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Sample records for parachute creek shale

  1. Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program Environmental Monitoring Program. Quarterly report, fourth quarter, October 1-December 31, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The Program agreed to comply with existing environmental monitoring regulations and to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) incorporating supplemental monitoring in the areas of water, air, solid waste, and worker health and safety during the period 1985-1992. These activities are described in a series of quarterly and annual reports. The document contains environmental compliance data collected in the fourth quarter of 1991, contents of reports on compliance data submitted to regulatory agencies, and supplemental analytical results from retorted shale pile runoff water collected following a storm event during the third quarter of 1991

  2. Unocal Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program Environmental Monitoring Program. Annual report, October 1, 1990-December 31, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The Program agreed to comply with existing environmental monitoring regulations and to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) incorporating supplemental monitoring in the areas of water, air, solid waste, and worker health and safety during the period 1985-1992. These activities are described in a series of quarterly and annual reports. The report contains summaries of compliance and supplemental environmental and industrial hygiene and health surveillance monitoring conducted during the period; compliance permits, permit changes, and Notices of Violations discussions; statistical significance of Employee General Health information, medical histories, physical exams, pulmonary functions, clinical tests and demographics; independent audit reports; and a description of retorted shale disposal activities

  3. UNOCAL Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program. Environmental Monitoring Plan - supplemental environmental. Volume 1. Trip 2 report. Rept. for 1988-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The Program agreed to comply with existing environmental monitoring regulations and to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) incorporating supplemental monitoring in the areas of water, air, solid waste, and worker health and safety during the period 1985-1992. These activities are described in a series of quarterly and annual reports. The report contains results of three years of supplemental environmental sampling (Trial Trip, 1988; Trip 1, 1989; and Trip 2, 1990); Trip 2 sampling and analytical methods; quality assurance and quality control procedures; sampling and analytical methods; and corrected data from 1988 and 1989 gas and particulate concentrations

  4. Unocal Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program. Environmental Monitoring Plan quarterly report. Fourth quarter, 1989. Rept. for 1 Oct-31 Dec 89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commerical-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The Program agreed to comply with existing environmental monitoring regulations and to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan incorporating supplemental monitoring in the areas of water, air, solid waste, and worker health and safety during the period 1985-1992. These activities are described in a series of quarterly and annual reports. The report contains environmental compliance data reports, results of industrial hygiene compliance monitoring, and independent audits. Table 2-1 shows 14 of the 20 supplemental monitoring sites sampled during the quarter

  5. Site evaluation for U.S. Bureau of Mines experimental oil-shale mine, Piceance Creek basin, Rio Blanco County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ege, John R.; Leavesley, G.H.; Steele, G.S.; Weeks, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is cooperating with the U.S. Bureau of Mines in the selection of a site for a shaft and experimental mine to be constructed in the Piceance Creek basin, Rio Blanco County, Colo. The Piceance Creek basin, an asymmetric, northwest-trending large structural downwarp, is located approximately 40 km (25 mi) west of the town of Meeker in Rio Blanco County, Colo. The oil-shale, dawsonite, nahcolite, and halite deposits of the Piceance Creek basin occur in the lacustrine Green River Formation of Eocene age. In the basin the Green River Formation comprises three members. In ascending order, they are the Douglas Creek, the Garden Gulch, and the Parachute Creek Members, Four sites are presented for consideration and evaluated on geology and hydrology with respect to shale-oil economics. Evaluated criteria include: (1) stratigraphy, (2) size of site, (3) oil-shale yield, (4) representative quantities of the saline minerals dawsonite and nahcolite, which must be present with a minimum amount of halite, (5) thickness of a 'leached' saline zone, (6) geologic structure, (7) engineering characteristics of rock, (8) representative surface and ground-water conditions, with emphasis on waste disposal and dewatering, and (9) environmental considerations. Serious construction and support problems are anticipated in sinking a deep shaft in the Piceance Creek basin. The two major concerns will be dealing with incompetent rock and large inflow of saline ground water, particularly in the leached zone. Engineering support problems will include stabilizing and hardening the rock from which a certain amount of ground water has been removed. The relative suitability of the four potential oil-shale experimental shaft sites in the Piceance Creek basin has been considered on the basis of all available geologic, hydrologic, and engineering data; site 2 is preferred to sites 1, 3, and 4, The units in this report are presented in the form: metric (English). Both units of

  6. Oil shale commercialization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.

  7. Parachute Cord Tension Sensor

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To design and fabricate a light weight (few oz), very small (~2 inch length) parachute cord tension sensor demonstrator device.A major challenge for the CPAS (The...

  8. Basal Ottawa Limestone, Chattanooga Shale, Floyd Shale, Porters Creek Clay, and Yazoo Clay in parts of Alabama, Mississippi and Tennessee as potential host rocks for underground emplacement of waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellen, F.F.

    1976-01-01

    Impermeable rock units, preferably at least 500 feet thick and lying 1000 to 3000 feet below land surface, were sought in the region consisting roughly of the western 3 / 5 ths of Tennessee and the northern 3 / 5 ths of Alabama and Mississippi. All rock sequences, Cambrian through Eocene, were examined in varying detail, except the Cretaceous Selma Chalk and except the diapiric salt. These rocks were studied for their relative impermeable homogeneity, their continuity, their background of structural and seismic stability and their hydrologic associations. The Central Mississippi Ridge of north-central Mississippi is overlain by a long-stable mass of Porters Creek Clay 500-700 feet thick, in an area roughly 50-60 miles wide and about 150 miles long. The Yazoo Clay, where best developed in the west-central and southwest part of Mississippi, is in the 400-500 foot thickness range, but locally exceeds 500 feet. The entire area mapped is underlain by the Louann Salt which has produced many deep-seated salt domes and numerous piercement salt domes. Salt flow has complicated shallow structural geology throughout that area. The Chattanooga Shale rarely exceeds 60 feet in thickness in the region studied and is generally much thinner and is absent in many places. In the lower part of the Middle Ordovician (Ottawa Megagroup), the Murphreesboro and associated dense limestones appear to offer a potential disposal unit 250-400 feet thick, having the advantages of rock competency and freedom from association with prolific aquifers in the overburden or beneath. Other less conspicuous stratigraphic units are reviewed

  9. Parachute diverts ventilation fast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chironis, N.P.

    1990-02-01

    The USBM Pittsburgh Research Center is developing a simple, inexpensive and highly effective new technique for keeping smoke and toxic gases out of intake escapeways during mine fires. The technique involves the use of a special parachute which fixes onto a roof bolt plate or strap, and is automatically inflated by incoming air. The chute thus becomes a quick-erect check curtain which leaks much less than conventional curtains. The air pressure in the intake quickly climbs, making it unlikely that any smoke from an adjacent entry would be able to migrate into the intake. 2 figs.

  10. Asymptotic Parachute Performance Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, David W.; Powell, Richard W.; Chen, Allen; Steltzner, Adam D.

    2006-01-01

    In 2010, the Mars Science Laboratory mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing systems by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. In addition to landing more mass than any other mission to Mars, Mars Science Laboratory will also provide scientists with unprecedented access to regions of Mars that have been previously unreachable. By providing an Entry, Descent, and Landing system capable of landing at altitudes as high as 2 km above the reference gravitational equipotential surface, or areoid, as defined by the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter program, Mars Science Laboratory will demonstrate sufficient performance to land on 83% of the planet s surface. By contrast, the highest altitude landing to date on Mars has been the Mars Exploration Rover at 1.3 km below the areoid. The coupling of this improved altitude performance with latitude limits as large as 60 degrees off of the equator and a precise delivery to within 10 km of a surface target, will allow the science community to select the Mars Science Laboratory landing site from thousands of scientifically interesting possibilities. In meeting these requirements, Mars Science Laboratory is extending the limits of the Entry, Descent, and Landing technologies qualified by the Mars Viking, Mars Pathfinder, and Mars Exploration Rover missions. Specifically, the drag deceleration provided by a Viking-heritage 16.15 m supersonic Disk-Gap-Band parachute in the thin atmosphere of Mars is insufficient, at the altitudes and ballistic coefficients under consideration by the Mars Science Laboratory project, to maintain necessary altitude performance and timeline margin. This paper defines and discusses the asymptotic parachute performance observed in Monte Carlo simulation and performance analysis and its effect on the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing architecture.

  11. Shale distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanding, F H

    1946-08-29

    A continuous method of distilling shale to produce valuable hydrocarbon oils is described which comprises providing a fluidized mass of the shale in a distillation zone, withdrawing hydrocarbon vapors from the zone, mixing fresh cold shale with the hydrocarbon vapors to quench the same, whereby the fresh shale is preheated, recovering hydrocarbon vapors and product vapors from the mixture and withdrawing preheated shale from the mixture and charging it to a shale distillation zone.

  12. Shale distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanding, F H

    1948-08-03

    A continuous method of distilling shale to produce valuable hydrocarbon oils is described, which comprises providing a fluidized mass of the shale in a distillation zone, withdrawing hydrocarbon vapors containing shale fines from the zone, mixing sufficient fresh cold shale with the hydrocarbon vapors to quench the same and to cause condensation of the higher boiling constituents thereof, charging the mixture of vapors, condensate, and cold shale to a separation zone where the shale is maintained in a fluidized condition by the upward movement of the hydrocarbon vapors, withdrawing condensate from the separation zone and recycling a portion of the condensate to the top of the separation zone where it flows countercurrent to the vapors passing therethrough and causes shale fines to be removed from the vapors by the scrubbing action of the condensate, recovering hydrocarbon vapors and product vapors from the separation zone, withdrawing preheated shale from the separation zone and charging it to a shale distillation zone.

  13. FEAR AND ENTHUSIASM IN SPORT PARACHUTING,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Replies to a mail questionnaire by 825 sport parachutists affiliated with 103 parachute clubs are the data of this study. Questionnaires were...parachutists, attitudes relevant to sport parachuting, and included the Ma and Hy scales from the MMP1, a Draw-A-Person Test, and four story stimulus pictures

  14. Parachute technique for partial penectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Korkes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Penile carcinoma is a rare but mutilating malignancy. In this context, partial penectomy is the most commonly applied approach for best oncological results. We herein propose a simple modification of the classic technique of partial penectomy, for better cosmetic and functional results. TECHNIQUE: If partial penectomy is indicated, the present technique can bring additional benefits. Different from classical technique, the urethra is spatulated only ventrally. An inverted "V" skin flap with 0.5 cm of extension is sectioned ventrally. The suture is performed with vicryl 4-0 in a "parachute" fashion, beginning from the ventral portion of the urethra and the "V" flap, followed by the "V" flap angles and than by the dorsal portion of the penis. After completion of the suture, a Foley catheter and light dressing are placed for 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Several complex reconstructive techniques have been previously proposed, but normally require specific surgical abilities, adequate patient selection and staged procedures. We believe that these reconstructive techniques are very useful in some specific subsets of patients. However, the technique herein proposed is a simple alternative that can be applied to all men after a partial penectomy, and takes the same amount of time as that in the classic technique. In conclusion, the "parachute" technique for penile reconstruction after partial amputation not only improves the appearance of the penis, but also maintains an adequate function.

  15. Distilling shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyl, G E

    1917-02-06

    The yield of oil obtained by distilling shale is increased by first soaking the shale with about 10 percent of its volume of a liquid hydrocarbon for a period of 24 hours or longer. Distillation is carried on up to a temperature of about 220/sup 0/C., and a further 10 percent of hydrocarbon is then added and the distillation continued up to a temperature of about 400/sup 0/C.

  16. A Review of the MLAS Parachute Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Anthony P.; Kelley, Christopher; Magner, Eldred; Peterson, David; Hahn, Jeffrey; Yuchnovicz, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) is developing the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) as a risk-mitigation design should problems arise with the baseline Orion spacecraft launch abort design. The Max in MLAS is dedicated to Max Faget, the renowned NASA spacecraft designer. The MLAS flight test vehicle consists of boost skirt, coast skirt and the MLAS fairing which houses a full scale boilerplate Orion Crew Module (CM). The objective of the flight test is to prove that the CM can be released from the MLAS fairing during pad abort conditions without detrimental recontact between the CM and fairing, achieving performance similar to the Orion launch abort system. The boost and coast skirts provide the necessary thrust and stability to achieve the flight test conditions and are released prior to the test -- much like the Little Joe booster was used in the Apollo Launch Escape System tests. To achieve the test objective, two parachutes are deployed from the fairing to reorient the CM/fairing to a heatshield first orientation. The parachutes then provide the force necessary to reduce the total angle of attack and body angular rates required for safe release of the CM from the fairing. A secondary test objective after CM release from the fairing is to investigate the removal of the CM forward bay cover (FBC) with CM drogue parachutes for the purpose of attempting to synchronously deploying a set of CM main parachutes. Although multiple parachute deployments are used in the MLAS flight test vehicle to complete its objective, there are only two parachute types employed in the flight test. Five of the nine parachutes used for MLAS are 27.6 ft D(sub 0) ribbon parachutes, and the remaining four are standard G-12 cargo parachutes. This paper presents an overview of the 27.6 ft D(sub 0) ribbon parachute system employed on the MLAS flight test vehicle for coast skirt separation, fairing reorientation, and as drogue parachutes for the CM after separation from the fairing

  17. A Survey of Parachute Ankle Brace Breakages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knapik, Joseph J; Spiess, Anita; Darakjy, Salima; Grier, Tyson; Manning, Fred; Livingston, Elaine; Swedler, David; Amoroso, Paul; Jones, Bruce H

    2008-01-01

    ...) of the Defense Safety Oversight Council (DSOC) to evaluate the parachute ankle brace (PAB). Information provided by the questionnaire identified potential injury risk factors and comments on the PAB...

  18. Distilling shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, L

    1922-07-21

    In the distillation of shale and similar materials the shale is ground and briquetted and the briquettes are placed in a retort so that air passages are left between them, after which they are uniformly and slowly heated to at least 700/sup 0/C, the air passages facilitating the escape of the oil vapors, and the slow heating preventing fusion of the flux forming constituents. After the bitumen has been driven off, air is passed into the retort and heating continued to about 1050/sup 0/C, the result being a porous product suitable for insulating purposes or as a substitute for kieselguhr. The ground shale may be mixed prior to distillation with peat, sawdust, or the like, and with substances which yield acids, such as chlorides, more particularly magnesium chloride, the acids acting on the bitumen.

  19. Load Asymmetry Observed During Orion Main Parachute Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Aaron L.; Taylor, Thomas; Olson, Leah

    2011-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) has flight tested the first two generations of the Orion parachute program. Three of the second generation tests instrumented the dispersion bridles of the Main parachute with a Tension Measuring System. The goal of this load measurement was to better understand load asymmetry during the inflation process of a cluster of Main parachutes. The CPAS Main parachutes exhibit inflations that are much less symmetric than current parachute literature and design guides would indicate. This paper will examine loads data gathered on three cluster tests, quantify the degree of asymmetry observed, and contrast the results with published design guides. Additionally, the measured loads data will be correlated with videos of the parachute inflation to make inferences about the shape of the parachute and the relative load asymmetry. The goal of this inquiry and test program is to open a dialogue regarding asymmetrical parachute inflation load factors.

  20. Shale distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacomini, V V

    1938-06-07

    To produce valuable oils from shale by continuous distillation it is preheated by a heated fluid and introduced into a distilling retort from which the oil vapours and spent material are separately removed and the vapours condensed to recover the oil. The shale is preheated to 400 to 500/sup 0/F in the hopper by combustion gases from a flue and is fed in measured quantities to a surge drum, a loading chamber and surge drum, the latter two being connected to a steam pipe which equalises the pressure thereon. The material passes by two screw conveyors to a retort with deflector bars to scatter the material so that lean hot cycling gas flowing through a pipe is spread out as it makes its way upwardly through the shale and heats the oil so that it is driven off as vapour, collected in the lean gas and carried off through an outlet pipe. A measuring valve is provided at the bottom of a retort and cutter knives cut the spent shale and distribute cooling water thereto. The gases travel through heat exchangers and a condenser to an accumulator where the cycling gas is separated from the vapours, passed to compression, and preheated in a gas exchanger and spiral coils before it is returned to the retort. The oil passes to a storage tank by way of a unit tank in which oil vapours are recovered. Water is collected by a pipe in the tank bottom and returned by shaft to a retort.

  1. Shale processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampton, W H

    1928-05-29

    The process of treating bituminiferous solid materials such as shale or the like to obtain valuable products therefrom, which comprises digesting a mixture of such material in comminuted condition with a suitable digestion liquid, such as an oil, recovering products vaporized in the digestion, and separating residual solid matter from the digestion liquid by centrifuging.

  2. 75 FR 47236 - Golden Parachute and Indemnification Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... golden parachute, severance, indemnification or other agreement. Claims for employee welfare benefits or... legitimate employee severance payments and improper golden parachute payments. DATES: Comments must be... FICUs with greater clarity on the distinction between legitimate employee severance payments and...

  3. Inflation of Unreefed and Reefed Extraction Parachutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose G.

    2015-01-01

    Data from the Orion and several other test programs have been used to reconstruct inflation parameters for 28 ft Do extraction parachutes as well as the parent aircraft pitch response during extraction. The inflation force generated by extraction parachutes is recorded directly during tow tests but is usually inferred from the payload accelerometer during Low Velocity Airdrop Delivery (LVAD) flight test extractions. Inflation parameters are dependent on the type of parent aircraft, number of canopies, and standard vs. high altitude extraction conditions. For standard altitudes, single canopy inflations are modeled as infinite mass, but the non-symmetric inflations in a cluster are modeled as finite mass. High altitude extractions have necessitated reefing the extraction parachutes, which are best modeled as infinite mass for those conditions. Distributions of aircraft pitch profiles and inflation parameters have been generated for use in Monte Carlo simulations of payload extractions.

  4. Rocket-Powered Parachutes Rescue Entire Planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Langley Research Center helped BRS Aerospace, of Saint Paul, Minnesota, to develop technology that has saved 246 lives to date. The company s whole aircraft parachute systems deploy in less than 1 second thanks to solid rocket motors and are capable of arresting the descent of a small aircraft, lowering it safely to the ground. BRS has sold more than 30,000 systems worldwide, and the technology is now standard equipment on many of the world s top-selling aircraft. Parachutes for larger airplanes are in the works.

  5. Risk Factors for Parachute Injuries and Airborne Student Observations on the Parachute Ankle Brace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knapik, Joseph J; Spiess, Anita; Darakjy, Salima; Grier, Tyson; Manning, Fred; Livingston, Elaine; Swedler, David; Amoroso, Paul; Jones, Bruce H

    2007-01-01

    ...) of the Defense Safety Oversight Council (DSOC) to evaluate the parachute ankle brace (PAB). Information provided by the questionnaire identified potential injury risk factors and comments on the PAB...

  6. Study of Pressure Oscillations in Supersonic Parachute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Nimesh; Fukiba, Katsuyoshi; Mizuta, Kazuki; Maru, Yusuke

    2018-04-01

    Supersonic parachutes are a critical element of planetary mission whose simple structure, light-weight characteristics together with high ratio of aerodynamic drag makes them the most suitable aerodynamic decelerators. The use of parachute in supersonic flow produces complex shock/shock and wake/shock interaction giving rise to dynamic pressure oscillations. The study of supersonic parachute is difficult, because parachute has very flexible structure which makes obtaining experimental pressure data difficult. In this study, a supersonic wind tunnel test using two rigid bodies is done. The wind tunnel test was done at Mach number 3 by varying the distance between the front and rear objects, and the distance of a bundle point which divides suspension lines and a riser. The analysis of Schlieren movies revealed shock wave oscillation which was repetitive and had large pressure variation. The pressure variation differed in each case of change in distance between the front and rear objects, and the change in distance between riser and the rear object. The causes of pressure oscillation are: interaction of wake caused by front object with the shock wave, fundamental harmonic vibration of suspension lines, interference between shock waves, and the boundary layer of suspension lines.

  7. Parachute systems for the atmospheric reentry of launcher upper stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan DOBRESCU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Parachute systems can be used to control the reentry trajectory of launcher upper stages, in order to lower the risks to the population or facilitate the retrieval of the stage. Several types of parachutes deployed at subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic speeds are analyzed, modeled as single and multistage systems. The performance of deceleration parachutes depends on their drag area and deployment conditions, while gliding parachutes are configured to achieve stable flight with a high glide ratio. Gliding parachutes can be autonomously guided to a low risk landing area. Sizing the canopy is shown to be an effective method to reduce parachute sensitivity to wind. The reentry trajectory of a launcher upper stage is simulated for each parachute system configuration and the results are compared to the nominal reentry case.

  8. Shale treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1941-03-03

    The charge of shale, coal, or the like, is placed in a cartridge which is inserted in a metal cylinder gas and/or steam heated to a temperature of between 300 to 500/sup 0/C is admitted through pipe and passes through two perforations through the charge which is held at a pressure of about .1 to 2 pounds per square inch and an out pipe together with evolved gases and vapours. A lid is clamped in position over the cartridge by means of an eye bolt and a nut.

  9. Geology of the Devonian black shales of the Appalachian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roen, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Black shales of Devonian age in the Appalachian Basin are a unique rock sequence. The high content of organic matter, which imparts the characteristic lithology, has for years attracted considerable interest in the shales as a possible source of energy. The recent energy shortage prompted the U.S. Department of Energy through the Eastern Gas Shales Project of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center to underwrite a research program to determine the geologic, geochemical, and structural characteristics of the Devonian black shales in order to enhance the recovery of gas from the shales. Geologic studies by Federal and State agencies and academic institutions produced a regional stratigraphic network that correlates the 15 ft black shale sequence in Tennessee with 3000 ft of interbedded black and gray shales in central New York. These studies correlate the classic Devonian black shale sequence in New York with the Ohio Shale of Ohio and Kentucky and the Chattanooga Shale of Tennessee and southwestern Virginia. Biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic markers in conjunction with gamma-ray logs facilitated long-range correlations within the Appalachian Basin. Basinwide correlations, including the subsurface rocks, provided a basis for determining the areal distribution and thickness of the important black shale units. The organic carbon content of the dark shales generally increases from east to west across the basin and is sufficient to qualify as a hydrocarbon source rock. Significant structural features that involve the black shale and their hydrocarbon potential are the Rome trough, Kentucky River and Irvine-Paint Creek fault zone, and regional decollements and ramp zones. ?? 1984.

  10. Effect of hand paddles and parachute on butterfly coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Thiago; Barroso, Renato; Barbosa, Augusto Carvalho; Salgueiro, Diego Fortes de Souza; Colantonio, Emilson; Andries Júnior, Orival

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hand paddles, parachute and hand paddles plus parachute on the inter-limb coordination of butterfly swimming. Thirteen male swimmers were evaluated in four random maximal intensity conditions: without equipment, with hand paddles, with parachute and with hand paddles + parachute. Arm and leg stroke phases were identified by 2D video analysis to calculate the total time gap (T1: time between hands' entry in the water and high break-even point of the first undulation; T2: time between the beginning of the hand's backward movement and low break-even point of the first undulation; T3: time between the hand's arrival in a vertical plane to the shoulders and high break-even point of the second undulation; T4: time between the hand's release from the water and low break-even point of the second undulation). The swimming velocity was reduced and T1, T2 and T3 increased in parachute and hand paddles + parachute. No changes were observed in T4. Total time gap decreased in parachute and hand paddles + parachute. It is concluded that hand paddles do not influence the arm-to-leg coordination in butterfly, while parachute and hand paddles + parachute do change it, providing a greater propulsive continuity.

  11. Distilling shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justice, P M

    1917-09-19

    Light paraffin oils and other oils for motors are obtained from shale, and benzene, toluene, and solvent naphtha are obtained from coal by a process in which the coal or shale is preferably powered to pass through a mesh of 64 to the inch and is heated with a mixture of finely ground carbonate or the like which under the action of heat gives off carbonic acid, and with small iron scrap or its equivalent which is adapted to increase the volume of hydrocarbons evolved. The temperature of the retort is maintained between 175 and 800/sup 0/C., and after all the vapors are given off at the higher temperature a fine jet of water may be injected into the retort and the temperature increased. The produced oil is condensed and purified by fractional distillation, and the gas formed is stored after passing it through a tower packed with coke saturated with a non-volatile oil with recovery of an oil of light specific gravity which is condensed in the tower. The residuum from the still in which the produced oil is fractionated may be treated with carbonate and iron, as in the first stage of the process, and the distillate therefrom passed to a second retort containing manganese dioxide and iron scrap preferably in the proportion of one part or two. The mixture, e.g., one containing shale or oil with six to thirteen percent of oxygen, to which is added three to eight per cent of carbonate, and from one and a half to four per cent of scrap iron, is conveyed by belts and an overhead skip to a hopper of a retort in a furnace heated by burners supplied with producer gas. The retort is fitted with a detachable lid and the vapors formed are led by a pipe to a vertical water-cooled condenser with a drain-cock which leads the condensed oils to a tank, from which a pipe leads to a packed tower for removing light oils and from which the gas passes to a holder.

  12. Shale retort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overton, P C

    1936-07-22

    A vertical distillation retort with an enclosed annular heating chamber has enclosed therein tiered compartments spaced apart by chambers into which burners deliver heating gases which pass via ports to the chamber and thence to the atmosphere. Shale is delivered by means of an air tight chute to the uppermost compartment and is spread therein and passed downwardly from compartment to compartment through ports, finally passing from the retort through an airtight chute, by means of scrapers rotatably mounted on a hollow shaft through which noncondensible gases are delivered to the distilling material via jets. The gaseous products of distillation are educted through ports and a manifold, which is also in communication with the head of the retort through the delivery pipe.

  13. Distilling shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armour, J; Armour, H

    1889-05-07

    The invention relates to retorts and accessory apparatus for distilling shale or other oil-yielding minerals. A series of long vertical retorts, composed of fire-brick or similar refractory material, are arranged in two rows in a bench, being divided into groups of four by transverse vertical partitions. The retorts are surmounted by metal casings or hoppers into which the fresh mineral is charged, and from which the distillate passes off through lateral pipes. Any uncondensed gases from the retorts may be passed into the flues surrounding them by the pipe and burned. The products of combustion from a furnace pass through a series of horizontal flues, being compelled to pass completely round each retort before entering the flue above. The products from two or more sets pass from the upper flues into flues running along the top of the bench, and return through a central flue to the chimney.

  14. An Airborne Parachute Compartment Test Bed for the Orion Parachute Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James W.; Romero, Leah M.

    2013-01-01

    The test program developing parachutes for the Orion/MPCV includes drop tests with parachutes deployed from an Orion-like parachute compartment at a wide range of dynamic pressures. Aircraft and altitude constraints precluded the use of an Orion boilerplate capsule for several test points. Therefore, a dart-shaped test vehicle with a hi-fidelity mock-up of the Orion parachute compartment has been developed. The available aircraft options imposed constraints on the test vehicle development and concept of operations. Delivery of this test vehicle to the desired velocity, altitude, and orientation required for the test is a di cult problem involving multiple engineering disciplines. This paper describes the development of the test technique. The engineering challenges include extraction from an aircraft, reposition of the extraction parachute, and mid-air separation of two vehicles, neither of which has an active attitude control system. The desired separation behavior is achieved by precisely controlling the release point using on-board monitoring of the motion. The design of the test vehicle is also described. The trajectory simulations and other analyses used to develop this technique and predict the behavior of the test vehicle are reviewed in detail. The application of the technique on several successful drop tests is summarized.

  15. Pilot ejection, parachute, and helicopter crash injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBratney, Colleen M; Rush, Stephen; Kharod, Chetan U

    2014-01-01

    USAF Pararescuemen (PJs) respond to downed aircrew as a fundamental mission for personnel recovery (PR), one of the Air Force's core functions. In addition to responding to these in Military settings, the PJs from the 212 Rescue Squadron routinely respond to small plane crashes in remote regions of Alaska. While there is a paucity of information on the latter, there have been articles detailing injuries sustained from helicopter crashes and while ejecting or parachuting from fixed wing aircraft. The following represents a new chapter added to the Pararescue Medical Operations Handbook, Sixth Edition (2014, editors Matt Wolf, MD, and Stephen Rush, MD, in press). It was designed to be a quick reference for PJs and their Special Operations flight surgeons to help with understanding of mechanism of injury with regard to pilot ejection, parachute, and helicopter accident injuries. It outlines the nature of the injuries sustained in such mishaps and provides an epidemiologic framework from which to approach the problem. 2014.

  16. Innovations in Air Insertion (Involving Parachutes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    loadings and different trim. .........48 Figure 16. Thermal being radiated from a ploughed field.50 Figure 17. A series of ridges can amplify a wave and...Crews," MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History 10, no. Autumn 1998 (1998), 99. 5 Niedermeyer was killed in March of 1922 did parachutes...was killed on a 1998 wing suit jump, the cause was not wing suit related but rather the result of an easily preventable rigging

  17. Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis of Parachute Finite Mass Inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinglong Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parachute inflation is coupled with sophisticated fluid-structure interaction (FSI and flight mechanic behaviors in a finite mass situation. During opening, the canopy often experiences the largest deformation and loading. To predict the opening phase of a parachute, a computational FSI model for the inflation of a parachute, with slots on its canopy fabric, is developed using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Euler coupling penalty method. In a finite mass situation, the fluid around the parachute typically has an unsteady flow; therefore, a more complex opening phase and FSI dynamics of a parachute are investigated. Navier-Stokes (N-S equations for uncompressible flow are solved using an explicit central difference method. The three-dimensional visualization of canopy deformation as well as the evolution of dropping velocity and overload is obtained and compared with the experimental results. This technique could be further applied in the airdrop test of a parachute for true prediction of the inflation characteristics.

  18. Solid Rocket Booster Large Main and Drogue Parachute Reliability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Courtenay B.; Hengel, John E.

    2009-01-01

    The parachutes on the Space Transportation System (STS) Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) are the means for decelerating the SRB and allowing it to impact the water at a nominal vertical velocity of 75 feet per second. Each SRB has one pilot, one drogue, and three main parachutes. About four minutes after SRB separation, the SRB nose cap is jettisoned, deploying the pilot parachute. The pilot chute then deploys the drogue parachute. The drogue chute provides initial deceleration and proper SRB orientation prior to frustum separation. At frustum separation, the drogue pulls the frustum from the SRB and allows the main parachutes that are mounted in the frustum to unpack and inflate. These chutes are retrieved, inspected, cleaned, repaired as needed, and returned to the flight inventory and reused. Over the course of the Shuttle Program, several improvements have been introduced to the SRB main parachutes. A major change was the replacement of the small (115 ft. diameter) main parachutes with the larger (136 ft. diameter) main parachutes. Other modifications were made to the main parachutes, main parachute support structure, and SRB frustum to eliminate failure mechanisms, improve damage tolerance, and improve deployment and inflation characteristics. This reliability analysis is limited to the examination of the SRB Large Main Parachute (LMP) and drogue parachute failure history to assess the reliability of these chutes. From the inventory analysis, 68 Large Main Parachutes were used in 651 deployments, and 7 chute failures occurred in the 651 deployments. Logistic regression was used to analyze the LMP failure history, and it showed that reliability growth has occurred over the period of use resulting in a current chute reliability of R = .9983. This result was then used to determine the reliability of the 3 LMPs on the SRB, when all must function. There are 29 drogue parachutes that were used in 244 deployments, and no in-flight failures have occurred. Since there are no

  19. The Devonian Marcellus Shale and Millboro Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, Daniel J.; Enomoto, Catherine B.; Chermak, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The recent development of unconventional oil and natural gas resources in the United States builds upon many decades of research, which included resource assessment and the development of well completion and extraction technology. The Eastern Gas Shales Project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy in the 1980s, investigated the gas potential of organic-rich, Devonian black shales in the Appalachian, Michigan, and Illinois basins. One of these eastern shales is the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale, which has been extensively developed for natural gas and natural gas liquids since 2007. The Marcellus is one of the basal units in a thick Devonian shale sedimentary sequence in the Appalachian basin. The Marcellus rests on the Onondaga Limestone throughout most of the basin, or on the time-equivalent Needmore Shale in the southeastern parts of the basin. Another basal unit, the Huntersville Chert, underlies the Marcellus in the southern part of the basin. The Devonian section is compressed to the south, and the Marcellus Shale, along with several overlying units, grades into the age-equivalent Millboro Shale in Virginia. The Marcellus-Millboro interval is far from a uniform slab of black rock. This field trip will examine a number of natural and engineered exposures in the vicinity of the West Virginia–Virginia state line, where participants will have the opportunity to view a variety of sedimentary facies within the shale itself, sedimentary structures, tectonic structures, fossils, overlying and underlying formations, volcaniclastic ash beds, and to view a basaltic intrusion.

  20. Volume 9: A Review of Socioeconomic Impacts of Oil Shale Development WESTERN OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT: A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotariu, G. J.

    1982-02-01

    recognize that the rate of development, the magnitude of development, and the technology mix that will actually take place remain uncertain. Although we emphasize that other energy and mineral resources besides oil shale may be developed, the conclusions reached in this study reflect only those impacts that would be felt from the oil shale scenario. Socioeconomic impacts in the region reflect the uneven growth rate implied by the scenario and will be affected by the timing of industry developments, the length and magnitude of the construction phase of development, and the shift in employment profiles predicted in the scenario. The facilities in the southern portion of the oil shale region, those along the Colorado River and Parachute Creek, show a peak in the construction work force in the mid-1980s, whereas those f acil it i es in the Piceance Creek Bas into the north show a construction peak in the late 1980s. Together, the facilities will require a large construction work force throughout the decade, with a total of 4800 construction workers required in 1985. Construction at the northern sites and second phase construction in the south will require 6000 workers in 1988. By 1990, the operation work force will increase to 7950. Two important characteristics of oil shale development emerge from the work force estimates: (1) peak-year construction work forces will be 90-120% the size of the permanent operating work force; and (2) the yearly changes in total work force requirements will be large, as much as 900 in one year at one facility. To estimate population impacts on individual communities, we devised a population distribution method that is described in Sec. IV. Variables associated with the projection of population impacts are discussed and methodologies of previous assessments are compared. Scenario-induced population impacts estimated by the Los Alamos method are compared to projections of a model employed by the Colorado West Area Council of Governments. Oil shale

  1. Hail creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, J.

    2005-09-01

    The paper examines the development of one of the largest coking coal deposits in the world. Hail Creek is 100 km west of Mackay and 35 km northeast of Nebo, Queensland and has proven opencut reserves of 195.6 as at December 2003. Coal processing stated in July 2003. The award winning project included construction of a coal handling and preparation plant, a railway, a village and offsite infrastructure and mine buildings and site services. Coal is mined by conventional dragline and truck/shovel techniques. 1 photo.

  2. Process for retorting shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-03-19

    The method of retorting oil shale to recover valuable liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons consists of heating the oil shale in a retorting zone to a temperature sufficient to convert its kerogenic constituents to normally liquid and normally gaseous hydrocarbons by contact with hot gas previously recovered from shale, cooling the gases and vapors effluent from the retorting zone by direct countercurrent contact with fresh shale to condense the normally liquid constituents of the gases and vapors, separating the fixed gas from the liquid product, heating the fixed gas, and returning it to the retorting zone to contact further quantities of shale.

  3. Shale gas. Shale gas formation and extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, Francois; Artru, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    A first article recalls the origin of shale gases and technological breakthroughs which allowed their exploitation, describes the development of shale gas exploitation in the USA during the 2000's and the consequences for the gas and electricity markets, and discusses the various environmental impacts (risks of pollution of aquifers, risks of induced seismicity, use and processing of drilling and production waters). The second article describes the formation of shale gas: presence of organic matter in sediments, early evolution with the biogenic gas, burrowing, diagenesis and oil formation, thermal generation of gas (condensates and methane). The author indicates the location of gas within the rock, and the main sites of shale oils and shale gases in the World. In the next part, the author describes the various phases of shale gas extraction: exploration, oriented drillings, well preparation for hydraulic fracturing, fracturing, processing of fracturing fluids, flow-back, gas production and transport, aquifer protection. He finally gives a brief overview of technical evolution and of shale gas economy

  4. 14 CFR 65.115 - Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Senior parachute rigger certificate... CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.115 Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements. Except as provided in § 65.117, an applicant for a senior parachute rigger certificate must— (a...

  5. Damping Effects of Drogue Parachutes on Orion Crew Module Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon, Vanessa V.; Owens, D. Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Because simulations of the Orion Crew Module (CM) dynamics with drogue parachutes deployed were under-predicting the amount of damping seen in free-flight tests, an attach-point damping model was applied to the Orion system. A key hypothesis in this model is that the drogue parachutes' net load vector aligns with the CM drogue attachment point velocity vector. This assumption seems reasonable and has historically produced good results, but has never been experimentally verified. The wake of the CM influences the drogue parachutes, which makes performance predictions of the parachutes difficult. Many of these effects are not currently modeled in the simulations. A forced oscillation test of the CM with parachutes was conducted in the NASA LaRC 20-Ft Vertical Spin Tunnel (VST) to gather additional data to validate and refine the attach-point damping model. A second loads balance was added to the original Orion VST model to measure the drogue parachute loads independently of the CM. The objective of the test was to identify the contribution of the drogues to CM damping and provide additional information to quantify wake effects and the interactions between the CM and parachutes. The drogue parachute force vector was shown to be highly dependent on the CM wake characteristics. Based on these wind tunnel test data, the attach-point damping model was determined to be a sufficient approximation of the parachute dynamics in relationship to the CM dynamics for preliminary entry vehicle system design. More wake effects should be included to better model the system.

  6. Distillation of bituminous shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seguin, M

    1875-02-16

    The retort with its accessories constitutes a distillation apparatus for shale composed of a cylindrical, vertical, fixed, tubular, and of ring form metal retort. Also it is comprised of a special hearth of large dimensions in the form of a circular pocket receiving from the retort as heating agent the distilled shale and emitting by radiation the heat that makes the distillation apparatus for the shale act.

  7. Barnett shale completions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schein, G. [BJ Services, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Fractured shales yield oil and gas in various basins across the United States. A map indicating these fractured shale source-reservoir systems in the United States was presented along with the numerous similarities and differences that exist among these systems. Hydrocarbons in the organic rich black shale come from the bacterial decomposition of organic matter, primary thermogenic decomposition of organic matter or secondary thermogenic cracking of oil. The shale may be the reservoir or other horizons may be the primary or secondary reservoir. The reservoir has induced micro fractures or tectonic fractures. This paper described the well completions in the Barnett Shale in north Texas with reference to major players, reservoir properties, mineralogy, fluid sensitivity, previous treatments, design criteria and production examples. The Barnett Shale is an organic, black shale with thickness ranging from 100 to 1000 feet. The total organic carbon (TOC) averages 4.5 per cent. The unit has undergone high rate frac treatments. A review of the vertical wells in the Barnett Shale was presented along with the fracture treatment schedule and technology changes. A discussion of refracturing opportunities and proppant settling and transport revealed that additional proppant increases fluid recovery and enhances production. Compatible scale inhibitors and biocides can be beneficial. Horizontal completions in the Barnett Shale have shown better results than vertical wells, as demonstrated in a production comparison of 3 major horizontal wells in the basin. tabs., figs.

  8. Parachuting plasmapheresis into the Ebola crisis | Zacharias | Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parachuting plasmapheresis into the Ebola crisis. ... A vehicle was pre-fitted with sophisticated equipment and airlifted to the study site (ELWA). ... Training included plasmapheresis, donor management, testing and pathogen inactivation.

  9. Reverse Launch Abort System Parachute Architecture Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton, Daniel K.; O'Keefe, Stephen A.; Winski, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated a potential Launch Abort System (LAS) Concept of Operations and abort parachute architecture. The purpose of the study was to look at the concept of jettisoning the LAS tower forward (Reverse LAS or RLAS) into the free-stream flow rather than after reorienting to a heatshield forward orientation. A hypothesized benefit was that due to the compressed timeline the dynamic pressure at main line stretch would be substantially less. This would enable the entry parachutes to be designed and sized based on entry loading conditions rather than the current stressing case of a Pad Abort. Ultimately, concerns about the highly dynamic reorientation of the CM via parachutes, and the additional requirement of a triple bridle attachment for the RLAS parachute system, overshadowed the potential benefits and ended this effort.

  10. Improved control system power unit for large parachutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, J. A.; Grubbs, T. M.

    1968-01-01

    Improved control system power unit drives the control surfaces of very large controllable parachutes. The design features subassemblies for determining control surface position and cable loading, and protection of the load sensor against the possibility of damage during manipulation.

  11. Aerodynamic Reconstruction Applied to Parachute Test Vehicle Flight Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, Leonard D.; Ray, Eric S.; Truong, Tuan H.

    2013-01-01

    The aerodynamics, both static and dynamic, of a test vehicle are critical to determining the performance of the parachute cluster in a drop test and for conducting a successful test. The Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project is conducting tests of NASA's Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) parachutes at the Army Yuma Proving Ground utilizing the Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV). The PTV shape is based on the MPCV, but the height has been reduced in order to fit within the C-17 aircraft for extraction. Therefore, the aerodynamics of the PTV are similar, but not the same as, the MPCV. A small series of wind tunnel tests and computational fluid dynamics cases were run to modify the MPCV aerodynamic database for the PTV, but aerodynamic reconstruction of the flights has proven an effective source for further improvements to the database. The acceleration and rotational rates measured during free flight, before parachute inflation but during deployment, were used to con rm vehicle static aerodynamics. A multibody simulation is utilized to reconstruct the parachute portions of the flight. Aerodynamic or parachute parameters are adjusted in the simulation until the prediction reasonably matches the flight trajectory. Knowledge of the static aerodynamics is critical in the CPAS project because the parachute riser load measurements are scaled based on forebody drag. PTV dynamic damping is critical because the vehicle has no reaction control system to maintain attitude - the vehicle dynamics must be understood and modeled correctly before flight. It will be shown here that aerodynamic reconstruction has successfully contributed to the CPAS project.

  12. Application of Stereo PIV on a Supersonic Parachute Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Locke, Randy J.; Wroblewski, Adam; Sengupta, Anita

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is the next step in NASA's Mars Exploration Program, currently scheduled for 2011. The spacecraft's descent into the Martian atmosphere will be slowed from Mach 2 to subsonic speeds via a large parachute system with final landing under propulsive control. A Disk-Band-Gap (DBG) parachute will be used on MSL similar to the designs that have been used on previous missions, however; the DBG parachute used by MSL will be larger (21.5 m) than in any of the previous missions due to the weight of the payload and landing site requirements. The MSL parachute will also deploy at higher Mach number (M 2) than previous parachutes, which can lead to instabilities in canopy performance. Both the increased size of the DBG above previous demonstrated configurations and deployment at higher Mach numbers add uncertainty to the deployment, structural integrity and performance of the parachute. In order to verify the performance of the DBG on MSL, experimental testing, including acquisition of Stereo Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) measurements were required for validating CFD predictions of the parachute performance. A rigid model of the DBG parachute was tested in the 10x10 foot wind tunnel at GRC. Prior to the MSL tests, a PIV system had never been used in the 10x10 wind tunnel. In this paper we discuss some of the technical challenges overcome in implementing a Stereo PIV system with a 750x400 mm field-of-view in the 10x10 wind tunnel facility and results from the MSL hardshell canopy tests.

  13. Oil shale technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    1991-01-01

    Oil shale is undoubtedly an excellent energy source that has great abundance and world-wide distribution. Oil shale industries have seen ups and downs over more than 100 years, depending on the availability and price of conventional petroleum crudes. Market forces as well as environmental factors will greatly affect the interest in development of oil shale. Besides competing with conventional crude oil and natural gas, shale oil will have to compete favorably with coal-derived fuels for similar markets. Crude shale oil is obtained from oil shale by a relatively simple process called retorting. However, the process economics are greatly affected by the thermal efficiencies, the richness of shale, the mass transfer effectiveness, the conversion efficiency, the design of retort, the environmental post-treatment, etc. A great many process ideas and patents related to the oil shale pyrolysis have been developed; however, relatively few field and engineering data have been published. Due to the vast heterogeneity of oil shale and to the complexities of physicochemical process mechanisms, scientific or technological generalization of oil shale retorting is difficult to achieve. Dwindling supplied of worldwide petroleum reserves, as well as the unprecedented appetite of mankind for clean liquid fuel, has made the public concern for future energy market grow rapidly. the clean coal technology and the alternate fuel technology are currently of great significance not only to policy makers, but also to process and chemical researchers. In this book, efforts have been made to make a comprehensive text for the science and technology of oil shale utilization. Therefore, subjects dealing with the terminological definitions, geology and petrology, chemistry, characterization, process engineering, mathematical modeling, chemical reaction engineering, experimental methods, and statistical experimental design, etc. are covered in detail

  14. Shale oil. II. Gases from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R H; Manning, P D.V.

    1927-01-01

    Oil shale (from Colorado) was pyrolyzed, and the gaseous products obtained were studied. The organic material present in oil shale contains carboxyl groups that lose carbon dioxide during pyrolysis before the formation of soluble bitumen. Nitrogen was evolved as ammonia in two stages and was not continuous. The first evolution was from loosely combined nitrogen structures, whereas the second was from more stable forms. No hydrocarbons were present as such in the kerogen. The gaseous products from oil-shale pyrolysis were similar to those obtained by distillation of colophony, amber, coal, and wood. This places the kerogen of the oil shale in the same series of carbonaceous substances as those from which coals are formed. Kerogen appeared to be decomposed in three steps; namely, to insoluble bitumen, to soluble bitumen, and to oil (gas evolution accompanied each step). Its low solubility and the character of its pyrolytic gas indicated that kerogen is largely a resinous residue from vegetation of the past era and may have been formed by the tranportation of coal-forming organic debris to inland salty lakes or carried to the sea by clay-laden waters. The salt water and the natural settling action precipitated the clay and organic matter in an almost homogeneous deposit. Oil shales have existed to the present time because they have not been subjected to high pressures or elevated temperatures that would have changed them to petroleum.

  15. Origin of oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, W G

    1923-01-01

    The theory by Jones was questioned. Oil shales do not contain partly decomposed vegetable matter, and, where particles of vegetation are identified, they do not prove that kerogen was formed in its place. Some shales do contain free oil that can be extracted with solvents.

  16. Chemical aspects of shale and shale oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackford, J E

    1922-01-01

    To prove that the kerogen in oil shale is a form of bitumen, several experiments were made with oil shale and a heavy asphaltic oil mixed with fuller's earth. When distilled, both the oil shale and asphalt-impregnated fuller's earth yielded paraffin oil, wax, and hydrogen sulfide (if sulfur was present). Both yielded ammonia if nitrogen was present. The organic material in each was partly isolated by extraction with pyridine and appeared to be the same. Oil shale is a marl that was saturated with oil or through which oil has passed or filtered. The insolubilities of its organic compounds are due to a slightly elevated temperature for a prolonged period and to the retaining effect exerted by the finely divided marl. The marl exerted a selective action on the oil and absorbed the asphaltum, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds from the oil. The class of oil evolved from a shale depended on the nature of the original compounds absorbed. Asphaltenes obtained from crude oil by precipitation with ethyl ether produced distillation products of water, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, oil, wax, and a carbonaceous residue. Water was formed by decomposition of oxyasphaltenes and hydrogen sulfide by decomposition of thioasphaltenes. Ammonia was evolved during decomposition if lime was present, but if there was not sufficient free lime present, pyridine and pyrrole derivatives were redistilled as such. The oil and wax that resulted from the dry distillation were true decomposition products and equaled about 60 weight-percent of the asphaltenes. The oil and wax content of the mixture varied between 8 and 10 percent. The carbonaceous residue, which represented approximately 40 percent of the original asphaltene, was a decomposition product of the asphaltenes. Geologic comparisons of oil-shale deposits and oil-well fields were also made.

  17. Simultaneous caving and surface restoration system for oil shale mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allsman, P.T.

    1968-10-01

    A modified caving method is introduced for mining oil shale and simultaneous restoration of the land surface by return of spent shale onto the subsided area. Other methods have been designed to mine the relatively thin richer beds occurring near outcrops in the Piceance Creek Basin of NW. Colorado. Since the discovery of the much thicker beds in the N.-central part of the basin, some attention has focused on in situ and open-pit methods of recovery. Although caving has been recognized as a possible means of mining shale, most people have been skeptical of its success. This stems from the unknown and salient factors of cavability and size of broken rock with caving. Wisdom would seem to dictate that serious evaluation of the caving method be made along with the other methods.

  18. Oil shale activities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, D.; Jialin, Q.

    1991-01-01

    China has abundant oil shale resources, of the Early Silurian to Neogene age, the most important being the Tertiary period. The proved oil shale reserves in Fushun amount to 3.6 billion t, in Maoming 4.1 billion t. In Fushun, oil shale is produced by open-pit mining as a byproduct of coal, in Maoming it is also mined in open pits, but without coal. In China, scale oil has been produced from oil shale for 60 years. Annual production of crude shale oil amounts to about 200 000 t. The production costs of shale oil are lower than the price of crude petroleum on the world market. China has accumulated the experience and technologies of oil shale retorting. The Fushun type retort has been elaborated, in which the latent and sensible heat of shale coke is well utilized. But the capacity of such retort is relatively small, therefore it is suitable for use in small or medium oil plants. China has a policy of steadily developing shale oil industry. China is conducting oil shale research and developing oil shale processing technology. Much attention is being pay ed to the comprehensive utilization of oil shale, shale oil, and to environmental problems. In China, oil shale is mostly used for producing shale by retorting, attention will also be paid to direct combustion for power generation. Great achievements in oil shale research have been made in the eighties, and there will be a further development in the nineties. (author), 12 refs., 3 tabs

  19. The Frasnian-Famennian boundary (Upper Devonian) in black shale sequences: US Southern Midcontinent, Illinois Basin, and northern Appalachian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Over, D.J. (State Univ. of New York, Geneseo, NY (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1994-04-01

    The Frasnian-Famennian (F/F) boundary in the Woodford Shale of the US southern Midcontinent, Sweetland Creek Shale of the Illinois Basin, and the Hanover Shale of the northern Appalachian Basin is recognized to a discrete horizon. In each locality the boundary is marked by evidence of a disconformity: phosphate nodules, concentration of conodonts, or coated and corroded grains. The Woodford Shale consists of finely laminated pyritic organic-rich shale containing interbeds of greenish shale and chert. The F/F boundary horizon is marked by a concentration of conodonts and phosphatic nodules. The boundary lag horizon contains Pa. linguliformis, Pa. subperlobtata, Pa. delicatula delicatula, and Pa. triangularis. Underlying laminations contain Ancyrognathus ubiquitus and Pa. triangularis indicating that the disconformity is within the uppermost MN Zone 13 or Lower triangularis Zone. The upper portion of the Type Sweetland Creek Shale consists of dark organic-rich shales. The F/F boundary is located within an interval containing three green shale interbeds. Palmatolepis triangularis in the absence of Frasnian species first occurs in the middle green shale. In the thick Upper Devonian clastic sequence of the northern Appalachian Basin the F/F boundary is within an interval of interbedded pyritic green and organic-rich silty shales of the Hanover Shale. At Irish Gulf strata containing Pa. triangularis overlie finely laminated dark shales containing Pa. bogartensis, Pa. triangularis, Pa. winchell, Ancyrodella curvata, and Icriodus alternatus. The conodont fauna transition is below a conodont-rich laminae containing a Famennian fauna that marks the boundary horizon.

