Ball, Chad G.; Keaney, Marilyn A.; Chun, Rosaleen; Groleau, Michelle; Tyssen, Michelle; Keyte, Jennifer; Broderick, Timothy J.; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.
2010-03-01
BackgroundMultiple nations are actively pursuing manned exploration of space beyond low-earth orbit. The responsibility to improve surgical care for spaceflight is substantial. Although the use of parabolic flight as a terrestrial analogue to study surgery in weightlessness (0 g) is well described, minimal data is available to guide the appropriate delivery of anesthesia. After studying anesthetized pigs in a 0 g parabolic flight environment, our group developed a comprehensive protocol describing prolonged anesthesia in a parabolic flight analogue space surgery study (PFASSS). Novel challenges included a physically remote vivarium, prolonged (>10 h) anesthetic requirements, and the provision of veterinary operating room/intensive care unit (ICU) equivalency on-board an aircraft with physical dimensions of ethical approval, multiple ground laboratory sessions were conducted with combinations of anesthetic, pre-medication, and induction protocols on Yorkshire-cross specific pathogen-free (SPF) pigs. Several constant rate infusion (CRI) intravenous anesthetic combinations were tested. In each regimen, opioids were administered to ensure analgesia. Ventilation was supported mechanically with blended gradients of oxygen. The best performing terrestrial 1 g regime was flight tested in parabolic flight for its effectiveness in sustaining optimal and prolonged anesthesia, analgesia, and maintaining hemodynamic stability. Each flight day, a fully anesthetized, ventilated, and surgically instrumented pig was transported to the Flight Research Laboratory (FRL) in a temperature-controlled animal ambulance. A modular on-board surgical/ICU suite with appropriate anesthesia/ICU and surgical support capabilities was employed. ResultsThe mean duration of anesthesia (per flight day) was 10.28 h over four consecutive days. A barbiturate and ketamine-based CRI anesthetic regimen supplemented with narcotic analgesia by bolus administration offered the greatest prolonged hemodynamic
The dynamics of parabolic flight: Flight characteristics and passenger percepts
Karmali, Faisal; Shelhamer, Mark
2008-09-01
Flying a parabolic trajectory in an aircraft is one of the few ways to create freefall on Earth, which is important for astronaut training and scientific research. Here we review the physics underlying parabolic flight, explain the resulting flight dynamics, and describe several counterintuitive findings, which we corroborate using experimental data. Typically, the aircraft flies parabolic arcs that produce approximately 25 s of freefall (0 g) followed by 40 s of enhanced force (1.8 g), repeated 30-60 times. Although passengers perceive gravity to be zero, in actuality acceleration, and not gravity, has changed, and thus we caution against the terms "microgravity" and "zero gravity." Despite the aircraft trajectory including large (45°) pitch-up and pitch-down attitudes, the occupants experience a net force perpendicular to the floor of the aircraft. This is because the aircraft generates appropriate lift and thrust to produce the desired vertical and longitudinal accelerations, respectively, although we measured moderate (0.2 g) aft-ward accelerations during certain parts of these trajectories. Aircraft pitch rotation (average 3°/s) is barely detectable by the vestibular system, but could influence some physics experiments. Investigators should consider such details in the planning, analysis, and interpretation of parabolic-flight experiments.
First Middle East Aircraft Parabolic Flights for ISU Participant Experiments
Pletser, Vladimir; Frischauf, Norbert; Cohen, Dan; Foster, Matthew; Spannagel, Ruven; Szeszko, Adam; Laufer, Rene
2017-06-01
Aircraft parabolic flights are widely used throughout the world to create microgravity environment for scientific and technology research, experiment rehearsal for space missions, and for astronaut training before space flights. As part of the Space Studies Program 2016 of the International Space University summer session at the Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel, a series of aircraft parabolic flights were organized with a glider in support of departmental activities on `Artificial and Micro-gravity' within the Space Sciences Department. Five flights were organized with manoeuvres including several parabolas with 5 to 6 s of weightlessness, bank turns with acceleration up to 2 g and disorientation inducing manoeuvres. Four demonstration experiments and two experiments proposed by SSP16 participants were performed during the flights by on board operators. This paper reports on the microgravity experiments conducted during these parabolic flights, the first conducted in the Middle East for science and pedagogical experiments.
The First European Parabolic Flight Campaign with the Airbus A310 ZERO-G
Pletser, Vladimir; Rouquette, Sebastien; Friedrich, Ulrike; Clervoy, Jean-Francois; Gharib, Thierry; Gai, Frederic; Mora, Christophe
2016-12-01
Aircraft parabolic flights repetitively provide up to 23 seconds of reduced gravity during ballistic flight manoeuvres. Parabolic flights are used to conduct short microgravity investigations in Physical and Life Sciences and in Technology, to test instrumentation prior to space flights and to train astronauts before a space mission. The use of parabolic flights is complementary to other microgravity carriers (drop towers, sounding rockets), and preparatory to manned space missions on board the International Space Station and other manned spacecraft, such as Shenzhou and the future Chinese Space Station. After 17 years of using the Airbus A300 ZERO-G, the French company Novespace, a subsidiary of the ' Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales' (CNES, French Space Agency), based in Bordeaux, France, purchased a new aircraft, an Airbus A310, to perform parabolic flights for microgravity research in Europe. Since April 2015, the European Space Agency (ESA), CNES and the ` Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.' (DLR, the German Aerospace Center) use this new aircraft, the Airbus A310 ZERO-G, for research experiments in microgravity. The first campaign was a Cooperative campaign shared by the three agencies, followed by respectively a CNES, an ESA and a DLR campaign. This paper presents the new Airbus A310 ZERO-G and its main characteristics and interfaces for scientific experiments. The experiments conducted during the first European campaign are presented.
Physiologic Pressure and Flow Changes During Parabolic Flight (Pilot Study)
Pantalos, George; Sharp, M. Keith; Mathias, John R.; Hargens, Alan R.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Buckey, Jay C.
1999-01-01
The objective of this study was to obtain measurement of cutaneous tissue perfusion central and peripheral venous pressure, and esophageal and abdominal pressure in human test subjects during parabolic flight. Hemodynamic data recorded during SLS-I and SLS-2 missions have resulted in the paradoxical finding of increased cardiac stroke volume in the presence of a decreased central venous pressure (CVP) following entry in weightlessness. The investigators have proposed that in the absence of gravity, acceleration-induced peripheral vascular compression is relieved, increasing peripheral vascular capacity and flow while reducing central and peripheral venous pressure, This pilot study seeks to measure blood pressure and flow in human test subjects during parabolic flight for different postures.
A parabolic analogue of the higher-order comparison theorem of De Silva and Savin
Banerjee, Agnid; Garofalo, Nicola
2016-01-01
We show that the quotient of two caloric functions which vanish on a portion of the lateral boundary of a H k + α domain is H k + α up to the boundary for k ≥ 2. In the case k = 1, we show that the quotient is in H 1 + α if the domain is assumed to be space-time C 1 , α regular. This can be thought of as a parabolic analogue of a recent important result in [8], and we closely follow the ideas in that paper. We also give counterexamples to the fact that analogous results are not true at points on the parabolic boundary which are not on the lateral boundary, i.e., points which are at the corner and base of the parabolic boundary.
A Review of Psycho-Physiological Responses to Parabolic Flight
Brummer, Vera; Schneider, Stefan; Guardiera, Simon; Struder, Heiko K.
2008-06-01
This review combines and correlates data of several studies conducted in the recent years where we were able to show an increase in stress hormone concentrations, EEG activity and a decrease in mood during parabolic flights. The aim of these studies was to consider whether previous results showing a decrease in mental and perceptual motor performance during weightlessness were solely due to the changes in gravity itself or were also, at least partly, explainable by an increase of stress and/or arousal during parabolic flights. A correlation between stress hormones and mood but not between EEG activity and mood nor between stress hormones and EEG activity could be found. We propose two different stressors: First an activation of the adrenomedullary system, secondly a general increase of cortical arousal. Whereas the first one is perceived by subjects, this is not the case for the second one.
Verification of the Microgravity Active Vibration Isolation System based on Parabolic Flight
Zhang, Yong-kang; Dong, Wen-bo; Liu, Wei; Li, Zong-feng; Lv, Shi-meng; Sang, Xiao-ru; Yang, Yang
2017-12-01
The Microgravity active vibration isolation system (MAIS) is a device to reduce on-orbit vibration and to provide a lower gravity level for certain scientific experiments. MAIS system is made up of a stator and a floater, the stator is fixed on the spacecraft, and the floater is suspended by electromagnetic force so as to reduce the vibration from the stator. The system has 3 position sensors, 3 accelerometers, 8 Lorentz actuators, signal processing circuits and a central controller embedded in the operating software and control algorithms. For the experiments on parabolic flights, a laptop is added to MAIS for monitoring and operation, and a power module is for electric power converting. The principle of MAIS is as follows: the system samples the vibration acceleration of the floater from accelerometers, measures the displacement between stator and floater from position sensitive detectors, and computes Lorentz force current for each actuator so as to eliminate the vibration of the scientific payload, and meanwhile to avoid crashing between the stator and the floater. This is a motion control technic in 6 degrees of freedom (6-DOF) and its function could only be verified in a microgravity environment. Thanks for DLR and Novespace, we get a chance to take the DLR 27th parabolic flight campaign to make experiments to verify the 6-DOF control technic. The experiment results validate that the 6-DOF motion control technique is effective, and vibration isolation performance perfectly matches what we expected based on theoretical analysis and simulation. The MAIS has been planned on Chinese manned spacecraft for many microgravity scientific experiments, and the verification on parabolic flights is very important for its following mission. Additionally, we also test some additional function by microgravity electromagnetic suspension, such as automatic catching and locking and working in fault mode. The parabolic flight produces much useful data for these experiments.
Space-DRUMS trade mark sign experimental development using parabolic reduced gravity flights
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guigne, J.Y.; Millan, D.; Davidson, R.
2000-01-01
Space-DRUMS trade mark sign is a microgravity containerless-processing facility that uses acoustic beams to position large diameter liquid or solid samples within a gas-filled chamber. Its capacity to control the position of large diameter (6 cm) low density solid materials was successfully demonstrated on NASA's DC-9 parabolic aircraft in July 1996; two subsequent flights occurred in 1998 using the KC-135 and A-300 aircraft to further refine the technology used in the system. The working environment for the Space-DRUMS trade mark sign facility is the Space Shuttle/Space Station where long duration microgravity experimentation can take place. Since the reduced gravity environment of an A-300 or a KC-135 parabolic flight is much harsher than that of the Space Shuttle in terms of residual acceleration magnitudes experienced by the samples to be held in position; this more extreme environment allows for most Space-DRUMS trade mark sign technical payload functionality tests to be conducted. In addition to flight hardware shakedowns, parabolic flights continue to be extensively used to study and evaluate the behavior of candidate-advanced materials proposed for ISS Space-DRUMS trade mark sign campaigns. The first samples to be processed in 2001 involve combustion synthesis (also known as SHS - Self-propagating High Temperature Synthesis) of large glass-ceramic and of porous ceramic spheres. Upmassing Space-DRUMS trade mark sign for the International Space Station is scheduled for early 2001
Pletser, Vladimir; Rouquette, Sebastien; Friedrich, Ulrike; Clervoy, Jean-Francois; Gharib, Thierry; Gai, Frederic; Mora, Christophe
2015-09-01
Aircraft parabolic flights repetitively provide up to 23 s of reduced gravity during ballistic flight manoeuvres. Parabolic flights are used to conduct short microgravity investigations in Physical and Life Sciences and in Technology, to test instrumentation prior to space flights and to train astronauts before a space mission. The use of parabolic flights is complementary to other microgravity carriers (drop towers, sounding rockets), and preparatory to manned space missions on board the International Space Station and other manned spacecraft, such as Shenzhou and the Chinese Space Station CSS. The European Space Agency (ESA), the 'Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales' (CNES, French Space Agency) and the 'Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.' (DLR, the German Aerospace Centre) have used the Airbus A300 ZERO-G for research experiments in microgravity, and at Moon and Mars gravity levels, from 1997 until October 2014. The French company Novespace, a subsidiary of CNES, based in Bordeaux, France, is in charge of the organisation of Airbus A300 ZERO-G flights. A total of 104 parabolic flight campaigns have been organised by ESA, CNES and DLR since 1997, including 38 ESA, 34 CNES and 23 DLR microgravity campaigns, two Joint European ESA-CNES-DLR Partial-g Parabolic Flight Campaigns, and seven ESA Student campaigns. After 17 years of good and loyal services, this European workhorse for microgravity research in parabolic flights has been retired. The successor aircraft, the Airbus A310 ZERO-G, is being prepared for a first ESA-CNES-DLR cooperative campaign in Spring 2015. This paper looks back over 17 years of microgravity research in parabolic flights with the A300 ZERO-G, and introduces the new A310 ZERO-G that will be used from 2015 onwards.
Ground Reaction Forces During Reduced Gravity Running in Parabolic Flight.
Cavanagh, Peter; Rice, Andrea; Glauberman, Molly; Sudduth, Amanda; Cherones, Arien; Davis, Shane; Lewis, Michael; Hanson, Andrea; Wilt, Grier
2017-08-01
Treadmills have been employed as both a form of exercise and a countermeasure to prevent changes in the musculoskeletal system on almost all NASA missions and many Russian missions since the early Space Shuttle flights. It is possible that treadmills may also be part of exercise programs on future Mars missions and that they may be a component of exercise facilities in lunar or Martian habitats. In order to determine if the ambient gravity on these destinations will provide osteogenic effects while performing exercise on a treadmill, ground reactions forces (GRFs) were measured on eight subjects (six women and two men) running at 6 mph during parabolic flight in Martian and lunar gravity conditions. On average, stride length increased as gravity decreased. The first and second peaks of the GRFs decreased by 0.156 and 0.196 bodyweights, respectively, per 1/10 g change in ambient gravity. Based on comparisons with previously measured GRF during loaded treadmill running on the International Space Station, we conclude that unloaded treadmill running under lunar and Martian conditions during exploration missions is not likely to be an osteo-protective exercise.Cavanagh P, Rice A, Glauberman M, Sudduth A, Cherones A, Davis S, Lewis M, Hanson A, Wilt G. Ground reaction forces during reduced gravity running in parabolic flight. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(8):730-736.
Parabolic Flights @ Home. An Unmanned Air Vehicle for Short-Duration Low-Gravity Experiments
Hofmeister, Paul Gerke; Blum, Jürgen
2011-02-01
We developed an unmanned air vehicle (UAV) suitable for small parabolic-flight experiments. The flight speed of 100 m s - 1 is sufficient for zero-gravity parabolas of 16 s duration. The flight path's length of slightly more than 1 km and 400 m difference in altitude is suitable for ground controlled or supervised flights. Since this fits within the limits set for model aircraft, no additional clearance is required for operation. Our UAV provides a cost-effective platform readily available for low-g experiments, which can be performed locally without major preparation. A payload with a size of up to 0.9 ×0.3 ×0.3 m3 and a mass of ˜5 kg can be exposed to 0 g 0-5 g 0, with g 0 being the gravitational acceleration of the Earth. Flight-duration depends on the desired acceleration level, e.g. 17 s at 0.17 g 0 (lunar surface level) or 21 s at 0.38 g 0 (Martian surface level). The aircraft has a mass of 25 kg (including payload) and a wingspan of 2 m. It is powered by a jet engine with an exhaust speed of 450 m s - 1 providing a thrust of 180 N. The parabolic-flight curves are automated by exploiting the advantages of sophisticated micro-electronics to minimize acceleration errors.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimir Blazek
2005-01-01
Full Text Available All astronauts often feel uncomfortable during first encounter microgravity because of fluid shifts from the lower extremities to the head caused by weightlessness. Parabolic flights offer a great possibility for research of this phenomenon under “zero gravity”. With a combination of the optoelectronic sensor concepts PPG and PPGI and an ultrasound device it should be possible to measure all relevant parameters for description and further explanation of rapid fluid shifts along the body axis in humans during parabolic flights. A research team of the RWTH Aachen University and the Charité University Berlin will participate in the 7th German Parabolic Flight Campaign in September 2005 and perform the experiments under micro gravitation. A combination of used non-invasive strategies will reveal new insights into the human hemodynamics under microgravity conditions. The optoelectronic part of this interdisciplinary research experiment, details from the measuring setup, data collecting and post processing will be discussed.
Perez-Poch, Antoni; González, Daniel Ventura; López, David
2016-12-01
We report on different research and educational activities related to parabolic flights conducted in Barcelona since 2008. We use a CAP10B single-engine aerobatic aircraft flying out of Sabadell Airport and operating in visual flight conditions providing up to 8 seconds of hypogravity for each parabola. Aside from biomedical experiments being conducted, different student teams have flown in parabolic flights in the framework of the international contest `Barcelona Zero-G Challenge', and have published their results in relevant symposiums and scientific journals. The platform can certainly be a good testbed for a proof-of-concept before accessing other microgravity platforms, and has proved to be excellent for motivational student campaigns.
Microgravity Active Vibration Isolation System on Parabolic Flights
Dong, Wenbo; Pletser, Vladimir; Yang, Yang
2016-07-01
The Microgravity Active Vibration Isolation System (MAIS) aims at reducing on-orbit vibrations, providing a better controlled lower gravity environment for microgravity physical science experiments. The MAIS will be launched on Tianzhou-1, the first cargo ship of the China Manned Space Program. The principle of the MAIS is to suspend with electro-magnetic actuators a scientific payload, isolating it from the vibrating stator. The MAIS's vibration isolation capability is frequency-dependent and a decrease of vibration of about 40dB can be attained. The MAIS can accommodate 20kg of scientific payload or sample unit, and provide 30W of power and 1Mbps of data transmission. The MAIS is developed to support microgravity scientific experiments on manned platforms in low earth orbit, in order to meet the scientific requirements for fluid physics, materials science, and fundamental physics investigations, which usually need a very quiet environment, increasing their chances of success and their scientific outcomes. The results of scientific experiments and technology tests obtained with the MAIS will be used to improve future space based research. As the suspension force acting on the payload is very small, the MAIS can only be operative and tested in a weightless environment. The 'Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.' (DLR, German Aerospace Centre) granted a flight opportunity to the MAIS experiment to be tested during its 27th parabolic flight campaign of September 2015 performed on the A310 ZERO-G aircraft managed by the French company Novespace, a subsidiary of the 'Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales' (CNES, French Space Agency). The experiment results confirmed that the 6 degrees of freedom motion control technique was effective, and that the vibration isolation performance fulfilled perfectly the expectations based on theoretical analyses and simulations. This paper will present the design of the MAIS and the experiment results obtained during the
Life science experiments during parabolic flight: The McGill experience
Watt, D. G. D.
1988-01-01
Over the past twelve years, members of the Aerospace Medical Research Unit of McGill University have carried out a wide variety of tests and experiments in the weightless condition created by parabolic flight. This paper discusses the pros and cons of that environment for the life scientist, and uses examples from the McGill program of the types of activities which can be carried out in a transport aircraft such as the NASA KC-135.
Motor skills under varied gravitoinertial force in parabolic flight
Ross, Helen E.
Parabolic flight produces brief alternating periods of high and low gravitoinertial force. Subjects were tested on various paper-and-pencil aiming and tapping tasks during both normal and varied gravity in flight. It was found that changes in g level caused directional errors in the z body axis (the gravity axis), the arm aiming too high under 0g and too low under 2g. The standard deviation also increased for both vertical and lateral movements in the mid-frontal plane. Both variable and directional errors were greater under 0g than 2g. In an unpaced reciprocal tapping task subjects tended to increase their error rate rather than their movement time, but showed a non-significant trend towards slower speeds under 0g for all movement orientations. Larger variable errors or slower speeds were probably due to the difficulty of re-organising a motor skill in an unfamiliar force environment, combined with anchorage difficulties under 0g.
Ogoh, Shigehiko; Marais, Michaël; Lericollais, Romain; Denise, Pierre; Raven, Peter B; Normand, Hervé
2018-05-10
The aim of the present study was to assess carotid baroreflex (CBR) during acute changes in otolithic activity in humans. To address this question, we designed a set of experiments to identify the modulatory effects of microgravity on CBR function at a tilt angle of -2{degree sign}, which was identified to minimize changes in central blood volume during parabolic flight. During parabolic flight at 0g and 1g, CBR function curves were modelled from the heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to rapid pulse trains of neck pressure (NP) and neck suction (NS) ranging from +40 to -80 Torr; CBR control of HR (carotid-HR) and MAP (carotid-MAP) baroreflex function curves, respectively. The maximal gain (G max ) of both carotid-HR and carotid-MAP baroreflex function curves were augmented during microgravity compared to 1g (carotid-HR, -0.53 to -0.80 beats/min/mmHg, Pflight-induced acute change of otolithic activity may modify CBR function and identifies that the vestibular system contributes to blood pressure regulation under fluctuations in gravitational forces.
Biosignal alterations generated by parabolic flights of small aerobatic aircrafts
Simon, M. Jose; Perez-Poch, Antoni; Ruiz, Xavier; Gavalda, Fina; Saez, Nuria
Since the pioneering works of Prof. Strughold in 1948, the aerospace medicine aimed to characterize the modifications induced in the human body by changes in the gravity level. In this respect, it is nowadays well known that one of the most serious problems of these kind of environments is the fluid shift. If this effect is enough severe and persistent, serious changes in the hemodynamic of the brain (cerebral blood flow and blood oxigenation level) appear which could be detected as alterations in the electroencephalogram, EEG [1]. Also, this fluid redistribution, together with the relocation of the heart in the thorax, induces detectable changes in the electrocardiogram, ECG [2]. Other kind of important problems are related with vestibular instability, kinetosis and illusory sensations. In particular since the seventies [3,4] it is known that in parabolic flights and due to eye movements triggered by the changing input from the otholith system, fixed real targets appeared to have moved downward while visual afterimages appeared to have moved upward (oculogravic illusions). In order to cover all the above-mentioned potential alterations, the present work, together with the gravity level, continuously monitors the electroencephalogram, EEG, the electrocardiogram, ECG and the electrooculogram, EOG of a normal subject trying to detect correlations between the different alterations observed in these signals and the changes of gravity during parabolic flights. The small aerobatic aircraft used is a CAP10B and during the flight the subject is located near the pilot. To properly cover all the range of accelerations we have used two sensitive triaxial accelerometers covering the high and low ranges of acceleration. Biosignals have been gathered using a Biopac data unit together with the Acknowledge software package (from BionicÔ). It is important to finally remark that, due to the obvious difference between the power of the different engines, the accelerometric
Altered Gravity Simulated by Parabolic Flight and Water Immersion Leads to Decreased Trunk Motion.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peiliang Wang
Full Text Available Gravity is one of the important environmental factors that influence the physiologies and behaviors of animals and humans, and changes in gravity elicit a variety of physiological and behavioral alterations that include impaired movement coordination, vertigo, spatial disorientation, and perceptual illusions. To elucidate the effects of gravity on human physiology and behavior, we examined changes in wrist and trunk activities and heart rate during parabolic flight and the activity of wrist and trunk in water immersion experiments. Data from 195 person-time parabolas performed by eight subjects revealed that the trunk motion counts decreased by approximately half during ascending legs (hypergravity, relative to the data acquired before the parabolic flights. In contrast, the wrist activity remained unchanged. The results from the water immersion experiments demonstrated that in the underwater condition, both the wrist and trunk activities were significantly decreased but the latter decreased to a much lower level. Together, these data suggest that gravitational alterations can result in differential influences on the motions of the wrist and the trunk. These findings might be important for understanding the degeneration of skeleton and muscular system and performance of astronauts in microgravity.
Altered Gravity Simulated by Parabolic Flight and Water Immersion Leads to Decreased Trunk Motion
Tian, Yu; Li, Fan; Zhang, Shaoyao; Zhang, Lin; Guo, Yaoyu; Liu, Weibo; Wang, Chunhui; Chen, Shanguang; Guo, Jinhu
2015-01-01
Gravity is one of the important environmental factors that influence the physiologies and behaviors of animals and humans, and changes in gravity elicit a variety of physiological and behavioral alterations that include impaired movement coordination, vertigo, spatial disorientation, and perceptual illusions. To elucidate the effects of gravity on human physiology and behavior, we examined changes in wrist and trunk activities and heart rate during parabolic flight and the activity of wrist and trunk in water immersion experiments. Data from 195 person-time parabolas performed by eight subjects revealed that the trunk motion counts decreased by approximately half during ascending legs (hypergravity), relative to the data acquired before the parabolic flights. In contrast, the wrist activity remained unchanged. The results from the water immersion experiments demonstrated that in the underwater condition, both the wrist and trunk activities were significantly decreased but the latter decreased to a much lower level. Together, these data suggest that gravitational alterations can result in differential influences on the motions of the wrist and the trunk. These findings might be important for understanding the degeneration of skeleton and muscular system and performance of astronauts in microgravity. PMID:26208253
Piracetam and fish orientation during parabolic aircraft flight
Hoffman, R. B.; Salinas, G. A.; Homick, J. L.
1980-01-01
Goldfish were flown in parabolic Keplerian trajectories in a KC-135 aircraft to assay both the effectiveness of piracetam as an antimotion sickness drug and the effectiveness of state-dependent training during periods of oscillating gravity levels. Single-frame analyses of infrared films were performed for two classes of responses - role rates in hypogravity or hypogravity orienting responses (LGR) and climbing responses in hypergravity or hypergravity orienting responses (HGR). In Experiment I, preflight training with the vestibular stressor facilitated suppression of LGR by the 10th parabola. An inverse correlation was found between the magnitudes of LGR and HGR. Piracetam was not effective in a state-dependent design, but the drug did significantly increase HGR when injected into trained fish shortly before flight. In Experiment II, injections of saline, piracetam, and modifiers of gamma-aminobutyric acid - aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA) and isonicotinic acid did not modify LGR. AOAA did significantly increase HGR. Thus, the preflight training has a beneficial effect in reducing disorientation in the fish in weightlessness, but the drugs employed were ineffective.
Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Hirai, Takehiro
A fundamental study was conducted to establish an experimental system for space farming. Since to ensure optimal light for plant cultivation in space is of grave importance, this study examined the performance of light sources and radiation sensors under microgravity conditions created during the parabolic airplane flight. Three kinds of light sources, a halogen bulb, a fluorescent tube, and blue and red LEDs, and ten models of radiation sensors available in the market were used for the experiment. Surface temperature of the light sources, output signals from the radiation sensors, spectroscopic characteristics were measured at the gravity levels of 0.01, 1.0 and 1.8 G for 20 seconds each during parabolic airplane flights. As a result, the performance of the halogen lamp was affected the most by the gravity level among the three light sources. Under the microgravity conditions which do not raise heat convection, the temperature of the halogen lamp rose and the output of the radiation sensors increased. Spectral distributions of the halogen lamp indicated that peak wavelength appeared the highest at the level of 0.01G, which contributed to the increase in light intensity. In the case of red and blue LEDs, which are promising light sources in space farming, the temperature of both LED chips rose but irradiance from red LED increased and that from blue LED decreased under microgravity conditions due to the different thermal characteristics.
Spinal Stiffness in Prone and Upright Postures During 0-1.8 g Induced by Parabolic Flight.
Swanenburg, Jaap; Meier, Michael L; Langenfeld, Anke; Schweinhardt, Petra; Humphreys, B Kim
2018-06-01
The purpose of this study was to analyze posterior-to-anterior spinal stiffness in Earth, hyper-, and microgravity conditions during both prone and upright postures. During parabolic flight, the spinal stiffness of the L3 vertebra of a healthy 37-yr-old man was measured in normal Earth gravity (1.0 g), hypergravity (1.8 g), and microgravity (0.0 g) conditions induced in the prone and upright positions. Differences in spinal stiffness were significant across all three gravity conditions in the prone and upright positions. Most effect sizes were large; however, in the upright posture, the effect size between Earth gravity and microgravity was medium. Significant differences in spinal stiffness between the prone and upright positions were found during Earth gravity and hypergravity conditions. No difference was found between the two postures during microgravity conditions. Based on repeated measurements of a single individual, our results showed detectable changes in posterior-to-anterior spinal stiffness. Spinal stiffness increased during microgravity and decreased during hypergravity conditions. In microgravity conditions, posture did not impact spinal stiffness. More data on spinal stiffness in variable gravitational conditions is needed to confirm these results.Swanenburg J, Meier ML, Langenfeld A, Schweinhardt P, Humphreys BK. Spinal stiffness in prone and upright postures during 0-1.8 g induced by parabolic flight. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(6):563-567.
Babbick, Maren; Barjaktarović, Žarko; Hampp, Ruediger
Plants sense gravity by specialized cells (statocytes) and adjust growth and development accordingly. It has, however, also been shown that plant cells which are not part of specialized tissues are also able to sense gravitational forces. Therefore we used undifferentiated, homogeneous cell cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana (cv. Columbia) in order to identify early alterations in gene expression as a response to altered gravitational field strengths. In this contribution we report on cell cultures exposed to parabolic flights (approximately 20 sec of microgravity). For this short-term exposure study, we specifically checked for genes at the beginning of signal transduction chains, such as those coding for transcription factors (TFs). TFs are small proteins that regulate expression of their target genes by binding to specific promoter sequences. Our main focus were members of the so-called WRKY TF family. WRKY TFs are known to be involved in various physiological processes like senescence and pathogen defense. By quantifying transcriptional changes of these genes by real-time RT-PCR, we wanted to find out, how gene expression is affected by both hyperand microgravity conditions during a parabolic flight. For this purpose Arabidopsis thaliana callus cultures were metabolically quenched by the injection of RNAlater at the end of the microgravity-phase of each parabola. The data we present will show how fast changes in amounts of transcripts will occur, and to what degree the expression profiles are comparable with data obtained from exposures to hypergravity and simulated microgravity.
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Microgravity: Efficacy in the Swine During Parabolic Flight
Johnston, Smith L.; Campbell, Mark R.; Billica, Roger D.; Gilmore, Stevan M.
2004-01-01
INTRODUCTION: The International Space Station will need to be as capable as possible in providing Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Previous studies with manikins in parabolic microgravity (0 G) have shown that delivering CPR in microgravity is difficult. End tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO2) has been previously shown to be an effective non-invasive tool for estimating cardiac output during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Animal models have shown that this diagnostic adjunct can be used as a predictor of survival when PetCO2 values are maintained above 25% of pre-arrest values. METHODS: Eleven anesthetized Yorkshire swine were flown in microgravity during parabolic flight. Physiologic parameters, including PetCO2, were monitored. Standard ACLS protocols were used to resuscitate these models after chemical induction of cardiac arrest. Chest compressions were administered using conventional body positioning with waist restraint and unconventional vertical-inverted body positioning. RESULTS: PetCO2 values were maintained above 25% of both 1-G and O-G pre-arrest values in the microgravity environment (33% +/- 3 and 41 +/- 3). No significant difference between 1-G CPR and O-G CPR was found in these animal models. Effective CPR was delivered in both body positions although conventional body positioning was found to be quickly fatiguing as compared with the vertical-inverted. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation can be effectively administered in microgravity (0 G). Validation of this model has demonstrated that PetCO2 levels were maintained above a level previously reported to be predictive of survival. The unconventional vertical-inverted position provided effective CPR and was less fatiguing as compared with the conventional body position with waist restraints.
Weaver, A. S.; Funk, J. H.; Funk, N. W.; Sheehan, C. C.; Humphreys, B. T.; Perusek, G. P.
2015-01-01
Long-duration space flight poses many hazards to the health of the crew. Among those hazards is the physiological deconditioning of the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems due to prolonged exposure to microgravity. To combat this erosion of physical condition space flight may take on the crew, the Human Research Program (HRP) is charged with developing Advanced Exercise Concepts to maintain astronaut health and fitness during long-term missions, while keeping device mass, power, and volume to a minimum. The goal of this effort is to preserve the physical capability of the crew to perform mission critical tasks in transit and during planetary surface operations. The HULK is a pneumatic-based exercise system, which provides both resistive and aerobic modes to protect against human deconditioning in microgravity. Its design targeted the International Space Station (ISS) Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) high level performance characteristics and provides up to 600 foot pounds resitive loading with the capability to allow for eccentric to concentric (E:C) ratios of higher than 1:1 through a DC motor assist component. The device's rowing mode allows for high cadence aerobic activity. The HULK parabolic flight campaign, conducted through the NASA Flight Opportunities Program at Ellington Field, resulted in the creation of device specific data sets including low fidelity motion capture, accelerometry and both inline and ground reaction forces. These data provide a critical link in understanding how to vibration isolate the device in both ISS and space transit applications. Secondarily, the study of human exercise and associated body kinematics in microgravity allows for more complete understanding of human to machine interface designs to allow for maximum functionality of the device in microgravity.
Perception of Egocentric Distance during Gravitational Changes in Parabolic Flight.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gilles Clément
Full Text Available We explored the effect of gravity on the perceived representation of the absolute distance of objects to the observers within the range from 1.5-6 m. Experiments were performed on board the CNES Airbus Zero-G during parabolic flights eliciting repeated exposures to short periods of microgravity (0 g, hypergravity (1.8 g, and normal gravity (1 g. Two methods for obtaining estimates of perceived egocentric distance were used: verbal reports and visually directed motion toward a memorized visual target. For the latter method, because normal walking is not possible in 0 g, blindfolded subjects translated toward the visual target by pulling on a rope with their arms. The results showed that distance estimates using both verbal reports and blind pulling were significantly different between normal gravity, microgravity, and hypergravity. Compared to the 1 g measurements, the estimates of perceived distance using blind pulling were shorter for all distances in 1.8 g, whereas in 0 g they were longer for distances up to 4 m and shorter for distances beyond. These findings suggest that gravity plays a role in both the sensorimotor system and the perceptual/cognitive system for estimating egocentric distance.
ESA Parabolic Flight, Drop Tower and Centrifuge Opportunities for University Students
Callens, Natacha; Ventura-Traveset, Javier; Zornoza Garcia-Andrade, Eduardo; Gomez-Calero, Carlos; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Pletser, Vladimir; Kufner, Ewald; Krause, Jutta; Lindner, Robert; Gai, Frederic; Eigenbrod, Christian
The European Space Agency (ESA) Education Office was established in 1998 with the purpose of motivating young people to study science, engineering and technology subjects and to ensure a qualified workforce for ESA and the European space sector in the future. To this end the ESA Education Office is supporting several hands-on activities including small student satellites and student experiments on sounding rockets, high altitude balloons as well as microgravity and hypergravity platforms. This paper is intended to introduce three new ESA Education Office hands-on activities called "Fly Your Thesis!", "Drop Your Thesis!" and "Spin Your Thesis!". These activities give re-spectively access to aircraft parabolic flight, drop tower and centrifuge campaigns to European students. These educational programmes offer university students the unique opportunity to design, build, and eventually perform, in microgravity or hypergravity, a scientific or techno-logical experiment which is linked to their syllabus. During the "Fly Your Thesis!" campaigns, the students accompany their experiments onboard the A300 Zero-G aircraft, operated by the company Novespace, based in Bordeaux, France, for a series of three flights of 30 parabolas each, with each parabola providing about 20s of microgravity [1]. "Drop Your Thesis!" campaigns are held in the ZARM Drop Tower, in Bremen, Germany. The installation delivers 4.74s of microgravity in dropping mode and 9.3s in the catapulting mode [2]. Research topics such as fluid physics, fundamental physics, combustion, biology, material sciences, heat transfer, astrophysics, chemistry or biochemistry can greatly benefit from using microgravity platforms. "Spin Your Thesis!" campaigns take place in the Large Diameter Centrifuge (LDC) facility, at ESTEC, Noordwijk, in the Netherlands. This facility offers an acceleration from 1 to 20 times Earth's gravity [3]. The use of hypergravity allows completing the scientific picture of how gravity has an
Studies with Parabolic Parabolic Linear Parabolic (PPLP) momentum function in the LHC
Solfaroli Camillocci, Matteo; Timko, Helga; Wenninger, Jorg; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department
2018-01-01
Measurements performed with a Parabolic Parabolic Linear Parabolic (PPLP) momentum function in the LHC. Three attempts have been performed with a pilot bunch and one with nominal bunch (1.1x1011 p/bunch).
Volkmann, D; Buchen, B; Hejnowicz, Z; Tewinkel, M; Sievers, A
1991-09-01
During five rocket flights (TEXUS 18, 19, 21, 23 and 25), experiments were performed to investigate the behaviour of statoliths in rhizoids of the green alga Chara globularia Thuill. and in statocytes of cress (Lepidium sativum L.) roots, when the gravitational field changed to approx. 10(-4) · g (i.e. microgravity) during the parabolic flight (lasting for 301-390 s) of the rockets. The position of statoliths was only slightly influenced by the conditions during launch, e.g. vibration, acceleration and rotation of the rocket. Within approx. 6 min of microgravity conditions the shape of the statolith complex in the rhizoids changed from a transversely oriented lens into a longitudinally oriented spindle. The center of the statolith complex moved approx. 14 μm and 3.6 μm in rhizoids and root statocytes, respectively, in the opposite direction to the originally acting gravity vector. The kinetics of statolith displacement in rhizoids demonstrate that the velocity was nearly constant under microgravity whereas it decreased remarkably after inversion of rhizoids on Earth. It can be concluded that on Earth the position of statoliths in both rhizoids and root statocytes depends on the balance of two forces, i.e. the gravitational force and the counteracting force mediated by microfilaments.
Spooner, Brian S.; Guikema, James A.; Barnes, Grady
1990-01-01
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a single-chain polypeptide which is synthesized by the liver and yolk sac of the human fetus, provided a model ligand for assessing the effects of microgravity on ligand binding to surface-immobilized model receptor molecules. Monoclonal antibodies, used as receptors for AFP, were immobilized by covalent attachment to latex microparticles. Zero gravity environment was obtained by parabolic flight aboard NASA 930, a modified KC-135 aircraft. Buring the onset of an episode of zero gravity, ligand and receptor were mixed. Timed incubation (20 s) was terminated by centrifugation, the supernatant removed, and microparticies were assessed for bound AFP by immunochemical methods. The extent of binding was not influenced by microgravity, when compared with 1-G controls, which suggests that aberrant cellular activities observed in microgravity are not the simple expression of altered macromolecular interactions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Groemer, Gernot E.; Brimacombe, Joseph; Haas, Thorsten
2005-01-01
We determined the feasibility of laryngoscope-guided tracheal intubation (LG-TI) in microgravity obtained during parabolic flight and tested the hypothesis that LG-TI is similarly successful in the free-floating condition, with the patient's head gripped between the anesthesiologist's knees......, as in the restrained condition, with the torso strapped to the surface. Three personnel with no experience in airway management or microgravity participated in the study. LG-TI of a sophisticated full-size manikin was attempted on seven occasions in each condition by each investigator after ground-based training...... by squeezing the bag and noting whether the manikin sensors indicated a tidal volume >= 300 mL. There were no differences in ventilation success (41% versus 33%) or time to successful insertion (both 18 s) between the free-floating and the restrained conditions. More than 90% of failures were caused...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seo, Man Su; Park, Hana; Yoo, Don Gyu; Jeong, Sang Kwon [Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young Suk [Launcher Systems Development Team, Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-06-15
Measuring an exact amount of remaining cryogenic liquid propellant under microgravity condition is one of the important issues of rocket vehicle. A Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) gauging method is attractive due to its minimal additional hardware and simple gauging process. In this paper, PVT gauging method using liquid nitrogen is investigated under microgravity condition with parabolic flight. A 9.2 litre metal cryogenic liquid storage tank containing approximately 30% of liquid nitrogen is pressurized by ambient temperature helium gas. During microgravity condition, the inside of the liquid tank becomes near-isothermal condition within 1 K difference indicated by 6 silicon diode sensors vertically distributed in the middle of the liquid tank. Helium injection with higher mass flow rate after 10 seconds of the waiting time results in successful measurements of helium partial pressure in the tank. Average liquid volume measurement error is within 11% of the whole liquid tank volume and standard deviation of errors is 11.9. As a result, the applicability of PVT gauging method to liquid.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seo, Man Su; Park, Hana; Yoo, Don Gyu; Jeong, Sang Kwon; Jung, Young Suk
2014-01-01
Measuring an exact amount of remaining cryogenic liquid propellant under microgravity condition is one of the important issues of rocket vehicle. A Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) gauging method is attractive due to its minimal additional hardware and simple gauging process. In this paper, PVT gauging method using liquid nitrogen is investigated under microgravity condition with parabolic flight. A 9.2 litre metal cryogenic liquid storage tank containing approximately 30% of liquid nitrogen is pressurized by ambient temperature helium gas. During microgravity condition, the inside of the liquid tank becomes near-isothermal condition within 1 K difference indicated by 6 silicon diode sensors vertically distributed in the middle of the liquid tank. Helium injection with higher mass flow rate after 10 seconds of the waiting time results in successful measurements of helium partial pressure in the tank. Average liquid volume measurement error is within 11% of the whole liquid tank volume and standard deviation of errors is 11.9. As a result, the applicability of PVT gauging method to liquid
The behavioral responses of amphibians and reptiles to microgravity on parabolic flights.
Wassersug, Richard J; Roberts, Lesley; Gimian, Jenny; Hughes, Elizabeth; Saunders, Ryan; Devison, Darren; Woodbury, Jonathan; O'Reilly, James C
2005-01-01
In the present study, we exposed 53 animals from 23 different species of amphibians and reptiles to microgravity (mug). This nearly doubles the number of amphibians and reptiles observed so far in mug. The animals were flown on a parabolic flight, which provided 20-25s of mug, to better characterize behavioral reactions to abrupt exposure to mug. Highly fossorial limbless caecilians and amphisbaenians showed relatively limited movement in mug. Limbed quadrupedal reptiles that were non-arboreal in the genera Leiocephalus, Anolis, and Scincella showed the typical righting response and enormous amounts of body motion and tail rotation, which we interpreted as both righting responses and futile actions to grasp the substrate. Both arboreal and non-arboreal geckos in the genera Uroplatus, Palmatogecko, Stenodactylus, Tarentola, and Eublepharis instead showed a skydiving posture previously reported for highly arboreal anurans. Some snakes, in the genera Thamnophis and Elaphe, which typically thrashed and rolled in mug, managed to knot their own bodies with their tails and immediately became quiescent. This suggests that these reptiles gave stable physical contact, which would indicate that they were not falling, primacy over vestibular input that indicated that they were in freefall. The fact that they became quiet upon self-embrace further suggests a failure to distinguish self from non-self. The patterns of behavior seen in amphibians and reptiles in mug can be explained in light of their normal ecology and taxonomic relations.
Convergence of shock waves between conical and parabolic boundaries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yanuka, D.; Zinowits, H. E.; Antonov, O.; Efimov, S.; Virozub, A.; Krasik, Ya. E. [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)
2016-07-15
Convergence of shock waves, generated by underwater electrical explosions of cylindrical wire arrays, between either parabolic or conical bounding walls is investigated. A high-current pulse with a peak of ∼550 kA and rise time of ∼300 ns was applied for the wire array explosion. Strong self-emission from an optical fiber placed at the origin of the implosion was used for estimating the time of flight of the shock wave. 2D hydrodynamic simulations coupled with the equations of state of water and copper showed that the pressure obtained in the vicinity of the implosion is ∼7 times higher in the case of parabolic walls. However, comparison with a spherical wire array explosion showed that the pressure in the implosion vicinity in that case is higher than the pressure in the current experiment with parabolic bounding walls because of strong shock wave reflections from the walls. It is shown that this drawback of the bounding walls can be significantly minimized by optimization of the wire array geometry.
White, Olivier
2015-01-01
In everyday life, one of the most frequent activities involves accelerating and decelerating an object held in precision grip. In many contexts, humans scale and synchronize their grip force (GF), normal to the finger/object contact, in anticipation of the expected tangential load force (LF), resulting from the combination of the gravitational and the inertial forces. In many contexts, GF and LF are linearly coupled. A few studies have examined how we adjust the parameters–gain and offset–of this linear relationship. However, the question remains open as to how the brain adjusts GF regardless of whether LF is generated by different combinations of weight and inertia. Here, we designed conditions to generate equivalent magnitudes of LF by independently varying mass and movement frequency. In a control experiment, we directly manipulated gravity in parabolic flights, while other factors remained constant. We show with a simple computational approach that, to adjust GF, the brain is sensitive to how LFs are produced at the fingertips. This provides clear evidence that the analysis of the origin of LF is performed centrally, and not only at the periphery. PMID:25717293
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olivier eWhite
2015-02-01
Full Text Available In everyday life, one of the most frequent activities involves accelerating and decelerating an object held in precision grip. In many contexts, humans scale and synchronize their grip force, normal to the finger/object contact, in anticipation of the expected tangential load force, resulting from the combination of the gravitational and the inertial forces. In many contexts, grip force and load force are linearly coupled. A few studies have examined how we adjust the parameters - gain and offset - of this linear relationship. However, the question remains open as to how the brain adjusts grip force regardless of whether load force is generated by different combinations of weight and inertia. Here, we designed conditions to generate equivalent magnitudes of load force by independently varying mass and movement frequency. In a control experiment, we directly manipulated gravity in parabolic flights, while other factors remained constant. We show with a simple computational approach that, to adjust grip force, the brain is sensitive to how load forces are produced at the fingertips. This provides clear evidence that the analysis of the origin of load force is performed centrally, and not only at the periphery.
Manipulating lightcone fluctuations in an analogue cosmic string
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiawei Hu
2018-02-01
Full Text Available We study the flight time fluctuations in an anisotropic medium inspired by a cosmic string with an effective fluctuating refractive index caused by fluctuating vacuum electric fields, which are analogous to the lightcone fluctuations due to fluctuating spacetime metric when gravity is quantized. The medium can be realized as a metamaterial that mimics a cosmic string in the sense of transformation optics. For a probe light close to the analogue string, the flight time variance is ν times that in a normal homogeneous and isotropic medium, where ν is a parameter characterizing the deficit angle of the spacetime of a cosmic string. The parameter ν, which is always greater than unity for a real cosmic string, is determined by the dielectric properties of the metamaterial for an analogue string. Therefore, the flight time fluctuations of a probe light can be manipulated by changing the electric permittivity and magnetic permeability of the analogue medium. We argue that it seems possible to fabricate a metamaterial that mimics a cosmic string with a large ν in laboratory so that a currently observable flight time variance might be achieved.
Manipulating lightcone fluctuations in an analogue cosmic string
Hu, Jiawei; Yu, Hongwei
2018-02-01
We study the flight time fluctuations in an anisotropic medium inspired by a cosmic string with an effective fluctuating refractive index caused by fluctuating vacuum electric fields, which are analogous to the lightcone fluctuations due to fluctuating spacetime metric when gravity is quantized. The medium can be realized as a metamaterial that mimics a cosmic string in the sense of transformation optics. For a probe light close to the analogue string, the flight time variance is ν times that in a normal homogeneous and isotropic medium, where ν is a parameter characterizing the deficit angle of the spacetime of a cosmic string. The parameter ν, which is always greater than unity for a real cosmic string, is determined by the dielectric properties of the metamaterial for an analogue string. Therefore, the flight time fluctuations of a probe light can be manipulated by changing the electric permittivity and magnetic permeability of the analogue medium. We argue that it seems possible to fabricate a metamaterial that mimics a cosmic string with a large ν in laboratory so that a currently observable flight time variance might be achieved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fatima G. Khushtova
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper Cauchy problem for a parabolic equation with Bessel operator and with Riemann–Liouville partial derivative is considered. The representation of the solution is obtained in terms of integral transform with Wright function in the kernel. It is shown that when this equation becomes the fractional diffusion equation, obtained solution becomes the solution of Cauchy problem for the corresponding equation. The uniqueness of the solution in the class of functions that satisfy the analogue of Tikhonov condition is proved.
Baeuerle, A.; Anken, R.; Baumhauer, N.; Hilbig, R.; Rahmann, H.
Humans taking part in parabolic aircraft flights (PAFs) may suffer from space motion sickness (SMS, a kinetosis). Since it has been repeatedly shown earlier that some fish of a given batch also reveal a kinetotic behaviour during PAFs (especially so-called spinning movements and looping responses), and due to the homology of the vestibular apparatus among all vertebrates, fish can be used as model systems to investigate the origin of susceptibility to motion sickness. Therefore, we examined the utricular maculae (they are responsible for the internalisation of gravity in teleosteans) of fish swimming kinetotically during the μg-phases in the course of PAFs in comparison with animals from the same batch who swam normally. On the light microscopical level, it was found that the total number of both sensory and supporting cells of the utricular maculae did not differ between kinetotic animals as compared to normally swimming fish. Cell density (sensory and supporting cells/100μm -μm), however, was reduced in kinetotic animals (p<0.0001), which seemed to be due to malformed epithelial cells (increase in cell size) of the kinetotic specimens. Susceptibility to kinetoses may therefore originate in asymmetric inner ear otoliths as has been suggested earlier, but also in genetically predispositioned, malformed sensory epithelia. This work was financially supported by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) e.V. (FKZ: 50 WB 9997).
Fixed point of the parabolic renormalization operator
Lanford III, Oscar E
2014-01-01
This monograph grew out of the authors' efforts to provide a natural geometric description for the class of maps invariant under parabolic renormalization and for the Inou-Shishikura fixed point itself as well as to carry out a computer-assisted study of the parabolic renormalization operator. It introduces a renormalization-invariant class of analytic maps with a maximal domain of analyticity and rigid covering properties and presents a numerical scheme for computing parabolic renormalization of a germ, which is used to compute the Inou-Shishikura renormalization fixed point. Inside, readers will find a detailed introduction into the theory of parabolic bifurcation, Fatou coordinates, Écalle-Voronin conjugacy invariants of parabolic germs, and the definition and basic properties of parabolic renormalization. The systematic view of parabolic renormalization developed in the book and the numerical approach to its study will be interesting to both experts in the field as well as graduate students wishi...
