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Sample records for par gilles lemieux

  1. Leçons d’analyse classique exposition d'un cours fait par Paul Koosis à l'Université McGill, Montréal

    CERN Document Server

    Poulin, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Ce livre est basé sur un cours de deuxième cycle donné en 2005-2006 par M. Paul Koosis, professeur émérite à l'université McGill. Il traite de sujets soigneusement choisis par le professeur à l'intention de ceux qui, plutôt que de rechercher un catalogue exhaustif de résultats techniques et abstraits, veulent être initiés aux découvertes les plus essentielles et prolifiques de l'analyse classique du vingtième siècle. Analyse harmonique, quasi-analyticité, zéros des fonctions entières (dont une preuve inédite du théorème de Levinson-Cartwright), approximation pondérée, principe d'incertitude, mesures harmoniques…, les résultats saillants et géniaux de l'analyse classique sont présentés dans un style soigné, rigoureux et détaillé, préparant les étudiants à des études plus poussées ; et au service du lecteur qui, connaissant les bases de la théorie de la mesure et de l'analyse complexe, désire suivre le merveilleux développement de M. Koosis et accroître sa connaissance d...

  2. Particle effects on fish gills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Cao; Kania, Per W.; Buchmann, Kurt

    2018-01-01

    Particles composed of inorganic, organic and/or biological materials occur in both natural water bodies and aquaculture facilities. They are expected to affect fish health through a direct chemical, mechanical and biological interaction with gills during ventilation but the nature of the reactions...... and the relative importance of mechanical versus chemical and biological stimulation are unknown. The present work presents an immune gene expression method for evaluation of gill disturbance and sets a baseline for the mechanical influence on fish gills of chemically inert spherical particles. The method may...... be applied to investigate particle impact at different combinations of temperature, fish size, water quality and particle composition. Spherical polystyrene particles (diameters 0.2 μm, 1 μm, 20 μm, 40 μm and 90 μm) were adopted as the particle model and the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings...

  3. Ferréol Gilles, Vieille-Marchiset Gilles, Dir., Loisirs, sports et sociétés. Regards croisés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Seca

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cette contribution, coordonnée par Gilles Ferréol et Gilles Vieille-Marchiset, s’inscrit dans le cadre général de la sociologie des loisirs et de la culture. Elle s’orga­nise en une introduction et en onze chapitres, répartis en deux parties (cinq pour la pre­mière et six pour la seconde. Quinze auteurs, enseignants et chercheurs, spécialisés principalement dans le domaine des activités physiques et sportives, y participent. Outre la dimension internationale du volume (contributeurs suisses,...

  4. Gilles Trachez (1969-2012)

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    We are deeply saddened to announce the death of our friend and colleague Gilles Trachez. A senior technician in electro-mechanics, and at CERN since 1992, Gilles was a unique example of vibrant energy, with a broad smile and a hearty laugh even when facing utmost difficulties.   Gilles put vigour, flexibility and creativity at the service of the development of the superconducting magnets for the LHC, and in practice all main LHC magnets contain a part of his work. He followed critical contracts for the supply of magnet shells and laminations, and we have fond memories of the visits to a supplier in the Basque region of Spain, ending, after long working days, in happy evenings spent in the local ‘sidreria’. Similarly, we recall long nights spent designing and assembling a polymerization oven to provide an urgent solution for the insulation of the LHC dipole cold bores. Gilles always had a smile on his face, and never hesitated to help a colleague. In the same spirit, he ...

  5. Sobre la cultura hipermoderna: entrevista a Gilles Lipovetsky

    OpenAIRE

    Cejudo Córdoba, Rafael; Montero Ariza, María del Mar; Ruiz Sánchez, José Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Esta entrevista a Gilles Lipovetsky (París, 1944) aborda varias cuestiones acerca del consumo cultural en la sociedad actual. La obra de Lipovetsky es difícil de categorizar en un solo ámbito de conocimiento. Podría decirse de él que es un intelectual «híbrido» puesto que sus intereses oscilan entre el análisis social y la filosofía, atendiendo al lado paradójico de los acontecimientos mediante la atención prestada a asuntos poco frecuentes en el pensamiento político y ético. Algunos...

  6. Mao-Gilles Stabilization Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Jérôme Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Originally, the Mao-Gilles stabilization algorithm was designed to compensate the non-rigid deformations due to atmospheric turbulence. Given a sequence of frames affected by atmospheric turbulence, the algorithm uses a variational model combining optical flow and regularization to characterize the static observed scene. The optimization problem is solved by Bregman Iteration and the operator splitting method. The algorithm is simple, efficient, and can be easily generalized for different sce...

  7. Mao-Gilles Stabilization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Gilles

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Originally, the Mao-Gilles stabilization algorithm was designed to compensate the non-rigid deformations due to atmospheric turbulence. Given a sequence of frames affected by atmospheric turbulence, the algorithm uses a variational model combining optical flow and regularization to characterize the static observed scene. The optimization problem is solved by Bregman Iteration and the operator splitting method. The algorithm is simple, efficient, and can be easily generalized for different scenarios involving non-rigid deformations.

  8. Gilles Sauvage (1939-2010)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Gilles Sauvage, a physicist from LAPP-Annecy working with ATLAS, passed away on 21 April 2010.   We will always remember Gilles’ smile. Gilles Sauvage was deeply involved in many generations of experiments at CERN as he followed the evolution of the field at the energy forefront. He started with the LAL-Orsay group in the WA2 Hyperon experiment at the SPS West Area, where he worked from 1976 to 1979. With the same group he was then a founding member of the UA2 Collaboration at the SPS p-pbar Collider, in which he was active throughout the duration of the experiment. He then moved to LAPP-Annecy in 1986 and joined first the L3 group at LEP, making important contributions to the construction, calibration, installation and commissioning of the BGO crystal calorimeter. Later, in the mid-1990s, Gilles joined ATLAS and led the LAPP-Annecy group through the intense period of the construction of one third of the ATLAS LAr barrel electromagnetic calorimeter modules at LAPP, and followed hands-o...

  9. Gilles Pérez, Gilles Rof, Les rebelles du Foot

    OpenAIRE

    Banaré, Eddy

    2012-01-01

    Le lien entre sport et politique n’est pas nouveau en soi : les déclarations de Mohamed Ali contre la guerre du Vietnam ou le poing ganté brandi par Tommie Smith et John Carlos aux Jeux Olympiques de Mexico en 1968 sont emblématiques. En quoi le football diffère-t-il ? Qu’il y a-t-il de nouveau dans Les rebelles du foot? Le foot semble, au premier abord, plus facilement instrumentalisé par la politique : les tribunes de stades servent parfois de vitrines aux candidats, ministres ou présidents...

  10. Gilles Jobin Collide@CERN - Strangels Intervention

    CERN Multimedia

    Gregory Batardon

    2012-01-01

    STRANGELS Cie Gilles Jobin. Site specific choreographic intervention inside the CERN's library. Three strangels on a migration to another dimension rest at the CERN's library. Strangels need food for thoughts. Do not pay attention to them they are only strangels. Dancers : Ruth Childs, Susana Panadès Diaz, Gilles Jobin

  11. Gill damage, metallothionein gene expression and metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water and sediment samples from each site, together with fish muscle and gills, were analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) for Li, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, ... Keywords: anthropogenic impacts, bioaccumulation, biomarkers, histopathology, rivers, sediments, toxic effects

  12. Learning to Teach--Gill's Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Gill; Rowland, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Gill Hatch was a very fine mathematician. Indeed, following her undergraduate studies in Cambridge in the late 1950s, she was one of the elite who went on to the notoriously difficult Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. In this article, the author describes the autobiographical accounts of Hatch during her teaching career in teacher education, as…

  13. Histopathological evaluation of Oreochromis mossambicus gills and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oreochromis mossambicus were sampled from a semi-intensively managed polyculture earthen pond in Bagauda, Nigeria for histopathological changes in the gills and liver as early warning signs of pond water pollution. Pond water was sourced from nearby Bagauda dam through a single 28 inches water pipe.

  14. Gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) inhabiting reservoirs contaminated with mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brundage, S.; Jagoe, C.H.; Shaw-Allen, P.

    1995-01-01

    Active transport of Na + and K + for osmoregulation in fish involves gill Na + , K + -ATPase, a membrane-bound enzyme powered by hydrolysis of ATP. Na + , K + -ATPase is inhibited by many dissolved metals including Al, Cd, Cu and Hg, resulting in ionoregulatory dysfunction. However, dissolved Hg concentrations are quite low in most aquatic systems, and dietary sources are the most important contributors to Hg burdens in fish. One recent study demonstrated relationships between muscle Hg concentration and gill Na + , K + -ATPase in a marine fish, suggesting that Hg accumulated via diet can affect osmoregulation. The authors tested for such a relationship in several age-classes of a freshwater fish (Micropterus salmoides) collected from three reservoirs. Fish from Par Pond and L Lake, on the USDOE Savannah River Site in South Carolina had relatively high Hg content: for Par Pond, muscle and liver ranged from 1.58--12.01 and 1.46--23.22 microg Hg/g dry mass, respectively, and for L Lake muscle and liver ranged from 3.11--5.16 and 1.28--12.59 microg Hg/g dry mass, respectively. Bass from an offsite location, Thurmond Lake, had significantly (P + , K + -ATPase activity was not evident

  15. Studies on the suitability of HDPE material for gill nets

    OpenAIRE

    Subramania Pillai, N.; Boopendranath, M.R.; Kunjipalu, K.K.

    1989-01-01

    The suitability of HDPE yarn and HDPE twine in place of nylon for gill nets has been studied. As regards total catch nylon gill net is found to be better than HDPE nets. However, statistical analysis of the catch in respect of quality fishes shows that HDPE yarn nets are equally efficient as nylon nets.

  16. Cultured branchial epithelia from freshwater fish gills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood; PÄRt

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a method for the primary culture of gill epithelial cells from freshwater rainbow trout on permeable supports, polyethylene terephthalate membranes ('filter inserts'). Primary cultures of gill cells (6-9 days in Leibowitz L-15 culture medium plus foetal bovine serum and glutamine) are trypsinized and the cells seeded onto the inserts. After 6 days of growth with L-15 medium on both surfaces (approximately isotonic to trout plasma), the cells form a tight epithelium as judged from a progressive rise in transepithelial resistance which reaches a stable plateau for a further 6 days, as long as L-15 exposure is continued on both surfaces. The cultured epithelium (approximately 8 µm thick) typically consists of 2-4 overlapping cell layers organized as in the lamellae in vivo, with large intercellular spaces, multiple desmosomes and putative tight junctions. The cells appear to be exclusively pavement-type cells with an apical surface glycocalyx, an abundance of rough endoplasmic reticulum, no selective DASPEI staining and relatively few mitochondria. Transepithelial resistance (approximately 3.5 k cm2), permeability to a paracellular marker (polyethylene glycol-4000; 0.17x10(-6) cm s-1) and unidirectional flux of Na+ and Cl- (approximately 300 nmol cm-2 h-1) all appear realistic because they compare well with in vivo values; net fluxes of Na+ and Cl- are zero. The preparation acidifies the apical medium, which accumulates a greater concentration of ammonia. Upon exposure to apical freshwater, resistance increases six- to elevenfold and a basolateral-negative transepithelial potential (TEP) develops as in vivo. These responses occur even when mannitol is used to prevent changes in apical osmotic pressure. Net Na+ and Cl- loss rates are low over the first 12 h (-125 nmol cm-2 h-1) but increase substantially by 48 h. The elevated resistance and negative TEP gradually attenuate but remain significantly higher than pre-exposure values after 48 h of apical

  17. 1554-IJBCS-Article-Cacai Gilles +

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    eau courante puis désinfectés. Le protocole de désinfection et les conditions de culture sont ceux utilisés par. Ng (1990). Pour cela, les explants sont immergés à l'éthanol 70° pendant 5 minutes puis dans une solution à 10% d'hypochlorite.

  18. Gilles Deleuze and the contemporary biopolitical debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Antonelli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a research on Gilles Deleuze’s contribution to the contemporary biopolitical debate. To begin with, we analyze his interpretation of Foucault’s conception of biopolitics, especially the vitalist matrix of his reading, and we examine its impact on the distinction between “biopower” and “biopolitics” according to certain authors (Lazzarato, Negri, Revel. We then reveal the presence of deleuzian notions in other perspectives (the “impersonal” in Esposito, the “society of control” in Negri. Finally, we propose renewing the fundamental tensions of the debate on Life, Politics, Language and the Condition of Man, based on concepts elaborated by Deleuze

  19. Adrian E. Gill 1937”1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Allan J.

    On April 19, Adrian Gill, FRS, my former thesis advisor and distinguished friend, died suddenly of cancer. My sadness and disbelief are more strongly felt because the life of this gifted and generous man ended so early.Born in Melbourne, Australia, Adrian was granted his Ph.D. at Cambridge University, Cambridge, U.K., in 1963. After a year at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Cambridge, Mass.), he returned to Cambridge in Britain, where he spent most of the rest of his life. In 1984, he left Cambridge to become director and cofounder of the Hooke Institute in Oxford, U.K. During his career he enjoyed many summers working in the United States.

  20. suPAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodges, Gethin W; Bang, Casper N; Wachtell, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental role of inflammation in cardiovascular disease (CVD) has prompted interest in numerous biomarkers that detect subclinical levels of inflammation. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a novel biomarker that correlates significantly with cardiovascular events ...... comprehensive review of suPAR in CVD and explore its function and usefulness in predicting cardiovascular events....

  1. Ferréol Gilles, Mamontoff Anne-Marie, ss. Dir., Tourisme et sociétés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Malige

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Le colloque international et pluridisciplinaire organisé en octobre 2008, à l’initiative de l’UFR “Sports, tourisme et hôtellerie” de l’université de Perpignan Via Domitia et du laboratoire de socio-anthropologie (LASA de l’université de Franche-Comté, s’est intéressé aux relations unissant tourisme, loisirs et sociétés. Coordonné par Gilles Ferréol assisté d’Anne-Marie Mamontoff, l’ouvrage, rassemblant des participants appartenant à diverses institutions académiques, regroupe une douzaine d...

  2. Par Pond water balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

    1996-06-01

    A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs

  3. FooPar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hargreaves, F. P.; Merkle, D.

    2013-01-01

    We present FooPar, an extension for highly efficient Parallel Computing in the multi-paradigm programming language Scala. Scala offers concise and clean syntax and integrates functional programming features. Our framework FooPar combines these features with parallel computing techniques. Foo......, results based on a empirical analysis on two supercomputers are given. We achieve close-to-optimal performance wrt. theoretical peak performance. Based on this result we conclude that FooPar allows programmers to fully access Scalas design features without suffering from performance drops when compared...

  4. McGill's Integrated Civil and Common Law Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morissette, Yves-Marie

    2002-01-01

    Describes the bijural program of McGill University Faculty of Law. The program educates all first-degree law students in both the common law and civil law traditions, preparing them for the increasing globalization of legal practice. (EV)

  5. Household economic modelsof gill net fishermen at Madura strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primyastanto, M.

    2018-04-01

    The purposes of this research was to analyze household economic models of gill net fishermen at Madura strait. 30 families of gillnet fishermenwere used for purposive sampling. Data analysis used descriptive qualitative and quantitative (regression analysis). Quantitative descriptive analysis was used to analyze research and compare to factors that affecting household economic models of gill net fishermen family. Research results showed tha thousehold economic models of gill net fishermen at Madura strait was production value level or fishermen revenue at sea was strongly influenced byp roduction asset production, education level, fuel, and work flow. Work flow rate of fishermen families affected by asset production, non fisheries workflow and number of male workforce. Non fishing income level was strongly influenced by non-fishery business assets, number of family members owned andnon-fishing work flow. Spending levels of gill net fishermen at Madura strait was affected by fishing income, non-fishing income, fishermen wife education and fishermen family members.

  6. The Symptomatology and Diagnosis of Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Arthur; And Others

    1973-01-01

    The symptomatology of 34 patients with Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome was described in detail. The purpose was to clarify the diagnostic criteria for Tourette's syndrome by describing the type, variety, and frequency of symptoms in this illness. (Author)

  7. Gill Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase activity in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) inhabiting reservoirs contaminated with mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brundage, S.; Jagoe, C.H.; Shaw-Allen, P. [Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab.

    1995-12-31

    Active transport of Na{sup +} and K{sup +} for osmoregulation in fish involves gill Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase, a membrane-bound enzyme powered by hydrolysis of ATP. Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase is inhibited by many dissolved metals including Al, Cd, Cu and Hg, resulting in ionoregulatory dysfunction. However, dissolved Hg concentrations are quite low in most aquatic systems, and dietary sources are the most important contributors to Hg burdens in fish. One recent study demonstrated relationships between muscle Hg concentration and gill Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase in a marine fish, suggesting that Hg accumulated via diet can affect osmoregulation. The authors tested for such a relationship in several age-classes of a freshwater fish (Micropterus salmoides) collected from three reservoirs. Fish from Par Pond and L Lake, on the USDOE Savannah River Site in South Carolina had relatively high Hg content: for Par Pond, muscle and liver ranged from 1.58--12.01 and 1.46--23.22 {micro}g Hg/g dry mass, respectively, and for L Lake muscle and liver ranged from 3.11--5.16 and 1.28--12.59 {micro}g Hg/g dry mass, respectively. Bass from an offsite location, Thurmond Lake, had significantly (P <0.05 by Kruskal-Wallis test) less Hg (muscle and liver range 0.61--2.39 and 0.28--2.32 {micro}g Hg/g dry mass, respectively). In all reservoirs, liver Hg varied more among individuals than muscle Hg. Water chemistry was similar in all reservoirs. Fish from the three reservoirs did not differ significantly in gill ATPase activity, and a correlation between tissue Hg and Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase activity was not evident.

  8. It's quicker "Par Avignon"!

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    For a few years, the CERN Library has been receiving books from the University of Hanover sent via Avignon, at least that's what it says on the envelope. Such a detour would mean that parcels were travelling 720 km more than the distance separating Geneva and Hanover, which would be a very strange state of affairs. The explanation lies in a spelling mistake. The sender has been stamping parcels with a stamp that says "Par Avignon prioritaire" (first-class via Avignon) instead of "Par Avion prioritaire" (First Class Air Mail), a source of much amusement to the librarians!

  9. Extraction and metabolism of circulating catecholamines by the trout gill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekvasil, N.P.; Olson, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    Extraction and metabolism of [3H]-norepinephrine (NE) and [3H]epinephrine (E) by the respiratory (efferent branchial) and filamental (venous) vasculature of the trout gill were examined using an isolated perfused arch technique in which outflow from the two circulations was separated. Deaminated and O-methylated metabolites in the effluent were identified by ion-exchange chromatography. Metabolism by tissue homogenates was also measured. Gill homogenates deaminate catecholamines (CAs) faster than homogenates of liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle; branchial O-methylation was comparable to that of liver and kidney. The perfused gill extracted 60% of a NE pulse and 47% of an E pulse. During continuous CA perfusion the gill removed greater than 30% of the NE from the circulation through extraction and metabolism; only 7% of the E was removed. The gill venous system extracts and metabolizes more CAs than the efferent. NE is the preferred substrate for extraction and metabolism. A mechanism is proposed whereby high circulating CA levels, common during stress, are maintained through CA-induced reduction in venous blood flow. After the stress is alleviated, CA levels begin to fall, flow to the venous pathway increases, and the rate of inactivation of circulating CAs increases

  10. Genetikken bag Gilles de laTourettes syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Birgitte; Melchior, L.; Debes, Nanette Mol

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about the aetiology of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is very limited. GTS has a complex mode of inheritance in which both genetic and environmental factors are believed to be involved in disease development. Different approaches to identify GTS associated genes have led to the di......Knowledge about the aetiology of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is very limited. GTS has a complex mode of inheritance in which both genetic and environmental factors are believed to be involved in disease development. Different approaches to identify GTS associated genes have led...

  11. La pelade par plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre l’épidémiologie, la pathogenèse, l’histologie et l’approche clinique au diagnostic de la pelade par plaques. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant la pathogenèse, le diagnostic et le pronostic de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme de perte pileuse auto-immune dont la prévalence durant une vie est d’environ 2 %. Des antécédents personnels ou familiaux de troubles auto-immuns concomitants, comme le vitiligo ou une maladie de la thyroïde, peuvent être observés dans un petit sous-groupe de patients. Le diagnostic peut souvent être posé de manière clinique en se fondant sur la perte de cheveux non cicatricielle et circulaire caractéristique, accompagnée de cheveux en « point d’exclamation » en périphérie chez ceux dont le problème en est aux premiers stades. Le diagnostic des cas plus complexes ou des présentations inhabituelles peut être facilité par une biopsie et un examen histologique. Le pronostic varie largement et de mauvais résultats sont associés à une apparition à un âge précoce, une perte importante, la variante ophiasis, des changements aux ongles, des antécédents familiaux ou des troubles auto-immuns concomitants. Conclusion La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte de cheveux périodiquement observée en soins primaires. Les médecins de famille sont bien placés pour identifier la pelade par plaques, déterminer la gravité de la maladie et poser le diagnostic différentiel approprié. De plus, ils sont en mesure de renseigner leurs patients à propos de l’évolution clinique de la maladie ainsi que du pronostic général selon le sous-type de patients.

  12. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and disruptive behavior disorders: prevalence, associations, and explanation of the relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Mary M; Cavanna, Andrea E; Eapen, Valsamma

    2015-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and conduct disorder (CD) are both heterogeneous childhood onset conditions, and although patients with CD have been described in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome cohorts, little is known about the etiology of CD in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome or of the interrelationships. A cohort of 578 consecutive patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome was assessed using standard assessment protocols. A total of 13.5% of participants had only Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, whereas the rest had associated comorbidities and psychopathology. CD occurred in 14.5% of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome probands. These findings suggest that CD is not an integral part of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome but rather that CD in the context of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is related to the presence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, as well as, and importantly, a family history of aggressive and violent behavior and forensic encounters.

  13. Matter in Motion: The Educational Materialism of Gilles Deleuze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper critically examines the materialism that Gilles Deleuze espouses in his oeuvre to the benefit of educational theory. In "Difference and Repetition", he presented transcendental empiricism by underwriting Kant with realism (Deleuze, 1994). Later, in "Capitalism & Schizophrenia I & II" that were co-written with Felix Guattari (1984, 1988)…

  14. Seasonal abundance, distribution, and catch per unit effort using gill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catch per unit effort was obtained for the fish of the Sundays .... Methods. Catch per unit effort (numbers and weight/net) of fish in the estuary was obtained from 55 .... Table 1 CPUE (number and mass) of fish caught monthly using gill-net over 12·h periods with 55 nettings at .... The abundance of some other species may.

  15. Long-Term Outcome of Gilles De La Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Videotapes recorded 1978 through 1991 of 56 children (ages 8 to 14 with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS were reviewed and 31 of the patients (28 men and 3 women, age>20 years were recruited for a second videotape and in-person assessment at Rush-Presbyterian-St Luke’s Movement Disorder Center, Chicago, IL.

  16. Structural Connectivity in Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B Chelse

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from Centre de Reference National Maladie Rare ‘Syndrome Gilles de la Tourette’ and Sorbonne University report white matter abnormalities in the pathways connecting the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus in a group of 49 adults with Tourette syndrome (TS.

  17. A case of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome is an uncommon illness associated with repetitive un-voluntary abnormal movements and utterance. It is often associated with other psychiatric morbidities. Management requires awareness of this uncommon illness, keen observation, relevant evaluation, and combination of pharmacology and psychotherapy for an optimal outcome. This case is brought out here for florid presentation and nuances of management.

  18. Psychological Aspects of Gilles De La Tourette Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Hildreth Youkilis; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Evaluated the psychopathological features that may underlie or accompany Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome. Univariate analyses indicated that Tourette subjects scored higher on the following scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory: Schizophrenia, Depression, Psychopathic Deviate, Psychasthenia and Hypochondriasis. The results…

  19. Identifying the Child with Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Donna J.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a brief introduction to Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics and obsessive-compulsive behaviors). It describes the nature of the disorder, treatment, and service provision (evaluation and assessment and the Individual Education Plan). (DB)

  20. Genetikken bag Gilles de laTourettes syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Birgitte; Melchior, Linea Cecilie; Debes, Nanette Mol

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about the aetiology of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is very limited. GTS has a complex mode of inheritance in which both genetic and environmental factors are believed to be involved in disease development. Different approaches to identify GTS associated genes have led...

  1. Third intervention of Gilles Jobin and Collide@CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Everything you wanted to know about contemporary dance but were afraid to ask. - 4 September 2012 at 4 p.m. in the Council Chamber -   A subjective and personal presentation of the recent history of contemporary dance by Gilles Jobin, Collide@CERN choreographer in residence.

  2. Histopathological biomarkers and genotoxicity in gill and liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, the degree of DNA damage was measured using the comet assay. To indicate the severity of water pollution at the two sites, physico-chemical properties and heavy metal concentrations were investigated. Gill damage, including lamellar cell hyperplasia and aneurysm, was observed in the fish samples from the ...

  3. suPAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of biomarkers that can promptly predict unfavourable outcome of critically illness is an emerging necessity taking into consideration the need for early intervention, the shortage of available beds in intensive care units and the considerable cost of hospitalisation. The most...... promising biomarker is soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR). Three studies in large populations of critically ill patients and patients admitted to the emergency department have shown that concentrations >12ng/mL can safely predict unfavourable outcome. This review presents...

  4. Parálisis cerebral :

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrero Izquierdo, María del Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Se aborda el tema de la parálisis cerebral definiendo qué es, clasificando los tipos de parálisis dependiendo de la afectación y las características principales. Se explican algunos de sus tratamientos, se dan sistemas alternativos y/o aumentativos de comunicación para un alumno con PC (parálisis cerebral).

  5. Criminalité, police et gouvernement : trajectoires post-communistes, Sous la direction de Gilles Favarel-Garrigues, Paris, l’Harmattan, collection logiques politiques, 2003, 304 pages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Wuilleumier

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Voici un ouvrage singulier ne serait-ce que de par la pluralité de lectures qu’il autorise ! Issues d’un colloque organisé par Gilles Favarel-Garrigues au CERI en mars 2002 sur le thème du traitement des questions de sécurité dans les pays de « l’Europe post-communiste », les huit contributions présentées ici peuvent nourrir le cas échéant une réflexion de type area studies (y compris s’agissant de discuter de la pertinence de la terminologie et de la délimitation zonale aussi bien que de « ...

  6. Enhanced habit formation in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Cécile; Salvador, Alexandre; Valabrègue, Romain; Roze, Emmanuel; Palminteri, Stefano; Vidailhet, Marie; de Wit, Sanne; Robbins, Trevor; Hartmann, Andreas; Worbe, Yulia

    2016-02-01

    Tics are sometimes described as voluntary movements performed in an automatic or habitual way. Here, we addressed the question of balance between goal-directed and habitual behavioural control in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and formally tested the hypothesis of enhanced habit formation in these patients. To this aim, we administered a three-stage instrumental learning paradigm to 17 unmedicated and 17 antipsychotic-medicated patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and matched controls. In the first stage of the task, participants learned stimulus-response-outcome associations. The subsequent outcome devaluation and 'slip-of-action' tests allowed evaluation of the participants' capacity to flexibly adjust their behaviour to changes in action outcome value. In this task, unmedicated patients relied predominantly on habitual, outcome-insensitive behavioural control. Moreover, in these patients, the engagement in habitual responses correlated with more severe tics. Medicated patients performed at an intermediate level between unmedicated patients and controls. Using diffusion tensor imaging on a subset of patients, we also addressed whether the engagement in habitual responding was related to structural connectivity within cortico-striatal networks. We showed that engagement in habitual behaviour in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome correlated with greater structural connectivity within the right motor cortico-striatal network. In unmedicated patients, stronger structural connectivity of the supplementary motor cortex with the sensorimotor putamen predicted more severe tics. Overall, our results indicate enhanced habit formation in unmedicated patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Aberrant reinforcement signals to the sensorimotor striatum may be fundamental for the formation of stimulus-response associations and may contribute to the habitual behaviour and tics of this syndrome. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on

  7. Dactylogyrids (Platyhelminthes, Monogenoidea) from the gills of Hoplias malabaricus (Characiformes: Erythrinidae) from coastal rivers of the Oriental Amazon Basin: species of Urocleidoides and Constrictoanchoratus n. gen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, K D C; Rodrigues, A R O; Cunha, J-M; Domingues, M V

    2018-05-01

    Five species of Urocleidoides (one new) and two new species of Constrictoanchoratus n. gen. are described in this study. All were collected from the gills of Hoplias malabaricus (Characiformes: Erythrinidae) captured in six localities of coastal rivers of the north-eastern sector the State of Pará (Oriental Amazon): Urocleidoides brasiliensis Rosim, Mendoza-Franco & Luque, 2011; Urocleidoides bulbophallus n. sp.; Urocleidoides cuiabai Rosim, Mendoza-Franco & Luque, 2011; Urocleidoides eremitus Kritsky, Thatcher & Boeger, 1986; Urocleidoides malabaricusi Rosim, Mendoza-Franco & Luque, 2011; Constrictoanchoratus lemmyi n. gen. n. sp.; and Constrictoanchoratus ptilonophallus n. gen. n. sp. This is the first reported occurrence of the four previously described species of Urocleidoides parasitizing H. malabaricus from streams in the Oriental Amazon Basin. The analysis of voucher specimens of U. eremitus parasitizing the gills of H. malabaricus from the Upper Paraná River floodplain in the limits of States of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, indicates that these specimens are members of a new species of Urocleidoides, described here as Urocleidoides paranae n. sp. Constrictoanchoratus n. gen. is proposed for the species with a male copulatory organ sclerotized, coiled, clockwise; ventral anchor with elongate superficial root, inconspicuous deep root; dorsal anchor with inconspicuous roots, and a constriction at the intersection between the shaft and the point. The host-parasite diversity scenario and host specificity of the species of Constrictoanchoratus n. gen. and Urocleidoides from the gills of H. malabaricus are also discussed in this study.

  8. Gilles Jobin Final residency lecture - Collision between dance and physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Doser, Michael; Dimou, Maria; Jobin, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    CERN, the Republic and Canton of Geneva, and the City of Geneva are delighted to invite you to the final public lecture about collisions between dance and physics by the first winner of Collide@CERN Geneva, the choreographer Gilles Jobin. The event marks the end of his residency and will be held at the CERN Globe of Science and Innovation on 6th November at 1800. Doors open at 17.30 Programme 18.00 - Opening address by Rolf-Dieter Heuer, CERN Director General, Ariane Koek, CERN Cultural Specialist, Sami Kanaan, Administrative Councilor in charge of the Department of Culture and Sport of the City of Geneva, and Charles Beer, Vice President of the State Council in charge of the Department of Education, Culture and Sport. 18.30 - Presentation by Gilles Jobin (Switzerland) of his residency experience at CERN with live demonstrations with his dancers 19.15 - Discussion on CERN as a Place of Collisions and Interventions between Dance and Physics with Gilles Jobin (Switzerland) and CERN scientists Maria Dimo...

  9. Reynolds number effects on gill pumping mechanics in mayfly nymphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensenig, Andrew; Shultz, Jeffrey; Kiger, Ken

    2006-11-01

    Mayfly nymphs have an entirely aquatic life stage in which they frequently inhabit stagnant water. Nymphs have the capability to generate a ventilation current to compensate for the low oxygen level of the water by beating two linear arrays of plate-like gills that typically line the lateral edge of the abdomen. The characteristic Reynolds number associated with the gill motion changes with animal size, varying over a span of Re = 5 to 100 depending on age and species. The assumption that the system maintains optimal energetic efficiency leads to the prediction that animals transition from rowing to flapping mechanisms with increasing Re, while possibly utilizing a squeeze mechanism to a greater extent at lower Re. To investigate this hypothesis, we capture the motion of the gills through 3D imaging to investigate the effect of Reynolds number on the stroke patterns. PIV is utilized to assess flow rates and viscous dissipation. The effectiveness of the ventilation mechanism at each size has important consequences for the range of oxygen levels, and hence the habitat range, that can be tolerated by that size.

  10. Famous people with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Francesco; Servo, Serena; Cavanna, Andrea Eugenio

    2009-12-01

    Virtually no neurologist nor psychiatrist today can be unaware of the diagnosis of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). Although the eponymous description by Dr. Georges Gilles de la Tourette was published in 1885, familiarity with this syndrome has been achieved only recently. In this article, the two most renown accounts of exceptional individuals retrospectively diagnosed with GTS are critically analyzed: British lexicographer Samuel Johnson and Austrian musician Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. In both cases, clinical descriptions have been retrieved from written documents predating Gilles de la Tourette's original publication. The case for Samuel Johnson having GTS is strong, mainly based on Boswell's extensive biographical account. Johnson was reported to have a great range of tics and compulsions, including involuntary utterances, repetitive ejaculations, and echo-phenomena. On the other hand, there is circumstantial evidence that Mozart may have had hyperactivity, restlessness, sudden impulses, odd motor behaviors, echo/palilalia, love of nonsense words, and scatology, the latter being documented in autograph letters ("coprographia"). However, the evidence supporting the core features of GTS, i.e., motor and vocal tics, is rather inconsistent. Thus, GTS seems to be an implausible diagnosis in Mozart's medical history and completely unrelated to his undisputed musical genius.

  11. Pathological glutamatergic neurotransmission in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaan, Ahmad Seif; Gerasch, Sarah; García-García, Isabel; Lampe, Leonie; Pampel, André; Anwander, Alfred; Near, Jamie; Möller, Harald E; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a hereditary, neuropsychiatric movement disorder with reported abnormalities in the neurotransmission of dopamine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Spatially focalized alterations in excitatory, inhibitory and modulatory neurochemical ratios within specific functional subdivisions of the basal ganglia, may lead to the expression of diverse motor and non-motor features as manifested in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Current treatment strategies are often unsatisfactory thus provoking the need for further elucidation of the underlying pathophysiology. In view of (i) the close spatio-temporal synergy exhibited between excitatory, inhibitory and modulatory neurotransmitter systems; (ii) the crucial role played by glutamate (Glu) in tonic/phasic dopaminergic signalling; and (iii) the interdependent metabolic relationship exhibited between Glu and GABA via glutamine (Gln); we postulated that glutamatergic signalling is related to the pathophysiology of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. As such, we examined the neurochemical profile of three cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical regions in 37 well-characterized, drug-free adult patients and 36 age/gender-matched healthy control subjects via magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T. To interrogate the influence of treatment on metabolite concentrations, spectral data were acquired from 15 patients undergoing a 4-week treatment with aripiprazole. Test-retest reliability measurements in 23 controls indicated high repeatability of voxel localization and metabolite quantitation. We report significant reductions in striatal concentrations of Gln, Glu + Gln (Glx) and the Gln:Glu ratio, and thalamic concentrations of Glx in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in comparison to controls. ON-treatment patients exhibited no significant metabolite differences when compared to controls but significant increases in striatal Glu and Glx, and trends for increases in striatal Gln and thalamic Glx compared to baseline

  12. Assessment of respiratory and ion transport potential of Penaeus japonicus gills in response to environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. ABDEL-MOHSEN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to pinpoint the respiratory and ion transport potential of gills of Penaeus japonicus living in Abu-Qir Bay, East of Alexandria, Egypt. Our results revealed clear histological impairments in gill structure. These alterations were mainly represented by the presence of large vacuoles in gill axis and gill lamellae. In addition, narrow, disrupted gill lamellae with wavy cuticle and shrunk pillar cells were detected. Moreover, some cells clearly showed pyknosis. Gill ultrastructure also showed abnormal chromatin condensation inside the nucleus. Obvious alterations in the typical shape and structure of mitochondria were observed. Noticeably, the main characteristics of ion regulating gill epithelium were absent thus suggesting a low ion transport activity of P. japonicus gills. Statistically, this was further proved by the significantly higher activity levels of respiratory enzymes, namely, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH compared to those of the ion transport enzymes, namely, adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase and carbonic anhydrase (CA in gills and haemolymph. SDH activity levels were higher than the corresponding levels of LDH in gills and its own level in haemolymph, indicating a contradictory effect of pollution on respiratory enzyme activity levels.

  13. Oxidative stress responses in gills of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) at different salinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, Kiki Syaputri; Novianty, Zahra; Saputri, Miftahul Rohmah; Irawan, Bambang; Soegianto, Agoes

    2017-08-01

    The objective of present study is to evaluate the impact of different salinities on the levels of CAT, GSH and MDA of the gills of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Nile tilapia was treated by exposure to salinities concentration 0 ‰, 5 ‰ and 10 ‰. Research models were weakened and sacrificed, then took the left and right sides of the gills. The result of gills homogenity was centrifuged for supernatan, then supernatan was proceed with testing levels of CAT, GSH and MDA by ELISA assay methods. The levels of CAT in gills were significantly higher at 10 ‰ than at 5 ‰ and 0 ‰. The levels of GSH in gills were significantly higher at 0 ‰ than 5 ‰. The levels of GSH in gills at 5 ‰ and 10 ‰ salinities were not significantly different. The levels of MDA in gills at salinity 10 ‰ and 5 ‰ were higher than in control gills at 0 ‰ salinities. This occurs because the salinity of 10 ‰ salinity was optimal for live of fish tilapia. In conclusion, salinity impact the increasing of CAT, GSH, and MDA levels in gills of Nile tilapia.

  14. Morphological and biochemical variations in the gills of 12 aquatic air-breathing anabantoid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Chung-Ping; Lin, Hui-Chen

    2011-01-01

    All fish species in the Anabantoidei suborder are aquatic air-breathing fish. These species have an accessory air-breathing organ, called the labyrinth organ, in the branchial cavity and can engulf air at the surface of the water to assist in gas exchange. It is therefore necessary to examine the extent of gill modification among anabantoid fish species and the potential trade-offs in their function. The experimental hypothesis that we aimed to test is whether anabantoid fishes have both morphological and functional variations in the gills among different species. We examined the gills of 12 species from three families and nine genera of Anabantoidei. Though the sizes of the fourth gill arch in three species of Trichogaster were reduced significantly, not all anabantoid species had morphological and functional variations in the gills. In these three species, the specific enzyme activity and relative protein abundance of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were significantly higher in the anterior gills as compared with the posterior gills and the labyrinth organ. The relative abundance of cytosolic carbonic anhydrase, an indicator of gas exchange, was found to be highest in the labyrinth organ. The phylogenetic distribution of the fourth gill's morphological differentiation suggests that these variations are lineage specific, which may imply a phylogenetic influence on gill morphology in anabantoid species.

  15. Lagrangian approach to understanding the origin of the gill-kinematics switch in mayfly nymphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabreyrie, R; Balaras, E; Abdelaziz, K; Kiger, K

    2014-12-01

    The mayfly nymph breathes under water through an oscillating array of plate-shaped tracheal gills. As the nymph grows, the kinematics of these gills change abruptly from rowing to flapping. The classical fluid dynamics approach to consider the mayfly nymph as a pumping device fails in giving clear reasons for this switch. In order to shed some light on this switch between the two distinct kinematics, we analyze the problem under a Lagrangian viewpoint. We consider that a good Lagrangian transport that effectively distributes and stirs water and dissolved oxygen between and around the gills is the main goal of the gill motion. Using this Lagrangian approach, we are able to provide possible reasons behind the observed switch from rowing to flapping. More precisely, we conduct a series of in silico mayfly nymph experiments, where body shape, as well as gill shapes, structures, and kinematics are matched to those from in vivo. In this paper, we show both qualitatively and quantitatively how the change of kinematics enables better attraction, confinement, and stirring of water charged of dissolved oxygen inside the gills area. We reveal the attracting barriers to transport, i.e., attracting Lagrangian coherent structures, that form the transport skeleton between and around the gills. In addition, we quantify how well the fluid particles are stirred inside the gills area, which by extension leads us to conclude that it will increase the proneness of molecules of dissolved oxygen to be close enough to the gills for extraction.

  16. Elusloom lennukiga puhkusele / Inge Parring

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Parring, Inge

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 1. okt. lk. 13. Air Cargo Estonia/ACE Logisticsi müügijuht Inge Parring tutvustab elusloomade transpordivõimalusi. Vt. samas: Loomade transportimiseks vajalikud dokumendid

  17. Par Pond vegetation status 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  18. Filter feeding mechanics of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix regarding porous gill rakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, David; Bulusu, Kartik V.; Cohen, Karly; Hernandez, Particia; Leftwich, Megan C.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2017-11-01

    The silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) is a filter-feeding fish known to feed upon algal-growth in lakes, rivers, and aquacultures. The filter-feeding process centers on sponge-like membranes located in the carp's pharynx supported by fused gill rakers (GRs), which can efficiently strain suspended food particles as small as 4 µm without clogging. Guided by the anatomy of the silver carp, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of GRs, and video of the silver carp feeding, we have hypothesized that the filtration mechanism involves a pump-based biological function to capture food particles within the GRs. Dye visualization experiments were performed on a silver carp cadaver head, an excised GR sample, and on a scaled GR in vitro model - the Artificial Gill Raker (AGR). Measurements are performed for the AGR using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) and penetration pressure monitoring with a biologically-inspired pumping mechanism. The role of mucus in the retention and capture of food particles has also been explored through rheological measurements, and further experimentation is planned. Our motivation stems from the potential to develop bioinspired industrial-scale filtration technologies ranging from wastewater treatment to filtration in the food industry. supported by GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering.

  19. Older medical students' performances at McGill University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feil, D; Kristian, M; Mitchell, N

    1998-01-01

    To compare admission data and academic performances of medical students younger and older than 25, and to qualify older students' experiences and perceptions in medical school. The authors reviewed 1988-1991 data for applications to the McGill University Faculty of Medicine. Data included GPAs and MCAT scores, as well as ratings for reference letters, autobiographical statements, and interviews. For those same years, the authors measured students' academic performances in the preclinical and clinical years. The authors compared the data by students' age: "younger" students, aged 17 to 24; and "older" students, aged 25 and above. All enrolled students took the Derogatis Stress Profile, and the older students participated in focus groups. The older applicants had lower GPAs and MCAT scores, but higher interview and reference letter ratings. For older accepted students, basic science course scores were lower than those of younger students, but clinical scores did not differ significantly between the groups. The two groups had similar stress levels, although older students tested lower in driven behavior, relaxation potential, attitude posture, and hostility. In focus groups, the older students spoke of learning style differences, loss of social support, and loss of professional identity. Different scores in admission criteria suggest that McGill uses different standards to select older medical students. Older students admitted under different criteria, however, do just as well as do younger students by their clinical years. A broad-based study of admission criteria and outcomes for the older student population is warranted.

  20. Characterization of copper transport in gill cells of a mangrove crab Ucides cordatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sá, M.G. [Biosciences Institute, Department of Physiology, University of São Paulo, Rua do Matão, Travessa 14, 101, São Paulo 05508-900, SP (Brazil); Zanotto, F.P., E-mail: fzanotto@usp.br [Biosciences Institute, Department of Physiology, University of São Paulo, Rua do Matão, Travessa 14, 101, São Paulo 05508-900, SP (Brazil); Department of Biophysics, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Rua Três de Maio 100, Sao Paulo 04044-020 (Brazil)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Copper transport in gill cells of a mangrove crab Ucides cordatus is dependent of calcium. •Copper transport mechanism is ATP-dependent. •Transport was monitored second by second during 300 s. -- Abstract: The branchial epithelium of crustaceans is exposed to the environment and is the first site affected by metal pollution. The aim of this work was to characterize copper (Cu) transport using a fluorescent dye, Phen Green, in gill cells of a hypo-hyper-regulator mangrove crab Ucides cordatus. The results showed that added extracellular CuCl{sub 2} (0, 0.025, 0.150, 0.275, 0.550 and 1.110 μM) showed typical Michaelis–Menten transport for Cu in anterior and posterior gill cells (V{sub max} for anterior and posterior gills: 0.41 ± 0.12 and 1.76 ± 0.27 intracellular Cu in μM × 22.10{sup 4} cells{sup −1} × 300 s{sup −1} respectively and K{sub m} values: 0.44 ± 0.04 and 0.32 ± 0.13 μM, respectively). Intracellular Cu was significantly higher for posterior gill cells compared to anterior gill cells, suggesting differential accumulation for each gill type. Extracellular Ca at 20 mM decreased cellular Cu transport for both anterior and posterior gill cells. Nifedipine and verapamil, calcium channel inhibitors from plasma membrane, decreased Cu transport and affected K{sub m} for both gills. These results could be due to a competition between Cu and Ca. Amiloride, a Na/Ca exchanger inhibitor, as well as bafilomycin, a proton pump inhibitor, caused a decrease of intracellular Cu compared to control. Ouabain and KB-R 7943, acting on Na homeostasis, similarly decreased intracellular Cu in both gill cells. Besides that, gill cells exposed to ATP and Cu simultaneously, showed an increase in intracellular copper, which was inhibited by vanadate, an inhibitor of P-type ATPase. These results suggest either the presence of a Cu-ATPase in crab gill cells, responsible for Cu influx, or the effect of a change in electrochemical membrane potential that

  1. Characterization of copper transport in gill cells of a mangrove crab Ucides cordatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sá, M.G.; Zanotto, F.P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Copper transport in gill cells of a mangrove crab Ucides cordatus is dependent of calcium. •Copper transport mechanism is ATP-dependent. •Transport was monitored second by second during 300 s. -- Abstract: The branchial epithelium of crustaceans is exposed to the environment and is the first site affected by metal pollution. The aim of this work was to characterize copper (Cu) transport using a fluorescent dye, Phen Green, in gill cells of a hypo-hyper-regulator mangrove crab Ucides cordatus. The results showed that added extracellular CuCl 2 (0, 0.025, 0.150, 0.275, 0.550 and 1.110 μM) showed typical Michaelis–Menten transport for Cu in anterior and posterior gill cells (V max for anterior and posterior gills: 0.41 ± 0.12 and 1.76 ± 0.27 intracellular Cu in μM × 22.10 4 cells −1 × 300 s −1 respectively and K m values: 0.44 ± 0.04 and 0.32 ± 0.13 μM, respectively). Intracellular Cu was significantly higher for posterior gill cells compared to anterior gill cells, suggesting differential accumulation for each gill type. Extracellular Ca at 20 mM decreased cellular Cu transport for both anterior and posterior gill cells. Nifedipine and verapamil, calcium channel inhibitors from plasma membrane, decreased Cu transport and affected K m for both gills. These results could be due to a competition between Cu and Ca. Amiloride, a Na/Ca exchanger inhibitor, as well as bafilomycin, a proton pump inhibitor, caused a decrease of intracellular Cu compared to control. Ouabain and KB-R 7943, acting on Na homeostasis, similarly decreased intracellular Cu in both gill cells. Besides that, gill cells exposed to ATP and Cu simultaneously, showed an increase in intracellular copper, which was inhibited by vanadate, an inhibitor of P-type ATPase. These results suggest either the presence of a Cu-ATPase in crab gill cells, responsible for Cu influx, or the effect of a change in electrochemical membrane potential that could also drive Cu to the gill cell

  2. Convulsive Tic Disorder Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Guinon and Grasset on the Phenomenology and Psychopathology of Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M. Robertson

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Gilles de la Tourette gained eponymous fame when he described nine cases of multiple tics, coprolalia and echolalia, and later he, Guinon and Grasset were the first to document the psychopathology of the Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. In particular, they noted the association between obsessional thoughts and behaviours and the tic disorder. In this paper we present the first English translations of their works referring to the psychopathology, comparing and contrasting their ideas to current concepts.

  3. Gill rakers in six teleost species: influence of feeding habit and body size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Gottlieb Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the structure of the gill rakers of Parapimelodus valenciennis and Parapimelodus nigribarbis (planktivorous, Serrasalmus maculatus and Hoplias malabaricus (piscivorous, Iheringichthys labrosus (benthophagous and Hypostomus commersonii (detritivorous and related it with the body size and feeding habits of these species. The species of Parapimelodus and H. commersonii showed long, filiform and closely spaced gill rakers, similar to those of species that use the gill rakers as a filter to assist in the retention of small particles. The widely spaced gill rakers of I. labrosus probably allow the retention of insect larvae, but not particles of inorganic matter. In H. malabaricus and S. maculatus the gill rakers are most likely related to prey capture and swallowing, as observed in other piscivorous species. In general, gill raker length and the distance between gill rakers have a positive relationship with fish length. The gill rakers show adaptations related to the diet of the fish, but morphological variation may occur even between species whose feeding habits are the same.

  4. Comparative study on gill morphology of gastropods from Moreton Bay, Queensland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eertman, R.H.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the gill morphology of seven common gastropods from Moreton Bay, southeastern Queensland, to test the level of difference in gill structure between major taxa. The investigated species include representatives of the clades Patellogastropoda, Neritimorpha and Vetigastropda as well

  5. Effect of cadmium on protein synthesis in gill tissue of the sea mussel Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhuizen-Tsoerkan, M.B.; Holwerda, D.A.; Van der Mast, C.A.; Zandee, D.I.

    1990-01-01

    Cellular toxicity of cadmium was studied in the gill tissue of the sea mussel, Mytilus edulis. Mussels were exposed to cadmium chloride at 50 or 250 microgram Cd/L for short periods. Then the gills were excised and incubated with 35-S-methionine or cysteine for 4 hr. Uptake of radiolabeled amino acids by the isolated gills was not affected by Cd, whereas the incorporation of label was significantly decreased after Cd exposure. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the de novo synthesized gill proteins. It revealed that the expression of particular proteins was differently altered by Cd. One dimensional gel analysis by 35-S-cysteine labeled gill proteins demonstrated that Cd induced, in a concentration dependent manner, a cysteine-rich protein with a molecular weight of approximately 13 kDa, consisting of two isomers with low isoelectric points

  6. Salinity Regulates Claudin mRNA and Protein Expression in the Teleost Gill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian K; Baltzegar, David A; Ozden, Ozkan

    2008-01-01

    The teleost gill carries out NaCl uptake in fresh water (FW) and NaCl excretion in seawater (SW). This transformation with salinity requires close regulation of ion transporter capacity and epithelial permeability. This study investigates the regulation of tight junctional claudins during salinity...... was localized deep in the FW gill filament, whereas staining was found apically in SW gill. Claudin 4-like proteins are localized predominantly in the filament outer epithelial layer and staining appears more intense in gill of FW versus SW fish. Additionally, tilapia claudin 28a and 30 genes were characterized......, and mRNA expression was found to increase during FW acclimation. These studies are the first to detect putative claudin proteins in teleosts and show their localization and regulation with salinity in gill epithelium. The data indicate that claudins may be important in permeability changes associated...

  7. Immunohistochemical localization of inflammatory cells and cell cycle proteins in the gills of Loma salmonae infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Powell, M. D.; Yousaf, M. N.; Rasmussen, Karina Juhl

    2014-01-01

    Microsporidial gill diseases particularly those caused by Loma salmonae incur significant economic losses to the salmonid aquaculture industry. The gill responses to infection include the formation of xenomas and the acute hyperplastic inflammatory responses once the xenomas rupture releasing inf...

  8. Characterization of cadmium plasma membrane transport in gills of a mangrove crab Ucides cordatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, P.; Custódio, M.R.; Zanotto, F.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cd 2+ gill cell transport, a non-essential toxic metal, was characterized in a hypo-hyper-regulating mangrove crab Ucides cordatus. • Cd 2+ enter gill cells through Ca 2+ channels and is dependent of intracellular Ca 2+ levels. • Route of entry in gill cells also involves a Cd 2+ /Ca 2+ (2Na) exchanger. • Cd transport depends on Na + /K + -ATPase and gill cell electrochemical gradient. • Vanadate inhibits gill Cd 2+ transport and ouabain increase gill Cd 2+ transport. - Abstract: Membrane pathway for intracellular cadmium (Cd 2+ ) accumulation is not fully elucidated in many organisms and has not been studied in crab gill cells. To characterize membrane Cd 2+ transport of anterior and posterior gill cells of Ucides cordatus, a hypo-hyper-regulating crab, a change in intracellular Cd 2+ concentration under various experimental conditions was examined by using FluoZin, a fluorescent probe. The membrane Cd 2+ transport was estimated by the augmentation of FluoZin fluorescence induced by extracellular application of CdCl 2 and different inhibitors. Addition of extracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) to the cells affected little the fluorescence of FluoZin, confirming that Cd 2+ was the main ion increasing intracellular fluorescence. Ca 2+ channels blockers (nimodipine and verapamil) decreased Cd 2+ influx as well as vanadate, a Ca 2+ -ATPase blocker. Chelating intracellular Ca 2+ (BAPTA) decreased Cd 2+ influx in gill cells, while increasing intracellular Ca 2+ (caffeine) augmented Cd influx. Cd 2+ and ATP added at different temporal conditions were not effective at increasing intracellular Cd 2+ accumulation. Ouabain (Na + /K + -ATPase inhibitor) increased Cd 2+ influx probably through a change in intracellular Na and/or a change in cell membrane potential. Routes of Cd 2+ influx, a non-essential metal, through the gill cell plasma membrane of crabs are suggested

  9. The deconstruction of Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowan Voirrey Sandle

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present deconstruction of Gilles de la Tourette’s Syndrome introduces this complex disorder using an existential paradigm. An analysis of the history of constructed reason and power highlights the assumptions of ‘disorder’ that infiltrate society and serves to critique predisposed thought with reference to Tourette’s. The review considers the representationalist theory of language and concepts within psychiatric discourse. A brief analysis of previous case studies shows Tourettic energy as part of the individual ‘self’ and introduces a comparison of Tourettic movement to more mutual human experience, such as music and poetry. Past research that explores preventative social interaction is introduced, which show positive advancements in treatment by challenging the conventions of internal etiology and which highlights the importance of reducing attached stigma.

  10. GILLES CLÉMENT: MANIFIESTO DEL TERCER PAISAJE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñigo García-Odiaga

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El pequeño libro que contiene el Manifiesto del Tercer Paisaje de Gilles Clément, parece intentar ocultar en la sencillez de su edición la revolución teórica y práctica que va desgranando el texto. Teórica por que centra la mirada sobre unos territorios abandonados, inciertos y desdibujados que el autor es capaz de clasificar, determinar y analizar. Y práctica porque planteadas las virtudes de estos territorios ocultos, apuesta por su confirmación y mantenimiento de forma precisa. Finalmente sólo cabe preguntarse si estas mismas reflexiones que Clément centra en el paisaje, no son también un camino posible para entender algunos de los interrogantes que plantea la ciudad contemporánea.

  11. Gills scanning images of the seawater fish Eugerres brasilianus (Gerreidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daura Regina Eiras-Stofella

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The gills of the adult fish, Eugerres brasilianus (Gerreidae were analyzed in a scanning electron microscope. The stratified epithelium was uniform on all parts of the branchial arch. Concentric microridges were present on cells that form this epithelium and were mainly observed in the primary lamellae and pharyngeal region where mucous cells were also abundant. The ultrastructural features of E. brasilianus gills indicated that this was not a filtering species, and that the feeding habit included mainly the intake of small organisms. The results presently obtained agreed with other literature data which determined the feeding habit of this species by means of stomach content analysis and other aspects.Peixes adultos da espécie Eugerres brasilianus (Gerreidae tiveram suas brânquias analisadas em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. O epitélio de revestimento é uniforme em todas as porções dos arcos. É formado por células com micropregas concêntricas principalmente nas lamelas primárias e na região faríngea, locais onde são abundantes as células que secretam muco. A caracterização ultra-estrutural das brânquias de E. brasilianus indica que a espécie não é filtradora e que em sua alimentação deve predominar a ingestão de pequenos organismos. Esses resultados estão de acordo com os dados da literatura que determinam o hábito alimentar da espécie através de análises de conteúdo estomacal e outros aspectos.

  12. Vote par sondage uniforme incorruptible

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchard , Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Introduit en 2012 par David Chaum, le vote par sondage uniforme (random-sample voting) est un protocole de vote basé sur un choix d'une sous-population représentative , permettant de limiter les coûts tout en ayant de nombreux avantages, principalement lorsqu'il est couplé a d'autres techniques comme ThreeBallot. Nous analysons un problème de corruptibilité potentielle où les votants peuvent vendre leur vote au plus offrant et proposons une variation du protocole reméd...

  13. Intraspecific variation in gill morphology of juvenile Nile perch, Lates niloticus, in Lake Nabugabo, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Jaclyn A.; Chapman, Lauren J.; Schofield, Pamela J.

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated intraspecific variation in fish gill size that relates to variation in dissolved oxygen (DO) availability across habitats. In Lake Nabugabo, East Africa, ecological change over the past 12 years has coincided with a shift in the distribution of introduced Nile perch such that a larger proportion of the population now inhabits waters in or near wetland ecotones where DO is lower than in open waters of the lake. In this study, we compared gill size of juvenile Nile perch between wetland and exposed (open-water) habitats of Lake Nabugabo in 2007, as well as between Nile perch collected in 1996 and 2007. For Nile perch of Lake Nabugabo [<20 cm total length (TL)], there was a significant habitat effect on some gill traits. In general, fish from wetland habitats were characterized by a longer total gill filament length and average gill filament length than conspecifics from exposed habitats. Nile perch collected from wetland areas in 2007 had significantly larger gills (total gill filament length) than Nile perch collected in 1996, but there was no difference detected between Nile perch collected from exposed sites in 2007 and conspecifics collected in 1996.

  14. Expression of aquaporin 3 in gills of the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus): Effects of seawater acclimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dawoon; Sato, J. Denry; Shaw, Joseph R.; Stanton, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Estuarine fish, such as the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus), are constantly and rapidly exposed to changes in salinity. Although ion transport in killifish gills during acclimation to increased salinity has been studied extensively, no studies have examined the role of aquaglyceroporin 3 (AQP3), a water, glycerol, urea, and ammonia transporter, during acclimation to increased salinity in this sentinel environmental model organism. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that transfer from freshwater to seawater decreases AQP3 gene and protein expression in the gill of killifish. Transfer from freshwater to seawater decreased AQP3 mRNA in the gill after 1 day, but had no effect on total gill AQP3 protein abundance as determined by western blot. Quantitative confocal immunocytochemistry confirmed western blot studies that transfer from freshwater to seawater did not change total AQP3 abundance in the gill; however, immunocytochemistry revealed that the amount of AQP3 in pillar cells of secondary lamellae decreased in seawater fish, whereas the amount of AQP3 in mitochondrion rich cells (MRC) in primary filaments of the gill increased in seawater fish. This response of AQP3 expression is unique to killifish compared to other teleosts. Although the role of AQP3 in the gill of killifish has not been completely elucidated, these results suggest that AQP3 may play an important role in the ability of killifish to acclimate to increased salinity. PMID:22193757

  15. Hydrodynamic resistance and flow patterns in the gills of a tilapine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strother, James A

    2013-07-15

    The gills of teleost fishes are often discussed as an archetypal counter-current exchange system, capable of supporting the relatively high metabolic rates of some fishes despite the low oxygen solubility of water. Despite an appreciation for the physiology of exchange at the gills, many questions remain regarding the hydrodynamical basis of ventilation in teleost fishes. In this study, the hydrodynamic resistance and flow fields around the isolated gills of a tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, were measured as a function of the applied pressure head. At ventilatory pressures typical of a fish at rest, the hydrodynamic resistance of the gills was nearly constant, the flow was laminar, shunting of water around the gills was essentially absent, and the distribution of water flow was relatively uniform. However, at the higher pressures typical of an active or stressed fish, some of these qualities were lost. In particular, at elevated pressures there was a decrease in the hydrodynamic resistance of the gills and substantial shunting of water around the gills. These effects suggest mechanical limits to maximum aerobic performance during activity or under adverse environmental conditions.

  16. On the structure of fish gill, with special reference to its absorptive and excretory function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguri, Mikio

    1981-01-01

    The gill of fish is not only the respiratory organ, but also the absorptive and excretory one of various substances, such as pesticides, anesthetics and minerals including radionuclides. Branchial absorption of Ca, Cr, Zn, Sr and Hg, and dieldrin (a pesticide) has been demonstrated by the gill-perfusion experiments using eel and rainbow trout. Also, branchial excretion of Cl, Ca and Sr has been ascertained by the same method using eel. Therefore, the gill is an important organ in relation to the accumulation and metabolism of radionuclides in fishes. Compared with the kidney, another excretory organ in fish, the structure of fish gill is rather simple. Histologically, the gill lamella, main functional portion of gill, is enveloped with simple squamous epithelium on each side. Between these two thin layers, pilaster cells and lacuna of branchial capillary are recognized as tissue components. In the gills of marine fishes, well-developed salt-secreting cells are detectable at the basal area of gill lamella. The cytoplasm of these cells are acidophilic and abundant in mitochondria and tubular endoplasmic reticulum. The cells are also called chloride cells and said to be involved in the extra-renal excretion of Na and Cl took in by marine fishes. The important problem is whether the salt-secreting cells in marine fishes are also concerned with the branchial excretion of another minerals such as Ca, Sr, I and so on, or these minerals are excreted across the ordinal epithelial cells of gill lamella. To elucidate this, detailed investigatios are awaited with interest. (author)

  17. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles modulate the toxicological response to cadmium in the gills of Mytilus galloprovincialis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Torre, Camilla; Balbi, Teresa; Grassi, Giacomo; Frenzilli, Giada; Bernardeschi, Margherita; Smerilli, Arianna; Guidi, Patrizia; Canesi, Laura; Nigro, Marco; Monaci, Fabrizio; Scarcelli, Vittoria; Rocco, Lucia; Focardi, Silvano; Monopoli, Marco; Corsi, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nano-TiO 2 modulate CdCl 2 cellular responses in gills of marine mussel. • Nano-TiO 2 reduced CdCl 2 -induced effects by lowering abcb1 m-RNA and GST activity. • Nano-TiO 2 reduced Cd accumulation in mussel’s gills but not in whole soft tissue. • Higher accumulation of Ti in the presence of CdCl 2 was observed in gills. - Abstract: We investigated the influence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO 2 ) on the response to cadmium in the gills of the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in terms of accumulation and toxicity. Mussels were in vivo exposed to nano-TiO 2 , CdCl 2 , alone and in combination. Several cellular biomarkers were investigated in gills: ABC transport proteins and metallothioneins at gene/protein (abcb1, abcc-like and mt-20) and functional level, GST activity, NO production and DNA damage (Comet assay). Accumulation of total Cd and titanium in gills as in whole soft tissue was also investigated. Significant responses to Cd exposure were observed in mussel gills as up-regulation of abcb1 and mt-20 gene transcription, increases in total MT content, P-gp efflux and GST activity, DNA damage and NO production. Nano-TiO 2 alone increased P-gp efflux activity and NO production. When combined with Cd, nano-TiO 2 reduced the metal-induced effects by significantly lowering abcb1 gene transcription, GST activity, and DNA damage, whereas, additive effects were observed on NO production. A lower concentration of Cd was observed in the gills upon co-exposure, whereas, Ti levels were unaffected. A competitive effect in uptake/accumulation of nano-TiO 2 and Cd seems to occur in gills. A confirmation is given by the observed absence of adsorption of Cd onto nano-TiO 2 in sea water media

  18. Evolution of the branchiostegal membrane and restricted gill openings in Actinopterygian fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Stacy C; Near, Thomas J; Bemis, William E

    2015-06-01

    A phylogenetic survey is a powerful approach for investigating the evolutionary history of a morphological characteristic that has evolved numerous times without obvious functional implications. Restricted gill openings, an extreme modification of the branchiostegal membrane, are an example of such a characteristic. We examine the evolution of branchiostegal membrane morphology and highlight convergent evolution of restricted gill openings. We surveyed specimens from 433 families of actinopterygians for branchiostegal membrane morphology and measured head and body dimensions. We inferred a relaxed molecular clock phylogeny with branch length estimates based on nine nuclear genes sampled from 285 species that include all major lineages of Actinopterygii. We calculated marginal state reconstructions of four branchiostegal membrane conditions and found that restricted gill openings have evolved independently in at least 11 major actinopterygian clades, and the total number of independent origins of the trait is likely much higher. A principal component analysis revealed that fishes with restricted gill openings occupy a larger morphospace, as defined by our linear measurements, than do fishes with nonrestricted openings. We used a decision tree analysis of ecological data to determine if restricted gill openings are linked to certain environments. We found that fishes with restricted gill openings repeatedly occur under a variety of ecological conditions, although they are rare in open-ocean pelagic environments. We also tested seven ratios for their utility in distinguishing between fishes with and without restricted gill openings, and we propose a simple metric for quantifying restricted gill openings (RGO), defined as a ratio of the distance from the ventral midline to the gill opening relative to half the circumference of the head. Functional explanations for this specialized morphology likely differ within each clade, but its repeated evolution indicates a need

  19. Medical Genetics at McGill: The History of a Pioneering Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Christopher; Weisz, George; Tone, Andrea; Cambrosio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The McGill Group in Medical Genetics was formed in 1972, supported by the Medical Research Council and successor Canadian Institutes for Health Research until September 2009, making it the longest active biomedical research group in the history of Canada. We document the history of the McGill Group and situate its research within a broader history of medical genetics. Drawing on original oral histories with the Group's members, surviving documents, and archival materials, we explore how the Group's development was structured around epistemological trends in medical genetics, policy choices made by research agencies, and the development of genetics at McGill University and its hospitals.

