (e.g. in a spent fuel cask sabotage, uncovering of a spent fuel pond, or air ingress accidents). Experiments were performed by vaporizing mixtures of the compounds in air, and analysing the produced aerosols in view of a possible gas–gas and gas–aerosol reactions between the compounds. These results were compared with the gaseous species predicted by thermochemical equilibrium calculations and experimental equilibrium vaporization tests using Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry.

  18. Luminescent CsPbI.sub.3./sub. and Cs.sub.4./sub.PbI.sub.6./sub. aggregates in annealed CsI:Pb crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babin, V.; Fabeni, P.; Nikl, Martin; Nitsch, Karel; Pazzi, G.P.; Zazubovich, S.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 226, č. 2 (2001), s. 419-428 ISSN 0370-1972 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : CsPbI 3 * Cs 4 PbI 6 * nanoaggregates * luminescence Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.873, year: 2001

  19. Photodissociation of CS from Excited Rovibrational Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattillo, R. J.; Cieszewski, R.; Stancil, P. C.; Forrey, R. C.; Babb, J. F.; McCann, J. F.; McLaughlin, B. M.

    2018-05-01

    Accurate photodissociation cross sections have been computed for transitions from the X 1Σ+ ground electronic state of CS to six low-lying excited electronic states. New ab initio potential curves and transition dipole moment functions have been obtained for these computations using the multi-reference configuration interaction approach with the Davidson correction (MRCI+Q) and aug-cc-pV6Z basis sets. State-resolved cross sections have been computed for transitions from nearly the full range of rovibrational levels of the X 1Σ+ state and for photon wavelengths ranging from 500 Å to threshold. Destruction of CS via predissociation in highly excited electronic states originating from the rovibrational ground state is found to be unimportant. Photodissociation cross sections are presented for temperatures in the range between 1000 and 10,000 K, where a Boltzmann distribution of initial rovibrational levels is assumed. Applications of the current computations to various astrophysical environments are briefly discussed focusing on photodissociation rates due to the standard interstellar and blackbody radiation fields.

  20. The radiation chemistry of the Cs-7SB modifier used in Cs and Sr extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swancutt, Katy L.; Cullen, Thomas D.; Mezyk, Stephen P.; Elias, Gracy; Bauer, William F.; Peterman, Dean R.; Riddle, Catherine L.; Ball, R. Duane; Mincher, Bruce J.; Muller, James J.

    2011-01-01

    The compound 1-(2,2,3,3,-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol, also called Cs-7SB, is used as a solvent modifier in formulations containing calixarenes and crown ethers for cesium and/or strontium extraction from nuclear waste solutions. The compound solvates complexes of both metals and concentration decreases result in lowered extraction efficiency for both. The use of Cs-7SB in nuclear solvent extraction ensures that it will be exposed to high radiation doses, and thus its radiation chemical robustness is a matter of interest in the design of extraction systems employing it. The behavior of the compound in irradiated solution, both in the presence and absence of a nitric acid aqueous phase was investigated here using steady state and pulsed radiolysis techniques. The rate constants for the aqueous reactions of Cs-7SB with H, OH, NO 3 and NO 2 radicals are reported. UPLC-UV-MS results were used to identify major products of the radiolysis of Cs-7SB in contact with nitric acid, and revealed the production of hydroxylated nitro-derivatives. Reaction mechanisms are proposed and it is concluded that the aryl ether configuration of this molecule makes it especially susceptible to nitration in the presence of radiolytically-produced nitrous acid. Fluoride yields are also given under various conditions.

  1. Postsynthesis Transformation of Insulating Cs4PbBr6 Nanocrystals into Bright Perovskite CsPbBr3 through Physical and Chemical Extraction of CsBr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazon, Francisco; Urso, Carmine; De Trizio, Luca; Akkerman, Quinten; Marras, Sergio; Locardi, Federico; Nelli, Ilaria; Ferretti, Maurizio; Prato, Mirko; Manna, Liberato

    2017-10-13

    Perovskite-related Cs 4 PbBr 6 nanocrystals present a "zero-dimensional" crystalline structure where adjacent [PbBr 6 ] 4- octahedra do not share any corners. We show in this work that these nanocrystals can be converted into "three-dimensional" CsPbBr 3 perovskites by extraction of CsBr. This conversion drastically changes the optoelectronic properties of the nanocrystals that become highly photoluminescent. The extraction of CsBr can be achieved either by thermal annealing (physical approach) or by chemical reaction with Prussian Blue (chemical approach). The former approach can be simply carried out on a dried film without addition of any chemicals but does not yield a full transformation. Instead, reaction with Prussian Blue in solution achieves a full transformation into the perovskite phase. This transformation was also verified on the iodide counterpart (Cs 4 PbI 6 ).

  2. Transfer of Chernobyl-derived 134Cs, 137Cs, 131I and 103Ru from flowers to honey and pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzl, K.; Kracke, W.

    1988-01-01

    The activity concentrations of 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 131 I and 103 Ru were determined separately in honey and pollen samples collected from a single bee colony during several months after the deposition of Chernobyl fallout. The source of each honey and pollen sample was determined by pollen analysis. Although the activity concentrations in honey and pollen varied with time, the concentrations of 137 Cs and 134 Cs were, in general, higher in pollen than in honey. For 103 Ru and 131 I, these differences were comparatively small. The mean 131 I/ 137 Cs and 103 Ru/ 137 Cs ratios were about one order of magnitude higher in honey than in pollen. The mean 131 I/ 103 Ru ratio was about the same for honey and pollen. This observation, in the light of the corresponding nuclide ratios found in the deposition, suggests that 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 131 I and 103 Ru were taken up by the plant leaves and transported to nectar and pollen. The higher activity concentrations of 137 Cs and 134 Cs in pollen, relative to honey, indicate that these radionuclides behave analogously to potassium, which is also found in higher quantities in pollen. (author)

  3. The behavior of radioactive 137Cs and stable Cs at the isolated undisturbed mountain pond in Fukui, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Kazumi; Kimura, Makio; Ando, Kenji; Amano, Hikaru

    2003-01-01

    The behavior of radioactive 137 Cs and stable Cs at the isolated undisturbed mountain pond in Fukui, Japan was studied for the pond water, the sedimentary grains and the soil near the pond. The concentrations of 137 Cs and stable Cs in the pond water ranged from 0.23 to 0.85 Bq/m 3 and from 0.005 to 0.018 mg/m 3 , respectively. The sedimentary grains were sorted by sieving into fractions with diameter from 2 mm to less than 38 μm. The concentrations of 137 Cs and stable Cs in the sorted grains were measured, and those of the adsorbed state were determined by subtracting the concentration of the grain matrix. The adsorbed concentrations increased with decrease in particle diameter and depended less on the kind of samples. The in-situ distribution coefficient Kd depended largely on particle diameter and increased with the decrease in diameter. The values of Kd ranged from about 20 to 1200 m 3 /kg for stable Cs and about 15 to 1000 m 3 /kg for 137 Cs, and the Kd of 137 Cs seemed to be slightly smaller than that of stable Cs. The concentration of stable Cs in the sedimentary mud was found to be close to that of the fine grains. The concentrations of stable Cs in the soil near the pond was about 7.7 mg/kg, and that of 137 Cs was about 0.6 kBq/kg for the surface layer soil and decreased with increase in soil depth. (author)

  4. Tunable CsPbBr3/Cs4PbBr6 phase transformation and their optical spectroscopic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Chen, Daqin; Li, Junni; Fang, Gaoliang; Sheng, Hongchao; Zhong, Jiasong

    2018-04-24

    As a novel type of promising materials, metal halide perovskites are a rising star in the field of optoelectronics. On this basis, a new frontier of zero-dimensional perovskite-related Cs4PbBr6 with bright green emission and high stability has attracted an enormous amount of attention, even though its photoluminescence still requires to clarification. Herein, the controllable phase transformation between three-dimensional CsPbBr3 and zero-dimensional Cs4PbBr6 is easily achieved in a facile ligand-assisted supersaturated recrystallization synthesis procedure via tuning the amount of surfactants, and their unique optical properties are investigated and compared in detail. Both Cs4PbBr6 and CsPbBr3 produce remarkably intense green luminescence with quantum yields up to 45% and 80%, respectively; however, significantly different emitting behaviors are observed. The fluorescence lifetime of Cs4PbBr6 is much longer than that of CsPbBr3, and photo-blinking is easily detected in the Cs4PbBr6 product, proving that the zero-dimensional Cs4PbBr6 is indeed a highly luminescent perovskite-related material. Additionally, for the first time, tunable emissions over the visible-light spectral region are demonstrated to be achievable via halogen composition modulations in the Cs4PbX6 (X = Cl, Br, I) samples. Our study brings a simple method for the phase control of CsPbBr3/Cs4PbBr6 and demonstrates the intrinsic luminescence nature of the zero-dimensional perovskite-related Cs4PbX6 products.

  5. Pulsed Cs beam development for the BNL polarized H- source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    A pulsed Cs + beam has been developed for use on a polarized H - source. Cesium ion production is by surface ionization using a porous tungsten ionizer. While satisfactory current pulses (5 to 10 mA greater than or equal to 0.5 ms) can be obtained, the pulse shapes are a sensitive function of the ionizer temperature and Cs surface coverage. The beam optical requirements are stringent, and the optics have been studied experimentally for both Cs + and Cs 0 beams. Computer calculations are in good agreement with the observed results. The present source has delivered 2.6 mA of Cs + through the interaction region of the polarized ion source, and as much as 2.0 particle mA of Cs 0 . A new source is being built which is designed to give 15 mA through the interaction region

  6. Microwave assisted chemical vapor infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devlin, D.J.; Currier, R.P.; Barbero, R.S.; Espinoza, B.F.; Elliott, N.

    1991-01-01

    A microwave assisted process for production of continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites is described. A simple apparatus combining a chemical vapor infiltration reactor with a conventional 700 W multimode oven is described. Microwave induced inverted thermal gradients are exploited with the ultimate goal of reducing processing times on complex shapes. Thermal gradients in stacks of SiC (Nicalon) cloths have been measured using optical thermometry. Initial results on the ''inside out'' deposition of SiC via decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane in hydrogen are presented. Several key processing issues are identified and discussed. 5 refs

  7. Overview of chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Lowden, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is developing into a commercially important method for the fabrication of continuous filament ceramic composites. Current efforts are focused on the development of an improved understanding of the various processes in CVI and its modeling. New approaches to CVI are being explored, including pressure pulse infiltration and microwave heating. Material development is also proceeding with emphasis on improving the oxidation resistance of the interfacial layer between the fiber and matrix. This paper briefly reviews these subjects, indicating the current state of the science and technology.

  8. Dynamic modelling of Cs-137 contamination in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehlenschlaeger, M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes the structure of a dynamic food-chain transport model for Cs-137 in the Danish terrestrial environment. The model solves a set of linear, coupled differential equations in order to estimate the inventories and concentrations of Cs-137 in the soil, vegetation, animal tissue and animal product as a function of time based on the Cs-137 concentrations in the air after an accidental release. Meteorological conditions and seasonal variations in agricultural practice are included. (orig.)

  9. Uptake of Cs 137 from farmland 1986-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, M.

    1986-12-01

    The basic mechanisms of the accumulation of Cs 137 in grass, corn, oleiferous plants, potatoes etc are described. It is also presented as a function of time after the deposition. Transport of Cs 137 to milk, meat and bacon is described. A prognosis of Cs 137 in food products for the coming two years is made on basis of the estimated data. (G.B.)

  10. Evaluation of caesium atomic fountain NICT-CsF1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, M.; Ito, H.; Kajita, M.; Hosokawa, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the first caesium atomic fountain primary frequency standard NICT-CsF1 of National Institute of Information Communications Technology (NICT) in Tokyo, Japan. The structure of the NICT-CsF1 system and evaluation procedure of the systematic frequency shifts and their uncertainties are presented. Typically, NICT-CsF1 has a frequency stability of 4 * 10 -13 /τ 1/2 and a frequency uncertainty of 1.9 * 10 -15 . (authors)

  11. 137Cs in man due to nuclear fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulheim, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    137 Cs has been determined in man with the aid of a whole-body counter. It is shown that the specific 137 Cs content (as related to the potassium content in man) continuously decreased from 1965 through 1974. After a slight increase in 1975, possibly caused by a Chinese atmospheric nuclear test in June 1974, the 137 Cs content again decreased in the following years. (author)

  12. Endothelial disruptive proinflammatory effects of nicotine and e-cigarette vapor exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Kelly S; Chen, Steven X; Law, Sarah; Van Demark, Mary; Poirier, Christophe; Justice, Matthew J; Hubbard, Walter C; Kim, Elena S; Lai, Xianyin; Wang, Mu; Kranz, William D; Carroll, Clinton J; Ray, Bruce D; Bittman, Robert; Goodpaster, John; Petrache, Irina

    2015-07-15

    The increased use of inhaled nicotine via e-cigarettes has unknown risks to lung health. Having previously shown that cigarette smoke (CS) extract disrupts the lung microvasculature barrier function by endothelial cell activation and cytoskeletal rearrangement, we investigated the contribution of nicotine in CS or e-cigarettes (e-Cig) to lung endothelial injury. Primary lung microvascular endothelial cells were exposed to nicotine, e-Cig solution, or condensed e-Cig vapor (1-20 mM nicotine) or to nicotine-free CS extract or e-Cig solutions. Compared with nicotine-containing extract, nicotine free-CS extract (10-20%) caused significantly less endothelial permeability as measured with electric cell-substrate impedance sensing. Nicotine exposures triggered dose-dependent loss of endothelial barrier in cultured cell monolayers and rapidly increased lung inflammation and oxidative stress in mice. The endothelial barrier disruptive effects were associated with increased intracellular ceramides, p38 MAPK activation, and myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, and was critically mediated by Rho-activated kinase via inhibition of MLC-phosphatase unit MYPT1. Although nicotine at sufficient concentrations to cause endothelial barrier loss did not trigger cell necrosis, it markedly inhibited cell proliferation. Augmentation of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling via S1P1 improved both endothelial cell proliferation and barrier function during nicotine exposures. Nicotine-independent effects of e-Cig solutions were noted, which may be attributable to acrolein, detected along with propylene glycol, glycerol, and nicotine by NMR, mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography, in both e-Cig solutions and vapor. These results suggest that soluble components of e-Cig, including nicotine, cause dose-dependent loss of lung endothelial barrier function, which is associated with oxidative stress and brisk inflammation.

  13. Experimental investigation of As, Sb and Cs behavior during olivine serpentinization in hydrothermal alkaline systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafay, Romain; Montes-Hernandez, German; Janots, Emilie; Munoz, Manuel; Auzende, Anne Line; Gehin, Antoine; Chiriac, Rodica; Proux, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    While Fluid-Mobile Elements (FMEs) such as B, Sb, Li, As or Cs are particularly concentrated in serpentinites, data on FME fluid-serpentine partitioning, distribution, and sequestration mechanisms are missing. In the present experimental study, the behavior of Sb, As and Cs during San Carlos olivine serpentinization was investigated using accurate mineralogical, geochemical, and spectroscopic characterization. Static-batch experiments were conducted at 200 °C, under saturated vapor pressure (≈1.6 MPa), for initial olivine grain sizes of coefficient increasing such as CsDp/fl = 1.5-1.6 elements are however substantially different. While the As partition coefficient remains constant throughout the serpentinization reaction, the Cs partition coefficient decreases abruptly in the first stages of the reaction to reach a constant value after the reaction is 40-60% complete. Both As and Cs partitioning appear to decrease with increasing initial olivine grain size, but there is no significant difference in the partitioning coefficient between the 30-56 and 56-150 μm grain size after complete serpentinization. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements combined with X-ray chemical measurements reveal that the As(V) is mainly adsorbed onto the serpentinization products, especially brucite. In contrast, mineralogical characterization combined with XAS spectroscopy reveal redox sensitivity for Sb sequestration within serpentine products, depending on the progress of the reaction. When serpentinization is coefficient compared to that of the serpentine and brucite assemblage. Antimony reduction appears linked to water reduction accompanying the bulk iron oxidation, as half the initial Fe(II) is oxidized into Fe(III) and incorporated into the serpentine products once the reaction is over. The reduction of Sb implies a decrease of its solubility, but the type of secondary Sb-rich phases identified here might not be representative of natural systems where Sb

  14. Dicke coherent narrowing in two-photon and Raman spectroscopy of thin vapor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutier, Gabriel; Todorov, Petko; Hamdi, Ismahene; Maurin, Isabelle; Saltiel, Solomon; Bloch, Daniel; Ducloy, Martial

    2005-01-01

    The principle of coherent Dicke narrowing in a thin vapor cell, in which sub-Doppler spectral line shapes are observed under a normal irradiation for a λ/2 thickness, is generalized to two-photon spectroscopy. Only the sum of the two wave vectors must be normal to the cell, making the two-photon scheme highly versatile. A comparison is provided between the Dicke narrowing with copropagating fields, and the residual Doppler broadening occurring with counterpropagating geometries. The experimental feasibility is discussed on the basis of a first observation of a two-photon resonance in a 300-nm-thick Cs cell. Extension to the Raman situation is finally considered

  15. Saturated vapor pressure over molten mixtures of GaCl3 and alkali metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salyulev, A.B.; Smolenskij, V.V.; Moskalenko, N.I.

    2004-01-01

    Volatilities of GaCl 3 and alkali metal chlorides over diluted (up to 3 mol %) solutions of GaCl 3 in LiCl, NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl were measured at 1100 K by dynamic and indirect static methods. Chemical composition of saturated vapor over the mixed melts was determined. Partial pressures of the components were calculated. Their values depend essentially on specific alkali metal cation and on concentration of GaCl 3 ; their variation permits altering parameters of GaCl 3 distillation from the salt melt in a wide range [ru

  16. A Lithium Vapor Box Divertor Similarity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robert A.; Emdee, Eric D.; Goldston, Robert J.; Jaworski, Michael A.; Schwartz, Jacob A.

    2017-10-01

    A lithium vapor box divertor offers an alternate means of managing the extreme power density of divertor plasmas by leveraging gaseous lithium to volumetrically extract power. The vapor box divertor is a baffled slot with liquid lithium coated walls held at temperatures which increase toward the divertor floor. The resulting vapor pressure differential drives gaseous lithium from hotter chambers into cooler ones, where the lithium condenses and returns. A similarity experiment was devised to investigate the advantages offered by a vapor box divertor design. We discuss the design, construction, and early findings of the vapor box divertor experiment including vapor can construction, power transfer calculations, joint integrity tests, and thermocouple data logging. Heat redistribution of an incident plasma-based heat flux from a typical linear plasma device is also presented. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and The Princeton Environmental Institute.

  17. Thermogravimetric measurements of liquid vapor pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Yunhong; Gregson, Christopher M.; Parker, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Rapid determination of vapor pressure by TGA. ► Demonstration of limitations of currently available approaches in literature. ► New model for vapor pressure assessment of small size samples in TGA. ► New model accounts for vapor diffusion and sample geometry and measures vapor pressure normally within 10%. - Abstract: A method was developed using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) to determine the vapor pressure of volatile liquids. This is achieved by measuring the rate of evaporation (mass loss) of a pure liquid contained within a cylindrical pan. The influence of factors like sample geometry and vapor diffusion on evaporation rate are discussed. The measurement can be performed across a wide range of temperature yielding reasonable results up to 10 kPa. This approach may be useful as a rapid and automatable method for measuring the volatility of flavor and fragrance raw materials.

  18. Study of Cs recovery by extraction chromatography (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Harutaka; Zhang, Anyun; Uchida, Hiromi; Kuraoka, Etsushu

    2005-02-01

    In order to apply CalixR14 extractant to extraction chromatography for Cs separation, basic characteristics of CalixR14 adsorbent were studied. CalixR14 impregnated resin and CalixR14 + TBP impregnated resin were prepared. CalixR14 extractant showed no adsorption for Cs by liquid-liquid extraction and CalixR14 impregnated resin also showed no adsorption for Cs. Therefore, it is concluded that CalixR14 itself has no affinity for Cs. On the other hand, Cs was adsorbed onto CalixR14-TBP impregnated resin from a concentrated nitric acid solution. The distribution coefficients of Cs were more than 10 cm 3 /g from 2 to 6 M nitric acid. While Rb showed week adsorption, Na, K, Sr and La showed no adsorption and separation factor was over 100. A slight amount of CalixR14 and TBP was leaked from impregnated resin into the aqueous phase. Separation from simulated liquid waste was carried out by using a column packed with CalixR14-TBP adsorbent. Na, K, Sr and La were not adsorbed onto the column, however, Cs and Rb were adsorbed onto the column. Cs and Rb were eluted from the column by water. Cs and Rb were quantitatively recovered. (author)

  19. Behaviour of 134Cs in the aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yinliang; Chen Chuanqun

    1992-07-01

    The diminution of 134 Cs in the aquatic phases and the absorption of 134 Cs by aquatic lives observe the exponential expression. i.e. Y Ae be . The relationships between the enrichment factor of 134 Cs(K) and the time(t) in the aquatic lives can be represented by a linear equation, K A + Bt. The value of K in the Alternanthera philoxeroides was about 560. That can be used for monitoring and purifying the water phase contaminated by 134 Cs. Fish can absorb 134 Cs from water phase and store it in liver and kidney. The specific activity of 134 Cs in fish flesh was low but the percentage of radioactivity was high that was about 30% of total radioactivity in the fish. River mud can strongly absorb 134 Cs and reduce the absorption by aquatic lives. It is a good adsorbent and purifying agent with low cost for treatment of 134 Cs. The K + can prevent aquatic lives from absorbing Cs + because of antagonistic function

  20. Initial interaction of {sup 137}Cs with soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasaki, S., E-mail: nagasaki@mcmaster.ca [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Makino, H.; Saito, T. [Univ. of Toyko, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    It is critical to understand the physicochemical behaviour of Cs in soil in order to progress the decontamination of soils which were contaminated by nuclear power plant accident and to improve the reliability of safety assessment of used nuclear fuel disposal. In this paper, the initial interactions of {sup 137}Cs with soils, which were sampled in Fukushima 38 days after Fukushima Accident, were investigated with sequential extraction method. It was found that there were fast and slow processes of fixation of {sup 137}Cs in clay minerals and that the organic substances might play an important role on kinetics of {sup 137}Cs in soils. (author)

  1. Behaviour of {sup 137} Cs in oxysoils and Goiania soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wassermann, Maria Angelica [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    {sup 137} Cs soil-to-plant transfer factor obtained in oxy soils accidentally contaminated in Goiania and artificially contaminated shows that these soils present higher transfer when compared with data obtained under temperate climates. These differences were discussed in the light of pedology and geochemical partitioning. Some tropical soil characteristics as acidity, low available nutritive elements and low content of 2:1 clay type seems determine high availability for {sup 137} Cs. Results of sequential extraction showed {sup 137} Cs weakly bound to soil components and underline the importance of Fe oxides in the control of {sup 137} Cs availability in tropical climates. (author) 25 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Fractionation of (137)Cs and Pu in natural peatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalík, Ján; Bartusková, Miluše; Hölgye, Zoltán; Ježková, Tereza; Henych, Ondřej

    2014-08-01

    High Cs-137 concentrations in plants growing on peatland inspired us to investigate the quantity of its bioavailable fraction in natural peat. Our investigation aims to: a) estimate the quantity of bioavailable Cs-137 and Pu present in peat, b) verify the similarity of Cs-137 and K-40 behaviours, and c) perform a quantification of Cs-137 and Pu transfer from peat to plants. We analysed the vertical distribution of Cs-137 and Pu isotopes in the peat and their concentrations in plants growing on these places. Bioavailability of radionuclides was investigated by sequential extraction. Sequential analyses revealed that it was the upper layer which contained the majority of Cs-137 in an available form while deeper layers retained Cs-137 in immobile fractions. We can conclude that 18% of all Cs-137 in the peat is still bioavailable. Despite of the low quantity of bioavailable fraction of Cs-137 its transfer factor reached extremely high values. In the case of Pu, 64% of its total amount was associated with fulvic/humic acids which resulted in the high transfer factor from peat to plants. 27 years after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the significant part of radionuclides deposited in peatland is still bioavailable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of nutrition peculiarities on 137Cs uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizhnikov, V.A.; Marej, A.N.; Borisov, B.K.; Petukhova, Eh.V.

    1980-01-01

    Reasons for different 137 Cs uptake from diets of the vegetable-animal type are studied. Indexes of accumulation multiplicity for Moscow and the Byelorussian-Ukrainian wooded district are compared. 137 Cs buildup levels in the organism of the USSR and the USA population are presented. The most probable reason for peculiarities in 137 Cs uptake from various types of diet, as well as the reason for the alterations in the uptake of this radionuclide from the diet of the same type, is the non-uniformity of 137 Cs contribution of aerial and nonaerial origin

  4. Modelling 137Cs uptake in plants from undisturbed soil monoliths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waegeneers, Nadia; Smolders, Erik; Merckx, Roel

    2005-01-01

    A model predicting 137 Cs uptake in plants was applied on data from artificially contaminated lysimeters. The lysimeter data involve three different crops (beans, ryegrass and lettuce) grown on five different soils between 3 and 5 years after contamination and where soil solution composition was monitored. The mechanistic model predicts plant uptake of 137 Cs from soil solution composition. Predicted K concentrations in the rhizosphere were up to 50-fold below that in the bulk soil solution whereas corresponding 137 Cs concentration gradients were always less pronounced. Predictions of crop 137 Cs content based on rhizosphere soil solution compositions were generally closer to observations than those based on bulk soil solution composition. The model explained 17% (beans) to 91% (lettuce) of the variation in 137 Cs activity concentrations in the plants. The model failed to predict the 137 Cs activity concentration in ryegrass where uptake of the 5-year-old 137 Cs from 3 soils was about 40-fold larger than predicted. The model generally underpredicted crop 137 Cs concentrations at soil solution K concentration below about 1.0 mM. It is concluded that 137 Cs uptake can be predicted from the soil solution composition at adequate K nutrition but that significant uncertainties remain when soil solution K is below 1 mM

  5. Cs separation from nitric acid solutions of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckmann, K.; Pieronczyk, W.; Strnad, J.; Feldmaier, F.

    1989-01-01

    It was the objective of this study to selectively separate active caesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) from acid radioactive waste solutions (especially MAW and HAWC). The following 'strategy' was designed for a separation process: synthesis of reagents which are acid-resistant and selective for caesium; precipitation of Cs + and separation of the precipitates by filtration or centrifugation or precipitation of Cs + and separation of the precipitates by flotation; caesium separation by liquid-liquid extraction. As precipitating agents, sodium tetraphenylborate (kalignost) and several of its fluorine derivatives were examined. (orig./RB) [de

  6. Microhydration of caesium compounds: Cs, CsOH, CsI and Cs₂I₂ complexes with one to three H₂O molecules of nuclear safety interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudolská, Mária; Cantrel, Laurent; Cernušák, Ivan

    2014-04-01

    Structure and thermodynamic properties (standard enthalpies of formation and Gibbs free energies) of hydrated caesium species of nuclear safety interest, Cs, CsOH, CsI and its dimer Cs₂I₂, with one up to three water molecules, are calculated to assess their possible existence in severe accident occurring to a pressurized water reactor. The calculations were performed using the coupled cluster theory including single, double and non-iterative triple substitutions (CCSD(T)) in conjunction with the basis sets (ANO-RCC) developed for scalar relativistic calculations. The second-order spin-free Douglas-Kroll-Hess Hamiltonian was used to account for the scalar relativistic effects. Thermodynamic properties obtained by these correlated ab initio calculations (entropies and thermal capacities at constant pressure as a function of temperature) are used in nuclear accident simulations using ASTEC/SOPHAEROS software. Interaction energies, standard enthalpies and Gibbs free energies of successive water molecules addition determine the ordering of the complexes. CsOH forms the most hydrated stable complexes followed by CsI, Cs₂I₂, and Cs. CsOH still exists in steam atmosphere even at quite high temperature, up to around 1100 K.

  7. Ion vapor deposition and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, H.; Schulze, D.; Wilberg, R.

    1981-01-01

    Proceeding from the fundamentals of ion vapor deposition the characteristic properties of ion-plated coatings are briefly discussed. Examples are presented of successful applications of ion-plated coatings such as coatings with special electrical and dielectric properties, coatings for corrosion prevention, and coatings for improving the surface properties. It is concluded that ion vapor deposition is an advantageous procedure in addition to vapor deposition. (author)

  8. CS-Studio Scan System Parallelization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasemir, Kay [ORNL; Pearson, Matthew R [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    For several years, the Control System Studio (CS-Studio) Scan System has successfully automated the operation of beam lines at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). As it is applied to additional beam lines, we need to support simultaneous adjustments of temperatures or motor positions. While this can be implemented via virtual motors or similar logic inside the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) Input/Output Controllers (IOCs), doing so requires a priori knowledge of experimenters requirements. By adding support for the parallel control of multiple process variables (PVs) to the Scan System, we can better support ad hoc automation of experiments that benefit from such simultaneous PV adjustments.

  9. Correlations between potassium, rubidium and cesium (133Cs and 137Cs) in sporocarps of Suillus variegatus in a Swedish boreal forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinichuk, M.; Rosen, K.; Johanson, K.J.; Dahlberg, A.

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of sporocarps of ectomycorrhizal fungi Suillus variegatus assessed whether cesium ( 133 Cs and 137 Cs) uptake was correlated with potassium (K) or rubidium (Rb) uptake. The question was whether intraspecific correlations of Rb, K and 133 Cs mass concentrations with 137 Cs activity concentrations in sporocarps were higher within, rather than among, different fungal species, and if genotypic origin of sporocarps within a population affected uptake and correlation. Sporocarps (n = 51) from a Swedish forest population affected by the fallout after the Chernobyl accident were studied. The concentrations were 31.9 ± 6.79 g kg -1 for K (mean ± SD, dwt), 0.40 ± 0.09 g kg -1 for Rb, 8.7 ± 4.36 mg kg -1 for 133 Cs and 63.7 ± 24.2 kBq kg -1 for 137 Cs. The mass concentrations of 133 Cs correlated with 137 Cs activity concentrations (r = 0.61). There was correlation between both 133 Cs concentrations (r = 0.75) and 137 Cs activity concentrations (r = 0.44) and Rb, but the 137 Cs/ 133 Cs isotopic ratio negatively correlated with Rb concentration. Concentrations of K and Rb were weakly correlated (r = 0.51). The 133 Cs mass concentrations, 137 Cs activity concentrations and 137 Cs/ 133 Cs isotopic ratios did not correlate with K concentrations. No differences between, within or, among genotypes in S. variegatus were found. This suggested the relationships between K, Rb, 133 Cs and 137 Cs in sporocarps of S. variegatus is similar to other fungal species. - Highlights: → We studied uptake of Cs ( 133 Cs and 137 Cs), K and Rb by Suillus variegates sporocarps. → Genotypic origin of fungus did not affect uptake of studied elements (isotopes). → Genotypic origin did not affect correlation between Cs ( 133 Cs and 137 Cs), K and Rb.

  10. Determination of /sup 131/I, /sup 134/Cs, /sup 137/Cs in grass and cheese after Chernobyl accident in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teherani, D K

    1987-09-14

    Various samples from Styria (grass) and Salzburg (cheese) were analyzed for /sup 131/I, /sup 134/Cs and /sup 137/Cs concentration during April - July 1986 by ..gamma..-ray spectroscopy. The concentrations are reported in nCi kg/sup -1/ wet weight. The values found for /sup 131/I were 0.2-17.2 (grass), 0.1-0.5 (cheese), for /sup 134/Cs 1.1-6.2 (grass), 0.2-1.3 (cheese), for /sup 137/Cs 1.6-15.7 (grass), 0.3-2.2 (cheese). While radioactivity of /sup 131/I, /sup 134/Cs and /sup 137/Cs in cheese samples increased from May to June, it decreased in grass samples from May to July. (author) 5 refs

  11. Uptake and accumulation of 137Cs by upland grassland soil fungi: a potential pool of Cs immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dighton, J.; Clint, G.M.; Poskitt, J.

    1991-01-01

    Reports of high concentrations of fallout radiocaesium in basidiomycete fruit bodies after the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident and speculation that fungi could be long-term 137 Cs accumulators led us to ask if fungi could be long-term 137 Cs accumulators. We used six common upland grassland species to try to estimate their importance in the immobilization of 137 Cs. Uptake of Cs by these species ranged from 44 to 235 nmol Cs g − 1d.w. h − 1. Efflux studies indicate that more than 40% of the Cs taken up is bound within the hyphae. We estimate that the fungal component of the soil could immobilize the total radiocaesium fallout received in upland grasslands following the Chernobyl accident

  12. Coefficients of distribution and accumulation of K, Rb, Cs and 137Cs in the intensive poultry breeding cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuric, G.; Ajdacic, N.; Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade

    1984-01-01

    The concentration of K,Rb,Cs and the activity level of Cs-137 in samples from the intensive poultry breeding cycle (feed, meat, eggs), under the condition of chronic alimentary contamination is presented. Concentrations of Cs and Rb were determined by non-destructive neutron activation analysis, concentration of K by atomic absorption flame photometry and activity of Cs-137 by gamma spectrometric analysis. On the basis of these results, coefficients of distribution and accumulation were calculated. The distribution coefficients of the analysed stable isotopes in meat have values close to 1, whereas for various parts of egg these coefficients vary between 0.5 and 1.5. Significant differences in Cs-137 distribution in various parts of egg were established. The values of accumulation coefficients indicate that all analysed elements selectively accumulate in the meat of young birds (broilers), and Cs-137 accumulates in the egg white as well. (orig.)