Neef, Maren; Ecke, Margret; Hampp, Rüdiger
2015-07-01
In plants, like in other organisms, calcium (Ca2+) is an important second messenger which participates in the conversion of environmental signals into molecular responses. There is increasing evidence, that sensing of changes in gravitation or reorientation of tissues is an example for such signaling cascades in which Ca2+ is involved. In order to determine g-dependent changes in the cytosolic calcium (Ca^{2+}_{ {cyt}}) concentration of plant cells, semisolid transgenic callus cell cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana (A.t.), expressing the calcium sensor YC3.6 (cameleon), were exposed to g-forces between 1.8 g and μ g during parabolic flights. Using such cells, intracellular calcium transients can be monitored by FRET in vivo and in real-time. Interestingly we observed a slight decrease of the Ca^{2+}_{ {cyt}} level during the hypergravity phases of a parabola but a significant increase of the Ca^{2+}_{ {cyt}} concentration during microgravity. Application of known Ca2+ inhibitors and antagonists yielded the following effects: nifedipine (Ca2+ channel blocker) showed no effect, whereas LaCl3, GdCl3 (both inhibitors of uptake at the plasma membrane), DPI (inhibitor of NADP oxidase), and DMSO (solvent) diminished the gravity-alteration-related Ca^{2+}_{ {cyt}} response. EGTA (binding of Ca2+) and eosin yellow (inhibitor of a plasma membrane-located Ca2+ pump) suppressed the respective Ca^{2+}_{ {cyt}} changes entirely. We thus conclude that the significant increase in Ca^{2+}_{ {cyt}} under microgravity is largely due to extracellular Ca2+ sources.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lomonaco, Luna; Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Shen, Weixiao
2017-01-01
We prove that any C1+BV degree d ≥ 2 circle covering h having all periodic orbits weakly expanding, is conjugate by a C1+BV diffeomorphism to a metrically expanding map. We use this to connect the space of parabolic external maps (coming from the theory of parabolic-like maps) to metrically expan...
Controllability and stabilization of parabolic equations
Barbu, Viorel
2018-01-01
This monograph presents controllability and stabilization methods in control theory that solve parabolic boundary value problems. Starting from foundational questions on Carleman inequalities for linear parabolic equations, the author addresses the controllability of parabolic equations on a variety of domains and the spectral decomposition technique for representing them. This method is, in fact, designed for use in a wider class of parabolic systems that include the heat and diffusion equations. Later chapters develop another process that employs stabilizing feedback controllers with a finite number of unstable modes, with special attention given to its use in the boundary stabilization of Navier–Stokes equations for the motion of viscous fluid. In turn, these applied methods are used to explore related topics like the exact controllability of stochastic parabolic equations with linear multiplicative noise. Intended for graduate students and researchers working on control problems involving nonlinear diff...
Self-accelerating parabolic cylinder waves in 1-D
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yuce, C., E-mail: cyuce@anadolu.edu.tr
2016-11-25
Highlights: • We find a new class of self-accelerating waves. • We show that parabolic cylinder waves self-accelerates in a parabolic potential. • We discuss that truncated parabolic cylinder waves propagates large distance without almost being non-diffracted in free space. - Abstract: We introduce a new self-accelerating wave packet solution of the Schrodinger equation in one dimension. We obtain an exact analytical parabolic cylinder wave for the inverted harmonic potential. We show that truncated parabolic cylinder waves exhibits their accelerating feature.
A parabolic model for dimple potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aydin, Melike Cibik; Uncu, Haydar; Deniz, Coskun
2013-01-01
We study the truncated parabolic function and demonstrate that it is a representation of the Dirac δ function. We also show that the truncated parabolic function, used as a potential in the Schrödinger equation, has the same bound state spectrum, tunneling and reflection amplitudes as the Dirac δ potential, as the width of the parabola approximates to zero. Dirac δ potential is used to model dimple potentials which are utilized to increase the phase-space density of a Bose–Einstein condensate in a harmonic trap. We show that a harmonic trap with a δ function at the origin is a limiting case of the harmonic trap with a symmetric truncated parabolic potential around the origin. Hence, the truncated parabolic is a better candidate for modeling the dimple potentials. (paper)
Non-local quasi-linear parabolic equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amann, H
2005-01-01
This is a survey of the most common approaches to quasi-linear parabolic evolution equations, a discussion of their advantages and drawbacks, and a presentation of an entirely new approach based on maximal L p regularity. The general results here apply, above all, to parabolic initial-boundary value problems that are non-local in time. This is illustrated by indicating their relevance for quasi-linear parabolic equations with memory and, in particular, for time-regularized versions of the Perona-Malik equation of image processing
Gradient-type methods in inverse parabolic problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kabanikhin, Sergey; Penenko, Aleksey
2008-01-01
This article is devoted to gradient-based methods for inverse parabolic problems. In the first part, we present a priori convergence theorems based on the conditional stability estimates for linear inverse problems. These theorems are applied to backwards parabolic problem and sideways parabolic problem. The convergence conditions obtained coincide with sourcewise representability in the self-adjoint backwards parabolic case but they differ in the sideways case. In the second part, a variational approach is formulated for a coefficient identification problem. Using adjoint equations, a formal gradient of an objective functional is constructed. A numerical test illustrates the performance of conjugate gradient algorithm with the formal gradient.
The parabolic equation method for outdoor sound propagation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arranz, Marta Galindo
The parabolic equation method is a versatile tool for outdoor sound propagation. The present study has focused on the Cranck-Nicolson type Parabolic Equation method (CNPE). Three different applications of the CNPE method have been investigated. The first two applications study variations of the g......The parabolic equation method is a versatile tool for outdoor sound propagation. The present study has focused on the Cranck-Nicolson type Parabolic Equation method (CNPE). Three different applications of the CNPE method have been investigated. The first two applications study variations...
Stability analysis of impulsive parabolic complex networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang Jinliang, E-mail: wangjinliang1984@yahoo.com.cn [Science and Technology on Aircraft Control Laboratory, School of Automation Science and Electrical Engineering, Beihang University, XueYuan Road, No. 37, HaiDian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Wu Huaining [Science and Technology on Aircraft Control Laboratory, School of Automation Science and Electrical Engineering, Beihang University, XueYuan Road, No. 37, HaiDian District, Beijing 100191 (China)
2011-11-15
Highlights: > Two impulsive parabolic complex network models are proposed. > The global exponential stability of impulsive parabolic complex networks are considered. > The robust global exponential stability of impulsive parabolic complex networks are considered. - Abstract: In the present paper, two kinds of impulsive parabolic complex networks (IPCNs) are considered. In the first one, all nodes have the same time-varying delay. In the second one, different nodes have different time-varying delays. Using the Lyapunov functional method combined with the inequality techniques, some global exponential stability criteria are derived for the IPCNs. Furthermore, several robust global exponential stability conditions are proposed to take uncertainties in the parameters of the IPCNs into account. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the results obtained here.
Stability analysis of impulsive parabolic complex networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Jinliang; Wu Huaining
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Two impulsive parabolic complex network models are proposed. → The global exponential stability of impulsive parabolic complex networks are considered. → The robust global exponential stability of impulsive parabolic complex networks are considered. - Abstract: In the present paper, two kinds of impulsive parabolic complex networks (IPCNs) are considered. In the first one, all nodes have the same time-varying delay. In the second one, different nodes have different time-varying delays. Using the Lyapunov functional method combined with the inequality techniques, some global exponential stability criteria are derived for the IPCNs. Furthermore, several robust global exponential stability conditions are proposed to take uncertainties in the parameters of the IPCNs into account. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the results obtained here.
Cecere, Anselmo; De Cristofaro, Davide; Savino, Raffaele; Ayel, Vincent; Sole-Agostinelli, Thibaud; Marengo, Marco; Romestant, Cyril; Bertin, Yves
2018-06-01
A Flat Plate Pulsating Heat Pipe (FPPHP) filled with an ordinary liquid (water) and a self-rewetting mixture (dilutes aqueous solutions of long-chain alcohols with unusual surface tension behavior) is investigated under variable gravity conditions on board a 'Zero-g' plane during the 65th Parabolic Flight Campaign of the European Space Agency. The FPPHP thermal performance in terms of evaporator and condenser temperatures, start-up levels and flow regimes is characterized for the two working fluids and a power input ranging from 0 to 200 W (up to 17 W/cm2 at the heater/evaporator wall interface). The experimental set-up also includes a transparent plate enabling the visualization of the oscillating flow patterns during the experiments. For a low power input (4 W/cm2), the pulsating heat pipe filled with pure water is not able to work under low-g conditions, because the evaporator immediately exhibits dry-out conditions and the fluid oscillations stops, preventing heat transfer between the hot and cold side and resulting in a global increase of the temperatures. On the other hand, the FPPHP filled with the self-rewetting fluid runs also during the microgravity phase. The liquid rewets several times the evaporator zone triggering the oscillatory regime. The self-rewetting fluid helps both the start-up and the thermal performance of the FPPHP in microgravity conditions.
Solar parabolic dish technology evaluation report
Lucas, J. W.
1984-01-01
The activities of the JPL Solar Thermal Power Systems Parabolic Dish Project for FY 1983 are summarized. Included are discussions on designs of module development including concentrator, receiver, and power conversion subsystems together with a separate discussion of field tests, Small Community Experiment system development, and tests at the Parabolic Dish Test Site.
Parabolic features and the erosion rate on Venus
Strom, Robert G.
1993-01-01
The impact cratering record on Venus consists of 919 craters covering 98 percent of the surface. These craters are remarkably well preserved, and most show pristine structures including fresh ejecta blankets. Only 35 craters (3.8 percent) have had their ejecta blankets embayed by lava and most of these occur in the Atla-Beta Regio region; an area thought to be recently active. parabolic features are associated with 66 of the 919 craters. These craters range in size from 6 to 105 km diameter. The parabolic features are thought to be the result of the deposition of fine-grained ejecta by winds in the dense venusian atmosphere. The deposits cover about 9 percent of the surface and none appear to be embayed by younger volcanic materials. However, there appears to be a paucity of these deposits in the Atla-Beta Regio region, and this may be due to the more recent volcanism in this area of Venus. Since parabolic features are probably fine-grain, wind-deposited ejecta, then all impact craters on Venus probably had these deposits at some time in the past. The older deposits have probably been either eroded or buried by eolian processes. Therefore, the present population of these features is probably associated with the most recent impact craters on the planet. Furthermore, the size/frequency distribution of craters with parabolic features is virtually identical to that of the total crater population. This suggests that there has been little loss of small parabolic features compared to large ones, otherwise there should be a significant and systematic paucity of craters with parabolic features with decreasing size compared to the total crater population. Whatever is erasing the parabolic features apparently does so uniformly regardless of the areal extent of the deposit. The lifetime of parabolic features and the eolian erosion rate on Venus can be estimated from the average age of the surface and the present population of parabolic features.
International Workshop on Elliptic and Parabolic Equations
Schrohe, Elmar; Seiler, Jörg; Walker, Christoph
2015-01-01
This volume covers the latest research on elliptic and parabolic equations and originates from the international Workshop on Elliptic and Parabolic Equations, held September 10-12, 2013 at the Leibniz Universität Hannover. It represents a collection of refereed research papers and survey articles written by eminent scientist on advances in different fields of elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations, including singular Riemannian manifolds, spectral analysis on manifolds, nonlinear dispersive equations, Brownian motion and kernel estimates, Euler equations, porous medium type equations, pseudodifferential calculus, free boundary problems, and bifurcation analysis.
Manufacturing parabolic mirrors
CERN PhotoLab
1975-01-01
The photo shows the construction of a vertical centrifuge mounted on an air cushion, with a precision of 1/10000 during rotation, used for the manufacture of very high=precision parabolic mirrors. (See Annual Report 1974.)
Photovoltaic applications of Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC)
Winston, R.
1975-01-01
The use of a compound parabolic concentrator as field collector, in conjunction with a primary focusing concentrator for photovoltaic applications is studied. The primary focusing concentrator can be a parabolic reflector, an array of Fresnel mirrors, a Fresnel lens or some other lens. Silicon solar cell grid structures are proposed that increase efficiency with concentration up to 10 suns. A ray tracing program has been developed to determine energy distribution at the exit of a compound parabolic concentrator. Projected total cost of a CPC/solar cell system will be between 4 and 5 times lower than for flat plate silicon cell arrays.
Solving Variable Coefficient Fourth-Order Parabolic Equation by ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Solving Variable Coefficient Fourth-Order Parabolic Equation by Modified initial guess Variational ... variable coefficient fourth order parabolic partial differential equations. The new method shows rapid convergence to the exact solution.
Perez-Poch, Antoni; Gonzalez, Daniel
Numerical models and simulations are an emerging area of research in human physiology. As complex numerical models are available, along with high-speed computing technologies, it is possible to produce more accurate predictions of the long-term effects of reduced gravity on the human body. NELME (Numerical Emulation of Long-Term Microgravity Effects) has been developed as an electrical-like control system model of the pysiological changes that may arise when gravity changes are applied to the cardiovascular system. Validation of the model has been carried out in parabolic flights at UPC BarcelonaTech Platform. A number of parabolas of up to 8 seconds were performed at Sabadell Airport with an aerobatic single-engine CAP10B plane capable of performing such maneuvres. Heart rate, arterial pressure, and gravity data was collected and compared to the output obtained from the model in order to optimize its parameters. The model is then able to perform simulations for long-term periods of exposure to microgravity, and then the risk for a major malfunction is evaluated. Vascular resistance is known to be impaired during a long-term mission. This effects are not fully understood, and the model is capable of providing a continuous thread of simulated scenarios, while varying gravity in a nearly-continuous way. Aerobic exercise as countermeasure has been simulated as a periodic perturbation into the simulated physiological system. Results are discussed in terms of the validaty and reliability of the outcomes from the model, that have been found compatible with the available data in the literature. Different gender sensitivities to microgravity exposure are discussed. Also thermal stress along with exercise, as it happens in the case of Extravehicular activity is smulated. Results show that vascular resistance is significantly impared (p<0,05) at gravity levels less than 0,4g, when exposed for a period of time longer than 16 days. This degree of impairement is comparable with
Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1998-04-01
Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.
Partial differential equations of parabolic type
Friedman, Avner
2008-01-01
This accessible and self-contained treatment provides even readers previously unacquainted with parabolic and elliptic equations with sufficient background to understand research literature. Author Avner Friedman - Director of the Mathematical Biosciences Institute at The Ohio State University - offers a systematic and thorough approach that begins with the main facts of the general theory of second order linear parabolic equations. Subsequent chapters explore asymptotic behavior of solutions, semi-linear equations and free boundary problems, and the extension of results concerning fundamenta
Mixed hyperbolic-second-order-parabolic formulations of general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paschalidis, Vasileios
2008-01-01
Two new formulations of general relativity are introduced. The first one is a parabolization of the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formulation and is derived by the addition of combinations of the constraints and their derivatives to the right-hand side of the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner evolution equations. The desirable property of this modification is that it turns the surface of constraints into a local attractor because the constraint propagation equations become second-order parabolic independently of the gauge conditions employed. This system may be classified as mixed hyperbolic--second-order parabolic. The second formulation is a parabolization of the Kidder-Scheel-Teukolsky formulation and is a manifestly mixed strongly hyperbolic--second-order-parabolic set of equations, bearing thus resemblance to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. As a first test, a stability analysis of flat space is carried out and it is shown that the first modification exponentially damps and smoothes all constraint-violating modes. These systems provide a new basis for constructing schemes for long-term and stable numerical integration of the Einstein field equations.
Air-borne shape measurement of parabolic trough collector fields
Prahl, Christoph; Röger, Marc; Hilgert, Christoph
2017-06-01
The optical and thermal efficiency of parabolic trough collector solar fields is dependent on the performance and assembly accuracy of its components such as the concentrator and absorber. For the purpose of optical inspection/approval, yield analysis, localization of low performing areas, and optimization of the solar field, it is essential to create a complete view of the optical properties of the field. Existing optical measurement tools are based on ground based cameras, facing restriction concerning speed, volume and automation. QFly is an airborne qualification system which provides holistic and accurate information on geometrical, optical, and thermal properties of the entire solar field. It consists of an unmanned aerial vehicle, cameras and related software for flight path planning, data acquisition and evaluation. This article presents recent advances of the QFly measurement system and proposes a methodology on holistic qualification of the complete solar field with minimum impact on plant operation.
Moduli of Parabolic Higgs Bundles and Atiyah Algebroids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Logares, Marina; Martens, Johan
2010-01-01
In this paper we study the geometry of the moduli space of (non-strongly) parabolic Higgs bundles over a Riemann surface with marked points. We show that this space possesses a Poisson structure, extending the one on the dual of an Atiyah algebroid over the moduli space of parabolic vector bundle...
Moduli space of Parabolic vector bundles over hyperelliptic curves
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
27
This has been generalized for higher dimensional varieties by Maruyama ... Key words and phrases. Parabolic structure .... Let E be a vector bundle of rank r on X. Recall that a parabolic ..... Let us understand this picture geometrically. Let ω1 ...
A compact representation of drawing movements with sequences of parabolic primitives.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Felix Polyakov
2009-07-01
Full Text Available Some studies suggest that complex arm movements in humans and monkeys may optimize several objective functions, while others claim that arm movements satisfy geometric constraints and are composed of elementary components. However, the ability to unify different constraints has remained an open question. The criterion for a maximally smooth (minimizing jerk motion is satisfied for parabolic trajectories having constant equi-affine speed, which thus comply with the geometric constraint known as the two-thirds power law. Here we empirically test the hypothesis that parabolic segments provide a compact representation of spontaneous drawing movements. Monkey scribblings performed during a period of practice were recorded. Practiced hand paths could be approximated well by relatively long parabolic segments. Following practice, the orientations and spatial locations of the fitted parabolic segments could be drawn from only 2-4 clusters, and there was less discrepancy between the fitted parabolic segments and the executed paths. This enabled us to show that well-practiced spontaneous scribbling movements can be represented as sequences ("words" of a small number of elementary parabolic primitives ("letters". A movement primitive can be defined as a movement entity that cannot be intentionally stopped before its completion. We found that in a well-trained monkey a movement was usually decelerated after receiving a reward, but it stopped only after the completion of a sequence composed of several parabolic segments. Piece-wise parabolic segments can be generated by applying affine geometric transformations to a single parabolic template. Thus, complex movements might be constructed by applying sequences of suitable geometric transformations to a few templates. Our findings therefore suggest that the motor system aims at achieving more parsimonious internal representations through practice, that parabolas serve as geometric primitives and that non
Arumugam, S.; Ramakrishna, P.; Sangavi, S.
2018-02-01
Improvements in heating technology with solar energy is gaining focus, especially solar parabolic collectors. Solar heating in conventional parabolic collectors is done with the help of radiation concentration on receiver tubes. Conventional receiver tubes are open to atmosphere and loose heat by ambient air currents. In order to reduce the convection losses and also to improve the aperture area, we designed a tube with cavity. This study is a comparative performance behaviour of conventional tube and cavity model tube. The performance formulae were derived for the cavity model based on conventional model. Reduction in overall heat loss coefficient was observed for cavity model, though collector heat removal factor and collector efficiency were nearly same for both models. Improvement in efficiency was also observed in the cavity model’s performance. The approach towards the design of a cavity model tube as the receiver tube in solar parabolic collectors gave improved results and proved as a good consideration.
Yan, Na; Baas, Andreas
2015-04-01
Parabolic dunes are one of a few common aeolian landforms which are highly controlled by eco-geomorphic interactions. Parabolic dunes, on the one hand, can be developed from highly mobile dune landforms, barchans for instance, in an ameliorated vegetation condition; or on the other hand, they can be reactivated and transformed back into mobile dunes due to vegetation deterioration. The fundamental mechanisms and eco-geomorphic interactions controlling both dune transformations remain poorly understood. To bridge the gap between complex processes involved in dune transformations on a relatively long temporal scale and real world monitoring records on a very limited temporal scale, this research has extended the DECAL model to incorporate 'dynamic' growth functions and the different 'growth' of perennial shrubs between growing and non-growing seasons, informed by field measurements and remote sensing analysis, to explore environmental controls and eco-geomorphic interactions of both types of dune transformation. A non-dimensional 'dune stabilising index' is proposed to capture the interactions between environmental controls (i.e. the capabilities of vegetation to withstand wind erosion and sand burial, the sandy substratum thickness, the height of the initial dune, and the sand transport potential), and establish the linkage between these controls and the geometry of a stabilising dune. An example demonstrates how to use the power-law relationship between the dune stabilising index and the normalised migration distance to assist in extrapolating the historical trajectories of transforming dunes. The modelling results also show that a slight increase in vegetation cover of an initial parabolic dune can significantly increase the reactivation threshold of climatic impact (both drought stress and wind strength) required to reactivate a stabilising parabolic dune into a barchan. Four eco-geomorphic interaction zones that govern a barchan-to-parabolic dune transformation
Finite-time blow-up for quasilinear degenerate Keller-Segel systems of parabolic-parabolic type
Hashira, Takahiro; Ishida, Sachiko; Yokota, Tomomi
2018-05-01
This paper deals with the quasilinear degenerate Keller-Segel systems of parabolic-parabolic type in a ball of RN (N ≥ 2). In the case of non-degenerate diffusion, Cieślak-Stinner [3,4] proved that if q > m + 2/N, where m denotes the intensity of diffusion and q denotes the nonlinearity, then there exist initial data such that the corresponding solution blows up in finite time. As to the case of degenerate diffusion, it is known that a solution blows up if q > m + 2/N (see Ishida-Yokota [13]); however, whether the blow-up time is finite or infinite has been unknown. This paper gives an answer to the unsolved problem. Indeed, the finite-time blow-up of energy solutions is established when q > m + 2/N.
Flux form Semi-Lagrangian methods for parabolic problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bonaventura Luca
2016-09-01
Full Text Available A semi-Lagrangian method for parabolic problems is proposed, that extends previous work by the authors to achieve a fully conservative, flux-form discretization of linear and nonlinear diffusion equations. A basic consistency and stability analysis is proposed. Numerical examples validate the proposed method and display its potential for consistent semi-Lagrangian discretization of advection diffusion and nonlinear parabolic problems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
David Kearney; Hank Price
1999-01-01
Technology roadmapping is a needs-driven technology planning process to help identify, select, and develop technology alternatives to satisfy a set of market needs. The DOE's Office of Power Technologies' Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program recently sponsored a technology roadmapping workshop for parabolic trough technology. The workshop was attended by an impressive cross section of industry and research experts. The goals of the workshop were to evaluate the market potential for trough power projects, develop a better understanding of the current state of the technology, and to develop a conceptual plan for advancing the state of parabolic trough technology. This report documents and extends the roadmap that was conceptually developed during the workshop
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Tshipa
2017-12-01
Full Text Available A theoretical investigation of the effects of spatial variation of confining electric potential on photoionization cross section (PCS in a spherical quantum dot is presented. The potential profiles considered here are the shifted parabolic potential and the inverse lateral shifted parabolic potential compared with the well-studied parabolic potential. The primary findings are that parabolic potential and the inverse lateral shifted parabolic potential blue shift the peaks of the PCS while the shifted parabolic potential causes a red shift.
Hermitian-Einstein metrics on parabolic stable bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Jiayu; Narasimhan, M.S.
1995-12-01
Let M-bar be a compact complex manifold of complex dimension two with a smooth Kaehler metric and D a smooth divisor on M-bar. If E is a rank 2 holomorphic vector bundle on M-bar with a stable parabolic structure along D, we prove the existence of a metric on E' = E module MbarD (compatible with the parabolic structure) which is Hermitian-Einstein with respect to the restriction of Kaehler metric of M-barD. A converse is also proved. (author). 24 refs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Barceló
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Analogue gravity is a research programme which investigates analogues of general relativistic gravitational fields within other physical systems, typically but not exclusively condensed matter systems, with the aim of gaining new insights into their corresponding problems. Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.
Linear and quasi-linear equations of parabolic type
Ladyženskaja, O A; Ural′ceva, N N; Uralceva, N N
1968-01-01
Equations of parabolic type are encountered in many areas of mathematics and mathematical physics, and those encountered most frequently are linear and quasi-linear parabolic equations of the second order. In this volume, boundary value problems for such equations are studied from two points of view: solvability, unique or otherwise, and the effect of smoothness properties of the functions entering the initial and boundary conditions on the smoothness of the solutions.
Results of the first Seismometer to Investigate Ice and Ocean Structure (SIIOS) Analogue Mission
Della-Giustina, Daniella; Bray, Veronica; "Hop" Bailey, Samuel; Pettit, Erin; Schmerr, Nicholas; Dahl, Peter; Avenson, Brad; Byrne, Shane; SIIOS Team
2017-10-01
The icy moons of Europa and Enceladus are thought to have global subsurface oceans in contact with mineral-rich interiors, likely providing the ingredients needed for life as we know it. The possibility of life forming in the ocean or in melt pockets, relies on the presence of a source of energy and chemistry for biological molecule formation. A thick, stagnant ice crust would likely prevent transfer of oxidants from the surface to the water, halting the development of life. The ice thickness and structure is therefore one of the most important and controversial topics in astrobiology.The best way to access an icy moon’s interior structure is with a lander-based seismometer. Our team has identified a commercial-off-the-shelf device as a flight-candidate for operation in the extreme environment of the icy moons. Based on estimates of Europan seismicity, the flight candidate device is sensitive enough to detect the ice-water boundary and pockets of liquid within the ice. Its low mass and low power enables deployment of multiple seismometers in a short-baseline array on a lander. The performance, mass, and volume of this device meet or exceed flight requirements identified in lander studies making a field test of these seismometers highly representative of a flight unit developed for an Ocean Worlds mission.We report the results of the first field campaign for the SIIOS Analogue Mission Program (AMP), which has evaluates the performance of the flight candidate seismometer in Ocean World terrestrial analogue environments. In particular, the first SIIOS AMP field exercise is performed at Gulkana Glacier, Alaska. During the summer melt season Gulkana provides kilometer-scale regions of coexisting ice, water, and silicate material, thereby providing areas with the desired analogue seismic contrasts. During this first mission, we have demonstrated device sensitivity to the detection of seismicity from high frequency (> 50 Hz) active and passive sources, the depth of ice
Describing Quadratic Cremer Point Polynomials by Parabolic Perturbations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Dan Erik Krarup
1996-01-01
We describe two infinite order parabolic perturbation proceduresyielding quadratic polynomials having a Cremer fixed point. The main ideais to obtain the polynomial as the limit of repeated parabolic perturbations.The basic tool at each step is to control the behaviour of certain externalrays.......Polynomials of the Cremer type correspond to parameters at the boundary of ahyperbolic component of the Mandelbrot set. In this paper we concentrate onthe main cardioid component. We investigate the differences between two-sided(i.e. alternating) and one-sided parabolic perturbations.In the two-sided case, we prove...... the existence of polynomials having an explicitlygiven external ray accumulating both at the Cremer point and at its non-periodicpreimage. We think of the Julia set as containing a "topologists double comb".In the one-sided case we prove a weaker result: the existence of polynomials havingan explicitly given...
Loposer, J. Dan; Rumsey, Charles B.
1954-01-01
Measurement of average skin-friction coefficients have been made on six rocket-powered free-flight models by using the boundary-layer rake technique. The model configuration was the NACA RM-10, a 12.2-fineness-ratio parabolic body of revolution with a flat base. Measurements were made over a Mach number range from 1 to 3.7, a Reynolds number range 40 x 10(exp 6) to 170 x 10(exp 6) based on length to the measurement station, and with aerodynamic heating conditions varying from strong skin heating to strong skin cooling. The measurements show the same trends over the test ranges as Van Driest's theory for turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate. The measured values are approximately 7 percent higher than the values of the flat-plate theory. A comparison which takes into account the differences in Reynolds number is made between the present results and skin-friction measurements obtained on NACA RM-10 scale models in the Langley 4- by 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel, the Lewis 8- by 6-foot supersonic tunnel, and the Langley 9-inch supersonic tunnel. Good agreement is shown at all but the lowest tunnel Reynolds number conditions. A simple empirical equation is developed which represents the measurements over the range of the tests.
Mechatronic Prototype of Parabolic Solar Tracker.
Morón, Carlos; Díaz, Jorge Pablo; Ferrández, Daniel; Ramos, Mari Paz
2016-06-15
In the last 30 years numerous attempts have been made to improve the efficiency of the parabolic collectors in the electric power production, although most of the studies have focused on the industrial production of thermoelectric power. This research focuses on the application of this concentrating solar thermal power in the unexplored field of building construction. To that end, a mechatronic prototype of a hybrid paraboloidal and cylindrical-parabolic tracker based on the Arduido technology has been designed. The prototype is able to measure meteorological data autonomously in order to quantify the energy potential of any location. In this way, it is possible to reliably model real commercial equipment behavior before its deployment in buildings and single family houses.
Numerical performance of the parabolized ADM (PADM) formulation of General Relativity
Paschalidis, Vasileios; Hansen, Jakob; Khokhlov, Alexei
2007-01-01
In a recent paper the first coauthor presented a new parabolic extension (PADM) of the standard 3+1 Arnowitt, Deser, Misner formulation of the equations of general relativity. By parabolizing first-order ADM in a certain way, the PADM formulation turns it into a mixed hyperbolic - second-order parabolic, well-posed system. The surface of constraints of PADM becomes a local attractor for all solutions and all possible well-posed gauge conditions. This paper describes a numerical implementation...
Determination of source terms in a degenerate parabolic equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cannarsa, P; Tort, J; Yamamoto, M
2010-01-01
In this paper, we prove Lipschitz stability results for inverse source problems relative to parabolic equations. We use the method introduced by Imanuvilov and Yamamoto in 1998 based on Carleman estimates. What is new here is that we study a class of one-dimensional degenerate parabolic equations. In our model, the diffusion coefficient vanishes at one extreme point of the domain. Instead of the classical Carleman estimates obtained by Fursikov and Imanuvilov for non degenerate equations, we use and extend some recent Carleman estimates for degenerate equations obtained by Cannarsa, Martinez and Vancostenoble. Finally, we obtain Lipschitz stability results in inverse source problems for our class of degenerate parabolic equations both in the case of a boundary observation and in the case of a locally distributed observation
Interaction Potential between Parabolic Rotator and an Outside Particle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dan Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available At micro/nanoscale, the interaction potential between parabolic rotator and a particle located outside the rotator is studied on the basis of the negative exponential pair potential 1/Rn between particles. Similar to two-dimensional curved surfaces, we confirm that the potential of the three-dimensional parabolic rotator and outside particle can also be expressed as a unified form of curvatures; that is, it can be written as the function of curvatures. Furthermore, we verify that the driving forces acting on the particle may be induced by the highly curved micro/nano-parabolic rotator. Curvatures and the gradient of curvatures are the essential elements forming the driving forces. Through the idealized numerical experiments, the accuracy of the curvature-based potential is preliminarily proved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barceló Carlos
2005-12-01
Full Text Available Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.
Mechatronic Prototype of Parabolic Solar Tracker
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Morón
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In the last 30 years numerous attempts have been made to improve the efficiency of the parabolic collectors in the electric power production, although most of the studies have focused on the industrial production of thermoelectric power. This research focuses on the application of this concentrating solar thermal power in the unexplored field of building construction. To that end, a mechatronic prototype of a hybrid paraboloidal and cylindrical-parabolic tracker based on the Arduido technology has been designed. The prototype is able to measure meteorological data autonomously in order to quantify the energy potential of any location. In this way, it is possible to reliably model real commercial equipment behavior before its deployment in buildings and single family houses.
Nanofocusing parabolic refractive x-ray lenses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schroer, C.G.; Kuhlmann, M.; Hunger, U.T.; Guenzler, T.F.; Kurapova, O.; Feste, S.; Frehse, F.; Lengeler, B.; Drakopoulos, M.; Somogyi, A.; Simionovici, A.S.; Snigirev, A.; Snigireva, I.; Schug, C.; Schroeder, W.H.
2003-01-01
Parabolic refractive x-ray lenses with short focal distance can generate intensive hard x-ray microbeams with lateral extensions in the 100 nm range even at a short distance from a synchrotron radiation source. We have fabricated planar parabolic lenses made of silicon that have a focal distance in the range of a few millimeters at hard x-ray energies. In a crossed geometry, two lenses were used to generate a microbeam with a lateral size of 380 nm by 210 nm at 25 keV in a distance of 42 m from the synchrotron radiation source. Using diamond as the lens material, microbeams with a lateral size down to 20 nm and below are conceivable in the energy range from 10 to 100 keV
Computer aided FEA simulation of EN45A parabolic leaf spring
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krishan Kumar
2013-04-01
Full Text Available This paper describes computer aided finite element analysis of parabolic leaf spring. The present work is an improvement in design of EN45A parabolic leaf spring used by a light commercial automotive vehicle. Development of a leaf spring is a long process which requires lots of test to validate the design and manufacturing variables. A three-layer parabolic leaf spring of EN45A has been taken for this work. The thickness of leaves varies from center to the outer side following a parabolic pattern. These leaf springs are designed to become lighter, but also provide a much improved ride to the vehicle through a reduction on interleaf friction. The CAD modeling of parabolic leaf spring has been done in CATIA V5 and for analysis the model is imported in ANSYS-11 workbench. The finite element analysis (FEA of the leaf spring has been carried out by initially discretizing the model into finite number of elements and nodes and then applying the necessary boundary conditions. Maximum displacement, directional displacement, equivalent stress and weight of the assembly are the output targets of this analysis for comparison & validation of the work.
Well-posedness of nonlocal parabolic differential problems with dependent operators.
Ashyralyev, Allaberen; Hanalyev, Asker
2014-01-01
The nonlocal boundary value problem for the parabolic differential equation v'(t) + A(t)v(t) = f(t) (0 ≤ t ≤ T), v(0) = v(λ) + φ, 0 exact estimates in Hölder norms for the solution of two nonlocal boundary value problems for parabolic equations with dependent coefficients are established.
Coercive properties of elliptic-parabolic operator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duong Min Duc.
1987-06-01
Using a generalized Poincare inequality, we study the coercive properties of a class of elliptic-parabolic partial differential equations, which contains many degenerate elliptic equations considered by the other authors. (author). 16 refs
Analogue particle identifier and test unit for automatic measuring of errors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boden, A.; Lauch, J.
1979-04-01
A high accuracy analogue particle identifier is described. The unit is used for particle identification or data correction of experimental based errors in magnetic spectrometers. Signals which are proportional to the energy, the time-of-flight or the position of absorption of the particles are supplied to an analogue computation circuit (multifunction converter). Three computation functions are available for different applications. The output of the identifier produces correction signals or pulses whose amplitudes are proportional to the mass of the particles. Particle identification and data correction can be optimized by the adjustment of variable parameters. An automatic test unit has been developed for adjustment and routine checking of particle identifiers. The computation functions can be tested by this unit with an accuracy of 1%. (orig.) [de
Parabolic Trough Solar Power for Competitive U.S. Markets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Price, Henry W.
1998-01-01
Nine parabolic trough power plants located in the California Mojave Desert represent the only commercial development of large-scale solar power plants to date. Although all nine plants continue to operate today, no new solar power plants have been completed since 1990. Over the last several years, the parabolic trough industry has focused much of its efforts on international market opportunities. Although the power market in developing countries appears to offer a number of opportunities for parabolic trough technologies due to high growth and the availability of special financial incentives for renewables, these markets are also plagued with many difficulties for developers. In recent years, there has been some renewed interest in the U.S. domestic power market as a result of an emerging green market and green pricing incentives. Unfortunately, many of these market opportunities and incentives focus on smaller, more modular technologies (such as photovoltaics or wind power), and as a result they tend to exclude or are of minimum long-term benefit to large-scale concentrating solar power technologies. This paper looks at what is necessary for large-scale parabolic trough solar power plants to compete with state-of-the-art fossil power technology in a competitive U.S. power market
Blasco, Julián.; Rico, Eloy; Genovard, Pablo; Sáez, Cristina; Navasquillo, Olga; Martí, Javier
2017-11-01
During past years, special efforts have been invested to develop optical links, both digital and analogue, for space applications, such as reference signal distribution or digital communication cables. The aim of this paper is to present the current DAS developments for these applications as well as future work to increase TRL levels and flight opportunities.
Use of a Parabolic Microphone to Detect Hidden Subjects in Search and Rescue.
Bowditch, Nathaniel L; Searing, Stanley K; Thomas, Jeffrey A; Thompson, Peggy K; Tubis, Jacqueline N; Bowditch, Sylvia P
2018-03-01
This study compares a parabolic microphone to unaided hearing in detecting and comprehending hidden callers at ranges of 322 to 2510 m. Eight subjects were placed 322 to 2510 m away from a central listening point. The subjects were concealed, and their calling volume was calibrated. In random order, subjects were asked to call the name of a state for 5 minutes. Listeners with parabolic microphones and others with unaided hearing recorded the direction of the call (detection) and name of the state (comprehension). The parabolic microphone was superior to unaided hearing in both detecting subjects and comprehending their calls, with an effect size (Cohen's d) of 1.58 for detection and 1.55 for comprehension. For each of the 8 hidden subjects, there were 24 detection attempts with the parabolic microphone and 54 to 60 attempts by unaided listeners. At the longer distances (1529-2510 m), the parabolic microphone was better at detecting callers (83% vs 51%; P<0.00001 by χ 2 ) and comprehension (57% vs 12%; P<0.00001). At the shorter distances (322-1190 m), the parabolic microphone offered advantages in detection (100% vs 83%; P=0.000023) and comprehension (86% vs 51%; P<0.00001), although not as pronounced as at the longer distances. Use of a 66-cm (26-inch) parabolic microphone significantly improved detection and comprehension of hidden calling subjects at distances between 322 and 2510 m when compared with unaided hearing. This study supports the use of a parabolic microphone in search and rescue to locate responsive subjects in favorable weather and terrain. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Identifying the principal coefficient of parabolic equations with non-divergent form
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang, L S; Bian, B J
2005-01-01
We deal with an inverse problem of determining a coefficient a(x, t) of principal part for second order parabolic equations with non-divergent form when the solution is known. Such a problem has important applications in a large fields of applied science. We propose a well-posed approximate algorithm to identify the coefficient. The existence, uniqueness and stability of such solutions a(x, t) are proved. A necessary condition which is a couple system of a parabolic equation and a parabolic variational inequality is deduced. Our numerical simulations show that the coefficient is recovered very well
Identifying the principal coefficient of parabolic equations with non-divergent form
Jiang, L. S.; Bian, B. J.
2005-01-01
We deal with an inverse problem of determining a coefficient a(x, t) of principal part for second order parabolic equations with non-divergent form when the solution is known. Such a problem has important applications in a large fields of applied science. We propose a well-posed approximate algorithm to identify the coefficient. The existence, uniqueness and stability of such solutions a(x, t) are proved. A necessary condition which is a couple system of a parabolic equation and a parabolic variational inequality is deduced. Our numerical simulations show that the coefficient is recovered very well.
Sasakian and Parabolic Higgs Bundles
Biswas, Indranil; Mj, Mahan
2018-03-01
Let M be a quasi-regular compact connected Sasakian manifold, and let N = M/ S 1 be the base projective variety. We establish an equivalence between the class of Sasakian G-Higgs bundles over M and the class of parabolic (or equivalently, ramified) G-Higgs bundles over the base N.
A Two-Species Cooperative Lotka-Volterra System of Degenerate Parabolic Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiebao Sun
2011-01-01
parabolic equations. We are interested in the coexistence of the species in a bounded domain. We establish the existence of global generalized solutions of the initial boundary value problem by means of parabolic regularization and also consider the existence of the nontrivial time-periodic solution for this system.
Nanofocusing Parabolic Refractive X-Ray Lenses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schroer, C.G.; Kuhlmann, M.; Hunger, U.T.; Guenzler, T.F.; Kurapova, O.; Feste, S.; Lengeler, B.; Drakopoulos, M.; Somogyi, A.; Simionovici, A. S.; Snigirev, A.; Snigireva, I.
2004-01-01
Parabolic refractive x-ray lenses with short focal distance can generate intensive hard x-ray microbeams with lateral extensions in the 100nm range even at short distance from a synchrotron radiation source. We have fabricated planar parabolic lenses made of silicon that have a focal distance in the range of a few millimeters at hard x-ray energies. In a crossed geometry, two lenses were used to generate a microbeam with a lateral size of 330nm by 110nm at 25keV in a distance of 41.8m from the synchrotron radiation source. First microdiffraction and fluorescence microtomography experiments were carried out with these lenses. Using diamond as lens material, microbeams with lateral size down to 20nm and below are conceivable in the energy range from 10 to 100keV
Quasilinear parabolic variational inequalities with multi-valued lower-order terms
Carl, Siegfried; Le, Vy K.
2014-10-01
In this paper, we provide an analytical frame work for the following multi-valued parabolic variational inequality in a cylindrical domain : Find and an such that where is some closed and convex subset, A is a time-dependent quasilinear elliptic operator, and the multi-valued function is assumed to be upper semicontinuous only, so that Clarke's generalized gradient is included as a special case. Thus, parabolic variational-hemivariational inequalities are special cases of the problem considered here. The extension of parabolic variational-hemivariational inequalities to the general class of multi-valued problems considered in this paper is not only of disciplinary interest, but is motivated by the need in applications. The main goals are as follows. First, we provide an existence theory for the above-stated problem under coercivity assumptions. Second, in the noncoercive case, we establish an appropriate sub-supersolution method that allows us to get existence, comparison, and enclosure results. Third, the order structure of the solution set enclosed by sub-supersolutions is revealed. In particular, it is shown that the solution set within the sector of sub-supersolutions is a directed set. As an application, a multi-valued parabolic obstacle problem is treated.
Explicit nonlinear finite element geometric analysis of parabolic leaf springs under various loads.
Kong, Y S; Omar, M Z; Chua, L B; Abdullah, S
2013-01-01
This study describes the effects of bounce, brake, and roll behavior of a bus toward its leaf spring suspension systems. Parabolic leaf springs are designed based on vertical deflection and stress; however, loads are practically derived from various modes especially under harsh road drives or emergency braking. Parabolic leaf springs must sustain these loads without failing to ensure bus and passenger safety. In this study, the explicit nonlinear dynamic finite element (FE) method is implemented because of the complexity of experimental testing A series of load cases; namely, vertical push, wind-up, and suspension roll are introduced for the simulations. The vertical stiffness of the parabolic leaf springs is related to the vehicle load-carrying capability, whereas the wind-up stiffness is associated with vehicle braking. The roll stiffness of the parabolic leaf springs is correlated with the vehicle roll stability. To obtain a better bus performance, two new parabolic leaf spring designs are proposed and simulated. The stress level during the loadings is observed and compared with its design limit. Results indicate that the newly designed high vertical stiffness parabolic spring provides the bus a greater roll stability and a lower stress value compared with the original design. Bus safety and stability is promoted, as well as the load carrying capability.
Explicit Nonlinear Finite Element Geometric Analysis of Parabolic Leaf Springs under Various Loads
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. S. Kong
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This study describes the effects of bounce, brake, and roll behavior of a bus toward its leaf spring suspension systems. Parabolic leaf springs are designed based on vertical deflection and stress; however, loads are practically derived from various modes especially under harsh road drives or emergency braking. Parabolic leaf springs must sustain these loads without failing to ensure bus and passenger safety. In this study, the explicit nonlinear dynamic finite element (FE method is implemented because of the complexity of experimental testing A series of load cases; namely, vertical push, wind-up, and suspension roll are introduced for the simulations. The vertical stiffness of the parabolic leaf springs is related to the vehicle load-carrying capability, whereas the wind-up stiffness is associated with vehicle braking. The roll stiffness of the parabolic leaf springs is correlated with the vehicle roll stability. To obtain a better bus performance, two new parabolic leaf spring designs are proposed and simulated. The stress level during the loadings is observed and compared with its design limit. Results indicate that the newly designed high vertical stiffness parabolic spring provides the bus a greater roll stability and a lower stress value compared with the original design. Bus safety and stability is promoted, as well as the load carrying capability.
An introduction to geometric theory of fully nonlinear parabolic equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lunardi, A.
1991-01-01
We study a class of nonlinear evolution equations in general Banach space being an abstract version of fully nonlinear parabolic equations. In addition to results of existence, uniqueness and continuous dependence on the data, we give some qualitative results about stability of the stationary solutions, existence and stability of the periodic orbits. We apply such results to some parabolic problems arising from combustion theory. (author). 24 refs
Zero Gravity Flights as the Most Effective Embryonic Operation for Planned Commercial Spaceport
Abu Samah, Shamsul Kamar; Ridzuan Zakaria, Norul; Nasrun, Nasri; Abu, Jalaluddin; Muszaphar Shukor, Dato'Sheikh
2013-09-01
From the experience gained by the management team of Spaceport Malaysia, a popular service that can be provided by a planned commercial spaceport in a country without existing space travel infrastructure are zero gravity flights. Zero gravity flights range from parabolic flights using aerobatic airplane to suborbital flights using rockets, and in the near future using suborbital rocketplanes. Therefore, zero gravity flights can be operated from a certified runway or planned for operation at a future commercial spaceport. With such range of operation, zero gravity flights provide a natural link between a low cost operation of small airplane to exclusive high profile operation of suborbital rocketplane, and this attracts the attention of individuals and organizations that are planning for the establishment of a commercial spaceport. This is the approach chosen by the planners and developers of Spaceport Malaysia. A significant factor in zero gravity flight is the zero gravity time, the period where the payload onboard the airplane or rocketplane will experience zero gravity. Based on the momentum of the airplane or rocketplane, the zero gravity time may vary from few seconds to few minutes and that determines the quality of the zero gravity flight. To achieve zero gravity, the airplane or rocketplane will fly with a steady velocity for a significant time as a gravity control flight, accelerate upwards with an angle producing hypergravity and perform parabolic flight with natural momentum producing zero gravity and followed by dive that will result in another hypergravity flight. 2 zero gravity platforms being considered for operation at and by Spaceport Malaysia are F-5E Tiger II and Airbus A300, since both platforms have been successfully used by a partner of Spaceport Malaysia in performing zero gravity flights. An F-5E fighter jet owned by Royal Malaysian Air Force is being planned to be converted into a zero gravity platform to be operated at and by Spaceport
Nonimaging secondary concentrators for large rim angle parabolic troughs with tubular absorbers.
Ries, H; Spirkl, W
1996-05-01
For parabolic trough solar collectors with tubular absorbers, we design new tailored secondary concentrators. The design is applicable for any rim angle of a parabolic reflector. With the secondary, the concentration can be increased by a factor of more than 2 with a compact secondary reflector consisting of a single piece, even for the important case of a rim angle of 90 deg. The parabolic reflector can be used without changes; the reduced absorber is still tubular but smaller than the original absorber and slightly displaced toward the primary.
Canonical generators of the cohomology of moduli of parabolic bundles on curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biswas, I.; Raghavendra, N.
1994-11-01
We determine generators of the rational cohomology algebras of moduli spaces of parabolic vector bundles on a curve, under some 'primality' conditions on the parabolic datum. These generators are canonical in a precise sense. Our results are new even for usual vector bundles (i.e., vector bundles without parabolic structure) whose rank is greater than 2 and is coprime to the degree; in this case, they are generalizations of a theorem of Newstead on the moduli of vector bundles of rank 2 and odd degree. (author). 11 refs
On the behaviour of solutions of parabolic equations for large values of time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisov, V N
2005-01-01
This paper is a survey of classical and new results on stabilization of solutions of the Cauchy problem and mixed problems for second-order linear parabolic equations. Proofs are given for some new results about exact sufficient conditions on the behaviour of lower-order coefficients of the parabolic equation; these conditions ensure stabilization of a solution of the Cauchy problem for the parabolic equation in the class of bounded or increasing initial functions
Artificial neural networks approach on solar parabolic dish cooker
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lokeswaran, S.; Eswaramoorthy, M.
2011-01-01
This paper presents heat transfer analysis of solar parabolic dish cooker using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The objective of this study to envisage thermal performance parameters such as receiver plate and pot water temperatures of the solar parabolic dish cooker by using the ANN for experimental data. An experiment is conducted under two cases (1) cooker with plain receiver and (2) cooker with porous receiver. The Back Propagation (BP) algorithm is used to train and test networks and ANN predictions are compared with experimental results. Different network configurations are studied by the aid of searching a relatively better network for prediction. The results showed a good regression analysis with the correlation coefficients in the range of 0.9968-0.9992 and mean relative errors (MREs) in the range of 1.2586-4.0346% for the test data set. Thus ANN model can successfully be used for the prediction of the thermal performance parameters of parabolic dish cooker with reasonable degree of accuracy. (authors)
Application and use of spinal immobilization devices in zero-gravity flight
Krupa, Debra T.; Gosbee, John; Billica, Roger; Boyce, Joey B.
1991-01-01
A KC-135 parabolic flight was performed for the purpose of evaluation of spinal immobilization techniques in microgravity. The flight followed the standard 40 parabola profile with four NASA/KRUG experimenters involved. One performed as coordinator/recorder, one as test subject, and two as the Crew Medical Officers (CMO). The flight was to evaluate the application of spinal immobilization devices and techniques in microgravity as are performed during initial stabilization or patient transport scenarios. The sequence of detail for examination of the following objectives included: attempted cervical spine immobilization with all free floating, the patient restrained to the floor, various hand positioning techniques; c-collar placement; Kendrick Extrication Device (KED) application with various restraints for patient and CMO; patient immobilization and transport using the KED; patient transported on KED and spine board. Observations for each task are included. Major conclusions and issues are also included.
Parabolic dish collectors - A solar option
Truscello, V. C.
1981-05-01
A description is given of several parabolic-dish high temperature solar thermal systems currently undergoing performance trials. A single parabolic dish has the potential for generating 20 to 30 kW of electricity with fluid temperatures from 300 to 1650 C. Each dish is a complete power-producing unit, and may function either independently or as part of a group of linked modules. The two dish designs under consideration are of 11 and 12 meter diameters, yielding receiver operating temperatures of 925 and 815 C, respectively. The receiver designs described include (1) an organic working fluid (toluene) Rankine cycle engine; (2) a Brayton open cycle unit incorporating a hybrid combustion chamber and nozzle and a shaft-coupled permanent magnet alternator; and (3) a modified Stirling cycle device originally designed for automotive use. Also considered are thermal buffer energy storage and thermochemical transport and storage.
Spheroidal corrections to the spherical and parabolic bases of the hydrogen atom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mardyan, L.G.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Sisakyan, A.N.
1986-01-01
This paper introduces the bases of the hydrogen atom and obtains recursion relations that determine the expansion of the spheroidal basis with respect to its parabolic basis. The leading spheroidal corrections to the spherical and parabolic bases are calculated by perturbation theory
Some integral representations and limits for (products of) the parabolic cylinder function
Veestraeten, D.
2016-01-01
Recently, [Veestraeten D. On the inverse transform of Laplace transforms that contain (products of) the parabolic cylinder function. Integr Transf Spec F 2015;26:859-871] derived inverse Laplace transforms for Laplace transforms that contain products of two parabolic cylinder functions by exploiting
Maximum principles for boundary-degenerate linear parabolic differential operators
Feehan, Paul M. N.
2013-01-01
We develop weak and strong maximum principles for boundary-degenerate, linear, parabolic, second-order partial differential operators, $Lu := -u_t-\\tr(aD^2u)-\\langle b, Du\\rangle + cu$, with \\emph{partial} Dirichlet boundary conditions. The coefficient, $a(t,x)$, is assumed to vanish along a non-empty open subset, $\\mydirac_0!\\sQ$, called the \\emph{degenerate boundary portion}, of the parabolic boundary, $\\mydirac!\\sQ$, of the domain $\\sQ\\subset\\RR^{d+1}$, while $a(t,x)$ may be non-zero at po...