  20. [Morphological differentiations of the gills of two Gymnocypris przewa-lskii subspecies in different habitats and their functional adaptations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ren-Yi; Li, Guo-Gang; Zhang, Cun-Fang; Tang, Yong-Tao; Zhao, Kai

    2013-08-01

    Gill morphologies of two subspecies of Gymnocypris przewalskii (Gymnocypris przewalskii przewalskii and Gymnocypris przewalskii ganzihonensis) in different habitats were analyzed under scanning electron microscope. Results indicated that G. p. przewalskii had numerous long and dense-lined gill rakers while G. p. ganzihonensis had few short and scatter-lined gill rakers. There were no significant differences in distance between gill filaments (DBF) and distance gill lamella (DBL) between the two subspecies, but gill filaments of G. p. przewalskii were longer than in G. p. ganzihonensis. The electron microscopic study indicated that the pavement epithelium cells of G. p. przewalskii were well defined as irregular ovals, but were hexagonal in G. p. ganzihonensis. Moreover, G. p. przewalskii had more chloride cells than G. p. ganzihonensis, and mucous cells were only found on the surface of gill filaments of G. p. przewalskii. The morphological differences between the two subspecies of G. przewalskii are adaptations to their corresponding diets and habitats.

  1. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

  2. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond

  3. [Did Mozart Suffer from Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Sánchez, Leonardo; Botero-Meneses, Juan Sebastián; Vergara-Méndez, Laura Daniela; Pachón, Natalia; Martínez, Arianna; Ramírez, Santiago

    The personal and private lives of great men and women in history, like writers, painters and musicians, have been the subject of great interest for many years. A clear example of this is the vast scrutiny is cast over the famous composer, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. What may have started as curiosity, rapidly evolved into extensive research, as the answers about the musician's legendary talent may lie in the details of his life (his childhood, his relationships, his quirks and his mannerisms). It is usually up to historians, anthropologists or philosophers to delve into the pages of old books, trying to grasp answers and clues. However, for some time, Physicians have sought their own part in solving the puzzle. The long told hypothesis regarding Mozart's diagnosis of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome will be examined. Could all of the peculiarities and oddities of the genius be caused by a neurological disorder? Or was this musical genius just an eccentric brilliant man?. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Altered intrahemispheric structural connectivity in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS is a common developmental neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by tics and frequent psychiatric comorbidities, often causing significant disability. Tic generation has been linked to disturbed networks of brain areas involved in planning, controlling and execution of actions, particularly structural and functional disorders in the striatum and cortico–striato–thalamo–cortical loops. We therefore applied structural diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to characterize changes in intrahemispheric white matter connectivity in cortico-subcortical circuits engaged in motor control in 15 GTS patients without psychiatric comorbidities. White matter connectivity was analyzed by probabilistic fiber tractography between 12 predefined cortical and subcortical regions of interest. Connectivity values were combined with measures of clinical severity rated by the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS. GTS patients showed widespread structural connectivity deficits. Lower connectivity values were found specifically in tracts connecting the supplementary motor areas (SMA with basal ganglia (pre-SMA–putamen, SMA–putamen and in frontal cortico-cortical circuits. There was an overall trend towards negative correlations between structural connectivity in these tracts and YGTSS scores. Structural connectivity of frontal brain networks involved in planning, controlling and executing actions is reduced in adult GTS patients which is associated with tic severity. These findings are in line with the concept of GTS as a neurodevelopmental disorder of brain immaturity.

  5. Motor-cortical interaction in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Franzkowiak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS increased activation of the primary motor cortex (M1 before and during movement execution followed by increased inhibition after movement termination was reported. The present study aimed at investigating, whether this activation pattern is due to altered functional interaction between motor cortical areas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 10 GTS-patients and 10 control subjects performed a self-paced finger movement task while neuromagnetic brain activity was recorded using Magnetoencephalography (MEG. Cerebro-cerebral coherence as a measure of functional interaction was calculated. During movement preparation and execution coherence between contralateral M1 and supplementary motor area (SMA was significantly increased at beta-frequency in GTS-patients. After movement termination no significant differences between groups were evident. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present data suggest that increased M1 activation in GTS-patients might be due to increased functional interaction between SMA and M1 most likely reflecting a pathophysiological marker of GTS. The data extend previous findings of motor-cortical alterations in GTS by showing that local activation changes are associated with alterations of functional networks between premotor and primary motor areas. Interestingly enough, alterations were evident during preparation and execution of voluntary movements, which implies a general theme of increased motor-cortical interaction in GTS.

  6. Antioxidant responses in gills and digestive gland of oyster Crassostrea madrasensis (Preston) under lead exposure

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenai-Tirodkar, P.S.; Gauns, M.; Mujawar, M.W.A.; Ansari, Z.A.

    madrasensis against lead (Pb) exposure under laboratory conditions. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and oxidative damage parameter lipid peroxidation (LPO) were measured in the gills...

  7. The beach-seine and gill-net fisheries are South Africa's oldest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Previous works on the South African gill-net and beach-seine ... catch and effort between four different regions along the South ... evaluate participation in and management of the ... mesh on the West Coast and the Southern and Eastern.

  8. Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome: A Review and Implications for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, Laurie A.; Barber, William H.

    1991-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a disorder characterized by multiple involuntary motor and verbal tics. This review covers the history, symptoms, diagnostic criteria, past and present treatments, associated disorders, and various educational techniques. (Author/DB)

  9. WATER TEMPERATURE and Other Data from THEODORE N. GILL from 19541116 to 19541210 (NODC Accession 9700149)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton, nutrients, and other data were collected from bottle and net casts in South Atlantic from the Theodore N. Gill from 16 November 1954 to 10 December...

  10. The effect of acidity on gill variations in the aquatic air-breathing fish, Trichogaster lalius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Hui-Chen

    2011-01-01

    Climate change affects organisms that inhabit not only in aerial but also in aquatic environments by making water more hypoxic and acidic. In the past, we evaluated morphological and functional variations in the gills of 12 species of aquatic air-breathing fishes. The aim of the present study is to examine the degree of gill modification in the aquatic air-breathing fish, Trichogaster lalius, in response to acidic stress. This provides a link between the ecological and physiological studies. We evaluated the changes in morphology and function of the gills, labyrinth organ, and kidney when the fish were subjected to acidic water and deionized water (DW). In the first experiment, fish were sampled at 1, 2, 4, and 7 days after acidic treatment. Apparent morphological modification was observed on day 4 and recovery was noted on day 7. Protein expression and enzyme activity of vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (VHA) and the protein expression of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) of the 1st and 4th gill arches both increased in the 4-day and 7-day acidic groups while the enzyme activity of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) decreased. In the second experiment, fish were tested for changes in the 1st and 4th gill arches and kidney after exposure to DW and acidic water for 4days. The gill structure of the fish in the DW was not different from that of the control group (fresh water). The protein expression and enzyme activity of the VHA of the 1st and 4th gill arches increased in both the DW and acidic groups for 4 days. We found a decrease in the protein expression of NKA in the kidney and in the enzyme activity of NKA in the 1st and 4th gill arches in the DW and acidic groups. From these results, we suggest that T. lalius exhibited significantly different ionic regulation and acid-base regulatory abilities in the DW and acidic groups in the 1st and 4th gill arches and kidney. The responses of the gills in T. lalius were different from those fish that show apparent morphological

  11. Functional characterization and localization of a gill-specific claudin isoform in Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Morten Buch; Yu, Alan S L; Li, Jiahua

    2012-01-01

    Claudins are the major determinants of paracellular epithelial permeability in multicellular organisms. In Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), we previously found that mRNA expression of the abundant gill-specific claudin 30 decreases during seawater (SW) acclimation, suggesting that this claudin i...... that claudin 30 functions as a cation barrier between pavement cells in the gill and also has a general role in cell-cell adhesion in deeper layers of the epithelium....

  12. Life science experiments during parabolic flight: The McGill experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, D. G. D.

    1988-01-01

    Over the past twelve years, members of the Aerospace Medical Research Unit of McGill University have carried out a wide variety of tests and experiments in the weightless condition created by parabolic flight. This paper discusses the pros and cons of that environment for the life scientist, and uses examples from the McGill program of the types of activities which can be carried out in a transport aircraft such as the NASA KC-135.

  13. GillesPy: A Python Package for Stochastic Model Building and Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Abel, John H.; Drawert, Brian; Hellander, Andreas; Petzold, Linda R.

    2016-01-01

    GillesPy is an open-source Python package for model construction and simulation of stochastic biochemical systems. GillesPy consists of a Python framework for model building and an interface to the StochKit2 suite of efficient simulation algorithms based on the Gillespie stochastic simulation algorithms (SSA). To enable intuitive model construction and seamless integration into the scientific Python stack, we present an easy to understand, action-oriented programming interface. Here, we descr...

  14. Holocephalan embryos provide evidence for gill arch appendage reduction and opercular evolution in cartilaginous fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, J. Andrew; Rawlinson, Kate A.; Bell, Justin; Lyon, Warrick S.; Baker, Clare V. H.; Shubin, Neil H.

    2011-01-01

    Chondrichthyans possess endoskeletal appendages called branchial rays that extend laterally from their hyoid and gill-bearing (branchial) arches. Branchial ray outgrowth, like tetrapod limb outgrowth, is maintained by Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling. In limbs, distal endoskeletal elements fail to form in the absence of normal Shh signaling, whereas shortened duration of Shh expression correlates with distal endoskeletal reduction in naturally variable populations. Chondrichthyans also exhibit natural variation with respect to branchial ray distribution—elasmobranchs (sharks and batoids) possess a series of ray-supported septa on their hyoid and gill arches, whereas holocephalans (chimaeras) possess a single hyoid arch ray-supported operculum. Here we show that the elongate hyoid rays of the holocephalan Callorhinchus milii grow in association with sustained Shh expression within an opercular epithelial fold, whereas Shh is only transiently expressed in the gill arches. Coincident with this transient Shh expression, branchial ray outgrowth is initiated in C. milii but is not maintained, yielding previously unrecognized vestigial gill arch branchial rays. This is in contrast to the condition seen in sharks, where sustained Shh expression corresponds to the presence of fully formed branchial rays on the hyoid and gill arches. Considered in light of current hypotheses of chondrichthyan phylogeny, our data suggest that the holocephalan operculum evolved in concert with gill arch appendage reduction by attenuation of Shh-mediated branchial ray outgrowth, and that chondrichthyan branchial rays and tetrapod limbs exhibit parallel developmental mechanisms of evolutionary reduction. PMID:21220324

  15. Histological observation and occurrence of apoptosis in the gill from estuary Amazon fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélia Maria Nunes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sciades herszbergii is a fish species commomly know as "blue catfish" and is one the most important natural resources an estuary in the Amazon region. In this study histological observations and apoptosis analysis was made in a gill tissue of the S. herszbergii from two environments: I, away from pollution sources and; II, waste from industry, the last one was used to relate the health status of the fishes in the environmental. Gill fragments were fixed 4% paraformaldehyde solution for 24 h and submitted for histological routine processing for embedding in paraffin. Sections of 7 μm were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin for analysis under light microscopy. For immunohistochemycal analyses gill sections were incubated in the primary polyclonal antibody anti-caspase 3, made in rabbit. Slides were revealed using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine. The results showed the type and level of lesions were verified between two study sites. A variety of severe damages were observed in specimens including aneurysms, epithelial lifting, and intense hyperplasia, specially on the site II. Apoptosis analyses also revealed injuries in the gill tissue of specimens from these two sites. While on site I only few specimens showed mild changes in gill tissues and rare apoptosis marking. These results suggest the gill histological and immunohistochemical analysis are a good biomarker, and the specie S. herszbergii could be used as a bioindicator for environmental monitoring.

  16. Angiotensin extraction by trout tissues in vivo and metabolism by the perfused gill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, K.R.; Kullman, D.; Narkates, A.J.; Oparil, S.

    1986-01-01

    Plasma clearance and tissue accumulation of 125I-angiotensin I, [Asp1, Ile5]ANG I, and [14C]sucrose, an inert volume reference, were measured after a bolus injection into the dorsal aorta of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. Retention and metabolism of ANG I to angiotensin II (ANG II) and their constituent 1-4 peptide by the gill were examined using an isolated perfused arch preparation in which outflow from the respiratory and central filamental (venous) pathways was separated. Clearance of ANG I from plasma is multiexponential, reflecting dilution and tissue extraction. Liver, bile, gonads, corpuscles of Stannius, and white skeletal muscle accumulate more 125I than 14C; gill tissue accumulates less 125I than 14C. ANG I and II are retained by the perfused gill longer than the inert vascular marker sucrose, even though the distribution volumes of the former are less. The gill respiratory pathway converts ANG I to ANG II whereas the venous pathway metabolizes either ANG I or II to the 1-4 peptide and other metabolites. The gill respiratory pathway is in series with the systemic vasculature, has a large blood-cell contact area, and, like the mammalian lung, is ideally suited to activate ANG I. The gill venous pathway is in parallel with the systemic vasculature and removes ANG II from the circulation. During stress, elevated plasma catecholamines may reduce venous perfusion and thereby help maintain elevated circulating ANG II levels through reduced venous metabolism

  17. Gill remodelling during terrestrial acclimation reduces aquatic respiratory function of the amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turko, Andy J; Cooper, Chris A; Wright, Patricia A

    2012-11-15

    The skin-breathing amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus experiences rapid environmental changes when moving between water- and air-breathing, but remodelling of respiratory morphology is slower (~1 week). We tested the hypotheses that (1) there is a trade-off in respiratory function of gills displaying aquatic versus terrestrial morphologies and (2) rapidly increased gill ventilation is a mechanism to compensate for reduced aquatic respiratory function. Gill surface area, which varied inversely to the height of the interlamellar cell mass, was increased by acclimating fish for 1 week to air or low ion water, or decreased by acclimating fish for 1 week to hypoxia (~20% dissolved oxygen saturation). Fish were subsequently challenged with acute hypoxia, and gill ventilation or oxygen uptake was measured. Fish with reduced gill surface area increased ventilation at higher dissolved oxygen levels, showed an increased critical partial pressure of oxygen and suffered impaired recovery compared with brackish water control fish. These results indicate that hyperventilation, a rapid compensatory mechanism, was only able to maintain oxygen uptake during moderate hypoxia in fish that had remodelled their gills for land. Thus, fish moving between aquatic and terrestrial habitats may benefit from cutaneously breathing oxygen-rich air, but upon return to water must compensate for a less efficient branchial morphology (mild hypoxia) or suffer impaired respiratory function (severe hypoxia).

  18. Ultrastructure of the external gill epithelium of the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum with reference to ionic transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarial, M S; Wilkins, J H

    2003-10-01

    The ultrastructure of the external gill epithelium of the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, has been examined using conventional transmission electron microscopy to elucidate its role in ionic transport. Four cell types are identified in the gill filament and primary gill bar epithelium. These are granular, ciliated, Leydig and basal cells. A fifth cell type, the flat mitochondria-rich cell is only found in the gill bar epithelium. The predominant granular cells display microvilli at their surface and their cytoplasm contains abundant mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complexes, vesicles and PAS+ secretory granules that are extruded at the surface, which along with secretions from the Leydig cells form a mucous coat. The granular cells are joined apically by junctional complexes consisting of zonulae occludens, zonulae adherens and desmosomes. The lateral membranes of granular cells enclose large intercellular spaces that are closed at the apical ends but remain open at the basal ends adjoining capillaries. In AgNO3-treated axolotl, the gills become darkly stained, the silver grains penetrate apical membranes and appear in the cytoplasm, accumulating near the lateral membranes and also enter the intercellular spaces. These findings are consistent with the dual role of the gill epithelium in mucus production and active ionic transport.

  19. Development and characterization of two cell lines from gills of Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjessing, Mona C.; Aamelfot, Maria; Batts, William N.; Benestad, Sylvie L.; Dale, Ole B.; Thoen, Even; Weli, Simon C.; Winton, James R.

    2018-01-01

    Gill disease in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., causes big losses in the salmon farming industry. Until now, tools to cultivate microorganisms causing gill disease and models to study the gill responses have been lacking. Here we describe the establishment and characterization of two cell lines from the gills of Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon gill cell ASG-10 consisted of cells staining for cytokeratin and e-cadherin and with desmosomes as seen by transmission electron microscopy suggesting the cells to be of epithelial origin. These structures were not seen in ASG-13. The cell lines have been maintained for almost 30 passages and both cell lines are fully susceptible to infection by infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), Atlantic salmon reovirus TS (TSRV) and Pacific salmon paramyxovirus (PSPV). While infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) did not cause visible CPE, immunofluorescent staining revealed a sub-fraction of cells in both the ASG-10 and ASG-13 lines may be permissive to infection. ASG-10 is able to proliferate and migrate to close scratches in the monolayer within seven days in vitro contrary to ASG-13, which does not appear to do have the same proliferative and migratory ability. These cell lines will be useful in studies of gill diseases in Atlantic salmon and may represent an important contribution for alternatives to experimental animals and studies of epithelial–mesenchymal cell biology.

  20. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C; Liu, Jian

    2015-12-22

    The segregation of DNA before cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of low-copy number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of a nonspecific DNA-binding ATPase, ParA, and its stimulator protein ParB. The ParA/ParB system drives directed and persistent movement of DNA cargo both in vivo and in vitro. Filament-based models akin to actin/microtubule-driven motility were proposed for plasmid segregation mediated by ParA. Recent experiments challenge this view and suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. Here, we develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA-nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB-bound cargo. Paradoxically, this resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work thus sheds light on an emergent phenomenon in which nonmotor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos-an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria.

  1. Genome scan for linkage to Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, C.L.; Livingston, J.; Williamson, R. [and others

    1994-09-01

    Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a familial, neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by chronic, intermittent motor and vocal tics. In addition to tics, affected individuals frequently display symptoms such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or obsessive compulsive disorder. Genetic analyses of family data have suggested that susceptibility to the disorder is most likely due to a single genetic locus with a dominant mode of transmission and reduced penetrance. In the search for genetic linkage for TS, we have collected well-characterized pedigrees with multiple affected individuals on whom extensive diagnostic evaluations have been done. The first stage of our study is to scan the genome systematically using a panel of uniformly spaced (10 to 20 cM), highly polymorphic, microsatellite markers on 5 families segregating TS. To date, 290 markers have been typed and 3,660 non-overlapping cM of the genome have been excluded for possible linkage under the assumption of genetic homogeneity. Because of the possibility of locus heterogeneity overall summed exclusion is not considered tantamount to absolute exclusion of a disease locus in that region. The results from each family are carefully evaluated and a positive lod score in a single family is followed up by typing closely linked markers. Linkage to TS was examined by two-point analysis using the following genetic model: single autosomal dominant gene with gene frequency .003 and maximum penetrance of .99. An age-of-onset correction is included using a linear function increasing from age 2 years to 21 years. A small rate of phenocopies is also incorporated into the model. Only individuals with TS or CMT according to DSM III-R criteria were regarded as affected for the purposes of this summary. Additional markers are being tested to provide coverage at 5 cM intervals. Moreover, we are currently analyzing the data non-parametrically using the Affected-Pedigree-Member Method of linkage analysis.

  2. Characterization of cadmium plasma membrane transport in gills of a mangrove crab Ucides cordatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, P.; Custódio, M.R. [Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, Travessa 14, #101, São Paulo 05508-900, SP (Brazil); Zanotto, F.P., E-mail: fzanotto@usp.br [Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, Travessa 14, #101, São Paulo 05508-900, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Biofísica, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Rua Três de Maio 100, São Paulo 04044-020 (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Cd{sup 2+} gill cell transport, a non-essential toxic metal, was characterized in a hypo-hyper-regulating mangrove crab Ucides cordatus. • Cd{sup 2+} enter gill cells through Ca{sup 2+} channels and is dependent of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} levels. • Route of entry in gill cells also involves a Cd{sup 2+}/Ca{sup 2+} (2Na) exchanger. • Cd transport depends on Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase and gill cell electrochemical gradient. • Vanadate inhibits gill Cd{sup 2+} transport and ouabain increase gill Cd{sup 2+} transport. - Abstract: Membrane pathway for intracellular cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}) accumulation is not fully elucidated in many organisms and has not been studied in crab gill cells. To characterize membrane Cd{sup 2+} transport of anterior and posterior gill cells of Ucides cordatus, a hypo-hyper-regulating crab, a change in intracellular Cd{sup 2+} concentration under various experimental conditions was examined by using FluoZin, a fluorescent probe. The membrane Cd{sup 2+} transport was estimated by the augmentation of FluoZin fluorescence induced by extracellular application of CdCl{sub 2} and different inhibitors. Addition of extracellular calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) to the cells affected little the fluorescence of FluoZin, confirming that Cd{sup 2+} was the main ion increasing intracellular fluorescence. Ca{sup 2+} channels blockers (nimodipine and verapamil) decreased Cd{sup 2+} influx as well as vanadate, a Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase blocker. Chelating intracellular Ca{sup 2+} (BAPTA) decreased Cd{sup 2+} influx in gill cells, while increasing intracellular Ca{sup 2+} (caffeine) augmented Cd influx. Cd{sup 2+} and ATP added at different temporal conditions were not effective at increasing intracellular Cd{sup 2+} accumulation. Ouabain (Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase inhibitor) increased Cd{sup 2+} influx probably through a change in intracellular Na and/or a change in cell membrane potential. Routes of Cd{sup 2+} influx, a non-essential metal, through the

  3. Impact of ocean acidification on antimicrobial activity in gills of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernroth, B; Baden, S; Tassidis, H; Hörnaeus, K; Guillemant, J; Bergström Lind, S; Bergquist, J

    2016-08-01

    Here, we aimed to investigate potential effects of ocean acidification on antimicrobial peptide (AMP) activity in the gills of Mytilus edulis, as gills are directly facing seawater and the changing pH (predicted to be reduced from ∼8.1 to ∼7.7 by 2100). The AMP activity of gill and haemocyte extracts was compared at pH 6.0, 7.7 and 8.1, with a radial diffusion assay against Escherichia coli. The activity of the gill extracts was not affected by pH, while it was significantly reduced with increasing pH in the haemocyte extracts. Gill extracts were also tested against different species of Vibrio (V. parahaemolyticus, V. tubiashii, V. splendidus, V. alginolyticus) at pH 7.7 and 8.1. The metabolic activity of the bacteria decreased by ∼65-90%, depending on species of bacteria, but was, as in the radial diffusion assay, not affected by pH. The results indicated that AMPs from gills are efficient in a broad pH-range. However, when mussels were pre-exposed for pH 7.7 for four month the gill extracts presented significantly lower inhibit of bacterial growth. A full in-depth proteome investigation of gill extracts, using LC-Orbitrap MS/MS technique, showed that among previously described AMPs from haemocytes of Mytilus, myticin A was found up-regulated in response to lipopolysaccharide, 3 h post injection. Sporadic occurrence of other immune related peptides/proteins also pointed to a rapid response (0.5-3 h p.i.). Altogether, our results indicate that the gills of blue mussels constitute an important first line defence adapted to act at the pH of seawater. The antimicrobial activity of the gills is however modulated when mussels are under the pressure of ocean acidification, which may give future advantages for invading pathogens. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Respiratory toxicity of cyanobacterial aphantoxins from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae DC-1 in the zebrafish gill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, De Lu, E-mail: deluzh@163.com [Department of Lifescience and Biotechnology, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Liu, Si Yi [Department of Lifescience and Biotechnology, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhang, Jing [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhang, Jian Kun [Department of Lifescience and Biotechnology, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Hu, Chun Xiang, E-mail: cxhu@ihb.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Liu, Yong Ding [Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Aphantoxin causes physiological and histological changes in zebrafish gills. • Changes in gill enzymes (ALT, AST) and ultrastructure demonstrate injury. • Reduced AChE and MAO activity suggest altered neurotransmitter inactivation. - Abstract: Aphantoxins from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae are frequently identified in eutrophic waterbodies worldwide. These toxins severely endanger environmental safety and human health due to the production of paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs). Although the molecular mechanisms of aphantoxin neurotoxicity have been studied, many questions remain to be resolved such as in vivo alterations in branchial histology and neurotransmitter inactivation induced by these neurotoxins. Aphantoxins extracted from a naturally isolated strain of A. flos-aquae DC-1 were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The basic components of the isolated aphantoxins identified were gonyautoxin 1 (GTX1), gonyautoxin 5 (GTX5), and neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), which comprised 34.04, 21.28, and 12.77% of the total, respectively. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) was administrated 5.3 or 7.61 mg STX equivalents (eq)/kg (low and high doses, respectively) of the A. flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins by intraperitoneal injection. Histological alterations and changes in neurotransmitter inactivation in the gills of zebrafish were investigated for 24 h following exposure. Aphantoxin exposure significantly increased the activities of gill alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and resulted in histological alterations in the gills during the first 12 h of exposure, indicating the induction of functional and structural damage. Gill acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) activities were inhibited significantly, suggesting an alteration of neurotransmitter inactivation in zebrafish gills. The observed alterations in gill structure and function followed a time- and dose-dependent pattern. The results demonstrate that

  5. Recherche documentaire par titrage automatique

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez , Cédric; Prince , Violaine; Roche , Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    Nous proposons dans cet article un système facilitant la recherche d'information dans un ensemble de documents textuels, basé sur le titrage (et sous-titrage) automatique. Ce dernier peut se révéler crucial, par exemple, dans le cadre de la problématique de l'accessibilité des pages web (norme W3C). Notre processus de titrage automatique consiste à extraire des syntagmes nominaux pertinents dans les textes, pouvant constituer des titres ou sous-titres candidats. Une approche originale combina...

  6. Claudin-8d is a cortisol-responsive barrier protein in the gill epithelium of trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosov, Dennis; Kelly, Scott P

    2017-10-01

    The influence of claudin (Cldn) 8 tight junction (TJ) proteins on cortisol-mediated alterations in gill epithelium permeability was examined using a primary cultured trout gill epithelium model. Genes encoding three Cldn-8 proteins ( cldn-8b, -8c and -8d ) have been identified in trout and all are expressed in the model gill epithelium. Cortisol treatment 'tightened' the gill epithelium, as indicated by increased transepithelial resistance (TER) and reduced paracellular [ 3 H]polyethylene glycol (MW 400 Da; PEG-400) flux. This occurred in association with elevated cldn-8d mRNA abundance, but no alterations in cldn-8b and -8c mRNA abundance were observed. Transcriptional knockdown (KD) of cldn-8d inhibited a cortisol-induced increase in Cldn-8d abundance and reduced the 'epithelium tightening' effect of cortisol in association with increased paracellular PEG-400 flux. Under simulated in vivo conditions (i.e. apical freshwater), cldn-8d KD hindered a cortisol-mediated reduction in basolateral to apical Na + and Cl - flux (i.e. reduced the ability of cortisol to mitigate ion loss). However, cldn-8d KD did not abolish the tightening effect of cortisol on the gill epithelium. This is likely due, in part, to the effect of cortisol on genes encoding other TJ proteins, which in some cases appeared to exhibit a compensatory response. Data support the idea that Cldn-8d is a barrier protein of the gill epithelium TJ that contributes significantly to corticosteroid-mediated alterations in gill epithelium permeability. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  7. Comparative microanatomical structure of gills and skin of remainers and skippers from Gunung Kidul intertidal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Rizka Apriani; Sukiya

    2017-08-01

    One type of adaptation needed in fish that live in Intertidal Zone is morphological adaptation. When the tide is low, oxygen circulation in this area is limited, causing tidepools that occurred during this time hypoxic for species that live inside. This research aimed to study the microanatomical structure of respiratory organ of two group of fish that live in intertidal zone and to investigate whether skin of these species can be used as respiratory surface to overcome hypoxic condition. Two species of fish (Bathygobiusfuscus of remainers group and Blenniellabilitonensis of skippers, respectively), were caught and sacrificed, then gills and skin of them were harvested. The organs then undergone further processing for microanatomical preparation with paraffin method and Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. Microanatomical structure of gills and skin analyzed descriptively. Gills were observed to study whether additional structure is presence and modification (in structure of epithelial cells and/or the length of secondary lamelae) is occurred as part of morphological change to absorb more oxygen during low tide. In skin, the thickness of epidermal layers were measured and the number of blood capillaries were counted to investigate whether it can also be used as additional respiratory surface. Quantitative data of skin and gills were statistically analyzed using Student's T-test. Results showed that there were no differences in gills structure between remainers and skippers. Additional structure in gills were absent in both species. However, quantitative measurements in skin showed that skippers have less layers of epidermal cells and high number of blood capillaries compared to remainers' skin. This results indicated that skippers were able to use their skin as additional respiratory surface outside gills.

  8. Gills as morphological biomarkers in extensive and intensive rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum 1792) production technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzyżewska-Worotyńska, Emilia; Szarek, Józef; Babińska, Izabella; Gulda, Dominika

    2017-11-06

    We investigated environmental impacts on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared at fish farms with either extensive technology, in a flow-through system (FTS, n = 3), or intensive technology, in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS, n = 3). All fish were fed the same rations. Fish were caught in spring and autumn (body mass, 501-750 g) from these six farms. We performed macroscopic (intact fish) and microscopic (gills stained with haematoxylin/eosin) examinations. Lesions were categorised based on the type and location of structural abnormalities. The histopathological index (HAI) was calculated, and each lesion was scored. Fish reared in FTS or RAS were compared for the prevalence of morphological lesions. Gill epithelial hypertrophy and hyperplasia comprised 73% (RAS) to 79% (FTS) of all morphological abnormalities. In spring and autumn, lesions comprised, respectively, 11 and 18% (FTS) and 16 and 10% (RAS) mucous and chloride cell abnormalities and 8 and 4% (FTS) and 10 and 3% (RAS) blood vessel abnormalities. Diffuse, irreversible gill lesions were observed sporadically in all fish. Gill epithelium received the most exposure to environmental pathogens. HAIs indicated that normal gill architecture and minor lesions predominated in all fish. However, among trout caught in spring, moderate and extensive changes in gills occurred more commonly with RAS (34%) than with FTS (17%). Trout caught in autumn displayed no great differences. These results indicated that FTS prepared fish better than RAS for wintering. Moreover, we showed that gills were an excellent biomarker for analysing the impact of extensive and intensive production environments on rainbow trout.

  9. Cellular and humoral factors involved in the response of rainbow trout gills to Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Moonika Marana; Kania, Per Walter; Heinecke, Rasmus Demuth

    2011-01-01

    a significant down-regulating effect on genes incoding IgT, IgM, CD4, CD8, IFN-g, IL-8 and IL-22 in all groups. Immunohistochemistry, using monoclonal antibodies to detect cellular markers, demonstrated active involvement of CD8, MHC II, IgT and IgM positive cells in gill tissue. Putative T-cells (CD8 positive...... cells) were detected in the intraepithelial lymphoid tissue located at the base of gill filaments and in hyperplastic gill tissue but following infection a clear efflux of these cells was detected. MHC II positive cells were distributed across the gill filaments and accumulated in hyperplastic tissue...... in gill arterioles and the lamellar capillaries. The present work indicates an intensive activity and specialized function of immune cells (B-cells, T-cells and macrophages) and humoral elements such as immunoglobulins IgT and IgM which are orchestrated by cytokines in gill tissue reacting against I...

  10. Morphology of gills of the seawater fish Cathorops spixii (Agassiz (Ariidae by scanning and transmission electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daura R. Eiras-Stofella

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Gills of the seawater fish Cathorops spixii (Agassiz, 1829 were submitted to routine processing for observation in scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The wrinkled surface of the gill filaments showed well-defined cellular ultrastructures. Microridges on cellular surface were projected over all gill structures, including respiratory lamellae. Chloride cells were usually at primary lamellae. Some rodlet cells were found. Mucous secretory cells were uncommon at all parts of the gill arches. The pharyngeal region of the gill arches showed a lot of taste buds but no spines. There were small and strong rakers. Such morphology is indicative of fishes that swallow small food but do not have filtering habits. At the ultrastructural level the gills of C. spixii presented the typical morphological pattern of Teleostei fishes.

  11. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Michael

    2009-12-01

    The cause of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS), a chronic motor and vocal tic disorder of childhood onset, remains unknown. Abnormalities in basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuits presumably play an important role in the pathophysiology underlying the involuntary tics. The use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), a noninvasive and painless tool to examine the excitability of several different circuits in the human motor cortex has advanced our understanding of the pathophysiology. Motor thresholds are similar in GTS and healthy subjects; in the resting state, recruitment of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) above threshold is more gradual in patients than controls. In contrast, recruitment of MEPs during preactivation is similar in both groups, as is the duration of the cortical silent period. This suggests that the distribution of excitability in the corticospinal system in patients at rest is different to that in healthy individuals. Importantly, correlation analysis showed that reduced levels of excitability at rest relate, in pure GTS patients, to video ratings of complex tics, and hand and finger tics, with less excitability predicting fewer tics. The correlations disappear for measures made during voluntary activation. This suggests that this is an adaptive response to abnormal basal ganglia-motor cortex inputs in an effort to reduce unwanted movements, a notion supported by electroencephalography-coherence studies that show increased cortico-cortical coupling. Compared to the healthy control group, short intracortical inhibition (SICI) thresholds are similar. However, above-threshold SICI recruitment and sensory afferent inhibition (SAI), a paradigm to examine sensory motor integration, are reduced in patients. This is consistent with the suggestion that reduced excitability of cortical inhibition is one factor that contributes to the difficulty that patients have in suppressing involuntary tics. In addition the reduced SAI indicates that impaired

  12. [Dante's Inferno and the McGill Pain Questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, N; Marcolongo, R

    2007-01-01

    To study the images which depict the damned's sufferings in Dante's Inferno, in their expression of the several meanings of "pain", the semantics of "pain" in the poem has been analyzed, eventually trying to determine whether the organization of punishments of Inferno may somehow mirror a disability scale. A detailed analysis of the text was carried out, which proved a valuable tool for interpreting the organization of punishments as a possible disability scale. The semantics of pain in the Divine Comedy was studied through all the forms of the pain descriptors (included the archaic terminological forms) from the Italian version of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MGPQ) by Maiani and Sanavio. In Dante's Inferno a classification of pain is provided, based on the experience of sufferings; Dante's images seem not only instrumental to investigating the sensorial but also the affective and intellectual spheres by introducing a number of characters and describing the impact of punishment onto their souls. Our research highlighted that 46 out of 78 terms from the MGPQ are present in Inferno, though with different forms; the Groups the MGPQ is divided into are also represented with the exception of Group XII, the most frequently detected being Groups XIII-which studies the fear-related sensations in the emotional sphere - XIV, XIX and XX. The great attention emerges that Dante devoted to describing simple sensorial experiences as well as the way punishments affected the soul. As a whole, the terms pertaining to the sensorial sphere are the most frequently encountered. The lack of motion which increases circle after circle in Hell, well matches the progressing physical and psychological impairment caused by some invalidating diseases. Noticeably, Dante created such a complex system centuries before the studies were released on the impact of pain and its quantitative and mostly qualitative definition. In conclusion, this interpretation suggests that the writing on the door to

  13. The Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: the current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Mary May

    2012-10-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is characterised by multiple motor and one or more vocal/phonic tics. GTS was once thought to be rare, but many relatively recent studies suggest that the prevalence is about 1% of the worldwide community, apart from in Sub-Saharan Black Africa. Comorbidity and coexistent psychopathology are common, occurring in about 90% of clinical cohorts and individuals in the community. The most common comorbidities are attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive behaviours, and disorder, and autistic spectrum disorders, while the most common coexisting psychopathologies are depression, anxiety and behavioural disorders such as oppositional defiant and conduct disorder. There has been an increasing amount of evidence to show that the quality of life in young people is reduced when compared with normative data or healthy control populations. It is widely accepted that most cases of GTS are inherited, but the genetic mechanisms appear much more complex than previously understood, as evidenced by many recent studies; indeed, there have been suggestions of 'general neurodevelopmental genes' which affect the brain development after which the 'specific GTS gene(s)' may further affect the phenotype. Other aetiopathogenetic suggestions have included environmental factors such as neuro-immunological factors, infections, prenatal and peri-natal difficulties and androgen influences. Few studies have addressed aetiology and phenotype, but initial results are exciting. The search for endophenotypes has followed subsequently. Intriguing neuroanatomical and brain circuitry abnormalities have now been suggested in GTS; the most evidence is for cortical thinning and a reduction in the size of the caudate nucleus. Thorough assessment is imperative and multidisciplinary management is the ideal. Treatment should be 'symptom targeted', and in mild cases, psycho-education and reassurance for the patient and the family may be sufficient

  14. Altered structural connectivity of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamic networks in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worbe, Yulia; Marrakchi-Kacem, Linda; Lecomte, Sophie; Valabregue, Romain; Poupon, Fabrice; Guevara, Pamela; Tucholka, Alan; Mangin, Jean-François; Vidailhet, Marie; Lehericy, Stephane; Hartmann, Andreas; Poupon, Cyril

    2015-02-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a childhood-onset syndrome characterized by the presence and persistence of motor and vocal tics. A dysfunction of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical networks in this syndrome has been supported by convergent data from neuro-pathological, electrophysiological as well as structural and functional neuroimaging studies. Here, we addressed the question of structural integration of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical networks in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. We specifically tested the hypothesis that deviant brain development in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome could affect structural connectivity within the input and output basal ganglia structures and thalamus. To this aim, we acquired data on 49 adult patients and 28 gender and age-matched control subjects on a 3 T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. We used and further implemented streamline probabilistic tractography algorithms that allowed us to quantify the structural integration of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical networks. To further investigate the microstructure of white matter in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, we also evaluated fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity in these pathways, which are both sensitive to axonal package and to myelin ensheathment. In patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome compared to control subjects, we found white matter abnormalities in neuronal pathways connecting the cerebral cortex, the basal ganglia and the thalamus. Specifically, striatum and thalamus had abnormally enhanced structural connectivity with primary motor and sensory cortices, as well as paracentral lobule, supplementary motor area and parietal cortices. This enhanced connectivity of motor cortex positively correlated with severity of tics measured by the Yale Global Tics Severity Scale and was not influenced by current medication status, age or gender of patients. Independently of the severity of tics, lateral and medial orbito

  15. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles modulate the toxicological response to cadmium in the gills of Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Della Torre, Camilla [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy); Balbi, Teresa [Department of Earth, Environmental and Life Sciences-DISTAV, University of Genoa (Italy); Grassi, Giacomo [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy); Frenzilli, Giada; Bernardeschi, Margherita [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); Smerilli, Arianna [Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (DiSTABiF), Seconda Università di Napoli, Caserta (Italy); Guidi, Patrizia [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); Canesi, Laura [Department of Earth, Environmental and Life Sciences-DISTAV, University of Genoa (Italy); Nigro, Marco [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); Monaci, Fabrizio [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy); Scarcelli, Vittoria [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); Rocco, Lucia [Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (DiSTABiF), Seconda Università di Napoli, Caserta (Italy); Focardi, Silvano [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy); Monopoli, Marco [Centre for BioNanoInteractions, School of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University College Dublin (Ireland); Corsi, Ilaria, E-mail: ilaria.corsi@unisi.it [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Nano-TiO{sub 2} modulate CdCl{sub 2} cellular responses in gills of marine mussel. • Nano-TiO{sub 2} reduced CdCl{sub 2}-induced effects by lowering abcb1 m-RNA and GST activity. • Nano-TiO{sub 2} reduced Cd accumulation in mussel’s gills but not in whole soft tissue. • Higher accumulation of Ti in the presence of CdCl{sub 2} was observed in gills. - Abstract: We investigated the influence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO{sub 2}) on the response to cadmium in the gills of the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in terms of accumulation and toxicity. Mussels were in vivo exposed to nano-TiO{sub 2}, CdCl{sub 2}, alone and in combination. Several cellular biomarkers were investigated in gills: ABC transport proteins and metallothioneins at gene/protein (abcb1, abcc-like and mt-20) and functional level, GST activity, NO production and DNA damage (Comet assay). Accumulation of total Cd and titanium in gills as in whole soft tissue was also investigated. Significant responses to Cd exposure were observed in mussel gills as up-regulation of abcb1 and mt-20 gene transcription, increases in total MT content, P-gp efflux and GST activity, DNA damage and NO production. Nano-TiO{sub 2} alone increased P-gp efflux activity and NO production. When combined with Cd, nano-TiO{sub 2} reduced the metal-induced effects by significantly lowering abcb1 gene transcription, GST activity, and DNA damage, whereas, additive effects were observed on NO production. A lower concentration of Cd was observed in the gills upon co-exposure, whereas, Ti levels were unaffected. A competitive effect in uptake/accumulation of nano-TiO{sub 2} and Cd seems to occur in gills. A confirmation is given by the observed absence of adsorption of Cd onto nano-TiO{sub 2} in sea water media.

  16. Pharyngeal cavity and the gills are the target organ for the repellent action of pardaxin in shark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primor, N

    1985-05-15

    Pardaxin, an active principle of the repellent secretion of the Red Sea flatfish, Pardachirus marmoratus, elicited severe struggling, mouth paralysis, and transient increase in urea leakage from the gills only when administered to the medium bathing the shark's pharyngeal cavity and gills. An apparatus was constructed which prevents a mixing of the outflow from shark's gills with water bathing its surface skin. It is concluded that in sharks the gills and/or the pharyngeal cavity are the target organ for the repellent action of pardaxin.

  17. SECHAGE DE PRODUITS GRANULAIRES PAR DESHYDRATATION PAR DETENTES SUCCESSIVES (DDS)

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulla , Galal; Mellouk , Hamid; Belghit , Abdelhamid; Allaf , Karim

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Dans cette étude, nous avons évalué les performances d'un nouveau procédé de séchage dans le cas du liège en granulés. Ce procédé (La déshydratation par détentes successives : DDS) consiste à soumettre le matériau liège dans une chambre hermétique aux variations cycliques de la pression. Chaque cycle est composé d'une compression et d'une décompression. La phase de compression est réalisée en injectant de l'air comprimé à température ambiante provenant d'un compresseur...

  18. Tissue distributions of fluoride and its toxicity in the gills of a freshwater teleost, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinling; Chen, Jianjie; Wang, Jundong; Wu, Xiangtian; Li, Yundong; Xie, Lingtian

    2013-04-15

    Fish take up fluoride directly from water and are susceptible to fluoride contamination of their environment. In this study, we examined the tissue distributions of fluoride and its toxicity in the gills of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) chronically exposed to fluoride. Carp were exposed to a range of aqueous fluoride (35-124 mg/L) and sampled at 30, 60 and 90 days. The accumulation of fluoride in the tissues increased with the level and duration of exposure. Steady state was not achieved under the experimental conditions. The gills accumulated the highest levels of fluoride followed by the liver>brain>kidney>muscle>intestine. A dose-dependent inhibition was observed for the enzyme activities of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase in the gills after the fish were exposed for 90 days. Also, accumulation of fluoride was associated with the inhibition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and a dose-dependent stimulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the gill tissues, suggesting that fluoride promoted oxidative stress in the fish. Microscopic examinations revealed injuries to gill tissues and chloride cells, with the severity of injury increasing with exposure concentration. These results suggest that chronic exposure to elevated concentrations of fluoride may induce toxicity in the common carp. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Implications for osmorespiratory compromise by anatomical remodeling in the gills of Arapaima gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Cleverson Agner; Fernandes, Marisa Narciso; da Costa, Oscar Tadeu Ferreira; Duncan, Wallice Paxiuba

    2013-10-01

    The gill structure of the Amazonian fish Arapaima gigas, an obligatory air breather, was investigated during its transition from water breathing to the obligatory air breathing modes of respiration. The gill structure of A. gigas larvae is similar to that of most teleost fish; however, the morphology of the gills changes as the fish grow. The main morphological changes in the gill structure of a growing fish include the following: (1) intense cell proliferation in the filaments and lamellae, resulting in increasing epithelial thickness and decreasing interlamellar distance; (2) pillar cell system atrophy, which reduces the blood circulation through the lamellae; (3) the generation of long cytoplasmic processes from the epithelial cells into the intercellular space, resulting in continuous and sinuous paracellular channels between the epithelial cells of the filament and lamella that may be involved in gas, ion, and nutrient transport to epithelial cells; and (4) intense mitochondria-rich cell (MRC) proliferation in the lamellar epithelium. All of these morphological changes in the gills contribute to a low increase of the respiratory surface area for gas exchange and an increase in the water-blood diffusion distance increasing their dependence on air-breathing as fish developed. The increased proliferation of MRCs may contribute to increased ion uptake, which favors the regulation of ion content and pH equilibrium. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Ontogeny and paleophysiology of the gill: new insights from larval and air-breathing fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauner, Colin J; Rombough, Peter J

    2012-12-01

    There are large changes in gill function during development associated with ionoregulation and gas exchange in both larval and air-breathing fish. Physiological studies of larvae indicate that, contrary to accepted dogma but consistent with morphology, the initial function of the gill is primarily ionoregulatory and only secondarily respiratory. In air-breathing fish, as the gill becomes progressively less important in terms of O(2) uptake with expansion of the air-breathing organ, it retains its roles in CO(2) excretion, ion exchange and acid-base balance. The observation that gill morphology and function is strongly influenced by ionoregulatory needs in both larval and air-breathing fish may have evolutionary implications. In particular, it suggests that the inability of the skin to maintain ion and acid-base balance as protovertebrates increased in size and became more active may have been more important in driving gill development than O(2) insufficiency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultrastructure (SEM of the gills of Prochilodus Scrofa Steindachner (Pisces, Teleostei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daura Regina Eiras-Stofella

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Gills arches of the freshwater fish Prochilodus scrofa Steindachner, 1881 (Lt= 8.0-12.4cm were removed to be analyzed in a scanning electron microscope. The morphology of the superficial structures of the gill filaments and pharyngeal region of the gills arches was discussed and related to their functional aspects. A great quantity of mucous secretory cells and of microridges, along with the pavement cell surface of the primary lamellae and branchial pharyngeal region, indicate the existence of a protection strategy of the respiratory lamellae. The chloride cells are abundant, specially on the distal portion of the primary lamellae, and bring out the osmo regulatory capacity of this species. This fish seems not to be a filtering one according to: its short and simple gill rakers; presence of several taste buds turned towards the mouth opening; evidence of spines on the external side of the arches and an abundant secretion of mucous in the pharyngeal region. This species probably selects the food to be swallowed through its chemical receptors and retains it with the help of spines and mucous secretion this way protecting the gills filaments against the rubbing of particles over them.

  2. La preuve par le nombre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Verdier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available S’il en était besoin, la question des usages et de la finalité des résultats de l’inventaire général pourrait être abordée par le nombre : nombre d’œuvres répertoriées, de communes inventoriées, de clichés photographiques réalisés, de dossiers, de consultations des notices dans les bases de données… Les additions aujourd’hui sont éloquentes, mais elles laissent dans l’ombre le rôle de l’inventaire qui, en mettant en œuvre une démarche systématique de connaissance, participe à l’ identificatio...

  3. BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF DELTAMETHRIN EXPOSURE ON THE GILLS OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (Pisces Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA COSTIN

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the alterations in the activities of several antioxidant enzymes inthe gills of the freshwater fish Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to deltamethrin. To getthis goal, groups of 10 individuals were exposed for one, two, three, seven and fourteendays to sublethal concentration of deltamethrin (2 µg/L. Another group was used ascontrol. The activities of catalase, gluthatione peroxidase and gluthatione reductasewere significantly decreased, while the glutathione-S-transferase was up-regulated. Allfish, exposed to 2 µg/L deltamethrin revealed gills morphological alterations after 48h ofexposure which were accentuated after 14 days. In the gills hyperemia, fusion ofsecondary lamellae, epithelial layer rupture and chloride cells proliferation wereobserved. These results suggest that an immediate adaptive response to the oxidativestress appeared, demonstrating alterations in the antoxidant defense mechanism in thegills of deltamethrin intoxicated fish.

  4. Effect of cadmium on protein synthesis in gill tissue of marine mollusc Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhuizen-Tsoerkan, M.B.; Mast, C.A. van der; Zandee, D.I.

    1988-01-01

    Mussels have a high capacity to accumulate cadmium and other heavy metals without notable toxic effects. However, they have recently found that cadmium is toxic to M. edulis at a relatively low concentration, as anoxic survival time of the animals was significantly shortened after two weeks of exposure to 50 ppb Cd. Based on this finding, a research was started to study the toxic effects of cadmium at a macromolecular level (proteins, RNA). Mussels were exposed to 250 ppb Cd for short periods. Then excised gills were incubated with 35 s-methionine for 4 hours. In the gill tissue of 7 and 15 days Cd-exposed animals, a significantly decrease in the incorporation rate of the introduced label was found of 30 and 37%, respectively. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the de novo synthesized gill tissue proteins

  5. Cytokine Responses in Gills of Capoeta umbla as Biomarkers of Environmental Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danabas, Durali; Yildirim, Nuran Cikcikoglu; Yildirim, Numan; Onal, Ayten Oztufekci; Uslu, Gulsad; Unlu, Erhan; Danabas, Seval; Ergin, Cemil; Tayhan, Nilgun

    2016-03-01

    Immunological biomarkers reflect the effects of exposure to environmental contaminants. In this study, the suitability and sensitivity of cytokine responses, interleukin1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in gill tissues of Capoeta umbla (Heckel, 1843), collected from different regions, as early warning indices of environmental pollution and ecosystem health was evaluated. Fish and water samples were taken from ten stations in March and September 2011 and 2012. Tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels were determined in samples of the gill tissues by using an ELISA kit. Significant variations of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels observed between stations and seasons. The results of this study show that seasonal variations of cytokine responses in gills of Capoeta umbla are sensitive to the contaminants present in Uzuncayir Dam Lake (Tunceli, Turkey) water and are valuable biomarkers for environmental pollution and ecosystem health.

  6. The mussel filter–pump – present understanding, with a re-examination of gill preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Funch, Peter; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2015-01-01

    Filter feeding in mussels is a secondary adaptation where the gills have become W-shaped and greatly enlarged, acting as the mussel filter–pump. Water pumping and particle capture in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, have been studied over many years. Here, we give a short status of the present...... understanding of ciliary structure and function of the mussel filter–pump, supplemented with new photo-microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures of gill preparations. Pumping rate (filtration) and pressure to maintain flow have been extensively studied so the power delivered by the mussel pump......-pumping cilia so that continuous feeding with a ‘minimal scaled’ pump is cheaper than discontinuous feeding with a correspondingly larger pump. According to the present view, the pump proper is the beating lateral cilia (lc) on the gill filaments and particle capture is accomplished by the action...

  7. Antioxidant deficit in gills of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) exposed to chlorodinitrobenzene increases menadione toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevisan, Rafael; Arl, Miriam; Sacchet, Cássia Lopes; Engel, Cristiano Severino; Danielli, Naissa Maria; Mello, Danielle Ferraz; Brocardo, Caroline; Maris, Angelica Francesca; Dafre, Alcir Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Disturbances in antioxidant defenses decrease cellular protection against oxidative stress and jeopardize cellular homeostasis. To knock down the antioxidant defenses of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, animals were pre-treated with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and further challenged with pro-oxidant menadione (MEN). CDNB pre-treatment (10 μM for 18 h) was able to consume cellular thiols in gills, decreasing GSH (53%) and decrease protein thiols (25%). CDNB pre-treatment also disrupted glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase activity in the gills, but likewise strongly induced glutathione S-transferase activity (270% increase). Surprisingly, hemocyte viability was greatly affected 24 h after CDNB removal, indicating a possible vulnerability of the oyster immune system to electrophilic attack. New in vivo approaches were established, allowing the identification of higher rates of GSH–CDNB conjugate export to the seawater and enabling the measurement of the organic peroxide consumption rate. CDNB-induced impairment in antioxidant defenses decreased the peroxide removal rate from seawater. After showing that CDNB decreased gill antioxidant defenses and increased DNA damage in hemocytes, oysters were further challenged with 1 mM MEN over 24 h. MEN treatment did not affect thiol homeostasis in gills, while CDNB pre-treated animals recovered GSH and PSH to the control level after 24 h of depuration. Interestingly, MEN intensified GSH and PSH loss and mortality in CDNB-pre-treated animals, showing a clear synergistic effect. The superoxide-generating one-electron reduction of MEN was predominant in gills and may have contributed to MEN toxicity. These results support the idea that antioxidant-depleted animals are more susceptible to oxidative attack, which can compromise survival. Data also corroborate the idea that gills are an important detoxifying organ, able to dispose of organic peroxides, induce phase II enzymes, and efficiently export GSH

  8. Antioxidant deficit in gills of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) exposed to chlorodinitrobenzene increases menadione toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevisan, Rafael; Arl, Miriam [Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Sacchet, Cassia Lopes [Universidade do Oeste do Estado de Santa Catarina, 89600-000 Joacaba, SC (Brazil); Engel, Cristiano Severino; Danielli, Naissa Maria; Mello, Danielle Ferraz [Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Brocardo, Caroline [Universidade do Oeste do Estado de Santa Catarina, 89600-000 Joacaba, SC (Brazil); Maris, Angelica Francesca [Departamento de Biologia Celular, Embriologia e Genetica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Dafre, Alcir Luiz, E-mail: alcir@ccb.ufsc.br [Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-02-15

    Disturbances in antioxidant defenses decrease cellular protection against oxidative stress and jeopardize cellular homeostasis. To knock down the antioxidant defenses of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, animals were pre-treated with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and further challenged with pro-oxidant menadione (MEN). CDNB pre-treatment (10 {mu}M for 18 h) was able to consume cellular thiols in gills, decreasing GSH (53%) and decrease protein thiols (25%). CDNB pre-treatment also disrupted glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase activity in the gills, but likewise strongly induced glutathione S-transferase activity (270% increase). Surprisingly, hemocyte viability was greatly affected 24 h after CDNB removal, indicating a possible vulnerability of the oyster immune system to electrophilic attack. New in vivo approaches were established, allowing the identification of higher rates of GSH-CDNB conjugate export to the seawater and enabling the measurement of the organic peroxide consumption rate. CDNB-induced impairment in antioxidant defenses decreased the peroxide removal rate from seawater. After showing that CDNB decreased gill antioxidant defenses and increased DNA damage in hemocytes, oysters were further challenged with 1 mM MEN over 24 h. MEN treatment did not affect thiol homeostasis in gills, while CDNB pre-treated animals recovered GSH and PSH to the control level after 24 h of depuration. Interestingly, MEN intensified GSH and PSH loss and mortality in CDNB-pre-treated animals, showing a clear synergistic effect. The superoxide-generating one-electron reduction of MEN was predominant in gills and may have contributed to MEN toxicity. These results support the idea that antioxidant-depleted animals are more susceptible to oxidative attack, which can compromise survival. Data also corroborate the idea that gills are an important detoxifying organ, able to dispose of organic peroxides, induce phase II enzymes, and efficiently export GSH

  9. Molecular detection and immunological localization of gill Na+/H+ exchanger in the dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claiborne, James B; Choe, Keith P; Morrison-Shetlar, Alison I; Weakley, Jill C; Havird, Justin; Freiji, Abe; Evans, David H; Edwards, Susan L

    2008-03-01

    The dogfish (Squalus acanthias) can make rapid adjustments to gill acid-base transfers to compensate for internal acidosis/alkalosis. Branchial Na+/H+ exchange (NHE) has been postulated as one mechanism driving the excretion of H+ following acidosis. We have cloned gill cDNA that includes an open reading frame coding for a 770-residue protein most homologous (approximately 71%) to mammalian NHE2. RT-PCR revealed NHE2 transcripts predominantly in gill, stomach, rectal gland, intestine, and kidney. In situ hybridization with an antisense probe against NHE2 in gill sections revealed a strong mRNA signal from a subset of interlamellar and lamellae cells. We developed dogfish-specific polyclonal antibodies against NHE2 that detected a approximately 70-kDa protein in Western blots and immunologically recognized branchial cells having two patterns of protein expression. Cytoplasmic and apical NHE2 immunoreactivity were observed in cells coexpressing basolateral Na+-K+-ATPase. Other large ovoid cells more generally staining for NHE2 also were strongly positive for basolateral H+-ATPase. Gill mRNA levels for NHE2 and H+-ATPase did not change following systemic acidosis (as measured by quantitative PCR 2 h after a 1- or 2-meq/kg acid infusion). These data indicate that posttranslational adjustments of NHE2 and other transport systems (e.g., NHE3) following acidosis may be of importance in the short-term pH adjustment and net branchial H+ efflux observed in vivo. NHE2 may play multiple roles in the gills, involved with H+ efflux from acid-secreting cells, basolateral H+ reabsorption for pHi regulation, and in parallel with H+-ATPase for the generation of HCO3(-) in base-secreting cells.

  10. Histological alterations in gills of Macrobrachium amazonicum juveniles exposed to ammonia and nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Fabrício Martins; Rönnau, Milton; Sponchiado, Dircelei; Forneck, Sandra Carla; Freire, Carolina Arruda; Ballester, Eduardo Luis Cupertino

    2017-06-01

    Aquaculture has shown great growth in the last decades. Due to the restrictions on water use, production systems are becoming increasingly more intensive, raising concerns about the production water quality. Macrobrachium amazonicum is among the freshwater prawn species with favorable characteristics for production and possibility of intensification. Nitrogen compounds such as ammonia and nitrite affect the health of aquatic organisms since they quickly reach toxic concentrations. These compounds can also cause damage to the gill structure, leading to hypoxia in tissues, affecting acid-base balance, osmoregulation (salt absorption) and ammonia excretion, decreasing the immune capacity of the animal and, in extreme cases, cause death. The aim of this study was to assess histological changes in the gills of Macrobrachium amazonicum juveniles subjected to different concentrations of total ammonia and nitrite. The prawns were subjected to different concentrations of those compounds and their gills were removed and preserved for histological analysis. The gills were assessed for changes according to the Organ Index (I org ) and, for each change, an importance factor (w) was attributed according to the degree of reversibility and applied according to the degree of extension or frequency of the damage. The damage to the gills in the treatments with 100% mortality, both for ammonia and nitrite, corresponded to the high occurrence of progressive, regressive, circulatory, and inflammation damages. The other treatments (which caused less mortality) had mainly inflammation and regressive damages, whose occurrence increased according to the increase in ammonia and nitrite concentration. The histological analysis confirmed that the higher the total ammonia and nitrite concentrations, the larger the damages caused to the gill structure and that lower nitrite concentrations caused similar damages to those caused by higher total ammonia concentrations, which reflects the lower

  11. The distribution of mitochondria-rich cells in the gills of air-breathing fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Chen; Sung, Wen-Ting

    2003-01-01

    Respiration and ion regulation are the two principal functions of teleostean gills. Mainly found in the gill filaments of fish, mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) proliferate to increase the ionoregulatory capacity of the gill in response to osmotic challenges. Gill lamellae consist mostly of pavement cells, which are the major site of gas exchange. Although lamellar MRCs have been reported in some fish species, there has been little discussion of which fish species are likely to have lamellar MRCs. In this study, we first compared the number of filament and lamellar MRCs in air-breathing and non-air-breathing fish species acclimated to freshwater and 5 g NaCl L(-1) conditions. An increase in filament MRCs was found in both air-breathing and non-air-breathing fish acclimated to freshwater. Lamellar MRCs were found only in air-breathing species, but the number of lamellar MRCs did not change significantly with water conditions, except in Periophthalmus cantonensis. Next, we surveyed the distribution of MRCs in the gills of 66 fish species (including 29 species from the previous literature) from 12 orders, 28 families, and 56 genera. Our hypothesis that lamellar MRCs are more likely to be found in air-breathing fishes was supported by a significant association between the presence of lamellar MRCs and the mode of breathing at three levels of systematic categories (species, genus, and family). Based on this integrative view of the multiple functions of fish gills, we should reexamine the role of MRCs in freshwater fish.

  12. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  13. Anatomia da madeira de Acacia bonariensis Gill. ex Hook. et Arn. Wood anatomy of Acacia bonariensis Gill. ex Hook. et Arn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho é a descrição anatômica da madeira de Acacia bonariensis Gill. Hook. et Arn. A estrutura anatômica é comparada com outras espécies sul-brasileiras do mesmo gênero. A presença de raios multisseriados estreitos e fibras septadas permitem classificar a espécie na série Vulgares Bentham ou sub-gênero Aculeiferum Vassal.The wood anatomy of Acacia bonariensis Gill. ex Hook. et Arn. is described and compared with other south-american Acacias. The presence of narrow multisseriate rays and libriform fibres, observed in the wood, are commonly found among species of the series Vulgares Benth. or sub-genus Aculeiferum Vassal.

  14. Collide@CERN: exclusive open rehearsal of Gilles Jobin's last piece

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Collide@CERN and Gilles Jobin, artist in residency at CERN, present an exclusive open rehearsal of his last piece SPIDER GALAXIES Tuesday 31 July 2012 - A new piece created to open new territories of the mind - Join us in Restaurant 1 from 4 p.m. (next to the Glass Box Restaurant) With this piece, the body turns into matter, which is complete, spatial and sensual. Come and see Gilles Jobin and his dancers. With a score by Cristian Vogel and Carla Scaletti invoking sound particles, while Daniel Demont disperses the spectrum. Protean, infinitely large or infinitesimal, such are the Spider Galaxies.    

  15. GillesPy: A Python Package for Stochastic Model Building and Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, John H; Drawert, Brian; Hellander, Andreas; Petzold, Linda R

    2016-09-01

    GillesPy is an open-source Python package for model construction and simulation of stochastic biochemical systems. GillesPy consists of a Python framework for model building and an interface to the StochKit2 suite of efficient simulation algorithms based on the Gillespie stochastic simulation algorithms (SSA). To enable intuitive model construction and seamless integration into the scientific Python stack, we present an easy to understand, action-oriented programming interface. Here, we describe the components of this package and provide a detailed example relevant to the computational biology community.

  16. CYP1A inhibition in fish gill filaments: A novel assay applied on pharmaceuticals and other chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beijer, Kristina; Abrahamson, Alexandra; Brunstroem, Bjoern [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Norbyvaegen 18A, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Brandt, Ingvar, E-mail: ingvar.brandt@ebc.uu.se [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Norbyvaegen 18A, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-01-31

    The gill filament 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) assay was originally developed as a biomarker for cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) induction by Ah-receptor agonists in water. In this study, the assay was adapted to measure inhibition of CYP1A activity in fish gill filaments ex vivo. The experiments were carried out using gill arch filaments from {beta}-naphthoflavone ({beta}NF)-exposed three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Candidate CYP1A inhibitors were added to the assay buffer. Nine selected pharmaceuticals and five known or suspected CYP1A-modulating chemicals were examined with regard to their ability to reduce EROD activity in gill filaments. Ellipticine, a well characterized CYP1A inhibitor, was the most effective inhibitor of the compounds tested. At a concentration in the assay buffer of 1 {mu}M the antifungal azoles ketoconazole, miconazole and bitertanol, and the plant flavonoid acacetin reduced gill EROD activity by more than 50%, implying IC50 values below 1 {mu}M. These compounds have previously been shown to inhibit EROD activity in liver microsomes from fish and mammals at similar concentrations. The proton pump inhibitor omeprazole reduced the gill EROD activity by 39% at 10 {mu}M. It is concluded that the modified gill filament EROD assay is useful to screen for waterborne pollutants that inhibit catalytic CYP1A activity in fish gills.

  17. CYP1A inhibition in fish gill filaments: A novel assay applied on pharmaceuticals and other chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beijer, Kristina; Abrahamson, Alexandra; Brunstroem, Bjoern; Brandt, Ingvar

    2010-01-01

    The gill filament 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) assay was originally developed as a biomarker for cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) induction by Ah-receptor agonists in water. In this study, the assay was adapted to measure inhibition of CYP1A activity in fish gill filaments ex vivo. The experiments were carried out using gill arch filaments from β-naphthoflavone (βNF)-exposed three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Candidate CYP1A inhibitors were added to the assay buffer. Nine selected pharmaceuticals and five known or suspected CYP1A-modulating chemicals were examined with regard to their ability to reduce EROD activity in gill filaments. Ellipticine, a well characterized CYP1A inhibitor, was the most effective inhibitor of the compounds tested. At a concentration in the assay buffer of 1 μM the antifungal azoles ketoconazole, miconazole and bitertanol, and the plant flavonoid acacetin reduced gill EROD activity by more than 50%, implying IC50 values below 1 μM. These compounds have previously been shown to inhibit EROD activity in liver microsomes from fish and mammals at similar concentrations. The proton pump inhibitor omeprazole reduced the gill EROD activity by 39% at 10 μM. It is concluded that the modified gill filament EROD assay is useful to screen for waterborne pollutants that inhibit catalytic CYP1A activity in fish gills.

  18. Reliability of the Danish version of the McGill ingestive skills assessment for observation-based measures during meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina; Lambert, Heather C; Faber, Jens

    2012-01-01

    To establish measurement equivalence in terms of reliability of the Danish version of the Canadian McGill ingestive skills assessment (MISA) for use by occupational therapists.......To establish measurement equivalence in terms of reliability of the Danish version of the Canadian McGill ingestive skills assessment (MISA) for use by occupational therapists....