  13. Phase Transitions in CsSnCl3 and CsPbBr3 An NMR and NQR Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Surendra; Weiden, Norbert; Weiss, Alarich

    1991-04-01

    The phase transitions in CsSnCl3 and CsPbBr3 have been studied by X-ray powder diffraction, by 81Br-NQR and by 'H-, 119Sn-, and 113Cs-NMR. At room temperature in air CsSnCl3 forms a hydrate which can be dehydrated to the monoclinic phase II of CsSnCl3. The high temperature phase I has the Perovskite structure, as the X-ray and NMR experiments show. The three phases of CsPbBr3, known from literature, have been corroborated. The results are discussed in the framework of the group ABX3, A = alkalimetal ion, B = IV main group ion, and X = Halogen ion

  14. Monofilament Vaporization Propulsion (MVP) System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Monofilament Vaporization Propulsion (MVP) is a new propulsion technology targeted at secondary payload applications. It does not compromise on performance while...

  15. Experiences of marijuana-vaporizer users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouff, John M; Rooke, Sally E; Copeland, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Using a marijuana vaporizer may have potential harm-reduction advantages on smoking marijuana, in that the user does not inhale smoke. Little research has been published on use of vaporizers. In the first study of individuals using a vaporizer on their own initiative, 96 adults anonymously answered questions about their experiences with a vaporizer and their use of marijuana with tobacco. Users identified 4 advantages to using a vaporizer over smoking marijuana: perceived health benefits, better taste, no smoke smell, and more effect from the same amount of marijuana. Users identified 2 disadvantages: inconvenience of setup and cleaning and the time it takes to get the device operating for each use. Only 2 individuals combined tobacco in the vaporizer mix, whereas 15 combined tobacco with marijuana when they smoked marijuana. Almost all participants intended to continue using a vaporizer. Vaporizers seem to have appeal to marijuana users, who perceive them as having harm-reduction and other benefits. Vaporizers are worthy of experimental research evaluating health-related effects of using them.

  16. Vapor pressures and thermophysical properties of selected hexenols and recommended vapor pressure for hexan-1-ol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štejfa, V.; Fulem, Michal; Růžička, K.; Matějka, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 402, Sep (2015), 18-29 ISSN 0378-3812 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : alcohols * vapor pressure * heat capacity * ideal - gas thermodynamic properties * vaporization enthalpy Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.846, year: 2015

  17. Exploring Polaronic, Excitonic Structures and Luminescence in Cs4PbBr6/CsPbBr3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byungkyun; Biswas, Koushik

    2018-02-15

    Among the important family of halide perovskites, one particular case of all-inorganic, 0-D Cs 4 PbBr 6 and 3-D CsPbBr 3 -based nanostructures and thin films is witnessing intense activity due to ultrafast luminescence with high quantum yield. To understand their emissive behavior, we use hybrid density functional calculations to first compare the ground-state electronic structure of the two prospective compounds. The dispersive band edges of CsPbBr 3 do not support self-trapped carriers, which agrees with reports of weak exciton binding energy and high photocurrent. The larger gap 0-D material Cs 4 PbBr 6 , however, reveals polaronic and excitonic features. We show that those lattice-coupled carriers are likely responsible for observed ultraviolet emission around ∼375 nm, reported in bulk Cs 4 PbBr 6 and Cs 4 PbBr 6 /CsPbBr 3 composites. Ionization potential calculations and estimates of type-I band alignment support the notion of quantum confinement leading to fast, green emission from CsPbBr 3 nanostructures embedded in Cs 4 PbBr 6 .

  18. Enthalpy of vaporization and vapor pressure of whiskey lactone and menthalactone by correlation gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Daniel; Chickos, James

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpies of cis and trans-whiskey lactone have been evaluated. • Enthalpies of vaporization and vapor pressures of (+)-isomintlactone and (−)-mintlactone were also evaluated. • The sublimation enthalpy and corresponding vapor pressure of (+) -isomintlactone at T = 298.15 K is estimated. - Abstract: Enthalpies of vaporization at T = 298.15 K of cis and trans-whiskey lactone have been evaluated by correlation gas chromatography to be (68.4 ± 1.7) kJ·mol −1 and (67.5 ± 1.7) kJ·mol −1 , respectively. The enthalpies of vaporization of isomintlactone and mintlactone also evaluated by correlation gas chromatography have been found to have vaporization enthalpies of (74.2 ± 1.8) kJ·mol −1 and (73.2 ± 1.8) kJ·mol −1 respectively. The vapor pressures for cis and trans-whiskey lactone at T = 298.15 K have been evaluated as (1.5 ± 0.09) Pa and (2.0 ± 0.1) Pa using vapor pressures of a series of lactones as standards. Vapor pressures for isomintlactone and mintlactone were evaluated as (0.26 ± 0.012) Pa and (0.33 ± 0.02) Pa, respectively. Fusion and sublimation enthalpies for (+)-isomintlactone as well as the vapor pressure of the solid have been estimated.

  19. Optical Sensor for Diverse Organic Vapors at ppm Concentration Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora M. Paolucci

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A broadly responsive optical organic vapor sensor is described that responds to low concentrations of organic vapors without significant interference from water vapor. Responses to several classes of organic vapors are highlighted, and trends within classes are presented. The relationship between molecular properties (vapor pressure, boiling point, polarizability, and refractive index and sensor response are discussed.

  20. Distribution and behavior of {sup 137}Cs in undisturbed soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satta, Naoya [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    1996-04-01

    The depth distribution of {sup 137}Cs in soils which has not been artificially disturbed for 100 years was compared to fallout history. The model of {sup 137}Cs distribution rate was established to estimate fallout history from soil samples. (J.P.N.)

  1. Relative volatility of dilute solutions of Rb-Cs system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromov, P.B.; Izotov, V.P.; Nisel'son, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    Relative volatility of diluted solutions Rb-Cs in the temperature range 650-820 K and pressures 13-200 gPa has been studied. The system Rb-Cs in the range of diluted solutions obeys the Henry law. It is shown, that liquid-vapour equilibrium in diluted solutions of cesium in rubidium is characterized by negative deviation from perfection

  2. Direct and indirect contamination of tree crops with Cs-134

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarlou, V.; Nobeli, C.; Anoussis, J.; Arapis, G.; Haidouti, C.

    1996-01-01

    A long term glasshouse pot experiment was established in 1994 to study the transfer factors of Cs-134 from soil to olive and orange trees for which no relevant data are available. A calcareous-heavy textured and an acid-light textured soil were used in this experiment. Results from two year's experimentation are considered in this study. The ability of the studied plant species for Cs-134 root uptake seems to be significantly influenced by soil type. The contamination of both tree species grown on calcareous and heavy soil was very low and did not change much with the time. On the contrary, trees grown on acid and light soil showed much higher Cs-134 concentration (up to 34 times for orange and 23 for olive trees) which significantly increased with the time. Both olive and orange trees showed a similar behaviour in the studied soils. Effort was also made to study the long term consequences of the direct contamination in a field experiment where an olive tree was contaminated by dry deposition with Cs-134. Six months after contamination 5 % of the Cs-134 deposited on the leaves was measured in the first olive production. However, very small quantities (= 0.5 %) of the olive Cs-134 was detected in the unprocessed olive oil. The following year 15 % of the Cs-134 remained in the leaves while extremely low quantities of Cs-134 were detected in either olives or olive oil. (author)

  3. Quantitative Cs-137 distributions from airborne gamma ray data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberlercher, G.; Seiberl, W.

    1997-01-01

    The Chernobyl reactor accident caused in Austria Cs-137 activities up to 180 kBq/m 2 . The following paper explains how airborne NaJ-spectroscopy, originally designed for geological surveys, was used as an accurate method to obtain the ground activity of Cs-137 in certain regions of Austria. To retrieve the net count rate in a Cs-137 window it is necessary to subtract all background contributions from the peak, including the Compton continuum and the contribution of overlapping peaks. Therefore the measurement of Cs-137 with a NaJ detector system must take into account radioactive elements with gamma-ray lines near the peak energy of Cs-137 at 662 keV. In regions with higher concentrations of the natural radioactive elements uranium and thorium a peak near 600 keV is found, containing the 609 keV line of Bi-214 and the 585 keV line of TI-208. Additionally a Cs-134 line is located at 604 keV. Because of the poor energy resolution of NaJ detectors it is not possible to find a clear separation between these peaks and the Cs-137 peak. The following section describes the method that was used to obtain accurate quantified Cs-137 activity values. (author)

  4. Single-photon cesium Rydberg excitation spectroscopy using 318.6-nm UV laser and room-temperature vapor cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jieying; Bai, Jiandong; He, Jun; Wang, Junmin

    2017-09-18

    We demonstrate a single-photon Rydberg excitation spectroscopy of cesium (Cs) atoms in a room-temperature vapor cell. Cs atoms are excited directly from 6S 1/2 ground state to nP 3/2 (n = 70 - 100) Rydberg states with a 318.6 nm ultraviolet (UV) laser, and Rydberg excitation spectra are obtained by transmission enhancement of a probe beam resonant to Cs 6S 1/2 , F = 4 - 6P 3/2 , F' = 5 transition as partial population on F = 4 ground state are transferred to Rydberg state. Analysis reveals that the observed spectra are velocity-selective spectroscopy of Rydberg state, from which the amplitude and linewidth influenced by lasers' Rabi frequency have been investigated. Fitting to energies of Cs nP 3/2 (n = 70 -100) states, the determined quantum defect is 3.56671(42). The demodulated spectra can also be employed as frequency references to stabilize the UV laser frequency to specific Cs Rydberg transition.

  5. Development and performance test results of 50 kA vapor-cooled current lead for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Makoto; Isono, Takaaki; Hamada, Kazuya

    1998-01-01

    JAERI has developed 50 kA current leads for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The Center Solenoid (CS) Model Coil program is under way by means of international collaboration in ITER-EDA. The CS model coil is being developed for ITER CS coil and is for demonstration for ITER construction. The performance test of the CS model coil will be carried out at the JAERI ITER common test facility (CTF). The current lead consists of the vertical lead and the connection lead. The vertical lead is a vapor-cooled type and has a cable-in-conduit geometry. The vertical lead was designed with a heat leak of 1.2 W/kA at a helium flow rate of 0.06 g/(s·kA). The measured heat leak satisfied the designed value. The connection lead was made from copper pipe soldered with NbTi superconducting wires. The pipe was stabilized by the superconducting wires and a cooling channel. The current lead was operated up to 60 kA. The design and the performance test results of 50 kA current leads are reported. The results meet the specifications for the CS model coil test and for the ITER real machine. (author)

  6. Antibodies derived from an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) adhesin tip MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) against adherence of nine ETEC adhesins: CFA/I, CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4, CS5, CS6, CS21 and EtpA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandre, Rahul M; Ruan, Xiaosai; Duan, Qiangde; Sack, David A; Zhang, Weiping

    2016-06-30

    Diarrhea continues to be a leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years in developing countries. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a leading bacterial cause of children's diarrhea and travelers' diarrhea. ETEC bacteria initiate diarrheal disease by attaching to host receptors at epithelial cells and colonizing in small intestine. Therefore, preventing ETEC attachment has been considered the first line of defense against ETEC diarrhea. However, developing vaccines effectively against ETEC bacterial attachment encounters challenge because ETEC strains produce over 23 immunologically heterogeneous adhesins. In this study, we applied MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) approach to integrate epitopes from adhesin tips or adhesive subunits of CFA/I, CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4, CS5, CS6, CS21 and EtpA adhesins and to construct an adhesin tip MEFA peptide. We then examined immunogenicity of this tip MEFA in mouse immunization, and assessed potential application of this tip MEFA for ETEC vaccine development. Data showed that mice intraperitoneally immunized with this adhesin tip MEFA developed IgG antibody responses to all nine ETEC adhesins. Moreover, ETEC and E. coli bacteria expressing these nine adhesins, after incubation with serum of the immunized mice, exhibited significant reduction in attachment to Caco-2 cells. These results indicated that anti-adhesin antibodies induced by this adhesin tip MEFA blocked adherence of the most important ETEC adhesins, suggesting this multivalent tip MEFA may be useful for developing a broadly protective anti-adhesin vaccine against ETEC diarrhea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Is 137Cs Dating Becoming Obsolete in North America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, J. Z.; Fuller, C.; Salas, A.

    2016-12-01

    Dating of wetland sediments and peat is routinely carried out using 137Cs and 210Pb analysis. Unlike 210Pb, 137Cs is an anthropogenic radionuclide with a history of fallout from nuclear weapons testing. 137Cs is used as a single time marker; its peak is coincident with the height of atmospheric nuclear testing in 1963/4. During its use in the 1970s-90s, 137Cs peaks were usually highly distinct in wetland sediments (e.g., see 137Cs peaks from Louisiana marshes in Feijtel et al., 1988). This enabled its use as a check for dates assigned to a profile by 210Pb and other methods. However, recently, the efficacy of 137Cs dating in North America has deteriorated. In this presentation, we will provide specific examples of 137Cs as well as 210Pb dating in wetland sediments/peats we collected between 2005 and 2015 in Maine, California, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Washington. Two main reasons exist for this decline. First, 137Cs activities in our recent cores are 30-40 % of the original activities in 1963/4 due to decay of the original 137Cs in situ (half-life = 30.17 years) and no major new sources. This manifests in lower signal to noise ratio, with some peaks barely recognizable above the noise. Second, 137Cs peaks are much less distinct due to 137Cs migration through time independent of substrate (or sediment) particles. Migration of peaks has resulted in estimated accretion rates being systematically lower or higher than those derived from 210Pb dating. These issues with 137Cs dating have important implications because 137Cs is used with 210Pb dating or even alone to determine rates of recent wetland carbon accumulation. Such rates are required to enter wetland restoration projects into carbon markets and to document IPCC mandated reductions in carbon pollution. Our analysis shows that, although dating by 137Cs alone has always been highly tenuous, now it is especially contraindicated and should be disallowed for the purposes of carbon accounting.

  8. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a general and powerful technique. A major present application to the enrichment of uranium for light-water power reactor fuel has been under development for over 10 years. In June 1985 the Department of Energy announced the selection of AVLIS as the technology to meet the nation's future need for the internationally competitive production of uranium separative work. The economic basis for this decision is considered, with an indicated of the constraints placed on the process figures of merit and the process laser system. We then trace an atom through a generic AVLIS separator and give examples of the physical steps encountered, the models used to describe the process physics, the fundamental parameters involved, and the role of diagnostic laser measurements

  9. SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY: REFERENCE HANDBOOK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems are being used in Increasing numbers because of the many advantages these systems hold over other soil treatment technologies. SVE systems appear to be simple in design and operation, yet the fundamentals governing subsurface vapor transport ar...

  10. Mechanics of gas-vapor bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hao, Yue; Zhang, Yuhang; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Most bubbles contain a mixture of vapor and incondensible gases. While the limit cases of pure vapor and pure gas bubbles are well studied, much less is known about the more realistic case of a mixture. The bubble contents continuously change due to the combined effects of evaporation and

  11. Vapor Pressures of Several Commercially Used Alkanolamines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klepacova, Katarina; Huttenhuis, Patrick J. G.; Derks, Peter W. J.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Klepáčová, Katarína

    For the design of acid gas treating processes, vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data must be available of the solvents to be applied. In this study the vapor pressures of seven frequently industrially used alkanolamines (diethanolamine, N-methylethanolamine, N,N-dimethylethanolamine,

  12. Recommended Vapor Pressure of Solid Naphthalen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, K.; Fulem, Michal; Růžička, V.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, - (2005), s. 1956-1970 ISSN 0021-9568 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : solid naphthalene * vapor pressure * enthalpy of vaporization * enthalpy of fusion Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.610, year: 2005

  13. Effect of granosan vapors on mitosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lishenko, N P; Lishenko, I D

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of granosan on the germination of vetch seeds. Vetch seeds were stored from 4-6 days in ethyl mercuric chloride vapors. Results indicated that the vapors caused a sharp decrease in germination and caused chromosomal aberrations during the anaphase.

  14. Condensation of vapor bubble in subcooled pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, K.; Koiwa, Y.; Kaneko, T.; Ueno, I.

    2017-02-01

    We focus on condensation process of vapor bubble exposed to a pooled liquid of subcooled conditions. Two different geometries are employed in the present research; one is the evaporation on the heated surface, that is, subcooled pool boiling, and the other the injection of vapor into the subcooled pool. The test fluid is water, and all series of the experiments are conducted under the atmospheric pressure condition. The degree of subcooling is ranged from 10 to 40 K. Through the boiling experiment, unique phenomenon known as microbubble emission boiling (MEB) is introduced; this phenomenon realizes heat flux about 10 times higher than the critical heat flux. Condensation of the vapor bubble is the key phenomenon to supply ambient cold liquid to the heated surface. In order to understand the condensing process in the MEB, we prepare vapor in the vapor generator instead of the evaporation on the heated surface, and inject the vapor to expose the vapor bubble to the subcooled liquid. Special attention is paid to the dynamics of the vapor bubble detected by the high-speed video camera, and on the enhancement of the heat transfer due to the variation of interface area driven by the condensation.

  15. 40 CFR 796.1950 - Vapor pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL FATE TESTING GUIDELINES Physical and Chemical Properties § 796.1950 Vapor pressure. (a.... In addition, chemicals that are likely to be gases at ambient temperatures and which have low water... gases until the measured vapor pressure is constant, a process called “degassing.” Impurities more...

  16. Risk assessment of metal vapor arcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Monika C. (Inventor); Leidecker, Henning W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method for assessing metal vapor arcing risk for a component is provided. The method comprises acquiring a current variable value associated with an operation of the component; comparing the current variable value with a threshold value for the variable; evaluating compared variable data to determine the metal vapor arcing risk in the component; and generating a risk assessment status for the component.

  17. Determination of {sup 135}Cs by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, C.M.; Charles, C.R.J. [Andre. E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Zhao, X.-L.; Kieser, W.E. [Andre. E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Cornett, R.J. [Andre. E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Litherland, A.E. [IsoTrace Laboratory, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 1A7 (Canada)

    2015-10-15

    The ratio of anthropogenic {sup 135}Cs and {sup 137}Cs isotopes is characteristic of a uranium fission source. This research evaluates the technique of isotope dilution (yield tracing) for the purpose of quantifying {sup 135}Cs by accelerator mass spectrometry with on-line isobar separation. Interferences from Ba, Zn{sub 2}, and isotopes of equal mass to charge ratios were successfully suppressed. However, some sample crosstalk from source contamination remains. The transmission and di-fluoride ionization efficiencies of Cs isotopes were found to be 8 × 10{sup −3} and 1.7 × 10{sup −7} respectively. This quantification of {sup 135}Cs using yield tracing by accelerator mass spectrometry shows promise for future environmental sample analysis once the issues of sample crosstalk and low efficiency can be resolved.

  18. Recovery of Cs from high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Amar; Kaushik, C.P.; Raj, K.; Varshney, Lalit

    2008-01-01

    Separation of Cs + from HLW restricts the personal radiation exposure during the vitrification and prevents thermal deformation of conditioned waste matrix during storage because of the high calorific power of 134 Cs (13.18 W/g) and 137 Cs (0.417 W/g) which would markedly reduce the storage cost. Separation will also reduce its volatility during vitrification and extent of migration from the vitrified mass in repository. In addition 137 Cs has enormous applications as radiation sources in food preservation, sterilization of medical products, brachy therapy, blood irradiation, hygienization of sewage sludge etc. The use of 137 Cs (T 1/2 = 30 years) in place of 60 Co (T 1/2 = 5.2 years) will also reduce the shielding requirement and frequency of source replenishment which will ease the handling/transportation of radioactive source

  19. Transformation of Sintered CsPbBr3 Nanocrystals to Cubic CsPbI3 and Gradient CsPbBrxI3-x through Halide Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jacob B; Schleper, A Lennart; Kamat, Prashant V

    2016-07-13

    All-inorganic cesium lead halide (CsPbX3, X = Br(-), I(-)) perovskites could potentially provide comparable photovoltaic performance with enhanced stability compared to organic-inorganic lead halide species. However, small-bandgap cubic CsPbI3 has been difficult to study due to challenges forming CsPbI3 in the cubic phase. Here, a low-temperature procedure to form cubic CsPbI3 has been developed through a halide exchange reaction using films of sintered CsPbBr3 nanocrystals. The reaction was found to be strongly dependent upon temperature, featuring an Arrhenius relationship. Additionally, film thickness played a significant role in determining internal film structure at intermediate reaction times. Thin films (50 nm) showed only a small distribution of CsPbBrxI3-x species, while thicker films (350 nm) exhibited much broader distributions. Furthermore, internal film structure was ordered, featuring a compositional gradient within film. Transient absorption spectroscopy showed the influence of halide exchange on the excited state of the material. In thicker films, charge carriers were rapidly transferred to iodide-rich regions near the film surface within the first several picoseconds after excitation. This ultrafast vectorial charge-transfer process illustrates the potential of utilizing compositional gradients to direct charge flow in perovskite-based photovoltaics.

  20. Soil 137Cs background values in monsoon region of china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingli; Yang Hao; Wang Xiaolei; Wang Yihong; Xu Congan; Yang Jiudong; Rong Jing

    2009-01-01

    Land degradation,, which is resulted from the soil erosion, is one of the major environmental problems. It severely affects the food supplies, environmental safety and the sustainable development in China. Some areas in the monsoon region are suffering from the acute soil erosion. To find out the degree of soil erosion, the proven technique of 137 Cs tracer is definitely one of the best methods, and the key is to ascertain the accuracy of soil 137 Cs background value. The distributions of 137 Cs were explored in soil profiles by detecting the 137 Cs of soil cores from the Yimeng mountain area in Shandong Province, hills in the southern area of Jiangsu Province and Dianchi catchment in Yunnan Province, respectively. We found that the depth of 137 Cs distribution is not the same in the soils of various areas. But the 137 Cs activity shows an exponential distribution in the uncultivated soil and demonstrates a strong correlation with the soil depth, while the 137 Cs activity proves uniform in the soil plowing layer of the cultivated land. The study shows the 137 Cs background values of three areas: 1737.1 Bq/m 2 in Yimeng mountain area, 1847.6 Bq/m 2 in southern area of hills in Jiangsu, 918.0 Bq/m 2 in Dianchi catchment. The certainty of 137 Cs background value can technically support the use of 137 Cs technique to study the spatial pattern of soil erosion, deposition and the land degradation, which provides the support for the sustainable utilization of soil resource, the assessment of economical benefit and loss and the evaluation of water and soil conservation measures. (authors)

  1. Rapid determination of {sup 135}Cs and precise {sup 135}Cs/{sup 137}Cs atomic ratio in environmental samples by single-column chromatography coupled to triple-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Guosheng [Department of Radiation Chemistry, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8564 (Japan); Division of Nuclear Technology and Applications, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Radiographic Techniques and Equipment, Beijing 100049 (China); Tazoe, Hirofumi [Department of Radiation Chemistry, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8564 (Japan); Yamada, Masatoshi, E-mail: myamada@hirosaki-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Chemistry, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8564 (Japan)

    2016-02-18

    For source identification, measurement of {sup 135}Cs/{sup 137}Cs atomic ratio not only provides information apart from the detection of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs, but it can also overcome the application limit that measurement of the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio has due to the short half-life of {sup 134}Cs (2.06 y). With the recent advancement of ICP-MS, it is necessary to improve the corresponding separation method for rapid and precise {sup 135}Cs/{sup 137}Cs atomic ratio analysis. A novel separation and purification technique was developed for the new generation of triple-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS). The simple chemical separation, incorporating ammonium molybdophosphate selective adsorption of Cs and subsequent single cation-exchange chromatography, removes the majority of isobaric and polyatomic interference elements. Subsequently, the ICP-MS/MS removes residual interference elements and eliminates the peak tailing effect of stable {sup 133}Cs, at m/z 134, 135, and 137. The developed analytical method was successfully applied to measure {sup 135}Cs/{sup 137}Cs atomic ratios and {sup 135}Cs activities in environmental samples (soil and sediment) for radiocesium source identification. - Highlights: • A simple {sup 135}Cs/{sup 137}Cs analytical method was developed. • The separation procedure was based on AMP adsorption and one column chromatography. • {sup 135}Cs/{sup 137}Cs was measured by ICP-MS/MS. • Decontamination factors for Ba, Mo, Sb, and Sn were improved. • {sup 135}Cs/{sup 137}Cs atomic ratios of 0.341–0.351 were found in Japanese soil samples.

  2. Bacterial CS2 Hydrolases from Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans Strains Are Homologous to the Archaeal Catenane CS2 Hydrolase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeulders, M.J.; Pol, A. van der; Venselaar, H.; Barends, T.R.; Hermans, J.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Camp, H.J.M. op den

    2013-01-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) are important in the global sulfur cycle, and CS2 is used as a solvent in the viscose industry. These compounds can be converted by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, such as Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans species, to carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide

  3. Radioecological studies of 137Cs in limnological ecosystems. Biochemical states of 137Cs accumulated in killifish (Medaka, Oryzias latipes) meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Motegi, Misako; Oosawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki; Izumo, Yoshiro; Nakamura, Fumio.

    1997-01-01

    Biochemical states of 137 Cs accumulated in killifish's (Medaka, Oryzias latipes) meat were investigated in order to elucidate the accumulation mechanism of the radionuclide in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, examined in our preceding report. Most of 137 Cs radioactivity in the killifish's raw meat accumulated this radionuclide in the radioactive freshwater, were found in the non-protein nitrogenous compound (NPNC) fraction (>92%), also in the killifish's control raw meat mixed with 137 Cs, the difference between both meat samples was not clear. As the results of gel filtration profiles on Sephadex G-25 for the NPNC fraction of these meats, each only one radioactive peak was shown, also similar to 137 CsCl solution. Moreover, these peaks appeared at the same position. On the other hand, the peak positions absorbed at OD 280nm in the samples were different from those of each radioactive peak. It was so suggested that 137 Cs accumulated in the killifish's meat was shown not to be binding to protein's composition. Furthermore, as the results on thin-layer chromatography, ion-exchange resin chromatography and reaction with 137 Cs in samples and ammonium phosphomolybdate, 137 Cs in the NPNC fraction of the killifish's meat was not almost different from those of each control and 137 CsCl solution. (author)

  4. Cs/CsPbX3 (X = Br, Cl) epitaxial heteronanocrystals with magic-angle stable/metastable grain boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumeng; Fan, Baolu; Wu, Wenhui; Fan, Jiyang

    2017-05-01

    Metal-semiconductor heteronanostructures are crucial building blocks of nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, the lattice misfit remains a challenge in constructing heteronanostructures. Perovskite nanocrystals are superior candidates for constructing nanodevices owing to excellent optical, ferroelectric, and superconducting properties. We report the epitaxial growth of lattice-matched Cs/CsPbBr3 metal-semiconductor heteronanocrystals in a liquid medium. The well-crystallized ultrathin Cs layers grow epitaxially on the surfaces of colloidal CsPbBr3 nanocrystals, forming heteronanocrystals with interface diameters of several nanometers. Most of them are pseudomorphic with coherent interfaces free from dislocations, and the others exhibit discrete high-angle grain boundaries. The model based on the calculation of the elastic potential energy of the epilayer and analysis of the near-coincidence sites explains well the experimental result. The analysis shows that the excellent lattice match between the metal and the semiconductor ensures the ideal epitaxial-growth of both Cs/CsPbBr3 and Cs/CsPbCl3 heteronanocrystals. Such metal/semiconductor heteronanocrystals pave the way for developing perovskite-based nanodevices.

  5. Building blocks for ionic liquids: Vapor pressures and vaporization enthalpies of 1-(n-alkyl)-imidazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N.; Portnova, Svetlana V.; Verevkin, Sergey P.; Skrzypczak, Andrzej; Schubert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We measured vapor pressures of the 1-(n-alkyl)-imidazoles by transpiration method. → Variations on the alkyl chain length n were C 3 , C 5 -C 7 , and C 9 -C 10 . → Enthalpies of vaporization were derived from (p, T) dependencies. → Enthalpies of vaporization at 298.15 K were linear dependent on the chain length. - Abstract: Vapor pressures of the linear 1-(n-alkyl)-imidazoles with the alkyl chain C 3 , C 5 -C 7 , and C 9 -C 10 have been measured by the transpiration method. The molar enthalpies of vaporization Δ l g H m of these compounds were derived from the temperature dependencies of vapor pressures. A linear correlation of enthalpies of vaporization Δ l g H m (298.15 K) of the 1-(n-alkyl)-imidazoles with the chain length has been found.

  6. A second generation Cs BEC experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, M.; Unterwaditzer, P.; Naegerl, H.-C.

    2004-01-01

    We present a new experiment currently under construction in Innsbruck. A Cs BEC will be produced in a glass cell apparatus, allowing maximum optical access and rapid switching of magnetic fields. A high loading rate and a large-volume optical dipole trap at near infrared wavelengths together with optimized 3D Raman sideband cooling should allow for large condensates with more than 10 6 atoms. We plan to load the BEC into a 3D optical lattice. With precisely two or three atoms per site and s-wave interactions tunable through Feshbach resonances at low magnetic fields, it will be possible to study collisions and molecule formation in a very controlled environment. The formation of a molecular BEC made out of bosonic constituents might be stabilized with help of the lattice. A further possible application is the measurement of clock shifts. Another interesting possibility is to study the regime of zero scattering length. A BEC without perturbing mean-field shifts is ideally suited for atom interferometry and precision measurements. For example, it is possible to determine the fine structure constant alpha via measurement of the photon recoil. (author)

  7. Epiphytic fruticose lichens as biomonitors for retrospective evaluation of the 134Cs/137Cs ratio in Fukushima fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramzaev, V.; Barkovsky, A.; Gromov, A.; Ivanov, S.; Kaduka, M.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011–2013, sampling of epiphytic fruticose lichens of the genera Usnea, Bryoria and Alectoria was carried out on Sakhalin and Kuril Islands (the Sakhalin region, Russia) to investigate contamination of these organisms with the Fukushima-derived 134 Cs and 137 Cs. Activities of the radionuclides were determined in all 56 samples of lichens taken for the analysis. After correction for radioactive decay (on 15 March 2011), the activity concentrations ranged from 2.1 Bq kg −1 (d.w.) to 52 Bq kg −1 for 134 Cs and from 2.3 Bq kg −1 to 52 Bq kg −1 for 137 Cs. Cesium-134 and 137 Cs activities for the whole set of lichens (n = 56) were strongly positively correlated; Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated as 0.991 (P < 0.01). The activity concentrations of 134 Cs and 137 Cs in Usnea lichens from the Sakhalin and Kunashir islands declined with a factor of three in the period from 2011 to 2013. The average biological half-time for both cesium radionuclides in lichens of the genus Usnea is estimated as 1.3 y. The mean of 0.99 ± 0.10 and median of 0.99 were calculated for the decay corrected 134 Cs/ 137 Cs activities ratios in the lichens (n = 56). The radionuclides ratio in the lichens did not depend on location of sampling site, species and the time that had passed after the Fukushima accident. The regression analysis has shown the background pre-Fukushima level of 137 Cs of 0.4 ± 0.3 Bq kg −1 , whereas the ratio between the Fukushima-borne 134 Cs and 137 Cs in the lichens was estimated as 1.04. The 134 Cs/ 137 Cs activities ratio in lichens from the Sakhalin region is consistent with the ratios reported by others for the heavy contaminated areas on Honshu Island in Japan following the Fukushima accident. The activity concentrations of natural 7 Be in lichens from the Sakhalin region varied between 100 Bq kg −1 and 600 Bq kg −1 ; the activity concentrations did not exhibit temporal variations during a 2y-period of observations. The

  8. Photoresponse of CsPbBr3 and Cs4PbBr6 Perovskite Single Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Ji-Hyun; Han, Jae Hoon; Yin, Wenping; Park, Cheolwoo; Park, Yongmin; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Cho, Jeong Ho; Jung, Duk-Young

    2017-02-02

    High-quality and millimeter-sized perovskite single crystals of CsPbBr 3 and Cs 4 PbBr 6 were prepared in organic solvents and studied for correlation between photocurrent generation and photoluminescence (PL) emission. The CsPbBr 3 crystals, which have a 3D perovskite structure, showed a highly sensitive photoresponse and poor PL signal. In contrast, Cs 4 PbBr 6 crystals, which have a 0D perovskite structure, exhibited more than 1 order of magnitude higher PL intensity than CsPbBr 3 , which generated an ultralow photoresponse under illumination. Their contrasting optoelectrical characteristics were attributed to different exciton binding energies, induced by coordination geometry of the [PbBr 6 ] 4- octahedron sublattices. This work correlated the local structures of lead in the primitive perovskite and its derivatives to PL spectra as well as photoconductivity.

  9. 137Cs in the western South Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Wang Zhongliang

    2007-01-01

    The 137 Cs activities were determined for seawater samples from the East Caroline, Coral Sea, New Hebrides, South Fiji and Tasman Sea (two stations) Basins of the western South Pacific Ocean by γ spectrometry using a low background Ge detector. The 137 Cs activities ranged from 1.4 to 2.3 Bq m -3 over the depth interval 0-250 m and decreased exponentially from the subsurface to 1000 m depth. The distribution profiles of 137 Cs activity at these six western South Pacific Ocean stations did not differ from each other significantly. There was a remarkable difference for the vertical profiles of 137 Cs activity between the East Caroline Basin station in this study and the GEOSECS (Geochemical Ocean Sections Study) station at the same latitude in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean; the 137 Cs inventory over the depth interval 100-1000 m increased from 400 ± 30 Bq m -2 to 560 ± 30 Bq m -2 during the period from 1973 to 1992. The total 137 Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean ranged from 850 ± 70 Bq m -2 in the Coral Sea Basin to 1270 ± 90 Bq m -2 in the South Fiji Basin. Higher 137 Cs inventories were observed at middle latitude stations in the subtropical gyre than at low latitude stations. The 137 Cs inventories were 1.9-4.5 times (2.9 ± 0.7 on average) and 1.7-4.3 times (3.1 ± 0.7 on average) higher than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout at the same latitude and that of the estimated 137 Cs deposition density in 10 o latitude by 10 deg. longitude grid data obtained by Aoyama et al. [Aoyama M, Hirose K, Igarashi Y. Re-construction and updating our understanding on the global weapons tests 137 Cs fallout. J Environ Monit 2006;8:431-438], respectively. The possible processes for higher 137 Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout may be attributable to the inter-hemisphere dispersion of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing 137 Cs from

  10. Sequestration and disposal of dissolved Cs+ using zeolite 13X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M.; Park, J.; Jeong, H. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Low-to-intermediate level liquid radioactive wastes (LILLW) typically contain high levels of radioactive 137Cs. Due to the great radiational and thermal stability as well as the high selectivity, zeolite has been commonly utilized to sequester radioactive isotopes from nuclear wastewater effluents. In this study, an Al-rich synthetic zeolite 13X was evaluated for the sorption capacity of Cs+ as a function of pH (4.0-10.5), ionic strength (0.05 and 0.2 M), and initial Cs+ concentration (1×10-6-5×10-3 M). For safe disposal, Cs+-exchanged 13X was both thermally and hydrothermally treated under different temperature and pressure. Subsequently, the resultant materials were examined for the phase transition by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the local coordination chemistry by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Our experimental results will detail the Cs+ sorption behavior by 13X under varying solution compositions. Also, the structural changes of Cs+-exchanged 13X upon thermal and hydrothermal treatment will be delineated to assess the stability of Cs+ in the treated materials.