Garofalo, Anthony A.
2013-01-01
The purpose of the project is to perform analysis of data using the Systems Engineering Educational Discovery (SEED) program data from 2011 and 2012 Fluid Vessel Quantity using Non-Invasive PZT Technology flight volume measurements under Zero G conditions (parabolic Plane flight data). Also experimental planning and lab work for future sub-orbital experiments to use the NASA PZT technology for fluid volume measurement. Along with conducting data analysis of flight data, I also did a variety of other tasks. I provided the lab with detailed technical drawings, experimented with 3d printers, made changes to the liquid nitrogen skid schematics, and learned how to weld. I also programmed microcontrollers to interact with various sensors and helped with other things going on around the lab.
Irreversible thermodynamics, parabolic law and self-similar state in grain growth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rios, P.R.
2004-01-01
The formalism of the thermodynamic theory of irreversible processes is applied to grain growth to investigate the nature of the self-similar state and its corresponding parabolic law. Grain growth does not reach a steady state in the sense that the entropy production remains constant. However, the entropy production can be written as a product of two factors: a scale factor that tends to zero for long times and a scaled entropy production. It is suggested that the parabolic law and the self-similar state may be associated with the minimum of this scaled entropy production. This result implies that the parabolic law and the self-similar state have a sound irreversible thermodynamical basis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
McNamara Darren
2006-01-01
Full Text Available In this contribution we propose an analogue receiver that can perform turbo detection in MIMO systems. We present the case for a receiver that is built from nonlinear analogue devices, which perform detection in a "free-flow" network (no notion of iterations. This contribution can be viewed as an extension of analogue turbo decoder concepts to include MIMO detection. These first analogue implementations report reductions of few orders of magnitude in the number of required transistors and in consumed energy, and the same order of improvement in processing speed. It is anticipated that such analogue MIMO decoder could bring about the same advantages, when compared to traditional digital implementations.
A Two-Species Cooperative Lotka-Volterra System of Degenerate Parabolic Equations
Sun, Jiebao; Zhang, Dazhi; Wu, Boying
2011-01-01
We consider a cooperating two-species Lotka-Volterra model of degenerate parabolic equations. We are interested in the coexistence of the species in a bounded domain. We establish the existence of global generalized solutions of the initial boundary value problem by means of parabolic regularization and also consider the existence of the nontrivial time-periodic solution for this system.
A note on Hermitian-Einstein metrics on parabolic stable bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Jiayu; Narasimhan, M.S.
2000-01-01
Let M-bar be a compact complex manifold of complex dimension two with a smooth Kaehler metric and D a smooth divisor on M-bar. If E is a rank 2 holomorphic vector bundle on M-bar with a stable parabolic structure along D, we prove that there exists a Hermitian-Einstein metric on E' = E-vertical bar M-barbackslashD compatible with the parabolic structure, and whose curvature is square integrable. (author)
Critical spaces for quasilinear parabolic evolution equations and applications
Prüss, Jan; Simonett, Gieri; Wilke, Mathias
2018-02-01
We present a comprehensive theory of critical spaces for the broad class of quasilinear parabolic evolution equations. The approach is based on maximal Lp-regularity in time-weighted function spaces. It is shown that our notion of critical spaces coincides with the concept of scaling invariant spaces in case that the underlying partial differential equation enjoys a scaling invariance. Applications to the vorticity equations for the Navier-Stokes problem, convection-diffusion equations, the Nernst-Planck-Poisson equations in electro-chemistry, chemotaxis equations, the MHD equations, and some other well-known parabolic equations are given.
Strongly nonlinear parabolic variational inequalities.
Browder, F E; Brézis, H
1980-02-01
An existence and uniqueness result is established for a general class of variational inequalities for parabolic partial differential equations of the form partial differentialu/ partial differentialt + A(u) + g(u) = f with g nondecreasing but satisfying no growth condition. The proof is based upon a type of compactness result for solutions of variational inequalities that should find a variety of other applications.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
The present paper deals with the long-time behavior of a class of nonautonomous retarded semilinear parabolic differential equations. When the time delays are small enough and the spectral gap conditions hold, the inertial manifolds of the nonautonomous retard parabolic equations are constructed by using the Lyapunov-Perron method.
Solutions to variational inequalities of parabolic type
Zhu, Yuanguo
2006-09-01
The existence of strong solutions to a kind of variational inequality of parabolic type is investigated by the theory of semigroups of linear operators. As an application, an abstract semi permeable media problem is studied.
Hampp, Ruediger; Hausmann, Niklas; Neef, Maren; Fengler, Svenja
Callus cell cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana (cv. Columbia) were exposed to parabolic flights in order to assess molecular short-term responses to altered gravity fields. Using transgenic cell lines, hydrogen peroxide and cytosolic Ca2+ were continuously monitored. In parallel, the metabolism of samples was chemically quenched (RNAlater, Ambion, for RNA; acid/base for NADPH, NADP) at typical stages of a parabola (1g before pull up; end of pull up (1.8 g), end of microgravity (µg, 20 sec), and end of pull out (1.8 g)). Cells exhibited an increase of both Ca2+ and hydrogen peroxide with the onset of µg, and a decline thereafter. This behaviour was accompanied by a decrease of the NADPH/NADP redox ratio, indicating a Ca2+-dependent activation of a NADPH oxidase. Microarray analyses revealed concomitant expression profiles. At the end of the microgravity phase, 396 transcripts were specifically up-, while 485 were down-regulated. Up-regulation was dominated by Ca2+- and ROS(reactive oxygen species)-related gene products. The same material was also used for the analysis of phosphopeptides by 2D SDS PAGE. Relevant spots were identified by liquid chromatography-MS. With the exception of a chaperone (HSP 70-3), hypergravity (1.8 g) and microgravity modified different sets of proteins. These are partly involved in primary metabolism (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, citrate cycle) and detoxification of reactive oxygen species. Taken together, these data show that both gene expression and protein modulation jointly respond within seconds to alterations in the gravity field, with a focus on metabolic adaptation, signalling and control of ROS.
Time lens for high-resolution neutron time-of-flight spectrometers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baumann, K.; Gaehler, R.; Grigoriev, P.; Kats, E.I.
2005-01-01
We examine in analytic and numeric ways the imaging effects of temporal neutron lenses created by traveling magnetic fields. For fields of parabolic shape we derive the imaging equations, investigate the time magnification, the evolution of the phase-space element, the gain factor, and the effect of finite beam size. The main aberration effects are calculated numerically. The system is technologically feasible and should convert neutron time-of-flight instruments from pinhole to imaging configuration in time, thus enhancing intensity and/or time resolution. Further fields of application for high-resolution spectrometry may be opened
Integrated parabolic nanolenses on MicroLED color pixels
Demory, Brandon; Chung, Kunook; Katcher, Adam; Sui, Jingyang; Deng, Hui; Ku, Pei-Cheng
2018-04-01
A parabolic nanolens array coupled to the emission of a nanopillar micro-light emitting diode (LED) color pixel is shown to reduce the far field divergence. For a blue wavelength LED, the total emission is 95% collimated within a 0.5 numerical aperture zone, a 3.5x improvement over the same LED without a lens structure. This corresponds to a half-width at half-maximum (HWHM) line width reduction of 2.85 times. Using a resist reflow and etchback procedure, the nanolens array dimensions and parabolic shape are formed. Experimental measurement of the far field emission shows a HWHM linewidth reduction by a factor of 2x, reducing the divergence over the original LED.
Fusaro, Roberta; Viola, Nicole; Fenoglio, Franco; Santoro, Francesco
2017-03-01
This paper proposes a methodology to derive architectures and operational concepts for future earth-to-orbit and sub-orbital transportation systems. In particular, at first, it describes the activity flow, methods, and tools leading to the generation of a wide range of alternative solutions to meet the established goal. Subsequently, the methodology allows selecting a small number of feasible options among which the optimal solution can be found. For the sake of clarity, the first part of the paper describes the methodology from a theoretical point of view, while the second part proposes the selection of mission concepts and of a proper transportation system aimed at sub-orbital parabolic flights. Starting from a detailed analysis of the stakeholders and their needs, the major objectives of the mission have been derived. Then, following a system engineering approach, functional analysis tools as well as concept of operations techniques allowed generating a very high number of possible ways to accomplish the envisaged goals. After a preliminary pruning activity, aimed at defining the feasibility of these concepts, more detailed analyses have been carried out. Going on through the procedure, the designer should move from qualitative to quantitative evaluations, and for this reason, to support the trade-off analysis, an ad-hoc built-in mission simulation software has been exploited. This support tool aims at estimating major mission drivers (mass, heat loads, manoeuverability, earth visibility, and volumetric efficiency) as well as proving the feasibility of the concepts. Other crucial and multi-domain mission drivers, such as complexity, innovation level, and safety have been evaluated through the other appropriate analyses. Eventually, one single mission concept has been selected and detailed in terms of layout, systems, and sub-systems, highlighting also logistic, safety, and maintainability aspects.
Nonlinear anisotropic parabolic equations in Lm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fares Mokhtari
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we give a result of regularity of weak solutions for a class of nonlinear anisotropic parabolic equations with lower-order term when the right-hand side is an Lm function, with m being ”small”. This work generalizes some results given in [2] and [3].
Global Carleman estimates for degenerate parabolic operators with applications
Cannarsa, P; Vancostenoble, J
2016-01-01
Degenerate parabolic operators have received increasing attention in recent years because they are associated with both important theoretical analysis, such as stochastic diffusion processes, and interesting applications to engineering, physics, biology, and economics. This manuscript has been conceived to introduce the reader to global Carleman estimates for a class of parabolic operators which may degenerate at the boundary of the space domain, in the normal direction to the boundary. Such a kind of degeneracy is relevant to study the invariance of a domain with respect to a given stochastic diffusion flow, and appears naturally in climatology models.
Numerical performance of the parabolized ADM formulation of general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paschalidis, Vasileios; Hansen, Jakob; Khokhlov, Alexei
2008-01-01
In a recent paper [Vasileios Paschalidis, Phys. Rev. D 78, 024002 (2008).], the first coauthor presented a new parabolic extension (PADM) of the standard 3+1 Arnowitt, Deser, Misner (ADM) formulation of the equations of general relativity. By parabolizing first-order ADM in a certain way, the PADM formulation turns it into a well-posed system which resembles the structure of mixed hyperbolic-second-order parabolic partial differential equations. The surface of constraints of PADM becomes a local attractor for all solutions and all possible well-posed gauge conditions. This paper describes a numerical implementation of PADM and studies its accuracy and stability in a series of standard numerical tests. Numerical properties of PADM are compared with those of standard ADM and its hyperbolic Kidder, Scheel, Teukolsky (KST) extension. The PADM scheme is numerically stable, convergent, and second-order accurate. The new formulation has better control of the constraint-violating modes than ADM and KST.
Iterative Methods for Solving Nonlinear Parabolic Problem in Pension Saving Management
Koleva, M. N.
2011-11-01
In this work we consider a nonlinear parabolic equation, obtained from Riccati like transformation of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation, arising in pension saving management. We discuss two numerical iterative methods for solving the model problem—fully implicit Picard method and mixed Picard-Newton method, which preserves the parabolic characteristics of the differential problem. Numerical experiments for comparison the accuracy and effectiveness of the algorithms are discussed. Finally, observations are given.
Temperature Performance Evaluation of Parabolic Dishes Covered ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Aweda
The parabolic dish with glass material gave the highest temperature of .... 3: Second day variation temperature and time using different materials. 8. 10 .... the sun rays at that particular time. ... especially between 11:00 am and 3:00 pm when.
Humphreys, Brad; Bellisario, Brian; Gallo, Christopher; Thompson, William K.; Lewandowski, Beth
2016-01-01
Long duration space travel to Mars or to an asteroid will expose astronauts to extended periods of reduced gravity. Since gravity is not present to aid loading, astronauts will use resistive and aerobic exercise regimes for the duration of the space flight to minimize the loss of bone density, muscle mass and aerobic capacity that occurs during exposure to a reduced gravity environment. Unlike the International Space Station (ISS), the area available for an exercise device in the next generation of spacecraft is limited. Therefore, compact resistance exercise device prototypes are being developed. The NASA Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is supporting the Advanced Exercise Concepts (AEC) Project, Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures (ExPC) project and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) funded researchers by developing computational models of exercising with these new advanced exercise device concepts. To perform validation of these models and to support the Advanced Exercise Concepts Project, several candidate devices have been flown onboard NASAs Reduced Gravity Aircraft. In terrestrial laboratories, researchers typically have available to them motion capture systems for the measurement of subject kinematics. Onboard the parabolic flight aircraft it is not practical to utilize the traditional motion capture systems due to the large working volume they require and their relatively high replacement cost if damaged. To support measuring kinematics on board parabolic aircraft, a motion capture system is being developed utilizing open source computer vision code with commercial off the shelf (COTS) video camera hardware. While the systems accuracy is lower than lab setups, it provides a means to produce quantitative comparison motion capture kinematic data. Additionally, data such as required exercise volume for small spaces such as the Orion capsule can be determined. METHODS: OpenCV is an open source computer vision library that provides the
Spike-adding in parabolic bursters: The role of folded-saddle canards
Desroches, Mathieu; Krupa, Martin; Rodrigues, Serafim
2016-09-01
The present work develops a new approach to studying parabolic bursting, and also proposes a novel four-dimensional canonical and polynomial-based parabolic burster. In addition to this new polynomial system, we also consider the conductance-based model of the Aplysia R15 neuron known as the Plant model, and a reduction of this prototypical biophysical parabolic burster to three variables, including one phase variable, namely the Baer-Rinzel-Carillo (BRC) phase model. Revisiting these models from the perspective of slow-fast dynamics reveals that the number of spikes per burst may vary upon parameter changes, however the spike-adding process occurs in an explosive fashion that involves special solutions called canards. This spike-adding canard explosion phenomenon is analysed by using tools from geometric singular perturbation theory in tandem with numerical bifurcation techniques. We find that the bifurcation structure persists across all considered systems, that is, spikes within the burst are incremented via the crossing of an excitability threshold given by a particular type of canard orbit, namely the true canard of a folded-saddle singularity. However there can be a difference in the spike-adding transitions in parameter space from one case to another, according to whether the process is continuous or discontinuous, which depends upon the geometry of the folded-saddle canard. Using these findings, we construct a new polynomial approximation of the Plant model, which retains all the key elements for parabolic bursting, including the spike-adding transitions mediated by folded-saddle canards. Finally, we briefly investigate the presence of spike-adding via canards in planar phase models of parabolic bursting, namely the theta model by Ermentrout and Kopell.
Degenerate parabolic stochastic partial differential equations
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
span class="emphasis">Hofmanová, Martinaspan>
2013-01-01
Roč. 123, č. 12 (2013), s. 4294-4336 ISSN 0304-4149 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0752 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : kinetic solutions * degenerate stochastic parabolic equations Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.046, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/SI/hofmanova-0397241.pdf
A parabolic mirror x-ray collimator
Franks, A.; Jackson, K.; Yacoot, A.
2000-05-01
A robust and stable x-ray collimator has been developed to produce a parallel beam of x-rays by total external reflection from a parabolic mirror. The width of the gold-coated silica mirror varies along its length, which allows it to be bent from a plane surface into a parabolic form by application of unequal bending forces at its ends. A family of parabolas of near constant focal length can be formed by changing the screw-applied bending force, thus allowing the collimator to cater for a range of wavelengths by the turning of a screw. Even with radiation with a wavelength as short as that as Mo Kicons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/> 1 (icons/Journals/Common/lambda" ALT="lambda" ALIGN="TOP"/> = 0.07 nm), a gain in flux by a factor of 5.5 was achieved. The potential gain increases with wavelength, e.g. for Cu Kicons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/> 1 radiation this amounts to over a factor of ten.
A laboratory analogue of the event horizon using slow light in an atomic medium.
Leonhardt, Ulf
2002-01-24
Singularities underlie many optical phenomena. The rainbow, for example, involves a particular type of singularity-a ray catastrophe-in which light rays become infinitely intense. In practice, the wave nature of light resolves these infinities, producing interference patterns. At the event horizon of a black hole, time stands still and waves oscillate with infinitely small wavelengths. However, the quantum nature of light results in evasion of the catastrophe and the emission of Hawking radiation. Here I report a theoretical laboratory analogue of an event horizon: a parabolic profile of the group velocity of light brought to a standstill in an atomic medium can cause a wave singularity similar to that associated with black holes. In turn, the quantum vacuum is forced to create photon pairs with a characteristic spectrum, a phenomenon related to Hawking radiation. The idea may initiate a theory of 'quantum' catastrophes, extending classical catastrophe theory.
Moving interfaces and quasilinear parabolic evolution equations
Prüss, Jan
2016-01-01
In this monograph, the authors develop a comprehensive approach for the mathematical analysis of a wide array of problems involving moving interfaces. It includes an in-depth study of abstract quasilinear parabolic evolution equations, elliptic and parabolic boundary value problems, transmission problems, one- and two-phase Stokes problems, and the equations of incompressible viscous one- and two-phase fluid flows. The theory of maximal regularity, an essential element, is also fully developed. The authors present a modern approach based on powerful tools in classical analysis, functional analysis, and vector-valued harmonic analysis. The theory is applied to problems in two-phase fluid dynamics and phase transitions, one-phase generalized Newtonian fluids, nematic liquid crystal flows, Maxwell-Stefan diffusion, and a variety of geometric evolution equations. The book also includes a discussion of the underlying physical and thermodynamic principles governing the equations of fluid flows and phase transitions...
Wind load design methods for ground-based heliostats and parabolic dish collectors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peterka, J A; Derickson, R G [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Fluid Dynamics and Diffusion Lab.
1992-09-01
The purpose of this design method is to define wind loads on flat heliostat and parabolic dish collectors in a simplified form. Wind loads are defined for both mean and peak loads accounting for the protective influence of upwind collectors, wind protective fences, or other wind-blockage elements. The method used to define wind loads was to generalize wind load data obtained during tests on model collectors, heliostats or parabolic dishes, placed in a modeled atmospheric wind in a boundary-layer wind-tunnel at Colorado State University. For both heliostats and parabolic dishes, loads are reported for solitary collectors and for collectors as elements of a field. All collectors were solid with negligible porosity; thus the effects of porosity in the collectors is not addressed.
Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Designs: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.; Erbes, M.
2011-03-01
A strength of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is the ability to provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage or backup heat from fossil fuels. Yet these benefits have not been fully realized because thermal energy storage remains expensive at trough operating temperatures and gas usage in CSP plants is less efficient than in dedicated combined cycle plants. For example, while a modern combined cycle plant can achieve an overall efficiency in excess of 55%; auxiliary heaters in a parabolic trough plant convert gas to electricity at below 40%. Thus, one can argue the more effective use of natural gas is in a combined cycle plant, not as backup to a CSP plant. Integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC) systems avoid this pitfall by injecting solar steam into the fossil power cycle; however, these designs are limited to about 10% total solar enhancement. Without reliable, cost-effective energy storage or backup power, renewable sources will struggle to achieve a high penetration in the electric grid. This paper describes a novel gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines solar contribution of 57% and higher with gas heat rates that rival that for combined cycle natural gas plants. The design integrates proven solar and fossil technologies, thereby offering high reliability and low financial risk while promoting deployment of solar thermal power.
Improvement Design of Parabolic Trough
Ihsan, S. I.; Safian, M. A. I. M.; Taufek, M. A. M.; Mohiuddin, A. K. M.
2017-03-01
The performance of parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC) has been evaluated using different heat transfer working fluids; namely water and SAE20 W50 engine oil. New and slightly improved PTSC was developed to run the experimental study. Under the meteorological conditions of Malaysia, authors found that PTSC can operate at a higher temperature than water collector but the performance efficiency of collector using engine oil is much lower than the water collector.
A gradient estimate for solutions to parabolic equations with discontinuous coefficients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jishan Fan
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Li-Vogelius and Li-Nirenberg gave a gradient estimate for solutions of strongly elliptic equations and systems of divergence forms with piecewise smooth coefficients, respectively. The discontinuities of the coefficients are assumed to be given by manifolds of codimension 1, which we called them emph{manifolds of discontinuities}. Their gradient estimate is independent of the distances between manifolds of discontinuities. In this paper, we gave a parabolic version of their results. That is, we gave a gradient estimate for parabolic equations of divergence forms with piecewise smooth coefficients. The coefficients are assumed to be independent of time and their discontinuities are likewise the previous elliptic equations. As an application of this estimate, we also gave a pointwise gradient estimate for the fundamental solution of a parabolic operator with piecewise smooth coefficients. Both gradient estimates are independent of the distances between manifolds of discontinuities.
Oladeinde, Mobolaji Humphrey; Akpobi, John Ajokpaoghene
2011-10-01
The hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) lubrication problem of infinitely wide inclined and parabolic slider bearings is solved numerically using the finite element method. The bearing configurations are discretized into three-node isoparametric quadratic elements. Stiffness integrals obtained from the weak form of the governing equations are solved using Gauss quadrature to obtain a finite number of stiffness matrices. The global system of equations obtained from enforcing nodal continuity of pressure for the bearings are solved using the Gauss-Seidel iterative scheme with a convergence criterion of 10-10. Numerical computations reveal that, when compared for similar profile and couple stress parameters, greater pressure builds up in a parabolic slider compared to an inclined slider, indicating a greater wedge effect in the parabolic slider. The parabolic slider bearing is also shown to develop a greater load capacity when lubricated with magnetic fluids. The superior performance of parabolic slider bearing is more pronounced at greater Hartmann numbers for identical bearing structural parameters. It is also shown that when load carrying capacity is the yardstick for comparison, the parabolic slider bearings are superior to the inclined bearings when lubricated with couple stress or magnetic lubricants.
Analysis of the stress-deformed condition of the disassembly parabolic antenna
Odinets, M. N.; Kaygorodtseva, N. V.; Krysova, I. V.
2018-01-01
Active development of satellite communications and computer-aided design systems raises the problem of designing parabolic antennas on a new round of development. The aim of the work was to investigate the influence of the design of the mirror of a parabolic antenna on its endurance under wind load. The research task was an automated analysis of the stress-deformed condition of various designs of computer models of a paraboloid mirror (segmented or holistic) at modeling the exploitation conditions. The peculiarity of the research was that the assembly model of the antenna’s mirror was subjected to rigid connections on the contacting surfaces of the segments and only then the finite element grid was generated. The analysis showed the advantage of the design of the demountable antenna, which consists of cyclic segments, in front of the construction of the holistic antenna. Calculation of the stress-deformed condition of the antennas allows us to conclude that dividing the design of the antenna’s mirror on parabolic and cyclic segments increases it strength and rigidity. In the future, this can be used to minimize the mass of antenna and the dimensions of the disassembled antenna. The presented way of modeling a mirror of a parabolic antenna using to the method of the finite-element analysis can be used in the production of antennas.
Some blow-up problems for a semilinear parabolic equation with a potential
Cheng, Ting; Zheng, Gao-Feng
The blow-up rate estimate for the solution to a semilinear parabolic equation u=Δu+V(x)|u in Ω×(0,T) with 0-Dirichlet boundary condition is obtained. As an application, it is shown that the asymptotic behavior of blow-up time and blow-up set of the problem with nonnegative initial data u(x,0)=Mφ(x) as M goes to infinity, which have been found in [C. Cortazar, M. Elgueta, J.D. Rossi, The blow-up problem for a semilinear parabolic equation with a potential, preprint, arXiv: math.AP/0607055, July 2006], is improved under some reasonable and weaker conditions compared with [C. Cortazar, M. Elgueta, J.D. Rossi, The blow-up problem for a semilinear parabolic equation with a potential, preprint, arXiv: math.AP/0607055, July 2006].
Polarization properties of linearly polarized parabolic scaling Bessel beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, Mengwen; Zhao, Daomu, E-mail: zhaodaomu@yahoo.com
2016-10-07
The intensity profiles for the dominant polarization, cross polarization, and longitudinal components of modified parabolic scaling Bessel beams with linear polarization are investigated theoretically. The transverse intensity distributions of the three electric components are intimately connected to the topological charge. In particular, the intensity patterns of the cross polarization and longitudinal components near the apodization plane reflect the sign of the topological charge. - Highlights: • We investigated the polarization properties of modified parabolic scaling Bessel beams with linear polarization. • We studied the evolution of transverse intensity profiles for the three components of these beams. • The intensity patterns of the cross polarization and longitudinal components can reflect the sign of the topological charge.
Chernoff's distribution and parabolic partial differential equations
P. Groeneboom; S.P. Lalley; N.M. Temme (Nico)
2013-01-01
textabstractWe give an alternative route to the derivation of the distribution of the maximum and the location of the maximum of one-sided and two-sided Brownian motion with a negative parabolic drift, using the Feynman-Kac formula with stopping times. The derivation also uses an interesting
Parabolic approximation method for fast magnetosonic wave propagation in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Phillips, C.K.; Perkins, F.W.; Hwang, D.Q.
1985-07-01
Fast magnetosonic wave propagation in a cylindrical tokamak model is studied using a parabolic approximation method in which poloidal variations of the wave field are considered weak in comparison to the radial variations. Diffraction effects, which are ignored by ray tracing mthods, are included self-consistently using the parabolic method since continuous representations for the wave electromagnetic fields are computed directly. Numerical results are presented which illustrate the cylindrical convergence of the launched waves into a diffraction-limited focal spot on the cyclotron absorption layer near the magnetic axis for a wide range of plasma confinement parameters
Parabolic Equation Modeling of Propagation over Terrain Using Digital Elevation Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiao-Wei Guan
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The parabolic equation method based on digital elevation model (DEM is applied on propagation predictions over irregular terrains. Starting from a parabolic approximation to the Helmholtz equation, a wide-angle parabolic equation is deduced under the assumption of forward propagation and the split-step Fourier transform algorithm is used to solve it. The application of DEM is extended to the Cartesian coordinate system and expected to provide a precise representation of a three-dimensional surface with high efficiency. In order to validate the accuracy, a perfectly conducting Gaussian terrain profile is simulated and the results are compared with the shift map. As a consequence, a good agreement is observed. Besides, another example is given to provide a theoretical basis and reference for DEM selection. The simulation results demonstrate that the prediction errors will be obvious only when the resolution of the DEM used is much larger than the range step in the PE method.
A Priori Regularity of Parabolic Partial Differential Equations
Berkemeier, Francisco
2018-01-01
In this thesis, we consider parabolic partial differential equations such as the heat equation, the Fokker-Planck equation, and the porous media equation. Our aim is to develop methods that provide a priori estimates for solutions with singular
Temperature Performance Evaluation of Parabolic Dishes Covered ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Solar radiation reaching the earth is considered to be affected by some parameters like diffusion. This radiation is reflected or scattered by air molecules, cloud and aerosols (dust). Parabolic dishes made of different materials (glass, foil and painted surface) were used to concentrate energy on a copper calorimeter filled with ...
Elliptic and parabolic equations for measures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bogachev, Vladimir I [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Krylov, Nikolai V [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Roeckner, Michael [Universitat Bielefeld, Bielefeld (Germany)
2009-12-31
This article gives a detailed account of recent investigations of weak elliptic and parabolic equations for measures with unbounded and possibly singular coefficients. The existence and differentiability of densities are studied, and lower and upper bounds for them are discussed. Semigroups associated with second-order elliptic operators acting in L{sup p}-spaces with respect to infinitesimally invariant measures are investigated. Bibliography: 181 titles.
Schottky diode model for non-parabolic dispersion in narrow-gap semiconductor and few-layer graphene
Ang, Yee Sin; Ang, L. K.; Zubair, M.
Despite the fact that the energy dispersions are highly non-parabolic in many Schottky interfaces made up of 2D material, experimental results are often interpreted using the conventional Schottky diode equation which, contradictorily, assumes a parabolic energy dispersion. In this work, the Schottky diode equation is derived for narrow-gap semiconductor and few-layer graphene where the energy dispersions are highly non-parabolic. Based on Kane's non-parabolic band model, we obtained a more general Kane-Schottky scaling relation of J (T2 + γkBT3) which connects the contrasting J T2 in the conventional Schottky interface and the J T3 scaling in graphene-based Schottky interface via a non-parabolicity parameter, γ. For N-layer graphene of ABC -stacking and of ABA -stacking, the scaling relation follows J T 2 / N + 1 and J T3 respectively. Intriguingly, the Richardson constant extracted from the experimental data using an incorrect scaling can differ with the actual value by more than two orders of magnitude. Our results highlights the importance of using the correct scaling relation in order to accurately extract important physical properties, such as the Richardson constant and the Schottky barrier's height.
Stability test for a parabolic partial differential equation
Vajta, Miklos
2001-01-01
The paper describes a stability test applied to coupled parabolic partial differential equations. The PDE's describe the temperature distribution of composite structures with linear inner heat sources. The distributed transfer functions are developed based on the transmission matrix of each layer.
Guan, Chao; Hasi, Eerdun; Zhang, Ping; Tao, Binbin; Liu, Dan; Zhou, Yanguang
2017-10-01
Since the 1970s, parabolic dunes at the southern fringe of the Hobq Desert, Inner Mongolia, China have exhibited many different shapes (V-shaped, U-shaped, and palmate) each with a unique mode of development. In the study area, parabolic dunes are mainly distributed in Regions A, B, and C with an intermittent river running from the south to the north. We used high-resolution remote-sensing images from 1970 to 2014 and RTK-GPS measurements to study the development modes of different dune shapes; the modes are characterized by the relationship between the intermittent river and dunes, formation of the incipient dune patterns, the predominant source supply of dunes, and the primary formation of different shapes (V-shaped, U-shaped, and palmate). Most parabolic dunes in Region A are V-shaped and closer to the bank of the river. The original barchans in this region exhibit "disconnected arms" behavior. With the sand blown out of the riverbed through gullies, the nebkhas on the disconnected arms acquire the external sand source through the "fertile island effect", thereby developing into triangular sand patches and further developing into V-shaped parabolic dunes. Most parabolic dunes in Regions B and C are palmate. The residual dunes cut by the re-channelization of river from transverse dune fields on the west bank are the main sand source of Region B. The parabolic dunes in Region C are the original barchans having then been transformed. The stoss slopes of V-shaped parabolic dunes along the riverbank are gradual and the dunes are flat in shape. The dune crest of V-shaped parabolic dune is the deposition area, which forms the "arc-shaped sand ridge". Their two arms are non-parallel; the lateral airflow of the arms jointly transport sand to the middle part of dunes, resulting in a narrower triangle that gradually becomes V-shaped. Palmate parabolic dunes have a steeper stoss slope and height. The dune crest of the palmate parabolic dune is the erosion area, which forms
Gradient remediability in linear distributed parabolic systems ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The aim of this paper is the introduction of a new concept that concerned the analysis of a large class of distributed parabolic systems. It is the general concept of gradient remediability. More precisely, we study with respect to the gradient observation, the existence of an input operator (gradient efficient actuators) ensuring ...
Rethinking of the criteria for natural analogue study. A case of Tono natural analogue study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshida, Hidekazu
1996-01-01
Natural analogue regarding long-term performance of the geological disposal system for radioactive waste isolation is essentially the study of geochemical process which has been evolved in geological environment. All geochemical studies, however, will not be nominated as natural analogue studies. It is, therefore, important to be clear the criteria for natural analogue study with the view of analogy by following three categories, (1) Conceptual model development, (2) Data provision and (3) Model testing, for the concept of geological disposal and safety assessment model. Rethinking of the criteria for natural analogue study through the case of Tono Natural Analogue Study, and the usefulness of natural analogue study for the safety assessment of geological disposal system in Japan have been presented in this paper. (author)
Integration of equations of parabolic type by the method of nets
Saul'Yev, V K; Stark, M; Ulam, S
1964-01-01
International Series of Monographs in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Volume 54: Integration of Equations of Parabolic Type by the Method of Nets deals with solving parabolic partial differential equations using the method of nets. The first part of this volume focuses on the construction of net equations, with emphasis on the stability and accuracy of the approximating net equations. The method of nets or method of finite differences (used to define the corresponding numerical method in ordinary differential equations) is one of many different approximate methods of integration of partial diff
Modeling mode interactions in boundary layer flows via the Parabolized Floquet Equations
Ran, Wei; Zare, Armin; Hack, M. J. Philipp; Jovanović, Mihailo R.
2017-01-01
In this paper, we develop a linear model to study interactions between different modes in slowly-growing boundary layer flows. Our method consists of two steps. First, we augment the Blasius boundary layer profile with a disturbance field resulting from the linear Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE) to obtain the modified base flow; and, second, we combine Floquet analysis with the linear PSE to capture the spatial evolution of flow fluctuations. This procedure yields the Parabolized Floque...
Packing of equal discs on a parabolic spiral lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xudong, F.; Bursill, L.A.; Julin, P.
1989-01-01
A contact disc model is investigated to determine the most closely-packed parabolic spiral lattice. The most space-efficient packings have divergence angles in agreement with the priority ranking of natural spiral structures
Orion Exploration Flight Test-l (EFT -1) Absolute Navigation Design
Sud, Jastesh; Gay, Robert; Holt, Greg; Zanetti, Renato
2014-01-01
Scheduled to launch in September 2014 atop a Delta IV Heavy from the Kennedy Space Center, the Orion Multi-Purpose-Crew-Vehicle (MPCV's) maiden flight dubbed "Exploration Flight Test -1" (EFT-1) intends to stress the system by placing the uncrewed vehicle on a high-energy parabolic trajectory replicating conditions similar to those that would be experienced when returning from an asteroid or a lunar mission. Unique challenges associated with designing the navigation system for EFT-1 are presented in the narrative with an emphasis on how redundancy and robustness influenced the architecture. Two Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), one GPS receiver and three barometric altimeters (BALTs) comprise the navigation sensor suite. The sensor data is multiplexed using conventional integration techniques and the state estimate is refined by the GPS pseudorange and deltarange measurements in an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) that employs the UDUT decomposition approach. The design is substantiated by simulation results to show the expected performance.
Modeling, Simulation and Performance Evaluation of Parabolic Trough
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Mekuannint
Mekuannint Mesfin and Abebayehu Assefa. Department of Mechanical Engineering. Addis Ababa University ... off design weather conditions as well. Keywords: Parabolic Trough Collector (PTC);. Heat Transfer ... of a conventional Rankine cycle power plant with solar fields that are used to increase the temperature of heat ...
Modeling, Simulation and Performance Evaluation of Parabolic Trough
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Mekuannint
Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF); TRNSYS power plant model; STEC library; Solar Advisor Model (SAM);. TRNSYS solar field model; Solar Electric. Generation System (SEGS). INTRODUCTION. Parabolic troughs are currently most used means of power generation option of solar sources. Solar electric generation systems (SEGs) ...
CEC natural analogue working group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Come, B.; Chapman, N.A.
1986-01-01
The second meeting of the CEC Natural Analogue Working Group took place on June 17-19, 1986, hosted by the Swiss NAGRA in Interlaken (CH). A review of recent progress in natural analogue programmes was carried out, and complemented by detailed discussions about geomicrobiology, archaeological analogues, natural colloids, and use of analogues to increase confidence in safety assessments for radioactive waste disposal. A statement drafted by the Group, and the presentations made, are put together in this report
Rothe's method for parabolic equations on non-cylindrical domains
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Dasht, J.; Engström, J.; Kufner, Alois; Persson, L.E.
2006-01-01
Roč. 1, č. 1 (2006), s. 59-80 ISSN 0973-2306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : parabolic equations * non-cylindrical domains * Rothe's method * time-discretization Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Forelimb posture in dinosaurs and the evolution of the avian flapping flight-stroke.
Nudds, Robert L; Dyke, Gareth J
2009-04-01
Ontogenetic and behavioral studies using birds currently do not document the early evolution of flight because birds (including juveniles) used in such studies employ forelimb oscillation frequencies over 10 Hz, forelimb stroke-angles in excess of 130 degrees , and possess uniquely avian flight musculatures. Living birds are an advanced morphological stage in the development of flapping flight. To gain insight into the early stages of flight evolution (i.e., prebird), in the absence of a living analogue, a new approach using Strouhal number was used. Strouhal number is a nondimensional number that describes the relationship between wing-stroke amplitude (A), wing-beat frequency (f), and flight speed (U). Calculations indicated that even moderate wing movements are enough to generate rudimentary thrust and that a propulsive flapping flight-stroke could have evolved via gradual incremental changes in wing movement and wing morphology. More fundamental to the origin of the avian flapping flight-stroke is the question of how a symmetrical forelimb posture-required for gliding and flapping flight-evolved from an alternating forelimb motion, evident in all extant bipeds when running except birds.
A parabolic-hyperbolic system modelling a moving cell
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabiana Cardetti
2009-08-01
Full Text Available In this article, we study the existence and uniqueness of local solutions for a moving boundary problem governed by a coupled parabolic-hyperbolic system. The results can be applied to cell movement, extending a result obtained by Choi, Groulx, and Lui in 2005.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soria-Verdugo, Antonio; Goos, Elke; Arrieta-Sanagustín, Jorge; García-Hernando, Nestor
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Pyrolysis of biomass under parabolic and exponential temperature profiles is modeled. • The model is based on a simplified Distributed Activation Energy Model. • 4 biomasses are analyzed in TGA with parabolic and exponential temperature increases. • Deviations between the model prediction and TGA measurements are under 5 °C. - Abstract: A modification of the simplified Distributed Activation Energy Model is proposed to simulate the pyrolysis of biomass under parabolic and exponential temperature increases. The pyrolysis of pine wood, olive kernel, thistle flower and corncob was experimentally studied in a TGA Q500 thermogravimetric analyzer. The results of the measurements of nine different parabolic and exponential temperature increases for each sample were employed to validate the models proposed. The deviation between the experimental TGA measurements and the estimation of the reacted fraction during the pyrolysis of the four samples under parabolic and exponential temperature increases was lower than 5 °C for all the cases studied. The models derived in this work to describe the pyrolysis of biomass with parabolic and exponential temperature increases were found to be in good agreement with the experiments conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer.
Generalized Second Law of Thermodynamics in Parabolic LTB Inhomogeneous Cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheykhi, A.; Moradpour, H.; Sarab, K. Rezazadeh; Wang, B.
2015-01-01
We study thermodynamics of the parabolic Lemaitre–Tolman–Bondi (LTB) cosmology supported by a perfect fluid source. This model is the natural generalization of the flat Friedmann–Robertson–Walker (FRW) universe, and describes an inhomogeneous universe with spherical symmetry. After reviewing some basic equations in the parabolic LTB cosmology, we obtain a relation for the deceleration parameter in this model. We also obtain a condition for which the universe undergoes an accelerating phase at the present time. We use the first law of thermodynamics on the apparent horizon together with the Einstein field equations to get a relation for the apparent horizon entropy in LTB cosmology. We find out that in LTB model of cosmology, the apparent horizon's entropy could be feeded by a term, which incorporates the effects of the inhomogeneity. We consider this result and get a relation for the total entropy evolution, which is used to examine the generalized second law of thermodynamics for an accelerating universe. We also verify the validity of the second law and the generalized second law of thermodynamics for a universe filled with some kinds of matters bounded by the event horizon in the framework of the parabolic LTB model. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, Yanqing; Shi, Jifu; Li, Yujian; Wang, Leilei; Huang, Qizhang; Xu, Gang
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A parabolic primary mirror field is designed to reduce the gap between adjacent mirrors. • The movable receiver can reduce the end losses. • The thermal efficiency of 66% is achieved at Guangzhou in winter. - Abstract: This paper proposes a stretched parabolic linear Fresnel reflector (SPLFR) collecting system. The primary optical mirror field of the SPLFR collecting system and the second-stage concentrator of compound parabolic collector are designed. The mirrors located at the parabolic line are close to each other, which effectively reduce the gap between the adjacent mirrors. The end losses of the receiver are very important, especially in a small-scale collecting system. A movable receiver is introduced for the reduction of the end losses. Moreover, a stretched structure of SPLFR is designed for wind resistance. Finally, the thermal performance of the SPLFR collecting system with fixed and movable receiver located in Guangzhou is tested. The maximum thermal efficiency obtained by this collecting system with movable receiver is 66% which avoid the end losses effectively, and the solar collector thermal loss coefficient is 1.32 W/m"2 °C. The results show that the SPLFR collecting system has excellent thermal performance and a promising application future. Meanwhile, this system will provide a valuable reference for concentrating solar power technology.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Budantsev, M. V.; Lavrov, R. A.; Pogosov, A. G.; Zhdanov, E. Yu.; Pokhabov, D. A.
2011-01-01
Extraordinary piecewise parabolic behavior of the magnetoresistance has been experimentally detected in the two-dimensional electron gas with a dense triangular lattice of antidots, where commensurability magnetoresistance oscillations are suppressed. The magnetic field range of 0–0.6 T can be divided into three wide regions, in each of which the magnetoresistance is described by parabolic dependences with high accuracy (comparable to the experimental accuracy) and the transition regions between adjacent regions are much narrower than the regions themselves. In the region corresponding to the weakest magnetic fields, the parabolic behavior becomes almost linear. The observed behavior is reproducible as the electron gas density changes, which results in a change in the resistance by more than an order of magnitude. Possible physical mechanisms responsible for the observed behavior, including so-called “memory effects,” are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouri, C.; Selles, P.; Malegat, L.; Kwato Njock, M. G.
2006-01-01
Spherical and parabolic partial cross sections and asymmetry parameters, defined in the ejected electron frame, are presented for photoionization excitation of the helium atom at 0.1 eV above its double ionization threshold. A quantitative law giving the dominant spherical partial wave l dom for each excitation level n is obtained. The parabolic partial cross sections are shown to satisfy the same approximate selection rules as the related Rydberg series of doubly excited states (K,T) n A . The analysis of radial and angular correlations reveals the close relationship between double excitation, ionization excitation, and double ionization. Opposite to a widespread belief, the observed value of the asymmetry parameter is shown to result from the interplay of radial correlations and symmetry constraints, irrespective of angular correlations. Finally, the measurement of parabolic partial cross sections is proposed as a challenge to experimentalists
Shock wave convergence in water with parabolic wall boundaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yanuka, D.; Shafer, D.; Krasik, Ya.
2015-01-01
The convergence of shock waves in water, where the cross section of the boundaries between which the shock wave propagates is either straight or parabolic, was studied. The shock wave was generated by underwater electrical explosions of planar Cu wire arrays using a high-current generator with a peak output current of ∼45 kA and rise time of ∼80 ns. The boundaries of the walls between which the shock wave propagates were symmetric along the z axis, which is defined by the direction of the exploding wires. It was shown that with walls having a parabolic cross section, the shock waves converge faster and the pressure in the vicinity of the line of convergence, calculated by two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations coupled with the equations of state of water and copper, is also larger
Optimal linear-quadratic control of coupled parabolic-hyperbolic PDEs
Aksikas, I.; Moghadam, A. Alizadeh; Forbes, J. F.
2017-10-01
This paper focuses on the optimal control design for a system of coupled parabolic-hypebolic partial differential equations by using the infinite-dimensional state-space description and the corresponding operator Riccati equation. Some dynamical properties of the coupled system of interest are analysed to guarantee the existence and uniqueness of the solution of the linear-quadratic (LQ)-optimal control problem. A state LQ-feedback operator is computed by solving the operator Riccati equation, which is converted into a set of algebraic and differential Riccati equations, thanks to the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors of the parabolic operator. The results are applied to a non-isothermal packed-bed catalytic reactor. The LQ-optimal controller designed in the early portion of the paper is implemented for the original nonlinear model. Numerical simulations are performed to show the controller performances.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gammelmark, Søren; Eckardt, André
2013-01-01
felt by the two species. Using numerical simulations we predict that a finite parabolic potential can assist the adiabatic preparation of the antiferromagnet. The optimal strength of the parabolic inhomogeneity depends sensitively on the number imbalance between the two species. We also find...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sivakami, A.; Mahendran, M.
2010-01-01
The binding energy of a shallow hydrogenic impurity in a spherical quantum dot under hydrostatic pressure with square well potential is calculated using a variational approach within the effective mass approximation. The effect of conduction band non-parabolicity on these energies is also estimated. The binding energy is computed for GaAs spherical quantum dot as a function of dot size, hydrostatic pressure both in the presence and absence of the band non-parabolicity effect. Our results show that (i) the hydrostatic pressure increases the impurity binding energy when dot radius increases for a given pressure, (ii) the hydrostatic pressure with the band non-parabolicity effect effectively increases the binding energy such that the variation is large for smaller dots and (iii) the maximum contribution by the non-parabolicity effect is about 15% for narrow dots. Our results are in good agreement with Perez-Merchancano et al. [J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19 (2007) 026225] who have not considered the conduction band non-parabolicity effect.
Distribution-valued weak solutions to a parabolic problem arising in financial mathematics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Eydenberg
2009-07-01
Full Text Available We study distribution-valued solutions to a parabolic problem that arises from a model of the Black-Scholes equation in option pricing. We give a minor generalization of known existence and uniqueness results for solutions in bounded domains $Omega subset mathbb{R}^{n+1}$ to give existence of solutions for certain classes of distributions $fin mathcal{D}'(Omega$. We also study growth conditions for smooth solutions of certain parabolic equations on $mathbb{R}^nimes (0,T$ that have initial values in the space of distributions.
Classification of conformal representations induced from the maximal cuspidal parabolic
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dobrev, V. K., E-mail: dobrev@inrne.bas.bg [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (Italy)
2017-03-15
In the present paper we continue the project of systematic construction of invariant differential operators on the example of representations of the conformal algebra induced from the maximal cuspidal parabolic.
Almost monotonicity formulas for elliptic and parabolic operators with variable coefficients
Matevosyan, Norayr
2010-10-21
In this paper we extend the results of Caffarelli, Jerison, and Kenig [Ann. of Math. (2)155 (2002)] and Caffarelli and Kenig [Amer. J. Math.120 (1998)] by establishing an almost monotonicity estimate for pairs of continuous functions satisfying u± ≥ 0 Lu± ≥ -1, u+ · u_ = 0 ;in an infinite strip (global version) or a finite parabolic cylinder (localized version), where L is a uniformly parabolic operator Lu = LA,b,cu := div(A(x, s)∇u) + b(x,s) · ∇u + c(x,s)u - δsu with double Dini continuous A and uniformly bounded b and c. We also prove the elliptic counterpart of this estimate.This closes the gap between the known conditions in the literature (both in the elliptic and parabolic case) imposed on u± in order to obtain an almost monotonicity estimate.At the end of the paper, we demonstrate how to use this new almost monotonicity formula to prove the optimal C1,1-regularity in a fairly general class of quasi-linear obstacle-type free boundary problems. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Well-Posedness of Nonlocal Parabolic Differential Problems with Dependent Operators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Allaberen Ashyralyev
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The nonlocal boundary value problem for the parabolic differential equation v'(t+A(tv(t=f(t (0≤t≤T, v(0=v(λ+φ, 0<λ≤T in an arbitrary Banach space E with the dependent linear positive operator A(t is investigated. The well-posedness of this problem is established in Banach spaces C0β,γ(Eα-β of all Eα-β-valued continuous functions φ(t on [0,T] satisfying a Hölder condition with a weight (t+τγ. New Schauder type exact estimates in Hölder norms for the solution of two nonlocal boundary value problems for parabolic equations with dependent coefficients are established.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beauchard, K; Cannarsa, P; Yamamoto, M
2014-01-01
The approach to Lipschitz stability for uniformly parabolic equations introduced by Imanuvilov and Yamamoto in 1998 based on Carleman estimates, seems hard to apply to the case of Grushin-type operators of interest to this paper. Indeed, such estimates are still missing for parabolic operators degenerating in the interior of the space domain. Nevertheless, we are able to prove Lipschitz stability results for inverse source problems for such operators, with locally distributed measurements in an arbitrary space dimension. For this purpose, we follow a mixed strategy which combines the approach due to Lebeau and Robbiano, relying on Fourier decomposition and Carleman inequalities for heat equations with non-smooth coefficients (solved by the Fourier modes). As a corollary, we obtain a direct proof of the observability of multidimensional Grushin-type parabolic equations, with locally distributed observations—which is equivalent to null controllability with locally distributed controls. (paper)
Parabolic dune reactivation and migration at Napeague, NY, USA: Insights from aerial and GPR imagery
Girardi, James D.; Davis, Dan M.
2010-02-01
Observations from mapping since the 19th century and aerial imagery since 1930 have been used to study changes in the aeolian geomorphology of coastal parabolic dunes over the last ~ 170 years in the Walking Dune Field, Napeague, NY. The five large parabolic dunes of the Walking Dune Field have all migrated across, or are presently interacting with, a variably forested area that has affected their migration, stabilization and morphology. This study has concentrated on a dune with a particularly complex history of stabilization, reactivation and migration. We have correlated that dune's surface evolution, as revealed by aerial imagery, with its internal structures imaged using 200 MHz and 500 MHz Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys. Both 2D (transect) and high-resolution 3D GPR imagery image downwind dipping bedding planes which can be grouped by apparent dip angle into several discrete packages of beds that reflect distinct decadal-scale episodes of dune reactivation and growth. From aerial and high resolution GPR imagery, we document a unique mode of reactivation and migration linked to upwind dune formation and parabolic dune interactions with forest trees. This study documents how dune-dune and dune-vegetation interactions have influenced a unique mode of blowout deposition that has alternated on a decadal scale between opposite sides of a parabolic dune during reactivation and migration. The pattern of recent parabolic dune reactivation and migration in the Walking Dune Field appears to be somewhat more complex, and perhaps more sensitive to subtle environmental pressures, than an idealized growth model with uniform deposition and purely on-axis migration. This pattern, believed to be prevalent among other parabolic dunes in the Walking Dune Field, may occur also in many other places where similar observational constraints are unavailable.
GOSWAMI, DEEPJYOTI; PANI, AMIYA K.; YADAV, SANGITA
2014-01-01
AWe propose and analyse an alternate approach to a priori error estimates for the semidiscrete Galerkin approximation to a time-dependent parabolic integro-differential equation with nonsmooth initial data. The method is based on energy arguments combined with repeated use of time integration, but without using parabolic-type duality techniques. An optimal L2-error estimate is derived for the semidiscrete approximation when the initial data is in L2. A superconvergence result is obtained and then used to prove a maximum norm estimate for parabolic integro-differential equations defined on a two-dimensional bounded domain. © 2014 Australian Mathematical Society.
CEC Natural Analogue Working Group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Come, B.; Chapman, N.A.