  19. Local and systemic humoral immune response in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) under a natural amoebic gill disease outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-López, Mar; Espinosa Ruiz, Cristóbal; Rodger, Hamish D; O'Connor, Ian; MacCarthy, Eugene; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2017-07-01

    Amoebic gill disease (AGD), caused by the protozoan parasite Neoparamoeba perurans, is one of the most significant infectious diseases for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) mariculture. The present study investigated the humoral immune response (both local in gill mucus and systemic in serum) of farmed Atlantic salmon naturally infected with N. perurans in commercial sea pens, at two different stages of the disease and after freshwater treatment. Parameters analysed included activity of immune related enzymes (i.e. lysozyme, peroxidase, protease, anti-protease, esterase, alkaline phosphatase), IgM levels, and the terminal carbohydrate profile in the gill mucus. Overall, greater variations between groups were noted in the immune parameters determined in gill mucus than the equivalent in the serum. In gill mucus, IgM levels and peroxidase, lysozyme, esterase and protease activities were decreased in fish showing longer exposure time to the infection and higher disease severity, then showed a sequential increase after treatment. Results obtained highlight the capacity of gills to elicit a local response to the infection, indicate an impaired immune response at the later stages of the disease, and show partial reestablishment of the host immune status after freshwater treatment. In addition to providing data on the humoral response to AGD, this study increases knowledge on gill mucosal humoral immunity, since some of the parameters were analysed for the first time in gill mucus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Surface ultrastructure of the gill filaments and the secondary lamellae of the catfish, Rita rita, and the carp, Cirrhinus mrigala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Usha; Mittal, Swati; Mittal, Ajay Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Surface ultrastructures of gill filaments and secondary lamellae of Rita rita and Cirrhinus mrigala, inhabiting different ecological habitat, were investigated to unravel adaptive modifications. R. rita is a sluggish, bottom dwelling carnivorous catfish, which inhabits regions of river with accumulations of dirty water. It retains its viability for long time if taken out of water. C. mrigala is an active bottom dwelling Indian major carp, which lives in relatively clean water and dies shortly after taken out of water. In R. rita, gill septa between gill filaments are reduced. Microridges on epithelial cells covering gill filaments are often continuous and arranged concentrically. Secondary lamellae are extensive. The epithelium appears corrugated, show irregular elevations and shallow depressions, and microridges on epithelial cells appear fragmented. In C. mrigala, in contrast, the gill septa are extensive. Microridges on epithelial cells covering gill filaments are fragmented. Secondary lamellae are less extensive. The epithelium appears smooth and microridges on epithelial cells are relatively inconspicuous. These differences have been considered adaptive modification in relation to habit and ecological niches inhabited by two fish species. Presence of mucous goblet cells on gill filaments is discussed in relation to their functions including precipitation of the sediments and preventing clogging of gill filaments. Infrequent mucous goblet cells in the epithelium of secondary lamellae in two fish species are considered an adaptation, minimizing thickness of the epithelium to reduce barrier between blood and water for favoring gasses exchange with increased efficiency. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. ¡París!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Caballero

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El día no le alcanzaba para caminarlo. Conocía cada puente, cada calle,plaza, museo, rincón, iglesia, café, y la mesa con el mejor ángulo para mirar siempre una iglesia, ojalá Saint-Germain-des-Pres, o Notre-Dame. Siempre contaba la impresión que le había causado a Bolívar ver allí cuando el papa coronó a Napoleón. Él se iba para la oficina todos los días, Luis a un taller a pintar, Antonio a estudiar ciencias políticas, yo al colegio y mamá hacía las cosas prácticas. Aprendíamos francés todos al tiempo y por la noche nos contábamos lo nuevo que cada uno había aprendido. Mamá después, cuando ya se quería volver, decía que París nos había maleado a todos. Estaba en pleno furor el cine francés de la "nueva ola", pero ella sólo me llevaba a ver películas de vaqueros pues no se fiaba de la clasificación de los periódicos.

  2. Combined effects of silver nanoparticles and mercury on gill histopathology of zebrafish (Danio rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borhan Mansouri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the combined effects of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs and Hg2+ on the gill histopathology of zebrafish (Danio rerio under the controlled conditions. Methods: In this study, one non-lethal concentration of Ag NPs (0.1 mg/L, six concentrations of Hg2+ (0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/L, and six mixture concentrations of Ag NPs and Hg2+ (0.1 plus 0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/L were used as the control group. After 4 days of exposure, samples were prepared for gill histology. Results: The results showed that notable damages were observed in aneurism, such as vacuolation of secondary lamella, fusion, hypertrophy, mucus secretion and necrosis. Moreover, our findings indicated that the Hg2+ and Ag NPs alone led to shorter secondary lamella length and smaller lamellae’s diameter of gills compared to the mixture of Ag NPs and Hg2+. However, the extent of damages in gill tissues after exposure to mixture of Ag NPs and Hg2+ was lower than Hg2+ ions and Ag NPs. Conclusions: It appears that the presence of Ag NPs can potentially reduce the toxicity of Hg2+ ions. However, to assess the toxicity mechanisms of nanoparticles in presence of pollutants, further studies should be encouraged.

  3. Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome—A Case Report from Guyana in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Eapen

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of the Gilles de la Tourette syndrome from Guyana in South America is presented. The patient had a positive family history as well as coprolalia, echolalia, and attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. The family history and cross-cultural similarity emphasise the biological factors in the aetiology of the syndrome.

  4. Structural Changes in the Somatosensory System Correlate with Tic Severity in Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomalla, Gotz; Siebner, Hartwig R.; Jonas, Melanie; Baumer, Tobias; Biermann-Ruben, Katja; Hummel, Friedhelm; Gerloff, Christian; Muller-Vahl, Kirsten; Schnitzler, Alfons; Orth, Michael; Munchau, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics. Previous structural MRI studies have identified regional abnormalities in grey matter, especially in the basal ganglia. These findings are consistent with the assumption of alterations in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits and…

  5. Abnormal CT scan in a patient with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer, M.; Boris, P.; Gadegaard Hansen, L.

    1986-07-01

    In a 28-year-old woman, who presented multiple muscular and vocal tics, typical of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, CT scans revealed a large porencephalic cyst in the right hemisphere involving the right basal ganglia, as well as contrast enhancement in the region of the left basal ganglia.

  6. Abnormal CT scan in a patient with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaer, M.; Boris, P.; Gadegaard Hansen, L.

    1986-01-01

    In a 28-year-old woman, who presented multiple muscular and vocal tics, typical of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, CT scans revealed a large porencephalic cyst in the right hemisphere involving the right basal ganglia, as well as contrast enhancement in the region of the left basal ganglia. (orig.)

  7. Tiques e síndrome de Gilles de la Tourette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Pitágoras de Mattos

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores revisam a literatura a propósito dos tiques e da síndrome de Gilles de la Tourette, abordando os aspectos históricos, etiopatogênicos, neuropatológicos, semiológicos, clínicos e terapêuticos.

  8. Behavioural and gill histopathological effects of acute exposure to sodium chloride in moneda (Metynnis orinocensis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.; Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the toxicity of sodium chloride (NaCl), juveniles and adult Metynnis orinocensis were exposed for 96 h to 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 or 40 g L-1 of salt. Food intake, behaviour, opercular frequency (OF), mortality, body weight and gill microscopic alterations were evaluated. Behavioural changes...

  9. The architecture and fine structure of gill filaments in the brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The architecture and fine structure of gill filaments in the brown mussel, Perna perna. MA Gregory' ... exhibit many of the characteristics which are widely sought in sentinel ... tion surveys (Gardner, Connell, Eagle, Moldan, Oliff, Orren ..... From the undifferentiated cell/lateral cell interface to the cen- .... amorphous material.

  10. Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome in Childhood: A Guide for School Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Abbe L.; Carter, Alice S.

    1997-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome (GTS) is considered a neuropsychiatric condition characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics. With some cases, a variety of neurocognitive, social, and emotional difficulties are present. Describes core features of GTS and highlights how symptoms and their features may interfere with school functioning. School…

  11. IDRC “unpacks women's empowerment” at McGill University ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-03-14

    Mar 14, 2018 ... English · Français ... at the annual conference of McGill University's Institute for the Study ... women's autonomy, voice, and well-being in the household, at work, ... ISID has also tackled how to measure women's economic empowerment by reviewing the various approaches used in GrOW research projects.

  12. Isolation and characterization of bioactive fungi from shark Carcharodon carcharias' gill with biopharmaceutical prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Han, Jinyuan; Feng, Yan; Mu, Jun; Bao, Haiyan; Kulik, Andreas; Grond, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, little was known about the fungi found in shark gills and their biomedicinal potential. In this article, we described the isolation, bioactivity, diversity, and secondary metabolites of bioactive fungi from the gill of a shark ( Carcharodon carcharias). A total of 115 isolates were obtained and grown in 12 culture media. Fifty-eight of these isolates demonstrated significant activity in four antimicrobial, pesticidal, and cytotoxic bioassay models. Four randomly selected bioactive isolates inhibited human cancer cell proliferation during re-screening. These active isolates were segregated into 6 genera using the internal transcribed spacer-large subunit (ITS-LSU) rDNA-sequence BLAST comparison. Four genera, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Mucor, and Chaetomium were the dominant taxa. A phylogenic tree illustrated their intergenera and intragenera genetic diversity. HPLC-DAD-HRMS analysis and subsequent database searching revealed that nine representative strains produced diverse bioactive compound profiles. These results detail the broad range of bioactive fungi found in a shark's gills, revealing their biopharmaceutical potential. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study characterizing shark gill fungi and their bioactivity.

  13. Aquatic gilled mushrooms: Psathyrella fruiting in the Rogue River in southern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jonathan L; Coffan, Robert A; Southworth, Darlene

    2010-01-01

    A species of Psathyrella (Basidiomycota) with true gills has been observed fruiting underwater in the clear, cold, flowing waters of the upper Rogue River in Oregon. Fruiting bodies develop and mature in the main channel, where they are constantly submerged, and were observed fruiting over 11 wk. These mushrooms develop underwater, not on wood recently washed into the river. Substrates include water-logged wood, gravel and the silty riverbed. DNA sequences of the ITS region and a portion of the ribosomal large subunit gene place this fungus in Psathyrella sensu stricto near P. atomata, P. fontinalis and P. superiorensis. Morphological characters distinguish the underwater mushroom from previously described species. Fruiting bodies have long fibrillose stipes with small diameter caps. Immature stages have a thin veil that is soon lost. Gills lack reddish edges. Cystidia are ventricose with subacute apices. Spores were observed as wedge-shape rafts released into gas pockets below the caps. Underwater gills and ballistospores indicate a recent adaptation to the stream environment. This particular river habitat combines the characteristics of spring-fed flows and cold, aerated water with woody debris in shallow depths on a fine volcanic substrate. Based on molecular and morphological evidence we conclude that the underwater mushrooms are a new species, Psathyrella aquatica. This report adds to the biodiversity of stream fungi that degrade woody substrates. The underwater environment is a new habitat for gilled mushrooms.

  14. Three Cases of Palatal Tics and Gilles De La Tourette Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rizzo, Renata; Cath, Danielle; Pavone, Piero; Tijssen, Marina; Robertson, Mary M.

    Five patients with palatal tics and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome have been previously reported. Little is known about the characteristics of palatal tics given that there are so few reports. On one hand, palatal tics may be rare. Alternatively, they may be less well recognized than repetitive eye

  15. Three Cases of Palatal Tics and Gilles De La Tourette Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Renata; Cath, Danielle; Pavone, Piero; Tijssen, Marina; Robertson, Mary M

    2015-08-01

    Five patients with palatal tics and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome have been previously reported. Little is known about the characteristics of palatal tics given that there are so few reports. On one hand, palatal tics may be rare. Alternatively, they may be less well recognized than repetitive eye blinking or sniffing, which are both obvious and, therefore, more often reported. We describe 3 patients with palatal tics and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. We also review the 5 patients reported in the literature and explore whether there are characteristic features among this group of 8 cases. The 8 patients had the following features: (1) Personal history of other multiple motor/vocal tics, (2) the presence of typical Gilles de la Tourette syndrome comorbidities, (3) positive family history of tics and/or Gilles de la Tourette syndrome comorbidities, (4) the presence of audible "ear clicks," (5) younger age at onset (2 years). We suggest that palatal tics are underreported. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Association of AADAC Deletion and Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome in a Large European Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Birgitte; Stefánsson, Hreinn; Riff Jensen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder with a strong genetic influence where copy number variations are suggested to play a role in disease pathogenesis. In a previous small-scale copy number variation study of a GTS cohort (n = 111), recurrent exon...

  17. Hydrodynamic pumping by serial gill arrays in the mayfly nymph Centroptilum triangulifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensenig, Andrew T; Kiger, Ken T; Shultz, Jeffrey W

    2010-10-01

    Aquatic nymphs of the mayfly Centroptilum triangulifer produce ventilatory flow using a serial array of seven abdominal gill pairs that operates across a Reynolds numbers (Re) range from 2 to 22 during ontogeny. Net flow in small animals is directed ventrally and essentially parallel to the stroke plane (i.e. rowing), but net flow in large animals is directed dorsally and essentially transverse to the stroke plane (i.e. flapping). Detailed flow measurements based on Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) ensemble-correlation analysis revealed that the phasing of the gills produces a time-dependent array of vortices associated with a net ventilatory current, a fluid kinematic pattern, here termed a 'phased vortex pump'. Absolute size of vortices does not change with increasing animal size or Re, and thus the vortex radius (R(v)) decreases relative to inter-gill distance (L(is)) during mayfly growth. Given that effective flapping in appendage-array animals requires organized flow between adjacent appendages, we hypothesize that rowing should be favored when L(is)/R(v)1. Significantly, the rowing-to-flapping transition in Centroptilum occurs at Re∼5, when the mean dynamic inter-gill distance equals the vortex radius. This result suggests that the Re-based rowing-flapping demarcation observed in appendage-array aquatic organisms may be determined by the relative size of the propulsive mechanism and its self-generated vortices.

  18. Stereological estimation of surface area and barrier thickness of fish gills in vertical sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, Oscar T F; Pedretti, Ana Carolina E; Schmitz, Anke; Perry, Steven F; Fernandes, Marisa N

    2007-01-01

    Previous morphometric methods for estimation of the volume of components, surface area and thickness of the diffusion barrier in fish gills have taken advantage of the highly ordered structure of these organs for sampling and surface area estimations, whereas the thickness of the diffusion barrier has been measured orthogonally on perpendicularly sectioned material at subjectively selected sites. Although intuitively logical, these procedures do not have a demonstrated mathematical basis, do not involve random sampling and measurement techniques, and are not applicable to the gills of all fish. The present stereological methods apply the principles of surface area estimation in vertical uniform random sections to the gills of the Brazilian teleost Arapaima gigas. The tissue was taken from the entire gill apparatus of the right-hand or left-hand side (selected at random) of the fish by systematic random sampling and embedded in glycol methacrylate for light microscopy. Arches from the other side were embedded in Epoxy resin. Reference volume was estimated by the Cavalieri method in the same vertical sections that were used for surface density and volume density measurements. The harmonic mean barrier thickness of the water-blood diffusion barrier was calculated from measurements taken along randomly selected orientation lines that were sine-weighted relative to the vertical axis. The values thus obtained for the anatomical diffusion factor (surface area divided by barrier thickness) compare favourably with those obtained for other sluggish fish using existing methods.

  19. Theohanellus toyamai infecting the gills of Koi cyprinus carpio in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    A myxozoan resembling species of Thelohanellus was isolated from the gills of koi (Cyprinus carpio) cultured in North Carolina. Plasmodia measuring ~ 200µm in diameter contained tear-shaped myxospores containing a single pyriform polar capsule. The spore body was concave on one side, measuring 16....

  20. Thelohanellus toyamai infecting the gills of koi Cyprinus carpio in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    A myxozoan resembling species of Thelohanellus was isolated from the gills of koi (Cyprinus carpio) cultured in North Carolina. Plasmodia measuring ~ 200µm in diameter contained tear-shaped myxospores containing a singly pyriform polar capsule. The spore body was concave on one side, measuring, 1...

  1. Endozoicomonas dominates the gill and intestinal content microbiomes of Mytilus edulis from Barnegat Bay, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, William B.; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Adams, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    Blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, Linnaeus 1758 from southern Barnegat Bay, New Jersey were examined to determine the make-up of the normal blue mussel microbiome. Sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA amplicons from gill and intestinal content microbiomes using the Illumina® MiSeq platform yielded 1,276,161 paired end sequence reads from the gill libraries and 1,092,333 paired end sequence reads from the intestinal content libraries. General bioinformatic analyses were conducted with the open-source packages Qiime and Mothur. Phylotype assignments to the genus level were made using the commercial One Codex platform. This resulted in 1,697,852 gill and 988,436 intestinal content sequences being classified to genus. A majority of these (67.6% and 37.2% respectively) were assigned to a single operational taxonomic unit (Mytilus edulis Symbiont, MeS) that has homologies with other recently described Endozoicomonas pathogens and symbionts of marine invertebrates. MeS shares 98% identity with an uncultured bacterium from the gill tissue of an invasive indo-Pacific oyster and with HQE1 and HQE2 isolated from the sea squirt, Styela clava. Other than MeS, most of the detected bacterial species are known from marine sediments and seawater.

  2. Attenuation of UV-B exposure-induced inflammation by abalone hypobranchial gland and gill extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuanpradit, Chitraporn; Jaisin, Yamaratee; Jungudomjaroen, Sumon; Akter Mitu, Shahida; Puttikamonkul, Srisombat; Sobhon, Prasert; Cummins, Scott F

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet B (UV-B) is a known causative factor for many skin complications such as wrinkles, black spots, shedding and inflammation. Within the wavelengths 280‑320 nm, UV-B can penetrate to the epidermal level. This investigation aimed to test whether extracts from the tropical abalone [Haliotis asinina (H. asinina)] mucus-secreting tissues, the hypobranchial gland (HBG) and gills, were able to attenuate the inflammatory process, using the human keratinocyte HaCaT cell line. Cytotoxicity of abalone tissue extracts was determined using an AlamarBlue viability assay. Results showed that HaCaT cells could survive when incubated in crude HBG and gill extracts at concentrations between abalone extract from both the HBG and gill (0, 0.1, 2.5, 5 µg/ml). A significant increase in cell viability was observed (P2.5 µg/ml extract showed a significant decrease in intensity for COX‑2, phospho‑p38 and phospho‑SPK/JNK. The present study demonstrated that abalone extracts from the HGB and gill can attenuate inflammatory proteins triggered by UV-B. Hence, the contents of abalone extract, including cellmetabolites and peptides, may provide new agents for skin anti‑inflammation, preventing damage due to UV-B.

  3. NHE3 in an ancestral vertebrate: primary sequence, distribution, localization, and function in gills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Keith P; Kato, Akira; Hirose, Shigehisa; Plata, Consuelo; Sindic, Aleksandra; Romero, Michael F; Claiborne, J B; Evans, David H

    2005-11-01

    In mammals, the Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) is expressed with Na+/K+-ATPase in renal proximal tubules, where it secretes H+ and absorbs Na+ to maintain blood pH and volume. In elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, and stingrays), the gills are the dominant site of pH and osmoregulation. This study was conducted to determine whether epithelial NHE homologs exist in elasmobranchs and, if so, to localize their expression in gills and determine whether their expression is altered by environmental salinity or hypercapnia. Degenerate primers and RT-PCR were used to deduce partial sequences of mammalian NHE2 and NHE3 homologs from the gills of the euryhaline Atlantic stingray (Dasyatis sabina). Real-time PCR was then used to demonstrate that mRNA expression of the NHE3 homolog increased when stingrays were transferred to low salinities but not during hypercapnia. Expression of the NHE2 homolog did not change with either treatment. Rapid amplification of cDNA was then used to deduce the complete sequence of a putative NHE3. The 2,744-base pair cDNA includes a coding region for a 2,511-amino acid protein that is 70% identical to human NHE3 (SLC9A3). Antisera generated against the carboxyl tail of the putative stingray NHE3 labeled the apical membranes of Na+/K+-ATPase-rich epithelial cells, and acclimation to freshwater caused a redistribution of labeling in the gills. This study provides the first NHE3 cloned from an elasmobranch and is the first to demonstrate an increase in gill NHE3 expression during acclimation to low salinities, suggesting that NHE3 can absorb Na+ from ion-poor environments.

  4. Type IV carbonic anhydrase is present in the gills of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, K M; Bayaa, M; Kenney, L; McNeill, B; Perry, S F

    2007-01-01

    Physiological and biochemical studies have provided indirect evidence for a membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase (CA) isoform, similar to mammalian type IV CA, in the gills of dogfish (Squalus acanthias). This CA isoform is linked to the plasma membrane of gill epithelial cells by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor and oriented toward the plasma, such that it can catalyze the dehydration of plasma HCO(3)(-) ions. The present study directly tested the hypothesis that CA IV is present in dogfish gills in a location amenable to catalyzing plasma HCO(3)(-) dehydration. Homology cloning techniques were used to assemble a 1,127 base pair cDNA that coded for a deduced protein of 306 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that this protein was a type IV CA. For purposes of comparison, a second cDNA (1,107 base pairs) was cloned from dogfish blood; it encoded a deduced protein of 260 amino acids that was identified as a cytosolic CA through phylogenetic analysis. Using real-time PCR and in situ hybridization, mRNA expression for the dogfish type IV CA was detected in gill tissue and specifically localized to pillar cells and branchial epithelial cells that flanked the pillar cells. Immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal antibody raised against rainbow trout type IV CA revealed a similar pattern of CA IV immunoreactivity and demonstrated a limited degree of colocalization with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase immunoreactivity. The presence and localization of a type IV CA isoform in the gills of dogfish is consistent with the hypothesis that branchial membrane-bound CA with an extracellular orientation contributes to CO(2) excretion in dogfish by catalyzing the dehydration of plasma HCO(3)(-) ions.

  5. Regulation of gill claudin paralogs by salinity, cortisol and prolactin in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipsmark, Christian K; Breves, Jason P; Rabeneck, D Brett; Trubitt, Rebecca T; Lerner, Darren T; Grau, E Gordon

    2016-09-01

    In euryhaline teleosts, reorganization of gill tight junctions during salinity acclimation involves dynamic expression of specific claudin (Cldn) paralogs. We identified four transcripts encoding Cldn tight junction proteins in the tilapia gill transcriptome: cldn10c, cldn10e, cldn28a and cldn30. A tissue distribution experiment found cldn10c and cldn10e expression levels in the gill to be 100-fold higher than any other tissues examined. cldn28a and cldn30 levels in the gill were 10-fold greater than levels in other tissues. Expression of these genes in Mozambique tilapia was examined during acclimation to fresh water (FW), seawater (SW), and in response to hormone treatments. Transfer of tilapia from FW to SW elevated cldn10c and cldn10e, while cldn28a and cldn30 were stimulated following transfer from SW to FW. In hypophysectomized tilapia transferred to FW, pituitary extirpation induced reduced expression of cldn10c, cldn10e and cldn28a; these effects were mitigated equally by either prolactin or cortisol replacement. In vitro experiments with gill filaments showed that cortisol stimulated expression of all four cldns examined, suggesting a direct action of cortisol in situ. Our data indicate that elevated cldn10c and cldn10e expression is important during acclimation of tilapia to SW possibly by conferring ion specific paracellular permeability. On the other hand, expression of cldn28a and cldn30 appears to contribute to reorganization of branchial epithelium during FW acclimation. Hormone treatment experiments showed that particular FW- and SW-induced cldns are controlled by cortisol and prolactin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. C9.A/14 steelwork joints de poutres par plaque frontale : assemblages par gousset

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Les Tables de résistances ultimes des assemblages boulonnés par plaque frontale et par gousset, complétées par une description des modèles de calcul et des exemples d’application, ont pour but de faciliter la tâche de l'ingénieur et du constructeur. Cette première partie C9.A/14 contient les chapitres suivants: - Joints de poutres par plaque frontale en acier S235 et S355 - Assemblages par gousset en acier S235 et S355 Les Tables contiennent des données relatives à la géométrie ainsi que les valeurs de calcul correspondantes des résistances ultimes des assemblages ; elles remplacent le chapitre « Assemblages par plaques frontales et boulons HR » des anciennes Tables C9.1 de 1983 / 2002. Le calcul de ces assemblages par plaque frontale est basé sur les hypothèses du modèle de la méthode des composants décrite dans la norme SN EN 1993-1-8. Les vérifications sont effectuées selon la norme SIA 263:2013. Les assemblages par gousset remplacent les assemblages par double cornière, (telle...

  7. Neuropeptides and nitric oxide synthase in the gill and the air-breathing organs of fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, Giacomo; Mauceri, Angela; Fasulo, Salvatore

    2006-05-01

    Anatomical and histochemical studies have demonstrated that the bulk of autonomic neurotransmission in fish gill is attributed to cholinergic and adrenergic mechanisms (Nilsson. 1984. In: Hoar WS, Randall DJ, editors. Fish physiology, Vol. XA. Orlando: Academic Press. p 185-227; Donald. 1998. In: Evans DH, editor. The physiology of fishes, 2nd edition. Boca Raton: CRC Press. p 407-439). In many tissues, blockade of adrenergic and cholinergic transmission results in residual responses to nerve stimulation, which are termed NonAdrenergic, NonCholinergic (NANC). The discovery of nitric oxide (NO) has provided a basis for explaining many examples of NANC transmissions with accumulated physiological and pharmacological data indicating its function as a primary NANC transmitter. Little is known about the NANC neurotransmission, and studies on neuropeptides and NOS (Nitric Oxide Synthase) are very fragmentary in the gill and the air-breathing organs of fishes. Knowledge of the distribution of nerves and effects of perfusing agonists may help to understand the mechanisms of perfusion regulation in the gill (Olson. 2002. J Exp Zool 293:214-231). Air breathing as a mechanism for acquiring oxygen has evolved independently in several groups of fishes, necessitating modifications of the organs responsible for the exchange of gases. Aquatic hypoxia in freshwaters has been probably the more important selective force in the evolution of air breathing in vertebrates. Fishes respire with gills that are complex structures with many different effectors and potential control systems. Autonomic innervation of the gill has received considerable attention. An excellent review on branchial innervation includes Sundin and Nilsson's (2002. J Exp Zool 293:232-248) with an emphasis on the anatomy and basic functioning of afferent and efferent fibers of the branchial nerves. The chapters by Evans (2002. J Exp Zool 293:336-347) and Olson (2002) provide new challenges about a variety of

  8. Synthesis of calcium carbonate using extract components of croaker gill as morphology and polymorph adjust control agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hao; Qing, Chengsong; Zheng, Jiaoling; Liu, Yuxi; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate with various polymorphs, sizes and morphologies by using organic substrates has become an interesting topic for the last years. Calcium carbonate has been synthesized by the reaction of Na 2 CO 3 and CaCl 2 in the presence of extract components of croaker gill. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum, and particle morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that at lower concentration yellow croaker gill extract has no effect on calcium carbonate crystal polymorph. Calcite was obtained only. But the morphologies of calcite particle change with the increase of the concentration. The corners of the particle change from angular to curved. However, with the further increase of the concentration of yellow croaker gill extract, the calcium carbonate obtained is a mixture of calcite and vaterite. The vaterite component in the mixture rises with increasing concentration of extract solution, indicating that the proteins from the yellow croaker gill during growth play a crucial role in stabilizing and directing the crystal growth. - Graphical abstract: Calcium carbonate has been synthesized by using extract components of croaker gill as adjust control agent. The results indicate that yellow croaker gill extract has no effect on calcium carbonate crystal polymorph when its concentration is low. But the morphologies of calcite particle change with the increase of the concentration. With the further increase of the concentration of yellow croaker gill extract, the calcium carbonate obtained is a mixture of calcite and vaterite. The vaterite component in the mixture rises with increasing concentration of extract solution, indicating that the proteins from the yellow croaker gill during growth play a crucial role in stabilizing and directing the crystal growth. - Highlights: • Biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate

  9. SEM study of the effects of crude oil on the gills and air breathing organs of climbing perch, Anabas testudineus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies on the effects of crude oil on the gills are scanty. Recently, researchers studied the effect of crude oil on the air breathing organs of striped gourami using scanning electron microscope and observed mucous cell hyperplasia coupled with telangiectasis in the epithelia of air breathing organs. The present investigation has been undertaken to study crude oil toxicity by observing the morphological changes occurring in the epithelia of gills and air breathing organs of climbing perch, Anabas testudineus at SEM level. Since the epithelia of gills and air breathing organs function in two different media, a comparative account for their sensitivity to crude oil solutions would be informative

  10. Distribution of Hatschekia pagellibogneravei (Copepoda: Hatschekiidae) on the gills of Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Madeira, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Margarida; Cruz, Cristina; Saraiva, Aurélia

    2012-06-01

    A population of the gill parasite Hatschekia pagellibogneravei (Hesse, 1878) was studied on one of its sparid fish hosts, the blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo (Brünnich), off the coast of Madeira Island, Portugal, northeast Atlantic. Very high infection levels of this copepod were detected, with no significant seasonal differences. Abundance was negatively correlated with fish size. There were significant differences in the distribution of this copepod among the gill arches of the host, which seem to be best explained by differences in water flow within the gill habitat.

  11. Effect of hydrogen peroxide and/or Flavobacterium psychrophilum on the gills of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maya Maria Mihályi; Kania, P. W.; Buchmann, K.

    2015-01-01

    The immune response and morphological changes in the gills of rainbow trout fry after immersion in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), Flavobacterium psychrophilum or combined exposure were examined. The gills were sampled 4, 48, 125 and 192 h after exposure, and the regulation of expression of the following...... with gene expression. Although pretreatment with H2O2 before immersion in F. psychrophilum did not significantly alter the amount of bacteria found in the gill, the immune response was influenced: exposure to F. psychrophilum resulted in a negative correlation with expression of IL‐17c1, MHC I and MHC II...

  12. Uptake of uranium in Atlantic salmon gills following exposure experiments demonstrated by SR-XRF tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, O.C.; Cagno, S.; Brit Salbu, H.C.T. [Centre of Excellence in Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, Norwegian University of Life Sciences - UMB (Norway); Vanmeert, F.; Nuyts, G.; Janssens, K. [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Alfeld, M.; Falkenberg, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron - DESY (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Uranium is a naturally occurring radionuclide as well as a heavy metal that can be found in elevated concentrations (mg/L) in the aquatic environment and therefore may pose a risk to aquatic organisms including fish. The major challenges in monitoring the fate of U in complex media, such as soils, sediments and water are to identify mobile and bioavailable U species, interactions with environmental components, transfer to organisms via sorption to surfaces and across membranes, and the internal distribution of target organs. As part of a larger study, U accumulation in gills and internal organs (e.g. liver) as well as mortality of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) were studied as a function of U concentration as well as pH of the exposure water. As Atlantic salmon does not ingest freshwater, the major pathway for uptake of U in the liver is hypothesized to be by transfer across the gills. However, to our best knowledge, active uptake of U within gill filaments has never been proven. In the present work, we demonstrate that following 96 hours exposure of 6 mg U/l in freshwater at pH 7 and 1 mg U/l at pH 5, U was actively taken up in the Atlantic Salmon gill filaments. The internal distribution of U within exposed organisms was visualized using μXRF/μXRD two-dimensional scanning and XRF/XRD tomography at the microprobe end-station of the PETRA III P06 beamline. The recently developed and highly efficient Maia detector array was successfully employed to record extended high-resolution element-specific maps of the tissue samples. First, conventional 2D μXRF/μXRD mapping allowed to identify the axial planes in the samples actually containing U. On the same samples, higher resolution virtual cross-sections were obtained (18 keV, 0.6 μm beam size) by means of μXRF/μXRD tomography of the planes in which U was encountered. The results proved that U not only adheres to the external boundary of the fish gills, but it is also taken up via gills. The results of this work

  13. Description of two new gill myxozoans from smallmouth (Micropterus dolomieu) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Heather L.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Glenney, Gavin W.; Iwanowicz, Deborah D.; Blazer, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Two previously undescribed species of myxozoan parasites were observed in the gills of bass inhabiting the Potomac and James River basins. They are described using morphological characteristics and small-subunit (SSU) rDNA gene sequences. Both were taxonomically identified as new species of Myxobolus; Myxobolus branchiarum n. sp. was found exclusively in smallmouth bass, and Myxobolus micropterii n. sp. was found in largemouth and smallmouth bass. Small, spherical, white plasmodia of M. branchiarum from smallmouth bass were observed grossly in the gills; these plasmodia had an average length of 320.3 µm and width of 246.1 µm. The development of the plasmodia is intralamellar in the secondary lamellae of the gills. Mature spores were pyriform in shape with a length of 12.8 ± 1.4 (8.1–15.1) µm and width of 6.9 ± 1.1 (4.0–9.0) µm. Analysis of SSU rDNA identified M. branchiarum in a sister-group to 3 species of Henneguya, although morphologically caudal appendages were absent. Myxobolus micropterii observed in the gills of largemouth and smallmouth bass had larger, ovoid, cream-colored plasmodia with an average length of 568.1 µm and width of 148.1 µm. The cysts developed at the distal end of the gill filament within the primary lamellae. The mature spores were ovoid in shape with a length of 10.8 ± 0.7 (9.2–12.2) µm and width of 10.6 ± 0.6 (9.0–11.8) µm. SSU rDNA analysis placed M. micropterii in a sister group with Henneguya lobosa and Myxobolus oliveirai. The highest prevalence of M. branchiarum was observed in the gills of bass collected from the Cowpasture River (50.9%). Prevalence was 44.6% in bass from the Potomac River and only 4.3% in bass collected from the Shenandoah River. A seasonal study of M. branchiarum, which included both infected and uninfected smallmouth bass, determined that a significantly higher intensity was observed in the spring than in the summer (P < 0.001) or fall (P  =  0.004). In an analysis excluding uninfected

  14. Description of two new gill myxozoans from smallmouth (Micropterus dolomieu) and largemouth (Micropterus salmoides) bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Heather L; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Glenney, Gavin W; Iwanowicz, Deborah D; Blazer, Vicki S

    2012-04-01

    Two previously undescribed species of myxozoan parasites were observed in the gills of bass inhabiting the Potomac and James River basins. They are described using morphological characteristics and small-subunit (SSU) rDNA gene sequences. Both were taxonomically identified as new species of Myxobolus; Myxobolus branchiarum n. sp. was found exclusively in smallmouth bass, and Myxobolus micropterii n. sp. was found in largemouth and smallmouth bass. Small, spherical, white plasmodia of M. branchiarum from smallmouth bass were observed grossly in the gills; these plasmodia had an average length of 320.3 µm and width of 246.1 µm. The development of the plasmodia is intralamellar in the secondary lamellae of the gills. Mature spores were pyriform in shape with a length of 12.8 ± 1.4 (8.1-15.1) µm and width of 6.9 ± 1.1 (4.0-9.0) µm. Analysis of SSU rDNA identified M. branchiarum in a sister-group to 3 species of Henneguya , although morphologically caudal appendages were absent. Myxobolus micropterii observed in the gills of largemouth and smallmouth bass had larger, ovoid, cream-colored plasmodia with an average length of 568.1 µm and width of 148.1 µm. The cysts developed at the distal end of the gill filament within the primary lamellae. The mature spores were ovoid in shape with a length of 10.8 ± 0.7 (9.2-12.2) µm and width of 10.6 ± 0.6 (9.0-11.8) µm. SSU rDNA analysis placed M. micropterii in a sister group with Henneguya lobosa and Myxobolus oliveirai . The highest prevalence of M. branchiarum was observed in the gills of bass collected from the Cowpasture River (50.9%). Prevalence was 44.6% in bass from the Potomac River and only 4.3% in bass collected from the Shenandoah River. A seasonal study of M. branchiarum , which included both infected and uninfected smallmouth bass, determined that a significantly higher intensity was observed in the spring than in the summer (P < 0.001) or fall (P  =  0.004). In an analysis excluding uninfected bass, a

  15. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 is required for PAR-1 signalling in pulmonary fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Cong; von der Thüsen, Jan; Daalhuisen, Joost; ten Brink, Marieke; Crestani, Bruno; van der Poll, Tom; Borensztajn, Keren; Spek, C. Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most devastating diffuse fibrosing lung disease of unknown aetiology. Compelling evidence suggests that both protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and PAR-2 participate in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Previous studies have shown that bleomycin-induced

  16. MALATHION INDUCED HISTOLOGICAL MODIFICATIONS IN GILLS AND KIDNEY OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA CRISTINA STAICU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Malathion is an organophosphorous insecticide, used in agriculture and a possible source of environmental poisoning. During malathion metabolization, mitochondria generates reactive oxygen species, responsible for significant structural changes. In this study, gills and kidney histological changes in Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to 0.05 mg/l malathion were investigated. In kidney, the effects were dramatic. The 24 -72 hours exposure to malathion induced cytoplasm vacuolization and changes in cell and nuclear volumes. In addition, necrotic renal tubules appeared, nuclear malformations of epithelial cells, anisokary, nuclei pycnosis and nuclei hypertrophy, were noticed. Epithelial ruptures, secondary lamellae fusion and hyperplasia of branchial epithelium, vascular congestion were the main changes noticed soon after pollutant exposure. We suggest that structural changes in gill and kidney could be used as good response to aquatic pollution with organophosphorous insecticides.

  17. Impact of ontogenetic changes in branchial morphology on gill function in Arapaima gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, R J; Brauner, C J; Wang, Y X; Richards, J G; Patrick, M L; Xi, W; Matey, V; Val, A L

    2010-01-01

    Soon after hatching, the osteoglossid fish Arapaima gigas undergoes a rapid transition from a water breather to an obligate air breather. This is followed by a gradual disappearance of gill lamellae, which leaves smooth filaments with a reduced branchial diffusion capacity due to loss of surface area, and a fourfold increase in diffusion distance. This study evaluated the effects these changes have on gill function by examining two size classes of fish that differ in gill morphology. In comparison to smaller fish (approximately 67.5 g), which still have lamellae, larger fish (approximately 724.2 g) without lamellae took up a slightly greater percentage of O2 across the gills (30.1% vs. 23.9%), which indicates that the morphological changes do not place limitations on O2 uptake in larger fish. Both size groups excreted similar percentages of CO2 across the gills (85%-90%). However, larger fish had higher blood PCO2 (26.51.9 vs. 16.51.5 mmHg) and HCO3(-) (40.2 +/- 2.9 vs. 33.6 +/- 4.5 mmol L(-1)) concentrations and lower blood pH (7.58 +/- 0.01 vs. 7.70 +/- 0.04) than did smaller fish, despite having lower mass-specific metabolisms, suggesting a possible diffusion limitation for CO2 excretion in larger fish. With regard to ion regulation, rates of diffusive Na+ loss were about 3.5 times higher in larger fish than they were in smaller fish, despite the lowered branchial diffusion capacity, and rates of Na+ uptake were higher by about the same amount despite 40% lower activity of branchial Na+/K+-ATPase. Kinetic analysis of Na uptake revealed an extremely low-affinity (K(m) = 587.9 +/- 169.5 micromol L(-1)), low-capacity (J(max) = 265.7 +/- 56.8 nmol g(-1) h(-1)) transport system. These data may reflect a general reduction in the role of the gills in ion balance. Renal Na+/K+-ATPase activity was 5-10 times higher than Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the gills, and urine: plasma ratios for Na+ and Cl(-) were very low (0.001-0.005) relative to that of other fish, which

  18. LDH ACTIVITY IN COPPER INTOXICATION OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO GILLS AND INTESTINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA TEODORESCU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The pathological effects of two sublethal concentrations (100 μg/l and 250 μg/l of copper (CuSO4x5H2O on goldfish Carassius auratus gibelio were studied for 7,14 and 21 days. The specific activity of LDH in gills and intestine, two target organs that uptake the metal from the water were assayed. In gills at 100 μg Cu2+/l the specific activity of LDH was gradually decreasing, while in the intestine, after 7 days of exposure, the enzymatic activity was distinct significantly increased. LDH activity demonstrated a hypoxic condition and a stimulation of glycolysis. In the both organs ,the 250 μg Cu2+/l concentration generated a decrease of LDH specific activity after 7 days followed by an increase of this after 14 and 21 days of exposure. Histologically, the modifications are, generally, directly correlated with the toxicant dose and exposure time.

  19. Semiótica e Comunicação em Gilles Deleuze: uma perspectiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sales

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to indicate, following mainly some exceropts from the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze works during the 60´s, paths to determinate a semiotics, a communication, as well as for the ascertainment of the bonds between them, which, hypothetically, are configured in terms of reciprocal presupposition, of correlation. These three determinations – semiotics, communicant ontology and their crossings – seem to circunscribe the basis of what we would call, more widely, a philosophy of communication.

  20. Toward a Multifactorial Conception of the Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome and Persistent Chronic Tic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Lavoie, Marc E.; O?Connor, Kieron

    2017-01-01

    Despite recent giant leaps in understanding Gilles de la Tourette?s syndrome (now Tourette Disorder in the DSM 5), accurate multi-modal description, rigorous assessment procedures, and the improvement of evidence-based treatment currently pose a considerable challenge. In this context, the current special edition aims to elaborate three important dimensions in Tourette Disorder. Firstly, the effective characterization and etiological basis of the disorder are reviewed, since such characteriza...

  1. New data on aetiology of nodular gill disease in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dyková, Iva; Kostka, Martin; Wortberg, F.; Nardy, E.; Pecková, Hana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2010), s. 157-163 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/09/0137; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : nodular gill disease * aetiological study * amoebae * Naegleria sp. * fish diseases * aquaculture * Oncorhynchus mykiss Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.533, year: 2010

  2. Interhemispheric motor networks are abnormal in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäumer, Tobias; Thomalla, Götz; Kroeger, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Brain imaging has shown altered corpus callosum (CC) morphology in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). Yet it is unclear whether these morphological changes are associated with altered interhemispheric interactions. Here, we combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with di...... in control subjects but not in patients. Our combined TMS-DTI approach demonstrates abnormal functional interhemispheric connectivity in GTS accompanied by an altered structure-function relationship in the motor CC....

  3. L-alanine uptake in membrane vesicles from Mytilus edulis gills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajor, A.M.; Wright, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that gills from M. edulis can accumulate L-alanine from seawater by a saturable process specific for α-neutral amino acids. This uptake occurs against chemical gradients in excess of 10 6 to 1. To further characterize this uptake, membrane vesicles were prepared from M. edulis gill tissue by differential centrifugation. Enrichments of putative enzyme markers (relative to that in combined initial fractions) were as follows: γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase, 25-30x; Alkaline Phosphatase, 5-6x; K + -dependent para-Nitrophenyl Phosphatase, 3-5x; Succinate Dehydrogenase 0.1-0.2x. These results suggest that the preparation is enriched in plasma membranes, although histochemical studies will be needed to verify this. The time course of 14 C-L-alanine uptake in the presence of inwardly-directed Na + gradient showed a transient overshoot (3-5 fold) at 10 minutes which decreased to equilibrium after six hours. The size of the overshoot and early uptake rates depended on the size of the inwardly-directed Na + gradient. No overshoot was seen in the presence of inwardly-directed gradients of LiCl or choline-Cl, or with equilibrium concentrations NaCl or mannitol. A reduced overshoot was seen with a gradient of NaSCN. A small overshoot was seen with an inwardly-directed gradient of KCl. Transport of L-alanine included saturable and diffusive components. Uptake of 6 μM L-alanine was inhibited more than 80% by 100 μM α-zwitterionic amino acids (alanine, leucine, glycine); by 30 to 75% by proline, aspartate and lysine; and less than 20% by a β-amino acid, taurine. The results of these experiments agree with those from intact gill studies and support the hypothesis that L-alanine is transported into gill epithelial cells by a secondary active transport process involving Na +

  4. Histopathology of the gill and liver tissues of the African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation on the effect of the heavy metal, lead (Pb) on the gill and liver of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus was carried out in the laboratory. One hundred and sixty (160) fingerlings of the fish were exposed to continuous exposure to sub-lethal concentrations (0.006 mg/l and 0.008 mg/l) of lead for a period of ...

  5. Gill lesions and death of bluegill in an acid mine drainage mixing zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, T.B.; Irwin, E.R.; Grizzle, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Wildhaber, M.L. [Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States). Alabama Cooperative of Fish & Wildlife Research Unit

    2001-07-01

    The toxicity of an acid mine drainage (AMD) mixing zone was investigated by placing bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) at the confluence of a stream contaminated by AMD and a stream having neutral pH. A mixing channel receiving water from both streams was assembled in the field, during July and October 1996, to determine the toxicity of freshly mixed and aged water (2.9-7.5 min). The AMD stream had elevated concentrations of Al and Fe, which precipitated upon mixing, and of Mn, which did not precipitate in the mixing zone. Fish exposed to freshly mixed water had higher mortality than fish exposed to water after aging. Precipitating Al, but not Fe, accumulated on the gills of bluegill, and accumulation was more rapid early during the mixing process than after aging. Fish exposed for 3.5 h to freshly mixed water had hypertrophy and hyperplasia of gill filament and lamellar epithelial cells. Similar lesions were observed after 6.0 h in fish exposed to water aged after mixing. Results demonstrated that Al was the predominant metal accumulating on the gills of fish in this AMD mixing zone, and that mixing zones can be more toxic than AMD streams in equilibrium.

  6. Gill histopathology of goldfish exposed to oil sands processed-waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, V.; Farwell, A.J.; Dixon, D.G.; Lee, L.E.J.

    2002-01-01

    Large volumes of processed wastewater are generated through the oil extraction process at Alberta's Athabasca oil sand deposit. These wastewaters are very toxic to aquatic biota because they are high in salinity and consist of napthenic acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In this study, goldfish were caged in 3 different experimental ponds in order to evaluate the biological effects of aquatic reclamation alternatives for process-affected waters. The first pond was a control pond, while the other 2 ponds consisted of known and varying chemicals. The fish were exposed to the ponds for 19 days. Those in the pond with elevated levels of napthenic acids and high salinity exhibited severe gill histopathological changes. Alterations included epithelial hyperplasia resulting in severe lamellar fusion, chloride cell hyperplasia, and lamellar edema, all of which were believed to be defense responses of the fish. Additional severe gill alterations were also observed that may indicate the direct negative effects of oil sands processed-water on fish. Exposed goldfish also showed signs of necrosis and degenerative changes resulting in desquamation of the epithelial surfaces of the gill, which are symptoms seen in free-range exposure of yellow perch, a native fish species, at the same sites and exposure times

  7. Gill lesions and death of bluegill in an acid mine drainage mixing zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, T.B.; Irwin, E.R.; Grizzle, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Wildhaber, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    The toxicity of an acid mine drainage (AMD) mixing zone was investigated by placing bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) at the confluence of a stream contaminated by AMD and a stream having neutral pH. A mixing channel receiving water from both streams was assembled in the field, during July and October 1996, to determine the toxicity of freshly mixed and aged water (2.9–7.5 min). The AMD stream had elevated concentrations of Al and Fe, which precipitated upon mixing, and of Mn, which did not precipitate in the mixing zone. Fish exposed to freshly mixed water had higher mortality than fish exposed to water after aging. Precipitating Al, but not Fe, accumulated on the gills of bluegill, and accumulation was more rapid early during the mixing process than after aging. Fish exposed for 3.5 h to freshly mixed water had hypertrophy and hyperplasia of gill filament and lamellar epithelial cells. Similar lesions were observed after 6.0 h in fish exposed to water aged after mixing. Results demonstrated that Al was the predominant metal accumulating on the gills of fish in this AMD mixing zone, and that mixing zones can be more toxic than AMD streams in equilibrium.

  8. Gill histopathology of goldfish exposed to oil sands processed-waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nero, V.; Farwell, A.J.; Dixon, D.G. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Lister, A.; Van Der Kraak, G.J. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada); Lee, L.E.J. [Wilfred Laurier Univ., Waterloo, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2002-07-01

    Large volumes of processed wastewater are generated through the oil extraction process at Alberta's Athabasca oil sand deposit. These wastewaters are very toxic to aquatic biota because they are high in salinity and consist of napthenic acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In this study, goldfish were caged in 3 different experimental ponds in order to evaluate the biological effects of aquatic reclamation alternatives for process-affected waters. The first pond was a control pond, while the other 2 ponds consisted of known and varying chemicals. The fish were exposed to the ponds for 19 days. Those in the pond with elevated levels of napthenic acids and high salinity exhibited severe gill histopathological changes. Alterations included epithelial hyperplasia resulting in severe lamellar fusion, chloride cell hyperplasia, and lamellar edema, all of which were believed to be defense responses of the fish. Additional severe gill alterations were also observed that may indicate the direct negative effects of oil sands processed-water on fish. Exposed goldfish also showed signs of necrosis and degenerative changes resulting in desquamation of the epithelial surfaces of the gill, which are symptoms seen in free-range exposure of yellow perch, a native fish species, at the same sites and exposure times.

  9. Lead concentrations in fresh water, muscle, gill and liver of catla catla (hamilton) from keenjhar lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korai, A.L.; Sahato, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    This study of the abundance and distribution of lead in water and freshwater fish Catla catla (Ham.) from Keenjhar Lake was conducted during January 2003 to December 2005. The lead content was determined in water and in muscle, gill and liver tissue of Catla catla (Ham.) by using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The lead concentrations in water samples were in the range of 0.076 and 0.225 macro g L-1 during the years of 2003, 2004 and 2005. The lead concentrations in the tissues of Catla catla (Ham.) varied, with liver > gill > muscle. The concentrations in muscle, gill and liver were in the range of 0.7-2.39 micro g g/sub -1/, 0.74-2.25 micro g g/sub -1/ and 0.89-2.68 micro g g/sub -1/ (dry weight) during 2003, 2004 and 2005. 9.87 % did not exceed the UK limit of 1.0 micro g g/sub -1/ (1979), 45.67 % were lower than the (USFDA) level of 1.3 micro g g/sub -1/ (USEPA 1997) and remaining 44.46 % were well below than 4.88 micro g g/sub -1/ (USEPA 1990). The levels in the water samples were also below the permissible level of less then 50 micro g L/sub -1/ recommended by (WHO 1984). (author)

  10. Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome in a patient with 47(XXX) syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappedi, Matteo; de Vincenzi, Silvia; Dolci, Roberta; De Luca, Sara; Bejor, Maurizio

    2011-11-05

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a comorbidity between Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome and 47 (XXX) syndrome. The clinical picture of Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome is well described, while 47 (XXX) syndrome is much more rare and has a broader spectrum of possible phenotypic presentations. An Italian Caucasian girl was referred at the age of 11 to our Rehabilitation Center for anxiety and learning difficulties. The girl had already been diagnosed as having 47(XXX) syndrome; she had some rather typical features of the chromosomal abnormality, but she also showed a high level of anxiety and the presence of motor and vocal tics. When an accurate history was taken, a diagnosis of Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome emerged. The possible interaction between peculiar features of these two syndromes in terms of neuropsychological and affective functioning is both interesting for the specific case and to hypothesize models of rehabilitation for patients with one or both syndromes. Executive functions are specifically reduced in both syndromes, therefore it might be hard to discriminate the contribution of each one to the general impairment; the same applies to anxiety. Moreover, mental retardation (with a significantly lower verbal cognitive functioning) poses relevant problems when suggesting cognitive behavioral or psychoeducational rehabilitative approaches.

  11. Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome in a patient with 47(XXX syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiappedi Matteo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a comorbidity between Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome and 47 (XXX syndrome. The clinical picture of Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome is well described, while 47 (XXX syndrome is much more rare and has a broader spectrum of possible phenotypic presentations. Case presentation An Italian Caucasian girl was referred at the age of 11 to our Rehabilitation Center for anxiety and learning difficulties. The girl had already been diagnosed as having 47(XXX syndrome; she had some rather typical features of the chromosomal abnormality, but she also showed a high level of anxiety and the presence of motor and vocal tics. When an accurate history was taken, a diagnosis of Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome emerged. Conclusions The possible interaction between peculiar features of these two syndromes in terms of neuropsychological and affective functioning is both interesting for the specific case and to hypothesize models of rehabilitation for patients with one or both syndromes. Executive functions are specifically reduced in both syndromes, therefore it might be hard to discriminate the contribution of each one to the general impairment; the same applies to anxiety. Moreover, mental retardation (with a significantly lower verbal cognitive functioning poses relevant problems when suggesting cognitive behavioral or psychoeducational rehabilitative approaches.

  12. A clinical study of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, A J; Robertson, M; Trimble, M R; Murray, N M

    1984-01-01

    The clinical features of 53 British-born patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome are described. The mean age at onset of body tics was seven years and for vocalisations 11 years. Coprolalia was present in 39%, copropraxia in 21%, echolalia in 46% and echopraxia in 21%. Complicated antics and mannerisms were also common, often involving the compulsive touching of objects or self-injurious behaviour. Forty-six per cent of cases had a family history of tics in a single close relative and in two individuals a further member of the family had Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Focal dystonia was present in four patients who had never received neuroleptics drugs and chorea was seen in two other untreated patients. In three patients acoustic startle consistently induced brief eye blink followed by a whole body jerk or jump. Rapid repetitive movements of the hands increased the frequency and severity of tics in 13 patients, but the performance of mental arithmetic under time pressure had a much more unpredictable effect. Electroencephalographic abnormalities occurred in eight (13%) but no definite CT brain scan abnormalities were detected. The incidence of left handedness did not differ from that in the general population and no evidence to suggest organic impairment was found on neuropsychological testing. This study provides no support for the notion that Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system but provides some evidence for heterogeneity. PMID:6582230

  13. New insights into gill chemoreception: receptor distribution and roles in water and air breathing fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsom, William K

    2012-12-01

    The location (gills, oro-branchial cavity or elsewhere) and orientation (external (water) or internal (blood) sensing) of the receptors involved in reflex changes in each of the different components of the cardiorespiratory response (breathing frequency, breath amplitude, heart rate, systemic vascular resistance) to hypoxia and hypercarbia are highly variable between species of water and air breathing fish. Although not universal, the receptors involved in eliciting changes in heart rate and breathing frequency in response to hypoxia and hypercarbia tend to be restricted exclusively to the gills while those producing increases in breath amplitude are more wide spread, frequently also being found at extrabranchial sites. The distribution of the chemoreceptors sensitive to CO(2) in the gills involved in producing ventilatory responses tend to be more restricted than that of the O(2)-sensitive chemoreceptors and the specific location of the receptors involved in the various components of the cardiorespiratory response can vary from those of the O(2)-sensitive chemoreceptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Gill monogenean communities on three commercially important sparid fish in Omani waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilha Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and intensity of polyopisthocotylean monogeneans on the gills of three commercially important species of sparid caught in Omani coastal waters close to the city port of Muscat were determined and compared. Throughout May 2012 to April 2013, infections on bi-weekly samples of the soldier seabream, Argyrops filamentosus (Valenciennes, 1830, the king soldier seabream, Argyrops spinifer (Forsskål, 1775, and, the silver seabream, Rhabdosargus sabra were evaluated. From a total of 200 specimens (standard length of 26–52 cm, caught by line angling or by traps, at least three species of gill monogenean, namely Omanicotyle [Bivagina] heterospina, Heteromicrocotyla sp. and Microcotyle sp., were commonly encountered. Silver bream, which was infected by all three monogeneans, bore the highest infections (100% prevalence; mean intensity of 20.14 ± 0.92 parasites fish-1, whilst the soldier bream, which was infected only by O. heterospina had the lowest levels of infection (of the three sparids with 63.8% prevalence; mean intensity 5.8 ± 0.17 parasites fish-1. Comments on the distribution of monogeneans on each host are provided but to what extent this is influenced by water current speeds passing through the buccal and opercular cavities, gill morphology, parasite size, and / or the morphology and efficiency of the parasite’s attachment apparatus requires establishing and forms the basis of ongoing investigations.

  15. Fish gill responses to pollutants from oil sands mining-associated waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.E.J.; Willfang, S.; Lamb, M.P.; Nero, V.; Farwell, A.J.; Dixon, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    The processing of Athabasca Deposit oil sands results in large amounts of liquid wastes associated with oil sand tailings. In addition to containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), these waste waters are high in salinity and naphthenic acids which may be toxic to aquatic biota and their effects must be clarified. This study presents a suite of tests for in-depth and quick analysis of tailings water toxicity and contributes to the assessment of environmental risk. Yellow perch, fathead minnows, and rainbow trout were exposed to reclamation ponds where both in vivo and in vitro evaluation of crude and individual naphthenic acids and salts were conducted to examine their effect on fish gills which are very susceptible to contaminants. The fish exposed to the reclamation ponds showed higher incidence of gill pathological changes than control fish in Mildred Lake, a reservoir lake whose waters are diverted for use in oil sands extraction. Notable gill histopathological changes were observed when fish were exposed in vivo to sulfate/chloride salts and to abietic acid. Changes in membrane integrity, lysosomal activity and general morphology were observed when fished were exposed in vitro to salts, commercial napthenic acids or crude naphthenic extracts from the reclamation ponds

  16. Gill ATPase activity in Procambarus clarkii as an indicator of heavy metal pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torreblanca, A.; Del Ramo, J.; Diaz-Mayans, J. (Univ. of Valencia (Spain))

    1989-06-01

    Lake Albufera and the surrounding rice field waters are subjected to very heavy loads of sewage and toxic industrial residues, including heavy metals, from the many urban and waste waters of this area. The American red crayfish, Procambarus clarkii have a high resistance to toxic effects of heavy metals. The sublethal effects of heavy metals on gills of fish and aquatic invertebrates have been extensively studied. Some metabolic disturbances and histologic damages have been reported, as well as osmoregulation alterations. However, little work has been done about the effect of heavy metals on Na,K and Mg-ATPases of freshwater invertebrate gills. Na,K-ATPase is the prime mediator of ion transport across cellular membranes and plays a central role in whole body ion regulation in marine and estuarine animals. Na,K-ATPase has been reviewed and assessed as a potentially useful indicator of pollution stress in aquatic animals. The purpose of this study is look for the relation, if any, between crayfish gill ATP-ase activity changes and metal exposure in laboratory. This find would allow the authors to assay this potential indicator in the field.

  17. Spatial and temporal variation of the gill rakers of gizzard shad and silver carp in three Midwestern rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walleser, Liza R.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Howard, David R.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Amberg, Jon J.

    2014-01-01

    Improved management of invasive Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix in the upper Mississippi River basin may be possible by better understanding the feeding abilities of this population. Food collection for filter-feeding fishes, such as Silver Carp, is influenced by the species-specific structure of their gill rakers. To investigate structural variation in gill rakers of Silver Carp, the morphology of gill rakers was quantified and compared with that of a native filter-feeding fish species which may compete with Silver Carp for food resources, Gizzard Shad Dorosoma cepedianum. Intra- and interspecies variation of gill rakers was examined in both species collected from three locations among four months. Interspecies analysis indicated the size of pores in gill rakers of Silver Carp were much larger than the interraker spacings of Gizzard Shad (95% CI ranged from 80.69 to 185.75 μm versus 16.72 to 47.36 μm, respectively). Intraspecies variation of gill rakers from Silver Carp was related to the overall size of fish and occurred only among sites where dissimilar sizes of fish were collected. This suggested the size of particles filtered by Silver Carp may be dependent upon ontogenic development rather than phenotypic plasticity in response to spatial or temporal factors. Intraspecies variation of gill rakers from Gizzard Shad occurred among site and monthly sampling data; however, variation was only attributable to overall size of fish for monthly sampling data. This suggested ontogeny may influence the filter-feeding ability of this species within a habitat. However, variation noted among sites, which was not attributable to size of fish, may indicate gill rakers are phenotypically plastic among Gizzard Shad populations of various river systems of the upper Mississippi River basin.

  18. Decreased Volume of the Cerebral Ventricles on CT Images in Gilles de la Tourette’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbeth Regeur

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to estimate the volume of the ventricular system comprising lateral plus third ventricles in patients with Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome on computed tomographic (CT scannings using unbiased stereological principles and to compare that volume with a control group. We found a significantly reduced ventricular volume in 24 patients with Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS compared with 28 controls.

  19. Differential Gene Expression in Liver, Gill, and Olfactory Rosettes of Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) After Acclimation to Salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Maryoung, Lindley A.; Lavado, Ramon; Bammler, Theo K.; Gallagher, Evan P.; Stapleton, Patricia L.; Beyer, Richard P.; Farin, Federico M.; Hardiman, Gary; Schlenk, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Most Pacific salmonids undergo smoltification and transition from freshwater to saltwater, making various adjustments in metabolism, catabolism, osmotic, and ion regulation. The molecular mechanisms underlying this transition are largely unknown. In the present study, we acclimated coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to four different salinities and assessed gene expression through microarray analysis of gills, liver, and olfactory rosettes. Gills are involved in osmotic regulation, liver play...

  20. Gill and lung ventilation responses to steady-state aquatic hypoxia and hyperoxia in the bullfrog tadpole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, N H; Burggren, W W

    1982-02-01

    Gill ventilation frequency (fG), the pressure amplitude (PBC) and stroke volume (VS) of buccal ventilation cycles, the frequency of air breaths (fL), water flow over the gills (VW), gill oxygen uptake (MGO2), oxygen utilization (U), and heart frequency (fH) have been measured in unanaesthetized, air breathing Rana catesbeiana tadpoles (stage XVI-XIX). The animals were unrestrained except for ECG leads or cannulae, and were able to surface voluntarily for air breathing. They were subjected to aquatic normoxia, hyperoxia and three levels of aquatic hypoxia, and their respiratory responses recorded in the steady state. The experiments were performed at 20 +/- 0.5 degrees C. In hyperoxia there was an absence of air breathing, and fG, PBC and VW fell from the normoxic values, while U increased, resulting in no significant change in MGO2. Animals in normoxia showed a very low fL which increased in progressively more hypoxic states. VW increased from the normoxic value in mild hypoxia (PO2 = 96 +/- 2 mm Hg), but fell, associated with a reduction in PBC, in moderate (PO2 = 41 +/- 1 mm Hg) and severe (PO2 = 21 +/- 3 mm Hg) hypoxia in the presence of lung ventilation. Gill MGO2 was not significantly different from the normoxic value in mild hypoxia but fell in moderate hypoxia, while in severe hypoxia oxygen was lost to the ventilating water from the blood perfusing the gills. There was no significant change in fH from the normoxic value in either hypoxia or hyperoxia. These data indicate, that in the bimodally breathing bullfrog tadpole, aquatic PO2 exerts a strong control over both gill and lung ventilation. Furthermore, there is an interaction between gill and lung ventilation such that the onset of a high frequency of lung ventilation in moderate and severe hypoxia promotes a suppression of gill ventilation cycles.

  1. Morphology of gill rakers and their ecological function in feeding of the Antarctic fish Notothenia neglecta Nybelin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Sant'Anna Rios

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Notothenia neglecta, endemic to the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic regions, is basically carnivorous with a wide dietary spectrum. In order to evaluate the gill rakers' morphology and histological features of gill structures in relation to their feeding habits, specimens were obtained at Admiralty Bay (King George Island, South Shetlands. Their stomach content was identified and measured and the pharyngobranchial apparatus was studied macro and microscopically. The morphology of the gill rakers and the sizes of prey that are present in the stomach of N. neglecta characterize this species as piscivorous but also able to capture other small prey. Gill rakers provided with sharp villiform denticles improve the retention of fish. At the anterior row, gill rakers are flexible and without denticles, allowing continuous breathing during slow ingestion of large prey. Food is selected by size. The distance between gill rakers allows the retention of amphipods, bivalves and gastropods if bigger than 0.17% of the predator standard length. Food is also selected chemically by taste buds and isolated chemical-sensorial cells. Goblet cells produce mucus that covers the preys with a smooth layer, avoiding scratching of the mucosa during ingestion of food and promoting aggregation of smaller food items. N. neglecta is an active feeder that uses different detection and selection mechanisms to survive in an environment where the food composition varies during the year.

  2. Infestation of gill copepod Lernanthropus latis (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) and its effect on cage-cultured Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kua, B C; Noraziah, M R; Nik Rahimah, A R

    2012-09-01

    Twenty Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer from a floating cage in Bt. Tambun, Penang were examined for the presence of parasitic gill copepod, Lernanthropus latis. The prevalence of L. latis was 100% with the intensity of infection ranging from 1 to 18 parasites per host or 3.75 of mean intensity. Female parasites having oblong cephalothorax and egg-strings were seen mainly on the entire gill of examined Asian sea bass. The infected gill of Asian sea bass was pale and had eccessive mucus production. Under light and scanning electron microscopies (SEM), L. latis was seen grasping or holding tightly to the gill filament using their antenna, maxilla and maxilliped. These structures are characteristically prehensile and uncinate for the parasite to attach onto the host tissue. The damage was clearly seen under SEM as the hooked end of the antenna was embedded into the gill filament. The parasite also has the mandible which is styliform with eight teeth on the inner margin. The pathological effects such as erosion, haemorrhages, hyperplasia and necrosis along the secondary lamellae of gill filaments were seen and more severe at the attachment site. The combined actions of the antenna, maxilla and maxilliped together with the mandible resulted in extensive damage as L. latis attached and fed on the host tissues.

  3. Distinct hormonal regulation of Na+,K+-ATPase genes in the salmonid gill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbæk; Madsen, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    the a1a (freshwater (FW) isoform) and the a1b  seawater (SW) isoform) by cortisol, Gh, prolactin (Prl) and Igf 1. Injection with cortisol into FW salmon increased a1a expression, while Gh had no effect. Conversely, both cortisol and Gh stimulated a1b expression, and a significant synergy was observed....... igf1 expression was increased by Gh in both gill and liver, and inhibited by cortisol in the liver. Gill Igf1 and Gh receptor expression increased in response to cortisol. Injection with Prl into SW salmon compromised their hypo-osmoregulatory performance, selectively reduced the expression of the a1b...... isoform and decreased enzymatic NaC,KC-atpase activity in the gill. Cortisol and Prl reduced gill and liver igf1 expression, and both hormones stimulated gill Igf1 receptor expression. In a short-term experiment with incubation of FW gill cell suspensions, cortisol stimulated a1a and a1b expression, while...