  11. Cs-137 in Arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) on Svalbard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwynn, Justin P.; Fuglei, Eva; Dowdall, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This study presents 137 Cs muscle activity concentrations in Arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) from Svalbard over a period of several years and discusses the transfer of 137 Cs to Arctic foxes through likely predator-prey relationships. Mean 137 Cs activity concentrations and 137 Cs T ag values (per trapping season) ranged from 0.51 ± 2.76 to 1.32 ± 2.89 Bq/kg (w.w.) and 5.1 x 10 -4 to 1.3 x 10 -3 m 2 /kg, respectively. Mean concentration ratios of 137 Cs in Arctic foxes compared to probable prey ranged from 1.0 to 7.9. On Svalbard, transfer of 137 Cs to Arctic foxes is likely to occur via both marine and terrestrial food chains. The relative contribution of marine and terrestrial food sources to the diet of Arctic foxes may vary by location and by season and may lead to either an increase or decrease in the trophic transfer of 137 Cs to Arctic foxes compared to transfer resulting from terrestrial only diets

  12. Measurement limits to 134Cs concentration in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, J.K.; Kim, J.S.; Lee, H.M.; Kim, H.; Kim, T.H.; Park, J.N.; Kang, Y.S.; Lee, H.S.; Kim, S.J.; Park, J.Y.; Ryu, S.Y.; Kim, H.-Ch.; Kang, W.G.; Kim, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the caesium concentrations in soils in mountain areas near Gori nuclear power plant in Korea, focusing on the measurement limits to the 134 Cs. In order to lower the minimum detectable amount (MDA) of activity for the 134 Cs, we have used the ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP) precipitation method to get rid of the 40 K existing in natural radioactivity, which reduces the MDA activity about 10 times smaller than those without the AMP precipitation method. The MDA results for the 134 Cs were found to be in the range between 0.015 and 0.044 Bq/kg-dry weight. In order to diminish the background, we also have measured a part of the soil samples in Yangyang, a small town in the east coast of Korea. However, it turns out that in order to detect the 134 Cs in the samples the MDA should be reduced to the level of mBq/kg-dry weight. - Highlights: → We study the caesium concentrations in soils in mountain areas near Gori NPT in Korea. → We use the AMP precipitation method to lower the minimum detectable amount (MDA) of activity for the 134 Cs. → The results of the MDA for the 134 Cs turn out to be in the range between 0.015 and 0.044. → In order to detect the 134 Cs in the samples, the MDA should be reduced to the level of mBq/kg-dry weight.

  13. Measurement of 137Cs activity in living chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balas, J.; Poeschl, M.

    1998-01-01

    The possibility of measuring the 137 Cs activity in broiler chickens in vivo was examined. The experiment was conducted with broiler chickens 7 to 22 days old (White Leghorn hybrid, race ISA VEDETTE). Three oral doses of 137 Cs (total activity 5 kBq/chicken) were administered during a day (at 8:00, 12:00 and 16:00). The radioactivity was determined by gamma spectroscopy with a stabilised Nal/Tl detector. The measurement was carried out on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 14 and 15 after the 137 Cs administration in vivo. The detector was put closely to the body in the area of breast muscles. The radiocesium activity concentrations in fresh daily excreta were also determined. A rapid uptake of the orally administered 137 Cs (within a few hours) as well as a rapid loss of radiocesium were observed. The dynamics and accuracy of the in vivo measurement of 137 Cs activity were comparable with the recently published results of in vitro measurement of radiocesium activity. Only the initial 137 Cs activity (during 2 days after 137 Cs application) was higher with regard to the content of contaminated feed mixture in the gastrointestinal tract

  14. Chondroitin Sulfate (CS) Lyases: Structure, Function and Application in Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Aruna; Patel, Seema; Goyal, Arun

    2018-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) are the chief natural polysaccharides which reside in biological tissues mainly in extracellular matrix. These CS along with adhesion molecules and growth factors are involved in central nervous system (CNS) development, cell progression and pathogenesis. The chondroitin lyases are the enzyme that degrade and alter the CS chains and hence modify various signalling pathways involving CS chains. These CS lyases are substrate specific, can precisely manipulate the CS polysaccharides and have various biotechnological, medical and therapeutic applications. These enzymes can be used to produce the unsaturated oligosaccharides, which have immune-modulatory, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the major breakthrough of the chondroitin sulfate degrading enzymes, their structures and functioning mechanism. This also provides comprehensive information regarding production, purification, characterization of CS lyases and their major applications, both established as well as emerging ones such as neural development. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Waste forms based on Cs-loaded silicotitanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, M.L.; Bunker, B.C.

    1995-04-01

    Silicotitanate ion exchange materials are being considered for removal of radioactive Cs and Sr from tank wastes at the Hanford site. The phase evolution as a function of heat treatment temperature for several sol gel derived compositions within the Cs 2 O-SiO 2 -TiO 2 system was investigated, in order to determine if an adequate waste form can be achieved by direct thermal conversion. The Cs leach rates and Cs loss during heat treatment of select materials were measured. Some compositions which contain large amounts of Ti melt to form a glass with reasonably low aqueous leach rates. A new Cs-silicotitanate material with a structure isomorphous to pollucite was discovered. This material forms at low temperatures (700--800 C) where Cs volatility is negligible. The silicotitanate-pollucite exhibits extremely low leach rates (1.42 g/m 2 day ) at 90 C, and has been identified as a promising waste form for Cs containment

  16. 134Cs emission probabilities determination by gamma spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, M. C. M.; Poledna, R.; Delgado, J. U.; Silva, R. L.; Araujo, M. T. F.; da Silva, C. J.

    2018-03-01

    The National Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Metrology (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN) of Rio de Janeiro performed primary and secondary standardization of different radionuclides reaching satisfactory uncertainties. A solution of 134Cs radionuclide was purchased from commercial supplier to emission probabilities determination of some of its energies. 134Cs is a beta gamma emitter with 754 days of half-life. This radionuclide is used as standard in environmental, water and food control. It is also important to germanium detector calibration. The gamma emission probabilities (Pγ) were determined mainly for some energies of the 134Cs by efficiency curve method and the Pγ absolute uncertainties obtained were below 1% (k=1).

  17. Study of /sup 137/Cs absorption by Lemna minor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamini, P G; Palmas, G; Piantelli, F; Sani, M [Siena Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Banditelli, P; Previtera, M; Sodi, F

    1979-09-01

    Absorption of /sup 137/Cs by the floating aquatic plant Lemna minor in relation to /sup 137/Cs concentration in the water was measured under controlled conditions of temperature, pH and light. The method used to analyse the results is described. When applied to this study the method shows the influence on /sup 137/Cs absorption of (1) potassium-cesium exchange due to chemical affinity, (2) the natural colony growth of the organism and (3) the effect of light. Concentration factors were determined for these three processes.

  18. Study of 137Cs absorption by Lemna minor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergamini, P.G.; Palmas, G.; Piantelli, F.; Sani, M.; Banditelli, P.; Previtera, M.; Sodi, F.

    1979-01-01

    Absorption of 137 Cs by the floating aquatic plant Lemna Minor in relation to 137 Cs concentration in the water was measured under controlled conditions of temperature, pH and light. The method used to analyse the results is described. When applied to this study the method shows the influence on 137 Cs absorption of (1) potassium-cesium exchange due to chemical affinity, (2) the natural colony growth of the organism and (3) the effect of light. Concentration factors were determined for these three processes. (author)

  19. Water vapor retrieval over many surface types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borel, C.C.; Clodius, W.C.; Johnson, J.

    1996-04-01

    In this paper we present a study of of the water vapor retrieval for many natural surface types which would be valuable for multi-spectral instruments using the existing Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio (CIBR) for the 940 nm water vapor absorption feature. An atmospheric code (6S) and 562 spectra were used to compute the top of the atmosphere radiance near the 940 nm water vapor absorption feature in steps of 2.5 nm as a function of precipitable water (PW). We derive a novel technique called ``Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption`` (APDA) and show that APDA performs better than the CIBR over many surface types.

  20. Changing US Attributes After CS-US Pairings Changes CS-Attribute-Assessments: Evidence for CS-US Associations in Attribute Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förderer, Sabine; Unkelbach, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Attribute Conditioning (AC) refers to people's changed assessments of stimuli's (CSs) attributes due to repeated pairing with stimuli (USs) possessing these attributes; for example, when an athletic person (US) is paired with a neutral person (CS), the neutral person is judged to be more athletic after the pairing. We hypothesize that this AC effect is due to CSs' associations with USs rather than direct associations with attributes. Three experiments test this hypothesis by changing US attributes after CS-US pairings. Experiments 1 and 2 conditioned athleticism by pairing neutral men (CSs) with athletic and non-athletic USs. Post-conditioning, USs' athleticism was reversed, which systematically influenced participants' assessment of CS athleticism. Experiment 3 conditioned athleticism and changed USs' musicality after CS-US pairings. This post-conditioning change affected musicality assessments of CSs but did not influence athleticism-assessments. The results indicate that AC effects are based on an associative CS-US-attribute structure. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  1. Water Vapor Permeation in Plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Paul E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kouzes, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Polyvinyl toluene (PVT) and polystyrene (PS) (referred to as “plastic scintillator”) are used for gamma ray detectors. A significant decrease in radiation detection performance has been observed in some PVT-based gamma-ray detectors in systems in outdoor environments as they age. Recent studies have revealed that plastic scintillator can undergo an environmentally related material degradation that adversely affects gamma ray detection performance under certain conditions and histories. A significant decrease in sensitivity has been seen in some gamma-ray detectors in some systems as they age. The degradation of sensitivity of plastic scintillator over time is due to a variety of factors, and the term “aging” is used to encompass all factors. Some plastic scintillator samples show no aging effects (no significant change in sensitivity over more than 10 years), while others show severe aging (significant change in sensitivity in less than 5 years). Aging effects arise from weather (variations in heat and humidity), chemical exposure, mechanical stress, light exposure, and loss of volatile components. The damage produced by these various causes can be cumulative, causing observable damage to increase over time. Damage may be reversible up to some point, but becomes permanent under some conditions. The objective of this report is to document the phenomenon of permeability of plastic scintillator to water vapor and to derive the relationship between time, temperature, humidity and degree of water penetration in plastic. Several conclusions are documented about the properties of water permeability of plastic scintillator.

  2. A novel vanadosilicate with hexadeca-coordinated Cs{sup +} ions as a highly effective Cs{sup +} remover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Shuvo Jit; Moon, Won Kyung; Choi, Do Young; Hwang, In Chul; Yoon, Kyung Byung [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Korea Center for Artificial Photosynthesis

    2014-07-07

    The effective removal of {sup 137}Cs{sup +} ions from contaminated groundwater and seawater and from radioactive nuclear waste solutions is crucial for public health and for the continuous operation of nuclear power plants. Various {sup 137}Cs{sup +} removers have been developed, but more effective {sup 137}Cs{sup +} removers are still needed. A novel microporous vanadosilicate with mixed-valence vanadium (V{sup 4+} and V{sup 5+}) ions is now reported, which shows an excellent ability for Cs{sup +} capture and immobilization from groundwater, seawater, and nuclear waste solutions. This material is superior to other known materials in terms of selectivity, capacity, and kinetics, and at very low Cs{sup +} concentrations, it was found to be the most effective material for the removal of radioactive Cs{sup +} ions under the test conditions. This novel vanadosilicate also contains hexadeca-coordinated Cs{sup +} ions, which corresponds to the highest coordination number ever described.

  3. Hybridization of Single Nanocrystals of Cs4PbBr6 and CsPbBr3

    OpenAIRE

    Weerd, Chris de; Lin, Junhao; Gomez, Leyre; Fujiwara, Yasufumi; Suenaga, Kazutomo; Gregorkiewicz, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Nanocrystals of all-inorganic cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I) feature high absorption and efficient narrow-band emission which renders them promising for future generation of photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. Colloidal ensembles of these nanocrystals can be conveniently prepared by chemical synthesis. However, in the case of CsPbBr3, its synthesis can also yield nanocrystals of Cs4PbBr6 and the properties of the two are easily confused. Here, we investigate in de...

  4. Point of net vapor generation and vapor void fraction in subcooled boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, P.; Zuber, N.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis is presented directed at predicting the point of net vapor generation and vapor void fraction in subcooled boiling. It is shown that the point of net vapor generation depends upon local conditions--thermal and fluid dynamic. Thus, at low mass flow rates the net vapor generation is determined by thermal conditions, whereas at high mass flow rates the phenomenon is hydrodynamically controlled. Simple criteria are derived which can be used to predict these local conditions for net vapor generation. These criteria are used to determine the vapor void fraction is subcooled boiling. Comparison between the results predicted by this analysis and experimental data presently available shows good agreement for wide range of operating conditions, fluids and geometries. (U.S.)

  5. Plutonium isotopes/137Cs activity ratios for soil in Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antovic, N. M.; Vukotic, P.; Svrkota, N.; Andrukhovich, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Plutonium isotopes/ 137 Cs activity ratios were determined for six soil samples from Montenegro, using the results of alpha-spectrometric measurements of 239+240 Pu and 238 Pu, as well as gamma-spectrometric cesium measurements. An average 239+240 Pu/ 137 Cs activity ratio is found to be 0.02, as the 238 Pu/ 137 Cs and 238 Pu/ 239+240 Pu one - 0.0006 and 0.03, respectively. It follows from the results that the source of plutonium in Montenegro soil is nuclear weapon testing during the fifties and sixties of the twentieth century. On the other hand, there is a contribution of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant to the soil contamination with 137 Cs isotope. [sr

  6. Speciation of 137Cs in the Baltic sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lujaniene, G.; Morkuniene, R.; Styra, D.

    1998-01-01

    A possibility of application of Filtrac 391 and Nuclepore filters, Ky-2-8-C exchanger and the Mtilon-T fiber impregnated with Fe, Co, Ni ferrocyanides for separation of particulate and ionic 137 Cs in the sea water was investigated. Physico-chemical forms of 137 Cs were investigated in the Baltic Sea water during 1995-1997. It was determined that 137 Cs was mainly present in ionic form (62-93 %) both in the near-shore and open waters. Concentration of particulate 137 Cs ranged from 255 to 625 Bq/kg (dry weight).The distribution coefficient (K d ) of radiocaesium reached values of 2100-9700. (author)

  7. Quasi-freestanding graphene on Ni(111) by Cs intercalation

    KAUST Repository

    Alattas, Maha Hassan Mohssen; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    A possible approach to achieve quasi-freestanding graphene on a substrate for technological purpose is the intercalation of alkali metal atoms. Cs intercalation between graphene and Ni(111) therefore is investigated using density functional theory

  8. Quasi-freestanding graphene on Ni(111) by Cs intercalation

    KAUST Repository

    Alattas, Maha Hassan Mohssen; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2017-01-01

    It is of technological interest to achieve quasi-freestanding graphene on a substrate. A possible approach is the intercalation of alkali metal atoms. Cs intercalation between graphene and Ni(111) is investigated using density functional theory

  9. Retention of Cs on zeolite, bentonite and their mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atun, G.

    2002-01-01

    The sorption behavior of cesium on zeolite and bentonite minerals and their mixtures was studied by means of a batch method and a tracer technique. All experiments were carried out in the presence of CsCl spiked with 137 Cs and NaCl as a supporting electrolyte in varying concentrations. The distribution coefficients (K D ) did not show significant differences at low Cs + loadings while they decreased in the high loading region. Freundlich and D-R isotherms were applied to the adsorption data of zeolite and bentonite. Adsorption capacities and mean energies calculated from D-R isotherm parameters decreased by increasing ionic strength on both minerals. The identification of the specific uptake sites was attempted on the basis of the Freundlich isotherm. Experimentally observed distribution coefficients of Cs on two mineral mixtures were smaller than theoretically calculated values, except at the highest NaCl concentration. (author)

  10. GOES WATER VAPOR TRANSPORT V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOES Water Vapor Transport CD contains nineteen months of geostationary satellite-derived products from the GOES-8 satellite spanning the 1987-1988 El Nino...

  11. Vaporization of Samarium trichloride studied by thermogravimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquivel, Marcelo R.; Pasquevich, Daniel M.

    2003-01-01

    In the present work, the vaporization reaction of SmCl 3 (l) obtained from the 'in situ' reaction of Sm 2 O 3 (s) and Cl 2 (g)-C(s) was studied by thermogravimetry under controlled atmosphere. The effects of both the temperature between 825 C degrees and 950 C degrees and the total flow gas on the vaporization rate of the following reaction: SmCl 3 (l) = SmCl 3 (g) were analyzed. The vaporization rate of the process was found to be independent of then total gas flow rate and highly dependent on the temperature. E ap calculation led to a value of 240 ± 10 kJ.mol -1 . A comparison between this value and that of the molar enthalpy of vaporization allow to the conclusion that the reaction occur in conditions near to equilibrium. The SmCl 3 identity was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). (author)

  12. Perspective: Highly stable vapor-deposited glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    This article describes recent progress in understanding highly stable glasses prepared by physical vapor deposition and provides perspective on further research directions for the field. For a given molecule, vapor-deposited glasses can have higher density and lower enthalpy than any glass that can be prepared by the more traditional route of cooling a liquid, and such glasses also exhibit greatly enhanced kinetic stability. Because vapor-deposited glasses can approach the bottom of the amorphous part of the potential energy landscape, they provide insights into the properties expected for the "ideal glass." Connections between vapor-deposited glasses, liquid-cooled glasses, and deeply supercooled liquids are explored. The generality of stable glass formation for organic molecules is discussed along with the prospects for stable glasses of other types of materials.

  13. Fundamentals of Friction and Vapor Phase Lubrication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gellman, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This is the final report for the three year research program on "Fundamentals of Friction and Vapor Phase Lubrication" conducted at Carnegie Mellon with support from AFOSR grant number F49630-01-1-0069...

  14. GOES WATER VAPOR TRANSPORT V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOES Water Vapor Transport CD contains nineteen months of geostationary satellite-derived products spanning the 1987/1988 El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO)...

  15. Drag Reduction by Leidenfrost Vapor Layers

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Marston, Jeremy O.; Chan, Derek Y. C.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2011-01-01

    , we show that such vapor layers can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by over 85%. These results appear to approach the ultimate limit of drag reduction possible by different methods based on gas-layer lubrication and can stimulate the development

  16. DMSP SSMT/2 - Atmospheric Water Vapor Profiler

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SSM/T-2 sensor is a five channel, total power microwave radiometer with three channels situated symmetrically about the 183.31 GHz water vapor resonance line and...

  17. 78 FR 42595 - Marine Vapor Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... revise the substance As noted in the NPRM, the changes in this section were of this section. intended... the vapor-moving device, as recommended by CTAC in 1997 to maintain a minimum size of non-flammable...

  18. Kinetics of Cs adsorption on soils with different mineralogical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Atsushi; Funakawa, Shinya; Kosaki, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    137 Cs is one of the main radioisotopes released into the environment by nuclear powerstation accidents (e.g. Chernobyl) and nuclear weapons tests. Many studies have shown that Cs tends to remain at surface soils due to the high adsorption selectivity of clay minerals for this element. This behavior of the Cs + ion is, however, assumed to vary significantly depending on the mineralogical composition of the soil. The main objective of this study is to analyze the kinetics of Cs adsorption on soils with different mineralogical composition. Soil samples used in this study were Mollisols (Um) and Alfisols (Ua) from Ukraine, Ultisols (Tu) from Thailand and Spodosols (Js) from Japan. The dominant clay species of these soils are montmorillonite (Um, Ua), kaolinite and mica (Tu) and beidellite (Js). The rates of Cs adsorption and Ca or K desorption were measured using a continuous flow method. Soil samples that were previously saturated with Ca 2+ were leached with a 0.75 mmol/l Cs + solution at a constant rate of 2.0 ml/min. The leachate was collected every 10 minutes and the concentrations of Cs + , Ca 2+ and K + of each aliquot were measured by atomic adsorption spectrophotometry (Cs + , Ca 2+ ) and flame spectrophotometry (K + ). The datasets obtained were simulated using the first order kinetic model: y = a(1 - exp(-kt)), where a is the adsorption (desorption) maximum and k the rate constant. It is here assumed that Ca 2+ is desorbed from cation exchange sites and K + desorbed from the frayed edges of micaceous minerals. The values of a obtained for both Cs adsorption and Ca desorption was in the order Js>Um>Tu>Ua, whereas the values of k were in the order Tu>Ua>Um>Js. This result reflects the values of permanent negative charge of clays which are originated from the substitution of cations in the structure of 2:1 clay minerals. The value of a for K + desorption was, however, highest in Tu, suggesting that the values of Cs + -exchangeable K + correspond to the amount

  19. Radiological Cs-137 accidents/incidents in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinisso, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Two radiological accidents/incidents in Estonia are reported. The first -21 October 1994, three brothers entered the Tammiku repository and stole a radioactive Cs-137 source and received dangerous doses of radiation. The other incident (early 1995) involved an abandoned source - a discarded metal cylinder containing Cs-137. Chronologies and factual data are considered for both events. Concise descriptions of the incidents, a medical overview of the fate of injured people and lessons learned are presented

  20. Radiological Cs-137 accidents/incidents in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinisso, Mark [Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tallin (Estonia)

    1997-12-31

    Two radiological accidents/incidents in Estonia are reported. The first -21 October 1994, three brothers entered the Tammiku repository and stole a radioactive Cs-137 source and received dangerous doses of radiation. The other incident (early 1995) involved an abandoned source - a discarded metal cylinder containing Cs-137. Chronologies and factual data are considered for both events. Concise descriptions of the incidents, a medical overview of the fate of injured people and lessons learned are presented

  1. Detection of CS in Neptune's atmosphere from ALMA observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, R.; Lellouch, E.; Cavalié, T.; Moullet, A.

    2017-12-01

    Context. The large and vertically non-uniform abundance of CO in Neptune's atmosphere has been interpreted as the result of past cometary impact(s), either single or distributed in size and time, which could also be at the origin of Neptune's HCN. Aims: We aim to provide observational support for this scenario by searching for other comet-induced species, in particular carbon sulfide (CS) which has been observed continuously in Jupiter since the 1994 Shoemaker-Levy 9 impacts. Methods: In April 2016 we used the ALMA interferometer to search for CS(7-6) at 342.883 GHz in Neptune. Results: We report on the detection of CS in Neptune's atmosphere, the first unambiguous observation of a sulfur-bearing species in a giant planet beyond Jupiter. Carbon sulfide appears to be present only at submillibar levels, with a column density of (2.0-3.1) × 1012 cm-2, and a typical mixing ratio of (2-20) × 10-11 that depends on its precise vertical location. The favoured origin of CS is deposition by a putative large comet impact several centuries ago, and the strong depletion of CS with respect to CO - compared to the Jupiter case - is likely due to the CS sticking to aerosols or clustering to form polymers in Neptune's lower stratosphere. Conclusions: The CS detection, along with recent analyses of the CO profile, reinforces the presumption of a large comet impact into Neptune 1000 yr ago, that delivered CO, CS, and HCN at the same time.

  2. 137Cs content in edible mushrooms of the Transcarpathian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Parlag

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Edible mushrooms (Boletus edulis Bull.: Fr. and Leccinum scabrum (Bull.: Fr. S.F.Gray of Transcarpathian region were analyzed on content of 137Cs. Specific activity of 137Cs in collected mushrooms did not exceed 354 ± 53 Bq/kg (dry substance. Estimation of the contribution into internal exposure dose of population for the condi-tion of 1 kg of mushrooms consumption is carried out.

  3. 137Cs radioactive dating of Lake Ontario sediment cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, T.E.; Breeden, J.; Komisarcik, K.; Porter, R.; Czuczwa, J.; Kaminski, R.; McVeety, B.D.

    1987-12-01

    The distribution of 137 Cs in sediment cores from Lake Ontario provides estimates of the sediment accumulation rates. Geochronology with 210 Pb dating and distribution of Ambrosia (ragweed) pollen compare well with 137 Cs dating. These methods can determine with precision, changes in sedimentation occurring over the past 100 years or so. Typical sedimentation rates of 0.18-0.36 cm/yr were measured. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Obsah Cs-137 v houbách

    OpenAIRE

    ČADOVÁ, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to compare the presence of Cs-137 in different kinds of mushrooms in selected locations using semiconductor gamma-ray spectrometry. Research question was determined: Does Cs-137 content amount vary depending on the fungal species? The first part deals with basic knowledge of ionizing radiation, which is important for the complex understanding of thematic problems. This concerns basic radiobiological terms such as radioactivity, ionizing radiation, its biological effect...

  5. A technique to depress desflurane vapor pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Robert J; Pypendop, Bruno H

    2006-09-01

    To determine whether the vapor pressure of desflurane could be decreased by using a solvent to reduce the anesthetic molar fraction in a solution (Raoult's Law). We hypothesized that such an anesthetic mixture could produce anesthesia using a nonprecision vaporizer instead of an agent-specific, electronically controlled, temperature and pressure compensated vaporizer currently required for desflurane administration. One healthy adult female dog. Propylene glycol was used as a solvent for desflurane, and the physical characteristics of this mixture were evaluated at various molar concentrations and temperatures. Using a circle system with a breathing bag attached at the patient end and a mechanical ventilator to simulate respiration, an in-circuit, nonprecision vaporizer containing 40% desflurane and 60% propylene glycol achieved an 11.5% +/- 1.0% circuit desflurane concentration with a 5.2 +/- 0.4 (0 = off, 10 = maximum) vaporizer setting. This experiment was repeated with a dog attached to the breathing circuit under spontaneous ventilation with a fresh gas flow of 0.5 L minute(-1). Anesthesia was maintained for over 2 hours at a mean vaporizer setting of 6.2 +/- 0.4, yielding mean inspired and end-tidal desflurane concentrations of 8.7% +/- 0.5% and 7.9% +/- 0.7%, respectively. Rather than alter physical properties of vaporizers to suit a particular anesthetic agent, this study demonstrates that it is also possible to alter physical properties of anesthetic agents to suit a particular vaporizer. However, propylene glycol may not prove an ideal solvent for desflurane because of its instability in solution and substantial-positive deviation from Raoult's Law.

  6. Metal Vapor Arcing Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Monika C.; Leidecker, Henning W.

    2010-01-01

    The Tin Whisker Metal Vapor Arcing Risk Assessment Tool has been designed to evaluate the risk of metal vapor arcing and to help facilitate a decision toward a researched risk disposition. Users can evaluate a system without having to open up the hardware. This process allows for investigating components at risk rather than spending time and money analyzing every component. The tool points to a risk level and provides direction for appropriate action and documentation.

  7. A heated vapor cell unit for dichroic atomic vapor laser lock in atomic rubidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Daniel J; Hughes, Ifan G; Tierney, Patrick; Cornish, Simon L

    2007-09-01

    The design and performance of a compact heated vapor cell unit for realizing a dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) for the D(2) transitions in atomic rubidium is described. A 5 cm long vapor cell is placed in a double-solenoid arrangement to produce the required magnetic field; the heat from the solenoid is used to increase the vapor pressure and correspondingly the DAVLL signal. We have characterized experimentally the dependence of important features of the DAVLL signal on magnetic field and cell temperature. For the weaker transitions both the amplitude and gradient of the signal are increased by an order of magnitude.

  8. A heated vapor cell unit for dichroic atomic vapor laser lock in atomic rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarron, Daniel J.; Hughes, Ifan G.; Tierney, Patrick; Cornish, Simon L.

    2007-01-01

    The design and performance of a compact heated vapor cell unit for realizing a dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) for the D 2 transitions in atomic rubidium is described. A 5 cm long vapor cell is placed in a double-solenoid arrangement to produce the required magnetic field; the heat from the solenoid is used to increase the vapor pressure and correspondingly the DAVLL signal. We have characterized experimentally the dependence of important features of the DAVLL signal on magnetic field and cell temperature. For the weaker transitions both the amplitude and gradient of the signal are increased by an order of magnitude

  9. Bioaccumulation of 137Cs and 60Co by Helianthus annuus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornik, M.; Pipiska, M.; Vrtoch, L.; Augustin, J.; Lesny, J.

    2005-01-01

    The 60 Co and 137 Cs bioaccumulation by Helianthus annuus L. was measured during 9 day cultivation at 20 ± 2 o C in hydroponic Hoagland medium. Previous starvation for K + and for NH 4 + 2.2 and 2.7 times, respectively, enhanced 137 Cs uptake rate. Previous cultivation in surplus of K + ions 50 mmol·l -1 has no effect on 137 Cs bioaccumulation rate. Both 137 Cs and 60 Co bioaccumulation significantly increase with dilution of basic Hoagland medium up to 1:7 for caesium and up to 1:3 for cobalt followed by mild decrease at higher dilutions. Root to shoot specific 137 Cs radioactivity ratio (Bq.g -1 /Bq·g -1 , fresh wt.) increased with dilution from 1.46 to 9.6-9.8. The values root to shoot specific radioactivity ratio for 60 Co were less dependent on the nutrient concentrations and were within the range 5.7 to 8.5. 137 Cs was localized mainly in young leaves (30%) and roots (39%) and 60 Co mainly in roots (67%) and leaves (20%). Obtained data showed less sensitivity of 60 Co uptake by sunflower on nutrient concentration in hydroponic media. (author)

  10. Performance verification tests of JT-60SA CS model coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obana, Tetsuhiro, E-mail: obana.tetsuhiro@LHD.nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Murakami, Haruyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Takahata, Kazuya; Hamaguchi, Shinji; Chikaraishi, Hirotaka; Mito, Toshiyuki; Imagawa, Shinsaku [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Kizu, Kaname; Natsume, Kyohei; Yoshida, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The performance of the JT-60SA CS model coil was verified. • The CS model coil comprised a quad-pancake wound with a Nb{sub 3}Sn CIC conductor. • The CS model coil met the design requirements. - Abstract: As a final check of the coil manufacturing method of the JT-60 Super Advanced (JT-60SA) central solenoid (CS), we verified the performance of a CS model coil. The model coil comprised a quad-pancake wound with a Nb{sub 3}Sn cable-in-conduit conductor. Measurements of the critical current, joint resistance, pressure drop, and magnetic field were conducted in the verification tests. In the critical-current measurement, the critical current of the model coil coincided with the estimation derived from a strain of −0.62% for the Nb{sub 3}Sn strands. As a result, critical-current degradation caused by the coil manufacturing process was not observed. The results of the performance verification tests indicate that the model coil met the design requirements. Consequently, the manufacturing process of the JT-60SA CS was established.

  11. Performance Evaluation of the Sysmex CS-5100 Automated Coagulation Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liming; Chen, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Coagulation testing is widely applied clinically, and laboratories increasingly demand automated coagulation analyzers with short turn-around times and high-throughput. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Sysmex CS-5100 automated coagulation analyzer for routine use in a clinical laboratory. The prothrombin time (PT), international normalized ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen (Fbg), and D-dimer were compared between the Sysmex CS-5100 and Sysmex CA-7000 analyzers, and the imprecision, comparison, throughput, STAT function, and performance for abnormal samples were measured in each. The within-run and between-run coefficients of variation (CV) for the PT, APTT, INR, and D-dimer analyses showed excellent results both in the normal and pathologic ranges. The correlation coefficients between the Sysmex CS-5100 and Sysmex CA-7000 were highly correlated. The throughput of the Sysmex CS-5100 was faster than that of the Sysmex CA-7000. There was no interference at all by total bilirubin concentrations and triglyceride concentrations in the Sysmex CS-5100 analyzer. We demonstrated that the Sysmex CS-5100 performs with satisfactory imprecision and is well suited for coagulation analysis in laboratories processing large sample numbers and icteric and lipemic samples.

  12. Cs-137 and Sr-90 level in diary products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petukhov, V.L.; Dukhanov, Y.A.; Sevryuk, I.Z.; Patrashkov, S.A.; Korotkevich, O.S.; Gorb, T.S.; Petukhov, I.V.