1989-01-01
The central theme for the third meeting of the CEC analogue working group was ''How can analogue data be used for performance assessments, both in support of the results and for presentation to the public''. This report puts together the most recent achievements in this field, together with a review of on-going natural analogue programmes
Structured inverse modeling in parabolic diffusion processess
Schulz, Volker; Siebenborn, Martin; Welker, Kathrin
2014-01-01
Often, the unknown diffusivity in diffusive processes is structured by piecewise constant patches. This paper is devoted to efficient methods for the determination of such structured diffusion parameters by exploiting shape calculus. A novel shape gradient is derived in parabolic processes. Furthermore quasi-Newton techniques are used in order to accelerate shape gradient based iterations in shape space. Numerical investigations support the theoretical results.
Building a parabolic solar concentrator prototype
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Escobar-Romero, J F M; Montiel, S Vazquez y; Granados-AgustIn, F; Rodriguez-Rivera, E; Martinez-Yanez, L; Cruz-Martinez, V M
2011-01-01
In order to not further degrade the environment, people have been seeking to replace non-renewable natural resources such as fossil fuels by developing technologies that are based on renewable resources. An example of these technologies is solar energy. In this paper, we show the building and test of a solar parabolic concentrator as a prototype for the production of steam that can be coupled to a turbine to generate electricity or a steam engine in any particular industrial process.
Humidification dehumidification desalination system using parabolic trough solar air collector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al-Sulaiman, Fahad A.; Zubair, M. Ifras; Atif, Maimoon; Gandhidasan, Palanichamy; Al-Dini, Salem A.; Antar, Mohamed A.
2015-01-01
This paper deals with a detailed thermodynamic analysis to assess the performance of an HDH system with an integrated parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC). The HDH system considered is an open air, open water, air heated system that uses a PTSC as an air heater. Two different configurations were considered of the HDH system. In the first configuration, the solar air heater was placed before the humidifier whereas in the second configuration the solar air heater was placed between the humidifier and the dehumidifier. The current study revealed that PTSCs are well suited for air heated HDH systems for high radiation location, such as Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The comparison between the two HDH configurations demonstrates that the gained output ratio (GOR) of the first configuration is, on average, about 1.5 whereas for the second configuration the GOR increases up to an average value of 4.7. The study demonstrates that the HDH configuration with the air heater placed between the humidifier and the dehumidifier has a better performance and a higher productivity. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis of an HDH system driven by a parabolic trough solar collector was conducted. • The first configuration reveals a GOR of 1.5 while the second configuration reveals a GOR of 4.7. • Effective heating of the HDH system was obtained through parabolic trough solar collector
Laser propagation and compton scattering in parabolic plasma channel
Dongguo, L; Yokoya, K; Hirose, T
2003-01-01
A Gaussian laser beam propagating in a parabolic plasma channel is discussed in this paper. For a weak laser, plasma density perturbation induced by interaction between the laser field and plasma is very small, the refractive index can be assumed to be constant with respect to time variable. For a parabolic plasma channel, through the static propagation equation, we obtain an analytical solution of the profile function of the Gaussian laser beam for an unmatched case and give the general condition for the matched case. As the laser intensity increases, an effect due to strong laser fields is included. We discuss how to design and select the distribution of plasma density for a certain experiment in which a plasma channel is utilized to guide a laser beam. The number of scattered photons (X-rays) generated through Compton backscattering in a plasma channel is discussed. (author)
Processing of data from innovative parabolic strip telescope.
Kosejk, Vladislav; Novy, J.; Chadzitaskos, Goce
2015-12-01
This paper presents an innovative telescope design based on the usage of a parabolic strip fulfilling the function of an objective. Isaac Newton was the first to solve the problem of chromatic aberration, which is caused by a difference in the refractive index of lenses. This problem was solved by a new kind of telescope with a mirror used as an objective. There are many different kinds of telescopes. The most basic one is the lens telescope. This type of a telescope uses a set of lenses. Another type is the mirror telescope, which employs the concave mirror, spherical parabolic mirror or hyperbolically shaped mirror as its objective. The lens speed depends directly on the surface of a mirror. Both types can be combined to form a telescope composed of at least two mirrors and a set of lenses. The light is reflected from the primary mirror to the secondary one and then to the lens system. This type is smaller-sized, with a respectively reduced lens speed. The telescope design presented in this paper uses a parabolic strip fulfilling the function of an objective. Observed objects are projected as lines in a picture plane. Each of the lines of a size equal to the size of the strip corresponds to the sum of intensities of the light coming perpendicular to the objective from an observed object. A series of pictures taken with a different rotation and processed by a special reconstruction algorithm is needed to get 2D pictures. The telescope can also be used for fast detection of objects. In this mode, the rotation and multiple pictures are not needed, just one picture in the focus of a mirror is required to be taken.
Analogue alternative the electronic analogue computer in Britain and the USA, 1930-1975
Small, James S
2013-01-01
We are in the midst of a digital revolution - until recently, the majority of appliances used in everyday life have been developed with analogue technology. Now, either at home or out and about, we are surrounded by digital technology such as digital 'film', audio systems, computers and telephones. From the late 1940s until the 1970s, analogue technology was a genuine alternative to digital, and the two competing technologies ran parallel with each other. During this period, a community of engineers, scientists, academics and businessmen continued to develop and promote the analogue computer.
Classical behavior of few-electron parabolic quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ciftja, O.
2009-01-01
Quantum dots are intricate and fascinating systems to study novel phenomena of great theoretical and practical interest because low dimensionality coupled with the interplay between strong correlations, quantum confinement and magnetic field creates unique conditions for emergence of fundamentally new physics. In this work we consider two-dimensional semiconductor quantum dot systems consisting of few interacting electrons confined in an isotropic parabolic potential. We study the many-electron quantum ground state properties of such systems in presence of a perpendicular magnetic field as the number of electrons is varied using exact numerical diagonalizations and other approaches. The results derived from the calculations of the quantum model are then compared to corresponding results for a classical model of parabolically confined point charges who interact with a Coulomb potential. We find that, for a wide range of parameters and magnetic fields considered in this work, the quantum ground state energy is very close to the classical energy of the most stable classical configuration under the condition that the classical energy is properly adjusted to incorporate the quantum zero point motion.
Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.
2012-04-01
As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.
Iterated Crank-Nicolson method for hyperbolic and parabolic equations in numerical relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leiler, Gregor; Rezzolla, Luciano
2006-01-01
The iterated Crank-Nicolson is a predictor-corrector algorithm commonly used in numerical relativity for the solution of both hyperbolic and parabolic partial differential equations. We here extend the recent work on the stability of this scheme for hyperbolic equations by investigating the properties when the average between the predicted and corrected values is made with unequal weights and when the scheme is applied to a parabolic equation. We also propose a variant of the scheme in which the coefficients in the averages are swapped between two corrections leading to systematically larger amplification factors and to a smaller numerical dispersion
Automatic Fourier transform and self-Fourier beams due to parabolic potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Yiqi, E-mail: zhangyiqi@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education & Shaanxi Key Lab of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Liu, Xing [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education & Shaanxi Key Lab of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Belić, Milivoj R., E-mail: milivoj.belic@qatar.tamu.edu [Science Program, Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874 Doha (Qatar); Zhong, Weiping [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Shunde Polytechnic, Shunde 528300 (China); Petrović, Milan S. [Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 68, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Zhang, Yanpeng, E-mail: ypzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education & Shaanxi Key Lab of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)
2015-12-15
We investigate the propagation of light beams including Hermite–Gauss, Bessel–Gauss and finite energy Airy beams in a linear medium with parabolic potential. Expectedly, the beams undergo oscillation during propagation, but quite unexpectedly they also perform automatic Fourier transform, that is, periodic change from the beam to its Fourier transform and back. In addition to oscillation, the finite-energy Airy beams exhibit periodic inversion during propagation. The oscillating period of parity-asymmetric beams is twice that of the parity-symmetric beams. Based on the propagation in parabolic potential, we introduce a class of optically-interesting beams that are self-Fourier beams—that is, the beams whose Fourier transforms are the beams themselves.
Viscosity solutions of fully nonlinear functional parabolic PDE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Wei-an
2005-01-01
Full Text Available By the technique of coupled solutions, the notion of viscosity solutions is extended to fully nonlinear retarded parabolic equations. Such equations involve many models arising from optimal control theory, economy and finance, biology, and so forth. The comparison principle is shown. Then the existence and uniqueness are established by the fixed point theory.
Almost periodic solutions to systems of parabolic equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Janpou Nee
1994-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we show that the second-order differential solution is 2-almost periodic, provided it is 2-bounded, and the growth of the components of a non-linear function of a system of parabolic equation is bounded by any pair of con-secutive eigenvalues of the associated Dirichlet boundary value problems.
Optical analysis and performance evaluation of a solar parabolic dish concentrator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pavlović Saša R.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, the optical design of a solar parabolic dish concentrator is presented. The parabolic dish concentrator consists from 11 curvilinear trapezoidal reflective petals made of polymethyl methacrylate with special reflective coating. The dish diameter is equal to 3.8 m and the theoretical focal point distance is 2.26 m. Numerical simulations are made with the commercial software TracePro from Lambda Research, USA, and the final optimum position between absorber and reflector was calculated to 2.075 m; lower than focus distance. This paper presents results for the optimum position and the optimum diameter of the receiver. The decision for selecting these parameters is based on the calculation of the total flux over the flat and corrugated pipe receiver surface; in its central region and in the peripheral region. The simulation results could be useful reference for designing and optimizing of solar parabolic dish concentrators as for as for CFD analysis, heat transfer and fluid flow analysis in corrugated spiral heat absorbers. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III42006: Research and development of energy and environmentally highly effective polygeneration systems based on renewable energy resources i br. III45016: Fabrication and characterization of nanophotonic functional structures in biomedicine and informatics
Natural Analogue Synthesis Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
A. M. Simmons
2002-05-01
The purpose of this report is to present analogue studies and literature reviews designed to provide qualitative and quantitative information to test and provide added confidence in process models abstracted for performance assessment (PA) and model predictions pertinent to PA. This report provides updates to studies presented in the ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' (CRWMS M and O 2000 [151945], Section 13) and new examples gleaned from the literature, along with results of quantitative studies conducted specifically for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The intent of the natural analogue studies was to collect corroborative evidence from analogues to demonstrate additional understanding of processes expected to occur during postclosure at a potential Yucca Mountain repository. The report focuses on key processes by providing observations and analyses of natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) systems to improve understanding and confidence in the operation of these processes under conditions similar to those that could occur in a nuclear waste repository. The process models include those that represent both engineered and natural barrier processes. A second purpose of this report is to document the various applications of natural analogues to geologic repository programs, focusing primarily on the way analogues have been used by the YMP. This report is limited to providing support for PA in a confirmatory manner and to providing corroborative inputs for process modeling activities. Section 1.7 discusses additional limitations of this report. Key topics for this report are analogues to emplacement drift degradation, waste form degradation, waste package degradation, degradation of other materials proposed for the engineered barrier, seepage into drifts, radionuclide flow and transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ), analogues to coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes, saturated zone (SZ) transport
NATURAL ANALOGUE SYNTHESIS REPORT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simmons, A.M.
2004-01-01
The purpose of this report is to present analogue studies and literature reviews designed to provide qualitative and quantitative information to test and provide added confidence in process models abstracted for performance assessment (PA) and model predictions pertinent to PA. This report provides updates to studies presented in the Yucca Mountain Site Description (CRWMS M and O 2000 [151945], Section 13) and new examples gleaned from the literature along with results of quantitative studies conducted specifically for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The intent of the natural analogue studies was to collect corroborative evidence from analogues to demonstrate additional understanding of processes expected to occur during postclosure at a potential Yucca Mountain repository. The report focuses on key processes by providing observations and analyses of natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) systems to improve understanding and confidence in the operation of these processes under conditions similar to those that could occur in a nuclear waste repository. The process models include those that represent both engineered and natural barrier processes. A second purpose of this report is to document the various applications of natural analogues to geologic repository programs, focusing primarily on the way analogues have been used by the YMP. This report is limited to providing support for PA in a confirmatory manner and to providing corroborative inputs for process modeling activities. Section 1.7 discusses additional limitations of this report. Key topics for this report are analogues to emplacement-drift degradation, waste-form degradation, waste-package degradation, degradation of other materials proposed for the engineered barrier, seepage into drifts, radionuclide flow and transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ), analogues to coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes, saturated-zone (SZ) transport, impact of radionuclide release on the biosphere
A Concentrator Photovoltaic System Based on a Combination of Prism-Compound Parabolic Concentrators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ngoc Hai Vu
2016-08-01
Full Text Available We present a cost-effective concentrating photovoltaic system composed of a prism and a compound parabolic concentrator (P-CPC. In this approach, the primary collector consists of a prism, a solid compound parabolic concentrator (CPC, and a slab waveguide. The prism, which is placed on the input aperture of CPC, directs the incoming sunlight beam to be parallel with the main axes of parabolic rims of CPC. Then, the sunlight is reflected at the parabolic rims and concentrated at the focal point of these parabolas. A slab waveguide is coupled at the output aperture of the CPC to collect focused sunlight beams and to guide them to the solar cell. The optical system was modeled and simulated with commercial ray tracing software (LightTools™. Simulation results show that the optical efficiency of a P-CPC can achieve up to 89%. when the concentration ratio of the P-CPC is fixed at 50. We also determine an optimal geometric structure of P-CPC based on simulation. Because of the simplicity of the P-CPC structure, a lower-cost mass production process is possible. A simulation based on optimal structure of P-CPC was performed and the results also shown that P-CPC has high angular tolerance for input sunlight. The high tolerance of the input angle of sunlight allows P-CPC solar concentrator utilize a single sun tracking system instead of a highly precise dual suntracking system as cost effective solution.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aspinall, M D; Joyce, M J; Mackin, R O; Jarrah, Z; Boston, A J; Nolan, P J; Peyton, A J; Hawkes, N P
2009-01-01
A unique, digital time pick-off method, known as sample-interpolation timing (SIT) is described. This method demonstrates the possibility of improved timing resolution for the digital measurement of time of flight compared with digital replica-analogue time pick-off methods for signals sampled at relatively low rates. Three analogue timing methods have been replicated in the digital domain (leading-edge, crossover and constant-fraction timing) for pulse data sampled at 8 GSa s −1 . Events arising from the 7 Li(p, n) 7 Be reaction have been detected with an EJ-301 organic liquid scintillator and recorded with a fast digital sampling oscilloscope. Sample-interpolation timing was developed solely for the digital domain and thus performs more efficiently on digital signals compared with analogue time pick-off methods replicated digitally, especially for fast signals that are sampled at rates that current affordable and portable devices can achieve. Sample interpolation can be applied to any analogue timing method replicated digitally and thus also has the potential to exploit the generic capabilities of analogue techniques with the benefits of operating in the digital domain. A threshold in sampling rate with respect to the signal pulse width is observed beyond which further improvements in timing resolution are not attained. This advance is relevant to many applications in which time-of-flight measurement is essential
An inverse problem in a parabolic equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhilin Li
1998-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an inverse problem in a parabolic equation is studied. An unknown function in the equation is related to two integral equations in terms of heat kernel. One of the integral equations is well-posed while another is ill-posed. A regularization approach for constructing an approximate solution to the ill-posed integral equation is proposed. Theoretical analysis and numerical experiment are provided to support the method.
Stability in terms of two measures for a class of semilinear impulsive parabolic equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dvirnyj, Aleksandr I; Slyn'ko, Vitalij I
2013-01-01
The problem of stability in terms of two measures is considered for semilinear impulsive parabolic equations. A new version of the comparison method is proposed, and sufficient conditions for stability in terms of two measures are obtained on this basis. An example of a hybrid impulsive system formed by a system of ordinary differential equations coupled with a partial differential equation of parabolic type is given. The efficiency of the described approaches is demonstrated. Bibliography: 24 titles.
Bilinear reduced order approximate model of parabolic distributed solar collectors
Elmetennani, Shahrazed; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem
2015-01-01
This paper proposes a novel, low dimensional and accurate approximate model for the distributed parabolic solar collector, by means of a modified gaussian interpolation along the spatial domain. The proposed reduced model, taking the form of a low
Solar parabolic dish Stirling engine system design, simulation, and thermal analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hafez, A.Z.; Soliman, Ahmed; El-Metwally, K.A.; Ismail, I.M.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Modeling and simulation for different parabolic dish Stirling engine designs using Matlab®. • The effect of solar dish design features and factors had been taken. • Estimation of output power from the solar dish using Matlab®. • The present analysis provides a theoretical guidance for designing and operating solar parabolic dish system. - Abstract: Modeling and simulation for different parabolic dish Stirling engine designs have been carried out using Matlab®. The effect of solar dish design features and factors such as material of the reflector concentrators, the shape of the reflector concentrators and the receiver, solar radiation at the concentrator, diameter of the parabolic dish concentrator, sizing the aperture area of concentrator, focal Length of the parabolic dish, the focal point diameter, sizing the aperture area of receiver, geometric concentration ratio, and rim angle have been studied. The study provides a theoretical guidance for designing and operating solar parabolic dish Stirling engines system. At Zewail city of Science and Technology, Egypt, for a 10 kW Stirling engine; The maximum solar dish Stirling engine output power estimation is 9707 W at 12:00 PM where the maximum beam solar radiation applied in solar dish concentrator is 990 W/m"2 at 12:00 PM. The performance of engine can be improved by increasing the precision of the engine parts and the heat source efficiency. The engine performance could be further increased if a better receiver working fluid is used. We can conclude that where the best time for heating the fluid and fasting the processing, the time required to heat the receiver to reach the minimum temperature for operating the Solar-powered Stirling engine for different heat transfer fluids; this will lead to more economic solar dish systems. Power output of the solar dish system is one of the most important targets in the design that show effectiveness of the system, and this has achieved when we take
A parabolic singular perturbation problem with an internal layer
Grasman, J.; Shih, S.D.
2004-01-01
A method is presented to approximate with singular perturbation methods a parabolic differential equation for the quarter plane with a discontinuity at the corner. This discontinuity gives rise to an internal layer. It is necessary to match the local solution in this layer with the one in a corner
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Izuani Che Rosid, N A; Ahmadi, M T; Ismail, Razali
2016-01-01
The effect of tensile uniaxial strain on the non-parabolic electronic band structure of armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR) is investigated. In addition, the density of states and the carrier statistic based on the tight-binding Hamiltonian are modeled analytically. It is found that the property of AGNR in the non-parabolic band region is varied by the strain. The tunable energy band gap in AGNR upon strain at the minimum energy is described for each of n-AGNR families in the non-parabolic approximation. The behavior of AGNR in the presence of strain is attributed to the breakable AGNR electronic band structure, which varies the physical properties from its normality. The linear relation between the energy gap and the electrical properties is featured to further explain the characteristic of the deformed AGNR upon strain. (paper)
ε-neighbourhoods of orbits of parabolic diffeomorphisms and cohomological equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Resman, Maja
2014-01-01
In this article, we study the analyticity of (directed) areas of ε-neighbourhoods of orbits of parabolic germs. The article is motivated by the question of analytic classification using ε-neighbourhoods of orbits in the simplest formal class. We show that the coefficient in front of the ε 2 term in the asymptotic expansion in ε, which we call the principal part of the area, is a sectorially analytic function in the initial point of the orbit. It satisfies a cohomological equation similar to the standard trivialization equation for parabolic diffeomorphisms. We give necessary and sufficient conditions on a diffeomorphism f for the existence of a globally analytic solution of this equation. Furthermore, we introduce a new classification type for diffeomorphisms implied by this new equation and investigate the relative position of its classes with respect to the analytic classes. (paper)
Achieving uniform efficient illumination with multiple asymmetric compound parabolic luminaires
Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Kashin, Peter
1994-01-01
Luminaire designs based on multiple asymmetric nonimaging compound parabolic reflectors are proposed for 2-D illumination applications that require highly uniform far-field illuminance, while ensuring maximal lighting efficiency and sharp angular cutoffs. The new designs derive from recent advances in nonimaging secondary concentrators for line-focus solar collectors. The light source is not treated as a single entity, but rather is divided into two or more separate adjoining sources. An asymmetric compound parabolic luminaire is then designed around each half-source. Attaining sharp cutoffs requires relatively large reflectors. However, severe truncation of the reflectors renders these devices as compact as many conventional luminaires, at the penalty of a small fraction of the radiation being emitted outside the nominal cutoff. The configurations that maximize the uniformity of far-field illuminance offer significant improvements in flux homogeneity relative to alternative designs to date.
Conditional stability in determination of initial data for stochastic parabolic equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan, Ganghua
2017-01-01
In this paper, we solve two kinds of inverse problems in determination of the initial data for stochastic parabolic equations. One is determination of the initial data by lateral boundary observation on arbitrary portion of the boundary, the second one is determination of the initial data by internal observation in a subregion inside the domain. We obtain conditional stability for the two kinds of inverse problems. To prove the results, we estimate the initial data by a terminal observation near the initial time, then we estimate this terminal observation by lateral boundary observation on arbitrary portion of the boundary or internal observation in a subregion inside the domain. To achieve those goals, we derive several new Carleman estimates for stochastic parabolic equations in this paper. (paper)
Conditional stability in determination of initial data for stochastic parabolic equations
Yuan, Ganghua
2017-03-01
In this paper, we solve two kinds of inverse problems in determination of the initial data for stochastic parabolic equations. One is determination of the initial data by lateral boundary observation on arbitrary portion of the boundary, the second one is determination of the initial data by internal observation in a subregion inside the domain. We obtain conditional stability for the two kinds of inverse problems. To prove the results, we estimate the initial data by a terminal observation near the initial time, then we estimate this terminal observation by lateral boundary observation on arbitrary portion of the boundary or internal observation in a subregion inside the domain. To achieve those goals, we derive several new Carleman estimates for stochastic parabolic equations in this paper.
Parabolic cyclinder functions : examples of error bounds for asymptotic expansions
R. Vidunas; N.M. Temme (Nico)
2002-01-01
textabstractSeveral asymptotic expansions of parabolic cylinder functions are discussedand error bounds for remainders in the expansions are presented. Inparticular Poincaré-type expansions for large values of the argument$z$ and uniform expansions for large values of the parameter areconsidered.
Rohit Tripathi 1,*, G. N. Tiwari 2
2017-01-01
In the present study, overall energy and exergy performance of partially covered N photovoltaic thermal - compound parabolic concentrators (PVT-CPC) (25% covered by glass to glass PV module) collector connected in series have been carried out at constant outlet temperature mode. Further, comparison in performance for partially covered N photovoltaic thermal - compound parabolic concentrators (PVT-CPC) [case (i)] and N compound parabolic concentrators (CPC) collector [case (ii)] connected in s...
Cyclotron heating rate in a parabolic mirror
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, P.K.
1984-01-01
Cyclotron resonance heating rates are found for a parabolic magnetic mirror. The equation of motion for perpendicular velocity is solved, including the radial magnetic field terms neglected in earlier papers. The expression for heating rate involves an infinite series of Anger's and Weber's functions, compared with a single term of the unrevised expression. The new results show an increase of heating rate compared with previous results. A simple expression is given for the ratio of the heating rates. (author)
Investigation on the dynamic behaviour of a parabolic trough power plant during strongly cloudy days
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al-Maliki, Wisam Abed Kattea; Alobaid, Falah; Starkloff, Ralf; Kez, Vitali; Epple, Bernd
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A detailed dynamic model of a parabolic trough solar thermal power plant is done. • Simulated results are compared to the experimental data from the real power plant. • Discrepancy between model result and real data is caused by operation strategy. • The model strategy increased the operating hours of power plant by around 2.5–3 h. - Abstract: The objective of this study is the development of a full scale dynamic model of a parabolic trough power plant with a thermal storage system, operated by the Actividades de Construcción y Servicios Group in Spain. The model includes solar field, thermal storage system and the power block and describes the heat transfer fluid and steam/water paths in detail. The parabolic trough power plant is modelled using Advanced Process Simulation Software (APROS). To validate the model, the numerical results are compared to the measured data, obtained from “Andasol II” during strongly cloudy periods in the summer days. The comparisons show a qualitative agreement between the dynamic simulation model and the measurements. The results confirm that the thermal storage enables the parabolic trough power plant to provide a constant power rate when the storage energy discharge is available, despite significant oscillations in the solar radiation.
Soneson, Joshua E
2017-04-01
Wide-angle parabolic models are commonly used in geophysics and underwater acoustics but have seen little application in medical ultrasound. Here, a wide-angle model for continuous-wave high-intensity ultrasound beams is derived, which approximates the diffraction process more accurately than the commonly used Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation without increasing implementation complexity or computing time. A method for preventing the high spatial frequencies often present in source boundary conditions from corrupting the solution is presented. Simulations of shallowly focused axisymmetric beams using both the wide-angle and standard parabolic models are compared to assess the accuracy with which they model diffraction effects. The wide-angle model proposed here offers improved focusing accuracy and less error throughout the computational domain than the standard parabolic model, offering a facile method for extending the utility of existing KZK codes.
L^p-continuity of solutions to parabolic free boundary problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdeslem Lyaghfouri
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In this article, we consider a class of parabolic free boundary problems. We establish some properties of the solutions, including L^infinity-regularity in time and a monotonicity property, from which we deduce strong L^p-continuity in time.
Interior Gradient Estimates for Nonuniformly Parabolic Equations II
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lieberman Gary M
2007-01-01
Full Text Available We prove interior gradient estimates for a large class of parabolic equations in divergence form. Using some simple ideas, we prove these estimates for several types of equations that are not amenable to previous methods. In particular, we have no restrictions on the maximum eigenvalue of the coefficient matrix and we obtain interior gradient estimates for so-called false mean curvature equation.
Conversion of solar radiation using parabolic mirrors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jolanta Fieducik
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The use of solar energy is a promising source of renewable energy to cover the energy needs of our society. The aim of the study will be to analyze the possibility of converting solar energy using parabolic reflectors to the heat energy needed to meet the needs of hot water for a family of 4 people. This study presents simulations of the use of solar radiation using radiant concentration systems. The parabolic mirror directs the concentrated beam of sunlight onto a tube located in the focal plane, which is filled with water that under the influence of solar radiation heats up. This article assumes constant mirror geometry and tube cross section, while simulation is performed for different coefficients. For calculations it was assumed that the reflection coefficient of sunlight from the mirror r is variable and an analysis of its effect on the amount of heated liquid is made. The radiation absorption coefficient across the tube surface was determined by a, the thermal surface emissivity coefficient was determined as e and the simulations were performed at variable values for the amount of heated liquid. The calculations and their analysis show that, with appropriately chosen coefficients, it is possible to meet the needs of a 4-person family in warm water using the proposed installation in Poland.
Monotone difference schemes for weakly coupled elliptic and parabolic systems
P. Matus (Piotr); F.J. Gaspar Lorenz (Franscisco); L. M. Hieu (Le Minh); V.T.K. Tuyen (Vo Thi Kim)
2017-01-01
textabstractThe present paper is devoted to the development of the theory of monotone difference schemes, approximating the so-called weakly coupled system of linear elliptic and quasilinear parabolic equations. Similarly to the scalar case, the canonical form of the vector-difference schemes is
Current-voltage relation for thin tunnel barriers: Parabolic barrier model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Kim; Brandbyge, Mads
2004-01-01
We derive a simple analytic result for the current-voltage curve for tunneling of electrons through a thin uniform insulating layer modeled by a parabolic barrier. Our model, which goes beyond the Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin approximation, is applicable also in the limit of highly transparant...
Numerical Schemes for Rough Parabolic Equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deya, Aurelien, E-mail: deya@iecn.u-nancy.fr [Universite de Nancy 1, Institut Elie Cartan Nancy (France)
2012-04-15
This paper is devoted to the study of numerical approximation schemes for a class of parabolic equations on (0,1) perturbed by a non-linear rough signal. It is the continuation of Deya (Electron. J. Probab. 16:1489-1518, 2011) and Deya et al. (Probab. Theory Relat. Fields, to appear), where the existence and uniqueness of a solution has been established. The approach combines rough paths methods with standard considerations on discretizing stochastic PDEs. The results apply to a geometric 2-rough path, which covers the case of the multidimensional fractional Brownian motion with Hurst index H>1/3.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Djotian, A.P.; Kazarian, E.M.; Karakashinian, Y.V.
1993-01-01
Interband absorption of light in a quantizing wire with non-parabolic dispersion law of charge carries, as well as energy spectrum and state densities are studied. The effect of Coulomb interaction between particles on the spectral curve of interband absorption is considered. Non-parabolic dispersion law of charge carries leads to an essential displacement of absorption line to ground state of one-dimensional exciton. 7 refs
A short proof of increased parabolic regularity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephen Pankavich
2015-08-01
Full Text Available We present a short proof of the increased regularity obtained by solutions to uniformly parabolic partial differential equations. Though this setting is fairly introductory, our new method of proof, which uses a priori estimates and an inductive method, can be extended to prove analogous results for problems with time-dependent coefficients, advection-diffusion or reaction diffusion equations, and nonlinear PDEs even when other tools, such as semigroup methods or the use of explicit fundamental solutions, are unavailable.
Vector domain decomposition schemes for parabolic equations
Vabishchevich, P. N.
2017-09-01
A new class of domain decomposition schemes for finding approximate solutions of timedependent problems for partial differential equations is proposed and studied. A boundary value problem for a second-order parabolic equation is used as a model problem. The general approach to the construction of domain decomposition schemes is based on partition of unity. Specifically, a vector problem is set up for solving problems in individual subdomains. Stability conditions for vector regionally additive schemes of first- and second-order accuracy are obtained.
Use of analogues to build technologists' confidence: NAnet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noseck, Ulrich
2008-01-01
The relevance of analogues to radioactive waste management stems from the long timescales that have to be considered. Periods up to a million or more years into the future need to be considered and these are beyond experimental investigation and human experience. Within the last years the term 'Natural Analogue' has got a much wider meaning and includes man-made analogues as well. The role of natural analogues in the safety case depends amongst others on the time scale to be covered. Therefore, it is useful to classify them by the time period addressed in the study. Here it is referred to: industrial analogues which started earliest 150 years ago, archaeological analogues, which cover time frames between the past 10 000 and 150 years, and geological analogues, which usually cover time frames of more than 10 000 years and in most cases more than million years. The current interest in analogues in different countries is reflected by several recent review projects with emphasis on the application of natural analogue study results in performance assessment. The most recent international review was performed within the 5. EURATOM Framework of the EC by the NAnet project, a network on the review of natural analogue studies with emphasis on the application of analogues in long-term safety assessment and communication. The overall aim of the NAnet project was to review the past and present use and understanding of natural analogues, and to make recommendations for their future use. The project covered 'traditional' natural analogue studies, such as large-scale investigations of radionuclide transport around uranium ore bodies, and process or mechanistic analogue studies such as those examining natural glass and bentonite clay stability. To complete the picture, a restricted range of other studies of natural systems which employ a similar philosophy to analogues was also included in the scope. These included studies which have examined radionuclide transport and retardation
Isolation and identification of a sibutramine analogue adulterated in slimming dietary supplements.
Kim, Ji Won; Kweon, Soon Jae; Park, Seon Kyung; Kim, Jung Yeon; Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Kyoung Moon; Cho, Sooyeul; Kim, Jinho; Han, Soon Young; Kim, Hyoung Ja; Kim, Woo Seong
2013-01-01
A suspected sibutramine analogue was detected in a slimming functional food by an ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-TOF/MS) method. The ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of this suspected compound showed close similarity to that of sibutramine. The sample was extracted with 70% MeOH and isolated by semi-preparative column chromatography. The structure of this compound was identified by spectroscopic analyses (nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR] technique, mass and tandem mass etc.). The structure of the unknown compound was demonstrated to be [(±)-dimethyl-1-[1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)cyclobutyl]-N,N,3-trimethylbutan-1-amine (molecular formula C17H25NCl2) and named as chloro-sibutramine. Compared with sibutramine, it has one more chlorine atom than the 3-cholorophenyl group so was switched to 3,4-dichlorophenyl. Until now, chloro-sibutramine was isolated for the first time from the undeclared ingredient included in dietary supplements. Although the safety of chloro-sibutramine is unknown, there is a potential health risk to consumers because of a similar skeleton to sibutramine. For public health, this sibutramine analogue has been included in the inspection list of illegal adulterants in Korea.
Natural and archaeological analogues: a review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brookins, D.G.
1987-01-01
In this chapter natural analogues in the geomedia for various aspects of radioactive waste disposal are discussed. Particular reference is made to the Okla Natural Reactor in Gabon. Igneous contact zones are discussed and natural analogues of waste-form materials. The importance of archaeological remains and anthropogenic materials left by man, in assessing weathering conditions and serving as radioactive waste analogues, is also emphasised. (UK)
Effects of an electric field on the confined hydrogen atom in a parabolic potential well
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xie Wenfang
2009-01-01
Using the perturbation method, the confined hydrogen atom by a parabolic potential well is investigated. The binding energy of the confined hydrogen atom in a parabolic potential well is calculated as a function of the confined potential radius and as a function of the intensity of an applied electric field. It is shown that the binding energy of the confined hydrogen atom is highly dependent on the confined potential radius and the intensity of an applied electric field.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, Su; Liu, Deyou; Chen, Xingying; Chu, Yinghao; Xu, Chang; Liu, Qunming; Zhou, Ling
2017-01-01
Highlights: •A nonlinear dynamic model of recirculation DSG parabolic trough is developed. •Collector row, water separator and spray attemperator are modeled, respectively. •The dynamic behaviors of the collector field are simulated and analyzed. •Transfer functions of water level and outlet fluid temperature are derived. •Multi-model switching generalized predictive control strategy is developed. -- Abstract: This work describes and evaluates a new nonlinear dynamic model, and a new generalized predictive control scheme for a collector field of direct steam generation parabolic troughs in recirculation mode. Modeling the dynamic behaviors of collector fields is essential to design, testing and validation of automatic control systems for direct steam generation parabolic troughs. However, the behaviors of two-phase heat transfer fluids impose challenges to simulating and developing process control schemes. In this work, a new nonlinear dynamic model is proposed, based on the nonlinear distributed parameter and the nonlinear lumped parameter methods. The proposed model is used to simulate and analyze the dynamic behaviors of the entire collector field for recirculation mode direct steam generation parabolic troughs under different weather conditions, without excessive computational costs. Based on the proposed model, transfer functions for both the water level of the separator and outlet steam temperatures are derived, and a new multi-model switching generalized predictive control scheme is developed for simulated control of the plant behaviors for a wide region of operational conditions. The proposed control scheme achieves excellent control performance and robustness for systems with long delay, large inertia and time-varying parameters, and efficiently solves the model mismatching problem in direct steam generation parabolic troughs. The performances of the model and control scheme are validated with design data from the project of Integration of Direct
Goswami, Deepjyoti
2011-09-01
In this article, we propose and analyze an alternate proof of a priori error estimates for semidiscrete Galerkin approximations to a general second order linear parabolic initial and boundary value problem with rough initial data. Our analysis is based on energy arguments without using parabolic duality. Further, it follows the spirit of the proof technique used for deriving optimal error estimates for finite element approximations to parabolic problems with smooth initial data and hence, it unifies both theories, that is, one for smooth initial data and other for nonsmooth data. Moreover, the proposed technique is also extended to a semidiscrete mixed method for linear parabolic problems. In both cases, optimal L2-error estimates are derived, when the initial data is in L2. A superconvergence phenomenon is also observed, which is then used to prove L∞-estimates for linear parabolic problems defined on two-dimensional spatial domain again with rough initial data. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Attractors for a class of doubly nonlinear parabolic systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hamid El Ouardi
2006-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we establish the existence and boundedness of solutions of a doubly nonlinear parabolic system. We also obtain the existence of a global attractor and the regularity property for this attractor in $\\left[ L^{\\infty }(\\Omega \\right] ^{2}$ and ${\\prod_{i=1}^{2}}{B_{\\infty }^{1+\\sigma_{i},p_{i}}( \\Omega } $.
On the Schauder estimates of solutions to parabolic equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han Qing
1998-01-01
This paper gives a priori estimates on asymptotic polynomials of solutions to parabolic differential equations at any points. This leads to a pointwise version of Schauder estimates. The result improves the classical Schauder estimates in a way that the estimates of solutions and their derivatives at one point depend on the coefficient and nonhomogeneous terms at this particular point
On some perturbation techniques for quasi-linear parabolic equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Igor Malyshev
1990-01-01
Full Text Available We study a nonhomogeneous quasi-linear parabolic equation and introduce a method that allows us to find the solution of a nonlinear boundary value problem in explicit form. This task is accomplished by perturbing the original equation with a source function, which is then found as a solution of some nonlinear operator equation.
Bilinear Approximate Model-Based Robust Lyapunov Control for Parabolic Distributed Collectors
Elmetennani, Shahrazed; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem
2016-01-01
This brief addresses the control problem of distributed parabolic solar collectors in order to maintain the field outlet temperature around a desired level. The objective is to design an efficient controller to force the outlet fluid temperature
On the Approximate Controllability of Some Semilinear Parabolic Boundary-Value Problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diaz, J. I.; Henry, J.; Ramos, A. M.
1998-01-01
We prove the approximate controllability of several nonlinear parabolic boundary-value problems by means of two different methods: the first one can be called a Cancellation method and the second one uses the Kakutani fixed-point theorem
Characterization of a focusing parabolic guide using neutron radiography method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kardjilov, Nikolay; Boeni, Peter; Hilger, Andre; Strobl, Markus; Treimer, Wolfgang
2005-01-01
The aim of the investigation was to test the focusing properties of a new type of focusing neutron guide (trumpet) with parabolically shaped walls. The guide has a length of 431mm with an entrance area of 16x16mm 2 and an output area of 4x4mm 2 . The interior surfaces were coated with a supermirror-surface m=3 and due to their parabolic shape it was expected that an incident parallel beam can be focused in the focal point of the parabolas. To prove this statement the neutron intensity distribution at different distances behind the guide was recorded by means of a standard, high-resolution radiography detector. The experiments were performed at the V12b instrument at HMI with different levels of beam monochromatization demonstrating maximum intensity gains of about 25. The consideration for using the focusing guide for the purposes of cold neutron radiography will be presented
Experimental study on a parabolic concentrator assisted solar desalting system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arunkumar, T.; Denkenberger, David; Velraj, R.; Sathyamurthy, Ravishankar; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Vinothkumar, K.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • We optimized the augmentation of condense by enhanced desalination methodology. • Parabolic concentrator has been integrated with solar distillation systems. • We measured ambient together with solar radiation intensity. - Abstract: This paper presents a modification of parabolic concentrator (PC) – solar still with continuous water circulation using a storage tank to enhance the productivity. Four modes of operation were studied experimentally: (i) PC-solar still without top cover cooling; (ii) PC-solar still with top cover cooling, PC-solar still integrated with phase change material (PCM) without top cover cooling and PC-solar still integrated PCM with cooling. The experiments were carried out for the cooling water flow rates of 40 ml/min; 50 ml/min, 60 ml/min, 80 ml/min and 100 ml/min. Diurnal variations of water temperature (T_w), ambient air temperature (T_a), top cover temperature (T_o_c) and production rate are measured with frequent time intervals. Water cooling was not cost effective, but adding PCM was.
Compressible stability of growing boundary layers using parabolized stability equations
Chang, Chau-Lyan; Malik, Mujeeb R.; Erlebacher, Gordon; Hussaini, M. Y.
1991-01-01
The parabolized stability equation (PSE) approach is employed to study linear and nonlinear compressible stability with an eye to providing a capability for boundary-layer transition prediction in both 'quiet' and 'disturbed' environments. The governing compressible stability equations are solved by a rational parabolizing approximation in the streamwise direction. Nonparallel flow effects are studied for both the first- and second-mode disturbances. For oblique waves of the first-mode type, the departure from the parallel results is more pronounced as compared to that for the two-dimensional waves. Results for the Mach 4.5 case show that flow nonparallelism has more influence on the first mode than on the second. The disturbance growth rate is shown to be a strong function of the wall-normal distance due to either flow nonparallelism or nonlinear interactions. The subharmonic and fundamental types of breakdown are found to be similar to the ones in incompressible boundary layers.
Tails and bridges in the parabolic restricted three-body problem
Barrabés, Esther; Cors, Josep M.; Garcia-Taberner, Laura; Ollé, Mercè
2017-12-01
After a close encounter of two galaxies, bridges and tails can be seen between or around them. A bridge would be a spiral arm between a galaxy and its companion, whereas a tail would correspond to a long and curving set of debris escaping from the galaxy. The goal of this paper is to present a mechanism, applying techniques of dynamical systems theory, that explains the formation of tails and bridges between galaxies in a simple model, the so-called parabolic restricted three-body problem, i.e. we study the motion of a particle under the gravitational influence of two primaries describing parabolic orbits. The equilibrium points and the final evolutions in this problem are recalled,and we show that the invariant manifolds of the collinear equilibrium points and the ones of the collision manifold explain the formation of bridges and tails. Massive numerical simulations are carried out and their application to recover previous results are also analysed.
Finite element simulation of cracks formation in parabolic flume above fixed service live
Bandurin, M. A.; Volosukhin, V. A.; Mikheev, A. V.; Volosukhin, Y. V.; Bandurina, I. P.
2018-03-01
In the article, digital simulation data on influence of defect different characteristics on cracks formation in a parabolic flume are presented. The finite element method is based on general hypotheses of the theory of elasticity. The studies showed that the values of absolute movements satisfy the standards of design. The results of the digital simulation of stresses and strains for cracks formation in concrete parabolic flumes after long-term service above the fixed service life are described. Stressed and strained state of reinforced concrete bearing elements under different load combinations is considered. Intensive threshold of danger to form longitudinal cracks in reinforced concrete elements is determined.
Piecewise-parabolic methods for astrophysical fluid dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woodward, P.R.
1983-01-01
A general description of some modern numerical techniques for the simulation of astrophysical fluid flow is presented. The methods are introduced with a thorough discussion of the especially simple case of advection. Attention is focused on the piecewise-parabolic method (PPM). A description of the SLIC method for treating multifluid problems is also given. The discussion is illustrated by a number of advection and hydrodynamics test problems. Finally, a study of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of supersonic jets using PPM with SLIC fluid interfaces is presented
Wind Tunnel Tests of Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors: March 2001--August 2003
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hosoya, N.; Peterka, J. A.; Gee, R. C.; Kearney, D.
2008-05-01
Conducted extensive wind-tunnel tests on parabolic trough solar collectors to determine practical wind loads applicable to structural design for stress and deformation, and local component design for concentrator reflectors.
Parabolic transformation cloaks for unbounded and bounded cloaking of matter waves
Chang, Yu-Hsuan; Lin, De-Hone
2014-01-01
Parabolic quantum cloaks with unbounded and bounded invisible regions are presented with the method of transformation design. The mass parameters of particles for perfect cloaking are shown to be constant along the parabolic coordinate axes of the cloaking shells. The invisibility performance of the cloaks is inspected from the viewpoints of waves and probability currents. The latter shows the controllable characteristic of a probability current by a quantum cloak. It also provides us with a simpler and more efficient way of exhibiting the performance of a quantum cloak without the solutions of the transformed wave equation. Through quantitative analysis of streamline structures in the cloaking shell, one defines the efficiency of the presented quantum cloak in the situation of oblique incidence. The cloaking models presented here give us more choices for testing and applying quantum cloaking.
Shock unsteadiness in a thrust optimized parabolic nozzle
Verma, S. B.
2009-07-01
This paper discusses the nature of shock unsteadiness, in an overexpanded thrust optimized parabolic nozzle, prevalent in various flow separation modes experienced during start up {(δ P0 /δ t > 0)} and shut down {(δ P0/δ t The results are based on simultaneously acquired data from real-time wall pressure measurements using Kulite pressure transducers, high-speed schlieren (2 kHz) of the exhaust flow-field and from strain-gauges installed on the nozzle bending tube. Shock unsteadiness in the separation region is seen to increase significantly just before the onset of each flow transition, even during steady nozzle operation. The intensity of this measure ( rms level) is seen to be strongly influenced by relative locations of normal and overexpansion shock, the decrease in radial size of re-circulation zone in the back-flow region, and finally, the local nozzle wall contour. During restricted shock separation, the pressure fluctuations in separation region exhibit periodic characteristics rather than the usually observed characteristics of intermittent separation. The possible physical mechanisms responsible for the generation of flow unsteadiness in various separation modes are discussed. The results are from an experimental study conducted in P6.2 cold-gas subscale test facility using a thrust optimized parabolic nozzle of area-ratio 30.
A parabolic velocity-decomposition method for wind turbines
Mittal, Anshul; Briley, W. Roger; Sreenivas, Kidambi; Taylor, Lafayette K.
2017-02-01
An economical parabolized Navier-Stokes approximation for steady incompressible flow is combined with a compatible wind turbine model to simulate wind turbine flows, both upstream of the turbine and in downstream wake regions. The inviscid parabolizing approximation is based on a Helmholtz decomposition of the secondary velocity vector and physical order-of-magnitude estimates, rather than an axial pressure gradient approximation. The wind turbine is modeled by distributed source-term forces incorporating time-averaged aerodynamic forces generated by a blade-element momentum turbine model. A solution algorithm is given whose dependent variables are streamwise velocity, streamwise vorticity, and pressure, with secondary velocity determined by two-dimensional scalar and vector potentials. In addition to laminar and turbulent boundary-layer test cases, solutions for a streamwise vortex-convection test problem are assessed by mesh refinement and comparison with Navier-Stokes solutions using the same grid. Computed results for a single turbine and a three-turbine array are presented using the NREL offshore 5-MW baseline wind turbine. These are also compared with an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solution computed with full rotor resolution. On balance, the agreement in turbine wake predictions for these test cases is very encouraging given the substantial differences in physical modeling fidelity and computer resources required.
Effect of Phonon Drag on the Thermopower in a Parabolic Quantum Well
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hasanov, Kh. A., E-mail: xanlarhasanli@rambler.ru; Huseynov, J. I. [Azerbaijan State Pedagogical University (Azerbaijan); Dadashova, V. V. [Baku State University (Azerbaijan); Aliyev, F. F. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Abdullaev Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)
2016-03-15
The theory of phonon-drag thermopower resulting from a temperature gradient in the plane of a two-dimensional electron gas layer in a parabolic quantum well is developed. The interaction mechanisms between electrons and acoustic phonons are considered, taking into account potential screening of the interaction. It is found that the effect of electron drag by phonons makes a significant contribution to the thermopower of the two-dimensional electron gas. It is shown that the consideration of screening has a significant effect on the drag thermopower. For the temperature dependence of the thermopower in a parabolic GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well in the temperature range of 1–10 K, good agreement between the obtained theoretical results and experiments is shown.
Excitons in undoped AlGaAs/GaAs wide parabolic quantum wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tabata, A; Oliveira, J B B [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 17033-360, Bauru (Brazil); Silva, E C F da; Lamas, T E; Duarte, C A; Gusev, G M, E-mail: tabata@fc.unesp.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 05315-970, Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2010-02-01
In this work the electronic structure of undoped AlGaAs/GaAs wide parabolic quantum wells (PQWs) with different well widths (1000 A and 3000 A) were investigated by means of photoluminescence (PL) measurements. Due to the particular potential shape, the sample structure confines photocreated carriers with almost three-dimensional characteristics. Our data show that depending on the well width thickness it is possible to observe very narrow structures in the PL spectra, which were ascribed to emissions associated to the recombination of confined 1s-excitons of the parabolic potential wells. From our measurements, the exciton binding energies (of a few meV) were estimated. Besides the exciton emission, we have also observed PL emissions associated to electrons in the excited subbands of the PQWs.
Higher-order schemes for the Laplace transformation method for parabolic problems
Douglas, C.; Kim, I.; Lee, H.; Sheen, D.
2011-01-01
In this paper we solve linear parabolic problems using the three stage noble algorithms. First, the time discretization is approximated using the Laplace transformation method, which is both parallel in time (and can be in space, too) and extremely
Real parabolic vector bundles over a real curve
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We define real parabolic structures on real vector bundles over a real curve. Let (X,σX ) be a real curve, and let S ⊂ X be a non-empty finite subset of X such that σX (S) = S. Let N ≥ 2 be an integer. We construct an N-fold cyclic cover p : Y → X in the category of real curves, ramified precisely over each point of S, ...
Femtosecond laser micromachining of compound parabolic concentrator fiber tipped glucose sensors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Lacraz, Amédée; Kalli, Kyriacos
2017-01-01
We report on highly accurate femtosecond (fs) laser micromachining of a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) fiber tip on a polymer optical fiber (POF). The accuracy is reflected in an unprecedented correspondence between the numerically predicted and experimentally found improvement in fluoresc...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shah, Peter Jivan
1992-01-01
A short term analogue memory is described. It is based on a well-known sample-hold topology in which leakage currents have been minimized partly by circuit design and partly by layout techniques. Measurements on a test chip implemented in a standard 2.4 micron analogue CMOS process show a droop...
Optimal Wentzell Boundary Control of Parabolic Equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo, Yousong
2017-01-01
This paper deals with a class of optimal control problems governed by an initial-boundary value problem of a parabolic equation. The case of semi-linear boundary control is studied where the control is applied to the system via the Wentzell boundary condition. The differentiability of the state variable with respect to the control is established and hence a necessary condition is derived for the optimal solution in the case of both unconstrained and constrained problems. The condition is also sufficient for the unconstrained convex problems. A second order condition is also derived.
Optimal Wentzell Boundary Control of Parabolic Equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luo, Yousong, E-mail: yousong.luo@rmit.edu.au [RMIT University, School of Mathematical and Geospatial Sciences (Australia)
2017-04-15
This paper deals with a class of optimal control problems governed by an initial-boundary value problem of a parabolic equation. The case of semi-linear boundary control is studied where the control is applied to the system via the Wentzell boundary condition. The differentiability of the state variable with respect to the control is established and hence a necessary condition is derived for the optimal solution in the case of both unconstrained and constrained problems. The condition is also sufficient for the unconstrained convex problems. A second order condition is also derived.
Analogue to Digital and Digital to Analogue Converters (ADCs and DACs): A Review Update
Pickering, J.
2015-06-15
This is a review paper updated from that presented for CAS 2004. Essentially, since then, commercial components have continued to extend their performance boundaries but the basic building blocks and the techniques for choosing the best device and implementing it in a design have not changed. Analogue to digital and digital to analogue converters are crucial components in the continued drive to replace analogue circuitry with more controllable and less costly digital processing. This paper discusses the technologies available to perform in the likely measurement and control applications that arise within accelerators. It covers much of the terminology and 'specmanship' together with an application-oriented analysis of the realisable performance of the various types. Finally, some hints and warnings on system integration problems are given.
Numerical Solution of Parabolic Equations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Østerby, Ole
These lecture notes are designed for a one-semester course on finite-difference methods for parabolic equations. These equations which traditionally are used for describing diffusion and heat-conduction problems in Geology, Physics, and Chemistry have recently found applications in Finance Theory...... ? and how do boundary value approximations affect the overall order of the method. Knowledge of a reliable order and error estimate enables us to determine (near-)optimal step sizes to meet a prescribed error tolerance, and possibly to extrapolate to get (higher order and) better accuracy at a minimal...... expense. Problems in two space dimensions are effectively handled using the Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) technique. We present a systematic way of incorporating inhomogeneous terms and derivative boundary conditions in ADI methods as well as mixed derivative terms....