  4. Transcriptomic responses in rainbow trout gills upon infection with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, Carolina; Castro, Rosario; Fischer, Uwe; Tafalla, Carolina

    2014-05-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that even though the fin bases constitute the main portal of entry of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), an important number of chemokine genes are up-regulated in the gills upon bath exposure to the virus. Because chemokines mediate the recruitment of leukocytes through the action of specific chemokine receptors, in the current study, we have studied the transcription of several immune genes in response to a VHSV bath infection in the gills, focusing both on chemokine receptor genes and on genes characteristic of distinct leukocyte populations such as IgM, IgD, IgT, CD4, CD8, perforin and MHC-II. We have studied the response to the virus in naïve fish as well as in fish that had been previously intramuscularly (i.m.) injected with a VHSV DNA vaccine. Additionally, we have sorted both IgM(+) and CD8(+) cells from the gills of naïve and infected animals to study some of these up-regulated genes in specific leukocyte populations. Our results indicate that despite the low replication level, VHSV provokes an up-regulation of IgM, IgT, CD3 and perforin transcription together with the up-regulation of CCR7, CCR9, CXCR3B and CXCR4 mRNA levels. Interestingly, MHC-II mRNA was up-regulated and CCR7 was down-modulated in IgM(+) cells from infected gills, whereas perforin, CCR7 and CXCR4 mRNA levels were higher in sorted CD8(+) cells from infected animals. Surprisingly, when fish had been previously injected with either the empty plasmid or the VHSV DNA vaccine, these up-regulations in immune gene transcription were no longer observed. Our results point to the gills as an important site for innate and acquired viral defense. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dynamic transcriptomic profiles of zebrafish gills in response to zinc supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Phil

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary zinc supplementation may help to promote growth, boost the immune system, protect against diabetes, and aid recovery from diarrhoea. We exploited the zebrafish (Danio rerio gill as a unique vertebrate ion transporting epithelium model to study the time-dependent regulatory networks of gene-expression leading to homeostatic control during zinc supplementation. This organ forms a conduit for zinc uptake whilst exhibiting conservation of zinc trafficking components. Results Fish were maintained with either zinc supplemented water (4.0 μM and diet (2023 mg zinc kg-1 or water and diet containing Zn2+ at 0.25 μM and 233 mg zinc kg-1, respectively. Gill tissues were harvested at five time points (8 hours to 14 days and transcriptome changes analysed in quintuplicate using a 16 K microarray with results anchored to gill Zn2+ influx and whole body nutrient composition (protein, carbohydrate, lipid, elements. The number of regulated genes increased up to day 7 but declined as the fish acclimated. In total 525 genes were regulated (having a fold-change more than 1.8 fold change and an adjusted P-value less than 0.1 which is controlling a 10% False discovery rate, FDR by zinc supplementation, but little overlap was observed between genes regulated at successive time-points. Many genes displayed cyclic expression, typical for homeostatic control mechanisms. Annotation enrichment analysis revealed strong overrepresentation of "transcription factors", with specific association evident with "steroid hormone receptors". A suite of genes linked to "development" were also statistically overrepresented. More specifically, early regulation of genes was linked to a few key transcription factors (e.g. Mtf1, Jun, Stat1, Ppara, Gata3 and was followed by hedgehog and bone morphogenic protein signalling. Conclusions The results suggest that zinc supplementation reactivated developmental pathways in the gill and stimulated stem cell

  6. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces. To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins. PMID:27248800

  7. Cadmium accumulation, gill Cd binding, acclimation, and physiological effects during long term sublethal Cd exposure in rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollis, L.; McGeer, J.C.; McDonald, D.G.; Wood, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout, on 3% of body weight daily ration, were exposed to 0 (control), 3, and 10 μg l -1 Cd (as Cd(NO 3 ) 2 · 4H 2 O) in moderately hard (140 mg l -1 as CaCO 3 ), alkaline (95 mg l -1 as CaCO 3 , pH 8.0) water for 30 days. Particular attention focused on acclimation, and on whether a gill surface binding model, originally developed in dilute softwater, could be applied in this water quality to fish chronically exposed to Cd. Only the higher Cd concentration caused mortality (30%, in the first few days). The costs of acclimation, if any, in our study were subtle since no significant effects of chronic Cd exposure were seen in growth rate, swimming performance (stamina and U Crit ), routine O 2 consumption, or whole body ion levels. Substantial acclimation occurred in both exposure groups, manifested as 11- to 13-fold increases in 96-h LC 50 values. In water quality regulations, which are based on toxicity tests with non-acclimated fish only, this remarkable protective effect of acclimation is not taken into account. Cd accumulated in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion to 60-120x (gills), 8-20x (liver), 2-7x (carcass), and 5-12x (whole bodies) control levels by 30 days. Chronically accumulated gill Cd could not be removed by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) challenge. These gill Cd concentrations were 20- to 40-fold greater than levels predicted by the gill-binding model to cause mortality during acute exposure. In short-term gill Cd-binding experiments (up to 70 μg l -1 exposures for 3 h), gill Cd burden increased as predicted in control fish, but was not detectable against the high background concentrations in acclimated fish. In light of these results, Cd uptake/turnover tests were performed using radioactive 109 Cd to improve sensitivity. With this approach, a small saturable binding component was seen, but could not be related to toxic response in acclimated fish. Acclimated trout internalized less 109 Cd than control fish, but

  8. A livre improvisação musical e a filosofia de Gilles Deleuze The free musical improvisation and the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Luiz Moraes Costa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos a improvisação passou a figurar como um tema cada vez mais presente nos ambientes acadêmicos e hoje é considerada uma importante linha de pesquisa. A nossa reflexão sobre a livre improvisação, além de se apoiar em nossas experiências práticas, tem como uma das suas principais referências a obra do filósofo francês Gilles Deleuze de quem são emprestados conceitos fundamentais tais como, estratificação, território, plano de consistência, molaridade e molecularidade, corpo sem órgãos, ritmo, meios e ritornelo. Neste artigo, originalmente publicado no número 49, vol. 1 da revista Perspectives of New Music, trataremos de mostrar de que forma estes conceitos nos auxiliam a pensar e fundamentar a livre improvisação musical conforme a concebemos em nossos trabalhos práticos e teóricos.Recently, improvisation has been integrated as a theme increasingly present in scholarly environments and it is now considered as an important line of research. Our thinking about free improvisation, besides relying on our practical experience, has the work of French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as a central reference from which we borrow key concepts such as stratification, territory, plan of consistency, molarity and molecularity, body without organs, rhythm, means and refrain. In this article, originally published in Perspectives of New Music, number 49, v.1, we will try to show how these concepts help us think and support the free musical improvisation as we conceive it in our practical and theoretical work.

  9. Contamination potentielle des aliments par des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARA Computers

    la notion de la pollution et de l'exposition aux PCBs, lorsque 77% n'ont pas conscience de cette situation de risque ... 2018). Quoique la contamination par les. PCBs soit de faible niveau, elle est ...... Université Paris-Est, Paris, France ; 183.

  10. CFD analysis of PAR performance as function of inlet design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kweonha, E-mail: khpark@kmou.ac.kr [Division of Mechanical and Energy systems Engineering, Korea Maritime University, Dongsam-dong, Yeongdo-gu, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Khor, Chong Lee, E-mail: itachi_829@hotmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Maritime University (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • The new concept of PAR (passive autocatalytic recombiner) was proposed and analyzed. • Guidance wall was added at the bottom of PAR to enhance the flow rate through the catalyst. • The new concept of PAR was proved to have a better hydrogen removal performance. - Abstract: Passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) is very useful hydrogen mitigation measurement. It is widely implemented in the current and advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). The design of the PARs should be optimized for the specific use under severe accident scenarios. Several techniques and innovations have been fused into the PAR, as an effort to increase its efficiency of hydrogen mitigation. This study proposes different concepts of PAR, which applied some changes to the honeycomb catalyst PAR made by the Korea Nuclear Technology (KNT) Inc. Two slices of plate are added to the bottom of PAR model, which intended to act as a reflection wall and promote the gas flow into PAR. Hydrogen volume fraction was given 4 vol. % which tested by KNT to investigate the performance of PAR in different direction gas flow conditions to see maximum hydrogen recombination rate. The new concept of PAR was proved to have a better hydrogen removal performance compared to the original honeycomb catalyst PAR.

  11. CFD analysis of PAR performance as function of inlet design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kweonha; Khor, Chong Lee

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The new concept of PAR (passive autocatalytic recombiner) was proposed and analyzed. • Guidance wall was added at the bottom of PAR to enhance the flow rate through the catalyst. • The new concept of PAR was proved to have a better hydrogen removal performance. - Abstract: Passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) is very useful hydrogen mitigation measurement. It is widely implemented in the current and advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). The design of the PARs should be optimized for the specific use under severe accident scenarios. Several techniques and innovations have been fused into the PAR, as an effort to increase its efficiency of hydrogen mitigation. This study proposes different concepts of PAR, which applied some changes to the honeycomb catalyst PAR made by the Korea Nuclear Technology (KNT) Inc. Two slices of plate are added to the bottom of PAR model, which intended to act as a reflection wall and promote the gas flow into PAR. Hydrogen volume fraction was given 4 vol. % which tested by KNT to investigate the performance of PAR in different direction gas flow conditions to see maximum hydrogen recombination rate. The new concept of PAR was proved to have a better hydrogen removal performance compared to the original honeycomb catalyst PAR.

  12. Is gill cortisol concentration a good acute stress indicator in fish? A study in rainbow trout and zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesto, Manuel; Hernández, Juan; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Soengas, José L; Míguez, Jesús M

    2015-10-01

    Cortisol is the main biomarker of physiological stress in fish. It is usually measured in plasma, which requires blood collection. Though cortisol is produced in the anterior kidney, it can diffuse easily through cell membranes due to its lipophilic nature. Taking advantage of that, some non-invasive techniques have been developed to measure cortisol directly in the water from fish-holding tanks, in skin mucus or in scales. In this study, we explored the possibility to analyze fish cortisol from gill filaments as a reliable acute stress marker. Our results show that gill cortisol levels correlate well with plasma cortisol levels in both rainbow trout and zebrafish exposed or not to an acute stress protocol. Measuring cortisol in gill filaments increases the available possibilities for stress assessment in fish. Although this approach should yet be tested for its use with other stressors, it has several advantages: In relatively large fish (i.e. above 30 g) gill cortisol levels could be measured in vivo. Sampling of gill biopsies is very fast and easy, and the procedure does not induce stress if properly performed, making it an ideal option for in vivo stress assessment. In small fish, the use of gill tissue to measure cortisol has important technical advantages with respect to the current methods using whole-body homogenates. Gill homogenates could be used directly for ELISA cortisol analysis, avoiding the need of tedious and expensive cortisol extraction protocols, and, since no organic solvent is required, contributing for a more environmentally friendly analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. SAFARI 2000 PAR Measurements, Kalahari Transect, Botswana, Wet Season 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ceptometer data from a Decagon AccuPAR (Model PAR-80) were collected at four sites in Botswana during the SAFARI 2000 Kalahari Transect Wet Season Campaign (March,...

  14. Local connected fractal dimension analysis in gill of fish experimentally exposed to toxicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manera, Maurizio, E-mail: mmanera@unite.it [Faculty of Biosciences, Food and Environmental Technologies, University of Teramo, Piano d’Accio, I-64100 Teramo (Italy); Giari, Luisa [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, St. Borsari 46, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); De Pasquale, Joseph A. [Morphogenyx Inc., PO Box 717, East Northport, NY 11731 (United States); Sayyaf Dezfuli, Bahram [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, St. Borsari 46, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • An objective, operator unbiased method was developed to evaluate gill pathology. • The method relies on the measure of local connected fractal dimension frequency. • Exposure classes were adequately discriminated by linear discriminant analysis. - Abstract: An operator-neutral method was implemented to objectively assess European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) gill pathology after experimental exposure to cadmium (Cd) and terbuthylazine (TBA) for 24 and 48 h. An algorithm-derived local connected fractal dimension (LCFD) frequency measure was used in this comparative analysis. Canonical variates (CVA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to evaluate the discrimination power of the method among exposure classes (unexposed, Cd exposed, TBA exposed). Misclassification, sensitivity and specificity, both with original and cross-validated cases, were determined. LCFDs frequencies enhanced the differences among classes which were visually selected after their means, respective variances and the differences between Cd and TBA exposed means, with respect to unexposed mean, were analyzed by scatter plots. Selected frequencies were then scanned by means of LDA, stepwise analysis, and Mahalanobis distance to detect the most discriminative frequencies out of ten originally selected. Discrimination resulted in 91.7% of cross-validated cases correctly classified (22 out of 24 total cases), with sensitivity and specificity, respectively, of 95.5% (1 false negative with respect to 21 really positive cases) and 75% (1 false positive with respect to 3 really negative cases). CVA with convex hull polygons ensured prompt, visually intuitive discrimination among exposure classes and graphically supported the false positive case. The combined use of semithin sections, which enhanced the visual evaluation of the overall lamellar structure; of LCFD analysis, which objectively detected local variation in complexity, without the possible bias

  15. Effects of phenol on ATPase activities in crude gill homogenates of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1979-01-01

    The ATPase specific activities from crude gill homogenates of rainbow trout were lower than those from microsomal preparations reported in the literature. Sodium pump activity (ouabain sensitive NaK-ATPase) was demonstrable at 37/sup 0/C. An ouabain insensitive NaK-ATPase was demonstrable at temperatures below 30/sup 0/C and may represent a Na-ATPase activity reported by others. Energy of activation at 25/sup 0/C for total NaK-ATPase ws 10,500 cal.mole/sup -1/. Mg-baseline activity had an energy of activation at 25/sup 0/C of 15,600 cal.mole/sup -1/. Mg-baseline activity was thermally labile at temperatures in excess of 30/sup 0/C. Concentrations of Mg/sup +2/ in excess of 5 mM appeared to inhibit total NaK-ATPase activity. At 37/sup 0/C, Na/sup +/ and K/sup +/ exerted little, if any, stimulatory effect on ATPase activities, in spite of the fact that 37/sup 0/C was the only temperature at which sodium pump activity was demonstrable. MS-222 failed to produce any discernible changes in any of the demonstrable ATPase activities in crude gill homogenates. Total NaK-ATPase activities were more sensitive than Mg-baseline activities to in vitro inhibition by phenol. Concentrations of phenol which produce 50% inhibition in total NaK-ATPase produced only 35% inhibition in Mg-baseline activity. The nature of in vitro inhibition was uncompetitive. Sodium pump activity was unaffected by phenol at concentrations as high as 25 mM. An effort was made to demonstrate an in vivo effects of phenol on rainbow trout gill ATPase activites. An infestation of a parasite (Gyrodactilus) on the experimental fish precludes any definative assessment of in vivo effects.

  16. Local connected fractal dimension analysis in gill of fish experimentally exposed to toxicants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manera, Maurizio; Giari, Luisa; De Pasquale, Joseph A.; Sayyaf Dezfuli, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An objective, operator unbiased method was developed to evaluate gill pathology. • The method relies on the measure of local connected fractal dimension frequency. • Exposure classes were adequately discriminated by linear discriminant analysis. - Abstract: An operator-neutral method was implemented to objectively assess European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) gill pathology after experimental exposure to cadmium (Cd) and terbuthylazine (TBA) for 24 and 48 h. An algorithm-derived local connected fractal dimension (LCFD) frequency measure was used in this comparative analysis. Canonical variates (CVA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to evaluate the discrimination power of the method among exposure classes (unexposed, Cd exposed, TBA exposed). Misclassification, sensitivity and specificity, both with original and cross-validated cases, were determined. LCFDs frequencies enhanced the differences among classes which were visually selected after their means, respective variances and the differences between Cd and TBA exposed means, with respect to unexposed mean, were analyzed by scatter plots. Selected frequencies were then scanned by means of LDA, stepwise analysis, and Mahalanobis distance to detect the most discriminative frequencies out of ten originally selected. Discrimination resulted in 91.7% of cross-validated cases correctly classified (22 out of 24 total cases), with sensitivity and specificity, respectively, of 95.5% (1 false negative with respect to 21 really positive cases) and 75% (1 false positive with respect to 3 really negative cases). CVA with convex hull polygons ensured prompt, visually intuitive discrimination among exposure classes and graphically supported the false positive case. The combined use of semithin sections, which enhanced the visual evaluation of the overall lamellar structure; of LCFD analysis, which objectively detected local variation in complexity, without the possible bias

  17. Histopathological changes in the skins and gills of some marine fishes due to parasitic isopod infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganapathy Rameshkumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the histopathological symptoms owing to cymothoid isopod that were categorised as gross lesions. Methods: Nature of damage fish tissues and gills were taken from the parasite attachment area of infested and uninfested fishes which were cut out in fresh condition fixed in 10% buffered neutral formalin. Fresh and recently preserved tissues and gills were washed in tap water and dehydrated using alcohol series. The tissues gills were then cleaned in methylbenzoate and benzene and embedded in paraffin wax. The serial sections cutting 4 to 5 m thickness, were stained with Erlich’s haematoxylin and Eosin for histopathological analysis. Results: In normal muscle tissue, the tensile strength of muscle fibers with extra cellular matrix collagen was extensively tight associated. This gave a rigid musculature pattern to the tissues. Infested fish exhibited histopathological anomalies such as tissue reactions, primarily associated with the formation of granulomas consisted of macrophages and epitheleioid cells, which were occasionally surrounded by a thin rim of fibroblasts. The infestations such as lipofibrosis, hyperaemia, haemorhagic lesions and penetration of dactylus usually pressure atrophy often accompanied by the presence of parasites. Lesions had well developed granulomas that underlined in the muscle or overlying subcutaneous tissue, form these spread to underlying organs. Conclusions: It could be concluded that the infection studies of parasite that attaches or settles on the host body, at first, causes localized inflammatory changes, but with time, assuring a different or diffused character. The changes always begin with hyperaemia in the angles between adjacent sides at the site of attachment and then move towards deeply situated area.

  18. Effects of increased CO2 on fish gill and plasma proteome.

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    Karine Bresolin de Souza

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification and warming are both primarily caused by increased levels of atmospheric CO2, and marine organisms are exposed to these two stressors simultaneously. Although the effects of temperature on fish have been investigated over the last century, the long-term effects of moderate CO2 exposure and the combination of both stressors are almost entirely unknown. A proteomics approach was used to assess the adverse physiological and biochemical changes that may occur from the exposure to these two environmental stressors. We analysed gills and blood plasma of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus exposed to temperatures of 12 °C (control and 18 °C (impaired growth in combination with control (400 µatm or high-CO2 water (1000 µatm for 14 weeks. The proteomic analysis was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE followed by Nanoflow LC-MS/MS using a LTQ-Orbitrap. The high-CO2 treatment induced the up-regulation of immune system-related proteins, as indicated by the up-regulation of the plasma proteins complement component C3 and fibrinogen β chain precursor in both temperature treatments. Changes in gill proteome in the high-CO2 (18 °C group were mostly related to increased energy metabolism proteins (ATP synthase, malate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase thermostable, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, possibly coupled to a higher energy demand. Gills from fish exposed to high-CO2 at both temperature treatments showed changes in proteins associated with increased cellular turnover and apoptosis signalling (annexin 5, eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1γ, receptor for protein kinase C, and putative ribosomal protein S27. This study indicates that moderate CO2-driven acidification, alone and combined with high temperature, can elicit biochemical changes that may affect fish health.

  19. Salinity-induced regulation of the myo-inositol biosynthesis pathway in tilapia gill epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Romina; Li, Johnathon; Villarreal, Fernando; Gardell, Alison M.; Kültz, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The myo-inositol biosynthesis (MIB) pathway converts glucose-6-phosphate to the compatible osmolyte myo-inositol that protects cells from osmotic stress. Using proteomics, the enzymes that constitute the MIB pathway, myo-inositol phosphate synthase (MIPS) and inositol monophosphatase 1 (IMPA1), are identified in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) gill epithelium. Targeted, quantitative, label-free proteomics reveals that they are both upregulated during salinity stress. Upregulation is stronger when fish are exposed to severe (34 ppt acute and 90 ppt gradual) relative to moderate (70 ppt gradual) salinity stress. IMPA1 always responds more strongly than MIPS, suggesting that MIPS is more stable during salinity stress. MIPS is N-terminally acetylated and the corresponding peptide increases proportionally to MIPS protein, while non-acetylated N-terminal peptide is not detectable, indicating that MIPS acetylation is constitutive and may serve to stabilize the protein. Hyperosmotic induction of MIPS and IMPA1 is confirmed using western blot and real-time qPCR and is much higher at the mRNA than at the protein level. Two distinct MIPS mRNA variants are expressed in the gill, but one is more strongly regulated by salinity than the other. A single MIPS gene is encoded in the tilapia genome whereas the zebrafish genome lacks MIPS entirely. The genome of euryhaline tilapia contains four IMPA genes, two of which are expressed, but only one is salinity regulated in gill epithelium. The genome of stenohaline zebrafish contains a single IMPA gene. We conclude that the MIB pathway represents a major salinity stress coping mechanism that is regulated at multiple levels in euryhaline fish but absent in stenohaline zebrafish. PMID:24072791

  20. Teratogenic processes in an embryo without gills and low yolk absorption of Zapteryx brevirostris (Elasmobranchii: Rhinobatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa Priscila David do Carmo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is the first report of morphological anomaly in embryos of Zapteryx brevirostris (Lesser guitarfish, a very common species in Brazil. The gills were absent, and the pectoral fins were not fully formed nor were they completely fused to the head. They were asymmetrical, with the larger left pectoral fin projecting more toward the head (almost at the height of the eyes. The pelvic fin was absent, making sexing impossible. The cause of the morphological deformity is uncertain, although a nutritional problem of the embryo is evoked.

  1. Nickel affects gill and muscle development in oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Jin; Song, Sang Ha; Kim, Dae Han; Gye, Myung Chan, E-mail: mcgye@hanyang.ac.kr

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Nickel inhibited the development of external gill in B. orientalis embryos. • The 168 h LC{sub 50} and EC{sub 50} values of nickel were 33.8 and 5.4 μM, respectively, in embryos. • Nickel induced abnormal tail development of embryos. • NF stage 26–31 was the most sensitive window for embryos to nickel exposure. • Nickel affected the calcium-dependent myogenic gene expression in embryos. - Abstract: The developmental toxicity of nickel was examined in the embryos of Bombina orientalis, a common amphibian in Korea. Based on a standard frog embryo teratogenesis assay, the LC{sub 50} and EC{sub 50} for malformation of nickel after 168 h of treatment were 33.8 μM and 5.4 μM, respectively. At a lethal concentration (100 μM), nickel treatment decreased the space between gill filaments and caused epithelial swelling and abnormal fusion of gill filaments. These findings suggest that nickel affects the functional development of gills, leading to embryonic death. At sublethal concentrations (1–10 μM), nickel produced multiple embryonic abnormalities, including bent tail and tail dysplasia. At 10 μM, nickel significantly decreased tail length and tail muscle fiber density in tadpoles, indicating inhibition of myogenic differentiation. Before hatching, the pre-muscular response to muscular response stages (stages 26–31) were the most sensitive period to nickel with respect to tail muscle development. During these stages, MyoD mRNA was upregulated, whereas myogenic regulatory factor 4 mRNA was downregulated by 0.1 μM nickel. Calcium-dependent kinase activities in muscular response stage embryos were significantly decreased by nickel, whereas these activities were restored by exogenous calcium. In tadpoles, 10 μM nickel significantly decreased the expression of the myosin heavy chain and the 12/101 muscle marker protein in the tail. Expression was restored by exogenous calcium. Our results indicate that nickel affects muscle development by

  2. The pathophysiology of echopraxia/echolalia: relevance to Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganos, Christos; Ogrzal, Timo; Schnitzler, Alfons; Münchau, Alexander

    2012-09-01

    Echopraxia and echolalia are subsets of imitative behavior. They are essential developmental elements in social learning. Their persistence or reemergence after a certain age, though, can be a sign of underlying brain dysfunction. Although echophenomena have been acknowledged as a typical sign in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) since its first description, their clinical significance and neural correlates are largely unknown. Here, we review the course of their scientific historical development and focus on their clinical phenomenology and differential diagnosis with a particular view to GTS. The neural basis of echophenomena will also be addressed. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society. Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  3. DNA damage in gill cells of Corbicula japonica exposed to natural and anthropogenic stressors

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    Valentina Vladimirovna Slobodskova

    2015-06-01

    The results are presented as the percentage distribution of nuclei in the various damage classes and summarized in an index of DNA integrity or genetic damage index GDI (Cavas, Kohen, 2008: The results from our study showed significant level of DNA damage from the C. japonica which were collected from polluted sites. Unpolluted sites were described as with no or minimal DNA strand breaks. Mollusks collected at polluted areas (estuary Razdolnaya river, lagoon Tihaya showed high levels of DNA damage, GDI is equal to 3.22±0.2 and 3.11±0.7 in gills respectively. C. japonica obtained from a ‘clean’ areas (estuary Artemovka river, estuary Partizanskaya river demonstrate less high level of DNA damage destruction, GDI is equal to 0,6±0,08 and 0,71±0,12 in gills respectively. Lipid peroxidation level was assayed measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA, a decomposition product of polyunsaturated fatty acids hydro peroxides were determined by the TBA reaction. The absorbance was read at 532 nm after removal of substances (TBARS formed was calculated by using an extinction coefficient of 1.56*105 M-1 cm -1 formed per g dry weight. C. japonica sampled at Artemovka estuary, Partizanskaya estuary, Razdolnaya estuary, Tihaya lagoon showed LPX level (3.46±0.59, 5.62±0.82, 12.85±0.52, 15.32±1.13 nmol TBARS/g dry wt in gills respectively. In conclusion, it can be noted that in the course of the experiment we found a clear relationship between the amount of DNA damage and the level of peroxidation products (MDA in the gills of bivalve C. japonica, collected from sites with varying degrees of anthropogenic load. It should be emphasized that the shellfish that live in polluted areas are likely to be in a state of oxidative stress, which is one of the causes the degradation of DNA.

  4. Jordens sång : Naturfilosofi och musik hos Gilles Deleuze

    OpenAIRE

    Dahllöv, Mats

    2015-01-01

    This essay provides a thorough reading of Gilles Deleuze’s (1925–95) philosophy of nature and the way music relates to this philosophy. It does so with regards to changes in the view of nature in 20th century science, especially in the theories of self-organisation as developed by, among others, Ilya Prigogine. Deleuze’s metaphysics is viewed in relation to these theories, and is also compared to the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, which is related to classical science. The essay then investigat...

  5. Plasma suPAR is lowered by smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Ladelund, Steen; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a stable inflammatory biomarker. In patients, suPAR is a marker of disease presence, severity and prognosis. In the general population, suPAR is predictive of disease development, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease a...

  6. Copenhagen uPAR prostate cancer (CuPCa) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Solvej; Berg, Kasper D; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) plays a central role during cancer invasion by facilitating pericellular proteolysis. We initiated the prospective 'Copenhagen uPAR Prostate Cancer' study to investigate the significance of uPAR levels in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. METHODS...

  7. The inflammatory marker suPAR after cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rundgren, Malin; Lyngbaek, Stig; Fisker, Helle

    2015-01-01

    . This pilot study aimed at investigating suPAR levels in relation to outcome after CA and mild induced hypothermia. METHODS: suPAR levels were measured at 6, 36, and 72 hours in patients treated with hypothermia after CA. suPAR levels were analyzed in relation to survival after 6 months. Receiver operating...

  8. Gill dimensions in near-term embryos of Amazonian freshwater stingrays (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae and their relationship to the lifestyle and habitat of neonatal pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallice Paxiúba Duncan

    Full Text Available This comparative study of gill morphometrics in near-term embryos of freshwater stingray potamotrygonids examines gill dimensions in relation to neonatal lifestyle and habitat. In embryos of the potamotrygonids Paratrygon aiereba, Plesiotrygon iwamae, Potamotrygon motoro, Potamotrygon orbignyi, and cururu ray Potamotrygon sp. the number and length of filaments, total gill surface area, mass-specific surface area, water-blood diffusion distance, and anatomical diffusion factor were analysed. In all potamotrygonids, the 3rd branchial arch possessed a larger respiratory surface than the other gill arches. Larger embryos had more gill surface area and large spiracles, which are necessary to maintain the high oxygen uptake needed due to their larger body size. However, the higher mass-specific gill surface area observed in near-term embryos may be advantageous because neonates can use hypoxic environments as refuges against predators, as well as catch small prey that inhabit the same environment. As expected from their benthic mode of life, freshwater stingrays are sluggish animals compared to pelagic fishes. However, based on gill respiratory morphometry (such as gill area, mass-specific gill area, the water-blood diffusion barrier, anatomical diffusion factor, and relative opening of the spiracle, subtypes of lifestyles can be observed corresponding to: active, intermediate, and sluggish species according to Gray's scale.

  9. Lamproglena monodi capart, 1944, attachment scheme and associatedpathology on the gills of oreochromis niloticus, with a special reference tothoracic appendages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Mohammed Has an

    2008-01-01

    This work comprises a parasitological and histopathological examinationof the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, naturally infected withLamproglena monody (Crustacea: Lernaeidae). Fish specimens were collectedweekly from El-Minia Nile basin, Egypt Between April 2006 to March 2008).From a total of 420 fish examined, 96 (22.86%) were found infected.Attachment of L monodi was mainly enhanced by the armed maxillae that wereseen deeply introduced into the underlying tissues reaching the axialcartilage the gill filament. The maxillipeds were not involved in theattachment to the gill epithelium. Histological changes were restricted onlyto the free ends of gill filament, where copepods were found attached; thecentral and basal parts appeared normal and their gill lamellae remainedintact. Deep and shallow lesions associated sometimes with compressed orexfoliated hyperplastic epithelium were encountered in front of cephalothoraxand around oral apparatus of the parasite. In slight and moderate infectionsgill lamellae showed partial fusion. In many cases of heavy infection, theattacked area of gill filaments was eroded through. The cephalothorax wassometimes found in a deep cavity of the proliferated epithelium that wasinfiltrated by granular cells and lymphocytes. (author)

  10. A perfusion study of the handling of urea and urea analogues by the gills of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chris M; Liew, Hon Jung; De Boeck, Gudrun; Walsh, Patrick J

    2013-01-01

    The branchial mechanism of urea retention in elasmobranchs was investigated using an in vitro isolated-perfused head preparation, as well as in vivo samples, in the spiny dogfish shark. Both in vivo and in control saline perfusions containing 350 mmol L(-1) urea, calculated intracellular urea concentrations in gill epithelial cells were close to extracellular concentrations. Urea efflux to the external water fell only non-significantly, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentration did not change when perfusate urea concentration was reduced from 350 to 175 mmol L(-1) with osmotic compensation by 175 mmol L(-1) mannitol. However, when the urea analogues thiourea or acetamide were present in the perfusate at concentrations equimolar (175 mmol L(-1)) to those of urea (175 mmol L(-1)), urea efflux rates were increased 4-fold and 6.5-fold respectively, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentrations were depressed by about 55%. Analogue efflux rates were similar to urea efflux rates. Previous studies have argued that either the basolateral or apical membranes provided the limiting permeability barrier, and/or that a back-transporter on the basolateral membranes of gill cells is responsible for urea retention. The present results provide new evidence that the apical membrane is the limiting factor in maintaining gill urea impermeability, and raise the prospect that a urea back-transporter, which can be competitively inhibited by thiourea and acetamide, operates at the apical membrane.

  11. A perfusion study of the handling of urea and urea analogues by the gills of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris M. Wood

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The branchial mechanism of urea retention in elasmobranchs was investigated using an in vitro isolated-perfused head preparation, as well as in vivo samples, in the spiny dogfish shark. Both in vivo and in control saline perfusions containing 350 mmol L−1 urea, calculated intracellular urea concentrations in gill epithelial cells were close to extracellular concentrations. Urea efflux to the external water fell only non-significantly, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentration did not change when perfusate urea concentration was reduced from 350 to 175 mmol L−1 with osmotic compensation by 175 mmol L−1 mannitol. However, when the urea analogues thiourea or acetamide were present in the perfusate at concentrations equimolar (175 mmol L−1 to those of urea (175 mmol L−1, urea efflux rates were increased 4-fold and 6.5-fold respectively, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentrations were depressed by about 55%. Analogue efflux rates were similar to urea efflux rates. Previous studies have argued that either the basolateral or apical membranes provided the limiting permeability barrier, and/or that a back-transporter on the basolateral membranes of gill cells is responsible for urea retention. The present results provide new evidence that the apical membrane is the limiting factor in maintaining gill urea impermeability, and raise the prospect that a urea back-transporter, which can be competitively inhibited by thiourea and acetamide, operates at the apical membrane.

  12. Differential Gene Expression in Liver, Gill, and Olfactory Rosettes of Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) After Acclimation to Salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryoung, Lindley A; Lavado, Ramon; Bammler, Theo K; Gallagher, Evan P; Stapleton, Patricia L; Beyer, Richard P; Farin, Federico M; Hardiman, Gary; Schlenk, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Most Pacific salmonids undergo smoltification and transition from freshwater to saltwater, making various adjustments in metabolism, catabolism, osmotic, and ion regulation. The molecular mechanisms underlying this transition are largely unknown. In the present study, we acclimated coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to four different salinities and assessed gene expression through microarray analysis of gills, liver, and olfactory rosettes. Gills are involved in osmotic regulation, liver plays a role in energetics, and olfactory rosettes are involved in behavior. Between all salinity treatments, liver had the highest number of differentially expressed genes at 1616, gills had 1074, and olfactory rosettes had 924, using a 1.5-fold cutoff and a false discovery rate of 0.5. Higher responsiveness of liver to metabolic changes after salinity acclimation to provide energy for other osmoregulatory tissues such as the gills may explain the differences in number of differentially expressed genes. Differentially expressed genes were tissue- and salinity-dependent. There were no known genes differentially expressed that were common to all salinity treatments and all tissues. Gene ontology term analysis revealed biological processes, molecular functions, and cellular components that were significantly affected by salinity, a majority of which were tissue-dependent. For liver, oxygen binding and transport terms were highlighted. For gills, muscle, and cytoskeleton-related terms predominated and for olfactory rosettes, immune response-related genes were accentuated. Interaction networks were examined in combination with GO terms and determined similarities between tissues for potential osmosensors, signal transduction cascades, and transcription factors.

  13. Gill pathology in Scottish farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., associated with the microsporidian Desmozoon lepeophtherii Freeman et Sommerville, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, C G G; Richards, R H; Shinn, A P; Cox, D I

    2013-10-01

    Gill disorders have emerged in recent years as a significant problem in the production of marine-stage Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. The multi-aetiological condition 'proliferative gill inflammation' (PGI) has been reported to cause heavy losses in western Norway, yet reports of Scottish cases of the disease have remained anecdotal. In the present study, histopathological material from a marine production site in the Scottish Highlands experiencing mortalities due to a seasonal gill disease with proliferative-type pathology was examined using light microscopy, special staining techniques and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microsporidian Desmozoon lepeophtherii Freeman et Sommerville, 2009 (syn. Paranucleospora theridion) was identified by staining using a Gram Twort method and TEM associated with distinctive proliferative and necrotic pathology confined to the interlamellar Malpighian cell areas of the primary filaments. Epitheliocystis was not a feature of the gill pathology observed. It is believed this is the first report of D. lepeophtherii being identified associated with pathology in a Scottish gill disease case, and supports anecdotal reports that a disease at least partly synonymous with PGI as described by Norwegian researchers is present in Scottish aquaculture. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effects of sodium fluoride on MAPKs signaling pathway in the gills of a freshwater teleost, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinling; Chen, Jianjie; Wang, Jundong; Klerks, Paul; Xie, Lingtian

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to elevated levels of fluoride can cause a variety of adverse effects in fish. Previously we showed that fluoride causes injuries and apoptosis in the gills of Cyprinus carpio. In this study, the effects of fluoride on caspase-3 activity and on accumulation of proteins in the MAPKs pathways were evaluated using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry methods in vivo and in vitro. In vivo experiments showed that the caspase-3 activity increased with fluoride exposure level in a dose-dependent pattern Western blotting and immunohistochemistry results indicated that ERK relative activation tended to decrease as a function of fluoride exposure concentration. In contrast, relative activation of JNK increased with fluoride exposure level. Fluoride exposure did not appear to affect p38 activation. Furthermore, pretreatment of branchial cells with MAPK-specific inhibitors effectively prevented JNK induction and ERK inhibition, respectively, as well as reversed caspase-3 activity in fluoride-treated branchial cells. Our results indicate that activation of JNK and inactivation of ERK were caused by increased ROS and decreased antioxidant capacity in the gills of chronically exposed C. carpio described previously, which eventually caused the observed apoptosis in the fluoride-exposed gills and cells in C. carpio. JNK activation and ERK inactivation mechanism play a crucial role in gill impairment induced by chronic fluorosis. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the initial molecular and cellular events in the gill of fish chronically exposed to fluoride. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Phosphorylation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB participates in regulating the ParABS chromosome segregation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronian, Grégory; Ginda, Katarzyna; Berry, Laurence; Cohen-Gonsaud, Martin; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta; Jakimowicz, Dagmara; Molle, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present for the first time that Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB is phosphorylated by several mycobacterial Ser/Thr protein kinases in vitro. ParB and ParA are the key components of bacterial chromosome segregation apparatus. ParB is a cytosolic conserved protein that binds specifically to centromere-like DNA parS sequences and interacts with ParA, a weak ATPase required for its proper localization. Mass spectrometry identified the presence of ten phosphate groups, thus indicating that ParB is phosphorylated on eight threonines, Thr32, Thr41, Thr53, Thr110, Thr195, and Thr254, Thr300, Thr303 as well as on two serines, Ser5 and Ser239. The phosphorylation sites were further substituted either by alanine to prevent phosphorylation or aspartate to mimic constitutive phosphorylation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a drastic inhibition of DNA-binding by ParB phosphomimetic mutant compared to wild type. In addition, bacterial two-hybrid experiments showed a loss of ParA-ParB interaction with the phosphomimetic mutant, indicating that phosphorylation is regulating the recruitment of the partitioning complex. Moreover, fluorescence microscopy experiments performed in the surrogate Mycobacterium smegmatis ΔparB strain revealed that in contrast to wild type Mtb ParB, which formed subpolar foci similar to M. smegmatis ParB, phoshomimetic Mtb ParB was delocalized. Thus, our findings highlight a novel regulatory role of the different isoforms of ParB representing a molecular switch in localization and functioning of partitioning protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  16. Phosphorylation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB participates in regulating the ParABS chromosome segregation system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Baronian

    Full Text Available Here, we present for the first time that Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB is phosphorylated by several mycobacterial Ser/Thr protein kinases in vitro. ParB and ParA are the key components of bacterial chromosome segregation apparatus. ParB is a cytosolic conserved protein that binds specifically to centromere-like DNA parS sequences and interacts with ParA, a weak ATPase required for its proper localization. Mass spectrometry identified the presence of ten phosphate groups, thus indicating that ParB is phosphorylated on eight threonines, Thr32, Thr41, Thr53, Thr110, Thr195, and Thr254, Thr300, Thr303 as well as on two serines, Ser5 and Ser239. The phosphorylation sites were further substituted either by alanine to prevent phosphorylation or aspartate to mimic constitutive phosphorylation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a drastic inhibition of DNA-binding by ParB phosphomimetic mutant compared to wild type. In addition, bacterial two-hybrid experiments showed a loss of ParA-ParB interaction with the phosphomimetic mutant, indicating that phosphorylation is regulating the recruitment of the partitioning complex. Moreover, fluorescence microscopy experiments performed in the surrogate Mycobacterium smegmatis ΔparB strain revealed that in contrast to wild type Mtb ParB, which formed subpolar foci similar to M. smegmatis ParB, phoshomimetic Mtb ParB was delocalized. Thus, our findings highlight a novel regulatory role of the different isoforms of ParB representing a molecular switch in localization and functioning of partitioning protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  17. [Ambroise Paré in French literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumaitre, P

    1995-01-01

    The 16th century by its passionate side has been the favourite one of authors of historical novels in which among the heroes of "cloak and dagger stories" appears sometime Ambroise Paré. Alexandre Dumas (the father) has shown him at the court of Charles IX in La Reine Margot (1845) where he does not however play a great role. On the contrary, Balzac in Le Martyr calviniste (1842) has given him a capital part close to the dying François II, whom he intended to trepanize but had to give up this idea as a consequence of the opposition of the queen-mother Catherine de Médicis. In the present century, Robert Merle in Paris ma bonne ville (Fortune de France, 3, 1980) shows Paré at the time of the Saint Barthélemy.

  18. Par Pond refill water quality sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.

    1996-08-01

    This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column

  19. Síndrome de Gilles de la Tourette: estudo clínico de 58 casos Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: a clinical study on 58 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin Fen Chien

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de Gilles de la Tourette (SGT é um transtorno neuropsiquiátrico, de início na infância, caracterizado pela presença de tiques motores e vocais. Cinquenta e oito pacientes com SGT foram acompanhados clinicamente durante período de três anos. Trinta e seis pacientes eram do sexo masculino e 22 do feminino, a proporção entre os sexos foi 1,6:1. A idade dos pacientes variou de 7 a 50 anos, média 20,33 anos. A idade de início dos sintomas variou de 3 a 15 anos, sendo a média 7,81 anos. O tique motor foi o sintoma inaugural em 79% dos pacientes. Quanto aos tiques complexos, a coprolalia estava presente em 27,6%; a copropraxia em 20,1%; a palilalia em 20,1%; a ecolalia em 27,6%; e a ecopraxia em 27,6%. Em relação a manifestações associadas, 25,8% apresentavam déficit de atenção/ hiperatividade e 39,6% transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo. O fenômeno sensitivo estava presente em 54,8% dos pacientes.Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS is a neuropsychiatric disorder with a childhood onset and is characterized by motor and vocal tics. Fifty-eight patients with GTS were evaluated during a period of three years. Thirty-six patients were male and twenty two female, with an age range of 7 to 51 years (mean 20.33 years. The male to female ratio was 1.6:1. The age of onset ranged from 3 to 15 years (mean 7.81 years. Seventy nine percent of the patients presented motor tics as the initial symptom of the disease. In terms of complex tics, coprolalia was present in 27.6% of the patients; copropraxia in 20.1%; palilalia in 20.1%; ecolalia in 27.6%; and ecopraxia in 27,6%. Associated manifestations, such as attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder were present in 25.8% and 39.6%, respectively. Sensory phenomena were present in 54.8% of the patients.

  20. Centromere pairing by a plasmid-encoded type I ParB protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringgaard, Simon; Löwe, Jan; Gerdes, Kenn

    2007-01-01

    The par2 locus of Escherichia coli plasmid pB171 encodes two trans-acting proteins, ParA and ParB, and two cis-acting sites, parC1 and parC2, to which ParB binds cooperatively. ParA is related to MinD and oscillates in helical structures and thereby positions ParB/parC-carrying plasmids regularly......, hence identifying the N terminus of ParB as a requirement for ParB-mediated centromere pairing. These observations suggest that centromere pairing is an important intermediate step in plasmid partitioning mediated by the common type I loci....

  1. Effects of cortisol, growth hormone and prolactin on gill claudin expression in Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbæk; Jørgensen, Charlotte; Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna

    2009-01-01

    We recently showed that a series of tight junction proteins of the claudin family are regulated in the gill of salmon during salinity acclimation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of cortisol, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) on regulation of expression of these iso......We recently showed that a series of tight junction proteins of the claudin family are regulated in the gill of salmon during salinity acclimation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of cortisol, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) on regulation of expression...... antagonists RU486 and spironolactone, respectively. The observed in vitro responses were blocked by RU486, suggesting the involvement of a glucocorticoid type receptor. Injections of FW salmon with cortisol increased the expression of claudin 10e, 27a, and 30 but did not affect claudin 28a and 28b...... significantly. While GH had no effect on its own, the combination of GH and cortisol reduced claudin 28b levels. Injection of SW salmon with PRL selectively increased the expression of claudin 28a but had no effect on the other examined isoforms. The data shows that FW- (27a and 30) and SW-induced (10e...

  2. Analytical developments for the speciation of uranium in zebra fish (Danio rerio) gills after exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucher, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to study the cellular compartmentalization and the chelation of uranium (U) by cytosolic proteins of gill cells of the zebra fish (Danio rerio, model specie in aquatic toxicology) under different direct exposure conditions (chronic vs. acute, 20 and 250 μg.L -1 ). This study required the development of hyphenated techniques (SEC, IEF off-gel, RP-UHPLC for the separation, ICP-SFMS, ESI-FTMS/MS for the detection) with the main challenges of maintaining the non-covalent U-biomolecule interactions and enhancing sensitivity for the analysis of environmentally relevant samples. After extraction, 24% to 32% of the total U detected in the gills were present in the cytosolic fraction, in which the U distribution on the biomolecules (as a function of their MW and pI) varied depending on the exposure level. Finally, U target biomolecules mapping allowed us (i) to highlight a particular affinity of U for acidic and/or P-containing proteins and (ii) to identify 24 protein candidates for U binding. (author) [fr

  3. Adenylate cyclase activity in fish gills in relation to salt adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guibbolini, M.E.; Lahlou, B.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of salt adaptation on specific adenylate cyclase activity (measured by conversion of [α- 32 P] - ATP into [α- 32 P] - cAMP) was investigated in gill plasma membranes of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) adapted to various salinities (deionized water, DW; fresh water, FW; 3/4 sea water, 3/4 SW; sea water, SW) and in sea water adapted- mullet (Mugil sp.). Basal activity declined by a factor of 2 in trout with increasing external salinity (pmoles cAMP/mg protein/10 min: 530 in DW, 440 in FW, 340 in 3/4 SW; 250 in SW) and was very low in SW adapted-mullet: 35. The Km for ATP was similar (0.5 mM) in both FW adapted- and SW adapted- trout in either the absence (basal activity) or in the presence of stimulating agents (isoproterenol; NaF) while the Vm varied. Analysis of stimulation ratios with respect to basal levels of the enzyme showed that hormones and pharmacological substances (isoproterenol, NaF) display a greater potency in high salt than in low salt adapted- fish gills. In contrast, salt adaptation did not have any effect on the regulation of adenylate cyclase by PGE 1 . These results are interpreted in relation to the general process of osmoregulation. 27 references, 6 figures

  4. Quality of life in adults with Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have used standardized QOL instruments to assess the quality of life (QOL) in Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) patients. This work investigates the QOL of adult GTS patients and examines the relationships between physical and psychological variables and QOL. Methods Epidemiological investigation by anonymous national postal survey of QOL of patients of the French Association of Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (AFGTS) aged 16 years or older. The clinical and QOL measures were collected by four questionnaires: a sociodemographic and GTS-related symptoms questionnaire, the World Health Organization Quality Of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-26), the Functional Status Questionnaire (FSQ), and a self-rating questionnaire on psychiatric symptoms (SCL-90), all validated in French. We used stepwise regression analysis to explicitly investigate the relationships between physical and psychological variables and QOL domains in GTS. Results Questionnaires were posted to 303 patients, of whom 167 (55%) completed and returned them. Our results, adjusted for age and gender, show that patients with GTS have a worse QOL than the general healthy population. In particular, the “Depression” psychological variable was a significant predictor of impairment in all WHOQOL-26 domains, psychological but also physical and social. Conclusions The present study demonstrates a strong relationship between QOL in GTS and psychiatric symptoms, in particular those of depression. PMID:22888766

  5. Effects of cadmium chloride on oxygen consumption and gill morphology of Indian flying barb, Esomus danricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suchismita; Gupta, Abhik

    2012-11-01

    Effects of three sub lethal concentrations of cadmium chloride (0.636, 0.063 and 0.006 mg l(-1)) on oxygen consumption and gill morphology in Indian flying barb, Esomus danricus (Hamilton-Buchanan), a teleost fish, were studied. When compared to control, 0.636 mg l(-1) of cadmium chloride after 7,14, 21 and 28 day exposure showed a significant decline in rates of oxygen consumption at 32.98, 28.40, 23.88 and 21.69 ml hr(1) 100 g(-1) of tissue, respectively; while, 0.063 mg l(-1) of cadmium chloride for the same exposure durations showed a significant decline in rates of oxygen consumption at 34.28, 29.30, 28.05 and 26.47 ml hr(1)100 g(-1) of tissue, respectively. However, significant decline in the rate of oxygen consumption at 0.006 mg l(-1) of cadmium chloride could be observed from 21st day of exposure. Gill tissue showed various histopathological changes including epithelial lifting, hyperplasia, mucous secretion, marked leucocyte infiltration in the epithelium after 28 days of cadmium chloride exposure.

  6. DNA barcoding of Mobulid Ray Gill Rakers for Implementing CITES on Elasmobranch in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Wu, Zhongze; Zhang, Chunguang; Meng, Zhibin; Jiang, Zhigang; Zhang, Jie

    2016-11-23

    The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) has been counted on for conserving threatened marine fish since it regulates the commercial international trade of these species. Implementation of the international treaty for Mantas included on CITES Appendix II is challenging due to insufficient information on species identification and markets management. To fill the gap in such aspects, we identified five species of Mobulid rays (Mobula spps. and Manta spp) by using COI and NADH2 mtDNA markers in dried ray gill rakers from Chinese markets, namely, Mobula japonica (representing 54.8% of the sample set), M. tarapacana (14.4%), M. kuhlii (13.3%), M. thurstoni (6.4%), along with Manta birostris (11.2%; CITES Appendix II). The utilization and conservation statuses of these species were discussed. Based on combination of DNA barcodes and key morphological characters, we developed a three-step process for identifying the gill rakers of Mobulid rays which has been adopted by frontline enforcement in China. We hope that our work can serve as a foundation and basis to reinforce objectives of international treaties, regulation of consumer-driven markets, regional cooperation, and national fishery management on endangered elasmobranchs in China as well as related countries.

  7. An assay of optimal cytochrome c oxidase activity in fish gills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yau-Chung; Chung, Meng-Han; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2018-07-15

    Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) catalyzes the terminal oxidation reaction in the electron transport chain (ETC) of aerobic respiratory systems. COX activity is an important indicator for the evaluation of energy production by aerobic respiration in various tissues. On the basis of the respiratory characteristics of muscle, we established an optimal method for the measurement of maximal COX activity. To validate the measurement of cytochrome c absorbance, different ionic buffer concentrations and tissue homogenate protein concentrations were used to investigate COX activity. The results showed that optimal COX activity is achieved when using 50-100 μg fish gill homogenate in conjunction with 75-100 mM potassium phosphate buffer. Furthermore, we compared branchial COX activities among three species of euryhaline teleost (Chanos chanos, Oreochromis mossambicus, and Oryzias dancena) to investigate differences in aerobic respiration of osmoregulatory organs. COX activities in the gills of these three euryhaline species were compared with COX subunit 4 (COX4) protein levels. COX4 protein abundance and COX activity patterns in the three species occurring in environments with various salinities increased when fish encountered salinity challenges. This COX activity assay therefore provides an effective and accurate means of assessing aerobic metabolism in fish. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Histopathological changes induced by malathion in the gills of bluegill Lepomis macrochirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmonds, C.; Dutta, H.M. (Kent State Univ., OH (USA))

    1989-07-01

    Malathion is a widely used broad spectrum organophosphorus insecticide. Its wide use provides many occasions for its entry into aquatic environments. The presence of this chemical in the aquatic environment would adversely affect many non-target species like fish. About 50 to 90% of the absorbed malathion can be eliminated in one to three days by the fish. About 25% of malathion remained in river water after 2 wk, and 10% remained after 4 wk from the time of its entry. Respiratory distress is one of the early symptoms of pesticide poisoning. These toxicants appear to cause a loss of adhesion between the epithelial cells and the underlying pillar cell system, accompanied by a collapse of the structural integrity of the secondary lamellae. Gills are important in respiration as well as osmoregulation of the fish. Therefore it was decided to study the effects of malathion on the gills of bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus. Bluegills were selected for this study due to the following reasons: (1) Bluegills are more sensitive to malathion when compared to fathead minnows and goldfish. (2) They are important both as edible and game fish. (3) They are easily available and easy to maintain in the laboratory.

  9. Histochemical and structural analysis of mucous glycoprotein secreted by the gill of Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Hae-Young.

    1988-01-01

    Studies were carried out to characterized various mucous cells in the gill filament, to ascertain structural characteristics of the secreted mucous glycoproteins, and to determine the ability of the gill epithelium to incorporate [ 14 C]glucosamine as a precursor in the biosynthesis and secretion of mucous glycoproteins. Using histochemical staining techniques, mucous cells containing neutral and acidic mucins were found in the lateral region, whereas mucous cells containing primarily neutral or sulfated mucins were found in the postlateral region. Serotonin, but not dopamine, stimulated the mucous secretion. In tissues pretreated with [ 14 C]glucosamine, the secreted glycoproteins contain incorporated radiolabel. Analysis by column chromatography using Bio-Gel P-2 and P-6 shows that the secretion contains two glycoprotein populations. Glycoprotein II has a molecular weight of 2.3 x 10 4 daltons. Upon alkaline reductive borohydride cleavage of the O-glycosidic linkages of glycoprotein I, about 70% of the radiolabel was removed from the protein. Gas chromatographic analysis of the carbohydrate composition shows that the glycoproteins contains N-acetylglucosamine (GluNAc), N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), and galactose, fucose and mannose. Amino acid analysis shows that the glycoproteins are rich in serine, threonine and proline

  10. Phil Wallace and Theoretical Physics at McGill in the 1950's: A Personal Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, John David

    2010-01-01

    In 1946 Philip (Phil) Russell Wallace joined the Mathematics Department of McGill University as an Associate Professor of Applied Mathematics, apparently because A. H. S. Gillson, Dean of Arts and Science, wanted theoretical physicists to be in the Mathematics Department. He came with the dream of creating a theoretical physics group at McGill. By the spring of 1949, Phil was authorized to recruit two junior faculty in Mathematics. He hired Theodore (Ted) F. Morris from U. Toronto, who joined in September 1949, and me, who came in January 1950. The group had begun. Phil Wallace was born in Toronto in 1915 and grew up there. He entered the University of Toronto in 1933, earned a B.A. in mathematics in 1937, a M.A. in 1938, and a Ph.D. in applied mathematics in 1940 under Leopold Infeld. His Ph.D. thesis in general relativity was entitled 'On the relativistic equations of motion in electromagnetic theory.' In 1940 World War II had engulfed Europe and was having its effect on Canada, but the US was still at peace. L. J. Synge, Head of the Applied Mathematics Department at Toronto, told Wallace that people such as he would be needed in war work, but things were not ready quite yet. Hold yourself ready. Phil took a two-year position as lecturer in mathematics at the University of Cincinnati (1940-42); in the fall of 1942 he became a lecturer in mathematics at M.I.T. It was from there that he was recruited by Synge to join the war effort from 1943 to 1946 at N.R.C.'s Montreal Laboratory, the genesis of the Canadian Atomic Energy Project. Phil has described those heady wartime years in these pages. Much of the effort of the theoretical physicists was on nuclear reactor theory and the properties of relevant materials, such as graphite, under long and intense neutron bombardment. In late 1945 Phil was sent for four months to Bristol to learn about the properties of graphite from the esteemed N. F. Mott. This exposure led Phil to a life-long interest in graphite and in

  11. Histopathological and Ultrastructural Changes in the Liver and Gills of the Killifish Aphanius Dispar (Cyprinodontidae Exposed to Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horiya H. Al-Azri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is a mycotoxin which can cause serious toxicity to animals and humans.  The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AFB1 in Aphanius dispar fish and measure residues in tissues after in vivo exposure. Aphanius dispar were fed diets containing 50, 100, 150 and 200 µg AFB1/kg for 10, 20 and 30 days. At the end of the experiment, the liver and gills were dissected out and processed for light and electron microscopy. During the experiment, no external changes or unusual behavior were observed in the fish. Histopathological and ultrastructural changes in liver appeared under all four treatments: 50, 100, 150 and 200 µg AFB1/kg. Gill tissues were affected at high doses of 100,150 and 200 µg AFB1/kg. Accumulation of AFB1 residues in liver and gill tissues was found to be related to a dose and duration of exposure.

  12. Histologic structure of red nile tilapia fish (Oreochromis nilloticus Var.) gill which is exposed to lead acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, N. R.; Widiyaningrum, P.; Iswari, R. S.

    2018-03-01

    Fish is a water biota commonly used as the bioindicator of water pollution level. One of the animals which are recommended by EPA as the test species is red Nile Tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus var). The purpose of this research is to get the value of LC50-96 hours in the toxicity test toward the fishes which are exposed to lead acetate with some details identification of the gills damage by gill histologic structure examination together with the determination of the lead concentration which caused the destruction. Sixty fish were used in the preliminary test to detect the threshold concentration (LC0-48 h); whereas 120 fish were used in the toxicity test to get the mortality level of fish up to 50% in 96 h. Finally, for treatment test, there were 80 fish which were exposed to lead acetate in the concentration of 0 ppm, 259.51 ppm, 291.94 ppm and 324.38 ppm. All the treatment tests were given for four weeks. The data were collected at the end of the 4th week, and then, the description of the fish gill histology structure was done. The histology observation of the fishes gill detected some damages in the form of edema (0% -25%), lamellar fusion (1% -75%), hyperplasia (0% -50%), epithelial lifting (0% -50%), and necrosis (0% -50%). The results indicate that administration of lead acetate accelerates moderate damage to the red Nile tilapia fish gill structure. The greatest level of damage is lamellar fusion, while the other decline damages are edema, hyperplasia, epithelial lifting, and necrosis. Furthermore, it can be concluded that LC50-96 hours value in the lead acetate toxicity test of red Nile tilapia fish is 324,38 ppm with some histologic structure damage in the gill the fishes.

  13. Gill structural change in response to turbidity has no effect on the oxygen uptake of a juvenile sparid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, H; Herbert, N A

    2016-01-01

    Turbidity as a result of increased suspended sediments in coastal waters is an environmental stress of worldwide concern. Recent research on fish suggests that detrimental changes to gill structure can occur in turbid waters, with speculation that these alterations diminish fitness variables, such as growth and development, by negatively impacting the O 2 uptake capacity (respiration) of fish. Specifically to address this unknown, the impact of turbid water on the gill structure, somatic growth rate and O 2 uptake rates of a juvenile sparid species ( Pagrus auratus ) was addressed following exposure to five different turbidity treatments (turbidity units) for 30 days. Significant gill structural change was apparent with a progressive increase in turbidity and was quantified as a reduction in lamellar density, as well as an increase in basal hyperplasia, epithelial lifting and increased oxygen diffusion distance across the lamellae. The weight of control fish did not change throughout the experiment, but all fish exposed to turbid waters lost weight, and weight loss increased with nephelometric turbidity units, confirming that long-term turbidity exposure is detrimental to growth productivity. The growth of fish could be impacted in a variety of ways, but the specific hypothesis that structural alteration of the gills impairs O 2 uptake across the gills and limits growth fitness was not supported because there was no measurable difference in the standard metabolic rate, maximal metabolic rate, aerobic metabolic scope or critical oxygen saturation limit of fish measured in clear water after 30 days of exposure. Although impaired O 2 uptake as a result of structurally adjusted gills is unlikely to be the cause of poor fish growth, the exact mechanism by which growth productivity is affected in turbid conditions remains unclear and warrants further investigation.

  14. Exploring gene expression changes in the amphioxus gill after poly(I:C) challenge using digital expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Lin; Qiu, Han-Yue; Liang, Ming-Zhong; Luo, Bang; Wang, Xiu-Qiang; Chen, Jun-Yuan

    2017-11-01

    Amphioxus, a cephalochordate, is a key model animal for studying the evolution of vertebrate immunity. Recently, studies have revealed that microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles change significantly in the amphioxus gill after immune stimulation, but it remains largely unknown how gene expression responds to immune stress. Elucidating gene expression changes in the amphioxus gill will provide a deeper understanding of the evolution of gill immunity in vertebrates. Here, we used high-throughput RNA sequencing technology (RNA-seq) to conduct tag-based digital gene expression profiling (DGE) analyses of the gills of control Branchiostoma belcheri and of those exposed to the viral mimic, poly(I:C) (pIC). Six libraries were created for the control and treatment groups including three biological replicates per group. A total of 1999 differently expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained, with 571 and 1428 DEGs showing up- or down-regulation, respectively, in the treatment group. Enrichment analysis of gene ontology (GO) terms and pathways revealed that the DEGs were primarily related to immune and defense response, apoptosis, human disease, cancer, protein metabolism, enzyme activity, and regulatory processes. In addition, eight DEGs were randomly selected to validate the RNA-seq data using real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR), and the results confirmed the accuracy of the RNA-seq approach. Next, we screened eight key responding genes to examine the dynamic changes in expression levels at different time points in more detail. The results indicated that expressions of TRADD, MARCH, RNF31, NF-κb, CYP450, TNFRSF6B, IFI and LECT1 were induced to participate in the antiviral response against pIC. This study provides a valuable resource for understanding the role of the amphioxus gill in antiviral immunity and the evolution of gill immunity in vertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A two-step approach to estimating selectivity and fishing power of research gill nets used in Greenland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgård, Holger

    1996-01-01

    by normal distributions and could be related to mesh size in accordance with the principle of geometrical similarity. In the second step the selection parameters were estimated by a nonlinear least squares fit. The model also estimated the relative efficiency of the two capture processes and the fishing......Catches of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from Greenland gill-net surveys were analyzed by a two-step approach. In the initial step the form of the selection curve was identified as binormal, which was caused by fish being gilled or caught by the maxillae. Both capture processes could be described...

  16. Further validation of the Danish version of the McGill Ingestive Skills Assessment (MISA-DK)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Background/aims The McGill Ingestive Skill Assessment (MISA) for measuring dysphagic patients' functional performance during meals has been previously translated into Danish — the Danish McGill Ingestive Skill Assessment (MISA-DK) and this translated version validated. However, issues about......-DK was then tested using 102 videorecordings of geriatric patients' ingestive skill performance, and the data from the scale were examined using a second Rasch analysis. Results Initially, two of the six proposed subscales of the original MISA-DK failed to fit the Rasch model, and were removed. It was also necessary...

  17. Differential regulation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and Na+,K+ -ATPase in gills of striped bass, Morone saxatilis: effect of salinity and hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Steffen; Jensen, Lars Nørholm; Tipsmark, Christian Kølbaek

    2007-01-01

    -regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 was stimulated by EGF but not affected by IGF-I. This study is the first to report a branchial EGF response and to demonstrate a functional ERK 1/2 pathway in the teleost gill. In conclusion, CFTR and Na(+),K(+) -ATPase are differentially regulated by salinity and hormones in gills...

  18. Flavobacterium branchiophilum and F. succinicans associated with bacterial gill disease in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) in water recirculation aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raised rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in six replicated water recirculation aquaculture systems (WRAS), and manipulated environmental conditions to promote bacterial gill disease (BGD). For each episode of BGD, gill tissue was sampling from affected fish, unaffected fish within the same WRAS, and...

  19. Dynamic transcriptomic profiles of zebrafish gills in response to zinc depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Phil

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zinc deficiency is detrimental to organisms, highlighting its role as an essential micronutrient contributing to numerous biological processes. To investigate the underlying molecular events invoked by zinc depletion we performed a temporal analysis of transcriptome changes observed within the zebrafish gill. This tissue represents a model system for studying ion absorption across polarised epithelial cells as it provides a major pathway for fish to acquire zinc directly from water whilst sharing a conserved zinc transporting system with mammals. Results Zebrafish were treated with either zinc-depleted (water = 2.61 μg L-1; diet = 26 mg kg-1 or zinc-adequate (water = 16.3 μg L-1; diet = 233 mg kg-1 conditions for two weeks. Gill samples were collected at five time points and transcriptome changes analysed in quintuplicate using a 16K oligonucleotide array. Of the genes represented the expression of a total of 333 transcripts showed differential regulation by zinc depletion (having a fold-change greater than 1.8 and an adjusted P-value less than 0.1, controlling for a 10% False Discovery Rate. Down-regulation was dominant at most time points and distinct sets of genes were regulated at different stages. Annotation enrichment analysis revealed that 'Developmental Process' was the most significantly overrepresented Biological Process GO term (P = 0.0006, involving 26% of all regulated genes. There was also significant bias for annotations relating to development, cell cycle, cell differentiation, gene regulation, butanoate metabolism, lysine degradation, protein tyrosin phosphatases, nucleobase, nucleoside and nucleotide metabolism, and cellular metabolic processes. Within these groupings genes associated with diabetes, bone/cartilage development, and ionocyte proliferation were especially notable. Network analysis of the temporal expression profile indicated that transcription factors foxl1, wt1, nr5a1, nr6a1, and especially

  20. Childhood Pars Planitis; Clinical Features and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoon Nikkhah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the demographic and clinical features of childhood pars planitis, and to determine the therapeutic and visual outcomes of the disease. Methods: Medical records of pediatric patients (less than 16 years of age at diagnosis with pars planitis and at least 6 months of follow-up who were referred to Labbafinejad Medical Center, Tehran, Iran over a 22 year period were reviewed. Results: Overall, 117 eyes of 61 patients including 51 (83.6% male subjects were included. Mean age at the time of diagnosis was 7.8΁3.2 (range, 3-16 years. Mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 0.88΁0.76 logMAR at presentation which improved to 0.39΁0.51 logMAR at final visit (P<0.001. Endotheliitis was present in 23 (19.6% eyes and was significantly more prevalent in subjects younger than 9 years (P=0.025. Cataract formation (41.9% and cystoid macular edema (19.7% were the most prevalent complications. Univariate regression analysis showed that better baseline visual acuity (OR=0.38, 95%CI 0.21-0.70, P=0.002, age older than 5 years at disease onset (OR=0.36, 95%CI 0.14-0.9, P=0.029, absence of endotheliitis (OR=0.39, 95%CI 0.15-0.99, P=0.047 and female gender (OR=3.77, 95%CI 1.03-13.93, P=0.046 were significantly associated with final BCVA of 20/40 or better. Conclusion: Childhood pars planitis was much more common among male subjects. Endotheliitis may be a sign of inflammation spillover and is more prevalent in younger patients. Visual prognosis is favorable in most patients with appropriate treatment.