    2003-01-01

    About 70% of radioactive substances fell on the territory of the Byelorussian Republic after the Chernobyl Atom Power Station Disaster. Cs-137 and Sr-90 accumulation dynamics was studied in milk of the cows from the highest polluted Braginsky area. 408 milk samples of Black and White cows were investigated. In 1995 average Cs-137 and Sr-90 levels were 61.00 and 3.73 Bk/dm 3 respectively. Cs-137 and Sr-90 levels exceeded Byelorussian Republic upper limits RDU - 96 in 10 and 50% of milk samples respectively. After 5 years (by 2000) Cs-137 and Sr-90 levels had become almost 3 and 2 times less (21.70 Bk/dm 3 and 1.72 Bk/dm 3 respectively). Cs-137 and Sr-90 levels exceeded RDU - 96 in 1.5 and 5.5% of milk samples respectively. In the same periods Cs-137 and Sr-90 levels were 7 and 2 times higher than the similar indexes in the relatively clean Novosibirsk area. Thus, radioactive element levels in milk of Black and White cows of the Byelorussian Republic decreased significantly for the past years. (authors)

  13. Transfer of 137Cs through the food chain to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, C.; Bennett, B.G.

    1976-10-01

    Deposition, concentrations in diet, and body burdens of 137 Cs have been measured since 1954 at various sites throughout the world. This report is a compilation and updating of various fallout 137 Cs measurements and an interpretation of transfer properties of 137 Cs from deposition to diet and from diet to man. An empirical model is used to correlate deposition and diet data. Direct foliar contamination, stored food supplies, and uptake from soil contribute to the dietary levels of 137 Cs. The accumulation of 137 Cs by man is described by a single exponential model. The inferred biological half-times, 200 to 400 days, are somewhat greater than the half-time of about 100 days obtained from shorter term studies. Differences in body burdens due to sex, age, and weight are discussed. During the period 1954 to 1974, the internal dose from fallout 137 Cs, based on average body burdens, is estimated to be 4 to 5 percent of the 21 year radiation dose from 40 K

  14. Vapor Explosions with Subcooled Freon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.E.; Fauske, Hans K.; McUmber, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    Explosive vapor formation accompanied by destructive shock waves, can be produced when two liquids, at much different temperatures, are brought into intimate contact. A proposed analytical model states that the interface temperature upon contact between the two liquid systems, gust be greater than or equal to the spontaneous nucleation temperature of that liquid-liquid system and that the thermal boundary layer must be sufficiently developed to support a critical size cavity. For time scales greater than 10-12 sec, the interface temperature upon contact of two semi-infinite masses, with constant thermal properties, can be related to the initial liquid temperatures. The spontaneous nucleation behavior at the interface can either be heterogeneous or homogeneous in nature. In either case, the critical size cavities, which initiate the vaporization process, are produced by local density fluctuations within the cold liquid. For homogeneous conditions, the two liquids present a well-wetted system and the vapor embryos are produced entirely within the cold liquid. For heterogeneous conditions, which result from poor, or imperfect wetting, at the liquid-liquid interface, the critical sized cavities are created at the interface at somewhat lower temperatures. A sequence of experiments, using Freon-22 and water, Freon-22 and mineral oil, and Freon-12 and mineral oil have been performed to test this spontaneous nucleation premise. For Freon-22 at its normal boiling point, the interface temperature of the water must be at least 77 deg. C before the interface temperature equals or exceeds the minimum homogeneous nucleation value of 54 deg. C and 84 deg. C before the interface temperature equals 60 deg. C where the homogeneous nucleation rate becomes truly explosive. The Freon-water test demonstrated explosive interactions for water temperatures considerably lower than this value and this was attributed to the heterogeneous nucleation characteristics of that particular system

  15. Effect of impact angle on vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Peter H.

    1996-09-01

    Impacts into easily vaporized targets such as dry ice and carbonates generate a rapidly expanding vapor cloud. Laboratory experiments performed in a tenuous atmosphere allow deriving the internal energy of this cloud through well-established and tested theoretical descriptions. A second set of experiments under near-vacuum conditions provides a second measure of energy as the internal energy converts to kinetic energy of expansion. The resulting data allow deriving the vaporized mass as a function of impact angle and velocity. Although peak shock pressures decrease with decreasing impact angle (referenced to horizontal), the amount of impact-generated vapor is found to increase and is derived from the upper surface. Moreover, the temperature of the vapor cloud appears to decrease with decreasing angle. These unexpected results are proposed to reflect the increasing roles of shear heating and downrange hypervelocity ricochet impacts created during oblique impacts. The shallow provenance, low temperature, and trajectory of such vapor have implications for larger-scale events, including enhancement of atmospheric and biospheric stress by oblique terrestrial impacts and impact recycling of the early atmosphere of Mars.

  16. The Two Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein Genes, CsTCTP1 and CsTCTP2, Are Negative Modulators in the Cucumis sativus Defense Response to Sphaerotheca fuliginea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangnan Meng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pathogen stress often significantly decreases cucumber production. However, knowledge regarding the molecular mechanism and signals of cucumber disease resistance is far from complete. Here, we report two translationally controlled tumor protein genes, CsTCTP1 and CsTCTP2, that are both negative modulators in the Cucumis sativus defense response to Sphaerotheca fuliginea. Subcellular localization analysis showed that CsTCTP1 and CsTCTP2 were both localized in the cytoplasm. Expression analysis indicated that the transcript levels of CsTCTP1 and CsTCTP2 were linked to the degree of cucumber resistance to S. fuliginea. Transient overexpression of either CsTCTP1 or CsTCTP2 in cucumber cotyledons impaired resistance to S. fuliginea, whereas silencing of either CsTCTP1 or CsTCTP2 enhanced cucumber resistance to S. fuliginea. The relationship of several defense-related genes and ABA and target of rapamycin (TOR signaling pathway-related genes to the overexpressing and silencing of CsTCTP1/CsTCTP2 in non-infested cucumber plants was investigated. The results indicated that CsTCTP1 participates in the defense response to S. fuliginea by regulating the expression of certain defense-associated genes and/or ABA signaling pathway-associated genes, and CsTCTP2 participates through regulating the expression of TOR signaling pathway-associated genes. Our findings will guide enhancing the resistance of cucumber to powdery mildew.

  17. The distribution of {sup 137}Cs, K, Rb and Cs in plants in a Sphagnum-dominated peatland in eastern central Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinichuk, M., E-mail: mykhailo.vinichuk@mark.slu.s [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Ecology, Zhytomyr State Technological University, 103 Chernyakhovsky Street, 10005 Zhytomyr (Ukraine); Johanson, K.J. [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Rydin, H. [Department of Plant Ecology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvaegen 18D, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Rosen, K. [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-02-15

    We record the distribution of {sup 137}Cs, K, Rb and Cs within individual Sphagnum plants (down to 20 cm depth) as well as {sup 137}Cs in vascular plants growing on a peatland in eastern central Sweden. In Calluna vulgaris{sup 137}Cs was mainly located within the green parts, whereas Andromeda polifolia, Eriophorum vaginatum and Vaccinium oxycoccos showed higher {sup 137}Cs activity in roots. Carex rostrata and Menyanthes trifoliata showed variable distribution of {sup 137}Cs within the plants. The patterns of {sup 137}Cs activity concentration distribution as well as K, Rb and Cs concentrations within individual Sphagnum plants were rather similar and were usually highest in the capitula and/or in the subapical segments and lowest in the lower dead segments, which suggests continuous relocation of those elements to the actively growing apical part. The {sup 137}Cs and K showed relatively weak correlations, especially in capitula and living green segments (0-10 cm) of the plant (r = 0.50). The strongest correlations were revealed between {sup 137}Cs and Rb (r = 0.89), and between {sup 137}Cs and stable Cs (r = 0.84). This suggests similarities between {sup 137}Cs and Rb in uptake and relocation within the Sphagnum, but that {sup 137}Cs differs from K.

  18. The distribution of 137Cs, K, Rb and Cs in plants in a Sphagnum-dominated peatland in eastern central Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinichuk, M.; Johanson, K.J.; Rydin, H.; Rosen, K.

    2010-01-01

    We record the distribution of 137 Cs, K, Rb and Cs within individual Sphagnum plants (down to 20 cm depth) as well as 137 Cs in vascular plants growing on a peatland in eastern central Sweden. In Calluna vulgaris 137 Cs was mainly located within the green parts, whereas Andromeda polifolia, Eriophorum vaginatum and Vaccinium oxycoccos showed higher 137 Cs activity in roots. Carex rostrata and Menyanthes trifoliata showed variable distribution of 137 Cs within the plants. The patterns of 137 Cs activity concentration distribution as well as K, Rb and Cs concentrations within individual Sphagnum plants were rather similar and were usually highest in the capitula and/or in the subapical segments and lowest in the lower dead segments, which suggests continuous relocation of those elements to the actively growing apical part. The 137 Cs and K showed relatively weak correlations, especially in capitula and living green segments (0-10 cm) of the plant (r = 0.50). The strongest correlations were revealed between 137 Cs and Rb (r = 0.89), and between 137 Cs and stable Cs (r = 0.84). This suggests similarities between 137 Cs and Rb in uptake and relocation within the Sphagnum, but that 137 Cs differs from K.

  19. The distribution of (137)Cs, K, Rb and Cs in plants in a Sphagnum-dominated peatland in eastern central Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinichuk, M; Johanson, K J; Rydin, H; Rosén, K

    2010-02-01

    We record the distribution of (137)Cs, K, Rb and Cs within individual Sphagnum plants (down to 20cm depth) as well as (137)Cs in vascular plants growing on a peatland in eastern central Sweden. In Calluna vulgaris(137)Cs was mainly located within the green parts, whereas Andromeda polifolia, Eriophorum vaginatum and Vaccinium oxycoccos showed higher (137)Cs activity in roots. Carex rostrata and Menyanthes trifoliata showed variable distribution of (137)Cs within the plants. The patterns of (137)Cs activity concentration distribution as well as K, Rb and Cs concentrations within individual Sphagnum plants were rather similar and were usually highest in the capitula and/or in the subapical segments and lowest in the lower dead segments, which suggests continuous relocation of those elements to the actively growing apical part. The (137)Cs and K showed relatively weak correlations, especially in capitula and living green segments (0-10cm) of the plant (r=0.50). The strongest correlations were revealed between (137)Cs and Rb (r=0.89), and between (137)Cs and stable Cs (r=0.84). This suggests similarities between (137)Cs and Rb in uptake and relocation within the Sphagnum, but that (137)Cs differs from K. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Uptake and distribution of 137Cs and stable Cs by microorganisms isolated from mushroom substrata in the Japanese forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahara, Chikako; Fukumoto, Atsushi; Kato, Fumio; Sugiyama, Hideo

    2004-01-01

    The pH values of wild mushroom substrata, the influence of pH in medium on the appearance frequencies of microorganisms from mushroom substrata, and growth and Cs uptake by several microorganisms were investigated. The results showed that the pH values of 42 mushroom substrata were slightly acidic. There was no remarkable difference in the appearance frequencies of filamentous actinomycetes and planktonic bacteria at pH 5, 6 and 7, except in the samples of mushroom substrata from Mt. Fuji. The values of Cs concentration ratio (CR) for microorganisms isolated from mushroom substrata and for mushrooms were almost the same level, suggesting that those microorganisms could take up Cs in substrata and reserve Cs in their cells. (author)

  1. Facile synthesis and characterization of CsPbBr3 and CsPb2Br5 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-03-23

    Mar 23, 2018 ... All-inorganic caesium lead-halide perovskite CsPbBr3 and ... optoelectronic materials owing to their stabilities and highly efficient photoluminescence (PL). ... chemical tenability [2], hybrid organic–inorganic lead halide-.

  2. Energy- and temperature dependences of secondary electron emission of CsI- and CsBr layers doped with Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galij, P.V.; Tsal', N.A.

    1983-01-01

    The energy and temperature dependences of the secondary electron emission coefficient (SEEC) of CsI-Cd-, CsBr-Cd-, CsI-CsBr layers have been studied. The effect of bivalent cadmium impurity on the SEEC value is investigated. It is shown that implantation of small amounts of Cd 2+ impurity into the lattice of the initial monocrystals might increase the SEEC values of the layers. Temperature dependences (TD) of SEEC are measured and the possibility of comparing experimental results with the Dekker formula is analyzed. A conclusion is drawn that the Dekker model well describes the TD of SEEC of doped layers at temperatures T < or approximately 100 deg C. At elevated temperatures., along with secondary electron scattering on phonons, one should take into account their scattering on vacancies

  3. Comparison of CsI(Tl) and CsI(Na) partially slotted crystals for high-resolution SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giokaris, N.; Loudos, G.; Maintas, D.; Karabarbounis, A.; Lembesi, M.; Spanoudaki, V.; Stiliaris, E.; Boukis, S.; Sakellios, N.; Karakatsanis, N.; Gektin, A.; Boyarintsev, A.; Pedash, V.; Gayshan, V.

    2006-01-01

    Dedicated systems based on Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tubes (PSPMTs) coupled to scintillators, have been used over the past years for the construction of compact systems, suitable for applications such as small animal imaging and small organs imaging. Most of the proposed systems are based on fully pixelized scintillators. Previous studies have shown that partially slotted scintillators offer a good compromise between cost, energy resolution and spatial resolution. In this work, the performance of two sets of CsI(Tl) and CsI(Na) partially slotted crystals is compared. Initial results show that CsI(Tl) scintillators are more suitable for gamma-ray detection, since their performance in terms of sensitivity, spatial and energy resolution is superior than that of CsI(Na)

  4. Seperation of CsCl from LiCl-CsCl molten salt by cold finger melt cryst allization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versey, Joshua R. [Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering and Nuclear Engineering Program University of Idaho, Idaho (United States); Phongikaroon, Supathorn [Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond (Korea, Republic of); Simpson, Michael F. [Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering University of Utah, Utah (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    This study provides a fundamental understanding of a cold finger melt crystallization technique by exploring the heat and mass transfer processes of cold finger separation. A series of experiments were performed using a simplified LiCl-CsCl system by varying initial CsCl concentrations (1, 3, 5, and 7.5 wt%), cold finger cooling rates (7.4, 9.8, 12.3, and 14.9 L/min), and separation times (5, 10, 15, and 30 min). Results showed a potential recycling rate of 0.36 g/min with a purity of 0.33 wt% CsCl in LiCl. A CsCl concentrated drip formation was found to decrease crystal purity especially for smaller crystal formations. Dimensionless heat and mass transfer correlations showed that separation production is primarily influenced by convective transfer controlled by cooling gas flow rate, where correlations are more accurate for slower cooling gas flow rates.

  5. Physicochemical properties of the CsNO2-CsOH-H2O ternary system at 25 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protsenko, P.I.; Medvedev, B.S.; Popova, T.B.

    1977-01-01

    Saturated solutions of the CsNO 2 - CsOH- H 2 O system have been studied at 25 deg C by the methods of solubility, viscosity, electric conductivity, refractometry and density. It is stated that no solid phase of a new composition is formed in the system. While adding hydroxide to the saturated solution of cesium nitride, a considerable salting-out of the latter takes place

  6. Thermal gravimetric analysis of the CsCuCl3, Cs2CuCl4 and Cs2CuCl4x2H2O crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soboleva, L.V.; Vasil'eva, M.G.

    1977-01-01

    The thermal characteristics of crystals of Cs 2 CuCl 4 , Cs 2 CuCl 4 x2H 2 O, and CsCuCl 3 were investigated thermogravimetrically. The derivatogram of the Cs 2 CuCl 4 crystal is characterized by the presence of a single endothermal effect at 505 deg C. The derivatogram of the Cs 2 CuCl 4 x2H 2 O crystal contains three endothermal effects: at 40, 135, and 480 deg C. The derivatogram of the CsCuCl 3 crystal shows the presence of two endothermal effects at 142 and 455 deg C. The thermogravimetric data on Cs 2 CuCl 4 and CsCuCl 3 crystals reveal crystal decomposition on melting; hence, these crystals cannot be grown from melts

  7. Application of boat method in emissive flame photometry for determination of Li, Rb, Cs, Na, K, Ca, Sr, Ba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, N.A.; Pobedonostsev, V.A.; Savel'ev, Yu.A.

    1976-01-01

    Study of the flame temperature and dependence of adsorbance on the C/O ratio over the boat for the carbide forming elements and the effect of material, thickness, and the height of the boat on the vaporization of alkaline and alkaline earth metals is described. For a boat (70x8, and 0.3 mm thickness), made from Cu, brass, and Ni, the fall in temperature over the boat was 70, 130, 250, and 340 0 , respectively, for air-C 2 H 2 and 50, 100, 210, and 280 0 for N 2 O-C 2 H 2 flame. Introduction of the boat increases the C/O ratio in the analytical zone of the flame, probably caused by a creation of a shaded space, immediately above the boat. Smaller amounts of atmospheric O enter into the space, when compared with the flame in the absence of the boat. The increase in the C/O ratio decreases the absorbance, which in turn, is caused by the fall in temperature and formation of carbides. Time lag between heating of the boat and the initiation of vaporization of the sample and the duration of evaporation impulse were measured. Solutions of CsCl, containing 1 μg Cs/ml were used at 852.1 nm. The boats, previously treated with 0.1% polystyrene in C 6 H 6 , to give a hydrophobic surface and an uniform salt layer distribution, containing the sample were dried under an ir lamp and introduced into the flame. The dependence of Cs emission on the thickness of the different materials (Ni, Cu, Ta) and heights of boats in the air-C 2 H 2 flame is illustrated. The duration of the emission impulse decreases linearly with the decrease of thickness of the boat for all materials tested. Limits of detection of Na, K, Li, Rb, Cs, Ca, Sr, and Ba were determined by using the equilibrium and the boat methods, the latter being some 1-2 orders lower than the former

  8. Evaluation of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in sugar by non-destructive analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correira, Filipe Lopes de Barros; Santos Júnior, José Araújo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Medeiros, Nilson Vicente da Silva; Santos Junior, Otávio Pereira dos, E-mail: filipelbck@gmail.com, E-mail: jaraujo@ufpe.br, E-mail: romilton@ufpe.br, E-mail: josineide.santos@ufpe.br, E-mail: nilson.medeiros@ufpe.br, E-mail: otavio.santos@vitoria.ifpe.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (RAE/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Radioecologia; Vieira, José Wilson, E-mail: jose.wilson59@uol.com.br [Instituto Federal de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife (Brazil); Valois, Rhaiana Caminha, E-mail: rhaianavalois@hotmail.com [Colégio Militar do Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The spread of anthropogenic radioisotopes in the environment comes from nuclear tests and accidents that occurred in the past, which justifies constant monitoring, to guarantee the safety and control of the activities that involve these applications. Brazil, when exporting some food products, depending on the country of origin, a radiometric report is required, especially for sugar that has high world consumption and the possibility of contamination of the population, when radioisotope is present. Therefore, the investigation of the levels of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in sugar matrices is necessary to predict radioecological emergency situations. The National Nuclear Energy Commission, the agency that oversees nuclear applications in Brazil, With Resolution No. 102 of December 22, 2010 approved regulatory positions, including levels of action for food control, recommended to restrict the marketing of food products in Brazil. General, whose specific activity is higher than the limit of 1.0 kBq / kg for the said isotopes of cesium independently. Aiming for improvements in the analyzes that are already performed in the Laboratory of Radioecology and Environmental Control of the Department of Nuclear Energy of the Federal University of Pernambuco to assurance the quality of sugar marketed in Brazil, a standard procedure for the analysis of these radionuclides in this matrix was determined. High resolution gamma spectrometry with non-destructive analysis was used to perform the tests. Priority was given to parameters that directly influence the qualitative and quantitative analysis of these radioactive elements, such as calibration in energy and efficiency, resolution, influence of self-absorption, counting statistics directly associated with the time of analysis, influence of background radiation and geometry analysis. (author)

  9. Evaluation of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in sugar by non-destructive analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correira, Filipe Lopes de Barros; Santos Júnior, José Araújo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Medeiros, Nilson Vicente da Silva; Santos Junior, Otávio Pereira dos; Valois, Rhaiana Caminha

    2017-01-01

    The spread of anthropogenic radioisotopes in the environment comes from nuclear tests and accidents that occurred in the past, which justifies constant monitoring, to guarantee the safety and control of the activities that involve these applications. Brazil, when exporting some food products, depending on the country of origin, a radiometric report is required, especially for sugar that has high world consumption and the possibility of contamination of the population, when radioisotope is present. Therefore, the investigation of the levels of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in sugar matrices is necessary to predict radioecological emergency situations. The National Nuclear Energy Commission, the agency that oversees nuclear applications in Brazil, With Resolution No. 102 of December 22, 2010 approved regulatory positions, including levels of action for food control, recommended to restrict the marketing of food products in Brazil. General, whose specific activity is higher than the limit of 1.0 kBq / kg for the said isotopes of cesium independently. Aiming for improvements in the analyzes that are already performed in the Laboratory of Radioecology and Environmental Control of the Department of Nuclear Energy of the Federal University of Pernambuco to assurance the quality of sugar marketed in Brazil, a standard procedure for the analysis of these radionuclides in this matrix was determined. High resolution gamma spectrometry with non-destructive analysis was used to perform the tests. Priority was given to parameters that directly influence the qualitative and quantitative analysis of these radioactive elements, such as calibration in energy and efficiency, resolution, influence of self-absorption, counting statistics directly associated with the time of analysis, influence of background radiation and geometry analysis. (author)

  10. Speciation of Cs-137 in fertilizers amended soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mocanu, N.; Breban, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    One of the most used agricultural countermeasures to reduce the uptake of radionuclides from soil into plants is the chemical treatment of the soil with fertilizers. The distribution of a radionuclide between different physico chemical forms is essential to characterize its behaviour and the biological impact on the environment. To assess a radionuclide bioavailability to the soil-plant transfer, the chemical forms that are most relevant are the water soluble and exchangeable ones. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the potential modifications in time of the Cs-137 distribution in the two soil fractions, induced by the treatment with different K-based fertilizers. The two types of soil were selected taking into account their importance for the agricultural use in Romania. By the sequential extraction method the distribution of 137 Cs has been determined in the water soluble and exchangeable fractions separated from the soils after 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 4 months, respectively. For the reference untreated soils, experimental data revealed that less than 1 percent of Cs-137 is associated to the water soluble fraction for both types of soil. Around 4 percents of the total amount of Cs-137 in the brown-reddish soil and 13 percents in the alluvial one were associated to the exchangeable fraction. The differences between the Cs-137 distribution are correlated to the higher content of dust and clay in the brown reddish soil, which are strong binders for Cs ions. The application of the two fertilizers releasing fast the K ions (KCl and potassium salt), determined from at the first moment after the contamination a reduction of the Cs-137 concentration in both fraction. The effect was most pronounced for the soluble fraction in the brown -reddish soil: with a factor of 8 in case of KCl treatment and 5 in case of potassium salt. For the others experimental cases the concentration of Cs-137 in both fractions was slightly reduced, with factors between (1

  11. An optical microscopy study of the swelling of wet-spun films of CsDNA as a function of hydration and CsCl concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenker, Megan; Marlowe, Robert; Lee, Scott; Rupprecht, Allan

    2005-03-01

    Highly oriented, wet-spun films of DNA expand in the direction perpendicular to the helical axis as the hydration of the film is increased. CsDNA films with a high CsCl content show an unexpected shrinkage at a relative humidity of 92%. Our most recent experiments have been to measure the perpendicular dimension of CsDNA as a function of both hydration and concentration of CsCl. Our preliminary results show that no shrinkage is observed at low contents of CsCl, showing that the CsCl plays an integral role in the shrinkage phenomenon.

  12. Correlations between potassium, rubidium and cesium ({sup 133}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) in sporocarps of Suillus variegatus in a Swedish boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinichuk, M., E-mail: Mykhailo.Vinichuk@slu.s [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Ecology, Zhytomyr State Technological University, 103 Cherniakhovsky Str., 10005 Zhytomyr (Ukraine); Rosen, K.; Johanson, K.J. [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Dahlberg, A. [Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7026, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-04-15

    An analysis of sporocarps of ectomycorrhizal fungi Suillus variegatus assessed whether cesium ({sup 133}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) uptake was correlated with potassium (K) or rubidium (Rb) uptake. The question was whether intraspecific correlations of Rb, K and {sup 133}Cs mass concentrations with {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in sporocarps were higher within, rather than among, different fungal species, and if genotypic origin of sporocarps within a population affected uptake and correlation. Sporocarps (n = 51) from a Swedish forest population affected by the fallout after the Chernobyl accident were studied. The concentrations were 31.9 {+-} 6.79 g kg{sup -1} for K (mean {+-} SD, dwt), 0.40 {+-} 0.09 g kg{sup -1} for Rb, 8.7 {+-} 4.36 mg kg{sup -1} for {sup 133}Cs and 63.7 {+-} 24.2 kBq kg{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs. The mass concentrations of {sup 133}Cs correlated with {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations (r = 0.61). There was correlation between both {sup 133}Cs concentrations (r = 0.75) and {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations (r = 0.44) and Rb, but the {sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs isotopic ratio negatively correlated with Rb concentration. Concentrations of K and Rb were weakly correlated (r = 0.51). The {sup 133}Cs mass concentrations, {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations and {sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs isotopic ratios did not correlate with K concentrations. No differences between, within or, among genotypes in S. variegatus were found. This suggested the relationships between K, Rb, {sup 133}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in sporocarps of S. variegatus is similar to other fungal species. - Highlights: {yields} We studied uptake of Cs ({sup 133}Cs and {sup 137}Cs), K and Rb by Suillus variegates sporocarps. {yields} Genotypic origin of fungus did not affect uptake of studied elements (isotopes). {yields} Genotypic origin did not affect correlation between Cs ({sup 133}Cs and {sup 137}Cs), K and Rb.

  13. CsMYB5a and CsMYB5e from Camellia sinensis differentially regulate anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaolan; Huang, Keyi; Zheng, Guangshun; Hou, Hua; Wang, Peiqiang; Jiang, Han; Zhao, Xuecheng; Li, Mingzhuo; Zhang, Shuxiang; Liu, Yajun; Gao, Liping; Zhao, Lei; Xia, Tao

    2018-05-01

    Tea is one of the most widely consumed nonalcoholic beverages worldwide. Polyphenols are nutritional compounds present in the leaves of tea plants. Although numerous genes are functionally characterized to encode enzymes that catalyze the formation of diverse polyphenolic metabolites, transcriptional regulation of those different pathways such as late steps of the proanthcoyanidin (PA) pathway remains unclear. In this study, using different tea transcriptome databases, we screened at least 140 R2R3-MYB transcription factors (TFs) and grouped them according to the basic function domains of the R2R3 MYB TF superfamily. Among 140 R2R3 TFs, CsMYB5a and CsMYB5e were chosen for analysis because they may be involved in PA biosynthesis regulation. CsMYB5a-overexpressing tobacco plants exhibited downregulated anthocyanin accumulation but a high polymeric PA content in the flowers. Overexpression of CsMYB5e in tobacco plants did not change the anthocyanin content but increased the dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde-stained PA content. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analyses revealed that genes related to PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis pathways were markedly upregulated in both CsMYB5a- and CsMYB5e-overexpressing flowers. Three UGTs and four GSTs were identified as involved in PA and anthocyanin glycosylation and transportation in transgenic plants. These results provide new insights into the regulation of PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis in Camellia sinensis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis on the influence of forest soil characteristics on radioactive Cs infiltration and evaluation of residual radioactive Cs on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yoshitomo; Yoneda, Minoru; Shimada, Yoko; Fukutani, Satoshi; Ikegami, Maiko; Shimomura, Ryohei

    2018-03-29

    We investigated the depth profiles of radioactive Cs, ignition loss, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) in five types of forest soils sampled using scraper plates. We then simulated the monitored depth profiles in a compartment model, taking ignition loss as a parameter based on experimental results showing a positive correlation between ignition loss and the CEC. The calculated values were comparable with the monitored values, though some discrepancy was observed in the middle of the soil layer. Based on decontamination data on the surface dose rate and surface contamination concentration, we newly defined a surface residual index (SRI) to evaluate the residual radioactive Cs on surfaces. The SRI value tended to gradually decrease in forests and unpaved roads and was much smaller in forests and on unpaved roads than on paved roads. The radioactive Cs was assumed to have already infiltrated underground 18 months after the nuclear power plant accident, and the sinking was assumed to be ongoing. The SRI values measured on paved roads suggested that radioactive Cs remained on the surfaces, though a gradual infiltration was observed towards the end of the monitoring term. The SRI value is thought to be effective in grasping the rough condition of residual radioactive Cs quickly at sites of decontamination activity in the field. The SRI value may be serviceable for actual contamination works after further research is done to elucidate points such as the relation between the SRI and the infiltration of radioactive Cs in various types of objects.

  15. Elucidation and functional characterization of CsPSY and CsUGT promoters in Crocus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Archana; Mishra, Sonal; Kaul, Sanjana; Dhar, Manoj K

    2018-01-01

    The dried stigmas of Crocus sativus constitute the saffron, which is considered to be the costliest spice of the world. Saffron is valuable for its constituents, which are mainly apocarotenoids. In order to enhance the production of apocarotenoids, it is imperative to understand the regulation of apocarotenoid biosynthetic pathway. In C. sativus, although the pathway has been elucidated, the information regarding the regulation of the pathwaygenes is scanty. During the present investigation, the characterization of promoters regulating the expression of two important genes i.e. CsPSY and CsUGT was performed. We successfully cloned the promoters of both the genes, which were functionally characterized in Crocus sativus and Nicotiana tabaccum. In silico analysis of the promoters demonstrated the presence of several important cis regulatory elements responding tolight, hormonesand interaction with transcription factors (TFs). Further analysis suggested the regulation of CsPSY promoter by Abscisic acid (ABA) and that of CsUGT by Gibberellic acid (GA). In addition, we also observed ABA and GA mediated modulation in the expression of significant TFs and CsPSY and CsUGT transcripts. Overall, the study addresses issues related to regulation of key genes of apocarotenoid pathway in C.sativus.

  16. Luminescence properties of undoped CsCaCl3 and CsSrCl3 crystalline scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Yutaka; Saeki, Keiichiro; Koshimizu, Masanori; Asai, Keisuke; Yanagida, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic luminescence properties of undoped CsCaCl 3 and CsSrCl 3 crystalline scintillators were studied. The crystal samples were grown by a vertical Bridgman method. Photoluminescence spectra of the crystals showed Auger-free luminescence (AFL) at 310 nm and self-trapped emission (STE) at 400 nm for CsCaCl 3 and 465 nm for CsSrCl 3 , when vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light at 84 nm and 160 nm excited the crystals. X-ray excited radioluminescence spectra of the crystals showed some emission bands in the 280-600 nm wavelength range, which are owing to AFL, STE, and other origins such as lattice defects and impurities. Scintillation light yield was 400-300 ph/MeV, and the principal scintillation decay time about 2.5 ns and 12 ns for CsCaCl 3 and 1.8 ns and 13 ns for CsSrCl 3 . (author)

  17. Uptake of vaporized molybdenum and cesium tracers by molten oxide mixtures as function of free oxygen ion activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmon, B.

    1975-11-01

    Molten mixtures of oxides containing Ca, Fe, Al, Na and Si were exposed to vaporized Mo-99 and Cs-137 tracers at 1100 and 1300 deg C. Uptake values at 1300 deg C were extrapolated to short heating times. The obtained ''attachment coefficients'' for that temperature are shown to have the relationship (Mo) approximately equal to (Cs)sup(-1/2). The chemical composition of the melts and their oxygen to metal ratio found to affect the uptake of both tracers. This is associated with the cationic field strengths and the free oxygen ion activities in the mixtures. Molybdenum and cesium apparently behave like glass-network forming and glass-network modifying species, respectively. (author)

  18. Uptake and transfer factors of 137Cs by mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, G.

    1991-01-01

    The 137 Cs content of 118 species (668 samples) of higher fungi collected in the period from August 1984 to October 1989 at three different locations in Styria, Austria, was determined by gamma-spectrometry. The Cs-content of most mushrooms has been increasing since September 1986. In order to find out which factors determine the 137 Cs-contamination of mushrooms and the transfer-value soil to mushroom, the concentration of total and plant-available radiocesium in soils as well as the pH-value, the content of humus, clay, silt, sand, exchangeable cations, the composition of the clay minerals, and the particle size distribution of the soils of two different locations were examined. The higher the 137 Cs contamination of the soil, the thicker the layer of humus and the higher the content of humus, the lower the pH-value, and the lower the amount of essential cations, especially of K + , the higher the amount of 137 Cs plant-available will be. Therefore, the contamination of the mushrooms in the coniferous forest of Koralpenblick (1000 m) is higher than in the mixed forest at the Rosenberg around Graz at approx. 500 m height. Of 26 different species of mushrooms measured at both sites, only 61% show the highest TF-values soil to mushrooms also at the Koralpenblick. In the spruce forest at Koralpenblick there are many species of mushrooms with high 137 Cs-contamination which were not found at the Rosenberg. However, the properties of the species to which a mushroom belongs are more important than environmental conditions and soil properties. The transfer values of 40 K stay within narrow bounds, whereas those of 137 Cs differ widely. (orig.)

  19. Accurate absolute measurement of trapped Cs atoms in a MOT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talavera O, M.; Lopez R, M.; Carlos L, E. de; Jimenez S, S.