Kendon, Vivien M; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J
2010-08-13
We briefly review what a quantum computer is, what it promises to do for us and why it is so hard to build one. Among the first applications anticipated to bear fruit is the quantum simulation of quantum systems. While most quantum computation is an extension of classical digital computation, quantum simulation differs fundamentally in how the data are encoded in the quantum computer. To perform a quantum simulation, the Hilbert space of the system to be simulated is mapped directly onto the Hilbert space of the (logical) qubits in the quantum computer. This type of direct correspondence is how data are encoded in a classical analogue computer. There is no binary encoding, and increasing precision becomes exponentially costly: an extra bit of precision doubles the size of the computer. This has important consequences for both the precision and error-correction requirements of quantum simulation, and significant open questions remain about its practicality. It also means that the quantum version of analogue computers, continuous-variable quantum computers, becomes an equally efficient architecture for quantum simulation. Lessons from past use of classical analogue computers can help us to build better quantum simulators in future.
F John's stability conditions versus A Carasso's SECB constraint for backward parabolic problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jinwoo; Sheen, Dongwoo
2009-01-01
In order to solve backward parabolic problems John (1960 Commun. Pure. Appl. Math.13 551–85) introduced the two constraints ||u(T)|| ≤ M and ||u(0) − g|| ≤ δ where u(t) satisfies the backward heat equation for t in (0, T) with the initial data u(0). The slow evolution from the continuation boundary (SECB) constraint was introduced by Carasso (1994 SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 31 1535–57) to attain continuous dependence on data for backward parabolic problems even at the continuation boundary t = T. The additional 'SECB constraint' guarantees a significant improvement in stability up to t = T. In this paper, we prove that the same type of stability can be obtained by using only two constraints among the three. More precisely, we show that the a priori boundedness condition ||u(T)|| ≤ M is redundant. This implies that Carasso's SECB condition can be used to replace the a priori boundedness condition of John with an improved stability estimate. Also, a new class of regularized solutions is introduced for backward parabolic problems with an SECB constraint. The new regularized solutions are optimally stable and we also provide a constructive scheme to compute. Finally, numerical examples are provided
Numerical simulation of solar parabolic trough collector performance in the Algeria Saharan region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marif, Yacine; Benmoussa, Hocine; Bouguettaia, Hamza; Belhadj, Mohamed M.; Zerrouki, Moussa
2014-01-01
Highlights: • The parabolic trough collector performance is examined. • The finite difference method is proposed and validated. • Two fluids are considered water and TherminolVP-1™. - Abstract: In order to determine the optical and thermal performance of a solar parabolic trough collector under the climate conditions of Algerian Sahara, a computer program based on one dimensional implicit finite difference method with energy balance approach has been developed. The absorber pipe, glass envelope and fluid were divided into several segments and the partial derivation in the differential equations was replaced by the backward finite difference terms in each segment. Two fluids were considered, liquid water and TherminolVP-1™ synthetic oil. Furthermore, the intensity of the direct solar radiation was estimated by monthly average values of the atmospheric Linke turbidity factor for different tracking systems. According to the simulation findings, the one axis polar East–West and horizontal East–West tracking systems were most desirable for a parabolic trough collector throughout the whole year. In addition, it is found that the thermal efficiency was about 69.73–72.24%, which decreases with the high synthetic oil fluid temperatures and increases in the lower water temperature by 2%
On purpose simulation model for molten salt CSP parabolic trough
Caranese, Carlo; Matino, Francesca; Maccari, Augusto
2017-06-01
The utilization of computer codes and simulation software is one of the fundamental aspects for the development of any kind of technology and, in particular, in CSP sector for researchers, energy institutions, EPC and others stakeholders. In that extent, several models for the simulation of CSP plant have been developed with different main objectives (dynamic simulation, productivity analysis, techno economic optimization, etc.), each of which has shown its own validity and suitability. Some of those models have been designed to study several plant configurations taking into account different CSP plant technologies (Parabolic trough, Linear Fresnel, Solar Tower or Dish) and different settings for the heat transfer fluid, the thermal storage systems and for the overall plant operating logic. Due to a lack of direct experience of Molten Salt Parabolic Trough (MSPT) commercial plant operation, most of the simulation tools do not foresee a suitable management of the thermal energy storage logic and of the solar field freeze protection system, but follow standard schemes. ASSALT, Ase Software for SALT csp plants, has been developed to improve MSPT plant's simulations, by exploiting the most correct operational strategies in order to provide more accurate technical and economical results. In particular, ASSALT applies MSPT specific control logics for the electric energy production and delivery strategy as well as the operation modes of the Solar Field in off-normal sunshine condition. With this approach, the estimated plant efficiency is increased and the electricity consumptions required for the plant operation and management is drastically reduced. Here we present a first comparative study on a real case 55 MWe Molten Salt Parabolic Trough CSP plant placed in the Tibetan highlands, using ASSALT and SAM (System Advisor Model), which is a commercially available simulation tool.
The cost of integration of parabolic trough CSP plants in isolated Mediterranean power systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poullikkas, Andreas; Hadjipaschalis, Ioannis; Kourtis, George
2010-01-01
In this work, a technical and economic analysis concerning the integration of parabolic trough concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies, with or without thermal storage capability, in an existing typical small isolated Mediterranean power generation system, in the absence of a feed-in tariff scheme, is carried out. In addition to the business as usual (BAU) scenario, five more scenarios are examined in the analysis in order to assess the electricity unit cost with the penetration of parabolic trough CSP plants of 50 MWe or 100 MWe, with or without thermal storage capability. Based on the input data and assumptions made, the simulations indicated that the scenario with the utilization of a single parabolic trough CSP plant (either 50 MWe or 100 MWe and with or without thermal storage capability) in combination with BAU will effect an insignificant change in the electricity unit cost of the generation system compared to the BAU scenario. In addition, a sensitivity analysis on natural gas price, showed that increasing fuel prices and the existence of thermal storage capability in the CSP plant make this scenario marginally more economically attractive compared to the BAU scenario. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beyer, P.O.; Krenzinger, A. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica
1990-12-31
This work presents a simulation of solar compound parabolic concentrators using the ray tracing technique. The program can be used as a computer aided design and quality control applications for parabolic mirrors. (author). 4 refs., 8 figs.
Binding energy of impurity states in an inverse parabolic quantum well under magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kasapoglu, E.; Sari, H.; Soekmen, I.
2007-01-01
We have investigated the effects of the magnetic field which is directed perpendicular to the well on the binding energy of the hydrogenic impurities in an inverse parabolic quantum well (IPQW) with different widths as well as different Al concentrations at the well center. The Al concentration at the barriers was always x max =0.3. The calculations were performed within the effective mass approximation, using a variational method. We observe that IPQW structure turns into parabolic quantum well with the inversion effect of the magnetic field and donor impurity binding energy in IPQW strongly depends on the magnetic field, Al concentration at the well center and well dimensions
Yun, Jisuk; Shin, Kye Jung; Choi, Jangduck; Jo, Cheon-Ho
2018-05-01
A novel sibutramine analogue was detected in a slimming formula by high performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode detector array (HPLC-PDA). The unknown compound exhibited an ultraviolet (UV) spectrum that was similar to that of chlorosibutramine, despite having a different HPLC retention time. Further analysis of the slimming formula by LC-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF/MS) showed that the unknown compound had the formula C 18 H 27 Cl 2 N. To elucidate the structure of this new sibutramine analogue, the target compound in the slimming formula was isolated on a preparative-LC system equipped with a PDA. After analysis by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the unknown compound was identified as a sibutramine analogue in which the iso-butyl group on the side chain is replaced with an iso-pentyl group. This new sibutramine analogue was identified to be 1-(1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)cyclobutyl)-N,N,4-trimethylpentan-1-amine and has been named as chlorosipentramine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
a numerical analysis of the energy behavior of a parabolic trough ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
M. Ghodbane
A computer program was developed in Matlab after discretization equations. For the calculation of energy balance was asks these assumptions: The heat transfer fluid is incompressible;. The parabolic shape is symmetrical;. The ambient temperature around the concentrator is uniform;. The effect of the shadow of ...
A 40 W cw Nd:YAG solar laser pumped through a heliostat: a parabolic mirror system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Almeida, J; Liang, D; Guillot, E; Abdel-Hadi, Y
2013-01-01
Solar-pumped solid-state lasers are promising for renewable extreme-temperature material processing. Here, we report a significant improvement in solar laser collection efficiency by pumping the most widely used Nd:YAG single-crystal rod through a heliostat–parabolic mirror system. A conical-shaped fused silica light guide with 3D-CPC output end is used to both transmit and compress the concentrated solar radiation from the focal zone of a 2 m diameter parabolic mirror to a 5 mm diameter Nd:YAG rod within a conical pump cavity, which enables multi-pass pumping through the laser rod. 40 W cw laser power is measured, corresponding to 13.9 W m −2 record-high collection efficiency for the solar laser pumped through a heliostat–parabolic mirror system. 2.9% slope efficiency is fitted, corresponding to 132% enhancement over that of our previous pumping scheme. A 209% reduction in threshold pump power is also registered. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angelescu, Tatiana; Radu, A. A.
2000-01-01
Certain optical designs in the field of high energy gamma ray astronomy components of the Cherenkov light, collected by the mirror of telescope, be concentrated on the photo-cathodes of the photomultiplier tubes, with the help of the light collectors having large entrance and small exit apertures. Mathematical restrictions imposed by the design of the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) implied that for a given cut-off angle and an entrance aperture, the exit aperture of the CPC should not exceed a limit value. If this value is larger than the active diameter of the photocathode, an additional concentrator must be added to the system in order to transfer the light collected, from the exit aperture of the compound parabolic concentrator to the photocathode of the photomultiplier tube. Different designs of a two-stage system composed by a a hollow compound parabolic concentrator and a solid, dielectric filled concentrator are evaluated in this paper, from the point of view of optical efficiency and manufacturability. (authors)
The fundamental solutions for fractional evolution equations of parabolic type
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahmoud M. El-Borai
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The fundamental solutions for linear fractional evolution equations are obtained. The coefficients of these equations are a family of linear closed operators in the Banach space. Also, the continuous dependence of solutions on the initial conditions is studied. A mixed problem of general parabolic partial differential equations with fractional order is given as an application.
Monte Carlo method for solving a parabolic problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tian Yi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present a numerical method based on random sampling for a parabolic problem. This method combines use of the Crank-Nicolson method and Monte Carlo method. In the numerical algorithm, we first discretize governing equations by Crank-Nicolson method, and obtain a large sparse system of linear algebraic equations, then use Monte Carlo method to solve the linear algebraic equations. To illustrate the usefulness of this technique, we apply it to some test problems.
Design and Realisation of a Parabolic Solar Cooker
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ouannene, M; Chaouachi, B; Gabsi, S
2009-01-01
The sun s energy is really powerful. Solar energy is renewable and it s free. We can use it to make electricity, to heat buildings and to cook. The field of cooking consumes many fossil fuels such as gas and wood. Million people cannot find enough gas and/or wood to cook, so using solar cookers is a good idea. During this work, we designed, built and studied a parabolic solar cooker. The characteristic equations and the experimental results are given
DEVELOPMENT AND PRELIMINARY TESTING OF A PARABOLIC TROUGH SOLAR WATER HEATER
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. A. Lasode
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Solar energy is a high-temperature, high-energy radiant energy source, with tremendous advantages over other alternative energy sources. It is a reliable, robust renewable resource which is largely undeveloped. The design and fabrication of parabolic trough solar water heater for water heating was executed. The procedure employed includes the design, construction and testing stages. The equipment which is made up of the reflector surface (curved mirror, reflector support, absorber pipe and a stand was fabricated using locally sourced materials. The results obtained. compared favourably with other research works in the literature. It depicts that employing a suitable design, selection of time of heating and proper focusing of the reflected rays to the focal spot region, solar radiation can efficiently be utilized for water heating in a tropical environment. This work presents a parabolic trough solar water heater as a suitable renewable energy technology for reducing water-heating costs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
1997-01-01
The present invention relates to a solid phase methodology for the preparation of a combinatorial library of structural analogues of the natural product balanol (ophiocordin, azepinostatin), which is a protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. The method comprises solid...
American lookback option with fixed strike price—2-D parabolic variational inequality
Chen, Xiaoshan; Yi, Fahuai; Wang, Lihe
In this paper we study a 2-dimensional parabolic variational inequality with financial background. We define a suitable weak formula and obtain existence and uniqueness of the problem. Moreover we analyze the behaviors of the free boundary surface.
Study of the parabolic-spherical shape on the energy resolution in gamma spectrometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, Joao Carlos Pereira da
1997-01-01
In gamma spectrometry, the energy resolution is an important parameter. This parameter measures the capability of the system to separate two photopeaks that are together. Scintillation systems have various factors that affect the energy resolution: energy deposition, light emission, light collection and electric signal processing. Light collection depended on the mechanisms of light transport until light strikes on the photocathode. In this trajectory the light losses energy by attenuation and refractions on the surfaces. In order to minimize these effects, a parabolic-spherical shape is proposed. The energy resolutions of hemispherical and parabolic-spherical shapes were measured. The results show a better resolution for the new shape, about 33% for Compton edge due to a 137 Cs radioactive source. (author)
Alignment method for parabolic trough solar concentrators
Diver, Richard B [Albuquerque, NM
2010-02-23
A Theoretical Overlay Photographic (TOP) alignment method uses the overlay of a theoretical projected image of a perfectly aligned concentrator on a photographic image of the concentrator to align the mirror facets of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. The alignment method is practical and straightforward, and inherently aligns the mirror facets to the receiver. When integrated with clinometer measurements for which gravity and mechanical drag effects have been accounted for and which are made in a manner and location consistent with the alignment method, all of the mirrors on a common drive can be aligned and optimized for any concentrator orientation.
Role of secondary instability theory and parabolized stability equations in transition modeling
El-Hady, Nabil M.; Dinavahi, Surya P.; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Zang, Thomas A.
1993-01-01
In modeling the laminar-turbulent transition region, the designer depends largely on benchmark data from experiments and/or direct numerical simulations that are usually extremely expensive. An understanding of the evolution of the Reynolds stresses, turbulent kinetic energy, and quantifies in the transport equations like the dissipation and production is essential in the modeling process. The secondary instability theory and the parabolized stability equations method are used to calculate these quantities, which are then compared with corresponding quantities calculated from available direct numerical simulation data for the incompressible boundary-layer flow of laminar-turbulent transition conditions. The potential of the secondary instability theory and the parabolized stability equations approach in predicting these quantities is discussed; results indicate that inexpensive data that are useful for transition modeling in the early stages of the transition region can be provided by these tools.
Cephalostatin analogues--synthesis and biological activity.
Flessner, Timo; Jautelat, Rolf; Scholz, Ulrich; Winterfeldt, Ekkehard
2004-01-01
Starting off in the early 90's the field of cephalostatin analogues has continually expanded over the last 10 years. First syntheses prepared symmetric analogues like 14b (119) and 26 (65), which were subsequently desymmetrized to provide analogues like beta-hydroxy ketone 31 (19). Importantly the straightforward approach provided already compounds with mu-molar potency and the same pattern of activity as cephalostatin 1 (1) (see Chapter 2.1). Chemically more demanding, two new methods for the directed synthesis of (bissteroidal) pyrazines were devised and subsequently applied to a wide variety of differently functionalized coupling partners. These new methods allowed for the synthesis of various analogues (Chapter 2.2.; and, last but not least, for the totals synthesis of several cephalostatin natural products; Chapter 1.). Functionalization and derivatization of the 12-position was performed (Chapter 2.1 and 3) and synthetic approaches to establish the D-ring double bond were successfully investigated (Chapter 3). [figure: see text] Dealing synthetically with the spiroketal moiety, novel oxidative opening procedures on monomeric delta 14, 15-steroids were devised as well as intensive studies regarding spiroketal synthesis and spiroketal rearrangements were conducted (Chapter 3.2. and 4.). Last but not least direct chemical modification of ritterazines and cephalostatins were studied, which provided a limited number of ritterazine analogues (Chapter 4.). All these synthetic activities towards analogues are summarized in Fig. 18. During this period of time the growing number of cephalostatins and ritterazines on the one hand and of analogues on the other hand provided several SAR trends, which can guide future analogue synthesis. The combined SAR findings are displayed in Fig. 19. So far it is apparent that: Additional methoxylations or hydroxylations in the steroidal A ring core structure (1-position) are slightly decreasing activity (compare cephalostatin 1 1 to
Performance Analysis of Fractional-Order PID Controller for a Parabolic Distributed Solar Collector
Elmetennani, Shahrazed; N'Doye, Ibrahima; Salama, Khaled N.; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem
2017-01-01
This paper studies the performance of a fractional-order proportional integral derivative (FOPID) controller designed for parabolic distributed solar collectors. The control problem addressed in concentrated solar collectors aims at forcing
Analogue to Digital and Digital to Analogue (AD/DA) Conversion Techniques: An Overview
CERN. Geneva
2002-01-01
The basic ideas behind modern Analogue to Digital and Digital to Analogue (AD/DA) conversion methods will be introduced: a general view of the importance of these devices will be given, along with the digital representation of time-varying, real-world analogue signals. Some CERN applications will be outlined. The variety of conversion methods, their limitations, error sources and measurement methods will form the major part of this presentation. A review of the technological progress in this field over the last 30 years will be presented, concluding with the present 'state of the art' and a quick look at what is just around the corner. This Technical Training Seminar is in the framework of the FEED-2002 Lecture Series, and it is a prerequisite to attending to any of the FEED-2002 Terms. FEED-2002 is a two-term course that will review the techniques dealing with closed loop systems, focussing on time-invariant linear systems. (free attendance, no registration required) More information on the FEED-2002 ...
Digitizing data acquisition and time-of-flight pulse processing for ToF-ERDA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Julin, Jaakko, E-mail: jaakko.julin@jyu.fi; Sajavaara, Timo
2016-01-01
A versatile system to capture and analyze signals from multi channel plate (MCP) based time-of-flight detectors and ionization based energy detectors such as silicon diodes and gas ionization chambers (GIC) is introduced. The system is based on commercial digitizers and custom software. It forms a part of a ToF-ERDA spectrometer, which has to be able to detect recoil atoms of many different species and energies. Compared to the currently used analogue electronics the digitizing system provides comparable time-of-flight resolution and improved hydrogen detection efficiency, while allowing the operation of the spectrometer be studied and optimized after the measurement. The hardware, data acquisition software and digital pulse processing algorithms to suit this application are described in detail.
Time-optimal control of infinite order distributed parabolic systems involving time lags
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G.M. Bahaa
2014-06-01
Full Text Available A time-optimal control problem for linear infinite order distributed parabolic systems involving constant time lags appear both in the state equation and in the boundary condition is presented. Some particular properties of the optimal control are discussed.
Sound field computations in the Bay of Bengal using parabolic equation method
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Navelkar, G.S.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Murty, C.S.
Effect of the cold core eddy in the Bay of Bengal on acoustic propagation was analysed by parabolic equation (PE) method. Source depth, frequency and propagation range considered respectively for the two numerical experiments are 150 m, 400 Hz, 650...
Multi-parameter optimization design of parabolic trough solar receiver
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, Jiangfeng; Huai, Xiulan
2016-01-01
Highlights: • The optimal condition can be obtained by multi-parameter optimization. • Exergy and thermal efficiencies are employed as objective function. • Exergy efficiency increases at the expense of heat losses. • The heat obtained by working fluid increases as thermal efficiency grows. - Abstract: The design parameters of parabolic trough solar receiver are interrelated and interact with one another, so the optimal performance of solar receiver cannot be obtained by the convectional single-parameter optimization. To overcome the shortcoming of single-parameter optimization, a multi-parameter optimization of parabolic trough solar receiver is employed based on genetic algorithm in the present work. When the thermal efficiency is taken as the objective function, the heat obtained by working fluid increases while the average temperature of working fluid and wall temperatures of solar receiver decrease. The average temperature of working fluid and the wall temperatures of solar receiver increase while the heat obtained by working fluid decreases generally by taking the exergy efficiency as an objective function. Assuming that the solar radiation intensity remains constant, the exergy obtained by working fluid increases by taking exergy efficiency as the objective function, which comes at the expense of heat losses of solar receiver.
Feurecker, M.; Mayer, W.; Gruber, M.; Muckenthaler, F.; Draenert, R.; Bogner, J.; Kaufmann, I.; Crucian, B.; Rykova, M.; Morukov, B.;
2010-01-01
Goal:i) Characterization of the role of the main immune reactive cell types contributing to the cellular immune response in the in-vitro DTH and ii) Validation of the in-vitro DTH under different clinical and field conditions. Methods:As positive control whole blood was incubated in the in-vitro DTH, supernatants were gathered after 12, 24 and 48h. Readout parameters of this test are cytokines in the assay's supernatant. To determine the role of T-cells, monocytes and natural killer (NK), these cell populations were depleted using magnetic beads prior to in-vitro-DTH incubation. Validation of the test has occurred under clinical (HIV-patients, ICU) and field-conditions (parabolic/space-flights, confinement). Results:T-cell depletion abandoned almost any IL-2 production and reduced IFN-gamma production irrespective of the type of antigen, whereas CD56 depleted cultures tended to lower IL-2 secretion and IFN-gamma and to parallel a IL-10-increase after viral challenge. This IL-10-increase was seen also in CD14-depleted setups. DTH read-out was significantly different under acute stress (parabolic flight) or chronic stress (ISS), respectively. Preliminary data of HIV infected patients demonstrate that this test can display the contemporary immune status during an antiviral therapy. Conclusion:The in-vitro DTH mirrors adaptive and innate immune activation and may serve as tool also for longitudinal follow up of Th1/Th2 weighed immune response under adverse life conditions on earth and in space. It is planned to implement the assay in the on the ISS (MoCISS).
Tecpoyotl-Torres, M.; Campos-Alvarez, J.; Tellez-Alanis, F.; Sánchez-Mondragón, J.
2006-08-01
In this work we present the basis of the solar concentrator design, which has is located at Temixco, Morelos, Mexico. For this purpose, this place is ideal due to its geographic and climatic conditions, and in addition, because it accounts with the greatest constant illumination in Mexico. For the construction of the concentrator we use a recycled parabolic plate of a telecommunications satellite dish (NEC). This plate was totally covered with Aluminum. The opening diameter is of 332 cm, the focal length is of 83 cm and the opening angle is of 90°. The geometry of the plate guaranties that the incident beams, will be collected at the focus. The mechanical treatment of the plate produces an average reflectance of 75% in the visible region of the solar spectrum, and of 92% for wavelengths up to 3μm in the infrared region. We obtain up to 2000°C of temperature concentration with this setup. The reflectance can be greatly improved, but did not consider it as typical practical use. The energy obtained can be applied to conditions that require of those high calorific energies. In order to optimize the operation of the concentrator we use a control circuit designed to track the apparent sun position.
International video project on natural analogues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guentensperger, Marcel
1993-01-01
A natural analogue can be defined as a natural process which has occurred in the past and is studied in order to test predictions about the future evolution of similar processes. In recent years, natural analogues have been used increasingly to test the mathematical models required for repository performance assessment. Analogues are, however, also of considerable use in public relations as they allow many of the principles involved in demonstrating repository safety to be illustrated in a clear manner using natural systems with which man is familiar. The international Natural Analogue Working Group (NAWG), organised under the auspices of the CEC, has recognised that such PR applications are of considerable importance and should be supported from a technical level. At the NAWG meeting in Pitlochry, Scotland (June 1990), it was recommended that the possibilities for making a video film on this topic be investigated and Nagra was requested to take the lead role in setting up such a project
Real-time optical laboratory solution of parabolic differential equations
Casasent, David; Jackson, James
1988-01-01
An optical laboratory matrix-vector processor is used to solve parabolic differential equations (the transient diffusion equation with two space variables and time) by an explicit algorithm. This includes optical matrix-vector nonbase-2 encoded laboratory data, the combination of nonbase-2 and frequency-multiplexed data on such processors, a high-accuracy optical laboratory solution of a partial differential equation, new data partitioning techniques, and a discussion of a multiprocessor optical matrix-vector architecture.
A Systematic Approach to Higher-Order Parabolic Propagation in a Weakly Range-Dependent Duct
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Gragg, Robert F
2005-01-01
Energy-conserving transformations are exploited to split a monochromatic field in a weakly inhomogeneous waveguide into a pair of components that undergo uncoupled parabolic propagation in opposite...
Two new designs of parabolic solar collectors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karimi Sadaghiyani Omid
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this work, two new compound parabolic trough and dish solar collectors are presented with their working principles. First, the curves of mirrors are defined and the mathematical formulation as one analytical method is used to trace the sun rays and recognize the focus point. As a result of the ray tracing, the distribution of heat flux around the inner wall can be reached. Next, the heat fluxes are calculated versus several absorption coefficients. These heat flux distributions around absorber tube are functions of angle in polar coordinate system. Considering, the achieved heat flux distribution are used as a thermal boundary condition. After that, Finite Volume Methods (FVM are applied for simulation of absorber tube. The validation of solving method is done by comparing with Dudley's results at Sandia National Research Laboratory. Also, in order to have a good comparison between LS-2 and two new designed collectors, some of their parameters are considered equal with together. These parameters are consist of: the aperture area, the measures of tube geometry, the thermal properties of absorber tube, the working fluid, the solar radiation intensity and the mass flow rate of LS-2 collector are applied for simulation of the new presented collectors. After the validation of the used numerical models, this method is applied to simulation of the new designed models. Finally, the outlet results of new designed collector are compared with LS-2 classic collector. Obviously, the obtained results from the comparison show the improving of the new designed parabolic collectors efficiency. In the best case-study, the improving of efficiency are about 10% and 20% for linear and convoluted models respectively.
A numerical analysis of the energy behavior of a parabolic trough ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The solar power is a clean and a durable energy; there are several techniques for using them. When necessary to elevated temperatures of heat transfer fluid, this energy must concentration. This paper presents the efficiencies study of a linear solar concentrator of a parabolic trough type. This study was conducted on the ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hinkel-Lipsker, D.E.; Fried, B.D.; Morales, G.J.
1993-01-01
This study provides an analytic solution to the general problem of mode conversion in an unmagnetized plasma. Specifically, an electromagnetic wave of frequency ω propagating through a plasma with a parabolic density profile of scale length L p is examined. The mode conversion points are located a distance Δ 0 from the peak of the profile, where the electron plasma frequency ω p (z) matches the wave frequency ω. The corresponding reflection, transmission, and mode conversion coefficients are expressed analytically in terms of parabolic cylinder functions for all values of Δ 0 . The method of solution is based on a source approximation technique that is valid when the electromagnetic and electrostatic scale lengths are well separated. For large Δ 0 , i.e., (cL p /ω) 1/2 much-lt Δ 0 p , the appropriately scaled result [D. E. Hinkel-Lipsker et al., Phys. Fluids B 4, 559 (1992)] for a linear density profile is recovered as the parabolic cylinder functions asymptotically become Airy functions. When Δ 0 →0, the special case of conversion at the peak of the profile [D. E. Hinkel-Lipsker et al., Phys. Fluids B 4, 1772 (1992)] is obtained
Synthesis of retinoid vitamin A-vitamin B6 conjugate analogues for antiviral chemotherapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kesel, Andreas J.
2003-01-01
The synthesis of retinoid vitamin A-vitamin B 6 conjugate analogues from a vitamin B 6 coenzyme analogue and putative HIV-1 trans-activating transcriptional regulatory protein Tat antagonist (Z)-5 ' -O-phosphono-pyridoxylidenerhodanine (B6PR) monosodium salt hemiheptadecahydrate [(Z)-B6PRNa8.5H 2 O] is discussed here. All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is coupled to B6PR by a modified Stork enamine acylation. It results in a product library of more than eight compounds, each with at least one intact all-trans or 13-cis vitamin A double bond system. This yellow oily concentrate mixture was subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometry (MS), UV/VIS-spectrophotometry, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-NMR). The chemical structures of six components of the concentrate mixture could be established by combination of these analytical methods. The two main components are 65% 2 ' C,3O-(all-trans-retinylidyne)B6PT (B6RA) and 25% 2 ' C-(all-trans-retinoyl)B6PT, chemically derived from (5RS)-5-(5 ' -O-phosphono-pyridoxyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (B6PT). This new retinoid selection could be of further interest in antiviral applications, especially treating conditions caused by RNA viruses like HIV
Harnack's Inequality for Degenerate and Singular Parabolic Equations
DiBenedetto, Emmanuele; Vespri, Vincenzo
2012-01-01
Degenerate and singular parabolic equations have been the subject of extensive research for the last 25 years. Despite important achievements, the issue of the Harnack inequality for non-negative solutions to these equations, both of p-Laplacian and porous medium type, while raised by several authors, has remained basically open. Recently considerable progress has been made on this issue, to the point that, except for the singular sub-critical range, both for the p-laplacian and the porous medium equations, the theory is reasonably complete. It seemed therefore timely to trace a comprehensive
Analytic semigroups and optimal regularity in parabolic problems
Lunardi, Alessandra
2012-01-01
The book shows how the abstract methods of analytic semigroups and evolution equations in Banach spaces can be fruitfully applied to the study of parabolic problems. Particular attention is paid to optimal regularity results in linear equations. Furthermore, these results are used to study several other problems, especially fully nonlinear ones. Owing to the new unified approach chosen, known theorems are presented from a novel perspective and new results are derived. The book is self-contained. It is addressed to PhD students and researchers interested in abstract evolution equations and in p
Tracking local control of a parabolic trough collector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ajona, J.I.; Alberdi, J.; Gamero, E.; Blanco, J.
1992-01-01
In the local control, the sun position related to the trough collector is measured by two photo-resistors. The provided electronic signal is then compared with reference levels in order to get a set of B logical signals which form a byte. This byte and the commands issued by a programmable controller are connected to the inputs of o P.R.O.M. memory which is programmed with the logical equations of the control system. The memory output lines give the control command of the parabolic trough collector motor. (Author)
He, Zi; Chen, Ru-Shan
2016-03-01
An efficient three-dimensional time domain parabolic equation (TDPE) method is proposed to fast analyze the narrow-angle wideband EM scattering properties of electrically large targets. The finite difference (FD) of Crank-Nicolson (CN) scheme is used as the traditional tool to solve the time-domain parabolic equation. However, a huge computational resource is required when the meshes become dense. Therefore, the alternating direction implicit (ADI) scheme is introduced to discretize the time-domain parabolic equation. In this way, the reduced transient scattered fields can be calculated line by line in each transverse plane for any time step with unconditional stability. As a result, less computational resources are required for the proposed ADI-based TDPE method when compared with both the traditional CN-based TDPE method and the finite-different time-domain (FDTD) method. By employing the rotating TDPE method, the complete bistatic RCS can be obtained with encouraging accuracy for any observed angle. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.
New model reduction technique for a class of parabolic partial differential equations
Vajta, Miklos
1991-01-01
A model reduction (or lumping) technique for a class of parabolic-type partial differential equations is given, and its application is discussed. The frequency response of the temperature distribution in any multilayer solid is developed and given by a matrix expression. The distributed transfer
Highly efficient end-side-pumped Nd:YAG solar laser by a heliostat-parabolic mirror system.
Almeida, J; Liang, D; Vistas, C R; Guillot, E
2015-03-10
We report a large improvement in the collection and slope efficiency of an Nd:YAG solar laser pumped by a heliostat-parabolic mirror system. A conical fused silica lens was used to further concentrate the solar radiation from the focal zone of a 2 m diameter primary concentrator to a Nd:YAG single-crystal rod within a conical pump cavity, which enabled multipass pumping to the active medium. A 56 W cw laser power was measured, corresponding to 21.1 W/m2 record-high solar laser collection efficiency with the heliostat-parabolic mirror system. 4.9% slope efficiency was calculated, corresponding to 175% enhancement over our previous result.
Analogue Hawking radiation from astrophysical black-hole accretion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, Tapas K
2004-01-01
We show that spherical accretion onto astrophysical black holes can be considered as a natural example of an analogue system. We provide, for the first time, an exact analytical scheme for calculating the analogue Hawking temperature and surface gravity for general relativistic accretion onto astrophysical black holes. Our calculation may bridge the gap between the theory of transonic astrophysical accretion and the theory of analogue Hawking radiation. We show that the domination of the analogue Hawking temperature over the actual Hawking temperature may be a real astrophysical phenomenon, though observational tests of this fact will at best be difficult and at worst might prove to be impossible. We also discuss the possibilities of the emergence of analogue white holes around astrophysical black holes. Our calculation is general enough to accommodate accreting black holes with any mass
Theoretical Study of the Compound Parabolic Trough Solar Collector
Dr. Subhi S. Mahammed; Dr. Hameed J. Khalaf; Tadahmun A. Yassen
2012-01-01
Theoretical design of compound parabolic trough solar collector (CPC) without tracking is presented in this work. The thermal efficiency is obtained by using FORTRAN 90 program. The thermal efficiency is between (60-67)% at mass flow rate between (0.02-0.03) kg/s at concentration ratio of (3.8) without need to tracking system.The total and diffused radiation is calculated for Tikrit city by using theoretical equations. Good agreement between present work and the previous work.
Some characteristics of heat production by stationary parabolic, cylindrical solar concentrator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bojic, M.; Marjanovic, N.; Miletic, I.; Mitic, A. [Kragujevac Univ., Kragujevac (Serbia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering; Stefanovic, V. [Nis Univ., Nis (Serbia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
2009-07-01
The use of solar energy for heating, cooling and electricity production was discussed with particular reference to the use of a stationary, asymmetric solar concentrator for conversion of solar energy to heat using a reflector and absorber. The infinite length CP-0A type stationary parabolic, cylindrical solar concentrator for heat production consists of the absorber (with water pipes) and parabolic, cylindrical reflector (with a metal surface). It has a geometrical concentration ratio of up to 4. This paper reported on a study that used the CATIA computer software to investigate how direct solar radiation approaches the concentrator aperture and the concentrator reflector. The propagation of light rays inside the concentrator to reach the absorber surface was examined. The study showed that the solar ray either hits the absorber directly or it bounces one or several time from the concentrator reflector. The efficiency of light rays was also calculated as a function of angles of incident of solar rays and type of reflector surface. 5 refs., 8 figs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masood, R.
2013-01-01
The utilization of solar thermal energy has got prime importance in Pakistan due to the current energy scarcity and escalating cost scenario in the country. Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrator is one of the most reliable technologies for utilization of solar thermal energy. In solar thermal power generation, Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrators are most successful as almost 96 percent of total solar thermal power is generated across the world by utilizing this technology. Its high reliability, operational compatibility, comparative low cost and high efficiency adds to its high value among other resources. Fortunately, Pakistan lies in the high Solar Insolation Zone; thus, a huge potential exists to benefit from this technology. This technology may cater to the Pakistan's seasonal increased electricity demand. Apart from electric power generation, this technology may also have cost-effective solutions for Pakistan's other industries, like steam generation, preheating of boiler make-up water, air-conditioning, and hot water production for food, textile, dairy and leather industries. However, economic justification of such projects would be possible only on accomplishing an indigenous technology base. Globally, this is a proven technology, but in Pakistan there is hardly any development in this field. In this study, an effort has been made by designing and fabricating an experimental Parabolic Trough Solar Water Heater by utilizing locally available materials and manufacturing capabilities. On achieving encouraging results, a solar boiler (steam generator) is proposed to be manufactured locally. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dehghan, Mehdi; Tatari, Mehdi
2008-01-01
In this research, the He's variational iteration technique is used for computing an unknown time-dependent parameter in an inverse quasilinear parabolic partial differential equation. Parabolic partial differential equations with overspecified data play a crucial role in applied mathematics and physics, as they appear in various engineering models. The He's variational iteration method is an analytical procedure for finding solutions of differential equations, is based on the use of Lagrange multipliers for identification of an optimal value of a parameter in a functional. To show the efficiency of the new approach, several test problems are presented for one-, two- and three-dimensional cases
Summary assessment of solar thermal parabolic dish technology for electrical power generation
Penda, P. L.; Fujita, T.; Lucas, J. W.
1985-01-01
An assessment is provided of solar thermal parabolic dish technology for electrical power generation. The assessment is based on the development program undertaken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy and covers the period from the initiation of the program in 1976 through mid-1984. The program was founded on developing components and subsystems that are integrated into parabolic dish power modules for test and evaluation. The status of the project is summarized in terms of results obtained through testing of modules, and the implications of these findings are assessed in terms of techno-economic projections and market potential. The techno-economic projections are based on continuation of an evolutionary technological development program and are related to the accomplishments of the program as of mid-1984. The accomplishments of the development effort are summarized for each major subsystem including concentrators, receivers, and engines. The ramifications of these accomplishments are assessed in the context of developmental objectives and strategies.
Rubin, S. G.
1982-01-01
Recent developments with finite-difference techniques are emphasized. The quotation marks reflect the fact that any finite discretization procedure can be included in this category. Many so-called finite element collocation and galerkin methods can be reproduced by appropriate forms of the differential equations and discretization formulas. Many of the difficulties encountered in early Navier-Stokes calculations were inherent not only in the choice of the different equations (accuracy), but also in the method of solution or choice of algorithm (convergence and stability, in the manner in which the dependent variables or discretized equations are related (coupling), in the manner that boundary conditions are applied, in the manner that the coordinate mesh is specified (grid generation), and finally, in recognizing that for many high Reynolds number flows not all contributions to the Navier-Stokes equations are necessarily of equal importance (parabolization, preferred direction, pressure interaction, asymptotic and mathematical character). It is these elements that are reviewed. Several Navier-Stokes and parabolized Navier-Stokes formulations are also presented.
Application of CFD to a generic hypersonic flight research study
Green, Michael J.; Lawrence, Scott L.; Dilley, Arthur D.; Hawkins, Richard W.; Walker, Mary M.; Oberkampf, William L.
1993-01-01
Computational analyses have been performed for the initial assessment of flight research vehicle concepts that satisfy requirements for potential hypersonic experiments. Results were obtained from independent analyses at NASA Ames, NASA Langley, and Sandia National Labs, using sophisticated time-dependent Navier-Stokes and parabolized Navier-Stokes methods. Careful study of a common problem consisting of hypersonic flow past a slightly blunted conical forebody was undertaken to estimate the level of uncertainty in the computed results, and to assess the capabilities of current computational methods for predicting boundary-layer transition onset. Results of this study in terms of surface pressure and heat transfer comparisons, as well as comparisons of boundary-layer edge quantities and flow-field profiles are presented here. Sensitivities to grid and gas model are discussed. Finally, representative results are presented relating to the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics in the vehicle design and the integration/support of potential experiments.
Heat Loss Testing of Schott's 2008 PTR70 Parabolic Trough Receiver
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burkholder, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kutscher, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2009-05-01
Two Schott 2008 model year PTR70 HCEs were tested on NREL's heat loss test stand from 100 - 500 deg C in 50 deg C increments. Absorber emittance was determined from the laboratory testing so that the performance of the HCEs could be modeled in a parabolic trough collector. Collector/HCE simulation results for many different field operation conditions were used to create heat loss correlationcoefficients for Excelergy and SAM. SAM estimates that the decreased emittance of the 2008 PTR70 will decrease the LCOE for parabolic trough power plants by 0.5 cents/kWh and increase the electricity generated by 5% relative to previous PTR70s. These conclusions assume that the 2008 PTR70 is supplied at the same cost and with the same optical performance as earlier PTR70 models.
Synthesis and biological evaluation of febrifugine analogues.
Mai, Huong Doan Thi; Thanh, Giang Vo; Tran, Van Hieu; Vu, Van Nam; Vu, Van Loi; Le, Cong Vinh; Nguyen, Thuy Linh; Phi, Thi Dao; Truong, Bich Ngan; Chau, Van Minh; Pham, Van Cuong
2014-12-01
A series of febrifugine analogues were designed and synthesized. Antimalarial activity evaluation of the synthetic compounds indicated that these derivatives had a strong inhibition against both chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Many of them were found to be more active than febrifugine hydrochloride. The tested analogues had also a significant cytotoxicity against four cancer cell lines (KB, MCF7, LU1 and HepG2). Among the synthetic analogues, two compounds 17b and 17h displayed a moderate cytotoxicity while they exhibited a remarkable antimalarial activity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jayakumar, K.; Balasubramanian, S.; Tomak, M.
1985-08-01
A hydrogenic donor in a quantum well in the presence of a magnetic field perpendicular to the barrier is considered in the effective mass approximation. The non-parabolicity of the subband is included in the Hamiltonian by an energy-dependent effective mass. The donor binding energy is calculated variationally for different well widths and the effect of non-parabolicity is discussed in the light of recent experimental results. (author)
Rohit Tripathi; Sumit Tiwari; G. N. Tiwari
2016-01-01
In present study, an approach is adopted where photovoltaic thermal flat plate collector is integrated with compound parabolic concentrator. Analytical expression of temperature dependent electrical efficiency of N number of partially covered Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) - Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) water collector connected in series has been derived with the help of basic thermal energy balance equations. Analysis has been carried for winter weather condition at Delhi location, Ind...
Assessment of six dissimilarity metrics for climate analogues
Grenier, Patrick; Parent, Annie-Claude; Huard, David; Anctil, François; Chaumont, Diane
2013-04-01
Spatial analogue techniques consist in identifying locations whose recent-past climate is similar in some aspects to the future climate anticipated at a reference location. When identifying analogues, one key step is the quantification of the dissimilarity between two climates separated in time and space, which involves the choice of a metric. In this communication, spatial analogues and their usefulness are briefly discussed. Next, six metrics are presented (the standardized Euclidean distance, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic, the nearest-neighbor distance, the Zech-Aslan energy statistic, the Friedman-Rafsky runs statistic and the Kullback-Leibler divergence), along with a set of criteria used for their assessment. The related case study involves the use of numerical simulations performed with the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM-v4.2.3), from which three annual indicators (total precipitation, heating degree-days and cooling degree-days) are calculated over 30-year periods (1971-2000 and 2041-2070). Results indicate that the six metrics identify comparable analogue regions at a relatively large scale, but best analogues may differ substantially. For best analogues, it is also shown that the uncertainty stemming from the metric choice does generally not exceed that stemming from the simulation or model choice. A synthesis of the advantages and drawbacks of each metric is finally presented, in which the Zech-Aslan energy statistic stands out as the most recommended metric for analogue studies, whereas the Friedman-Rafsky runs statistic is the least recommended, based on this case study.
Study of weak solutions for parabolic variational inequalities with nonstandard growth conditions.
Dong, Yan
2018-01-01
In this paper, we study the degenerate parabolic variational inequality problem in a bounded domain. First, the weak solutions of the variational inequality are defined. Second, the existence and uniqueness of the solutions in the weak sense are proved by using the penalty method and the reduction method.
Theoretical Study of the Compound Parabolic Trough Solar Collector
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dr. Subhi S. Mahammed
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Theoretical design of compound parabolic trough solar collector (CPC without tracking is presented in this work. The thermal efficiency is obtained by using FORTRAN 90 program. The thermal efficiency is between (60-67% at mass flow rate between (0.02-0.03 kg/s at concentration ratio of (3.8 without need to tracking system.The total and diffused radiation is calculated for Tikrit city by using theoretical equations. Good agreement between present work and the previous work.
Analytic convergence of harmonic metrics for parabolic Higgs bundles
Kim, Semin; Wilkin, Graeme
2018-04-01
In this paper we investigate the moduli space of parabolic Higgs bundles over a punctured Riemann surface with varying weights at the punctures. We show that the harmonic metric depends analytically on the weights and the stable Higgs bundle. This gives a Higgs bundle generalisation of a theorem of McOwen on the existence of hyperbolic cone metrics on a punctured surface within a given conformal class, and a generalisation of a theorem of Judge on the analytic parametrisation of these metrics.
Fast Time and Space Parallel Algorithms for Solution of Parabolic Partial Differential Equations
Fijany, Amir
1993-01-01
In this paper, fast time- and Space -Parallel agorithms for solution of linear parabolic PDEs are developed. It is shown that the seemingly strictly serial iterations of the time-stepping procedure for solution of the problem can be completed decoupled.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tian, Zhiyong; Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon
2017-01-01
Flat plate collectors have relatively low efficiency at the typical supply temperatures of district heating networks (70–95 °C). Parabolic trough collectors retain their high efficiency at these temperatures. To maximize the advantages of flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors in l...... for this type of hybrid solar district heating plants with flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors in the Nordic region, but also introduce a novel design concept of solar district heating plants to other high solar radiation areas....... in large solar heating plants for a district heating network, a hybrid solar collector field with 5960 m2 flat plate collectors and 4039 m2 parabolic trough collectors in series was constructed in Taars, Denmark. The design principle is that the flat plate collectors preheat the return water from...
Synthesis and anticancer evaluation of spermatinamine analogues
Moosa, Basem; Sagar, Sunil; Li, Song; Esau, Luke; Kaur, Mandeep; Khashab, Niveen M.
2016-01-01
analogues and their cytotoxic evaluation against three human cancer cell lines i.e. cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and prostate carcinoma (DU145). Analogues 12, 14 and 15 were found to be the most potent against one or more cell
Insulin analogues in pregnancy and specific congenital anomalies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
de Jong, Josta; Garne, Ester; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa
2016-01-01
Insulin analogues are commonly used in pregnant women with diabetes. It is not known if the use of insulin analogues in pregnancy is associated with any higher risk of congenital anomalies in the offspring compared with use of human insulin. We performed a literature search for studies of pregnant...... women with pregestational diabetes using insulin analogues in the first trimester and information on congenital anomalies. The studies were analysed to compare the congenital anomaly rate among foetuses of mothers using insulin analogues with foetuses of mothers using human insulin. Of 29 studies, we...... samples in the included studies provided insufficient statistical power to identify a moderate increased risk of specific congenital anomalies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....
Glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues: An overview
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vishal Gupta
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Abnormalities of the incretin axis have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and gastroinhibitory intestinal peptide constitutes >90% of all the incretin function. Augmentation of GLP-1 results in improvement of beta cell health in a glucose-dependant manner (post-prandial hyperglycemia and suppression of glucagon (fasting hyperglycemia, amongst other beneficial pleiotropic effects. Native GLP-1 has a very short plasma half-life and novel methods have been developed to augment its half life, such that its anti-hyperglycemic effects can be exploited. They can be broadly classified as exendin-based therapies (exenatide, exenatide once weekly, DPP-4-resistant analogues (lixisenatide, albiglutide, and analogues of human GLP-1 (liraglutide, taspoglutide. Currently, commercially available analogues are exenatide, exenatide once weekly, and liraglutide. This review aims to provide an overview of most GLP-1 analogues.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mendo, C
1988-09-01
Most analogue simulators have evolved from SPICE. The history and description of SPICE-like simulators are given. From a mathematical formulation of the electronic circuit the following analysis are possible: DC, AC, transient, noise, distortion, Worst Case and Statistical.
Uncertainties and credibility building of safety analyses. Natural analogues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laciok, A.
2001-07-01
The substance of natural analogues and their studies is defined as a complementary method to laboratory and in-situ experiments and modelling. The role of natural analogues in the processes of development of repositories is defined, mainly in performance assessment of repository system and communication with public. The criteria for identification of natural analogues which should be evaluated in the phase of initiation of new studies are specified. Review part of this report is divided to study of natural analogues and study of anthropogenic and industrial analogues. The main natural analogue studies performed in various countries, in different geological setting, with various aims are characterized. New results acquired in recently finished studies are included: Palmottu (2nd phase of project financed by European Commission), Oklo (results of research financed also by European Commission), Maqarin (3rd phase) and other information obtained from last meetings and workshops of NAWG. In view of the fact that programmes of development of deep repositories in Czech and Slovak Republics are interconnected, the natural analogues studies carried out in the Czech republic are incorporated in separate chapter - study of uranium accumulation in Tertiary clays at Ruprechtov site and study of degradation of natural glasses. In final part the areas of natural analogue studies as an integral part of development of deep geological repository are proposed along with characterization of broader context and aspects of realization of these studies (international cooperation, preparation and evaluation of procedures, communication with public). (author)
A Fovea Localization Scheme Using Vessel Origin-Based Parabolic Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chun-Yuan Yu
2014-09-01
Full Text Available At the center of the macula, fovea plays an important role in computer-aided diagnosis. To locate the fovea, this paper proposes a vessel origin (VO-based parabolic model, which takes the VO as the vertex of the parabola-like vasculature. Image processing steps are applied to accurately locate the fovea on retinal images. Firstly, morphological gradient and the circular Hough transform are used to find the optic disc. The structure of the vessel is then segmented with the line detector. Based on the characteristics of the VO, four features of VO are extracted, following the Bayesian classification procedure. Once the VO is identified, the VO-based parabolic model will locate the fovea. To find the fittest parabola and the symmetry axis of the retinal vessel, an Shift and Rotation (SR-Hough transform that combines the Hough transform with the shift and rotation of coordinates is presented. Two public databases of retinal images, DRIVE and STARE, are used to evaluate the proposed method. The experiment results show that the average Euclidean distances between the located fovea and the fovea marked by experts in two databases are 9.8 pixels and 30.7 pixels, respectively. The results are stronger than other methods and thus provide a better macular detection for further disease discovery.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
1997-01-01
The present invention relates to new compounds being structurally and functionally similar to Actinomycin D and to combinatorial libraries of such compounds. The Actinomycin D analogues according to the present invention comprise two linear or cyclic peptide moieties constituted by $g...