  20. Common clay and shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    Part of the 1999 Industrial Minerals Review. The clay and shale market in 1999 is reviewed. In the U.S., sales or use of clay and shale increased from 26.4 million st in 1998 to 27.3 million st in 1999, with an estimated 1999 value of production of $143 million. These materials were used to produce structural clay products, lightweight aggregates, cement, and ceramics and refractories. Production statistics for clays and shales and for their uses in 1999 are presented.

  1. Reconstruction of Orion Engineering Development Unit (EDU) Parachute Inflation Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Eric S.

    2013-01-01

    The process of reconstructing inflation loads of Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) has been updated as the program transitioned to testing Engineering Development Unit (EDU) hardware. The equations used to reduce the test data have been re-derived based on the same physical assumptions made by simulations. Due to instrumentation challenges, individual parachute loads are determined from complementary accelerometer and load cell measurements. Cluster inflations are now simulated by modeling each parachute individually to better represent different inflation times and non-synchronous disreefing. The reconstruction procedure is tailored to either infinite mass or finite mass events based on measurable characteristics from the test data. Inflation parameters are determined from an automated optimization routine to reduce subjectivity. Infinite mass inflation parameters have been re-defined to avoid unrealistic interactions in Monte Carlo simulations. Sample cases demonstrate how best-fit inflation parameters are used to generate simulated drag areas and loads which favorably agree with test data.

  2. Improvements in shale retorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, A C

    1915-05-01

    This invention has reference to shale retorts and particularly related to the discharge of the spent material from the bottom of retorts or gas producers for the destructive distillation of shale, coal or other bituminous substances. It consists in the combination of a blade and means for rocking the same, a bottom piece or table, holes or slots in the same, a passage in the front brick-work of the retort, and a hopper with discharge doors.

  3. Determination of Parachute Joint Factors using Seam and Joint Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollmann, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This paper details the methodology for determining the joint factor for all parachute components. This method has been successfully implemented on the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) for the NASA Orion crew module for use in determining the margin of safety for each component under peak loads. Also discussed are concepts behind the joint factor and what drives the loss of material strength at joints. The joint factor is defined as a "loss in joint strength...relative to the basic material strength" that occurs when "textiles are connected to each other or to metals." During the CPAS engineering development phase, a conservative joint factor of 0.80 was assumed for each parachute component. In order to refine this factor and eliminate excess conservatism, a seam and joint testing program was implemented as part of the structural validation. This method split each of the parachute structural joints into discrete tensile tests designed to duplicate the loading of each joint. Breaking strength data collected from destructive pull testing was then used to calculate the joint factor in the form of an efficiency. Joint efficiency is the percentage of the base material strength that remains after degradation due to sewing or interaction with other components; it is used interchangeably with joint factor in this paper. Parachute materials vary in type-mainly cord, tape, webbing, and cloth -which require different test fixtures and joint sample construction methods. This paper defines guidelines for designing and testing samples based on materials and test goals. Using the test methodology and analysis approach detailed in this paper, the minimum joint factor for each parachute component can be formulated. The joint factors can then be used to calculate the design factor and margin of safety for that component, a critical part of the design verification process.

  4. Major and trace elements in Mahogany zone oil shale in two cores from the Green River Formation, piceance basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, M.L.; Dean, W.E.; Parduhn, N.L.

    1983-01-01

    The Parachute Creek Member of the lacustrine Green River Formation contains thick sequences of rich oil-shale. The richest sequence and the richest oil-shale bed occurring in the member are called the Mahogany zone and the Mahogany bed, respectively, and were deposited in ancient Lake Uinta. The name "Mahogany" is derived from the red-brown color imparted to the rock by its rich-kerogen content. Geochemical abundance and distribution of eight major and 18 trace elements were determined in the Mahogany zone sampled from two cores, U. S. Geological Survey core hole CR-2 and U. S. Bureau of Mines core hole O1-A (Figure 1). The oil shale from core hole CR-2 was deposited nearer the margin of Lake Uinta than oil shale from core hole O1-A. The major- and trace-element chemistry of the Mahogany zone from each of these two cores is compared using elemental abundances and Q-mode factor modeling. The results of chemical analyses of 44 CR-2 Mahogany samples and 76 O1-A Mahogany samples are summarized in Figure 2. The average geochemical abundances for shale (1) and black shale (2) are also plotted on Figure 2 for comparison. The elemental abundances in the samples from the two cores are similar for the majority of elements. Differences at the 95% probability level are higher concentrations of Ca, Cu, La, Ni, Sc and Zr in the samples from core hole CR-2 compared to samples from core hole O1-A and higher concentrations of As and Sr in samples from core hole O1-A compared to samples from core hole CR-2. These differences presumably reflect slight differences in depositional conditions or source material at the two sites. The Mahogany oil shale from the two cores has lower concentrations of most trace metals and higher concentrations of carbonate-related elements (Ca, Mg, Sr and Na) compared to the average shale and black shale. During deposition of the Mahogany oil shale, large quantities of carbonates were precipitated resulting in the enrichment of carbonate-related elements

  5. Flight test of a spin parachute for use with a Super Arcas sounding rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbert, M. N.

    1975-01-01

    The development and flight testing of a specially configured 16.6 ft Disc Band Gap (DBG) Spin Parachute is discussed. The parachute is integrated with a modified Super Arcas launch vehicle. Total payload weight was 17.6 lbs including the Spin Parachute and a scientific payload, and lift-off weight was 100.3 lbs. The Super Arcas vehicle was despun from 18.4 cps. After payload separation at 244,170 ft the Spin Parachute and its payload attained a maximum spin rate of 2.4 cps. Total suspended weight of the Spin Parachute and its payload was 14.64 lbs.

  6. Reconstruction of Twist Torque in Main Parachute Risers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    The reconstruction of twist torque in the Main Parachute Risers of the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) has been successfully used to validate CPAS Model Memo conservative twist torque equations. Reconstruction of basic, one degree of freedom drop tests was used to create a functional process for the evaluation of more complex, rigid body simulation. The roll, pitch, and yaw of the body, the fly-out angles of the parachutes, and the relative location of the parachutes to the body are inputs to the torque simulation. The data collected by the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) was used to calculate the true torque. The simulation then used photogrammetric and IMU data as inputs into the Model Memo equations. The results were then compared to the true torque results to validate the Model Memo equations. The Model Memo parameters were based off of steel risers and the parameters will need to be re-evaluated for different materials. Photogrammetric data was found to be more accurate than the inertial data in accounting for the relative rotation between payload and cluster. The Model Memo equations were generally a good match and when not matching were generally conservative.

  7. Parachute and lateral propping reactions in preterm children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohlweiler Lygia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A non-controlled, prognostic cohort study was performed with the aim of establishing markers of neurological development and defining a clinical and epidemiological profile of preterm newborns at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of gestation-corrected age in terms of parachute and lateral propping reactions. Newborns with gestational age of up to 36 weeks and 6 days, weighing 2,000 g or less at birth, were included in the study At 6 months of age, parachute and lateral propping reactions were present in 8.1% of the patients. At 9 months, the parachute reaction was present in 87.5%, and the lateral propping reaction was present in 90% of the children. It was possible to assess parachute and lateral propping reactions in preterm children in the first year of life. Alterations in trunk-limb coordination may be evidenced in the 1st year of life through postural reactions, which are maintained as prematurity markers until school age.

  8. 32 CFR 705.32 - Aviation events and parachute demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... performing. What type of crowd control is planned? 5. Flight and Parachute Team demonstrations require that... the public domain is to support the recruiting aspects of the all-volunteer force concept. The... member of the public might wish to have clarified, contact Chief, Aerial Events Branch, OASD(PA), Room...

  9. Process for oil shale retorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John B.; Kunchal, S. Kumar

    1981-10-27

    Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

  10. Process for extracting oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-08-22

    A process is described for recovering bituminous material from oil shale, characterized in that the oil shale is extracted with wood spirits oil (byproduct of woodspirit rectification), if necessary in admixture with other solvents in the cold or the hot.

  11. Apparatus for treating bituminous shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1942-11-24

    A method is given of transforming finely crushed bituminous shale, for instance of maximum particle size of about 5 mm, into balls, nodules, or similar shapes, in which the shale to be treated is passed in the form of lumps through a rotary drum. The finely crushed shale with a higher content of moisture is brought into contact with finely crushed shale of a lower content of moisture, and thereby serves as kernel material during the formation of the nodules or similar shapes.

  12. Shale oil combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-dabbas, M.A.

    1992-05-01

    A 'coutant' carbon steel combustion chamber cooled by water jacket was conslructed to burn diesel fuel and mixlure of shale oil and diesel fuels. During experimental work nir fuel ratio was determined, temperaturces were measured using Chromel/ Almel thermocouple, finally the gasous combustion product analysis was carricd out using gas chromatograph technique. The constructed combustion chamber was operating salisfactory for several hours of continous work. According to the measurements it was found that: the flame temperature of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was greater than the flame temperature of diesel fuel. and the sulfer emissious of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was higher than that of diesel fuel. Calculation indicated that the dry gas energy loss was very high and the incomplete combustion energy loss very small. (author). 23 refs., 35 figs

  13. Oil shale highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The low prices of crude oil have continued to retard the commercial development of oil shale and other syn fuels. Although research funds are more difficult to find, some R and D work by industry, academia, and governmental agencies continues in the United States and in other parts of the world. Improvements in retorting technology, upgrading oil-shale feedstock, and developing high-value niche-market products from shale oil are three notable areas of research that have been prominent for the past several years. Although the future prices of conventional crude cannot be predicted, it seems evident that diminishing supplies and a burgeoning world population will force us to turn to alternate fossil fuels as well as to cleaner sources of non-fossil energy. (author)

  14. Shale oil combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-dabbas, M A

    1992-05-01

    A `coutant` carbon steel combustion chamber cooled by water jacket was conslructed to burn diesel fuel and mixlure of shale oil and diesel fuels. During experimental work nir fuel ratio was determined, temperaturces were measured using Chromel/ Almel thermocouple, finally the gasous combustion product analysis was carricd out using gas chromatograph technique. The constructed combustion chamber was operating salisfactory for several hours of continous work. According to the measurements it was found that: the flame temperature of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was greater than the flame temperature of diesel fuel. and the sulfer emissious of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was higher than that of diesel fuel. Calculation indicated that the dry gas energy loss was very high and the incomplete combustion energy loss very small. (author). 23 refs., 35 figs.

  15. Shale gas - Risks and stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This book aims at exploring all aspects of the shale gas issue: geological data, environmental impacts, financial aspects and economical impacts of shale gas exploitation. It compares the available information with the field reality and defeats the dogmatic mirages. The research and compilation work carried out by the author make this book a reference in the domain of shale gas exploitation

  16. Process of briquetting fine shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, J

    1943-05-05

    A process is described for the preparation of briquetts of fine bituminous shale, so-called Mansfield copper shale, without addition of binding material, characterized in that the fine shale is warmed to about 100/sup 0/C and concurrently briquetted in a high-pressure rolling press or piece press under a pressure of 300 to 800 kg/cm/sup 2/.

  17. Treating oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolbear, S H

    1921-01-04

    Oil shale is treated for the separation of the valuable organic compounds, with a view to economy in subsequent destructive distillation, by grinding to powder, mixing with water to form a pulp, adding a small quantity of an oil liquid and aerating the mixture to form a froth containing the organic compounds. If the powdered shale contains sufficient free oil, the addition of oil to the pulp may be dispensed with. In some cases an electrolyte such as sulfuric acid may be added to the pulp.

  18. Treating bituminous shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginet, J H

    1921-03-09

    Apparatus for the treatment of bituminous shales is described wherein a number of separate compartments are arranged in alignment and communicate with each other near the bottom thereof, each of the compartments being provided with outlets for the gases evolved therein, while agitators are arranged in each of the compartments, each agitator being composed of a number of shovels which sweep up the comminuted shale at their forward end and discharge it at their rearward end into the path of the next adjacent agitator.

  19. Origin of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham-Craig, E H

    1915-01-01

    Kerogen was believed to be formed by the inspissation of petroleum. During this process nitrogen and sulfur compounds were concentrated in the most inspissated or weathered products. At a certain stage, reached gradually, the organic matter became insoluble in carbon-disulfide and ceased to be a bitumen. Oil shale was formed by the power of certain clays or shales to absorb inspissated petroleum, particularly unsaturated hydrocarbons. This adsorption apparently depended on the colloid content of the argillaceous rock. This rock retained these impregnated petroleum residues long after porous sandstones in the vicinity had lost all traces of petroleum by weathering and leaching.

  20. Geochemical survey of stream sediments of the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringrose, C.D.

    1977-01-01

    A stream sediment survey was conducted in the Piceance Creek Basin to study the spatial distribution of Zn, Mo, Hg, Cd and As for future baseline considerations. The pH and organic matter were also measured. From samples taken at the mouths (junctions) of most of the named creeks in the basin, it is concluded that none of the streams contained sediments with anomalous trace element concentrations with respect to the basin. But it is thought that Mo and possibly As could be potentially toxic because of their abundance and their mobility under the stream sediments' alkaline condition. From a different sampling plan, designed to describe the background variance of five streams (Roan, Black Sulfur, Parachute, Yellow and Piceance Creeks), it was found that most of the variance occurred at distances from 0-10 m within 2 km stream segments 10 km apart for Mo, Hg, Az, and organic matter. When the variance between the five streams was considered, it was found to dominate the variances of the other factors for Mo, Hg, and Zn. This variance between streams is actually thought to represent the variance between the major drainage system in the basin. When comparison is made between the two sampling design results, it is thought that the trace element concentrations of stream junction samples represented the best range of expected values for the entire basin. The expected ranges of the trace elements from the nested design are thought to be reasonable estimates of preliminary baselines for Parachute Creek, Roan Creek and Black Sulfur Creek within the restricted limits of the streams defined in the text. From the experience gained in pursuing this study, it is thought that composite sampling should be considered, where feasible, to reduce the analytical load and to reduce the small scale variance.

  1. Sources of baseflow for the Minnehaha Creek Watershed, Minnesota, US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieber, J. L.; Moore, T. L.; Gulliver, J. S.; Magner, J. A.; Lahti, L. B.

    2013-12-01

    Minnehaha Creek is among the most valued surface water features in the Minneapolis, MN metro area, with a waterfall as it enters the Minnehaha Creek park. Flow in Minnehaha Creek is heavily dependent on discharge from the stream's origin, Lake Minnetonka, the outlet of which is closed during drought periods to maintain water elevations in the lake resulting in low- (or no-) flow conditions in the creek. Stormwater runoff entering directly to the creek from the creek's largely urbanized watershed exacerbates extremes in flow conditions. Given the cultural and ecological value of this stream system, there is great interest in enhancing the cultural and ecosystem services provided by Minnehaha Creek through improvements in streamflow regime by reducing flashiness and sustaining increased low-flows. Determining the potential for achieving improvements in flow requires first that the current sources of water contributing to low-flows in the creek be identified and quantified. Work on this source identification has involved a number of different approaches, including analyses of the streamflow record using a hydrologic system model framework, examination of the Quaternary and bedrock geology of the region, estimation of groundwater-surface water exchange rates within the channel using hyporheic zone temperature surveys and flux meter measurements, and analyses of the stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in samples of stream water, groundwater, and rainfall. Analysis of baseflow recessions using the method of Brutsaert and Nieber (1977) indicates that only a small portion of the catchment, probably the riparian zone, contributes to baseflows. This result appears to be supported by the observation that the limestone/shale bedrock layer underlying the surficial aquifer has a non-zero permeability, and in a significant portion of the watershed the layer has been eroded away leaving the surficial aquifer ';bottomless' and highly susceptible to vertical (down) water loss

  2. Apparatus for decomposing shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gislain, M

    1865-06-20

    The apparatus is designed to fulfill the three following conditions: (1) complete extraction of the mineral oil, by avoiding partial decomposition; (2) purification of the said oil from products formed in the decomposition of the shale; (3) breaking down of the said oil into more products of different density. The separation of the heavy and bituminous products is claimed.

  3. Process of recovering shale oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1949-01-17

    A process is disclosed for recovering oil from shale rock by means of channels cut in the shale deposit, to which heat is carried for warming the shale mass and which are separated from the fume channels formed in the shale by parts of the shale rock, characterized in that heating elements are put down in the heating channels, which occupy less cross section than these channels, and in the so-formed space between the channel wall and the heating element a filling is placed, which facilitates heat transfer between the heating element and the shale and simultaneously prevents a streaming of the oily product gasified out of the shale from working into the heating element and stopping it.

  4. Parachute-Payload System Flight Dynamics and Trajectory Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Guglieri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The work traces a general procedure for the design of a flight simulation tool still representative of the major flight physics of a parachute-payload system along decelerated trajectories. An example of limited complexity simulation models for a payload decelerated by one or more parachutes is given, including details and implementation features usually omitted as the focus of the research in this field is typically on the investigation of mission design issues, rather than addressing general implementation guidelines for the development of a reconfigurable simulation tool. The dynamics of the system are modeled through a simple multibody model that represents the expected behavior of an entry vehicle during the terminal deceleration phase. The simulators are designed according to a comprehensive vision that enforces the simplification of the coupling mechanism between the payload and the parachute, with an adequate level of physical insight still available. The results presented for a realistic case study define the sensitivity of the simulation outputs to the functional complexity of the mathematical model. Far from being an absolute address for the software designer, this paper tries to contribute to the area of interest with some technical considerations and clarifications.

  5. Psychophysiological response in parachute jumps, the effect of experience and type of jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-Suárez, Vicente Javier; Robles-Pérez, José Juan; Fernández-Lucas, Jesús

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to analyse the effect of experience and type of parachute jump on the psychophysiological responses of jumpers. We analysed blood oxygen saturation, heart rate, blood glucose, lactate and creatinkinase, leg strength, isometric hand strength, cortical arousal, specific fine motor skills, self-confidence and cognition, and somatic and state anxiety, before and after four different parachute jumps: a sport parachute jump, a manual tactical parachute jump, tandem pilots, and tandem passengers. Independently of the parachute jump, the psychophysiological responses of experienced paratroopers were not affected by the jumps, except for an increase in anaerobic metabolism. Novice parachute jumpers presented a higher psychophysiological stress response than the experienced jumpers, together with a large anticipatory anxiety response before the jump; however, this decreased after the jump, although the high physiological activation was maintained. This information could be used by civil and military paratroopers' instructors to improve their training programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Big Creek Pit Tags

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The BCPITTAGS database is used to store data from an Oncorhynchus mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) population dynamics study in Big Creek, a coastal stream along the...

  7. Shale gas - uncertain destiny?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines that, even if it would be allowed, the exploitation of shale gas in France would need ten years to start, and no one can say what would be our needs then and what would be the situation of the gas market at that time. Even if the government decided to forbid hydraulic fracturing, there could be some opportunity for experimentation with a search for alternative technology. The article notices that risks associated with hydraulic fracturing and extraction of non conventional hydrocarbons, i.e. water pollution and consumption and land use, are variously perceived in different European countries (Germany, Romania, Poland) where important American actors are present (Chevron, Exxon) to exploit shale gases. In the USA, the economic profitability seems in fact to rapidly decrease

  8. Distillation of oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronder, G A

    1926-03-22

    To distill oil shales, cannel coals, and other carbonaceous materials for the extraction therefrom of hydrocarbons and volatile nitrogenous compounds, hard non-condensable gases from the condensers and scrubbers are withdrawn by blowers and admixed with burnt gases, obtained through conduits from the flues of heaters, and forced downwardly through horizontal chambers, connected by vertical conduits, of the heaters and delivered into the retort beneath the grate. Passing upwardly through the charge they vaporize the volatile substances in the shale, and a suction pump removes the vapors from the top of the retort. Immediately they are produced and at substantially the same temperature as that at which they emanate, thus preventing cracking of the oil vapors and condensation of the oil at the top of the retort. The amount of burnt flue gas admixed with the hard gases is regulated by two valves until a required uniform temperature is obtained. A generator supplies producer gas to a heater at the commencement of the retorting operation for circulation through the shale charge to initially produce oil vapors. The generator is connected by a pipe to the gas conduit leading to blowers.

  9. Henretta Creek reclamation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pumphrey, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Teck Coal Ltd. operates 6 open-pit coal mines, of which 5 are located in the Elk Valley in southeastern British Columbia. The Fording River Operations (FRO) began in 1971 in mining areas in Eagle Mountain, Turnbull Mountain and Henretta Valley. The recovery of approximately 5 million tons of coal from the Henretta Creek Valley posed significant challenges to mine planners, hydrologists and environmental experts because the coal had to be recovered from the valley flanks and also from under the main valley floor, on which the fish-bearing Henretta Creek runs. The Henretta Dragline Mining project was described along with the water control structures and fisheries management efforts for the cutthroat trout. A detailed Environmental Impact Assessment and Stage 1 mining report for the Henretta Valley area was completed in December 1990. FRO was granted a mining and reclamation permit in 1991. A temporary relocation of 1,270 metres was required in in April 1997 in order to enable mining on both sides and below the creek bed. Among the innovative construction techniques was a diversion of Henretta Creek through large diameter steel culverts and a specialized crossing of the creek to allow fish passage. The first water flowed through the reclaimed Henretta Creek channel in late 1998 and the first high flow occurred in the spring of 2000. Teck coal FRO then launched an annual fish and fish habitat monitoring program which focused on the Henretta Creek Reclaimed Channel and Henretta Lake. This document presented the results from the final year, 2006, and a summary of the 7 year aquatic monitoring program. It was concluded that from mining through to reclamation, the Henretta project shows the commitment and success of mining and reclamation practices at Teck Coal. Indicators of the project's success include riparian zone vegetation, fisheries re-establishment, aquatic communities and habitat utilization by terrestrial and avian species. 33 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Michael Vanden; Anderson, Paul; Wallace, Janae; Morgan, Craig; Carney, Stephanie

    2012-04-30

    in the subsurface of the Uinta Basin using a combination of water chemistry data collected from various sources and by analyzing geophysical well logs. By re-mapping the base of the moderately saline aquifer using more robust data and more sophisticated computer-based mapping techniques, regulators now have the information needed to more expeditiously grant water disposal permits while still protecting freshwater resources. Part 2: Eastern Uinta Basin gas producers have identified the Birds Nest aquifer, located in the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, as the most promising reservoir suitable for large-volume saline water disposal. This aquifer formed from the dissolution of saline minerals that left behind large open cavities and fractured rock. This new and complete understanding the aquifer?s areal extent, thickness, water chemistry, and relationship to Utah?s vast oil shale resource will help operators and regulators determine safe saline water disposal practices, directly impacting the success of increased hydrocarbon production in the region, while protecting potential future oil shale production. Part 3: In order to establish a baseline of water quality on lands identified by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management as having oil shale development potential in the southeastern Uinta Basin, the UGS collected biannual water samples over a three-year period from near-surface aquifers and surface sites. The near-surface and relatively shallow groundwater quality information will help in the development of environmentally sound water-management solutions for a possible future oil shale and oil sands industry and help assess the sensitivity of the alluvial and near-surface bedrock aquifers. This multifaceted study will provide a better understanding of the aquifers in Utah?s Uinta Basin, giving regulators the tools needed to protect precious freshwater resources while still allowing for increased hydrocarbon production.

  11. Vegetation - Pine Creek WA and Fitzhugh Creek WA [ds484

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This fine-scale vegetation classification and map of the Pine Creek and Fitzhugh Creek Wildlife Areas, Modoc County, California was created following FGDC and...

  12. Yield and characteristics of shale oil from the retorting of oil shale and fine oil-shale ash mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Mengting; Wang, Sha; Han, Xiangxin; Jiang, Xiumin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The whole formation process of shale oil might be divided into four stages. • Higher ash/shale mass ratio intensified the cracking and coking of shale oil. • Ash/shale ratio of 1:2 was recommended for oil shale fluidized bed retort with fine oil-shale ash as solid heat carrier. - Abstract: For exploring and optimizing the oil shale fluidized bed retort with fine oil-shale ash as a solid heat carrier, retorting experiments of oil shale and fine oil-shale ash mixtures were conducted in a lab-scale retorting reactor to investigate the effects of fine oil-shale ash on shale oil. Oil shale samples were obtained from Dachengzi Mine, China, and mixed with fine oil-shale ash in the ash/shale mass ratios of 0:1, 1:4, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1 and 4:1. The experimental retorting temperature was enhanced from room temperature to 520 °C and the average heating rate was 12 °C min −1 . It was found that, with the increase of the oil-shale ash fraction, the shale oil yield first increased and then decreased obviously, whereas the gas yield appeared conversely. Shale oil was analyzed for the elemental analysis, presenting its atomic H/C ratio of 1.78–1.87. Further, extraction and simulated distillation of shale oil were also conducted to explore the quality of shale oil. As a result, the ash/shale mixing mass ratio of 1:2 was recommended only for the consideration of increasing the yield and quality of shale oil

  13. Oil shale (in memoriam)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, Marek

    2000-01-01

    Plans for the continued use of oil shale may lead the development of this country into an impasse. To this day no plans have been made for transition from the use of energy based on fossil fuels to that based on renewable resources. Without having any clear strategic plan politicians have been comforting both themselves and the population with promises to tackle the problem when the right time comes. Today the only enterprise whose cash flows and capital would really make it possible to reform the power industry is the firm Eesti Energia (Estonian Energy). However, its sole present shareholder - the state - prefers the sale of the firm's shares to carrying out a radical reform. At the same time, local consumers are likely to rather be willing to pay for the expensive electric energy produced from renewable resources than for that produced from fossil fuels, the price of which will also remain high due to the pollution tax. Practically it is impossible to buy a globally balanced environment for money - pollution taxes are but punitive mechanisms. The investments made into the oil-shale industry will also reinforce the cultural distance of North-East Estonia from the rest of Estonia - the uniform and prevalently Russian-speaking industrial area will be preserved as long as capital will continue to flow into the oil shale industry concentrated there. The way out would be for industries to make wider use of ecological and ecosystemic technologies and for the state to enforce ecologically balanced economic and social policies. (author)

  14. Process for refining shale bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plauson, H

    1920-09-19

    A process is disclosed for refining shale bitumen for use as heavy mineral oil, characterized by mixtures of blown hard shale pitch and heavy mineral oil being blown with hot air at temperatures of 120 to 150/sup 0/ with 1 to 3 percent sulfur, and if necessary with 0.5 to 3 percent of an aldehyde.

  15. Distilling shale and the like

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, H T.P.

    1922-02-23

    In distilling shale or like bituminous fuels by internal heating with hot gas obtained by the gasifying of the shale residues with air or steam or a mixture of these, the amount and temperature of the gaseous distilling medium is regulated between the gasifying and the distilling chambers, by the introduction of cold gas or air.

  16. Shale Gas Technology. White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    Shale gas is extracted using horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing or 'fracking'. None of which are particularly new technologies or shale gas specific. In this white paper attention is paid to Horizontal drilling; Hydraulic fracturing or 'frackin'; Other 'unconventionals'; and Costs.

  17. Shale Gas Technology. White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    Shale gas is extracted using horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing or 'fracking'. None of which are particularly new technologies or shale gas specific. In this white paper attention is paid to Horizontal drilling; Hydraulic fracturing or 'frackin'; Other 'unconventionals'; and Costs.

  18. Recovering valuable shale oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engler, C

    1922-09-26

    A process is described for the recovery of valuable shale oils or tars, characterized in that the oil shale is heated to about 300/sup 0/C or a temperature not exceeding this essentially and then is treated with a solvent with utilization of this heat.

  19. Organic substances of bituminous shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanin, V A; Pronina, M V

    1944-01-01

    Samples of Gdov (Estonia) and Volga (Russia) oil shales were oxidized by alkaline permanganate to study the distribution of carbon and the composition of the resulting oxidation products. Gdov shale was rather stable to oxidation and, after 42 hours 61.2 percent of the organic material remained unoxidized. Five hundred hours were required for complete oxidation, and the oxidation products consisted of CO/sub 2/, acetic, oxalic, and succinic acids. The oxidation products from Volga shale consisted of CO/sub 2/, acetic, oxalic, succinic, adipic, phthalic, benzenetricarboxylic, benzenetetracarboxylic, and benzenepentacarboxylic acids. The results indicated that Gdov shale is free of humic substances and is of sapropelic origin, while Volga shale is of sapropelic-humic origin.

  20. Treatment of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, H L

    1922-07-04

    To distill oil shale in lump form, it is fed as a continuous charge through an axially rotating externally heated retorting chamber, where the exposed surfaces of the lumps are gradually decomposed by destructive distillation, and light physical shocks are continuously administered to them, due to their tumbling-over motion and their contact with the ribs, to knock off the decomposing surfaces and present fresh surfaces for distillation. The vapors are withdrawn through a conduit, and the partially distilled lumps are fed through a shoot into a plurality of rotating externally heated retorts, similar in character to the first retort, from whence the vapors pass through a conduit to condensing apparatus, from which the permanent gases are withdrawn, and used for fuel in the distillation zone, while the residue is discharged into a water well. An auxiliary heating conduit, having a burner discharging into it, may be employed, while in some cases steam may be used if required. In two modifications, different arrangements of the retorts are shown, as well as means within the retorts for breaking up the lumps of shale.

  1. Distillation of shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J

    1877-01-05

    The retort consists of a trough fitted with a hood, the edges of which hood dip into a channel of water formed round the sides of the trough, and thereby seal the retort. The shale is introduced at one end of the hood through a double-valved inlet hopper, and is moved along the retort by transverse scrapers or paddles. At the other end it falls through a double-valved outlet upon a set of firebars which carry it along under the retort, where either alone or in admixture with other fuel it is used for heating the vessel. The vapors from the shale pass off through pipes in the hood, or an inverted channel may be formed along the center of the hood for collecting the vapors from different parts of the vessel. The scrapers are worked by rocking shafts supported on bearings in the edges of the trough, and are made to feather when moving in a direction from the discharged end. Levers from the rocking shafts project down into the water channel, where they are connected with horizontal bars made to reciprocate longitudinally by suitable means, thus working the scrapers without using stuffing-boxes. Rotating scrapers may be substituted for the reciprocating ones.

  2. Subsurface-controlled geological maps for the Y-12 plant and adjacent areas of Bear Creek Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, H.L.; Haase, C.S.

    1987-04-01

    Bear Creek Valley in the vicinity of the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant is underlain by Middle to Late Cambrian strata of the Conasauga Group. The group consists of interbedded limestones, shales, mudstones, and siltstones, and it can be divided into six discrete formations. Bear Creek Valley is bordered on the north by Pine Ridge, which is underlain by sandstones, siltstones, and shales of the Rome Formation, and on the south by Chestnut Ridge, which is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group. Subsurface-controlled geological maps illustrating stratigraphic data and formational contacts for the formations within the Conasauga Group have been prepared for the Y-12 Plant vicinity and selected areas in Bear Creek Valley westward from the plant. The maps are consistent with all available surface and subsurface data for areas where sufficient data exist to make map construction feasible. 13 refs

  3. Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

  4. Distilling oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crozier, R H

    1923-04-18

    In the fractional distillation of oils from oil shale and similar materials the charge is passed continuously through a vertical retort heated externally by hot combustion gases in flues and internally by the passage of these gases through flues passing through the retort so that zones of increasing temperature are maintained. A vapor trap is provided in each zone having an exit pipe leading through a dust trap to a condenser. The bottoms of the conical vapor traps are provided with annular passages perforated to permit of steam being sprayed into the charge to form screens which prevent the vapors in different zones from mingling, and steam may also be introduced through perforations in an annular steam box. Dampers are provided to control the passage of the heating gases through the flues independently.

  5. Distilling shale and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, H; Young, G

    1923-01-09

    In a process of recovering oil from shale or coal the material is ground and may be subjected to a cleaning or concentrating process of the kind described in Specification 153,663 after which it is distilled in a furnace as described in Specification 13,625/09 the sections of the furnace forming different temperature zones, and the rate of the passage of the material is regulated so that distillation is complete with respect to the temperature of each zone, the whole distillation being accomplished in successive stages. The vapors are taken off at each zone and superheated steam may be passed into the furnace at suitable points and the distillation terminated at any stage of the process.

  6. Distillation of shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, E L

    1923-09-04

    To retort shale, lignite, coal, or the like for the recovery of gas and oils or spirits, it is fed through a hopper and then passed in a thin film through the space between the casing and outer shell by means of louvres which with the shell and the outer shell are reciprocated vertically. The top of the shell connected by brackets and lifting joists are pivoted to an eccentric driven by a shaft. The spent material passes through openings in the fixed base casting and openings in a moving ring which is rotated by a pawl and ratchet gear actuated by the reciprocation of the shell. The openings are opposite one another at the commencement of the downward movement of the louvres and shell and closed when the louvres are right down and on their upward movement.

  7. Hydrogenation of shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedwell, A J; Clark, E D; Miebach, F W

    1935-09-28

    A process for the distillation, cracking, and hydrogenation of shale or other carbonaceous material consists in first distilling the material to produce hydrocarbon oils. Steam is introduced and is passed downwardly with hydrocarbon vapors from the upper portion of the retort where the temperature is maintained between 400/sup 0/C and 450/sup 0/C over the spent carbonaceous materials. The material is drawn off at the bottom of the retort which is maintained at a temperature ranging from 600/sup 0/C to 800/sup 0/C whereby the hydrocarbon vapors are cracked in the pressure of nascent hydrogen obtained by the action of the introduced steam on the spent material. The cracked gases and undecomposed steam are passed through a catalyst tower containing iron-magnesium oxides resulting in the formation of light volatile oils.

  8. Distilling coal, shale, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussey, C C

    1916-07-17

    In the extraction of vovolatile ingredients from coal, shale, lignite, and other hydrocarbonaceous materials by passing through the material a heating-agent produced by burning at the base of the charge a portion of the material from which the volatile ingredients have been extracted, the temperature of the heating agent is maintained constant by continuously removing the residue from the bottom of the apparatus. The temperature employed is 800/sup 0/F or slightly less, so as to avoid any breaking-down action. As shown the retort is flared downwardly, and is provided at the base with a fireplace, which is in communication with the interior of the retort through flues fitted with screens and dampers. Beneath the bottom of the retort is mounted a movable grate carried on endless sprocket chains, which are preferably set so that the grate inclines downwardly towards the coke, etc.

  9. Recovering oil from shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leahey, T; Wilson, H

    1920-11-13

    To recover oil free from inorganic impurities and water, and utilize the oil vapor and tarry matter for the production of heat, shale is heated in a retort at a temperature of not less than 120/sup 0/C. The vapors pass by a pipe into a water jacketed condenser from which the condensate and gas pass through a pipe into a chamber and then by a pipe to a setting chamber from where the light oils are decanted through a pipe into a tank. The heavy oil is siphoned through a pipe into a tank, while the gas passes through a pipe into a scrubber and then into a drier, exhauster and pipe to the flue and ports, above the fire-bars, into the retort. Air is introduced through a pipe, flue, and ports.

  10. Neutron activation determination of rhenium in shales shales and molybdenites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajtsev, E.I.; Radinovich, B.S.

    1977-01-01

    Described is the technique for neutron activation determination of rhenium in shales and molybdenites with its radiochemical extraction separation by methyl-ethyl ketone. The sensitivity of the analysis is 5x10 -7 %. Experimental checking of the developed technique in reference to the analysis of shales and molybdenites was carried out. Estimated is the possibility of application of X-ray gamma-spectrometer to instrumental determination of rhenium in molybdenites

  11. Oil shale utilization in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, A.

    1993-01-01

    Geological surveys have confirmed the existence of substantial Israeli oil shale reserves. The proven reserves contain approximately 12 billion tons of available ores, and the potential is deemed to be much higher. Economic studies conducted by PAMA indicate promising potential for power generation via Israel oil shale combustion. Electric power from oil shale appears competitive with power generated from coal fired power plants located along the coast. PAMA's demonstration power plant has been in operation since the end of 1989. Based on the successful results of the first year of operation, PAMA and IEC are now engaged in the pre-project program for a 1000 MW commercial oil shale fired power plant, based on eight 120 MW units; the first unit is scheduled to begin operation in 1996

  12. Shale gas: the water myth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shea, Kerry [Dillon Consulting Limited (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    In recent years, due to the depletion of traditional fossil fuel resources and the rising price of energy, production from unconventional gas activities has increased. Large shale gas plays are available in Quebec but environmental concerns, mainly in terms of water resources, have been raised. The aim of this paper is to provide information on the impact of shale gas exploitation on water resources. It is shown herein that shale gas water use is not significant, the water use of 250 wells represents only 0.3% of the Quebec pulp and paper industry's water use, or 0.0004% of the flow of the St Lawrence. It is also shown that the environmental risk associated with fracking and drilling activities is low. This paper demonstrated that as long as industry practices conform to a well-designed regulatory framework, shale gas development in Quebec will have a low impact on water resources and the environment.

  13. BLM Colorado Oil Shale Leases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — KMZ file Format –This data set contains the Oil Shale Leases for the State of Colorado, derived from Legal Land Descriptions (LLD) contained in the US Bureau of Land...

  14. Self-socialization: a case study of a parachute child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Philip R; Newman, Barbara M

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical concept of self-socialization suggests that an individual is able to reflect on the self, formulate a vision of a future self, set goals, and take actions that create or alter the developmental trajectory. This case study of a parachute child illustrates how a person constructs her life from a very young age, drawing on a profound capacity for personal agency to overcome obstacles, identify resources, and internalize values to build a life structure. A model of the psychosocial process of self-socialization emerges from this case. Following the disruption of a well-defined trajectory, self-socialization is observed as a sequence of actions, reflection, correction, and new actions. Self-socialization is possible when a strong sense of self-efficacy is applied to attaining internalized values and goals.

  15. Stabilization of gasoline from shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedetti, L

    1929-03-14

    A process is described of stabilizing gasoline from shale, consisting in treating by agitating the gasoline freshly distilled from shale oil with 1.5 percent of its weight of sulfuric acid diluted to more than 10 times its volume, after which separating the pyridine, then treating by agitating with sulfuric acid which treatment separates the unsaturated hydrocarbons and finally treating by agitating with 1.5 percent of its weight of saturated caustic soda solution and washing with water.

  16. Prolactin, thyrotropin, and growth hormone release during stress associated with parachute jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, G L; Dimond, R C; Earll, J M; Frantz, A G

    1976-05-01

    Prolactin, growth hormone, and thyrotropin (TSH) release during the stress of parachute jumping has been evaluated in 14 male subjects. Subjects were studied at several times before and immediately after their first military parachute jump. All three hormones had risen significantly 1 to 14 min after the jump, compared to mean levels measured immediately beforehand. Earlier studies of physical exercise by ourselves and others would suggest that emotional stress played a role in producing changes of this magnitude. We conclude that prolactin, TSH, and growth hormone are released in physiologically significant amounts in association with the stress of parachute jumping.

  17. Ribbon and gliding type parachutes evaluated in the 7 by 10 foot transonic wind tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottensoser, J.

    1975-09-01

    An experiment has been conducted in the NSRDC 7- x 10-foot transonic tunnel for the Sandia Corporation to evaluate various parachute parameters. The experiment consisted of three main parts: the first phase evaluated the disreefing characteristics of the various parachutes as well as the drag forces before, during, and after disreefing; the second phase measured the pressure distribution around the chute as well as the drag forces; and the final phase evaluated the disreefing and drag characteristics of gliding type parachutes. The free stream dynamic pressure varied from 65 to 500 psf. 12 figures, 1 table. (auth)

  18. Validation of Multibody Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II Parachute Simulation with Interacting Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiszadeh, Behzad; Queen, Eric M.; Hotchko, Nathaniel J.

    2009-01-01

    A capability to simulate trajectories of multiple interacting rigid bodies has been developed, tested and validated. This capability uses the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST 2). The standard version of POST 2 allows trajectory simulation of multiple bodies without force interaction. In the current implementation, the force interaction between the parachute and the suspended bodies has been modeled using flexible lines, allowing accurate trajectory simulation of the individual bodies in flight. The POST 2 multibody capability is intended to be general purpose and applicable to any parachute entry trajectory simulation. This research paper explains the motivation for multibody parachute simulation, discusses implementation methods, and presents validation of this capability.

  19. Laboratory characterization of shale pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Listiyowati, Lina

    2018-02-01

    To estimate the potential of shale gas reservoir, one needs to understand the characteristics of pore structures. Characterization of shale gas reservoir microstructure is still a challenge due to ultra-fine grained micro-fabric and micro level heterogeneity of these sedimentary rocks. The sample used in the analysis is a small portion of any reservoir. Thus, each measurement technique has a different result. It raises the question which methods are suitable for characterizing pore shale. The goal of this paper is to summarize some of the microstructure analysis tools of shale rock to get near-real results. The two analyzing pore structure methods are indirect measurement (MIP, He, NMR, LTNA) and direct observation (SEM, TEM, Xray CT). Shale rocks have a high heterogeneity; thus, it needs multiscale quantification techniques to understand their pore structures. To describe the complex pore system of shale, several measurement techniques are needed to characterize the surface area and pore size distribution (LTNA, MIP), shapes, size and distribution of pore (FIB-SEM, TEM, Xray CT), and total porosity (He pycnometer, NMR). The choice of techniques and methods should take into account the purpose of the analysis and also the time and budget.

  20. Pine Creek uranium province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, M.B.; Needham, R.S.; Page, R.W.; Stuart-Smith, P.G.; Wyborn, L.A.I.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this project is to help establish a sound geological framework of the Pine Creek region through regional geological, geochemical and geophysical studies. Uranium ore at the Coronation Hill U-Au mine is confined to a wedge of conglomerate in faulted contact with altered volcanics. The uranium, which is classified as epigenetic sandstone type, is derived from a uranium-enriched felsic volcanic source

  1. An Innovative High Fidelity Multidisciplinary Computational Framework for Parachute Inflation Dynamics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current technology for decelerating a spacecraft from the high speed of atmospheric entry to the final stages of landing on Mars is based on parachute systems. It...

  2. The parachute morphology as equilibrium morphology of vesicle-polymer hybrids?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, M.; Hubert, D.H.W.; Herk, van A.M.; German, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Polymerisation in vesicles leads to novel polymer colloid morphologies. Two morphologies are currently reported: the triple-shell and the parachute morphology. The termodynamic analysis of these two morphologies, presented here, stresses the importance of considering interfacial energies between

  3. Verification and Validation of the Spring Model Parachute Air Delivery System in Subsonic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-27

    permeability [5]. Thus the coupling of the vertical flow with the permeable and flexible fabric may have significant difference with rigid bluff bodies...Vorticity, from left to right: γ = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 of the canopies and risers . Among these parachutes, the T-10 parachute is used by the Army as a...G. F. Homicz, and A. A. Gossler, Fluid- structure coupling for lightweight flexible bodies, 17th AIAA Aerodynamic Decelerator Systems Technology

  4. Percutaneous Implantation of A Parachute Device For Treatment of Ischemic Heart Failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cilingiroglu, Mehmet; Rollefson, William A.; Mego, David

    2013-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) secondary to ischemic cardiomyopathy is associated with significant morbidity and mortality despite currently available medical therapy. The Parachute TM device is a novel left ventricular partitioning device that is delivered percutaneously in the left ventricle (LV) in patients with anteroapical regional wall motion abnormalities, dilated LV and systolic dysfunction after anterior myocardial infarction with favorable clinical and LV hemodynamic improvements post-implantation. Here, we do review the current literature and present a case of the Parachute device implantation

  5. Effect of Parachute Jump in the Psychophysiological Response of Soldiers in Urban Combat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Molina, Joaquín; Robles-Pérez, José J; Clemente-Suárez, Vicente J

    2017-06-01

    The study of organic and psychological response during combat situations has been poorly reported despite its importance for soldiers training and specific instruction, so it was proposed as aim of the present investigation to analyze the effect of a tactical parachute simulated jump in psycho-physiological response of paratroopers' warfighters during an urban combat simulation. 19 male paratroopers (31.9 ± 6.2 year old; 173.6 ± 5.3 cm; 73.8 ± 8.3 Kg) of the Spanish Army were divided in two groups: parachute jump group (n:11) that conducted a simulated parachute jump and a urban combat maneuver and a non-parachute jump group (n:8) that only conducted an urban combat maneuver. We analyzed before and after the maneuver the rated perceived exertion, legs strength manifestation, blood lactate, cortical activation, heart rate variability, blood oxygen saturation and pressure, skin temperature, fine motor skills, and anxiety state. A tactical parachute simulated jump prior to an urban combat maneuver produce significantly (p jump situation in professional Army paratroopers. Independently of the parachute jump, an urban combat maneuver produces a significant increase in rated perceived exertion, blood lactate, heart rate, legs strength, sympathetic modulation and anxiety response as well as a significant decrease in blood oxygen saturation and parasympathetic modulation.

  6. Estimates for the Aerodynamic Coefficients of Ringsail and Disk-Gap-Band Parachutes Operating on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Juan R.; Snyder, Miranda L.

    2017-01-01

    Models are presented for the aerodynamic coefficients of Supersonic Ringsail and Disk-Gap-Band parachutes as functions of total porosity, Lambda(sub t), Mach number, M, and total angle of attack, Alpha(sub t) (when necessary). The source aerodynamic coefficients data used for creating these models were obtained from a wind tunnel test of subscale parachutes. In this wind tunnel test, subscale parachutes of both parachute types were fabricated from two different fabrics with very different permeabilities. By varying the fabric permeability, while maintaining the parachute geometry constant, it was possible to vary Alpha(sub t). The fabric permeability test data necessary for the calculation of Alpha(sub t) were obtained from samples of the same fabrics used to fabricate the subscale parachutes. Although the models for the aerodynamic coefficients are simple polynomial functions of Alpha(sub t) and M, they are capable of producing good reproductions of the source data. The (Alpha(sub t), M) domains over which these models are applicable are clearly defined. The models are applicable to flight operations on Mars.

  7. GRI's Devonian Shales Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidry, F.K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the key observations and conclusions from the Gas Research Institute's (GRI's) Comprehensive Study Well (CSW) research program conducted in the Devonian Shales of the Appalachian Basin. Initiated in 1987, the CSW program was a series of highly instrumented study wells drilled in cooperation with industry partners. Seven wells were drilled as part of the program. Extensive data sets were collected and special experiments were run on the CSW's in addition to the operator's normal operations, with the objectives of identifying geologic production controls, refining formation evaluation tools, and improving reservoir description and stimulation practices in the Devonian Shales. This paper highlights the key results from the research conducted in the CSW program in the areas of geologic production controls, formation evaluation, stimulation and reservoir engineering, and field operations. The development of geologic, log analysis, and reservoir models for the Shales from the data gathered and analysis, and reservoir models for the Shales from the data gathered and analyzed during the research is discussed. In addition, on the basis of what was learned in the CSW program, GRI's plans for new research in the Devonian Shales are described

  8. Distillation of shale in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Ganahl, C F

    1922-07-04

    To distill buried shale or other carbon containing compounds in situ, a portion of the shale bed is rendered permeable to gases, and the temperature is raised to the point of distillation. An area in a shale bed is shattered by explosives, so that it is in a relatively finely divided form, and the tunnel is then blocked by a wall, and fuel and air are admitted through pipes until the temperature of the shale is raised to such a point that a portion of the released hydrocarbons will burn. When distillation of the shattered area takes place and the lighter products pass upwardly through uptakes to condensers and scrubbers, liquid oil passes to a tank and gas to a gasometer while heavy unvaporized products in the distillation zone collect in a drain, flow into a sump, and are drawn off through a pipe to a storage tank. In two modifications, methods of working are set out in cases where the shale lies beneath a substantially level surface.

  9. Judy Creek and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The story of the Pengrowth Energy Trust, a company created in 1988 to provide investors with an opportunity to participate in the oil and gas industry without the higher investment risk associated with exploratory drilling is the vehicle used to provide an overview of the development of the Judy Creek oil field, an historical sketch of Imperial Oil Limited, and of the development of the community of Swan Hills shed, a town carved out of muskeg by early pioneers in 1957-1958. The book is replete with anecdotes and photographs, depicting the indomitable spirit of the people whose determination and faith made the development of the oil industry in Alberta possible

  10. Intelligent fracture creation for shale gas development

    KAUST Repository

    Douglas, Craig C.; Qin, Guan; Collier, Nathan; Gong, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Shale gas represents a major fraction of the proven reserves of natural gas in the United States and a collection of other countries. Higher gas prices and the need for cleaner fuels provides motivation for commercializing shale gas deposits even

  11. Shale gas exploitation: Status, problems and prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqian Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past five years, great progress has been made in shale gas exploitation, which has become the most driving force for global gas output growth. Hydrocarbon extraction from shale helps drive the USA on the road to energy independence. Besides, shale oil & gas production has been kept in a sustained growth by continuous improvement in drilling efficiency and well productivity in the case of tumbling oil prices and rig counts. Shale gas reserves and production have been in a rapid growth in China owing to the Lower Paleozoic Wufeng and Longmaxi shale gas exploitation in the Sichuan Basin, which has become an important sector for the future increment of gas reserves and output in China. However, substantial progress has been made neither in non-marine shale gas exploitation as previously expected nor in the broad complicated tectonic areas in South China for which a considerable investment was made. Analysis of the basic situation and issues in domestic shale gas development shows that shale gas exploitation prospects are constrained by many problems in terms of resources endowment, horizontal well fracturing technology, etc. especially in non-marine shale deposits and complicated tectonic areas in South China where hot shales are widely distributed but geological structures are found severely deformed and over matured. Discussion on the prospects shows that the sustained and steady growth in shale gas reserves and production capacity in the coming years lies in the discovery and supersession of new shale plays in addition to Wufeng and Longmaxi shale plays, and that a technological breakthrough in ultra-high-pressure and ultra-deep (over 3500 m buried in the Sichuan Basin marine shale gas exploitation is the key and hope. Keywords: Shale gas, Exploitation, Marine facies, Hot shale, Resource endowment, Sichuan Basin, South China, Complicated tectonic area, Gas play

  12. Oil. The revenge of shales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, Ludovic

    2017-01-01

    This article comments the evolutions noticed during these past years as the USA started to exploit non conventional hydrocarbons (shale gas and oil), and thus reduced their supplies from the Middle East. In reaction, OPEC members provoked a massive oil price decrease. If shale oil exploitation in the USA has slowed down for a while, it starts again: the number of platforms and production are increasing. Moreover, the profitability threshold is strongly decreasing. Argentina and China are also developing this sector, and Great-Britain and South-Africa are about to start projects. The article outlines that, even though France decided not to exploit shale gas and oil, French industries are present on this market and technology. In an interview, a representative of the French sector of non conventional hydrocarbons comments these evolutions as well as the French decision and its possible evolutions

  13. Process for treating oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-08-22

    A process for treating oil shale is characterized in that the shale is first finely ground, then heated in the presence of steam in a high-pressure retort at 1 to 50 atmospheres pressure at a temperature of 200/sup 0/ to 450/sup 0/C and then with large amounts of water with or without materials forming emulsions with water or with oil. Solution medium suitable for bitumen or paraffin is beaten up in a rapid hammer mill until all or most all of the oil or bitumen is emulsified. The emulsion is separated by filter-pressing and centrifuging from the solid shale residue and the oil or bitumen is again separated from the emulsion medium by heating, acidulating, standing, or centrifuging, and then in known ways is further separated, refined, and worked up.

  14. Geology, geochemistry, and genesis of the Greens Creek massive sulfide deposit, Admiralty Island, southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Johnson, Craig A.