    2007-01-01

    A Cs-133 Magneto-Optical Trap (MOT) has been developed at the Time and Frequency Division of the Centro Nacional de Metrologia, CENAM, in Mexico. This MOT is part of a primary frequency standard based on ultra-cold Cs atoms, called CsF-1 clock, under development at CENAM. In this Cs MOT, we use the standard configuration (σ + - σ - ) 4-horizontal 2-vertical laser beams 1.9 cm in diameter, with 5 mW each. We use a 852 nm, 5 mW, DBR laser as a master laser which is stabilized by saturation spectroscopy. Emission linewidth of the master laser is l MHz. In order to amplify the light of the master laser, a 50 mW, 852 nm AlGaAs laser is used as slave laser. This slave laser is stabilized by light injection technique. A 12 MHz red shift of the light is performed by two double passes through two Acusto-Optic Modulators (AOMs). The optical part of the CENAMs MOT is very robust against mechanical vibration, acoustic noise and temperature changes in our laboratory, because none of our diode lasers use an extended cavity to reduce the linewidth. In this paper, we report results of our MOT characterization as a function of several operation parameters such as the intensity of laser beams, the laser beam diameter, the red shift of light, and the gradient of the magnetic field. We also report accurate absolute measurement of the number of Cs atoms trapped in our Cs MOT. We found up to 6 x 10 7 Cs atoms trapped in our MOT measured with an uncertainty no greater than 6.4%. (Author)

  20. A Simple Experiment for Determining Vapor Pressure and Enthalpy of Vaporization of Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Gerald S.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory procedures, calculations, and sample results are described for a freshman chemistry experiment in which the Clausius-Clapeyron equation is introduced as a means of describing the variation of vapor pressure with temperature and for determining enthalpy of vaporization. (Author/SK)

  1. Vapor pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of oil of catnip by correlation gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Daniel; Gobble, Chase; Chickos, James

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Vaporization enthalpies of the nepetalactones from oil of catnip have been evaluated. • Vapor pressures from T = (298.15 to 350) K have been evaluated. • Oil of catnip has a vapor pressure similar to DEET at T = 298.15 K. - Abstract: The vaporization enthalpy and vapor pressure of the two nepetalactones found in Nepeta cataria have been evaluated by correlation gas chromatography. Vaporization enthalpies at T = 298.15 K of {(68.0 ± 1.9) and (69.4 ± 1.9)} kJ ⋅ mol"−"1 have been derived for the minor diastereomer, (4aS,7S,7aS)-nepetalactone, and major one, (4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactone, respectively. Vapor pressures also at T = 298.15 K of p = (1.2 ± 0.04) Pa and (0.91 ± 0.03) Pa have been evaluated for the minor and the major stereoisomer. In addition to being of interest because of the remarkable effect it has on various felids, oil of catnip is also quite effective in repelling mosquitoes, comparable to diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). The vapor pressures evaluated in this work suggest that the two stereoisomers have similar volatility to DEET at ambient temperatures.

  2. Vapor pressures and enthalpies of vaporization of a series of the linear aliphatic aldehydes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Verevkin, S. P.; Krasnykh, E. L.; Vasiltsova, T. V.; Koutek, Bohumír; Doubský, Jan; Heintz, A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 206, - (2003), s. 331-339 ISSN 0378-3812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : aldehydes * vapor pressure * enthalpy of vaporization Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.165, year: 2003

  3. Vapor pressures and vaporization enthalpy of codlemone by correlation gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, Shannon M.; Harris, Harold H.; Chickos, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The vaporization enthalpy of codlemone has been evaluated. • The vapor pressure of codlemone has been evaluated from T = (298.15 to T b ) K. • Vapor pressures for the 1-alkanols standards are available from T = (298.15 to 500) K. - Abstract: The vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpy of codlemone (trans, trans 8,10-dodecadien-1-ol), the female sex hormone of the codling moth is evaluated by correlation gas chromatography using a series of saturated primary alcohols as standards. A vaporization enthalpy of (92.3 ± 2.6) kJ · mol −1 and a vapor pressure, p/Pa = (0.083 ± 0.012) were evaluated at T = 298.15 K. An equation for the evaluation of vapor pressure from ambient temperature to boiling has been derived by correlation for codlemone. The calculated boiling temperature of T B = 389 K at p = 267 Pa is within the temperature range reported in the literature. A normal boiling temperature of T B = (549.1 ± 0.1) K is also estimated by extrapolation

  4. Evidence of a sewer vapor transport pathway at the USEPA vapor intrusion research duplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of sewer lines as preferential pathways for vapor intrusion is poorly understood. Although the importance of sewer lines for volatile organic compound (VOC) transport has been documented at a small number of sites with vapor intrusion, sewer lines are not routinely sampl...

  5. Mass-spectrometric study of ion clustering in alkali-metal hydroxide vapor: cluster-ion energy and structural characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudin, L.S.; Butman, M.F.; Krasnov, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    Various positive and negative ions have been recorded in the equilibrium vapors from alkali-metal hydroxides: M/sup +/-/, OH - , O - , MO - , MOH - , and X/sup +/-/ (MOH)/sub n/, where X = M/sup +/-/, OH - , n = 1-6. The equilibrium constants have been measured for X/sup +/-/(MOH)/sub n/ = x/sup +/-/ + nMOH(k), n = 1-3, and the enthalpies of reaction have been determined, from which the enthalpies of formation and dissociation energies of X/sup +/-/ (MOH)/sub n/ have been calculated. The relative stabilities of the ions in the series from Na to Cs are examined

  6. Radiogenotoxicological effect of signal nuclide 134Cs on somatic and germ cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuShou-Peng; XiaFen; 等

    1997-01-01

    Chromosome at aberation rates in bone marrow cells and micronucleus formation in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes both rise with increase in radioactivities of 134Cs,and can be fitted to power functions of radioactivities of 134Cs.In spermatogonia 134Cs mainly induced chromatid breakage,and abnormalities in sperm can also be experessed as power functions of radioactivities of 134 Cs.

  7. Laser spectroscopy of the 109.1-nm transition in neutral Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimiduk, D.P.; Young, J.F.; Harris, S.E.; Pedrotti, K.D.

    1986-01-01

    Certain core-excited quartet levels in alkali-like atoms and ions, termed quasi-metastable, have slow autoionizing rates and comparable (relatively fast for quartets) VUV radiative rates. This circumstance, desirable for laser transitions, is due to angular momentum and parity selection rules on these quarters and the doublets to which they may couple via the spin-orbit interaction. The 109.1-nm transition is between Cs(5p/sup 5/5d6s)/sup 4/P/sub 5/2/ and Cs(5p/sup 6/5d)/sup 2/D and is a prototype of a class of transitions which originate on quasi-metastable levels. It has been observed in emission from a pulsed hollow-cathode discharge. Here the authors report an experiment using the same discharge to populate the lower level of this transition; tunable VUV radiation, generated by four-wave mixing, is used to make absorption measurements at near Doppler-limited resolution. From these data the authors measure accurately the fine-structure splitting of the transition, estimate the oscillator strength and hyperfine splitting, and thus confirm the identity of the transition. The VUV radiation was generated via a resonant process in Zn vapor and then directed through the pulsed hollow cathode. The scanned VUV was absorbed by the excited Cs(5p/sup 6/5d)/sup 2/D atoms in the discharge. The authors measured separately the excited atom populations via absorption on the 5d-nf transitions, thus measuring the NL product of the lower levels. By varying the discharge current, the absorption was measured as a function of the lower level NL yielding curves of growth for these transitions. Careful study of these curves yielded the oscillator strengths of both components of this transition and an estimate of the hyperfine broadening of the upper level. The measured oscillator strengths agreed well with the authors' calculations using the code RCN/RCG

  8. Water vapor profiling using microwave radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. R.; Wilheit, T. T.

    1988-01-01

    Water vapor is one of the most important constituents in the Earth's atmosphere. Its spatial and temporal variations affect a wide spectrum of meteorological phenomena ranging from the formation of clouds to the development of severe storms. The passive microwave technique offers an excellent means for water vapor measurements. It can provide both day and night coverage under most cloud conditions. Two water vapor absorption features, at 22 and 183 GHz, were explored in the past years. The line strengths of these features differ by nearly two orders of magnitude. As a consequence, the techniques and the final products of water vapor measurements are also quite different. The research effort in the past few years was to improve and extend the retrieval algorithm to the measurements of water vapor profiles under cloudy conditions. In addition, the retrieval of total precipitable water using 183 GHz measurements, but in a manner analogous to the use of 22 GHz measurements, to increase measurement sensitivity for atmospheres of very low moisture content was also explored.

  9. Control of sodium vapor transport in annuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, G.E.; Bohringer, A.P.

    1983-11-01

    The method used to control sodium vapor transport in the annuli of various components at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is a downward purge of the annuli with high purity argon. The purge rates for the FFTF were selected by calculating the gas velocity required to overcome thermal convection transport in the annuli. To evaluate the effectiveness of the gas purge, laboratory apparatus was fabricated which simulated selected annuli in the FFTF In-Vessel Handling Machine (IVHM) and the Instrument Tree (IT) annuli. Tests were conducted at temperatures similar to FFTF conditions. Gas purge rates ranged from zero to 130% of FFTF flow rates. Test results show the effectiveness of a high purity gas purge in decreasing the accumulation of sodium vapor deposits in an annulus. The presence of water vapor and oxygen in the purge gas increased the sodium deposition rate by a factor of three over other tests usig high purity argon. The presence of a vapor control collar used in the IT annulus was shown to be beneficial for controlling vapor transport into the upper region of the annulus

  10. Vapor pumps and gas-driven machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillet, R.

    1991-01-01

    The vapor pump, patented in 1979 by Gaz de France, is an additional mass and heat exchanger which uses the combustion air of fuel-burning machines as an additional cold source. This cold source is preheated and, above all, humidified before reaching the burner, by means of the residual sensible and latent heat in the combustion products of the fuel-burning process. This final exchanger thus makes it possible, in many cases, to recover all the gross calorific value of natural gas, even when the combustion products leave the process at a wet temperature greater than 60 0 C, the maximum dew point of the products of normal combustion. Another significant advantage of the vapor pump being worth highlighting is the selective recycling of water vapor by the vapor pump which reduces the adiabatic combustion temperature and the oxygen concentration in the combustion air, two factors which lead to considerable reductions in nitrogen oxides formation, hence limiting atmospheric pollution. Alongside a wide range of configurations which make advantageous use of the vapor pump in association with gas-driven machines and processes, including gas turbines, a number of boiler plant installations are also presented [fr

  11. Distribution of tropical tropospheric water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, De-Zheng; Lindzen, Richard S.

    1993-01-01

    Utilizing a conceptual model for tropical convection and observational data for water vapor, the maintenance of the vertical distribution of the tropical tropospheric water vapor is discussed. While deep convection induces large-scale subsidence that constrains the turbulent downgradient mixing to within the convective boundary layer and effectively dries the troposphere through downward advection, it also pumps hydrometeors into the upper troposphere, whose subsequent evaporation appears to be the major source of moisture for the large-scale subsiding motion. The development of upper-level clouds and precipitation from these clouds may also act to dry the outflow, thus explaining the low relative humidity near the tropopause. A one-dimensional model is developed to simulate the mean vertical structure of water vapor in the tropical troposphere. It is also shown that the horizontal variation of water vapor in the tropical troposphere above the trade-wind boundary layer can be explained by the variation of a moisture source that is proportional to the amount of upper-level clouds. Implications for the nature of water vapor feedback in global warming are discussed.

  12. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Silicate Vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Costa, Gustavo C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Silicates are a common class of materials that are often exposed to high temperatures. The behavior of these materials needs to be understood for applications as high temperature coatings in material science as well as the constituents of lava for geological considerations. The vaporization behavior of these materials is an important aspect of their high temperature behavior and it also provides fundamental thermodynamic data. The application of Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS) to silicates is discussed. There are several special considerations for silicates. The first is selection of an appropriate cell material, which is either nearly inert or has well-understood interactions with the silicate. The second consideration is proper measurement of the low vapor pressures. This can be circumvented by using a reducing agent to boost the vapor pressure without changing the solid composition or by working at very high temperatures. The third consideration deals with kinetic barriers to vaporization. The measurement of these barriers, as encompassed in a vaporization coefficient, is discussed. Current measured data of rare earth silicates for high temperature coating applications are discussed. In addition, data on magnesium-iron-silicates (olivine) are presented and discussed.

  13. Repression of CC16 by cigarette smoke (CS exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxiang Zhu

    Full Text Available Club (Clara Cell Secretory Protein (CCSP, or CC16 is produced mainly by non-ciliated airway epithelial cells including bronchiolar club cells and the change of its expression has been shown to associate with the progress and severity of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD. In an animal model, the lack of CC16 renders the animal susceptible to the tumorigenic effect of a major CS carcinogen. A recent population-based Tucson Epidemiological Study of Airway Obstructive Diseases (TESAOD has indicated that the low serum CC16 concentration is closely linked with the smoke-related mortality, particularly that driven by the lung cancer. However, the study of CC16 expression in well-defined smoke exposure models has been lacking, and there is no experimental support for the potential causal link between CC16 and CS-induced pathophysiological changes in the lung. In the present study, we have found that airway CC16 expression was significantly repressed in COPD patients, in monkey CS exposure model, and in CS-induced mouse model of COPD. Additionally, the lack of CC16 exacerbated airway inflammation and alveolar loss in the mouse model. Therefore, CC16 may play an important protective role in CS-related diseases.

  14. 137 Cs as a tracer of the Catalan current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.; Molero, J.; Merino, J.; Pujol, L.; Mitchell, P.I.

    1995-01-01

    A number of nuclear power installations located in the north-western Mediterranean (NWM) area are known to enhance 137 Cs levels in various marine compartments. The nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Marcoule (France) has been reported to originate a significant increase of 137 Cs in Rhone river waters and sediments because of the discharge of low-level liquid radioactive waste. This radionuclide may be used as a tracer of oceanographic processes in the NWM; in fact, 137 Cs of Rhone river origin has been detected in the Gulf of Lions by several authors. The results reported in this work correspond to various transect experiments in waters of the Catalan Sea and show that: (i) surface salinity measurements confirmed the presence of the Catalan current in the Cap de Creus area; (ii) the 1991 Cap de Creus transect showed clearly the presence of 137 Cs above a baseline level of 4.3 ± 0.2 Bq.m -3 ; (iii) the Cap de Salou transect showed elevated levels towards the coast; (iv) the 1992 Cap de Creus transect showed no structure at all. Therefore, it was concluded that traces of 137 Cs from the Marcoule nuclear fuel reprocessing plant were transported by the Catalan current and were detectable in the Catalan Sea with a complex spatio-temporal structure. (authors). 25 refs., 4 figs

  15. Cs-137 concentrations in the muscles of Walleye Pollack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, T.; Yoshida, K.

    2003-01-01

    High concentrations of Cs-137 were detected in the muscles of Walleye Pollack (Theragra chalcogramm) collected from Kitamiyamato banks (sampling on 25 Jul. 2000), Kamui area (16 Oct. 2000) and Niigata coasts (31 Jan. 2001). The concentrations were 0.35 ± 0.01, 0.41 ± 0.01, and 0.63 ± 0.02 Bq/kg-wet, respectively. The average concentration in our past investigations was about 0.25 ± 0.01 Bq/kg-wet. Samples from other areas, the coat of Kushiro (8 May 2001), North Tishima (13 Nov. 2000) and the Sea of Okhotsk (6 May 2001), had the average concentrations. There were no such high concentrations of Cs-137 in other fish species collected from Kitamiyamato banks, Kamui area, and Niigata coasts. Fish samples with high concentrations all make the migration in the north of Japan sea. These results would indicated that samples took in Cs-137 elements from sea-water or foods on the migration route. Cs-137 concentrations in muscles of walleye pollack does not increase with the body lengths unlike other marine fishes, which enables the comparison of Cs-137 concentrations between areas without considering the body lengths. Walleye Pollac migrates in the large area in the sea of Japan and draws near other country except Japan. These habits make Walleye Pollac the excellent bio indicators to monitor oceanic radioactive pollution

  16. Theoretical investigation of the Cs*Hen>=3 exciplexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbiri, Mohamed; Daul, Claude

    2005-01-01

    The X 2 Σ 1/2 , A 2 Π 1/2 , B 2 Σ 1/2 , and A 2 Π 3/2 states of Cs*He n exciplexes, with n={3,...,9}, are studied using first principle density functional theory (DFT) formalism combined with the zeroth order regular approximation (ZORA). The zero points energies (ZPEs) E 0 for Cs*He n are calculated at a first step, in order to estimate the stability of the studied exciplexes. Relativistic calculations are carried out including spin-orbit effect (SO), and potential energy surfaces of Cs*He 6 are shown. The electronic distribution shapes of the studied molecules are also discussed, and their emission lines are evaluated and compared to a new discovered experimental emission spectra, which has been recently assigned, using a semi-empirical model, to Cs(AΠ 1/2 )He 7 . Our first principle calculation suggests that the discovered emission line is most probably due to a decay of Cs(AΠ 1/2 )He 6

  17. Plant remediation of soil contaminated with 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Juncheng; Zhang Jianfeng; Zhu Yongyi; Chen Jingjie; Mei Yong; Jiang Huimin

    2005-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the bio-remediation of soils contaminated with 137 Cs. The selected plants are Cucurbita moschata Duchesne, Brassica chinensis L, Chloris virgata, Beta oulgaris L. Hongye, Beta oulgaris L. Dongshengye and Beta oulgaris L. The soils samples were taken from the paddy field, 2 km from the Dayawan nuclear power plant and Qinshan nuclear power plant, respectively, and cinnamon soil from the cultivated land in Beijing. The results show that all the employed species of plant have a higher accumulation to 137 Cs with the increased grade of the radioactivity of 137 Cs. A good correlation exist with the coefficient (r 2 ) of 0.9989. When the contaminated radioactivity of 137 Cs is in the same level the uptake of Cucurbita moschata Duchesne, Brassica chinensis L. and Chloris virgata increased with the decrease of pH value ranged 5.22-7.69. The ability of bioremediation in the orders were Chloris virgata, Brassica chinensis L., Beta oulgaris L. Hongye, Cucurbita moschata Duchesne, Beta oulgaris L. and Beta oulgaris L. Dongshengye, according to the comprehensive evaluation of transfer factor, specific activity of plant in dry weight of biomass and total absorption of 137 Cs by the individual plant in the same area. (authors)

  18. Photoelectron Emission Studies in CsBr at 257 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, Juan R.; Liu, Zhi; Sun, Yun; Pianetta, Piero A.; Pease, Fabian W.

    2006-01-01

    CsBr/Cr photocathodes were found [1,2] to meet the requirements of a multi-electron beam lithography system operating with a light energy of 4.8 eV (257nm). The fact that photoemission was observed with a light energy below the reported 7.3 eV band gap for CsBr was not understood. This paper presents experimental results on the presence of intra-band gap absorption sites (IBAS) in CsBr thin film photo electron emitters, and presents a model based on IBAS to explain the observed photoelectron emission behavior at energies below band gap. A fluorescence band centered at 330 nm with a FWHM of about 0.34 eV was observed in CsBr/Cr samples under 257 nm laser illumination which can be attributed to IBAS and agrees well with previously obtained synchrotron photoelectron spectra[1] from the valence band of CsBr films

  19. Energy transfer mechanism in CsI:Eu crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovlev, V.; Trefilova, L.; Karnaukhova, A.; Ovcharenko, N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the scintillation process in CsI:Eu crystal exposed to the pulse electron irradiation (E=0.25 MeV, t 1/2 =15 ns and W=0.003 J/cm 2 ). It has been proved that the energy transfer from the lattice to Eu 2+ ions in CsI:Eu occurs through the re-absorption of STE emission. The proposed model rests on the following experimental facts: (1) the activator emission at 2.68 eV rises gradually after the decay of the excitation pulse even at temperature lower than 90 K when V k centers are immobile; (2) the rise time of 2.68 eV emission and the decay time of STE emission have the same temperature dependences at T=78–300 K; (3) the excitation spectrum of 2.68 eV emission overlaps the emission spectrum of STE. -- Highlights: • The scintillation process in CsI:Eu was studied under pulsed electron irradiation. • A model of the energy transfer from the lattice to Eu 2+ ions in CsI:Eu was proposed. • Eu 2+ ions in CsI:Eu reabsorb the π-emission of self-trapped excitons

  20. A Numerical Investigation of Vapor Intrusion — the Dynamic Response of Contaminant Vapors to Rainfall Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G.; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. government and various agencies have published guidelines for field investigation of vapor intrusion, most of which suggest soil gas sampling as an integral part of the investigation. Contaminant soil gas data are often relatively more stable than indoor air vapor concentration measurements, but meteorological conditions might influence soil gas values. Although a few field and numerical studies have considered some temporal effects on soil gas vapor transport, a full explanation of the contaminant vapor concentration response to rainfall events is not available. This manuscript seeks to demonstrate the effects on soil vapor transport during and after different rainfall events, by applying a coupled numerical model of fluid flow and vapor transport. Both a single rainfall event and seasonal rainfall events were modeled. For the single rainfall event models, the vapor response process could be divided into three steps: namely, infiltration, water redistribution, and establishment of a water lens atop the groundwater source. In the infiltration step, rainfall intensity was found to determine the speed of the wetting front and wash-out effect on the vapor. The passage of the wetting front led to an increase of the vapor concentration in both the infiltration and water redistribution steps and this effect is noted at soil probes located 1 m below the ground surface. When the mixing of groundwater with infiltrated water was not allowed, a clean water lens accumulated above the groundwater source and led to a capping effect which can reduce diffusion rates of contaminant from the source. Seasonal rainfall with short time intervals involved superposition of the individual rainfall events. This modeling results indicated that for relatively deeper soil that the infiltration wetting front could not flood, the effects were damped out in less than a month after rain; while in the long term (years), possible formation of a water lens played a larger role in

  1. Knudsen cell--mass spectrometer studies of cesium--urania interactions. [Cs/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ or CsOH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.L.; Osborne, M.F.; Malinauskas, A.P.; Lorenz, R.A.; Manning, S.R.

    1976-06-01

    Limited Knudsen cell--mass spectrometer studies were made of the partial pressures of cesium-containing species (assumed to be primarily Cs(g)) over Cs/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ and over phase equilibria involving UO/sub 2/ and probable Cs-U-O compounds formed from mixtures that initially contained either Cs/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-UO/sub 2/ or CsOH-UO/sub 2/. Although additional work is required to further define the equilibria involved, the data demonstrate unambiguously a significant reduction in cesium partial pressures due to probable Cs-U-O compound formation and indicate essentially identical behavior with either CsOH or Cs/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ as the starting material with UO/sub 2/.

  2. Coprecipitation of 137Cs and 85Sr microquantities with complex compound [M(18-crown-6)]BPH4 (M=Na+, Cs+) from neutral and alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konovalova, N.A.; Rumer, I.A.; Kulyukhin, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper reports the possibility of joint separation of 137 Cs and 85 Sr from neutral and alkaline aqueous solutions by their coprecipitation with the solid phase of complex compounds [M(18-crown-6)]BPh 4 (M=Na + , Cs + ), as well as to study the coprecipitation of 137 Cs and 85 Sr with the solid phase CsBPh 4 . It is found that complex compounds [M(18-crown-6)]BPh 4 (M=Na + , Cs + ) increased the degree of 85 Sr separation from solutions virtually two- to threefold vs. CsBPh 4 . Chloride and nitrate were found to have hardly any impact on the coprecipitation of 137 Cs and 85 Sr with [M(18-crown-6)]BPh 4 (M = Na + , Cs + ). (orig.)

  3. Imbedded Nanocrystals of CsPbBr3 in Cs4 PbBr6 : Kinetics, Enhanced Oscillator Strength, and Application in Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junwei; Huang, Wenxiao; Li, Peiyun; Onken, Drew R; Dun, Chaochao; Guo, Yang; Ucer, Kamil B; Lu, Chang; Wang, Hongzhi; Geyer, Scott M; Williams, Richard T; Carroll, David L

    2017-11-01

    Solution-grown films of CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals imbedded in Cs 4 PbBr 6 are incorporated as the recombination layer in light-emitting diode (LED) structures. The kinetics at high carrier density of pure (extended) CsPbBr 3 and the nanoinclusion composite are measured and analyzed, indicating second-order kinetics in extended and mainly first-order kinetics in the confined CsPbBr 3 , respectively. Analysis of absorption strength of this all-perovskite, all-inorganic imbedded nanocrystal composite relative to pure CsPbBr 3 indicates enhanced oscillator strength consistent with earlier published attribution of the sub-nanosecond exciton radiative lifetime in nanoprecipitates of CsPbBr 3 in melt-grown CsBr host crystals and CsPbBr 3 evaporated films. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Potential of monitoring nuclides with the epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides: Uptake and localization of 133Cs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Zheng, Guiling; Chen, Xuan; Pemberton, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Epiphytic Tillandsia plants are efficient air pollution biomonitors and traditionally used to monitor atmospheric heavy metal pollution, but rarely nuclides monitoring. Here we evaluated the potential of Tillandsia usneoides for monitoring (133)Cs and investigated if Cs was trapped by the plant external surface structures. The results showed that T. usneoides was able to survive relatively high Cs stress. With the increase of Cs solution concentration, the total of Cs in plants increased significantly, which suggests that the plants could accumulate Cs quickly and effectively. Therefore, T. usneoides has considerable potential for monitoring Cs polluted environments. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis showed that Cs was detected in each type of cells in foliar trichomes, and the ratio of Cs in the internal disc cell was higher than that in ring cell and wing cell, which indicates that the mechanism of adsorption Cs in Tillandsia has an active component. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Examination of Organic Vapor Adsorption onto Alkali Metal and Halide Atomic Ions by using Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiβer, Anne; Hogan, Christopher J

    2017-11-03

    We utilize ion mobility mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure differential mobility analyzer coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (DMA-MS) to examine the formation of ion-vapor molecule complexes with seed ions of K + , Rb + , Cs + , Br - , and I - exposed to n-butanol and n-nonane vapor under subsaturated conditions. Ion-vapor molecule complex formation is indicated by a shift in the apparent mobility of each ion. Measurement results are compared to predicted mobility shifts based upon the Kelvin-Thomson equation, which is commonly used in predicting rates of ion-induced nucleation. We find that n-butanol at saturation ratios as low as 0.03 readily binds to all seed ions, leading to mobility shifts in excess of 35 %. Conversely, the binding of n-nonane is not detectable for any ion for saturation ratios in the 0-0.27 range. An inverse correlation between the ionic radius of the initial seed and the extent of n-butanol uptake is observed, such that at elevated n-butanol concentrations, the smallest ion (K + ) has the smallest apparent mobility and the largest (I - ) has the largest apparent mobility. Though the differences in behavior of the two vapor molecules types examined and the observed effect of ionic seed radius are not accounted for by the Kelvin-Thomson equation, its predictions are in good agreement with measured mobility shifts for Rb + , Cs + , and Br - in the presence of n-butanol (typically within 10 % of measurements). © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  6. Experimental and computation method for determination of burnup and isotopic composition of the WWER-440 fuel using the 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babichev, B.A.; Kozharin, V.V.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental and computational method for determination of burnup and actinoid concentrations in WWER fuel elements using 134 Cs and 137 Cs concentrations in fuel is considered. It is shown that the error in calculation of fuel burnup and U and Pu isotope concentrations in WWER-440 fuel elements is 1.3-4.9% provided that the error in 134 Cs and 137 Cs concentration measurements does not exceed 1.7 and 1.2%. 9 refs.; 10 figs.; 4 tabs

  7. On the cesium-rich part of the Cs-Te phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, R. de; Cordfunke, E.H.P.

    1995-03-01

    The cesium-tellurium system in the region between 33 and 55 at.% Te has been investigated with X-ray diffraction and DSC. The existence of the compounds Cs 5 Te 3 and CsTe is demonstrated. The latter compound exhibits a structural transition at elevated temperature, as does the compound Cs 2 Te. The earlier reported compounds Cs 3 Te 2 and Cs 5 Te 4 do not exist. (orig.)

  8. Auxiliary Electrodes for Chromium Vapor Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergus, Jeffrey; Shahzad, Moaiz; Britt, Tommy

    2018-05-15

    Measurement of chromia-containing vapors in solid oxide fuel cell systems is useful for monitoring and addressing cell degradation caused by oxidation of the chomia scale formed on alloys for interconnects and balance-of-plant components. One approach to measuring chromium is to use a solid electrolyte with an auxiliary electrode that relates the partial pressure of the chromium containing species to the mobile species in the electrolyte. One example is YCrO3 which can equilibrate with the chromium containing vapor and yttrium in yttria stabilized zirconia to establish an oxygen activity. Another is Na2CrO4 which can equilibrate with the chromium-containing vapor to establish a sodium activity.

  9. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit water vapor radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukamto, L. M.; Cooley, T. W.; Janssen, M. A.; Parks, G. S.

    1991-01-01

    A proof of concept Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Water Vapor Radiometer (WVR) is under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). WVR's are used to remotely sense water vapor and cloud liquid water in the atmosphere and are valuable for meteorological applications as well as for determination of signal path delays due to water vapor in the atmosphere. The high cost and large size of existing WVR instruments motivate the development of miniature MMIC WVR's, which have great potential for low cost mass production. The miniaturization of WVR components allows large scale deployment of WVR's for Earth environment and meteorological applications. Small WVR's can also result in improved thermal stability, resulting in improved calibration stability. Described here is the design and fabrication of a 31.4 GHz MMIC radiometer as one channel of a thermally stable WVR as a means of assessing MMIC technology feasibility.

  10. Numerical modeling of a vaporizing multicomponent droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megaridis, C. M.; Sirignano, W. A.

    The fundamental processes governing the energy, mass, and momentum exchange between the liquid and gas phases of vaporizing, multicomponent liquid droplets have been investigated. The axisymmetric configuration under consideration consists of an isolated multicomponent droplet vaporizing in a convective environment. The model considers different volatilities of the liquid components, variable liquid properties due to variation of the species concentrations, and non-Fickian multicomponent gaseous diffusion. The bicomponent droplet model was employed to examine the commonly used assumptions of unity Lewis number in the liquid phase and Fickian gaseous diffusion. It is found that the droplet drag coefficients, the vaporization rates, and the related transfer numbers are not influenced by the above assumptions in a significant way.

  11. Quasi-freestanding graphene on Ni(111) by Cs intercalation

    KAUST Repository

    Alattas, Maha Hassan Mohssen

    2016-05-26

    A possible approach to achieve quasi-freestanding graphene on a substrate for technological purpose is the intercalation of alkali metal atoms. Cs intercalation between graphene and Ni(111) therefore is investigated using density functional theory, incorporating van der Waals corrections. It is known that direct contact between graphene and Ni(111) perturbs the Dirac states. We find that Cs intercalation restores the linear dispersion characteristic of Dirac fermions, which agrees with experiments, but the Dirac cone is shifted to lower energy, i.e., the graphene sheet is n-doped. Cs intercalation therefore decouples the graphene sheet from the substrate except for a charge transfer. On the other hand, the spin polarization of Ni(111) does not extend through the intercalated atoms to the graphene sheet, for which we find virtually spin-degeneracy.

  12. Radiochemical determination of {sup 137}Cs in foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastner, Geraldo F.; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Monteiro, Roberto P.G., E-mail: gfk@cdtn.br, E-mail: avf@cdtn.br, E-mail: rpgm@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A determination of radionuclides in food samples is important in commodities in order to attend to regulatory requirements for international trade. As a long-lived radioisotope of cesium, {sup 137}Cs is produced as a result of human nuclear activities and than its contamination level evaluation among others radionuclides in foods is necessary. A methodology for the determination of {sup 137}Cs in foods, pork and fish, is described. The procedures covered homogenization and freeze-drying of the samples. The {sup 137}Cs was measured by gamma spectrometry using Canberra 50% HPGe detector. The counting was carried out with Monte Carlo software for detection conditions optimization including geometry and chemical data information. A certified sample, SRM IAEA-375, was analyzed in order to evaluate the reliability of the method, and the results showed good agreement between the measured and certified values. (author)

  13. {sup 134}Cs emission probabilities determination by gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, M.C.M. de, E-mail: candida@cnen.gov.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (DINOR/CNEN), Riode Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Poledna, R.; Delgado, J.U.; Silva, R.L.; Araujo, M.T.; Silva, C.J. da [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The National Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Metrology (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN) of Rio de Janeiro performed primary and secondary standardization of different radionuclides reaching satisfactory uncertainties. A solution of {sup 134}Cs radionuclide was purchased from commercial supplier to emission probabilities determination of some of its energies. {sup 134}Cs is a beta gamma emitter with 754 days of half-life. This radionuclide is used as standard in environmental, water and food control. It is also important to germanium detector calibration.The gamma emission probabilities (Pγ) were determined mainly for some energies of the {sup 134}Cs by efficiency curve method and the Pγ absolute uncertainties obtained were below 1% (k=1). (author)

  14. Bioaccumulation of Cs-137 and Co-57 by marine phytoplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heldal, H.E.; Stupakoff, I.; Fisher, N.S.

    1999-01-01

    Under controlled laboratory conditions we have examined the bioaccumulation of Cs-137 and Co-57 in three prymnesiophytes, the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi and the non-calcareous species Isochrysis galbana and Phaeocystis globosa, and two diatoms Skeletonema costatum and Thalassiosira pseudonana. We measured uptake in growing and non-growing cells, and determined concentration factors on both volume and dry weight basis. For Co-57 uptake in non-growing cells, volume concentration factors (VCF) at equilibrium ranged from 0.2 * 10 3 for Emiliana huxleyi to 4 * 10 3 for the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. For Cs-137 uptake in non-growing cells the VCFs were close to zero. The results suggest that, in contrast to Co, the cycling and bioaccumulation in animals of Cs in marine systems is unlikely to be affected by primary producers. (au)

  15. Medical management of the victims of Goiana 137 Cs accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao-Mello, C.E.; Farina, R.; Oliveira, A.R.; Valverde, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    In September 1987, a radiation accident happened in Gioania due to the theft of a shielded source of 137 Cs. Fifty persons were involved showing whole-body and local acute irradiation and also external and/or internal contamination mainly due to ingestion or absorption of 137 Cs. Fourteen of fifty developed severe bone marrow depression characterized by neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. None were submitted to bone marrow transplantation. Eight of fourteen received intravenously GM-CSF. Four of the fourteen died due to hemorrhage and infection. For those with significant internal contamination, Prussian blue was administered (1.5 to 10.0 gm/per day). Besides blue, other measures were taken to increase decorporation of 137 Cs including diuretics, water overload and ergometric exercises. Radiation induced skin injuries were observed in 28 patients and were treated conservatively. 6 patients required surgical intervention. (author)

  16. Quasi-freestanding graphene on Ni(111) by Cs intercalation

    KAUST Repository

    Alattas, Maha Hassan Mohssen

    2017-01-08

    It is of technological interest to achieve quasi-freestanding graphene on a substrate. A possible approach is the intercalation of alkali metal atoms. Cs intercalation between graphene and Ni(111) is investigated using density functional theory, incorporating van der Waals corrections. It is known that direct contact between graphene and Ni(111) perturbs the Dirac states. Cs intercalation restores the linear dispersion characteristic of Dirac fermions, which is in agreement with experiments1, but the Dirac cone is shifted to lower energy, i.e., the graphene sheet is n-doped. Cs intercalation therefore effectively decouples the graphene sheet from the substrate except for a charge transfer. On the other hand, the spin polarization of Ni(111) does not extend through the intercalated atoms to the graphene sheet, for which we find virtually spin-degeneracy.