Introduction to electronic analogue computers
Wass, C A A
1965-01-01
Introduction to Electronic Analogue Computers, Second Revised Edition is based on the ideas and experience of a group of workers at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, Hants. This edition is almost entirely the work of Mr. K. C. Garner, of the College of Aeronautics, Cranfield. As various advances have been made in the technology involving electronic analogue computers, this book presents discussions on the said progress, including some acquaintance with the capabilities of electronic circuits and equipment. This text also provides a mathematical background including simple differen
In vitro structure-activity relationship of Re-cyclized octreotide analogues
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dannoon, Shorouk F. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Bigott-Hennkens, Heather M. [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Ma Lixin [Department of Radiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); International Institute of Nano and Molecular Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Research Service, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Gallazzi, Fabio [Structural Biology Core, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Lewis, Michael R., E-mail: lewismic@missouri.ed [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Research Service, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Jurisson, Silvia S., E-mail: jurissons@missouri.ed [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)
2010-07-15
Introduction: Development of radiolabeled octreotide analogues is of interest for targeting somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-positive tumors for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. We are investigating a direct labeling approach for incorporation of a Re ion into octreotide analogues, where the peptide sequences are cyclized via coordination to Re rather than through a disulfide bridge. Methods: Various octreotide analogue sequences and coordination systems (e.g., S{sub 2}N{sub 2} and S{sub 3}N) were synthesized and cyclized with nonradioactive Re. In vitro competitive binding assays with {sup 111}In-DOTA-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide in AR42J rat pancreatic tumor cells yielded IC{sub 50} values as a measure of SSTR affinity of the Re-cyclized analogues. Three-dimensional structures of Re-cyclized Tyr{sup 3}-octreotate and its disulfide-bridged analogue were calculated from two-dimensional NMR experiments to visualize the effect of metal cyclization on the analogue's pharmacophore. Results: Only two of the 11 Re-cyclized analogues investigated showed moderate in vitro binding affinity toward somatostatin subtype 2 receptors. Three-dimensional molecular structures of Re- and disulfide-cyclized Tyr{sup 3}-octreotate were calculated, and both of their pharmacophore turns appear to be very similar with minor differences due to metal coordination to the amide nitrogen of one of the pharmacophore amino acids. Conclusions: Various Re-cyclized analogues were developed and analogue 4 had moderate affinity toward somatostatin subtype 2 receptors. In vitro stable studies that are in progress showed stable radiometal cyclization of octreotide analogues via NS{sub 3} and N{sub 2}S{sub 2} coordination forming five- and six-membered chelate rings. In vivo biodistribution studies are underway of {sup 99m}Tc-cyclized analogue 4.
A novel lunar bed rest analogue.
Cavanagh, Peter R; Rice, Andrea J; Licata, Angelo A; Kuklis, Matthew M; Novotny, Sara C; Genc, Kerim O; Englehaupt, Ricki K; Hanson, Andrea M
2013-11-01
Humans will eventually return to the Moon and thus there is a need for a ground-based analogue to enable the study of physiological adaptations to lunar gravity. An important unanswered question is whether or not living on the lunar surface will provide adequate loading of the musculoskeletal system to prevent or attenuate the bone loss that is seen in microgravity. Previous simulations have involved tilting subjects to an approximately 9.5 degrees angle to achieve a lunar gravity component parallel to the long-axis of the body. However, subjects in these earlier simulations were not weight-bearing, and thus these protocols did not provide an analogue for load on the musculoskeletal system. We present a novel analogue which includes the capability to simulate standing and sitting in a lunar loading environment. A bed oriented at a 9.5 degrees angle was mounted on six linear bearings and was free to travel with one degree of freedom along rails. This allowed approximately 1/6 body weight loading of the feet during standing. "Lunar" sitting was also successfully simulated. A feasibility study demonstrated that the analogue was tolerated by subjects for 6 d of continuous bed rest and that the reaction forces at the feet during periods of standing were a reasonable simulation of lunar standing. During the 6 d, mean change in the volume of the quadriceps muscles was -1.6% +/- 1.7%. The proposed analogue would appear to be an acceptable simulation of lunar gravity and deserves further exploration in studies of longer duration.
ON A PARABOLIC FREE BOUNDARY EQUATION MODELING PRICE FORMATION
MARKOWICH, P. A.
2009-10-01
We discuss existence and uniqueness of solutions for a one-dimensional parabolic evolution equation with a free boundary. This problem was introduced by Lasry and Lions as description of the dynamical formation of the price of a trading good. Short time existence and uniqueness is established by a contraction argument. Then we discuss the issue of global-in-time-extension of the local solution which is closely related to the regularity of the free boundary. We also present numerical results. © 2009 World Scientific Publishing Company.
ON A PARABOLIC FREE BOUNDARY EQUATION MODELING PRICE FORMATION
MARKOWICH, P. A.; MATEVOSYAN, N.; PIETSCHMANN, J.-F.; WOLFRAM, M.-T.
2009-01-01
We discuss existence and uniqueness of solutions for a one-dimensional parabolic evolution equation with a free boundary. This problem was introduced by Lasry and Lions as description of the dynamical formation of the price of a trading good. Short time existence and uniqueness is established by a contraction argument. Then we discuss the issue of global-in-time-extension of the local solution which is closely related to the regularity of the free boundary. We also present numerical results. © 2009 World Scientific Publishing Company.
Causal structure of analogue spacetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barcelo, Carlos; Liberati, Stefano; Sonego, Sebastiano; Visser, Matt
2004-01-01
The so-called 'analogue models of general relativity' provide a number of specific physical systems, well outside the traditional realm of general relativity, that nevertheless are well-described by the differential geometry of curved spacetime. Specifically, the propagation of perturbations in these condensed matter systems is described by 'effective metrics' that carry with them notions of 'causal structure' as determined by an exchange of quasi-particles. These quasi-particle-induced causal structures serve as specific examples of what can be done in the presence of a Lorentzian metric without having recourse to the Einstein equations of general relativity. (After all, the underlying analogue model is governed by its own specific physics, not necessarily by the Einstein equations.) In this paper we take a careful look at what can be said about the causal structure of analogue spacetimes, focusing on those containing quasi-particle horizons, both with a view to seeing what is different from standard general relativity, and what the similarities might be. For definiteness, and because the physics is particularly simple to understand, we will phrase much of the discussion in terms of acoustic disturbances in moving fluids, where the underlying physics is ordinary fluid mechanics, governed by the equations of traditional hydrodynamics, and the relevant quasi-particles are the phonons. It must however be emphasized that this choice of example is only for the sake of pedagogical simplicity and that our considerations apply generically to wide classes of analogue spacetimes
Natural analogues and radionuclide transport model validation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lever, D.A.
1987-08-01
In this paper, some possible roles for natural analogues are discussed from the point of view of those involved with the development of mathematical models for radionuclide transport and with the use of these models in repository safety assessments. The characteristic features of a safety assessment are outlined in order to address the questions of where natural analogues can be used to improve our understanding of the processes involved and where they can assist in validating the models that are used. Natural analogues have the potential to provide useful information about some critical processes, especially long-term chemical processes and migration rates. There is likely to be considerable uncertainty and ambiguity associated with the interpretation of natural analogues, and thus it is their general features which should be emphasized, and models with appropriate levels of sophistication should be used. Experience gained in modelling the Koongarra uranium deposit in northern Australia is drawn upon. (author)
Inverse Problems for a Parabolic Integrodifferential Equation in a Convolutional Weak Form
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kairi Kasemets
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We deduce formulas for the Fréchet derivatives of cost functionals of several inverse problems for a parabolic integrodifferential equation in a weak formulation. The method consists in the application of an integrated convolutional form of the weak problem and all computations are implemented in regular Sobolev spaces.
On the Ext algebras of parabolic Verma modules and A infinity-structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Klamt, Angela; Stroppel, Catharina
2012-01-01
We study the Ext-algebra of the direct sum of all parabolic Verma modules in the principal block of the Bernstein–Gelfand–Gelfand category O for the Hermitian symmetric pair (gln+m,gln¿glm) and present the corresponding quiver with relations for the cases n=1,2. The Kazhdan–Lusztig combinatorics ...
Admissible solutions for a class of nonlinear parabolic problem with non-negative data
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard; Petzeltová, Hana; Simondon, F.
2001-01-01
Roč. 131, č. 5 (2001), s. 857-883 ISSN 0308-2105 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019703 Keywords : admissible solutions%nonlinear parabolic problem * admissible solutions * comparison principle * non-negative data Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.441, year: 2001
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahonen, L.; Blomqvist, R.; Suksi, J.
1993-01-01
The report gives a summary of the results of investigations carried out in 1992 at the Palmottu natural analogue study site, which is a small U-Th mineralization in Nummi-Pusula, southwestern Finland. Additionally, the report includes several separate articles dealing with various aspects of the Palmottu Analogue Project: (1) deep groundwater flow, (2) interpretation of hydraulic connections, (3) characterization of groundwater colloids, (4) uranium mineral-groundwater equilibrium, (5) water-rock interaction and (6) modelling of in situ matrix diffusion. The Palmottu Analogue Project aims at a more profound understanding of radionuclide transport processes in fractured crystalline bedrock. The essential factors controlling transport are groundwater flow and interaction between water and rock. Accordingly, the study includes (1) structural interpretations partly based on geophysical measurements, (2) hydrological studies including hydraulic drill-hole measurements, (3) flow modelling, (4) hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater, uranium chemistry and colloid chemistry, (5) mineralogical studies, (6) geochemical interpretation and modelling, (7) studies of radionuclide mobilization and retardation including matrix diffusion, and (8) modelling of uranium series data. Palaeohydrogeological aspects, due to the anticipated future glaciation of the Fennoscandian Shield, are of special interest. Quaternary sediments are studied to gain information on post-glacial migration in the overburden. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bryan L Roth
Full Text Available In this paper we determined the pharmacological profiles of novel ketamine and phencyclidine analogues currently used as 'designer drugs' and compared them to the parent substances via the resources of the National Institute of Mental Health Psychoactive Drug Screening Program. The ketamine analogues methoxetamine ((RS-2-(ethylamino-2-(3-methoxyphenylcyclohexanone and 3-MeO-PCE (N-ethyl-1-(3-methoxyphenylcyclohexanamine and the 3- and 4-methoxy analogues of phencyclidine, (1-[1-(3-methoxyphenylcyclohexyl]piperidine and 1-[1-(4-methoxyphenylcyclohexyl]piperidine, were all high affinity ligands for the PCP-site on the glutamate NMDA receptor. In addition methoxetamine and PCP and its analogues displayed appreciable affinities for the serotonin transporter, whilst the PCP analogues exhibited high affinities for sigma receptors. Antagonism of the NMDA receptor is thought to be the key pharmacological feature underlying the actions of dissociative anaesthetics. The novel ketamine and PCP analogues had significant affinities for the NMDA receptor in radioligand binding assays, which may explain their psychotomimetic effects in human users. Additional actions on other targets could be important for delineating side-effects.
Smart reconfigurable parabolic space antenna for variable electromagnetic patterns
Kalra, Sahil; Datta, Rituparna; Munjal, B. S.; Bhattacharya, Bishakh
2018-02-01
An application of reconfigurable parabolic space antenna for satellite is discussed in this paper. The present study focuses on shape morphing of flexible parabolic antenna actuated with Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) wires. The antenna is able to transmit the signals to the desired footprint on earth with a desired gain value. SMA wire based actuation with a locking device is developed for a precise control of Antenna shape. The locking device is efficient to hold the structure in deformed configuration during power cutoff from the system. The maximum controllable deflection at any point using such actuation system is about 25mm with a precision of ±100 m. In order to control the shape of the antenna in a closed feedback loop, a Proportional, Integral and Derivative (PID) based controller is developed using LabVIEW (NI) and experiments are performed. Numerical modeling and analysis of the structure is carried out using finite element software ABAQUS. For data reduction and fast computation, stiffness matrix generated by ABAQUS is condensed by Guyan Reduction technique and shape optimization is performed using Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II). The matching in comparative study between numerical and experimental set-up shows efficacy of our method. Thereafter, Electro-Magnetic (EM) simulations of the deformed shape is carried out using electromagnetic field simulation, High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS). The proposed design is envisaged to be very effective for multipurpose application of satellite system in the future missions of Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poullikkas, Andreas
2009-01-01
In this work a feasibility study is carried out in order to investigate whether the installation of a parabolic trough solar thermal technology for power generation in the Mediterranean region is economically feasible. The case study takes into account the available solar potential for Cyprus, as well as all available data concerning current renewable energy sources policy of the Cyprus Government, including the relevant feed-in tariff. In order to identify the least cost feasible option for the installation of the parabolic trough solar thermal plant a parametric cost-benefit analysis is carried out by varying parameters, such as, parabolic trough solar thermal plant capacity, parabolic trough solar thermal capital investment, operating hours, carbon dioxide emission trading system price, etc. For all above cases the electricity unit cost or benefit before tax, as well as after tax cash flow, net present value, internal rate of return and payback period are calculated. The results indicate that under certain conditions such projects can be profitable. (author)
Application of natural analogues in the Yucca Mountain project - overview
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simmons, Ardyth M.
2003-01-01
The Natural Analogue Synthesis Report (NASR) [1] provides a compilation of information from analogues that test, corroborate, and add confidence to process models and model predictions pertinent to total system performance assessment (TSPA). The report updated previous work [2] with new literature examples and results of quantitative studies conducted by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The intent of the natural analogue studies was to collect corroborative evidence from analogues to demonstrate greater understanding of processes expected to occur during postclosure of a proposed Yucca Mountain repository. Natural analogues, as used here, refer to either natural or anthropogenic systems in which processes similar to those expected to occur in a nuclear waste repository are thought to have occurred over long time periods (decades to millenia) and large spatial scales (up to tens of kilometers). In the past, the YMP has used analogues for testing and building confidence in conceptual and numerical process models in a number of ways. Yucca Mountain mineral alteration phases provided a self-analogue for postclosure alteration [3]. Thermodynamic parameters for silica minerals of the Wairakai, New Zealand geothermal field were added to databases used in geochemical modeling [4]. Scoping calculations of radionuclide transport using the Yucca Mountain TSPA numerical model were conducted for the Peqa Blanca site [5]. Eruption parameters from the Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua, were used to verify codes that model ash plume dispersion [6]. Analogues have also been used in supplemental science and performance analyses to provide multiple lines of evidence in support of both analyses and model reports (AMRs) [7]; in screening arguments for inclusion or exclusion of features, events, and processes (FEP)s in TSPAs; in the quantification of uncertainties [7]; in expert elicitations of volcanic and seismic hazards [8, 9] and in peer reviews [10]. Natural analogues may be applied
Synthesis and anticancer evaluation of spermatinamine analogues
Moosa, Basem
2016-02-04
Spermatinamine was isolated from an Australian marine sponge, Pseudoceratina sp. as an inhibitor of isoprenylcystiene carboxyl methyltransferase (Icmt), an attractive and novel anticancer target. Herein, we report the synthesis of spermatinamine analogues and their cytotoxic evaluation against three human cancer cell lines i.e. cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and prostate carcinoma (DU145). Analogues 12, 14 and 15 were found to be the most potent against one or more cell lines with the IC50 values in the range of 5 - 10 μM. The obtained results suggested that longer polyamine linker along with aromatic oxime substitution provided the most potent analogue compounds against cancer cell lines.
Designing High-Efficiency Thin Silicon Solar Cells Using Parabolic-Pore Photonic Crystals
Bhattacharya, Sayak; John, Sajeev
2018-04-01
We demonstrate the efficacy of wave-interference-based light trapping and carrier transport in parabolic-pore photonic-crystal, thin-crystalline silicon (c -Si) solar cells to achieve above 29% power conversion efficiencies. Using a rigorous solution of Maxwell's equations through a standard finite-difference time domain scheme, we optimize the design of the vertical-parabolic-pore photonic crystal (PhC) on a 10 -μ m -thick c -Si solar cell to obtain a maximum achievable photocurrent density (MAPD) of 40.6 mA /cm2 beyond the ray-optical, Lambertian light-trapping limit. For a slanted-parabolic-pore PhC that breaks x -y symmetry, improved light trapping occurs due to better coupling into parallel-to-interface refraction modes. We achieve the optimum MAPD of 41.6 mA /cm2 for a tilt angle of 10° with respect to the vertical axis of the pores. This MAPD is further improved to 41.72 mA /cm2 by introducing a 75-nm SiO2 antireflective coating on top of the solar cell. We use this MAPD and the associated charge-carrier generation profile as input for a numerical solution of Poisson's equation coupled with semiconductor drift-diffusion equations using a Shockley-Read-Hall and Auger recombination model. Using experimentally achieved surface recombination velocities of 10 cm /s , we identify semiconductor doping profiles that yield power conversion efficiencies over 29%. Practical considerations of additional upper-contact losses suggest efficiencies close to 28%. This improvement beyond the current world record is largely due to an open-circuit voltage approaching 0.8 V enabled by reduced bulk recombination in our thin silicon architecture while maintaining a high short-circuit current through wave-interference-based light trapping.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davenport, C. M.
1977-02-01
The mathematical basis for an ultraprecise digital differential analyzer circuit for use as a parabolic interpolator on numerically controlled machines has been established, and scaling and other error-reduction techniques have been developed. An exact computer model is included, along with typical results showing tracking to within an accuracy of one part per million.
Moving Least Squares Method for a One-Dimensional Parabolic Inverse Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baiyu Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the numerical solution of a class of one-dimensional inverse parabolic problems using the moving least squares approximation; the inverse problem is the determination of an unknown source term depending on time. The collocation method is used for solving the equation; some numerical experiments are presented and discussed to illustrate the stability and high efficiency of the method.
Annealed asymptotics for the parabolic Anderson model with a moving catalyst
Gärtner, J.; Heydenreich, M.O.
2006-01-01
This paper deals with the solution u to the parabolic Anderson equation ¿u/¿t=¿¿u+¿u on the lattice . We consider the case where the potential ¿ is time-dependent and has the form ¿(t,x)=d0(x-Yt) with Yt being a simple random walk with jump rate 2d. The solution u may be interpreted as the
Pressure Distribution on Inner Wall of Parabolic Nozzle in Laser Propulsion with Single Pulse
Cui, Cunyan; Hong, Yanji; Wen, Ming; Song, Junling; Fang, Juan
2011-11-01
A system based of dynamic pressure sensors was established to study the time resolved pressure distribution on the inner wall of a parabolic nozzle in laser propulsion. Dynamic calibration and static calibration of the test system were made and the results showed that frequency response was up to 412 kHz and linear error was less than 10%. Experimental model was a parabolic nozzle and three test points were preset along one generating line. This study showed that experimental results agreed well with those obtained by numerical calculation way in pressure evolution tendency. The peak value of the calculation was higher than that of the experiment at each tested orifice because of the limitation of the numerical models. The results of this study were very useful for analyzing the energy deposition in laser propulsion and modifying numerical models.
Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Design Using Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.
2011-08-01
Parabolic trough power plants can provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage (TES) or backup heat from fossil fuels. This paper describes a gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines a solar contribution greater than 50% with gas heat rates that rival those of natural gas combined-cycle plants. Previous work illustrated benefits of integrating gas turbines with conventional oil heat-transfer-fluid (HTF) troughs running at 390?C. This work extends that analysis to examine the integration of gas turbines with salt-HTF troughs running at 450 degrees C and including TES. Using gas turbine waste heat to supplement the TES system provides greater operating flexibility while enhancing the efficiency of gas utilization. The analysis indicates that the hybrid plant design produces solar-derived electricity and gas-derived electricity at lower cost than either system operating alone.
Conformationally restrained aromatic analogues of fosmidomycin and FR900098.
Kurz, Thomas; Schlüter, Katrin; Pein, Miriam; Behrendt, Christoph; Bergmann, Bärbel; Walter, Rolf D
2007-07-01
The synthesis and in-vitro antimalarial activity of conformationally restrained bis(pivaloyloxymethyl) ester analogues of the natural product fosmidomycin is presented. In contrast to alpha-aryl-substituted analogues, conformationally restrained aromatic analogues exhibit only moderate in-vitro antimalarial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive strain 3D7 of Plasmodium falciparum. The most active derivative displays an IC(50) value of 47 microM.
A compound parabolic concentrator as an ultracold neutron spectrometer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hickerson, K.P., E-mail: hickerson@gmail.com; Filippone, B.W., E-mail: bradf@caltech.edu
2013-09-01
The design principles of nonimaging optics are applied to ultracold neutrons (UCN). In particular a vertical compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) that efficiently redirects UCN vertically into a bounded spatial volume where they have a maximum energy mga that depends only on the initial phase space cross sectional area πa{sup 2} creates a spectrometer which can be applied to neutron lifetime and gravitational quantum state experiments. -- Highlights: • Nonimaging optics is applied to ultracold neutrons. • A novel ultracold neutron spectrometer is discussed. • New uses may include a neutron lifetime experiment.
A compound parabolic concentrator as an ultracold neutron spectrometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hickerson, K.P.; Filippone, B.W.
2013-01-01
The design principles of nonimaging optics are applied to ultracold neutrons (UCN). In particular a vertical compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) that efficiently redirects UCN vertically into a bounded spatial volume where they have a maximum energy mga that depends only on the initial phase space cross sectional area πa 2 creates a spectrometer which can be applied to neutron lifetime and gravitational quantum state experiments. -- Highlights: • Nonimaging optics is applied to ultracold neutrons. • A novel ultracold neutron spectrometer is discussed. • New uses may include a neutron lifetime experiment
An air-based corrugated cavity-receiver for solar parabolic trough concentrators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bader, Roman; Pedretti, Andrea; Barbato, Maurizio; Steinfeld, Aldo
2015-01-01
Highlights: • We analyze a novel tubular cavity-receiver for solar parabolic trough collectors. • Four-fold solar concentration ratio is reached compared to conventional receivers. • Efficient operation at up to 500 °C is possible. • The pumping power requirement is found to be acceptably low. - Abstract: A tubular cavity-receiver that uses air as the heat transfer fluid is evaluated numerically using a validated heat transfer model. The receiver is designed for use on a large-span (9 m net concentrator aperture width) solar parabolic trough concentrator. Through the combination of a parabolic primary concentrator with a nonimaging secondary concentrator, the collector reaches a solar concentration ratio of 97.5. Four different receiver configurations are considered, with smooth or V-corrugated absorber tube and single- or double-glazed aperture window. The collector’s performance is characterized by its optical efficiency and heat loss. The optical efficiency is determined with the Monte Carlo ray-tracing method. Radiative heat exchange inside the receiver is calculated with the net radiation method. The 2D steady-state energy equation, which couples conductive, convective, and radiative heat transfer, is solved for the solid domains of the receiver cross-section, using finite-volume techniques. Simulations for Sevilla/Spain at the summer solstice at solar noon (direct normal solar irradiance: 847 W m −2 , solar incidence angle: 13.9°) yield collector efficiencies between 60% and 65% at a heat transfer fluid temperature of 125 °C and between 37% and 42% at 500 °C, depending on the receiver configuration. The optical losses amount to more than 30% of the incident solar radiation and constitute the largest source of energy loss. For a 200 m long collector module operated between 300 and 500 °C, the isentropic pumping power required to pump the HTF through the receiver is between 11 and 17 kW
Performance and Simulation of a Stand-alone Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Power Plant
Mohammad, S. T.; Al-Kayiem, H. H.; Assadi, M. K.; Gilani, S. I. U. H.; Khlief, A. K.
2018-05-01
In this paper, a Simulink® Thermolib Model has been established for simulation performance evaluation of Stand-alone Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Power Plant in Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia. This paper proposes a design of 1.2 kW parabolic trough power plant. The model is capable to predict temperatures at any system outlet in the plant, as well as the power output produced. The conditions that are taken into account as input to the model are: local solar radiation and ambient temperatures, which have been measured during the year. Other parameters that have been input to the model are the collector’s sizes, location in terms of latitude and altitude. Lastly, the results are presented in graphical manner to describe the analysed variations of various outputs of the solar fields obtained, and help to predict the performance of the plant. The developed model allows an initial evaluation of the viability and technical feasibility of any similar solar thermal power plant.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Ibarra-Berastegi
2011-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, reanalysis fields from the ECMWF have been statistically downscaled to predict from large-scale atmospheric fields, surface moisture flux and daily precipitation at two observatories (Zaragoza and Tortosa, Ebro Valley, Spain during the 1961–2001 period. Three types of downscaling models have been built: (i analogues, (ii analogues followed by random forests and (iii analogues followed by multiple linear regression. The inputs consist of data (predictor fields taken from the ERA-40 reanalysis. The predicted fields are precipitation and surface moisture flux as measured at the two observatories. With the aim to reduce the dimensionality of the problem, the ERA-40 fields have been decomposed using empirical orthogonal functions. Available daily data has been divided into two parts: a training period used to find a group of about 300 analogues to build the downscaling model (1961–1996 and a test period (1997–2001, where models' performance has been assessed using independent data. In the case of surface moisture flux, the models based on analogues followed by random forests do not clearly outperform those built on analogues plus multiple linear regression, while simple averages calculated from the nearest analogues found in the training period, yielded only slightly worse results. In the case of precipitation, the three types of model performed equally. These results suggest that most of the models' downscaling capabilities can be attributed to the analogues-calculation stage.
Radu, F.A.; Pop, I.S.; Knabner, P.; Bermúdez de Castro, A.; Gómez, D.; Quintela, P.; Salgado, P.
2006-01-01
In this paper we discuss some iterative approaches for solving the nonlinear algebraic systems encountered as fully discrete counterparts of some degenerate (fast diffusion) parabolic problems. After regularization, we combine a mixed finite element discretization with the Euler implicit scheme. For
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission natural analogue research program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovach, L.A.; Ott, W.R.
1995-01-01
This article describes the natural analogue research program of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC). It contains information on the regulatory context and organizational structure of the high-level radioactive waste research program plan. It also includes information on the conditions and processes constraining selection of natural analogues, describes initiatives of the US NRC, and describes the role of analogues in the licensing process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uko, L.U.
1990-02-01
We study a scheme for the time-discretization of parabolic variational inequalities that is often easier to use than the classical method of Rothe. We show that if the data are compatible in a certain sense, then this scheme is of order ≥1/2. (author). 10 refs
Insulin analogues and cancer: a note of caution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joseph A.M.J.L. eJanssen
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract In view of the lifelong exposure and large patient populations involved, insulin analogues with an increased mitogenic effect in comparison to human insulin may potentially constitute a major health problem, since these analogues may possibly induce the growth of pre-existing neoplasms. At present, the available data suggest that insulin analogues are safe. In line with these findings, we observed that serum of diabetic patients treated with insulin analogues, compared to that of diabetic patients treated with human insulin, did not induce an increased phosphorylation of tyrosine residues of the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR. However, the classical model of the IGF-IR signaling may be insufficient to explain (all mitogenic effects of insulin analogues since also non-canonical signaling pathways of the IGF-IR may play a major role in this respect. Although phosphorylation of tyrosine residues of the IGF-IR is generally considered to be the initial activation step within the intracellular IGF-IR signaling pathway, it has been found that cells undergo a signaling switch under hyperglycemic conditions. After this switch, a completely different mechanism is utilized to activate the mitogenic (mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways of the IGF-IR that is independent from tyrosine phosphorylation of the IGF-IR. At present it is unknown whether activation of this alternative intracellular pathway of the IGF-IR occurs during hyperglycemia in vivo and whether it is stronger in patients treated with (some insulin analogues than in patients treated with human insulin. In addition, it is unknown whether the insulin receptors (IRs also undergo a signaling switch during hyperglycemia. This should be investigated in future studies. Finally, relative overexpression of IR isoform A (IR-A in (pre cancer tissues may play a key role in the development and progression of human cancers during treatment with insulin (analogues. Further
Regulation of ICAM-1 in Cells of the Monocyte/Macrophage System in Microgravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katrin Paulsen
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Cells of the immune system are highly sensitive to altered gravity, and the monocyte as well as the macrophage function is proven to be impaired under microgravity conditions. In our study, we investigated the surface expression of ICAM-1 protein and expression of ICAM-1 mRNA in cells of the monocyte/macrophage system in microgravity during clinostat, parabolic flight, sounding rocket, and orbital experiments. In murine BV-2 microglial cells, we detected a downregulation of ICAM-1 expression in clinorotation experiments and a rapid and reversible downregulation in the microgravity phase of parabolic flight experiments. In contrast, ICAM-1 expression increased in macrophage-like differentiated human U937 cells during the microgravity phase of parabolic flights and in long-term microgravity provided by a 2D clinostat or during the orbital SIMBOX/Shenzhou-8 mission. In nondifferentiated U937 cells, no effect of microgravity on ICAM-1 expression could be observed during parabolic flight experiments. We conclude that disturbed immune function in microgravity could be a consequence of ICAM-1 modulation in the monocyte/macrophage system, which in turn could have a strong impact on the interaction with T lymphocytes and cell migration. Thus, ICAM-1 can be considered as a rapid-reacting and sustained gravity-regulated molecule in mammalian cells.
Characterisation of insulin analogues therapeutically available to patients
Adams, Gary G.
2018-03-29
The structure and function of clinical dosage insulin and its analogues were assessed. This included \\'native insulins\\' (human recombinant, bovine, porcine), \\'fast-acting analogues\\' (aspart, glulisine, lispro) and \\'slow-acting analogues\\' (glargine, detemir, degludec). Analytical ultracentrifugation, both sedimentation velocity and equilibrium experiments, were employed to yield distributions of both molar mass and sedimentation coefficient of all nine insulins. Size exclusion chromatography, coupled to multi-angle light scattering, was also used to explore the function of these analogues. On ultracentrifugation analysis, the insulins under investigation were found to be in numerous conformational states, however the majority of insulins were present in a primarily hexameric conformation. This was true for all native insulins and two fast-acting analogues. However, glargine was present as a dimer, detemir was a multi-hexameric system, degludec was a dodecamer (di-hexamer) and glulisine was present as a dimer-hexamer-dihexamer system. However, size-exclusion chromatography showed that the two hexameric fast-acting analogues (aspart and lispro) dissociated into monomers and dimers due to the lack of zinc in the mobile phase. This comprehensive study is the first time all nine insulins have been characterised in this way, the first time that insulin detemir have been studied using analytical ultracentrifugation and the first time that insulins aspart and glulisine have been studied using sedimentation equilibrium. The structure and function of these clinically administered insulins is of critical importance and this research adds novel data to an otherwise complex functional physiological protein.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jafari Mosleh, H.; Jahangiri Mamouri, S.; Shafii, M.B.; Hakim Sima, A.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • A new desalination uses a combination of heat pipe and parabolic trough collector. • A twin-glass evacuated tube is used to decrease the thermal losses from heat pipe. • Adding oil into the space between heat pipe and tube collector enhances the yield. • The yield and efficiency reach up to 0.933 kg/(m 2 h) and 65.2%, respectively. - Abstract: The solar collectors have been commonly used in desalination systems. Recent investigations show that the use of a linear parabolic trough collector in solar stills can improve the efficiency of a desalination system. In this work, a combination of a heat pipe and a twin-glass evacuated tube collector is utilized with a parabolic trough collector. Results show that the rate of production and efficiency can reach to 0.27 kg/(m 2 h) and 22.1% when aluminum conducting foils are used in the space between the heat pipe and the twin-glass evacuated tube collector to transfer heat from the tube collector to the heat pipe. When oil is used as a medium for the transfer of heat, filling the space between heat pipe and twin-glass evacuated tube collector, the production and efficiency can increase to 0.933 kg/(m 2 h) and 65.2%, respectively
Fungal growth inhibitory properties of new phytosphingolipid analogues.
Mormeneo, D; Manresa, A; Casas, J; Llebaria, A; Delgado, A
2008-04-01
To study the growth inhibitory properties of a series of phytosphingosine (PHS) and phytoceramide (PHC) analogues. A panel of two yeast (Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and six moulds (Aspergillus repens, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Arthroderma uncinatum and Penicillium funiculosum) has been used in this study. A series of new PHS and PHC analogues differing at the sphingoid backbone and the functional group at C1 position were synthesized. Among PHS analogues, 1-azido derivative 1c, bearing the natural D-ribo stereochemistry, showed a promising growth inhibitory profile. Among PHC analogues, compound 12, with a bulky N-pivaloyl group and a Z double bond at C3 position of the sphingoid chain, was the most active growth inhibitor. Minimal inhibitory concentration values were in the range of 23-48 micromol l(-1) for 1c and 44-87 micromol l(-1) for 12. Only scattered data on the antifungal activity of phytosphingolipids have been reported in the literature. This is the first time that a series of analogues of this kind are tested and compared to discern their structural requirements for antifungal activity.
Modeling of a Parabolic Trough Solar Field for Acceptance Testing: A Case Study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wagner, M. J.; Mehos, M. S.; Kearney, D. W.; McMahan, A. C.
2011-01-01
As deployment of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) systems ramps up, the need for reliable and robust performance acceptance test guidelines for the solar field is also amplified. Project owners and/or EPC contractors often require extensive solar field performance testing as part of the plant commissioning process in order to ensure that actual solar field performance satisfies both technical specifications and performance guaranties between the involved parties. Performance test code work is currently underway at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in collaboration with the SolarPACES Task-I activity, and within the ASME PTC-52 committee. One important aspect of acceptance testing is the selection of a robust technology performance model. NREL1 has developed a detailed parabolic trough performance model within the SAM software tool. This model is capable of predicting solar field, sub-system, and component performance. It has further been modified for this work to support calculation at subhourly time steps. This paper presents the methodology and results of a case study comparing actual performance data for a parabolic trough solar field to the predicted results using the modified SAM trough model. Due to data limitations, the methodology is applied to a single collector loop, though it applies to larger subfields and entire solar fields. Special consideration is provided for the model formulation, improvements to the model formulation based on comparison with the collected data, and uncertainty associated with the measured data. Additionally, this paper identifies modeling considerations that are of particular importance in the solar field acceptance testing process and uses the model to provide preliminary recommendations regarding acceptable steady-state testing conditions at the single-loop level.
State selective reactions of cosmic dust analogues at cryogenic temperatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perry, James Samuel Anthony
2001-01-01
Molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) is the most abundant molecule in interstellar space. It is crucial for initiating all of the chemistry in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and consequently plays an important role in star formation. However, the amount of H 2 believed to exist in the ISM cannot be accounted for by formation through gas-phase reactions alone. The current, widely accepted theory, is that H 2 forms on the surface of cosmic dust grains. These grains are thought to be composed of amorphous forms of carbon or silicates with temperatures of around 10 K. This thesis describes a new experiment that has been constructed to study H 2 formation on the surface of cosmic dust analogues and presents the initial experimental results. The experiment simulates, through ultra-high vacuum and the use of cryogenics, the conditions of the ISM where cosmic dust grains and H 2 molecules exist. During the experiment, a beam of atomic hydrogen is aimed at a cosmic dust analogue target. H 2 formed on the target's surface is ionised using a laser spectroscopy technique known as Resonance Enhanced Multiphoton lonisation (REMPI) and detected using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The sensitivity of REMPI is such that H 2 molecules can be ionised in selective internal energy states. This allows the rovibrational populations of the H 2 molecules desorbing from the cosmic dust targets to be determined, providing information on the energy budget of the H 2 formation process in the ISM. Preliminary results from the experiment show that H 2 molecules formed on a diamond-like-carbon surface have a significant non-thermal population of excited vibrational and rotational energy states. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weifeng Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We study an optimal control problem governed by a semilinear parabolic equation, whose control variable is contained only in the boundary condition. An existence theorem for the optimal control is obtained.
CO2 Capture with Enzyme Synthetic Analogue
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cordatos, Harry
2010-11-08
Overview of an ongoing, 2 year research project partially funded by APRA-E to create a novel, synthetic analogue of carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it into a membrane for removal of CO2 from flue gas in coal power plants. Mechanism background, preliminary feasibility study results, molecular modeling of analogue-CO2 interaction, and program timeline are provided.
Orgel, Csilla; Kereszturi, Ákos; Váczi, Tamás; Groemer, Gernot; Sattler, Birgit
2014-02-01
Between 15 and 25 April 2011 in the framework of the PolAres programme of the Austrian Space Forum, a five-day field test of the Aouda.X spacesuit simulator was conducted at the Rio Tinto Mars-analogue site in southern Spain. The field crew was supported by a full-scale Mission Control Center (MCC) in Innsbruck, Austria. The field telemetry data were relayed to the MCC, enabling a Remote Science Support (RSS) team to study field data in near-real-time and adjust the flight planning in a flexible manner. We report on the experiences in the field of robotics, geophysics (Ground Penetrating Radar) and geology as well as life sciences in a simulated spaceflight operational environment. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) maps had been prepared using Google Earth and aerial images. The Rio Tinto mining area offers an excellent location for Mars analogue simulations. It is recognised as a terrestrial Mars analogue site because of the presence of jarosite and related sulphates, which have been identified by the NASA Mars Exploration Rover "Opportunity" in the El Capitan region of Meridiani Planum on Mars. The acidic, high ferric-sulphate content water of Rio Tinto is also considered as a possible analogue in astrobiology regarding the analysis of ferric sulphate related biochemical pathways and produced biomarkers. During our Mars simulation, 18 different types of soil and rock samples were collected by the spacesuit tester. The Raman results confirm the presence of minerals expected, such as jarosite, different Fe oxides and oxi-hydroxides, pyrite and complex Mg and Ca sulphates. Eight science experiments were conducted in the field. In this contribution first we list the important findings during the management and realisation of tests, and also a first summary of the scientific results. Based on these experiences suggestions for future analogue work are also summarised. We finish with recommendations for future field missions, including the preparation of the experiments
Insulin analogues with improved absorption characteristics.
Brange, J; Hansen, J F; Langkjaer, L; Markussen, J; Ribel, U; Sørensen, A R
1992-01-01
The insulin preparations available today are not ideal for therapy as s.c. injection does not provide a physiological insulin profile. With the aim to improve the absorption properties recombinant DNA technology has been utilized to design novel insulin molecules with changed physico-chemical characteristics and hence altered subcutaneous absorption kinetics. Soluble, long-acting human insulin analogues in which the isoelectric point has been increased from 5.4 to approx. 7 are absorbed very slowly, providing a more constant basal insulin delivery with lower day-to-day variation than present protracted preparations. In addition they have better storage stability. Rapid-acting human insulin analogues with largely reduced self-association are absorbed substantially faster from subcutaneous tissue than current regular insulin and thus are better suited for bolus injection. The absorption kinetics of these analogues have been able to explain the mechanism behind the dose effect on insulin absorption rate.
Stability and instability of stationary solutions for sublinear parabolic equations
Kajikiya, Ryuji
2018-01-01
In the present paper, we study the initial boundary value problem of the sublinear parabolic equation. We prove the existence of solutions and investigate the stability and instability of stationary solutions. We show that a unique positive and a unique negative stationary solutions are exponentially stable and give the exact exponent. We prove that small stationary solutions are unstable. For one space dimensional autonomous equations, we elucidate the structure of stationary solutions and study the stability of all stationary solutions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evans, H.E.; Norfolk, D.J.; Swan, T.
1978-01-01
A frequent observation in metal oxidation is the development of subparabolic kinetics, variously described as cubic or quartic. Although a number of detailed mechanisms have been proposed to account for this effect, none seem generally applicable. A model is presented of the oxidation process which is divorced from such restrictions. It is argued that deviations from parabolic behavior occur as a result of the concurrent development of stresses within the oxide. It is shown that the presence of stress fields can influence significantly the rate of transport of vacancy defects within the oxide such that tensile stresses produce positive deviations and compressive stresses, negative deviations from parabolic behavior. The model is applied in detail to Zircaloy-2 oxidation at 773 0 K. It is predicted that the kinetics should be insensitive to the oxygen potential of the environment and this has been confirmed by previous experimental work. 31 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyer, Chad D.; Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Aslam, Tariq D.
2014-01-01
Parabolic partial differential equations appear in several physical problems, including problems that have a dominant hyperbolic part coupled to a sub-dominant parabolic component. Explicit methods for their solution are easy to implement but have very restrictive time step constraints. Implicit solution methods can be unconditionally stable but have the disadvantage of being computationally costly or difficult to implement. Super-time-stepping methods for treating parabolic terms in mixed type partial differential equations occupy an intermediate position. In such methods each superstep takes “s” explicit Runge–Kutta-like time-steps to advance the parabolic terms by a time-step that is s 2 times larger than a single explicit time-step. The expanded stability is usually obtained by mapping the short recursion relation of the explicit Runge–Kutta scheme to the recursion relation of some well-known, stable polynomial. Prior work has built temporally first- and second-order accurate super-time-stepping methods around the recursion relation associated with Chebyshev polynomials. Since their stability is based on the boundedness of the Chebyshev polynomials, these methods have been called RKC1 and RKC2. In this work we build temporally first- and second-order accurate super-time-stepping methods around the recursion relation associated with Legendre polynomials. We call these methods RKL1 and RKL2. The RKL1 method is first-order accurate in time; the RKL2 method is second-order accurate in time. We verify that the newly-designed RKL1 and RKL2 schemes have a very desirable monotonicity preserving property for one-dimensional problems – a solution that is monotone at the beginning of a time step retains that property at the end of that time step. It is shown that RKL1 and RKL2 methods are stable for all values of the diffusion coefficient up to the maximum value. We call this a convex monotonicity preserving property and show by examples that it is very useful
Natural analogue working group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Come, B.; Chapman, N.
1986-01-01
A Natural Analogue Working Group was established by the Commission of the European Communities in 1985. The purpose of this group is to bring together modellers with earth scientists and others, so that maximum benefit can be obtained from natural analogue studies with a view to safe geological disposal of radioactive waste. The first meeting of this group was held in Brussels from November 5 to 7, 1985. The discussions mainly concerned the identification of the modellers' needs and of the earth scientists' capacity to provide for them. Following the debates, a written statement was produced by the Group; this document forms the core of the present Report. Notes and outlines of many of the presentations made are grouped in four appendixes. The valuable contribution of all those involved in the meeting is gratefully acknowledged
Segal, Meirav; Fischer, Bilha
2012-02-28
Uridine cannot be utilized as fluorescent probe due to its extremely low quantum yield. For improving the uracil fluorescence characteristics we extended the natural chromophore at the C5 position by coupling substituted aromatic rings directly or via an alkenyl or alkynyl linker to create fluorophores. Extension of the uracil base was achieved by treating 5-I-uridine with the appropriate boronic acid under the Suzuki coupling conditions. Analogues containing an alkynyl linker were obtained from 5-I-uridine and the suitable boronic acid in a Sonogashira coupling reaction. The uracil fluorescent analogues proposed here were designed to satisfy the following requirements: a minimal chemical modification at a position not involved in base-pairing, resulting in relatively long absorption and emission wavelengths and high quantum yield. 5-((4-Methoxy-phenyl)-trans-vinyl)-2'-deoxy-uridine, 6b, was found to be a promising fluorescent probe. Probe 6b exhibits a quantum yield that is 3000-fold larger than that of the natural chromophore (Φ 0.12), maximum emission (478 nm) which is 170 nm red shifted as compared to uridine, and a Stokes shift of 143 nm. In addition, since probe 6b adopts the anti conformation and S sugar puckering favored by B-DNA, it makes a promising nucleoside analogue to be incorporated in an oligonucleotide probe for detection of genetic material.
Ground-facilities at the DLR Institute of Aerospace Medicine for preparation of flight experiments
Hemmersbach, Ruth; Hendrik Anken, Ralf; Hauslage, Jens; von der Wiesche, Melanie; Baerwalde, Sven; Schuber, Marianne
In order to investigate the influence of altered gravity on biological systems and to identify gravisensitive processes, various experimental platforms have been developed, which are useful to simulate weightlessness or are able to produce hypergravity. At the Institute of Aerospace Medicine, DLR Cologne, a broad spectrum of applications is offered to scientists: clinostats with one rotation axis and variable rotation speeds for cultivation of small objects (including aquatic organisms) in simulated weightlessness conditions, for online microscopic observations and for online kinetic measurements. Own research concentrates on comparative studies with other kinds of methods to simulate weightlessness, also available at the institute: Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) for aquatic studies, Random Positioning Machine (RPM; manufactured by Dutch Space, Leiden, The Netherlands). Correspondingly, various centrifuge devices are available to study different test objects under hypergravity conditions -such as NIZEMI, a slow rotating centrifuge microscope, and MUSIC, a multi-sample centrifuge. Mainly for experiments with human test subjects (artificial gravity), but also for biological systems or for testing various kinds of (flight-) hardware, the SAHC, a short arm human centrifuge -loaned by ESA -was installed in Cologne and completes our experimental scenario. Furthermore, due to our specific tasks such as providing laboratories during the German Parabolic Flight Experiments starting from Cologne and being the Facility Responsible Center for BIOLAB, a science rack in the Columbus module aboard the ISS, scientists have the possibility for an optimal preparation of their flight experiments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng, Wandong; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Huan; You, Shijun; Zhu, Chunguang
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A serpentine compound parabolic concentrator solar collector is proposed. • A mathematical model for the new collector is developed and verified by experiments. • The thermal efficiency of the collector can be up to 60.5% during the experiments. • The effects of key parameters on the thermal performance are mathematically studied. - Abstract: In order to improve the thermal efficiency, reduce the heat losses and achieve high freezing resistance of the solar device for space heating in cold regions, a new type of serpentine compound parabolic concentrator solar collector is presented in this paper, which is a combination of a compound parabolic concentrator solar collector and a flat plate solar collector. A detailed mathematical model for the new collector based on the analysis of heat transfer is developed and then solved by the software tool Matlab. The numerical results are compared with the experimental data and the maximum deviation is 8.07%, which shows a good agreement with each other. The experimental results show that the thermal efficiency of the collector can be as high as 60.5%. The model is used to predict the thermal performance of the new collector. The effects of structure and operating parameters on the thermal performance are mathematically discussed. The numerical and experimental results show that the new collector is more suitable to provide low temperature hot water for space heating in cold regions and the mathematical model will be much helpful in the designing and optimizing of the solar collectors.
Study on the optical properties of the off-axis parabolic collimator with eccentric pupil
Li, Gang; Gao, Xin; Duan, Jing; Zhang, Henjin
2017-02-01
The off-axis parabolic collimator with eccentric pupil has the advantages of wide spectrum, simple structure, easy assembly and adjustment, high performance price ratio. So, it is widely used for parameters testing and image quality calibration of ground-based and space-based cameras. In addition to the Strehl ratio, resolution, wavefront aberration, modulation transfer function, the general evaluation criteria on the imaging quality of the optical system, the beam parallelism characterize the collimator angle resolving capability and collimation condition of the collimator with the target board, can be measured easily ,quickly and operation process is simple, but the study mainly focus on how to measure it so far. In order to solve Quantitative calculation of this problem, firstly, the discussion of aberration condition of the off- axis parabolic is carried out based on the primary aberration theory. Secondly, analysis on the influencing factor on collimator optical properties is given, including the geometrical aberrations of spherical aberration, coma, astigmatism , the relation between the position of the eccentric pupil and the aberration and optical element surface wavefront aberration, after that, according to the basis of diffraction and wavefront aberration theory, the paper deduced calculation method of the beam parallelism, at last, an example of a 400mm diameter off-axis parabolic collimator with eccentric pupil is given to calculate, the practical results shows that calculation data is well in accordance with actual measurement data and results can meet the demand and has a guiding significance to the actual project manufacture and the theory analysis.
Finite-dimensional global attractors for parabolic nonlinear equations with state-dependent delay
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Chueshov, I.; Rezunenko, Oleksandr
2015-01-01
Roč. 14, č. 5 (2015), s. 1685-1704 ISSN 1534-0392 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/12/2431 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Parabolic evolution equations * state-dependent delay * global attractor * finite-dimension * exponential attractor Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.926, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/AS/rezunenko-0444705.pdf
A landing theorem for entire functions with bounded post-singular sets
Benini, Anna Miriam; Rempe-Gillen, Lasse
2017-01-01
The Douady-Hubbard landing theorem for periodic external rays is one of the cornerstones of the study of polynomial dynamics. It states that, for a complex polynomial with bounded postcritical set, every periodic external ray lands at a repelling or parabolic periodic point, and conversely every repelling or parabolic point is the landing point of at least one periodic external ray. We prove an analogue of this theorem for an entire function with bounded postsingular set: every periodic dread...
Parabolized stability equations
Herbert, Thorwald
1994-01-01
The parabolized stability equations (PSE) are a new approach to analyze the streamwise evolution of single or interacting Fourier modes in weakly nonparallel flows such as boundary layers. The concept rests on the decomposition of every mode into a slowly varying amplitude function and a wave function with slowly varying wave number. The neglect of the small second derivatives of the slowly varying functions with respect to the streamwise variable leads to an initial boundary-value problem that can be solved by numerical marching procedures. The PSE approach is valid in convectively unstable flows. The equations for a single mode are closely related to those of the traditional eigenvalue problems for linear stability analysis. However, the PSE approach does not exploit the homogeneity of the problem and, therefore, can be utilized to analyze forced modes and the nonlinear growth and interaction of an initial disturbance field. In contrast to the traditional patching of local solutions, the PSE provide the spatial evolution of modes with proper account for their history. The PSE approach allows studies of secondary instabilities without the constraints of the Floquet analysis and reproduces the established experimental, theoretical, and computational benchmark results on transition up to the breakdown stage. The method matches or exceeds the demonstrated capabilities of current spatial Navier-Stokes solvers at a small fraction of their computational cost. Recent applications include studies on localized or distributed receptivity and prediction of transition in model environments for realistic engineering problems. This report describes the basis, intricacies, and some applications of the PSE methodology.
On a non classical oblique derivative problem for parabolic singular integro-differential operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Minh Chuong; Le Quang Trung
1989-10-01
In this paper an oblique derivative problem for parabolic singular integro-differential operators was studied. In this problem the direction of the derivative may be tangent to the boundary of the domain. By the large parameter method theorems of existence and uniqueness of solutions of the problem were obtained. (author). 10 refs
A Low-cost Multi-channel Analogue Signal Generator
Müller, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Shen, W; Stamen, R
2009-01-01
A scalable multi-channel analogue signal generator is presented. It uses a commercial low-cost graphics card with multiple outputs in a standard PC as signal source. Each color signal serves as independent channel to generate an analogue signal. A custom-built external PCB was developed to adjust the graphics card output voltage levels for a specific task, which needed differential signals. The system furthermore comprises a software package to program the signal shape. The signal generator was successfully used as independent test bed for the ATLAS Level-1 Trigger Pre-Processor, providing up to 16 analogue signals.
A gradient estimate for solutions to parabolic equations with discontinuous coefficients
Fan, Jishan; Kim, Kyoungsun; Nagayasu, Sei; Nakamura, Gen
2011-01-01
Li-Vogelius and Li-Nirenberg gave a gradient estimate for solutions of strongly elliptic equations and systems of divergence forms with piecewise smooth coefficients, respectively. The discontinuities of the coefficients are assumed to be given by manifolds of codimension 1, which we called them emph{manifolds of discontinuities}. Their gradient estimate is independent of the distances between manifolds of discontinuities. In this paper, we gave a parabolic version of their results. T...
Parabolic Trough Solar Collector Initial Trials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ghalya Pikra
2012-03-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses initial trials of parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC in Bandung. PTSC model consists of concentrator, absorber and tracking system. Concentrator designs are made with 2m aperture width, 6m length and 0.75m focal distance. The design is equipped with an automatic tracking system which is driven using 12V and 24Watt DC motor with 0.0125rpm rotational speed. Absorber/receiver is designed with evacuated tube type, with 1 inch core diameter and tube made of AISI304 and coated with black oxide, the outer tube is borosilicate glass with a 70 mm diameter and 1.5 m length. Working fluid stored in single type of thermal storage tank, a single phase with 37.7 liter volume. PTSC model testing carried out for 2 hours and 10 minutes produces heat output and input of 11.5 kW and 0.64 kW respectively.