    2010-01-01

    precious-metal-rich silica-barite-carbonate white ores began at low temperature in a shallow, subaqueous setting, probably a thin carbonate shelf on the flanks of the Alexander landmass. Epigenetic carbonate replacement textures in the footwall dolostones are overlain by stratiform silica-carbonate-barite-rich ores and indicate that early mineralization formed at and just beneath the paleo sea floor by mixing of a reduced, precious-metal-rich, base-metal-poor hydrothermal fluid with oxygenated seawater. As rifting intensified, the shelf was downfaulted and isolated as a graben. Isolation of the basin and onset of starved-basin shale sedimentation was concurrent with emplacement of mafic-ultramafic intrusives at shallow levels in the rift, resulting in an increasingly higher temperature and progressively more anoxic ore-forming environment. The formation of the main stage of massive sulfide ores began as the supply of bacterially reduced sulfur increased in the accumulating shales. As the main-stage mineralization intensified, shale sedimentation inundated the hydrothermal system, eventually forming a cap. Biogenic sulfate reduction supplied reduced sulfur to the base of the shales where mixing occurred with hot, base-metal-rich hydrothermal fluids. Ore deposition continued by destruction and epigenetic replacement of the early white ores in proximal areas and by inflation and diagenetic replacement of unlithified shale at the interface between the white ores and the base of the shale cap. Ore deposition waned as the shales became lithified and as the supply of bacterially reduced sulfur to the site of ore deposition ceased. The final stages of rifting resulted in the emplacement of mafic-ultramafic intrusive rocks into the Greens Creek system and extrusion of voluminous basaltic flows at the top of the Triassic section. Greenschist facies metamorphism during the Jurassic-Cretaceous accretion of the Alexander terrane to the continental margin resulted in recrystalli

  15. Obtaining shale distillate free from sulphur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyl, G E

    1917-09-14

    A process whereby, from sulfur-containing shale, products free from sulfur may be obtained, consisting of mixing with the finely ground shale a portion of iron salts containing sufficient metal to unite with all the sulfur in the shale and form sulfide therewith, grinding the mixture to a fine state of subdivision and subsequently subjecting it to destructive distillation.

  16. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  17. Maquoketa Shale Caprock Integrity Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    The Knox Project objective is to evaluate the potential of formations within the Cambrian-Ordovician strata above the Mt. Simon Sandstone (St. Peter Sandstone and Potosi Dolomite) as potential targets for carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in the Illinois and Michigan Basins. The suitability of the St. Peter Sandstone and Potosi Dolomite to serve as reservoirs for CO2 sequestration is discussed in separate reports. In this report the data gathered from the Knox project, the Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP) and Illinois Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration project (IL-ICCS) are used to make some conclusions about the suitability of the Maquoketa shale as a confining layer for CO2 sequestration. These conclusions are then upscaled to basin-wide inferences based on regional knowledge. Data and interpretations (stratigraphic, petrophysical, fractures, geochemical, risk, seismic) applicable to the Maquoketa Shale from the above mentioned projects was inventoried and summarized. Based on the analysis of these data and interpretations, the Maquoketa Shale is considered to be an effective caprock for a CO2 injection project in either the Potosi Dolomite or St. Peter Sandstone because it has a suitable thickness (~200ft. ~61m), advantageous petrophysical properties (low effective porosity and low permeability), favorable geomechanical properties, an absence of observable fractures and is regionally extensive. Because it is unlikely that CO2 would migrate upward through the Maquoketa Shale, CO2, impact to above lying fresh water aquifers is unlikely. Furthermore, the observations indicate that CO2 injected into the St. Peter Sandstone or Potosi Dolomite may never even migrate up into the Maquoketa Shale at a high enough concentrations or pressure to threaten the integrity of the caprock. Site specific conclusions were reached by unifying the data and conclusions from the IBDP, ICCS and the Knox projects. In the Illinois Basin, as one looks further away from

  18. Origin of Scottish oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conacher, H R.J.

    1916-12-01

    Oil shales contain two distinct types of organic material, one is comparable to the woody material in coal and the other consists of yellow bodies. When distilled, the latter yields the liquid product typical of oil shale, whereas the woody material produces large amounts of ammonia. The yellow bodies have been described by various investigators as fossil algae, spores, or dried-up globules of petroleum. In this study it was concluded that the yellow bodies were fragments of resins set free by the decay and oxidation of the vegetable matter with which they were originally associated.

  19. Mechanical Characterization of Mancos Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, S.; Ingraham, M. D.; Dewers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    A series of tests on Mancos shale have been undertaken to determine the failure surface and to characterize anisotropy. This work supports additional studies which are being performed on the same block of shale; fracture toughness, permeability, and chemical analysis. Mechanical tests are being conducted after specimens were conditioned for at least two weeks at 70% constant relative humidity conditions. Specimens are tested under drained conditions, with the constant relative humidity condition maintained on the downstream side of the specimen. The upstream is sealed. Anisotropy is determined through testing specimens that have been cored parallel and perpendicular to the bedding plane. Preliminary results show that when loaded parallel to bedding the shale is roughly 50% weaker. Test are run under constant mean stress conditions when possible (excepting indirect tension, unconfined compression, and hydrostatic). Tests are run in hydrostatic compaction to the desired mean stress, then differential stress is applied axially in displacement control to failure. The constant mean stress condition is maintained by decreasing the confining pressure by half of the increase in the axial stress. Results will be compared to typical failure criteria to investigate the effectiveness of capturing the behavior of the shale with traditional failure theory. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2015-6107 A.

  20. Improvements in the distillation of shale, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noad, J

    1912-09-20

    A process for treating shale and other bituminous substances containing sulfur and obtaining desulfurized products of distillation consisting in the consecutive steps of crushing the shale, mixing a suitable liquid with the shale granules, mixing slaked lime with the liquid coated shale granules, and gradually feeding the lime coated shale granules into a retort presenting a series of ledges or the like and working the shale granules down from ledge to ledge so that they are continuously agitated while being heated, the volatile constituents escaping through the lime coating and being conducted away from the upper part of the retort to suitable condensing apparatus, and the sulfur being arrested by the lime coating and together with the exhausted shale and other impurities being discharged from the lower part of the retort.

  1. Bridge Creek IMW database - Bridge Creek Restoration and Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The incised and degraded habitat of Bridge Creek is thought to be limiting a population of ESA-listed steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A logical restoration approach...

  2. Desulfurization of Jordanian oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Jdayil, B. M.

    1990-01-01

    Oxy desulfurization process and caustic treatment were applied in this work to remove sulfur from Jordanian oil shale. The oxy desulfurization process has been studied in a batch process using a high pressure autoclave, with constant stirring speed, and oxygen and water were used as desulfurizing reagents. Temperature, oxygen pressure, batch time, and particle size were found to be important process variables, while solid/liquid ratio was found to have no significant effect on the desulfurization process. The response of different types of oil shale to this process varied, and the effect of the process variables on the removal of total sulfur, pyritic sulfur, organic sulfur, total carbon, and organic carbon were studied. An optimum condition for oxy desulfurization of El-Lajjun oil shale, which gave maximum sulfur removal with low loss of carbon, was determined from the results of this work. The continuous reaction model was found to be valid, and the rate of oxidation for El-Lajjun oil shale was of the first order with respect to total sulfur, organic sulfur, total carbon, and organic carbon. For pyritic sulfur oxidation, the shrinking core model was found to hold and the rate of reaction controlled by diffusion through product ash layer. An activation energy of total sulfur, organic sulfur, pyritic sulfur, total carbon, and organic carbon oxidation was calculated for the temperature range of 130 -190 degrees celsius. In caustic treatment process, aqueous sodium hydroxide at 160 degrees celsius was used to remove the sulfur from El-Lajjun oil shale. The variables tested (sodium hydroxide concentration and treatment time) were found to have a significant effect. The carbon losses in this process were less than in the oxy desulfurization process. 51 refs., 64 figs., 121 tabs. (A.M.H.)

  3. Parachuting behavior and predation by ants in the nettle caterpillar, Scopelodes contracta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    This paper documents the bizarre descending behavior from the tree crown to the ground of the larvae of the moth, Scopelodes contracta Walker (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) and the interaction of the larva with predatory ants. S. contracta larvae infest leaves of many tree species in urban areas and orchards in Japan. Mature larvae and leaves without basal leaf parts were found under trees of four species infested with S. contracta larvae in Osaka, Japan. Individual larvae riding on leaves were observed falling from tree crowns to the ground. Many S. contracta cocoons were found in the soil below the trees two weeks after the observed parachuting. These observations indicate that S. contracta larvae parachuted to the ground where they spin their cocoons in the soil. When a larva that had just parachuted down was returned to an arboreal twig, the larva repeated the parachuting behavior. This parachuting behavior appears to be adaptive, because larvae can descend to the ground safely and with low energy cost. Worker ants of Tetramorium tsushimae Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Pristomyrmex punctatus Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) occasionally attacked larvae on the ground before they had a chance to burrow in the soil.

  4. Origin and microfossils of the oil shale of the Green River Formation of Colorado and Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, W.H.

    1931-01-01

    The Green River formation of Colorado and Utah is a series of lakebeds of middle Eocene age that occupy two broad, shallow, simple, structural basins, the Piceance Creek basin in northwestern Colorado and the Uinta basin in northwestern Utah. The ancient lakes apparently were shallow and had a large area, compared with depth. The abundance of organisms and the decaying organic matter produced a strongly reducing environment. Mechanical and chemical action, such as the mastication and digestion of the organic material by bottom-living organisms, caused disintegration of the original organic matter. After most of the oil shale was deposited, the lake reverted nearly to the conditions that prevailed during its early stage, when the marlstone and low-grade oil shale of the basal member were formed. Microgranular calcite and dolomite are the predominant mineral constituents of most of the oil shale. The microflora of the Green River formation consist of two forms that have been referred to as bacteria and many fungi spores. Two kinds of organic matter are seen in thin sections of the oil shale; one is massive and structureless and is the matrix of the other, which has definite form and consists of organisms or fragments of organisms. Most structureless organic matter is isotropic (there are two anisotropic varieties) and makes up the greater part of the total organic material.

  5. Subsurface geology of the upper Devonian-lower Mississippian black-shale sequence in eastern Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillman, S.B.

    1980-01-01

    The Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippi black-shale sequence is an important source of natural gas in eastern Kentucky and with technological advances may be an important source of synthetic oil and uranium on the flanks of the Cincinnati arch. To enhance the understanding and development of these resources in the black-shale sequence, eight isopach maps, eight structure-contour maps and nine isopach maps of highly radioactive black shale were constructed. Structural features including the Rome trough, Rockcastle River uplift, Pine Mountain thrust fault, Kentucky River and Paint Creek fault zones and unnamed basinal areas in Greenup, Pike, and Knott counties were identified on the maps. Faults bounding the Rome trough and other structures were active intermittently throughout Late Devonian time. Other structures show only post-Devonian activity, whereas some show both Devonian and post-Devonian activity. Comparison of structure-contour and isopach maps allow the differentiation of syn- and post-sedimentray structural activity relative to the black-shale sequence. A north-south trending hinge line separates a broad platform area from an area of rapid eastward thickening into the Appalachian basin. Units 7 through 1 progressively onlap the Cincinnati arch; units 4 through 1 cover the arch

  6. Tidal Creek Sentinel Habitat Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecological Research, Assessment and Prediction's Tidal Creeks: Sentinel Habitat Database was developed to support the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  7. Liquid-Rich Shale Potential of Utah’s Uinta and Paradox Basins: Reservoir Characterization and Development Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanden Berg, Michael [Utah Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Morgan, Craig [Utah Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Chidsey, Thomas [Utah Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); McLennan, John [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Energy & Geoscience Inst.; Eby, David [Eby Petrography & Consulting, Littleton, CO (United States); Machel, Hans [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Schamel, Steve [GeoX Consulting, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Birdwell, Justin [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO (United States); Johnson, Ron [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO (United States); Sarg, Rick [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-31

    The enclosed report is the culmination of a multi-year and multi-faceted research project investigating Utah’s unconventional tight oil potential. From the beginning, the project team focused efforts on two different plays: (1) the basal Green River Formation’s (GRF) Uteland Butte unconventional play in the Uinta Basin and (2) the more established but understudied Cane Creek shale play in the Paradox Basin. The 2009-2014 high price of crude oil, coupled with lower natural gas prices, generated renewed interest in exploration and development of liquid hydrocarbon reserves. Following the success of the mid-2000s shale gas boom and employing many of the same well completion techniques, petroleum companies started exploring for liquid petroleum in shale formations. In fact, many shales targeted for natural gas include areas in which the shale is more prone to liquid production. In Utah, organic-rich shales in the Uinta and Paradox Basins have been the source of significant hydrocarbon generation, with companies traditionally targeting the interbedded sands or carbonates for their conventional resource recovery. Because of the advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques, operators in these basins started to explore the petroleum production potential of the shale units themselves. The GRF in the Uinta Basin has been studied for over 50 years, since the first hydrocarbon discoveries. However, those studies focused on the many conventional sandstone reservoirs currently producing oil and gas. In contrast, less information was available about the more unconventional crude oil production potential of thinner carbonate/shale units, most notably the basal Uteland Butte member. The Cane Creek shale of the Paradox Basin has been a target for exploration periodically since the 1960s and produces oil from several small fields. The play generated much interest in the early 1990s with the successful use of horizontal drilling. Recently, the USGS assessed

  8. Conversion characteristics of 10 selected oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miknis, F.P.

    1989-08-01

    The conversion behavior of 10 oil shale from seven foreign and three domestic deposits has been studied by combining solid- and liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements with material balance Fischer assay conversion data. The extent of aromatization of aliphatic carbons was determined. Between zero and 42% of the raw shale aliphatic carbon formed aromatic carbon during Fischer assay. For three of the shales, there was more aromatic carbon in the residue after Fisher assay than in the raw shale. Between 10 and 20% of the raw shale aliphatic carbons ended up as aliphatic carbons on the spent shale. Good correlations were found between the raw shale aliphatic carbon and carbon in the oil and between the raw shale aromatic carbon and aromatic carbon on the spent shale. Simulated distillations and molecular weight determinations were performed on the shale oils. Greater than 50% of the oil consisted of the atmospheric and vacuum gas oil boiling fractions. 14 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Hydrogenation of Estonian oil shale and shale oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogerman, P N; Kopwillem, J

    1932-01-01

    Kukersite was heated in an atmosphere of hydrogen, nitrogen, or water in three series of experiments. Shale samples were heated at 370/sup 0/ to 410/sup 0/C for 2 to 3/sup 1///sub 2/ hours in the presence of 106 to 287 kg/sq cm pressure of water, nitrogen, or hydrogen. In some experiments 5 percent of iron oxide was added to the shale. The amount of kerogen liquefied by hydrogenation was not greater than the amount of liquid products obtained by ordinary distillation. On hydrogenation, kukersite absorbed 1.8 weight-percent of hydrogen. Almost no hydrogenation took place below the decomposition point of kerogen, and the lighter decomposition products were mainly hydrogenated. Hydrogenation of the shale prevented coke formation. Heating kukersite or its crude oil at temperatures of 400/sup 0/ to 410/sup 0/C under 250 kg/sq cm hydrogen pressure produced paraffinic and naphthenic oils of lower boiling points. At higher temperatures and after long-continued heating, the formation of aromatic hydrocarbons was observed.

  10. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis on ALUDRA SR-10 UAV with parachute recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saim, R.; Mohd, S.; Shamsudin, S. S.; Zulkifli, M. F.; Omar, Z.; Subari@Rahmat, Z.; Masrom, M. F. Mohd; Zaki, Y.

    2017-09-01

    In an operation, belly landing is mostly applied as recovery method especially on research Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) such as Aludra SR-10. This type of landing method may encounter tough landing on hard soil and gravel which create high impact load on the aircraft. The impact may cause structural or system damage which costly to be repaired. Nowadays, Parachute Recovery System (PRS) recently used in numerous different tasks such as landing purpose to replace belly landing technique. Parachute use in this system to slow down flying or falling UAV to a safe landing by opening the canopy to increase aerodynamic drag. This paper was described the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis on ALUDRA SR-10 model with two different conditions i.e. the UAV equipped with and without parachute in order to identify the changes of aerodynamic characteristics. This simulation studies using solid models of aircraft and hemisphere parachute and was carried out by using ANSYS 16.0 Fluent under steady and turbulent flow and was modelled using the k-epsilon (k-ε) turbulence model. This simulation was limited to determine the drag force and drag coefficient. The obtained result showed that implementation of parachute increase 0.25 drag coefficient of the aircraft that is from 0.93 to 1.18. Subsequent to the reduction of descent rate caused by the parachute, the drag force of the aircraft increase by 0.76N. These increasing of drag force of the aircraft will produce lower terminal velocity which is expected to reduce the impact force on the aircraft during landing.

  11. Percutaneous Implantation of A Parachute Device For Treatment of Ischemic Heart Failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cilingiroglu, Mehmet, E-mail: mcilingiroglu@yahoo.com; Rollefson, William A.; Mego, David

    2013-07-15

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) secondary to ischemic cardiomyopathy is associated with significant morbidity and mortality despite currently available medical therapy. The Parachute{sup TM} device is a novel left ventricular partitioning device that is delivered percutaneously in the left ventricle (LV) in patients with anteroapical regional wall motion abnormalities, dilated LV and systolic dysfunction after anterior myocardial infarction with favorable clinical and LV hemodynamic improvements post-implantation. Here, we do review the current literature and present a case of the Parachute device implantation.

  12. Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James W. Bunger

    2006-11-30

    Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

  13. Process of distilling bituminous shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayet, M

    1859-05-19

    This new process consists of placing at the end of a tube or the end of one or more retorts, an aspirating pump and compressor or a blower with two valves doing the same work or, better yet, a fan for sucking the vapor from the shale as it is formed in order to prevent its accumulating in the retorts and being decomposed. A second tube, pierced with little holes, placed in series with the pump, blower, or fan, acts as a vessel or receiver for the water. The vapors from the shale are compressed by the aspirator in the receiver for the water and condensed completely, without loss of gas and disinfect themselves for the most part.

  14. Recovering bituminous matter from shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, H D

    1922-08-29

    A process is described for obtaining valuable hydro-carbons from bituminous solids such as shale and the like, which comprises digesting a mixture of such a bituminous solid with a hydro-carbon liquid, the digestion being conducted at temperature high enough to effectively liquefy heavy bituminous matter contained in the solid but insufficiently high to effect substantial distillation of heavy bituminous matter, separating a resultant liquid mixture of hydrocarbons from the residue of such bituminous solid and refining the liquid mixture.

  15. Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek Watershed Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon; Smith, J.G.

    1999-03-01

    Biological monitoring of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, which border the Paducah Site, has been conducted since 1987. Biological monitoring was conducted by University of Kentucky from 1987 to 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 through March 1999. In March 1998, renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permits were issued to the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Enrichment Corporation. The renewed DOE permit requires that a watershed monitoring program be developed for the Paducah Site within 90 days of the effective date of the renewed permit. This plan outlines the sampling and analysis that will be conducted for the watershed monitoring program. The objectives of the watershed monitoring are to (1) determine whether discharges from the Paducah Site and the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) associated with the Paducah Site are adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assess the ecological health of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, (3) assess the degree to which abatement actions ecologically benefit Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek, (4) provide guidance for remediation, (5) provide an evaluation of changes in potential human health concerns, and (6) provide data which could be used to assess the impact of inadvertent spills or fish kill. According to the cleanup will result in these watersheds [Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks] achieving compliance with the applicable water quality criteria.

  16. Shale oil. I. Genesis of oil shales and its relation to petroleum and other fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R H; Manning, P D.V.

    1927-01-01

    Oil-shale kerogen originated from resinous vegetation residues of past eras, whereas well petroleum was formed from oil shales by pressure and mild heat. Petroleum migrated to its present reservoir from neighboring oil-shale deposits, leaving a residue of black bituminous shales. The high carbon dioxide content of gases present in petroleum wells originated from kerogen, as it gives off carbon dioxide gas before producing soluble oil or bitumen.

  17. Quantifying porosity, compressibility and permeability in Shale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbia, Ernest Ncha; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Frykman, Peter

    strain data. We found that Kozeny's modelled permeability fall in the same order of magnitude with measured permeability for shale rich in kaolinite but overestimates permeability by two to three orders of magnitudes for shale with high content of smectite. The empirical Yang and Aplin model gives good...... permeability estimate comparable to the measured one for shale rich in smectite. This is probably because Yang and Aplin model was calibrated in London clay which is rich in smectite....

  18. Method and arrangement of distillation of shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, S V

    1920-03-29

    A method is given of distilling shale and other bituminous materials utilizing the heat from the combustion of the residue, possibly with additional heat from other fuels. It is characterized by the shale, which is arranged in layers, being first submitted to a process of distillation utilizing the heat mentioned, and at the same time recovering the products of distillation, and second the shale being burned without disturbing the layers to any appreciable extent. The patent has 16 more claims.

  19. Preparation of cement from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1922-08-24

    A process for preparing cement from oil shale is described. The simultaneous recovery of shale oil by heating the oil shale formed into briquets with finely ground lime or limestone in a stream of hot gases is characterized by the fact that live steam or fine drops of water as preserving and carbonization means is introduced into the furnace, at the place, where the temperature of the briquet reaches about 500 to 600/sup 0/ C.

  20. Shale gas - the story of a deception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambroise, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    This bibliographical sheet presents a book which aims at informing citizen about the irreversible consequences of shale gas exploitation on the environment, and about the economical and social aspects of an exploitation of this energy on a large scale. The author highlights the technical and environmental problems raised by hydraulic fracturing, outlines the complexity of the regulatory, legal and administrative framework, discusses the arguments which support shale gas exploitation, and outlines the importance of and energy transition without shale gas. The author notably outlines the conflicts of interest which pervert the debate on shale gas, notably within the French National Assembly

  1. A perspective on Canadian shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Mike; Davidson, Jim; Mortensen, Paul

    2010-09-15

    In a relatively new development over just the past few years, shale formations are being targeted for natural gas production. Based on initial results, there may be significant potential for shale gas in various regions of Canada, not only in traditional areas of conventional production but also non-traditional areas. However, there is much uncertainty because most Canadian shale gas production is currently in experimental or early developmental stages. Thus, its full potential will not be known for some time. If exploitation proves to be successful, Canadian shale gas may partially offset projected long-term declines in Canadian conventional natural gas production.

  2. Oil shale, shale oil, shale gas and non-conventional hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clerici A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a world “revolution” in the field of unconventional hydrocarbon reserves, which goes by the name of “shale gas”, gas contained inside clay sediments micropores. Shale gas finds particular development in the United States, which are now independent of imports and see a price reduction to less than one third of that in Europe. With the high oil prices, in addition to the non-conventional gas also “oil shales” (fine-grained sedimentary rocks that contain a large amount of organic material to be used both to be directly burned or to extract liquid fuels which go under the name of shale oil, extra heavy oils and bitumen are becoming an industrial reality. Both unconventional gas and oil reserves far exceed in the world the conventional oil and gas reserves, subverting the theory of fossil fuels scarcity. Values and location of these new fossil reserves in different countries and their production by comparison with conventional resources are presented. In view of the clear advantages of unconventional fossil resources, the potential environmental risks associated with their extraction and processing are also highlighted.

  3. Recent adjustments to the long profile of Cooksville Creek, an urbanized bedrock channel in Mississauga, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkler, Keith J.; Parish, John

    Cooksville Creek (33 km2) is based in weak Georgian Bay Formation shale and thin limestone and has been gradually urbanized by the City of Mississauga within the last thirty years. These conditions, together with a mean thalweg gradient of about 0.77%, have produced enhanced rates of channel bed erosion along much of the channel (the order of 2 centimetres per year), as revealed by installed engineering works, such as armour stone blocks and gabion baskets. Erosion rates below drop structures are up to an order of magnitude faster. A year-long monitoring program revealed that weathering of the shale bed by wetting and drying cycles was primarily responsible for fragmenting the shale to a size (a few centimetres on the long axis) which could be removed by frequent and moderate high flows with a magnitude much less than the Mean Annual Flood. Channel bed quarrying of shale and limestone slabs, and the transport of larger clasts and meter dimension armour stones toppled from channel structures, require flood flows with a recurrence interval of about the Mean Annual Flood. Such flows are characterized by critical or supercritical flow conditions along the thalweg, and with velocities typically in the range 4 to 6 meters per second, they are well able to quarry the bed, and transport clasts up to metre dimension in size.

  4. Pine creek geosyncline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needham, R.S.; Ewers, G.R.; Ferguson, J.

    1988-01-01

    The Pine Creek Geosyncline is a 66,000 km 2 inlier of Early Proterozoic metasediments, mafic and felsic intrusives and minor extrusives, surrounding small late Archaean granitic domes. Economic uranium occurrences cluster into three fields, with the Alligator Rivers field being the most significant. The metasediments are alluvial and reduced shallow-water pelites and psammites. Evaporitic carbonate developed on shallow shelves around Archaean islands. Basin development and sedimentation (c. 2000-1870 Ma) were related to gradual subsidence induced by crustal extension. Facies variations and volcanism were in places controlled by the extensional faults. The rocks were metamorphosed to lower the high grade, complexly folded, and intruded by numerous granitoids from c. 1870 to 1730 Ma. Late orogenic felsic volcanics accumulated in local rift systems. Middle Proterozoic sandstone was deposited on a peneplaned and deeply weathered surface from about 1650 Ma. Uranium is enriched in some Archaean and Proterozoic igneous rocks, but there is no local or regional enrichment of the metasedimentary hosts or of the unconformably overlying sandstone. There is no regional gravity, magnetic or radiometric character attributable to the region's significance as a uranium province; contrasts with surrounding sedimentary basins reflect expected differences in rock properties between a heterogeneous igneous/metamorphic region and relatively homogeneous undeformed and unmineralized sediments. Uranium-enriched Archaean and Proterozoic granitoids and felsic volcanics with labile U are likely though not exclusive source rocks. U was probably transported in oxidized low temperature solutions as uranyl complexes and precipitated in reduced, structurally controlled, low-pressure traps. All uranium occurrences are broadly classified as 'Proterozoic unconformity related'. Greatest potential for further discovery is offered in the Alligator Rivers field, where perhaps at least 3 to 5.5 times the

  5. Water quality study at the Congaree Swamp National monument of Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rikard, M.

    1991-11-01

    The Congaree Swamp National Monument is one of the last significant near virgin tracts of bottom land hardwood forests in the Southeast United States. The study documents a water quality monitoring program on Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Basic water quality parameters were analyzed. High levels of aluminum and iron were found, and recommendations were made for further monitoring

  6. Dynamic Mesh CFD Simulations of Orion Parachute Pendulum Motion During Atmospheric Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstrom, Logan D.; Schwing, Alan M.; Robinson, Stephen K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the usage of computational fluid dynamics to study the effects of pendulum motion dynamics of the NASAs Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle parachute system on the stability of the vehicles atmospheric entry and decent. Significant computational fluid dynamics testing has already been performed at NASAs Johnson Space Center, but this study sought to investigate the effect of bulk motion of the parachute, such as pitching, on the induced aerodynamic forces. Simulations were performed with a moving grid geometry oscillating according to the parameters observed in flight tests. As with the previous simulations, OVERFLOW computational fluid dynamics tool is used with the assumption of rigid, non-permeable geometry. Comparison to parachute wind tunnel tests is included for a preliminary validation of the dynamic mesh model. Results show qualitative differences in the flow fields of the static and dynamic simulations and quantitative differences in the induced aerodynamic forces, suggesting that dynamic mesh modeling of the parachute pendulum motion may uncover additional dynamic effects.

  7. Study of parachute inflation process using fluid–structure interaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A direct numerical modeling method for parachute is proposed firstly, and a model for the star-shaped folded parachute with detailed structures is established. The simplified arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian fluid–structure interaction (SALE/FSI method is used to simulate the inflation process of a folded parachute, and the flow field calculation is mainly based on operator splitting technique. By using this method, the dynamic variations of related parameters such as flow field and structure are obtained, and the load jump appearing at the end of initial inflation stage is captured. Numerical results including opening load, drag characteristics, swinging angle, etc. are well consistent with wind tunnel tests. In addition, this coupled method can get more space–time detailed information such as geometry shape, structure, motion, and flow field. Compared with previous inflation time method, this method is a completely theoretical analysis approach without relying on empirical coefficients, which can provide a reference for material selection, performance optimization during parachute design.

  8. Parachuting from fixed objects: descriptive study of 106 fatal events in BASE jumping 1981-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, A; Rosén, M; Berggren, P; Björnstig, U

    2008-06-01

    To analyse the characteristics of fatal incidents in fixed object sport parachuting (building, antenna, span, earth (BASE) jumping) and create a basis for prevention. Descriptive epidemiological study. Data on reported fatal injury events (n = 106) worldwide in 1981-2006 retrieved from the BASE fatality list. Human, equipment and environmental factors. Identification of typical fatal incident and injury mechanisms for each of the four fixed object types of BASE jumping (building, antenna, span, earth). Human factors included parachutist free fall instability (loss of body control before parachute deployment), free fall acrobatics and deployment failure by the parachutist. Equipment factors included pilot chute malfunction and parachute malfunction. In cliff jumping (BASE object type E), parachute opening towards the object jumped was the most frequent equipment factor. Environmental factors included poor visibility, strong or turbulent winds, cold and water. The overall annual fatality risk for all object types during the year 2002 was estimated at about one fatality per 60 participants. Participants in BASE jumping should target risk factors with training and technical interventions. The mechanisms described in this study should be used by rescue units to improve the management of incidents.

  9. Cirrus Airframe Parachute System and Odds of a Fatal Accident in Cirrus Aircraft Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaziz, Mustafa; Stolfi, Adrienne; Olson, Dean M

    2017-06-01

    General aviation (GA) accidents have continued to demonstrate high fatality rates. Recently, ballistic parachute recovery systems (BPRS) have been introduced as a safety feature in some GA aircraft. This study evaluates the effectiveness and associated factors of the Cirrus Airframe Parachute System (CAPS) at reducing the odds of a fatal accident in Cirrus aircraft crashes. Publicly available Cirrus aircraft crash reports were obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database for the period of January 1, 2001-December 31, 2016. Accident metrics were evaluated through univariate and multivariate analyses regarding odds of a fatal accident and use of the parachute system. Included in the study were 268 accidents. For CAPS nondeployed accidents, 82 of 211 (38.9%) were fatal as compared to 8 of 57 (14.0%) for CAPS deployed accidents. After controlling for all other factors, the adjusted odds ratio for a fatal accident when CAPS was not deployed was 13.1. The substantial increased odds of a fatal accident when CAPS was not deployed demonstrated the effectiveness of CAPS at providing protection of occupants during an accident. Injuries were shifted from fatal to serious or minor with the use of CAPS and postcrash fires were significantly reduced. These results suggest that BPRS could play a significant role in the next major advance in improving GA accident survival.Alaziz M, Stolfi A, Olson DM. Cirrus Airframe Parachute System and odds of a fatal accident in Cirrus aircraft crashes. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(6):556-564.

  10. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.

    1995-04-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

  11. Association of radionuclides with streambed sediments in White Oak Creek watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.; Cerling, T.E.

    1979-09-01

    Radionuclides are found in much higher concentrations on streambed sediment than in the water of White Oak Creek. Selective extraction of sediments demonstrates that 60 Co is immobilized in a nonexchangeable form in the ferromanganese hydrous oxide coatings on the sediments; 90 Sr occurs predominantly in an exchangeable form on clay, iron oxides, and ferromanganese hydrous oxides; 137 Cs occurs in a nonexchangeable and strongly bound form on clays which compose the dominant rock (Conasauga shale) in the watershed. The fine-gravel to coarse-sand size fraction of streambed sediments is the most suitable fraction for radionuclide analysis because of its abundance in the sediment and its high concentration of radionuclides compared to larger and smaller size fractions. A preliminary survey of all major tributes in White Oak Creek shows that radionuclide analysis of streambed sediments is a very useful technique to locate sources of radioactive contamination

  12. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek...

  13. Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, A.K.

    1993-07-01

    Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

  14. Oil shales and the nuclear process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpinella, C.A.

    1974-01-01

    Two of the primary energy sources most dited as alternatives to the traditional fossil fuels are oil shales and nuclear energy. Several proposed processes for the extraction and utilization of oil and gas from shale are given. Possible efficient ways in which nuclear heat may be used in these processes are discussed [pt

  15. Compaction Characteristics of Igumale Shale | Iorliam | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the outcome of an investigation into the effect of different compactive energies on the compaction characteristics of Igumale shale, to ascertain its suitability as fill material in highway ... The study showed that Igumale shale is not suitable for use as base, subbase and filling materials in road construction.

  16. Process for recovering oil from shale, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-08-20

    A process is described for recovering oil from oil-shale and the like, by the direct action of the hot gases obtained by burning the carbonized shale residue. It is immediately carried out in separate adjacent chambers, through which the feed goes from one to the other intermittently, from the upper to the lower.

  17. Method of distillation of sulfurous bituminous shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallback, A J.S.; Bergh, S V

    1918-04-22

    A method of distillation of sulfur-containing bituminous shales is characterized by passing the hot sulfur-containing and oil-containing gases and vapors formed during the distillation through burned shale containing iron oxide, so that when these gases and vapors are thereafter cooled they will be, as far as possible, free from sulfur compounds. The patent contains six more claims.

  18. Nitrogen fixation by legumes in retorted shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersman, L E; Molitoris, E; Klein, D A

    1981-01-01

    A study was made to determine whether retorted shale additions would significantly affect symbiotic N/sub 2/ fixation. Results indicate that small additions of the shale may stimulate plant growth but with higher concentrations plants are stressed, resulting in a decreased biomass and a compensatory effect of an increased number of nodules and N/sub 2/ fixation potential. (JMT)

  19. Thermophysical properties of Conasauga shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.

    1978-01-01

    Thermophysical-property characterizations of five Conasauga shale cores were determined at temperatures between 298 and 673 K. Methods of specimen fabrication for different tests were evaluated. Thermal-conductivity and thermal-expansion data were found to be dependent on the structure and orientation of the individual specimens. Thermal conductivities ranged between 2.8 and 1.0 W/m-K with a small negative temperature dependence. Thermal expansions were between 2 and 5 x 10 -3 over the temperature range for the group. Heat capacity varied with the composition. 17 figures, 3 tables

  20. Construction of Shale Gas Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapińska-Śliwa, Aneta; Wiśniowski, Rafał; Skrzypaszek, Krzysztof

    2018-03-01

    The paper describes shale gas borehole axes trajectories (vertical, horizontal, multilateral). The methodology of trajectory design in a two-and three-dimensional space has been developed. The selection of the profile type of the trajectory axes of the directional borehole depends on the technical and technological possibilities of its implementation and the results of a comprehensive economic analysis of the availability and development of the field. The work assumes the possibility of a multivariate design of trajectories depending on the accepted (available or imposed) input data.

  1. Introduction to special section: China shale gas and shale oil plays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu; Zeng, Hongliu; Zhang, Jinchuan; Fishman, Neil; Bai, Baojun; Xiao, Xianming; Zhang, Tongwei; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Li, Xinjing; Richards-McClung, Bryony; Cai, Dongsheng; Ma, Yongsheng

    2015-01-01

    In the last 10 years, the success of shale gas and shale oil productions as a result of technological advances in horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing and nanoscale reservoir characterization have revolutionized the energy landscape in the United States. Resource assessment by the China Ministry of Land and Resources in 2010 and 2012 and by the U.S. Energy Information Administration in 2011 and 2013 indicates China’s shale gas resource is the largest in the world and shale oil resource in China is also potentially significant. Inspired by the success in the United States, China looks forward to replicating the U.S. experience to produce shale gas to power its economy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. By 2014, China had drilled 400 wells targeting marine, lacustrine, and coastal swamp transitional shales spanning in age from the Precambrian to Cenozoic in the last five years. So far, China is the leading country outside of North America in the viable production of shale gas, with very promising prospects for shale gas and shale oil development, from the Lower Silurian Longmaxi marine shale in Fuling in the southeastern Sichuan Basin. Geological investigations by government and academic institutions as well as exploration and production activities from industry indicate that the tectonic framework, depositional settings, and geomechanical properties of most of the Chinese shales are more complex than many of the producing marine shales in the United States. These differences limit the applicability of geologic analogues from North America for use in Chinese shale oil and gas resource assessments, exploration strategies, reservoir characterization, and determination of optimal hydraulic fracturing techniques. Understanding the unique features of the geology, shale oil and gas resource potential, and reservoir characteristics is crucial for sweet spot identification, hydraulic fracturing optimization, and reservoir performance prediction.

  2. PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS OF DATA OF natural experiment FOR DETERMINING THE tragectory CHARACTERISTICS OF A ROUND PARACHUTE AT HIGH ALTITUDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Zhurin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the trajectory parameters obtained during the flight experiment at the start of meteo-rocket MMP-06, to determine major parameters of motion of a round parachute at subsonic speeds in the range of altitudes from 0 to 60 km. The Reynolds number is changed in the range from 104 to1,5·106.The main parameters of the trajectory were obtained according to the experimental data. Only laboratory research on a model parachute systems in such a wide range of Reynolds numbers are found in the literature on parachute subjects. This article obtained results of flight experiment.

  3. Different Methods of Predicting Permeability in Shale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbia, Ernest Ncha; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Krogsbøll, Anette

    by two to five orders of magnitudes at lower vertical effective stress below 40 MPa as the content of clay minerals increases causing heterogeneity in shale material. Indirect permeability from consolidation can give maximum and minimum values of shale permeability needed in simulating fluid flow......Permeability is often very difficult to measure or predict in shale lithology. In this work we are determining shale permeability from consolidation tests data using Wissa et al., (1971) approach and comparing the results with predicted permeability from Kozeny’s model. Core and cuttings materials...... effective stress to 9 μD at high vertical effective stress of 100 MPa. The indirect permeability calculated from consolidation tests falls in the same magnitude at higher vertical effective stress, above 40 MPa, as that of the Kozeny model for shale samples with high non-clay content ≥ 70% but are higher...

  4. Intelligent fracture creation for shale gas development

    KAUST Repository

    Douglas, Craig C.

    2011-05-14

    Shale gas represents a major fraction of the proven reserves of natural gas in the United States and a collection of other countries. Higher gas prices and the need for cleaner fuels provides motivation for commercializing shale gas deposits even though the cost is substantially higher than traditional gas deposits. Recent advances in horizontal drilling and multistage hydraulic fracturing, which dramatically lower costs of developing shale gas fields, are key to renewed interest in shale gas deposits. Hydraulically induced fractures are quite complex in shale gas reservoirs. Massive, multistage, multiple cluster treatments lead to fractures that interact with existing fractures (whether natural or induced earlier). A dynamic approach to the fracturing process so that the resulting network of reservoirs is known during the drilling and fracturing process is economically enticing. The process needs to be automatic and done in faster than real-time in order to be useful to the drilling crews.

  5. Nitrogen fixation by legumes in retorted shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersman, L E; Molitoris, E; Klein, D A

    1981-01-01

    Although a soil-shale mixture was employed as the growth medium in this experiment, the results presentd are applicable to the proposed method of disposal mentioned earlier. Under field conditions, when covering the retorted shale with topsoil, some mixing of these materials might occur in the plant root region. In addition, it has been demonstrated that buried shale negatively affects enzyme activities in overburden surface soil. The occurrence of either of those events could affect symbiotic N/sub 2/ fixation in a manner similar to that reported in this paper. Researchers conclude that due to the varied effects of retorted shale on the legumes tested, further evaluation of other legumes may be necessary. Additional research would be required to determine which legumes have potential use for reclamation of retorted shale.

  6. Relation of peat to oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linker, S

    1924-01-01

    Samples of oil shale from the Green River formation and from Elko (Nev.), Brazil, Austria, and South Africa were examined, and several varieties of shale were found. Green River oil shale represents three of the more common types plus one less common type. These were: contorted shale with a velvety appearance, thin paper shale resembling the curled-up leaves of a book, massive black shale resembling a piece of rubber, and a less common type, which showed the bedding planes very clearly. The Elko (Nev.) shale was a light buff color; the shale from Brazil resembled a piece of petrified peat. When the shales were cut very thin, their colors ranged from yellow to reddish-brown. The composition, as seen under the microscope, was of well-preserved plant material such as spores, pollen grains, fragments of cell tissues, algae, fungi, bacteria, macerated organic residue, small pieces of resin, animal fossils, and translucent bodies. Oil shale was produced from organic material that accumulated in peat bogs, marshes, or swamps in fresh or salt waters. The organic matter was decomposed by bacterial action. Certain parts of the plants decayed more readily than others. Before lithification occurred, a chemical action took place that changed the softer tissues of the plant debris into a gel. This collodial matter penetrated and surrounded the more resistant fragments and preserved them from further decay. Certain bog waters contain a high percentage of humic acids in solution or collodial suspension and produce insoluble humates when neutralized. These humates are probably the so-called kerogen bodies.

  7. Paleontological overview of oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphey, P. C.; Daitch, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-02-11

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the ''Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005,'' Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. In addition, Congress declared that both research- and commercial-scale development of oil shale and tar sands should (1) be conducted in an environmentally sound manner using management practices that will minimize potential impacts, (2) occur with an emphasis on sustainability, and (3) benefit the United States while taking into account concerns of the affected states and communities. To support this declaration of policy, Congress directed the Secretary of the Interior to undertake a series of steps, several of which are directly related to the development of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands. One of these steps was the completion of a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) to analyze the impacts of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands resources on public lands, with an emphasis on the most geologically prospective lands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. For oil shale, the scope of the PEIS analysis includes public lands within the Green River, Washakie, Uinta, and Piceance Creek Basins. For tar sands, the scope includes Special Tar Sand Areas (STSAs) located in Utah. This paleontological resources overview report was prepared in support of the Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and PEIS, and it is intended to be used by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) regional paleontologists and field office staff to support future

  8. Preparation of hydraulic cement from oil-shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-08-28

    A process for the preparation of hydraulic cement from oil-shale or oil-shale residue is characterized in that, the oil-shale or shale-coke together with a slight amount of marl is burned under sintering conditions and the residue obtained is ground to a fine dust.

  9. A review of the organic geochemistry of shales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, P.C.; Meyer, R.E.

    1987-06-01

    Shale formations have been suggested as a potential site for a high level nuclear waste repository. As a first step in the study of the possible interaction of nuclides with the organic components of the shales, literature on the identification of organic compounds from various shales of the continent of the United States has been reviewed. The Green River shale of the Cenozoic era is the most studied shale followed by the Pierre shale of the Mesozoic era and the Devonian black shale of the Paleozoic era. Organic compounds that have been identified from these shales are hydrocarbons, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, steranes, terpanes, carotenes, carbohydrates, amino acids, and porphyrins. However, these organic compounds constitute only a small fraction of the organics in shales and the majority of the organic compounds in shales are still unidentified

  10. Production of oil from Israeli oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givoni, D.

    1993-01-01

    Oil shale can be utilized in two-ways: direct combustion to generate steam and power or retorting to produce oil or gas. PAMA has been developing both direct combustion and retorting processes. Its main effort is in the combustion. An oil shale fired steam boiler was erected in the Rotem industrial complex for demonstration purposes. PAMA has also been looking into two alternative retorting concepts - slow heating of coarse particles and fast heating of fine particles. The present paper provides operating data of oil shale processing in the following scheme: (a) retorting in moving bed, pilot and bench scale units, and (b) retorting in a fluidized bed, bench scale units. (author)

  11. The real hazards of shale gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favari, Daniele; Picot, Andre; Durand, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This bibliographical sheet presents a book which addresses the issue of shale gas. A first part describes the origin of this gaseous hydrocarbon, the composition of shale gas and its extraction, the technique of hydraulic fracturing, and the environmental risks. A second part addresses the economic, ecologic and political issues. The authors outline that all signs are there to prove the alarming hazards of shale gas. One of the authors outlines the necessity of an energy transition, far from fossil and nuclear energy, in order to guarantee a high level of protection of human health and of the environment

  12. Method of recovering hydrocarbons from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D.K.; Slusser, M.S.

    1970-11-24

    A method is described for recovering hydrocarbons from an oil-shale formation by in situ retorting. A well penetrating the formation is heated and gas is injected until a pressure buildup within the well is reached, due to a decrease in the conductivity of naturally occurring fissures within the formation. The well is then vented, in order to produce spalling of the walls. This results in the formation of an enlarged cavity containing rubberized oil shale. A hot gas then is passed through the rubberized oil shale in order to retort hydrocarbons and these hydrocarbons are recovered from the well. (11 claims)

  13. Investigation of the dielectric properties of shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martemyanov, Sergey M.

    2011-01-01

    The article is dedicated to investigation of the dielectric properties of oil shale. Investigations for samples prepared from shale mined at the deposit in Jilin Province in China were done. The temperature and frequency dependences of rock characteristics needed to calculate the processes of their thermal processing are investigated. Frequency dependences for the relative dielectric constant and dissipation factor of rock in the frequency range from 0,1 Hz to 1 MHz are investigated. The temperature dependences for rock resistance, dielectric capacitance and dissipation factor in the temperature range from 20 to 600°C are studied. Key words: shale, dielectric properties, relative dielectric constant, dissipation factor, temperature dependence, frequency dependence

  14. Impact of Oxidative Dissolution on Black Shale Fracturing: Implication for Shale Fracturing Treatment Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, L.; Chen, Q.; Kang, Y.; Cheng, Q.; Sheng, J.

    2017-12-01

    Black shales contain a large amount of environment-sensitive compositions, e.g., clay minerals, carbonate, siderite, pyrite, and organic matter. There have been numerous studies on the black shales compositional and pore structure changes caused by oxic environments. However, most of the studies did not focus on their ability to facilitate shale fracturing. To test the redox-sensitive aspects of shale fracturing and its potentially favorable effects on hydraulic fracturing in shale gas reservoirs, the induced microfractures of Longmaxi black shales exposed to deionized water, hydrochloric acid, and hydrogen peroxide at room-temperature for 240 hours were imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and CT-scanning in this paper. Mineral composition, acoustic emission, swelling, and zeta potential of the untreated and oxidative treatment shale samples were also recorded to decipher the coupled physical and chemical effects of oxidizing environments on shale fracturing processes. Results show that pervasive microfractures (Fig.1) with apertures ranging from tens of nanometers to tens of microns formed in response to oxidative dissolution by hydrogen peroxide, whereas no new microfracture was observed after the exposure to deionized water and hydrochloric acid. The trajectory of these oxidation-induced microfractures was controlled by the distribution of phyllosilicate framework and flaky or stringy organic matter in shale. The experiments reported in this paper indicate that black shales present the least resistance to crack initiation and subcritical slow propagation in hydrogen peroxide, a process we refer to as oxidation-sensitive fracturing, which are closely related to the expansive stress of clay minerals, dissolution of redox-sensitive compositions, destruction of phyllosilicate framework, and the much lower zeta potential of hydrogen peroxide solution-shale system. It could mean that the injection of fracturing water with strong oxidizing aqueous solution may

  15. Refining shale-oil distillates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altpeter, J

    1952-03-17

    A process is described for refining distillates from shale oil, brown coal, tar, and other tar products by extraction with selective solvents, such as lower alcohols, halogen-hydrins, dichlorodiethyl ether, liquid sulfur dioxide, and so forth, as well as treating with alkali solution, characterized in that the distillate is first treated with completely or almost completely recovered phenol or cresotate solution, the oil is separated from the phenolate with solvent, for example concentrated or adjusted to a determined water content of lower alcohol, furfural, halogen-hydrin, dichlorodiethyl ether, liquid sulfur dioxide, or the like, extracted, and the raffinate separated from the extract layer, if necessary after distillation or washing out of solvent, and freeing with alkali solution from residual phenol or creosol.

  16. Shale gas, a hazardous exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maincent, G.

    2011-01-01

    In march 2010 three authorizations to search for shale gases were delivered in France in the regions of Montelimar, Nant and Villeneuve-de-Berg. A general public outcry has led the government to freeze the projects till a complete assessment of the impact on the environment is made. The fears of the public are based on the feedback experience in the Usa where some underground waters were polluted. The source of pollution is twofold: first the additives used in the injected fluids (methanol as an anti-microbic agent, hydrochloric acid to dissolve natural cements or glycol ethylene as a deposit inhibitor) and secondly metal particles of copper, zinc or lead trapped in the clay layers and released by the injection of the fluids. It appears also that the injection of high pressure fluids near a crack can induce earth tremors by reactivating the crack. (A.C.)

  17. The Resurgence of Shale Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2017-09-01

    This study addresses the resilience factors of the American production of light tight oil, in particular regarding the evolution of the financial model, and the regulatory changes with the authorisation of exports for crude oil. The paper also evaluates the development perspectives of the production on the medium and long term. US production of light tight oil (LTO, commonly known as 'shale oil') experienced a spectacular expansion between 2010 and 2014, becoming the largest source of growth in world oil production. At the start of 2015, however, the sustainability of its business model became questionable. Oil prices had collapsed and uncertainty about future US production was at its height. The sharp drop in the number of drill holes as of January 2015 raised fears of a rapid fall in US petroleum output. The LTO business model, based largely on the use of debt, reinforced this projection. Independent producers were heavily indebted, and were no longer able to invest in new wells. LTO production would therefore run out of steam. Two years later, LTO has passed its first test successfully. While output of shale gas has clearly fallen, cuts have been modest and much less than had been feared, given the falls in capital spending (CAPEX) and the number of drill holes. Productivity improvements as well as cost reductions have permitted a halving of the LTO equilibrium price. Independent producers have refocused their activities on the most productive basins and sites. The essential role played by the Permian Basin should be stressed at this point. In two years, it has become a new El dorado. Despite the fall in drill holes through to May 2016, production has continued to rise and now amounts to a quarter of American oil output. Furthermore, independents have drawn extra value from their well inventories, which include drilled, but also uncompleted wells. Lastly, the impressive number of drilled wells prior to price cuts has allowed producers to maintain their output

  18. The influence of parachute-resisted sprinting on running mechanics in collegiate track athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Sally; Braun, William A

    2011-06-01

    The influence of parachute-resisted sprinting on running mechanics in collegiate track athletes. The aim of this investigation was to compare the acute effects of parachute-resisted (PR) sprinting on selected kinematic variables. Twelve collegiate sprinters (mean age 19.58 ± 1.44 years, mass 69.32 ± 14.38 kg, height 1.71 ± 9.86 m) ran a 40-yd dash under 2 conditions: PR sprint and sprint without a parachute (NC) that were recorded on a video computer system (60 Hz). Sagittal plane kinematics of the right side of the body was digitized to calculate joint angles at initial ground contact (IGC) and end ground contact (EGC), ground contact (GC) time, stride rate (SR), stride length (SL), and the times of the 40-yd dashes. The NC 40-yd dash time was significantly faster than the PR trial (p 0.05). This study suggests that PR sprinting does not acutely affect GC time, SR, SL and upper extremity or lower extremity joint angles during weight acceptance (IGC) in collegiate sprinters. However, PR sprinting increased shoulder flexion by 23.5% at push-off and decreased speed by 4.4%. While sprinting with the parachute, the athlete's movement patterns resembled their mechanics during the unloaded condition. This indicates the external load caused by PR did not substantially overload the runner, and only caused a minor change in the shoulder during push-off. This sports-specific training apparatus may provide coaches with another method for training athletes in a sports-specific manner without causing acute changes to running mechanics.

  19. X-Ray Micro-Tomography Applied to Nasa's Materials Research: Heat Shields, Parachutes and Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panerai, Francesco; Borner, Arnaud; Ferguson, Joseph C.; Mansour, Nagi N.; Stern, Eric C.; Barnard, Harold S.; Macdowell, Alastair A.; Parkinson, Dilworth Y.