  1. Structures and immunolocalization of Na+, K+ -ATPase, Na+ /H+ exchanger 3 and vacuolar-type H+ -ATPase in the gills of blennies (Teleostei: Blenniidae) inhabiting rocky intertidal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, M; Komiyama, M; Yoshizawa, H; Shimizu, N; Konno, N; Matsuda, K

    2012-05-01

    The structure and immunolocalization of the ion transporters Na(+) ,K(+) -ATPase (NKA), Na(+) /H(+) exchanger (NHE3) and vacuolar-type H(+) -ATPase (VHA) were examined in the gills of teleosts of the family Blenniidae, which inhabit rocky shores with vertical zonation in subtropical seas. These features were compared among the following species with different ecologies: the amphibious rockskipper blenny Andamia tetradactylus, the intertidal white-finned blenny Praealticus tanegasimae and the purely marine yaeyama blenny Ecsenius yaeyamaensis. Light and electron microscopic observations indicated that thick gill filaments were arranged close to each other and alternately on two hemibranches of a gill arch in the opercular space of A. tetradactylus. Many mucous cells (MC) and mitochondrion-rich cells (MRC) were present in the interlamellar regions of the gill filament. An immunohistochemical study demonstrated that numerous NKA, NHE3 and some VHA were located predominantly on presumed MRCs of gill filaments and at the base of the lamellae. Analyses using serial (mirror image) sections of the gills indicated that only a few NKA immunoreactive cells (IRC) were colocalized with VHA on some MRCs in the filaments. In the gills of P. tanegasimae, NKA- and NHE3-IRCs were observed in the interlamellar region of the filaments and at the base of the lamellae. VHA-IRCs were located sparsely on the lamellae and filaments. In the gills of E. yaeyamaensis, the lamellae and filaments were thin and straight, respectively. MCs were located at the tip as well as found scattered in the interlamellar region of gill filaments. NKA-, NHE3- and VHA-IRCs were moderately frequently observed in the filaments and rarely on the lamellae. This study shows that the structure and distribution of ion transporters in the gills differ among the three blennid species, presumably reflecting their different ecologies. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the

  2. Gill area, permeability and Na+ ,K+ -ATPase activity as a function of size and salinity in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiandao; Roer, Robert; Vana, Matthew; Pate, Susan; Check, Jennifer

    2006-03-01

    Juvenile blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, extensively utilize oligohaline and freshwater regions of the estuary. With a presumptively larger surface-area-to-body weight ratio, juvenile crabs could experience osmo- and ionoregulatory costs well in excess of that of adults. To test this hypothesis, crabs ranging over three orders of magnitude in body weight were acclimated to either sea water (1,000 mOsm) or dilute sea water (150 mOsm), and gill surface area, water and sodium permeabilities (calculated from the passive efflux of 3H2O and 22Na+), gill Na+, K+ -ATPase activity and expression were measured. Juveniles had a relatively larger gill surface area; weight-specific gill surface area decreased with body weight. Weight-specific water and sodium fluxes also decreased with weight, but not to the same extent as gill surface area; thus juveniles were able to decrease gill permeability slightly more than adults upon acclimation to dilute media. Crabs crabs > 5 g in both posterior and anterior gills. Acclimation to dilute medium induced increased expression of Na+, K+ -ATPase and enzyme activity, but the increase was not as great in juveniles as in larger crabs. The increased weight-specific surface area for water gain and salt loss for small crabs in dilute media presents a challenge that is incompletely compensated by reduced permeability and increased affinity of gill Na+, K+ -ATPase for Na+. Juveniles maintain osmotic and ionic homeostasis by the expression and utilization of extremely high levels of gill Na+, K+ -ATPase, in posterior, as well as in anterior, gills. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Structural changes in the somatosensory system correlate with tic severity in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomalla, Götz; Siebner, Hartwig R; Jonas, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics. Previous structural MRI studies have identified regional abnormalities in grey matter, especially in the basal ganglia. These findings are consistent with the assumption...... of white matter changes in GTS. In this study, we aimed to examine whether GTS is associated with abnormalities in white matter microstructure and whether these changes are correlated with tic severity. In a morphometric study based on diffusion tensor MRI of the whole brain, we compared brain tissue...... the groups. We also tested for a linear relationship between regional FA values and clinical scores of tic severity. Probabilistic fibre tracking was applied to characterize anatomical connectivity of those areas showing differences in regional FA. Compared with healthy controls, GTS patients showed...

  4. Evaluation of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome with [99mTc] HMPAO Brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreira, LCTF; Santos, A. O; Juarez, B. A; Leite, H. A; Lima, M. C. L; Ramos, C. D; Camargo, E. E

    2002-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GLTS) is a disorder characterized by tics and several behavioral disturbances. Although GLTS is a relatively common disorder, little is known about its pathophysiology. Previous studies with SPECT and PET were performed in a small number of patients and have shown some discordant data. The aim of this study is to evaluate brain perfusion abnormalities in patients with GLTS and to correlate them with the clinical manifestations of the syndrome. Twenty-eight patients were submitted to brain [99mTc]-HMPAO SPECT. 82 percent of the patients had abnormal studies. The most frequent finding was perfusion abnormalities in the thalami in 16 patients (57 percent) and 85 percent of patients with hyperperfusion of one or both thalami had complex motor tics. This investigation has demonstrated that brain perfusion SPECT is able to identify cortical perfusion abnormalities, associated with clinical symptoms in patients with GLTS. These abnormalities involve the pre-frontal-striatal-thalamic-cortical pathways (Au)

  5. The Ability to Orient Attention in Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Howells

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is characterised by tics, although patients also commonly present with attentional problems. This experiment aimed to ascertain whether TS patients have problems in orienting attention, via the use of a vibrotactile choice reaction time task. Participants were required to push a button in response to a faint vibration delivered to the index finger. Prior to each stimulus vibration, a pre-cue (valid, neutral or invalid was administered to the finger. The performance benefits and costs participants gained from valid and invalid precues were calculated. Contrary to our prediction TS patients did not show significantly different costs or benefits. Furthermore, both patients and controls showed an equal and increased benefit in the crossed arm posture, compared to the uncrossed. These results suggest TS patients do not generally have problems in orienting attention. In addition, in the tactile modality, both patients and controls may benefit from directed attention when difficulty levels are maximal.

  6. Estimation of sodium uptake through the gill of the rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardaire, E.; Avella, M.; Isaia, J.; Bornancin, M.; Mayer-Gostan, N.

    1985-01-01

    Sodium exchanges through the gill epithelia were estimated in the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, using the perfused head technique. The head tissues accumulate radioactivity. In addition there exists an extrabranchial entry of sodium, which is 20 times smaller than the branchial one. The study of the evolution of venous and arterial sodium specific activities as a function of time is necessary before flux measurements are achieved. Contrary to previous studies, an uptake at the primary lamella level is demonstrated. Uptake of sodium through the secondary lamellae can be measured rapidly while at least 30 min are needed for measurement of uptake through the primary lamellae. Chloride cells of the primary lamellae contribute to about 20% of the total sodium uptake.

  7. Toxicity of dispersant application: Biomarkers responses in gills of juvenile golden grey mullet (Liza aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinkovitch, Thomas; Godefroy, Joachim; Théron, Michaël; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2011-10-01

    Dispersant use in nearshore areas is likely to increase the exposure of aquatic organisms to petroleum. To measure the toxicity of this controversial response technique, golden grey mullets (Liza aurata) were exposed to mechanically dispersed oil, chemically dispersed oil, dispersant alone in seawater, water-soluble fraction of oil and to seawater as a control treatment. Several biomarkers were assessed in the gills (enzymatic antioxidant activities, glutathione content, lipid peroxidation) and in the gallbladder (polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons metabolites). The significant differences between chemically dispersed oil and water soluble fraction of oil highlight the environmental risk to disperse an oil slick when containment and recovery can be conducted. The lack of significance between chemically and mechanically dispersed oil suggests that dispersant application is no more toxic than the natural dispersion of the oil slick. The results of this study are of interest in order to establish dispersant use policies in nearshore areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A New Acetylenic Compound and Other Bioactive Metabolites from a Shark Gill-derived Penicillium Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine chiral compounds (1−9 were isolated from the static fermentation culture of a shark gill-derived fungus Penicillium polonicum AP2T1. These compounds include a new acetylenic aromatic ether (1 , (--WA , four alkaloids ( a urantiomide C ( 2 , fructigenine A (3, cyclopenin (4 and cyclopenol (5 and four oxygenated compounds ((R-penipratynolene (6, (3S,4S-3,4-dihydro-3,4,8-trihydroxyl-naphthalenone (7, verrucosidin (8 and norverrucosidin (9. Their structures were elucidated by MS, NMR , optical rotation and circular dichroism (CD . In antimicrobial tests , compounds 1–4, 6 and 8–9 showed weak antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and/or Escherichia coli.Compounds 3, 8 and 9 also exhibited moderate toxicity against Artemia salina larva , and showed cytotoxicity against human colon cancer cell line HCT116.

  9. Imitation in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome--a behavioral study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonas, Melanie; Thomalla, Götz; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2010-01-01

    Echophenomena in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) may relate to deficient processing of observed biological movements. This would be reflected in altered effects of movement observation on motor responses in these patients. We studied reaction times in 11 unmedicated GTS patients without...... in both groups, provided stimulus presentation and response initiation coincided. Healthy subjects responded faster to compatible biological than nonbiological stimuli. In contrast, GTS patients responded slower to incompatible biological than nonbiological stimuli. Patients' mean reaction time...... in experiment 2 correlated with phonic tic-frequency. Motor facilitation by observing biological movements appears to rely on concomitance of stimuli and responses in GTS patients and healthy individuals. Differing behavioral effects of movement observation in GTS might reflect altered activation of an action...

  10. Methallothionein expression on the gills and stomach of Chinese pond mussels exposed to lead (Pb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikaningsih, H.; Suryanto, A. M.; Arfiati, D.

    2018-04-01

    In freshwaters area, Pb originates from rocks (naturally), industries, and pesticides. The ability of Chinese pond mussels as biofilters to absorb heavy metal (Pb) was demonstrated in water circulation system using ten 8 cm mussels. PbNO3 (0, 10, 20, and 30 ppm) was administered into water containing mussels. Carp culture was done for 30 days, and Pb accumulation in carps was measured every week (week 0, 1, 2, and 3). The results showed that the highest Pb ion accumulation was found in the gills of mussels. The examination using hematoxylin-eosin showed that tissues were damage due to haemorrhage, cell ruptures, and cell deaths. The results of the measurement of metallothionein (MT) showed that MT molecular weight was 12.84 kDa.

  11. Kinetostatic and Inertial Conditioning of the McGill Schönflies-Motion Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Cammarata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the optimization of the McGill Schönflies Motion Generator. Recent trends on optimum design of parallel robots led us to investigate the advantages and disadvantages derived from an optimization based on performance indices. Particularly, we optimize here two different indices: the kinematic conditioning and the inertial conditioning, pertaining to the condition number of the Jacobian matrix and to that of the generalized inertia matrix of the robot, respectively. The problem of finding the characteristic length for the robot is first investigated by means of a constrained optimization problem; then plots of the kinetostatic and the inertial conditioning indices are provided for a particular trajectory to be tracked by the moving platform of the SMG. Deep connections appear between the two indices, reflecting a correlation between kinematics and dynamics.

  12. Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome in special education schools: a United Kingdom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, V; Robertson, M M; Zeitlin, H; Kurlan, R

    1997-06-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of tic disorders in children with severe school problems requiring a residential facility and comparison groups of children in regular day schools, we performed direct clinical examinations for the presence of tics and Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS) in 20 children from a residential school for emotional and behavioral difficulties (EBD); 25 children from a residential school for learning disabilities; 17 "problem" children (PC) (identified by teachers as having academic or behaviour problems) and 19 normal children (NC) selected at random (using random numbers) from a regular school. Of the EBD students, 65% were judged to have definite tics as compared with 24% of students with learning difficulties (P education and that this association is particularly robust for children with severe school problems. In these children, the presence of tics may be an indicator of an underlying dysfunction of neurological development.

  13. Investigation of SNP rs2060546 Immediately Upstream to NTN4 in a Danish Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padmanabhuni, Shanmukha S; Houssari, Rayan; Esserlind, Ann-Louise

    2016-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics. GTS is a complex disorder, with environmental factors and several genes involved. Although variations within a few genes such as AADAC, NRXN1, SLITRK1, HDC, and IMMP2L have been...

  14. Functional analysis of the musculo-skeletal system of the gill apparatus in Heptranchias perlo (Chondrichthyes: Hexanchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryukova, Nadezhda V

    2017-08-01

    Musculo-skeletal morphology is an indispensable source for understanding functional adaptations. Analysis of morphology of the branchial apparatus of Hexanchiform sharks can provide insight into aspects of their respiration that are difficult to observe directly. In this study, I compare the structure of the musculo-skeletal system of the gill apparatus of Heptranchias perlo and Squalus acanthias in respect to their adaptation for one of two respiratory mechanisms known in sharks, namely, the active two-pump (oropharyngeal and parabranchial) ventilation and the ram-jet ventilation. In both species, the oropharyngeal pump possesses two sets of muscles, one for compression and the other for expansion. The parabranchial pump only has constrictors. Expansion of this pump occurs only due to passive elastic recoil of the extrabranchial cartilages. In Squalus acanthias the parabranchial chambers are large and equipped by powerful superficial constrictors. These muscles and the outer walls of the parabranchial chambers are much reduced in Heptranchias perlo, and thus it likely cannot use this pump. However, this reduction allows for vertical elongation of outer gill slits which, along with greater number of gill pouches, likely decreases branchial resistance and, at the same time, increases the gill surface area, and can be regarded as an adaptation for ram ventilation at lower speeds. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The putative mechanism of Na(+) absorption in euryhaline elasmobranchs exists in the gills of a stenohaline marine elasmobranch, Squalus acanthias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Keith P; Edwards, Susan L; Claiborne, James B; Evans, David H

    2007-02-01

    We recently cloned an NHE3 orthologue from the gills of the euryhaline Atlantic stingray (Dasyatis sabina), and generated a stingray NHE3 antibody to unequivocally localize the exchanger to the apical side of epithelial cells that are rich with Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (A MRC). We also demonstrated an increase in NHE3 expression when stingrays are in fresh water, suggesting that NHE3 is responsible for active Na(+) absorption. However, the vast majority of elasmobranchs are only found in marine environments. In the current study, immunohistochemistry with the stingray NHE3 antibody was used to localize the exchanger in the gills of the stenohaline marine spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias). NHE3 immunoreactivity was confined to the apical side of cells with basolateral Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and was excluded from cells with high levels of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase. Western blots detected a single protein of 88 kDa in dogfish gills, the same size as NHE3 in stingrays and mammals. These immunological data demonstrate that the putative cell type responsible for active Na(+) absorption in euryhaline elasmobranchs is also present in stenohaline marine elasmobranchs, and suggest that the inability of most elasmobranchs to survive in fresh water is not due to a lack of the gill ion transporters for Na(+) absorption.

  16. Responses of metabolic and antioxidant enzymatic activities in gill, liver and plasma of Catla catla during methyl parathion exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.D. Abhijith

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: The results of the present investigation suggest that gill is the most sensitive organ to MP toxicity. The alterations of the enzymatic parameters can be effectively used as potential biomarkers for monitoring of the organophosphorus pesticides in aquatic environment. Further, MP should be used with caution in order to protect natural waters and aquatic organisms.

  17. The relationship between types and severity of repetitive behaviors in Gilles de la Tourette's disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cath, D.C.; Spinhoven, P.; Wetering, B.J.M. van de; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Landman, A.D.; Woerkom, T.C.A.M. van; Roos, R.A.C.; Rooijmans, H.G.M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study investigated which categories of obsessive-compulsive and Tourette-related behaviors in Gilles de la Tourette's disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) without tics are experienced as most severe across the study groups and what the differences are in symptom

  18. Gill remodelling and growth rate of striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus under impact of hypoxia and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phuong, Le My; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2017-01-01

    Gill morphometric and gill plasticity of the air-breathing striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) exposed to different temperatures (present day 27 °C and future 33 °C) and different air saturation levels (92% and 35%) during 6 weeks were investigated using vertical sections to estimate...... the respiratory lamellae surface areas, harmonic mean barrier thicknesses, and gill component volumes. Gill respiratory surface area (SA) and harmonic mean water - blood barrier thicknesses (HM) of the fish were strongly affected by both environmental temperature and oxygen level. Thus initial values for 27 °C...... normoxic fish (12.4 ± 0.8 g) were 211.8 ± 21.6 mm2 g−1 and 1.67 ± 0.12 μm for SA and HM respectively. After 5 weeks in same conditions or in the combinations of 33 °C and/or PO2 of 55 mm Hg, this initial surface area scaled allometrically with size for the 33 °C hypoxic group, whereas branchial SA...

  19. Regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor mRNA levels in the gills of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar during smoltification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAZURAIS D.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR transcript was investigated in the gills of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar during the parr-smolt transformation. Sampling of parr and smolt fish was performed between December and July and in particular during the smoltification period occurring in spring. Quantification of GR transcripts revealed differences between the two groups in March and at the beginning of April. During these dates, the amounts of GR mRNA in parr gills were respectively three and two fold lower than those measured in smolts. In order to determine which factors are responsible for these differences, we studied the long-term effects of prolactin and Cortisol treatments on GR transcript in the gills of presmolt fish. The plasma levels of these two hormones respectively drop and rise during smoltification. Contrary to Cortisol long-term treatment which did not modify the amount of gill GR transcript, short-term treatment induced a significant decrease within 12 hours. Prolactin long-term treatment caused a significant increase of GR transcript abundance after 13 days of implant treatment. This result is unexpected with regard to those obtained in the smoltification analysis but is in agreement with previous studies performed in mammary gland revealing a positive control of PRL on GR in epithelial cells. Our data suggest that the regulation of the GR transcript during the parr-smolt transformation probably involves several hormonal factors.

  20. Characterisation of the gill mucosal bacterial communities of four butterflyfish species: a reservoir of bacterial diversity in coral reef ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverter, Miriam; Sasal, Pierre; Tapissier-Bontemps, N; Lecchini, D; Suzuki, M

    2017-06-01

    While recent studies have suggested that fish mucus microbiota play an important role in homeostasis and prevention of infections, very few studies have investigated the bacterial communities of gill mucus. We characterised the gill mucus bacterial communities of four butterflyfish species and although the bacterial diversity of gill mucus varied significantly between species, Shannon diversities were high (H = 3.7-5.7) in all species. Microbiota composition differed between butterflyfishes, with Chaetodon lunulatus and C. ornatissimus having the most similar bacterial communities, which differed significantly from C. vagabundus and C. reticulatus. The core bacterial community of all species consisted of mainly Proteobacteria followed by Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Chaetodonlunulatus and C. ornatissimus bacterial communities were mostly dominated by Gammaproteobacteria with Vibrio as the most abundant genus. Chaetodonvagabundus and C. reticulatus presented similar abundances of Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria, which were well represented by Acinetobacter and Paracoccus, respectively. In conclusion, our results indicate that different fish species present specific bacterial assemblages. Finally, as mucus layers are nutrient hotspots for heterotrophic bacteria living in oligotrophic environments, such as coral reef waters, the high bacterial diversity found in butterflyfish gill mucus might indicate external fish mucus surfaces act as a reservoir of coral reef bacterial diversity. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of a Picorna-Like Virus Associated with Gill Tissue in Clinically Normal Brook Trout, Salvelinus fontinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Iwanowicz, Deborah D.; Adams, Cynthia R.; Galbraith, Heather; Aunins, Aaron; Cornman, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we report a draft genome sequence of a picorna-like virus associated with brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, gill tissue. The draft genome comprises 8,681 nucleotides, excluding the poly(A) tract, and contains two open reading frames. It is most similar to picorna-like viruses that infect invertebrates.

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of a Picorna-Like Virus Associated with Gill Tissue in Clinically Normal Brook Trout, Salvelinus fontinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R; Iwanowicz, Deborah D; Adams, Cynthia R; Galbraith, Heather; Aunins, Aaron; Cornman, Robert S

    2017-10-12

    Here, we report a draft genome sequence of a picorna-like virus associated with brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis , gill tissue. The draft genome comprises 8,681 nucleotides, excluding the poly(A) tract, and contains two open reading frames. It is most similar to picorna-like viruses that infect invertebrates.

  3. Nitric oxide synthase in the gill of Atlantic salmon: colocalization with and inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesson, Lars O E; Tipsmark, Christian K; Holmqvist, Bo

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between nitric oxide (NO) and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA) in the gill of anadromous Atlantic salmon. Cells containing NO-producing enzymes were revealed by means of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunocytochemistry and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphor...

  4. Comet assay in gill cells of Prochilodus lineatus exposed in vivo to cypermethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletta, G L; Gigena, F; Loteste, A; Parma, M J; Kleinsorge, E C; Simoniello, M F

    2013-11-01

    Agricultural chemicals can induce genetic alterations on aquatic organisms that have been associated with effects on growth, reproduction and population dynamics. The evaluation of DNA damage in fish using the comet assay (CA) frequently involves the utilization of erythrocytes. However, epithelial gill cells (EGC) can be more sensitive, as they are constantly dividing and in direct contact with potentially stressing compounds from the aquatic environment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate (1) the sensitivity and suitability of epithelial gill cells of Prochilodus lineatus in response to different genotoxic agents through the application of the CA, (2) the induction of DNA damage in this cell population after in vivo exposure to cypermethrin. Baseline value of the CA damage index (DI) for EGC of juvenile P. lineatus was 144.68±5.69. Damage increased in a dose-dependent manner after in vitro exposure of EGC to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and H2O2, two known genotoxic agents. In vivo exposure of fish to cypermethrin induced a significant increase in DNA DI of EGC at 0.150μg/l (DI: 239.62±6.21) and 0.300μg/l (270.63±2.09) compared to control (150.25±4.38) but no effect was observed at 0.075μg/l (168.50±10.77). This study shows that EGC of this species are sensitive for the application of the CA, demonstrating DNA damage in response to alkylation (MMS), oxidative damage (H2O2), and to the insecticide cypermethryn. These data, together with our previous study on DNA damage induction on erythrocytes of this species, provides useful information for future work involving biomonitoring in regions where P. lineatus is naturally exposed to pesticides and other genotoxic agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Natural mineral particles are cytotoxic to rainbow trout gill epithelial cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Michel

    Full Text Available Worldwide increases in fluvial fine sediment are a threat to aquatic animal health. Fluvial fine sediment is always a mixture of particles whose mineralogical composition differs depending on the sediment source and catchment area geology. Nonetheless, whether particle impact in aquatic organisms differs between mineral species remains to be investigated. This study applied an in vitro approach to evaluate cytotoxicity and uptake of four common fluvial mineral particles (quartz, feldspar, mica, and kaolin; concentrations: 10, 50, 250 mg L(-1 in the rainbow trout epithelial gill cell line RTgill-W1. Cells were exposed for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. Cytotoxicity assays for cell membrane integrity (propidium iodide assay, oxidative stress (H2DCF-DA assay, and metabolic activity (MTT assay were applied. These assays were complemented with cell counts and transmission electron microscopy. Regardless of mineral species, particles ≤ 2 µm in diameter were taken up by the cells, suggesting that particles of all mineral species came into contact and interacted with the cells. Not all particles, however, caused strong cytotoxicity: Among all assays the tectosilicates quartz and feldspar caused sporadic maximum changes of 0.8-1.2-fold compared to controls. In contrast, cytotoxicity of the clay particles was distinctly stronger and even differed between the two particle types: mica induced concentration-dependent increases in free radicals, with consistent 1.6-1.8-fold-changes at the 250 mg L(-1 concentration, and a dilated endoplasmic reticulum. Kaolin caused concentration-dependent increases in cell membrane damage, with consistent 1.3-1.6-fold increases at the 250 mg L(-1 concentration. All effects occurred in the presence or absence of 10% fetal bovine serum. Cell numbers per se were marginally affected. Results indicate that (i. natural mineral particles can be cytotoxic to gill epithelial cells, (ii. their cytotoxic potential differs between mineral

  6. 2-DE Mapping of the Blue Mussel Gill Proteome: The Usual Suspects Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Rocher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis, L. 1758 is an ecologically important and commercially relevant bivalve. Because of its ability to bioconcentrate xenobiotics, it is also a widespread sentinel species for environmental pollution, which has been used in ecotoxicological studies for biomarker assessment. Consequently, numerous proteomics studies have been carried out in various research contexts using mussels of the genus Mytilus, which intended to improve our understanding of complex physiological processes related to reproduction, adaptation to physical stressors or shell formation and for biomarker discovery. Differential-display 2-DE proteomics relies on an extensive knowledge of the proteome with as many proteoforms identified as possible. To this end, extensive characterization of proteins was performed in order to increase our knowledge of the Mytilus gill proteome. On average, 700 spots were detected on 2-DE gels by colloidal blue staining, of which 122 different, non-redundant proteins comprising 203 proteoforms could be identified by tandem mass spectrometry. These proteins could be attributed to four major categories: (i “metabolism”, including antioxidant defence and degradation of xenobiotics; (ii “genetic information processing”, comprising transcription and translation as well as folding, sorting, repair and degradation; (iii “cellular processes”, such as cell motility, transport and catabolism; (iv “environmental information processing”, including signal transduction and signalling molecules and interaction. The role of cytoskeleton proteins, energetic metabolism, chaperones/stress proteins, protein trafficking and the proteasome are discussed in the light of the exigencies of the intertidal environment, leading to an enhanced stress response, as well as the structural and physiological particularities of the bivalve gill tissue.

  7. Hormonal regulation of aquaporin 3: opposing actions of prolactin and cortisol in tilapia gill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breves, Jason P; Inokuchi, Mayu; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Seale, Andre P; Hunt, Bethany L; Watanabe, Soichi; Lerner, Darren T; Kaneko, Toyoji; Grau, E Gordon

    2016-09-01

    Aquaporins (Aqps) are expressed within key osmoregulatory tissues where they mediate the movement of water and selected solutes across cell membranes. We leveraged the functional plasticity of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) gill epithelium to examine how Aqp3, an aquaglyceroporin, is regulated in response to osmoregulatory demands. Particular attention was paid to the actions of critical osmoregulatory hormones, namely, prolactin (Prl), growth hormone and cortisol. Branchial aqp3 mRNA levels were modulated following changes in environmental salinity, with enhanced aqp3 mRNA expression upon transfer from seawater to freshwater (FW). Accordingly, extensive Aqp3 immunoreactivity was localized to cell membranes of branchial epithelium in FW-acclimated animals. Upon transferring hypophysectomized tilapia to FW, we identified that a pituitary factor(s) is required for Aqp3 expression in FW. Replacement with ovine Prl (oPrl) was sufficient to stimulate Aqp3 expression in hypophysectomized animals held in FW, an effect blocked by coinjection with cortisol. Both oPrl and native tilapia Prls (tPrl177 and tPrl188) stimulated aqp3 in incubated gill filaments in a concentration-related manner. Consistent with in vivo responses, coincubation with cortisol blocked oPrl-stimulated aqp3 expression in vitro Our data indicate that Prl and cortisol act directly upon branchial epithelium to regulate Aqp3 in tilapia. Thus, within the context of the diverse actions of Prl on hydromineral balance in vertebrates, we define a new role for Prl as a regulator of Aqp expression. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  8. Cadmium accumulation, gill Cd binding, acclimation, and physiological effects during long term sublethal Cd exposure in rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollis, L.; McGeer, J.C.; McDonald, D.G.; Wood, C.M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout, on 3% of body weight daily ration, were exposed to 0 (control), 3, and 10 {mu}g l{sup -1} Cd (as Cd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O) in moderately hard (140 mg l{sup -1} as CaCO{sub 3}), alkaline (95 mg l{sup -1} as CaCO{sub 3}, pH 8.0) water for 30 days. Particular attention focused on acclimation, and on whether a gill surface binding model, originally developed in dilute softwater, could be applied in this water quality to fish chronically exposed to Cd. Only the higher Cd concentration caused mortality (30%, in the first few days). The costs of acclimation, if any, in our study were subtle since no significant effects of chronic Cd exposure were seen in growth rate, swimming performance (stamina and U{sub Crit}), routine O{sub 2} consumption, or whole body ion levels. Substantial acclimation occurred in both exposure groups, manifested as 11- to 13-fold increases in 96-h LC{sub 50} values. In water quality regulations, which are based on toxicity tests with non-acclimated fish only, this remarkable protective effect of acclimation is not taken into account. Cd accumulated in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion to 60-120x (gills), 8-20x (liver), 2-7x (carcass), and 5-12x (whole bodies) control levels by 30 days. Chronically accumulated gill Cd could not be removed by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) challenge. These gill Cd concentrations were 20- to 40-fold greater than levels predicted by the gill-binding model to cause mortality during acute exposure. In short-term gill Cd-binding experiments (up to 70 {mu}g l{sup -1} exposures for 3 h), gill Cd burden increased as predicted in control fish, but was not detectable against the high background concentrations in acclimated fish. In light of these results, Cd uptake/turnover tests were performed using radioactive {sup 109}Cd to improve sensitivity. With this approach, a small saturable binding component was seen, but could not be related to toxic response in

  9. Accouchement par forceps: indications et pronostic materno-foetal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'accouchement par voie basse, peut être parfois compromis par des facteurs maternels, foetaux ou materno-foetaux nécessitant des moyens thérapeutiques comme le forceps pour achever l'accouchement par voie naturelle. Le forceps, une méthode qui n'est pas sans risque pour la mère et le nouveau-né. Nous avons ...

  10. Emersion behaviour underlies variation in gill morphology and aquatic respiratory function in the amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turko, A J; Tatarenkov, A; Currie, S; Earley, R L; Platek, A; Taylor, D S; Wright, P A

    2018-04-13

    Fishes acclimated to hypoxic environments often increase gill surface area to improve O 2 uptake. In some species, surface area is increased via reduction of an interlamellar cell mass (ILCM) that fills water channels between gill lamellae. Amphibious fishes, however, may not increase gill surface area in hypoxic water because these species can, instead, leave water and breathe air. To differentiate between these possibilities, we compared wild amphibious mangrove rivulus Kryptolebias marmoratus from two habitats that varied in O 2 availability - a hypoxic freshwater pool versus nearly anoxic crab burrows. Fish captured from crab burrows had less gill surface area (as ILCMs were enlarged by ∼32%), increased rates of normoxic O 2 consumption and increased critical O 2 tension compared with fish from the freshwater pool. Thus, wild mangrove rivulus do not respond to near-anoxic water by decreasing metabolism or increasing O 2 extraction. Instead, fish from the crab burrow habitat spent three times longer out of water, which probably caused the observed changes in gill morphology and respiratory phenotype. We also tested whether critical O 2 tension is influenced by genetic heterozygosity, as K. marmoratus is one of only two hermaphroditic vertebrate species that can produce both self-fertilized (inbred) or out-crossed (more heterozygous) offspring. We found no evidence for inbreeding depression, suggesting that self-fertilization does not impair respiratory function. Overall, our results demonstrate that amphibious fishes that inhabit hypoxic aquatic habitats can use a fundamentally different strategy from that used by fully aquatic water-breathing fishes, relying on escape behaviour rather than metabolic depression or increased O 2 extraction ability. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Assessment of gill pathological responses in the tropical fish yellowfin seabream of Persian Gulf under mercury exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Hassaninezhad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gill histomorphological alterations were used to assess the effects of chronic exposure to HgCl2 on the yellowfin seabream, Acanthopagrus latus. In this regard, 90 A. latus were exposed to sublethal concentrations of HgCl2 (10, 20, 35 and 50 μg/L for 3 weeks. Treated fish were erratic and showed respiratory distress. The most common morphological abnormalities included: filaments disorganization, increase of mucus secretion, debris and blood plaques on the filaments, losing or shortening of some filaments. The most frequent histopathological changes detected in the gills included extensive lifting of the lamellar epithelium and edema of lamellae with enlarged sub-epithelial spaces, exfoliated epithelium of lamellae, telangiectasia, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the epithelial cell resulted in partial fusion of the secondary lamellae and a reduction of the water space, club shaping of gill lamellae, blood congestion. Some more severe alternations found in the gill of fish exposed to higher levels of HgCl2 (35 and 50 μg/L included lamellar aneurysm and hemorrhages with rupture of the lamellar epithelium. According to the results of the present study, mercuric chloride could cause major histomorphological changes in the gill of A. latus, decreasing its gas exchange capability. Two mercury concentrations (10 and 20 μg/L used in the present study were in agreement with the concentration of mercury in the water of different parts of Mahshahr creeks (the north of Persian Gulf (3.66 to 15 μg/L. Therefore, based on the results the presence of pathological alteration in A. latus inhibited in the natural environment (Mahshahr creeks seems to be logical.

  12. Absorption dynamics of organic chemical transport across trout gills as related to octanol-water partition coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKim, J.; Schmieder, P.; Veith, G.

    1985-01-01

    An in vivo fish preparation was used that allowed a direct measure of the transport rates of 14 different organic chemicals across the gills of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). The chemicals, all C14 labeled, were selected from five classes, encompassing a range of octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) values, from 0.23 (ethyl formate) to 7.5 (mirex). The uptake efficiency (extraction efficiency) of each chemical was determined by monitoring the inspired and expired water of trout exposed to each chemical over an exposure period of 1 to 6 hr. The mean gill extraction efficiency for all chemicals tested varied from a low of 7% to a high of 60%, extracted in a single pall of the chemical across the gills. The extraction efficiency of chemicals with log P or 1 or less were low and showed no relationship to log P. These low extraction efficiencies seen at log P of 1 and below with molecular weights below 100 were indicative of aqueous pore transport. The mean extraction efficiency for chemicals with log P values of 1 to 3 seemed to vary directly with log P, to a maximum of slightly greater than 60%, suggesting that uptake was controlled by the lipid membrane. The mean extraction efficiency for chemicals with log P of 3 to 6 was independent of log P and remained at 60%, which suggested that gill uptake was controlled by aqueous diffusion rates rather than gill membrane permeability. The mean extraction efficiency with mirex (log P . 7.5) decreased to 20%

  13. Detection of free and covalently bound microcystins in different tissues (liver, intestines, gills, and muscles) of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry: Method characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadel-Six, Sabrina; Moyenga, David; Magny, Stéphanie; Trotereau, Sophie; Edery, Marc; Krys, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    So far only a few publications have explored the development of extraction methods of cyanotoxin extracted from complex matrices. With regard to cyanobacterial microcystins (MCs), the data on the contamination of the flesh of aquatic organisms is hard to compare and very limited due to the lack of validated methods. In recent years, evidence that both free and bound fractions of toxin are found in these tissues has highlighted the need to develop effective methods of quantification. Several techniques do exist, but only the Lemieux oxidation has so far been used to investigate complex tissue matrices. In this study, protocols based on the Lemieux approach were adapted for the quantitative chemical analysis of free MC-LR and MMPB derived from bound toxin in the tissues of juvenile trout gavaged with MC-LR. Afterwards, the NF V03 110 guideline was used to characterize the protocols elaborated and evaluate their effectiveness. -- Highlights: • We adapted the quantitative chemical analysis of free and total MC for the tissues of trout. • We characterize with the NF V03 110 guideline the protocols for free MC-LR and MMPB. • We quantify the free MC-LR and MMPB in the tissues of trout gavaged with MC-LR. -- We develop and characterize with the guideline NF V03 110 the protocols for the extraction and quantification of the free and total MC for different matrices

  14. PAR1 activation affects the neurotrophic properties of Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Elena; Fabrizi, Cinzia; Somma, Francesca; Correani, Virginia; Maras, Bruno; Schininà, Maria Eugenia; Ciraci, Viviana; Artico, Marco; Fornai, Francesco; Fumagalli, Lorenzo

    2017-03-01

    Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is the prototypic member of a family of four G-protein-coupled receptors that signal in response to extracellular proteases. In the peripheral nervous system, the expression and/or the role of PARs are still poorly investigated. High PAR1 mRNA expression was found in the rat dorsal root ganglia and the signal intensity of PAR1 mRNA increased in response to sciatic nerve transection. In the sciatic nerve, functional PAR1 receptor was reported at the level of non-compacted Schwann cell myelin microvilli of the nodes of Ranvier. Schwann cells are the principal population of glial cells of the peripheral nervous system which myelinate axons playing an important role during axonal regeneration and remyelination. The present study was undertaken in order to determine if the activation of PAR1 affects the neurotrophic properties of Schwann cells. Our results suggest that the stimulation of PAR1 could potentiate the Schwann cell ability to favour nerve regeneration. In fact, the conditioned medium obtained from Schwann cell cultures challenged with a specific PAR1 activating peptide (PAR1 AP) displays increased neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties with respect to the culture medium from untreated Schwann cells. The proteomic analysis of secreted proteins in untreated and PAR1 AP-treated Schwann cells allowed the identification of factors differentially expressed in the two samples. Some of them (such as macrophage migration inhibitory factor, matrix metalloproteinase-2, decorin, syndecan 4, complement C1r subcomponent, angiogenic factor with G patch and FHA domains 1) appear to be transcriptionally regulated after PAR1 AP treatment as shown by RT-PCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of water chemistry and natural organic matter on active and passive uptake of inorganic mercury by gills of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinck, Joel; Dunbar, Michael; Brown, Stephanie; Nichols, Joel; Winter, Anna; Hughes, Christopher; Playle, Richard C.

    2005-01-01

    To distinguish physiologically regulated uptake from passive uptake of inorganic Hg in fish, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to inorganic Hg (0.5, 1, or 2 μM total Hg) in ion-poor water with various treatments. Addition of ions to the water (mM concentrations of Ca, K, Cl) did not consistently alter Hg accumulation by trout gills, although there was a trend to higher Hg accumulation at higher ion concentrations. The apical Ca channel blockers Verapamil and lanthanum also did not consistently affect Hg accumulation by trout gills. Pre-treatment of trout with the Na channel blocker Phenamil decreased Hg uptake by about half. These results suggest a combination of physiologically regulated and passive uptake of Hg by trout gills. Strong complexing agents of Hg (EDTA, NTA, ethylenediamine, cysteine) decreased Hg-binding by trout gills in a dose-dependent manner. From these data, a conditional equilibrium binding constant for Hg to the gills was estimated as log K Hg-gill = 18.0, representing very strong binding of Hg to the gills. This value is a first step in creating a biotic ligand model (BLM) for inorganic Hg and fish. Natural organic matter (2-10 mg C/L) also decreased Hg-binding by trout gills, although mM concentrations of Na, K, and Cl interfered with this effect. At low concentrations of these ions, natural organic matter samples isolated from various sources bound Hg to similar degrees, as judged by Hg accumulation by trout gills. A conditional binding constant to natural organic matter (NOM) was estimated as log K Hg-NOM = 18.0 with about 0.5 μmol binding sites per mg C, representing strong binding of Hg to NOM

  16. Influence of water chemistry and natural organic matter on active and passive uptake of inorganic mercury by gills of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinck, Joel [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada); Dunbar, Michael [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada); Brown, Stephanie [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada); Nichols, Joel [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada); Winter, Anna [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada); Hughes, Christopher [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada); Playle, Richard C. [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada)]. E-mail: rplayle@wlu.ca

    2005-03-25

    To distinguish physiologically regulated uptake from passive uptake of inorganic Hg in fish, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to inorganic Hg (0.5, 1, or 2 {mu}M total Hg) in ion-poor water with various treatments. Addition of ions to the water (mM concentrations of Ca, K, Cl) did not consistently alter Hg accumulation by trout gills, although there was a trend to higher Hg accumulation at higher ion concentrations. The apical Ca channel blockers Verapamil and lanthanum also did not consistently affect Hg accumulation by trout gills. Pre-treatment of trout with the Na channel blocker Phenamil decreased Hg uptake by about half. These results suggest a combination of physiologically regulated and passive uptake of Hg by trout gills. Strong complexing agents of Hg (EDTA, NTA, ethylenediamine, cysteine) decreased Hg-binding by trout gills in a dose-dependent manner. From these data, a conditional equilibrium binding constant for Hg to the gills was estimated as log K {sub Hg-gill} = 18.0, representing very strong binding of Hg to the gills. This value is a first step in creating a biotic ligand model (BLM) for inorganic Hg and fish. Natural organic matter (2-10 mg C/L) also decreased Hg-binding by trout gills, although mM concentrations of Na, K, and Cl interfered with this effect. At low concentrations of these ions, natural organic matter samples isolated from various sources bound Hg to similar degrees, as judged by Hg accumulation by trout gills. A conditional binding constant to natural organic matter (NOM) was estimated as log K {sub Hg-NOM} = 18.0 with about 0.5 {mu}mol binding sites per mg C, representing strong binding of Hg to NOM.

  17. Influence of water chemistry and natural organic matter on active and passive uptake of inorganic mercury by gills of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinck, Joel; Dunbar, Michael; Brown, Stephanie; Nichols, Joel; Winter, Anna; Hughes, Christopher; Playle, Richard C

    2005-03-25

    To distinguish physiologically regulated uptake from passive uptake of inorganic Hg in fish, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to inorganic Hg (0.5, 1, or 2 microM total Hg) in ion-poor water with various treatments. Addition of ions to the water (mM concentrations of Ca, K, Cl) did not consistently alter Hg accumulation by trout gills, although there was a trend to higher Hg accumulation at higher ion concentrations. The apical Ca channel blockers Verapamil and lanthanum also did not consistently affect Hg accumulation by trout gills. Pre-treatment of trout with the Na channel blocker Phenamil decreased Hg uptake by about half. These results suggest a combination of physiologically regulated and passive uptake of Hg by trout gills. Strong complexing agents of Hg (EDTA, NTA, ethylenediamine, cysteine) decreased Hg-binding by trout gills in a dose-dependent manner. From these data, a conditional equilibrium binding constant for Hg to the gills was estimated as logK(Hg-gill) = 18.0, representing very strong binding of Hg to the gills. This value is a first step in creating a biotic ligand model (BLM) for inorganic Hg and fish. Natural organic matter (2-10 mg C/L) also decreased Hg-binding by trout gills, although mM concentrations of Na, K, and Cl interfered with this effect. At low concentrations of these ions, natural organic matter samples isolated from various sources bound Hg to similar degrees, as judged by Hg accumulation by trout gills. A conditional binding constant to natural organic matter (NOM) was estimated as logK(Hg-NOM) = 18.0 with about 0.5 micromol binding sites per mg C, representing strong binding of Hg to NOM.

  18. Taare Zameen Par and dyslexic savants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Ambar

    2009-04-01

    The film Taare Zameen Par (Stars upon the Ground) portrays the tormented life at school and at home of a child with dyslexia and his eventual success after his artistic talents are discovered by his art teacher at the boarding school. The film hints at a curious neurocognitive phenomenon of creativity in the midst of language disability, as exemplified in the lives of people like Leonardo da Vinci and Albert Einstein, both of whom demonstrated extraordinary creativity even though they were probably affected with developmental learning disorders. It has been hypothesized that a developmental delay in the dominant hemisphere most likely 'disinhibits' the nondominant parietal lobe, unmasking talents-artistic or otherwise-in some such individuals. It has been suggested that, in remedial training, children with learning disorders be encouraged to develop such hidden talents to full capacity, rather than be subjected to the usual overemphasis on the correction of the disturbed coded symbol operations.

  19. Soudage de bois feuillus par friction rotationnelle

    OpenAIRE

    Belleville, Benoît

    2012-01-01

    Les différentes colles utilisées actuellement par l’industrie du meuble au Canada nécessitent des temps de polymérisation constituant un goulot dans la production des meubles et limitant l’atteinte de la production unitaire. Ces adhésifs synthétiques généralement issus de la pétrochimie nécessitent énormément d’énergie lors de leur confection. L’utilisation de connecteurs métalliques ou plastiques, quant à elle, limite les phases de découpage et sablage subséquentes. La présence d’adhésifs et...

  20. Confocal microscopy as a useful approach to describe gill rakers of Asian species of carp and native filter-feeding fishes of the upper Mississippi River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liza R. Walleser,; D.R. Howard,; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Amberg, Jon J.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand potential diet overlap among exotic Asian species of carp and native species of filter-feeding fishes of the upper Mississippi River system, microscopy was used to document morphological differences in the gill rakers. Analysing samples first with light microscopy and subsequently with confocal microscopy, the three-dimensional structure of gill rakers in Hypophthalmichthys molitrix,Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Dorosoma cepedianum was more thoroughly described and illustrated than previous work with traditional microscopy techniques. The three-dimensional structure of gill rakers in Ictiobus cyprinellus was described and illustrated for the first time.

  1. TMS suppression of right pars triangularis, but not pars opercularis, improves naming in aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, Margaret A.; Martin, Paula I.; Theoret, Hugo; Kobayashi, Masahito; Fregni, Felipe; Nicholas, Marjorie; Tormos, Jose M.; Steven, Megan S.; Baker, Errol H.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to discover if an optimum 1 cm2 area in the non-damaged right hemisphere (RH) was present, which could temporarily improve naming in chronic, nonfluent aphasia patients when suppressed with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Ten minutes of slow, 1 Hz rTMS was applied to suppress different RH ROIs in eight aphasia cases. Picture naming and response time (RT) were examined before, and immediately after rTMS. In aphasia patients, suppression of right pars triangularis (PTr) led to significant increase in pictures named, and significant decrease in RT. Suppression of right pars opercularis (POp), however, led to significant increase in RT, but no change in number of pictures named. Eight normals named all pictures correctly; similar to aphasia patients, RT significantly decreased following rTMS to suppress right PTr, versus right POp. Differential effects following suppression of right PTr versus right POp suggest different functional roles for these regions. PMID:21864891

  2. Ultrastructure of book gill development in embryos and first instars of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus L. (Chelicerata, Xiphosura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farley Roger D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transmission electron microscope (TEM is used for the first time to study the development of book gills in the horseshoe crab. Near the end of the nineteenth century the hypothesis was presented for homology and a common ancestry for horseshoe crab book gills and arachnid book lungs. The present developmental study and the author's recent ones of book gills (SEM and scorpion book lungs (TEM are intended to clarify early histological work and provide new ultrastructural details for further research and for hypotheses about evolutionary history and relationships. Results The observations herein are in agreement with earlier reports that the book gill lamellae are formed by proliferation and evagination of epithelial cells posterior to opisthosomal branchial appendages. A cartilage-like endoskeleton is produced in the base of the opisthosomal appendages. The lamellar precursor cells in the appendage base proliferate, migrate outward and secrete the lamellar cuticle from their apical surface. A series of external, posteriorly-directed lamellae is formed, with each lamella having a central channel for hemolymph and pillar-type space holders formed from cells of the opposed walls. This repeated, page-like pattern results also in water channels (without space holders between the sac-like hemolymph lamellae. Conclusions The developmental observations herein and in an earlier study (TEM of scorpion book lungs show that the lamellae in book gills and book lungs result from some similar activities and features of the precursor epithelial cells: proliferation, migration, alignment and apical/basal polarity with secretion of cuticle from the apical surface and the basal surface in contact with hemolymph. These cellular similarities and the resulting book-like structure suggest a common ancestry, but there are also substantial developmental differences in producing these organs for gas exchange in the different environments, aqueous

  3. ParABS system in chromosome partitioning in the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A Iniesta

    Full Text Available Chromosome segregation is an essential cellular function in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. The ParABS system is a fundamental player for a mitosis-like process in chromosome partitioning in many bacterial species. This work shows that the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus also uses the ParABS system for chromosome segregation. Its large prokaryotic genome of 9.1 Mb contains 22 parS sequences near the origin of replication, and it is shown here that M. xanthus ParB binds preferentially to a consensus parS sequence in vitro. ParB and ParA are essential for cell viability in M. xanthus as in Caulobacter crescentus, but unlike in many other bacteria. Absence of ParB results in anucleate cells, chromosome segregation defects and loss of viability. Analysis of ParA subcellular localization shows that it clusters at the poles in all cells, and in some, in the DNA-free cell division plane between two chromosomal DNA masses. This ParA localization pattern depends on ParB but not on FtsZ. ParB inhibits the nonspecific interaction of ParA with DNA, and ParA colocalizes with chromosomal DNA only when ParB is depleted. The subcellular localization of ParB suggests a single ParB-parS complex localized at the edge of the nucleoid, next to a polar ParA cluster, with a second ParB-parS complex migrating after the replication of parS takes place to the opposite nucleoid edge, next to the other polar ParA cluster.

  4. Concerning the dynamic instability of actin homolog ParM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, David; Yamamoto, Akihiro; Iwasa, Mitsusada; Narita, Akihiro; Maeda, Kayo; Maeda, Yuichiro

    2007-01-01

    Using in vitro TIRF- and electron-microscopy, we reinvestigated the dynamics of native ParM, a prokaryotic DNA segregation protein and actin homolog. In contrast to a previous study, which used a cysteine ParM mutant, we find that the polymerization process of wild type ATP-ParM filaments consists of a polymerization phase and a subsequent steady state phase, which is dynamically unstable, like that of microtubules. We find that the apparent bidirectional polymerization of ParM, is not due to the intrinsic nature of this filament, but results from ParM forming randomly oriented bundles in the presence of crowding agents. Our results imply, that in the bacterium, ParM filaments spontaneously form bipolar bundles. Due to their intrinsic dynamic instability, ParM bundles can efficiently 'search' the cytoplasmic lumen for DNA, bind it equally well at the bipolar ends and segregate it approximately symmetrically, by the insertion of ParM subunits at either end

  5. The protein kinase SIK downregulates the polarity protein Par3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanlandewijck, Michael; Dadras, Mahsa Shahidi; Lomnytska, Marta

    2018-01-01

    on Par3. Functionally, this mechanism impacts on tight junction downregulation. Furthermore, SIK contributes to the loss of epithelial polarity and examination of advanced and invasive human cancers of diverse origin displayed high levels of SIK expression and a corresponding low expression of Par3...

  6. Gill histopathological alterations in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus exposed to treated sewage Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Fontaínhas-Fernandes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Adult Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, of both sexes were exposed in wastewater from a sewage treatment plant for a period of 4 days. Gill samples were collected after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and histopathological changes were analyzed by light and scanning electronic microscopy. Gill epithelium of control O. niloticus (freshwater group was similar to that of other teleosts, while histopathological lesions were observed in exposed fishes. The main histopathological changes were edema, lifting of lamellar and filamentar epithelia and lamellar fusion. Cell proliferation with consequent thickening of the filament epithelium was also found in fishes exposed to the treated sewage water. The severity of the lesions increased with the time of exposure, namely the hyperplasia of the epithelial cells with proliferation of filamentar epithelium and fusion of lamellae observed at 96 h. Additionally, several histopathological results obtained by light microscopy were confirmed through scanning microscopy.Tilápias adultas, Oreochromis niloticus, de ambos os sexos foram expostas em águas residuais de uma estação de tratamento de esgoto durante 4 dias. Amostras de brânquia foram recolhidas após 24, 48, 72 e 96 h e as alterações histopatológicas foram analisadas por microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura. O epitélio da brânquia do grupo controle apresentou uma morfologia similar à de outros peixes teleosteos, enquanto foram observadas lesões nos peixes expostos. As principais alterações histopatológicas foram edema, destacamento dos epitélios lamelar e filamentar e fusão lamelar. Os peixes expostos às águas residuais mostraram também proliferação celular com consequente aumento da espessura do filamento branquial. A severidade das lesões aumentou com o tempo de exposição, nomeadamente a hiperplasia das células epiteliais com proliferação do epitélio filamentar e fusão das lamelas observadas preferencialmente às 96 h

  7. Brad Patterson, Tom Brooking, and Jim McAloon, Unpacking the Kist: The Scots in New Zealand. McGill-Queen's Studies in Ethnic History Series, No. 2.33. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2013. Pp. 412. ISBN 978-0-7735-4190-0. CAD $100.00.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seán Gerard Brosnahan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Brad Patterson, Tom Brooking, and Jim McAloon, Unpacking the Kist: The Scots in New Zealand. McGill-Queen's Studies in Ethnic History Series, No. 2.33. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2013. Pp. 412. ISBN 978-0-7735-4190-0. CAD $100.00.

  8. Recombination in the human Pseudoautosomal region PAR1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali G Hinch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The pseudoautosomal region (PAR is a short region of homology between the mammalian X and Y chromosomes, which has undergone rapid evolution. A crossover in the PAR is essential for the proper disjunction of X and Y chromosomes in male meiosis, and PAR deletion results in male sterility. This leads the human PAR with the obligatory crossover, PAR1, to having an exceptionally high male crossover rate, which is 17-fold higher than the genome-wide average. However, the mechanism by which this obligatory crossover occurs remains unknown, as does the fine-scale positioning of crossovers across this region. Recent research in mice has suggested that crossovers in PAR may be mediated independently of the protein PRDM9, which localises virtually all crossovers in the autosomes. To investigate recombination in this region, we construct the most fine-scale genetic map containing directly observed crossovers to date using African-American pedigrees. We leverage recombination rates inferred from the breakdown of linkage disequilibrium in human populations and investigate the signatures of DNA evolution due to recombination. Further, we identify direct PRDM9 binding sites using ChIP-seq in human cells. Using these independent lines of evidence, we show that, in contrast with mouse, PRDM9 does localise peaks of recombination in the human PAR1. We find that recombination is a far more rapid and intense driver of sequence evolution in PAR1 than it is on the autosomes. We also show that PAR1 hotspot activities differ significantly among human populations. Finally, we find evidence that PAR1 hotspot positions have changed between human and chimpanzee, with no evidence of sharing among the hottest hotspots. We anticipate that the genetic maps built and validated in this work will aid research on this vital and fascinating region of the genome.

  9. Gills are an initial target of zinc oxide nanoparticles in oysters Crassostrea gigas, leading to mitochondrial disruption and oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevisan, Rafael; Delapedra, Gabriel; Mello, Danielle F.; Arl, Miriam; Schmidt, Éder C.; Meder, Fabian; Monopoli, Marco; Cargnin-Ferreira, Eduardo; Bouzon, Zenilda L.; Fisher, Andrew S.; Sheehan, David; Dafre, Alcir L.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ZnONP exposure causes an initial accumulation of zinc in gills and later in digestive gland. • Zinc burden occurs by ZnONP endocytosis or uptake of ionic zinc after dissociation. • ZnONP exposure disrupts mitochondrial ultrastructure in both tissues. • Mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress are major features of ZnONP acute toxicity. - Abstract: The increasing industrial use of nanomaterials during the last decades poses a potential threat to the environment and in particular to organisms living in the aquatic environment. In the present study, the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) was investigated in Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas. The nanoscale of ZnONP, in vehicle or ultrapure water, was confirmed, presenting an average size ranging from 28 to 88 nm. In seawater, aggregation was detected by TEM and DLS analysis, with an increased average size ranging from 1 to 2 μm. Soluble or nanoparticulated zinc presented similar toxicity, displaying a LC 50 (96 h) around 30 mg/L. High zinc dissociation from ZnONP, releasing ionic zinc in seawater, is a potential route for zinc assimilation and ZnONP toxicity. To investigate mechanisms of toxicity, oysters were treated with 4 mg/L ZnONP for 6, 24 or 48 h. ZnONP accumulated in gills (24 and 48 h) and digestive glands (48 h). Ultrastructural analysis of gills revealed electron-dense vesicles near the cell membrane and loss of mitochondrial cristae (6 h). Swollen mitochondria and a more conspicuous loss of mitochondrial cristae were observed after 24 h. Mitochondria with disrupted membranes and an increased number of cytosolic vesicles displaying electron-dense material were observed 48 h post exposure. Digestive gland showed similar changes, but these were delayed relative to gills. ZnONP exposure did not greatly affect thiol homeostasis (reduced and oxidized glutathione) or immunological parameters (phagocytosis, hemocyte viability and activation and total hemocyte

  10. Temporal variations in metallothionein concentration and subcellular distribution of metals in gills and digestive glands of the oyster Crassostrea angulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Trombini

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The metallothionein levels and metal concentrations in whole body, digestive gland and gills of Crassostrea angulata were analyzed in field samples collected from the River Guadalquivir estuary over several years following a mining waste spill upstream. The subcellular distribution of metals was analyzed to determine the mechanisms involved in the detoxification process. The highest metallothionein levels were reported in the digestive gland shortly after the mining contamination event. In this organ, metals are stored preferentially in the non-cytosolic fraction when increased bioaccumulation takes place. In the cytosol of the gills, metals are associated with metallothionein, whereas in the digestive gland, the distribution of metals between metallothioneins and high molecular weight proteins is similar. Metallothionein variation cannot be explained by metals alone; other abiotic factors must be taken into account. In order to use metallothionein as a metal exposure biomarker in field studies, natural variability needs to be taken into account for the correct interpretation of results.

  11. Immunochemical localization of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase in the symbiont-containing gills of Solemya velum (Bivalvia: Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, C M; Abbott, M S; Veenhuis, M

    1988-10-01

    The distribution of the Calvin cycle enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RbuP(2)Case; EC 4.1.1.39) was examined by using two immunological methods in tissues of Solemya velum, an Atlantic coast bivalve containing putative chemoautotrophic symbionts. Antibodies elicited by the purified large subunit of RbuP(2)Case from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cross-reacted on immunoblots with a protein of similar molecular mass occurring in extracts of the symbiont-containing gill tissue of S. velum. No cross-reactivity was detected in symbiont-free tissue extracts. The antiserum also cross-reacted in immunoblots with proteins of Thiobacillus neapolitanus, a free-living sulfuroxidizing chemoautotroph whose RbuP(2)Case has been well characterized. In protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopy studies, this antiserum consistently labeled the symbionts but not surrounding host gill tissue, indicating that the symbionts are responsible for the RbuP(2)Case activity.

  12. Ultrastructural effects on gill, muscle, and gonadal tissues induced in zebrafish (Danio rerio) by a waterborne uranium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barillet, Sabrina; Larno, Valerie; Floriani, Magali; Devaux, Alain; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2010-01-01

    Experiments on adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were conducted to assess histopathological effects induced on gill, muscle, and gonadal tissues after waterborne uranium exposure. Although histopathology is often employed as a tool for the detection and assessment of xenobiotic-mediated effects in aquatic organisms, few studies have been dedicated to the investigation of histopathological consequences of uranium exposure in fish. Results showed that gill tissue architecture was markedly disrupted. Major symptoms were alterations of the secondary lamellae epithelium (from extensive oedema to desquamation), hyperplasia of chloride cells, and breakdown of the pillar cell system. Muscle histology was also affected. Degeneration and disorganization of myofibrillar sarcomeric pattern as well as abnormal localization of mitochondria within muscle and altered endomysial sheaths were observed. Morphological alterations of spermatozoa within the gonadal tissue were also noticed. This study demonstrated that uranium exposure induced a variety of histological impairments in fish, supporting environmental concerns when uranium contaminates aquatic systems.

  13. Scanning electron microscopic studies of gill arches and rakers in relation to feeding habits of some fresh water fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.H. Elsheikh

    2013-05-01

    Prominent epithelial protuberances on the gill rakers and gill arches enable the taste buds, located at their summit, to project well above the surface of the epithelium. This could increase the efficiency of the taste buds in selective sorting of palatable food. Co-occurrence of teeth and taste buds on the epi-and hypopharyngeal bones (Types I–III denotes that food processing and gestation occur simultaneously in the pharynx. Caniform, villiform and papilliform teeth on the epi- and hypopharyngeal bones of the three studied species respectively in O. niloticus, C. auratus and C. gariepinus were associated with a complex food-processing cycle. Mucous secretions, oozing through mucous cell openings, provide lubrication facilitating smooth passage of food through the pharynx.

  14. Gills are an initial target of zinc oxide nanoparticles in oysters Crassostrea gigas, leading to mitochondrial disruption and oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevisan, Rafael; Delapedra, Gabriel; Mello, Danielle F.; Arl, Miriam [Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Schmidt, Éder C. [Department of Cell Biology, Embryology and Genetic, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88049-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Meder, Fabian; Monopoli, Marco [Centre for Bionano Interactions, University College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Cargnin-Ferreira, Eduardo [Federal Institute of Santa Catarina, Campus Garopaba, Laboratory of Histological Markers, 88495-000 Garopaba, SC (Brazil); Bouzon, Zenilda L. [Department of Cell Biology, Embryology and Genetic, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88049-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Fisher, Andrew S. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, PL4 8AA Plymouth (United Kingdom); Sheehan, David [Department of Biochemistry, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Dafre, Alcir L., E-mail: alcir.dafre@ufsc.br [Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ZnONP exposure causes an initial accumulation of zinc in gills and later in digestive gland. • Zinc burden occurs by ZnONP endocytosis or uptake of ionic zinc after dissociation. • ZnONP exposure disrupts mitochondrial ultrastructure in both tissues. • Mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress are major features of ZnONP acute toxicity. - Abstract: The increasing industrial use of nanomaterials during the last decades poses a potential threat to the environment and in particular to organisms living in the aquatic environment. In the present study, the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) was investigated in Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas. The nanoscale of ZnONP, in vehicle or ultrapure water, was confirmed, presenting an average size ranging from 28 to 88 nm. In seawater, aggregation was detected by TEM and DLS analysis, with an increased average size ranging from 1 to 2 μm. Soluble or nanoparticulated zinc presented similar toxicity, displaying a LC{sub 50} (96 h) around 30 mg/L. High zinc dissociation from ZnONP, releasing ionic zinc in seawater, is a potential route for zinc assimilation and ZnONP toxicity. To investigate mechanisms of toxicity, oysters were treated with 4 mg/L ZnONP for 6, 24 or 48 h. ZnONP accumulated in gills (24 and 48 h) and digestive glands (48 h). Ultrastructural analysis of gills revealed electron-dense vesicles near the cell membrane and loss of mitochondrial cristae (6 h). Swollen mitochondria and a more conspicuous loss of mitochondrial cristae were observed after 24 h. Mitochondria with disrupted membranes and an increased number of cytosolic vesicles displaying electron-dense material were observed 48 h post exposure. Digestive gland showed similar changes, but these were delayed relative to gills. ZnONP exposure did not greatly affect thiol homeostasis (reduced and oxidized glutathione) or immunological parameters (phagocytosis, hemocyte viability and activation and total

  15. Parallel in vivo monitoring of pH in gill capillaries and muscles of fishes using microencapsulated biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Borvinskaya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tracking physiological parameters in different organs within the same organism simultaneously and in real time can provide an outstanding representation of the organism's physiological status. The state-of-the-art technique of using encapsulated fluorescent molecular probes (microencapsulated biomarkers is a unique tool that can serve as a platform for the development of new methods to obtain in vivo physiological measurements and is applicable to a broad range of organisms. Here, we describe a novel technique to monitor the pH of blood inside the gill capillaries and interstitial fluid of muscles by using microencapsulated biomarkers in a zebrafish model. The functionality of the proposed technique is shown by the identification of acidification under anesthesia-induced coma and after death. The pH in muscles reacts to hypoxia faster than that in the gill bloodstream, which makes both parameters applicable as markers of either local or bodily reactions.

  16. Ultrastructural effects on gill, muscle, and gonadal tissues induced in zebrafish (Danio rerio) by a waterborne uranium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barillet, Sabrina, E-mail: sabrina.barillet@free.fr [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Larno, Valerie, E-mail: valerie.larno@irsn.fr [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Floriani, Magali, E-mail: magali.floriani@irsn.fr [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Devaux, Alain, E-mail: alain.devaux@entpe.fr [INRA, EFPA Department, 54280, Champenoux and Environmental Science Laboratory, ENTPE, 69518 Vaulx en Velin cedex (France); Adam-Guillermin, Christelle, E-mail: christelle.adam-guillermin@irsn.fr [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France)

    2010-11-01

    Experiments on adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were conducted to assess histopathological effects induced on gill, muscle, and gonadal tissues after waterborne uranium exposure. Although histopathology is often employed as a tool for the detection and assessment of xenobiotic-mediated effects in aquatic organisms, few studies have been dedicated to the investigation of histopathological consequences of uranium exposure in fish. Results showed that gill tissue architecture was markedly disrupted. Major symptoms were alterations of the secondary lamellae epithelium (from extensive oedema to desquamation), hyperplasia of chloride cells, and breakdown of the pillar cell system. Muscle histology was also affected. Degeneration and disorganization of myofibrillar sarcomeric pattern as well as abnormal localization of mitochondria within muscle and altered endomysial sheaths were observed. Morphological alterations of spermatozoa within the gonadal tissue were also noticed. This study demonstrated that uranium exposure induced a variety of histological impairments in fish, supporting environmental concerns when uranium contaminates aquatic systems.

  17. Toward a Multifactorial Conception of the Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome and Persistent Chronic Tic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Marc E; O'Connor, Kieron

    2017-06-02

    Despite recent giant leaps in understanding Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (now Tourette Disorder in the DSM 5), accurate multi-modal description, rigorous assessment procedures, and the improvement of evidence-based treatment currently pose a considerable challenge. In this context, the current special edition aims to elaborate three important dimensions in Tourette Disorder. Firstly, the effective characterization and etiological basis of the disorder are reviewed, since such characterization impacts accurate assessment. Secondly, subsequent articles cover the comprehensive evaluation and assessment of tic disorders, essential for treatment planning. Thirdly, the final group of articles propose novel and innovative treatment strategies for pharmacologically and behaviorally reducing tic frequency. In the current editorial address, two main issues seem crucial to the development of interventions for Tourette disorder. Primarily, integrating new technology in treatments, while supporting cognitive and behavioral recovery through learning self-controlled strategies. Additionally, the dissemination of study results to frontline resources, needs streamlining and empirically validated treatments for tic disorders should be the subject of knowledge translation to community organizations and be more widely available to the public.