Beryllium parabolic refractive x-ray lenses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lengeler, B.; Schroer, C.G.; Kuhlmann, M.; Benner, B.; Guenzler, T.F.; Kurapova, O.; Somogyi, A.; Snigirev, A.; Snigireva, I.
2004-01-01
Parabolic refractive x-ray lenses are novel optical components for the hard x-ray range from about 5 keV to about 120 keV. They focus in both directions. They are compact, robust, and easy to align and to operate. They can be used like glass lenses are used for visible light, the main difference being that the numerical aperture N.A. is much smaller than 1 (of order 10-4 to 10-3). Their main applications are in micro- and nanofocusing, in imaging by absorption and phase contrast and in fluorescence mode. In combination with tomography they allow for 3-dimensional imaging of opaque media with submicrometer resolution. Finally, they can be used in speckle spectroscopy by means of coherent x-ray scattering. Beryllium as lens material strongly enhances the transmission and the field of view as compared to aluminium. With increased N.A. the lateral resolution is also considerably improved with Be lenses. References to a number of applications are given
Synthesis of an Orthogonal Topological Analogue of Helicene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wixe, Torbjörn; Wallentin, Carl‐Johan; Johnson, Magnus T.
2013-01-01
The synthesis of an orthogonal topological pentamer analogue of helicene is presented. This analogue forms a tubular structure with its aromatic systems directed parallel to the axis of propagation, which creates a cavity with the potential to function as a host molecule. The synthetic strategy r...
Analysis of solar water heater with parabolic dish concentrator and conical absorber
Rajamohan, G.; Kumar, P.; Anwar, M.; Mohanraj, T.
2017-06-01
This research focuses on developing novel technique for a solar water heating system. The novel solar system comprises a parabolic dish concentrator, conical absorber and water heater. In this system, the conical absorber tube directly absorbs solar radiation from the sun and the parabolic dish concentrator reflects the solar radiations towards the conical absorber tube from all directions, therefore both radiations would significantly improve the thermal collector efficiency. The working fluid water is stored at the bottom of the absorber tubes. The absorber tubes get heated and increases the temperature of the working fluid inside of the absorber tube and causes the working fluid to partially evaporate. The partially vaporized working fluid moves in the upward direction due to buoyancy effect and enters the heat exchanger. When fresh water passes through the heat exchanger, temperature of the vapour decreases through heat exchange. This leads to condensation of the vapour and forms liquid phase. The working fluid returns to the bottom of the collector absorber tube by gravity. Hence, this will continue as a cyclic process inside the system. The proposed investigation shows an improvement of collector efficiency, enhanced heat transfer and a quality water heating system.
Impurity magnetopolaron in a parabolic quantum dot: the squeezed-state variational approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kandemir, B S; Cetin, A
2005-01-01
We present a calculation of the ground-state binding energy of an impurity magnetopolaron confined in a three-dimensional (3D) parabolic quantum dot potential, in the framework of a variational approach based on two successive canonical transformations. First, we apply a displaced-oscillator type unitary transformation to diagonalize the relevant Froehlich Hamiltonian. Second, a single-mode squeezed-state transformation is introduced to deal with bilinear terms arising from the first transformation. Finally, the parameters of these transformations together with the parameters included in the electronic trial wavefunction are determined variationally to obtain the ground-state binding energy of an impurity magnetopolaron confined in a 3D parabolic quantum dot potential. Our approach has two advantages: first, the displaced-oscillator transformation allows one to obtain results valid for whole range of electron-phonon coupling strength since it is a special combination of Lee-Low-Pines and Huybrechts (LLP-H) canonical transformations, and second, the later transformation improves all-coupling results. It has been shown that the effects of quadratic terms arising from the all-coupling approach are very important and should be taken into account in studying the size-dependent physical properties of nanostructured materials
Dijken, Peter van; Lammers, Aleida A.; Ozaki, Shoichiro; Potter, Barry V.L.; Erneux, Christophe; Haastert, Peter J.M. van
1994-01-01
A series of P-32-labeled D-myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4,5)P-4] analogues was enzymically prepared from the corresponding D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P-3] analogues using recombinant rat brain Ins(1,4,5)P-3 3-kinase and [gamma-P-32]ATP. Ins(1,4,5)P-3 analogues
On the robustness of entanglement in analogue gravity systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruschi, D E; Friis, N; Fuentes, I; Weinfurtner, S
2013-01-01
We investigate the possibility of generating quantum-correlated quasi-particles utilizing analogue gravity systems. The quantumness of these correlations is a key aspect of analogue gravity effects and their presence allows for a clear separation between classical and quantum analogue gravity effects. However, experiments in analogue systems, such as Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) and shallow water waves, are always conducted at non-ideal conditions, in particular, one is dealing with dispersive media at non-zero temperatures. We analyse the influence of the initial temperature on the entanglement generation in analogue gravity phenomena. We lay out all the necessary steps to calculate the entanglement generated between quasi-particle modes and we analytically derive an upper bound on the maximal temperature at which given modes can still be entangled. We further investigate a mechanism to enhance the quantum correlations. As a particular example, we analyse the robustness of the entanglement creation against thermal noise in a sudden quench of an ideally homogeneous BEC, taking into account the super-sonic dispersion relations. (paper)
A preliminary feasibility study on natural analogue in Korea
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Park, Byung Yun
2000-03-01
Preliminary study on the assessment of natural analogue study in Korea for the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste was carried out. The project on natural analogue study in other countries are introduced. The uranium-bearing deposit in Okcheon belt are summarized, which reported to be uranium-bearing minerals in order to assess to feasibility for natural analogue study in Korea. Among the uranium-bearing deposits, the Deokpyeong area, reported to be the highest reservoir and grade, are selected as the study site, and the elementary investigation, including survey of radioactivity and geochemistry are carried out. According to the investigation of surface environment, the radioactivity and uranium content in the surface water and shallow groundwater does not show any anormal values. However, the radioactivity is expected to be increased in depth and the groundwater reacted with uranium-bearing graphite formation shows high unanium content, indicating the potential possibility for natural analogue study in Korea. In future, if more detail study are performed, the assessment of natural analogue study in Korea are expected.
A parabolic model of drag coefficient for storm surge simulation in the South China Sea
Peng, Shiqiu; Li, Yineng
2015-01-01
Drag coefficient (Cd) is an essential metric in the calculation of momentum exchange over the air-sea interface and thus has large impacts on the simulation or forecast of the upper ocean state associated with sea surface winds such as storm surges. Generally, Cd is a function of wind speed. However, the exact relationship between Cd and wind speed is still in dispute, and the widely-used formula that is a linear function of wind speed in an ocean model could lead to large bias at high wind speed. Here we establish a parabolic model of Cd based on storm surge observations and simulation in the South China Sea (SCS) through a number of tropical cyclone cases. Simulation of storm surges for independent Tropical cyclones (TCs) cases indicates that the new parabolic model of Cd outperforms traditional linear models. PMID:26499262
A parabolic model of drag coefficient for storm surge simulation in the South China Sea
Peng, Shiqiu; Li, Yineng
2015-10-01
Drag coefficient (Cd) is an essential metric in the calculation of momentum exchange over the air-sea interface and thus has large impacts on the simulation or forecast of the upper ocean state associated with sea surface winds such as storm surges. Generally, Cd is a function of wind speed. However, the exact relationship between Cd and wind speed is still in dispute, and the widely-used formula that is a linear function of wind speed in an ocean model could lead to large bias at high wind speed. Here we establish a parabolic model of Cd based on storm surge observations and simulation in the South China Sea (SCS) through a number of tropical cyclone cases. Simulation of storm surges for independent Tropical cyclones (TCs) cases indicates that the new parabolic model of Cd outperforms traditional linear models.
Analogue Signal Processing: Collected Papers 1994-95
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
1996-01-01
This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of Electronics Institute, Technical University of Denmark, in 1994 and 1995.......This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of Electronics Institute, Technical University of Denmark, in 1994 and 1995....
Simulation of the parabolic trough solar energy generation system with Organic Rankine Cycle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, Ya-Ling; Mei, Dan-Hua; Tao, Wen-Quan; Yang, Wei-Wei; Liu, Huai-Liang
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► A parabolic trough solar power generation system with ORC is numerically simulated. ► The effects of key parameters on collector field and system performance are studied. ► Collector heat loss increases with small absorber and glass tube interlayer pressure. ► Heat collecting efficiency increases with initial increase of absorber HTO flow rate. ► Recommended thermal storage system volumes are different in year four typical days. -- Abstract: A model for a typical parabolic trough solar thermal power generation system with Organic Rankine Cycle (PT-SEGS–ORC) was built within the transient energy simulation package TRNSYS, which is formed by integrating several submodels for the trough collector system, the single-tank thermal storage system, the auxiliary power system and the heat-electricity conversion system. With this model, the effects of several key parameters, including the interlayer pressure between the absorber tube and the glass tube (p inter ), the flow rate of high temperature oil in the absorber tube (v), solar radiation intensity (I dn ) and incidence angle (θ), on the performance of the parabolic trough collector field based on the meteorological data of Xi’an city were examined. The study shows that the heat loss of the solar collector (q loss ) increases sharply with the increase in p inter at beginning and then reaches to an approximately constant value. The variation of heat collecting efficiency (η hc ) with v is quite similar to the variation of q loss with p inter . However, I dn and θ exhibit opposite effect on η hc . In addition, it is found that the optimal volume of the thermal storage system is sensitively dependent on the solar radiation intensity. The optimal volumes are 100, 150, 50, and 0 m 3 for spring equinox, summer solstice, autumnal equinox and winter solstice, respectively.
Ashyralyev, Allaberen; Cakir, Zafer
2016-08-01
In this work, we investigate initial-boundary value problems for fractional parabolic equations with the Neumann boundary condition. Stability estimates for the solution of this problem are established. Difference schemes for approximate solution of initial-boundary value problem are constructed. Furthermore, we give theorem on coercive stability estimates for the solution of the difference schemes.
Memon, Sajid; Nataraj, Neela; Pani, Amiya Kumar
2012-01-01
In this article, a posteriori error estimates are derived for mixed finite element Galerkin approximations to second order linear parabolic initial and boundary value problems. Using mixed elliptic reconstructions, a posteriori error estimates in L∞(L2)- and L2(L2)-norms for the solution as well as its flux are proved for the semidiscrete scheme. Finally, based on a backward Euler method, a completely discrete scheme is analyzed and a posteriori error bounds are derived, which improves upon earlier results on a posteriori estimates of mixed finite element approximations to parabolic problems. Results of numerical experiments verifying the efficiency of the estimators have also been provided. © 2012 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duque, C.M.; Morales, A.L.; Mora-Ramos, M.E.; Duque, C.A.
2013-01-01
The linear and nonlinear optical absorption as well as the linear and nonlinear corrections to the refractive index are calculated in a disc shaped quantum dot under the effect of an external magnetic field and parabolic and inverse square confining potentials. The exact solutions for the two-dimensional motion of the conduction band electrons are used as the basis for a perturbation-theory treatment of the effect of a static applied electric field. In general terms, the variation of one of the different potential energy parameters – for a fixed configuration of the remaining ones – leads to either blueshifts or redshifts of the resonant peaks as well as to distinct rates of change for their amplitudes. -- Highlights: • Optical absorption and corrections to the refractive in quantum dots. • Electric and magnetic field and parabolic and inverse square potentials. • Perturbation-theory treatment of the effect of the electric field. • Induced blueshifts or redshifts of the resonant peaks are studied. • Evolution of rates of change for amplitudes of resonant peaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duque, C.M., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Morales, A.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A. [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia)
2013-11-15
The linear and nonlinear optical absorption as well as the linear and nonlinear corrections to the refractive index are calculated in a disc shaped quantum dot under the effect of an external magnetic field and parabolic and inverse square confining potentials. The exact solutions for the two-dimensional motion of the conduction band electrons are used as the basis for a perturbation-theory treatment of the effect of a static applied electric field. In general terms, the variation of one of the different potential energy parameters – for a fixed configuration of the remaining ones – leads to either blueshifts or redshifts of the resonant peaks as well as to distinct rates of change for their amplitudes. -- Highlights: • Optical absorption and corrections to the refractive in quantum dots. • Electric and magnetic field and parabolic and inverse square potentials. • Perturbation-theory treatment of the effect of the electric field. • Induced blueshifts or redshifts of the resonant peaks are studied. • Evolution of rates of change for amplitudes of resonant peaks.
Control scheme for direct steam generation in parabolic troughs under recirculation operation mode
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Valenzuela, L.; Zarza, E. [CIEMAT, Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Ctra. Senes s/n, P.O. Box 22, E-04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Berenguel, M. [Universidad de Almeria, Dpto. Lenguajes y Computacion, Ctra. Sacramento s/n, E-04120 Almeria (Spain); Camacho, E.F. [Universidad de Sevilla, Dpto. de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain)
2006-01-15
Electricity production using solar thermal energy is one of the main research areas at present in the field of renewable energies, these systems being characterised by the need of reliable control systems aimed at maintaining desired operating conditions in the face of changes in solar radiation, which is the main source of energy. A new prototype of solar system with parabolic trough collectors was implemented at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA, South-East Spain) to investigate the direct steam generation process under real solar conditions in the parabolic solar collector field of a thermal power plant prototype. This paper presents details and some results of the application of a control scheme designed and tested for the recirculation operation mode, for which the main objective is to obtain steam at constant temperature and pressure at the outlet of the solar field, so that changes produced in the inlet water conditions and/or solar radiation will only affect the amount of steam produced by the solar field. The steam quality and consequently the nominal efficiency of the plant are thus maintained. (author)
Aksikas, I.; Moghadam, A. Alizadeh; Forbes, J. F.
2018-04-01
This paper deals with the design of an optimal state-feedback linear-quadratic (LQ) controller for a system of coupled parabolic-hypebolic non-autonomous partial differential equations (PDEs). The infinite-dimensional state space representation and the corresponding operator Riccati differential equation are used to solve the control problem. Dynamical properties of the coupled system of interest are analysed to guarantee the existence and uniqueness of the solution of the LQ-optimal control problem and also to guarantee the exponential stability of the closed-loop system. Thanks to the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the parabolic operator and also the fact that the hyperbolic-associated operator Riccati differential equation can be converted to a scalar Riccati PDE, an algorithm to solve the LQ control problem has been presented. The results are applied to a non-isothermal packed-bed catalytic reactor. The LQ optimal controller designed in the early portion of the paper is implemented for the original non-linear model. Numerical simulations are performed to show the controller performances.
A chemoselective and continuous synthesis of m-sulfamoylbenzamide analogues
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arno Verlee
2017-02-01
Full Text Available For the synthesis of m-sulfamoylbenzamide analogues, small molecules which are known for their bioactivity, a chemoselective procedure has been developed starting from m-(chlorosulfonylbenzoyl chloride. Although a chemoselective process in batch was already reported, a continuous-flow process reveals an increased selectivity at higher temperatures and without catalysts. In total, 15 analogues were synthesized, using similar conditions, with yields ranging between 65 and 99%. This is the first automated and chemoselective synthesis of m-sulfamoylbenzamide analogues.
A note on numerical solution of a parabolic-Schrödinger equation
Ozdemir, Yildirim; Alp, Mustafa
2016-08-01
In the present study, a nonlocal boundary value problem for a parabolic-Schrödinger equation is considered. The stability estimates for the solution of the given problem is established. The first and second order of difference schemes are presented for approximately solving a specific nonlocal boundary problem. The theoretical statements for the solution of these difference schemes are supported by the result of numerical examples.
On Using Current Steering Logic in Mixed Analogue-digital Circuits
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lehmann, Torsten
1998-01-01
The authors investigate power supply noise in mixed analogue-digital circuits, arising from communication between the analogue and digital parts of the circuit. Current steering techniques and proper buffering are used to show which noise currents can be reduced and which cannot. In addition......, a high-swing current steering buffer for driving analogue switches or external digital signals is proposed....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahoo, N.; Sahu, T.
2014-01-01
We study the multisubband electron mobility in a barrier delta doped Al x Ga 1−x As parabolic quantum well structure under the influence of an applied electric field perpendicular to the interface plane. We consider the alloy fraction x = 0.3 for barriers and vary x from 0.0 to 0.1 for the parabolic well. Electrons diffuse into the well and confine within the triangular like potentials near the interfaces due to Coulomb interaction with ionized donors. The parabolic structure potential, being opposite in nature, partly compensates the Coulomb potential. The external electric field further amends the potential structure leading to an asymmetric potential profile. Accordingly the energy levels, wave functions and occupation of subbands change. We calculate low temperature electron mobility as a function of the electric field and show that when two subbands are occupied, the mobility is mostly dominated by ionised impurity scattering mediated by intersubband effects. As the field increases transition from double subband to single subband occupancy occurs. A sudden enhancement in mobility is obtained due to curtailment of intersubband effects. Thereafter the mobility is governed by both impurity and alloy disorder scatterings. Our analysis of mobility as a function of the electric field for different structural parameters shows interesting results. (semiconductor physics)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wen-ku Shi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The composite stiffness of parabolic leaf springs with variable stiffness is difficult to calculate using traditional integral equations. Numerical integration or FEA may be used but will require computer-aided software and long calculation times. An efficient method for calculating the composite stiffness of parabolic leaf springs with variable stiffness is developed and evaluated to reduce the complexity of calculation and shorten the calculation time. A simplified model for double-leaf springs with variable stiffness is built, and a composite stiffness calculation method for the model is derived using displacement superposition and material deformation continuity. The proposed method can be applied on triple-leaf and multileaf springs. The accuracy of the calculation method is verified by the rig test and FEA analysis. Finally, several parameters that should be considered during the design process of springs are discussed. The rig test and FEA analytical results indicate that the calculated results are acceptable. The proposed method can provide guidance for the design and production of parabolic leaf springs with variable stiffness. The composite stiffness of the leaf spring can be calculated quickly and accurately when the basic parameters of the leaf spring are known.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Addona, Davide, E-mail: d.addona@campus.unimib.it [Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, (MILANO BICOCCA) Dipartimento di Matematica (Italy)
2015-08-15
We obtain weighted uniform estimates for the gradient of the solutions to a class of linear parabolic Cauchy problems with unbounded coefficients. Such estimates are then used to prove existence and uniqueness of the mild solution to a semi-linear backward parabolic Cauchy problem, where the differential equation is the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation of a suitable optimal control problem. Via backward stochastic differential equations, we show that the mild solution is indeed the value function of the controlled equation and that the feedback law is verified.
UK Natural Analogue Coordinating Group: fourth annual report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Read, D.; Hooker, P.J.
1992-01-01
HMIP has a research programme investigating some naturally radioactive sites as geochemical analogues of radionuclide migration. All of the analogue sites under investigation, both in the U.K. and overseas, are located where elevated uranium concentrations occur naturally. Coordination of the programme is achieved through the UK Natural Analogue Co-ordinating Group (NACG) which has met three times in this reporting period. The NACG is steered by the British Geological Survey. Its purpose is to ensure that the different research projects have an integrated function aimed at increasing our understanding of natural geochemical processes. Effort is also being expended in testing research models which may be used in such assessments. (author)
Ashyralyyeva, Maral; Ashyraliyev, Maksat
2016-08-01
In the present paper, a second order of accuracy difference scheme for the approximate solution of a source identification problem for hyperbolic-parabolic equations is constructed. Theorem on stability estimates for the solution of this difference scheme and their first and second order difference derivatives is presented. In applications, this abstract result permits us to obtain the stability estimates for the solutions of difference schemes for approximate solutions of two source identification problems for hyperbolic-parabolic equations.
Radio wave propagation and parabolic equation modeling
Apaydin, Gokhan
2018-01-01
A thorough understanding of electromagnetic wave propagation is fundamental to the development of sophisticated communication and detection technologies. The powerful numerical methods described in this book represent a major step forward in our ability to accurately model electromagnetic wave propagation in order to establish and maintain reliable communication links, to detect targets in radar systems, and to maintain robust mobile phone and broadcasting networks. The first new book on guided wave propagation modeling and simulation to appear in nearly two decades, Radio Wave Propagation and Parabolic Equation Modeling addresses the fundamentals of electromagnetic wave propagation generally, with a specific focus on radio wave propagation through various media. The authors explore an array of new applications, and detail various v rtual electromagnetic tools for solving several frequent electromagnetic propagation problems. All of the methods described are presented within the context of real-world scenari...
Telescopic projective methods for parabolic differential equations
Gear, C W
2003-01-01
Projective methods were introduced in an earlier paper [C.W. Gear, I.G. Kevrekidis, Projective Methods for Stiff Differential Equations: problems with gaps in their eigenvalue spectrum, NEC Research Institute Report 2001-029, available from http://www.neci.nj.nec.com/homepages/cwg/projective.pdf Abbreviated version to appear in SISC] as having potential for the efficient integration of problems with a large gap between two clusters in their eigenvalue spectrum, one cluster containing eigenvalues corresponding to components that have already been damped in the numerical solution and one corresponding to components that are still active. In this paper we introduce iterated projective methods that allow for explicit integration of stiff problems that have a large spread of eigenvalues with no gaps in their spectrum as arise in the semi-discretization of PDEs with parabolic components.
Telescopic projective methods for parabolic differential equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gear, C.W.; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.
2003-01-01
Projective methods were introduced in an earlier paper [C.W. Gear, I.G. Kevrekidis, Projective Methods for Stiff Differential Equations: problems with gaps in their eigenvalue spectrum, NEC Research Institute Report 2001-029, available from http://www.neci.nj.nec.com/homepages/cwg/projective.pdf Abbreviated version to appear in SISC] as having potential for the efficient integration of problems with a large gap between two clusters in their eigenvalue spectrum, one cluster containing eigenvalues corresponding to components that have already been damped in the numerical solution and one corresponding to components that are still active. In this paper we introduce iterated projective methods that allow for explicit integration of stiff problems that have a large spread of eigenvalues with no gaps in their spectrum as arise in the semi-discretization of PDEs with parabolic components
TOFPET 2: A high-performance circuit for PET time-of-flight
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Di Francesco, Agostino, E-mail: agodifra@lip.pt [LIP, Lisbon (Portugal); Bugalho, Ricardo [LIP, Lisbon (Portugal); PETsys Electronics, Oeiras (Portugal); Oliveira, Luis [CTS-UNINOVA, DEE FCT-UNL, Caparica (Portugal); Rivetti, Angelo [INFN - sez. Torino (Italy); Rolo, Manuel [LIP, Lisbon (Portugal); INFN - sez. Torino (Italy); Silva, Jose C.; Varela, Joao [LIP, Lisbon (Portugal); PETsys Electronics, Oeiras (Portugal)
2016-07-11
We present a readout and digitization ASIC featuring low-noise and low-power for time-of flight (TOF) applications using SiPMs. The circuit is designed in standard CMOS 110 nm technology, has 64 independent channels and is optimized for time-of-flight measurement in Positron Emission Tomography (TOF-PET). The input amplifier is a low impedance current conveyor based on a regulated common-gate topology. Each channel has quad-buffered analogue interpolation TDCs (time binning 20 ps) and charge integration ADCs with linear response at full scale (1500 pC). The signal amplitude can also be derived from the measurement of time-over-threshold (ToT). Simulation results show that for a single photo-electron signal with charge 200 (550) fC generated by a SiPM with (320 pF) capacitance the circuit has 24 (30) dB SNR, 75 (39) ps r.m.s. resolution, and 4 (8) mW power consumption. The event rate is 600 kHz per channel, with up to 2 MHz dark counts rejection.
Analogue computer display of accelerator beam optics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brand, K.
1984-01-01
Analogue computers have been used years ago by several authors for the design of magnetic beam handling systems. At Bochum a small analogue/hybrid computer was combined with a particular analogue expansion and logic control unit for beam transport work. This apparatus was very successful in the design and setup of the beam handling system of the tandem accelerator. The center of the stripper canal was the object point for the calculations, instead of the high energy acceleration tube a drift length was inserted into the program neglecting the weak focusing action of the tube. In the course of the installation of a second injector for heavy ions it became necessary to do better calculations. A simple method was found to represent accelerating sections on the computer and a particular way to simulate thin lenses was adopted. The analogue computer system proved its usefulness in the design and in studies of the characteristics of different accelerator installations over many years. The results of the calculations are in very good agreement with real accelerator data. The apparatus is the ideal tool to demonstrate beam optics to students and accelerator operators since the effect of a change of any of the parameters is immediately visible on the oscilloscope
Analogue Signal Processing: Collected Papers 1996-97
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
1997-01-01
This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of the Department of Information Technology, Technical University of Denmark, in 1996 and 1997.......This document is a collection of the papers presented at international conferences and in international journals by the analogue signal processing group of the Department of Information Technology, Technical University of Denmark, in 1996 and 1997....
Darboux transformations and linear parabolic partial differential equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arrigo, Daniel J.; Hickling, Fred
2002-01-01
Solutions for a class of linear parabolic partial differential equation are provided. These solutions are obtained by first solving a system of (n+1) nonlinear partial differential equations. This system arises as the coefficients of a Darboux transformation and is equivalent to a matrix Burgers' equation. This matrix equation is solved using a generalized Hopf-Cole transformation. The solutions for the original equation are given in terms of solutions of the heat equation. These results are applied to the (1+1)-dimensional Schroedinger equation where all bound state solutions are obtained for a 2n-parameter family of potentials. As a special case, the solutions for integral members of the regular and modified Poeschl-Teller potentials are recovered. (author). Letter-to-the-editor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pokotilovskij, Yu.N.
1999-01-01
The motion of a particle in the linear potential bounded by an inclined plane or parabolic surfaces is considered. The quantization of energy and wave functions is obtained numerically by the separation of the variables method
Controllable parabolic lensed liquid-core optical fiber by using electrostatic force.
Tang, Chun Yin; Zhang, Xuming; Chai, Yang; Hui, Long; Tao, Lili; Tsang, Yuen H
2014-08-25
For typical optical fiber system, an external lens accessory set is required to adjust the optical path of output light, which however is limited by the fixed parameter of the lens accessory setup. Considering spherical aberration in the imaging process and its small focusable spot size, a complicated lens combination is required to compensate the aberration. This paper has demonstrated a unique method to fabricate liquid-core lensed fibers by filling water and NOA61 respectively into hollow Teflon AF fibers and silicate fiber, the radius of curvature of the liquid lens can be controlled by adjusting the applied voltage on the core liquid and even parabolic shape lens can be produced with enough applied voltage. The experiment has successfully demonstrated a variation of focal length from 0.628 mm to 0.111 mm responding to the change of applied voltage from 0V to 3.2KV (L = 2mm) for the Teflon AF fiber, as well as a variation of focal length from 0.274 mm to 0.08 mm responding to the change of applied voltage from 0V to 3KV (L = 2mm) for the silicate fiber. Further simulation shows that the focused spot size can be reduced to 2 µm by adjusting the refractive index and fiber geometry. Solid state parabolic lensed fiber can be produced after NOA61 is solidified by the UV curing.
Análogos de insulina Insulin analogues
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manuel E. Licea Puig
2006-12-01
diabetes mellitus (DM. The recombinant technology of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA has allowed the development of human insulin; however, this has not totally solved the problems related to immunogenecity, among other problems. Therefore, the new technologies are applied to create insulin analogues. It is our purpose to review relevant pharmacological and clinical aspects related to the insulin analogues, as well as their usefulness in the treatment of DM. The insulin analogues result from biochemical modifications of human insulin. These modifications of the insulin molecule alter not only the absorption, but also the beginning and duration of the action, which offer advantages over the conventional insulins. At present, there are three rapid acting insulin analogues: insulin lispro, insulin aspart and glulisine; and three long acting analogues; glargine, detemir and albulin. Albulin is the latest long acting analogue reported. At present, it is being subjected to various in vitro and in vivo studies. Besides, there have been developed diverse formulations where the rapid acting insulin analogues are premixed with the long acting analogues. The rapid acting insulin analogues have showed a modest global benefit against the conventional insulins in type 1 diabetics. The long acting analogues focus their attention in those persons with DM with nocturnal hypoglycemic episodes. Longer term studies are necessary to confirm the safety and benefits of these preparations, as well as to determine their effect on the micro- and macroangiopathic complications of DM.
Bujang, Nur Baizura; Chee, Chin Fei; Heh, Choon Han; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abd; Buckle, Michael J C
2017-07-01
Adulteration of herbal health supplements with phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors and their analogues is becoming a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to investigate herbal and food products sold in the Malaysian market for the presence of these adulterants. Sixty-two products that claim to enhance men's sexual health were sampled between April 2014 and April 2016. These products included unregistered products seized by the Pharmacy Enforcement Division of the Ministry of Health (n = 39), products sent to the National Pharmaceutical Regulatory Agency for pre-registration testing (n = 9) and products investigated under the post-registration market surveillance programme (n = 14). The products were tested against an in-house spectral library consisting of 61 PDE-5 inhibitors and analogues using a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry ion-trap-time-of-flight (LC-MS IT-TOF) method. Thirty-two (82%) of the unregistered products and two (14%) of the registered products were found to be adulterated with at least one PDE-5 inhibitor or analogue, while none of the pre-registration products contained adulterants. A total of 16 different adulterants were detected and 36% of the adulterated products contained a mixture of two or more adulterants. This study has demonstrated that the adulteration of unregistered herbal products in the Malaysian market is an alarming issue that needs to be urgently addressed by the relevant authorities.
Chemopreventive properties of curcumin analogues ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Chemopreventive properties of curcumin analogues, ... These compounds .... using microscope with 400 × magnification. APC ... Figure 3: Microscopic images of rat colorectal tissue stained with APC rabbit polyclonal antibody with different.
Analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone containing cytotoxic groups.
Janáky, T; Juhász, A; Bajusz, S; Csernus, V; Srkalovic, G; Bokser, L; Milovanovic, S; Redding, T W; Rékási, Z; Nagy, A
1992-02-01
In an attempt to produce better cytotoxic analogues, chemotherapeutic antineoplastic radicals including an alkylating nitrogen mustard derivative of D-phenylalanine (D-melphalan), reactive cyclopropane, anthraquinone derivatives [2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone and the anticancer antibiotic doxorubicin], and an antimetabolite (methotrexate) were coupled to suitably modified agonists and antagonists of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH). Analogues with D-lysine6 and D-ornithine6 or N epsilon-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-lysine and N delta-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-ornithine were used as carriers for one or two cytotoxic moieties. The enhanced biological activities produced by the incorporation of D amino acids into position 6 of the agonistic analogues were further increased by the attachment of hydrophobic cytotoxic groups, resulting in compounds with 10-50 times higher activity than LH-RH. Most of the monosubstituted agonistic analogues showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of human breast cancer cells, while the receptor binding affinities of peptides containing two cytotoxic side chains were lower. Antagonistic carriers [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Trp3,Arg5,D-Lys6,D-Ala10] LH-RH [where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine], [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Trp3,Arg5,N epsilon-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-Lys6,D-Ala10]LH-RH, and their D-Pal(3)3 homologs [Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine] as well as [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Pal(3)3,Tyr5,N epsilon-(2,3-diamino-propionyl)-D-Lys6,D-Ala10]LH-RH were linked to cytotoxic compounds. The hybrid molecules inhibited ovulation in rats at doses of 10 micrograms and suppressed LH release in vitro. The receptor binding of cytotoxic analogues was decreased compared to the precursor peptides, although analogues with 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone hemiglutarate had high affinities. All of the cytotoxic analogues tested inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA in cultures of human breast and prostate cancer cell lines
Lp Theory for Super-Parabolic Backward Stochastic Partial Differential Equations in the Whole Space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Du Kai; Qiu, Jinniao; Tang Shanjian
2012-01-01
This paper is concerned with semi-linear backward stochastic partial differential equations (BSPDEs for short) of super-parabolic type. An L p -theory is given for the Cauchy problem of BSPDEs, separately for the case of p∈(1,2] and for the case of p∈(2,∞). A comparison theorem is also addressed.
Insulin analogues and severe hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, P L; Hansen, L S; Jespersen, M J
2012-01-01
The effect of insulin analogues on glycaemic control is well-documented, whereas the effect on avoidance of severe hypoglycaemia remains tentative. We studied the frequency of severe hypoglycaemia in unselected patients with type 1 diabetes treated with insulin analogues, human insulin, or mixed...
How stakeholders view the use of analogues in safety cases: PAMINA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atherton, Elizabeth; Bailey, Lucy
2008-01-01
The aim of this presentation is to provide an overview of some research that has been undertaken in the UK to investigate stakeholders' views of analogues. There are various reasons for using analogues including: to try and explain difficult concepts; to compare disposal facility features with familiar and/or natural systems; to provide an alternative, non-numerical line of reasoning to support the Safety Case conclusions; to provide evidence of behaviour over very long timescales, that cannot be achieved in the laboratory. There are some dangers when using analogues that people should be aware of: the analogue conditions may not be the same as those found in a disposal facility, so the analogue may have limited application. Some analogues may have negative implications, for example artefacts that have corroded. Analogues can be taken too far and used in inappropriate ways to try and support an assumption. So it is important to find out how stakeholders view the use of analogues in a safety case. NDA is involved in an EC funded project called Pamina (Performance Assessment Methodologies in Application). The project involves 26 partners from 11 European countries, plus other associated members and runs for 3 years from October 2006 to October 2009. The NDA is involved in several parts of the project: Exploring issues of modelling uncertainty; Evaluating effectiveness of approaches for communicating safety cases with stakeholders. NDA ran a workshop in October 2007 in Manchester. The aims of the workshop were to explore how different methods of communicating aspects of a safety case were received by stakeholders. The workshop presented stakeholders with: Examples of different repository concepts; Descriptions of barrier performance; Different ways of presenting numerical results; Use of natural analogues
Defining reference conditions for acidified waters using a modern analogue approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simpson, Gavin L.; Shilland, Ewan M.; Winterbottom, Julie M.; Keay, Janey
2005-01-01
Analogue matching is a palaeolimnological technique that aims to find matches for fossil sediment samples from a set of modern surface sediment samples. Modern analogues were identified that closely matched the pre-disturbance conditions of eight of the UK Acid Waters Monitoring Network (AWMN) lakes using diatom- and cladoceran-based analogue matching. These analogue sites were assessed in terms of hydrochemistry, aquatic macrophytes and macro-invertebrates as to their suitability for defining wider hydrochemical and biological reference conditions for acidified sites within the AWMN. The analogues identified for individual AWMN sites show a close degree of similarity in terms of their hydrochemical characteristics, aquatic macrophytes and, to a lesser extent, macro-invertebrate fauna. The reference conditions of acidified AWMN sites are inferred to be less acidic than today and to support a wider range of acid-sensitive aquatic macrophyte and macro-invertebrate taxa than that recorded in the AWMN lakes over the period of monitoring since 1988. - The use of a palaeolimnological technique to identify modern ecological reference analogues for acidified lakes is demonstrated
Thermodynamic analysis of a new design of temperature controlled parabolic trough collector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ceylan, İlhan; Ergun, Alper
2013-01-01
Highlights: • This new design parabolic trough collector has been made as temperature control. • The TCPTC system is very appropriate for the industrial systems which require high temperatures. • With TCPTC can provide hot water with low solar radiation. • TCPTC system costs are cheaper than other systems (thermo siphon systems, pomp systems, etc.). - Abstract: Numerous types of solar water heater are used throughout the world. These heaters can be classified into two groups as pumped systems and thermo siphon systems. However, water temperature cannot be controlled by these systems. In this study, a new temperature-controlled parabolic trough collector (TCPTC) was designed and analyzed experimentally. The analysis was made at a temperature range of 40–100 °C, with at intervals of 10 °C. A detailed analysis was performed by calculating energy efficiencies, exergy efficiencies, water temperatures and water amounts. The highest energy efficiency of TCPTC was calculated as 61.2 for 100 °C. As the set temperature increased, the energy efficiency increased as well. The highest exergy efficiency was calculated as 63 for 70 °C. However, as the set temperature increased, the exergy efficiency did not increase. Optimum exergy efficiency was obtained for 70 °C
A Novel Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Heating for Cut Tobacco Drying System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiang Tao Liu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A novel parabolic trough concentrating solar heating for cut tobacco drying system was established. The opening width effect of V type metal cavity absorber was investigated. A cut tobacco drying mathematical model calculated by fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical solution method was used to simulate the cut tobacco drying process. And finally the orthogonal test method was used to optimize the parameters of cut tobacco drying process. The result shows that the heating rate, acquisition factor, and collector system efficiency increase with increasing the opening width of the absorber. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data for cut tobacco drying process. The relative errors between simulated and experimental values are less than 8%, indicating that this mathematical model is accurate for the cut tobacco airflow drying process. The optimum preparation conditions are an inlet airflow velocity of 15 m/s, an initial cut tobacco moisture content of 26%, and an inlet airflow temperature of 200°C. The thermal efficiency of the dryer and the final cut tobacco moisture content are 66.32% and 14.15%, respectively. The result shows that this parabolic trough concentrating solar heating will be one of the heat recourse candidates for cut tobacco drying system.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kirtley, K.R.
1988-10-01
A new coupled parabolic-marching method was developed to solve the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equation for turbulent turbomachinery flows. Earlier space-marching methods were analyzed to determine their global stability during multiple passes of the computational domain. The methods were found to be unconditionally unstable even when an extra equation for the pressure, namely the Poisson equation for the pressure, was used between passes of the domain. Relaxation of one constraint during the solution process was found to be necessary for the successful calculation of a complex flow.Thus, the method of pseudocompressibility was introduced into the partially parabolized Navier-Stokes equation to relax the mass flow constraint during a forward-marching integration as well as globally stable during successive passes of the domain. With consistent discretization, the new method was found to be convergent.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skouri, Safa; Ben Salah, Mohieddine; Bouadila, Salwa; Balghouthi, Moncef; Ben Nasrallah, Sassi
2013-01-01
Highlights: • Design and construction of solar parabolic concentrator. • Photogrammetry study of SPC. • Slope error and optical efficiency of SPC. • Reflector materials of SPC. • Programmed tracking solar system. - Abstract: Renewable energy generation is becoming more prevalent today. It is relevant to consider that solar concentration technologies contribute to provide a real alternative to the consumption of fossil fuels. The purpose of this work is the characterization of a solar parabolic solar concentrator (SPC) designed, constructed and tested in the Research and Technologies Centre of Energy in Tunisia (CRTEn) in order to improve the performance of the system. Photogrammetry measurement used to analyze the slope errors and to determine hence determining the geometric deformation of the SPC system, which presents an average slope error around 0.0002 and 0.0073 mrad respectively in the center and in the extremities. An optimization of the most performed reflector material has been done by an experimental study of three types of reflectors. A two axes programmed tracking system realized, used and tested in this study. An experimental study is carried out to evaluate the solar parabolic concentrator thermal efficiency after the mechanical and the optical SPC optimization. The thermal energy efficiency varies from 40% to 77%, the concentrating system reaches an average concentration factor around 178
Szabo, Szilard
2016-01-01
We extend our earlier construction of Nahm transformation for parabolic Higgs bundles on the projective line to solutions with not necessarily semisimple residues and show that it determines a holomorphic mapping on corresponding moduli spaces. The construction relies on suitable elementary modifications of the logarithmic Dolbeault complex.
Szabó, Szilárd
2017-12-01
We extend our earlier construction of Nahm transformation for parabolic Higgs bundles on the projective line to solutions with not necessarily semisimple residues and show that it determines a holomorphic mapping on corresponding moduli spaces. The construction relies on suitable elementary modifications of the logarithmic Dolbeault complex.
Veestraeten, D.
2015-01-01
The Laplace transforms of the transition probability density and distribution functions for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process contain the product of two parabolic cylinder functions, namely Dv(x)Dv(y) and Dv(x)Dv−1(y), respectively. The inverse transforms of these products have as yet not been
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skagius, K [Kemakta Consultants co., Stockholm (Sweden); Wingefors, S [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)
1993-12-31
The study of natural analogues has been established as one of the most important methods for validation of concepts and models applied for the assessment of long-term performance of repositories for nuclear waste. The objectives of such studies range from detailed investigations of processes and features on a small scale to attempts of explaining the evolution of whole sites. For studies of specific processes it may well be as important to consider the larger scale settings as boundary conditions. This appreciation of context and an integrated view may be as important for evaluation of most natural analogues as for performance assessments. This is more evident the more the evaluation depends on a knowledge about the evolution of the natural analogue. The attempted formulation of scenarios of the Koongarra Analogue has been based on the external conditions and external features. A rapid weathering of the host rock, i.e. the chlorite schist, is assumed to have started around the onset of the Pleistocene Ice Age (ca 1.6 Ma BP). The eventual oxidation and mobilization of the uranium ore could then have occurred under unsaturated or saturated conditions. This leads to the following major scenarios: (1) Uranyl Phosphates formed under unsaturated conditions, with a periodical evolution of the dispersion fan in conjunction with alternating dry (glacial) and wet (interglacial) periods during the Pleistocene Ice Age; (2) Uranyl Phosphates formed under unsaturated conditions as a single event, taking place either early or late during the Pleistocene Ice Age; (3)Uranyl Phosphates formed under saturated conditions, in conjunction with periods of higher and lower flow due to the climatic cycling. Although the original objectives may not have been fully achieved, this work is believed to contribute to a better understanding of the Koongarra Analogue as well as to give a basis for further scenario work
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skagius, K. [Kemakta Consultants co., Stockholm (Sweden); Wingefors, S. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)
1992-12-31
The study of natural analogues has been established as one of the most important methods for validation of concepts and models applied for the assessment of long-term performance of repositories for nuclear waste. The objectives of such studies range from detailed investigations of processes and features on a small scale to attempts of explaining the evolution of whole sites. For studies of specific processes it may well be as important to consider the larger scale settings as boundary conditions. This appreciation of context and an integrated view may be as important for evaluation of most natural analogues as for performance assessments. This is more evident the more the evaluation depends on a knowledge about the evolution of the natural analogue. The attempted formulation of scenarios of the Koongarra Analogue has been based on the external conditions and external features. A rapid weathering of the host rock, i.e. the chlorite schist, is assumed to have started around the onset of the Pleistocene Ice Age (ca 1.6 Ma BP). The eventual oxidation and mobilization of the uranium ore could then have occurred under unsaturated or saturated conditions. This leads to the following major scenarios: (1) Uranyl Phosphates formed under unsaturated conditions, with a periodical evolution of the dispersion fan in conjunction with alternating dry (glacial) and wet (interglacial) periods during the Pleistocene Ice Age; (2) Uranyl Phosphates formed under unsaturated conditions as a single event, taking place either early or late during the Pleistocene Ice Age; (3)Uranyl Phosphates formed under saturated conditions, in conjunction with periods of higher and lower flow due to the climatic cycling. Although the original objectives may not have been fully achieved, this work is believed to contribute to a better understanding of the Koongarra Analogue as well as to give a basis for further scenario work
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skagius, K.; Wingefors, S.
1992-01-01
The study of natural analogues has been established as one of the most important methods for validation of concepts and models applied for the assessment of long-term performance of repositories for nuclear waste. The objectives of such studies range from detailed investigations of processes and features on a small scale to attempts of explaining the evolution of whole sites. For studies of specific processes it may well be as important to consider the larger scale settings as boundary conditions. This appreciation of context and an integrated view may be as important for evaluation of most natural analogues as for performance assessments. This is more evident the more the evaluation depends on a knowledge about the evolution of the natural analogue. The attempted formulation of scenarios of the Koongarra Analogue has been based on the external conditions and external features. A rapid weathering of the host rock, i.e. the chlorite schist, is assumed to have started around the onset of the Pleistocene Ice Age (ca 1.6 Ma BP). The eventual oxidation and mobilization of the uranium ore could then have occurred under unsaturated or saturated conditions. This leads to the following major scenarios: (1) Uranyl Phosphates formed under unsaturated conditions, with a periodical evolution of the dispersion fan in conjunction with alternating dry (glacial) and wet (interglacial) periods during the Pleistocene Ice Age; (2) Uranyl Phosphates formed under unsaturated conditions as a single event, taking place either early or late during the Pleistocene Ice Age; (3)Uranyl Phosphates formed under saturated conditions, in conjunction with periods of higher and lower flow due to the climatic cycling. Although the original objectives may not have been fully achieved, this work is believed to contribute to a better understanding of the Koongarra Analogue as well as to give a basis for further scenario work
Kritikos, Nikolaos; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, Anna; Loukas, Yannis L; Dotsikas, Yannis
2015-07-17
In the current study, quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRR) were constructed based on data obtained by a LC-(ESI)-QTOF-MS/MS method for the determination of amino acid analogues, following their derivatization via chloroformate esters. Molecules were derivatized via n-propyl chloroformate/n-propanol mediated reaction. Derivatives were acquired through a liquid-liquid extraction procedure. Chromatographic separation is based on gradient elution using methanol/water mixtures from a 70/30% composition to an 85/15% final one, maintaining a constant rate of change. The group of examined molecules was diverse, including mainly α-amino acids, yet also β- and γ-amino acids, γ-amino acid analogues, decarboxylated and phosphorylated analogues and dipeptides. Projection to latent structures (PLS) method was selected for the formation of QSRRs, resulting in a total of three PLS models with high cross-validated coefficients of determination Q(2)Y. For this reason, molecular structures were previously described through the use of descriptors. Through stratified random sampling procedures, 57 compounds were split to a training set and a test set. Model creation was based on multiple criteria including principal component significance and eigenvalue, variable importance, form of residuals, etc. Validation was based on statistical metrics Rpred(2),QextF2(2),QextF3(2) for the test set and Roy's metrics rm(Av)(2) and rm(δ)(2), assessing both predictive stability and internal validity. Based on aforementioned models, simplified equivalent were then created using a multi-linear regression (MLR) method. MLR models were also validated with the same metrics. The suggested models are considered useful for the estimation of retention times of amino acid analogues for a series of applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, R.; Berenguel, M.; Pérez, M.; Fernández-Garcia, A.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A thermo-economic optimization of a parabolic-trough solar plant for industrial process heat applications is developed. • An analysis of the influence of economic cost functions on optimal design point location is presented. • A multi-objective optimization approach to the design routine is proposed. • A sensitivity analysis of the optimal point location to economic, operational, and ambient conditions is developed. • Design optimization of a parabolic trough plant for a reference industrial application is developed. - Abstract: A thermo-economic design optimization of a parabolic trough solar plant for industrial processes with memetic algorithms is developed. The design domain variables considered in the optimization routine are the number of collectors in series, number of collector rows, row spacing, and storage volume. Life cycle savings, levelized cost of energy, and payback time objective functions are compared to study the influence on optimal design point location. Furthermore a multi-objective optimization approach is proposed to analyze the design problem from a multi-economic criteria point of view. An extensive set of optimization cases are performed to estimate the influence of fuel price trend, plant location, demand profile, operation conditions, solar field orientation, and radiation uncertainty on optimal design. The results allow quantifying as thermo-economic design optimization based on short term criteria as the payback time leads to smaller plants with higher solar field efficiencies and smaller solar fractions, while the consideration of optimization criteria based on long term performance of the plants, as life cycle savings based optimization, leads to the reverse conclusion. The role of plant location and future evolution of gas prices in the thermo-economic performance of the solar plant has been also analyzed. Thermo-economic optimization of a parabolic trough solar plant design for the reference industrial
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hardlei, Tore Forsingdal; Obeid, Rima; Herrmann, Wolfgang
2013-01-01
BACKGROUND: Haptocorrin (HC) carries cobalamin analogues (CorA), but whether CorA are produced in the body is unknown. All cobalamins (Cbl) to the foetus are delivered by the Cbl-specific protein transcobalamin (TC), and therefore analysis of cord serum for CorA may help to clarify the origin...
Semi-analytical model of laser resonance absorption in plasmas with a parabolic density profile
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pestehe, S J; Mohammadnejad, M
2010-01-01
Analytical expressions for mode conversion and resonance absorption of electromagnetic waves in inhomogeneous, unmagnetized plasmas are required for laboratory and simulation studies. Although most of the analyses of this problem have concentrated on the linear plasma density profile, there are a few research works that deal with different plasma density profiles including the parabolic profile. Almost none of them could give clear analytical formulae for the electric and magnetic components of the electromagnetic field propagating through inhomogeneous plasmas. In this paper, we have considered the resonant absorption of laser light near the critical density of plasmas with parabolic electron density profiles followed by a uniform over-dense region and have obtained expressions for the electric and magnetic vectors of laser light propagating through the plasma. An estimation of the fractional absorption of laser energy has also been carried out. It has been shown that, in contrast to the linear density profile, the energy absorption depends explicitly on the value of collision frequency as well as on a new parameter, N, called the over-dense density order.
Concise synthesis of new bridged-nicotine analogues
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Crestey, François; Hooyberghs, Geert; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard
2012-01-01
This study describes a very efficient strategy for the synthesis of two new bridged-nicotine analogues. Starting from either 4- or 3-chloropyridine the desired tricyclic ring systems are accessed in just three steps in 23% and 40% overall yield, respectively.......This study describes a very efficient strategy for the synthesis of two new bridged-nicotine analogues. Starting from either 4- or 3-chloropyridine the desired tricyclic ring systems are accessed in just three steps in 23% and 40% overall yield, respectively....
Deficiencies in fat-soluble vitamins in long-term users of somatostatin analogue
Fiebrich, H. -B.; van den Berg, G.; Kema, I. P.; Links, T. P.; Kleibeuker, J. H.; van Beek, A. P.; Walenkamp, A. M. E.; Sluiter, W. J.; de Vries, E. G. E.