    2017-01-01

    X-ray micro-tomography is used to support the research on materials carried out at NASA Ames Research Center. The technique is applied to a variety of applications, including the ability to characterize heat shield materials for planetary entry, to study the Earth- impacting asteroids, and to improve broadcloths of spacecraft parachutes. From micro-tomography images, relevant morphological and transport properties are determined and validated against experimental data.

  20. Airborne Priapism: A Case of Nonischemic Priapism After Military Static-Line Parachute Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charny, Grigory; Booms, Zachary; McDonough, Patrick; Schauer, Steven

    2015-07-01

    We report the case of a 21-year-old active duty U.S. Army soldier with painful and nonresolving priapism following blunt pelvic and lower extremity trauma from military static-line parachute injury during training. The patient's condition was initially managed with corporal aspiration and intracavernosal injections of phenylephrine that provided temporary relief but recurrence soon after. Referral to Urology at the site of the patient's injury yielded a diagnosis of penile hematoma. On subsequent evaluation by Urology on return to the patient's home duty station (over 96 hours after injury, with symptoms persisting), the corpora cavernosa were rigid, the corpus spongiosum was soft, and corporal blood gas drawn by the emergency department consistent with arterial blood. Penile duplex ultrasound revealed an isolated arterial-cavernosal fistula within the proximal left corporal body. The patient underwent percutaneous embolization of the fistula with successful resolution of his condition and return of normal erectile function. We discuss this unique case of high-flow priapism occurring after blunt trauma from military parachute injury and review suggested management in a stepwise fashion. The case is significant in that extensive literature review yields no previously described case of priapism following trauma from military parachute injury. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  1. Factors Affecting Planting Depth and Standing of Rice Seedling in Parachute Rice Transplanting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astika, I. W.; Subrata, I. D. M.; Pramuhadi, G.

    2018-05-01

    Parachute rice transplanting is a simple and practical rice transplanting method. It can be done manually or mechanically, with various possible designs of machines or tools. This research aimed at quantitatively formulating related factors to the planting depth and standing of rice seedling. Parachute seedlings of rice were grown at several sizes of parachute soil bulb sizes. The trays were specially designed with a 3D printer having bulb sizes 7, 8, 9, 10 mm in square sides and 15 mm depth. At seedling ages of 8-12 days after sowing the seedling bulbs were drops into puddled soil. Soil hardness was set at 3 levels of hardness, measured in hardness index using golf ball test. Angle of dropping was set at 3 levels: 0°, 30°and 45° from the vertical axis. The height of droppings was set at 100 cm, 75 cm, and 50 cm. The relationship between bulb size, height of dropping, soil hardness, dropping angle and planting depth was formulated with ANN. Most of input variables did not significantly affect the planting depth, except that hard soil significantly differs from mild soil and soft soil. The dropping also resulted in various positions of the planted seedlings: vertical standing, sloped, and falling. However, at any position of the planted seedlings, the seedlings would recover themselves into normally vertical position. With this result, the design of planting machinery, as well as the manual planting operation, can be made easier.

  2. EVALUATION OF SHALE GAS POTENTIAL IN KAZAKHSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiya Parkhomchik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the primary evaluation of the shale gas resource potential in Kazakhstan, as well as defines the most problematic issues for the large-scale shale gas production over the state. The authors pay special attention to the national strategy of the Kazakhstani government in the sphere of the unconventional energy sources production, defining the possible technological and environmental problems for the shale gas extraction. The article also notes that implementation of the fracking technologies in the country could cause both positive and negative effects on the economy of Kazakhstan. Therefore, further steps in this direction should be based on the meaningful and comprehensive geological data regarding the shale gas potential.

  3. Process for desulfurizing shale oil, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escherich, F

    1922-12-17

    A process is described for the desulfurizing of shale oil or tar, with recovery of valuable oils and hydrocarbons, characterized in that the raw material is heated in an autoclave to a pressure of 100 atmospheres or more.

  4. Texture and anisotropy analysis of Qusaiba shales

    KAUST Repository

    Kanitpanyacharoen, Waruntorn; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Kets, Frans; Lehr, Christian; Wirth, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, microtomography and ultrasonic velocity measurements were used to characterize microstructures and anisotropy of three deeply buried Qusaiba shales from the Rub

  5. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Determination of Shale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    minerals in the mixtures. Samples from a suite of shale reservoir rocks were analysed using standard .... qualitatative and quantitative analysis of soil properties. For example a .... using Cobalt Ka radiation range. Samples were analysed in ...

  6. Triterpene alcohol isolation from oil shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, P; Ourisson, G

    1969-03-14

    Isoarborinol, an intact pentacyclic unsaturated alcohol, was isolated from the Messel oil shale (about 50 x 106 years old). Complex organic substances, even those very sensitive to oxidation, reduction, or acidic conditions, can thus survive without alteration for long periods.

  7. Legal Regime of Shale Gas Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu – Horia Maican

    2013-01-01

    Some countries with large reserves intend to promote shale gas production, in order to reduce their dependency on imported gas. Shale gas will be an important new aspect in the world energy scene, with many effects. European Union wants secure and affordable sources of energy. Natural gas is the cleanest fossil fuel and a vital component of European Union's energy strategy. One of the most important aspects is that gas produces significantly cleaner energy than other fossil fuels. From a lega...

  8. The influence of shale gas on steamcracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupieper, A. [Linde Engineering Dresden GmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    US shale gas reserves with more than 860 TCF (Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration study World Shale Gas Resources) account for 2 of the global largest reserves after China. In 7 areas of the US, these reserves are systematically explored, providing a significant amount of cheap natural gas source for decades. The ethane share, carried by such shale gas, can reach up to 16%. Ethane has been already in the past 2 most important feedstock for Steamcrackers, being the backbone of the Petrochemical Industry. Due to availability of vast shale gas, the US steamcracker industry is facing a shift from naphtha to shale gas ethane, as the margin of Ethylene produced from shale gas ethane is significantly larger than that of naphtha based Ethylene (app. + 630 USD/t Ethylene). As a consequence shale gas is ''the magic bullet'' incinerating investments into Steamcrackers and downstream plants for U.S petrochemical industry. Steamcracker Projects with an additional ethylene production capacity of more than 17 million tons/a by 2020 are announced or already under construction. Investments into downstream plants refining the C2 derivatives will follow or are already in planning/engineering phase. But the US market cannot absorb all related products, causing a significant export exposure, which will influence global trade flows for C2 derivatives and affect prices. This article presents the impact of shale gas ethane cracking on: - Trade flow of C2 derivatives; - By-product deficits; - Alternate C3+ derivative production routes; - Challenges related to engineering requirements and project execution for Steamcracker projects. (orig.)

  9. Western oil shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 7: an ecosystem simulation of perturbations applied to shale oil development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    Progress is outlined on activities leading toward evaluation of ecological and agricultural impacts of shale oil development in the Piceance Creek Basin region of northwestern Colorado. After preliminary review of the problem, it was decided to use a model-based calculation approach in the evaluation. The general rationale and objectives of this approach are discussed. Previous studies were examined to characterize climate, soils, vegetation, animals, and ecosystem response units. System function was methodically defined by developing a master list of variables and flows, structuring a generalized system flow diagram, constructing a flow-effects matrix, and conceptualizing interactive spatial units through spatial matrices. The process of developing individual mathematical functions representing the flow of matter and energy through the various system variables in different submodels is discussed. The system model diagram identified 10 subsystems which separately account for flow of soil temperatures, soil water, herbaceous plant biomass, shrubby plant biomass, tree cover, litter biomass, shrub numbers, animal biomass, animal numbers, and land area. Among these coupled subsystems there are 45 unique kinds of state variables and 150 intra-subsystem flows. The model is generalizeable and canonical so that it can be expanded, if required, by disaggregating some of the system state variables and allowing for multiple ecological response units. It integrates information on climate, surface water, ecology, land reclamation, air quality, and solid waste as it is being developed by several other task groups.

  10. Oil shale mines and their realizable production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habicht, K.

    1994-01-01

    The production of Estonian oil shale depends on its marketing opportunities. The realizable production is a function of the oil shale price, which in turn depends on production costs. The latter are dependent on which mines are producing oil shale and on the volume of production. The purpose of the present article is to analyze which mines should operate under various realizable production scenarios and what should be their annual output so that the total cost of oil shale production (including maintenance at idle mines) is minimized. This paper is also targeted at observing the change in the average production cost per ton of oil shale depending on the realizable output. The calculations are based on data for the first four months of 1993, as collected by N. Barabaner (Estonian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economy). The data include the total production volume and production cost from the mines of RE 'Eesti Polevkivi' (State Enterprise 'Estonian Oil Shale'). They also project expenses from mine closings in case of conservation. The latter costs were allocated among mines in direct proportion to their respective number of employees. (author)

  11. Senate hearings whet interest in oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remirez, R

    1967-06-05

    Recent oil shale hearings by the U.S. Senate disclosed the proposed leasing rules for federal oil-shale lands. In addition, Oil Shale Corp. announced that the first commercial shale-oil processing plant would be on stream in 1970. Both these announcements are expected to create a stronger interest in what is possibly the greatest untapped natural wealth in the U.S. According to the leasing rules, development leases would involve the following phases: (1) the contractor would have a 10-yr limit to conduct a research and development program on the leased territory; and (2) upon completion of a successful research program, the Interior Department will make available to lease at least enough land to sustain commercial operation. The terms that applicants will have to meet are included in this report. At the Senate hearing, discussions ranged from opinions indicating that development of oil shale recovery was not immediately necessary to opinions urging rapid development. This report is concluded with a state-of-the-art review of some of the oil shale recovery processes.

  12. Environmental control costs for oil shale processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    The studies reported herein are intended to provide more certainty regarding estimates of the costs of controlling environmental residuals from oil shale technologies being readied for commercial application. The need for this study was evident from earlier work conducted by the Office of Environment for the Department of Energy Oil Shale Commercialization Planning, Environmental Readiness Assessment in mid-1978. At that time there was little reliable information on the costs for controlling residuals and for safe handling of wastes from oil shale processes. The uncertainties in estimating costs of complying with yet-to-be-defined environmental standards and regulations for oil shale facilities are a critical element that will affect the decision on proceeding with shale oil production. Until the regulatory requirements are fully clarified and processes and controls are investigated and tested in units of larger size, it will not be possible to provide definitive answers to the cost question. Thus, the objective of this work was to establish ranges of possible control costs per barrel of shale oil produced, reflecting various regulatory, technical, and financing assumptions. Two separate reports make up the bulk of this document. One report, prepared by the Denver Research Institute, is a relatively rigorous engineering treatment of the subject, based on regulatory assumptions and technical judgements as to best available control technologies and practices. The other report examines the incremental cost effect of more conservative technical and financing alternatives. An overview section is included that synthesizes the products of the separate studies and addresses two variations to the assumptions.

  13. SUSI 62 A ROBUST AND SAFE PARACHUTE UAV WITH LONG FLIGHT TIME AND GOOD PAYLOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Thamm

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In many research areas in the geo-sciences (erosion, land use, land cover change, etc. or applications (e.g. forest management, mining, land management etc. there is a demand for remote sensing images of a very high spatial and temporal resolution. Due to the high costs of classic aerial photo campaigns, the use of a UAV is a promising option for obtaining the desired remote sensed information at the time it is needed. However, the UAV must be easy to operate, safe, robust and should have a high payload and long flight time. For that purpose, the parachute UAV SUSI 62 was developed. It consists of a steel frame with a powerful 62 cm3 2- stroke engine and a parachute wing. The frame can be easily disassembled for transportation or to replace parts. On the frame there is a gimbal mounted sensor carrier where different sensors, standard SLR cameras and/or multi-spectral and thermal sensors can be mounted. Due to the design of the parachute, the SUSI 62 is very easy to control. Two different parachute sizes are available for different wind speed conditions. The SUSI 62 has a payload of up to 8 kg providing options to use different sensors at the same time or to extend flight duration. The SUSI 62 needs a runway of between 10 m and 50 m, depending on the wind conditions. The maximum flight speed is approximately 50 km/h. It can be operated in a wind speed of up to 6 m/s. The design of the system utilising a parachute UAV makes it comparatively safe as a failure of the electronics or the remote control only results in the UAV coming to the ground at a slow speed. The video signal from the camera, the GPS coordinates and other flight parameters are transmitted to the ground station in real time. An autopilot is available, which guarantees that the area of investigation is covered at the desired resolution and overlap. The robustly designed SUSI 62 has been used successfully in Europe, Africa and Australia for scientific projects and also for

  14. 75 FR 40034 - Northeastern Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, Beaver Creek, Clear Creek, Boone, Fort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY Northeastern Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, Beaver Creek...-managed public land on Beaver Creek, Clear Creek, Boone, Fort Patrick Henry, South Holston, Watauga, and... Proposed Land Use Alternative) identified in the final environmental impact statement (FEIS). Under the...

  15. 78 FR 62616 - Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 3730-005] Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By letter filed September 23, 2013, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company informed the Commission that they have...

  16. Ordovician and Silurian Phi Kappa and Trail Creek formations, Pioneer Mountains, central Idaho; stratigraphic and structural revisions, and new data on graptolite faunas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dover, James H.; Berry, William B.N.; Ross, Reuben James

    1980-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping in the northern Pioneer Mountains combined with the identification of graptolites from 116 new collections indicate that the Ordovician and Silurian Phi Kappa and Trail Creek Formations occur in a series of thrust-bounded slices within a broad zone of imbricate thrust faulting. Though confirming a deformational style first reported in a 1963 study by Michael Churkin, our data suggest that the complexity and regional extent of the thrust zone were not previously recognized. Most previously published sections of the Phi Kappa and Trail Creek Formations were measured across unrecognized thrust faults and therefore include not only structural repetitions of graptolitic Ordovician and Silurian rocks but also other tectonically juxtaposed lithostratigraphic units of diverse ages as well. Because of this discovery, the need to reconsider the stratigraphic validity of these formations and their lithology, nomenclature, structural distribution, facies relations, and graptolite faunas has arisen. The Phi Kappa Formation in most thrust slices has internal stratigraphic continuity despite the intensity of deformation to which it was subjected. As revised herein, the Phi Kappa Formation is restricted to a structurally repeated succession of predominantly black, carbonaceous, graptolitic argillite and shale. Some limy, light-gray-weathering shale occurs in the middle part of the section, and fine-grained locally pebbly quartzite is present at the base. The basal quartzite is here named the Basin Gulch Quartzite Member of the Phi Kappa. The Phi Kappa redefined on a lithologic basis represents the span of Ordovician time from W. B. N. Berry's graptolite zones 2-4 through 15 and also includes approximately 17 m of lithologically identical shale of Early and Middle Silurian age at the top. The lower contact of the formation as revised is tectonic. The Phi Kappa is gradationally overlain by the Trail Creek Formation as restricted herein. Most of the coarser

  17. Gasification of oil shale by solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingel, Gil

    1992-04-01

    Gasification of oil shales followed by catalytic reforming can yield synthetic gas, which is easily transportable and may be used as a heat source or for producing liquid fuels. The aim of the present work was to study the gasification of oil shales by solar radiation, as a mean of combining these two energy resources. Such a combination results in maximizing the extractable fuel from the shale, as well as enabling us to store solar energy in a chemical bond. In this research special attention was focused upon the question of the possible enhancement of the gasification by direct solar irradiation of the solid carbonaceous feed stock. The oil shale served here as a model feedstock foe other resources such as coal, heavy fuels or biomass all of which can be gasified in the same manner. The experiments were performed at the Weizman institute's solar central receiver, using solar concentrated flux as an energy source for the gasification. The original contributions of this work are : 1) Experimental evidence is presented that concentrated sunlight can be used effectively to carry out highly endothermic chemical reactions in solid particles, which in turn forms an essential element in the open-loop solar chemical heat pipe; 2) The solar-driven gasification of oil shales can be executed with good conversion efficiencies, as well as high synthesis gas yields; 3)There was found substantial increase in deliverable energy compared to the conventional retorting of oil shales, and considerable reduction in the resulting spent shale. 5) A detailed computer model that incorporates all the principal optical and thermal components of the solar concentrator and the chemical reactor has been developed and compared favorably against experimental data. (author)

  18. The Use of Numerical Modeling to Address Surface and Subsurface Water Contamination due to Fracwater Spills in Larry's Creek, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, C. A.; Arjmand, S.; Abad, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Because of its relatively low carbon dioxide emissions, natural gas is considered to be more efficient and environmentally friendly than other non-renewable fuels. As a result of this, among other factors, in recent years natural gas has become one of the world's primary energy sources. In the United States, drilling to extract natural gas has substantially increased over the past few years. In the Marcellus Shale, unconventional gas is currently extracted by using two new techniques: horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. Today, fracking fluids which have been applied as part of the hydraulic fracturing process to fracture the shale rock and release the gas, pose a major environmental concern. These fluids are highly contaminated with radionuclides and toxic metals and any exposure of this highly polluted water to surface water or soil could heavily contaminate the media. The area selected for the current study is the Larry's Creek, located in Lycoming County in Pennsylvania. Larry's Creek Watershed was adversely affected by coal and iron mines activities in the 19th century. Though, the water quality in this creek was considered to be good as of 2006. Recently, oil and gas drilling activities have raised concerns about the creek's water quality again. A major environmental hazard is the freshwater contamination by frac/flowback water. Drilling companies are using impoundments on site to keep fracwater, and to store and evaporate flowback water. However, these ponds may fail or leak due to construction problems and/or accidents. Close to Saladasburg, Larry's Creek's stream was observed running rich with clay in October 19, 2011. Historical measurements show very high turbidity during this period which has raised questions about water contamination by the gas industry activities in the upper stream of the watershed. An interstate watershed agency has reported spills in Wolf Run in different drilling sites in the Larry's Creek basin. The focus of this study

  19. Simulation of 3D parachute fluid–structure interaction based on nonlinear finite element method and preconditioning finite volume method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yuxin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A fluid–structure interaction method combining a nonlinear finite element algorithm with a preconditioning finite volume method is proposed in this paper to simulate parachute transient dynamics. This method uses a three-dimensional membrane–cable fabric model to represent a parachute system at a highly folded configuration. The large shape change during parachute inflation is computed by the nonlinear Newton–Raphson iteration and the linear system equation is solved by the generalized minimal residual (GMRES method. A membrane wrinkling algorithm is also utilized to evaluate the special uniaxial tension state of membrane elements on the parachute canopy. In order to avoid large time expenses during structural nonlinear iteration, the implicit Hilber–Hughes–Taylor (HHT time integration method is employed. For the fluid dynamic simulations, the Roe and HLLC (Harten–Lax–van Leer contact scheme has been modified and extended to compute flow problems at all speeds. The lower–upper symmetric Gauss–Seidel (LU-SGS approximate factorization is applied to accelerate the numerical convergence speed. Finally, the test model of a highly folded C-9 parachute is simulated at a prescribed speed and the results show similar characteristics compared with experimental results and previous literature.

  20. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw of...

  1. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draws of the Baltimore...

  2. 27 CFR 9.211 - Swan Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swan Creek. 9.211 Section 9.211 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.211 Swan Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural are...

  3. 33 CFR 117.231 - Brandywine Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brandywine Creek. 117.231 Section 117.231 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Delaware § 117.231 Brandywine Creek. The draw of the...

  4. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the S117-S133...

  5. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile...

  6. Currents and siltation at Dharamtar creek, Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.; Kolhatkar, V.M.; Fernandes, A.A.

    Hydrographic data collected in Dharamtar Creek during 1976-77 have been analysed. This showed that the waters in the Creek are well mixed and the salinity varied with the tide. The tidal currents are found to be generally strong. The distribution...

  7. 33 CFR 117.335 - Taylor Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taylor Creek. 117.335 Section 117.335 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.335 Taylor Creek. The draw of US441 bridge, mile 0...

  8. 76 FR 45077 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Ipomopsis...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ...: (1) Over most land, there will be warmer and fewer cold days and nights, and warmer and more frequent hot days and nights; (2) areas affected by drought will increase; and (3) the frequency of warm spells... oil shale cliffs of the Parachute Creek Member and the Lower Part of the Green River Formation at...

  9. Characterization of nanoporous shales with gas sorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joewondo, N.; Prasad, M.

    2017-12-01

    The understanding of the fluid flow in porous media requires the knowledge of the pore system involved. Fluid flow in fine grained shales falls under different regime than transport regime in conventional reservoir due to the different average pore sizes in the two materials; the average pore diameter of conventional sandstones is on the micrometer scale, while of shales can be as small as several nanometers. Mercury intrusion porosimetry is normally used to characterize the pores of conventional reservoir, however with increasingly small pores, the injection pressure required to imbibe the pores becomes infinitely large due to surface tension. Characterization of pores can be expressed by a pore size distribution (PSD) plot, which reflects distribution of pore volume or surface area with respect to pore size. For the case of nanoporous materials, the surface area, which serves as the interface between the rock matrix and fluid, becomes increasingly large and important. Physisorption of gas has been extensively studied as a method of nanoporous solid characterization (particularly for the application of catalysis, metal organic frameworks, etc). The PSD is obtained by matching the experimental result to the calculated theoretical result (using Density Functional Theory (DFT), a quantum mechanics based modelling method for molecular scale interactions). We present the challenges and experimental result of Nitrogen and CO2 gas sorption on shales with various mineralogy and the interpreted PSD obtained by DFT method. Our result shows significant surface area contributed by the nanopores of shales, hence the importance of surface area measurements for the characterization of shales.

  10. Characterisation of organic carbon in black shales of the Kachchh ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    46

    2Petroleum Geochemistry and Microbiology Group, National Geophysical Research Institute, .... gypsiferous shale of the Naredi Formation of early Eocene age (Biswas 1992). The shale .... This inference also helps us to explain the existence.

  11. Development of a Smart Release Algorithm for Mid-Air Separation of Parachute Test Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James W.

    2011-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project is currently developing an autonomous method to separate a capsule-shaped parachute test vehicle from an air-drop platform for use in the test program to develop and validate the parachute system for the Orion spacecraft. The CPAS project seeks to perform air-drop tests of an Orion-like boilerplate capsule. Delivery of the boilerplate capsule to the test condition has proven to be a critical and complicated task. In the current concept, the boilerplate vehicle is extracted from an aircraft on top of a Type V pallet and then separated from the pallet in mid-air. The attitude of the vehicles at separation is critical to avoiding re-contact and successfully deploying the boilerplate into a heatshield-down orientation. Neither the pallet nor the boilerplate has an active control system. However, the attitude of the mated vehicle as a function of time is somewhat predictable. CPAS engineers have designed an avionics system to monitor the attitude of the mated vehicle as it is extracted from the aircraft and command a release when the desired conditions are met. The algorithm includes contingency capabilities designed to release the test vehicle before undesirable orientations occur. The algorithm was verified with simulation and ground testing. The pre-flight development and testing is discussed and limitations of ground testing are noted. The CPAS project performed a series of three drop tests as a proof-of-concept of the release technique. These tests helped to refine the attitude instrumentation and software algorithm to be used on future tests. The drop tests are described in detail and the evolution of the release system with each test is described.

  12. Buck Creek River Flow Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Yasas; George, Elizabeth; Ritter, John

    2009-04-01

    Buck Creek flowing through Springfield Ohio has a number of low-head dams currently in place that cause safety issues and sometimes make it impossible for recreational boaters to pass through. The safety issues include the back eddies created by the dams that are known as drowning machines and the hydraulic jumps. In this study we are modeling the flow of Buck Creek using topographical and flow data provided by the Geology Department of Wittenberg University. The flow is analyzed using Hydraulic Engineering Center - River Analysis System software (HEC-RAS). As the first step a model of the river near Snyder Park has been created with the current structure in place for validation purposes. Afterwards the low-head dam is replaced with four drop structures with V-notch overflow gates. The river bed is altered to reflect plunge pools after each drop structure. This analysis will provide insight to how the flow is going to behave after the changes are made. In addition a sediment transport analysis is also being conducted to provide information about the stability of these structures.

  13. Parachuting and pregnancy: what do we know about pregnant skydivers and the risks they are taking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Florian; Wöckel, Achim; Janni, Wolfgang; Paterson, Helen

    2014-11-01

    There is little medical knowledge about the risks of skydiving during pregnancy. Some national parachuting associations ask for a doctor's permission; others recommend not jumping at all during pregnancy. This article provides survey data and a literature review of pregnancy and parachuting/skydiving related issues to help the pregnant skydiver and her obstetrician make an informed decision. Survey data presented include pregnancy, delivery, and parachuting information from skydivers who jumped during pregnancy. International retrospective anonymous online questionnaire considering the Checklist for Reporting Results of Internet E-Surveys (CHERRIE). The PubMed database was searched with using the terms "skydive," "pregnancy," and "parachute" (query April 2013). Web page questionnaire on skydivers' epidemiology, experience, and pregnancy-related information. Fifty-seven parous female skydivers. Information on athletes' experience, weather conditions, obstetric history (gravida, gestational week), delivery mode was obtained. Epidemiology of pregnant skydivers and literature review to provide information on skydiving risks. Women do actively decide to skydive while pregnant. The majority of our participants were between 25-year-old and 35-year-old primips with 100 to 1000 jumps experience, answering the questionnaire from a European IP address. Precautions are taken in terms of weather conditions, gear, or sports partner. The literature review found no relevant literature regarding the question. Literature is searched for risk factors that come close to the ones in skydiving (ie, oxygen saturation, shock forces, and others). Further studies are needed to show the long-term effect of stress or low O2 saturation on antenatal programming, or short-term hypoxia and pregnancy outcome in pregnant skydiving women and their offspring. Pregnancy itself is a risk factor for injuries. Injuries in pregnancy are clearly associated with an unfavorable pregnancy outcome. The

  14. The shale gas potential of the Opalinus Clay and Posidonia Shale in Switzerland - A first assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leu, W. [Geoform Ltd, Villeneuve (Switzerland); Gautschi, A. [NAGRA, Wettingen (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    There has been recent interest in the shale gas potential of the Opalinus Clay and Posidonia Shale (Middle and Lower Jurassic) below the Swiss Molasse Basin in the light of the future role of domestic gas production within the expected future energy shift of Switzerland and possible conflicts in underground use. The Opalinus Clay of northern Switzerland is a potential host rock for repositories of both high-level and low-to-intermediate level radioactive waste and the exploitation of shale gas resources within or below this formation would represent a serious conflict of use. Well data from northern Switzerland shows that these two formations are unsuitable for future shale gas recovery. They never reached the gas window during their burial history (maturity values are ≤ 0.6% R{sub o}) and as a consequence never generated significant quantities of thermogenic gas. Geochemical data further shows that the average TOC values are in the range of 0.7%, i.e. clearly below accepted values of more than 1.5% for prospective shales. A review of available exploration data for the Opalinus Clay and Posidonia Shale in the deeper and western part of the Swiss Molasse Basin indicate that their shale gas potential may be substantial. The gross Posidonia Shale thickness increases from central Switzerland from less than 10 m to over 100 m in the Yverdon-Geneva area and is characterised by numerous bituminous intervals. A simplified shale gas resource calculation results for a geologically likely scenario in a technically recoverable gas volume of ∼120 billions m{sup 3}. The current database for such estimates is small and as a consequence, the uncertainties are large. However, these first encouraging results support a more detailed exploration phase with specific geochemical and petrophysical analysis of existing rock and well log data. (authors)

  15. The shale gas potential of the Opalinus Clay and Posidonia Shale in Switzerland - A first assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leu, W.; Gautschi, A.

    2014-01-01

    There has been recent interest in the shale gas potential of the Opalinus Clay and Posidonia Shale (Middle and Lower Jurassic) below the Swiss Molasse Basin in the light of the future role of domestic gas production within the expected future energy shift of Switzerland and possible conflicts in underground use. The Opalinus Clay of northern Switzerland is a potential host rock for repositories of both high-level and low-to-intermediate level radioactive waste and the exploitation of shale gas resources within or below this formation would represent a serious conflict of use. Well data from northern Switzerland shows that these two formations are unsuitable for future shale gas recovery. They never reached the gas window during their burial history (maturity values are ≤ 0.6% R o ) and as a consequence never generated significant quantities of thermogenic gas. Geochemical data further shows that the average TOC values are in the range of 0.7%, i.e. clearly below accepted values of more than 1.5% for prospective shales. A review of available exploration data for the Opalinus Clay and Posidonia Shale in the deeper and western part of the Swiss Molasse Basin indicate that their shale gas potential may be substantial. The gross Posidonia Shale thickness increases from central Switzerland from less than 10 m to over 100 m in the Yverdon-Geneva area and is characterised by numerous bituminous intervals. A simplified shale gas resource calculation results for a geologically likely scenario in a technically recoverable gas volume of ∼120 billions m 3 . The current database for such estimates is small and as a consequence, the uncertainties are large. However, these first encouraging results support a more detailed exploration phase with specific geochemical and petrophysical analysis of existing rock and well log data. (authors)

  16. Improving horizontal completions on heterogeneous tight shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Rivera, Roberto; Deenadayalu, Chaitanya; Chertov, Maxim; Novalo Hartanto, Ricardo; Gathogo, Patrick [Schlumberger (United States); Kunjir, Rahul [University of Utah (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Evaluation of the two formation characteristics conducive to economic well production is important when tight shale formation characterization and completion design are being considered. This paper presents the basic understanding required to improve the efficiency of horizontal completions in oil and gas producing shales. Guidelines are defined for effective perforation and fracturing to improve the efficiency and sustainability of horizontal completions using extensive laboratory characterization of mechanical properties on core, core/log integration and continuous mapping of these properties by logging-while-drilling (LWD) methods. The objective is to improve completion design efficiency. This is accomplished by suitable selection of perforation intervals based on an understanding of the relevant physical processes and rock characterization. Conditions at two reservoir regions, the near-wellbore and the far-wellbore, are outlined and are essential to completion design. From the study, it can be concluded that tight shales are strongly anisotropic and cannot be approximated using isotropic models.

  17. Cracking mechanism of shale cracks during fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X. J.; Zhan, Q.; Fan, H.; Zhao, H. B.; An, F. J.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we set up a model for calculating the shale fracture pressure on the basis of Huang’s model by the theory of elastic-plastic mechanics, rock mechanics and the application of the maximum tensile stress criterion, which takes into account such factors as the crustal stress field, chemical field, temperature field, tectonic stress field, the porosity of shale and seepage of drilling fluid and so on. Combined with the experimental data of field fracturing and the experimental results of three axis compression of shale core with different water contents, the results show that the error between the present study and the measured value is 3.85%, so the present study can provide technical support for drilling engineering.

  18. Thermocatalytical processing of coal and shales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the questions of thermocatalytical conversion of organic mass of coal (OMC, it is shown that in the absence of a catalyst process is carried out by a radical process. Accumulated data on the properties for radicals of different structure and therefore different reaction capacity enables us to understand and interpret the conversion of OMC. Thermal conversion of OMC regarded as a kind of depolymerization, accompanied by decomposition of the functional groups with the formation of radicals, competing for hydrogen atom. Catalyst can change the direction and conditions of the process. Modern catalysts can reduce the process pressure up to 50 atm., with a high degree of coal conversion. We consider examples of simultaneous conversion of coal and shale, shale and masut, shale and tar.

  19. Multiphysical Testing of Soils and Shales

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    Significant advancements in the experimental analysis of soils and shales have been achieved during the last few decades. Outstanding progress in the field has led to the theoretical development of geomechanical theories and important engineering applications. This book provides the reader with an overview of recent advances in a variety of advanced experimental techniques and results for the analysis of the behaviour of geomaterials under multiphysical testing conditions. Modern trends in experimental geomechanics for soils and shales are discussed, including testing materials in variably saturated conditions, non-isothermal experiments, micro-scale investigations and image analysis techniques. Six theme papers from leading researchers in experimental geomechanics are also included. This book is intended for postgraduate students, researchers and practitioners in fields where multiphysical testing of soils and shales plays a fundamental role, such as unsaturated soil and rock mechanics, petroleum engineering...

  20. Hydrology of the Johnson Creek Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Karl K.; Snyder, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    The Johnson Creek basin is an important resource in the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area. Johnson Creek forms a wildlife and recreational corridor through densely populated areas of the cities of Milwaukie, Portland, and Gresham, and rural and agricultural areas of Multnomah and Clackamas Counties. The basin has changed as a result of agricultural and urban development, stream channelization, and construction of roads, drains, and other features characteristic of human occupation. Flooding of Johnson Creek is a concern for the public and for water management officials. The interaction of the groundwater and surface-water systems in the Johnson Creek basin also is important. The occurrence of flooding from high groundwater discharge and from a rising water table prompted this study. As the Portland metropolitan area continues to grow, human-induced effects on streams in the Johnson Creek basin will continue. This report provides information on the groundwater and surface-water systems over a range of hydrologic conditions, as well as the interaction these of systems, and will aid in management of water resources in the area. High and low flows of Crystal Springs Creek, a tributary to Johnson Creek, were explained by streamflow and groundwater levels collected for this study, and results from previous studies. High flows of Crystal Springs Creek began in summer 1996, and did not diminish until 2000. Low streamflow of Crystal Springs Creek occurred in 2005. Flow of Crystal Springs Creek related to water-level fluctuations in a nearby well, enabling prediction of streamflow based on groundwater level. Holgate Lake is an ephemeral lake in Southeast Portland that has inundated residential areas several times since the 1940s. The water-surface elevation of the lake closely tracked the elevation of the water table in a nearby well, indicating that the occurrence of the lake is an expression of the water table. Antecedent conditions of the groundwater level and autumn

  1. Assessment of potential unconventional lacustrine shale-oil and shale-gas resources, Phitsanulok Basin, Thailand, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed potential technically recoverable mean resources of 53 million barrels of shale oil and 320 billion cubic feet of shale gas in the Phitsanulok Basin, onshore Thailand.

  2. Thermal effects in shales: measurements and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinstry, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    Research is reported concerning thermal and physical measurements and theoretical modeling relevant to the storage of radioactive wastes in a shale. Reference thermal conductivity measurements are made at atmospheric pressure in a commercial apparatus; and equipment for permeability measurements has been developed, and is being extended with respect to measurement ranges. Thermal properties of shales are being determined as a function of temperature and pressures. Apparatus was developed to measure shales in two different experimental configurations. In the first, a disk 15 mm in diameter of the material is measured by a steady state technique using a reference material to measure the heat flow within the system. The sample is sandwiched between two disks of a reference material (single crystal quartz is being used initially as reference material). The heat flow is determined twice in order to determine that steady state conditions prevail; the temperature drop over the two references is measured. When these indicate an equal heat flow, the thermal conductivity of the sample can be calculated from the temperature difference of the two faces. The second technique is for determining effect of temperature in a water saturated shale on a larger scale. Cylindrical shale (or siltstone) specimens that are being studied (large for a laboratory sample) are to be heated electrically at the center, contained in a pressure vessel that will maintain a fixed water pressure around it. The temperature is monitored at many points within the shale sample. The sample dimensions are 25 cm diameter, 20 cm long. A micro computer system has been constructed to monitor 16 thermocouples to record variation of temperature distribution with time

  3. Laboratory weathering of combusted oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essington, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the mineralogy and leachate chemistry of three combusted oil shales (two Green River Formation and one New Albany) in a laboratory weathering environment using the humidity cell technique. The mineralogy of the combusted western oil shales (Green River Formation) is process dependent. In general, processing resulted in the formation of anhydrite, lime, periclase, and hematite. During the initial stages of weathering, lime, periclase, and hematite. During the initial stages of weathering, lime, periclase, and anhydrite dissolve and ettringite precipitates. The initial leachates are highly alkaline, saline, and dominated by Na, hydroxide, and SO 4 . As weathering continues, ettringite precipitates. The initial leachates are highly alkaline, saline, and dominated by Na, hydroxide, and SO 4 . As weathering continues, ettringite dissolves, gypsum and calcite precipitate, and the leachates are dominated by Mg, SO 4 , and CO 3 . Leachate pH is rapidly reduced to between 8.5 and 9 with leaching. The combusted eastern oil shale (New Albany) is composed of quartz, illite, hematite, and orthoclase. Weathering results in the precipitation of gypsum. The combusted eastern oil shale did not display a potential to produce acid drainage. Leachate chemistry was dominated by Ca and SO 4 . Element concentrations continually decreased with weathering. IN a western disposal environment receiving minimal atmospheric precipitation, spent oil shale will remain in the initial stages of weathering, and highly alkaline and saline conditions will dominate leachate chemistry. In an eastern disposal environment, soluble salts will be rapidly removed from the spent oil shale to potentially affect the surrounding environment

  4. Preparing hydraulic cement from oil-shale slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-11-19

    A process for the preparation of hydraulic cementing material from oil shale or oil-shale slag according to Patent 411,584 is characterized by the fact that the oil-shale slag is added to burnt marl, blast-furnace slag, and the like, whereupon the mixture is milled to dust in the known way.

  5. Rapid gas development in the Fayetteville shale basin, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in drilling and extraction of natural gas have resulted in rapid expansion of wells in shale basins. The rate of gas well installation in the Fayetteville shale is 774 wells a year since 2005 with thousands more planned. The Fayetteville shale covers 23,000 km2 although ...

  6. Reducing the greenhouse gas footprint of shale gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinsheng; Ryan, David; Anthony, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Shale gas is viewed by many as a global energy game-changer. However, serious concerns exist that shale gas generates more greenhouse gas emissions than does coal. In this work the related published data are reviewed and a reassessment is made. It is shown that the greenhouse gas effect of shale gas is less than that of coal over long term if the higher power generation efficiency of shale gas is taken into account. In short term, the greenhouse gas effect of shale gas can be lowered to the level of that of coal if methane emissions are kept low using existing technologies. Further reducing the greenhouse gas effect of shale gas by storing CO 2 in depleted shale gas reservoirs is also discussed, with the conclusion that more CO 2 than the equivalent CO 2 emitted by the extracted shale gas could be stored in the reservoirs at significantly reduced cost. - Highlights: ► The long-term greenhouse gas footprint of shale gas is smaller than that of coal. ► Carbon capture and storage should be considered for fossil fuels including shale gas. ► Depleted shale gas fields could store more CO 2 than the equivalent emissions. ► Linking shale gas development with CO 2 storage could largely reduce the total cost.

  7. Fluid flow from matrix to fractures in Early Jurassic shales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, M.E.; Hardebol, N.J.; Barnhoorn, A.; Boersma, Quinten; Carone, A.; Liu, Y.; de Winter, D.A.M.; Peach, C.J.; Drury, M.R.

    2017-01-01

    The potential of shale reservoirs for gas extraction is largely determined by the permeability of the rock. Typical pore diameters in shales range from the μm down to the nm scale. The permeability of shale reservoirs is a function of the interconnectivity between the pore space and the natural

  8. Fluid flow from matrix to fractures in Early Jurassic shales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, M. E.; Hardebol, N.J.; Barnhoorn, A.; Boersma, Q.D.; Carone, A.; Liu, Y.; de Winter, D. A.M.; Peach, C. J.; Drury, M. R.

    2017-01-01

    The potential of shale reservoirs for gas extraction is largely determined by the permeability of the rock. Typical pore diameters in shales range from the μm down to the nm scale. The permeability of shale reservoirs is a function of the interconnectivity between the pore space and the natural

  9. Extraction of hydrocarbon products from shales and coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, V Z

    1918-05-17

    A process is disclosed of extracting hydrocarbon oil matter from petroleum-bearing shales and coals which comprises subjecting a mass of such shale or coal, before distillation to the solvent action of material containing an acid, permitting the solvent material to pass through the mass of shale or coal, and recovering the combined solvent and extracted matter.

  10. shales: a review of their classifications, properties and importance to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    In the Niger Delta petroleum province, the source rocks and seal rocks are the marine/deltaic, plastic and over-pressured shales of Akata and Agbada Formations. KEY WORDS: Shales, Classification, Strength, Composition, Petroleum Industry, Niger Delta. INTRODUCTION. Shales are fine-grained laminated or fissile.

  11. Method of concentrating oil shale by flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, M

    1941-01-28

    A method is described of concentrating oil shale by flotation. It is characterized by grinding the shale to a grain size which, roughly speaking, is less than 0.06 mm. and more conveniently should be less than 0.05 mm., and followed by flotation. During the process the brown foam formed is separated as concentrate, while the black-brown to all-black foam is separated as a middle product, ground fine again, and thereafter floated once more. The patent contains five additional claims.

  12. Black shales and naftogenesis. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudovich, Yu.E.; Ketris, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    A genetic relation between petroleum plus hydrocarbon gases and bio organic authigenic matter has been well established. As black shales are enriched in organic matter they may serve as potential petroleum beds on the depths suitable for petroleum generation (2-5 km). The calculations made by petroleum geologists showed that hydrocarbon amounts generated by black shales made up to one fifth of the initial organic matter at the end of MK-2 stage of catagenesis. Consequently, black shales may serve as the main oil producers in many sedimentary basins. Petroleum generation in black shales has some peculiarities. Abundant masses of organic matter generate huge amounts of hydrocarbon gases which in turn produce anomalous high bed pressures followed by pulse cavitation effect. Bed pressures 1.5 times higher than normal lithostatic pressure have been detected in oil-bearing black shales of the Cis-Caucasus on the depth of 2.0-2.5 km, along with very high (6 degrees per 100 m) geothermal gradient. According to Stavropol oil geologists, there occurs an effect of rock-by-fluid-destruction after fluid pressure has greatly exceeded the lithostatic pressure. Stress tensions discharge by impulses and cracks may appear with a rate of 0.3-0.7 of the sound speed. Cavitation of gaseous bubbles is produced by sharp crack extension. Such cavitation accounts for impact waves and increased local pressure and temperature. Such an increase, in turn, fastens petroleum generation and new rock cracking. The effect of over-pressed rocks associated with black shales may serve as a process indicator. That is why the geophysical methods detect enhanced specific gravity and decreased porosity zones in such black shales. Cracks and petroleum accumulation occur on the flanks of such zones of rock-by-fluid-destruction. Some black shales may be petroleum-productive due to enhanced uranium content. There exist ideas about uranium-derived heat or radiolytic effects on the petroleum generation. Such

  13. Analysis of the kerogen of oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quass, F W; Down, A L

    1939-01-01

    Comments are given on the method developed by F. W. Quass for reducing the amount of mineral matter present in certain coals and oil shales (torbanites). The method consisted of grinding oil shale with water in a porcelain ball mill in the presence of oil. The oil formed a paste with the carbonaceous material, and a greater portion of the mineral matter remained suspended in the water and was separated. Ultimate analyses of the enriched samples indicated that the percent of carbon was higher, the percent of hydrogen and oxygen was lower, and the ratio of carbon to hydrogen and carbon to oxygen increased in the enriched samples.

  14. PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS OF Fligh experiment DATA FOR DETERMINING THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MOTION OF A ROUND PARACHUTE on a spiral trajectory AT HIGH ALTITUDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Zhurin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is addressed to the analysis of the trajectory parameters and videos obtained during the flight experiment at the launch of meteo-rocket MMP-06 with the purpose to determine major parameters of motion of a round parachute at subsonic speeds in the range of altitudes from 0 to 40 km. The data analysis showed that the trajectory of the parachute represents spiral "stretched" by the wind in the horizontal direction and disturbed by random factors of a non-stationary flow around the parachute. The main parameters of the trajectory are obtained according to the experimental data. Only qualitative analysis of spiral motion paths for round parachutes may be found in the publications on parachute subjects. This article presents the quantitative characteristics of this process.

  15. 77 FR 10960 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Snake Creek, Islamorada, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Operation Regulation; Snake Creek, Islamorada, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary... deviation from the regulation governing the operation of Snake Creek Bridge, mile 0.5, across Snake Creek... schedule of Snake Creek Bridge in Islamorada, Florida. This deviation will result in the bridge opening...

  16. Flood discharges and hydraulics near the mouths of Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, studied the frequency and magnitude of flooding near the mouths of five tributaries to the New River in the New River Gorge National River. The 100-year peak discharge at each tributary was determined from regional frequency equations. The 100-year discharge at Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek was 3,400 cubic feet per second, 640 cubic feet per second, 8,200 cubic feet per second, 7,100 cubic feet per second, and 9,400 cubic feet per second, respectively. Flood elevations for each tributary were determined by application of a steady-state, one-dimensional flow model. Manning's roughness coefficients for the stream channels ranged from 0.040 to 0.100. Bridges that would be unable to contain the 100-year flood within the bridge opening included: the State Highway 82 bridge on Wolf Creek, the second Fayette County Highway 25 bridge upstream from the confluence with New River on Dunloup Creek, and an abandoned log bridge on Mill Creek.

  17. Evaluating possible industrial applications of combustible shales and shale ash wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. К. Кондрашева

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Today energy consumption is constantly growing while explored reserves of easily accessible oil are depleting, which is a reason why most countries tend to diversify their energy mix, develop non-hydrocarbon energy sources and use domestic types of fuel, including the low grade ones. Thereby interest is raised to such a source of hydrocarbons as combustible shales. Combustible shales appear to be one of the highest-potential types of organic raw materials, which may offset and in future even substitute oil products and gas. The paper is investigating behavior and structure of combustible shales during heat treatment in order to identify their possible industrial applications. A synchronous thermal analysis has been held, chemical composition of combustible shales’ mineral fraction and optimal conditions for shale fines briquetting have been determined.

  18. Distillation of shale and other bituminous substances. [shale granules wetted, mixed with lime, heated; sulfur recovered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noad, J

    1912-09-23

    A process is described for the treatment of shale and other bituminous substances containing sulfur and recovering desulfurized distillates. The process consists of first grinding the shale and mixing the granules obtained with a convenient liquid. The shale granules coated or covered with liquid and mixed with slacked lime are fed into a retort with a series of steps or their equivalent, made to descend, step by step, in such manner that they are continually agitated and heated. The volatile constituents escape through the coating or sheath of lime and are carried away at the upper part of the retort to a convenient condensing apparatus, the sulfur being retained by the sheath of lime and is discharged at the bottom of the retort with the spent shale and other impurities.

  19. RUSSIA DOESN’T SUPPORT «SHALE REVOLUTION»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Zhiltsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth of volumes of production of shale gas in the USA compelled Russia to pay attention to this type of resourses. The interest to shale gas in Russia was limited to discussions at the level of experts and reflection of importance of this problem in statements of politicians. In the next years in Russia don't plan production of shale gas commercially. It is connected with existence in Russia of considerable reserves of traditional natural gas, absence of exact data of reserves of shale gas, high costs of production, and also environmental risks which accompany development of fields of shale gas.

  20. CREEK Project's Internal Creek Habitat Survey for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: January 1998.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated...

  1. Electromagnetic De-Shaling of Coal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, T.P.R.; Mesina, M.B.; Kuilman, W.

    2003-01-01

    The efficiency with which an electromagnetic sensor array is able to distinguish density and ash content of coal and shale mixtures was determined experimentally. The investigated sensor was originally designed for automatic metal detection and sorting in industrial glass recycle processing, where

  2. [Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakulska, Daria

    2015-01-01

    The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extreiely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest, concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction.

  3. Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Pakulska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extremely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction. Med Pr 2015;66(1:99–117

  4. Method of treating oil-bearing shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, N H

    1926-04-14

    The process is given for treating shale or other oil-bearing mineral which consists of the application of dry heat to render the oil soluble and subjects the product of the heat treatment to an operation to extract the soluble oils.

  5. Epistemic values in the Burgess Shale debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Focusing primarily on papers and books discussing the evolutionary and systematic interpretation of the Cambrian animal fossils from the Burgess Shale fauna, this paper explores the role of epistemic values in the context of a discipline (paleontology) striving to establish scientific authority w...

  6. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Determination of Shale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Classical Least Square (CLS) model was developed from the attenuated spectra of mixtures of five mineral standards chosen to represent the most frequently encountered minerals in shale-type reservoir rocks namely: quartz, illite/smectite (30:70), kaolinite, calcite and dolomite. The CLS model developed was able to ...

  7. Evaluation of waste disposal by shale fracturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeren, H.O.

    1976-02-01

    The shale fracturing process is evaluated as a means for permanent disposal of radioactive intermediate level liquid waste generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The estimated capital operating and development costs of a proposed disposal facility are compared with equivalent estimated costs for alternative methods of waste fixation

  8. Quantitative effects of the shale oil revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belu Mănescu, Cristiana; Nuño, Galo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of the so-called “shale oil revolution” on oil prices and economic growth. We employ a general equilibrium model of the world oil market in which Saudi Arabia is the dominant firm, with the rest of the producers as a competitive fringe. Our results suggest that most of the expected increase in US oil supply due to the shale oil revolution has already been incorporated into prices and that it will produce an additional increase of 0.2% in the GDP of oil importers in the period 2010–2018. We also employ the model to analyze the collapse in oil prices in the second half of 2014 and conclude that it was mainly due to positive unanticipated supply shocks. - Highlights: • We analyze the impact of the “shale oil revolution” on oil prices and economic growth. • We employ a general equilibrium model of the oil market in which Saudi Arabia is the dominant firm. • We find that most of the shale oil revolution is already priced in. • We also analyze the decline in oil prices in the second half of 2014. • We find that unanticipated supply shocks played the major role in the fall.

  9. Shale Gas Development and Drinking Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Elaine; Ma, Lala

    2017-05-01

    The extent of environmental externalities associated with shale gas development (SGD) is important for welfare considerations and, to date, remains uncertain (Mason, Muehlenbachs, and Olmstead 2015; Hausman and Kellogg 2015). This paper takes a first step to address this gap in the literature. Our study examines whether shale gas development systematically impacts public drinking water quality in Pennsylvania, an area that has been an important part of the recent shale gas boom. We create a novel dataset from several unique sources of data that allows us to relate SGD to public drinking water quality through a gas well's proximity to community water system (CWS) groundwater source intake areas.1 We employ a difference-in-differences strategy that compares, for a given CWS, water quality after an increase in the number of drilled well pads to background levels of water quality in the geographic area as measured by the impact of more distant well pads. Our main estimate finds that drilling an additional well pad within 1 km of groundwater intake locations increases shale gas-related contaminants by 1.5–2.7 percent, on average. These results are striking considering that our data are based on water sampling measurements taken after municipal treatment, and suggest that the health impacts of SGD 1 A CWS is defined as the subset of public water systems that supplies water to the same population year-round. through water contamination remains an open question.

  10. Geochemical controls on groundwater chemistry in shales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Damm, K.L.

    1989-01-01

    The chemistry of groundwaters is one of the most important parameters in determining the mobility of species within a rock formation. A three pronged approach was used to determine the composition of, and geochemical controls, on groundwaters specifically within shale formations: (1) available data were collected from the literature, the US Geological Survey WATSTORE data base, and field sampling, (2) the geochemical modeling code EQ3/6 was used to simulate interaction of various shales and groundwaters, and (3) several types of shale were reacted with synthetic groundwaters in the laboratory. The comparison of model results to field and laboratory data provide a means of validating the models, as well as a means of deconvoluting complex field interactions. Results suggest that groundwaters in shales have a wide range in composition and are primarily of the Na-Cl-HCO 3 - type. The constancy of the Na:Cl (molar) ratio at 1:1 and the Ca:Mg ratio from 3:1 to 1:1 suggests the importance of halite and carbonates in controlling groundwater compositions. In agreement with the reaction path modeling, most of the groundwaters are neutral to slightly alkaline at low temperatures. Model and experimental results suggest that reaction (1) at elevated temperatures, or (2) in the presence of oxygen will lead to more acidic conditions. Some acetate was found to be produced in the experiments; depending on the constraints applied, large amounts of acetate were produced in the model results. 13 refs., 1 tab

  11. Process of distillation of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxton, A L

    1968-08-16

    In an oil-shale distillation apparatus with a single retort, in which separate zones of preheating, distillation, combustion, and cooling are maintained, the operation is conducted at a presssure higher than the atmospheric pressure, preferably at a gage pressure between about 0.35 and 7.0 bars. This permits increasing the capacity of the installation.