  17. Household methods to reduce {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostiainen, E. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK, Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-09-15

    High radiocaesium contents in different species of mushrooms have been observed in areas contaminated by radiocaesium deposition after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. There has been no significant reduction in the {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms during the past ten years, besides via radioactive decay. The internal radiation dose received via mushrooms can be reduced by processing mushrooms before consumption. Various household methods were studied to find out their efficiency to reduce {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms. The methods tested were the same as normally used in cooking. The tests were made for the species of edible mushrooms widely consumed. The retention factors for the treatments tested were in most cases 0.2-0.3. The efficiency of treatments in reducing the {sup 137}Cs contents increased with larger water volumes and prolonged treatment times.

  18. Household methods to reduce 137Cs contents of mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostiainen, E.

    2005-01-01

    High radiocaesium contents in different species of mushrooms have been observed in areas contaminated by radiocaesium deposition after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. There has been no significant reduction in the 137 Cs contents of mushrooms during the past ten years, besides via radioactive decay. The internal radiation dose received via mushrooms can be reduced by processing mushrooms before consumption. Various household methods were studied to find out their efficiency to reduce 137 Cs contents of mushrooms. The methods tested were the same as normally used in cooking. The tests were made for the species of edible mushrooms widely consumed. The retention factors for the treatments tested were in most cases 0.2-0.3. The efficiency of treatments in reducing the 137 Cs contents increased with larger water volumes and prolonged treatment times

  19. Zulliger (CS in Assessing the Relational Maturity of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Elisa Villemor-Amaral

    Full Text Available Abstract Relational maturity is an important aspect to be considered in the evaluation of children. Its development in children is considered related to sex and chronological age. The present study aimed to seek evidence of validity for the Zulliger test (Comprehensive System - CS in the evaluation of maturity for interpersonal relationships in children. A total of 566 children, both sexes, of which 52.8% were girls, were submitted to the Zulliger test (CS. For comparison according to age, a subsample was extracted, composed of two groups of six and 12-year-olds, totaling 115 children. The analysis revealed statistically significant differences in the variables H, (H, A, Ad, (A, M, FC and AG. Results show findings in favor of using the Zulliger test (CS in the evaluation of maturity for interpersonal relationships in children.

  20. Studies on diffusion of 137Cs in cement mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takebe, Shinichi; Shimooka, Kenji; Wadachi, Yoshiki; Kuramoto, Yuzuru.

    1989-12-01

    Penetration experiment of 137 Cs into the impermeable cement mortar which has been treated by the impermeable reagent (XYPEX reagent) was carried out in order to advance the performance of engineered barrier for Low Level Radioactive Waste. The result showed that the radioactive concentration at deeper region in the impermeable cement mortar specimen was decreased about 1 order of magnitude below that in the untreated specimen. Diffusion coefficient calculated from the radioactive concentration of 137 Cs in the cement mortar specimen was 9.1 x 10 -5 cm 2 /day for untreated cement mortar specimen and 4.0 x 10 -5 cm 2 /day for the impermeable cement mortar specimen, respectively. Treatment of cement mortar by the impermeable reagent was found to be effective to reduce the value of appearent diffusion coefficient for 137 Cs in the cement mortar. (author)

  1. Airborne fallout mapping of 137Cs Finnish defence forces team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettunen, M.; Heininen, T.; Pulakka, M.

    1997-01-01

    The main task of the team was to create a fallout map of 137 Cs in a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used an MI-8 helicopter of the Finnish Air Force. The team had an HPGe system (relative efficiency 70%) to measure nuclide specific ground contamination level. For navigation the team took advantage of the DGPS service provided by Finnish Broadcasting company utilizing the RDS-channel to get position accuracy within 2 meters. The correction signal is reachable nationwide on the FM transmitter network. The system produced a distribution map for 40 K and fallout maps for 134,137 Cs using a Micro Station Program with TerraModeler application. The maximum measured 137 Cs ground contamination exceeded 130-140 kBqm -2 . (au)

  2. Secondhand Exposure to Vapors From Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czogala, Jan; Fidelus, Bartlomiej; Zielinska-Danch, Wioleta; Travers, Mark J.; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are designed to generate inhalable nicotine aerosol (vapor). When an e-cigarette user takes a puff, the nicotine solution is heated and the vapor is taken into lungs. Although no sidestream vapor is generated between puffs, some of the mainstream vapor is exhaled by e-cigarette user. The aim of this study was to evaluate the secondhand exposure to nicotine and other tobacco-related toxicants from e-cigarettes. Materials and Methods: We measured selected airborne markers of secondhand exposure: nicotine, aerosol particles (PM2.5), carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an exposure chamber. We generated e-cigarette vapor from 3 various brands of e-cigarette using a smoking machine and controlled exposure conditions. We also compared secondhand exposure with e-cigarette vapor and tobacco smoke generated by 5 dual users. Results: The study showed that e-cigarettes are a source of secondhand exposure to nicotine but not to combustion toxicants. The air concentrations of nicotine emitted by various brands of e-cigarettes ranged from 0.82 to 6.23 µg/m3. The average concentration of nicotine resulting from smoking tobacco cigarettes was 10 times higher than from e-cigarettes (31.60±6.91 vs. 3.32±2.49 µg/m3, respectively; p = .0081). Conclusions: Using an e-cigarette in indoor environments may involuntarily expose nonusers to nicotine but not to toxic tobacco-specific combustion products. More research is needed to evaluate health consequences of secondhand exposure to nicotine, especially among vulnerable populations, including children, pregnant women, and people with cardiovascular conditions. PMID:24336346

  3. Vapor characterization of Tank 241-C-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Story, M.S.

    1994-06-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program has developed, in cooperation with Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory, the equipment and expertise to characterize gases and vapors in the high-level radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in south central Washington State. This capability has been demonstrated by the characterization of the tank 241-C-103 headspace. This tank headspace is the first, and for many reasons is expected to be the most problematic, that will be characterized (Osborne 1992). Results from the most recent and comprehensive sampling event, sample job 7B, are presented for the purpose of providing scientific bases for resolution of vapor issues associated with tank 241-C-103. This report is based on the work of Clauss et al. 1994, Jenkins et al. 1994, Ligotke et al. 1994, Mahon et al. 1994, and Rasmussen and Einfeld 1994. No attempt has been made in this report to evaluate the implications of the data presented, such as the potential impact of headspace gases and vapors to tank farm workers health. That and other issues will be addressed elsewhere. Key to the resolution of worker health issues is the quantitation of compounds of toxicological concern. The Toxicology Review Panel, a panel of Pacific Northwest Laboratory experts in various areas, of toxicology, has chosen 19 previously identified compounds as being of potential toxicological concern. During sample job 7B, the sampling and analytical methodology was validated for this preliminary list of compounds of toxicological concern. Validation was performed according to guidance provided by the Tank Vapor Conference Committee, a group of analytical chemists from academic institutions and national laboratories assembled and commissioned by the Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program

  4. Vapor characterization of Tank 241-C-103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Story, M.S. [Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc. Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program has developed, in cooperation with Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory, the equipment and expertise to characterize gases and vapors in the high-level radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in south central Washington State. This capability has been demonstrated by the characterization of the tank 241-C-103 headspace. This tank headspace is the first, and for many reasons is expected to be the most problematic, that will be characterized (Osborne 1992). Results from the most recent and comprehensive sampling event, sample job 7B, are presented for the purpose of providing scientific bases for resolution of vapor issues associated with tank 241-C-103. This report is based on the work of Clauss et al. 1994, Jenkins et al. 1994, Ligotke et al. 1994, Mahon et al. 1994, and Rasmussen and Einfeld 1994. No attempt has been made in this report to evaluate the implications of the data presented, such as the potential impact of headspace gases and vapors to tank farm workers health. That and other issues will be addressed elsewhere. Key to the resolution of worker health issues is the quantitation of compounds of toxicological concern. The Toxicology Review Panel, a panel of Pacific Northwest Laboratory experts in various areas, of toxicology, has chosen 19 previously identified compounds as being of potential toxicological concern. During sample job 7B, the sampling and analytical methodology was validated for this preliminary list of compounds of toxicological concern. Validation was performed according to guidance provided by the Tank Vapor Conference Committee, a group of analytical chemists from academic institutions and national laboratories assembled and commissioned by the Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program.

  5. Measurement of thermal neutron cross section and resonance integral of the reaction {sup 135}Cs(n,{gamma}){sup 136}Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Toshio; Nakamura, Shoji; Harada, Hideo [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Shinohara, Nobuo; Hata, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Motoishi, Shoji; Tanase, Masakazu

    1997-03-01

    The thermal neutron(2,200 m/s neutron) capture cross section({sigma}{sub 0}) and the resonance integral(I{sub 0}) of the reaction {sup 135}Cs(n,{gamma}){sup 136}Cs were measured by an activation method. Targets of radioactive cesium, which include {sup 135}Cs, {sup 137}Cs and stable {sup 133}Cs, were irradiated with reactor neutrons within or without a Cd shield case. The ratio of the number of nuclei of {sup 135}Cs to that of {sup 137}Cs was measured with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. This ratio and the ratio of activity of {sup 136}Cs to that of {sup 137}Cs were used for deduction of the {sigma}{sub 0} and the I{sub 0} of {sup 135}Cs. The {sigma}{sub 0} and the I{sub 0} of the reaction {sup 135}Cs(n,{sigma}){sup 136}Cs were 8.3 {+-} 0.3 barn and 38.1 {+-} 2.6 barn, respectively. (author)

  6. Estimation of average burnup of damaged fuels loaded in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors by using the 134Cs/137Cs ratio method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, T.; Sato, S.; Yamamoto, A.

    2012-01-01

    Average burnup of damaged fuels loaded in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors is estimated, using the 134 Cs/ 137 Cs ratio method for measured radioactivities of 134 Cs and 137 Cs in contaminated soils within the range of 100 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants. As a result, the measured 134 Cs/ 137 Cs ratio from the contaminated soil is 0.996±0.07 as of March 11, 2011. Based on the 134 Cs/ 137 Cs ratio method, the estimated burnup of damaged fuels is approximately 17.2±1.5 [GWd/tHM]. It is noted that the numerical results of various calculation codes (SRAC2006/PIJ, SCALE6.0/TRITON, and MVP-BURN) are almost the same evaluation values of 134 Cs/ 137 Cs ratio with same evaluated nuclear data library (ENDF-B/VII.0). The void fraction effect in depletion calculation has a major impact on 134 Cs/ 137 Cs ratio compared with the differences between JENDL-4.0 and ENDF-B/VII.0. (authors)

  7. Temporal variations of Cs-137 in Sots Pine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nylen, T.; Plamboeck, A.H.; Boson, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this study the temporal changes in 137 Cs distribution in a Scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) stand was studied during 1986 to 2006 in Northern Sweden. The Chernobyl fallout provided an excellent possibility to study the uptake and retention in conifer trees of 137 Cs, since the deposition lasted for only a few days. The average deposition of 137 Cs in the region that originates from the Chernobyl accident in 1986 was 20 ± 9 kBq M -2 . Also 137 Cs from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests was present in the area and was only 3 ±2 kBq m -2 . Studies show that the redistribution of radioactive caesium still contribute to high activity concentrations in some compartments of the ecosystem. It has been known that certain fungi continue to produce fruit bodies with high amounts of 137 Cs. The current study adds another aspect to consider: The high activity concentration in branches and current needles during 2006 indicates an uptake of 137 Cs from the soil which could lead to concentrations in Scots Pine that has to be considered in forestry and other kind of utilization of forest products. There are for instance a few game birds such as the capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) that feed on pine shoots. Another possible effect is on the use of pine branches in the bio fuel industry. Given an activity concentration of 1200 Bq/kg (d.w.) and a concentration factor of 10 during combustion the concentration in ashes would be 12000 bq/kg. According to the recommendations from SSI (the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority) ashes that have concentrations higher than 10 kBq/kg must be stored in special deposits. It would be of interest to investigate the uptake in stands of different ages since the pine stand that was studied was about 30 years old in 1986 and do not represent neither a mature nor a newly established stand (tk)

  8. Development of the CsI Calorimeter Subsystem for AMEGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, J. Eric; Woolf, Richard; Johnson, W. Neil; Phlips, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    We report on the development of the thallium-doped cesium iodide (CsI:Tl) calorimeter subsystem for the All-Sky Medium-Energy Gamma-ray Observatory (AMEGO). The CsI calorimeter is one of the three main subsystems that comprise the AMEGO instrument suite; the others include the double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD) tracker/converter and a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) calorimeter. Similar to the LAT instrument on Fermi, the hodoscopic calorimeter consists of orthogonally layered CsI bars. Unlike the LAT, which uses PIN photodiodes, the scintillation light readout from each end of the CsI bar is done with recently developed large-area silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays. We currently have an APRA program to develop the calorimeter technology for a larger, future space-based gamma-ray observatory. Under this program, we are building and testing a prototype calorimeter consisting of 24 CsI bars (16.7 mm x 16.7 mm x 100 mm) arranged in 4 layers with 6 bars per layer. The ends of each bar are read out with a 2 x 2 array of 6 mm x 6 mm SensL J series SiPMs. Signal readout and processing is done with the IDEAS SIPHRA (IDE3380) ASIC. Performance testing of this prototype will be done with laboratory sources, a beam test, and a balloon flight in conjunction with the other subsystems led by NASA GSFC. Additionally, we will test 16.7 mm x 16.7 mm x 450 mm CsI bars with SiPM readout to understand the performance of longer bars in advance of the developing the full instrument.Acknowledgement: This work was sponsored by the Chief of Naval Research (CNR) and NASA-APRA (NNH15ZDA001N-APRA).

  9. Distribution of 137Cs in environmental soil and crude drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Shoujiro; Yamaoki, Rumi

    1997-01-01

    Radioactivity of 137 Cs and 40 K was determined on commercially available products of Houttuynia Herb which were imported from China and Taiwan or processed in Japan, and of Houttuynia cordata harvested in 15 places in Japan and the surrounding soil. On Houttuynia Herb, the concentrations of 137 Cs and 40 K were LTD (less than detectable)-7.6 Bq/kg dry and 743-1964 Bq/kg dry, respectively, suggesting than the concentration of 137 Cs was less than 1% of that of 40 K. The domestic products were found to contain higher concentrations of 137 Cs and 40 K than the imported ones. The concentration of 137 Cs of Houttuynia cordata harvested in Japan ranged from 0.8 Bq/kg dry to 172 Bq/kg dry, while the concentration of 40 K was almost the same as that of the commercial products. The concentration ratio of 40 K in Houttuynia cordata to that in the soil was correlated with the moisture content and the ignition loss of the soil. However, the concentration ratio of 137 Cs did not show a very clear correlation. When 15 g of Houttuynia Herb or Houttuynia cordata was daily decocted and given for 1 year the former showed the committed dose equivalent of 0.02-0.5 μSv and the latter 0.06-12 μSv. Both of these values were less than 0.5% of the annual effective dose equivalent from the nature, 2.4 mSv. (author)

  10. Changes in 137Cs transfer to agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, N.; Timochtchenko, A.; Milutin, A.

    1999-01-01

    The food production and food harvesting systems common in the areas contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in Republic of Belarus can be grouped into three major categories: collective farm produce, private farming produce and natural foods collected from natural ecosystems. The collective farm system provided the smallest contribution (8-12 %) to the intake of 137 Cs. Natural food was the major contributor to the intake at one study site (73 %), and private produce was the major contributor (60 %) at the other study site. Assessment of the situation just after the accident (one year) shows that collective farming was still a minor contributor to 137 CS intake (10 %) whilst private fanning would have been the major contributor wherever private milk production and consumption continued. The extent to which inhabitants consume natural foods from forests has a considerable effect on their 137 CS intake. The comparative importance of food products from natural ecosystems increases with time due to the long effective ecological half lives of 137 Cs in unimproved pastures and forests. Estimation of the contribution to the fluxes of 137 Cs from the different production and harvesting systems showed that the contribution from private farming and food harvesting from natural ecosystems may also be significant, contributing 14-30 % to the total fluxes of 137 Cs from an area even if the quantity of food produced in these systems is small. However, the major contributor to the flux exported from an area was the collective farming system, accounting for about 70-86 % of the total. Refs. 12 (author)

  11. Parameters Affecting 137Cs Migration within Soil Profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefien, S.M.; Ibrahim, A.S.; Abdelmalik, W.E.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Some studies have been carried out on the adsorption, distribution and migration of 137 Cs within soils of the area in the vicinity of the Nuclear Research Centre, Egypt, and Ismailia Canal. The soil physicochemical and mineralogical characteristics were carried out and indicated that the soil samples consisted mainly of sand fraction (quartz) and silt fractions (semctite minerals). The kinetics of caesium adsorption and its adsorption isotherms for the tested soils were also studied. The sorption of 137 Cs on soil minerals markedly affects its migration rate. The natural background of both locations of study indicated that the amounts of 137 Cs present in the reactor site were found to be originated from the fallout and from the external contamination which affected the background level. The 137 Cs activity at the canal site was found to be 20.01 Bq/m 2 .cm, while that around the reactor site were found to be 231.15 Bq/m2.cm which may be originating from the fallout and from external contamination which affect the background level at that location. The activity in the canal soil which amounted to 20.01 Bq/m2/cm (0.87 Bq/kg) is about that of background.Based on the distribution data, the vertical distribution of 137 Cs has been studied for soil in both locations (the vicinity of the Nuclear Research Centre (NRC) and Ismailia canal). The vertical migration rates of 137 Cs were calculated for soil samples selected from different locations. These rates were found to be 0.056 and 0.031 cm/year for the reactor and canal site respectively.

  12. Inventories and fluxes of 137Cs in the Syrian land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Amin, Y.

    2005-03-01

    Cesium-137 inventories and atmospheric fluxes have been determined using radiocesium distributions in undistributed soil profiles, collected from 38 sites distributed all over the Syrian lands. Results have shown that 137 Cs inventories determination by Soil Layers Sum Method is more accurate than the Integration Method, where the best curve fitting of 137 Cs distribution with depth is difficult to establish. 137 Cs inventories ranged from 441 Bq.m - 2 and 13312 Bq.m - 2 using the Layers Sum Method with a mean value of 3679 Bq.m - 2; the highest values observed were in the coastal, middle and north east regions. This is due to the fact that most of Chernobyl accident atmospheric fall-out of cesium 137 had entered the Syrian land came from the west boarders (Mediterranean sea). While the lowest values were found to be in the samples collected from the east south region. In addition, 137 Cs flux ranged from 3.1 kBq m - 2y - 1 and 527.8 kBq m - 2 y - 1 with a mean value of 65.7 kBq m - 2y - 1. Moreover, there was a semi linear relationship found between 137 Cs flux and the height above sea level. While no linear relationship was found between 137 Cs flux and annual rainfall. On the other hand, the external radiation dose to Syrians that due to gamma-rays emitted from cesium 137 decay has been determined and reached a mean value of 166μ Sv.y - 1. This value is about 20% of the radiation dose received by the Syrian from naturally occurring radionuclides in soil. (Author)

  13. Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

  14. Detection of water vapor on Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, H. P.; Fink, U.; Treffers, R.; Gautier, T. N., III

    1975-01-01

    High-altitude (12.4 km) spectroscopic observations of Jupiter at 5 microns from the NASA 91.5 cm airborne infrared telescope have revealed 14 absorptions assigned to the rotation-vibration spectrum of water vapor. Preliminary analysis indicates a mixing ratio about 1 millionth for the vapor phase of water. Estimates of temperature (greater than about 300 K) and pressure (less than 20 atm) suggest observation of water deep in Jupiter's hot spots responsible for its 5 micron flux. Model-atmosphere calculations based on radiative-transfer theory may change these initial estimates and provide a better physical picture of Jupiter's atmosphere below the visible cloud tops.

  15. Vapor deposition in basaltic stalactites, Kilauea, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, A. K.; Mohrig, D. C.; Welday, E. E.

    Basaltic stalacties suspended from the ceiling of a large lava tube at Kilauea, Hawaii, have totally enclosed vesicles whose walls are covered with euhedral FeTi oxide and silicate crystals. The walls of the vesicles and the exterior surfaces of stalactites are Fe and Ti enriched and Si depleted compared to common basalt. Minerals in vesicles have surface ornamentations on crystal faces which include alkali-enriched, aluminosilicate glass(?) hemispheres. No sulfide-, chloride-, fluoride-, phosphate- or carbonate-bearing minerals are present. Minerals in the stalactites must have formed by deposition from an iron oxide-rich vapor phase produced by the partial melting and vaporization of wall rocks in the tube.

  16. Flammability characteristics of combustible gases and vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabetakis, M. G. [Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1964-05-01

    This is a summary of the available limit of flammability, autoignition and burning-rate data for more than 200 combustible gases and vapors in air and other oxidants, as well as of empirical rules and graphs that can be used to predict similar data for thousands of other combustibles under a variety of environmental conditions. Spec$c data are presented on the paraffinic, unsaturated, aromatic, and alicyclic hydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, and sulfur compounds, and an assortment of fuels, fuel blends, hydraulic fluids, engine oils, and miscellaneous combustible gases and vapors.

  17. Laser vapor phase deposition of semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlov, N.V.; Luk' ianchuk, B.S.; Sisakian, E.V.; Shafeev, G.A.

    1987-06-01

    The pyrolytic effect of IR laser radiation is investigated with reference to the initiation and control of the vapor phase deposition of semiconductor films. By selecting the gas mixture composition and laser emission parameters, it is possible to control the deposition and crystal formation processes on the surface of semiconductors, with the main control action achieved due to the nonadiabatic kinetics of reactions in the gas phase and high temperatures in the laser heating zone. This control mechanism is demonstrated experimentally during the laser vapor deposition of germanium and silicon films from tetrachlorides on single-crystal Si and Ge substrates. 5 references.

  18. The vertical distribution of Mars water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of observations made from the Viking 1 Orbiter indicates that the water vapor over the Viking 1 landing site is uniformly mixed with the atmosphere and not concentrated near the surface. The analysis incorporates the effects of atmospheric scattering and explains why previous earth-based observations showed a strong diurnal variation in water content. It also explains the lack of an early morning fog and removes the necessity of daily exchange of large amounts of water between the surface and the atmosphere. A water vapor volume mixing ratio of 1.5 x 10 to the -4th is inferred for the Viking 1 site in late summer.

  19. Drag Reduction by Leidenfrost Vapor Layers

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2011-05-23

    We demonstrate and quantify a highly effective drag reduction technique that exploits the Leidenfrost effect to create a continuous and robust lubricating vapor layer on the surface of a heated solid sphere moving in a liquid. Using high-speed video, we show that such vapor layers can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by over 85%. These results appear to approach the ultimate limit of drag reduction possible by different methods based on gas-layer lubrication and can stimulate the development of related energy saving technologies.

  20. Low temperature vapor phase digestion of graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Robert A.

    2017-04-18

    A method for digestion and gasification of graphite for removal from an underlying surface is described. The method can be utilized to remove graphite remnants of a formation process from the formed metal piece in a cleaning process. The method can be particularly beneficial in cleaning castings formed with graphite molding materials. The method can utilize vaporous nitric acid (HNO.sub.3) or vaporous HNO.sub.3 with air/oxygen to digest the graphite at conditions that can avoid damage to the underlying surface.

  1. Stabilization of Cs/Re trapping filters using magnesium phosphate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jae Hwan Yang; Jin Myeong Shin; Chang Hwa Lee; Chul Min Heo; Min Ku Jeon; Kweon Ho Kang

    2013-01-01

    The present study a promising method for stabilizing spent filters trapping cesium and technetium by using magnesium phosphate ceramics. Simulated spent filters were fabricated by vaporizing nonradioactive cesium and rhenium (a surrogate of Tc) through the voloxidizer. In order to reveal the characteristics of spent filters, phase structures and thermal stability were analyzed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis techniques. Waste forms were fabricated by crushing spent filters and mixing them with magnesium oxide and potassium phosphate. Characterizations of the waste forms were performed by the analyses of compressive strength, apparent porosity, XRD, and scanning electron microscopy. The waste forms showed the excellent mechanical property compared with that of ordinary Portland cement, with the highest compressive strength of 38.1 MPa in the sample with 30 wt% of Cs-filter. Microstructural analysis suggests that waste materials are encapsulated by the binding matrix composed of magnesium potassium phosphate. The results of characterization suggest that fabricating a sound and durable waste form is possible with magnesium phosphate ceramics. (author)

  2. Calibration of the isomer shift of {sup 133}Cs from internal conversion measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Hiroko; Tanaka, Eiji; Muramatsu, Hisakazu [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    In this study, for 81 KeV transition of 133-Cs which is one of Moessbauer nuclides belonged to alkaline element and can be useful probe on study of binding state in a compound with high ionic boundability specific to alkaline element, an experiment to obtain {Delta}R/R was conducted by measurement of Moessbauer isomer shift and of internal conversion intensity of outer shell electron, using an internal conversion method, one of obtaining methods of {Delta} at the most accuracy. 133-Xe was buried at shallow surface of a host metal, reduced energy loss of internal conversion electron to realize high resolution and aimed to separate O-shell from P-shell to reduce injected ionic spaced and prepare a source. In range measurement of various energy to confirm actual speed reduction of ion, transmittance of 133-Xe on Cu layer vapor-deposited 2 to 10 micro g/sq cm thick on an Ni-foil was conducted. As a result, mean ranges of each energy were 5:2.2, 10:3.7, 15:4.8, and 20:5.6 micro g/sq cm, respectively. It was thought to be proved that speed reduction was certainly conducted by facts that the range increased with increase of the incident energy which showed good agreement with calculation results due to TRIM-95 code. (G.K.)

  3. 210Pb-137Cs dating of glacial lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, I.J.; Ditchburn, R.G.; Barry, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Sediments deposited in New Zealand lakes in the recent past provide excellent archives of local climate change via their trapped biodiversity, varve structure ad sedimentological composition. To unlock the archival information, accurate and fine-scale dating of the deposits is essential. A combination of 210 Pb and 137 Cs dating provides the most reliable and robust approach. Under favourable conditions, 210 Pb dating can provide a detailed chronology to c.120-140 y, and can be accurately calibrated by 137 Cs for the last 40 y or thereabouts. (author). 6 refs., 4 figs

  4. Simulation of remediation alternatives for a 137Cs contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bea, S.A.; Carrera, J.; Saaltink, M.; Soler, J.M.; Ayora, C.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze remediation alternatives for a soil contaminated with 137 Cs, which sorbs strongly to clay aggregates where water flux is negligible. The mobile portion of the soil (macropores) retains little water and cesium. Some of the remediation alternatives involve infiltration of seawater enriched with KCl, to promote mobilization of Cs through exchange with K. Therefore, a fully coupled reactive transport model is used to test these alternatives. We conclude that flushing is a viable alternative, provided that some recommendations, derived from the modelling exercise are followed. These include high rate periodic infiltration and draining, as well as performing infiltration from independent cells to limit the effect of preferential flowpaths. (orig.)

  5. Linhchi mushrooms as biological monitors for 137Cs pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Van, L.; Le Duy, T.

    1991-01-01

    Radioactivity of Linhchi mushrooms (Ganoderma Lucidum) cultivated in laboratory and production conditions has been measured in the Environmental Laboratory of Nuclear Research Institute (NRI), Dalat, Vietnam. The results showed that Linhchi mushroom has a high radioactive concentration of 137 Cs, which is about 20 Bq kg -1 fresh weight. In addition, the radioactive contents of substrata before and after cultivation were insignificant. This suggested that Linhchi mushroom should only accumulate the 137 Cs radioisotope from the atmosphere, directly. Therefore, it should be considered as a bio-indicator for environmental monitoring. (author) 13 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  6. Determination of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The comparison between the Ca concentration in the soil and the transfer factors involved indicates a clear dependence of Sr-90 soil-to-plant transport from the soil's Ca-content with the concentration level of 0.1 g Ca/kg soil appearing to be the limit level. Soil concentrations of Cs-137 determined to-date indicate a very even deposition density of Cs-137. The transfer factors of plant/soil in Chile differ but negligeably from those in Europe. (DG) [de

  7. The chemical speciation of 137Cs in sheepmeat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, T.Y.M.; Taylor, D.M.; Williams, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    Minced sheep muscle, homogenised liver and fragmented rib or cortical bone, from sheep grazing near Bootle, Cumbria, U.K., which had been stored for some months at -20 o C, were extracted at 4 o C with an isotonic 0.15 M NaCl-0.02 M phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. Each successive extraction released about 50% of the total 137 Cs remaining in the tissue. Passage of the extracts through a column of the cation-exchanger Dowex 50 x 8 indicated that essentially all the extracted 137 Cs was in cationic form. (author)

  8. {sup 137}Cs in a raised bog in central Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, K. [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Ulls vag 17, Box 7014, SE-75007, Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: klas.rosen@mv.slu.se; Vinichuk, M. [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Ulls vag 17, Box 7014, SE-75007, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Ecology, Zhytomyr State Technological University, 103 Cherniakhovsky Str., 10005 Zhytomyr (Ukraine); Johanson, K.J. [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Ulls vag 17, Box 7014, SE-75007, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2009-07-15

    The vertical distribution of {sup 137}Cs activity in peat soil profiles and {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in plants of various species was studied in samples collected at two sites on a raised bog in central Sweden. One site (open bog) was in an area with no trees and only a few sparsely growing plant species, while the other (low pine) was less than 100 m from the open bog site and had slowly growing Scots pine, a field layer dominated by some ericaceous plants and ground well-covered by plants. The plant samples were collected in 2004-2007 and were compared with samples collected in 1989 from the same open bog and low pine sites. Ground deposition of {sup 137}Cs in 2005 was similar at both sites, 23 000 Bq m{sup -2}. In the open bog peat profile it seems to be an upward transport of caesium since a clear peak of {sup 137}Cs activity was found in the uppermost 1-4 cm of Sphagnum layers, whereas at the low pine site {sup 137}Cs was mainly found in deeper (10-12 cm) layers. The migration rate was 0.57 cm yr{sup -1} at the open bog site and the migration centre of {sup 137}Cs was at a depth of 10.7, while the rate at the low pine site was 0.78 cm yr{sup -1} and the migration centre was at 14.9 cm. Heather (Calluna vulgaris) was the plant species with the highest {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations at both sites, 43.5 k Bq{sup -1} DM in 1989 decreasing to 20.4 in 2004-2007 on open bog and 22.3 k Bq kg{sup -1} DM in 1989 decreasing to 11.2 k Bq{sup -1} DM by the period 2004-2007 on the low pine site. {sup 137}Cs transfer factors in plants varied between 0.88 and 1.35 on the open bog and between 0.48 and 0.69 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} DM at the low pine site.

  9. Mechanisms and models of 137Cs migration in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    The most wide-spread mechanisms and models of the 137 Cs isotope migration in soil are considered because of urgency of this problem conditioned by global fallout during nuclear weapon tests and contamination of territories due to accidents on nuclear objects (including the East Urals and ChNPP accident). It is shown that the 137 Cs migration models with an account of the sorption-desorption kinetics have from the practical adequacy certain advantage in comparison with other models, though they are mathematically more complex and require complex calculations [ru

  10. 137Cs in a raised bog in central Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, K.; Vinichuk, M.; Johanson, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    The vertical distribution of 137 Cs activity in peat soil profiles and 137 Cs activity concentration in plants of various species was studied in samples collected at two sites on a raised bog in central Sweden. One site (open bog) was in an area with no trees and only a few sparsely growing plant species, while the other (low pine) was less than 100 m from the open bog site and had slowly growing Scots pine, a field layer dominated by some ericaceous plants and ground well-covered by plants. The plant samples were collected in 2004-2007 and were compared with samples collected in 1989 from the same open bog and low pine sites. Ground deposition of 137 Cs in 2005 was similar at both sites, 23 000 Bq m -2 . In the open bog peat profile it seems to be an upward transport of caesium since a clear peak of 137 Cs activity was found in the uppermost 1-4 cm of Sphagnum layers, whereas at the low pine site 137 Cs was mainly found in deeper (10-12 cm) layers. The migration rate was 0.57 cm yr -1 at the open bog site and the migration centre of 137 Cs was at a depth of 10.7, while the rate at the low pine site was 0.78 cm yr -1 and the migration centre was at 14.9 cm. Heather (Calluna vulgaris) was the plant species with the highest 137 Cs activity concentrations at both sites, 43.5 k Bq -1 DM in 1989 decreasing to 20.4 in 2004-2007 on open bog and 22.3 k Bq kg -1 DM in 1989 decreasing to 11.2 k Bq -1 DM by the period 2004-2007 on the low pine site. 137 Cs transfer factors in plants varied between 0.88 and 1.35 on the open bog and between 0.48 and 0.69 m 2 kg -1 DM at the low pine site.

  11. Solving PDEs in Python the FEniCS tutorial I

    CERN Document Server

    Langtangen, Hans Petter

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a concise and gentle introduction to finite element programming in Python based on the popular FEniCS software library. Using a series of examples, including the Poisson equation, the equations of linear elasticity, the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations, and systems of nonlinear advection–diffusion–reaction equations, it guides readers through the essential steps to quickly solving a PDE in FEniCS, such as how to define a finite variational problem, how to set boundary conditions, how to solve linear and nonlinear systems, and how to visualize solutions and structure finite element Python programs. This book is open access under a CC BY license.