  18. A personal 35 year perspective on Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: assessment, investigations, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    After having examined the definition, clinical phenomenology, comorbidity, psychopathology, and phenotypes in the first paper of this Series, here I discuss the assessment, including neuropsychology, and the effects of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome with studies showing that the quality of life of patients with Tourette's syndrome is reduced and that there is a substantial burden on the family. In this paper, I review my local and collaborative studies investigating causal factors (including genetic vulnerability, prenatal and perinatal difficulties, and neuro-immunological factors). I also present my studies on neuro-imaging, electro-encephalograms, and other special investigations, which are helpful in their own right or to exclude other conditions. Finally, I also review our studies on treatment including medications, transcranial magnetic stimulation, biofeedback, target-specific botulinum toxin injections, biofeedback and, in severe refractory adults, psychosurgery and deep brain stimulation. This Review summarises and highlights selected main findings from my clinic (initially The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery Queen Square and University College London, UK, and, subsequently, at St George's Hospital, London, UK), and several collaborations since 1980. As in Part 1 of this Series, I address the main controversies in the fields and the research of other groups, and I make suggestions for future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. New insights into gill ionocyte and ion transporter function in euryhaline and diadromous fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroi, Junya; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    Teleost fishes are able to acclimatize to seawater by secreting excess NaCl by means of specialized “ionocytes” in the gill epithelium. Antibodies against Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) have been used since 1996 as a marker for identifying branchial ionocytes. Immunohistochemistry of NKA by itself and in combination with Na+/K+/2Cl− cotransporter and CFTR Cl− channel provided convincing evidence that ionocytes are functional during seawater acclimation, and also revealed morphological variations in ionocytes among teleost species. Recent development of antibodies to freshwater- and seawater-specific isoforms of the NKA alpha-subunit has allowed functional distinction of ion absorptive and secretory ionocytes in Atlantic salmon. Cutaneous ionocytes of tilapia embryos serve as a model for branchial ionocytes, allowing identification of 4 types: two involved in ion uptake, one responsible for salt secretion and one with unknown function. Combining molecular genetics, advanced imaging techniques and immunohistochemistry will rapidly advance our understanding of both the unity and diversity of ionocyte function and regulation in fish osmoregulation.

  20. Modeling survival: application of the Andersen-Gill model to Yellowstone grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Boyce, Mark S.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Haroldson, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

     Wildlife ecologists often use the Kaplan-Meier procedure or Cox proportional hazards model to estimate survival rates, distributions, and magnitude of risk factors. The Andersen-Gill formulation (A-G) of the Cox proportional hazards model has seen limited application to mark-resight data but has a number of advantages, including the ability to accommodate left-censored data, time-varying covariates, multiple events, and discontinuous intervals of risks. We introduce the A-G model including structure of data, interpretation of results, and assessment of assumptions. We then apply the model to 22 years of radiotelemetry data for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) of the Greater Yellowstone Grizzly Bear Recovery Zone in Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming, USA. We used Akaike's Information Criterion (AICc) and multi-model inference to assess a number of potentially useful predictive models relative to explanatory covariates for demography, human disturbance, and habitat. Using the most parsimonious models, we generated risk ratios, hypothetical survival curves, and a map of the spatial distribution of high-risk areas across the recovery zone. Our results were in agreement with past studies of mortality factors for Yellowstone grizzly bears. Holding other covariates constant, mortality was highest for bears that were subjected to repeated management actions and inhabited areas with high road densities outside Yellowstone National Park. Hazard models developed with covariates descriptive of foraging habitats were not the most parsimonious, but they suggested that high-elevation areas offered lower risks of mortality when compared to agricultural areas.

  1. SHOCK, Nonlinear Dynamic Structure Analysis, Spring and Mass Model, Runge-Kutta-Gill Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielson, V. K.

    1981-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: SHOCK calculates the dynamic response of a structure modeled as a spring-mass system having one or two degrees of freedom for each mass when subjected to specified environments. The code determines the behavior of each lumped mass (displacement, velocity, and acceleration for each degree of freedom) and the behavior of each spring or coupling (force, shear, moment, and displacement) as a function of time. Two types of models, axial, having one degree of freedom, and lateral, having two degrees of freedom at each mass can be processed. Damping can be included in all models and shock spectrums of responses can be obtained. 2 - Method of solution: Two methods of numerical integration of the second-order dynamic equations are provided: the Runge-Kutta-Gill method with variable step-size is recommended for highly nonlinear problems, and a variation of the Newmark-Beta method is available for use with large linear problems. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of: 100 masses, 200 springs or couplings. Complex arrangements of nonlinear options must be carefully checked by the user

  2. α-ENaC in bullfrog embryo: expression in cement gland, gills and skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki-Aoba, Kayo; Tanaka, Kayoko; Inomata, Reiko; Jensik, Philip J; Takada, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is involved in Na(+) responses such as Na(+) absorption and salt taste. The alpha ENaC subunit (α-ENaC) is expressed in the skin of both the adult and larval (tadpole) bullfrog. α-ENaC expression in the developing bullfrog embryo has not been previously investigated. In this study, the expression of α-ENaC at various stages (Sts.) of bullfrog embryonic development is assessed by western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. Bullfrog α-ENaC (α-fENaC) protein was detected by western blot in embryos at Sts. (Gosner/Shumway) 19, 21 and 25. Immunofluorescence studies indicate that α-fENaC was localized to the embryonic cement glands at St. 18 (muscular response), St. 19 (heart beat) and St. 21 (mouth open and/or cornea transparent), to the external gills at St. 21 and to the outermost cell-layer of the skin at St. 25 (operculum complete). The function(s) of ENaC in these embryonic structures remain to be elucidated.

  3. Toxicity of dispersant application: Biomarkers responses in gills of juvenile golden grey mullet (Liza aurata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milinkovitch, Thomas; Godefroy, Joachim; Theron, Michael; Thomas-Guyon, Helene

    2011-01-01

    Dispersant use in nearshore areas is likely to increase the exposure of aquatic organisms to petroleum. To measure the toxicity of this controversial response technique, golden grey mullets (Liza aurata) were exposed to mechanically dispersed oil, chemically dispersed oil, dispersant alone in seawater, water-soluble fraction of oil and to seawater as a control treatment. Several biomarkers were assessed in the gills (enzymatic antioxidant activities, glutathione content, lipid peroxidation) and in the gallbladder (polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons metabolites). The significant differences between chemically dispersed oil and water soluble fraction of oil highlight the environmental risk to disperse an oil slick when containment and recovery can be conducted. The lack of significance between chemically and mechanically dispersed oil suggests that dispersant application is no more toxic than the natural dispersion of the oil slick. The results of this study are of interest in order to establish dispersant use policies in nearshore areas. - Highlights: → This study simulates and evaluates the toxicity of dispersant use in nearshore area. → Dispersant use toxicity is assessed through biomarkers measurement in a fish species. → Chemical dispersion of an oil slick increases the petroleum toxicity. → Dispersant use does not enhance the toxicity of a mechanically dispersed oil slick. → This work leads to conclusions concerning dispersant use policies in nearshore area. - When the meteorological conditions induce the dispersion of the oil slick (e.g. wave), the application of dispersant does not increase the toxicity of petroleum.

  4. Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome: Clinical Features of 75 Cases from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Micheli

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of 75 cases of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS from Argentina, whose ages ranged from 6 to 55 with a mean of 20.02, were evaluated to compare findings with those reported for other countries. Mean age at onset was 7.44 years and mean overall duration of symptoms was 12.58 years; 6.7% of cases were mild, 49% moderate and 44.3% severe. Most frequent presenting motor tics were excessive blinking in 41 followed by head jerking in 16 and eye winking in six, while phonic tics included coprolalia in 28.0%, echolalia in 17.5% and palilalia in 10.8%. Abnormal perinatal events were reported in 40.5%, while positive family history for tics was present in 26.66%. Obsessive–compulsive behaviour was evident in 66% and attention deficit disorder in 16% of cases. Self-injurious behaviour comprised onychophagia in 28 patients, lip-biting in seven and self-slapping in eight cases. Almost half of our patients were initially interpreted as having a psychogenic disorder indicating that GTS in Argentina is most likely underdiagnosed. It may be concluded that the overall pattern of GTS is not dissimilar to that described for European, Asian and American populations, thus highlighting the previously recognized cross-cultural uniformity.

  5. The neural correlates of tic inhibition in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganos, Christos; Kahl, Ursula; Brandt, Valerie; Schunke, Odette; Bäumer, Tobias; Thomalla, Götz; Roessner, Veit; Haggard, Patrick; Münchau, Alexander; Kühn, Simone

    2014-12-01

    Tics in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) resemble fragments of normal motor behaviour but appear in an intrusive, repetitive and context-inappropriate manner. Although tics can be voluntarily inhibited on demand, the neural correlates of this process remain unclear. 14 GTS adults without relevant comorbidities participated in this study. First, tic severity and voluntary tic inhibitory capacity were evaluated outside the scanner. Second, patients were examined with resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) in two states, free ticcing and voluntary tic inhibition. Local synchronization of spontaneous fMRI-signal was analysed with regional homogeneity (ReHo) and differences between both states (free ticcingtic inhibition) were contrasted. Clinical correlations of the resulting differential ReHo parameters between both states and clinical measures of tic frequency, voluntary tic inhibition and premonitory urges were also performed. ReHo of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was increased during voluntary tic inhibition compared to free ticcing. ReHo increases were positively correlated with participants׳ ability to inhibit their tics during scanning sessions but also outside the scanner. There was no correlation with ratings of premonitory urges. Voluntary tic inhibition is associated with increased ReHo of the left IFG. Premonitory urges are unrelated to this process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nickel exposure promotes osmoregulatory disturbances in Oreochromis niloticus gills: histopathological and energy dispersive spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcato, A C C; Yabuki, A T; Fontanetti, C S

    2014-11-01

    Water is an essential factor for maintaining the vital functions of living beings. Nickel is the 24th most abundant element on Earth; it is a heavy metal that is genotoxic and mutagenic in its chloride form. Due to industrial use, its concentration in surface sediments increased considerably. Fish develop characteristics that make them excellent experimental models for studying aquatic toxicology. They are particularly useful because they can alert of the potential danger of chemical substances or environmental pollution. Due to water quality impairment and because there are few published studies that relate nickel to tissue alteration, this study aimed to examine the consequences of nickel in an aquatic environment. For this analysis, individuals of Oreochromis niloticus were exposed for 96 h to three different concentrations of nickel dissolved in water according to the standard established by Brazilian law and compared them to a control group. After exposure, the gills were analyzed using X-ray microanalysis, ultramorphology, and histological and histochemical analysis. The results demonstrated that all the concentrations used in the experiment altered the histophysiology of the individuals exposed. In conclusion, the nickel presents a toxic potential to fish, even at the lowest concentration tested, which is equivalent to half of the concentration allowed by law. The CONAMA resolution should be revised for this parameter because of the interference of this metal in the histophysiology of the tested organism.

  7. Deep brain stimulation in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: killing several birds with one stone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In patients with severe, treatment-refractory Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS), deep brain stimulation (DBS) of various targets has been increasingly explored over the past 15 years. The multiplicity of surgical targets is intriguing and may be partly due to the complexity of GTS, specifically the various and frequent associated psychiatric comorbidities in this disorder. Thus, the target choice may not only be aimed at reducing tics but also comorbidities. While this approach is laudable, it also carries the risk to increase confounding factors in DBS trials and patient evaluation. Moreover, I question whether DBS should really be expected to alleviate multiple symptoms at a time. Rather, I argue that tic reduction should remain our primary objective in severe GTS patients and that this intervention may subsequently allow an improved psychotherapeutic and/or pharmacological treatment of comorbidities. Thus, I consider DBS in GTS not as a single solution for all our patients’ ailments but as a stepping stone to improved holistic care made possible by tic reduction. PMID:27746910

  8. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in a cohort of deaf people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, M M; Roberts, S; Pillai, S; Eapen, V

    2015-10-01

    We present six patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) who are also deaf. TS has been observed previously, but rarely reported in deaf people, and to date, so called "unusual" phenomenology has been highlighted. TS occurs almost worldwide and in all cultures, and the clinical phenomenology is virtually identical. In our cohort of deaf patients (we suggest another culture) with TS, the phenomenology is the same as in hearing people, and as in all other cultures, with classic motor and vocal/phonic tics, as well as associated phenomena including echo-phenomena, pali-phenomena and rarer copro-phenomena. When "words" related to these phenomenon (e.g. echolalia, palilalia, coprolalia or mental coprolalia) are elicited in deaf people, they occur usually in British Sign Language (BSL): the more "basic" vocal/phonic tics such as throat clearing are the same phenomenologically as in hearing TS people. In our case series, there was a genetic predisposition to TS in all cases. We would argue that TS in deaf people is the same as TS in hearing people and in other cultures, highlighting the biological nature of the disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome - A treatable condition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, A; Martino, D; Murphy, T

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by chronic motor and vocal tics. Psychiatric comorbidity is frequent but does not enter into the official classification of the syndrome. In the present article, we will focus on treatment options for tics. We have reviewed the relevant literature on treatment of tics and GTS, especially in the period from 2011-2016 since the publication of the European Society for the Study of Tourette Syndrome (ESSTS) treatment guidelines in 2011. We present current and up-to-date approaches in psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy and neurosurgery for GTS with an outlook for the upcoming years. Although many patients and health-care professionals seem to view tics and/or GTS as difficult to treat, or believe that treatment requires severe side effects with reduction in quality of life, we wish to convey that there is cause for optimism, both with regard to available treatment modalities and future therapeutic developments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Linkage studies on Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: What is the strategy of choice?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heutink, P.; Wetering, J.M. van de; Oostra, B.A. [Erasmus Univ. Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    For a linkage study it is important to ascertain family material that is sufficiently informative. The statistical power of linkage sample can be determined via computer simulation. For complex traits uncertain parameters such as incomplete penetrance, frequency of phenocopies, gene frequency and variable expression have to be taken into account. One can either include only the most severe phenotype in the analysis or apply multiple linkage tests for a gradually broadened disease phenotype. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by multiple, intermittent motor and vocal tics. Segregation analyses suggests that GTS and milder phenotypes are caused by a single dominant gene. We report here the results of an extensive simulation study on a large set of families. We compared the effectiveness of linkage tests with only the GTS phenotype versus multiple tests that included various milder phenotypes and different gene frequencies. The scenario of multiple tests yielded superior power. Our results show that computer simulation can indicate the strategy of choice in linkage studies of multiple, complex phenotypes. 33 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Heavy metals levels in muscle, gonads and gills of Brazilian fishes using SRTXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calza, Cristiane; Pereira, Marcelo O.; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Anjos, Marcelino Jose dos; Araujo, Francisco Gerson

    2005-01-01

    This work evaluated heavy metals levels in selected tissues of G. brasiliensis, O. hepsetus, H. luetkeni and H. affinis collected at the Paraiba do Sul River, Brazil. The muscle analysis was performed to evaluate the possible transfer of heavy metals to human beings through fish consumption; gonads were used to study the possible transfer and/or influence of metals, through the reproductive processes, to later generations of fishes; and gills are considered the primary action site for most metals, which are absorbed through fish breathing and/or ionic exchanges. The digestion procedure of samples was performed with HNO 3 65% in Teflon bombs, with heating at about 120 deg C. The analysis, using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation (SRTXRF), was performed at the LNLS (Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory) using white beam and a Si(Li) detector with resolution of 165 eV. The elements identified were: Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb. Fe and Zn exhibited the highest concentrations in the four species investigated. Comparing the results with the Brazilian Food Legislation Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb exceeded the maximum permissible limits in fish tissues. (author)

  12. Heavy metals levels in muscle, gonads and gills of Brazilian fishes using SRTXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calza, Cristiane; Pereira, Marcelo O.; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: ccalza@lin.ufrj.br; ricardo@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, Marcelino Jose dos [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br; Araujo, Francisco Gerson [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ecologia de Peixes]. E-mail: gerson@uffrj.br

    2005-07-01

    This work evaluated heavy metals levels in selected tissues of G. brasiliensis, O. hepsetus, H. luetkeni and H. affinis collected at the Paraiba do Sul River, Brazil. The muscle analysis was performed to evaluate the possible transfer of heavy metals to human beings through fish consumption; gonads were used to study the possible transfer and/or influence of metals, through the reproductive processes, to later generations of fishes; and gills are considered the primary action site for most metals, which are absorbed through fish breathing and/or ionic exchanges. The digestion procedure of samples was performed with HNO{sub 3} 65% in Teflon bombs, with heating at about 120 deg C. The analysis, using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation (SRTXRF), was performed at the LNLS (Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory) using white beam and a Si(Li) detector with resolution of 165 eV. The elements identified were: Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb. Fe and Zn exhibited the highest concentrations in the four species investigated. Comparing the results with the Brazilian Food Legislation Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb exceeded the maximum permissible limits in fish tissues. (author)

  13. Patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome have widespread personality differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trillini, Morounke O; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R

    2015-08-30

    Only little is known about pathological personality traits in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). The aim of this study was to further investigate the prevalence of personality traits in adults with GTS. We used a variety of rating scales to assess not only personality traits, but also severity of tics, quality of life, and comorbidities (obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression), in a large group (n=50) of patients. Our major finding was that pathological personality traits are very common in patients with GTS encompassing a wide range of different personality traits, but most typically personality traits related to cluster C. Demand-anxious was the most common personality trait, while histrionic personality trait was absent. Patients' quality of life was more impaired by personality traits than comorbidities. Personality traits were more common in patients with comorbid OCD and depression, while comorbid ADHD had no influence. Our findings, therefore, corroborate the hypothesis that GTS plus OCD represents a more severe subtype of GTS, and support the assumption that OCD and depression, but not ADHD, are part of the GTS spectrum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Revisiting Gill's Circulation. Dynamic Response to Diabatic Heating of Different Horizontal Extents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo, B.; Bellon, G.

    2017-12-01

    The horizontal extent of diabatic heating associated with the MJO is thought to be crucial to its development, and the inability of GCMs to simulate the spatial, horizontal organization of clouds is considered a leading hypothesis to explain their limited capacity to simulate MJO events. This prevents the MJO large-circulation response from developing and feeding back on the development of clouds. We apply mid-tropospheric heating of different size in simple linear and non-linear models of the tropical atmosphere following Gill's seminal work on heat-induced tropical circulations. Results show that there is a scale for which the characteristic circulation {Γ c} for the vertical advection of moisture to produce the latent heat mean {Q} gives a rough estimate of the real world MJO scale. Overturning circulation flow rates above {Γ c} account for a circulation that transports more moisture than necessary to be maintained, and below {Γ c}, circulation would not transport enough moisture to maintain circulation. This dynamic scale might constrain the size of the spatially-organised convection necessary to the development of an MJO event. However, other effects are expected to modulate this scale, such as vertical advection of moisture anomalies, horizontal advection, evaporation, radiative heating, and sensible heat fluxes.

  15. Prevalence and phenomenology of eye tics in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Davide; Cavanna, Andrea E; Robertson, Mary M; Orth, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Eye tics seem to be common in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). We analyzed the frequency and clinical characteristics of eye tics in 212 GTS patients. Of the 212 patients, 201 (94.8 %) reported eye tics in their life-time; 166 (78.3 %) reported eye movement tics (rolling eyes up/down, eyes looking sideways, staring), and 194 (91.5 %) eyelid/eyebrow movement tics (frowning, raising eyebrows, blinking or winking). Patients with eye movement tics were younger at age of GTS onset (7.1 ± 4 years) than those without (8.9 ± 6.8; p = 0.024). Tic severity positively correlated to lifetime history of eye and/or eyelid/eyebrow movement tics. Our data confirm that eye and eyelid/eyebrow movement tics are very common in GTS, and most patients have several types of eye tics over time. Eye tic phenomenology was similar in patients with or without co-morbidity. Eye tics are therefore likely to be a core feature of GTS and should be routinely evaluated in order to strengthen the clinician's confidence in diagnosing GTS.

  16. Seasonal and PAH impact on DNA strand-break levels in gills of transplanted zebra mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Cécile; Bourgeault, Adeline; Gourlay-Francé, Catherine; Palais, Frédéric; Geffard, Alain; Vincent-Hubert, Françoise

    2013-06-01

    Genotoxicity endpoints are useful tools to biomonitor the physicochemical and biological quality of aquatic ecosystems. A caging study on the freshwater bivalve Dreissena polymorpha was planned to run over four seasons in the Seine River basin in order to assess whether DNA damage measured in transplanted mussels to polluted area vary according to seasonal changes. Three sites were chosen along the Seine River, one upstream from Paris and two downstream, corresponding to a chemical gradient of water contamination. The DNA strand break (comet assay) and chromosomal damage (micronucleus test) were measured in caged mussels at each site and in winter, spring and summer, along with PAH water contamination, PAH bioaccumulation, the mussel condition index (CI), the gonado-somatic index (GSI) and the filtration rate (FR). The level of DNA strand break measured in winter was low and increased in spring, concomitantly with FR and GSI. Over the same period, micronucleus (MN) frequency and PAH bioaccumulation decreased significantly in caged mussels, with both parameters positively correlated to each other. DNA strand-break levels and MN frequencies showed inter-site variations corresponding to the chemical contamination gradient. These two genotoxicity endpoints usefully complement each other in field studies. These results show that the MN test and comet assay, when applied to gill cells of caged zebra mussels, are sensitive tools for freshwater genotoxicity monitoring. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Distribution of bacteria and associated minerals in the gill chamber of the vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata and related biogeochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbinden, M.; Le Bris, N.; Compere, P.; Gaill, F.

    2004-12-01

    The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata dominates the megafauna of some mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vent fields. This species harbors a rich bacterial epibiosis inside its gill chamber. At the Rainbow vent field, the epibionts are associated with iron oxide deposits. Investigation of both bacteria and minerals by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis (EDX) shows the occurrence of three distinct compartments in the gill chamber: (1) the lower pre-branchial chamber, housing bacteria, but devoid of minerals, (2) the "true" branchial chamber that contains the gills and remains free of both bacteria and minerals, and (3) the upper pre-branchial chamber housing the main ectosymbiotic bacterial community and associated iron oxides. According to our chemical and temperature data, abiotic iron oxidation appears to be kinetically inhibited in the environment of the shrimps and this would explain the lack of iron oxide deposits in the first two areas. We propose that, in the third area, iron oxidation is microbially promoted. The discrepancy between the spatial distribution of bacteria and minerals suggests that different bacterial metabolisms are involved in the two compartments. A possible explanation lies in the modification of physico-chemical conditions downstream of the gills, that would reduce the oxygen content and favor the development of bacterial iron-oxidizers in this Fe II-rich environment. A potential role of such iron-oxidizing symbionts in the shrimp diet is suggested. This would be unusual for hydrothermal ecosystems, where most previously described symbioses rely on sulphide or methane as an energy source.

  18. Cytochemical characterization of gill and hepatopancreatic cells of the crab Ucides cordatus (Crustacea, Brachyura validated by cell metal transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Ortega

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763 is a hypo-hyper-regulating mangrove crab possessing gills for respiratory and osmoregulatory processes, separated in anterior and posterior sections. They also have hepatopancreas, which is responsible for digestion and absorption of nutrients and detoxification of toxic metals. Each of these organs has specific cells that are important for in vitro studies in cell biology, ion and toxic metals transport. In order to study and characterize cells from gills and hepatopancreas, both were separated using a Sucrose Gradient (SG from 10 to 40% and cells in each gradient were characterized using the vital mitochondrial dye DASPEI (2-(4-dimethylaminostyryl-N- ethylpyridinium iodide and Trichrome Mallory's stain. Both in 20 and 40% SG for gill cells and 30% SG for hepatopancreatic cells, a greater number of cells were colored with DASPEI, indicating a larger number of mitochondria in these cells. It is concluded that the gill cells present in 20% and 40% SG are Thin cells, responsible for respiratory processes and Ionocytes responsible for ion transport, respectively. For hepatopancreatic cells, the 30% SG is composed of Fibrillar cells that possess larger number of membrane ion and nutrient transporters. Moreover, the transport of toxic metal cadmium (Cd by isolated hepatopancreatic cells was performed as a way of following cell physiological integrity after cell separation and to study differences in transport among the cells. All hepatopancreatic cells were able to transport Cd. These findings are the first step for further work on isolated cells of these important exchange epithelia of crabs, using a simple separation method and to further develop successful in vitro cell culture in crabs.

  19. Sublethal effects of copper nanoparticles on the histology of gill, liver and kidney of the Caspian roach, Rutilus rutilus caspicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Aghamirkarimi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study has determined the toxicity effects of copper nanoparticles on the some vital organs such as gill, liver and kidney of Caspian Roach; Rutillus rutillus caspicus. For this purpose, 120 fishes were used as experimental samples and exposed to 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 mg/L of Cu nanoparticles for 21 days, and 30 fishes assumed as the experiment control. The mean water temperature of the aquaria was 22±2 ºC, dissolved oxygen 5.2 mg/L, pH at 7±0.004 and the concentration of calcium carbonate was 270 ppm. On 7, 14 and 21 days after exposing the fishes to copper nanoparticles, three fishes were randomly selected from each aquaria, sacrificed and samples from their gill, liver and kidney were taken and fixed in cold 10 % buffered formalin. Then microscopic sections were prepared and examined by light microscope which showed histological alternations in the gill, liver and kidney tissues. Evaluation of these changes could be useful in estimating the harmful effects of copper nanoparticles. Histological alternation in gills included: hyperplasia, fusion and detachment of secondary lamellae, blood congestion in vascular axis of primary filaments, reduced secondary lamellae length and cellular degeneration. Histological changes in liver included blood congestion in the central veins, cytoplasmic vacuolation of the hepatocytes, cellular degeneration and congestion in the blood sinusoids and necrosis of the hepatocytes. Histological changes in kidneys included glomerular shrinkage, severe degeneration in the tubules cells, interstitial tissue and glomerulus, increase in interstitial tissue cells and macrophages aggregation. The degree of damages was more intensive at higher copper nanoparticles concentrations. The result of the study showed that copper nanoparticles could cause severe damages in the vital tissues of Caspian roach; Rutillus rutillus caspicus and have lethal effects for fish.

  20. An idiot savant calendrical calculator with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: implications for an understanding of the savant syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, J; Ring, H A; Robertson, M M

    1993-11-01

    We describe the existence of the savant syndrome in association with Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome (GTS). The presentation of savant abilities is typical of that previously described. Similarities between autism, the disorder most characteristically associated with savants, and GTS in terms of obsessionality are noted. Previously reported psychological studies of autistic savants are briefly reviewed and, together with evidence from neuroimaging in GTS, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and autism, used to support a model of the underpinnings of savant skills.

  1. Morphofunctional description of mucous cells in the gills of the Arapaimidae Arapaima gigas (Cuvier) during its development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, C A; da Costa, O T F; Duncan, W L P; Fernandes, M N

    2018-05-07

    The gill structure of the Amazonian fish Arapaima gigas (Cuvier 1829) shows ontogenetic changes during development, particularly due the transition from the aquatic to the obligatory air breathing mode of respiration. However, three main cell types can be found in the gills: mitochondrial rich cells, pavement cells and mucous cells (MCs). The MCs are involved in the secretory pathway. The functions of the secreted molecules include mechanical protection of epithelia, protection against parasites and bacterial infection, and role on ion regulation. In this study, we analysed mucous cell location and mucous cell type, based on pH, during the development of A. gigas. Using samples obtained from the environment, gills were collected and fixed in buffered solution. Histological techniques for the identification of MCs were performed Alcian Blue (AB) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS). The results showed the presence of PAS+ and AB+ cells in the whole filament in all examined fish. In animals less than 50 g, few MCs were present, and no differences were observed in AB+ and PAS+ cells. In animals weighing close to 500 g, more PAS+ cells than AB+ cells were observed, and in animals that weighed more than 1,000 g, more AB+ cells than PAS+ cells were observed. These observations may be a result of the ontogenetic changes in the gill epithelia, which can change the osmorespiratory compromise in ion regulation functions as well the glycosaminoglycans secreted by PAS cells, which in large animals can play a role in the protection against parasites and bacterial infection. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Early Response of Protein Quality Control in Gills Is Associated with Survival of Hypertonic Shock in Mozambique tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cheng-Hao; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2013-01-01

    The protein quality control (PQC) mechanism is essential for cell function and viability. PQC with proper biological function depends on molecular chaperones and proteases. The hypertonicity-induced protein damage and responses of PQC mechanism in aquatic organisms, however, are poorly understood. In this study, we examine the short-term effects of different hypertonic shocks on the levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs, e.g., HSP70 and HSP90), ubiquitin-conjugated proteins and protein aggregation in gills of the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Following transfer from fresh water (FW) to 20‰ hypertonicity, all examined individuals survived to the end of experiment. Moreover, the levels of branchial HSPs and ubiquitin-conjugated proteins significantly increased at 3 and 24 h post-transfer, respectively. Up-regulation of HSPs and ubiquitin-conjugated proteins was sufficient to prevent the accumulation of aggregated proteins. However, the survival rate of tilapia dramatically declined at 5 h and all fish died within 7 h after direct transfer to 30‰ hypertonicity. We presumed that this result was due to the failed activation of gill PQC system, which resulted in elevating the levels of aggregated proteins at 3 and 4 h. Furthermore, in aggregated protein fractions, the amounts of gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) remained relatively low when fish were transferred to 20‰ hypertonicity, whereas abundant NKA was found at 4 h post-transfer to 30‰ hypertonicity. This study demonstrated that the response of PQC in gills is earlier than observable changes in localization of ion-secreting transport proteins upon hypertonic challenge. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the regulation of PQC mechanism in fish and characterize its important role in euryhaline teleost survival in response to hypertonic stress. PMID:23690986

  3. Channels, pumps, and exchangers in the gill and kidney of freshwater fishes: their role in ionic and acid-base regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, S F; Shahsavarani, A; Georgalis, T; Bayaa, M; Furimsky, M; Thomas, S L Y

    2003-11-01

    In freshwater fishes, the gill and kidney are intricately involved in ionic and acid-base regulation owing to the presence of numerous ion channels, pumps, or exchangers. This review summarizes recent developments in branchial and renal ion transport physiology and presents several models that integrate epithelial ion and acid-base movements in freshwater fishes. At the gill, three cell types are potentially involved in ionic uptake: pavement cells, mitochondria-rich (MR) PNA(+) cells, and MR PNA(-) cells. The transfer of acidic or basic equivalents between the fish and its environment is accomplished largely by the gill and is appropriately regulated to correct acid-base imbalances. The kidney, while less important than the gill in overall acid or base excretion, has an essential role in regulating systemic acid-base balance by controlling HCO(3) (-) reabsorption from the filtrate. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. The interbranchial lymphoid tissue of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L) extends as a diffuse mucosal lymphoid tissue throughout the trailing edge of the gill filament

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Alf S; Austbø, Lars; Bjørgen, Håvard

    2015-01-01

    in all gill segments investigated. Numerous major histocompatibility complex class II(+) -cells were distributed uniformly throughout the filament epithelial tissue. Few Ig(+) -cells were detected. Overall, the morphological features and comparable immune gene expression of the previously described ILT......The teleost gill forms an extensive, semipermeable barrier that must tolerate intimate contact with the surrounding environment and be able to protect the body from external pathogens. The recent discovery of the interbranchial lymphoid tissue (ILT) has initiated an anatomical and functional...... investigation of the lymphoid tissue of the salmonid gill. In this article, sectioning of gill arches in all three primary planes revealed an elongation of the ILT outward along the trailing edge of the primary filament to the very distal end, a finding not previously described. This newly found lymphoid tissue...

  5. Structural lipid changes and NKA activity of gill cells´ basolateral membranes as response to increasing salinity and atrazine stressors in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus, L. juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Lança

    2015-12-01

    Modulation of BLM lipids associated with NKA activity seems to be the strategy adopted by gill cells of juveniles to compensate for osmotic and ionic stressors and for contact/resistance to ATZ exposure.

  6. Ca. Branchiomonas cysticola, Ca. Piscichlamydia salmonis and Salmon Gill Pox Virus transmit horizontally in Atlantic salmon held in fresh water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiik-Nielsen, J; Gjessing, M; Solheim, H T; Litlabø, A; Gjevre, A-G; Kristoffersen, A B; Powell, M D; Colquhoun, D J

    2017-10-01

    Elucidation of the role of infectious agents putatively involved in gill disease is commonly hampered by the lack of culture systems for these organisms. In this study, a farmed population of Atlantic salmon pre-smolts, displaying proliferative gill disease with associated Candidatus Branchiomonas cysticola, Ca. Piscichlamydia salmonis and Atlantic salmon gill pox virus (SGPV) infections, was identified. A subpopulation of the diseased fish was used as a source of waterborne infection towards a population of naïve Atlantic salmon pre-smolts. Ca. B. cysticola infection became established in exposed naïve fish at high prevalence within the first month of exposure and the bacterial load increased over the study period. Ca. P. salmonis and SGPV infections were identified only at low prevalence in exposed fish during the trial. Although clinically healthy, at termination of the trial the exposed, naïve fish displayed histologically visible pathological changes typified by epithelial hyperplasia and subepithelial inflammation with associated bacterial inclusions, confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization to contain Ca. B. cysticola. The results strongly suggest that Ca. B. cysticola infections transmit directly from fish to fish and that the bacterium is directly associated with the pathological changes observed in the exposed, previously naïve fish. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Citrobacter freundii impairs the phosphoryl transfer network in the gills of Rhamdia quelen: Impairment of bioenergetics homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Souza, Carine F; Junior, Guerino B; Moreira, Karen Luise S; da Veiga, Marcelo L; da Rocha, Maria Izabel U M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2018-04-01

    The precise coupling of spatially separated intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-producing and ATP-consuming, catalyzed by creatine kinase (CK), adenylate kinase (AK), and pyruvate kinase (PK), is a critical process in the bioenergetics of tissues with high energy demand, such as the branchial tissue. The effects of Citrobacter freundii infection on gills remain poorly understood, limited only to histopathological studies. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether experimental infection by C. freundii impairs the enzymes of the phosphoryl transfer network in gills of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). The CK (cytosolic and mitochondrial) and AK activities decreased in infected compared to uninfected animals, while the PK activity did not differ between groups. The gill histopathology of infected animals revealed extensive degeneration with fusion and necrosis of secondary lamellae, detachment of superficial epithelium, aneurysm, vessel congestion and inflammatory process. Based on these evidences, the inhibition and absence of an efficient communication between CK compartments caused the impairment of the branchial bioenergetics homeostasis, which was not compensated by the augmentation on branchial AK activity in an attempt to restore energy homeostasis. In summary, these alterations contribute to disease pathogenesis linked to branchial tissue in animals infected with C. freundii. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Multixenobiotic resistance in Mytilus edulis: Molecular and functional characterization of an ABCG2- type transporter in hemocytes and gills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Cheikh, Yosra; Xuereb, Benoit; Boulangé-Lecomte, Céline; Le Foll, Frank

    2018-02-01

    Among the cellular protection arsenal, ABC transporters play an important role in xenobiotic efflux in marine organisms. Two pumps belonging to B and C subfamily has been identified in Mytilus edulis. In this study, we investigated the presence of the third major subtype ABCG2/BCRP protein in mussel tissues. Transcript was expressed in hemocytes and with higher level in gills. Molecular characterization revealed that mussel ABCG2 transporter shares the sequence and organizational structure with mammalian and molluscan orthologs. Overall identity of the predicted amino acid sequence with corresponding homologs from other organisms was between 49% and 98%. Moreover, protein efflux activity was demonstrated using a combination of fluorescent allocrites and specific inhibitors. The accumulation of bodipy prazosin and pheophorbide A was heterogeneous in gills and hemocytes. Most of the used blockers enhanced probe accumulation at different levels, most significantly for bodipy prazosin. Moreover, Mrp classical blocker MK571 showed a polyspecificity. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that several ABC transporters contribute to MXR phenotype in the blue mussel including ABCG2 that forms an active pump in hemocytes and gills. Efforts are needed to distinguish between the different members and to explore their single function and specificity towards allocrites and chemosensitizers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Macromolecule oxidation and DNA repair in mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) gill following exposure to Cd and Cr(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmanouil, C.; Sheehan, T.M.T.; Chipman, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    The oxidation of DNA and lipid was analysed in the marine mussel (Mytilus edulis) in response to exposure (10 μg/l and 200 μg/l) to cadmium (Cd) and chromium [Cr(VI)]. Concentration dependent uptake of both metals into mussel tissues was established and levels of gill ATP were not depleted at these exposure levels. DNA strand breakage in gill cells (analysed by the comet assay) was elevated by both metals, however, DNA oxidation [measured by DNA strand breakage induced by the DNA repair enzyme formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG)] was not elevated. This was despite a statistically significant increase in both malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal - indicative of lipid peroxidation - following treatment with Cd. In contrast, both frank DNA stand breaks and FPG-induced DNA strand breaks (indicative of DNA oxidation) were increased following injection of mussels with sodium dichromate (10.4 μg Cr(VI)/mussel). The metals also showed differential inhibitory potential towards DNA repair enzyme activity with Cd exhibiting inhibition of DNA cutting activity towards an oligonucleotide containing 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and Cr(VI) showing inhibition of such activity towards an oligonucleotide containing ethenoadenosine, both at 200 μg/l. The metals thus show DNA damage activity in mussel gill with distinct mechanisms involving both direct and indirect (oxidative) DNA damage, as well as impairing different DNA repair capacities. A combination of these activities can contribute to adverse effects in these organisms

  10. The interbranchial lymphoid tissue likely contributes to immune tolerance and defense in the gills of Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, Ida Bergva; Austbø, Lars; Falk, Knut; Hordvik, Ivar; Koppang, Erling Olaf

    2017-11-01

    Central and peripheral immune tolerance is together with defense mechanisms a hallmark of all lymphoid tissues. In fish, such tolerance is especially important in the gills, where the intimate contact between gill tissue and the aqueous environment would otherwise lead to continual immune stimulation by innocuous antigens. In this paper, we focus on the expression of genes associated with immune regulation by the interbranchial lymphoid tissue (ILT) in an attempt to understand its role in maintaining immune homeostasis. Both healthy and virus-challenged fish were investigated, and transcript levels were examined from laser-dissected ILT, gills, head kidney and intestine. Lack of Aire expression in the ILT excluded its involvement in central tolerance and any possibility of its being an analogue to the thymus. On the other hand, the ILT appears to participate in peripheral immune tolerance due to its relatively high expression of forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3) and other genes associated with regulatory T cells (Tregs) and immune suppression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of DNA damage induced by gamma radiation in gill and muscle tissues of Cyprinus carpio and their relative sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M K, Praveen Kumar; Shyama, Soorambail K; D'Costa, Avelyno; Kadam, Samit B; Sonaye, Bhagatsingh Harisingh; Chaubey, Ramesh Chandra

    2017-10-01

    The effect of radiation on the aquatic environment is of major concern in recent years. Limited data is available on the genotoxicity of gamma radiation on different tissues of aquatic organisms. Hence, the present investigation was carried out to study the DNA damage induced by gamma radiation in the gill and muscle tissues and their relative sensitivity using the comet assay in the freshwater teleost fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The comet assay was optimized and validated in common carp using cyclophosphamide (CP), a reference genotoxic agent. The fish were exposed (acute) to various doses of gamma radiation (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10Gy) and samplings (gill and muscle tissue) were done at regular intervals (24, 48 and 72h) to assess the DNA damage. A significant increase in DNA damage was observed as indicated by an increase in % tail DNA for all doses of gamma radiation in both tissues. We also observed a dose-related increase and a time-dependent decrease of DNA damage. In comparison, DNA damage showed different sensitivity among the tissues at different doses. This shows that a particular dose may have different effects on different tissues which could be due to physiological factors of the particular tissue. Our study also suggests that the gills and muscle of fish are sensitive and reliable tissues for evaluating the genotoxic effects of reference and environmental agents, using the comet assay. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. The Effects of Mercury Exposure on the Surface Morphology of Gill Filaments in Perna perna (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, M.A.; George, R.C.; Marshall, D.J.; Anandraj, A.; McClurg, T.P.

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility that changes in the surface morphology of mussel (Perna perna) gill filaments may be used to indicate the relative toxicity of pollutants in the marine environment. Healthy, adult P. perna were collected and immersed in 2 free-flow tanks. Mercury was added to seawater as it entered tank 1 to achieve a constant level of 50 μg/l -1 over 24 days. Uncontaminated seawater was circulated over the mussels in tank 2 (control) for the same period. A 25 mm 2 area of gill filament was removed from each of the 5 specimens before and after 24 days immersion in tank 2, and after immersion for 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 days in tank 1. These were examined using a scanning electron microscope. The remaining soft tissues from each animal were analysed for mercury using an atomic absorption spectrometer. Mercury concentration increased from 0.13 (pre-immersion) to 87 μg/g after day 24. Surface morphology remained normal for all animals in tank 2 and for those exposed to Hg for up to 8 days. However, from 16 to 24 days exposure there was a gradual increase in the diameters of microvilli, a depletion of abfrontal cilia, an increase in abnormal, perhaps necrotic cells and an unusual increase in the number of cilia on the lateral surfaces. These results confirm that P. perna is an efficient bio-accumulator and suggest that their gill pathomorphology may be a useful indicator of toxicity

  13. In vivo effects of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins on gas exchange and ion equilibrium in the zebrafish gill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Delu; Liu, Siyi; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jian Kong; Hu, Chunxiang; Liu, Yongding

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Aphantoxins induce respiratory dysfunction in zebrafish gills. • Changes in LDH and cellular ultrastructure indicate gill damage. • Decreased NKA and CA reflect abnormal ion transport and gas exchange. • Increased ROS and decreased T-AOC suggest oxidative stress in the gills. - Abstract: Aphantoxins, neurotoxins or paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) generated by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, are a threat to environmental safety and human health in eutrophic waters worldwide. The molecular mechanisms of neurotoxin function have been studied; however, the effects of these neurotoxins on oxidative stress, ion transport, gas exchange, and branchial ultrastructure in fish gills are not fully understood. Aphantoxins extracted from A. flos-aquae DC-1 were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. The major ingredients were gonyautoxins 1 and 5 and neosaxitoxin, which comprised 34.04%, 21.28%, and 12.77% of the total, respectively. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were administered A. flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins at 5.3 or 7.61 μg saxitoxin equivalents (eq)/kg (low and high doses, respectively) by intraperitoneal injection. The activities of Na"+-K"+-ATPase (NKA), carbonic anhydrase (CA), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ultrastructural alterations in chloride and epithelial cells, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) were investigated in the gills during the first 24 h after exposure. Aphantoxins significantly increased the level of ROS and decreased the T-AOC in zebrafish gills from 3 to 12 h post-exposure, suggesting an induction of oxidative stress and inhibition of antioxidant capacity. Reduced activities of NKA and CA demonstrated abnormal ion transport and gas exchange in the gills of aphantoxin-treated fish. Toxin administration also resulted in increased LDH activity and ultrastructural alterations in chloride and epithelial cells, suggesting a disruption of function and structure in zebrafish gills. The

  14. In vivo effects of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins on gas exchange and ion equilibrium in the zebrafish gill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Delu, E-mail: deluzh@163.com [Department of Lifescience and Biotechnology, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Liu, Siyi [Department of Lifescience and Biotechnology, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhang, Jing [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhang, Jian Kong [Department of Lifescience and Biotechnology, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Hu, Chunxiang, E-mail: deluzh@ihb.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Liu, Yongding [Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Aphantoxins induce respiratory dysfunction in zebrafish gills. • Changes in LDH and cellular ultrastructure indicate gill damage. • Decreased NKA and CA reflect abnormal ion transport and gas exchange. • Increased ROS and decreased T-AOC suggest oxidative stress in the gills. - Abstract: Aphantoxins, neurotoxins or paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) generated by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, are a threat to environmental safety and human health in eutrophic waters worldwide. The molecular mechanisms of neurotoxin function have been studied; however, the effects of these neurotoxins on oxidative stress, ion transport, gas exchange, and branchial ultrastructure in fish gills are not fully understood. Aphantoxins extracted from A. flos-aquae DC-1 were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. The major ingredients were gonyautoxins 1 and 5 and neosaxitoxin, which comprised 34.04%, 21.28%, and 12.77% of the total, respectively. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were administered A. flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins at 5.3 or 7.61 μg saxitoxin equivalents (eq)/kg (low and high doses, respectively) by intraperitoneal injection. The activities of Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase (NKA), carbonic anhydrase (CA), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ultrastructural alterations in chloride and epithelial cells, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) were investigated in the gills during the first 24 h after exposure. Aphantoxins significantly increased the level of ROS and decreased the T-AOC in zebrafish gills from 3 to 12 h post-exposure, suggesting an induction of oxidative stress and inhibition of antioxidant capacity. Reduced activities of NKA and CA demonstrated abnormal ion transport and gas exchange in the gills of aphantoxin-treated fish. Toxin administration also resulted in increased LDH activity and ultrastructural alterations in chloride and epithelial cells, suggesting a disruption of function and structure in zebrafish

  15. Monosynaptic connections made by the sensory neurons of the gill- and siphon-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia participate in the storage of long-term memory for sensitization

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, William N.; Castellucci, Vincent F.; Hawkins, Robert D.; Kandel, Eric R.

    1985-01-01

    We have found that in the gill- and siphon- withdrawal reflex of Aplysia, the memory for short-term sensitization grades smoothly into long-term memory with increased amounts of sensitization training. One cellular locus for the storage of the memory underlying short-term sensitization is the set of monosynaptic connections between the siphon sensory cells and the gill and siphon motor neurons. We have now also found that these same monosynaptic connections participate in the storage of the m...

  16. New records of fish parasitic isopods of the gill-attaching genus Mothocya Costa, in Hope, 1851 from the Virgin Islands, Caribbean, with description of a new species

    OpenAIRE

    Hadfield,Kerry; Sikkel,Paul; Smit,Nico

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two species of Mothocya Costa, in Hope, 1851 are reported from the Virgin Islands. Mothocya xenobranchia Bruce, 1986 was collected from St. John Island from the gills of the Atlantic needlefish, Strongylura marina, which is a new locality record and also confirms a previously uncertain host identity. Mothocya bertlucy sp. n. is described from St. Thomas, St John and Guana Islands, from the gills of the redlip blenny, Ophioblennius macclurei, the first record of a blenny as host for a...

  17. PARs for combustible gas control in advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosler, J.; Sliter, G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress being made in the United States to introduce passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) technology as a cost-effective alternative to electric recombiners for controlling combustible gas produced in postulated accidents in both future Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) and certain U. S. operating nuclear plants. PARs catalytically recombine hydrogen and oxygen, gradually producing heat and water vapor. They have no moving parts and are self-starting and self-feeding, even under relatively cold and wet containment conditions. Buoyancy of the hot gases they create sets up natural convective flow that promotes mixing of combustible gases in a containment. In a non-inerted ALWR containment, two approaches each employing a combination of PARs and igniters are being considered to control hydrogen in design basis and severe accidents. In pre-inerted ALWRs, PARs alone control radiolytic oxygen produced in either accident type. The paper also discusses regulatory feedback regarding these combustible gas control approaches and describes a test program being conducted by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Electricite de France (EdF) to supplement the existing PAR test database with performance data under conditions of interest to U.S. plants. Preliminary findings from the EPRI/EdF PAR model test program are included. Successful completion of this test program and confirmatory tests being sponsored by the U. S. NRC are expected to pave the way for use of PARs in ALWRs and operating plants. (author)

  18. Effects of Short-Term Exposure to Sublethal Concentrations of Silver Nanoparticles on Histopathology and Electron Microscope Ultrastructure of Zebrafish (Danio Rerio Gills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borhan Mansouri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing use of nanomaterials and nanoproducts has increased the possibility of contamination of the environment, which may have adverse effects on different organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of silver nanoparticles on histopathology and gill ultrastructure of zebrafish (Danio rerio under laboratory conditions. Methods: Zebrafish were exposed to four concentrations of silver nanoparticles (0.0015, 0.00375, 0.0075, and 0.015 mg/l for a period of 4 days. Gill ultrastructure and histopathological changes were studied using scanning electron microscope and haematoxylin - eosin staining. Results: Exposure to silver nanoparticles significantly (P < 0.001 increased the diameter of gill filaments and secondary lamellae, while silver nanoparticles significantly reduced the length of the secondary gills in zebrafish. Moreover, other changes such as vacuolization, dilated and clubbed tips, hyperplasia, edema, fusion, swelling of mucocytes, hypertrophy, and necrosis were observed. The effects of silver nanoparticles in zebrafish gills were dose dependent. Conclusion: Based on the adverse effects of AgNPs on zebrafish gills, silver nanoparticle solutions can be hazardous pollutants for the environment.

  19. What is the most efficient respiratory organ for the loricariid air-breathing fish Pterygoplichthys anisitsi, gills or stomach? A quantitative morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, André Luis; Fernandes, Marisa Narciso

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the morphometric respiratory potential of gills compared to the stomach in obtaining oxygen for aerobic metabolism in Pterygoplichthys anisitsi, a facultative air-breathing fish. The measurements were done using stereological methods. The gills showed greater total volume, volume-to-body mass ratio, potential surface area, and surface-to-volume ratio than the stomach. The water-blood diffusion barrier of the gills is thicker than the air-blood diffusion barrier of the stomach. Taken together, the surface area, the surface-to-volume ratio and the diffusion distance for O 2 transfer from the respiratory medium to blood yield a greater diffusing capacity for gills than for the stomach, suggesting greater importance of aquatic respiration in this species. On the other hand, water breathing is energetically more expensive than breathing air. Under severe hypoxic conditions, O 2 uptake by the stomach is more efficient than by the gills, although the stomach has a much lower diffusing capacity. Thus, P. anisitsi uses gills under normoxic conditions but the stomach may also support aerobic metabolism depending on environmental conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Dexamethasone (DEX induces Osmotic stress transcription factor 1 (Ostf1 through the Akt-GSK3β pathway in freshwater Japanese eel gill cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Chow

    2013-03-01

    Osmosensing and osmoregulatory processes undertaken in gills of euryhaline fish are coordinated by integrative actions of various signaling molecules/transcriptional factors. Considerable numbers of studies report the hyper- and hypo-osmoregulatory functions of fish gills, by illustrating the process of gill cell remodeling and the modulation of the expression of ion channels/transporters. Comparatively mechanistic information relayed from signal integration to transcriptional regulation in mediating gill cell functions has not yet been elucidated. In this study we demonstrate the functional links from cortisol stimulation, to Akt activation, to the expression of the transcriptional factor, Ostf1. Using the synthetic glucocorticoid receptor agonist, dexamethasone (DEX, Ostf1 expression is found to be activated via glucocorticoid receptor (GR and mediated by the Akt-GSK3β signaling pathway. Pharmacological experiments using kinase inhibitors reveal that the expression of Ostf1 is negatively regulated by Akt activation. The inhibition of PI3K or Akt activities, by the specific kinase inhibitors (wortmannin, LY294002 or SH6, stimulates Ostf1 expression, while a reduction of GSK3β activity by LiCl reduces Ostf1 expression. Collectively, our report for the first time indicates that DEX can induce Ostf1 via GR, with the involvement of the Akt-GSK3β signaling pathway in primary eel gill cell cultures. The data also suggest that Ostf1 may play different roles in gill cell survival during seawater acclimation.

  1. uPAR as anti-cancer target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ida K; Illemann, Martin; Thurison, Tine

    2011-01-01

    , and a potential diagnostic and predictive impact of the different uPAR forms has been reported. Hence, pericellular proteolysis seems to be a suitable target for anti-cancer therapy and numerous approaches have been pursued. Targeting of this process may be achieved by preventing the binding of uPA to u...... using mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against mouse uPA or uPAR. These reagents will target uPA and uPAR in both stromal cells and cancer cells, and their therapeutic potential can now be assessed in syngenic mouse cancer models....

  2. Limnological database for Par Pond: 1959 to 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilly, L.J.

    1981-03-01

    A limnological database for Par Pond, a cooling reservoir for hot reactor effluent water at the Savannah River Plant, is described. The data are derived from a combination of research and monitoring efforts on Par Pond since 1959. The approximately 24,000-byte database provides water quality, primary productivity, and flow data from a number of different stations, depths, and times during the 22-year history of the Par Pond impoundment. The data have been organized to permit an interpretation of the effects of twenty years of cooling system operations on the structure and function of an aquatic ecosystem

  3. Protease-activated receptor (PAR2, but not PAR1, is involved in collateral formation and anti-inflammatory monocyte polarization in a mouse hind limb ischemia model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa G van den Hengel

    Full Text Available AIMS: In collateral development (i.e. arteriogenesis, mononuclear cells are important and exist as a heterogeneous population consisting of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory/repair-associated cells. Protease-activated receptor (PAR1 and PAR2 are G-protein-coupled receptors that are both expressed by mononuclear cells and are involved in pro-inflammatory reactions, while PAR2 also plays a role in repair-associated responses. Here, we investigated the physiological role of PAR1 and PAR2 in arteriogenesis in a murine hind limb ischemia model. METHODS AND RESULTS: PAR1-deficient (PAR1-/-, PAR2-deficient (PAR2-/- and wild-type (WT mice underwent femoral artery ligation. Laser Doppler measurements revealed reduced post-ischemic blood flow recovery in PAR2-/- hind limbs when compared to WT, while PAR1-/- mice were not affected. Upon ischemia, reduced numbers of smooth muscle actin (SMA-positive collaterals and CD31-positive capillaries were found in PAR2-/- mice when compared to WT mice, whereas these parameters in PAR1-/- mice did not differ from WT mice. The pool of circulating repair-associated (Ly6C-low monocytes and the number of repair-associated (CD206-positive macrophages surrounding collaterals in the hind limbs were increased in WT and PAR1-/- mice, but unaffected in PAR2-/- mice. The number of repair-associated macrophages in PAR2-/- hind limbs correlated with CD11b- and CD115-expression on the circulating monocytes in these animals, suggesting that monocyte extravasation and M-CSF-dependent differentiation into repair-associated cells are hampered. CONCLUSION: PAR2, but not PAR1, is involved in arteriogenesis and promotes the repair-associated response in ischemic tissues. Therefore, PAR2 potentially forms a new pro-arteriogenic target in coronary artery disease (CAD patients.

  4. Novel role for proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in membrane trafficking of proteinase-activated receptor 4 (PAR4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Margaret R; McIntosh, Kathryn A; Pediani, John D; Robben, Joris; Cooke, Alexandra E; Nilsson, Mary; Gould, Gwyn W; Mundell, Stuart; Milligan, Graeme; Plevin, Robin

    2012-05-11

    Proteinase-activated receptors 4 (PAR(4)) is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) recognized through the ability of serine proteases such as thrombin and trypsin to mediate receptor activation. Due to the irreversible nature of activation, a fresh supply of receptor is required to be mobilized to the cell surface for responsiveness to agonist to be sustained. Unlike other PAR subtypes, the mechanisms regulating receptor trafficking of PAR(4) remain unknown. Here, we report novel features of the intracellular trafficking of PAR(4) to the plasma membrane. PAR(4) was poorly expressed at the plasma membrane and largely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a complex with the COPI protein subunit β-COP1. Analysis of the PAR(4) protein sequence identified an arginine-based (RXR) ER retention sequence located within intracellular loop-2 (R(183)AR → A(183)AA), mutation of which allowed efficient membrane delivery of PAR(4). Interestingly, co-expression with PAR(2) facilitated plasma membrane delivery of PAR(4), an effect produced through disruption of β-COP1 binding and facilitation of interaction with the chaperone protein 14-3-3ζ. Intermolecular FRET studies confirmed heterodimerization between PAR(2) and PAR(4). PAR(2) also enhanced glycosylation of PAR(4) and activation of PAR(4) signaling. Our results identify a novel regulatory role for PAR(2) in the anterograde traffic of PAR(4). PAR(2) was shown to both facilitate and abrogate protein interactions with PAR(4), impacting upon receptor localization and cell signal transduction. This work is likely to impact markedly upon the understanding of the receptor pharmacology of PAR(4) in normal physiology and disease.

  5. Immunocytochemical demonstration of neuropeptides in the fish-gill parasite, Diclidophora merlangi (Monogenoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, A G; Halton, D W; Johnston, C F; Fairweather, I; Shaw, C

    1989-05-01

    Using the indirect immunofluorescence technique, immunoreactivity (IR) to three mammalian and one invertebrate regulatory peptide has been demonstrated in the nervous system of the monogenean gill parasite Diclidophora merlangi. IR to pancreatic polypeptide (PP), peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) and FMRFamide was evident throughout central and peripheral nervous tissues, whereas vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-IR was confined to a portion of the longitudinal ventral nerve cords. Staining patterns revealed the orthogonal arrangement of the nervous system consisting of paired cerebral ganglia, connecting post-pharyngeal commissure, three pairs of longitudinal nerve cords and associated neurones. PP-IR, PYY-IR and FMRFamide-IR were intense throughout the central nervous system of the worm. A small plexus of nerve fibres and somata in each peduncle was immunoreactive for FMRFamide and provided innervation to each of the eight posterior clamps. In the peripheral nervous system, PP-IR, PYY-IR and FMRFamide-IR occurred in an extensive nerve-net with fine, possibly sensory nerve endings in the tegument. PP-IR was also present in nerve fibres in the walls of the ootype, seminal vesicle and uterus. PYY- and FMRFamide-IRs, while evident in nerve fibres of the ootype wall, were also present in a distinct population of cells that encircles the ootype, and which are linked to it by fine cytoplasmic connectives. The majority of these somata were bipolar or multipolar. PYY-IR and FMRFamide-IR were also associated with nerve fibres and bipolar cells in the wall of the vitelline reservoir. Regulatory peptides would appear to play an integral role in neuronal functioning and egg development in D. merlangi.

  6. Zooplankton size selection relative to gill raker spacing in rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budy, P.; Haddix, T.; Schneidervin, R.

    2005-01-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss are one of the most widely stocked salmonids worldwide, often based on the assumption that they will effectively utilize abundant invertebrate food resources. We evaluated the potential for feeding morphology to affect prey selection by rainbow trout using a combination of laboratory feeding experiments and field observations in Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Utah-Wyoming. For rainbow trout collected from the reservoir, inter-gill raker spacing averaged 1.09 mm and there was low variation among fish overall (SD = 0.28). Ninety-seven percent of all zooplankton observed in the diets of rainbow trout collected in the reservoir were larger than the interraker spacing, while only 29% of the zooplankton found in the environment were larger than the interraker spacing. Over the size range of rainbow trout evaluated here (200-475 mm), interraker spacing increased moderately with increasing fish length; however, the size of zooplankton found in the diet did not increase with increasing fish length. In laboratory experiments, rainbow trout consumed the largest zooplankton available; the mean size of zooplankton observed in the diets was significantly larger than the mean size of zooplankton available. Electivity indices for both laboratory and field observations indicated strong selection for larger-sized zooplankton. The size threshold at which electivity switched from selection against smaller-sized zooplankton to selection for larger-sized zooplankton closely corresponded to the mean interraker spacing for both groups (???1-1.2 mm). The combination of results observed here indicates that rainbow trout morphology limits the retention of different-sized zooplankton prey and reinforces the importance of understanding how effectively rainbow trout can utilize the type and sizes of different prey available in a given system. These considerations may improve our ability to predict the potential for growth and survival of rainbow trout within and

  7. Gilles De La Tourette′s Syndrome : A Case Series Of 14 Patients From India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Gurtoo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gilles de la Tourette′s Syndrome (GTS is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics associated with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. This syndrome is often misdiagnosed as psychiatric disorder, therefore neuropsychiatric evaluation in patients suffering from it is very essential to make the correct diagnosis. Few reports, mostly single case reports of GTS from India have been published, this series attempts to define the clinical spectrum of patients from India. Aim : To study the clinical profile of patients with GTS in India. Setting and Design : Prospective hospital based study. Material and Methods : Ct scan of the head and EEG were done in all the 14 cases in addition to clinical history and detailed neurological examination. The diagnosis of GTS was made according to Tourette Syndrome Classification Study Criteria Group. Findings were statistically analyzed. Results : In all a total of 101 simple motor tics and 21 complex motor tics were observed in 14 cases. Most common site of simple motor tics was the facio-nuchal region (70% and type was eyebrow raising seen in 10 cases (71%. Commonest type of complex motor tics nose blowing (35%. Vocal tics were found in all 14 cases, simple (56%, being more common than complex vocal tics i.e, coprolalia (42%. Throat clearing was found in (50% cases and was the most positive in 28%. OCD was seen in 64% and ADHD in 28%. All the 14 cases Responded well to treatment. Conclusion : The clinical profile of patients in our case series is similar to those reported from the western countries with the exception of coprolalia, and ADHD, the incidence of which is higher in this case series.

  8. Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome, Depression, Depressive Illness, and Correlates in a Child and Adolescent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Renata; Gulisano, Mariangela; Martino, Davide; Robertson, Mary May

    2017-04-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and depression are both common disorders. It has been suggested that depression occurs in 13%-76% GTS patients. Despite this, there are few studies into the specific relationships and correlates between the two disorders. There is only some consensus as to the precise relationship between the two disorders. We undertook the study to investigate the relationship between depressive symptomatology and the core clinical features of GTS in a well-characterized clinical population of youth with this disorder. Our aim was to verify the association between depression and comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder and explore further other potential associations highlighted in some, but not all, of the studies focused on this topic. Our results demonstrated that (1) the GTS patients were significantly older than the controls, (2) the GTS patients were significantly more depressed than controls, (3) depression was associated with tic severity, (4) the Diagnostic Confidence Index scores were higher in GTS patients without depression, (5) anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and behavioral problems were significantly associated with depression, and (6) finally, patients with GTS and depression have a positive family history of depression. However, obsessionality (CY-BOCS) did not differentiate between depressed and not depressed GTS patients. Depression is common in patients with GTS and occurs significantly more in GTS than in controls. Depression is significantly associated with GTS factors such as tic severity, comorbidity with ADHD, and the presence of coexistent anxiety, CDs, and behavior problems. Depression is importantly significantly associated with a positive family history of depression. Intriguingly, depression in our sample was not related to obsessionality.

  9. McGill wetland model: evaluation of a peatland carbon simulator developed for global assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. St-Hilaire

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We developed the McGill Wetland Model (MWM based on the general structure of the Peatland Carbon Simulator (PCARS and the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model. Three major changes were made to PCARS: (1 the light use efficiency model of photosynthesis was replaced with a biogeochemical description of photosynthesis; (2 the description of autotrophic respiration was changed to be consistent with the formulation of photosynthesis; and (3 the cohort, multilayer soil respiration model was changed to a simple one box peat decomposition model divided into an oxic and anoxic zones by an effective water table, and a one-year residence time litter pool. MWM was then evaluated by comparing its output to the estimates of net ecosystem production (NEP, gross primary production (GPP and ecosystem respiration (ER from 8 years of continuous measurements at the Mer Bleue peatland, a raised ombrotrophic bog located in southern Ontario, Canada (index of agreement [dimensionless]: NEP = 0.80, GPP = 0.97, ER = 0.97; systematic RMSE [g C m−2 d−1]: NEP = 0.12, GPP = 0.07, ER = 0.14; unsystematic RMSE: NEP = 0.15, GPP = 0.27, ER = 0.23. Simulated moss NPP approximates what would be expected for a bog peatland, but shrub NPP appears to be underestimated. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the model output did not change greatly due to variations in water table because of offsetting responses in production and respiration, but that even a modest temperature increase could lead to converting the bog from a sink to a source of CO2. General weaknesses and further developments of MWM are discussed.

  10. Objective assessments of longitudinal outcome in Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappert, E J; Goetz, C G; Louis, E D; Blasucci, L; Leurgans, S

    2003-10-14

    To define the long-term outcome in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) using objective rating measures. Previous historical studies suggest spontaneous improvement of tic symptoms after adolescence, but objective longitudinal data are limited. The authors reviewed all videotapes in their database (1978 through 1991) of children with GTS (ages 8 to 14) who were seen in their tertiary care movement disorder center and underwent a standardized 5-minute filming protocol (n = 56). Through multiple contact methods, they successfully located 36 of these patients, who are now adults (age >20 years), and recruited 31 (28 men and 3 women) to volunteer for a second videotape and in-person assessment. A blinded rater evaluated the 62 tapes and rated five tic domains: body areas involved, motor and phonic tic frequency, and motor and phonic tic severity. Using standardized GTS videotape rating scale and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, the authors compared the two videotapes for each tic domain as well as the composite tic disability score. Ninety percent of adult patients still had tics. Adult patients who considered themselves tic-free were often inaccurate in their self-assessment: 50% had objective evidence of tics. Mean objective tic disability diminished in comparison to childhood (mean composite tic disability score childhood 9.58 vs adulthood 7.52, p = 0.014). All domains improved by adulthood, and significant improvements occurred in motor tic severity (p = 0.008). The improvements in tic disability did not relate to medication use, as only 13% of adults received medications for tics, compared with 81% of children. In GTS syndrome, tics objectively improve over time but most adults have persistent tics.