  12. Furnace for distillation of shales, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germain-Clergault, M

    1863-07-09

    Practical experience and continuous operation of 55 retorts for 5 years of the system of vertical retorts patented in 1857 (French Patent 18,422) has shown the advantages resulting from this furnace which gives over a mean yield of 5% of Auton shale, which is /sup 1///sub 2/% more than the old systems with a fuel economy varying from 15 to 20%.

  13. Shale gases, a windfall for France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnac, Alain de; Perves, Jean-Pierre

    2013-11-01

    After having recalled the definition and origin of shale gases, the different non conventional gases and their exploitation techniques (hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling) this report examines whether these gases are an opportunity for France. Some characteristics and data of the fossil and gas markets are presented and commented: world primary energy consumption, proved reserves of non conventional gases and their locations, European regions which may possess reserves of shale gases and coal-bed methane, origins of gas imports in France. The second part addresses shale gas deposits and their exploitation: discussion of the influence of the various rock parameters, evolution of production. The third part discusses the exploitation techniques and specific drilling tools. The issue of exploitation safety and security is addressed as well as the associated controversies: about the pollution of underground waters, about the fact that deep drillings result in pollution, about the risks associated with hydraulic fracturing and injections of chemical products, about the hold on ground and site degradation, about water consumption, about pollution due to gas pipeline leakage, about seismic risk, about noise drawbacks, about risks for health, about exploration and production authorization and license, and about air pollution and climate. The last part addresses the French situation and its future: status of the energy bill, recommendations made by a previous government, cancellation of authorizations, etc. Other information are provided in appendix about non conventional hydrocarbons, about shale gas exploitation in the USA, and about the Lacq gas

  14. Total and the Algerian shale gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapelle, Sophie; Petitjean, Olivier; Maurin, Wilfried; Balvet, Jacqueline; Combes, Maxime; Geze, Francois; Hamouchene, Hamza; Hidouci, Ghazi; Malti, Hocine; Renaud, Juliette; Simon, Antoine; Titouche, Fateh

    2015-01-01

    This publication proposes a rather detailed and discussed overview of the movement of mobilisation of Algerian people (notably those living in the Sahara) against projects of exploration and exploitation of shale gases in Algeria by the Total group. The authors also recall and comment the long and heavy history of hydrocarbon management in Algeria, the role of international firms and of western interests (notably French interests) in this country, and the position of Total regarding the stake related to shale gases. The authors outline problems created by shale gas exploitation regarding water consumption and waste waters. They also notice that the safety of wells is at the centre of the protest. Problems raised by hydraulic fracturing are reviewed: seismic activity, chemical pollution, air pollution and greenhouse gases, landscape destruction. The attitude of the Algerian government is commented. Then, the authors try to identify and describe the action of Total in the Algerian shale gas sector, discuss the possible French influence, and outline the presence of Total all over the world in this sector

  15. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

  16. China organic-rich shale geologic features and special shale gas production issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Ju

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The depositional environment of organic-rich shale and the related tectonic evolution in China are rather different from those in North America. In China, organic-rich shale is not only deposited in marine environment, but also in non-marine environment: marine-continental transitional environment and lacustrine environment. Through analyzing large amount of outcrops and well cores, the geologic features of organic-rich shale, including mineral composition, organic matter richness and type, and lithology stratigraphy, were analyzed, indicating very special characteristics. Meanwhile, the more complex and active tectonic movements in China lead to strong deformation and erosion of organic-rich shale, well-development of fractures and faults, and higher thermal maturity and serious heterogeneity. Co-existence of shale gas, tight sand gas, and coal bed methane (CBM proposes a new topic: whether it is possible to co-produce these gases to reduce cost. Based on the geologic features, the primary production issues of shale gas in China were discussed with suggestions.

  17. Shale as a radioactive waste repository: the importance of vermiculite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komarneni, S; Roy, D M; Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park; USA). Materials Research Labs.)

    1979-01-01

    Cesium sorption and fixation properties of thirty shale minerals and shales were investigated in search of a criterion for the suitability of shales for a radioactive waste repository. Shales and illites containing vermiculite fixed the largest proportion of total Cs sorbed (up to 91%) against displacement with 0.1 N KCl. For example, a slate sample fixed 33% of the total Cs sorbed while its weathered counterpart in which chlorite had altered to vermiculite fixed 89% of the total Cs sorbed. Since Cs is one of the most soluble and hazardous radioactive ions, its containment is of great importance in safe radioactive waste disposal. Presence of vermiculite in a shale body may therefore, serve as one criterion in the selection of a suitable shale for radioactive waste disposal if and when shales in geologically stable areas are selected for repositories.

  18. Featured Partner: Saddle Creek Logistics Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA fact sheet spotlights Saddle Creek Logistics as a SmartWay partner committed to sustainability in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution caused by freight transportation, partly by growing its compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles for

  19. Some Physicochemical Charateristics of Badagry Creek, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Applied Ecology ... Badagry Creek runs through Nigeria and Republic of Benin with access to the Atlantic Ocean. ... Colour, surface temperature, pH, salinity, turbidity, phenol, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen ...

  20. Tritium at the Steel Creek Landing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, M.; Heffner, J.D.; Fledderman, P.D.; Littrell, J.W.; Hayes, D.W.; Dodgen, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    In December 1997 and January 1998, the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) collected routine weekly grab samples from the Savannah River near the Steel Creek Boat Landing

  1. Mercury in Thana creek, Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Desai, B.N.

    weight) with marked increased from harbour to the creek region suggests substantial mercury input in the head region. Chemical extraction by hydrogen peroxide indicated that more than 70% of mercury was leachable and probably organically bound...

  2. A review of the organic geochemistry of shales and possible interactions between the organic matter of shales and radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    Shale formations have been suggested as potential host rocks for high level nuclear waste repositories. Several studies have demonstrated the interactions of nuclides with organic compounds found in shales. In order to understand the possibility of interaction between organic components of shales and trace elements, literature on the identification of organic compounds from various shales of the continental United States and evidences of interactions have been reviewed first. The Green River Formation of the Cenozoic era is the most studied shale followed by the Pierre Shale of the Mesozoic era and the Devonian Black Shale of the Paleozoic era. Organic compounds that have been identified from these shales are mainly hydrocarbons and carboxylates along with small amounts of other compounds. These organic compounds, however, constitute only a small fraction of the organic matter in shales; the majority of the organic compounds in shales are still unidentified. Interaction between organics and trace elements are found mostly due to the formation of complexes between carboxylates of shales and the elements. (orig.)

  3. Origin of discontinuities in coal-bearing strata at Roaring Creek (Basal Pennsylvanian of Indiana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, W J; Eggert, D L; Dimichele, W A; Stecyk, A C

    1985-05-01

    Basal Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata exposed along Roaring Creek, west-central Indiana, exhibit extreme lateral discontinuity. Coal seams abruptly change in thickness and elevation; they split, grade into shale, are cut out by channels and disrupted by soft-sediment deformational structures. Initial sediments were laid down by a network of southwest- flowing streams that traversed a deeply channelized upland surface of Mississippian carbonate rocks. Channels aggraded rapidly as uplands were worn down, so the region changed through time from uplands to upper deltaic plain. Local environments included channels, localized point bars, small natural levees and crevasse splays, overbank deposits, and swamps. Differential compaction and subsidence, slumping stream banks, and possibly collapsing sinkholes influenced sedimentation. As a consequence, coals are too discontinuous for economical mining, although they are locally thick and high in quality. 16 references.

  4. Wolf Creek Generating Station containment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D.H.; Neises, G.J.; Howard, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a CONTEMPT-LT/28 containment model that has been developed by Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation (WCNOC) to predict containment pressure and temperature behavior during the postulated events at Wolf Creek Generating Station (WCGS). The model has been validated using data provided in the WCGS Updated Safety Analysis Report (USAR). CONTEMPT-LT/28 model has been used extensively at WCGS to support plant operations, and recently, to support its 4.5% thermal power uprate project

  5. Selenium Speciation in the Fountain Creek Watershed (Colorado, USA Correlates with Water Hardness, Ca and Mg Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Carsella

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The environmental levels of selenium (Se are regulated and strictly enforced by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA because of the toxicity that Se can exert at high levels. However, speciation plays an important role in the overall toxicity of Se, and only when speciation analysis has been conducted will a detailed understanding of the system be possible. In the following, we carried out the speciation analysis of the creek waters in three of the main tributaries—Upper Fountain Creek, Monument Creek and Lower Fountain Creek—located in the Fountain Creek Watershed (Colorado, USA. There are statistically significant differences between the Se, Ca and Mg, levels in each of the tributaries and seasonal swings in Se, Ca and Mg levels have been observed. There are also statistically significant differences between the Se levels when grouped by Pierre Shale type. These factors are considered when determining the forms of Se present and analyzing their chemistry using the reported thermodynamic relationships considering Ca2+, Mg2+, SeO42−, SeO32− and carbonates. This analysis demonstrated that the correlation between Se and water hardness can be explained in terms of formation of soluble CaSeO4. The speciation analysis demonstrated that for the Fountain Creek waters, the Ca2+ ion may be mainly responsible for the observed correlation with the Se level. Considering that the Mg2+ level is also correlating linearly with the Se levels it is important to recognize that without Mg2+ the Ca2+ would be significantly reduced. The major role of Mg2+ is thus to raise the Ca2+ levels despite the equilibria with carbonate and other anions that would otherwise decrease Ca2+ levels.

  6. Shale gas development impacts on surface water quality in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Sheila M.; Muehlenbachs, Lucija A.; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Chu, Ziyan; Krupnick, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    Concern has been raised in the scientific literature about the environmental implications of extracting natural gas from deep shale formations, and published studies suggest that shale gas development may affect local groundwater quality. The potential for surface water quality degradation has been discussed in prior work, although no empirical analysis of this issue has been published. The potential for large-scale surface water quality degradation has affected regulatory approaches to shale gas development in some US states, despite the dearth of evidence. This paper conducts a large-scale examination of the extent to which shale gas development activities affect surface water quality. Focusing on the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania, we estimate the effect of shale gas wells and the release of treated shale gas waste by permitted treatment facilities on observed downstream concentrations of chloride (Cl−) and total suspended solids (TSS), controlling for other factors. Results suggest that (i) the treatment of shale gas waste by treatment plants in a watershed raises downstream Cl− concentrations but not TSS concentrations, and (ii) the presence of shale gas wells in a watershed raises downstream TSS concentrations but not Cl− concentrations. These results can inform future voluntary measures taken by shale gas operators and policy approaches taken by regulators to protect surface water quality as the scale of this economically important activity increases. PMID:23479604

  7. Comparative acute toxicity of shale and petroleum derived distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C R; Ferguson, P W; Katchen, M A; Dennis, M W; Craig, D K

    1989-12-01

    In anticipation of the commercialization of its shale oil retorting and upgrading process, Unocal Corp. conducted a testing program aimed at better defining potential health impacts of a shale industry. Acute toxicity studies using rats and rabbits compared the effects of naphtha, Jet-A, JP-4, diesel and "residual" distillate fractions of both petroleum derived crude oils and hydrotreated shale oil. No differences in the acute oral (greater than 5 g/kg LD50) and dermal (greater than 2 g/kg LD50) toxicities were noted between the shale and petroleum derived distillates and none of the samples were more than mildly irritating to the eyes. Shale and petroleum products caused similar degrees of mild to moderate skin irritation. None of the materials produced sensitization reactions. The LC50 after acute inhalation exposure to Jet-A, shale naphtha, (greater than 5 mg/L) and JP-4 distillate fractions of petroleum and shale oils was greater than 5 mg/L. The LC50 of petroleum naphtha (greater than 4.8 mg/L) and raw shale oil (greater than 3.95 mg/L) also indicated low toxicity. Results demonstrate that shale oil products are of low acute toxicity, mild to moderately irritating and similar to their petroleum counterparts. The results further demonstrate that hydrotreatment reduces the irritancy of raw shale oil.

  8. Can the US shale revolution be duplicated in Europe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saussay, Aurelien

    2015-04-01

    Over the past decade, the rapid increase in shale gas and shale oil production in the United States has profoundly changed energy markets in North America, and has led to a significant decrease in American natural gas prices. The possible existence of large shale deposits in Europe, mainly in France, Poland and the United Kingdom, has fostered speculation on whether the 'shale revolution', and its accompanying macro-economic impacts, could be duplicated in Europe. However, a number of uncertainties, notably geological, technological and regulatory, make this possibility unclear. We present a techno-economic model, SHERPA (Shale Exploitation and Recovery Projection and Analysis), to analyze the main determinants of the profitability of shale wells and plays. We calibrate our model using production data from the leading American shale plays. We use SHERPA to estimate three shale gas production scenarios exploring different sets of geological and technical hypotheses for the largest potential holder of shale gas deposits in Europe, France. Even considering that the geology of the potential French shale deposits is favorable to commercial extraction, we find that under assumptions calibrated on U.S. production data, natural gas could be produced at a high breakeven price of $8.6 per MMBtu, and over a 45 year time-frame have a net present value of $19.6 billion - less than 1% of 2012 French GDP. However, the specificities of the European context, notably high deposit depth and stricter environmental regulations, could increase drilling costs and further decrease this low profitability. We find that a 40% premium over American drilling costs would make shale gas extraction uneconomical. Absent extreme well productivity, it appears very difficult for shale gas extraction to have an impact on European energy markets comparable to the American shale revolution. (author)

  9. Features of the first great shale gas field in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruobing Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available On the 28th of November 2012, high shale gas flow was confirmed to be 203 × 103 m3 in Longmaxi Formation; this led to the discovery of the Fuling Shale Gas Field. On the 10th of July in 2014, the verified geological reserves of the first shale gas field in China were submitted to the National Reserves Committee. Practices of exploration and development proved that the reservoirs in the Fuling Shale Gas Field had quality shales deposited in the deep-shelf; the deep-shelf had stable distribution, great thickness with no interlayers. The shale gas field was characterized by high well production, high-pressure reservoirs, good gas elements, and satisfactory effects on testing production; it's from the mid-deep depth of the quality natural gas reservoirs that bore high pressure. Comprehensive studies on the regional sedimentary background, lithology, micropore structures, geophysical properties, gas sources, features of gas reservoirs, logging responding features, and producing features of gas wells showed the following: (1 The Longmaxi Formation in the Fuling Shale Gas Field belongs to deep-shelf environment where wells developed due to organic-rich shales. (2 Thermal evolution of shales in Longmaxi Formation was moderate, nanometer-level pores developed as well. (3 The shale gas sources came from kerogens the Longmaxi Formation itself. (4 The shale gas reservoirs of the Fuling Longmaxi Formation were similar to the typical geological features and producing rules in North America. The findings proved that the shale gas produced in the Longmaxi Formation in Fuling was the conventional in-situ detained, self-generated, and self-stored shale gas.

  10. A influência de palmares e parachute na coordenação dos nados

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago Telles

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: A natação é uma modalidade esportiva que, ao longo dos anos, sofreu modificações, atingindo um alto nível de exigência, o que é refletido nas sessões de treinamentos e nas pesquisas sobre a modalidade. Sendo assim, para otimizar o deslocamento nos nadadores pode-se otimizar a força propulsora. Para isso, pode-se utilizar palmares e parachute. Os palmares tem como função promover o aumento artificial da área da mão, desta maneira, aumenta-se a área frontal da mão do sujeito em contato ...

  11. The PARAChute Project: Remote Monitoring of Posture and Gait for Fall Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, David J.; Duchêne, Jacques; Charpillet, François; Saboune, Jamal; Michel-Pellegrino, Valérie; Amoud, Hassan; Doussot, Michel; Paysant, Jean; Boyer, Anne; Hogrel, Jean-Yves

    2007-12-01

    Falls in the elderly are a major public health problem due to both their frequency and their medical and social consequences. In France alone, more than two million people aged over 65 years old fall each year, leading to more than 9 000 deaths, in particular in those over 75 years old (more than 8 000 deaths). This paper describes the PARAChute project, which aims to develop a methodology that will enable the detection of an increased risk of falling in community-dwelling elderly. The methods used for a remote noninvasive assessment for static and dynamic balance assessments and gait analysis are described. The final result of the project has been the development of an algorithm for movement detection during gait and a balance signature extracted from a force plate. A multicentre longitudinal evaluation of balance has commenced in order to validate the methodologies and technologies developed in the project.

  12. The PARAChute Project: Remote Monitoring of Posture and Gait for Fall Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Boyer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Falls in the elderly are a major public health problem due to both their frequency and their medical and social consequences. In France alone, more than two million people aged over 65 years old fall each year, leading to more than 9 000 deaths, in particular in those over 75 years old (more than 8 000 deaths. This paper describes the PARAChute project, which aims to develop a methodology that will enable the detection of an increased risk of falling in community-dwelling elderly. The methods used for a remote noninvasive assessment for static and dynamic balance assessments and gait analysis are described. The final result of the project has been the development of an algorithm for movement detection during gait and a balance signature extracted from a force plate. A multicentre longitudinal evaluation of balance has commenced in order to validate the methodologies and technologies developed in the project.

  13. Hoe Creek groundwater restoration, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renk, R.R.; Crader, S.E.; Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    During the summer of 1989, approximately 6.5 million gallons of contaminated groundwater were pumped from 23 wells at the Hoe Creek underground coal gasification site, near Gillette, Wyoming. The organic contaminants were removed using activated carbon before the water was sprayed on 15.4 acres at the sites. Approximately 2647 g (5.8 lb) of phenols and 10,714 g (23.6 lb) of benzene were removed from the site aquifers. Phenols, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and naphthalene concentrations were measured in 43 wells. Benzene is the only contaminant at the site exceeds the federal standard for drinking water (5 {mu}g/L). Benzene leaches into the groundwater and is slow to biologically degrade; therefore, the benzene concentration has remained high in the groundwater at the site. The pumping operation affected groundwater elevations across the entire 80-acre site. The water levels rebounded quickly when the pumping operation was stopped on October 1, 1989. Removing contaminated groundwater by pumping is not an effective way to clean up the site because the continuous release of benzene from coal tars is slow. Benzene will continue to leach of the tars for a long time unless its source is removed or the leaching rate retarded through mitigation techniques. The application of the treated groundwater to the surface stimulated plant growth. No adverse effects were noted or recorded from some 60 soil samples taken from twenty locations in the spray field area. 20 refs., 52 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Is Estonian oil shale beneficial in the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsalu, Enno

    1998-01-01

    Oil shale mining production reached its maximum level of 31.35·10 6 tonnes per year in 1980. After the eighties there was a steady decline in mining. The first scientific prognoses of the inescapable decrease in oil shale mining were published in 1988. According to this, the Estonian oil shale industry would vanish in the third decade of the next century. From the beginning of the nineties, the consumption and export of electricity have dropped in Estonia. The minimum level of oil shale mining was 13.5·10 6 tonnes per year. This occurred in 1994/1995. Some increase in consumption of electric power and oil shale began at the end of 1995. Oil shale processing began to increase gradually in 1993. Oil shale is the most important fuel in Estonia today. In 1997, oil shale provided 76% of Estonia's primary energy supply and accounted for 57% of its economic value. Oil shale is the cheapest fuel in Estonia. Nowadays, oil shale provides an essential part of the fuel supply in Estonia because it is considerably cheaper than other fuels. Oil shale costs EEK 12.16 per G J. At the same time, coal costs EEK 23.41 per G J and peat costs EEK 14.80 per G J (year 1997). There are three important customers of oil shale: the electric power company Eesti Energia, the oil processing company Kiviter and the factory Kunda Nordic Cement. In 1995, the power company utilised 81% of the oil shale mass and 77% of its heating value. The state energy policy inhibits increases in the oil shale price even though the mining infrastructure is decaying. Government price policies subside oil shale processing. The energy of oil shale processing is 1.9 times cheaper than the heating value of raw oil shale for power stations. It could be considered as a state subsidisation of oil and cement export at the expense of electricity. The subsidy assigned to oil processing was of EEK 124·10 6 and to the cement industry of EEK 8.4·10 6 in year 1997 (based on heating value). State regulation of prices and

  15. American shale gas in the European air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveau, L.

    2015-01-01

    Belgian scientists have detected ethane in atmosphere samples from Switzerland. The origin of this ethane is highly likely to be linked to the production of shale gas in Northern America. These concentrations of ethane have been increasing by 5% a year since 2009 while they had been steadily decreasing by about 1% a year over the 2 previous decades. These releases of ethane are massive since they are detected in Europe while ethane's lifetime in the atmosphere is only 2 months. Ethane is exclusively released from natural gas leaks during extraction operations or tank filling. A measurement campaign involving infrared spectrometry stations around the world have shown that ethane is released only in the northern hemisphere. It also appears that the beginning of the increase coincides with the beginning of the industrial exploitation of shale gas in the U.S. (A.C.)

  16. Adsorption of xenon and krypton on shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podosek, F. A.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Kramer, F. E.

    1981-01-01

    A method that uses a mass spectrometer as a manometer is employed in the measurement of Xe and Kr adsorption parameters on shales and related samples, where gas partial pressures were lower than 10 to the -11th atm, corresponding adsorption coverages are only small fractions of a monolayer, and Henry's Law behavior is expected and observed. Results show heats of adsorption in the 2-7 kcal/mol range, and Henry constants at 0-25 C of 1 cu cm STP/g per atmosphere are extrapolated. Although the adsorption properties obtained are variable by sample, the range obtained suggests that shales may be capable of an equilibrium adsorption with modern air high enough to account for a significant fraction of the atmospheric inventory of Xe, and perhaps even of Kr. This effect will nevertheless not account for the factor-of-25 defficiency of atmospheric Xe, in comparison with the planetary gas patterns observed in meteorites.

  17. Phase Equilibrium Modeling for Shale Production Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandoval Lemus, Diego Rolando

    is obtained for hydrocarbon mixtures. Such behavior is mainly caused by compositional changes in the bulk phase due to selective adsorption of the heavier components onto the rock, while the change in bubble point pressure is mainly due to capillary pressure. This study has developed several robust......Production of oil and gas from shale reservoirs has gained more attention in the past few decades due to its increasing economic feasibility and the size of potential sources around the world. Shale reservoirs are characterized by a more tight nature in comparison with conventional reservoirs......, having pore size distributions ranging in the nanometer scale. Such a confined nature introduces new challenges in the fluid phase behavior. High capillary forces can be experienced between the liquid and vapor, and selective adsorption of components onto the rock becomes relevant. The impact...

  18. Organic material of the Messel oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowski, B.; Littke, R.

    1986-05-01

    According to chemism, the Messel oil shales belong to the Kerogen type II, formed by algae with additions of huminite detritus, i.e. residues of higher plants. This has been confirmed by the organo-petrographic studies reported. The oil shale deposits are characterised by their content of organic materials, the occurrence of a cream-coloured inertinite maceral, and of siderite. Hence, two facies can be clearly discriminated, the lower one containing relatively much organic material and the cream-coloured inertinite, but no siderite, and the upper facies exhibiting just the opposite. As the detritus is finely grained and quite uniform in content of huminite and silicate material, and only few spores and pollen have been found, there is reason to assume that the two facies represent sediments formed far from the border of the lake.

  19. Subsidence prediction in Estonia's oil shale mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastarus, J.R.; Toomik, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper analysis the stability of the mining blocks in Estonian oil shale mines, where the room-and-pillar mining system is used. The pillars are arranged in a singular grid. The oil shale bed is embedded at the depth of 40-75 m. The processes in overburden rocks and pillars have caused the subsidence of the ground surface. The conditional thickness and sliding rectangle methods performed calculations. The results are presented by conditional thickness contours. Error does not exceed 4%. Model allows determining the parameters of spontaneous collapse of the pillars and surface subsidence. The surface subsidence parameters will be determined by conventional calculation scheme. Proposed method suits for stability analysis, failure prognosis and monitoring. 8 refs

  20. Use for refuse of shale carbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1917-09-25

    A process is disclosed for using the refuse from the carbonization of bituminous shales in the preparation of light building material, characterized in that the pulverized material is mixed wet with a light filler, formed in a mold, and burned with or without the addition of clay or with the addition of binding and preserving material, preparing the mold from the pulverized material in the cold.

  1. Isothermal decomposition of Baltic oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarna, A Ya

    1955-01-01

    Heating oil shale at 300/sup 0/ to 440/sup 0/C yields a primary tar. Longer heating, regardless of temperature, results in the formation of heavier tar fractions. Higher temperatures tend to increase the middle and high-boiling fractions and to increase the concentration of unsaturated hydrocarbons at the expense of saturated hydrocarbons. Phenols appear, even at lower heating temperatures, indicating that aromatic structures are present or generated during the process.

  2. Process for carbonizing coal, shale, wood, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthaei, K

    1924-05-08

    A process for carbonization of coal, shale, and wood, for recovering low temperature tar and other products in a rotary retort is described. The material to be carbonized is brought directly in contact with the heating medium, that is characterized in that the heating medium streams through the retort crosswise to the longitudinal axis. The temperature of this medium in the single retort segments can be regulated.

  3. Method of utilization of alum shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlerus, C G

    1908-07-04

    A procedure - by means of reducing smelting of bituminous alum shales in a closed furnace process with or without the use of additional fuel and without adding lime or other slag-forming material - to utilize the hydrocarbons and tar oils formed, and likewise the alkali, nitrogen, and sulfur compositions is given. This is accomplished by making these products follow the furnace gases, and later separating them from the gases by cooling for condensation. The patent contains one more claim.

  4. Shale gas. Opportunities and challenges for European energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Joode, J.; Plomp, A.J.; Ozdemir, O. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    The outline of the presentation shows the following elements: Introduction (Shale gas revolution in US and the situation in the EU); What could be the impact of potential shale gas developments on the European gas market?; How may shale gas developments affect the role of gas in the transition of the power sector?; and Key messages. The key messages are (1) Prospects for European shale gas widely differ from US case (different reserve potential, different competition, different market dynamics); (2) Shale gas is unlikely to be a game changer in Europe; and (3) Impact of shale gas on energy transition in the medium and long term crucially depends on gas vs. coal prices and the 'penalty' on CO2 emissions.

  5. Shale engineering application: the MAL-145 project in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassilellis, George D.; Li, Charles; Bust, Vivian K. [Gaffney, Cline and Associates (United States); Moos, Daniel; Cade, Randal [Baker Hughes Inc (United States)

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of conventional fossil fuels and the rising energy demand, oil shale and shale gas are becoming an important component of the oil and gas markets in North America. The aim of this paper is to present a novel methodology for predicting production in shale and tight formations. This method, known as the shale engineering approach and modeling, provides reservoir simulations based on modeling the propagation of the simulated rock volume. This technique was applied to an Upper Devonian shale formation in West Virginia, United States, and was compared to available data such as production logs and downhole microseismic data. Results showed a good match between the shale engineering approach data and early well performance. This paper presented a new reservoir simulation methodology which is successful in forecasting production and which can also be used for field development design and optimization.

  6. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  7. 78 FR 64003 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Jump Creek, Succor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...] Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Jump Creek, Succor Creek, and... Field Office Jump Creek, Succor Creek and Cow Creek Watersheds grazing permit renewal, and by this... in the Federal Register. ADDRESSES: Copies of the Jump Creek, Succor Creek and Cow Creek Watersheds...

  8. 78 FR 26065 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Jump Creek, Succor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ...] Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Jump Creek, Succor Creek, and... the Jump Creek, Succor Creek, and Cow Creek Watersheds Grazing Permit Renewal and by this notice is... receive written comments on the Draft EIS for the Jump Creek, Succor Creek, and Cow Creek Watersheds...

  9. Trace metal chemistry in the Marcellus shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bank, Tracy [University at Buffalo (United States)

    2010-07-01

    In recent years, due to the depletion of traditional fossil fuel resources and the rising price of energy, the production of unconventional gas has increased. Several black shales contain uranium both in insoluble species, U4+, and in soluble U6+ phase. Those two forms of uranium are weakly radioactive, however they are toxic and can lead to kidney and liver damage. The aim of this paper is to assess the oxidation state of uranium in the Marcellus shale formation. Samples were analyzed using several methods such as XRD, X-ray absorption near edge structure, and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry to determine the rock geochemistry and examine the interaction between the uranium and the hydrocarbons. It was found that uranium exists in both UO2 and U-C forms with a dominance of U6+. This study demonstrated that uranium is present in the Marcellus shale in both U4+ and U6+ states and that more research must therefore be undertaken to determine how to dispose of waste from drilling and fracking activities.

  10. The 'Shale Gas Revolution'. Hype and Reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, P.

    2010-09-01

    The 'shale gas revolution' - responsible for a huge increase in unconventional gas production in the US over the last couple of years - is creating huge investor uncertainties for international gas markets and renewables and could result in serious gas shortages in 10 years time. This report casts serious doubt over industry confidence in the 'revolution', questioning whether it can spread beyond the US, or indeed be maintained within it, as environmental concerns, high depletion rates and the fear that US circumstances may be impossible to replicate elsewhere, come to the fore. Investor uncertainty will reduce investment in future gas supplies to lower levels than would have happened had the 'shale gas revolution' not hit the headlines. While the markets will eventually solve this problem, rising gas demand and the long lead-in-times on most gas projects are likely to inflict high prices on consumers in the medium term. The uncertainties created by the 'shale gas revolution' are also likely to compound existing investor uncertainty in renewables for power generation in the aftermath of Copenhagen. The serious possibility of cheap, relatively clean gas may threaten investment in more expensive lower carbon technologies.

  11. Fugitive Emissions from the Bakken Shale Illustrate Role of Shale Production in Global Ethane Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort, E. A.; Smith, M. L.; Murray, L. T.; Gvakharia, A.; Brandt, A. R.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Sweeney, C.; Travis, K.

    2016-01-01

    Ethane is the second most abundant atmospheric hydrocarbon, exerts a strong influence on tropospheric ozone, and reduces the atmosphere's oxidative capacity. Global observations showed declining ethane abundances from 1984 to 2010, while a regional measurement indicated increasing levels since 2009, with the reason for this subject to speculation. The Bakken shale is an oil and gas-producing formation centered in North Dakota that experienced a rapid increase in production beginning in 2010. We use airborne data collected over the North Dakota portion of the Bakken shale in 2014 to calculate ethane emissions of 0.23 +/- 0.07 (2 sigma) Tg/yr, equivalent to 1-3% of total global sources. Emissions of this magnitude impact air quality via concurrent increases in tropospheric ozone. This recently developed large ethane source from one location illustrates the key role of shale oil and gas production in rising global ethane levels.

  12. Problem of Production of Shale Gas in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Nataliya K. Meden

    2014-01-01

    A bstract: Our magazine publishes a series of articles on shale gas in different countries. This article is about Germany, a main importer of Russian natural gas, so a perspective of exploitation of local shale gas resources is of a clear practical importance for Russia. We discuss external and internal factors which determine position of the German government concerning the shale gas excavation: policy of the USA and the EU, positions of German political parties, influence of the lobbying co...

  13. Is Shale Development Drilling Holes in the Human Capital Pipeline?

    OpenAIRE

    Rickman, Dan S.; Wang, Hongbo; Winters, John V.

    2016-01-01

    Using the Synthetic Control Method (SCM) and a novel method for measuring changes in educational attainment we examine the link between educational attainment and shale oil and gas extraction for the states of Montana, North Dakota, and West Virginia. The three states examined are economically-small, relatively more rural, and have high levels of shale oil and gas reserves. They also are varied in that West Virginia is intensive in shale gas extraction, while the other two are intensive in sh...

  14. A comprehensive environmental impact assessment method for shale gas development

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Renjin; Wang, Zhenjie

    2015-01-01

    The great success of US commercial shale gas exploitation stimulates the shale gas development in China, subsequently, the corresponding supporting policies were issued in the 12th Five-Year Plan. But from the experience in the US shale gas development, we know that the resulted environmental threats are always an unavoidable issue, but no uniform and standard evaluation system has yet been set up in China. The comprehensive environment refers to the combination of natural ecological environm...

  15. Burning Poseidonian shale ash for production of cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1919-10-28

    A process is described for the burning of shale coke obtained by the deoiling of Poseidonian or the usual kind of shale for the preparation of brick, mortar, or cement, characterized in that the shale coke is thrown on a pile and completely covered with burnt material, so that the gases drawn through this cover will be sufficiently choked to hold the feed at a high temperature as long as possible.

  16. Producing electricity from Israel oil shale with PFBC technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinberg, A.; Keren, M.; Podshivalov, V.; Anderson, J.

    2000-01-01

    Results of Israeli oil shale combustion at atmospheric pressure in the AFBC commercial boiler manufactured by Foster Wheeler Energia Oy (Finland) and in the pressurized test facility of ABB Carbon AB (Finspong, Sweden) confirm suitability of fluidized-bed technologies in case of oil shale. The results approve possibility to use the PFBC technology in case of oil shale after solving of some problems connected with great amounts of fine fly ash. (author)

  17. Research and information needs for management of oil shale development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-05-01

    This report presents information and analysis to assist BLM in clarifying oil shale research needs. It provides technical guidance on research needs in support of their regulatory responsibilities for onshore mineral activities involving oil shale. It provides an assessment of research needed to support the regulatory and managerial role of the BLM as well as others involved in the development of oil shale resources on public and Indian lands in the western United States.

  18. A Peek into 'Alamogordo Creek'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3 On its 825th Martian day (May 20, 2006), NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity stopped for the weekend to place its instrument arm onto the soil target pictured here, dubbed 'Alamogordo Creek.' Two views from the panoramic camera, acquired at about noon local solar time, are at the top. Below them is a close-up view from the microscopic imager. At upper left, a false-color view emphasizes differences among materials in rocks and soil. It combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 432-nanometer filters. At upper right is an approximately true-color rendering made with the panoramic camera's 600-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 480-nanometer filters. The microscopic-imager frame covers the area outlined by the white boxes in the panoramic-camera views, a rectangle 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. As Opportunity traverses to the south, it is analyzing soil and rocks along the way for differences from those seen earlier. At this site, the soil contains abundant small spherical fragments, thought to be hematite-rich concretions, plus finer-grained basaltic sand. Most of the spherical fragments seen in the microscopic image are smaller than those first seen at the rover's landing site in 'Eagle Crater,' some five kilometers (3.1 miles) to the north. However, a few larger spherical fragments and other rock fragments can also be seen in the panoramic-camera images.

  19. Acidization of shales with calcite cemented fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Kamil; Szymczak, Piotr; Jarosiński, Marek

    2017-04-01

    Investigation of cores drilled from shale formations reveals a relatively large number of calcite-cemented fractures. Usually such fractures are reactivated during fracking and can contribute considerably to the permeability of the resulting fracture network. However, calcite coating on their surfaces effectively excludes them from production. Dissolution of the calcite cement by acidic fluids is investigated numerically with focus on the evolution of fracture morphology. Available surface area, breakthrough time, and reactant penetration length are calculated. Natural fractures in cores from Pomeranian shale formation (northern Poland) were analyzed and classified. Representative fractures are relatively thin (0.1 mm), flat and completely sealed with calcite. Next, the morphology evolution of reactivated natural fractures treated with low-pH fluids has been simulated numerically under various operating conditions. Depth-averaged equations for fracture flow and reactant transport has been solved by finite-difference method coupled with sparse-matrix solver. Transport-limited dissolution has been considered, which corresponds to the treatment with strong acids, such as HCl. Calcite coating in reactivated natural fractures dissolves in a highly non-homogeneous manner - a positive feedback between fluid transport and calcite dissolution leads to the spontaneous formation of wormhole-like patterns, in which most of the flow is focused. The wormholes carry reactive fluids deeper inside the system, which dramatically increases the range of the treatment. Non-uniformity of the dissolution patterns provides a way of retaining the fracture permeability even in the absence of the proppant, since the less dissolved regions will act as supports to keep more dissolved regions open. Evolution of fracture morphology is shown to depend strongly on the thickness of calcite layer - the thicker the coating the more pronounced wormholes are observed. However the interaction between

  20. Water Resources Management for Shale Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoxtheimer, D.

    2015-12-01

    The increase in the exploration and extraction of hydrocarbons, especially natural gas, from shale formations has been facilitated by advents in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies. Shale energy resources are very promising as an abundant energy source, though environmental challenges exist with their development, including potential adverse impacts to water quality. The well drilling and construction process itself has the potential to impact groundwater quality, however if proper protocols are followed and well integrity is established then impacts such as methane migration or drilling fluids releases can be minimized. Once a shale well has been drilled and hydraulically fractured, approximately 10-50% of the volume of injected fluids (flowback fluids) may flow out of the well initially with continued generation of fluids (produced fluids) throughout the well's productive life. Produced fluid TDS concentrations often exceed 200,000 mg/L, with elevated levels of strontium (Sr), bromide (Br), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), barium (Ba), chloride (Cl), radionuclides originating from the shale formation as well as fracturing additives. Storing, managing and properly disposisng of these fluids is critical to ensure water resources are not impacted by unintended releases. The most recent data in Pennsylvania suggests an estimated 85% of the produced fluids were being recycled for hydraulic fracturing operations, while many other states reuse less than 50% of these fluids and rely moreso on underground injection wells for disposal. Over the last few years there has been a shift to reuse more produced fluids during well fracturing operations in shale plays around the U.S., which has a combination of economic, regulatory, environmental, and technological drivers. The reuse of water is cost-competitive with sourcing of fresh water and disposal of flowback, especially when considering the costs of advanced treatment to or disposal well injection and lessens

  1. Developments in production of synthetic fuels out of Estonian shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarna, Indrek

    2010-09-15

    Estonia is still the world leader in utilization of oil shale. Enefit has cooperated with Outotec to develop a new generation of solid heat carrier technology - Enefit280, which is more efficient, environmentally friendlier and has higher unit capacity. Breakeven price of oil produced in Enefit280 process is competitive with conventional oils. The new technology has advantages that allow easy adaptation to other oil shales around the world. Hydrotreated shale oil liquids have similar properties to crude oil cuts. Design for a shale oil hydrotreater unit can use process concepts, hardware components, and catalysts commercially proven in petroleum refining services.

  2. Gas pressure from a nuclear explosion in oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    The quantity of gas and the gas pressure resulting from a nuclear explosion in oil shale is estimated. These estimates are based on the thermal history of the rock during and after the explosion and the amount of gas that oil shale releases when heated. It is estimated that for oil shale containing less than a few percent of kerogen the gas pressure will be lower than the hydrostatic pressure. A field program to determine the effects of nuclear explosions in rocks that simulate the unique features of oil shale is recommended. (U.S.)

  3. Geothermal alteration of clay minerals and shales: diagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, C.E.

    1979-07-01

    The objective of this report is to perform a critical review of the data on the mineral and chemical alterations that occur during diagenesis and low-grade metamorphism of shale and other clay-rich rocks - conditions similar to those expected from emplacement of heat-producing radioactive waste in a geologic repository. The conclusions drawn in this document are that the following type of alterations could occur: smectite alteration, ion mobilization, illitic shales, kaolinite reactions, chlorite reactions, organic reactions, paleotemperatures, low temperature shales, high temperature shales, and phase equilibrium changes.

  4. Geothermal alteration of clay minerals and shales: diagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, C.E.

    1979-07-01

    The objective of this report is to perform a critical review of the data on the mineral and chemical alterations that occur during diagenesis and low-grade metamorphism of shale and other clay-rich rocks - conditions similar to those expected from emplacement of heat-producing radioactive waste in a geologic repository. The conclusions drawn in this document are that the following type of alterations could occur: smectite alteration, ion mobilization, illitic shales, kaolinite reactions, chlorite reactions, organic reactions, paleotemperatures, low temperature shales, high temperature shales, and phase equilibrium changes

  5. Thermal evolution and shale gas potential estimation of the Wealden and Posidonia Shale in NW-Germany and the Netherlands : a 3D basin modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruns, B.; Littke, R.; Gasparik, M.; van Wees, J.-D.; Nelskamp, S.

    Sedimentary basins in NW-Germany and the Netherlands represent potential targets for shale gas exploration in Europe due to the presence of Cretaceous (Wealden) and Jurassic (Posidonia) marlstones/shales as well as various Carboniferous black shales. In order to assess the regional shale gas

  6. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Nanticoke Creek stratified-drift aquifer, near Endicott, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitinger, Elizabeth A.; Kappel, William M.

    2014-01-01

    The Village of Endicott, New York, is seeking an alternate source of public drinking water with the potential to supplement their current supply, which requires treatment due to legacy contamination. The southerly-draining Nanticoke Creek valley, located north of the village, was identified as a potential water source and the local stratified-drift (valley fill) aquifer was investigated to determine its hydrogeologic and water-quality characteristics. Nanticoke Creek and its aquifer extend from the hamlet of Glen Aubrey, N.Y., to the village of Endicott, a distance of about 15 miles, where it joins the Susquehanna River and its aquifer. The glacial sediments that comprise the stratified-drift aquifer vary in thickness and are generally underlain by glacial till over Devonian-aged shale and siltstone. Groundwater is more plentiful in the northern part of the aquifer where sand and gravel deposits are generally more permeable than in the southern part of the aquifer where less-permeable unconsolidated deposits are found. Generally there is enough groundwater to supply most homeowner wells and in some cases, supply small public-water systems such as schools, mobile-home parks, and small commercial/industrial facilities. The aquifer is recharged by precipitation, runoff, and tributary streams. Most tributary streams flowing across alluvial deposits lose water to the aquifer as they flow off of their bedrock-lined channels and into the more permeable alluvial deposits at the edges of the valley. The quality of both surface water and groundwater is generally good. Some water wells do have water-quality issues related to natural constituents (manganese and iron) and several homeowners noted either the smell and (or) taste of hydrogen sulfide in their drinking water. Dissolved methane concentrations from five drinking-water wells were well below the potentially explosive value of 28 milligrams per liter. Samples from surface and groundwater met nearly all State and Federal

  7. Oil shales of the Lothians, Part III, the chemistry of the oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steuart, D R

    1912-01-01

    Tests were performed whereby fuller's earth and lycopodium spore dust were heated to retorting temperatures and the crude oil examined. Oil shale may be composed of the following: Vegetable matter that has been macerated and preserved by combining with salts, spores, and other such material that has been protected from decay, and a proportion of animal matter. Generally, oil shale may be considered as a torbanite that contains a large proportion of inorganic matter, or it may be a torbanite that has deteriorated with age. This supposition is based on the fact that oil yield decreases and the yield of ammonia increases with age.

  8. Oil shales of the Lothians. Part III. Chemistry of the oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steuart, D R

    1912-01-01

    Tests were performed whereby fuller's earth and lycopodium spore dust were heated to retorting temperatures and the crude oil examined. Oil shale may be composed of the following: vegetable matter that has been macerated and preserved by combining with salts, spores, and other such material that has been protected from decay, and a proportion of animal matter. Generally, oil shale may be considered as a torbanite that contains a large proportion of inorganic matter, or it may be a torbanite that has deteriorated with age. This supposition is based on the fact that oil yield decreases and the yield of ammonia increases with age.

  9. Experimental Study of Matrix Permeability of Gas Shale: An Application to CO2-Based Shale Fracturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengpeng Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Because the limitations of water-based fracturing fluids restrict their fracturing efficiency and scope of application, liquid CO2 is regarded as a promising substitute, owing to its unique characteristics, including its greater environmental friendliness, shorter clean-up time, greater adsorption capacity than CH4 and less formation damage. Conversely, the disadvantage of high leak-off rate of CO2 fracturing due to its very low viscosity determines its applicability in gas shales with ultra-low permeability, accurate measurement of shale permeability to CO2 is therefore crucial to evaluate the appropriate injection rate and total consumption of CO2. The main purpose of this study is to accurately measure shale permeability to CO2 flow during hydraulic fracturing, and to compare the leak-off of CO2 and water fracturing. A series of permeability tests was conducted on cylindrical shale samples 38 mm in diameter and 19 mm long using water, CO2 in different phases and N2 considering multiple influencing factors. According to the experimental results, the apparent permeability of shale matrix to gaseous CO2 or N2 is greatly over-estimated compared with intrinsic permeability or that of liquid CO2 due to the Klinkenberg effect. This phenomenon explains that the permeability values measured under steady-state conditions are much higher than those under transient conditions. Supercritical CO2 with higher molecular kinetic energy has slightly higher permeability than liquid CO2. The leak-off rate of CO2 is an order of magnitude higher than that of water under the same injection conditions due to its lower viscosity. The significant decrease of shale permeability to gas after water flooding is due to the water block effect, and much longer clean-up time and deep water imbibition depth greatly impede the gas transport from the shale matrix to the created fractures. Therefore, it is necessary to substitute water-based fracturing fluids with liquid or super

  10. Elevation - LiDAR Survey Minnehaha Creek, MN Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — LiDAR Bare-Earth Grid - Minnehaha Creek Watershed District. The Minnehaha Creek watershed is located primarily in Hennepin County, Minnesota. The watershed covers...

  11. Preliminary Chemical and Biological Assessment of Ogbe Creek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The study was aimed at assessing the quality of water from the Ogbe Creek ... indicated the impact of the perturbational stress on the organisms inhabiting the creek. ... experiences seasonal flooding which introduces a lot of detritus and ...

  12. Plankton biodiversity of Dharamtar creek adjoining Mumbai harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tiwari, L.R.; Nair, V.R.

    rich plankton community. However, recent industrial development along the banks of creek may pose the problem due to waste disposal into this creek system. Losses of marine life diversity are largely the results of conflicting uses, in particular...

  13. Steel Creek water quality: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, November 1985--December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, J.A.; Kretchmer, D.W.; Chimney, M.J.

    1992-04-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet envirorunental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems

  14. Supersonic Testing of 0.8 m Disk Gap Band Parachutes in the Wake of a 70 Deg Sphere Cone Entry Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Anita; Wernet, Mark; Roeder, James; Kelsch, Richard; Witkowski, Al; Jones, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Supersonic wind tunnel testing of Viking-type 0.8 m Disk-Gap-Band (DGB) parachutes was conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center 10'x10' wind-tunnel. The tests were conducted in support of the Mars Science Laboratory Parachute Decelerator System development and qualification program. The aerodynamic coupling of the entry-vehicle wake to parachute flow-field is under investigation to determine the cause and functional dependence of a supersonic canopy breathing phenomenon referred to as area oscillations, characteristic of DGB's above Mach 1.5 operation. Four percent of full-scale parachutes (0.8 m) were constructed similar to the flight-article in material and construction techniques. The parachutes were attached to a 70-deg sphere-cone entry-vehicle to simulate the Mars flight configuration. The parachutes were tested in the wind-tunnel from Mach 2 to 2.5 in a Reynolds number range of 2x105 to 1x106, representative of a Mars deployment. Three different test configurations were investigated. In the first two configurations, the parachutes were constrained horizontally through the vent region to measure canopy breathing and wake interaction for fixed trim angles of 0 and 10 degrees from the free-stream. In the third configuration the parachute was unconstrained, permitted to trim and cone, similar to free-flight (but capsule motion is constrained), varying its alignment relative to the entry-vehicle wake. Non-intrusive test diagnostics were chosen to quantify parachute performance and provide insight into the flow field structure. An in-line loadcell provided measurement of unsteady and mean drag. Shadowgraph of the upstream parachute flow field was used to capture bow-shock motion and wake coupling. Particle image velocimetry provided first and second order flow field statistics over a planar region of the flow field, just upstream of the parachute. A photogrammetric technique was used to quantify fabric motion using multiple high speed video cameras to record

  15. Streamflow conditions along Soldier Creek, Northeast Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2017-11-14

    The availability of adequate water to meet the present (2017) and future needs of humans, fish, and wildlife is a fundamental issue for the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation in northeast Kansas. Because Soldier Creek flows through the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation Reservation, it is an important tribal resource. An understanding of historical Soldier Creek streamflow conditions is required for the effective management of tribal water resources, including drought contingency planning. Historical data for six selected U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages along Soldier Creek were used in an assessment of streamflow characteristics and trends by Juracek (2017). Streamflow data for the period of record at each streamgage were used to compute annual mean streamflow, annual mean base flow, mean monthly flow, annual peak flow, and annual minimum flow. Results of the assessment are summarized in this fact sheet.

  16. Flood-inundation maps for Indian Creek and Tomahawk Creek, Johnson County, Kansas, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Arin J.; Studley, Seth E.

    2016-01-25

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.4-mile upper reach of Indian Creek from College Boulevard to the confluence with Tomahawk Creek, a 3.9-mile reach of Tomahawk Creek from 127th Street to the confluence with Indian Creek, and a 1.9-mile lower reach of Indian Creek from the confluence with Tomahawk Creek to just beyond the Kansas/Missouri border at State Line Road in Johnson County, Kansas, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the city of Overland Park, Kansas. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the U.S. Geological Survey Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgages on Indian Creek at Overland Park, Kansas; Indian Creek at State Line Road, Leawood, Kansas; and Tomahawk Creek near Overland Park, Kansas. Near real time stages at these streamgages may be obtained on the Web from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis or the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at these sites.Flood profiles were computed for the stream reaches by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated for each reach by using the most current stage-discharge relations at the streamgages. The hydraulic models were then used to determine 15 water-surface profiles for Indian Creek at Overland Park, Kansas; 17 water-surface profiles for Indian Creek at State Line Road, Leawood, Kansas; and 14 water-surface profiles for Tomahawk Creek near Overland Park, Kansas, for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to the next interval above the 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability flood level (500-year recurrence interval). The

  17. Upper Paleozoic Marine Shale Characteristics and Exploration Prospects in the Northwestern Guizhong Depression, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenhong; Yao, Genshun; Lou, Zhanghua; Jin, Aimin; Zhu, Rong; Jin, Chong; Chen, Chao

    2018-05-01

    Multiple sets of organic-rich shales developed in the Upper Paleozoic of the northwestern Guizhong Depression in South China. However, the exploration of these shales is presently at a relatively immature stage. The Upper Paleozoic shales in the northwestern Guizhong Depression, including the Middle Devonian Luofu shale, the Nabiao shale, and the Lower Carboniferous Yanguan shale, were investigated in this study. Mineral composition analysis, organic matter analysis (including total organic carbon (TOC) content, maceral of kerogen and the vitrinite reflection (Ro)), pore characteristic analysis (including porosity and permeability, pore type identification by SEM, and pore size distribution by nitrogen sorption), methane isothermal sorption test were conducted, and the distribution and thickness of the shales were determined, Then the characteristics of the two target shales were illustrated and compared. The results show that the Upper Paleozoic shales have favorable organic matter conditions (mainly moderate to high TOC content, type I and II1 kerogen and high to over maturity), good fracability potential (brittleness index (BI) > 40%), multiple pore types, stable distribution and effective thickness, and good methane sorption capacity. Therefore, the Upper Paleozoic shales in the northern Guizhong Depression have good shale gas potential and exploration prospects. Moreover, the average TOC content, average BI, thickness of the organic-rich shale (TOC > 2.0 wt%) and the shale gas resources of the Middle Devonian shales are better than those of the Lower Carboniferous shale. The Middle Devonian shales have better shale gas potential and exploration prospects than the Lower Carboniferous shales.

  18. CREEK Project's Phytoplankton Pigment Monitoring Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The CREEK Project began in January of 1996 and was designed to help determine the role of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in tidal creeks of the North Inlet Estuary,...