2010-01-01
P>Background Somatostatin analogues are administered to control hormone hypersecretion in acromegaly and carcinoid patients. Somatostatin analogues can increase fat in the stools, which can lead to loss of fat-soluble vitamins. The effect of long-term somatostatin analogue use on vitamin levels
Climate Analogues for agricultural impact projection and adaptation – a reliability test
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Swen P.M. Bos
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The climate analogue approach is often considered a valuable tool for climate change impact projection and adaptation planning, especially for complex systems that cannot be modelled reliably. Important examples are smallholder farming systems using agroforestry or other mixed-cropping approaches. For the projected climate at a particular site of interest, the analogue approach identifies locations where the current climate is similar to these projected conditions. By comparing baseline-analogue site pairs, information on climate impacts and opportunities for adaptation can be obtained. However, the climate analogue approach is only meaningful, if climate is a dominant driver of differences between baseline and analogue site pairs. For a smallholder farming setting on Mt. Elgon in Kenya, we tested this requirement by comparing yield potentials of maize and coffee (obtained from the IIASA Global Agro-ecological Zones dataset among 50 close analogue sites for different future climate scenarios and models, and by comparing local ecological knowledge and farm characteristics for one baseline-analogue pair.Yield potentials among the 50 closest analogue locations varied strongly within all climate scenarios, hinting at factors other than climate as major drivers of what the analogue approach might interpret as climate effects. However, on average future climatic conditions seemed more favourable to maize and coffee cultivation than current conditions. The detailed site comparison revealed substantial differences between farms in important characteristics, such as farm size and presence of cash crops, casting doubt on the usefulness of the comparison for climate change analysis. Climatic constraints were similar between sites, so that no apparent lessons for adaptation could be derived. Pests and diseases were also similar, indicating that climate change may not lead to strong changes in biotic constraints at the baseline site in the near future. From
Thermal behaviour of solar air heater with compound parabolic concentrator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tchinda, Rene
2008-01-01
A mathematical model for computing the thermal performance of an air heater with a truncated compound parabolic concentrator having a flat one-sided absorber is presented. A computer code that employs an iterative solution procedure is constructed to solve the governing energy equations and to estimate the performance parameters of the collector. The effects of the air mass flow rate, the wind speed and the collector length on the thermal performance of the present air heater are investigated. Predictions for the performance of the solar heater also exhibit reasonable agreement, with experimental data with an average error of 7%
Local Properties of Solutions to Non-Autonomous Parabolic PDEs with State-Dependent Delays
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Rezunenko, Oleksandr
2012-01-01
Roč. 2, č. 2 (2012), s. 56-71 ISSN 2158-611X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP103/12/2431 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : partial differential equations * state-dependent delay * invariance principle Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/AS/rezunenko- local properties of solutions to non-autonomous parabolic PDEs with state-dependent delay s.pdf
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Krisztin, T.; Rezunenko, Oleksandr
2016-01-01
Roč. 260, č. 5 (2016), s. 4454-4472 ISSN 0022-0396 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/12/2431 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Parabolic partial differential equations * State dependent delay * Solution manifold Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.988, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/AS/rezunenko-0457879.pdf
Romanelli, Gherardo; Mignone, Andrea; Cervone, Angelo
2017-10-01
Pulsed fusion propulsion might finally revolutionise manned space exploration by providing an affordable and relatively fast access to interplanetary destinations. However, such systems are still in an early development phase and one of the key areas requiring further investigations is the operation of the magnetic nozzle, the device meant to exploit the fusion energy and generate thrust. One of the last pulsed fusion magnetic nozzle design is the so called multi-coil parabolic reaction chamber: the reaction is thereby ignited at the focus of an open parabolic chamber, enclosed by a series of coaxial superconducting coils that apply a magnetic field. The field, beside confining the reaction and preventing any contact between hot fusion plasma and chamber structure, is also meant to reflect the explosion and push plasma out of the rocket. Reflection is attained thanks to electric currents induced in conductive skin layers that cover each of the coils, the change of plasma axial momentum generates thrust in reaction. This working principle has yet to be extensively verified and computational Magneto-Hydro Dynamics (MHD) is a viable option to achieve that. This work is one of the first detailed ideal-MHD analysis of a multi-coil parabolic reaction chamber of this kind and has been completed employing PLUTO, a freely distributed computational code developed at the Physics Department of the University of Turin. The results are thus a preliminary verification of the chamber's performance. Nonetheless, plasma leakage through the chamber structure has been highlighted. Therefore, further investigations are required to validate the chamber design. Implementing a more accurate physical model (e.g. Hall-MHD or relativistic-MHD) is thus mandatory, and PLUTO shows the capabilities to achieve that.
Parabolic solar cooker: Cooking with heat pipe vs direct spiral copper tubes
Craig, Omotoyosi O.; Dobson, Robert T.
2016-05-01
Cooking with solar energy has been seen by many researchers as a solution to the challenges of poverty and hunger in the world. This is no exception in Africa, as solar coking is viewed as an avenue to eliminate the problem of food insecurity, insufficient energy supply for household and industrial cooking. There are several types of solar cookers that have been manufactured and highlighted in literature. The parabolic types of solar cookers are known to reach higher temperatures and therefore cook faster. These cookers are currently being developed for indoor cooking. This technology has however suffered low cooking efficiency and thus leads to underutilization of the high heat energy captured from the sun in the cooking. This has made parabolic solar cookers unable to compete with other conventional types of cookers. Several methods to maximize heat from the sun for indirect cooking has been developed, and the need to improve on them of utmost urgency. This paper investigates how to optimize the heat collected from the concentrating types of cookers by proposing and comparing two types of cooking sections: the spiral hot plate copper tube and the heat pipe plate. The system uses the concentrating solar parabolic dish technology to focus the sun on a conical cavity of copper tubes and the heat is stored inside an insulated tank which acts both as storage and cooking plate. The use of heat pipes to transfer heat between the oil storage and the cooking pot was compared to the use of a direct natural syphon principle which is achieved using copper tubes in spiral form like electric stove. An accurate theoretical analysis for the heat pipe cooker was achieved by solving the boiling and vaporization in the evaporator side and then balancing it with the condensation and liquid-vapour interaction in the condenser part while correct heat transfer, pressure and height balancing was calculated in the second experiment. The results show and compare the cooking time, boiling
Analogue Electrical Circuit for Simulation of the Duffing-Holmes Equation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tamaseviciute, E.; Tamasevicius, A.; Mykolaitis, G.
2008-01-01
An extremely simple second order analogue electrical circuit for simulating the two-well Duffing-Holmes mathematical oscillator is described. Numerical results and analogue electrical simulations are illustrated with the snapshots of chaotic waveforms, phase portraits (Lissajous figures...
3-alkyl fentanyl analogues: Structure-activity-relationship study
Vučković, Sonja; Savić-Vujović, Katarina; Srebro, Dragana; Ivanović, Milovan; Došen-Mićović, Ljiljana; Stojanović, Radan; Prostran, Milica
2012-01-01
Introduction. Fentanyl belongs to 4-anilidopiperidine class of synthetic opioid analgesics. It is characterized by high potency, rapid onset and short duration of action. A large number of fentanyl analogues have been synthesized so far, both to establish the structure-activity-relationship (SAR) and to find novel, clinically useful analgesic drugs. Objective. In this study, newly synthesized 3-alkyl fentanyl analogues were examined for analgesic activity and compared with fentanyl. Methods. ...
Classical and weak solutions for semilinear parabolic equations with Preisach hysteresis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mathias Jais
2008-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the solvability of the semilinear parabolic differential equation \\[\\frac{\\partial u}{\\partial t}(x,t- \\Delta u(x,t + c(x,tu(x,t = \\mathcal{P}(u + \\gamma (x,t\\] in a cylinder \\(D=\\Omega \\times (0,T\\, where \\(\\mathcal{P}\\ is a hysteresis operator of Preisach type. We show that the corresponding initial boundary value problems have unique classical solutions. We further show that using this existence and uniqueness result, one can determine the properties of the Preisach operator \\(\\mathcal{P}\\ from overdetermined boundary data.
Stability of a laser cavity with non-parabolic phase transformation elements
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Litvin, IA
2013-05-01
Full Text Available aberration in high–power transversally pumped laser rods,” Opt. Commun. 259(1), 223–235 (2006). 14. A. G. Fox and T. Li, “Resonant Modes in a Maser Interferometer,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 40, 453–488 (1961). 15. O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers, 3rd edition.... Consequently the intra-cavity implementation of any non-conventional phase transformation elements or taking into account the thermal lensing which in general has a non-parabolic phase transformation [13], leads to a solution of the complicated Fox...
Complex energy eigenvalues of a linear potential with a parabolical barrier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malherbe, J.B.
1978-01-01
The physical meaning and restrictions of complex energy eigenvalues are briefly discussed. It is indicated that a quasi-stationary phase describes an idealised disintegration system. Approximate resonance-eigenvalues of the one dimensional Schrodinger equation with a linear potential and parabolic barrier are calculated by means of Connor's semiclassical method. This method is based on the generalized WKB-method of Miller and Good. The results obtained confirm the correctness of a model representation which explains the unusual distribution of eigenvalues by certain other linear potentials in a complex energy level [af
Recovering a coefficient in a parabolic equation using an iterative approach
Azhibekova, Aliya S.
2016-06-01
In this paper we are concerned with the problem of determining a coefficient in a parabolic equation using an iterative approach. We investigate an inverse coefficient problem in the difference form. To recover the coefficient, we minimize a residual functional between the observed and calculated values. This is done in a constructive way by fitting a finite-difference approximation to the inverse problem. We obtain some theoretical estimates for a direct and adjoint problem. Using these estimates we prove monotonicity of the objective functional and the convergence of iteration sequences.
Higher-order schemes for the Laplace transformation method for parabolic problems
Douglas, C.
2011-01-01
In this paper we solve linear parabolic problems using the three stage noble algorithms. First, the time discretization is approximated using the Laplace transformation method, which is both parallel in time (and can be in space, too) and extremely high order convergent. Second, higher-order compact schemes of order four and six are used for the the spatial discretization. Finally, the discretized linear algebraic systems are solved using multigrid to show the actual convergence rate for numerical examples, which are compared to other numerical solution methods. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Waffle, Lindsay; Godin, Laurent; Harris, Lyal B.; Kontopoulou, M.
2016-05-01
We characterize a set of analogue materials used for centrifuge analogue modelling simulating deformation at different levels in the crust simultaneously. Specifically, we improve the rheological characterization in the linear viscoelastic region of materials for the lower and middle crust, and cohesive synthetic sands without petroleum-binding agents for the upper crust. Viscoelastic materials used in centrifuge analogue modelling demonstrate complex dynamic behaviour, so viscosity alone is insufficient to determine if a material will be an effective analogue. Two series of experiments were conducted using an oscillating bi-conical plate rheometer to measure the storage and loss moduli and complex viscosities of several modelling clays and silicone putties. Tested materials exhibited viscoelastic and shear-thinning behaviour. The silicone putties and some modelling clays demonstrated viscous-dominant behaviour and reached Newtonian plateaus at strain rates clays demonstrated elastic-dominant power-law relationships. Based on these results, the elastic-dominant modelling clay is recommended as an analogue for basement cratons. Inherently cohesive synthetic sands produce fine-detailed fault and fracture patterns, and developed thrust, strike-slip, and extensional faults in simple centrifuge test models. These synthetic sands are recommended as analogues for the brittle upper crust. These new results increase the accuracy of scaling analogue models to prototype. Additionally, with the characterization of three new materials, we propose a complete lithospheric profile of analogue materials for centrifuge modelling, allowing future studies to replicate a broader range of crustal deformation behaviours.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hinestroza Gutierrez, D.
2006-08-01
In this work a new and promising algorithm based on the minimization of especial functional that depends on two regularization parameters is considered for the identification of the heat conduction coefficient in the parabolic equation. This algorithm uses the adjoint and sensibility equations. One of the regularization parameters is associated with the heat-coefficient (as in conventional Tikhonov algorithms) but the other is associated with the calculated solution. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hinestroza Gutierrez, D.
2006-12-01
In this work a new and promising algorithm based in the minimization of especial functional that depends on two regularization parameters is considered for identification of the heat conduction coefficient in the parabolic equation. This algorithm uses the adjoint and sensibility equations. One of the regularization parameters is associated with the heat-coefficient (as in conventional Tikhonov algorithms) but the other is associated with the calculated solution. (author)
Labelling and evaluation of new stabilised neurotensin (8-13) analogues for SPET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chavatte, K.; Terriere, D.; Jeannin, L.
1998-01-01
Neurotensin (8-13) analogues were biologically stabilised by replacement of the peptide bond between amino acids 8 and 9 by the reduced ψ(CH 2 -NH) isostere. DTPA analogues for In-111 labelling and 2-bromo-phenyl-acetyl analogues for radioiodination, showed receptor affinities in the low nanomolar range in combination with a biological half live in human plasma up to 275 minutes. Biodistribution studies in male Wistar rats of metabolically stabilised and non-stabilised 111 In-DTPA-NT(8-13) analogues showed a major clearance from the blood through the kidneys. 125 I-labelled Neurotensin (8-13) analogues showed accumulation up to 2.2% of the injected dose per g tissue in the liver which might be an important disadvantage when diagnosis of tumours in the gut is aimed. It is strongly suggested that stabilised neurotensin (8-13) analogues whether labelled with In-111, I-123 and the near future with Tc-99m, may act as new potential peptidergic radiopharmaceuticals for SPET diagnosis of different NT-receptor positive tumours like non-endocrine pancreas carcinoma, small cell lung carcinoma or colon adeno carcinoma. It is enticing to speculate that metabolically stabilised Neurotensin (8-13) analogues labelled with an appropriate isotope might be useful in therapy of different human cancers. (author)
Flikweert, A. J.; Nimalasuriya, T.; Kroesen, G. M. W.; Haverlag, M.; Stoffels, W. W.
2009-11-01
Diffusive and convective processes in the metal-halide lamp cause an unwanted axial colour segregation. Convection is induced by gravity. To understand the flow phenomena in the arc discharge lamp it has been investigated under normal laboratory conditions, micro-gravity (ISS and parabolic flights) and hyper-gravity (parabolic flights 2 g, centrifuge 1 g-10 g). The measurement techniques are webcam imaging, and emission and laser absorption spectroscopy. This paper aims to give an overview of the effect of different artificial gravity conditions on the lamp and compares the results from the three measurement techniques.
Thymidine analogues to assess microperfusion in human tumors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Janssen, Hilde L.; Ljungkvist, Anna S.; Rijken, Paul F.; Sprong, Debbie; Bussink, Jan; Kogel, Albert J. van der; Haustermans, Karin M.; Begg, Adrian C.
2005-01-01
Purpose: To validate the use of the thymidine analogues as local perfusion markers in human tumors (no labeling indicates no perfusion) by comparison with the well-characterized perfusion marker Hoechst 33342. Methods and Materials: Human tumor xenografts from gliomas and head-and-neck cancers were injected with iododeoxyuridine (IdUrd) or bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) and the fluorescent dye Hoechst 33342. In frozen sections, each blood vessel was scored for the presence of IdUrd/BrdUrd labeling and Hoechst in surrounding cells. The percentage of analogue-negative vessels was compared with the fraction of Hoechst-negative vessels. Collocalization of the two markers was also scored. Results: We found considerable intertumor variation in the fraction of perfused vessels, measured by analogue labeling, both in the human tumor xenografts and in a series of tumor biopsies from head-and-neck cancer patients. There was a significant correlation between the Hoechst-negative and IdUrd/BrdUrd-negative vessels in the xenografts (r 85, p = 0.0004), despite some mismatches on a per-vessel basis. Conclusions: Thymidine analogues can be successfully used to rank tumors according to their fraction of perfused vessels. Whether this fraction correlates with the extent of acute hypoxia needs further confirmation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valenzuela, Loreto; López-Martín, Rafael; Zarza, Eduardo
2014-01-01
This article presents an outdoor test method to evaluate the optical and thermal performance of parabolic-trough collectors of large size (length ≥ 100 m), similar to those currently installed in solar thermal power plants. Optical performance in line-focus collectors is defined by three parameters, peak-optical efficiency and longitudinal and transversal incidence angle modifiers. In parabolic-troughs, the transversal incidence angle modifier is usually assumed equal to 1, and the incidence angle modifier is referred to the longitudinal incidence angle modifier, which is a factor less than or equal to 1 and must be quantified. These measurements are performed by operating the collector at low fluid temperatures for reducing heat losses. Thermal performance is measured during tests at various operating temperatures, which are defined within the working temperature range of the solar field, and for the condition of maximum optical response. Heat losses are measured from both the experiments performed to measure the overall efficiency and the experiments done by operating the collector to ensure that absorber pipes are not exposed to concentrated solar radiation. The set of parameters describing the performance of a parabolic-trough collector of large size has been measured following the test procedures proposed and explained in the article. - Highlights: • Outdoor test procedures of parabolic-trough solar collector (PTC) of large size working at high temperature are described. • Optical performance measured with cold fluid temperature and thermal performance measured in the complete temperature range. • Experimental data obtained in the testing of a PTC prototype are explained
Analogues of estradiol as potential breast tumor imaging agents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibson, R.E.; Rzeszotarski, W.J.; Ferriera, N.L.; Jagoda, E.M.; Reba, R.C.; Eckelman, W.C.
1984-01-01
The radioiodinated analogue of estradiol, 11β-methoxy-17α-[/sup 125/I]iodovinylestradiol (MIVE/sub 2/), has been shown to be a good candidate for the imaging of estrogen dependent breast tumors. Although there has been no extensive study on the sensitivity of radiotracers of this type, the authors have not observed localization of the radiotracer in metastatic lesions containing less than 20 fmole estrogen receptor/mg protein or in bone metasteses. In order to improve the sensitivity, they have examined several structural analogues of moxestrol (the parent structure for MIVE/sub 2/) for affinity to the ER isolated from immature rat uterus. The 11β-ethyl analogue (EEE/sub 2/) of ethynyl estradiol (EE/sub 2/) exhibits the highest affinity with the 11β-methyl analogue second best. Although the lipophilicity is also very high this compound should not be much more lipophilic than 16-iodoestradiol or MIVE/sub 2/ since the introduction of iodine increases the log P by greater than 1. The distribution of the tritiated derivative of EEE/sub 2/ is under study
de Blois, Erik; Chan, Ho Sze; Breeman, Wouter A P
2012-01-01
For iodination ((125/127)I) of tyrosine-containing peptides, chloramin-T, Pre-Coated Iodo-Gen(®) tubes and Iodo-Beads(®) (Pierce) are commonly used for in vitro radioligand investigations and there have been reliant vendors hereof for decades. However, commercial availability of these radio-iodinated peptides is decreasing. For continuation of our research in this field we investigated and optimized (radio-)iodination of somatostatin analogues. In literature, radioiodination using here described somatostatin analogues and iodination techniques are described separately. Here we present an overview, including High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) separation and characterisation by mass spectrometry, to obtain mono- and di-iodinated analogues. Reaction kinetics of (125/127)I iodinated somatostatin analogues were investigated as function of reaction time and concentration of reactants, including somatostatin analogues, iodine and oxidizing agent. To our knowledge, for the here described somatostatin analogues, no (127)I iodination and optimization are described. (Radio-)iodinated somatostatin analogues could be preserved with a >90% radiochemical purity for 1 month after reversed phase HPLC-purification.
Carter, John; Stephenson, Mark
1999-01-01
The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed the initial flight test of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers that gives the aircraft a research control law capability. The production support flight control computers (PSFCC) provide an increased capability for flight research in the control law, handling qualities, and flight systems areas. The PSFCC feature a research flight control processor that is "piggybacked" onto the baseline F/A-18 flight control system. This research processor allows for pilot selection of research control law operation in flight. To validate flight operation, a replication of a standard F/A-18 control law was programmed into the research processor and flight-tested over a limited envelope. This paper provides a brief description of the system, summarizes the initial flight test of the PSFCC, and describes future experiments for the PSFCC.
Overview of software development at the parabolic dish test site
Miyazono, C. K.
1985-01-01
The development history of the data acquisition and data analysis software is discussed. The software development occurred between 1978 and 1984 in support of solar energy module testing at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Parabolic Dish Test Site, located within Edwards Test Station. The development went through incremental stages, starting with a simple single-user BASIC set of programs, and progressing to the relative complex multi-user FORTRAN system that was used until the termination of the project. Additional software in support of testing is discussed including software in support of a meteorological subsystem and the Test Bed Concentrator Control Console interface. Conclusions and recommendations for further development are discussed.
Experimental studies on solar parabolic dish cooker with porous medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lokeswaran, S.; Eswaramoorthy, M.
2012-01-01
The solar cooking is the alternate method of cooking to reduce consumptions of fossil fuels. An affordable, energy efficient solar cooking technology is much need due to the fossil fuels increasing cost and it is the hottest research topic in all over the world. This paper presents an experimental analysis of the heat transfer enhancement of solar parabolic dish cookers by a porous medium made of scrap material. Using the stagnation temperature test and water boiling test are conducted on the cooking vessel with and without porous medium. Experimental results are compared for both cases in terms of thermal performance, optical efficiency, heat loss factor and cooking power. (authors)
Nonimaging compound parabolic concentrator-type reflectors with variable extreme direction.
Gordon, J M; Rabl, A
1992-12-01
The properties of nonimaging compound parabolic concentrator (CPC)-type devices are examined in which the extreme direction is not constant but rather is a variable that can change along the reflector. One can then retain the maximal concentration or radiative efficiency of the CPC while the flux map on the absorber or target is modified, depending on whether the device is used for optical concentration or for lighting. Two general classes of reflector are derived, and all the nonimaging devices developed to date are shown to be special cases of the general solution. These two classes are the nonimaging analog of converging and diverging devices of imaging optics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Tongyi; Zhao Wei; Liu Xueming
2009-01-01
We have made a thorough theoretical investigation of the interplay of spin-orbit interactions (SOIs) resulting from Rashba, Dresselhaus and the lateral parabolic confining potential on the energy dispersion relation of the spin subbands in a parabolic quantum wire. The influence of an applied external magnetic field is also discussed. We show the interplay of different types of SOI, as well as the Zeeman effect, leads to rather complex and intriguing electrosubbands for different spin branches. The effect of different coupling strengths and different magnetic field strengths is also investigated.
Beam-Riding Analysis of a Parabolic Laser-thermal Thruster
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scharring, Stefan; Eckel, Hans-Albert; Roeser, Hans-Peter
2011-01-01
Flight experiments with laser-propelled vehicles (lightcrafts) are often performed by wire-guidance or with spin-stabilization. Nevertheless, the specific geometry of the lightcraft's optics and nozzle may provide for inherent beam-riding properties. These features are experimentally investigated in a hovering experiment at a small free flight test range with an electron-beam sustained pulsed CO 2 high energy laser. Laser bursts are adapted with a real-time control to lightcraft mass and impulse coupling for ascent and hovering in a quasi equilibrium of forces. The flight dynamics is analyzed with respect to the impulse coupling field vs. attitude, given by the lightcraft's offset and its inclination angle against the beam propagation axis, which are derived from the 3D-reconstruction of the flight trajectory from highspeed recordings. The limitations of the experimental parameters' reproducibility and its impact on flight stability are explored in terms of Julia sets. Solution statements for dynamic stabilization loops are presented and discussed.
Hull, J. R.
Since its introduction, the concept of nonimaging solar concentrators, as exemplified by the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) design, has greatly enhanced the ability to collect solar energy efficiently in thermal and photovoltaic devices. When used as a primary concentrator, a CPC can provide significant concentration without the complication of a tracking mechanism and its associated maintenance problems. When used as a secondary, a CPC provides higher total concentration, or for a fixed concentration, tolerates greater tracking error in the primary.
Quantum damped oscillator II: Bateman's Hamiltonian vs. 2D parabolic potential barrier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chruscinski, Dariusz
2006-01-01
We show that quantum Bateman's system which arises in the quantization of a damped harmonic oscillator is equivalent to a quantum problem with 2D parabolic potential barrier known also as 2D inverted isotropic oscillator. It turns out that this system displays the family of complex eigenvalues corresponding to the poles of analytical continuation of the resolvent operator to the complex energy plane. It is shown that this representation is more suitable than the hyperbolic one used recently by Blasone and Jizba
Performance Analysis of Fractional-Order PID Controller for a Parabolic Distributed Solar Collector
Elmetennani, Shahrazed
2017-09-01
This paper studies the performance of a fractional-order proportional integral derivative (FOPID) controller designed for parabolic distributed solar collectors. The control problem addressed in concentrated solar collectors aims at forcing the produced heat to follow a desired reference despite the unevenly varying solar irradiance. In addition to the unpredictable variations of the energy source, the parabolic solar collectors are subject to inhomogeneous distributed efficiency parameters affecting the heat production. The FOPID controller is well known for its simplicity with better tuning flexibility along with robustness with respect to disturbances. Thus, we propose a control strategy based on FOPID to achieve the control objectives. First, the FOPID controller is designed based on a linear approximate model describing the system dynamics under nominal working conditions. Then, the FOPID gains and differentiation orders are optimally tuned in order to fulfill the robustness design specifications by solving a nonlinear optimization problem. Numerical simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed FOPID controller. A comparison to the robust integer order PID is also provided. Robustness tests are performed for the nominal model to show the effectiveness of the FOPID. Furthermore, the proposed FOPID is numerically tested to control the distributed solar collector under real working conditions.
Elliptical, parabolic, and hyperbolic exchanges of energy in drag reducing plane Couette flows
Pereira, Anselmo S.; Mompean, Gilmar; Thompson, Roney L.; Soares, Edson J.
2017-11-01
In the present paper, we investigate the polymer-turbulence interaction by discriminating between the mechanical responses of this system to three different subdomains: elliptical, parabolic, and hyperbolic, corresponding to regions where the magnitude of vorticity is greater than, equal to, or less than the magnitude of the rate of strain, respectively, in accordance with the Q-criterion. Recently, it was recognized that hyperbolic structures play a crucial role in the drag reduction phenomenon of viscoelastic turbulent flows, thanks to the observation that hyperbolic structures, as well as vortical ones, are weakened by the action of polymers in turbulent flows in a process that can be referred to as flow parabolization. We employ direct numerical simulations of a viscoelastic finite extensible nonlinear elastic model with the Peterlin approximation to examine the transient evolution and statistically steady regimes of a plane Couette flow that has been perturbed from a laminar flow at an initial time and developed a turbulent regime as a result of this perturbation. We have found that even more activity is located within the confines of the hyperbolic structures than in the elliptical ones, which highlights the importance of considering the role of hyperbolic structures in the drag reduction mechanism.
From BPA to its analogues: Is it a safe journey?
Usman, Afia; Ahmad, Masood
2016-09-01
Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the most abundant synthetic chemicals in the world due to its uses in plastics. Its widespread exposure vis-a-vis low dose effects led to a reduction in its safety dose and imposition of ban on its use in infant feeding bottles. This restriction paved the way for the gradual market entry of its analogues. However, their structural similarity to BPA has put them under surveillance for endocrine disrupting potential. The application of these analogues is increasing and so are the studies reporting their toxicity. This review highlights the reasons which led to the ban of BPA and also reports the exposure and toxicological data available on its analogues. Hence, this compilation is expected to answer in a better way whether the replacement of BPA by these analogues is safer or more harmful? Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Solar water disinfecting system using compound parabolic concentrating collector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El-Ghetany, H.H.; Saitoh, T.S. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)
2000-05-31
Solar water disinfection is an alternative technology using solar radiation and thermal treatment to inactivate and destroy pathogenic microorganisms present in water. The Compound Parabolic Concentrating, (CPC) collector can be used as an efficient key component for solar disinfectanting system. Two types of the CPC collectors are studied, namely the transparent-tube and the Copper-tube CPC collector. It is found that after 30 minutes of exposing the water sample to solar radiation or heating it up to 65 degree C for a few minuets all the coliform bacterial present in the contaminated water sample were completely eliminated. In this article, the effect of water temperature on the disinfecting process was presented. Thermal and micro-biological measurements were also made to evaluate the system performance. (author)
Design of a saturated analogue and digital current transducer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pross, Alexander
2002-01-01
This project describes the development of a new analogue and digital current transducer, providing a range of new theoretical design methods for these novel devices. The main control feature is the limit cycling operation, and the novel use of the embedded sigma-delta modulator sensor structure to derive a low component count digital sensor. The research programme was initiated into the design, development and evaluation of a novel non-Hall sensing analogue and digital current transducer. These transducers are used for measurement of high currents in power systems applications. The investigation is concerned with a new design which uses a magnetic ferrite core without an air gap for current measurement. The motivation for this work was to design a new control circuit which provides a low component count, and utilises the non-linear properties of the magnetic ferrite core to transmit direct current. The use of a limit cycle control circuit was believed to be particularly suitable for the analogue and digital transducers, for two main reasons: the low component count, and the output signal is directly digital. In line with the motivations outlined above, the outcome of the research has witnessed the design, development and evaluation of a practically realisable analogue and digital current transducer. The design procedure, which is documented in this thesis, is considered to be a major contribution to the field of transducers design and development using a control systems approach. Mathematical models for both analogue and digital transducers were developed and the resulting model based predictions were found to be in good agreement with measured results. Simplification of the new model sensing device was achieved by approximating the non-linear ferrite core using FFT analysis. This is also considered to be a significant contribution. The development analogue and digital current censors employed a sampled data control systems design and utilised limit cycling
Natural analogues, paradigm for manmade repositories for radioactive wastes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavelescu, M.; Pavelescu, A.
2004-01-01
Natural analogues are given by nature. They show the results of natural processes which have lasted thousands or millions of years. They provide an excellent example of what could happen in an underground site, offering in the same time the opportunity to test by observation and measurement, many of the geochemical processes that are expected to influence in a realistic and appropriate way, the predicted reliability of the radioactive waste repository over long periods of geological time. The natural analogue studies attempt to understand the multiprocessing complexity of the natural system, which contrasts with the limitations of the laboratory experiments and bring arguments to overcome the difficult time scale issue. By this the natural analogues are a useful paradigm for manmade repository for radioactive wastes. The paper discusses the implicit link in the public mind between natural analogues and manmade waste repository with an accent of the positive impact on public acceptance. It is also discussed the decisive qualities of the natural analogues concerning providing valid long term data and increasing the confidence of the public for manmade repositories. The debate is conducting in terms of sustainable development, having at base high-level principles in order to protect humans and their environment, both now and in the future, from potential hazards arising from such wastes. Safe radwaste management involves the application of technology and resources in a regulated manner so that the public, workers and the environment are protected in accordance with the accepted national and international standards. There are at least seven high-level principles which are mentioned in the paper. It is presented the general concept of the deep geological repository, very important for an acceptable solution for the management of nuclear waste, what is a prerequisite for a renewal of nuclear power. Further are introduced natural and archaeological (manufactured) analogue
Study of the parabolic and elliptic approaches validities for a turbulent co-flowing jet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahmoud Houda
2012-01-01
Full Text Available An axisymmetric turbulent jet discharged in a co-flowing stream was studied with the aid of parabolic and elliptic approaches. The simulations were performed with two in-house codes. Detailed comparisons of data show good agreement with the corresponding experiments; and different behaviors of jet dilution were found in initial region at different ranges of velocities ratios. It has been found that the two approaches give practically the same results for the velocities ratios Ru ≤ 1.5. Further from this value, the elliptic approach highlights the appearance of the fall velocity zone and that’s due to the presence of a trough low pressure. This fall velocity has not been detected by the parabolic approach and that’s due to the jet entrainment by the ambient flow. The intensity of this entrainment is directly related to the difference between the primary (jet and the secondary flow (co-flow. In fact, by increasing the velocities ratios Ru, the sucked flux by the outer stream becomes more important; the fall velocity intensifies and changes into a recirculation zone for Ru ≥ 5.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahed Hameed Jaaz
2018-06-01
Full Text Available The importance of utilizing the solar energy as a very suitable source among multi-source approaches to replace the conventional energy is on the rise in the last four decades. The invention of the photovoltaic module (PV could be the corner stone in this process. However, the limited amount of energy obtained from PV was and still the main challenge of full utilization of the solar energy. In this paper, the use of the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC along with the thermal photovoltaic module (PVT where the cooling process of the CPC is conducted using a novel technique of water jet impingement has applied experimentally and physically tested. The test includes the effect of water jet impingement on the total power, electrical efficiency, thermal efficiency, and total efficiency on CPC-PVT system. The cooling process at the maximum irradiation by water jet impingement resulted in improving the electrical efficiency by 7%, total output power by 31% and the thermal efficiency by 81%. These results outperform the recent highest results recorded by the most recent work. Keywords: Photovoltaic thermal collectors, Electrical performance, Thermal performance, Compound parabolic concentrator, Jet impingement
Solid-phase synthesis of new saphenamycin analogues with antimicrobial activity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laursen, Jane B.; de Visser, P.C.; Nielsen, H.K.
2002-01-01
in parallel with a series of differently substituted benzoic acid derivatives. Treatment with TFA-CH2Cl2 (5:995) released the expected saphenamycin analogues into solution. These new analogues were purified, characterized and screened for antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Proteus mirabilis...
Natural analogues for containment-providing barriers for a HLW repository in salt
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wolf, J.; Noseck, U.
2015-06-15
In 2005, a German research project was started to develop a novel approach to prove safety for a HLW repository in a salt formation, to refine the safety concept, to identify open scientific issues and to define necessary R&D work. This project aimed at identifying the key information for a HLW repository in salt. One important question is how this information may be best fulfilled by natural analogue studies. This question is answered by starting a review of the required key information needs of the safety case (post-closure phase) in order to assess whether or not these requirements can be supported by natural analogues information. In order to structure the review and to address the key elements of the safety concepts, three types of natural analogues are distinguished: (i) natural analogues for the integrity of the geological barrier, (ii) natural analogues for the integrity of the geotechnical barriers and (iii) natural analogues for release scenarios. For the safety case in salt type (i) and (ii) are of highest importance and are treated in this paper. The assessment documented in this paper on the one hand indicates the high potential benefit of natural analogues for a safety case in salt and on the other hand helps to focus the available human and financial resources for the safety case on the most safety-relevant aspects. (authors)
GnRH Analogues in the Prevention of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome
Alama, Pilar; Bellver, Jose; Vidal, Carmen; Giles, Juan
2013-01-01
The GnRH analogue (agonist and antagonist GnRH) changed ovarian stimulation. On the one hand, it improved chances of pregnancy to obtain more oocytes and better embryos. This leads to an ovarian hyper-response, which can be complicated by the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). On the other hand, the GnRH analogue can prevent the incidence of OHSS: GnRH antagonist protocols, GnRH agonist for triggering final oocyte maturation, either together or separately, coasting, and the GnRH analogue may prove useful for avoiding OHSS in high-risk patients. We review these topics in this article. PMID:23825982
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. G. Crandall
1999-07-01
Full Text Available We study existence of continuous weak (viscosity solutions of Dirichlet and Cauchy-Dirichlet problems for fully nonlinear uniformly elliptic and parabolic equations. Two types of results are obtained in contexts where uniqueness of solutions fails or is unknown. For equations with merely measurable coefficients we prove solvability of the problem, while in the continuous case we construct maximal and minimal solutions. Necessary barriers on external cones are also constructed.
Influence of prostaglandin analogues on epithelial cell proliferation and xenograft growth.
Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H
1980-01-01
The influence of two prostaglandin (PG) analogues, 16,16-dimethyl PG E2 and 16,16-dimethyl PG F2 alpha and of the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, flurbiprofen, on epithelial cell proliferation was assessed using a stathmokinetic technique. The epithelia examined were those of the jejunal crypts, the colonic crypts and that of dimethylhydrazine-induced adenocarcinomas of rat colon. The influence of the two prostaglandin analogues, and of flurbiprofen, on the growth of a human colorectal tumour propagated as xenografts in immune-deprived mice was also assessed. The PG E2 analogue transiently inhibited xenograft growth, but was without effect on the mitotic rate in the rat tissues. The PG F2 alpha analogue was also found to inhibit xenograft growth but, unlike the PG E2 analogue, it was found to be a strong inhibitor of cell proliferation in rat colonic tumours, and an accelerator of proliferation in jejunal-crypt cells. The only statistically significant effect of flurbiprofen was to accelerate cell division in the rat colonic tumours.
Optoelectronic properties of higher acenes, their BN analogue and substituted derivatives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armaković, Stevan; Armaković, Sanja J.; Holodkov, Vladimir; Pelemiš, Svetlana
2016-01-01
We have investigated optoelectronic properties of higher acenes: pentacene, hexacene, heptacene, octacene, nonacene, decacene and their boron-nitride (BN) analogues, within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). We have also investigated the optoelectronic properties of acenes modified by BN substitution. Calculated optoelectronic properties encompasses: oxidation and reduction potentials, electron and hole reorganization energies and energy difference between excited first singlet and triplet states ΔE(S_1−T_1). Oxidation and reduction potentials indicate significantly better stability of BN analogues, comparing with their all-carbon relatives. Although higher acenes possess lower electron and hole reorganization energies, with both best values much lower than 0.1 eV, their BN analogues also have competitive values of reorganization energies, especially for holes for which reorganization energy is also lower than 0.1 eV. On the other hand ΔE(S_1−T_1) is much better for BN analogues, having values that indicate that BN analogues are possible applicable for thermally activated delayed fluorescence. - Highlights: • Optoelectronic properties of structures based on higher acenes have been investigated. • Oxidation and reduction potentials together with reorganization energies are calculated. • TADF is analyzed through calculation of ΔE(S_1−T_1), which is much better for BN analogues. • Reorganization energies of acenes improve with the increase of number of benzene rings.
Cross-reactivity of amphetamine analogues with Roche Abuscreen radioimmunoassay reagents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cody, J.T.
1990-01-01
Cross-reactivity of amphetamine analogues with the Abuscreen amphetamine radioimmunoassay reagents was determined for both the standard and high specificity antibody systems. Compounds tested included 2-methoxyamphetamine, 4-hydroxymethamphetamine, 2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine (DMA), 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine (DOB), 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-beta-phenethylamine (BDMPEA), 3,4,5-trimethoxyamphetamine (TMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), N,N-dimethyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine and N-hydroxy-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (N-OH MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM), and 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine (mescaline). Blank negative reference material was spiked with 1,000 to 100,000 ng/mL of the amphetamine analogue and used as sample in the assays. MDA was the only analogue that showed cross reactivity equal to or greater than that of amphetamine. None of the other analogue compounds demonstrated a positive result at even the highest concentration; however several showed depressed counts at various concentration levels
Doroud, K
2017-01-01
Measurement of the Time-of-Flight (TOF) of the 511 keV gammas brings an important reduction of statistical noise in the PET image, with higher precision time measurements producing clearer images. The common method of coupling a photodetector to scintillating crystals is to have two matching matrices, with a one-to-one coupling between the crystal and the photodetector. We propose a new geometry based on analogue strip SiPMs reading out a scintillator cut into slabs. This technique allows the time stamping of individual photo-electrons and extracts the best time resolution using a specific algorithm. Here we present the results from the first ‘slab module’ test.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doroud, K., E-mail: Katayoun.Doroud@cern.ch [CERN Geneva (Switzerland); Williams, M.C.S. [CERN Geneva (Switzerland); INFN, Bologna (Italy)
2017-03-21
Measurement of the Time-of-Flight (TOF) of the 511 keV gammas brings an important reduction of statistical noise in the PET image, with higher precision time measurements producing clearer images. The common method of coupling a photodetector to scintillating crystals is to have two matching matrices, with a one-to-one coupling between the crystal and the photodetector. We propose a new geometry based on analogue strip SiPMs reading out a scintillator cut into slabs. This technique allows the time stamping of individual photo-electrons and extracts the best time resolution using a specific algorithm. Here we present the results from the first ‘slab module’ test.
Bharate, Sandip B; Bhutani, Kamlesh K; Khan, Shabana I; Tekwani, Babu L; Jacob, Melissa R; Khan, Ikhlas A; Singh, Inder Pal
2006-03-15
In the present communication, naturally occurring phloroglucinol-monoterpene adducts, euglobals G1-G4 (3b/a and 4a/b) and 16 new analogues (13a/b-18a/b and 19-22) were synthesized by biomimetic approach. These synthetic compounds differ from natural euglobals in the nature of monoterpene and acyl functionality. All of these compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, antileishmanial and antimalarial activities. Analogue 17b possessed good antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, while analogues 19-22 possessed potent antifungal activity against Candida glabrata with IC50s ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 microg/mL. Euglobals along with all synthesized analogues exhibited antileishmanial activity. Amongst these, euglobal G2 (3a), G3 (4a) and analogues 13a and 14a showed potent antileishmanial activity with IC50s ranging from 2.8 to 3.9 microg/mL. Analogue 16a possessed antimalarial activity against chloroquine sensitive D6 clone of Plasmodium falciparum. None of the compounds showed toxicity against mammalian kidney fibroblasts (vero cells) upto the concentration of 4.76 microg/ml.
Shaping of parabolic cylindrical membrane reflectors for the Dart Precision Test Bed
Morgan, R.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Dragovan, M.; Barber, D.; Marcin, M.; White, C.; Dooley, J.; Hatheway, A.
2004-01-01
The DART is a new telescope architecture consisting of a single aperture formed from two cylindrical parabolic reflectors. The system is ideally suited to using tensioned membranes for the reflective surfaces, owing to the zero Gaussian curvature of a cylindrical parabola. In this paper, we present experimental measurements for shaping the membranes by using curved boundary elements to achieve coarse shaping, and a pair of precision rails shaped by moments and forces at the ends, and lightly pushed into the surface, to provide fine shape control.
Analysis of nonlinear parabolic equations modeling plasma diffusion across a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hyman, J.M.; Rosenau, P.
1984-01-01
We analyse the evolutionary behavior of the solution of a pair of coupled quasilinear parabolic equations modeling the diffusion of heat and mass of a magnetically confined plasma. The solutions's behavior, due to the nonlinear diffusion coefficients, exhibits many new phenomena. In short time, the solution converges into a highly organized symmetric pattern that is almost completely independent of initial data. The asymptotic dynamics then become very simple and take place in a finite dimensional space. These conclusions are backed by extensive numerical experimentation
An accurate solution of parabolic equations by expansion in ultraspherical polynomials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doha, E.H.
1986-11-01
An ultraspherical expansion technique is applied to obtain numerically the solution of the third boundary value problem for linear parabolic partial differential equation in one-space variable. The differential equation with its boundary and initial conditions is reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations for the coefficients of the expansion. This system may be solved analytically or numerically in a step-by-step manner. The method in its present form may be considered as a generalization of that of Dew and Scraton. The extension of the method to the polar-type equations is also considered. (author). 12 refs, 1 tab
Compound parabolic concentrator optical fiber tip for FRET-based fluorescent sensors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Nielsen, Kristian; Aasmul, Soren
2015-01-01
The Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) optical fiber tip shape has been proposed for intensity based fluorescent sensors working on the principle of FRET (Förster Resonance Energy Transfer). A simple numerical Zemax model has been used to optimize the CPC tip geometry for a step-index multimode...... polymer optical fiber for an excitation and emission wavelength of 550 nm and 650nm, respectively. The model suggests an increase of a factor of 1.6 to 4 in the collected fluorescent power for an ideal CPC tip, as compared to the plane-cut fiber tip for fiber lengths between 5 and 45mm...
Specific heat of parabolic quantum dot with Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanjeev Kumar, D., E-mail: sanjeevchs@gmail.com; Chatterjee, Ashok [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, India - 500046 (India); Mukhopadhyay, Soma [DVR College of Engineering & Technology, Kashipur, Medak, India - 502285 (India)
2016-04-13
The heat capacity of a two electron quantum dot with parabolic confinement in magnetic field in the presence of electron-electron interaction, Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction (DSOI) has been studied. The electron-electron interaction has been treated by a model potential which makes the Hamiltonian to be soluble exactly. The RSOI has been treated by a unitary transformation and the terms up to second order in DSOI constants have been considered. The heat capacity is obtained by canonical averaging. So far no study has been reported in literature on the effect of DSOI on the heat capacity of quantum dot.
Test results on parabolic dish concentrators for solar thermal power systems
Jaffe, Leonard D.
1989-01-01
This paper presents results of development testing of various solar thermal parabolic dish concentrators. The concentrators were mostly designed for the production of electric power using dish-mounted Rankine, Brayton or Stirling cycle engines, intended to be produced at low cost. Measured performance for various dishes included optical efficiencies ranging from 0.32 to 0.86 at a geometric concentration ratio of 500, and from about 0.09 to 0.85 at a geometric concentration ratio of 3000. Some malfunctions were observed. The tests should provide operating information of value in developing concentrators with improved performance and reduced maintenance.
Existence and decay of solutions of some nonlinear parabolic variational inequalities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mitsuhiro Nakao
1980-01-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the existence and decay of solutions u(t of the variational inequality of parabolic type: ≧0for ∀v∈Lp([0,∞;V(p≧2 with v(t∈K a.e. in [0,∞, where K is a closed convex set of a separable uniformly convex Banach space V, A is a nonlinear monotone operator from V to V* and B is a nonlinear operator from Banach space W to W*. V and W are related as V⊂W⊂H for a Hilbert space H. No monotonicity assumption is made on B.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yue, Yunhao; Zhou, Baoming; Shi, Jie; Chen, Cheng; Li, Nan; Xu, Zhiwei, E-mail: xuzhiwei@tjpu.edu.cn; Liu, Liangsen; Kuang, Liyun; Ma, Meijun; Fu, Hongjun
2017-05-01
Highlights: • Graphene oxide sheets supported Ag nanoparticles composites are successfully prepared via γ-irradiation without surfactant or functional agent. • Ag nanoparticles exhibit single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution on the surface of graphene oxide sheets. • Proposing a view that the growth of intercellular AgNPs can be limited by graphite oxide. - Abstract: This paper reported a method to fabricate graphene oxide sheets supported Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs/GOS) with single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution without surfactant or functional agent. We used imidazole silver nitrate as intercalation precursor into the layers of graphite oxide, and subsequently reduction and growth of interlamellar AgNPs were induced via γ-irradiation. The results illustrated that the synergism of interlamellar limitation of graphite oxide and fragmentation ability of γ-irradiation could prevent coalescent reaction of AgNPs with other oligomeric clusters, and the single crystalline and small-sized (below 13.9 nm) AgNPs were prepared. Moreover, the content and size of AgNPs exhibited parabolic distribution on GOS surface because the graphite oxide exfoliated to GOS from the edge to the central area of layers. In addition, complete exfoliation degree of GOS and large-sized AgNPs were obtained simultaneously under suitable silver ions concentration. Optimized composites exhibited outstanding surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties for crystal violet with enhancement factor of 1.3 × 10{sup 6} and detection limit of 1.0 × 10{sup −7} M, indicating that the AgNPs/GOS composites could be applied to trace detection of organic dyes molecules. Therefore, this study presented a strategy for developing GOS supported nanometal with single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution based on γ-irradiation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yue, Yunhao; Zhou, Baoming; Shi, Jie; Chen, Cheng; Li, Nan; Xu, Zhiwei; Liu, Liangsen; Kuang, Liyun; Ma, Meijun; Fu, Hongjun
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Graphene oxide sheets supported Ag nanoparticles composites are successfully prepared via γ-irradiation without surfactant or functional agent. • Ag nanoparticles exhibit single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution on the surface of graphene oxide sheets. • Proposing a view that the growth of intercellular AgNPs can be limited by graphite oxide. - Abstract: This paper reported a method to fabricate graphene oxide sheets supported Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs/GOS) with single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution without surfactant or functional agent. We used imidazole silver nitrate as intercalation precursor into the layers of graphite oxide, and subsequently reduction and growth of interlamellar AgNPs were induced via γ-irradiation. The results illustrated that the synergism of interlamellar limitation of graphite oxide and fragmentation ability of γ-irradiation could prevent coalescent reaction of AgNPs with other oligomeric clusters, and the single crystalline and small-sized (below 13.9 nm) AgNPs were prepared. Moreover, the content and size of AgNPs exhibited parabolic distribution on GOS surface because the graphite oxide exfoliated to GOS from the edge to the central area of layers. In addition, complete exfoliation degree of GOS and large-sized AgNPs were obtained simultaneously under suitable silver ions concentration. Optimized composites exhibited outstanding surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties for crystal violet with enhancement factor of 1.3 × 10"6 and detection limit of 1.0 × 10"−"7 M, indicating that the AgNPs/GOS composites could be applied to trace detection of organic dyes molecules. Therefore, this study presented a strategy for developing GOS supported nanometal with single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution based on γ-irradiation.
A model for the parabolic slices Per1(e2πip/q) in moduli space of quadratic rational maps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Uhre, Eva
2010-01-01
The notion of relatedness loci in the parabolic slices Per1(e2πip/q) in moduli space of quadratic rational maps is introduced. They are counterparts of the disconnectedness or escape locus in the slice of quadratic polynomials. A model for these loci is presented, and a strategy of proof of the f......The notion of relatedness loci in the parabolic slices Per1(e2πip/q) in moduli space of quadratic rational maps is introduced. They are counterparts of the disconnectedness or escape locus in the slice of quadratic polynomials. A model for these loci is presented, and a strategy of proof...... of the faithfulness of the model is given....
Fengler, Svenja; Spirer, Ina; Neef, Maren; Ecke, Margret; Hauslage, Jens; Hampp, Rüdiger
2016-06-01
Cell cultures of the plant model organism Arabidopsis thaliana were exposed to partial- g forces during parabolic flight and clinostat experiments (0.16 g, 0.38 g and 0.5 g were tested). In order to investigate gravity-dependent alterations in gene expression, samples were metabolically quenched by the fixative RNA later Ⓡ to stabilize nucleic acids and used for whole-genome microarray analysis. An attempt to identify the potential threshold acceleration for the gravity-dependent response showed that the smaller the experienced g-force, the greater was the susceptibility of the cell cultures. Compared to short-term μ g during a parabolic flight, the number of differentially expressed genes under partial- g was lower. In addition, the effect on the alteration of amounts of transcripts decreased during partial- g parabolic flight due to the sequence of the different parabolas (0.38 g, 0.16 g and μ g). A time-dependent analysis under simulated 0.5 g indicates that adaptation occurs within minutes. Differentially expressed genes (at least 2-fold up- or down-regulated in expression) under real flight conditions were to some extent identical with those affected by clinorotation. The highest number of homologuous genes was detected within seconds of exposure to 0.38 g (both flight and clinorotation). To a considerable part, these genes deal with cell wall properties. Additionally, responses specific for clinorotation were observed.
A Note on the Asymptotic Behavior of Parabolic Monge-Ampère Equations on Riemannian Manifolds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiang Ru
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We study the asymptotic behavior of the parabolic Monge-Ampère equation in , in , where is a compact complete Riemannian manifold, λ is a positive real parameter, and is a smooth function. We show a meaningful asymptotic result which is more general than those in Huisken, 1997.
Botta, E.F.F.; Dijkstra, D.; Veldman, A.E.P.
1972-01-01
The numerical method of solution for the semi-infinite flat plate has been extended to the case of the parabolic cylinder. Results are presented for the skin friction, the friction drag, the pressure and the pressure drag. The drag coefficients have been checked by means of an application of the
The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library (PTAL)
Werner, S. C.; Dypvik, H.; Poulet, F.; Rull Perez, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Bultel, B.; Casanova Roque, C.; Carter, J.; Cousin, A.; Guzman, A.; Hamm, V.; Hellevang, H.; Lantz, C.; Lopez-Reyes, G.; Manrique, J. A.; Maurice, S.; Medina Garcia, J.; Navarro, R.; Negro, J. I.; Neumann, E. R.; Pilorget, C.; Riu, L.; Sætre, C.; Sansano Caramazana, A.; Sanz Arranz, A.; Sobron Grañón, F.; Veneranda, M.; Viennet, J.-C.; PTAL Team
2018-04-01
The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library project aims to build and exploit a spectral data base for the characterisation of the mineralogical and geological evolution of terrestrial planets and small solar system bodies.