  11. Acute exposure to the biopesticide azadirachtin affects parameters in the gills of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murussi, Camila R; Costa, Maiara D; Leitemperger, Jossiele W; Flores-Lopes, Fábio; Menezes, Charlene C; Loebens, Luisa; de Avila, Luis Antonio; Rizzetti, Tiele M; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania L

    2016-02-01

    The biopesticide, azadirachtin (Aza) is less hazardous to the environment, but may cause several toxic effects in aquatic organisms. The Cyprinus carpio (n=12, for all concentrations) after 10days of acclimation under controlled conditions, were exposed at 20, 40, and 60μL/L of Aza during 96h. After this period, fish were anesthetized and euthanized then mucus layer and gills collected. In this study, the effects of exposure to different Aza concentrations were analysed through a set of biomarkers: Na(+)/K(+-)ATPase, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyl (PC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), non-protein thiols (NPSH), ascorbic acid (AsA) and histological parameters and, yet, protein and glucose concentration in the surface area of mucous layer. Na(+)K(+-)ATPase was inhibited at 40 and 60μL/L compared to control. TBARS decreased at 40μL/L compared to control. PC, SOD and GST increased at 60μL/L in comparison to control. CAT increased at 20 and 60μL/L, and GPx increased in all Aza concentrations compared to control. NPSH decreased and AsA increased in all concentrations in comparison to control. Histological analyses demonstrated an increase in the intensity of the damage with increasing Aza concentration. Alterations in histological examination were elevation and hypertrophy of the epithelial cells of the secondary filament, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the mucous and chlorate cells and lamellar aneurism. Glucose and protein concentrations in mucus layer increased at 60μL/L compared to control. In general, we suggest that 60μL/L Aza concentration affected several parameters causing disruptions carp metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The McGill simulator for endoscopic sinus surgery (MSESS): a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Rickul; Frenkiel, Saul; Nguyen, Lily H P; Young, Meredith; Del Maestro, Rolando; Zeitouni, Anthony; Saad, Elias; Funnell, W Robert J; Tewfik, Marc A

    2014-10-24

    Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is a technically challenging procedure, associated with a significant risk of complications. Virtual reality simulation has demonstrated benefit in many disciplines as an important educational tool for surgical training. Within the field of rhinology, there is a lack of ESS simulators with appropriate validity evidence supporting their integration into residency education. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the acceptability, perceived realism and benefit of the McGill Simulator for Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (MSESS) among medical students, otolaryngology residents and faculty, and to present evidence supporting its ability to differentiate users based on their level of training through the performance metrics. 10 medical students, 10 junior residents, 10 senior residents and 3 expert sinus surgeons performed anterior ethmoidectomies, posterior ethmoidectomies and wide sphenoidotomies on the MSESS. Performance metrics related to quality (e.g. percentage of tissue removed), efficiency (e.g. time, path length, bimanual dexterity, etc.) and safety (e.g. contact with no-go zones, maximum applied force, etc.) were calculated. All users completed a post-simulation questionnaire related to realism, usefulness and perceived benefits of training on the MSESS. The MSESS was found to be realistic and useful for training surgical skills with scores of 7.97 ± 0.29 and 8.57 ± 0.69, respectively on a 10-point rating scale. Most students and residents (29/30) believed that it should be incorporated into their curriculum. There were significant differences between novice surgeons (10 medical students and 10 junior residents) and senior surgeons (10 senior residents and 3 sinus surgeons) in performance metrics related to quality (p education. This simulator may be a potential resource to help fill the void in endoscopic sinus surgery training.

  13. Repetitive behaviours in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: tics, compulsions, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worbe, Yulia; Mallet, Luc; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Béhar, Cécile; Durif, Franck; Jalenques, Isabelle; Damier, Philippe; Derkinderen, Pascal; Pollak, Pierre; Anheim, Mathieu; Broussolle, Emannuel; Xie, Jing; Mesnage, Valérie; Mondon, Karl; Viallet, François; Jedynak, Pierre; Ben Djebara, Mouna; Schüpbach, Michael; Pelissolo, Antoine; Vidailhet, Marie; Agid, Yves; Houeto, Jean-Luc; Hartmann, Andreas

    2010-09-24

    Repetitive behaviours (RB) in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) are frequent. However, a controversy persists whether they are manifestations of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or correspond to complex tics. 166 consecutive patients with GTS aged 15-68 years were recruited and submitted to extensive neurological, psychiatric and psychological evaluations. RB were evaluated by the YBOCS symptom checklist and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I), and classified on the basis of a semi-directive psychiatric interview as compulsions or tics. RB were present in 64.4% of patients with GTS (107/166) and categorised into 3 major groups: a 'tic-like' group (24.3%-40/166) characterised by RB such as touching, counting, 'just right' and symmetry searching; an 'OCD-like' group (20.5%-34/166) with washing and checking rituals; and a 'mixed' group (13.2%-22/166) with both 'tics-like' and 'OCD-like' types of RB present in the same patient. In 6.3% of patients, RB could not be classified into any of these groups and were thus considered 'undetermined'. The results confirm the phenomenological heterogeneity of RB in GTS patients and allows to distinguish two types: tic-like behaviours which are very likely an integral part of GTS; and OCD-like behaviours, which can be considered as a comorbid condition of GTS and were correlated with higher score of complex tics, neuroleptic and SSRIs treatment frequency and less successful socio-professional adaptation. We suggest that a meticulous semiological analysis of RB in GTS patients will help to tailor treatment and allow to better classify patients for future pathophysiologic studies. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00169351.

  14. Repetitive behaviours in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: tics, compulsions, or both?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Worbe

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive behaviours (RB in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS are frequent. However, a controversy persists whether they are manifestations of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD or correspond to complex tics.166 consecutive patients with GTS aged 15-68 years were recruited and submitted to extensive neurological, psychiatric and psychological evaluations. RB were evaluated by the YBOCS symptom checklist and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I, and classified on the basis of a semi-directive psychiatric interview as compulsions or tics.RB were present in 64.4% of patients with GTS (107/166 and categorised into 3 major groups: a 'tic-like' group (24.3%-40/166 characterised by RB such as touching, counting, 'just right' and symmetry searching; an 'OCD-like' group (20.5%-34/166 with washing and checking rituals; and a 'mixed' group (13.2%-22/166 with both 'tics-like' and 'OCD-like' types of RB present in the same patient. In 6.3% of patients, RB could not be classified into any of these groups and were thus considered 'undetermined'.The results confirm the phenomenological heterogeneity of RB in GTS patients and allows to distinguish two types: tic-like behaviours which are very likely an integral part of GTS; and OCD-like behaviours, which can be considered as a comorbid condition of GTS and were correlated with higher score of complex tics, neuroleptic and SSRIs treatment frequency and less successful socio-professional adaptation. We suggest that a meticulous semiological analysis of RB in GTS patients will help to tailor treatment and allow to better classify patients for future pathophysiologic studies.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00169351.

  15. Phenomenology and Clinical Correlates of Stimulus-Bound Tics in Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Janik

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stimulus-bound tics (SBTs belong to stimulus-induced behaviors and are defined as tics that occur in response to internal or external stimuli. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and associations of SBTs with other stimulus-triggered behaviors, premonitory urges and stimulus sensitization in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS.Methods: We performed a prospective, one-registration study in a cohort of 140 consecutive patients with GTS. Duration of GTS was 10.6 ± 8.7 years (range: 0–39 years. SBTs were diagnosed during the interview.Results: SBTs occurred at some point in the lifetime of 20.7% of patients. The presence of SBTs in adults was four times as frequent as in children (35.5% vs. 9.0% with the most frequent onset in adolescence (58.8% and adulthood (29.4%. These tics started 9.1 ± 4.7 years after the onset of tics. One stimulus and mental stimulus preceded tics most frequently, 44.8 and 33.3%, respectively. There was no established pattern of tics triggered by stimuli. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed significant associations of SBTs with age at evaluation, tic severity, and palilalia but not with any co-morbid psychiatric disorders. 80% of patients showed at least one stimulus-triggered behavior. Premonitory urges and stimulus sensitization were reported by 60.0 and 40.7% of patients, respectively. No significant correlations between SBTs, premonitory urges and stimulus sensitization were found.Conclusion: SBTs are a part of the tic spectrum and should be taken into account by clinicians who deal with GTS patients. These tics fall at the tic end of the continuum of stimulus-induced behaviors.

  16. Coprolalia and copropraxia in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobierska, Magdalena; Sitek, Martyna; Gocyła, Katarzyna; Janik, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Involuntary expression of socially unacceptable words (coprolalia) or gestures (copropraxia) is the best-known symptom of Gilles de Tourette syndrome (GTS) that contributes to the social impairment. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence, age at onset and co-occurring symptoms of coprophenomena. One hundred and sixty-eight consecutive subjects with GTS including 94 adults and 74 children and aged between 4 and 54 years (mean: 18.0±8.3) were studied. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from medical history and neurological examination. Coprolalia or copropraxia appeared in 44 patients. Both coprophenomena were present in 9 patients. Coprolalia occurred in 25.0% (n=42) and copropraxia in 6.5% (n=11) of patients. Mean age at onset was 12.2±5.7 years (range: 4-33) for coprolalia and 12.4±4.9 years (range: 7-24) for copropraxia. Coprolalia started 4.4±3.7 years (range: 0-16) after the onset of disease; copropraxia started 6.1±4.0 years (range: 1-12) after the onset of the disease. Coprolalia began in adulthood in six patients only, and copropraxia in one person. In six patients, coprolalia appeared in the first year of the disease. Copropraxia was never seen in the first year of the disease. Coprophenomena were more frequent in patients with comorbid mental disorders, behavioral problems and severe tics. Three quarters of patients reported significant influence of coprophenomena on daily living. Coprophenomena affect one quarter of GTS patients, appear in the time when tics are most severe, and are positively associated with comorbidity and more severe form of disease. Coprophenomena may reflect more widespread dysfunction of brain in GTS. Copyright © 2014 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  17. Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathizadeh, M.

    1995-01-01

    The Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) consists of 8 dipole magnets connected in series. These magnets are energized via one 12-pulse dc power supply. The power supply consists of four phase controlled half-wave wye group converters. Each of the two half-wave converters are connected through an interphase transformer to obtain a full-wave converter with 120 degrees conduction. The input voltage for these two half-wave converters are 180 degrees apart. The two full-wave converters are connected in parallel through a third interphase transformer. This type of connection of the converters not only provides the required output current, it also improves the input power factor of the power supply. The output of the wye group converters is filtered through a passive L-R-C filter to reduce the ripple content of the output current. At low current values of the power supply the current ripple is high, thus a large filter is needed, which adds to the cost of the power supply, however at high output current levels, the current ripple is less severe. The large size of the filter can be reduced by adding an anti-parallel rectifier diode(D1) to the output of the power supply. A freewheeling diode(D2) is connected before the choke to circulate the current once the power supply is turned off. In order to measure the current in the magnet a high precision, low drift, zero flux current transductor is used. This transductor senses the magnet current which provides a feedback signal to control the gating of the converter's thyristors. A true 14 bit Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) is programmed by the control computer for the required current value, providing a reference for the current regulator. Fast correction of the line transients is provided by a relatively fast voltage loop controlled by a high gain slow response current loop

  18. First-in-human uPAR PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; Skovgaard, Dorthe; Brandt-Larsen, Malene

    2015-01-01

    A first-in-human clinical trial with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in patients with breast, prostate and bladder cancer, is described. uPAR is expressed in many types of human cancers and the expression is predictive...... for targeted molecular imaging with PET. The safety, pharmacokinetic, biodistribution profile and radiation dosimetry after a single intravenous dose of (64)Cu-DOTA-AE105 were assessed by serial PET and computed tomography (CT) in 4 prostate, 3 breast and 3 bladder cancer patients. Safety assessment...... of invasion, metastasis and indicates poor prognosis. uPAR PET imaging therefore holds promise to be a new and innovative method for improved cancer diagnosis, staging and individual risk stratification. The uPAR specific peptide AE105 was conjugated to the macrocyclic chelator DOTA and labeled with (64)Cu...

  19. Peptide-Based Optical uPAR Imaging for Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Karina; Christensen, Anders; Persson, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Near infrared intra-operative optical imaging is an emerging technique with clear implications for improved cancer surgery by enabling a more distinct delineation of the tumor margins during resection. This modality has the potential to increase the number of patients having a curative radical...... tumor resection. In the present study, a new uPAR-targeted fluorescent probe was developed and the in vivo applicability was evaluated in a human xenograft mouse model. Most human carcinomas express high level of uPAR in the tumor-stromal interface of invasive lesions and uPAR is therefore considered...... an ideal target for intra-operative imaging. Conjugation of the flourophor indocyanine green (ICG) to the uPAR agonist (AE105) provides an optical imaging ligand with sufficiently high receptor affinity to allow for a specific receptor targeting in vivo. For in vivo testing, human glioblastoma xenograft...

  20. Contribution de la tomographie par coherence optique au diagnostic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contribution de la tomographie par coherence optique au diagnostic de la neuropathie optique toxique. C.O.A. Abouki, S Alamou, C.R.A. Assavedo, L Odoulami-Yehouessi, I Sounouvou, S Hounnou-Tchabi ...

  1. Analysis of ParB-centromere interactions by multiplex SPR imaging reveals specific patterns for binding ParB in six centromeres of Burkholderiales chromosomes and plasmids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavien Pillet

    Full Text Available Bacterial centromeres-also called parS, are cis-acting DNA sequences which, together with the proteins ParA and ParB, are involved in the segregation of chromosomes and plasmids. The specific binding of ParB to parS nucleates the assembly of a large ParB/DNA complex from which ParA-the motor protein, segregates the sister replicons. Closely related families of partition systems, called Bsr, were identified on the chromosomes and large plasmids of the multi-chromosomal bacterium Burkholderia cenocepacia and other species from the order Burkholeriales. The centromeres of the Bsr partition families are 16 bp palindromes, displaying similar base compositions, notably a central CG dinucleotide. Despite centromeres bind the cognate ParB with a narrow specificity, weak ParB-parS non cognate interactions were nevertheless detected between few Bsr partition systems of replicons not belonging to the same genome. These observations suggested that Bsr partition systems could have a common ancestry but that evolution mostly erased the possibilities of cross-reactions between them, in particular to prevent replicon incompatibility. To detect novel similarities between Bsr partition systems, we have analyzed the binding of six Bsr parS sequences and a wide collection of modified derivatives, to their cognate ParB. The study was carried out by Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging (SPRi mulitplex analysis enabling a systematic survey of each nucleotide position within the centromere. We found that in each parS some positions could be changed while maintaining binding to ParB. Each centromere displays its own pattern of changes, but some positions are shared more or less widely. In addition from these changes we could speculate evolutionary links between these centromeres.

  2. Analysis of ParB-centromere interactions by multiplex SPR imaging reveals specific patterns for binding ParB in six centromeres of Burkholderiales chromosomes and plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillet, Flavien; Passot, Fanny Marie; Pasta, Franck; Anton Leberre, Véronique; Bouet, Jean-Yves

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial centromeres-also called parS, are cis-acting DNA sequences which, together with the proteins ParA and ParB, are involved in the segregation of chromosomes and plasmids. The specific binding of ParB to parS nucleates the assembly of a large ParB/DNA complex from which ParA-the motor protein, segregates the sister replicons. Closely related families of partition systems, called Bsr, were identified on the chromosomes and large plasmids of the multi-chromosomal bacterium Burkholderia cenocepacia and other species from the order Burkholeriales. The centromeres of the Bsr partition families are 16 bp palindromes, displaying similar base compositions, notably a central CG dinucleotide. Despite centromeres bind the cognate ParB with a narrow specificity, weak ParB-parS non cognate interactions were nevertheless detected between few Bsr partition systems of replicons not belonging to the same genome. These observations suggested that Bsr partition systems could have a common ancestry but that evolution mostly erased the possibilities of cross-reactions between them, in particular to prevent replicon incompatibility. To detect novel similarities between Bsr partition systems, we have analyzed the binding of six Bsr parS sequences and a wide collection of modified derivatives, to their cognate ParB. The study was carried out by Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging (SPRi) mulitplex analysis enabling a systematic survey of each nucleotide position within the centromere. We found that in each parS some positions could be changed while maintaining binding to ParB. Each centromere displays its own pattern of changes, but some positions are shared more or less widely. In addition from these changes we could speculate evolutionary links between these centromeres.

  3. Prise en charge des intoxications par envenimation chez les enfants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les signes cliniques étaient dominés par les douleurs (98%) suivies des hémorragies (73,80%) pour les morsures de serpent, la douleur pour les piqures de scorpion (100%) et les oedèmes pour les piqures d'abeilles (100%). Les cas de morsure de serpent ont été traités par le sérum antivenimeux polyvalent. Conclusion: ...

  4. Intoxication par la paraphényléne-diamine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    9 mars 2011 ... remède contre la douleur par Averbukh [8], ou contre la constipation par Schemesh [9], mais l´utilisation à des fins autolytique reste toujours prédominante. Le tableau clinique de l´intoxication à ... une anurie ayant nécessité le recours à l´hémodialyse. Ce taux de survenue d´IRA anurique est relativement ...

  5. Croissance epitaxiale de GaAs sur substrats de Ge par epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Simon

    La situation energetique et les enjeux environnementaux auxquels la societe est confrontee entrainent un interet grandissant pour la production d'electricite a partir de l'energie solaire. Parmi les technologies actuellement disponibles, la filiere du photovoltaique a concentrateur solaire (CPV pour concentrator photovoltaics) possede un rendement superieur et mi potentiel interessant a condition que ses couts de production soient competitifs. La methode d'epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques (CBE pour chemical beam epitaxy) possede plusieurs caracteristiques qui la rendent interessante pour la production a grande echelle de cellules photovoltaiques a jonctions multiples a base de semi-conducteurs III-V. Ce type de cellule possede la meilleure efficacite atteinte a ce jour et est utilise sur les satellites et les systemes photovoltaiques a concentrateur solaire (CPV) les plus efficaces. Une des principales forces de la technique CBE se trouve dans son potentiel d'efficacite d'utilisation des materiaux source qui est superieur a celui de la technique d'epitaxie qui est couramment utilisee pour la production a grande echelle de ces cellules. Ce memoire de maitrise presente les travaux effectues dans le but d'evaluer le potentiel de la technique CBE pour realiser la croissance de couches de GaAs sur des substrats de Ge. Cette croissance constitue la premiere etape de fabrication de nombreux modeles de cellules solaires a haute performance decrites plus haut. La realisation de ce projet a necessite le developpement d'un procede de preparation de surface pour les substrats de germanium, la realisation de nombreuses sceances de croissance epitaxiale et la caracterisation des materiaux obtenus par microscopie optique, microscopie a force atomique (AFM), diffraction des rayons-X a haute resolution (HRXRD), microscopie electronique a transmission (TEM), photoluminescence a basse temperature (LTPL) et spectrometrie de masse des ions secondaires (SIMS). Les experiences ont permis

  6. Serum suPAR in patients with FSGS: trash or treasure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, R.J.H.; Deegens, J.K.J.; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) has important functions in cell migration. uPAR can be shed from the cell membrane resulting in soluble uPAR (suPAR). Further cleavage gives rise to shorter fragments with largely unknown functions. Recent studies have demonstrated that both

  7. Altered structure of cortical sulci in gilles de la Tourette syndrome: Further support for abnormal brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellner, Julia; Delmaire, Christine; Valabrégue, Romain; Schüpbach, Michael; Mangin, Jean-François; Vidailhet, Marie; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Hartmann, Andreas; Worbe, Yulia

    2015-04-15

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the presence of motor and vocal tics. We hypothesized that patients with this syndrome would present an aberrant pattern of cortical formation, which could potentially reflect global alterations of brain development. Using 3 Tesla structural neuroimaging, we compared sulcal depth, opening, and length and thickness of sulcal gray matter in 52 adult patients and 52 matched controls. Cortical sulci were automatically reconstructed and identified over the whole brain, using BrainVisa software. We focused on frontal, parietal, and temporal cortical regions, in which abnormal structure and functional activity were identified in previous neuroimaging studies. Partial correlation analysis with age, sex, and treatment as covariables of noninterest was performed amongst relevant clinical and neuroimaging variables in patients. Patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome showed lower depth and reduced thickness of gray matter in the pre- and post-central as well as superior, inferior, and internal frontal sulci. In patients with associated obsessive-compulsive disorder, additional structural changes were found in temporal, insular, and olfactory sulci. Crucially, severity of tics and of obsessive-compulsive disorder measured by Yale Global Tic severity scale and Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive scale, respectively, correlated with structural sulcal changes in sensorimotor, temporal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and middle cingulate cortical areas. Patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome displayed an abnormal structural pattern of cortical sulci, which correlated with severity of clinical symptoms. Our results provide further evidence of abnormal brain development in GTS. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  8. Distinct freshwater and seawater isoforms of Na+/K+-ATPase in gill chloride cells of Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen D.; Regish, A.M.; Christensen, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    Gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) in teleost fishes is involved in ion regulation in both freshwater and seawater. We have developed and validated rabbit polyclonal antibodies specific to the NKA alpha1a and alpha1b protein isoforms of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus), and used western blots and immunohistochemistry to characterize their size, abundance and localization. The relative molecular mass of NKA alpha1a is slightly less than that for NKA beta1b. The abundance of gill NKA alpha1a was high in freshwater and became nearly undetectable after seawater acclimation. NKA alpha1b was present in small amounts in freshwater and increased 13-fold after seawater acclimation. Both NKA isoforms were detected only in chloride cells. NKA alpha1a was located in both filamental and lamellar chloride cells in freshwater, whereas in seawater it was present only as a faint background in filamental chloride cells. In freshwater, NKA alpha1b was found in a small number of filamental chloride cells, and after seawater acclimation it was found in all chloride cells on the filament and lamellae. Double simultaneous immunofluorescence indicated that NKA alpha1a and alpha1b are located in different chloride cells in freshwater. In many chloride cells in seawater, NKA alpha1b was present in greater amounts in the subapical region than elsewhere in the cell. The combined patterns in abundance and immunolocalization of these two isoforms can explain the salinity-related changes in total NKA and chloride cell abundance. The results indicate that there is a freshwater and a seawater isoform of NKA alpha-subunit in the gills of Atlantic salmon and that they are present in distinct chloride cells.

  9. Histological assessment of gills and liver of Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed to sublethal concentrations of the antibiotic erythromycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rodrigues

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ever-increasing presence of therapeutic drugs in the aquatic environment has been systematically reported during the past years. Among these substances, antibiotics are particularly important because they are widely used in medical and veterinary practice, livestock production and aquaculture. Erythromycin (ERY is a macrolide antibiotic, which is widely used in human therapeutics, but also in aquaculture practices. ERY was already detected in surface waters, in levels between several 19.2 ng/L to 1 μg/L. Therefore, it is necessary to characterize its potential ecotoxicological effects, including tissue modifications in target and non-target species. Histological assessment of different tissues of exposed fish are useful tools for ecotoxicological studies, helping to establish causal relationships between contaminant exposure and several biological responses. This study assessed the acute and chronic histopathological effects of erythromycin in Oncorhynchus mykiss. Gills and liver of rainbow trout were examined histologically after acute (0.001, 0.010, 0.100, 1.000 and 10.00 mg/L and chronic (0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.40 and 0.80 µg/L exposures. A qualitative and semi-qualitative evaluation of both tissues was performed, and also a quantitative evaluation of various lamellar structures (morphometric measurements and PAGE index (proportion of the secondary lamellae available for gas exchange. In both exposures, proliferative and degenerative alterations were the most predominant changes in gills. Organisms exposed to the highest concentrations of erythromycin had significant higher gill pathological indices in both acute and chronic experiments. Significant alterations in morphometric measurements and a decrease in the PAGE index were also observed. O. mykiss exposed to ERY had slightly higher levels of degenerative and circulatory alterations in liver. The liver pathological index increased significantly with higher concentrations for both

  10. An in vitro biotic ligand model (BLM) for silver binding to cultured gill epithelia of freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Bingsheng; Nichols, Joel; Playle, Richard C.; Wood, Chris M.

    2005-01-01

    'Reconstructed' gill epithelia on filter supports were grown in primary culture from dispersed gill cells of freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). This preparation contains both pavement cells and chloride cells, and after 7-9 days in culture, permits exposure of the apical surface to true freshwater while maintaining blood-like culture media on the basolateral surface, and exhibits a stable transepithelial resistance (TER) and transepithelial potential (TEP) under these conditions. These epithelia were used to develop a possible in vitro version of the biotic ligand model (BLM) for silver; the in vivo BLM uses short-term gill binding of the metal to predict acute silver toxicity as a function of freshwater chemistry. Radio-labeled silver ( 110m Ag as AgNO 3 ) was placed on the apical side (freshwater), and the appearance of 110m Ag in the epithelia (binding) and in the basolateral media (flux) over 3 h were monitored. Silver binding (greater than the approximate range 0-100 μg l -1 ) and silver flux were concentration-dependent with a 50% saturation point (apparent K d ) value of about 10 μg l -1 or 10 -7 M, very close to the 96-h LC50 in vivo in the same water chemistry. There were no adverse effects of silver on TER, TEP, or Na + , K + -ATPase activity, though the latter declined over longer exposures, as in vivo. Silver flux over 3 h was small ( + and dissolved organic carbon (humic acid) concentrations, increased by elevations in freshwater Cl - and reductions in pH, and insensitive to elevations in Ca 2+ . With the exception of the pH response, these effects were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to in vivo BLM responses. The results suggest that an in vitro BLM approach may provide a simple and cost-effective way for evaluating the protective effects of site-specific waters

  11. Histopathological effects of chlorpyrifos on the gills, hepatopancreas and gonads of the freshwater crab Zilchiopsis collastinensis. Persistent effects after exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, C L; Collins, P

    2017-06-01

    Sublethal effects of the pesticide chlorpyrifos were evaluated in the crab Zilchiopsis collastinensis (Decapoda, Trichodactylidae). Crabs were exposed to high concentrations of chlorpyrifos at the beginning of the experiment and controlled dilution, under natural light and temperature conditions. A control and three concentrations (22.4, 41.25 and 61.4µg chlorpyrifos L -1 ) were evaluated in triplicate. Nine crabs per concentration and day were used. The gills, hepatopancreas and ovaries were sampled before pesticide exposure (day 0) and 8, 15 and 22 days later, when concentrations were diluted and below the detection limits. The histopathological effects and their variations in time were observed and quantified. In gills, hyperplasias were observed in several cases, mainly in crabs exposed to chlorpyrifos. The number of collapsed lamellae and the number of affected lamellae quickly increased in exposed crabs, as effects were observed on day 8 and remained until day 22. In hepatopancreas there was an increase in the number of F and B -cells and affected tubules, especially after 22 days of exposure (p<0.05). In ovaries, there were no effects on gonadosomatic indexes or oocyte volume, but there was a significant increase in the atretic oocyte proportion related to pesticide exposure (p<0.05). The histopathological effects on the gills, hepatopancreas and ovaries were observed after exposure and persist even after dilution, and might be related to earlier exposures. Thus, these histopathological effects might be used as pesticide biomarkers even after the pesticide is not detected by chemical methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Une terreur par l’image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie DULONG

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Si d’autres événements — Hiroshima, la découverte des camps de concentration, la chute du mur de Berlin — ont, au cours du XXe siècle, marqué suffisamment l’imaginaire pour trouver leur réponse dans des œuvres d’art, le 11 septembre 2001 pose la question de la fictionnalisation autrement : il ne s’agit plus tant de combler les manques de la représentation, liés à l’absence d’images ou au délai dans leur dévoilement, mais bien de composer avec l’omniprésence d’une représentation martelée à la télévision et sur Internet. Que cette représentation soit partielle, tronquée et qu’il lui manque la présence des corps, ces grands absents des photographies et des images tournées par les journalistes, ne change rien au fait que c’est avec le trop-plein que les artistes doivent maintenant négocier.Cet article s’intéresse aux romans qui traitent l’événement de front au lieu de l’aborder sur un mode mineur, et a pour objectif de tracer un portrait de la représentation des médias dans les romans du 11 septembre 2001. Ces romans, outre le fait qu’ils traitent des événements de New York, ont comme point commun un personnage, ou décor : les médias, représentés par la télévision, l’Internet, les photographies de presse, interviennent dans les récits d’une manière significative et témoignent de la force brute des images. À travers une étude de certains des mécanismes à l’œuvre dans The Writing on the Wall (Lynne Sharon Schwartz, Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close (Jonathan Safran Foer, Falling Man (Don DeLillo et A Disorder Peculiar to the Country (Ken Kalfus, il s’agira de proposer des réponses à ces quelques questions : quel rôle les médias jouent-ils, et comment participent-ils au récit ? Quelle pression les images exercent-elles sur les personnages ? Que révèlent les personnages enfants dans leur rapport aux médias ? Quelle critique, finalement, les romans

  13. Francis Bacon sob o olhar de Gilles Deleuze: a imagem como intensidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Fontes Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio de Gilles Deleuze La logique de la sensation é texto que se detém principalmente na prática e na eficácia da imagem. A pintura de Francis Bacon é ali tomada como paradigma de modernidade ao investir contra os clichês expressivos e ao produzir imagem junto à brutalidade dos fatos, como um contra-efeito do narrativo. Em uma obra que conjura todo modelo a representar, toda história a contar, “alguma coisa se passa”, explica Deleuze, “que define o funcionamento da pintura”. Algo se passa, tem lugar: o acontecimento de uma catástrofe e de uma histeria no ato de pintura que acomete a Figura de modo a transmitir uma potencial violência de reação e de expressão. O “Bacon” de Deleuze apresenta a realidade vivida em uma nova e não-convencional ordem de sensação. Neste artigo, são comentados os modos como o filósofo interpreta os atos físicos da pintura de Bacon — marcas aleatórias, varredura da massa pictural, escansão das superfícies —, procedimentos que introduzem no mundo visual da figuração a variedade caótica dos fatos e sentidos. Mostra-se como as faces e as figuras contorcidas, distorcidas, escorchadas de Bacon recebem uma voz conceitual complementar no texto de Deleuze. Consequentemente, focaliza-se a disposição de alguns conceitos do filósofo: diagrama, Figura, diferença, espaço háptico. Locados no espaço afetivo ou na “lógica da sensação” da pintura baconiana, esses conceitos atribuem legitimidade ao entrelaçamento e à co-implicação entre arte e filosofia. Uma última observação dá conta do fato de a prática da imagem em Bacon, apresentada por Deleuze no palco de uma modernidade particularmente solapada por um “dilúvio anestésico de imagens reprimindo a possibilidade de pensar”, evidenciar para o filósofo os rumos necessariamente sinuosos, “reptilíneos”, do pensamento moderno. Tanto o conceito como a forma criam por catástrofe, por conflagração, por varia

  14. Dante’s Inferno and the McGill Pain Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marcolongo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims of the study: To study the images which depict the damned’s sufferings in Dante’s Inferno, in their expression of the several meanings of “pain”, the semantics of “pain” in the poem has been analyzed, eventually trying to determine whether the organization of punishments of Inferno may somehow mirror a disability scale. Methods: A detailed analysis of the text was carried out, which proved a valuable tool for interpreting the organization of punishments as a possible disability scale. The semantics of pain in the Divine Comedy was studied through all the forms of the pain descriptors (included the archaic terminological forms from the Italian version of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MGPQ by Maiani and Sanavio. Results and Conclusions: In Dante’s Inferno a classification of pain is provided, based on the experience of sufferings; Dante’s images seem not only instrumental to investigating the sensorial but also the affective and intellectual spheres by introducing a number of characters and describing the impact of punishment onto their souls. Our research highlighted that 46 out of 78 terms from the MGPQ are present in Inferno, though with different forms; the Groups the MGPQ is divided into are also represented with the exception of Group XII, the most frequently detected being Groups XIII-which studies the fear-related sensations in the emotional sphere - XIV, XIX and XX. The great attention emerges that Dante devoted to describing simple sensorial experiences as well as the way punishments affected the soul. As a whole, the terms pertaining to the sensorial sphere are the most frequently encountered. The lack of motion which increases circle after circle in Hell, well matches the progressing physical and psychological impairment caused by some invalidating diseases. Noticeably, Dante created such a complex system centuries before the studies were released on the impact of pain and its quantitative and mostly qualitative

  15. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- June survey descriptive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-06-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the shoreline aquatic plant communities in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level, indicated that much of the original plant communities and the intermediate shoreline communities present on the exposed sediments have been lost. The extensive old-field and emergent marsh communities that were present on the exposed shoreline during the drawdown have been flooded and much of the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities have not had sufficient time for re-establishment. The shoreline does, however, have extensive beds of maidencane which extend from the shoreline margin to areas as deep as 2 and perhaps 3 meters. Scattered individual plants of lotus and watershield are common and may indicate likely directions of future wetland development in Par Pond. In addition, within isolated coves, which apparently received ground water seepage and/or stream surface flows during the period of the Par Pond draw down, extensive beds of waterlilies and spike rush are common. Invasion of willow and red maple occurred along the lake shoreline as well. Although not absent from this survey, evidence of the extensive redevelopment of the large cattail and eel grass beds was not observed in this first survey of Par Pond. Future surveys during the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997 along with the evaluation of satellite date to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond are planned

  16. Kinetics of radiolabelled silver uptake and depuration in the gills of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and European eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, C.M.; Grosell, M.; Hogstrand, C.

    2002-01-01

    We examined the influence of speciation on the kinetics of silver uptake and deputation in the gills of two freshwater fish, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) which has high branchial Na+ and Cl- uptake rates and is relatively sensitive to silver, and the European eel (Anguilla anguilla...... labile than from Ag+ exposures, with 1.6-1.8-fold greater loss rates during the fast phases in both species. Differences in branchial silver uptake between eel and trout correlate well with differences in acute toxicity, but are not as large as differences in ion uptake rates. The complex time...

  17. Toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Gill injury, oxidative stress, and other physiological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federici, Gillian; Shaw, Benjamin J. [Ecotoxicology and Stress Biology Research Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Handy, Richard D. [Ecotoxicology and Stress Biology Research Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: rhandy@plymouth.ac.uk

    2007-10-30

    Mammalian and in vitro studies have raised concerns about the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2} NPs), but there are very limited data on ecotoxicity to aquatic life. This paper is an observational study where we aim to describe the toxicity of TiO{sub 2} NPs to the main body systems of rainbow trout. Stock solutions of dispersed TiO{sub 2} NPs were prepared by sonication without using solvents. A semi-static test system was used to expose rainbow trout to either a freshwater control, 0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 mg l{sup -1} TiO{sub 2} NPs for up to 14 days. Exposure to TiO{sub 2} NPs caused some gill pathologies including oedema and thickening of the lamellae. No major haematological or blood disturbances were observed in terms of red and white blood cell counts, haematocrit values, whole blood haemoglobin, and plasma Na{sup +} or K{sup +} concentrations. Tissue metal levels (Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} and Mn) were generally unaffected. However, some exposure concentration-dependent changes in tissue Cu and Zn levels were observed, especially in the brain. Exposure to TiO{sub 2} NPs caused statistically significant decreases in Na{sup +}K{sup +}-ATPase activity (ANOVA, P < 0.05) in the gills and intestine, and a trend of decreasing enzyme activity in the brain (the latter was not statistically significant). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) showed exposure concentration-dependent and statistically significant (ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test, P < 0.05) increases (two-fold or more) in the gill, intestine and brain, but not the liver during exposure to TiO{sub 2} NPs compared to controls. TiO{sub 2} NP exposure caused statistically significant (ANOVA, P < 0.05) increases in the total glutathione levels in the gills, but depletion of hepatic glutathione compared to controls. Total glutathione levels in the brain and intestine were unaffected. Liver cells exposed to TiO{sub 2} NPs showed minor fatty change and lipidosis, and some hepatocytes

  18. Kohti elokuvallista ajattelua : virtuaalisen todellisen ontologia Gilles Deleuzen ja Jean-Luc Godardin elokuvakäsityksissä

    OpenAIRE

    Oravala, Juha

    2008-01-01

    Juha Oravala tarkastelee tutkimuksessaan yhteyttä ranskalaisen filosofin Gilles Deleuzen (1925–1995) elokuvalle ominaisten liikkeen ja ajan kategorioille rakentuvan monijakoisen todellisuuskäsityksen sekä ranskalaisen elokuvaohjaaja Jean-Luc Godardin tutkivan elokuvakäsityksen välillä.Aikaisempi elokuvateoria painotti laajalti tekijälähtöistä näkökulmaa. Sen yksi vallitseva tulkinnallinen totuus oli, että tekijä pyrkii ilmaisemaan elokuvien kautta sisäistä kokemusmaailmaansa ja sisäistä puhet...

  19. Revisiting the psychometric properties of a revised Danish version of the McGill ingestive skills assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina; Kristiansen, Dorte Melgaard

    2017-01-01

    Background: During a longstanding validation process of the Danish version of the McGill Ingestive Skills Assessment (MISA2-DK) for measuring mealtime performance in dysphagic clients, extensive revisions have been undertaken. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the psychometric properties...... of this revised version. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 328 adults referred to occupational therapy for swallowing evaluation were included. MISA2-DK with 36 items distributed into four subscales (positioning for meals, self-feeding skills, liquid ingestion, and solid ingestion) was administered...

  20. Osmotic and thermal effects on in situ ATPase activity in permeabilized gill epithelial cells of the fish Gillichthys mirabilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    KÜLtz; Somero

    1995-01-01

    Long-jawed mudsuckers (Gillichthys mirabilis) were acclimated to sea water (SW) at 7 °C, SW at 26 °C or dilute sea water (DSW) at 26 °C for 5 months. Gill cells were isolated and the proportion of mitochondria-rich (MR) cells was determined. The number of cells harvested amounted to 4.7x10(7)±0.6x10(7) to 10.6x10(7)±1.1x10(7) and the yield was between 7.1x10(8)±0.6x10(8) and 10.7x10(8)±1.4x10(8) cells g-1 gill epithelial mass. Cell viability was 96.8±0.4 to 97.8±0.6 %. The number, size and volume of MR cells decreased significantly during DSW acclimation, but did not change during thermal acclimation. The protein content was not influenced by osmotic or thermal acclimation and ranged between 20.0±1.6 and 22.1±1.5 pg cell-1. Using a new method, which is based on the formation of plasma membrane channels by alamethicin, we were able to permeabilize gill cells. For the first time, the Na+/K+-ATPase and H+-ATPase activities of fish gills were determined in intact cells in situ. The activity of both ATPases was dependent on alamethicin concentration (optimum 100 µg mg-1 protein) and on preincubation time (optimum 10 min). The in situ activity of both ATPases was influenced by osmotic, but not thermal, acclimation. A positive linear correlation was found between in situ Na+/K+-ATPase activity and total MR cell volume. However, we show, for the first time, that a negative linear correlation exists between H+-ATPase activity and total MR cell volume, suggesting a localization of H+-ATPase in pavement cells. In permeabilized cells, the activity of both ATPases was 2.6­3.9 times higher than that of crude homogenates and 1.6­2.1 times higher than that of permeabilized homogenate vesicles. We hypothesize that in crude homogenates three-quarters of Na+/K+-ATPase and two-thirds of H+-ATPase activity are not detectable both because of a mixture of inside-out and right-side-out vesicles and because of the disruption of membrane and enzyme integrity.

  1. Developing a machine vision system for simultaneous prediction of freshness indicators based on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) pupil and gill color during storage at 4°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ce; Qian, Jianping; Han, Shuai; Fan, Beilei; Yang, Xinting; Wu, Xiaoming

    2018-03-15

    The study assessed the feasibility of developing a machine vision system based on pupil and gill color changes in tilapia for simultaneous prediction of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and total viable counts (TVC) during storage at 4°C. The pupils and gills were chosen and color space conversion among RGB, HSI and L ∗ a ∗ b ∗ color spaces was performed automatically by an image processing algorithm. Multiple regression models were established by correlating pupil and gill color parameters with TVB-N, TVC and TBA (R 2 =0.989-0.999). However, assessment of freshness based on gill color is destructive and time-consuming because gill cover must be removed before images are captured. Finally, visualization maps of spoilage based on pupil color were achieved using image algorithms. The results show that assessment of tilapia pupil color parameters using machine vision can be used as a low-cost, on-line method for predicting freshness during 4°C storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Multiple functions of the crustacean gill: osmotic/ionic regulation, acid-base balance, ammonia excretion, and bioaccumulation of toxic metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Raymond P.; Lucu, Čedomil; Onken, Horst; Weihrauch, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The crustacean gill is a multi-functional organ, and it is the site of a number of physiological processes, including ion transport, which is the basis for hemolymph osmoregulation; acid-base balance; and ammonia excretion. The gill is also the site by which many toxic metals are taken up by aquatic crustaceans, and thus it plays an important role in the toxicology of these species. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the ecology, physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology of the mechanisms of osmotic and ionic regulation performed by the gill. The current concepts of the mechanisms of ion transport, the structural, biochemical, and molecular bases of systemic physiology, and the history of their development are discussed. The relationship between branchial ion transport and hemolymph acid-base regulation is also treated. In addition, the mechanisms of ammonia transport and excretion across the gill are discussed. And finally, the toxicology of heavy metal accumulation via the gill is reviewed in detail. PMID:23162474

  3. Gill tissue reactions in walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum and common carp Cyprinus carpio to glochidia of the freshwater mussel Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, D.L.; Mitchell, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    The glochidia of many freshwater mussels, which are obligate parasites on the gills, fins, and other body parts of specific fishes, attach to a suitable host, become encapsulated, and develop to the free-living juvenile stage. Using light and electron microscopy we compared gill tissue reactions in a suitable host (walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) and unsuitable host (common carp Cyprinus carpio) infected with Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea. Encapsulation of glochidia on walleye gills was completed by 6 h post-infection at 20 to 22°C. Capsular formation and compaction were accompanied by a general increase in epithelioid cells. Fibrotic material appeared in capsules at about 48 h and virtually filled capsular cells from about Day 5 to Day 11 post-infection. Liberation of juvenile mussels was accompanied by thinning of the capsule from about Day 11 to Day l7. Although glochidia attached to the gills of common carp, few became encapsulated. By 48 h post-infection, preliminary capsular growth was evident and necrotic cells and cellular debris appeared at the edges of the growth. However, all glochidia were sloughed from carp gills by 60 h. Host specificity of L. radiata siliquoidea apparently depended on a combination of the attachment response of glochidia, differences in the encapsulation process, and tissue reactions in the fish.

  4. Morphometric partitioning of the respiratory surface area and diffusion capacity of the gills and swim bladder in juvenile Amazonian air-breathing fish, Arapaima gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Marisa Narciso; da Cruz, André Luis; da Costa, Oscar Tadeu Ferreira; Perry, Steven Franklin

    2012-09-01

    The gills and the respiratory swim bladders of juvenile specimens (mean body mass 100g) of the basal teleost Arapaima gigas (Cuvier 1829) were evaluated using stereological methods in vertical sections. The surface areas, harmonic mean barrier thicknesses and morphometric diffusing capacities for oxygen and carbon dioxide were estimated. The average respiratory surface area of the swim bladder (2173 cm² kg⁻¹) exceeded that of the gills (780 cm² kg⁻¹) by a factor of 2.79. Due to the extremely thin air-blood barrier in the swim bladder (harmonic mean 0.22 μm) and the much thicker water-blood barrier of the gills (9.61 μm), the morphometric diffusing capacity for oxygen and carbon dioxide was 88 times greater in the swim bladder than in the gills. These data clearly indicate the importance of the swim bladder, even in juvenile A. gigas that still engage in aquatic respiration. Because of the much greater diffusion constant of CO₂ than O₂ in water, the gills also remain important for CO₂ release. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cell proliferation and apoptosis in gill filaments of the lucinid Codakia orbiculata (Montagu, 1808) (Mollusca: Bivalvia) during bacterial decolonization and recolonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisabeth, Nathalie H; Gustave, Sylvie D D; Gros, Olivier

    2012-08-01

    The shallow-water bivalve Codakia orbiculata which harbors gill-endosymbiotic sulfur-oxidizing γ-proteobacteria can lose and acquire its endosymbionts throughout its life. Long-term starvation and recolonization experiments led to changes in the organization of cells in the lateral zone of gill filaments. This plasticity is linked to the presence or absence of gill-endosymbionts. Herein, we propose that this reorganization can be explained by three hypotheses: (a) a variation in the number of bacteriocytes and granule cells due to proliferation or apoptosis processes, (b) a variation of the volume of these two cell types without modification in the number, and (c) a combination of both number and cell volume variation. To test these hypotheses, we analyzed cell reorganization in terms of proliferation and apoptosis in adults submitted to starvation and returned to the field using catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and structural analyses. We observed that cell and tissue reorganization in gills filaments is due to a variation in cell relative abundance that maybe associated with a variation in cell apparent volume and depends on the environment. In fact, bacteriocytes mostly multiply in freshly collected and newly recolonized individuals, and excess bacteriocytes are eliminated in later recolonization stages. We highlight that host tissue regeneration in gill filaments of this symbiotic bivalve can occur by both replication of existing cells and division of undifferentiated cells localized in tissular bridges, which might be a tissue-specific multipotent stem cell zone. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- September survey descriptive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this mid-September survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys during the late growing seasons of 1995, and throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  7. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- October survey descriptive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-11-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this late October survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maiden cane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  8. Grooming behaviors and gill fouling in the commercially important blue crab (Callinectes sapidus and stone crab (Menippe mercenaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen L. Wortham

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Grooming behaviors reduce fouling of body regions. In decapods, grooming time budgets, body regions groomed, and grooming appendages are known in several species; however, little data exists on brachyuran crabs. In this study, grooming behaviors of two commercially important crabs were documented (blue crabs: Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896; stone crabs: Menippe mercenaria Say, 1818. These crabs are harvested by fishermen and knowing their grooming behaviors is valuable, as clean crabs are preferred by consumers and the stone crab fishery consequence of removing one cheliped to grooming behaviors is unknown. Crabs were observed individually and agonistically to determine how grooming behaviors vary in the presence of another conspecific. Both species frequently use their maxillipeds and groom, with the gills being cleaned by epipods. Respiratory and sensory structures were groomed frequently in both species. Removal of a grooming appendage resulted in higher fouling levels in the gills, indicating that grooming behaviors do remove fouling. Overall, stone crabs had a larger individual time budget for grooming, but agonistic grooming time budgets were similar. Stone crab chelipeds are used in grooming, especially cleaning the other cheliped. The chelipeds are not the main grooming appendage; however, implications of losing one cheliped may have large impacts.

  9. The gill microbiota of invasive and indigenous Spondylus oysters from the Mediterranean Sea and northern Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roterman, Yahala Rina; Benayahu, Yehuda; Reshef, Lea; Gophna, Uri

    2015-12-01

    The gill tissue of bivalve mollusks hosts rich symbiotic microbial communities that may contribute to the animal's metabolism. Spondylus spinosus is an invasive oyster that has become highly abundant along the eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS) coastline, but is scarce in the northern Red Sea (NRS), its indigenous region. The composition and seasonal dynamics of the gill microbial communities of S. spinosus were examined in both regions, using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Additionally, two Red Sea Spondylus species, S. avramsingeri and S. pickeringae, were investigated using the same approach. Significant differences were found between microbial communities of the EMS S. spinosus and the three NRS species. Bacteria from the family Hahellaceae dominated the communities of the EMS S. spinosus and the NRS S. avramsingeri, oysters that are dominant in their habitat, yet were rare in the NRS S. spinosus and S. pickeringae, which are only seldom encountered. Bacterial communities of EMS S. spinosus were more similar to those of NRS S. spinosus than to those of other NRS Spondylus species, indicating that either part of the microbiota had co-invaded with their host into the Mediterranean Sea, or that there are species-specific selective constraints on microbial composition. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effects of waterborne Fe(II) on juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus: analysis of respiratory rate, hematology and gill histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhihao; You, Feng; Liu, Hongjun; Liu, Mengxia; Li, Jun; Zhang, Peijun

    2012-03-01

    The concentration of Fe(II) is high in some groundwater supplies used in turbot culture, and the toxicity of waterborne Fe(II) is unknown. We investigated the stress responses of juvenile turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, exposed to Fe(II) of different concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/L) for 1, 7, 14, and 28 d, under the same ambient conditions of other parameters. Changes in respiratory rate, hematological parameters, and gill structure were determined. The results show that waterborne Fe(II) did not cause severe hematological perturbation to turbot. A low-medium Fe(II) concentration (lower than 0.1 mg/L) could boost the respiratory rate, and caused no or very limited damage to fish. A high Fe(II) concentration (0.1 mg/L or higher), however, caused gill damage, such as vacuoles in branchial lamellae, epithelial necrosis, and hypertrophy of epithelial cells, and even death after extended exposure time. Therefore, excess waterborne Fe(II) and long-term exposure to Fe(II) could be responsible for poor growth and high mortality of turbot in culture. The concentration of waterborne Fe(II) in turbot culture should be kept below 0.1 mg/L.

  11. Gill lipid metabolism and unidirectional Na+ flux in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) after transfer to dilute media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.J.M.; Grosell, M.; Rosenkilde, P.

    1999-01-01

    The present study investigated the mechanism involved when fish tighten their gill membrane after transfer to dilute media. Ten individually assayed eels adapted to fresh water (EW) and labelled with radioactive Na-22 in the plasma showed mean exchange rates in equilibrium with ambient radioactive...... Na-24 in FW at 70 mu mol kg(-1) h(-1). Just after transfer to demineralized water (DW), the mean Na+ release rate went up to 120 mu molkg(-1) h(-1); after 24 h in DW it came down again and levelled off at 40 mu mol kg(-1) h(-1) during a period of up to 2 weeks. During the same period the mean Na......% of the total C-14-activity incorporated into gill lipids as (C-14) wax alcohols (WA; octadecanol and eicosanol). This percentage went up to 50% shortly after transfer to DW and came down again to about 20% after 2 weeks in DW. Single eels labelled with Na-22 in the plasma showed a statistically significant...

  12. Identification and Characterization of Differentially Expressed Transcripts in the Gills of Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirak Kumar Barman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important species. It is a euryhaline shrimp, surviving in wide-range salinity conditions. A change in gene expression has been suggested as an important component for stress management. To better understand the osmoregulatory mechanisms mediated by the gill, a subtractive and suppressive hybridization (SSH tool was used to identify expressed transcripts linked to adaptations in saline water. A total of 117 transcripts represented potentially expressed under salinity conditions. BLAST analysis identified 22% as known genes, 9% as uncharacterized showing homologous to unannotated ESTs, and 69% as unknown sequences. All the identified known genes representing broad spectrum of biological pathways were particularly linked to stress tolerance including salinity tolerance. Expression analysis of 10 known genes and 7 unknown/uncharacterized genes suggested their upregulation in the gills of prawn exposed to saline water as compared to control indicating that these are likely to be associated with salinity acclimation. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE was used for obtaining full-length cDNA of MRSW-40 clone that was highly upregulated during salt exposure. The sequenced ESTs presented here will have potential implications for future understanding about salinity acclimation and/or tolerance of the prawn.

  13. Myxobolus goensis n. sp. (Myxozoa, Myxosporea, Myxobolidae), a parasite of the gills of Mugil cephalus (Osteichthyes, Mugilidae) from Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiras, J C; D'Souza, J

    2004-09-01

    Two species of Myxobolus are reported from the gills of Mugil cephalus collected at Goa, India: M. goensis n. sp. and M. parvus Shulman, 1962. Myxobolus goensis n. sp. forms digitiform or rounded plasmodia between the gill rakers. Their spores are oval in frontal view, with tapered anterior extremity, and lemon-shaped in lateral view, measuring 9.7 (9.5-10.5) microm in length, 6.6 (6-7.5) microm in width, and 5.2 (5-6) microm in thickness. The polar capsules are pyriform and unequal in size. The larger ones are 5.3 (4.5-6) microm long and 2.4 (2-3) microm wide; the smaller ones are 2.4 (2-3) microm long and 1.8 (1.5-2) microm wide. The polar filament forms five turns aligned perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the larger polar capsules. Within the smaller polar capsules the polar filament is difficult to observe and, apparently, forms three coils. The spores are distinctly different from other Myxobolus species infecting M. cephalus and other Mugil spp. Furthermore, the present material is also different from 204 Myxobolus species presenting differently sized polar capsules, representing nearly all the known species with this characteristic. The fact that only the M. cephalus specimens were infected among a sample of 206 fish specimens, comprising 27 different species, strongly suggests that this parasite is specific to M. cephalus.

  14. Effect of Heavy Metals on Liver, Kidney, Gills and Muscles of Cyprinus carpio and Wallago attu inhabited in the Indus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Mahboob

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of heavy metals on an important tissue of two fish species Cyprinus carpio and Wallago attu, sampled from the Indus river, Mianwali District, Pakistan. The concentration of selected heavy metals Fe, Cr, Cu, and in gills, muscles, kidney and liver was compared with an International standard of food fish. The overall metal concentrations among different weight categories in C. carpio were in the order of Fe > Cu > Cr >. In W. attu the overall accumulation of these metals were, in order of Fe > Cu > Cr > Pb The order of accumulation of metals in gills and muscle of C. carpio was Fe > Cr > Pb > Cu; kidney and muscles of W. attu was Fe > Cr > Cu > Pb; liver Fe > Cu > Cr > Pb. An increasing trend of concentration of iron, copper, chromium and lead occurred with an increase in weight of C. carpio and W. attu. There was a significant difference in the accumulation of heavy metals in different organs of both species (p<0.01. All studied heavy metals except Cr were within permissible limits described by various international agencies like WHO, FAO and FEPA in edible tissues of C. carpio and W. attu.

  15. Three-dimensional imaging analysis of Yersinia ruckeri infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gills by optical projection tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otani, Maki; Raida, Martin Kristian

    Optical projection tomography (OPT) is a new tool for three-dimensional (3D) imaging of small tissues or embryos, based on multi-angle recording of internal fluorescent signals using intact whole mount tissue or fish. To understand the route of infection, gills of Y. ruckeri infected rainbow trout...... were labeled with fluorescent antibody and visualized in 3D by the OPT scanner. Rainbow trout were infected with Y. ruckeri O1 biotype 1 (1 x 109 cells/ml) for 1 hour at 18 °C, and then transferred to clean water. Three fish were sampled at 12 different time points and fixed in 4% PFA. The gills were...... incubated whole with rabbit anti-Y. ruckeri polyclonal antibody and Alexa Fluor®594 conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG. After embedding in 1% low melting point agarose, specimens were dehydrated in 100% methanol and cleared in BABB (benzyl alcohol: benzyl benzoate) for OPT scanning. 3D imaging results showed...

  16. Tetrabenazine-induced oculogyric crisis – a rare complication in the treatment of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janik P

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Piotr Janik,1 Monika Figura1,2 1Department of Neurology, Anna Gostynska Wolski Hospital, 2Department of Neurology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Abstract: Tetrabenazine is used in the treatment of chorea, tardive dyskinesia, tics, and dystonia. It rarely causes acute eyeball dystonia and the description of this complication in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is limited. We provide a description of an acute oculogyric crisis caused by tetrabenazine in a patient with severe tics. The patient had never developed acute dystonic reactions, although he was previously exposed to numerous dopamine receptor-blocking agents. After 8 days of therapy with tetrabenazine at a dose of 62.5 mg daily, the patient developed involuntary movement of the eyeballs. Withdrawal of tetrabenazine caused resolution of all symptoms after a week. The purpose of this description is to draw attention to the potential of tetrabenazine to induce acute oculogyric crisis as well as the difficulty of differentiating drug-induced dystonia from dystonic tics in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Keywords: acute dyskinesia, dystonic tics, eyeball dystonia, drug-induced dystonia, tic disorder, tetrabenazine-induced side effects

  17. Toxicological effects induced by cadmium in gills of Manila clam ruditapes philippinarum using NMR-based metabolomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Linbao; Liu, Xiaoli; You, Liping; Zhou, Di [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environment Processes, CAS, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environment Processes, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai (China); The Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Yu, Junbao; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environment Processes, CAS, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environment Processes, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai (China); Feng, Jianghua [Department of Electronic Science, Fujian Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China)

    2011-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) has become an important heavy metal contaminant in the sediment and seawater along the Bohai Sea and been of great ecological risk due to its toxic effects to marine organisms. In this work, the toxicological effects caused by environmentally relevant concentrations (10 and 40 {mu}g L{sup -1}) of Cd were studied in the gill tissues of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum after exposure for 24, 48, and 96 h. Both low (10 {mu}g L{sup -1}) and high (40 {mu}g L{sup -1}) doses of Cd caused the disturbances in energy metabolism and osmotic regulation and neurotoxicity based on the metabolic biomarkers such as succinate, alanine, branched chain amino acids, betaine, hypotaurine, and glutamate in clam gills after 24 h of exposure. However, the recovery of toxicological effects of Cd after exposure for 96 h was obviously observed in clam to Cd exposures. Overall, these results indicated that NMR-based metabolomics was applicable to elucidate the toxicological effects of heavy metal contaminants in the marine bioindicator. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. The transcriptome of Bathymodiolus azoricus gill reveals expression of genes from endosymbionts and free-living deep-sea bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egas, Conceição; Pinheiro, Miguel; Gomes, Paula; Barroso, Cristina; Bettencourt, Raul

    2012-08-01

    Deep-sea environments are largely unexplored habitats where a surprising number of species may be found in large communities, thriving regardless of the darkness, extreme cold, and high pressure. Their unique geochemical features result in reducing environments rich in methane and sulfides, sustaining complex chemosynthetic ecosystems that represent one of the most surprising findings in oceans in the last 40 years. The deep-sea Lucky Strike hydrothermal vent field, located in the Mid Atlantic Ridge, is home to large vent mussel communities where Bathymodiolus azoricus represents the dominant faunal biomass, owing its survival to symbiotic associations with methylotrophic or methanotrophic and thiotrophic bacteria. The recent transcriptome sequencing and analysis of gill tissues from B. azoricus revealed a number of genes of bacterial origin, hereby analyzed to provide a functional insight into the gill microbial community. The transcripts supported a metabolically active microbiome and a variety of mechanisms and pathways, evidencing also the sulfur and methane metabolisms. Taxonomic affiliation of transcripts and 16S rRNA community profiling revealed a microbial community dominated by thiotrophic and methanotrophic endosymbionts of B. azoricus and the presence of a Sulfurovum-like epsilonbacterium.

  19. DNA damage in the gill cells of the marine scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis during anoxic stress and aerobic recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodskova, Valentina V.; Zhukovskaya, Avianna F.; Chelomin, Victor P.

    2012-06-01

    Anoxia-induced DNA damage in the gill cells of the marine scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis was assessed with the alkaline comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis). The alkaline comet assay method for detecting DNA strand breaks and alkali labile sites in individual cells. DNA damage was determened in the scallops ( M. yessoensis) gill cells. The scallops were exposed to air for 8 h showing a clear increase in the levels of DNA damage. After the air exposure, M. yessoensis were re-submersed for a period of 12 h, leading values to return to a pre-aerial exposure level. Control animals were kept immersed during the whole period. The resulting data demonstrate that natural influences, such as oxygen depletion (anoxia) in seawater, can be responsible for the induction of DNA damage. If the scallops were re-immersed in oxic conditions, the anoxically induced breaks were repaired. The main mechanisms influencing the integrity of the DNA structure are discussed in this paper.

  20. Phil Wallace and Theoretical Physics at McGill in the 1950's: A Personal Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, John David

    2010-11-18

    In 1946 Philip (Phil) Russell Wallace joined the Mathematics Department of McGill University as an Associate Professor of Applied Mathematics, apparently because A. H. S. Gillson, Dean of Arts and Science, wanted theoretical physicists to be in the Mathematics Department. He came with the dream of creating a theoretical physics group at McGill. By the spring of 1949, Phil was authorized to recruit two junior faculty in Mathematics. He hired Theodore (Ted) F. Morris from U. Toronto, who joined in September 1949, and me, who came in January 1950. The group had begun. Phil Wallace was born in Toronto in 1915 and grew up there. He entered the University of Toronto in 1933, earned a B.A. in mathematics in 1937, a M.A. in 1938, and a Ph.D. in applied mathematics in 1940 under Leopold Infeld. His Ph.D. thesis in general relativity was entitled 'On the relativistic equations of motion in electromagnetic theory.' In 1940 World War II had engulfed Europe and was having its effect on Canada, but the US was still at peace. L. J. Synge, Head of the Applied Mathematics Department at Toronto, told Wallace that people such as he would be needed in war work, but things were not ready quite yet. Hold yourself ready. Phil took a two-year position as lecturer in mathematics at the University of Cincinnati (1940-42); in the fall of 1942 he became a lecturer in mathematics at M.I.T. It was from there that he was recruited by Synge to join the war effort from 1943 to 1946 at N.R.C.'s Montreal Laboratory, the genesis of the Canadian Atomic Energy Project. Phil has described those heady wartime years in these pages. Much of the effort of the theoretical physicists was on nuclear reactor theory and the properties of relevant materials, such as graphite, under long and intense neutron bombardment. In late 1945 Phil was sent for four months to Bristol to learn about the properties of graphite from the esteemed N. F. Mott. This exposure led Phil to a life-long interest in

  1. From Osler's Library to the Osler Library of the History of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The Osler Library of the History of Medicine was opened in 1929 at McGill University, Montreal, Canada. Sir William Osler (1849-1919), arguably McGill's and Canada's most famous doctor at the time, had bequeathed his magnificent library of almost 8,000 historical works in medicine and, to a lesser extent, science and literature to the university. Under the 30-year reign of its first librarian, Dr. W W. Francis, the Osler Library became famous for its rare books and for its connection with Sir William. Since the 1950s, however, the library has pursued an active collection development policy for both primary and secondary material that has taken it far beyond Osler's original gift. The library has grown in both the size and scope of its holdings and the services it offers to scholars and students of the history of medicine. These have made the Osler Library a major resource centre for studies in the history of the health sciences. This article looks at the Osler Library today in the hopes of making the range of its collections and services better known to the Canadian and international communities.

  2. Gill lesions associated with Erpocotyle tiburonis (Monogenea: Hexabothriidae) on wild and aquarium-held bonnethead sharks (Sphyrna tiburo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, S A; Frasca, S; Benz, G W

    2001-10-01

    Gill lesions associated with infections of Erpocotyle tiburonis (Brooks, 1934) (Monogenea: Hexabothriidae) on wild bonnethead sharks (Sphyrna tiburo (L., 1758) (Carcharhiniformes: Sphyrinidae)) were compared with those on aquarium-held ones using light and scanning electron microscopy. Uninfected gill filaments had slender, triangular, smooth-surfaced lamellae and interlamellar water channels that were approximately equal in size. Four wild sharks were each infected by 3-11 widely separated adult E. tiburonis, and 1 of these sharks hosted a juvenile specimen. Lamellae flanking or touching adult E. tiburonis were pushed aside or bent, but were otherwise identical to those of uninfected filaments. Two aquarium-held sharks were each infected by hundreds of juvenile and adult E. tiburonis. In these sharks, lamellae near juveniles were pushed apart or bent, but were otherwise normal, whereas a thick, ragged-surfaced layer of hyperplastic epithelium both filled interlamellar water channels and partially or completely covered lamellae near adults. Results of this study suggest that the intense infections of E. tiburonis were facilitated by captivity and caused severe hyperplastic lesions that ultimately led to the death of the sharks by reducing or blocking the respiratory water flow over lamellae and thus reducing the exchange of gases and ions across the lamellar epithelium. In contrast, the wild sharks were infected by fewer worms and exhibited relatively minor lesions.

  3. Marine protected area and the spatial distribution of the gill net fishery in Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Amorim

    Full Text Available Abstract This study characterizes the gill net fishery at Colônia de Pescadores Z13 (CPZ13, in Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro, and its relationship with the marine protected area ‘Monumento Natural do Arquipélago das Ilhas Cagarras – MoNa Cagarras’, describing the fleet and fishing gears, identifying fishing spots, species and their associations by gillnet type. From June 2012 to May 2013, every Tuesday to Sunday, gill net landings were monitored and fishers interviewed regarding their catch. Small boats (dory whaleboats are used to set three types of gillnets: “Corvineira” (target species – whitemouth croaker, “linguadeira” (target species – flounders and “rede-alta” (target species – bluefish. Fifty-nine species within 37 families were captured at 14 fishing spots, showing association with bottom type and distance from shore. The use of fisher’s local ecological knowledge defines gear placement at specific sites targeting fisheries resources. All fishing sites are not within the limits of MoNa Cagarras but would benefit from management plans including an MPA buffering zone.

  4. Heavy metal concentrations in gill and liver tissues of Rutilus kutum and Chelon aurata in the coast of Babolsar, southern Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Kardel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal accumulation in the aquatic ecosystems is a main concern which threats human health. In this study two commercial fish species, Rutilus kutum and Chelon aurata were selected for assessing heavy metal (Cd, Pb, Zn concentrations in gill and liver tissues at Babolsar’s coast, the southern Caspian Sea, Iran. Babolsar is one of the important fishery stations in the southern Caspian Sea. The results showed that liver tissue of C. aurata significantly accumulated higher concentration of Cd, Pb and Zn compared to that of R. kutum, but these results were not significant for gill tissue. Liver tissue accumulated higher concentration of Cd and Pb compared to gill tissue in C. aurata, but these results were not significant for R. kutum. It is concluded that the liver tissue of C. aurata has higher potential to accumulate heavy metal pollution compared to liver tissue of R. kutum

  5. Influence of Temperature, Environmental Salinity and Fasting on the Patterns of Fatty Acid Synthesized by Gills and Liver of the European Eel (Anguilla Anguilla)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Abraham, S.

    1983-01-01

    A rise in temperature on the average from 8 to 28 degrees C resulted in an enhanced relative incorporation of 1-14Cacetate into saturated fatty acids in liver tissue. The same effect was seen in gill tissue, but only after incubation in vitro and when the precursor was injected into the eel. When 1...... in the gills, due to the labelled precursor itself taking part in biological ion transport when it is added to the water. It would appear that palmitoleic acid plays a special role in the function of the salt transport cell. When 1-14Cacetate was added to the water in the incubation tank...... there was a significantly enhanced percentage incorporation into saturated gill fatty acids in fresh water relative to sea water. Fasting led to less relative incorporation of 1-14Cacetate into saturated liver fatty acids in vitro....

  6. [Ambroise Paré, his death and his historians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumaître, P

    2001-01-01

    Ambroise Paré died December the 20th., 1590. What happened after his death and what are we knowing about his life? Never forgotten, though a lack of care, we were waiting till the XIXth. century to get recollection upon a subject sustained only by accounts of his travels. After Percy, a surgeon who tried to write Paré's biography through the "Biographie universelle ancienne et moderne, de Michaud (1822)" and some second rank authors, Malgaigne is the first who inside a printing of the "Oeuvres complétes de Paré (1840-41)" has a fine look upon the question, though his work is incomplete and allows many mistakes. Doctors Chéreau and Jal, an historian, analysing civil status records, gave new information enlarged by doctors Le Paulmier, Turner and the U.S. native Janet Doe.