  19. 77 FR 5201 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice... operation of the Baltimore County highway bridge at Wise Avenue across Bear Creek, mile 3.4, between Dundalk... Avenue across Bear Creek, mile 3.4 between Dundalk and Sparrows Point, MD. This change would require the...

  20. Radioactive contamination of oil produced from nuclear-broken shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, W.D.; Crouse, D.J.

    1970-01-01

    The results of small-scale exposure and retorting tests indicate that oil recovered from shale that has been broken with nuclear explosives will be contaminated with tritium. When oil shale was heated in sealed flasks with tritiated water vapor or with tritiated hydrogen, both the shale and the oil subsequently retorted from the shale contained tritium. There was much less contamination of the shale or oil, however, when the shale was exposed to tritiated methane and ethane. Contamination of shale and oil with tritium, as the result, of exposure to tritiated water, increased as the exposure temperature, exposure pressure, and the tritium concentration in the water were increased. This contamination also increased as the exposure time was increased up to 25 days, but not significantly thereafter. More than 90% of the tritium was removed from contaminated shale by treating the shale with moist air at elevated temperatures. Only small amounts of the tritium were removed from crude oil by contacting it with solid drying agents or with water. When tritium-contaminated shale oil was distilled, the tritium contents of the recovered fractions were found to be approximately equal. After being heated with a sample of underground test-shot debris, liquid shale oil became contaminated with radioactive fission products. Most of the radioactivity of the oil was due to finely dispersed solids rather than to dissolved radionuclides. Filtration of the oil removed a major fraction of the radioactive material. When the contaminated oil was distilled, more than 99% of the radionuclides remained in the pot residue. (author)

  1. A review on technologies for oil shale surface retort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Y.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S.; Yang, S.A.; Ren, N.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, with the shortage of oil resources and the continuous increase in oil prices, oil shale has seized much more attention. Oil shale is a kind of important unconventional oil and gas resources. Oil shale resources are plentiful according to the proven reserves in places. And shale oil is far richer than crude oil in the world. Technology processing can be divided into two categories: surface retorting and in-situ technology. The process and equipment of surface retorting are more mature, and are still up to now, the main way to produce shale oil from oil shale. According to the variations of the particle size, the surface retorting technologies of oil shale can be notified and classified into two categories such as lump shale process and particulate shale process. The lump shale processes introduced in this article include the Fushun retorting technology, the Kiviter technology and the Petrosix technology; the particulate processes include the Gloter technology, the LR technology, the Tosco-II technology, the ATP (Alberta Taciuk Process) technology and the Enefit-280 technology. After the thorough comparison of these technologies, we can notice that, this article aim is to show off that : the particulate process that is environmentally friendly, with its low cost and high economic returns characteristics, will be the major development trend; Combined technologies of surface retorting technology and other oil producing technology should be developed; the comprehensive utilization of oil shale should be considered during the development of surface retorting technology, meanwhile the process should be harmless to the environment. (author)

  2. Oil shale research related to proposed nuclear projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, H C; Sohns, H W; Dinneen, G U [Laramie Petroleum Research Center, Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior, Laramie, WY (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The Bureau of Mines is conducting research to develop data pertinent to in situ retorting of oil shale fractured by a nuclear explosion or other means. Maximum utilization of the Green River oil shale found in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming, at depths ranging from outcrops to several thousand feet, requires development of several methods of processing. Early research was devoted to developing processes for application to oil shale occurring at depths suitable for mining. In present research, the emphasis is on in situ retorting and recovery processes that would be more satisfactory for oil shales occurring at greater depths. Development of an in situ process depends upon finding or establishing sufficient permeability in the oil shale beds for the passage of fluids which serve as a heat carrier in bringing the oil shale to retorting temperature. Use of a nuclear explosive seems to offer the best chance for successfully fracturing the thicker and more deeply buried portions of the deposit to give the required permeability. Processing the very large quantity of broken and fractured oil shale that would be produced presents many problems which require new background data for their solution. This paper describes research the Bureau of Mines is conducting to develop pertinent data. Primarily this research involves laboratory determination of properties of oil shale, pilot scale investigation of retorting characteristics of ungraded broken shale, and underground combustion of shale fractured by pressure and chemical explosives. Application of the research results should aid in designing the oil recovery phase and provide an estimate of the quantity of oil that may be obtained in a nuclear experiment in oil shale. (author)

  3. Oil shale research related to proposed nuclear projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, H.C.; Sohns, H.W.; Dinneen, G.U.

    1970-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines is conducting research to develop data pertinent to in situ retorting of oil shale fractured by a nuclear explosion or other means. Maximum utilization of the Green River oil shale found in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming, at depths ranging from outcrops to several thousand feet, requires development of several methods of processing. Early research was devoted to developing processes for application to oil shale occurring at depths suitable for mining. In present research, the emphasis is on in situ retorting and recovery processes that would be more satisfactory for oil shales occurring at greater depths. Development of an in situ process depends upon finding or establishing sufficient permeability in the oil shale beds for the passage of fluids which serve as a heat carrier in bringing the oil shale to retorting temperature. Use of a nuclear explosive seems to offer the best chance for successfully fracturing the thicker and more deeply buried portions of the deposit to give the required permeability. Processing the very large quantity of broken and fractured oil shale that would be produced presents many problems which require new background data for their solution. This paper describes research the Bureau of Mines is conducting to develop pertinent data. Primarily this research involves laboratory determination of properties of oil shale, pilot scale investigation of retorting characteristics of ungraded broken shale, and underground combustion of shale fractured by pressure and chemical explosives. Application of the research results should aid in designing the oil recovery phase and provide an estimate of the quantity of oil that may be obtained in a nuclear experiment in oil shale. (author)

  4. Radioactive contamination of oil produced from nuclear-broken shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, W D; Crouse, D J

    1970-05-15

    The results of small-scale exposure and retorting tests indicate that oil recovered from shale that has been broken with nuclear explosives will be contaminated with tritium. When oil shale was heated in sealed flasks with tritiated water vapor or with tritiated hydrogen, both the shale and the oil subsequently retorted from the shale contained tritium. There was much less contamination of the shale or oil, however, when the shale was exposed to tritiated methane and ethane. Contamination of shale and oil with tritium, as the result, of exposure to tritiated water, increased as the exposure temperature, exposure pressure, and the tritium concentration in the water were increased. This contamination also increased as the exposure time was increased up to 25 days, but not significantly thereafter. More than 90% of the tritium was removed from contaminated shale by treating the shale with moist air at elevated temperatures. Only small amounts of the tritium were removed from crude oil by contacting it with solid drying agents or with water. When tritium-contaminated shale oil was distilled, the tritium contents of the recovered fractions were found to be approximately equal. After being heated with a sample of underground test-shot debris, liquid shale oil became contaminated with radioactive fission products. Most of the radioactivity of the oil was due to finely dispersed solids rather than to dissolved radionuclides. Filtration of the oil removed a major fraction of the radioactive material. When the contaminated oil was distilled, more than 99% of the radionuclides remained in the pot residue. (author)

  5. Shale oil potential and thermal maturity of the Lower Toarcian Posidonia Shale in NW Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, J.; Littke, R.; Weniger, P.; Ostertag-Henning, C.; Nelskamp, S.

    2015-01-01

    A suite of drilling cores and outcrop samples of the Lower Toarcian Posidonia Shale (PS) were collected from multiple locations including the Swabian Alb and Franconian Alb of Southwest-Germany, Runswick Bay of UK and Loon op Zand well (LOZ-1) of the West Netherlands Basin. In order to assess the

  6. Wind tunnel tests of modified cross, hemisflo, and disk-gap-band parachutes with emphasis in the transonic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foughner, J. T., Jr.; Alexander, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    Transonic wind-tunnel studies were conducted with modified cross, hemisflo, and disk-gap-band parachute models in the wake of a cone-cylinder shape forebody. The basic cross design was modified with the addition of a circumferential constraining band at the lower edge of the canopy panels. The tests covered a Mach number range of 0.3 to 1.2 and a dynamic pressure range from 479 Newtons per square meter to 5746 Newtons per square meter. The parachute models were flexible textile-type structures and were tethered to a rigid forebody with a single flexible riser. Different size models of the modified cross and disk-gap-band canopies were tested to evaluate scale effects. Model reference diameters were 0.30, 0.61, and 1.07 meters (1.0, 2.0, and 3.5 ft) for the modified cross; and nominal diameters of 0.25 and 0.52 meter (0.83 and 1.7 ft) for the disk-gap-band; and 0.55 meter (1.8 ft) for the hemisflo. Reefing information is presented for the 0.61-meter-diameter cross and the 0.52-meter-diameter disk-gap-band. Results are presented in the form of the variation of steady-state average drag coefficient with Mach number. General stability characteristics of each parachute are discussed. Included are comments on canopy coning, spinning, and fluttering motions.

  7. Marine shale and the Hazwaste recycling debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports that Marine Shale Processors, Inc. (St. Rose, La.), and the Hazardous Waste Treatment Council (Washington, D.C.), an industry trade association, are at the focus of a controversy whose resolution has significant implications for the respective definitions, concepts and legal statuses of hazardous-waste incineration and recycling. Marine Shale Processors (MSP) claims it recycles hazardous wastes from a variety of government and commercial sources by blending it and treating it thermally in a large rotary kiln to produce non-hazardous aggregate material, which is sold for construction, road-building or other purposes. The Hazardous Waste Treatment Council (HWTC) and others allege that, under the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), MSP is operating an unpermitted hazardous-waste incinerator. According to HWTC officials, MSP's identification as a recycler is inappropriate and has allowed the company unfairly to avoid permitting costs and formal compliance with RCRA standards and regulations. Recently, the Louisiana legislature passed laws declaring that hazardous-waste recyclers in the state must meet the same standards as permitted hazardous-waste incinerators. At press time, a hearing before the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality to determine MSP's status as a recycler under the new laws was set for Sept. 29. Since all parties in the debate over Marine Shale's industry role appear to agree that the controversy is central to the emerging issue of establishing clear distinctions between recycling and hazardous-waste destruction, this article describes the arguments on both sides as these stood in mid-September

  8. Utica Shale Energy and Environment Laboratory (USEEL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Despite the rapid growth of the UOG industry in the Appalachian Basin of Pennsylvania and neighboring states, there are still fundamental concerns regarding the environmentally sound and cost efficient extraction of this unique asset. To address these concerns, Ohio State University has established the Department of Energy-funded Utica Shale Energy and Environment Laboratory, a dedicated research program where scientists from the university will work with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), academia, industry, and regulatory partners, to measure and monitor reservoir response to UOG development and any associated environmental concerns. The USEEL site will be located in Greene County, Pennsylvania, in the heart of the deep Utica-Pt. Pleasant Shale play of the Appalachian Basin. The USEEL project team will characterize and quantify the gas-producing attributes of one of the deepest portions of the Utica-Pt. Pleasant formations in the Appalachian Basin via a multi-disciplinary collaboration that leverages state-of-the-art capabilities in geochemistry, core assessment, well design and logging, 3-D and micro-seismic, DTS and DAS fiber optics, and reservoir modelling. Fracture and rock strength analyses will be complemented by a comprehensive suite of geophysical and geochemical logs, water and chip samples, and cores (pressure sidewall and whole core) to evaluate fluids, mineral alteration, microbes, pore structure, and hydrocarbon formation and alteration in the shale pore space. Located on an existing Marcellus drill pads in southwestern Pennsylvania, USEEL will provide an unprecedented opportunity to evaluate the economic and environmental effects of Marcellus pad expansion on the integrity of near-by existing production wells, ground disruption and slope stability, and ultimate efforts to conduct site reclamation. Combined with the overall goal of an improved understanding of the Utica-Pt. Pleasant system, USEEL

  9. Shale gas wastewater management under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Sun, Alexander Y; Duncan, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an optimization framework for evaluating different wastewater treatment/disposal options for water management during hydraulic fracturing (HF) operations. This framework takes into account both cost-effectiveness and system uncertainty. HF has enabled rapid development of shale gas resources. However, wastewater management has been one of the most contentious and widely publicized issues in shale gas production. The flowback and produced water (known as FP water) generated by HF may pose a serious risk to the surrounding environment and public health because this wastewater usually contains many toxic chemicals and high levels of total dissolved solids (TDS). Various treatment/disposal options are available for FP water management, such as underground injection, hazardous wastewater treatment plants, and/or reuse. In order to cost-effectively plan FP water management practices, including allocating FP water to different options and planning treatment facility capacity expansion, an optimization model named UO-FPW is developed in this study. The UO-FPW model can handle the uncertain information expressed in the form of fuzzy membership functions and probability density functions in the modeling parameters. The UO-FPW model is applied to a representative hypothetical case study to demonstrate its applicability in practice. The modeling results reflect the tradeoffs between economic objective (i.e., minimizing total-system cost) and system reliability (i.e., risk of violating fuzzy and/or random constraints, and meeting FP water treatment/disposal requirements). Using the developed optimization model, decision makers can make and adjust appropriate FP water management strategies through refining the values of feasibility degrees for fuzzy constraints and the probability levels for random constraints if the solutions are not satisfactory. The optimization model can be easily integrated into decision support systems for shale oil/gas lifecycle

  10. Sedimentation Study and Flume Investigation, Mission Creek, Santa Barbara, California; Corte Madera Creek, Marin County, California

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Copeland, Ronald

    2000-01-01

    .... An existing concrete-lined flood control channel on Corte Madera Creek in Marin County, California lacks a debris basin at its upstream terminus and carries significant bed load through a supercritical flow reach...

  11. CREEK Project's Oyster Biomass Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight tidal creeks dominated by oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated BACI (Before -...

  12. Market analysis of shale oil co-products. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Data are presented in these appendices on the marketing and economic potential for soda ash, aluminia, and nahcolite as by-products of shale oil production. Appendices 1 and 2 contain data on the estimated capital and operating cost of an oil shales/mineral co-products recovery facility. Appendix 3 contains the marketing research data.

  13. Liquid oil production from shale gas condensate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, James J.

    2018-04-03

    A process of producing liquid oil from shale gas condensate reservoirs and, more particularly, to increase liquid oil production by huff-n-puff in shale gas condensate reservoirs. The process includes performing a huff-n-puff gas injection mode and flowing the bottom-hole pressure lower than the dew point pressure.

  14. Study on geochemical occurrences of REE in Wangqing oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Jing-ru; Wang, Qing; Liu, Tong; Wei, Yan-zhen; Bai, Zhang [Northeast Dianli Univ., Jilin (China). Engineering Research Centre

    2013-07-01

    Sequential chemical extraction experiment (SCEE) and Float- sink experiment (FSE) have been employed on oil shale research from Wangqing, Jilin province China, in order to determine the binding forms of rare earth elements (REE) in oil shale. The REE contents were determined by the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Wangqing oil shale was screened into specific gravity density level: <1.5g/cm{sup 3}, 1.5-1.6g/cm{sup 3}, 1.6-2.0g/cm{sup 3}, 2.0-2.4g/cm{sup 3}, >2.4g/cm{sup 3}. The mode of occurrences of rare earth elements in Wangqing oil shale was studied by six-step SCEE. FSE results show that REEs in Wangqing oil shale exist mainly in inorganic minerals and more in excluded mineral, while SCEE results show that REEs of Wangqing oil shale is primarily occurred in minerals, including carbonate, Fe-Mn oxide, sulfide, and Si-minerals. FSE and SCEE results fully illustrate excluded mineral is mainly mode of occurrence of REEs in Wangqing oil shale, whereas inorganic minerals and organic matter is not that. The REE distribution pattern curves of FSE density and SCEE fraction products are similar with that of raw oil shale. The REE in different densities products has a close connection with terrigenous clastic rock, and the supply of terrestrial material is stable.

  15. Shale Gas in Europe: pragmatic perspectives and actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, A.; Horsfield, B.; Kapp, I.

    2012-10-01

    Natural gas will continue to play a key role in the EU's energy mix in the coming years, with unconventional gas' role increasing in importance as new resources are exploited worldwide. As far as Europe's own shale gas resources are concerned, it is especially the public's perception and level of acceptance that will make or break shale gas in the near-term. Both the pros and cons need to be discussed based on factual argument rather than speculation. Research organizations such as ours (GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences) have an active and defining role to play in remedying this deficiency. As far as science and technology developments are concerned, the project "Gas Shales in Europe" (GASH) and the shale gas activities of "GeoEnergie" (GeoEn) are the first major initiatives in Europe focused on shale gas. Basic and applied geoscientific research is conducted to understand the fundamental nature and interdependencies of the processes leading to shale gas formation. When it comes to knowledge transfer, the perceived and real risks associated with shale gas exploitation need immediate evaluation in Europe using scientific analysis. To proactively target these issues, the GFZ and partners are launching the European sustainable Operating Practices (E-SOP) Initiative for Unconventional Resources. The web-based Shale Gas Information Platform (SHIP) brings these issues into the public domain.

  16. Updated methodology for nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Birdwell, Justin E.

    2013-08-01

    Unconventional petroleum resources, particularly in shales, are expected to play an increasingly important role in the world's energy portfolio in the coming years. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), particularly at low-field, provides important information in the evaluation of shale resources. Most of the low-field NMR analyses performed on shale samples rely heavily on standard T1 and T2 measurements. We present a new approach using solid echoes in the measurement of T1 and T1-T2 correlations that addresses some of the challenges encountered when making NMR measurements on shale samples compared to conventional reservoir rocks. Combining these techniques with standard T1 and T2 measurements provides a more complete assessment of the hydrogen-bearing constituents (e.g., bitumen, kerogen, clay-bound water) in shale samples. These methods are applied to immature and pyrolyzed oil shale samples to examine the solid and highly viscous organic phases present during the petroleum generation process. The solid echo measurements produce additional signal in the oil shale samples compared to the standard methodologies, indicating the presence of components undergoing homonuclear dipolar coupling. The results presented here include the first low-field NMR measurements performed on kerogen as well as detailed NMR analysis of highly viscous thermally generated bitumen present in pyrolyzed oil shale.

  17. Implementation of an anisotropic mechanical model for shale in Geodyn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attia, A; Vorobiev, O; Walsh, S

    2015-05-15

    The purpose of this report is to present the implementation of a shale model in the Geodyn code, based on published rock material models and properties that can help a petroleum engineer in his design of various strategies for oil/gas recovery from shale rock formation.

  18. Chemical examination of the organic matter in oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, J B

    1914-01-01

    The analyses of Broxburn (Scotland), Pumpherston (Scotland), Armadale (Scotland), Australian, and Knightsbridge oil shales were given. Also, the action of nitric acid and solvents on some of the oil shales was determined. Carbon-hydrogen ratios of the oil shales varied from 6 to more than 8, and the shales with the lowest ratio (most hydrogen per carbon) produced the largest amount of oil from a given amount of organic matter. There was little resinous material in the oil shales, and most of the organic matter was insoluble in organic solvents. Nitric acid oxidized Australian torbanite, Broxburn shale, New Battle cannel coal (Scotland), and Glenfullock peat to organic acids. The hydrogen content of the organic acids obtained by oxidizing the following materials increased from ordinary coal to cannel coal to peat to Broxburn shale to torbanite. The organic substance in oil shale is a decomposition product of vegetable matter similar to that found in peat and cannel coal, and it was produced by a definite combination of external conditions.

  19. A comparative assessment of the economic benefits from shale gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kirstam

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... 2Key words: shale gas extraction, economy-wide modelling, CGE, exhaustible resources, energy .... specific shale plays, whereas the UK may not attract the supply chain to specific plays to the same extent. ..... of fracking may require notable quantities of labour (i.e. the weakness of fracking is that the ...

  20. Shale Gas in Europe: pragmatic perspectives and actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horsfield B.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas will continue to play a key role in the EU’s energy mix in the coming years, with unconventional gas’ role increasing in importance as new resources are exploited worldwide. As far as Europe’s own shale gas resources are concerned, it is especially the public’s perception and level of acceptance that will make or break shale gas in the near-term. Both the pros and cons need to be discussed based on factual argument rather than speculation. Research organizations such as ours (GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences have an active and defining role to play in remedying this deficiency. As far as science and technology developments are concerned, the project “Gas Shales in Europe” (GASH and the shale gas activities of “GeoEnergie” (GeoEn are the first major initiatives in Europe focused on shale gas. Basic and applied geoscientific research is conducted to understand the fundamental nature and interdependencies of the processes leading to shale gas formation. When it comes to knowledge transfer, the perceived and real risks associated with shale gas exploitation need immediate evaluation in Europe using scientific analysis. To proactively target these issues, the GFZ and partners are launching the European sustainable Operating Practices (E-SOP Initiative for Unconventional Resources. The web-based Shale Gas Information Platform (SHIP brings these issues into the public domain.

  1. Oil shale energy and some alternatives in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oepik, I.

    2002-01-01

    An academic lecture delivered by prof. Ilmar Oepik at the Thermal Engineering Department of Tallinn Technical University in Dec. 2000 to mark the 120 semesters since the cum laude diploma of a mechanical engineer discusses about ineffective utilization of oil shale and developing renewable resources as an alternative to oil shale

  2. Exploring support for shale gas extraction in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson-Hudson, Jessica; Knight, William; Humphrey, Mathew; O’Hara, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The development of shale gas in the United Kingdom (UK) using hydraulic fracturing, more commonly known as ‘fracking’, remains in its infancy. Yet understanding public attitudes for this fledgling industry is important for future policy considerations, decision-making and for industry stakeholders. This study uses data collected from the University of Nottingham, UK nationwide online survey (n=3823) conducted in September 2014, to consider ten hypothesises about the UK public's attitudes towards shale gas. From the survey data we can see that 43.11% of respondents support shale gas extraction in the UK. Furthermore, our results show that women, class DE respondents, non-Conservative party supporters, and respondents who positively associate shale gas with water contamination or earthquakes are less likely to support the extraction of shale gas in the UK. We also discuss potential policy implications for the UK government arising from these findings. - Highlights: • September 2014 survey of British attitudes towards allowing shale gas extraction. • Over 75% or respondents correctly identify shale gas. • 43.11% of respondents support shale gas extraction in the UK.

  3. The Geopolitical Impact of Shale Gas : The Modelling Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auping, W.L.; De Jong, S.; Pruyt, E.; Kwakkel, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    The US’ shale gas revolution, a spectacular increase in natural gas extraction from previously unconventional sources, has led to considerable lower gas prices in North America. This study focusses on consequences of the shale gas revolution on state stability of traditional oil and gas exporting

  4. Apparatus for recovering oil from Posidonien shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-04-13

    Equipment for recovering oil from shale and the like, as well as the distilling of coal is characterized in that a number of chambers provided in a known way with upper and lower air supply are arranged open to the receiver of the oil vapors through removable domes which can be attached to the usual oil-vapor carry-off. Arrangement is characterized in that the domes are movable to the side, so that they can be interchangeably attached to the different chambers.

  5. Destructive distillation of shale, torbanite, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lensvelt, M W

    1931-09-21

    In the production of oil by the distillation of coal, shale, torbanite, or the like below 600/sup 0/C the occurrence of tarry matters, free carbon, ammonia, or sulfur compounds in the oils is prevented by the addition of an alkali such as caustic soda, or an alkaline earth as lime, to which sodium carbonate may be added. The carbonaceous material is ground to pass through a 20 mesh screen, and is treated for example with a slurry of quicklime having an addition of sodium carbonate, the adherent water being evaporated before the material is passed into the retort.

  6. Catalytic gasification of oil-shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.; Avakyan, T. [I.M. Gubkin Russian State Univ. of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation); Strizhakova, Yu. [Samara State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays, the problem of complex usage of solid fossil fuels as raw materials for obtaining of motor fuels and chemical products is becoming increasingly important. A one of possible solutions of the problem is their gasification with further processing of gaseous and liquid products. In this work we have investigated the process of thermal and catalytic gasification of Baltic and Kashpir oil-shales. We have shown that, as compared with non-catalytic process, using of nickel catalyst in the reaction increases the yield of gas, as well as hydrogen content in it, and decreases the amount of liquid products. (orig.)

  7. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaines, Robert R.; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Hou, Xianguang

    2012-01-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted......-oxygen bottom water conditions at the sites of deposition resulted in reduced oxidant availability. Subsequently, rapid entombment of fossils in fine-grained sediments and early sealing of sediments by pervasive carbonate cements at bed tops restricted oxidant flux into the sediments. A permeability barrier...

  8. Dressing coals, shales, and the like

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osawa, H

    1938-12-28

    A process for dressing coals, shales, and like carbonaceous substances with the use of floating and sinking phenomena caused by differences in the specific gravities of the substances to be separated in the dressing operation is characterized by the use as the dressing medium of an aqueous suspension of clay and finely ground pyrite or iron ore cinder, or finely ground easily pulverizable iron ore, such as earthy or granular limonite. The aqueous suspension has a low viscosity and a specific gravity between 1.35 and 1.70.

  9. Drywell corrosion stopped at Oyster Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipford, B.L.; Flynn, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the detection of corrosion on the drywell containment vessel of Oyster Creek Nuclear Plant and the application of a protective coating to repair the drywell. The topics of the article include drywell design features, identification of the problem, initial action, drywell corrosion, failure of cathodic protection, long-term repair, and repair results

  10. Geology of the Teakettle Creek watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert S. LaMotte

    1937-01-01

    The Teakettle Creek Experimental Watersheds lie for the most part on quartzites of probable Triassic age. However one of the triplicate drainages has a considerable acreage developed on weathered granodiorite. Topography is relatively uniform and lends itself to triplicate watershed studies. Locations for dams are suitable if certain engineering precautions...

  11. Tidal mixing in Dahej creek waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.; Sarma, R.V.

    Mixing characteristics of a tidal inlet near Dahej at the mouth of Narmada River, Gujarat, India are examined in terms of tides, currents and bathymetry. The dilution potential of the Dahej Creek waters during a tidal march for a given rate...

  12. Species status of Mill Creek Elliptio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G.M. [Academy of Natural Sciences (United States); Mulvey, M. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This report discusses environmental effects of the Savannah River Plant on aqautic populations in Mill Creek and surrounding tributaries. Of particular concern was the status of Elliptio. Genetics and phenotypic characteristics have shown that the current classification system is not adequate for these populations. The appendices characterize genetic variability at different loci, electrophoretic data, allele frequencies, sympatric species, and anatomical characters.

  13. UTILIZING CREEKS FOR INTEGRATED RURAL COASTAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-02-09

    Feb 9, 2013 ... This study examines the Utilization of Creeks for Integrated Coastal Development of Ilaje ... utilization, poor fishing techniques, poor sources of water and navigation routes, and manual ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. 6 No.3 .... together, implement, monitor and evaluate.

  14. Collaborative monitoring in Walnut Creek, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidi Ballard; Ralph Kraetsch; Lynn Huntsinger

    2002-01-01

    In 1995 and 2000, a monitoring program was designed and implemented to track oak regeneration and native grass populations in target management areas in the four Open Space Preserves of the City of Walnut Creek, California. The program resulted from a collaboration of scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, a group of interested citizens known as the...

  15. Market analysis of shale oil co-products. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    This study examines the potential for separating, upgrading and marketing sodium mineral co-products together with shale oil production. The co-products investigated are soda ash and alumina which are derived from the minerals nahcolite and dawsonite. Five cases were selected to reflect the variance in mineral and shale oil content in the identified resource. In the five cases examined, oil content of the shale was varied from 20 to 30 gallons per ton. Two sizes of facilities were analyzed for each resource case to determine economies of scale between a 15,000 barrel per day demonstration unit and a 50,000 barrel per day full sized plant. Three separate pieces of analysis were conducted in this study: analysis of manufacturing costs for shale oil and co-products; projection of potential world markets for alumina, soda ash, and nahcolite; and determination of economic viability and market potential for shale co-products.

  16. Shale-oil-derived additives for fuel oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raidma, E.; Leetsman, L.; Muoni, R.; Soone, Y.; Zhiryakov, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Studies have shown that the oxidation, wearing, and anticorrosive properties of shale oil as an additive to liquid fuels and oils enable to improve the conditions of their use. Studies conducted by Institute of Oil Shale have shown that it is possible, on the basis of shale oil produced by Viru Keemia Grupp AS (Viru Chemistry Group Ltd.) and, particularly, on the basis of its fractions 230-320 and 320-360 deg C to produce efficient and stable additives for liquid fuels to improve their combustion and storage properties. In the production of additives from shale oil the prerequisite taken into account is its complexity of composition and high concentration of neutral and phenolic oxygen compounds. Additives produced from shale oil have multifunctional properties which enable to improve operational data of liquid fuels and to increase the power of diesel engines and boilers. (author)

  17. Employment Creation of Shale Gas Investment in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuecheng; Zhang, Baosheng; Wu, Meiling; Li, Xiang; Lin, Yuying

    2018-01-01

    An ambitious shale gas extraction plan has been proposed. The huge investment of shale gas may put an effect on the whole China’s economy, especially for employment. However, there is few study to date has quantified these effects. The aim of this paper is to quantify these effects especially employment creation and figures out whether shale gas investment in China is a good choice or not. Input-output analysis has been utilized in this study to estimate the employment creation in four different Chinese regions. Our findings show that shale gas investment will result in creating 660000, 370000, 140000 and 58000 equivalent jobs in Sichuan, Chongqing, Inner Mongolia and Guizhou, respectively. Considering the potential risks of environmental issues, we suggest that it may be a better strategy for the government, at least in the current situation, to slow down shale gas development investment.

  18. Clay squirt: Local flow dispersion in shale-bearing sandstones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten Kanne; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2017-01-01

    Dispersion of elastic-wave velocity is common in sandstone and larger in shaly sandstone than in clean sandstone. Dispersion in fluid-saturated shaly sandstone often exceeds the level expected from the stress-dependent elastic moduli of dry sandstone. The large dispersion has been coined clay...... squirt and is proposed to originate from a pressure gradient between the clay microporosity and the effective porosity. We have formulated a simple model that quantifies the clay-squirt effect on bulk moduli of sandstone with homogeneously distributed shale laminae or dispersed shale. The model...... predictions were compared with the literature data. For sandstones with dispersed shale, agreement was found, whereas other sandstones have larger fluid-saturated bulk modulus, possibly due to partially load-bearing shales or heterogeneous shale distribution. The data that agree with the clay-squirt model...

  19. Development of Shale Gas Supply Chain Network under Market Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Chebeir

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of energy has turned the shale gas and shale oil into one of the most promising sources of energy in the United States. In this article, a model is proposed to address the long-term planning problem of the shale gas supply chain under uncertain conditions. A two-stage stochastic programming model is proposed to describe and optimize the shale gas supply chain network. Inherent uncertainty in final products’ prices, such as natural gas and natural gas liquids (NGL, is treated through the utilization of a scenario-based method. A binomial option pricing model is utilized to approximate the stochastic process through the generation of scenario trees. The aim of the proposed model is to generate an appropriate and realistic supply chain network configuration as well as scheduling of different operations throughout the planning horizon of a shale gas development project.

  20. Assessment of industry needs for oil shale research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackworth, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-one industry people were contacted to provide input on oil shale in three subject areas. The first area of discussion dealt with industry's view of the shape of the future oil shale industry; the technology, the costs, the participants, the resources used, etc. It assessed the types and scale of the technologies that will form the industry, and how the US resource will be used. The second subject examined oil shale R D needs and priorities and potential new areas of research. The third area of discussion sought industry comments on what they felt should be the role of the DOE (and in a larger sense the US government) in fostering activities that will lead to a future commercial US oil shale shale industry.

  1. Origin and microfossils of the oil shale of the Green River formation of Colorado and Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, W.H.

    1931-01-01

    The Green River formation of Colorado and Utah is a series of lakebeds of middle Eocene age that occupy two broad, shallow, simple, structural basins--the Piceance Creek basin in northwestern Colorado and the Uinta basin in northeastern Utah. The ancient lakes served as a basin for the accumulation of tremendous quantities of aquatic organisms. The predominance of microscopic fresh-water algae and protozoa over the remains of land plants, pollens and spores suggests that the greater part of the organic matter was derived from microorganisms that grew in the lakes. The pollens and spores were carried into the lakes by wind. Fish, mollusks, crustaceans, and aquatic insect larvae were also plentiful; and turtles, crocodiles, birds, small camels, and insects may have contributed to the organic matter. The ancient lakes apparently were shallow and had a large area, compared with depth. The abundance of organisms and the decaying organic matter produced a strongly reducing environment. Mechanical and chemical action, such as the mastication and digestion of the organic material by bottom-living organisms, caused disintegration of the original organic matter. When the residue was reduced to a gelatinous condition, it apparently resisted further bacterial decay, and other organisms accidently entombed in the gel were protected from disintegration. An accumulation of inorganic material occurred simultaneously with the disintegration of the organic ooze, and the entire mass became lithified. After most of the oil shale was deposited, the lake reverted nearly to the conditions that prevailed during its early stage, when the marlstone and low-grade oil shale of the basal member were formed. The streams in the vicinity of the lake were rejuvenated and carried great quantities of medium- to coarse-grained sand into the basin and formed a thick layer over the lakebeds.

  2. Influencing Factors of the Initiation Point in the Parachute-Bomb Dynamic Detonation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qizhong, Li; Ye, Wang; Zhongqi, Wang; Chunhua, Bai

    2017-12-01

    The parachute system has been widely applied in modern armament design, especially for the fuel-air explosives. Because detonation of fuel-air explosives occurs during flight, it is necessary to investigate the influences of the initiation point to ensure successful dynamic detonation. In fact, the initiating position exist the falling area in the fuels, due to the error of influencing factors. In this paper, the major influencing factors of initiation point were explored with airdrop and the regularity between initiation point area and factors were obtained. Based on the regularity, the volume equation of initiation point area was established to predict the range of initiation point in the fuel. The analysis results showed that the initiation point appeared area, scattered on account of the error of attitude angle, secondary initiation charge velocity, and delay time. The attitude angle was the major influencing factors on a horizontal axis. On the contrary, secondary initiation charge velocity and delay time were the major influencing factors on a horizontal axis. Overall, the geometries of initiation point area were sector coupled with the errors of the attitude angle, secondary initiation charge velocity, and delay time.

  3. Water Resource Impacts During Unconventional Shale Gas Development: The Pennsylvania Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, S. L.; Yoxtheimer, D.; Arjmand, S.; Grieve, P.; Vidic, R.; Abad, J. D.; Simon, C. A.; Pollak, J.

    2013-12-01

    The number of unconventional Marcellus shale wells in PA has increased from 8 in 2005 to more than 6000 today. This rapid development has been accompanied by environmental issues. We analyze publicly available data describing this Pennsylvania experience (data from www.shalenetwork.org and PA Department of Environmental Protection, i.e., PA DEP). After removing permitting and reporting violations, the average percent of wells/year with at least one notice of violation (NOV) from PA DEP is 35 %. Most violations are minor. An analysis of NOVs reported for wells drilled before 2013 revealed a rate of casing, cement, or well construction issues of 3.4%. Sixteen wells were given notices specifically related to migration of methane. A similarly low percent of wells were contaminated by brine components. Such contamination could derive from spills, subsurface migration of flowback water or shallow natural brines, or contamination by drill cuttings. Most cases of contamination of drinking water supplies with methane or brine components were reported in the previously glaciated part of the state. Before 2011, flowback and production water was often discharged legally into streams after minimal treatment, possibly increasing dissolved Br concentrations in some rivers. The rate of large spills or releases of gas-related industrial wastes in the state peaked in 2009 but little evidence of spills has been found in publicly available surface water chemistry data. The most likely indicators of spillage or subsurface release of flowback or production waters are the dissolved ions Na, Ca, and Cl. However, the data coverage for any given analyte is generally spatially and temporally sparse. Publicly available water quality data for before and after spills into Larrys Creek and Bobs Creek document the difficulties of detecting such events. An observation from the Pennsylvania experience is that the large number of people who have complained about their water supply (~1000 letters

  4. Geologic framework, regional aquifer properties (1940s-2009), and spring, creek, and seep properties (2009-10) of the upper San Mateo Creek Basin near Mount Taylor, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, Jeff B.; Sprague, Jesse E.; Durall, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, examined the geologic framework, regional aquifer properties, and spring, creek, and seep properties of the upper San Mateo Creek Basin near Mount Taylor, which contains areas proposed for exploratory drilling and possible uranium mining on U.S. Forest Service land. The geologic structure of the region was formed from uplift of the Zuni Mountains during the Laramide Orogeny and the Neogene volcanism associated with the Mount Taylor Volcanic Field. Within this structural context, numerous aquifers are present in various Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary formations and the Quaternary alluvium. The distribution of the aquifers is spatially variable because of the dip of the formations and erosion that produced the current landscape configuration where older formations have been exhumed closer to the Zuni Mountains. Many of the alluvial deposits and formations that contain groundwater likely are hydraulically connected because of the solid-matrix properties, such as substantive porosity, but shale layers such as those found in the Mancos Formation and Chinle Group likely restrict vertical flow. Existing water-level data indicate topologically downgradient flow in the Quaternary alluvium and indiscernible general flow patterns in the lower aquifers. According to previously published material and the geologic structure of the aquifers, the flow direction in the lower aquifers likely is in the opposite direction compared to the alluvium aquifer. Groundwater within the Chinle Group is known to be confined, which may allow upward migration of water into the Morrison Formation; however, confining layers within the Chinle Group likely retard upward leakage. Groundwater was sodium-bicarbonate/sulfate dominant or mixed cation-mixed anion with some calcium/bicarbonate water in the study area. The presence of the reduction/oxidation-sensitive elements iron and manganese in groundwater indicates reducing

  5. Pore Structure and Fractal Characteristics of Niutitang Shale from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaodong Xi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A suite of shale samples from the Lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation in northwestern Hunan Province, China, were investigated to better understand the pore structure and fractal characteristics of marine shale. Organic geochemistry, mineralogy by X-ray diffraction, porosity, permeability, mercury intrusion and nitrogen adsorption and methane adsorption experiments were conducted for each sample. Fractal dimension D was obtained from the nitrogen adsorption data using the fractal Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH model. The relationships between total organic carbon (TOC content, mineral compositions, pore structure parameters and fractal dimension are discussed, along with the contributions of fractal dimension to shale gas reservoir evaluation. Analysis of the results showed that Niutitang shale samples featured high TOC content (2.51% on average, high thermal maturity (3.0% on average, low permeability and complex pore structures, which are highly fractal. TOC content and mineral compositions are two major factors affecting pore structure but they have different impacts on the fractal dimension. Shale samples with higher TOC content had a larger specific surface area (SSA, pore volume (PV and fractal dimension, which enhanced the heterogeneity of the pore structure. Quartz content had a relatively weak influence on shale pore structure, whereas SSA, PV and fractal dimension decreased with increasing clay mineral content. Shale with a higher clay content weakened pore structure heterogeneity. The permeability and Langmuir volume of methane adsorption were affected by fractal dimension. Shale samples with higher fractal dimension had higher adsorption capacity but lower permeability, which is favorable for shale gas adsorption but adverse to shale gas seepage and diffusion.

  6. Thermally-driven Coupled THM Processes in Shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutqvist, J.

    2017-12-01

    Temperature changes can trigger strongly coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes in shales that are important to a number of subsurface energy applications, including geologic nuclear waste disposal and hydrocarbon extraction. These coupled processes include (1) direct pore-volume couplings, by thermal expansion of trapped pore-fluid that triggers instantaneous two-way couplings between pore fluid pressure and mechanical deformation, and (2) indirect couplings in terms of property changes, such as changes in mechanical stiffness, strength, and permeability. Direct pore-volume couplings have been studied in situ during borehole heating experiments in shale (or clay stone) formations at Mont Terri and Bure underground research laboratories in Switzerland and France. Typically, the temperature changes are accompanied with a rapid increase in pore pressure followed by a slower decrease towards initial (pre-heating) pore pressure. Coupled THM modeling of these heater tests shows that the pore pressure increases because the thermal expansion coefficient of the fluid is much higher than that of the porous clay stone. Such thermal pressurization induces fluid flow away from the pressurized area towards areas of lower pressure. The rate of pressure increase and magnitude of peak pressure depends on the rate of heating, pore-compressibility, and permeability of the shale. Modeling as well as laboratory experiments have shown that if the pore pressure increase is sufficiently large it could lead to fracturing of the shale or shear slip along pre-existing bedding planes. Another set of data and observations have been collected associated with studies related to concentrated heating and cooling of oil-shales and shale-gas formations. Heating may be used to enhance production from tight oil-shale, whereas thermal stimulation has been attempted for enhanced shale-gas extraction. Laboratory experiments on shale have shown that strength and elastic deformation

  7. Phanerozoic environments of black shale deposition and the Wilson Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Trabucho-Alexandre

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal distribution of black shales is related to the development of environments in which they accumulate and to a propitious combination of environmental variables. In recent years, much has been done to improve our understanding of the mechanisms behind the temporal distribution of black shales in the Phanerozoic and of the environmental variables that result in their deposition. However, the interpretation of ancient black shale depositional environments is dominated by an oversimplistic set of three depositional models that do not capture their complexity and dynamics. These three models, the restricted circulation, the (open ocean oxygen minimum and the continental shelf models, are an oversimplification of the variety of black shale depositional environments that arise and coexist throughout the course of a basin's Wilson Cycle, i.e. the dynamic sequence of events and stages that characterise the evolution of an ocean basin, from the opening continental rift to the closing orogeny. We examine the spatial distribution of black shales in the context of the Wilson Cycle using examples from the Phanerozoic. It is shown that the geographical distribution of environments of black shale deposition and the position of black shales in the basin infill sequence strongly depend on basin evolution, which controls the development of sedimentary environments where black shales may be deposited. The nature of the black shales that are deposited, i.e. lithology and type of organic matter, also depends on basin evolution and palaeogeography. We propose that in studies of black shales more attention should be given to the sedimentary processes that have led to their formation and to the interpretation of their sedimentary environments.

  8. Attenuation of Chemical Reactivity of Shale Matrixes following Scale Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Jew, A. D.; Kohli, A. H.; Alalli, G.; Kiss, A. M.; Kovscek, A. R.; Zoback, M. D.; Brown, G. E.; Maher, K.; Bargar, J.

    2017-12-01

    Introduction of fracture fluids into shales initiates a myriad of fluid-rock reactions that can strongly influence migration of fluid and hydrocarbon through shale/fracture interfaces. Due to the extremely low permeability of shale matrixes, studies on chemical reactivity of shales have mostly focused on shale surfaces. Shale-fluid interactions inside within shale matrixes have not been examined, yet the matrix is the primary conduit through which hydrocarbons and potential contaminants are transmitted. To characterize changes in matrix mineralogy, porosity, diffusivity, and permeability during hydraulic stimulation, we reacted Marcellus (high clay and low carbonate) and Eagle Ford (low clay and high carbonate) shale cores with fracture fluids for 3 weeks at elevated pressure and temperature (80 oC, and 77 bars). In the carbonate-poor Marcellus system, fluid pH increased from 2 to 4, and secondary Fe(OH)3 precipitates were observed in the fluid. Sulfur X-ray fluorescence maps show that fluids had saturated and reacted with the entire 1-cm-diameter core. In the carbonate-rich Eagle Ford system, pH increased from 2 to 6 due to calcite dissolution. When additional Ba2+ and SO42- were present (log10(Q/K)=1.3), extensive barite precipitation was observed in the matrix of the Eagle Ford core (and on the surface). Barite precipitation was also observed on the surface of the Marcellus core, although to a lesser extent. In the Marcellus system, the presence of barite scale attenuated diffusivity in the matrix, as demonstrated by sharply reduced Fe leaching and much less sulfide oxidation. Systematic studies in homogeneous solution show that barite scale precipitation rates are highly sensitive to pH, salinity, and the presence of organic compounds. These findings imply that chemical reactions are not confined to shale/fluid interfaces but can penetrate into shale matrices, and that barite scale formation can clog diffusion pathways for both fluid and hydrocarbon.

  9. Pine Creek Ranch, FY 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Mark E.

    2001-11-01

    Pine Creek Ranch was purchased in 1999 by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs using Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation funds. The 25,000 acre property will be managed in perpetuity for the benefit of fish and wildlife habitat. Major issues include: (1) Restoring quality spawning and rearing habitat for stealhead. Streams are incised and fish passage barriers exist from culverts and possibly beaver dams. In addition to stealhead habitat, the Tribes are interested in overall riparian recovery in the John Day River system for wildlife habitat, watershed values and other values such as recreation. (2) Future grazing for specific management purposes. Past grazing practices undoubtedly contributed to current unacceptable conditions. The main stem of Pine Creek has already been enrolled in the CREP program administered by the USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service in part because of the cost-share for vegetation restoration in a buffer portion of old fields and in part because of rental fees that will help the Tribes to pay the property taxes. Grazing is not allowed in the riparian buffer for the term of the contract. (3) Noxious weeds are a major concern. (4) Encroachment by western juniper throughout the watershed is a potential concern for the hydrology of the creek. Mark Berry, Habitat Manager, for the Pine Creek Ranch requested the Team to address the following objectives: (1) Introduce some of the field staff and others to Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) assessments and concepts. (2) Do a PFC assessment on approximately 10 miles of Pine Creek. (3) Offer management recommendations. (4) Provide guidelines for monitoring.

  10. Texture and anisotropy analysis of Qusaiba shales

    KAUST Repository

    Kanitpanyacharoen, Waruntorn

    2011-02-17

    Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, microtomography and ultrasonic velocity measurements were used to characterize microstructures and anisotropy of three deeply buried Qusaiba shales from the Rub\\'al-Khali basin, Saudi Arabia. Kaolinite, illite-smectite, illite-mica and chlorite show strong preferred orientation with (001) pole figure maxima perpendicular to the bedding plane ranging from 2.4-6.8 multiples of a random distribution (m.r.d.). Quartz, feldspars and pyrite crystals have a random orientation distribution. Elastic properties of the polyphase aggregate are calculated by averaging the single crystal elastic properties over the orientation distribution, assuming a nonporous material. The average calculated bulk P-wave velocities are 6.2 km/s (maximum) and 5.5 km/s (minimum), resulting in a P-wave anisotropy of 12%. The calculated velocities are compared with those determined from ultrasonic velocity measurements on a similar sample. In the ultrasonic experiment, which measures the effects of the shale matrix as well as the effects of porosity, velocities are smaller (P-wave maximum 5.3 km/s and minimum 4.1 km/s). The difference between calculated and measured velocities is attributed to the effects of anisotropic pore structure and to microfractures present in the sample, which have not been taken into account in the matrix averaging. © 2011 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  11. Uranium production from low grade Swedish shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, O.

    1977-01-01

    In view of the present nuclear programmes a steep increase in uranium demand is foreseen which will pose serious problems for the uranium industry. The annual additions to uranium ore reserves must almost triple within the next 15 years in order to support the required production rates. Although there are good prospects for the discovery of further conventional deposits of uranium there is a growing interest in low grade uranium deposits. Large quantities of uranium exist in black shales, phosphates, granites, sea water and other unconventional sources. There are however factors which limit the utilization of these low grade materials. These factors include the extraction costs, the environmental constrains on mining and milling of huge amounts of ore, the development of technologies for the beneficiation of uranium and, in the case of very low grade materials, the energy balance. The availability of by-product uranium is limited by the production rate of the main product. The limitations differ very much according to types of ores, mining and milling methods and the surroundings. As an illustration a description is given of the Swedish Ranstad uranium shale project, its potential, constraints and technical solutions

  12. Environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, B.W.; Wakamiya, W.; Bell, N.E.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; English, C.J.; Riley, R.G.

    1982-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of studies conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory from 1976 to 1982 on environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters. Experimental studies conducted during the course of the program were focused largely on the treatment and disposal of retort water, particularly water produced by in situ retorting of oil shale. Alternative methods were evaluated for the treatment and disposal of retort water and minewater. Treatment and disposal processes evaluated for retort water include evaporation for separation of water from both inorganic and organic pollutants; steam stripping for ammonia and volatile organics removal; activated sludge and anaerobic digestion for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; chemical coagulation for removal of suspended matter and heavy metals; wet air oxidation and solvent extraction for removal of organics; and land disposal and underground injection for disposal of retort water. Methods for the treatment of minewater include chemical processing and ion exchange for fluoride and boron removal. Preliminary cost estimates are given for several retort water treatment processes.

  13. The Lower Jurassic Posidonia Shale in southern Germany: results of a shale gas analogue study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, Steffen; Schulz, Hans-Martin; Horsfield, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The shale gas potential of Germany was recently assessed by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (2012 NiKo-Project) and is - in respect of the general natural gas occurrence in Germany - regarded as a good alternative hydrocarbon source. The Posidonia Shale in northern and southern Germany is one of the evaluated rock formation and easily accessible in outcrops in the Swabian Alps (southern Germany). The area of interest in this work is located in such an outcrop that is actively used for open pit mining next to the town of Dotternhausen, 70 km southwest of Stuttgart. 31 samples from the quarry of Dotternhausen were analyzed in order to characterize the immature Posidonia Shale (Lower Toarcian, Lias ɛ) of southern Germany as a gas shale precursor. Methods included are Rock Eval, Open Pyrolysis GC, SEM, Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry, XRD, and other. The samples of Dotternhausen contain exclusively type II kerogen. The majority of the organic matter is structureless and occurs in the argillaceous-calcareous matrix. Structured organic matter appears predominantly as alginite, in particular the algae "tasmanite" is noticeable. The TOC content ranges up to 16 wt% with a high bitumen content. The mineral content characterizes the Posidonia Shale as a marlstone or mudstone with varying clay-calcite ratios. The quartz and pyrite content reaches up to 20 wt% and 9 wt%, respectively. The rock fabric is characterized by a fine grained and laminated matrix. The mean porosity lies between 4 and 12 %. Fractures other than those introduced by sample preparation were not observed. The Posidonia Shale is predicted to have an excellent source rock potential and will generate intermediate, P-N-A low wax oil when exposed to higher P-T-conditions ("oil kitchen"). Contact surfaces between the kerogen and matrix will be vulnerable to pressure induced fracturing caused by hydrocarbon formation. Additional porosity will be formed during maturation due to the

  14. Suggestions on the development strategy of shale gas in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhong Dong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From the aspects of shale gas resource condition, main exploration and development progress, important breakthrough in key technologies and equipment, this paper systematically summarized and analyzed current situation of shale gas development in China and pointed out five big challenges such as misunderstandings, lower implementation degree and higher economic uncertainty of shale gas resource, and still no breakthrough in exploration and development core technologies and equipment for shale gas buried depth more than 3500 m, higher cost and other non-technical factors that restrict the development pace. Aiming at the above challenges, we put forward five suggestions to promote the shale gas development in China: (1 Make strategies and set goals according to our national conditions and exploration and development stages. That is, make sure to realize shale gas annual production of 20 × 109 m3, and strives to reach 30 × 109 m3. (2 Attach importance to the research of accumulation and enrichment geological theory and exploration & development key engineering technologies for lower production and lower pressure marine shale gas reservoir, and at the same time orderly promote the construction of non-marine shale gas exploration & development demonstration areas. (3 The government should introduce further policies and set special innovation funds to support the companies to carry out research and development of related technologies and equipment, especially to strengthen the research and development of technology, equipment and process for shale gas bellow 3500 m in order to achieve breakthrough in deep shale gas. (4 Continue to promote the geological theory, innovation in technology and management, and strengthen cost control on drilling, fracturing and the whole process in order to realize efficient, economic and scale development of China's shale gas. (5 Reform the mining rights management system, establish information platform of shale

  15. A comprehensive environmental impact assessment method for shale gas development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjin Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The great success of US commercial shale gas exploitation stimulates the shale gas development in China, subsequently, the corresponding supporting policies were issued in the 12th Five-Year Plan. But from the experience in the US shale gas development, we know that the resulted environmental threats are always an unavoidable issue, but no uniform and standard evaluation system has yet been set up in China. The comprehensive environment refers to the combination of natural ecological environment and external macro-environment. In view of this, we conducted a series of studies on how to set up a comprehensive environmental impact assessment system as well as the related evaluation methodology and models. First, we made an in-depth investigation into shale gas development procedures and any possible environmental impacts, and then compared, screened and modified environmental impact assessment methods for shale gas development. Also, we established an evaluating system and assessment models according to different status of the above two types of environment: the correlation matrix method was employed to assess the impacts on natural ecological environment and the optimization distance method was modified to evaluate the impacts on external macro-environment. Finally, we substitute the two subindexes into the comprehensive environmental impact assessment model and achieved the final numerical result of environmental impact assessment. This model can be used to evaluate if a shale gas project has any impact on environment, compare the impacts before and after a shale gas development project, or the impacts of different projects.