  12. Mathematical model of 137Cs dynamics in the deciduous forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamikhin, S.V.; Klyashtorin, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical model of 137 Cs behaviour in the forest ecosystem is presented. The behaviour of this radionuclide is assumed to obey the same regularities as the behaviour of its stable chemical analogue, potassium. Radionuclide dynamics are considered in parallel with the dynamics of the phytomass. Radionuclides contained in the vegetation are pooled into two basic compartments: external and internal contamination, with separate analysis of each. The model was verified using the data obtained in the 30-km zone of the Chernobyl NPP in 1986-1994. The algorithm described was found to be the most efficient in terms of 137 Cs behaviour in the forest environments

  13. Low-temperature anharmonicity in cesium chloride (CsCl)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sist, Mattia; Faerch Fischer, Karl Frederik; Brummerstedt Iversen, Bo [Center for Materials Crystallography, Department of Chemistry and iNANO, Aarhus University (Denmark); Kasai, Hidetaka [Center for Materials Crystallography, Department of Chemistry and iNANO, Aarhus University (Denmark); Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, TIMS and CiRfSE, University of Tsukuba (Japan)

    2017-03-20

    Anharmonic lattice vibrations govern heat transfer in materials, and anharmonicity is commonly assumed to be dominant at high temperature. The textbook cubic ionic defect-free crystal CsCl is shown to have an unexplained low thermal conductivity at room temperature (ca. 1 W/(m K)), which increases to around 13 W/(m K) at 25 K. Through high-resolution X-ray diffraction it is unexpectedly shown that the Cs atomic displacement parameter becomes anharmonic at 20 K. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Transfer factor values of 137 Cs from latosoils to vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, Maria Angelica Moreira; Belem, Lilia Maria Juacaba

    1996-01-01

    Transfer Factor values for black beams, radish and carrot were obtained for soils artificially and accidentally contaminated in Goiania during 1987. Differences of 137 Cs-soil-to-plant transfer were discussed in the light of pedology and crop type. These values were about one order of magnitude higher than mean values reported by IUR for temperature climate for the same crops. These results advertising for the peculiar dynamics of 137 Cs in tropical soils and for needs to obtain regional data to be used in assessment dose models. (author)

  15. Laser Decontamination of Surfaces Contaminated with Cs+ Ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baigalmaaa, B.; Won, H. J.; Moon, J. K.; Jung, C. H.; Lee, K. W.; Hyun, J. H.

    2008-01-01

    Laser decontamination technology has been proven to be an efficient method for a surface modification of metals and concretes contaminated with radioactive isotopes. Furthermore, the generation of a secondary waste is negligible. The radioactivity of hot cells in the DFDF (Dupic Fuel Development Facility) is presumed to be very high and the predominant radionuclide is Cs-137. A series of laser decontamination studies by a fabricated Q-switched Nd:YAG laser system were performed on stainless steel specimens artificially contaminated with Cs+ ion. Decontamination characteristics of the stainless steel were analyzed by SEM and EPMA

  16. Flash CS5.5 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Chris

    2011-01-01

    You can build everything from simple animations to full-fledged iOS and Android apps with Flash CS5.5, but learning this complex program can be difficult-unless you have this fully updated, bestselling guide. Learn how to create gorgeous Flash effects even if you have no programming experience. With Flash CS5.5: The Missing Manual, you'll move from the basics to power-user tools with ease. Learn animation basics. Discover how to turn simple ideas into stunning animations.Master Flash's tools. Learn the animation and effects tools with clear explanations and hands-on examples.Use 3D effects. R

  17. CsI calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aulchenko, V.M.; Bondar, A.E.; Erofeev, A.L.; Kovalenko, O.A.; Kozyrev, A.N.; Kuzmin, A.S.; Logashenko, I.B.; Razuvaev, G.P.; Ruban, A.A.; Shebalin, V.E.; Shwartz, B.A.; Talyshev, A.A.; Titov, V.M.; Yudin, Yu.V.; Epifanov, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    The VEPP-2000 e + e − collider has been operated at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics since 2010. The experiments are performed with two detectors CMD-3 and SND. The calorimetry at the CMD-3 detector is based on three subsystems, two coaxial barrel calorimeters—Liquid Xenon Calorimeter and crystal CsI calorimeter, and endcap calorimeter with BGO crystals. This paper describes the CsI calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector. The calorimeter design, its electronics and calibration procedures are discussed

  18. A winning combination: the 3Cs of business continuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendon, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Contingency planning is a natural part of business life and is used across identified strategic, financial and operational risks. But is it being done well and is it the right approach all of the time? This paper shows how contingency planning forms one layer of a three-line defence termed 'the 3Cs of business continuity': contingency planning; continuity capability; crisis response. Collectively, 'the 3Cs' help organisations deliver a robust response to the risks that can be seen and those that cannot.

  19. Separation of aromatics by vapor permeation through solvent swollen membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, A.; Adachi, K.; Feng, Y. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan)

    1995-12-20

    A vapor permeation process for aromatics separation from a hydrocarbon mixture was studied by means of the simultaneous permeation of dimethylsulfoxide vapor as an agent for membrane swelling and preferential permeation of aromatics. The separation performance of the process was demonstrated by a polyvinylalcohol membrane for mixed vapors of benzene/cyclohexane, xylene/octane and a model gasoline. The aromatic vapors preferentially permeated from these mixed vapor feeds. The separation factor was over 10. The separation mechanism of the process mainly depends on the relative salability of the vapors between aromatics and other hydrocarbons in dimethylsulfoxide. 14 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  20. A Local Propagation for Vapor Explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, M.; Bankoff, S.G.

    1976-01-01

    Explosive boiling, defined as energy transfer leading to formation of vapor rapidly enough to produce large shock waves, has been widely studied in a number of contexts. Depending upon the nature and temperatures of the liquids and mode of contacting, large-scale mixing and explosive vaporization may occur, or alternatively, only relatively non-energetic, film-type boiling may exist. The key difference is whether a mechanism is operative for increasing the liquid-liquid interfacial area in a time scale consistent with the formation of a detonation wave. Small drops of a cold volatile liquid were dropped onto a free surface of a hot, non-volatile liquid. The critical Weber number for coalescence is obtained from the envelope of the film boiling region. Markedly different behavior for the two hot liquids is observed. A 'splash' theory for local propagation of vapor explosions in spontaneously nucleating liquid-liquid systems is now formulated. After a random contact is made, explosive growth and coalescence of the vapor bubbles occurs as soon as the surrounding pressure is relieved, resulting in a high-pressure vapor layer at the liquid-liquid contact area. This amounts to an impact pressure applied to the free surface, with a resulting velocity distribution obtained from potential flow theory. The peak pressure predictions are. consistent with data for Freon-oil mixing, but further evaluation will await additional experimental data. Nevertheless, the current inference is that a UO 2 -Na vapor explosion in a reactor environment cannot be visualized. In conclusion: The propagation model presented here differs in some details from that of Henry and Fauske, although both are consistent with some peak pressure data obtained by Henry, et al. Clearly, additional experimental information is needed for further evaluation of these theories. Nevertheless, it should be emphasized that even at this time a number of important observations concerning the requirements for a vapor

  1. Recent levels of radionuclides in lichens from southwest Poland with particular reference to 134Cs and 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaward, M.R.D.; Bylinska, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    Analyses of Umbilicaria species collected from southwest Poland in August 1986 have shown there to be significant increases in levels of various radionuclides since previous analyses based on fieldwork in 1978-1979. The composition and ratio of the various radionuclides, particularly in respect of 134 Cs and 137 Cs, exhibit a characteristic signature consistent with contamination derived from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in April 1986. Intraspecific variation in levels of 137 Cs in Umbilicaria is related to such factors as location, altitude and, to a lesser degree, aspect; interspecific variation in levels is related to ecological requirements and geographical pattern, and hence the same factors, although morphological differences in thalli may be implicated. (author)

  2. Knudsen cell vaporization of rare earth nitrides: enthalpy of vaporization of HoN098

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.C.; Clark, N.J.

    1975-01-01

    The enthalpy of vaporization of HoN 0 . 98 was measured by the weight-loss Knudsen cell technique using Motzfeldt-Whitman extrapolations to zero orifice area. A third-law enthalpy of vaporization of HoN 0 . 98 of 155.9 +- 5 kcal mole -1 was obtained compared to a second-law value of 162.0 +- 5 kcal mole -1 . Similar measurements on the nitrides of samarium, erbium, and ytterbium gave third-law enthalpies of vaporization of 126.8 +-- 5 kcal mole -1 ; 159.6 +- 5 kcal mole -1 , and 121.0 +- 5 kcal mole -1 , respectively. 7 tables

  3. Collapsing criteria for vapor film around solid spheres as a fundamental stage leading to vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freud, Roy; Harari, Ronen; Sher, Eran

    2009-01-01

    Following a partial fuel-melting accident, a Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) can result with the fragmentation of the melt into tiny droplets. A vapor film is then formed between the melt fragments and the coolant, while preventing a contact between them. Triggering, propagation and expansion typically follow the premixing stage. In the triggering stage, vapor film collapse around one or several of the fragments occurs. This collapse can be the result of fragments cooling, a sort of mechanical force, or by any other means. When the vapor film collapses and the coolant re-establishes contact with the dry surface of the hot melt, it may lead to a very rapid and rather violent boiling. In the propagation stage the shock wave front leads to stripping of the films surrounding adjacent droplets which enhance the fragmentation and the process escalates. During this process a large quantity of liquid vaporizes and its expansion can result in destructive mechanical damage to the surrounding structures. This multiphase thermal detonation in which high pressure shock wave is formed is regarded as 'vapor explosion'. The film boiling and its possible collapse is a fundamental stage leading to vapor explosion. If the interaction of the melt and the coolant does not result in a film boiling, no explosion occurs. Many studies have been devoted to determine the minimum temperature and heat flux that is required to maintain a film boiling. The present experimental study examines the minimum temperature that is required to maintain a film boiling around metal spheres immersed into a liquid (subcooled distilled water) reservoir. In order to simulate fuel fragments that are small in dimension and has mirror-like surface, small spheres coated with anti-oxidation layer were used. The heat flux from the spheres was calculated from the sphere's temperature profiles and the sphere's properties. The vapor film collapse was associated with a sharp rise of the heat flux during the cooling

  4. Elastic properties of Cs2HgBr4 and Cs2CdBr4 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kityk, A.V.; Zadorozhna, A.V.; Shchur, Y.I.; Martynyuk-Lototska, Y.I.; Burak, Y.; Vlokh, O.G.

    1998-01-01

    Using ultrasonic velocity measurements, all components of the elastic constant matrix C ij , elastic compliances matrix S ij , and linear compressibility constants matrix K ij of orthorhombic Cs 2 HgBr 4 and Cs 2 CdBr 4 crystals have been determined over a wide temperature range, including the region of the phase transition from the normal to the incommensurate phase. Results obtained are considered within the framework of the phenomenological theory. Preliminary analysis of the acoustical properties at room temperature clearly indicates that both crystals are relatively important materials for acousto-optical applications. Copyright (1998) CSIRO Australia

  5. Exposure of a herbivorous fish to 134Cs and 137Cs from the riverbed following the Fukushima disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuboi, Jun-ichi; Abe, Shin-ichiro; Fujimoto, Ken; Kaeriyama, Hideki; Ambe, Daisuke; Matsuda, Keishi; Enomoto, Masahiro; Tomiya, Atsushi; Morita, Takami; Ono, Tsuneo; Yamamoto, Shoichiro; Iguchi, Kei'ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Ayu Plecoglossus altivelis, a herbivorous fish, is an important fishery resource and key component of the foodweb in many Japanese streams. Radionuclide contamination of this species is likely transferred to higher trophic levels, include humans, in the food chain. After the Fukushima accident in March 2011, ayu were exposed to highly contaminated silt while feeding on algae attached to the riverbed stones. To understand the route by which herbivorous fish are exposed to radionuclides, the activity concentrations of sum of 134 Cs and 137 Cs (radiocesium) were analyzed in riverbed samples (algae and silt) and in the internal organs and the muscle of ayu in five river systems in the Fukushima Prefecture between summer 2011 and autumn 2013. Although there was a positive correlation between the radiocesium activity concentrations in the muscle and the internal organs of ayu, the median activity concentration in the muscle was much lower than those in the internal organs. The activity concentrations of radiocesium in the riverbed samples and the internal organs and the muscle of ayu were correlated with contamination levels in soil samples taken from the watershed upstream of the sample sites. The results of the generalized linear mixed models suggest that the activity concentrations in both the internal organs and the muscle of ayu declined over time. Additionally, the activity concentrations in the internal organs were correlated with those in the riverbed samples that were collected around the same time as the ayu. The activity concentrations in the muscle were correlated with ayu body size. Our results suggest that ayu ingest 134 Cs and 137 Cs while grazing silt and algae from the riverbed, and a part of the 134 Cs and 137 Cs is assimilated into the muscle of the fish. - Highlights: • The radiocesium (sum of 134 Cs and 137 Cs) concentrations in a herbivorous fish were measured following the Fukushima disaster. • The muscle concentrations were correlated with

  6. Solvent-vapor-assisted imprint lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voicu, Nicoleta E.; Ludwigs, Sabine; Crossland, Edward J. W.; Andrew, Piers; Steiner, Ullrich

    2007-01-01

    Sub-micrometer features are replicated into high-molecular-weight polymer resists by using solvent-assisted nanoimprint lithography (see figure). By swelling the polymer in a controlled solvent-vapor atmosphere, millibar pressures and ambient temperatures are sufficient to achieve high-fidelity

  7. General well function for soil vapor extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perina, Tomas

    2014-04-01

    This paper develops a well function applicable to extraction of groundwater or soil vapor from a well under the most common field test conditions. The general well function (Perina and Lee, 2006) [12] is adapted to soil vapor extraction and constant head boundary at the top. For groundwater flow, the general well function now applies to an extraction well of finite diameter with uniform drawdown along the screen, finite-thickness skin, and partially penetrating an unconfined, confined, and leaky aquifer, or an aquifer underneath a reservoir. With a change of arguments, the model applies to soil vapor extraction from a vadose zone with no cover or with leaky cover at the ground surface. The extraction well can operate in specified drawdown (pressure for soil vapor) or specified flowrate mode. Frictional well loss is computed as flow-only dependent component of the drawdown inside the extraction well. In general case, the calculated flow distribution is not proportional to screen length for a multiscreen well.

  8. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    CERN Document Server

    Olivares, I E

    2002-01-01

    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the sup 6 LiD sub 2 and the sup 7 LiD sub 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  9. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, I.E.; Rojas, C.

    2002-01-01

    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the 6 LiD 2 and the 7 LiD 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  10. Resonant second harmonic generation in potassium vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.; Mullin, C.S.; Shen, Y.R.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1995-06-01

    Picosecond pulses are used to study resonant second harmonic generation in potassium vapor. Although the process is both microscopically and macroscopically forbidden, it can readily be observed. The results can be quantitatively understood by a multiphoton-ionization-initiated, dc-field-induced, coherent transient model

  11. Vapor Bubbles in Flow and Acoustic Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosperetti, Andrea; Hao, Yue; Sadhal, S.S

    2002-01-01

    A review of several aspects of the interaction of bubbles with acoustic and flow fields is presented. The focus of the paper is on bubbles in hot liquids, in which the bubble contains mostly vapor, with little or no permanent gas. The topics covered include the effect of translation on condensation

  12. A FGGE water vapor wind data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tod R.; Hayden, Christopher M.

    1985-01-01

    It has been recognized for some time that water vapor structure visible in infrared imagery offers a potential for obtaining motion vectors when several images are considered in sequence (Fischer et al., 1981). A study evaluating water vapor winds obtained from the VISSR atmospheric sounder (Stewart et al., 1985) has confirmed the viability of the approach. More recently, 20 data sets have been produced from METEOSAT water vapor imagery for the FGGE period of 10-25 November 1979. Where possible, two data sets were prepared for each day at 0000 and 1200 GMT and compared with rawinsondes over Europe, Africa, and aircraft observations over the oceans. Procedures for obtaining winds were, in general, similar to the earlier study. Motions were detected both by a single pixel tracking and a cross correlation method by using three images individually separated by one hour. A height assignment was determined by matching the measured brightness temperature to the temperature structure represented by the FGGE-IIIB analyses. Results show that the METEOSAT water vapor winds provide uniform horizontal coverage of mid-level flow over the globe with good accuracy.

  13. External fuel vaporization study, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szetela, E. J.; Chiappetta, L.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted to evaluate the effect of variations in fuel properties on the design of an external fuel vaporizaton system. The fuel properties that were considered included thermal stability, critical temperature, enthalpy a critical conditions, volatility, and viscosity. The design parameters that were evaluated included vaporizer weight and the impact on engine requirement such as maintenance, transient response, performance, and altitude relight. The baseline fuel properties were those of Jet A. The variation in thermal stability was taken as the thermal stability variation for Experimental Referee Broad Specification (ERBS) fuel. The results of the analysis indicate that a change in thermal stability equivalent to that of ERBS would increase the vaporization system weight by 20 percent, decrease oprating time between cleaning by 40 percent and make altitude relight more difficult. An increase in fuel critical temperature of 39 K would require a 40 percent increase in vaporization system weight. The assumed increase in enthalpy and volatility would also increase vaporizer weight by 40 percent and make altitude relight extremely difficult. The variation in fuel viscosity would have a negligible effect on the design parameters.

  14. Atomic-vapor-laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.I.

    1982-10-01

    This paper gives a brief history of the scientific considerations leading to the development of laser isotope separation (LIS) processes. The close relationship of LIS to the broader field of laser-induced chemical processes is evaluated in terms of physical criteria to achieve an efficient production process. Atomic-vapor LIS processes under development at Livermore are reviwed. 8 figures

  15. Fractional condensation of biomass pyrolysis vapors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik; Garcia Perez, M.; Wang, Zhouhong; Oudenhoven, Stijn; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria; Kersten, Sascha R.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the possibilities to steer the composition and, thus, the quality of pyrolysis liquids by the reactor temperature and the pyrolysis vapor condenser temperature. Pine wood was pyrolyzed in a 1 kg/h fluidized-bed pyrolysis reactor operated at 330 or 480 °C. The

  16. 75 FR 65151 - Marine Vapor Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... Classification UFL Upper flammable limit USCG U.S. Coast Guard VCS Vapor control system VOC Volatile organic... transfer substance to new Subpart P, beginning with 33 CFR 154.2000, to facilitate the substantive changes... that guidance. Limit requirements for flame arresters or flame screens to the flammable, combustible...

  17. Covering sources of toxic vapors with foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aue, W. P.; Guidetti, F.

    2009-01-01

    In a case of chemical terrorism, first responders might well be confronted with a liquid source of toxic vapor which keeps spreading out its hazardous contents. With foam as an efficient and simple means, such a source could be covered up in seconds and the spread of vapors mitigated drastically. Once covered, the source could then wait for a longer time to be removed carefully and professionally by a decontamination team. In order to find foams useful for covering up toxic vapor sources, a large set of measurements has been performed in order to answer the following questions: - Which foams could be used for this purpose? - How thick should the foam cover be? - For how long would such a foam cover be effective? - Could the practical application of foam cause a spread of the toxic chemical? The toxic vapors sources included GB, GD and HD. Among the foams were 10 fire fighter foams (e.g. AFFF, protein) and the aqueous decontamination foam CASCAD. Small scale experiments showed that CASCAD is best suited for covering a toxic source; a 10 cm layer of it covers and decontaminates GB. The large scale experiments confirmed that any fire fighter foam is a suitable cover for a longer or shorter period.(author)

  18. Similarities and differences in vapor explosion criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronenberg, A.W.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of recent ideas pertaining to vapor explosion criteria indicates that in general sense, a consensus of opinion is emerging on the conditions applicable to explosive vaporization. Experimental and theoretical work has lead a number of investigators to the formulation of such conditions which are quite similar in many respects, although the quantitative details of the model formulation of such conditions are somewhat different. All model concepts are consistent in that an initial period of stable film boiling, separating molten fuel from coolant, is considered necessary (at least for large-scale interactions and efficient intermixing), with subsequent breakdown of film boiling due to pressure and/or thermal effects, followed by intimate fuel-coolant contact and a rapid vaporization process which is sufficient to cause shock pressurization. Although differences arise as to the conditions for and the energetics associated with film boiling destabilization and the mode and energetics of fragmentation and intermixing. However, the principal area of difference seems to be the question of what constitutes the requisite condition(s) for rapid vapor production to cause shock pressurization

  19. HYDROCARBON VAPOR DIFFUSION IN INTACT CORE SLEEVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The diffusion of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (TMP) and 2,2,5-trimethylhexane (TMH) vapors put of residually contaminated sandy soil from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) field research site at Traverse City, Michigan, was measured and modeled. The headspace of an intact ...

  20. Multicomponent droplet vaporization in a convecting environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megaridis, C.M.; Sirignano, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper a parametric study of the fundamental exchange processes for energy, mass and momentum between the liquid and gas phases of multicomponent liquid vaporizing droplets is presented. The model, which examines an isolated, vaporizing, multicomponent droplet in an axisymmetric, convecting environment, considers the different volatilities of the liquid components, the alteration of the liquid-phase properties due to the spatial/temporal variations of the species concentrations and also the effects of multicomponent diffusion. In addition, the model accounts for variable thermophysical properties, surface blowing and droplet surface regression due to vaporization, transient droplet heating with internal liquid circulation, and finally droplet deceleration with respect to the free flow due to drag. The numerical calculation employs finite-difference techniques and an iterative solution procedure that provides time-varying spatially-resolved data for both phases. The effects of initial droplet composition, ambient temperature, initial Reynolds number (based on droplet diameter), and volatility differential between the two liquid components are investigated for a liquid droplet consisting of two components with very different volatilities. It is found that mixtures with higher concentration of the less volatile substance actually vaporize faster on account of intrinsically higher liquid heating rates

  1. Terahertz radiation in alkali vapor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xuan; Zhang, X.-C.

    2014-01-01

    By taking advantage of low ionization potentials of alkali atoms, we demonstrate terahertz wave generation from cesium and rubidium vapor plasmas with an amplitude nearly one order of magnitude larger than that from nitrogen gas at low pressure (0.02–0.5 Torr). The observed phenomena are explained by the numerical modeling based upon electron tunneling ionization

  2. Vapor pressure of selected organic iodides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fulem, M.; Růžička, K.; Morávek, P.; Pangrác, Jiří; Hulicius, Eduard; Kozyrkin, B.; Shatunov, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 11 (2010), 4780-4784 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0217 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : vapor pressure * static method * organic iodides Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.089, year : 2010

  3. Distribution of 137Cs Radionuclide in Industrial Wastes Effluents of Gresik, East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides 137Cs was measured from industrial waste effluent of Gresik to Gresik Sea in east Java, Indonesia. The activity of 37Cs detected at all stations was much lower than in northeast Japan both before and after NPP Fukushima accident. This indicated that in Gresik industrials waste did not consist of 137Cs. The lowest activity 137Cs occurred at the station nearest to the industrial waste effluent that contained some particle ions that were able to scavenge 137Cs and then precipate this radionuclide. Furthermore, the greatest 137Cs occured at the station that has high current speeds that stirred up sediment to release 137Cs in seawater as a secondary source. The lowest salinity did not effect on the activity of 137Cs even though the lowest salinity and activity 137Cs occured at the same station

  4. Early stages of Cs adsorption mechanism for GaAs nanowire surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Yu; Liu, Lei; Xia, Sihao; Feng, Shu

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the adsorption mechanism of Cs adatoms on the (100) surface of GaAs nanowire with [0001] growth direction is investigated utilizing first principles method based on density function theory. The adsorption energy, work function, atomic structure and electronic property of clean surface and Cs-covered surfaces with different coverage are discussed. Results show that when only one Cs is adsorbed on the surface, the most favorable adsorption site is BGa-As. With increasing Cs coverage, work function gradually decreases and gets its minimum at 0.75 ML, then rises slightly when Cs coverage comes to 1 ML, indicating the existence of 'Cs-kill' phenomenon. According to further analysis, Cs activation process can effectively reduce the work function due to the formation of a downward band bending region and surface dipole moment directing from Cs adatom to the surface. As Cs coverage increases, the conduction band minimum and valence band maximum both shift towards lower energy side, contributed by the orbital hybridization between Cs-5s, Cs-5p states and Ga-4p, As-4s, As-4p states near Fermi level. The theoretical calculations and analysis in this study can improve the Cs activation technology for negative electron affinity optoelectronic devices based on GaAs nanowires, and also provide a reference for the further Cs/O or Cs/NF3 activation process.

  5. Color centers in heavily irradiated CsI(Tl) crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovlev, V.; Meleshko, A.; Trefilova, L.

    2008-01-01

    The absorption and luminescence properties of CsI(Tl) crystals colored by irradiation are studied by the method of the time-resolved spectroscopy. The scheme of the electron transitions in CsI(Tl) crystal is suggested to explain the appearance of the color centers under exposure to the near-UV light. It is established that either of the two types activator color centers holds the charge carrier with opposite sign. The model of the hole Tl 2+ v c - activator color center is suggested. According to the model the positive charge of Tl 2+ ion is compensated by the negative charge of a close cation vacancy v c - . The color center emission reveals in the cathode-luminescence spectrum of the colored CsI(Tl) crystal. The high-dose irradiation of CsI(Tl) crystal results in the reduction of the decay time of the near-thallium self-trapped excitons (STE) emission. The decay kinetics of Tl 2+ v c - emission contains the time components typical for the decay kinetics of near-thallium STE emission. The reason of the observed effects is the energy transfer from the near-thallium STE excitons to the color centers via the inductive-resonant mechanism

  6. Obstacles to superconductivity in CsCl phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthias, B.T.; Corenzwit, E.; Vandenberg, J.M.; Barz, H.; Maple, M.B.; Shelton, R.N.

    1976-01-01

    Reasons are put forward for why the CsCl structure is not a structure which is favorable for high-temperature superconductivity. The transition temperatures of several binary and ternary intermetallic compounds are given to illustrate the arguments. (B.R.H.)

  7. Theory of field induced incommensurability: CsFeCl3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1986-01-01

    Using correlation theory for the singlet-doublet magnet CsFeCl3 in a magnetic field, a field induced incommensurate ordering along K-M is predicted without invoking dipolar effects. A fully self-consistent RPA theory gives Hc=44 kG in agreement with experiments at T=1.3K. Correlation and dipolar...

  8. 137Cs in the fungal compartment of Swedish forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinichuk, Mykhaylo M.; Johanson, Karl J.; Taylor, Andy F.S.

    2004-01-01

    The 137 Cs activities in soil profiles and in the mycelia of four ectomycorrhizal fungi were studied in a Swedish forest in an attempt to understand the mechanisms governing the transfer and retention of 137 Cs in forest soil. The biomass of four species of fungi was determined and estimated to be 16 g m -2 in a peat soil and 47-189 g m -2 in non-peat soil to the depth of 10 cm. The vertical distribution was rather homogeneous for two species (Tylospora spp. and Piloderma fallax) and very superficial for Hydnellum peckii. Most of the 137 Cs activity in mycelium of non-peat soils was found in the upper 5 cm. Transfer factors were quite high even for those species producing resupinate sporocarps. In the peat soil only approximately 0.3% of the total 137 Cs inventory in soil was found in the fungal mycelium. The corresponding values for non-peat soil were 1.3, 1.8 and 1.9%

  9. Experimental probe into adsorption of Sr, Cs in the Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Guangyu; Bai Qingzhong

    1987-12-01

    There are some obstacles in researching on the adsorption patterns of Sr and Cs in soil. One of them is that it is difficult to compare and to consult between various results and data for different types and sizes of soil. For this reason, it is neccesary to do further research into adsorption patterns of Sr and Cs in single particles of soil. By using scanning electromicroscope, the microcosmic phenomena of nuclides adsorption is observed, and a possible mechanism is proposed. A certain amount of diluvial soil from Shanxi Province and a certain amount of alluvial soil from western Beijing suburban were chosen as detected samples. After determining the distributions of adsorbed Sr and Cs in varied mineral particles, it is pointed out that the defference of chemical components of various size soils effects Kd value of Sr and Cs obviously. The method for calculating Kd value of mixing samples according to the particle distribution coefficients are derived under the condition of surface adsorption as main. The authors expound that it is favourable for accuracy to select and control the particle sizes in static adsorptional experiment

  10. Interlaboratory comparison on 137Cs activity concentration in fume dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzika, Faidra; Hult, Mikael; Burda, Oleksiy; Arnold, Dirk; Sibbens, Goedele; Caro Marroyo, Belén; Gómez–Mancebo, Maria Belén; Peyrés, Virginia; Moser, Hannah; Ferreux, Laurent; Šolc, Jaroslav; Dryák, Pavel; Fazio, Aldo; Luca, Aurelian; Vodenik, Branko; Reis, Mario

    2015-01-01

    A comparison was conducted, between 11 European National Metrology Institutes and EC-JRC, on measurement of 137 Cs activity concentration in fume dust. As test material an activity standard produced from real contaminated fume dust was used. The standard material consisted of 13 cylindrical samples of compressed fume dust. The material contained 137 Cs and 60 Co of reference activity concentrations of (9.72±0.10) Bq/g and (0.450±0.018) Bq/g, respectively, for the reference date of 1 June 2013, determined using the comparison results. The organization and results of the intercomparison, as well as the process of obtaining reliable reference values are presented. - Highlights: • A European comparison was conducted on measurement of 137 Cs activity in fume dust. • Participants used high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. • Efficiency calibration included Monte Carlo, numerical and experimental methods. • Reference 137 Cs and 60 Co activity concentrations in the fume dust were determined. • A new traceable activity standard of fume dust matrix is available to end-users.

  11. Plutonium and Cs-137 in autopsy tissues in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popplewell, D.S.; Ham, G.J.; Dodd, N.J.; Shuttler, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Tissues removed at autopsy from members of the general public contain significantly higher concentrations of plutonium and 137 Cs in west Cumbrians than in people from three other regions of Great Britain. Several autopsy cases from Cumbria showed unusually high values of plutonium. Subsequently it was found that the subjects had been former employees of British Nuclear Fuels. 7 refs.; 8 tabs

  12. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS08 (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for CS08 collected in 2006 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...

  13. Medical aspects of 137Cs decorporation: The Goiania radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, R.; Brandao-Mello, C.E.; Oliveira, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    In September 1987, the Goiania radiological accident involving a source of 137 Cs culminated in about 140 victims who presented internal and/or external contamination and/or external exposure to radiation and/or radiation burns. Internal contamination was verified through analysis of urine and fecal samples. Internal contamination was also evaluated by measurements performed at the whole-body counter installed in Goiania in November 1987. To enhance the decorporation of 137Cs, patients were treated with the following: (1) Prussian Blue, oral administration, in 46 patients; (2) diuretics, oral administration, in 17 patients; (3) induced perspiration, increasing 137 Cs elimination. These procedures were done under rigorous clinical evaluation and considering the data from assay of excreta and data obtained from the whole-body counter. The doses of Prussian Blue exceeded about 6.5 times the dose previously indicated in the literature. It was the first time diuretics were used in humans to treat 137 Cs internal contamination. The results of these procedures are discussed

  14. Attenuation of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) inbioelectrochemical systems

    KAUST Repository

    Werner, Craig M.; Hoppe-Jones, Christiane; Saikaly, Pascal; Logan, Bruce E.; Amy, Gary L.

    2015-01-01

    , but no consistent trend could be identified regarding the physico-chemical properties of the TOrCs tested and the extent of sorption. The octanol-water distribution coefficient at pH 7.4 (log DpH 7.4) appeared to be a reasonable predictor for sorption of some

  15. Composite germanium monochromators - results for the TriCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefer, J.; Fischer, S.; Boehm, M.; Keller, L.; Horisberger, M.; Medarde, M.; Fischer, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Composite germanium monochromators are in the beginning of their application in neutron diffraction. We show here the importance of the permanent quality control with neutrons on the example of the 311 wafers which will be used on the single crystal diffractometer TriCS at SINQ. (author) 2 figs., 3 refs.

  16. Synthesis and structural characterization of CsNiP crystal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The crystals obtained by this method were of good quality exhibiting ... type framework structure having Cs atoms inside it (figures. 3 and 4). This helps for .... Gopalakrishna G S, Prasad J S and Lokanath N K 2001 Proc. joint 4th and 6th ICSTR ...

  17. Determination of the radioactive concentration of 137Cs in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The recently accepted standard method to determine the radioactive concentration of 137 Cs in water is based on the selective retention of cesium ions on ammonium-phosphorous-molybdate followed by the dissolution of the sorbent and the selective precipitation of cesium-hexa-chloro-platinate. The radioactive concentration is determined by the measurement of β disintegration rate of the preparate. (V.N.)

  18. Cs-137 in Norwegian Lapps in the spring of 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerlund, E.A.; Jellum, W.; Arneberg, P.

    Measurements show that the body burden of Cs-137 in Lapps from Kautokeino diminished from 1965 to 1975 with an apparent half-life of 4-5 years. Since 1975 the reduction has been much slower. The Cs-137 content in reindeer meat has since 1966 diminished at the same rate. The reason for the lower rate of reduction since 1975 is that the fallout has received a contribution of Cs-137 from recent Chinese nuclear tests. The ratio of the average body burden of the Lapps who herd reindeer to the amount of Cs-137 in reindeer meat is 11.7 for men and 6.6 for women. The ratios for other Lapps are 8.1 and 4.7. Investigation of the seasonal variation of the body burden shows that measurements made at the end of March and beginning of April give values from which the annual dose may be calculated. The average dose from recent measurements for reindeer herders is about 25 mrad/year and about 2/3 of this for others. The Sr-90 measurements in reindeer bones are not related to health effects for the Lapps, but show how this parameter varies with time and indicates the environmental contamination by this nuclide. (JIW)

  19. Fallout 137Cs in reindeer herders in Arctic Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuterud, Lavrans; Thørring, Håvard

    2015-03-03

    Reindeer herders in the Arctic were among the most heavily exposed populations to the global fallout from nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s, due to high transfer of radionuclides in the lichens-reindeer-human food chain. Annual studies of (137)Cs in reindeer herders in Kautokeino, Norway, were initiated in 1965 to monitor radiation doses and follow environmental (137)Cs behavior. The (137)Cs concentrations declined from the peak in 1965 with effective half-times of 6-8 years, only interrupted by a temporary doubling in levels from 1986 to 1987 due to the Chernobyl fallout. During the period of 1950-2010 an average herder received an integrated effective dose from incorporated (137)Cs of about 18 mSv. This dose represents an insignificant increase in the risk for developing cancer. Health studies even show a significantly lower cancer incidence among Sámis and reindeer herders in northern Norway compared to other populations in the same area.