  16. Shale oil specialty markets: Screening survey for United States applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-12-01

    EG and G requested J. E. Sinor Consultants Inc. to carry out an initial screening study on the possibilities for producing specialty chemicals from oil shale. Raw shale oil is not an acceptable feedstock to refineries and there are not enough user of heavy fuel oil in the western oil shale region to provide a dependable market. The only alternatives are to hydrotreat the oil, or else ship it long distances to a larger market area. Either of these alternatives results in a cost penalty of several dollars per barrel. Instead of attempting to enter the large-volume petroleum products market, it was hypothesized that a small shale oil facility might be able to produce specialty chemicals with a high enough average value to absorb the high costs of shipping small quantities to distant markets and still provide a higher netback to the plant site than sales to the conventional petroleum products market. This approach, rather than attempting to refine shale oil or to modify its characteristics to satisfy the specifications for petroleum feedstocks or products, focuses instead on those particular characteristics which distinguish shale oil from petroleum, and attempts to identify applications which would justify a premium value for those distinctive characteristics. Because byproducts or specialty chemicals production has been a prominent feature of oil shale industries which have flourished for periods of time in various countries, a brief review of those industries provides a starting point for this study. 9 figs., 32 tabs.

  17. Geothermometry methods for determining the thermal history of shales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    When clays and muds are deposited, the clay mineral suite is usually not an equilibrium assemblage. With time and increased depth of burial and temperature, the clay mineral suite undergoes continuous chemical and mineral changes as it adjusts to increasingly higher temperatures. Significant changes are observed at temperatures as low as 50 0 C and continue to 400 0 C (beginning of metamorphism) and above. Once these clay-rich rocks are exposed to elevated temperatures and then later uplifted to areas of lower temperature, no significant changes occur unless the rock is exposed to weathering or to temperatures higher than that to which they have been exposed previously. An initial objective is to develop the ability to determine the mineral, chemical, and textural changes which are produced in shales by increased temperature. This will allow prediction of the diagenetic changes that occur in shales when they are exposed to the heat generated by radioactive waste. A second objective is to develop the ability to determine the maximum temperature to which a shale has been exposed. Once a shale has been exposed to temperatures of 200 to 400 0 C for thousands of years, an equilibrium assemblage is obtained which persists after the shale is elevated to near surface conditions and is only altered if the shale is exposed to temperatures higher than those of the maximum to which the shale was originally exposed. A proposal is made to select for initial study a thick Paleozoic shale, probably of Cambro-Ordovician or Devonian age, in the Appalachian region. A shale sequence will be selected which has rocks ranging from deeply buried geosynclinal environments (approx.300 to 400 0 C) to shallow shelf environments

  18. Economic appraisal of shale gas plays in Continental Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weijermars, Ruud

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Economic feasibility of five European shale gas plays is assessed. ► Polish and Austrian shale plays appear profitable for P90 assessment criterion. ► Posidonia (Germany), Alum (Sweden) and a Turkish shale play below the hurdle rate. ► A 10% improvement of the IRR by sweet spot targeting makes all plays profitable. - Abstract: This study evaluates the economic feasibility of five emergent shale gas plays on the European Continent. Each play is assessed using a uniform field development plan with 100 wells drilled at a rate of 10 wells/year in the first decade. The gas production from the realized wells is monitored over a 25 year life cycle. Discounted cash flow models are used to establish for each shale field the estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) that must be realized, using current technology cost, to achieve a profit. Our analyses of internal rates of return (IRR) and net present values (NPVs) indicate that the Polish and Austrian shale plays are the more robust, and appear profitable when the strict P90 assessment criterion is applied. In contrast, the Posidonia (Germany), Alum (Sweden) and a Turkish shale play assessed all have negative discounted cumulative cash flows for P90 wells, which puts these plays below the hurdle rate. The IRR for P90 wells is about 5% for all three plays, which suggests that a 10% improvement of the IRR by sweet spot targeting may lift these shale plays above the hurdle rate. Well productivity estimates will become better constrained over time as geological uncertainty is reduced and as technology improves during the progressive development of the shale gas fields

  19. Analysis of the environmental control technology for oil shale development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Nevers, N.; Eckhoff, D.; Swanson, S.; Glenne, B.; Wagner, F.

    1978-02-01

    The environmental control technology proposed in the various oil shale projects which are under development are examined. The technologies for control of air pollution, water pollution, and for the disposal, stabilization, and vegetation of the processed shale were thoroughly investigated. Although some difficulties may be encountered in any of these undertakings, it seems clear that the air and water pollution problems can be solved to meet any applicable standard. There are no published national standards against which to judge the stabilization and vegetation of the processed shale. However, based on the goal of producing an environmentally and aesthetically acceptable finished processed shale pile, it seems probable that this can be accomplished. It is concluded that the environmental control technology is available to meet all current legal requirements. This was not the case before Colorado changed their applicable Air Pollution regulations in August of 1977; the previous ones for the oil shale region were sufficiently stringent to have caused a problem for the current stage of oil shale development. Similarly, the federal air-quality, non-deterioration regulations could be interpreted in the future in ways which would be difficult for the oil shale industry to comply with. The Utah water-quality, non-deterioration regulations could also be a problem. Thus, the only specific regulations which may be a problem are the non-deterioration parts of air and water quality regulations. The unresolved areas of environmental concern with oil shale processing are mostly for the problems not covered by existing environmental law, e.g., trace metals, polynuclear organics, ground water-quality changes, etc. These may be problems, but no evidence is yet available that these problems will prevent the successful commercialization of oil shale production.

  20. Forecasting production in Liquid Rich Shale plays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikfarman, Hanieh

    Production from Liquid Rich Shale (LRS) reservoirs is taking center stage in the exploration and production of unconventional reservoirs. Production from the low and ultra-low permeability LRS plays is possible only through multi-fractured horizontal wells (MFHW's). There is no existing workflow that is applicable to forecasting multi-phase production from MFHW's in LRS plays. This project presents a practical and rigorous workflow for forecasting multiphase production from MFHW's in LRS reservoirs. There has been much effort in developing workflows and methodology for forecasting in tight/shale plays in recent years. The existing workflows, however, are applicable only to single phase flow, and are primarily used in shale gas plays. These methodologies do not apply to the multi-phase flow that is inevitable in LRS plays. To account for complexities of multiphase flow in MFHW's the only available technique is dynamic modeling in compositional numerical simulators. These are time consuming and not practical when it comes to forecasting production and estimating reserves for a large number of producers. A workflow was developed, and validated by compositional numerical simulation. The workflow honors physics of flow, and is sufficiently accurate while practical so that an analyst can readily apply it to forecast production and estimate reserves in a large number of producers in a short period of time. To simplify the complex multiphase flow in MFHW, the workflow divides production periods into an initial period where large production and pressure declines are expected, and the subsequent period where production decline may converge into a common trend for a number of producers across an area of interest in the field. Initial period assumes the production is dominated by single-phase flow of oil and uses the tri-linear flow model of Erdal Ozkan to estimate the production history. Commercial software readily available can simulate flow and forecast production in this

  1. After the us shale gas revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bros, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    After 20 years at different positions in the gas sector, from the policy side to trading floors, the author gives an overview of the major gas issues and elaborate on the consequences of the US shale gas revolution. The first part of the book provides basic knowledge and gives needed tools to better understand this industry, that often stands, in sandwich, between upstream oil and utilities. After extensive research, publication and teaching, the author shares his insights on fundamental issues all along the gas chain and explains the price mechanisms ranging from oil-indexing to spot. The second part looks into the future of worldwide gas balance. To supply growing markets, the major resource holder, Russia, is now in direct competition with the major gas producer, the US. China has the potential not only to select the winner but also to decide the pricing principle for all Asian buyers in 2020. As China is a new and growing gas importer and has a lower price tolerance than historical Asian buyers (Japan and South Korea), it is highly possible that, against basic geography, China selects waterborne US LNG vs. close Russian pipe gas, to achieve lower import price. Europe, so risk adverse that it won't be able to take any decision regarding shale gas production on this side of 2020, should see its power fading on the energy scene and would rely more on Russia. Gas geopolitics could tighten Russia stronghold on Europe, on one side, and create a flourishing North America-Asian trade... This book is accessible to all and will particularly interest readers seeking a global gas perspective where economics and geopolitics mix. It can be read as an economic novel where billions of $ are invested to shape tomorrow energy world or as a geopolitical thriller where Russia and the US compete to impose their respective agenda, leaving China to select the winner. Contents: 1. Basics. 2. Technical aspects. 3. Markets, prices and costs. 4. Policies. 5. Where is the future supply

  2. After the US shale gas revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bros, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    After 20 years at different positions in the gas sector, from the policy side to trading floors, the author gives an overview of the major gas issues and elaborate on the consequences of the US shale gas revolution. The first part of the book provides basic knowledge and gives needed tools to better understand this industry, that often stands, in sandwich, between upstream oil and utilities. After extensive research, publication and teaching, the author shares his insights on fundamental issues all along the gas chain and explains the price mechanisms ranging from oil-indexing to spot. The second part looks into the future of worldwide gas balance. To supply growing markets, the major resource holder, Russia, is now in direct competition with the major gas producer, the US. China has the potential not only to select the winner but also to decide the pricing principle for all Asian buyers in 2020. As China is a new and growing gas importer and has a lower price tolerance than historical Asian buyers (Japan and South Korea), it is highly possible that, against basic geography, China selects waterborne US LNG vs. close Russian pipe gas, to achieve lower import price. Europe, so risk adverse that it won't be able to take any decision regarding shale gas production on this side of 2020, should see its power fading on the energy scene and would rely more on Russia. Gas geopolitics could tighten Russia stronghold on Europe, on one side, and create a flourishing North America-Asian trade... This book is accessible to all and will particularly interest readers seeking a global gas perspective where economics and geopolitics mix. It can be read as an economic novel where billions of $ are invested to shape tomorrow energy world or as a geopolitical thriller where Russia and the US compete to impose their respective agenda, leaving China to select the winner. Contents: 1. Basics. 2. Technicals. 3. Markets, prices and costs. 4. Policies. 5. Where is the future supply growth? 6

  3. Extrapolating the Trends of Test Drop Data with Opening Shock Factor Calculations: the Case of the Orion Main and Drogue Parachutes Inflating to 1st Reefed Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Jean; Ray, Eric

    2017-01-01

    We describe a new calculation of the opening shock factor C (sub k) characterizing the inflation performance of NASA's Orion spacecraft main and drogue parachutes opening under a reefing constraint (1st stage reefing), as currently tested in the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) program. This calculation is based on an application of the Momentum-Impulse Theorem at low mass ratio (R (sub m) is less than 10 (sup -1)) and on an earlier analysis of the opening performance of drogues decelerating point masses and inflating along horizontal trajectories. Herein we extend the reach of the Theorem to include the effects of payload drag and gravitational impulse during near-vertical motion - both important pre-requisites for CPAS parachute analysis. The result is a family of C (sub k) versus R (sub m) curves which can be used for extrapolating beyond the drop-tested envelope. The paper proves this claim in the case of the CPAS Mains and Drogues opening while trailing either a Parachute Compartment Drop Test Vehicle or a Parachute Test Vehicle (an Orion capsule boiler plate). It is seen that in all cases the values of the opening shock factor can be extrapolated over a range in mass ratio that is at least twice that of the test drop data.

  4. Shale gas - los yacimientos de hidrocarburos no convencionales: origen del Shale gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Longoria Treviño

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El shale gas tiene su origen en la acumulación de materia orgánica en cuencas marinas. En Norteamérica el gas de lutita (shale gas es una fuente emergente de gas natural de bajo costo. El gas natural es una fuente de energía abundante y relativamente limpia al quemarse. Se ha convertido en un combustible popular tanto para aplicaciones residenciales como industriales. De acuerdo con los datos recientes se estima que el suministro de gas natural derivado de yacimientos no convencionales (gas de lutita – shale gas durará más de 100 años. El gas natural ofrece un remplazo potencial para sustituir a los combustibles fósiles que producen gases de efecto invernadero y que en la actualidad se usan en la generación de energía, calefacción y transporte. Las emisiones de gas de efecto invernadero de la combustión de gas natural son aproximadamente 30% más limpias que aquellas que se derivan del aceite y 45% más limpias de las del carbón.

  5. Analysis of oil shale and oil shale products for certain minor elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, P.T.; Purdy, M.; Doerges, J.E.; Ryan, V.A.; Poulson, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    The University of Wyoming was contracted by the Department of Energy's Laramie Energy Research Center (LERC) to develop rapid, inexpensive, and simple methods of quantitative and qualitative elemental analysis for products used and generated in the simulated in-situ retorting of oil shale. Alpha particle spectrometry was used to determine the radioisotope content of the aqueous retort products. Alpha particles are mono-energetic and the spectrometry method employed had very low background levels (1 count per 2000 seconds). These factors allow for both the quantitative and qualitative analysis of natural radioisotopes at the 1 ppm level. Sample preparation does not require any chemical treatment. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used for the multi-element analysis of the retort products. The XRF, integrated with a mini-computer, allows rapid analysis of several elements in multiple samples. XRF samples require minimal amounts of preparation and analytical results are highly reproducible. This paper presents the methods developed and preliminary analytical results from oil shale by-products. Results from the analysis of oil shale rocks are not yet ready for presentation

  6. Hydrogen retorting of oil shales from Eastern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E. (CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)); Synnott, J.; Boorman, R.S.; Salter, R.S.

    1984-04-01

    The liquid production potential of thirty oil shale samples from Eastern Canada was determined by Fischer assay retort and pyrochem retort. For all shales, the presence of hydrogen during pyrochem retorting resulted in a significant increase in oil yields compared to Fischer assay yields. Ten oil shale samples were selected for detailed evaluation in the pyrochem retort in the presence of nitrogen and hydrogen. Besides increasing yields, the presence of hydrogen lowered the specific gravity of liquid products and the content of sulphur but increased the content of nitrogen. This was attributed to the stabilization of precursors to nitrogen compounds which prevented their polymerization. (J.H.K.)

  7. Technical and economic framework for market enhancement of shale oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunger, J.W.; Devineni, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    By now it is apparent that production of syncrude from shale oil will not be economically viable as long as there is a stable and reasonably-priced supply of petroleum. The costs and financial risks of producing syncrude from oil shale, in the face of price constraints imposed by petroleum markets, are too high to warrant private investment. A possible solution is to develop commodity and specialty products from shale oil which command a high market value. In this fashion, the economics are partially uncoupled from petroleum and an opportunity for a greater price/cost differential is provided

  8. Beneficiation-hydroretort processing of US oil shales: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-01-01

    This report has been divided into three volumes. Volume I describes the MRI beneficiation work. In addition, Volume I presents the results of joint beneficiation-hydroretorting studies and provides an economic analysis of the combined beneficiation-hydroretorting approach for processing Eastern oil shales. Volume II presents detailed results of hydroretorting tests made by HYCRUDE/IGT on raw and beneficiated oil shales prepared by MRI. Volume III comprises detailed engineering design drawings and supporting data developed by the Roberts and Schaefer Company, Engineers and Contractors, Salt Lake City, Utah, in support of the capital and operating costs for a conceptual beneficiation plant processing an Alabama oil shale.

  9. Shale: an overlooked option for US nuclear waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Toss a dart at a map of the United States and, more often than not, it will land where shale can be found underground. A drab, relatively featureless sedimentary rock that historically attracted little interest, shale (as used here, the term includes clay and a range of clay-rich rocks) is entering Americans’ consciousness as a new source of gas and oil. But shale may also offer something entirely different—the ability to safely and permanently house high-level nuclear waste.

  10. Shale Gas and Oil in Germany - Resources and Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladage, Stefan; Blumenberg, Martin; Houben, Georg; Pfunt, Helena; Gestermann, Nicolai; Franke, Dieter; Erbacher, Jochen

    2017-04-01

    In light of the controversial debate on "unconventional" oil and gas resources and the environmental impacts of "fracking", the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) conducted a comprehensive resource assessment of shale gas and light tight oil in Germany and studied the potential environmental impacts of shale gas development and hydraulic fracturing from a geoscientific perspective. Here, we present our final results (BGR 2016), incorporating the majority of potential shale source rock formations in Germany. Besides shale gas, light tight oil has been assessed. According to our set of criteria - i.e. thermal maturity 0.6-1.2 %vitrinite reflectance (VR; oil) and >1.2 % VR (gas) respectively, organic carbon content > 2%, depth between 500/1000 m and 5000 m as well as a net thickness >20 m - seven potentially generative shale formations were indentified, the most important of them being the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian) Posidonia shale with both shale gas and tight oil potential. The North German basin is by far the most prolific basin. The resource assessment was carried out using a volumetric in-place approach. Variability inherent in the input parameters was accounted for using Monte-Carlo simulations. Technically recoverable resources (TRR) were estimated using recent, production-based recovery factors of North American shale plays and also employing Monte-Carlo simulations. In total, shale gas TRR range between 320 and 2030 bcm and tight oil TRR between 13 and 164 Mio. t in Germany. Tight oil potential is therefore considered minor, whereas the shale gas potential exceeds that of conventional resources by far. Furthermore an overview of numerical transport modelling approaches concerning environmental impacts of the hydraulic fracturing is given. These simulations are based on a representative lithostratigraphy model of the North-German basin, where major shale plays can be expected. Numerical hydrogeological modelling of frac fluid

  11. Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions

    OpenAIRE

    O'Sullivan, Francis Martin; Paltsev, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during 2010. Data from each of the approximately 4000 horizontal shale gas wells brought online that year are used to show that about 900 Gg CH[subscript 4] of potential fugitive emissions were generated by these operations, or 228 Mg CH[subscript 4] per well—a figure inappropriately ...

  12. Summer food habits and trophic overlap of roundtail chub and creek chub in Muddy Creek, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, M.C.; Bower, M.R.; Hubert, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Native fishes of the Upper Colorado River Basin have experienced substantial declines in abundance and distribution, and are extirpated from most of Wyoming. Muddy Creek, in south-central Wyoming (Little Snake River watershed), contains sympatric populations of native roundtail chub (Gila robusta), bluehead sucker, (Catostomus discobolus), and flannelmouth sucker (C. tatipinnis), and represents an area of high conservation concern because it is the only area known to have sympatric populations of all 3 species in Wyoming. However, introduced creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) are abundant and might have a negative influence on native fishes. We assessed summer food habits of roundtail chub and creek chub to provide information on the ecology of each species and obtain insight on potential trophic overlap. Roundtail chub and creek chub seemed to be opportunistic generalists that consumed a diverse array of food items. Stomach contents of both species were dominated by plant material, aquatic and terrestrial insects, and Fishes, but also included gastropods and mussels. Stomach contents were similar between species, indicating high trophic, overlap. No length-related patterns in diet were observed for either species. These results suggest that creek chubs have the potential to adversely influence the roundtail chub population through competition for food and the native fish assemblage through predation.

  13. The macroinvertebrates of Magela Creek, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchant, R.

    1982-04-01

    The littoral zones of five permanent billabongs in Magela Creek were sampled monthly for macroinvertebrates. Greatest numbers of taxa and individuals were caught in the late wet season and early dry season in the shallow billabongs; in the deep billabongs, seasonal variations were not so marked. These changes appeared to be associated with the development of macrophytes, which offered food and shelter to the invertebrate fauna. The dominant groups were the Chironomidae, Oligochaetae and Ephemeroptera. The seasonal patterns of the catches were sufficiently consistent for future samples to be able to be compared with these initial ones with some confidence that any changes are real. This work is part of a larger study into the biota and water quality of Magela Creek designed to provide data on aquatic communities before mining of the Ranger uranium deposit starts

  14. Mathematical modelling of flooding at Magela Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardavas, I.

    1989-01-01

    The extent and frequency of the flooding at Magela Creek can be predicted from a mathematical/computer model describing the hydrological phases of surface runoff. Surface runoff involves complex water transfer processes over very inhomogeneous terrain. A simple mathematical model of these has been developed which includes the interception of rainfall by the plant canopy, evapotranspiration, infiltration of surface water into the soil, the storage of water in surface depressions, and overland and subsurface water flow. The rainfall-runoff model has then been incorporated into a more complex computer model to predict the amount of water that enters and leaves the Magela Creek flood plain, downstream of the mine. 2 figs., ills

  15. Method of recovering oil from alum shales. [heating by electric currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wennerstrom, K G

    1918-06-04

    A method of treating alum shale and other bituminous shales in order to extract oil et cetera, is characterized by bringing the shale to a temperature at which it melts, and at which the necessary amount of heat is transferred to the molten shale to be distilled. The patent claim is characterized by heating the shale by means of electric current. The patent has one additional claim.

  16. Study on Shale Adsorption Equation Based on Monolayer Adsorption, Multilayer Adsorption, and Capillary Condensation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qing; Tian, Yuanyuan; Li, Peng; Yan, Changhui; Pang, Yu; Zheng, Li; Deng, Hucheng; Zhou, Wen; Meng, Xianghao

    2017-01-01

    Shale gas is an effective gas resource all over the world. The evaluation of pore structure plays a critical role in exploring shale gas efficiently. Nitrogen adsorption experiment is one of the significant approaches to analyze pore size structure of shale. Shale is extremely heterogeneous due to component diversity and structure complexity. Therefore, adsorption isotherms for homogeneous adsorbents and empirical isotherms may not apply to shale. The shape of adsorption-desorption curve indi...

  17. Method of distillation of alum shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hultman, G H

    1920-02-03

    A method is given of distilling alum shale by means of preheated gases obtained from the process of distillation in which the gases are circulating within a system consisting of the retort, the condensation apparatus, and generator, each separate. It is characterized by leading the gases produced during the distillation through a condensation apparatus for separation of the condensable products, such as oil, benzene, ammonia, and sulfur, and the noncondensable gases are conveyed through one or more heated generators that have been charged with residue from the process of distillation (any superfluous amount of gas formed during the process being released). The heated gases are thereupon passed to the retort for completion of the distillation process.

  18. Carbonization process for bituminous shale, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1917-11-08

    A process for uninterrupted carbonization with possibly greater yield of primary products and subsequent burning of the bituminous shale and other material with preponderantly inorganic constituents through direct flushing-through of the gases is characterized by a rustless shaft furnace wider at the bottom with lower inlets for air through the hot residue and air or gas inlets into the burning zone for the purpose of levelling the burning zone on one hand and regulating it in a determined cross section, and on the other hand to make possible ready determination of the temperature of the burning zone, the requisite means (vapor, wet or dry-air, air-hot gas mixture) going into the shaftcasing in the cross section in which the burning zone should be regulated, through an annular movable and double-sided coolable slit.

  19. Low temperature distillation of coal, shale, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-08-12

    A process is disclosed for the low temperature distillation of solid carbonaceous fuels, such as coal, lignite, shale or the like, which comprises feeding or supplying the comminuted fuel in the form of a layer of shallow depth to drying and distilling zones in succession moving the fuel forward through the zones, submitting it to progressively increasing nonuniform heating therein by combustion gases supplied to the distillation zone and traveling thence to the drying zone, the gases heating the distillation zone indirectly and the drying zone both indirectly and then directly such that the fuel retains its solid discrete form during substantially the whole of its travel through the drying and distillation zones, subjecting the fuel for a portion of its travel to a zigzag ploughing and propelling movement on a heated sole, and increasing the heating so as to cause fusion of the fuel immediately prior to its discharge from the distillation zone.

  20. Completions in sand and fractured shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Fonseca, C F

    1968-01-01

    The development in the Candeias-Macui area depends little on well completion. The results obtained show that the practice adopted for stimulating fractured shale is not yet defined. It is necessary to improve hole quality, to undertake the research that will prove which prospective intervals are productive, to determine the possible origin of formation damage, and then to select the most suitable stimulation technique. With this, it will be possible to study the technology of ideal completion to be used on new wells in relation to a chosen type of stimulation and future workovers. From the discussion of general completion problems in RPBA, it is concluded that there is an immediate need for training engineers in the specialties of completion, workover and well stimulation. It is also concluded that the meaning of completion must be clarified, so that sectors of responsibility may be defined in order to determine when and how each sector enters into well operations.

  1. Iron isotope biogeochemistry of Neoproterozoic marine shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzmann, Marcus; Gibson, Timothy M.; Halverson, Galen P.; Hodgskiss, Malcolm S. W.; Bui, Thi Hao; Carozza, David A.; Sperling, Erik A.; Poirier, André; Cox, Grant M.; Wing, Boswell A.

    2017-07-01

    Iron isotopes have been widely applied to investigate the redox evolution of Earth's surface environments. However, it is still unclear whether iron cycling in the water column or during diagenesis represents the major control on the iron isotope composition of sediments and sedimentary rocks. Interpretation of isotopic data in terms of oceanic redox conditions is only possible if water column processes dominate the isotopic composition, whereas redox interpretations are less straightforward if diagenetic iron cycling controls the isotopic composition. In the latter scenario, iron isotope data is more directly related to microbial processes such as dissimilatory iron reduction. Here we present bulk rock iron isotope data from late Proterozoic marine shales from Svalbard, northwestern Canada, and Siberia, to better understand the controls on iron isotope fractionation in late Proterozoic marine environments. Bulk shales span a δ 56Fe range from -0.45 ‰ to +1.04 ‰ . Although δ 56Fe values show significant variation within individual stratigraphic units, their mean value is closer to that of bulk crust and hydrothermal iron in samples post-dating the ca. 717-660 Ma Sturtian glaciation compared to older samples. After correcting for the highly reactive iron content in our samples based on iron speciation data, more than 90% of the calculated δ 56Fe compositions of highly reactive iron falls in the range from ca. -0.8 ‰ to +3 ‰ . An isotope mass-balance model indicates that diagenetic iron cycling can only change the isotopic composition of highly reactive iron by control the isotopic composition of highly reactive iron. Considering a long-term decrease in the isotopic composition of the iron source to the dissolved seawater Fe(II) reservoir to be unlikely, we offer two possible explanations for the Neoproterozoic δ 56Fe trend. First, a decreasing supply of Fe(II) to the ferrous seawater iron reservoir could have caused the reservoir to decrease in size

  2. Shale gas exploration in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riera, Eliette; Van Effenterre, Cyrille

    2013-11-01

    Proposed by the economic department of the French embassy in London, this report addresses the emergence of shale gas exploration/exploitation in the UK. It first evokes gas needs in the UK, briefly addresses the example of the USA, outlines that the development noticed in the USA is difficult to reproduce in Europe, and proposes an assessment of resources at the world level and at the British level. It discusses scientific challenges and recommendations as they are outlined in a public report made by the Royal Society and the Royal Academy of Engineering, and notably addresses issues related to water and fracking, to gas emissions and to seismic risks. The last part gives an overview of the British legal framework: creation of the Office for Unconventional Oil and Gas, existing regulations concerning water, air, seismic risks, and public commitment. It indicates the road-map given to involved companies

  3. Clean Coal Power at Toms Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    On October 20, 1992 the US Department of Energy (DOE), through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, entered into Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-21-93MC92444 with TAMCO Power Partners to implement the Toms Creek Integrated Gasification Combined - Cycle Demonstration Project. The process design is proceeding as scheduled, and a draft Environmental Information Volume has been produced. The overall project schedule, however, may have to be adjusted when the Power Sales Agreement has been finalized

  4. Final Environmental Assessment, Horse Creek Bridge Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    existing bridge pipes that have failed and replace the failed structure with a new, prefabricated pedestrian bridge within the original bridge footprint...vehicles, nor designed for support of standard passenger vehicle loads. The bridge would be a single prefabricated unit consisting of a steel grate...placed on new concrete abutments built on the existing foundations on the creek banks, and put in place by a crane operating from the vehicle parking

  5. Channel stability of Turkey Creek, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, David L.; Soenksen, Philip J.

    1998-01-01

    Channelization on Turkey Creek and its receiving stream, the South Fork Big Nemaha River, has disturbed the equilibrium of Turkey Creek and has led to channel-stability problems, such as degradation and channel widening, which pose a threat to bridges and land adjacent to the stream. As part of a multiagency study, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel stability at two bridge sites on upper and middle portions of Turkey Creek by analyzing streambed-elevation data for gradation changes, comparing recent cross-section surveys and historic accounts, identifying bank-failure blocks, and analyzing tree-ring samples. These results were compared to gradation data and trend results for a U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near the mouth of Turkey Creek from a previous study. Examination of data on streambed elevations reveals that degradation has occurred. The streambed elevation declined 0.5 m at the upper site from 1967-97. The streambed elevation declined by 3.2 m at the middle site from 1948-97 and exposed 2 m of the pilings of the Nebraska Highway 8 bridge. Channel widening could not be verified at the two sites from 1967-97, but a historic account indicates widening at the middle site to be two to three times that of the 1949 channel width. Small bank failures were evident at the upper site and a 4-m-wide bank failure occurred at the middle site in 1987 according to tree ring analyses. Examination of streambed-elevation data from a previous study at the lower site reveals a statistically significant aggrading trend from 1958-93. Further examination of these data suggests minor degradation occurred until 1975, followed by aggradation.

  6. Steel Creek primary producers: Periphyton and seston, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Toole, M.A.; van Duyn, Y. [Normandeau Associates Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-02-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor and to protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to assess various components of the system and identify and changes due to the operation of L-Reactor or discharge from L Lake. An intensive ecological assessment program prior to the construction of the lake provided baseline data with which to compare data accumulated after the lake was filled and began discharging into the creek. The Department of Energy must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems. This report summarizes the results of six years` data from Steel Creek under the L-Lake/Steel Creek Monitoring Program. L Lake is discussed separately from Steel Creek in Volumes NAI-SR-138 through NAI-SR-143.

  7. Steel Creek primary producers: Periphyton and seston, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, J.A.; Toole, M.A.; van Duyn, Y.

    1992-02-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor and to protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to assess various components of the system and identify and changes due to the operation of L-Reactor or discharge from L Lake. An intensive ecological assessment program prior to the construction of the lake provided baseline data with which to compare data accumulated after the lake was filled and began discharging into the creek. The Department of Energy must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems. This report summarizes the results of six years' data from Steel Creek under the L-Lake/Steel Creek Monitoring Program. L Lake is discussed separately from Steel Creek in Volumes NAI-SR-138 through NAI-SR-143

  8. Sweet spot identification and smart development -An integrated reservoir characterization study of a posidonia shale of a posidonia shale outcrop analogue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, J.H. ten; Verreussel, R.M.C.H.; Ventra, D.; Zijp, M.H.A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Shale gas reservoir stimulation procedures (e.g. hydraulic fracturing) require upfront prediction and planning that should be supported by a comprehensive reservoir characterization. Therefore, understanding shale depositional processes and associated vertical and lateral sedimentological

  9. Sweet spot identification in underexplored shales using multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and key performance indicators : Example of the Posidonia Shale Formation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Heege, Jan; Zijp, Mart; Nelskamp, Susanne; Douma, Lisanne; Verreussel, Roel; Ten Veen, Johan; de Bruin, Geert; Peters, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Sweet spot identification in underexplored shale gas basins needs to be based on a limited amount of data on shale properties in combination with upfront geological characterization and modelling, because actual production data is usually absent. Multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and

  10. Sweet spot identification in underexplored shales using multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and key performance indicators: example of the Posidonia Shale Formation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heege, J.H. ter; Zijp, M.H.A.A.; Nelskamp, S.; Douma, L.A.N.R.; Verreussel, R.M.C.H.; Veen, J.H. ten; Bruin, G. de; Peters, M.C.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Sweet spot identification in underexplored shale gas basins needs to be based on a limited amount of data on shale properties in combination with upfront geological characterization and modelling, because actual production data is usually absent. Multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and

  11. Dating of river terraces along Lefthand Creek, western High Plains, Colorado, reveals punctuated incision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Melissa A.; Anderson, Robert S.; Gray, Harrison J.; Mahan, Shannon A.

    2017-10-01

    The response of erosional landscapes to Quaternary climate oscillations is recorded in fluvial terraces whose quantitative interpretation requires numerical ages. We investigate gravel-capped strath terraces along the western edge of Colorado's High Plains to constrain the incision history of this shale-dominated landscape. We use 10Be and 26Al cosmogenic radionuclides (CRNs), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), and thermally transferred OSL (TT-OSL) to date three strath terraces, all beveled in shale bedrock and then deposited upon by Lefthand Creek, which drains the crystalline core of the Front Range. Our study reveals: (i) a long history (hundreds of thousands of years) of fluvial occupation of the second highest terrace, T2 (Table Mountain), with fluvial abandonment at 92 ± 3 ka; (ii) a brief occupation of a narrow and spatially confined terrace, T3, at 98 ± 7 ka; and (iii) a 10-25 thousand year period of cutting and fluvial occupation of a lower terrace, T4, marked by the deposition of a lower alluvial unit between 59 and 68 ka, followed by deposition of an upper alluvial package at 40 ± 3 ka. In conjunction with other recent CRN studies of strath terraces along the Colorado Front Range (Riihimaki et al., 2006; Dühnforth et al., 2012), our data reveal that long periods of lateral planation and fluvial occupation of strath terraces, sometimes lasting several glacial-interglacial cycles, are punctuated by brief episodes of rapid vertical bedrock incision. These data call into question what a singular terrace age represents, as the strath may be cut at one time (its cutting-age) and the terrace surface may be abandoned at a much later time (its abandonment age), and challenge models of strath terraces that appeal to simple pacing by the glacial-interglacial cycles.

  12. Shale Gas characteristics of Permian black shales (Ecca group, Eastern Cape, South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geel, Claire; Booth, Peter; Schulz, Hans-Martin; Horsfield, Brian; de Wit, Maarten

    2013-04-01

    This study involves a comprehensive and detailed lithological, sedimentalogical, structural and geochemical description of the lower Ecca Group in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The Ecca group hosts a ~ 245 million year old organic-rich black shale, which has recently been the focus of interest of petroleum companies worldwide. The shale was deposited under anoxic conditions in a setting which formed as a consequence of retro-arc foreland basin development related to the Cape Fold Belt. This sedimentary/tectonic environment provided the conditions for deeply buried black shales to reach maturity levels for development in the gas window. The investigation site is called the Greystone Area and is situated north of Wolwefontein en route to Jansenville. The area has outcrops of the Dwyka, the Ecca and the lower Beaufort Groups. The outcrops were mapped extensively and the data was used in conjunction with GIS software to produce a detailed geological map. North-south cross sections were drawn to give indication of bed thicknesses and formation depths. Using the field work, data two boreholes were accurately sited on the northern limb of a shallow easterly plunging syncline. The first borehole reached 100m and the second was drilled to 292m depth (100m percussion and 192m core). The second borehole was drilled 200m south of the first, to penetrate the formations at a greater depth and to avoid surface weathering. Fresh core from the upper Dwyka Group, the Prince Albert Formation, the Whitehill Formation, Collingham Formation and part of the Ripon Formation were successfully extracted and a detailed stratigraphic log has been drawn up. The core was sampled during extraction and the samples were immediately sent to the GFZ in Potsdam, Germany, for geochemical analyses. As suspected the black shales of the the Whitehill Formation are high in organic carbon and have an average TOC value of 4.5%, whereas the Prince Albert and Collingham Formation are below 1%. Tmax values

  13. The Patroon Creek Contamination Migration Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufek, K.; Zafran, A.; Moore, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Shaw performed a Site Investigation (SI) for sediment within the Unnamed Tributary of the Patroon Creek, a section of the Patroon Creek, and the Three Mile Reservoir as part of the overall contract with the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to remediate the Colonie Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Site. The Unnamed Tributary formerly flowed through the former Patroon Lake, which was located on the main site property and was used as a landfill for radiological and chemical wastes. The objective of the investigation was to determine the absence/presence of radioactive contamination within the three Areas of Concern (AOC). In order to accomplish this objective, Shaw assembled a team to produce a Technical Memorandum that provided an in-depth understanding of the environmental conditions related to the Patroon Creek. Upon completion and analysis of the Technical Memorandum, a Conceptual Site Model (CSM) was constructed and a Technical Planning Program (TPP) was held to develop a Sediment Investigation Work Plan and Sediment Investigation Sampling and Analysis Plan. A total of 32 sample locations were analyzed using on-site direct gamma scans with a Pancake Geiger-Mueller (PGM) instrument for screening purposes and samples were analyzed at on-site and off-site laboratories. The highest interval from each core scan was selected for on-site analysis utilizing a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. Eight of these samples were sent off-site for gamma/alpha spectroscopy confirmation. The data collected during the SI indicated that the U-238 cleanup criterion was exceeded in sediment samples collected from two locations within the Unnamed Tributary but not in downstream sections of Patroon Creek or Three Mile Reservoir. Future actions for impacted sediment in the Unnamed Tributary will be further evaluated. Concentrations of U-238 and Th-232 in all other off-site sediment samples collected from the Unnamed Tributary, Patroon Creek, and

  14. Understanding the True Stimulated Reservoir Volume in Shale Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Maaruf; Saad, Bilal; Negara, Ardiansyah; Sun, Shuyu

    2017-01-01

    Successful exploitation of shale reservoirs largely depends on the effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing stimulation program. Favorable results have been attributed to intersection and reactivation of pre-existing fractures by hydraulically

  15. Preparing hydraulic cement from oil-shale residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-08-28

    A process for preparation of hydraulic cement from oil-shale residue is characterized in that, as flux is used, rich-in-lime poor-in-sulfur portland-cement clinker, by which the usual gypsum addition, is avoided.

  16. geochemistry of ekenkpon and nkporo shales, calabar flank, se

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    incorporated in the clay minerals of the shales. Also the values of .... analyzed for major oxides, trace elements and rare earth element .... Trace, and rare earth elements geochemistry ..... bearing source material, Ca is leached rapidly than Na.

  17. Vanadium Extraction from Shale via Sulfuric Acid Baking and Leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qihua; Zhang, Yimin; Liu, Tao; Huang, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Fluorides are widely used to improve vanadium extraction from shale in China. Sulfuric acid baking-leaching (SABL) was investigated as a means of recovering vanadium which does not require the use of fluorides and avoids the productions of harmful fluoride-containing wastewater. Various effective factors were systematically studied and the experimental results showed that 90.1% vanadium could be leached from the shale. On the basis of phase transformations and structural changes after baking the shale, a mechanism of vanadium extraction from shale via SABL was proposed. The mechanism can be described as: (1) sulfuric acid diffusion into particles; (2) the formation of concentrated sulfuric acid media in the particles after water evaporation; (3) hydroxyl groups in the muscovite were removed and transient state [SO4 2-] was generated; and (4) the metals in the muscovite were sulfated by active [SO4 2-] and the vanadium was released. Thermodynamics modeling confirmed this mechanism.

  18. Combustion of Jordanian oil shale using circulating fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdan, M.; Al-Azzam, S.

    1998-11-01

    this study re[resents design and manufacturing of a lab-scale circulating fluidized bed (C.F.B) to burn low grade fuel such as Jordanian oil shale. Hydrodynamic properties of C.F.B. were studied like minimum fluidization velocity, circulation flux and carryover rate. a hot run was firstly conducted by the combustion of L.P.G. to start up the combustion process. It proceeds until reaching the minimum burning temperature of oil shale particles, at which time the LPG supply was gradually reduced and oil shale feeding started. soon after reaching a self sustainable condition of oil shale particles, the LPG supply was cut off. The main combustion variables were investigated such as air to fuel ratios, temperature profiles across the bed, exhaust gas analysis and combustion efficiency. a combustion intensity of 859 kg/hr.m 2 and combustion efficiency of 96% were achieved. (authors). 19 refs., 9 tab., 18 fig

  19. Application of binomial-edited CPMG to shale characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Kathryn E; Birdwell, Justin E

    2014-09-01

    Unconventional shale resources may contain a significant amount of hydrogen in organic solids such as kerogen, but it is not possible to directly detect these solids with many NMR systems. Binomial-edited pulse sequences capitalize on magnetization transfer between solids, semi-solids, and liquids to provide an indirect method of detecting solid organic materials in shales. When the organic solids can be directly measured, binomial-editing helps distinguish between different phases. We applied a binomial-edited CPMG pulse sequence to a range of natural and experimentally-altered shale samples. The most substantial signal loss is seen in shales rich in organic solids while fluids associated with inorganic pores seem essentially unaffected. This suggests that binomial-editing is a potential method for determining fluid locations, solid organic content, and kerogen-bitumen discrimination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Some problems of oil shale retorting in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oepik, I.

    1994-01-01

    Oil shale in Estonia will be competitive in the long term as a primary resource for power generating. The price of energy of Estonian oil shale is at present approximately 4 times lower than of coal. The price of electricity is anticipated to grow up to EEK 1.0/kWh in year 2020. The electricity price EEK 0.2/kWh at present in Estonia does not include capital costs needed for refurbishing of Estonian oil-shale-consuming power stations between the years 2000-2010. While all the prices and calculations of the enterprise are presented with no inflation adjustment, the other operation costs of oil shale retorting are anticipated for the prognosed period to remain at the present level: power consumption kWh 280/t crude oils and other operation costs (excluding labour, raw material and power consumption) EEK 100/t of oil

  1. Knudsen-Like Scaling May Be Inappropriate for Gas Shales

    KAUST Repository

    Patzek, Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    We assert that a classification of gas flow regimes in shales that is widely accepted in the petroleum industry, may be inconsistent with the physics of high-pressure gas flow in capillaries. This classification follows from the 1946 work

  2. Weathering characteristics of the Lower Paleozoic black shale in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    permeability show that porosity increases significantly after weathering but permeability changes little. Furthermore, the ... As such, black shales usually have a high content of ... in the accumulation of soluble weathering phases, providing ...

  3. Scale up risk of developing oil shale processing units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oepik, I.

    1991-01-01

    The experiences in oil shale processing in three large countries, China, the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R. have demonstrated, that the relative scale up risk of developing oil shale processing units is related to the scale up factor. On the background of large programmes for developing the oil shale industry branch, i.e. the $30 billion investments in colorado and Utah or 50 million t/year oil shale processing in Estonia and Leningrad Region planned in the late seventies, the absolute scope of the scale up risk of developing single retorting plants, seems to be justified. But under the conditions of low crude oil prices, when the large-scale development of oil shale processing industry is stopped, the absolute scope of the scale up risk is to be divided between a small number of units. Therefore, it is reasonable to build the new commercial oil shale processing plants with a minimum scale up risk. For example, in Estonia a new oil shale processing plant with gas combustion retorts projected to start in the early nineties will be equipped with four units of 1500 t/day enriched oil shale throughput each, designed with scale up factor M=1.5 and with a minimum scale up risk, only r=2.5-4.5%. The oil shale retorting unit for the PAMA plant in Israel [1] is planned to develop in three steps, also with minimum scale up risk: feasibility studies in Colorado with Israel's shale at Paraho 250 t/day retort and other tests, demonstration retort of 700 t/day and M=2.8 in Israel, and commercial retorts in the early nineties with the capacity of about 1000 t/day with M=1.4. The scale up risk of the PAMA project r=2-4% is approximately the same as that in Estonia. the knowledge of the scope of the scale up risk of developing oil shale processing retorts assists on the calculation of production costs in erecting new units. (author). 9 refs., 2 tabs

  4. Study on accumulation of heavy metals in Mangrove sediments, Gabrik Creek (Jask)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarezadeh, R.; Rezaee, P.

    2016-01-01

    Gabrik in the East of Hormozgan province is Mangrove habitat and one of the important Mangrove protected area. This area is located in Oman coasts. This zone because of building Jagin dam on Gabrick River and existence of sand barrier and exposure of pollution, it is possible to destroy or to be important threats of this planet. Base on importance of this sea inhabitation some of sedimentology parameters and geochemical Mangrove's sediments have been analyzed. In this study for sieve used Hydrometric method and for Identification of organic matter used electronic furnace heat 500 degree centigrade for 6 hours. Quantity of calcium carbonate analyzed by titration and for condenses of heavy metal Zn, Pb and Ni chemical decomposition atomic absorption by Thermo-solaar (±1µg/g). Results showed that mean content of carbonate and organic matter in the sediments is 27 percent and 3.36 percent respectively. Contamination heavy metals Pb, Zn and Ni in the sediments of this mangrove, were studied throughout Gabrik creek. Metal concentration analyses were performed using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Mean concentration of the heavy metals Pb, Zn and Ni in sediments was measured 67.63, 69.63 and 76.53 µg/g dry weights respectively. According to determine geoaccumulation index (Igeo), contamination factor (CF), the degree of contamination correction (mCd) and compared the heavy metal concentrations with to the mean concentrations of heavy metals in sedimentary rock (shales) and China and American standards. The results in this study showed that there is no pollution from Zn metal but there are pollutions from Ni and Pb metals and concentration this heavy metals aren't critical. The origin of these heavy metals can be a result of maintenance of fishing vessels in Gabrik Creek, activities or fuel smuggling and perhaps oil compounds spill into the water and human refuse in the region.

  5. Lithium recovery from shale gas produced water using solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Eunyoung; Jang, Yunjai; Chung, Eunhyea

    2017-01-01

    Shale gas produced water is hypersaline wastewater generated after hydraulic fracturing. Since the produced water is a mixture of shale formation water and fracturing fluid, it contains various organic and inorganic components, including lithium, a useful resource for such industries as automobile and electronics. The produced water in the Marcellus shale area contains about 95 mg/L lithium on average. This study suggests a two-stage solvent extraction technique for lithium recovery from shale gas produced water, and determines the extraction mechanism of ions in each stage. All experiments were conducted using synthetic shale gas produced water. In the first-stage, which was designed for the removal of divalent cations, more than 94.4% of Ca"2"+, Mg"2"+, Sr"2"+, and Ba"2"+ ions were removed by using 1.0 M di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as an extractant. In the second-stage, for lithium recovery, we could obtain a lithium extraction efficiency of 41.2% by using 1.5 M D2EHPA and 0.3 M tributyl phosphate (TBP). Lithium loss in the first-stage was 25.1%, and therefore, the total amount of lithium recovered at the end of the two-step extraction procedure was 30.8%. Through this study, lithium, one of the useful mineral resources, could be selectively recovered from the shale gas produced water and it would also reduce the wastewater treatment cost during the development of shale gas. - Highlights: • Lithium was extracted from shale gas produced water using an organic solvent. • Two-stage solvent extraction technique was applied. • Divalent cations were removed in the first stage by D2EHPA. • Lithium was selectively recovered in the second stage by using TBP with D2EHPA.

  6. Unconventional shale gas extraction: present and future affects

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2012-01-01

    In the 1990s the extraction of unconventional shale gas extraction increases in the USA due to national and global demand of energy. The expansion of shale gas production will provide low carbon economy, therefore it is a positive side of low greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere and considering the benefit sides it has been referred to as a bridging fuel. Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing are the two technologies by the combination with one another; provide the potential to ...

  7. Energy Return on Investment (EROI of Oil Shale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. O’Connor

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The two methods of processing synthetic crude from organic marlstone in demonstration or small-scale commercial status in the U.S. are in situ extraction and surface retorting. The considerable uncertainty surrounding the technological characterization, resource characterization, and choice of the system boundary for oil shale operations indicate that oil shale is only a minor net energy producer if one includes internal energy (energy in the shale that is used during the process as an energy cost. The energy return on investment (EROI for either of these methods is roughly 1.5:1 for the final fuel product. The inclusions or omission of internal energy is a critical question. If only external energy (energy diverted from the economy to produce the fuel is considered, EROI appears to be much higher. In comparison, fuels produced from conventional petroleum show overall EROI of approximately 4.5:1. “At the wellhead” EROI is approximately 2:1 for shale oil (again, considering internal energy and 20:1 for petroleum. The low EROI for oil shale leads to a significant release of greenhouse gases. The large quantities of energy needed to process oil shale, combined with the thermochemistry of the retorting process, produce carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions. Oil shale unambiguously emits more greenhouse gases than conventional liquid fuels from crude oil feedstocks by a factor of 1.2 to 1.75. Much of the discussion regarding the EROI for oil shale should be regarded as preliminary or speculative due to the very small number of operating facilities that can be assessed.

  8. Effects of pollution from oil shale mining in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallner, L.; Sepp, K.

    1993-01-01

    The largest commercially exploited oil shale deposit in the world is in northeast Estonia. The accumulation of solid residues by oil shale mines and processing plants has resulted in numerous dumps and ash hills, which are polluting the environment. The groundwater and streams are highly polluted by sulphates, phenols and oil products. A dump hill of radioactive wastes poses a serious threat to the Baltic Sea. Local people suffer from diseases more often than in other regions of Estonia. (author)

  9. Cyclone oil shale retorting concept. [Use it all retorting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harak, A.E.; Little, W.E.; Faulders, C.R.

    1984-04-01

    A new concept for above-ground retorting of oil shale was disclosed by A.E. Harak in US Patent No. 4,340,463, dated July 20, 1982, and assigned to the US Department of Energy. This patent titled System for Utilizing Oil Shale Fines, describes a process wherein oil shale fines of one-half inch diameter and less are pyrolyzed in an entrained-flow reactor using hot gas from a cyclone combustor. Spent shale and supplemental fuel are burned at slagging conditions in this combustor. Because of fines utilization, the designation Use It All Retorting Process (UIARP) has been adopted. A preliminary process engineering design of the UIARP, analytical tests on six samples of raw oil shale, and a preliminary technical and economic evaluation of the process were performed. The results of these investigations are summarized in this report. The patent description is included. It was concluded that such changes as deleting air preheating in the slag quench and replacing the condenser with a quench-oil scrubber are recognized as being essential. The addition of an entrained flow raw shale preheater ahead of the cyclone retort is probably required, but final acceptance is felt to be contingent on some verification that adequate reaction time cannot be obtained with only the cyclone, or possibly some other twin-cyclone configuration. Sufficient raw shale preheating could probably be done more simply in another manner, perhaps in a screw conveyor shale transporting system. Results of the technical and economic evaluations of Jacobs Engineering indicate that further investigation of the UIARP is definitely worthwhile. The projected capital and operating costs are competitive with costs of other processes as long as electric power generation and sales are part of the processing facility.

  10. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1976--1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappell, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements (As, B, F, Mo, Se) by shale oil production and use. Some of the particularly significant results are: The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. This implies that the number of analytical determinations required of processed shales is not large. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, And Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements ae not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Upon oxidation a drastic lowering in pH is observed. Preliminary data indicates that this oxidation is catalyzed by bacteria. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. These amounts depend upon the process and various site specific characteristics. In general, the amounts taken up decrease with increasing soil cover. On the other hand, we have not observed significant uptake of As, Se, and F into plants. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. In particular, most of the Cd, Se, and Cr in shale oil is associated with the organic fraction containing most of the nitrogen-containing compounds.

  11. Scoping of fusion-driven retorting of oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1979-11-01

    In the time frame beyond 2005, fusion reactors are likely to make their first appearance when the oil shale industry will probably be operating with 20% of the production derived from surface retorts operating on deep mined shale from in situ retorts and 80% from shale retorted within these in situ retorts using relatively fine shale uniformly rubblized by expensive mining methods. A process was developed where fusion reactors supply a 600 0 C mixture of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor to both surface and in situ retorts. The in situ production is accomplished by inert gas retorting, without oxygen, avoiding the burning of oil released from the larger shale particles produced in a simpler mining method. These fusion reactor-heated gases retort the oil from four 50x50x200m in-situ rubble beds at high rate of 40m/d and high yield (i.e., 95% F.A.), which provided high return on investment around 20% for the syncrude selling at $20/bbl, or 30% if sold as $30/bbl for heating oil. The bed of 600 0 C retorted shale, or char, left behind was then burned by the admission of ambient air in order to recover all of the possible energy from the shale resource. The hot combustion gases, mostly nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water vapor are then heat-exchanged with fusion reactor blanket coolant flow to be sequentially introduced into the next rubble bed ready for retorting. The advantages of this fusion-driven retorting process concept are a cheaper mining method, high yield and higher production rate system, processing with shale grades down to 50 l/mg (12 gpt), improved resource recovery by complete char utilization and low energy losses by leaving behind a cold, spent bed

  12. Sweet spots for hydraulic fracturing oil or gas production in underexplored shales using key performance indicators: Example of the Posidonia Shale formation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heege, J.H. ter; Zijp, M.H.A.A.; Nelkamp, S.

    2015-01-01

    While extensive data and experiences are available for hydraulic fracturing and hydrocarbon production from shales in the U.S.A., such a record is lacking in many underexplored shale basins worldwide. As limited data is usually available in these basins, analysis of shale prospectivity and

  13. 75 FR 16728 - Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger District, Custer National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project, Ashland Ranger... manner that increases resiliency of the Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project area ecosystem to... requirements to require. The Beaver Creek Landscape Management Project includes treatments previously proposed...

  14. Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

    2012-01-27

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  15. The influence of soluble organic matter on shale reservoir characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Pan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Shale with a maturity within the “oil window” contains a certain amount of residual soluble organic matter (SOM. This SOM have an important influence on characterization of shale reservoir. In this study, two shale samples were collected from the Upper Permian Dalong Formation in the northwestern boundary of Sichuan Basin. Their geochemistry, mineral composition, and pore structure (surface area and pore volume were investigated before and after removing the SOM by means of extraction via dichloromethane or trichloromethane. The results show that the TOC, S1, S2, and IH of the extracted samples decrease significantly, but the mineral composition has no evident change as compared with their raw samples. Thus, we can infer that the original pore structure is thought to be unaffected from the extraction. The SOM occupies pore volume and hinders pores connectivity. The extraction greatly increases the surface area and pore volume of the samples. The residual SOM in the shale samples occur mainly in the micropores and smaller mesopores, and their occupied pore size range seems being constrained by the maturity. For the lower mature shale samples, the SOM is mainly hosted in organic pores that are less than 5 nm in size. For the middle mature shale samples, the micropores and some mesopores ranging between 2 and 20 nm in size are the main storage space for the SOM.

  16. Validation Results for Core-Scale Oil Shale Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staten, Josh; Tiwari, Pankaj

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes a study of oil shale pyrolysis at various scales and the subsequent development a model for in situ production of oil from oil shale. Oil shale from the Mahogany zone of the Green River formation was used in all experiments. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted at four scales, powdered samples (100 mesh) and core samples of 0.75”, 1” and 2.5” diameters. The batch, semibatch and continuous flow pyrolysis experiments were designed to study the effect of temperature (300°C to 500°C), heating rate (1°C/min to 10°C/min), pressure (ambient and 500 psig) and size of the sample on product formation. Comprehensive analyses were performed on reactants and products - liquid, gas and spent shale. These experimental studies were designed to understand the relevant coupled phenomena (reaction kinetics, heat transfer, mass transfer, thermodynamics) at multiple scales. A model for oil shale pyrolysis was developed in the COMSOL multiphysics platform. A general kinetic model was integrated with important physical and chemical phenomena that occur during pyrolysis. The secondary reactions of coking and cracking in the product phase were addressed. The multiscale experimental data generated and the models developed provide an understanding of the simultaneous effects of chemical kinetics, and heat and mass transfer on oil quality and yield. The comprehensive data collected in this study will help advance the move to large-scale in situ oil production from the pyrolysis of oil shale.

  17. Climate impact of potential shale gas production in the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, D.; Perks, J. [AEA Technology plc, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    Existing estimates of GHG emissions from shale gas production and available abatement options were used to obtain improved estimates of emissions from possible shale gas exploitation in the EU. GHG emissions per unit of electricity generated from shale gas were estimated to be around 4 to 8% higher than for electricity generated by conventional pipeline gas from within Europe. These additional emissions arise in the pre-combustion stage, predominantly in the well completion phase when the fracturing fluid is brought back to the surface together with released methane. If emissions from well completion are mitigated, through flaring or capture, and utilised, then this difference is reduced to 1 to 5%. The analysis suggests that the emissions from shale gas-based power generation (base case) are 2 to 10% lower than those from electricity generated from sources of conventional pipeline gas located outside of Europe (in Russia and Algeria), and 7 to 10% lower than those from electricity generated from LNG imported into Europe. However, under our 'worst case' shale gas scenario, where all flow back gases at well completion are vented, emissions from electricity generated from shale gas would be similar to the upper emissions level for electricity generated from imported LNG and for gas imported from Russia.

  18. Comparative dermal carcinogenesis of shale and petroleum-derived distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C R; Walter, M K; Ferguson, P W; Katchen, M

    1988-03-01

    Ten test materials derived from petroleum or hydrotreated shale oils were applied 3 times/week for up to 105 weeks to the shaved skin of 25 male and 25 female C3H/HeN mice per group. Mineral oil and benzo(a) pyrene (0.15%) were control materials. Clinical observations were recorded during the study. At death, histopathologic examination was conducted on skin, internal organs and any gross lesions. Exposures to some materials were ended midway in the study due to severe irritation. Chronic toxicity of all materials was limited to inflammatory and degenerative skin changes. Significant increases over control incidence of skin tumors (squamous cell carcinoma and fibrosarcoma) occurred with both petroleum and shale-derived naphtha (21%, 50%), Jet A (26%, 28%), JP-4 (26%, 50%), and crude oils (84%, 54%). Severely hydrotreated shale oil and petroleum and shale-derived diesel distillates were not considered tumorigenic. Results indicate that toxicity of comparable petroleum and shale-derived fractions was qualitatively similar and confirm earlier findings that hydrotreating reduces or eliminates carcinogenicity of raw shale oil.

  19. Shale gas: how to progress. Report July 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clamadieu, Jean-Pierre; Aubagnac, Louis-Paul; Dolle, Julie; Lahet, Jean-Francois; Goffe, Bruno; Le Bihan-Graf, Christine; Rosenblieh, Laure; Puyfaucher, Laetitia

    2014-07-01

    This report proposes a multidisciplinary contribution to the debate on shale gas. It first shows that shale gas is already a reality at the international level, that the American economy has improved its competitiveness with direct consequences for the European economy, and notices that some countries which have been reluctant until now, are now evolving. The second part describes the potential of shale gas in France as important but with still uncertain resources. The authors outline that a status-quo would be a threat for the French industry on the short term. Then, the report proposes answers to some questions raised by the exploitation of shale gas in France in terms of risks related to hydraulic fracturing, to water resources, to methane emissions, to organic volatile compounds present in drilling waters, or in terms of noise and visual pollutions. In its last part, the report discusses how to progress in the assessment of the role of shale gas in the French and European energy mix, in the knowledge of the French underground, in the development of shale gas at the service of competitiveness, and with an ensured progressive and controlled evolution

  20. Climate impact of potential shale gas production in the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, D.; Perks, J. [AEA Technology plc, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    Existing estimates of GHG emissions from shale gas production and available abatement options were used to obtain improved estimates of emissions from possible shale gas exploitation in the EU. GHG emissions per unit of electricity generated from shale gas were estimated to be around 4 to 8% higher than for electricity generated by conventional pipeline gas from within Europe. These additional emissions arise in the pre-combustion stage, predominantly in the well completion phase when the fracturing fluid is brought back to the surface together with released methane. If emissions from well completion are mitigated, through flaring or capture, and utilised, then this difference is reduced to 1 to 5%. The analysis suggests that the emissions from shale gas-based power generation (base case) are 2 to 10% lower than those from electricity generated from sources of conventional pipeline gas located outside of Europe (in Russia and Algeria), and 7 to 10% lower than those from electricity generated from LNG imported into Europe. However, under our 'worst case' shale gas scenario, where all flow back gases at well completion are vented, emissions from electricity generated from shale gas would be similar to the upper emissions level for electricity generated from imported LNG and for gas imported from Russia.

  1. Prospects for the exploitation of Jordan oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaber, J.O; Probert, S.D.; Badr, O.

    1997-01-01

    Oil shale is the major indigenous fossil-fuel in Jordan: its predicted reserves, of about 5·10 1 0 tonnes, should be sufficient to satisfy Jordan's energy requirements for several centuries. Jordanian oil shale has, on an average, a gross calorific value of between 5 and 7 MJ/kg, an oil yield of ∼ 10 %, and a sulfur content of approximately 3 % by weight of the raw shale (i.e. 7 to 9 % of the organic matter content). Using the oil shale as the input fuel, a multipurpose production process (i.e. retorting, electricity generation, thermal water-desalination, chemicals production as well as mineral extraction) could achieve high utilisation-factors of both its chemical and energy potentials. In the long-term, oil shale is the only indigenous energy resource that could reduce Jordan's dependence on imported crude oil and hence ease the pressure on the national economy. The conversion of oil shale into a liquid or gaseous fuel and raw materials will be of decisive importance in attempts to secure the future of energy supplies. So national efforts devoted to the exploration for, and harnessing more economically, this energy resource, while limiting the associated adverse environmental impacts, should be accelerated. (author)

  2. Anthropogenic gadolinium anomalies and rare earth elements in the water of Atibaia River and Anhumas Creek, Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Francisco Ferreira; Enzweiler, Jacinta

    2016-05-01

    The concentrations of rare earth elements (REE), measured in water samples from Atibaia River and its tributary Anhumas Creek, Brazil, present excess of dissolved gadolinium. Such anthropogenic anomalies of Gd in water, already described in other parts of the world, result from the use of stable and soluble Gd chelates as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. Atibaia River constitutes the main water supply of Campinas Metropolitan area, and its basin receives wastewater effluents. The REE concentrations in water samples were determined in 0.22-μm pore size filtered samples, without and after preconcentration by solid-phase extraction with bis-(2-ethyl-hexyl)-phosphate. This preconcentration method was unable to retain the anthropogenic Gd quantitatively. The probable reason is that the Gd chelates dissociate slowly in acidic media to produce the free ion that is retained by the phosphate ester. Strong correlations between Gd and constituents or parameters associated with effluents confirmed the source of most Gd in water samples as anthropogenic. The shale-normalized REE patterns of Atibaia River and Anhumas Creek water samples showed light and heavy REE enrichment trends, respectively. Also, positive Ce anomalies in many Atibaia River samples, as well as the strong correlations of the REE (except Gd) with terrigenous elements, imply that inorganic colloidal particles contributed to the REE measured values.

  3. An integrated management tool for rockfall evaluation along transportation corridors: the ParaChute research project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Catherine; Locat, Jacques; Mayers, Mélanie; Noël, François; Turmel, Dominique; Jacob, Chantal; Dorval, Pierre; Bossé, François; Gionet, Pierre; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Rockfall is a significant hazard along linear infrastructures due to the presence of natural and man-made rock slopes. Knowing where the problematic rockfalls source areas are is of primary importance to properly manage and mitigate the risk associated to rockfall along linear infrastructures. The aim of the ParaChute research project is to integrate various technologies into a workflow for rockfall characterization for such infrastructures, using a 220 km-long railroad as the study site which is located on Québec's North Shore, Canada. The objectives of this 3-year project which started in 2014 are: (1) to optimize the use of terrestrial, mobile and airborne laser scanners data into terrain analysis, structural geology analysis and rockfall susceptibility rating, (2) to further develop the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for photogrammetry applied to rock cliff characterization, and (3) to integrate rockfall simulation studies into a rock slope classification system similar to the Rockfall Hazard Rating System. Firstly, based on laser scanner data and aerial photographs, the morpho-structural features of the terrain (genetic material, landform, drainage, etc.) are mapped. The result can be used to assess all types of mass movements. Secondly, to guide field work and decrease uncertainty of various parameters, systematic rockfall simulations and a first structural analysis are made from point clouds acquired by mobile and airborne laser scanner. The simulation results are used to recognize the rock slopes that have potentially problematic rockfall paths, meaning they could reach the linear infrastructure. Other rock slopes are not included in the inventory. Field work is carried out to validate and complete the rock slopes characterization previously made from remote sensing technique. Because some or parts of cliffs are not visible or accessible from the railroad, we are currently developing the use of photogrammetry by UAV in order to complete the

  4. Oil shale : could Shell's experimental oil shale technology be adapted to Alberta's bitumen carbonates?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, P.

    2006-07-01

    Although Shell has been trying to develop technologies to economically extract oil from shale containing kerogen for the last 25 years, the volume of oil Shell produced from its Mahogany Research Project in Colorado has added up to less than 2500 bbls in total, and the company has recently devoted $400 million to purchase leases on carbonate reservoirs in Alberta. This article examined whether or not the technologies developed by Shell for oil shales could be used to profitably extract bitumen from carbonates. Extracting bitumen from carbonates may be easier than producing oil from shale, as the resource in carbonates is already oil, whereas the oil in oil shale is actually kerogen, which needs to be chemically cracked at extremely high temperatures. Although the technical feasibility of an in situ cracking process has been proven, work remains to be done before Shell can invest in a commercial-scale oil shale project. Challenges to oil shale production include preventing groundwater from entering target zones and keeping produced fluids out of the groundwater. However, a freeze wall test has recently been designed where chilled liquid is circulated through a closed-loop pipe system to freeze formation water, sealing off an area about the size of a football field from the surrounding strata. The energy requirements of the process that Shell is testing to produce shale oil in Colorado remain unprofitably high, as higher temperatures are necessary for thermal cracking. Shell has yet to make a decision as to what energy sources it will use to make the production process economically viable. An energy conservation group in Colorado has claimed that production of 100,000 bbls of shale oil would require the largest power plant in Colorado history. 2 figs.

  5. Efeitos do treinamento de força específico no desempenho de nadadores velocistas treinados com parachute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Sales Bocalini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar os efeitos do treinamento de força específico no desempenho de nadadores velocistas. METODOLOGIA: dois grupos de nadadores randomizados em treinados sem (TSP, n: 8 e com parachute (TCP, n: 12 foram submetidos a treinamento de 12 semanas (6 x semana; 1 sessão de 2 h/dia, sendo avaliados a força muscular (FMMI; a força específica (FE e o tempo de sustentação de força (TSF; o número de braçadas em 50m (NB 50m; o tempo e a velocidade de nado em 15 (V 15m e 50m (V 50m, antes e após o protocolo. RESULTADOS: após o programa de treinamento, não ocorreram modificações na FMMI e V 15m para ambos os grupos. Nas demais variáveis houve melhora significante (p 18%; FE (> 30%; TSF (> 35%; NB 50m ( 16%. O grupo TSP apresentou melhora no TSF (> 9%. CONCLUSÃO: o emprego do parachute foi eficiente em melhorar os parâmetros de força e no desempenho no teste de 50m

  6. Geomechanical Anisotropy and Rock Fabric in Shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, K. A.; Connolly, P.; Thornton, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Digital rock physics (DRP) is an emerging area of qualitative and quantitative scientific analysis that has been employed on a variety of rock types at various scales to characterize petrophysical, mechanical, and hydraulic rock properties. This contribution presents a generic geomechanically focused DRP workflow involving image segmentation by geomechanical constituents, generation of finite element (FE) meshes, and application of various boundary conditions (i.e. at the edge of the domain and at boundaries of various components such as edges of individual grains). The generic workflow enables use of constituent geological objects and relationships in a computational based approach to address specific questions in a variety of rock types at various scales. Two examples are 1) modeling stress dependent permeability, where it occurs and why it occurs at the grain scale; 2) simulating the path and complexity of primary fractures and matrix damage in materials with minerals or intervals of different mechanical behavior. Geomechanical properties and fabric characterization obtained from 100 micron shale SEM images using the generic DRP workflow are presented. Image segmentation and development of FE simulation composed of relatively simple components (elastic materials, frictional contacts) and boundary conditions enable the determination of bulk static elastic properties. The procedure is repeated for co-located images at pertinent orientations to determine mechanical anisotropy. The static moduli obtained are benchmarked against lab derived measurements since material properties (esp. frictional ones) are poorly constrained at the scale of investigation. Once confidence in the input material parameters is gained, the procedure can be used to characterize more samples (i.e. images) than is possible from rock samples alone. Integration of static elastic properties with grain statistics and geologic (facies) conceptual models derived from core and geophysical logs

  7. Shale gas characterization based on geochemical and geophysical analysis: Case study of Brown shale, Pematang formation, Central Sumatra Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, A.; Nastria, N.; Soebandrio, D.; Riyanto, A.

    2017-07-01

    Geochemical and geophysical analyses of shale gas have been carried out in Brown Shale, Middle Pematang Formation, Central Sumatra Basin. The paper is aimed at delineating the sweet spot distribution of potential shale gas reservoir, which is based on Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Maturity level data, and combined with TOC modeling that refers to Passey and Regression Multi Linear method. We used 4 well data, side wall core and 3D pre-stack seismic data. Our analysis of geochemical properties is based on well log and core data and its distribution are constrained by a framework of 3D seismic data, which is transformed into acoustic impedance. Further, the sweet spot of organic-rich shale is delineated by mapping TOC, which is extracted from inverted acoustic impedance. Our experiment analysis shows that organic materials contained in the formation of Middle Pematang Brown Shale members have TOC range from 0.15 to 2.71 wt.%, which is classified in the quality of poor to very good. In addition, the maturity level of organic material is ranging from 373°C to 432°C, which is indicated by vitrinite reflectance (Ro) of 0.58. In term of kerogen type, this Brown shale formation is categorized as kerogen type of II I III, which has the potential to generate a mixture of gasIoil on the environment.

  8. Life cycle environmental impacts of UK shale gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamford, Laurence; Azapagic, Adisa

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • First full life cycle assessment of shale gas used for electricity generation. • Comparison with coal, conventional and liquefied gas, nuclear, wind and solar PV. • Shale gas worse than coal for three impacts and better than renewables for four. • It has higher photochemical smog and terrestrial toxicity than the other options. • Shale gas a sound environmental option only if accompanied by stringent regulation. - Abstract: Exploitation of shale gas in the UK is at a very early stage, but with the latest estimates suggesting potential resources of 3.8 × 10 13 cubic metres – enough to supply the UK for next 470 years – it is viewed by many as an exciting economic prospect. However, its environmental impacts are currently unknown. This is the focus of this paper which estimates for the first time the life cycle impacts of UK shale gas, assuming its use for electricity generation. Shale gas is compared to fossil-fuel alternatives (conventional gas and coal) and low-carbon options (nuclear, offshore wind and solar photovoltaics). The results suggest that the impacts range widely, depending on the assumptions. For example, the global warming potential (GWP100) of electricity from shale gas ranges from 412 to 1102 g CO 2 -eq./kWh with a central estimate of 462 g. The central estimates suggest that shale gas is comparable or superior to conventional gas and low-carbon technologies for depletion of abiotic resources, eutrophication, and freshwater, marine and human toxicities. Conversely, it has a higher potential for creation of photochemical oxidants (smog) and terrestrial toxicity than any other option considered. For acidification, shale gas is a better option than coal power but an order of magnitude worse than the other options. The impact on ozone layer depletion is within the range found for conventional gas, but nuclear and wind power are better options still. The results of this research highlight the need for tight regulation and

  9. Investigating Rare Earth Element Systematics in the Marcellus Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Torres, M. E.; Kim, J. H.; Verba, C.

    2014-12-01

    The lanthanide series of elements (the 14 rare earth elements, REEs) have similar chemical properties and respond to different chemical and physical processes in the natural environment by developing unique patterns in their concentration distribution when normalized to an average shale REE content. The interpretation of the REE content in a gas-bearing black shale deposited in a marine environment must therefore take into account the paleoredox conditions of deposition as well as any diagenetic remobilization and authigenic mineral formation. We analyzed 15 samples from a core of the Marcellus Shale (Whipkey ST1, Greene Co., PA) for REEs, TOC, gas-producing potential, trace metal content, and carbon isotopes of organic matter in order to determine the REE systematics of a black shale currently undergoing shale gas development. We also conducted a series of sequential leaching experiments targeting the phosphatic fractions in order to evaluate the dominant host phase of REEs in a black shale. Knowledge of the REE system in the Marcellus black shale will allow us to evaluate potential REE release and behavior during hydraulic fracturing operations. Total REE content of the Whipkey ST1 core ranged from 65-185 μg/g and we observed three distinct REE shale-normalized patterns: middle-REE enrichment (MREE/MREE* ~2) with heavy-REE enrichment (HREE/LREE ~1.8-2), flat patterns, and a linear enrichment towards the heavy-REE (HREE/LREE ~1.5-2.5). The MREE enrichment occurred in the high carbonate samples of the Stafford Member overlying the Marcellus Formation. The HREE enrichment occurred in the Union Springs Member of the Marcellus Formation, corresponding to a high TOC peak (TOC ~4.6-6.2 wt%) and moderate carbonate levels (CaCO3 ~4-53 wt%). Results from the sequential leaching experiments suggest that the dominant host of the REEs is the organic fraction of the black shale and that the detrital and authigenic fractions have characteristic MREE enrichments. We present our

  10. The natural channel of Brandywine Creek, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolman, M.G.

    1955-01-01

    This study of the channel of Brandy wine Creek, Pennsylvania, consists of three parts. The first is an analysis of the changes which take place in the width, depth, velocity, slope of the water surface, suspended load, and roughness factor with changing discharge below the bankfull stage at each of several widely separated cross sections of the channel. Expressed as functions of the discharge, it is found that the variables behave systematically. In every section studied, as the discharge increases, the velocity increases to about the 0.6 power, depth to the 0.4, and load to the 2.0 power of the discharge. The roughness decreases to the 0.2 power of the discharge. The relative magnitudes and the direction of these variations are similar to those which have been observed in other rivers in the United States, primarily in the West. Some modifications of the hypotheses applicable to the western rivers are probably required because on Brandywine Creek the difference between the materials on the bed and in the banks is considerably greater than it is on most of the western rivers studied. In the second part of the paper the progressive changes of the same variables in the downstream direction with increasing discharge at a given frequency are described. Despite the disorderly appearance of the stream, it is found that the variables display a progressive, orderly change in the downstream direction when traced from the headwater tributaries through the trunk stream of Brandywine Creek. At a given frequency of flow, width increases with discharge to about the 0.5 power. Depth increases downstream somewhat less rapidly, while the slope and roughness both decrease in the downstream direction. Despite a decrease in the size of the material on the bed, both the mean velocity and the mean bed velocity increase downstream. The rates of change of these variables are in close accord with the changes observed on rivers flowing in alluvium and in stable irrigation canals. These

  11. Subsurface geology of the Cold Creek syncline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, C.W.; Price, S.M.

    1981-07-01

    Bedrock beneath the Hanford Site is being evaluated by the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) for possible use by the US Department of Energy as a geologic repository for nuclear waste storage. Initial BWIP geologic and hydrologic studies served to determine that the central Hanford Site contains basalt flows with thick, dense interiors that have low porosities and permeabilities. Furthermore, within the Cold Creek syncline, these flows appear to be nearly flat lying across areas in excess of tens of square kilometers. Such flows have been identified as potential repository host rock candidates. The Umtanum flow, which lies from 900 to 1150 m beneath the surface, is currently considered the leading host rock candidate. Within the west-central Cold Creek syncline, a 47-km 2 area designated as the reference repository location (RRL) is currently considered the leading candidate site. The specific purpose of this report is to present current knowledge of stratigraphic, lithologic, and structural factors that directly relate to the suitability of the Umtanum flow within the Cold Creek syncline for use as a nuclear waste repository host rock. The BWIP geologic studies have concentrated on factors that might influence groundwater transport of radionuclides from this flow. These factors include: (1) intraflow structures within the interiors of individual lava flows, (2) interflow zones and flow fronts between adjacent lava flows, and (3) bedrock structures. Data have been obtained primarily through coring and geophysical logging of deep boreholes, petrographic, paleomagnetic, and chemical analysis, seismic-reflection, gravity, and magnetic (ground and multilevel airborne) surveys, and surface mapping. Results included in this document comprise baseline data which will be utilized to prepare a Site Characterization Report as specified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  12. Bear Creek Project. Final environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The Bear Creek Project consists of certain mining and milling operations involving uranium ore deposits located in Converse County, Wyoming. Mining of uranium from nine known ore bodies will take place over a period of ten years (estimated); a mill with a nominal capacity of 1000 tons per day of ore will be constructed and operated as long as ore is available. The waste material (tailings) from the mill, also produced at a rate of about 1000 tons per day, will be stored onsite in an impoundment. Environmental impacts and adverse effects are summarized

  13. Stratigraphic and structural data for the Conasauga Group and the Rome Formation on the Copper Creek fault block near Oak Ridge, Tennessee: preliminary results from test borehole ORNL-JOY No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, C.S.; Walls, E.C.; Farmer, C.D.

    1985-06-01

    To resolve long-standing problems with the stratigraphy of the Conasauga Group and the Rome Formation on the Copper Creek fault block near Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), an 828.5-m-deep test borehole was drilled. Continuous rock core was recovered from the 17.7- to 828.5-m-deep interval; temperature, caliper, neutron, gamma-ray, and acoustic (velocity and televiewer) logs were obtained. The Conasauga Group at the study site is 572.4 m thick and comprises six formations that are - in descending stratigraphic order - Maynardville Limestone (98.8 m), Nolichucky Shale (167.9 m), Maryville Limestone (141.1 m), Rogersville Shale (39.6 m), Rutledge Limestone (30.8 m), and Pumpkin Valley Shale (94.2 m). The formations are lithologically complex, ranging from clastics that consist of shales, mudstones, and siltstones to carbonates that consist of micrites, wackestones, packstones, and conglomerates. The Rome Formation is 188.1 m thick and consists of variably bedded mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones. The Rome Formation thickness represents 88.1 m of relatively undeformed section and 100.0 m of highly deformed, jumbled, and partially repeated section. The bottom of the Rome Formation is marked by a tectonic disconformity that occurs within a 46-m-thick, intensely deformed interval caused by motion along the Copper Creek fault. Results from this study establish the stratigraphy and the lithology of the Conasauga Group and the Rome Formation near ORNL and, for the first time, allow for the unambiguous correlation of cores and geophysical logs from boreholes elsewhere in the ORNL vicinity. 45 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Shale gas opportunities. Dehydrogenation of light alkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patcas, F.C.; Dieterle, M.; Rezai, A.; Asprion, N. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    The discovery and use of shale gas in North America has become a game changer for the chemical industry by access to a cheaper feedstock compared to conventional oil. Increased number of ethane crackers spurred increasing interest in light alkanes dehydrogenation. Several companies have announced their interest in new propane dehydrogenation units in North America. BASF is developing light alkanes dehydrogenation technologies for two decades now. BASF developed jointly with Linde the isothermal C3 dehydrogenation process. The latest dehydrogenation catalyst development at BASF focused on a supported and steam resistant Pt-Sn catalyst which yielded excellent selectivity and activity. Intense research work both internally as well as in cooperation with universities contributed to the understanding of the relationship between the surface structure and catalyst performances like activity, selectivity and coking resistance. Using such type of catalysts BASF developed an autothermal propane dehydrogenation as well as a butane dehydrogenation process. The most recent catalyst development was a dehydrogenation catalyst coated on a honeycomb monolith to improve catalyst usage and pressure drop. This will probably be the first industrial usage of catalytic monoliths in a chemical synthesis process. (orig.) (Published in summary form only)

  15. Process for distilling shales, peats, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felizat, G

    1922-01-09

    The invention has for its object: a process for the distillation of shales, peats, and analogous products characterized by injecting across the substance a very rapid stream of superheated steam under pressure in order to effect a rapid removal of the products of distillation, to lower also the temperature at which it distills, to equalize the temperature throughout the mass, to hydrogenate the heavy hydrocarbons. An apparatus is put into operation characterized by the combination of a retort receiving the material to be distilled with a superheater for the steam, the combustion products which escape from the hearth of the superheater going to encircle the retort while the steam which comes off the superheater traverses this retort, the pressure of the steam being regulated by a convenient regulator; the products of the distillation result from the simultaneous action of the hot gases and steam on the contents of the retort being, on the other hand, separated at the outlet of this retort by means of cooling in a gas separator, a condenser, and part of the gas after being separated serving to heat the mentioned superheater.

  16. Emission from Estonian oil shale power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aunela, L.; Haesaenen, E.; Kinnunen, V.; Larjava, K.; Mehtonen, A.; Salmikangas, T.; Leskelae, J.; Loosaar, J.

    1995-01-01

    Flue gas emissions from pulverized oil shale fired boilers of Estonian and Baltic power plants have been studied. The concentrations of NO x , CO, C x H y , HCI, Hf and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in flue gases have been found to be relatively low and acceptable according to German emission limits, for instance. Desulphurization degree of flue gases by SO 2 absorption with ash has been found to vary defending on boiler type and operation conditions. In spite of significant sulphur capture (average values for different boilers in the range between 68 and 77 % of the initial sulphur content of the fuel), SO 2 concentrations in flue gases remain still very high (up to 2600 mg/m 3 , 10% O 2 ). Very high concentrations of particles, especially at Estonian Power Plant (up o 6250 mg/m 3 , 10 % 0 2 ) have been detected. Heavy metal emissions were too high by the reason of particle control insufficiency as well. Yearly emission estimates of this study support the former Estonian ones within the range of 10-15 %. (author)

  17. 75 FR 8036 - Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project AGENCY: Forest... Rangeland Project area. The analysis will determine if a change in management direction for livestock grazing is needed to move existing resource conditions within the Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project area...

  18. 75 FR 57766 - Ryckman Creek Resources, LLC; Notice of Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP10-498-000] Ryckman Creek Resources, LLC; Notice of Petition September 15, 2010. Take notice that on September 3, 2010, Ryckman Creek..., a petition for an Exemption of Temporary Acts and Operations and Request for Expedited Approval...

  19. 33 CFR 117.1001 - Cat Point Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cat Point Creek. 117.1001 Section 117.1001 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1001 Cat Point Creek. The draw of the...

  20. 33 CFR 117.800 - Mill Neck Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mill Neck Creek. 117.800 Section 117.800 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.800 Mill Neck Creek. The draw of the...

  1. 33 CFR 117.705 - Beaver Dam Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Beaver Dam Creek. 117.705 Section 117.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.705 Beaver Dam Creek. The draw of the...

  2. Hydrology of Bishop Creek, California: An Isotopic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael L. Space; John W. Hess; Stanley D. Smith

    1989-01-01

    Five power generation plants along an eleven kilometer stretch divert Bishop Creek water for hydro-electric power. Stream diversion may be adversely affecting the riparian vegetation. Stable isotopic analysis is employed to determine surface water/ground-water interactions along the creek. surface water originates primarily from three headwater lakes. Discharge into...

  3. 78 FR 76750 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Chambers Creek, Steilacoom, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... operating schedule that governs the Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) Chambers Creek Railway Bridge across... performing lift bridge maintenance and upgrades for the BNSF Chambers Creek Railway Bridge across Chambers... maintenance and upgrade items to this vertical lift bridge in support of Positive Train Control requirements...

  4. Environmental baselines: preparing for shale gas in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, John; Manamsa, Katya; Bell, Rachel; Darling, George; Dochartaigh, Brighid O.; Stuart, Marianne; Ward, Rob

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater is a vital source of freshwater in the UK. It provides almost 30% of public water supply on average, but locally, for example in south-east England, it is constitutes nearly 90% of public supply. In addition to public supply, groundwater has a number of other uses including agriculture, industry, and food and drink production. It is also vital for maintaining river flows especially during dry periods and so is essential for maintaining ecosystem health. Recently, there have been concerns expressed about the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater. The UK has abundant shales and clays which are currently the focus of considerable interest and there is active research into their characterisation, resource evaluation and exploitation risks. The British Geological Survey (BGS) is undertaking research to provide information to address some of the environmental concerns related to the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater resources and quality. The aim of much of this initial work is to establish environmental baselines, such as a baseline survey of methane occurrence in groundwater (National methane baseline study) and the spatial relationships between potential sources and groundwater receptors (iHydrogeology project), prior to any shale gas exploration and development. The poster describes these two baseline studies and presents preliminary findings. BGS are currently undertaking a national survey of baseline methane concentrations in groundwater across the UK. This work will enable any potential future changes in methane in groundwater associated with shale gas development to be assessed. Measurements of methane in potable water from the Cretaceous, Jurassic and Triassic carbonate and sandstone aquifers are variable and reveal methane concentrations of up to 500 micrograms per litre, but the mean value is relatively low at documented in the range 2km. The geological modelling process will be presented and discussed

  5. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.J.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Schultz, C.W. (Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States)); Parekh, B.K. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)); Misra, M. (Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States)); Bonner, W.P. (Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States))

    1992-11-01

    The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the multi-year program, initiated in October 1987 by the US Department of Energy is to perform the research necessary to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The results of the original 3-year program, which was concluded in May 1991, have been summarized in a four-volume final report published by IGT. DOE subsequently approved a 1-year extension to the program to further develop the PFH process specifically for application to beneficiated shale as feedstock. Studies have shown that beneficiated shale is the preferred feedstock for pressurized hydroretorting. The program extension is divided into the following active tasks. Task 3. testing of process improvement concepts; Task 4. beneficiation research; Task 5. operation of PFH on beneficiated shale; Task 6. environmental data and mitigation analyses; Task 7. sample procurement, preparation, and characterization; and Task 8. project management and reporting. In order to accomplish all the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the prime contractor, worked with four other institutions: the University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute (MRI), the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), the University of Nevada (UN) at Reno, and Tennessee Technological University (TTU). This report presents the work performed during the program extension from June 1, 1991 through May 31, 1992.

  6. The Shale Gas potential of Lower Carboniferous Sediments in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschke, D.; Mihailovic, A.; Schulz, H., -M.; Horsfield, B.

    2012-04-01

    Organic-rich Carboniferous sediments are proven source rocks for conventional gas systems in NW Europe and are likely gas shale candidates. Within the framework of GeoEnergie, an initiative to strengthen scientific excellence, funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), the influence of palaeogeography and basin dynamics on sedimentology and diagenesis is being investigated. Our aim is to unravel the evolution of shale gas-relevant properties which control gas prospectivity and production parameters like porosity, brittleness, etc. for the Lower Carboniferous in Germany. Northern Germany is underlain by thick, mudstone-bearing Carboniferous successions with a wide range of thermal maturities. Some of these mudstone horizons are rich in organic carbon which is either of marine and/or terrigenous origin. During the Carboniferous deposition of fine-grained, TOC-rich basinal sediments changed into shallow marine to paralic siliciclastic sediments (carbonates during the Lower Carboniferous) in the north, and grade into coarse-grained sediments close to the uprising Variscan mountains in the south. As a result different architectural elements including TOC-rich fine-grained sediments like basinal shales, fine-grained parts of turbidites, and shallow marine mudstones occur in both the Lower and the Upper Carboniferous section. A high shale gas potential occurs in basinal shales of Namurian age with marine organic material and TOC contents of up to 8 % (Rhenish Alum Shales). Such sediments with thermal maturities between 1.3 to 3.0 % vitrinite reflectance and sufficient quartz contents occur in wide areas of present-day Central European Basins System (CEBS), and are at favourable depth for shale gas exploration predominantly along the southern CEBS margin.

  7. Volatile characteristic of trace elements during microwave pyrolysis of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Jing-ru; Wang, Qing; Kong, Ling-wen; Bai, Zhang [Northeast Dianli Univ., Jilin (China). Engineering Research Centre

    2013-07-01

    Oil shale is abundant in the world. Today, the industry of oil shale retorting for producing shale oil is developing owing to high price of oil in the world. In order to study migratory behavior of trace elements in oil shale at microwave pyrolysis, tests were performed in laboratory with oil shale of the Huadian deposit of China at different powers from 400 to 700 W. The trace elements As, Cd, Hg, Mo, Pb, Se, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, Zn, Ba, Co, Mn present in oil shale and shale char were determined by the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). By comparing the content of trace elements in oil shale and shale char, distribution characteristics of trace elements at retorting were studied. The overall trends of volatile ratio of trace elements are ascending with higher microwave power and higher than the conventional pyrolysis. The differences in the volatile ratio indicate that the trace elements investigated are bound with the oil shale kerogen and its mineral matter in different manner. So Float-sink experiments (FSE) were performed on oil shale. Huadian oil shale has more included mineral. The volatilization of organic matter is not the main reason for the volatilization of trace elements in oil shale. The trace elements combined with the mineral elements may be also certain volatility.

  8. The influence of global sea level changes on European shale distribution and gas exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, P.; Cornelius, C.T.; Clarke, H. [Cuadrilla Resources Ltd., Staffordshire (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Technological advances in directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology have unlocked new supplies of shale gas from reservoirs that were previously considered to be uneconomic. Several companies, both experienced majors and small independents, are currently evaluating the unconventional resource potential of mainland Europe. This paper demonstrated that global sea level changes govern the distribution of marine black shales. The Hallam Curve was used in this study to identify periods of prospective gas shale deposition. In general, these correspond to post-glacial periods of relatively high sea level. Under-filled marginal sedimentary basins are key exploration targets. The geochemical and petrophysical characteristics of the shales deposited under these conditions are often comparable to North American shales, particularly the Barnett Shale which is currently in production. Many orogenic events influence European shales in terms of organic maturity, hydrocarbon generation and fracture generation. The main prospective horizons in ascending stratigraphic sequence are the Alum Shale, Llandovery Shale, Fammenian/Frasnian Shale, Serpukhovian Shale, Toarcian Shale, Kimmeridge Clay and the Tertiary Eocene and Oligocene shales common to central Europe. This paper presented the authors initial exploration strategy, with particular focus on the Lower Palaeozoic of central Europe, the Namurian of northwest England and the Jurassic Posidonia Formation of the Roer Valley Graben in Holland. The potential obstacles to unconventional exploration in Europe include restricted access to surface locations, high water usage, a lack of convenient pipeline infrastructure, strict environmental regulations, a high population density and lack of suitable drilling rigs and well completion equipment. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Hoe Creek 1990 quarterly sampling cumulative report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crader, S.E.; Huntington, G.S.

    1991-03-01

    Groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for benzene and for total phenols three times during 1990. This report summarizes the results of these sampling events and compares the results with those obtained in previous years. Possible further options for remediation of the Hoe Creek site was addressed. Three underground coal gasification (UCG) burns were performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy in 1976, 1977, and 1979 at the Hoe Creek site, which is about 20 miles south of Gillette, Wyoming. As a result of these burns, there has been considerable contamination of groundwater by various organic compounds. There have been three efforts at remediating this situation. In 1986 and again in 1987, contaminated water was pumped out, treated, and reinjected. In 1989, the water was pumped, treated, and sprayed into the atmosphere. Benzene and total phenols have been monitored at various monitoring wells as the site during 1990. The highest detected benzene concentration in 1990 was 220 {mu}g/L, and the highest total phenols concentration was 430 {mu}g/L. It is apparent that contamination is still above baseline levels, although the concentration of total phenols is far less than immediately after the burns. The burned coal seams are still releasing organic compounds into the groundwater that passes through them.

  10. Sub-Scale Orion Parachute Test Results from the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 80- By 120-ft Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian P.; Greathouse, James S.; Powell, Jessica M.; Ross, James C.; Schairer, Edward T.; Kushner, Laura; Porter, Barry J.; Goulding, Patrick W., II; Zwicker, Matthew L.; Mollmann, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    A two-week test campaign was conducted in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 80 x 120-ft Wind Tunnel in support of Orion parachute pendulum mitigation activities. The test gathered static aerodynamic data using an instrumented, 3-tether system attached to the parachute vent in combination with an instrumented parachute riser. Dynamic data was also gathered by releasing the tether system and measuring canopy performance using photogrammetry. Several canopy configurations were tested and compared against the current Orion parachute design to understand changes in drag performance and aerodynamic stability. These configurations included canopies with varying levels and locations of geometric porosity as well as sails with increased levels of fullness. In total, 37 runs were completed for a total of 392 data points. Immediately after the end of the testing campaign a down-select decision was made based on preliminary data to support follow-on sub-scale air drop testing. A summary of a more rigorous analysis of the test data is also presented.

  11. Shale-brine-CO2 interactions and the long-term stability of carbonate-rich shale caprock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgen, A.; Aman, M.; Espinoza, D. N.; Rodriguez, M. A.; Griego, J.; Dewers, T. A.; Feldman, J.; Stewart, T.; Choens, R. C., II

    2017-12-01

    Geological carbon storage (GCS) requires an impermeable caprock (e.g., shale) that prevents the upward migration and escape of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the subsurface. Geochemical alteration can occur at the caprock-reservoir rock interface, which could lead to the altering of the rock's mechanical properties, compromising the seal. We performed laboratory experiments on Mancos shale to quantify the coupled chemical-mechanical response of carbonate-rich shale in CO2-brine mixtures at conditions typical to GCS. We constructed geochemical models, calibrated them using laboratory results, and extended to time scales required for GCS. We observed the dissolution of calcite and kaolinite and the precipitation of gypsum and amorphous aluminum (hydr)oxide following the introduction of CO2. To address whether this mineral alteration causes changes in micro-mechanical properties, we examined altered Mancos shale using micro-mechanical (scratch) testing, measuring the scratch toughness of mm-scale shale lithofacies. The quartz-rich regions of the Mancos shale did not show significant changes in scratch toughness following 1-week alteration in a CO2-brine mixture. However, the scratch toughness of the calcite-rich, originally softer regions decreased by about 50%. These observations illustrate a coupled and localized chemical-mechanical response of carbonate-rich shale to the injection of CO2. This suggests a localized weakening of the caprock may occur, potentially leading to the development of preferential flow paths. The identification of vulnerable lithofacies within caprock and a characterization of mineralogical heterogeneity is imperative at prospective GCS sites. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE

  12. Economic Impacts Analysis of Shale Gas Investment in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shangfeng; Zhang, Baosheng; Wang, Xuecheng

    2018-01-01

    Chinese government has announced an ambitious shale gas extraction plan, which requires significant investment. This has the potential to draw investment from other areas and may affect the whole China’s economy. There is few study to date has quantified these shale gas investment’s effects on Chinese economy. The aim of this paper is to quantify the economic effect and figures out whether shale gas investment in China is a good choice or not. Input-output analysis has been utilized in this study to estimate the economic impacts in four different Chinese regions. Our findings show that shale gas investment will result in approximately 868, 427, 115 and 42 Billion RMB economic impacts in Sichuan, Chongqing, Inner Mongolia and Guizhou, respectively. The total economic impact is only around 1453 Billion RMB, which is not significant compared to the economic impact of coalbed methane investment. Considering the potential risks of environmental issues, we suggest that it may be a better strategy for the government, at least in the current situation, to slow down shale gas development investment.

  13. Wellbore stability in shales considering chemo-poroelastic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Ewerton M.P.; Pastor, Jorge A.S.C.; Fontoura, Sergio A.B.; Rabe, Claudio [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil. Grupo de Tecnologia e Engenharia de Petroleo

    2004-07-01

    Under compaction and low geothermal gradients are deep water characteristics. Both under compaction and low geothermal gradients generate considerable thickness of smectite-rich shales. These rocks are the major source of wellbore stability problems, because they are susceptible to adverse physico-chemical reactions when in contact with inadequate drilling fluids. Due shales are low permeability rocks diffusion processes dominate the changes of pore pressure around wellbore. Diffusion of fluids, ions and temperature occurs in shales during drilling and demand a fully coupled modelling taking account these factors. Despite temperature importance, in this paper wellbore stability in shales is analyzed through a model that considers only the coupling between poroelastic and physico-chemical effects. The coupled equations are solved analytically and have been implemented in a computational simulator with user-friendly interface. Time-dependent simulations of wellbore stability in shales are presented for a typical deep water scenario. The results show that physico-chemical effects change pore pressure around wellbore and have high impact on the wellbore stability. (author)

  14. Ozone impacts of natural gas development in the Haynesville Shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemball-Cook, Susan; Bar-Ilan, Amnon; Grant, John; Parker, Lynsey; Jung, Jaegun; Santamaria, Wilson; Mathews, Jim; Yarwood, Greg

    2010-12-15

    The Haynesville Shale is a subsurface rock formation located beneath the Northeast Texas/Northwest Louisiana border near Shreveport. This formation is estimated to contain very large recoverable reserves of natural gas, and during the two years since the drilling of the first highly productive wells in 2008, has been the focus of intensive leasing and exploration activity. The development of natural gas resources within the Haynesville Shale is likely to be economically important but may also generate significant emissions of ozone precursors. Using well production data from state regulatory agencies and a review of the available literature, projections of future year Haynesville Shale natural gas production were derived for 2009-2020 for three scenarios corresponding to limited, moderate, and aggressive development. These production estimates were then used to develop an emission inventory for each of the three scenarios. Photochemical modeling of the year 2012 showed increases in 2012 8-h ozone design values of up to 5 ppb within Northeast Texas and Northwest Louisiana resulting from development in the Haynesville Shale. Ozone increases due to Haynesville Shale emissions can affect regions outside Northeast Texas and Northwest Louisiana due to ozone transport. This study evaluates only near-term ozone impacts, but the emission inventory projections indicate that Haynesville emissions may be expected to increase through 2020.

  15. Coupled Fracture and Flow in Shale in Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, J. W.; Mori, H.; Viswanathan, H.

    2014-12-01

    Production of hydrocarbon from shale requires creation and maintenance of fracture permeability in an otherwise impermeable shale matrix. In this study, we use a combination of triaxial coreflood experiments and x-ray tomography characterization to investigate the fracture-permeability behavior of Utica shale at in situ reservoir conditions (25-50 oC and 35-120 bars). Initially impermeable shale core was placed between flat anvils (compression) or between split anvils (pure shear) and loaded until failure in the triaxial device. Permeability was monitored continuously during this process. Significant deformation (>1%) was required to generate a transmissive fracture system. Permeability generally peaked at the point of a distinct failure event and then dropped by a factor of 2-6 when the system returned to hydrostatic failure. Permeability was very small in compression experiments (fashion as pressure increased. We also observed that permeability decreased with increasing fluid flow rate indicating that flow did not follow Darcy's Law, possibly due to non-laminar flow conditions, and conformed to Forscheimer's law. The coupled deformation and flow behavior of Utica shale, particularly the large deformation required to initiate flow, indicates the probable importance of activation of existing fractures in hydraulic fracturing and that these fractures can have adequate permeability for the production of hydrocarbon.

  16. Evaluation of excavation experience: Pierre shale. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, J.F. Jr.; Gentry, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    Pierre shale and its stratigraphic equivalents represent a potentially favorable geologic environment for underground storage of hazardous waste products. These rock formations cover great areal and vertical extents, and represent some of the least permeable rock formations within the continental United States. There are, however, several engineering problems associated with constructing underground openings in Pierre shale. This formation is relatively weak and tends to deteriorate rather rapidly if not protected from the mine environment. It will be necessary to place all underground openings below the surficially weathered upper 50 to 70 feet of Pierre shale which contains groundwater moving on fracture permeability. The optimum site for disposal of hazardous waste in Pierre shale, or its stratigraphic equivalents, would be a seismically stable platform bounded on all sides by faults. The optimum size of individual openings would be the minimum necessary for access, storage, and retrieval of waste components. Underground excavations in Pierre shale must be made with care, must be of limited dimensions, must be widely spaced, must be protected from prolonged contact with the mine environment, must be supported immediately after excavation, and must be sited to avoid areas of faulting and(or) intense jointing. Underground openings constructed with boring machines and supported with wet shotcrete are recommended

  17. Stress dependence of permeability of intact and fractured shale cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Reinier; Yarushina, Viktoriya

    2016-04-01

    Whether a shale acts as a caprock, source rock, or reservoir, understanding fluid flow through shale is of major importance for understanding fluid flow in geological systems. Because of the low permeability of shale, flow is thought to be largely confined to fractures and similar features. In fracking operations, fractures are induced specifically to allow for hydrocarbon exploration. We have constructed an experimental setup to measure core permeabilities, using constant flow or a transient pulse. In this setup, we have measured the permeability of intact and fractured shale core samples, using either water or supercritical CO2 as the transporting fluid. Our measurements show decreasing permeability with increasing confining pressure, mainly due to time-dependent creep. Furthermore, our measurements show that for a simple splitting fracture, time-dependent creep will also eliminate any significant effect of this fracture on permeability. This effect of confinement on fracture permeability can have important implications regarding the effects of fracturing on shale permeability, and hence for operations depending on that.

  18. Release of Particulate Iron Sulfide during Shale-Fluid Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisserman, Yevgeny; Emmanuel, Simon

    2018-01-16

    During hydraulic fracturing, a technique often used to extract hydrocarbons from shales, large volumes of water are injected into the subsurface. Although the injected fluid typically contains various reagents, it can become further contaminated by interaction with minerals present in the rocks. Pyrite, which is common in organic-rich shales, is a potential source of toxic elements, including arsenic and lead, and it is generally thought that for these elements to become mobilized, pyrite must first dissolve. Here, we use atomic force microscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy to show that during fluid-rock interaction, the dissolution of carbonate minerals in Eagle Ford shale leads to the physical detachment, and mobilization, of embedded pyrite grains. In experiments carried out over a range of pH, salinity, and temperature we found that in all cases pyrite particles became detached from the shale surfaces. On average, the amount of pyrite detached was equivalent to 6.5 × 10 -11 mol m -2 s -1 , which is over an order of magnitude greater than the rate of pyrite oxidation expected under similar conditions. This result suggests that mechanical detachment of pyrite grains could be an important pathway for the mobilization of arsenic in hydraulic fracturing operations and in groundwater systems containing shales.

  19. Integrated reservoir characterization of a Posidonia Shale outcrop analogue: From serendipity to understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijp, M.H.A.A.; Veen, J.H. ten; Verreussel, R.M.C.H.; Ventra, D.

    2014-01-01

    Shale gas reservoir stimulation procedures (e.g. hydraulic fracturing) require upfront prediction and planning that should be supported by a comprehensive reservoir characterization. Therefore, understanding shale depositional processes and associated vertical and lateral sedimentological

  20. On a boundary layer problem related to the gas flow in shales

    KAUST Repository

    Barenblatt, G. I.; Monteiro, P. J. M.; Rycroft, C. H.

    2013-01-01

    The development of gas deposits in shales has become a significant energy resource. Despite the already active exploitation of such deposits, a mathematical model for gas flow in shales does not exist. Such a model is crucial for optimizing