  20. Radioactivity precipitation Sr-90 and Cs-137 in Plock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flakiewicz, W.; Majkowska, I.; Bonkowski, J.

    1986-01-01

    Methods of research and results for beta-activity measurements of precipitation in 1977-1983 with regard to Sr-90, Cs-137 - are presented. Climatic changes caused by big industrial plant, conditions of pollution propagation in atmosphere, parameters of pollution load of Plock region are described. 11 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs. (author)

  1. Sorption of Cs-137 and Co-60 in Natural Zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chales Suarez, G.; Moreno Alvarez, D.; Coutin Correa, D.

    1996-01-01

    The sorption of Cs-137 and Co-60 in natural zeolites under different conditions was studied. The behaviour of samples of mineral and rock from different deposit of the country was obtained and the decontamination of radioactive waters containing both radionuclides was performed; as part of the research to determine its application in the treatment of radioactive wastes in the country

  2. Observation of high spin levels in Cs from Ba decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 1157–1162. Observation of high spin levels in. 131. Cs from. 131. Ba decay. M SAINATH, DWARAKA RANI RAO*, K VENKATARAMANIAH and P C SOOD. Department of Physics, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Prasanthinilayam 515 134, India. £Permanent address: Department of Physics, ...

  3. Cs+ ion source for secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentz, B.L.; Weiss, H.; Liebl, H.

    1981-12-01

    Various types of cesium ionization sources currently used in secondary ion mass spectrometry are briefly reviewed, followed by a description of the design and performance of a novel, thermal surface ionization Cs + source developed in this laboratory. The source was evaluated for secondary ion mass spectrometry applications using the COALA ion microprobe mass analyzer. (orig.)

  4. Cs0.49NbPS6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoseop Yun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The quaternary thiophosphate, Cs0.49NbPS6, caesium hexathioniobiophosphate(V, has been synthesized by the reactive halide flux method. The title compound is isotypic with Rb0.46TaPS6 and is made up of a bicapped trigonal–biprismatic [Nb2S12] unit and a tetrahedral [PS4] group. The [Nb2S12] units linked by the [PS4] tetrahedra form infinite chains, yielding a three-dimensional network with rather large van der Waals gaps along the c axis in which the disordered Cs+ ions reside. The electrons released by the Cs atoms are transferred to the pairwise niobium metal site and there are substantial intermetallic Nb—Nb bonding interactions. This leads to a significant decrease of the intermetallic distance in the title compound compared to that in TaPS6. The classical charge balance of the title compound may be represented as [Cs+]0.49[Nb4.51+][P5+][S2−]4[S22−].

  5. 90Sr and 137Cs content in fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patin, S.A.; Petrov, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    Numerous data are presented and discussed on concentrations of 90 Sr in bones and 137 Cs in muscular tissues of main food fishes fished out in different regions of the ocean, seas, lakes and rivers. They are indicative of the absence of appreciable hygienic hazards for man from eating food fishes

  6. Vaporization of fault water during seismic slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianye; Niemeijer, André R.; Fokker, Peter A.

    2017-06-01

    Laboratory and numerical studies, as well as field observations, indicate that phase transitions of pore water might be an important process in large earthquakes. We present a model of the thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical processes, including a two-phase mixture model to incorporate the phase transitions of pore water, occurring during fast slip (i.e., a natural earthquake) in order to investigate the effects of vaporization on the coseismic slip. Using parameters from typical natural faults, our modeling shows that vaporization can indeed occur at the shallow depths of an earthquake, irrespective of the wide variability of the parameters involved (sliding velocity, friction coefficient, gouge permeability and porosity, and shear-induced dilatancy). Due to the fast kinetics, water vaporization can cause a rapid slip weakening even when the hydrological conditions of the fault zone are not favorable for thermal pressurization, e.g., when permeability is high. At the same time, the latent heat associated with the phase transition causes the temperature rise in the slip zone to be buffered. Our parametric analyses reveal that the amount of frictional work is the principal factor controlling the onset and activity of vaporization and that it can easily be achieved in earthquakes. Our study shows that coseismic pore fluid vaporization might have played important roles at shallow depths of large earthquakes by enhancing slip weakening and buffering the temperature rise. The combined effects may provide an alternative explanation for the fact that low-temperature anomalies were measured in the slip zones at shallow depths of large earthquakes.

  7. The vapor pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of M-xylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenberg, S J; Seiler, F A; Bechtold, W E; Eidson, A F

    1988-12-01

    We measured the vapor pressure of m-xylene over the temperature range 273 to 293 deg K with a single-sided capacitance manometer. The enthalpy of vaporization was 42.2 {+-} 0.1 (SE) kj/ g{center_dot}mol. Combining our own data with previously published data, we recommend using the values 42.0, 40.6, and 39.1 ({+-} 0.1) (SE) kjg{center_dot}mol for the enthalpy of vaporization of m-xylene at 300, 340, and 380 deg. K, respectively, and a value for the change in heat capacity on vaporization ({delta}Cpdeg.) of 35 {+-} 3 (SE) J/g{center_dot}mol{center_dot}K over the temperature range studied. (author)

  8. The vapor pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of M-xylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothenberg, S.J.; Seiler, F.A.; Bechtold, W.E.; Eidson, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    We measured the vapor pressure of m-xylene over the temperature range 273 to 293 deg K with a single-sided capacitance manometer. The enthalpy of vaporization was 42.2 ± 0.1 (SE) kj/ g·mol. Combining our own data with previously published data, we recommend using the values 42.0, 40.6, and 39.1 (± 0.1) (SE) kjg·mol for the enthalpy of vaporization of m-xylene at 300, 340, and 380 deg. K, respectively, and a value for the change in heat capacity on vaporization (ΔCpdeg.) of 35 ± 3 (SE) J/g·mol·K over the temperature range studied. (author)

  9. 46 CFR 182.480 - Flammable vapor detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.480 Flammable vapor... permit calibration in a vapor free atmosphere. (g) Electrical connections, wiring, and components for a...

  10. Ammonia IR Absorbance Measurements with an Equilibrium Vapor Cell

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Field, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Infrared (IR) absorbance spectra were acquired for 18 ammonia vapor pressures. The vapor pressures were generated with 15 gravimetrically prepared aqueous solutions and three commercial aqueous solutions using a dynamic method I.E...

  11. Water vapor movement in freezing aggregate base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to 1) measure the extent to which water vapor movement results in : water accumulation in freezing base materials; 2) evaluate the effect of soil stabilization on water vapor movement : in freezing base materials;...

  12. Influence of water management and fertilizer application on "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"3Cs uptake in paddy rice fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Shokichi; Itoh, Sumio; Kihou, Nobuharu; Matsunami, Hisaya; Hachinohe, Mayumi; Hamamatsu, Shioka; Takahashi, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Cesium-137 derived from the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident contaminated large areas of agricultural land in Eastern Japan. Previous studies before the accident have indicated that flooding enhances radiocesium uptake in rice fields. We investigated the influence of water management in combination with fertilizers on "1"3"7Cs concentrations in rice plants at two fields in southern Ibaraki Prefecture. Stable Cs ("1"3"3Cs) in the plants was also determined as an analogue for predicting "1"3"7Cs behavior after long-term aging of soil "1"3"7Cs. The experimental periods comprised 3 y starting from 2012 in one field, and 2 y from 2013 in another field. These fields were divided into three water management sections: a long-flooding section without midsummer drainage, and medial-flooding, and short-flooding sections with one- or two-week midsummer drainage and earlier end of flooding than the long-flooding section. Six or four types of fertilizer subsections (most differing only in potassium application) were nested in each water management section. Generally, the long-flooding treatment led to higher "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"3Cs concentrations in both straw and brown rice than medial- and short-flooding treatments, although there were some notable exceptions in the first experimental year at each site. Effects of differing potassium fertilizer treatments were cumulative; the effects on "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"3Cs concentrations in rice plants were not obvious in 2012 and 2013, but in 2014, these concentrations were highest where potassium fertilizer had been absent and lowest where basal dressings of K had been tripled. The relationship between "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"3Cs in rice plants was not correlative in the first experimental year at each site, but correlation became evident in the subsequent year(s). This study demonstrates a novel finding that omitting midsummer drainage and/or delaying drainage during the grain-filling period

  13. Use of Cs-137 as tracer in lake sediment investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinescu, L.; Vasile, E.; Timofte, L.; Cernisov, G.; Dorcioman, R.

    1997-01-01

    137 Cs vertical profile and total inventories were determined in four lakes located in Danube Delta and surroundings and in channel Dunavat. The radiocaesium total inventory of 1800 Bq/m 2 in Matita and Merhei-Middle Part, very closed to the atmospheric fallout value and a very low sedimentation rate, suggest a relative isolation of these two lakes related to the main Danube branches. The vertical profile obtained in Merhei lake (the Southern part) shows three distinct peaks corresponding to nuclear weapons tests performed in 1954 and 1963 and to Chernobyl event in 1986. Radiocaesium total inventory of 3270 Bq/m 2 was explained by an important 137 Cs contribution from the sediment transported by the channel linking lake Merhei to Dunarea Veche (Chilia branch). For the lakes Leahova and Razim, located in the immediate vicinity of the Black Sea, the total inventories of 600 Bq/m2 suggest an important transfer of sediments from the lakes to Black Sea. 137 Cs vertical profile in Dunavat channel shows two peaks, corresponding to Chernobyl event and nuclear tests. The total inventory of 2600 Bq/m 2 is due to atmospheric fallout and to the sediments transported by the river Danube and then by channel Dunavat. The sedimentation rate of 0.7 cm/year obtained from both peaks, suggests a constant sediment accumulation in the last 33 years. Other environmental tracers were used for recent lake sediment dating. The obtained results (considered as preliminary results) were compared with 137 Cs results. The results obtained from 137 Cs, 210 Pb and 241 Am measurements demonstrated that the environmental tracers are a valuable tool in sediment origin, transport and accumulation investigation. The research is in progress. (authors)

  14. Bionanomaterials and Bioinspired Nanostructures for Selective Vapor Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    agricultural crops. To meet the requirements for these and other demanding applications, new sensing approaches with improved sensor selectivity are required...of these vapors with key side- chain amino acids. DNT-binding peptide receptors were further conjugated to an oligo(ethylene glycol) hydrogel for vapor...coefficient for DNT over TNT vapor. Vapor-phase binding performance was attributed to the ability of the oligo(ethylene glycol) hydrogel to maintain the

  15. Dissolution behavior of 137Cs absorbed on the green tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, Yasuhisa; Uchimura, Hiromichi; Toda, Kensuke; Okuno, Kenji; Ikka, Takashi; Morita, Akio

    2013-01-01

    The green tea leaves was dipped in the 137 CsCl solution to elucidate the dissolution behavior of 137 Cs contaminated on the green tea leaves. It was found that the amount of 137 Cs dissolved into tea water was controlled by the temperature of water, and the activation energy of 137 Cs dissolution was estimated to be 0.045 eV, indicating that most of 137 Cs would exist as the adsorbed state. In addition, the dissolution behavior was controlled by the concentration of stable Cs dissolved in water, although no large correlation with pH was observed. (author)

  16. DSMC simulations of vapor transport toward development of the lithium vapor box divertor concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagoe, Christopher; Schwartz, Jacob; Goldston, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The lithium vapor divertor box concept attempts to achieve volumetric dissipation of the high heat efflux from a fusion power system. The vapor extracts the heat of the incoming plasma by ionization and radiation, while remaining localized in the vapor box due to differential pumping based on rapid condensation. Preliminary calculations with lithium vapor at densities appropriate for an NSTX-U-scale machine give Knudsen numbers between 0.01 and 1, outside both the range of continuum fluid dynamics and of collisionless Monte Carlo. The direct-simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, however, can simulate rarefied gas flows in this regime. Using the solver contained in the OpenFOAM package, pressure-driven flows of water vapor will be analyzed. The use of water vapor in the relevant range of Knudsen number allows for a flexible similarity experiment to verify the reliability of the code before moving to tests with lithium. The simulation geometry consists of chains of boxes on a temperature gradient, connected by slots with widths that are a representative fraction of the dimensions of the box. We expect choked flow, sonic shocks, and order-of-magnitude pressure and density drops from box to box, but this expectation will be tested in the simulation and then experiment. This work is supported by the Princeton Environmental Institute.

  17. Ground-state magneto-optical resonances in cesium vapor confined in an extremely thin cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, C.; Cartaleva, S.; Petrov, L.; Slavov, D.; Atvars, A.; Auzinsh, M.; Blush, K.

    2007-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies are presented related to the ground-state magneto-optical resonance observed in cesium vapor confined in an extremely thin cell (ETC), with thickness equal to the wavelength of the irradiating light. It is shown that utilization of the ETC allows one to examine the formation of a magneto-optical resonance on the individual hyperfine transitions, thus distinguishing processes resulting in dark (reduced absorption) or bright (enhanced absorption) resonance formation. We report experimental evidence of bright magneto-optical resonance sign reversal in Cs atoms confined in an ETC. A theoretical model is proposed based on the optical Bloch equations that involves the elastic interaction processes of atoms in the ETC with its walls, resulting in depolarization of the Cs excited state, which is polarized by the exciting radiation. This depolarization leads to the sign reversal of the bright resonance. Using the proposed model, the magneto-optical resonance amplitude and width as a function of laser power are calculated and compared with the experimental ones. The numerical results are in good agreement with those of experiment

  18. 40 CFR 52.255 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.255... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.255 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) “Gasoline” means any petroleum distillate having a Reid vapor pressure of 4 pounds or greater...

  19. 40 CFR 52.787 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.787... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.787 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) Gasoline means any petroleum distillate having a Reid vapor pressure of 4 pounds or greater...

  20. 21 CFR 888.4220 - Cement monomer vapor evacuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement monomer vapor evacuator. 888.4220 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4220 Cement monomer vapor evacuator. (a) Identification. A cement monomer vapor evacuator is a device intended for use during surgery to contain or remove...

  1. Review of literature on the asymmetric collapse of vapor bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremd, R.; Froehlich, G.

    1977-06-01

    This report contains a review of literature on the asymmetric collape of vapor bubbles by cavitation with special consideration to vapor explosions. Two numerical models, which describe the collapse of cavities in the neighbourhood of a solid surface, are presented. Moreover experimental results for this case are provided. Propositions to apply the numerical models to vapor explosions are made. (orig.) [de

  2. The separation of hydrocarbons from waste vapor streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behling, R.D.; Ohlrogge, K.; Peinemann, K.V.; Kyburz, E.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrocarbon vapors generated from industrial processes dispersed into air are contributing factors for the creation of photochemical smog. The separation of hydrocarbon vapor by means of membranes is in case of some applications a technically simple and economic process. A membrane vapor separation process with a following treatment of the retentate by catalytic incineration is introduced in this paper

  3. Recommended vapor pressures for thiophene, sulfolane, and dimethyl sulfoxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fulem, Michal; Růžička, K.; Růžička, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 303, č. 2 (2011), s. 205-216 ISSN 0378-3812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : thiophene sulfolane * dimethyl sulfoxide * vapor pressure * heat capacity * vaporization enthalpy * recommended vapor pressure equation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.139, year: 2011

  4. 33 CFR 154.826 - Vapor compressors and blowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Excessive shaft bearing temperature. (d) If a centrifugal compressor, fan, or lobe blower handles vapor in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vapor compressors and blowers....826 Vapor compressors and blowers. (a) Each inlet and outlet to a compressor or blower which handles...

  5. Internal contamination assessment, with regard to 90Sr, 134Cs, and 137Cs nuclei during nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayad, M.; Hanna, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    In case of nuclear reactor accident leading to the release of some radioactive isotopes in the plume, the sedimentation of its constituents on the ground causes surface contamination which consequently can be observed in the form of an internal contamination in the living biosphere. The migration of the radio nuclei from the soil to the plant root, stem, and the other edible parts is considered the main source for the contaminated foodstuffs used by the general public. In this work we have calculated the total accumulative internal dose for 9 0Sr, 1 34Cs, and 1 37Cs radio contaminants with regard to different public age groups (infant, child, and adult) due to an unexpected nuclear accident. In our calculations we have applied the protective measure inequality for the chosen standard group of foodstuffs, with respect to each age group of the public as well as the three indicated above radio nuclei. Our results indicated that the values of the calculated protective measures with regard to 9 0Sr, 1 37Cs, and 1 34Cs radio nuclei are increasing respectively for all age groups. In addition, we found that the ratio of the total protection measure values of all radio nuclei for different age groups still less than one which requires no intervention level procedures

  6. SEPARATION OF CsCl FROM LiCl-CsCl MOLTEN SALT BY COLD FINGER MELT CRYSTALLIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSHUA R. VERSEY

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a fundamental understanding of a cold finger melt crystallization technique by exploring the heat and mass transfer processes of cold finger separation. A series of experiments were performed using a simplified LiCl-CsCl system by varying initial CsCl concentrations (1, 3, 5, and 7.5 wt%, cold finger cooling rates (7.4, 9.8, 12.3, and 14.9 L/min, and separation times (5, 10, 15, and 30 min. Results showed a potential recycling rate of 0.36 g/min with a purity of 0.33 wt% CsCl in LiCl. A CsCl concentrated drip formation was found to decrease crystal purity especially for smaller crystal formations. Dimensionless heat and mass transfer correlations showed that separation production is primarily influenced by convective transfer controlled by cooling gas flow rate, where correlations are more accurate for slower cooling gas flow rates.

  7. Sorption of Cs-137 and Co-60 in Natural Zeolites; Sorcion de Cs-137 y Co-60 en zeolitas naturales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chales Suarez, G; Moreno Alvarez, D; Coutin Correa, D [Agencia de Energia Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba)

    1996-07-01

    The sorption of Cs-137 and Co-60 in natural zeolites under different conditions was studied. The behaviour of samples of mineral and rock from different deposit of the country was obtained and the decontamination of radioactive waters containing both radionuclides was performed; as part of the research to determine its application in the treatment of radioactive wastes in the country.

  8. The vaporization enthalpy and vapor pressure of S (+)-methamphetamine at T = 298.15 K by correlation gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, Melissa; Gobble, Chase; Chickos, James

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The vaporization enthalpy of (d)-methamphetamine was measured. • The vapor pressure of (d)-methamphetamine as a function of temperature was evaluated. • The vapor pressure of 4-benzylpiperidine as a function of temperature was evaluated. - Abstract: The vaporization enthalpy and vapor pressure of S (+)-methamphetamine is evaluated by correlation-gas chromatography. A vaporization enthalpy of (58.7 ± 4.3) kJ · mol −1 and a vapor pressure, p = (38 ± 9) Pa has been obtained using a variety of secondary aliphatic amines as standards. In addition, equations describing the vapor pressure temperature dependence are provided for standards and S (+)-methamphetamine covering the temperature range from T = 298.15 K to the boiling temperature. Boiling temperatures are reproduced within an interval of 8 K or less

  9. Temperature dependences of saturated vapor pressure and the enthalpy of vaporization of n-pentyl esters of dicarboxylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnova, S. V.; Krasnykh, E. L.; Levanova, S. V.

    2016-05-01

    The saturated vapor pressures and enthalpies of vaporization of n-pentyl esters of linear C2-C6 dicarboxylic acids are determined by the transpiration method in the temperature range of 309.2-361.2 K. The dependences of enthalpies of vaporization on the number of carbon atoms in the molecule and on the retention indices have been determined. The predictive capabilities of the existing calculation schemes for estimation of enthalpy of vaporization of the studied compounds have been analyzed.

  10. Comparative mode of action of novel hybrid peptide CS-1a and its rearranged amphipathic analogue CS-2a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Seema; Bisht, Gopal S; Rawat, Diwan S; Maiti, Souvik; Pasha, Santosh

    2012-10-01

    Cell selective, naturally occurring, host defence cationic peptides present a good template for the design of novel peptides with the aim of achieving a short length with improved antimicrobial potency and selectivity. A novel, short peptide CS-1a (14 residues) was derived using a sequence hybridization approach on sarcotoxin I (39 residues) and cecropin B (35 residues). The sequence of CS-1a was rearranged to enhance amphipathicity with the help of a Schiffer-Edmundson diagram to obtain CS-2a. Both peptides showed good antibacterial activity in the concentration range 4-16 μg·mL(-1) against susceptible as well as drug-resistant bacterial strains, including the clinically relevant pathogens Acenatobacter sp. and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The major thrust of these peptides is their nonhaemolytic activity against human red blood cells up to a high concentration of 512 μg·mL(-1). Compared to CS-1a, amphipathic peptide CS-2a showed a more pronounced α-helical conformation, along with a better membrane insertion depth in bacterial mimic 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol) small unilamellar vesicles. With equivalent lipid-binding affinity, the two peptides assumed different pathways of membrane disruption, as demonstrated by calcein leakage and the results of transmission electron microscopy on model bacterial mimic large unilamellar vesicles. Extending the work from model membranes to intact Escherichia coli cells, differences in membrane perturbation were visible in microscopic images of peptide-treated E. coli. The present study describes two novel short peptides with potent activity, cell selectivity and divergent modes of action that will aid in the future design of peptides with better therapeutic potential. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

  11. A numerical investigation of vapor intrusion--the dynamic response of contaminant vapors to rainfall events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G; Suuberg, Eric M

    2012-10-15

    The U.S. government and various agencies have published guidelines for field investigation of vapor intrusion, most of which suggest soil gas sampling as an integral part of the investigation. Contaminant soil gas data are often relatively more stable than indoor air vapor concentration measurements, but meteorological conditions might influence soil gas values. Although a few field and numerical studies have considered some temporal effects on soil gas vapor transport, a full explanation of the contaminant vapor concentration response to rainfall events is not available. This manuscript seeks to demonstrate the effects on soil vapor transport during and after different rainfall events, by applying a coupled numerical model of fluid flow and vapor transport. Both a single rainfall event and seasonal rainfall events were modeled. For the single rainfall event models, the vapor response process could be divided into three steps: namely, infiltration, water redistribution, and establishment of a water lens atop the groundwater source. In the infiltration step, rainfall intensity was found to determine the speed of the wetting front and wash-out effect on the vapor. The passage of the wetting front led to an increase of the vapor concentration in both the infiltration and water redistribution steps and this effect is noted at soil probes located 1m below the ground surface. When the mixing of groundwater with infiltrated water was not allowed, a clean water lens accumulated above the groundwater source and led to a capping effect which can reduce diffusion rates of contaminant from the source. Seasonal rainfall with short time intervals involved superposition of the individual rainfall events. This modeling results indicated that for relatively deeper soil that the infiltration wetting front could not flood, the effects were damped out in less than a month after rain; while in the long term (years), possible formation of a water lens played a larger role in determining

  12. Influence of the helium-pressure on diode-pumped alkali-vapor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Chen, Fei; Xie, Ji-jiang; Zhang, Lai-ming; Li, Dian-jun; Yang, Gui-long; Guo, Jing

    2013-05-01

    Diode-pumped alkali-vapor laser (DPAL) is a kind of laser attracted much attention for its merits, such as high quantum efficiency, excellent beam quality, favorable thermal management, and potential scalability to high power and so on. Based on the rate-equation theory of end-pumped DPAL, the performances of DPAL using Cs-vapor collisionally broadened by helium are simulated and studied. With the increase of helium pressure, the numerical results show that: 1) the absorption line-width increases and the stimulated absorption cross-section decreases contrarily; 2) the threshold pumping power decreases to minimum and then rolls over to increase linearly; 3) the absorption efficiency rises to maximum initially due to enough large stimulated absorption cross-section in the far wings of collisionally broadened D2 transition (absorption transition), and then begins to reduce; 4) an optimal value of helium pressure exists to obtain the highest output power, leading to an optimal optical-optical efficiency. Furthermore, to generate the self-oscillation of laser, a critical value of helium pressure occurs when small-signal gain equals to the threshold gain.

  13. Growth of NH4Cl Single Crystal from Vapor Phase in Vertical Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigara, Yutaka; Yoshizawa, Masahito; Fujimura, Tadao

    1983-02-01

    A pure and internally stress-free single crystal of NH4Cl was grown successfully from the vapor phase. The crystal measured 1.6 cmφ× 2 cm and had the disordered CsCl structure, which was stable below 184°C. The crystal was grown in an ampoule in a vertical furnace, in which the vapor was efficiently transported both by diffusion and convection. In line with the growth mechanism of a single crystal, the temperature fluctuation (°C/min) on the growth interface was kept smaller than the product of the temperature gradient (°C/cm) and the growth rate (cm/min). The specific heat of the crystal was measured around -31°C (242 K) during cooling and heating cycles by AC calorimetry. The thermal hysteresis (0.4 K) obtained here was smaller than that (0.89 K) of an NH4Cl crystal grown from its aqueous solution with urea added as a habit modifier.

  14. Thermal, conductivity, NMR, and Raman spectroscopic measurements and phase diagram of the Cs2S2O7-CsHSO4 system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Hama, Hind; Lapina, Olga

    2003-01-01

    The conductivity of the binary system CS2S2O7-CsHSO4 has been measured at 20 different molten compositions in the full composition range and in the temperature range 430-750 K. From the obtained liquidus-solidus phase transition temperatures, the phase diagram has been constructed. It is of the s......The conductivity of the binary system CS2S2O7-CsHSO4 has been measured at 20 different molten compositions in the full composition range and in the temperature range 430-750 K. From the obtained liquidus-solidus phase transition temperatures, the phase diagram has been constructed...... from the NMR measurements on CsHSO4, CS2S2O7, and Cs2S2O7-CsHSO4 mixtures. For 11 selected compositions covering the entire composition range of the CS2S2O7-CsHSO4 binary system, the conductivity of the molten state has been expressed by equations of the form k(X) = A(X) + B(X)(T - T-m) + C(X)(T - T...

  15. Pre-assessment of dose rates of 134Cs, 137Cs, and 60Co for marine biota from discharge of Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jingjing; Liu, Senlin; Zhang, Yongxing; Chen, Ling; Yan, Yuan; Cheng, Weiya; Lou, Hailin; Zhang, Yongbao

    2015-01-01

    Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant to be built in China was selected as a case for the dose pre-assessment for marine biota in this study. The concentrations of Cs and Co in organisms (turbot, yellow croaker, swimming crab, abalone, sea cucumber, and sea lettuce), seawater, and bottom sediment sampled on-site were measured by neutron activation analysis, and the site-specific transfer parameters (concentration ratios and distribution coefficients) of Cs and Co were calculated. 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 60 Co activity concentrations in the organisms and the sediment at the site were calculated with the site-specific transfer parameters and the anticipated activity concentrations in the liquid effluent of the nuclear power plant. The ERICA tool was used to estimate the dose rates of 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 60 Co to the selected organisms based on the biological models developed. The total dose rates of 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 60 Co to the six organisms were all <0.001 μGy h −1 . - Highlights: • Pre-assessment for biota dose rates from Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant was made. • The site-specific transfer parameters were obtained by neutron activation analysis. • The dose rates of 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 60 Co to the organisms were <0.001 μGy h −1

  16. Novel ion-molecular surface reaction to result in CH3 adsorbates on (111) surface of chemical vapor deposition diamond from ethane and surface anionic sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Shojiro; Okada, Katsuyuki; Shimizu, Yoshiki; Moriyoshi, Yusuke

    2001-01-01

    The existence of CH 3 adsorbates on (111) surface of chemical vapor deposited diamond, which was observed by scanning tunneling microscopy, was explained by the following S N 2 (bimolecular, substitutional, and nucleophilic) type surface reaction; C(s) - +C 2 H 6 ->C(s)-CH 3 +CH 3 - , where C(s) denotes a surface carbon atom. The activation energy was estimated to be 36.78 kcal/mol and the reaction proved to be exothermic with the enthalpy change of -9.250 kcal/mol, according to ab initio molecular orbital calculations at MP2/3-21+G * //RHF/3-21G * level; this result is consistent with typical substrate temperatures, namely about 900 degree C, for chemical vapor deposition of diamond. Charge transfer from the highest occupied molecular orbital of the surface anionic site to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of ethane, that is antibonding at the CH 3 - CH 3 bond, has been clearly visualized. A characteristic configuration of an ethane molecule which is associated with an anionic vacant site C(s) - on hydrogenated (111) surface of diamond was also found. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  17. A retrieved upper limit of CS in Neptune's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iino, T.; Mizuno, A.; Nagahama, T.; Hirota, A.; Nakajima, T.

    2012-12-01

    We present our new result of CS(J=7-6), CO(J=3-2) observations of Neptune's atmosphere carried out with 10-m ASTE sub-mm waveband telescope on August 2010. As a result, while CS line was not detected with 6.4 mK 1-sigma r.m.s. noise level, CO line was detected as 282 mK with 9.7 mK noise level in antenna temperature scale. All of the observations were carried out with 512 MHz bandwidth and 500 kHz resolution, the total integration time for CS and CO were 23 m 40 s and 11 m 00 s, respectively. Abundances have been obtained from the comparison between the intensity and the synthesis spectra modeled by plane parallel 1-D radiative transfer code assuming various mixing ratio of each gas. The retrieved upper limit of CS mixing ratio was 0.03 ppb throughout tropopause to stratosphere. CO mixing ratio have been retrieved 1.0 ppm with errors +0.3 and -0.2 ppm, and the result was consistent with previous observation [1]. The origin of abundant CO in Neptune's atmosphere has been long discussed since its mixing ratio is 30 - 500 times higher than the value of other gas giants [2][3][4]. Assuming that all of CO is produced by thermochemical equilibrium process in deep interior of Neptune, required O/H value in interior is 440 times higher than the solar value [5]. For this reason, it is claimed that the external CO supply source, such as the impact of comet or asteroid, is also the possible candidates of the origin of CO along with the internal supply source [6]. In this observation, we searched the remnant gas of cometary impact in Neptune's atmosphere. Along with CO and HCN, CS could be one of the possible candidate of the remnant gas of cometary impact since CS was largely produced after the impact of comet SL/9 on Jupiter while many other major sulfur compounds have not been detected. Actually, derived L37-40. [7]Moreno et al., 2003. Planetary and Space Sciences 51, 591-611 [8]Zahnle et al.,1995. GRL 22, 1593-1596 [9]Feuchtgruber et al., 1999. Proceeding of the conference

  18. Attenuation of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) inbioelectrochemical systems

    KAUST Repository

    Werner, Craig M.

    2015-04-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are two types of microbial bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) that use microorganisms to convert chemical energy in wastewaters into useful energy products such as (bio)electricity (MFC) or hydrogen gas (MEC). These two systems were evaluated for their capacity to attenuate trace organic compounds (TOrCs), commonly found in municipal wastewater, under closed circuit (current generation) and open circuit (no current generation) conditions, using acetate as the carbon source. A biocide was used to evaluate attenuation in terms of biotransformation versus sorption. The difference in attenuation observed before and after addition of the biocide represented biotransformation, while attenuation after addition of a biocide primarily indicated sorption. Attenuation of TOrCs was similar in MFCs and MECs for eight different TOrCs, except for caffeine and trimethoprim where slightly higher attenuation was observed in MECs. Electric current generation did not enhance attenuation of the TOrCs except for caffeine, which showed slightly higher attenuation under closed circuit conditions in both MFCs and MECs. Substantial sorption of the TOrCs occurred to the biofilm-covered electrodes, but no consistent trend could be identified regarding the physico-chemical properties of the TOrCs tested and the extent of sorption. The octanol-water distribution coefficient at pH 7.4 (log DpH 7.4) appeared to be a reasonable predictor for sorption of some of the compounds (carbamazepine, atrazine, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate and diphenhydramine) but not for others (N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide). Atenolol also showed high levels of sorption despite being the most hydrophilic in the suite of compounds studied (log DpH 7.4=-1.99). Though BESs do not show any inherent advantages over conventional wastewater treatment, with respect to TOrC removal, overall removals in BESs are similar to that reported for conventional wastewater

  19. Mass spectrometric study of Nd2S3 vaporization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenochka, B.V.

    1987-01-01

    The authors conduct a mass-spectrometric study of neodymium(III) sulfide vaporization. The chemical composition of the samples was stoichiometric and the samples were vaporized from tantalum effusion cells. When the vapor over Nd 2 S 3 is ionized by electrons the mass spectra shows monovalent cations of Nd, S, NdS, and NdO. The enthalpy of vaporization if Nd atoms from Nd 2 S 3 at average experimental temperatures and the standard enthalpy of reaction is shown. Also presented is the enthalpy of vaporization of NdS molecules from Nd 2 S 3 at average experimental temperatures and the standard enthalpy of reaction

  20. Cumulus convection and the terrestrial water-vapor distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Leo J.

    1988-01-01

    Cumulus convection plays a significant role in determining the structure of the terrestrial water vapor field. Cumulus convection acts directly on the moisture field by condensing and precipitating water vapor and by redistributing water vapor through cumulus induced eddy circulations. The mechanisms by which cumulus convection influences the terrestrial water vapor distribution is outlined. Calculations using a theory due to Kuo is used to illustrate the mechanisms by which cumulus convection works. Understanding of these processes greatly aids the ability of researchers to interpret the seasonal and spatial distribution of atmospheric water vapor by providing information on the nature of sources and sinks and the global circulation.