  7. Keratometric alterations following the 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless pars plana vitrectomy versus the conventional pars plana vitrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citirik, Mehmet; Batman, Cosar; Bicer, Tolga; Zilelioglu, Orhan

    2009-09-01

    To assess the alterations in keratometric astigmatism following the 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless pars plana vitrectomy versus the conventional pars plana vitrectomy. Sixteen consecutive patients were enrolled into the study. Conventional vitrectomy was applied to eight of the cases and 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy was performed in eight patients. Keratometry was performed before and after the surgery. In the 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless pars plana vitrectomy group, statistically significant changes were not observed in the corneal curvature in any post-operative follow-up measurement (p > 0.05); whereas in the conventional pars plana vitrectomy group, statistically significant changes were observed in the first postoperative day (p = 0.01) and first postoperative month (p = 0.03). We noted that these changes returned to baseline in three months (p = 0.26). Both 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless and conventional pars plana vitrectomy are effective surgical modalities for selected diseases of the posterior segment. Surgical procedures are critical for the visual rehabilitation of the patients. The post-operative corneal astigmatism of the vitrectomised eyes can be accurately determined at least two months post-operatively.

  8. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase of Atlantic salmon smolts in freshwater is not a predictor of long-term growth in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.

    2012-01-01

    Gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity is a widely used measure of osmoregulatory preparedness in salmonid smolts. The degree to which this measure may predict long term performance is uncertain. In order to assess the relationship of this enzyme to long term growth and ion homeostasis, a cohort of Atlantic salmon hatchery smolts was used in a controlled environment with no salinity perturbations. In May 2006, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity from 940 individually PIT tagged, Penobscot River smolts (USFWS, Green Lake National Fish Hatchery, Maine, United States) was measured immediately prior to isothermal transfer from freshwater to 32 ppt seawater. From the observed range of activities, individuals were classified as having “low”, “middle”, or “high” enzyme activity levels. Individual size (fork length and mass) was recorded on days 0, 1, 3, and 14 and monthly for four months. Growth rates over four time periods were calculated for individual fish maintained until the end of the experiment. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase activities were also measured from a subset of sampled fish. All groups effectively osmoregulated as evidenced by minor perturbations in plasma osmolyte levels. Apart from initial weight loss on transfer, fish grew throughout the experiment, however, there were no differences (fish size, growth rate, and gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity in seawater) among groups with initially different gill Na+,K+-ATPase activities (prior to seawater entry). While gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity may be predictive of performance during the acute phase of acclimation (first few days), typical variation in this enzyme, expressed in freshwater at the peak of smolting, does not appear to be predictive of long-term growth in seawater.

  9. Cyclanthaceae no estado do Pará, Brasil Cyclanthaceae in Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Silva Leal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclanthaceae apresenta distribuição exclusiva na região neotropical sendo bem diversificada nas terras baixas das florestas pluviais tropicais, ocorrendo do sul do México até a Mata Atlântica do sul do Brasil. Consistem de ervas terrestres, epífitas, hemiepífitas ou lianas. O tratamento taxonômico de Cyclanthaceae no Pará foi baseado em coleções de herbário, trabalhos de campo e consulta a bibliografia referente à família. Foram registradas 11 espécies: Asplundia altiscandens E.S. Leal, A. fanshawei (Maguire Harling, A. glandulosa (Gleason Harling, A. heteranthera Harling, A. latifrons (Drude Harling, A. schizotepala Harling, A. xiphophylla Harling, Cyclanthus bipartitus Poit. ex A. Rich., Evodianthus funifer (Poit. Lindm., Ludovia lancifolia Brongn. e Thoracocarpus bissectus (Vell. Harling. São apresentadas chave de identificação, descrições e ilustrações das espécies, além de comentários sobre distribuição geográfica, hábitat e período de floração e frutificação.Cyclanthaceae is a family with a distribution exclusively in the Neotropics and is well diversified in lowland rainforests, occurring from southern Mexico to the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. The family consists of terrestrial herbs, epiphytes, hemiepiphytes and lianas. This taxonomic treatment of the Cyclanthaceae from the state of Pará was based on herbarium specimens, fieldwork, and the literature. Eleven species were recorded: Asplundia altiscandens E.S. Leal, A. fanshawei (Maguire Harling, A. glandulosa (Gleason Harling, A. heteranthera Harling, A. latifrons (Drude Harling, A. schizotepala Harling, A. xiphophylla Harling, Cyclanthus bipartitus Poit. ex A. Rich., Evodianthus funifer (Poit. Lindm., Ludovia lancifolia Brongn. and Thoracocarpus bissectus (Vell. Harling. An identification key, descriptions and illustrations of species are presented. Additional information on the geographic distribution, habitat, and flowering and

  10. Canning by the diffusion caused by a heated die; Gainage par diffusion par filiere chauffante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthron, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    In this process, the uranium fuel is clad with a zirconium can by passing the element through a die. The operation takes place at a temperature varying between 500 and 1000 deg. C. The heating is obtained by passing low voltage electric current through the can. This process differs from the co-extrusion process in that the uranium is not deformed. The uranium is therefore machined to the final dimensions before canning, it can also be hollow. Two types of processes can be adopted for the extrusion: a) Process in which the binding of the can to the uranium is obtained without diffusion (here the can is at high temperature - subsequently cooled - and the uranium is at a low temperature); b) Process in which uranium-zirconium diffusion is initiated. No matter which process is adopted the element is subsequently heat treated in an over at 800 deg. C in order to obtain the final diffusion. The quality of this diffusion is dependent on the initial state of the surfaces and on the degree of vacuum maintained during the operation. (author) [French] Dans ce procede, la gaine zirconium est plaquee sur le combustible uranium par passage dans une filiere. L'operation a lieu a chaud, a une temperature variant entre 500 et 1000 deg. C. Le chauffage est assure par passage d'un courant basse tension dans la gaine. A la difference du procede de cofilage, l'uranium ne subit pas de deformation durant l'operation. Il est donc prealablement usine aux cotes definitives et peut etre creux. Deux processus sont possibles pendant le passage dans la filiere: a) Obtention d'un frettage de la gaine sur l'uranium sans diffusion (avec une gaine a haute temperature et un tube d'uranium a basse temperature, eventuellement refroidi); b) Obtention d'un commencement de diffusion uranium-zirconium. Quelque soit le processus adopte, la cartouche est ensuite traitee dans un four a 800 deg. C pour obtenir la diffusion definitive. La qualite de celle-ci depend essentiellement des etats de surface initiaux

  11. La projection par plasma : une revue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchais, P.; Grimaud, A.; Vardelle, A.; Vardelle, M.

    are presented in the fields of aeronautics and mechanics. La qualité d'un dépôt projete par plasma dépend de nombreux paramètres que l'on commence à mieux appréhender du fait des progrès de la modélisation et de la métrologie tant des écoulements plasmas que des transferts plasma-particules ou que des conditions d'écrasement et de refroidissement des particules lors de leur impact sur le substrat ou les couches déjà déposées. Les techniques de mesure utilisdes et leurs limitations sont d'abord rappelées tant pour les jets de plasma que pour les particules en vol et l'importance des différents phénomènes intervenant dans les transferts plasma-particules est soulignée : gradients de température et de concentration d'espèces chimiques très élevés autour des particules, effets de propagation de la chaleur, notamment pour les particules céramiques, effet d'évaporation, effet de raréfaction sensible dès la pression atmosphérique. Les problèmes de distribution de taille et de vitesse d'injection des particules sont également abordés car ils conditionnent les distributions de trajectoires et donc le traitement des particules dans le jet de plasma. La génération du plasma montre d'une part 1'influence considérable de l'injection du gaz, de sa nature, du dessin de la chambre d'arc et de la tuyère ainsi que du pompage de l'air ambiant sur la longueur des jets de plasma d'arc et d'autre part les problèmes d'injection pour éviter le couplage avec la décharge dans les jets de plasmas R.E Tout ceci est illustré avec des exemples de dépôt d'alumine, de zircone, de cermet carbure et de nickel. L'écrasement des particules est ensuite abordé avec les problèmes de réactions chimiques, de trempe ultra-rapide et donc de structure cristalline des dépôts, d'adhdsion mais aussi de containtes résiduelles et de leur contrôle via les gradients de température dans les dépôts pendant le tir. Enfin quelques applications actuelles sont pr

  12. In vivo effects of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins on gas exchange and ion equilibrium in the zebrafish gill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Delu; Liu, Siyi; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jian Kong; Hu, Chunxiang; Liu, Yongding

    2016-08-01

    Aphantoxins, neurotoxins or paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) generated by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, are a threat to environmental safety and human health in eutrophic waters worldwide. The molecular mechanisms of neurotoxin function have been studied; however, the effects of these neurotoxins on oxidative stress, ion transport, gas exchange, and branchial ultrastructure in fish gills are not fully understood. Aphantoxins extracted from A. flos-aquae DC-1 were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. The major ingredients were gonyautoxins 1 and 5 and neosaxitoxin, which comprised 34.04%, 21.28%, and 12.77% of the total, respectively. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were administered A. flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins at 5.3 or 7.61μg saxitoxin equivalents (eq)/kg (low and high doses, respectively) by intraperitoneal injection. The activities of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase (NKA), carbonic anhydrase (CA), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ultrastructural alterations in chloride and epithelial cells, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) were investigated in the gills during the first 24h after exposure. Aphantoxins significantly increased the level of ROS and decreased the T-AOC in zebrafish gills from 3 to 12h post-exposure, suggesting an induction of oxidative stress and inhibition of antioxidant capacity. Reduced activities of NKA and CA demonstrated abnormal ion transport and gas exchange in the gills of aphantoxin-treated fish. Toxin administration also resulted in increased LDH activity and ultrastructural alterations in chloride and epithelial cells, suggesting a disruption of function and structure in zebrafish gills. The observed abnormalities in zebrafish gills occurred in a time- and dose-dependent manner. These findings demonstrate that aphantoxins or PSPs may inhibit ion transport and gas exchange, increase LDH activity, and result in ultrastructural damage to the gills through elevations in oxidative stress and reduced

  13. The metal-binding function of metallothioneins and the state of antioxidant defense of carp gills under water pollution by heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolyar, O.B.; Fal'fushins'ka, G.Yi.; Arsan, V.O.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the influence of waterborne heavy metal ions on the metal-binding function of metallothioneins and the antioxidant defence in gills, carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) was exposed to copper, zinc, manganese, and lead ions in environmentally realistic concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 0.12, and 0.01 mg/l, respectively) or their mix for 14 days. The results indicate that the metal poisoning provokes the changes in the copper, manganese, and zinc contents in gills and their distribution among the molecular forms of metallothioneins and another tissue targets

  14. The Influence of Environmental Salinity, Temperature, Ionizing Irradiation and Yellow or Silver Stage on Lipid Metabolism in the Gills of the European Eel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Abraham, S.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of temperature on the incorporation of [32P]phosphate and [14C]acetate into gill lipids in vivo depends also on environmental salinity. - 2. Ionizing irradiation (1000 r) results in a relatively enhanced incorporation of [32P]phosphate into phosphatidyl choline and of [14C]acetate i......]acetate into triglycerides and wax esters in vivo. - 3. When gill tissue is removed from the animal and incubated in vitro, a pronounced dependence of lipid metabolism on previous environmental salinity is not observed...

  15. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and gill lesions in Rasbora caverii, an indigenous fish inhabiting rice field associated waterbodies in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeyaratne, W M D N; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2006-10-01

    The present study was aimed at applying condition factor (CF), brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and gill histology as biomarkers for detecting possible exposure/effect induced by pesticides in fish residing rice field associated waterbodies in Sri Lanka. Biomarkers of an indigenous fish, Rasbora caverii collected from five sampling sites including canals near rice fields, a river and a reservoir (the reference site) were evaluated at four sampling stages covering pesticide application periods during rice cultivation season in 2004. Results indicated that CF of the fish did not show significant alterations regardless of the sampling sites or sampling stages. Site specific differences in AChE activities of the fish were not evident either prior to application of pesticides or at 7 days after Paraquat application to the rice fields. Two days after the application of a mixture of Fenthion and Phenthoate to the rice fields, AChE activity of the fish collected from canals near rice fields was significantly depressed (65-75%) compared to the fish in the reference site. The activities remain depressed to 50-56% even at 65 days after the insecticides application. Laboratory studies showed that prior exposure of R. caverii to Paraquat (2 microg l(-1), 7 days) enhanced the extent of inhibition of brain AChE activity induced by Fenthion (3 microg l(-1)) or a mixture of Fenthion (3 microg l(-1)) and Phenthoate (5 microg l(-1)). Gills of fish collected from canals near rice fields exhibited abnormal multiple divisions at the tips of some secondary lamellae in addition to hyperplasia, hypertrophy and club shaped deformities. Results indicate that application of pesticides in rice culture could manifest a threat to native fish populations residing rice field associated waterbodies. The response of brain AChE and histological changes in the gills of R. caverii allowed differentiating sampling sites after insecticide applications to the rice fields. Hence, R. caverii may be

  16. Parasitisme de Dacryodes edulis par le genre Tapinanthus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 août 2013 ... Parasitisme de Dacryodes edulis par le genre. Tapinanthus (Loranthaceae) et répartition de la myrmécofaune associée à Logbessou Plateau. (Douala, Cameroun). Massako F1*, Tchatat M2, Mony R3, Ladoh Yemeda CF1, Dibong SD1,4,5. 1Laboratoire de Biologie et Physiologie des Organismes ...

  17. Parasitisme des champs semenciers de cacaoyers par les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 janv. 2015 ... J. Appl. Biosci. Parasitisme des champs semenciers de cacaoyers par les loranthaceae dans la localité de Nkoemvone (sud Cameroun). 7795 to the various clones, Phragmanthera capitata was the most abundant Loranthaceae; the level of parasitism of cacao trees is more important at the cacao trees of ...

  18. Den eneste ene - hvordan etniske minoritetsunge i Danmark danner par

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    Rapporten handler om etniske unges måde at danne par på. Rapporten er baseret på en større empirisk undersøgelse gennemført af forfatteren i 2003 og er desuden inspireret af forfatterens egen ph.d.-afhandling: "Ungdom, etnicitet og psychosocial intervention" (2000, Københavns Universitet). Rappor...

  19. Indications and visual outcome of first hundred pars plana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To review the indications and visual outcome of the first one hundred pars plana vitrectomies performed at the newly established surgical retina unit of Makkah Specialist Eye Hospital, Kano, Kano State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Aretrospective chart review was performed. Data recorded from the patient ...

  20. Epuration des effluents industriels par électroflottation Belkacem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    étudié la séparation de quelques métaux lourds tels que le fer, le nickel, ... the separation of some heavy metals such as iron, nickel, copper, zinc, lead and ... généralement basées sur l'adsorption (par ... Différents essais de concentration en.

  1. Predicting spectral and PAR light attenuation in Greenlandic coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Ciarán; Markager, Stiig; Stedmon, Colin

    (CDOM), phytoplankton pigments and inorganic particles. These differences are due in part to hydrography and to the sources of meltwater: respectively, fjord-terminating and land-terminating glaciers. We present a model to explain the variation in spectral and PAR irradiance in terms of the variation...

  2. Priapisme induit par la chlorpromazine: A propos de deux cas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Marrag

    2016-06-01

    Le priapisme veineux est une urgence urologique. Il constitue un des effets secondaires des neuroleptiques parmi les quels la chlorpromazine. Cet effet iatrogène, qui est rare mais grave, doit être connu par les cliniciens afin d’être mieux prévenu pour éviter les séquelles érectiles.

  3. La lecture de Merleau-Ponty par Renaud Barbaras

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pechar, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2015), s. 1-6 ISSN 1336-6556 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Merleau-Ponty * Husserl * phenomenology * linguistics of Ferdinand de Saussure Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion http://www.ostium.sk/sk/la-lecture-de-merleau-ponty-par-renaud-barbaras/

  4. Par Pond vegetation status summer 1995 - July survey descriptive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-07-01

    A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant, communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet (61 meters) above mean sea level, and continued with this July survey. Aquatic plant communities, similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond communities, are becoming reestablished. Beds of maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), lotus (Nelumbo lutea), water lily (Nymphaea odorata), and watershield (Brasenia schreberi) are now extensive and well established. In addition, within isolated coves, extensive beds of water lilies and spike-rush (Eleocharis sp.) are common. Cattail occurrence has increased since refill, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Invasion of willow (Salix sp.) and red maple (Acer rubrum) occurred along the lake shoreline during drawdown. The red maples along the present shoreline are beginning to show evidence of stress and mortality from flooding over the past four months. Some of the willows appear to be stressed as well. The loblolly pines (Pinus taeda), which were flooded in all but the shallow shoreline areas, are now dead. Future surveys are planned for the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data for mapping the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond

  5. fortification des farines tropicales par l'introduction de proteines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Université d'Abomey Calavy, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Bénin ... valeur recommandée par le Codex Alimentarius pour ce type de complément alimentaire destiné aux enfants. ..... neurotransmission, coagulation sanguine et.

  6. Hypopomus Gill: nova apomorfia e notas sobre suas relações filogenéticas (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, Rhamphichthyoidea Hypopomus Gill: new apomorphy and notes on its phylogenetic relationships (Teleostei, Gymnotioformes, Rhamphichthoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro L. Triques

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O monofiletismo de Hypopomus Gill, 1864 é corroborado pela presença de canto da boca curvo para cima, homoplasticamente também em Steatogenys Boulenger, 1898. Sua sinonímia com Parupygus Hoedeman, 1962 é corroborada. Três de sete apomorfias previamente atribuídas para definir o monofiletismo de Hypopomidae são refutadas (região posterior do paresfenóide estreita, depressão na face dorsal do basi-hial e opérculo trapezoidal e outras quatro são propostas para unir Hypopomus a Rhamphichthyidae (mandíbula incluída; alongamento anterior do dentário; cartilagem palatina alongada e processo ascendente do mesopterigóide curvo para trás. Assim, estudos mais elaborados são necessários para avaliar a posição filogenética do gênero.The monophyly of Hypopomus Gill, 1864 is corroborated, on the basis of the presence of mouth corner upturned, homoplastically also in Steatogenys Boulenger, 1898. Its synonymy with Parupygus Hoedeman, 1962 is corroborated. Three of seven synapomorphies attributed to the monophyly of Hypopomidae are refuted (posterior region of parasphenoid narrow, depression on the dorsal surface of bashyal and trapezoidal opercle and four other are presented to unite Hypopomus to Rhamphichthyidae (lower jaw included; anterior elongation of dentary; elongation of palatine cartilage and ascending process of mesopterygoid backward curved. Thus, further studies are necessary to assess the phylogenetic position of the genus.

  7. Distinct subcutaneous emphysema following surgical wisdom tooth extraction in a patient suffering from 'Gilles de la Tourette syndrome'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasetti, Patrick; Kuttenberger, Johannes; Bassetti, Renzo

    2015-06-14

    Subcutaneous emphysema is a rare complication in oral surgery. In most cases, it resolves spontaneously. However, air might disperse into deeper facial spaces causing life-threatening complications such as compression of the tracheobronchial tree or the development of pneumomediastinum. Moreover, microorganisms might spread from the oral cavity into deeper spaces. Hence, rapid diagnosis of subcutaneous emphysema is important. Characteristic signs are both a shiftable swelling and crepitation. In this case report, a 30-year-old man, suffering from the Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome, with a distinct subcutaneous emphysema after bilateral surgical wisdom tooth extraction is presented. Induced by a specific motor tic, air accumulated from the periorbital through to the parapharyngeal region. Applying a 10-cm-long Redon drainage tube as air valve, 10 days after wisdom teeth extraction, the patient was asymptomatic with complete resolution of the emphysema. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015.

  8. From emotion to communication. Gilles Deleuze’s analysis of the problems of representation, desire and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Kłos-Czerwińska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the problems of representation, desire and acquiring knowledge as the foundations of Gilles Deleuze’s thought. However, the analysis of these problems can significantly contribute also to the understanding of the issue of symbolic and affective poverty, as it was formulated by Bernard Stiegler, noticed and described much earlier by Deleuze, though taking visible shapes nowadays in connections with the workings of capitalist, consumptionist, economically driven societies. The analysis of each of the presented topics reveals hidden dependencies between the understanding of the problem of knowledge and the perception of sensibility of the Other. To be able to communicate the vast diversity of emotions in the confrontation with a difference, it is good to stay open for what Deleuze indicates: the multiplication of the possibilities of living, and in result, to learn to affirm them as a part of social enterprise, whenever they stay in agreement with presumed powers of critical mind.

  9. Molecular Characterization and Histopathology of Myxobolus koi Infecting the Gills of A koi Cyprinus carpio, with an Amended Morphologic Description of the Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Myxobolus sp., morphologically resembling M. toyamai, M. longisporus, and M. koi, was isolated from the gills of a koi, Cyprinus carpio that died in an ornamental pond. Large plasmodia were localized within lamellae, causing severe disruption of the normal branchial architecture, sufficient to com...

  10. Detection of metal induced cytopathological alterations and DNA damage in the gills and hepatopancreas of green mussel Perna viridis from Ennore Estuary, Chennai, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasanthi, Lourduraj A.; Revathi, Peranandam; Babu Rajendran, Ramaswamy; Munuswamy, Natesan

    2017-01-01

    This study report the impact of heavy metals on cytopathology and DNA damage in the gills and hepatopancreas of Perna viridis collected from Ennore estuary and the Kovalam coastal waters. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed significant differences among all variables at the scale of plots. The ultrastructural alterations such as lack of microvilli, distorted mitochondria, electron dense particles and the presence of large mucous droplets were common in the gill and hepatopancreatic cells of mussels from Ennore estuary. However, the gill and hepatopancreatic cells of P. viridis from Kovalam revealed normal compartmentalization of cells. The percentage of tail DNA in the mussels from Ennore estuary was recorded as 12.44 and 10.14% in the gills and hepatopancreas respectively. Overall, it has been demonstrated that the Comet and cytopathological assays are useful biomarkers to assess the level of pollution and it provide reliable information on ecotoxicology and genotoxicology of coastal waters. - Highlights: • Bioaccumulation of heavy metals was studied in P. viridis from Ennore estuary. • Heavy metal accumulation leads to severe cellular and DNA damage. • Comet assay and cytopathology proved to be a biomarker in ecotoxicology. • The data justifies the need of remedial measures along Ennore Estuary.

  11. TS-EUROTRAIN : A European-Wide Investigation and Training Network on the Etiology and Pathophysiology of Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forde, Natalie J; Kanaan, Ahmad S; Widomska, Joanna; Padmanabhuni, Shanmukha S; Nespoli, Ester; Alexander, John; Rodriguez Arranz, Juan I; Fan, Siyan; Houssari, Rayan; Nawaz, Muhammad S; Rizzo, Francesca; Pagliaroli, Luca; Zilhäo, Nuno R; Aranyi, Tamas; Barta, Csaba; Boeckers, Tobias M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Buisman, Wim R; Buitelaar, Jan K; Cath, Danielle; Dietrich, Andrea; Driessen, Nicole; Drineas, Petros; Dunlap, Michelle; Gerasch, Sarah; Glennon, Jeffrey; Hengerer, Bastian; van den Heuvel, Odile A; Jespersgaard, Cathrine; Möller, Harald E; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R; Openneer, Thaïra J C; Poelmans, Geert; Pouwels, Petra J W; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Stefansson, Hreinn; Tümer, Zeynep; Veltman, Dick J; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Ludolph, Andrea; Paschou, Peristera

    2016-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) is characterized by the presence of multiple motor and phonic tics with a fluctuating course of intensity, frequency, and severity. Up to 90% of patients with GTS present with comorbid conditions, most commonly attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and

  12. Regulation of Na+/K+-ATPase activity by nitric oxide in the kidney and gill of the brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian K; Madsen, Steffen S

    2003-01-01

    In teleost fish, successful osmoregulation involves controlled ion transport mechanisms in kidney and gill epithelia. In this study, the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was investigated in vitro in these two tissues in brown trout (Salmo trutta) acclimated to freshwater...

  13. Effects of hypoxia on ionic regulation, glycogen utilization and antioxidative ability in the gills and liver of the aquatic air-breathing fish Trichogaster microlepis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Hui-Chen; Lin, Cheng-Huang

    2015-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that Trichogaster microlepis, a fish with an accessory air-breathing organ, uses a compensatory strategy involving changes in both behavior and protein levels to enhance its gas exchange ability. This compensatory strategy enables the gill ion-regulatory metabolism to maintain homeostasis during exposure to hypoxia. The present study aimed to determine whether ionic regulation, glycogen utilization and antioxidant activity differ in terms of expression under hypoxic stresses; fish were sampled after being subjected to 3 or 12h of hypoxia and 12h of recovery under normoxia. The air-breathing behavior of the fish increased under hypoxia. No morphological modification of the gills was observed. The expression of carbonic anhydrase II did not vary among the treatments. The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase enzyme activity did not decrease, but increases in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase protein expression and ionocyte levels were observed. The glycogen utilization increased under hypoxia as measured by glycogen phosphorylase protein expression and blood glucose level, whereas the glycogen content decreased. The enzyme activity of several components of the antioxidant system in the gills, including catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxidase dismutase, increased in enzyme activity. Based on the above data, we concluded that T. microlepis is a hypoxia-tolerant species that does not exhibit ion-regulatory suppression but uses glycogen to maintain energy utilization in the gills under hypoxic stress. Components of the antioxidant system showed increased expression under the applied experimental treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome with and without obsessive-compulsive disorder compared with obsessive-compulsive disorder without tics: Which symptoms discriminate?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cath, D.C.; Spinhoven, P.; Woerkom, T.C.A.M. van; Wetering, B.J.M. van de; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Landman, A.D.; Roos, R.A.C.; Rooijmans, H.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Stereotyped repetitive behaviors occur in Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome (GTS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study was undertaken to compare the distribution of obsessive-compulsive and Tourette-related impulsive behaviors in GTS with (+) OCD, GTS without (-) OCD, tic-free

  15. The relationship between tics, OC, ADHD and autism symptoms : A cross-disorder symptom analysis in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome patients and family-members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, H.M.; van de Schoot, A.G.J.; Rijkeboer, M.M.; Mathews, C.A.; Cath, D.C.

    2016-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS) is a disorder in which obsessive-compulsive (OC), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism symptoms occur in up to 60% of patients, suggesting shared etiology. We explored the phenotypic structure of tic, OC, ADHD, and autism symptoms as

  16. Two Decades of Funded Research Goals and Achievements on Inquiry by the High Ability and Inquiry Research Group (HAIR) at McGill University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gube, Maren; Shore, Bruce M.

    2018-01-01

    From the 1990s until 2017 the High Ability and Inquiry Research Group (HAIR) at McGill University in Montreal, received C$1.3M in research funds from Canadian, Quebec, and US agencies to support its research and graduate training in education and educational psychology. Their research encompassed two principal areas, Inquiry in Education and…

  17. Effects of the 2,4-D herbicide on gills epithelia and liver of the fish Poecilia vivipara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana F. Vigário

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, usually named 2,4-D is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. Acute toxicity of 2,4-D herbicide was investigated through its effects on guppies (Poecilia vivipara Bloch et Schneider 1801. Fish were exposed to the herbicide at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40µl per liter of water for 24 hours to determine its effects on gills and liver epithelia. The estimated LC50 was 34.64µl of 2,4-D per liter of water. Histochemical analyses and Feulgen's reaction were conducted to detect glycoconjugates and DNA, respectively, in gills and liver epithelia. Histochemistry revealed qualitative variations of glycoconjugates present on mucous cells and granules. The four types of mucous cells contained neutral granules, acids, or both. Increasing amounts of syalomucins were observed from the control group to the group exposed to the highest concentration of 2,4-D, suggesting increased mucous viscosity and the formation of plaques that could inhibit gas exchange and osmoregulation. Lamellar fusion observed in the group exposed to 40µl of 2,4-D suggests a defense mechanism. Hepatocytes showed vacuolization in the 10 and 20µl/L groups. The 40 µl/L group showed normal hepatocytes as well as changed ones, many Ito cells, micronuclei, and nuclear swelling. These effects may be associated with toxicity or adaptative processes to cellular stress. The data from this study indicates the importance of assessing similar risks to aquatic species and suggests that Poecilia vivipara is an adequate biological model for analysis of environmental contamination.

  18. Recovery strategies for fluxes affected by the Gill-Solent WindMaster-Pro "w-boost" firmware bug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billesbach, D. P.; Chan, S. W.; Biraud, S.; David, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    In late 2015 and early 2016, work done by the AmeriFlux Tech Team helped to uncover a bug in the Gill WindMaster Pro sonic anemometers used by many researchers for eddy covariance flux measurements. Gill has addressed this issue and has since sent out a notice that the vertical wind speed component (a critical piece of all eddy covariance fluxes) was being erroneously computed and reported. The problem (known as the w-boost bug) resulted in positive (upward) wind speeds being under-reported by 16.6% and negative (downward) wind speeds being under-reported by 28.9%. This has the potential to cause similar underestimates in fluxes obtained from these instruments. While the manufacturer has offered a firmware upgrade to fix this bug, there exist many data sets that have already been affected by it. Researchers who use the affected units have contributed to numerous data archives (AmeriFlux, FluxNet, ICOS, etc.), and third-party scientists have, in turn used these data in many types of research projects. The volume of affected data over such a long period of time makes a complete reprocessing of the raw data sets impractical. To address this, the AmeriFlux Tech Team has endeavored to develop a method of correcting affected fluxes using only the downloadable data sets that are available from these archives. In a previous poster, we reported preliminary results from a pair of Arctic tundra flux towers, and showed that fluxes could be underestimated by 15% to 20%. In this poster, we present results that extend our study to include a forested site in Equatorial Africa. We also have evaluated methods to estimate flux errors without accessing the raw data sets.

  19. Influence of euthanasia method on blood and gill variables in normoxic and hypoxic Gulf killifish Fundulus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larter, K F; Rees, B B

    2017-06-01

    In many experiments, euthanasia, or humane killing, of animals is necessary. Some methods of euthanasia cause death through cessation of respiratory or cardiovascular systems, causing oxygen levels of blood and tissues to drop. For experiments where the goal is to measure the effects of environmental low oxygen (hypoxia), the choice of euthanasia technique, therefore, may confound the results. This study examined the effects of four euthanasia methods commonly used in fish biology (overdose of MS-222, overdose of clove oil, rapid cooling and blunt trauma to the head) on variables known to be altered during hypoxia (haematocrit, plasma cortisol, blood lactate and blood glucose) or reflecting gill damage (trypan blue exclusion) and energetic status (ATP, ADP and ATP:ADP) in Gulf killifish Fundulus grandis after 24 h exposure to well-aerated conditions (normoxia, 7·93 mg O 2  l -1 , c. 150 mm Hg or c. 20 kPa) or reduced oxygen levels (0·86 mg O 2  l -1 , c. 17 mm Hg or c. 2·2 kPa). Regardless of oxygen treatment, fish euthanized by an overdose of MS-222 had higher haematocrit and lower gill ATP:ADP than fish euthanized by other methods. The effects of 24 h hypoxic exposure on these and other variables, however, were equivalent among methods of euthanasia (i.e. there were no significant interactions between euthanasia method and oxygen treatment). The choice of an appropriate euthanasia method, therefore, will depend upon the magnitude of the treatment effects (e.g. hypoxia) relative to potential artefacts caused by euthanasia on the variables of interest. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Myxobolus goensis n. sp. (Myxozoa, Myxosporea, Myxobolidae, a parasite of the gills of Mugil cephalus (Osteichthyes, Mugilidae from Goa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiras J.C.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Myxobolus are reported from the gills of Mugil cephalus collected at Goa, India: M. goensis n. sp. and M, parvus Shulman, 1962. Myxobolus goensis n. sp. forms digitiform or rounded plasmodia between the gill rakers. Their spores are oval in frontal view, with tapered anterior extremity, and lemon-shaped in lateral view, measuring 9.7 (9.5-10.5 μm in length, 6.6 (6-7.5 μm in width, and 5.2 (5-6 μm in thickness. The polar capsules are pyriform and unequal in size. The larger ones are 5.3 (4.5-6 µm long and 2.4 (2-3 µm wide; the smaller ones are 2.4 (2-3 μm long and 1 .8 (1 .5-2 µm wide. The polar filament forms five turns aligned perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the larger polar capsules. Within the smaller polar capsules the polar filament is difficult to observe and, apparently, forms three coils. The spores are distinctly different from other Myxobolus species infecting M. cephalus and other Mugil spp. Furthermore, the present material is also different from 204 Myxobolus species presenting differently sized polar capsules, representing nearly all the known species with this characteristic. The fact that only the M. cephalus specimens were infected among a sample of 206 fish specimens, comprising 27 different species, strongly suggests that this parasite is specific to M. cephalus.

  1. Histological biomarkers in liver and gills of juvenile Solea senegalensis exposed to contaminated estuarine sediments: A weighted indices approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Pedro M.; Diniz, Mario S.; Caeiro, Sandra; Lobo, Jorge; Martins, Marta; Ferreira, Ana M.; Caetano, Miguel; Vale, Carlos; DelValls, T. Angel; Costa, M. Helena

    2009-01-01

    Young juvenile Solea senegalensis were exposed to three sediments with distinct contamination profiles collected from a Portuguese estuary subjected to anthropogenic sources of contamination (the Sado estuary, western Portugal). Sediments were surveyed for metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc), a metalloid (arsenic) and organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and a pesticide, dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane plus its metabolites), as well as total organic matter, redox potential and particle fine fraction. The fish were exposed to freshly collected sediments in a 28-day laboratorial assay and collected for histological analyses at days 0 (T 0 ), 14 (T 14 ) and 28 (T 28 ). Individual weighted histopathological indices were obtained, based on presence/absence data of eight and nine liver and gill pathologies, respectively, and on their biological significance. Although livers sustained more severe lesions, the sediments essentially contaminated by organic substances caused more damage to both organs than the sediments contaminated by both metallic and organic contaminants, suggesting a possible synergistic effect. Correlation analyses showed that some alterations are linked, forming distinctive histopathological patterns that are in accordance with the severity of lesions and sediment characteristics. The presence of large eosinophilic bodies in liver and degeneration of mucous cells in gills (a first-time described alteration) were some of the most noticeable alterations observed and were related to sediment organic contaminants. Body size has been found to be negatively correlated with histopathological damage in livers following longer term exposures. It is concluded that histopathological indices provide reliable and discriminatory data even when biomonitoring as complex media as natural sediments. It is also concluded that the effects of contamination may result not only from toxicant concentrations

  2. The role of pars flaccida in human middle ear sound transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aritomo, H; Goode, R L; Gonzalez, J

    1988-04-01

    The role of the pars flaccida in middle ear sound transmission was studied with the use of twelve otoscopically normal, fresh, human temporal bones. Peak-to-peak umbo displacement in response to a constant sound pressure level at the tympanic membrane was measured with a noncontacting video measuring system capable of repeatable measurements down to 0.2 micron. Measurements were made before and after pars flaccida modifications at 18 frequencies between 100 and 4000 Hz. Four pars flaccida modifications were studied: (1) acoustic insulation of the pars flaccida to the ear canal with a silicone rubber baffle, (2) stiffening the pars flaccida with cyanoacrylate cement, (3) decreasing the tension of the pars flaccida with a nonperforating incision, and (4) perforation of the pars flaccida. All of the modifications (except the perforation) had a minimal effect on umbo displacement; this seems to imply that the pars flaccida has a minor acoustic role in human beings.

  3. Apoplejía pituitaria con parálisis del III par craneal: Reporte de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Pinto Valdivia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el caso de un varón de 65 años de edad, sin antecedentes patológicos de importancia, que acudió a emergencia del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia por presentar cefalea intensa y ptosis palpebral izquierda. El examen físico mostró parálisis aislada del III par craneal izquierdo. Los análisis de laboratorio mostraron hiponatremia e hipopituitarismo y la resonancia magnética nuclear un adenoma pituitario con áreas de hemorragia e invasión de los senos cavernosos. El tratamiento incluyó glucocorticoides y descompresión quirúrgica transesfenoidal. La anatomía patológica confirmó el diagnóstico de infarto hemorrágico de un adenoma pituitario. El paciente fue dado de alta con terapia sustitutiva de levotiroxina y prednisona. La ptosis palpebral izquierda se recuperó en forma parcial. La apoplejía pituitaria es un síndrome clínico producido por un proceso expansivo dentro de la silla turca, secundario a hemorragia o infarto de un adenoma pituitario, que se caracteriza por cefalea, déficit visual, oftalmoplejía y alteración del nivel de conciencia. Este proceso expansivo puede comprimir los pares craneales en los senos cavernosos, produciendo diferentes grados de parálisis de los músculos oculomotores. La parálisis aislada del III par craneal es rara.(Rev Med Hered 2011;22:186-189.

  4. Épidémiologie de l'intoxication par envenimation chez les enfants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: L'intoxication par envenimation est l'ensemble des manifestations locales et générales induites par la pénétration dans l'organisme d'une substance toxique produite par un animal venimeux. Le but de notre travail était d'étudier les signes cliniques des intoxications par envenimation chez les enfants de 0 à 15 ...

  5. D1-like dopamine receptors downregulate Na+-K+-ATPase activity and increase cAMP production in the posterior gills of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaldo, Francis B; Villar, Van Anthony M; Konkalmatt, Prasad R; Owens, Shaun A; Asico, Laureano D; Jones, John E; Yang, Jian; Lovett, Donald L; Armando, Ines; Jose, Pedro A; Concepcion, Gisela P

    2014-09-15

    Dopamine-mediated regulation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in the posterior gills of some crustaceans has been reported to be involved in osmoregulation. The dopamine receptors of invertebrates are classified into three groups based on their structure and pharmacology: D1- and D2-like receptors and a distinct invertebrate receptor subtype (INDR). We tested the hypothesis that a D1-like receptor is expressed in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus and regulates Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity. RT-PCR, using degenerate primers, showed the presence of D1βR mRNA in the posterior gill. The blue crab posterior gills showed positive immunostaining for a dopamine D5 receptor (D5R or D1βR) antibody in the basolateral membrane and cytoplasm. Confocal microscopy showed colocalization of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and D1βR in the basolateral membrane. To determine the effect of D1-like receptor stimulation on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, intact crabs acclimated to low salinity for 6 days were given an intracardiac infusion of the D1-like receptor agonist fenoldopam, with or without the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH23390. Fenoldopam increased cAMP production twofold and decreased Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity by 50% in the posterior gills. This effect was blocked by coinfusion with SCH23390, which had no effect on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity by itself. Fenoldopam minimally decreased D1βR protein expression (10%) but did not affect Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase α-subunit protein expression. This study shows the presence of functional D1βR in the posterior gills of euryhaline crabs chronically exposed to low salinity and highlights the evolutionarily conserved function of the dopamine receptors on sodium homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  6. The absence of ion-regulatory suppression in the gills of the aquatic air-breathing fish Trichogaster lalius during oxygen stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Hsueh-Hsi; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Lin, Hui-Chen

    2015-01-01

    The strategy for most teleost to survive in hypoxic or anoxic conditions is to conserve energy expenditure, which can be achieved by suppressing energy-consuming activities such as ion regulation. However, an air-breathing fish can cope with hypoxic stress using a similar adjustment or by enhancing gas exchange ability, both behaviorally and physiologically. This study examined Trichogaster lalius, an air-breathing fish without apparent gill modification, for their gill ion-regulatory abilities and glycogen utilization under a hypoxic treatment. We recorded air-breathing frequency, branchial morphology, and the expression of ion-regulatory proteins (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase) in the 1(st) and 4(th) gills and labyrinth organ (LO), and the expression of glycogen utilization (GP, glycogen phosphorylase protein expression and glycogen content) and other protein responses (catalase, CAT; carbonic anhydrase II, CAII; heat shock protein 70, HSP70; hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, HIF-1α; proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA; superoxidase dismutase, SOD) in the gills of T. lalius after 3 days in hypoxic and restricted conditions. No morphological modification of the 1(st) and 4(th) gills was observed. The air-breathing behavior of the fish and CAII protein expression both increased under hypoxia. Ion-regulatory abilities were not suppressed in the hypoxic or restricted groups, but glycogen utilization was enhanced within the groups. The expression of HIF-1α, HSP70 and PCNA did not vary among the treatments. Regarding the antioxidant system, decreased CAT enzyme activity was observed among the groups. In conclusion, during hypoxic stress, T. lalius did not significantly reduce energy consumption but enhanced gas exchange ability and glycogen expenditure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evolutionary history of the European whitefish Coregonus lavaretus (L.) species complex as inferred from mtDNA phylogeography and gill-raker numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østbye, K; Bernatchez, L; Naesje, T F; Himberg, K-J M; Hindar, K

    2005-12-01

    We compared mitochondrial DNA and gill-raker number variation in populations of the European whitefish Coregonus lavaretus (L.) species complex to illuminate their evolutionary history, and discuss mechanisms behind diversification. Using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and sequencing 528 bp of combined parts of the cytochrome oxidase b (cyt b) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 (ND3) mithochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions, we documented phylogeographic relationships among populations and phylogeny of mtDNA haplotypes. Demographic events behind geographical distribution of haplotypes were inferred using nested clade analysis (NCA) and mismatch distribution. Concordance between operational taxonomical groups, based on gill-raker numbers, and mtDNA patterns was tested. Three major mtDNA clades were resolved in Europe: a North European clade from northwest Russia to Denmark, a Siberian clade from the Arctic Sea to southwest Norway, and a South European clade from Denmark to the European Alps, reflecting occupation in different glacial refugia. Demographic events inferred from NCA were isolation by distance, range expansion, and fragmentation. Mismatch analysis suggested that clades which colonized Fennoscandia and the Alps expanded in population size 24 500-5800 years before present, with minute female effective population sizes, implying small founder populations during colonization. Gill-raker counts did not commensurate with hierarchical mtDNA clades, and poorly with haplotypes, suggesting recent origin of gill-raker variation. Whitefish designations based on gill-raker numbers were not associated with ancient clades. Lack of congruence in morphology and evolutionary lineages implies that the taxonomy of this species complex should be reconsidered.

  8. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in acute care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line Jee Hartmann; Ladelund, Steen; Haupt, Thomas Huneck

    2016-01-01

    for age, sex, Charlson score and C reactive protein. Area under the curve for receiver operating characteristics curve analysis of suPAR for 30-day mortality was 0.84 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.86). Furthermore, in the entire cohort, women had slightly higher suPAR compared with men, and suPAR was associated...

  9. Movement and equipositioning of plasmids by ParA filament disassembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringgaard, Simon; van Zon, Jeroen; Howard, Martin

    2009-01-01

    , plasmids consistently migrate behind disassembling ParA cytoskeletal structures, suggesting that ParA filaments pull plasmids by depolymerization. The perpetual cycles of ParA assembly and disassembly result in continuous relocation of plasmids, which, on time averaging, results in equidistribution...

  10. Protease-Activated Receptor 4 (PAR4): A Promising Target for Antiplatelet Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rwibasira Rudinga, Gamariel; Khan, Ghulam Jilany; Kong, Yi

    2018-02-14

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are currently among the leading causes of death worldwide. Platelet aggregation is a key cellular component of arterial thrombi and major cause of CVDs. Protease-activated receptors (PARs), including PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, fall within a subfamily of seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Human platelets express PAR1 and PAR4, which contribute to the signaling transduction processes. In association with CVDs, PAR4 not only contributes to platelet activation but also is a modulator of cellular responses that serve as hallmarks of inflammation. Although several antiplatelet drugs are available on the market, they have many side effects that limit their use. Emerging evidence shows that PAR4 targeting is a safer strategy for preventing thrombosis and consequently may improve the overall cardiac safety profile. Our present review summarizes the PAR4 structural characteristics, activation mechanism, role in the pathophysiology of diseases and understanding the association of PAR4 targeting for improved cardiac protection. Conclusively, this review highlights the importance of PAR4 antagonists and its potential utility in different CVDs.

  11. Protease-Activated Receptor 4 (PAR4: A Promising Target for Antiplatelet Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamariel Rwibasira Rudinga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are currently among the leading causes of death worldwide. Platelet aggregation is a key cellular component of arterial thrombi and major cause of CVDs. Protease-activated receptors (PARs, including PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, fall within a subfamily of seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR. Human platelets express PAR1 and PAR4, which contribute to the signaling transduction processes. In association with CVDs, PAR4 not only contributes to platelet activation but also is a modulator of cellular responses that serve as hallmarks of inflammation. Although several antiplatelet drugs are available on the market, they have many side effects that limit their use. Emerging evidence shows that PAR4 targeting is a safer strategy for preventing thrombosis and consequently may improve the overall cardiac safety profile. Our present review summarizes the PAR4 structural characteristics, activation mechanism, role in the pathophysiology of diseases and understanding the association of PAR4 targeting for improved cardiac protection. Conclusively, this review highlights the importance of PAR4 antagonists and its potential utility in different CVDs.

  12. Par3L enhances colorectal cancer cell survival by inhibiting Lkb1/AMPK signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Taiyuan; Liu, Dongning; Lei, Xiong; Jiang, Qunguang

    2017-01-01

    Partitioning defective 3-like protein (Par3L) is a recently identified cell polarity protein that plays an important role in mammary stem cell maintenance. Previously, we showed that high expression of Par3L is associated with poor survival in malignant colorectal cancer (CRC), but the underlying mechanism remained unknown. To this end, we established a Par3L knockout colorectal cancer cell line using the CRISPR/Cas system. Interestingly, reduced proliferation, enhanced cell death and caspase-3 activation were observed in Par3L knockout (KO) cells as compared with wildtype (WT) cells. Consistent with previous studies, we showed that Par3L interacts with a tumor suppressor protein liver kinase B1 (Lkb1). Moreover, Par3L depletion resulted in abnormal activation of Lkb1/AMPK signaling cascade. Knockdown of Lkb1 in these cells could significantly reduce AMPK activity and partially rescue cell death caused by Par3L knockdown. Furthermore, we showed that Par3L KO cells were more sensitive to chemotherapies and irradiation. Together, these results suggest that Par3L is essential for colorectal cancer cell survival by inhibiting Lkb1/AMPK signaling pathway, and is a putative therapeutic target for CRC. - Highlights: • Par3L knockout using the CRISPR/Cas system induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. • Par3L interacts with Lkb1 and regulates the activity of AMPK signaling cascade. • Par3L knockout cells are more sensitive to treatment of different chemotherapy drugs and irradiation.

  13. Brésil : La contamination par le mercure en Amazonie | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    11 janv. 2011 ... En tentant de déceler la source de la contamination de l'Amazone par le ... par Jean-Rémy Davy Guimaraes de l'Université fédérale de Rio de Janeiro ... ces mattes est circonscrite par la conservation et la restauration en rive.

  14. La syphilis congenitale revelee par une fracture spontanee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounia Lakhdar Idrissi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Alors qu�elle est actuellement oubliee dans les pays developpes, la syphilis congenitale se voit encore chez nous faute du depistage antenatal. Ses formes cliniques sont polymorphes et orientent a tord vers d�autres pathologies surtout en periode neonatale. Le diagnostic n�est donc pas toujours facile. La revelation d�une syphilis congenitale par une fracture spontanee est exceptionnellement decrite. Nous rapportons dans ce travail le cas d�un nourrisson de 2 mois ramene en consultation pour limitation douloureuse des mouvements du bras droit. Le diagnostic est evoque sur les donnees radiologiques et confirme par la serologie syphilitique. Le traitement a repose essentiellement sur l�administration de la penicilline G avec une bonne evolution clinique.

  15. Results of Preliminary Tests of PAR Bunch Cleaning

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Chihyuan; Grelick, Arthur; Lumpkin, Alex H; Sereno, Nicholas S

    2005-01-01

    A particle accumulator ring (PAR) is used at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to collect multiple linac bunches and compress them into a 0.3-ns (rms) single bunch for booster injection. A 9.77-MHz fundamental rf system and a 117.3-MHz harmonic rf system are employed for initial beam capture and bunch length compression. Satellite bunches with very low charge form due to rf phase drifts or beam loading change. These satellites, when injected into the booster and then into the storage ring (SR), cause bunch impurity at three buckets from the target bucket. Storage ring and booster bunch cleaning was tried but proved to be difficult due to the top-up mode of operation in the storage ring and tune drift in the booster synchrotron. Recently we implemented a PAR bunch-cleaning system with tune-modulated harmonic rf knockout. Preliminary tests gave a measured SR bunch purity of better than 10

  16. Avis 6 sur la formation à et par la recherche

    OpenAIRE

    Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement

    2015-01-01

    La formation à et par la recherche s’appuie sur la démarche scientifique, les savoirs, les connaissances à transmettre, tout autant que l’acquisition de compétences en gestion de projet, de capacités au travail en équipe, d’une ouverture d’esprit qui favorisera la créativité. Elle doit permettre de prendre conscience de la responsabilité endossée par la communauté scientifique vis-à-vis de la société et de l’environnement, mais aussi préparer l’avenir professionnel de celle ou de celui qu...

  17. Evaluation of the Stability After Orthodontic Treatment Using PAR Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitra Ramanathan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to establish the results using the scores obtained from the methodology that was applied for assessing the stability after 2 years post orthodontic treatment and stability in a sample of 69 individuals. After applying PAR index to the collected group of patients, a series of scores were obtained, which were then needed to be evaluated further to establish the results. The scores were evaluated using the nomogram. A comparison was done between the post treatment and the 2 years post treatment PAR weighting scores to determine if the results were stable after orthodontic treatment. The majority of the orthodontic patients were treated to a good standard and that the results appeared to be stable.

  18. La parálisis cerebral en el contexto escolar /

    OpenAIRE

    González Vara, Azucena

    2012-01-01

    Se analiza el concepto de parálisis cerebral, los diferentes tipos y sus características. También las adaptaciones que se deben realizar a nivel de centro, de aula, y a nivel individual para estos alumnos, conocer los diferentes sistemas alternativos y aumentativos de comunicación y aplicar las ayudas técnicas que precisa este alumnado

  19. Tuberculose lymphonodale cervicale chez les enfants vaccines par ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La tuberculose ganglionnaire cervicale est une localisation extrapulmonaire relativement fréquente chez l'enfant. Elle pose essentiellement des difficultés de prévention. L'objectif de ce travail est d'étudier les particularités diagnostiques et thérapeutiques chez des enfants vaccinés par le BCG. Matériel et méthodes: Nôtre ...

  20. Traitement De La Peripneumonie Contagieuse Bovine Par L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traitement De La Peripneumonie Contagieuse Bovine Par L'oxyteTracycline Longe Action Et Transmission Experimentale de la Maladie A Partir de Bovins Traites. ... Tous les 14 animaux ont séroconverti et l'analyse post-mortem a montré la présence des lésions chroniques dont des séquestres pulmonaires chez 4 d'entre ...

  1. Adoption d'innovations agricoles par le truchement de services ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'agriculture est le fer de lance de nombreuses économies en développement, mais la capacité des petits agriculteurs privés de ressources à adopter des innovations agricoles est freinée par le manque d'accès à des services financiers adéquats. Des experts internationaux estiment qu'il existe un manque à gagner ...

  2. Candido: Uma Leitura Paródica de Candide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gloria Cusumano Mazzi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo estuda a leitura paródica que Leonardo Sciascia (1921-1989 faz de Voltaire (1694-1778 mediante o cotejo das obras: o hipertexto Candido ovvero Un sogno fatto in Sicilia (1977 e o hipotexto Candide ou l’optimisme (1759. Apresenta ainda outra possibilidade de leitura, ou seja, Candido como metáfora da própria intertextualidade.

  3. Solution volumes finis polynomiale par morceaux pour les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nous présentons dans ce papier un concept de solution volumes finis continue pour des problèmes de diffusion-convection avec des données régulières. Nous comparons dans certains cas particuliers la solution proposée avec la solution volumes finis classiques (qui est une fonction constante par morceaux) et la ...

  4. Preliminary Analysis For Wolsong Par Effects Using ISACC Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yong Mann; Kim, Dong Ha

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, hydrogen control effects using PARs only are analyzed for severe SBO station blackout (SBO) sequences beyond the design basis accidents in WS-1 which are of CANDU6 type reactor. As a computational tool, the latest version of ISAAC4.3 (Integrated Severe Accident Analysis Code for CANDU), which is a fully integrated and lumped severe accident computer code, is used to simulate hydrogen generation and transport inside the reactor building (R/B) before its failure. For the performance of hydrogen removal, the depletion rate equation of K-PAR developed in Korea is applied. In a CANDU reactor, three areas are identified as sources of hydrogen under severe accidents: fuel-coolant interactions in intact channels, suspended fuel or debris interactions in-calandria tank and debris interactions in-calandria vault. The first two origins provide source for the late ('late' terminology is used because it takes more than one day before calandria tank failure) potential hydrogen combustion before calandria tank failure and all the three origins would provide source for the very late potential hydrogen combustion occurring at or after calaria tank failure. If the hydrogen mitigation system fails, the AICC (adiabatic isochoric complete combustion) burning of highly flammable hydrogen may cause Wolsong R/B failure. So hydrogen induced failure possibility is evaluated, using preliminary ISAAC calculations, under several SBO conditions with and without PAR for both late and very late accident periods

  5. Protease activated receptors (PARS) mediation in gyroxin biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jose Alberto Alves da

    2009-01-01

    Gyroxin is a serine protease enzyme from the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom; it is only partially characterized and has multiple activities. Gyroxin induces blood coagulation, blood pressure decrease and a neurotoxic behavior named barrel rotation. The mechanisms involved in this neurotoxic activity are not known. Whereas gyroxin is a member of enzymes with high potential to become a new drug with clinical applications such as thrombin, batroxobin, ancrod, tripsyn and kalicrein, it is important to find out how gyroxin works. The analysis on agarose gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism confirmed the molecules' integrity and purity. The gyroxin intravenous administration in mice proved its neurotoxicity (barrel rotation). In vivo studies employing intravital microscopy proved that gyroxin induces vasodilation with the participation of protease activated receptors (PARs), nitric oxide and Na+K+ATPase. The leukocytes' adherence and rolling counting indicated that gyroxin has no pro inflammatory activity. Gyroxin induced platelet aggregation, which was blocked by inhibitors of PAR1 and PAR4 receptors (SCH 79797 and tcY-NH 2 , respectively). Finally, it was proved that the gyroxin temporarily alter the permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Our study has shown that both the protease-activated receptors and nitric oxide are mediators involved in the biological activities of gyroxin. (author)

  6. A Bipolar Spindle of Antiparallel ParM Filaments Drives Bacterial Plasmid Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gayathri, P; Fujii, T; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    the spindle between ParRC complexes on sister plasmids. Using a combination of structural work and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we show that ParRC bound and could accelerate growth at only one end of polar ParM filaments, mechanistically resembling eukaryotic formins. The architecture...... of ParM filaments enabled two ParRC-bound filaments to associate in an antiparallel orientation, forming a bipolar spindle. The spindle elongated as a bundle of at least two antiparallel filaments, thereby pushing two plasmid clusters toward the poles....

  7. First (18)F-labeled ligand for PET imaging of uPAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; Liu, Hongguang; Madsen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is overexpressed in human prostate cancer and uPAR has been found to be associated with metastatic disease and poor prognosis. AE105 is a small linear peptide with high binding affinity to uPAR. We synthesized an N-terminal NOTA......-conjugated version (NOTA-AE105) for development of the first (18)F-labeled uPAR positron-emission-tomography PET ligand using the Al(18)F radiolabeling method. In this study, the potential of (18)F-AlF-NOTA-AE105 to specifically target uPAR-positive prostate tumors was investigated....

  8. Intact and cleaved uPAR forms: diagnostic and prognostic value in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, M.G.; Lund, I.K.; Hoyer-Hansen, G.

    2008-01-01

    identified in tissue and body fluids. It is well-established, that the total amount of all uPAR forms is a strong prognostic marker in different types of cancer. Using immunoassays, measuring the individual uPAR forms, has revealed that the cleaved uPAR forms are even stronger prognostic markers and have...... diagnostic utility. This review will focus on the mechanism of uPAR cleavage and the functional consequences, as well as the clinical applicability of cleaved uPAR forms Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  9. Dynamic Filament Formation by a Divergent Bacterial Actin-Like ParM Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Brzoska

    Full Text Available Actin-like proteins (Alps are a diverse family of proteins whose genes are abundant in the chromosomes and mobile genetic elements of many bacteria. The low-copy-number staphylococcal multiresistance plasmid pSK41 encodes ParM, an Alp involved in efficient plasmid partitioning. pSK41 ParM has previously been shown to form filaments in vitro that are structurally dissimilar to those formed by other bacterial Alps. The mechanistic implications of these differences are not known. In order to gain insights into the properties and behavior of the pSK41 ParM Alp in vivo, we reconstituted the parMRC system in the ectopic rod-shaped host, E. coli, which is larger and more genetically amenable than the native host, Staphylococcus aureus. Fluorescence microscopy showed a functional fusion protein, ParM-YFP, formed straight filaments in vivo when expressed in isolation. Strikingly, however, in the presence of ParR and parC, ParM-YFP adopted a dramatically different structure, instead forming axial curved filaments. Time-lapse imaging and selective photobleaching experiments revealed that, in the presence of all components of the parMRC system, ParM-YFP filaments were dynamic in nature. Finally, molecular dissection of the parMRC operon revealed that all components of the system are essential for the generation of dynamic filaments.

  10. Proteinase-Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1 regulates leukemic stem cell functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Bäumer

    Full Text Available External signals that are mediated by specific receptors determine stem cell fate. The thrombin receptor PAR1 plays an important role in haemostasis, thrombosis and vascular biology, but also in tumor biology and angiogenesis. Its expression and function in hematopoietic stem cells is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed expression and function of PAR1 in primary hematopoietic cells and their leukemic counterparts. AML patients' blast cells expressed much lower levels of PAR1 mRNA and protein than CD34+ progenitor cells. Constitutive Par1-deficiency in adult mice did not affect engraftment or stem cell potential of hematopoietic cells. To model an AML with Par1-deficiency, we retrovirally introduced the oncogene MLL-AF9 in wild type and Par1-/- hematopoietic progenitor cells. Par1-deficiency did not alter initial leukemia development. However, the loss of Par1 enhanced leukemic stem cell function in vitro and in vivo. Re-expression of PAR1 in Par1-/- leukemic stem cells delayed leukemogenesis in vivo. These data indicate that Par1 contributes to leukemic stem cell maintenance.

  11. Proteinase-Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) regulates leukemic stem cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäumer, Nicole; Krause, Annika; Köhler, Gabriele; Lettermann, Stephanie; Evers, Georg; Hascher, Antje; Bäumer, Sebastian; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Tickenbrock, Lara

    2014-01-01

    External signals that are mediated by specific receptors determine stem cell fate. The thrombin receptor PAR1 plays an important role in haemostasis, thrombosis and vascular biology, but also in tumor biology and angiogenesis. Its expression and function in hematopoietic stem cells is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed expression and function of PAR1 in primary hematopoietic cells and their leukemic counterparts. AML patients' blast cells expressed much lower levels of PAR1 mRNA and protein than CD34+ progenitor cells. Constitutive Par1-deficiency in adult mice did not affect engraftment or stem cell potential of hematopoietic cells. To model an AML with Par1-deficiency, we retrovirally introduced the oncogene MLL-AF9 in wild type and Par1-/- hematopoietic progenitor cells. Par1-deficiency did not alter initial leukemia development. However, the loss of Par1 enhanced leukemic stem cell function in vitro and in vivo. Re-expression of PAR1 in Par1-/- leukemic stem cells delayed leukemogenesis in vivo. These data indicate that Par1 contributes to leukemic stem cell maintenance.

  12. Future migratory behaviour predicted from premigratory levels of gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity in individual wild brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Aarestrup, Kim; Nørum, Ulrik

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between premigratory gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity, determined at two dates during spring, and future migratory behaviour was investigated using non-lethal gill biopsies and PIT-tagging in wild brown trout (Salmo trutta) from two tributaries. No significant relationship between...... future migrants or residents. The maximum percentage of correct predictions of future migratory behaviour in mainstream fish was observed at threshold probabilities between approximately 0.15 and 0.45 (corresponding to threshold gill Na+/K+-ATPase activities between 2.7 and 3.7 micromol ADP mg-1 protein...

  13. Integrated responses of Na+/HCO3- cotransporters and V-type H+-ATPases in the fish gill and kidney during respiratory acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, S F; Furimsky, M; Bayaa, M; Georgalis, T; Shahsavarani, A; Nickerson, J G; Moon, T W

    2003-12-30

    Using degenerate primers, followed by 3' and 5' RACE and "long" PCR, a continuous 4050-bp cDNA was obtained and sequenced from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gill. The cDNA included an open reading frame encoding a deduced protein of 1088 amino acids. A BLAST search of the GenBank protein database demonstrated that the trout gene shared high sequence similarity with several vertebrate Na(+)/HCO(3)(-) cotransporters (NBCs) and in particular, NBC1. Protein alignment revealed that the trout NBC is >80% identical to vertebrate NBC1s and phylogenetic analysis provided additional evidence that the trout NBC is indeed a homolog of NBC1. Using the same degenerate primers, a partial cDNA (404 bp) for NBC was obtained from eel (Anguilla rostrata) kidney. Analysis of the tissue distribution of trout NBC, as determined by Northern blot analysis and real-time PCR, indicated high transcript levels in several absorptive/secretory epithelia including gill, kidney and intestine and significant levels in liver. NBC mRNA was undetectable in eel gill by real-time PCR. In trout, the levels of gill NBC1 mRNA were increased markedly during respiratory acidosis induced by exposure to hypercarbia; this response was accompanied by a transient increase in branchial V-type H(+)-ATPase mRNA levels. Assuming that the branchial NBC1 is localised to basolateral membranes of gill cells and operates in the influx mode (HCO(3)(-) and Na(+) entry into the cell), it would appear that in trout, the expression of branchial NBC1 is transcriptionally regulated to match the requirements of gill pHi regulation rather than to match trans-epithelial HCO(3)(-) efflux requirements for systemic acid-base balance. By analogy with mammalian systems, NBC1 in the kidney probably plays a role in the tubular reabsorption of both Na(+) and HCO(3)(-). During periods of respiratory acidosis, levels of renal NBC1 mRNA increased (after a transient reduction) in both trout and eel, presumably to increase HCO(3

  14. Le concept d' histoire dans la philosophie de Gilles-Gaston Granger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Lacour

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Granger a développé durant toute sa carrière une réflexion très rigoureuse sur les sciences, dans la lignée de la tradition française du rationalisme appliqué. Son originalité profonde tient à une approche résolument comparatiste des différentes disciplines, de leurs méthodes, de leurs opérations et de leurs objets, dans le cadre d'une ambitieuse épistémologie, qu'on pourrait qualifier à la fois de pragmatiste et de transcendantale. Sa conception formelle de la connaissance réserve cependant un statut paradoxal à l'Histoire. Dans la première partie de l'article, l'auteur tente de préciser la nature du « paradoxe » de la connaissance historique, en étudiant cinq des traits constitutifs de cette discipline qui l'éloignent apparemment de la saine scientificité : son lien direct à l'expérience, son souci de l'individuel, sa « faible » vérification, son but de représentation et non d'objectivation, son manque de virtualité. Dans la seconde partie de l'article, l'auteur cherche à critiquer la manière même dont Granger pose le problème classique de l'ambiguïté du savoir historique. Est examiné en particulier le traitement qu'il réserve au souci historien de l'individuel, et son manque de considération du rôle du récit ou du discours historique. Il s'agit d'abord de souligner la convergence entre, d'une part, les remarques de Pariente contre la connaissance par « système », et en faveur d'une approche « modélisée » (clinique de la saisie historique de l'individuel, et, d'autre part, la conception que Carlo Ginzburg se fait de l'histoire comme connaissance indiciaire. L'auteur fait ensuite valoir, contre Granger, que le discours (récit historien ne peut plus être considéré comme un medium neutre, ni comme un aspect purement esthétique que l'épistémologie devrait négliger. Il soutient au contraire qu'il faut prendre en considération sa spécificité linguistique et ses r

  15. Effects of cadmium exposure on the gill proteome of Cottus gobio: Modulatory effects of prior thermal acclimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorts, Jennifer, E-mail: jennifer.dorts@unamur.be [Research Unit in Environmental and Evolutionary Biology (URBE), University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Kestemont, Patrick [Research Unit in Environmental and Evolutionary Biology (URBE), University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Thézenas, Marie-Laetitia; Raes, Martine [Research Unit in Cell Biology (URBC) (NARILIS), University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Silvestre, Frédéric [Research Unit in Environmental and Evolutionary Biology (URBE), University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Fish acclimated to elevated temperature were subsequently exposed to cadmium. • Interaction of both stressors on LDH activity and protein expression was complex. • Both stressors have opposite effects at branchial protein expression level. • Proteins belonging to the same functional class exhibited differing responses. • Prior acclimation to elevated temperature modulated the effects of cadmium exposure. - Abstract: Temperature and trace metals are common environmental stressors, and their importance is increasing due to global climate change and anthropogenic pollution. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether acclimation to elevated temperature affects the response of the European bullhead (Cottus gobio) to subsequent cadmium (Cd) exposure by using enzymatic and proteomic approaches. Fish acclimated to 15 (standard temperature), 18 or 21 °C for 28 days were exposed to 1 mg Cd/L for 4 days at the respective acclimation temperature. First, exposure to Cd significantly decreased the activity of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in gills of fish acclimated to 15 or 18 °C. However, an acclimation to 21 °C suppressed the inhibitory effect of Cd. Second, using a proteomic analysis by 2D-DIGE, we observed that thermal acclimation was the first parameter affecting the protein expression profile in gills of C. gobio, while subsequent Cd exposure seemed to attenuate this temperature effect. Moreover, our results showed opposite effects of these two environmental stressors at protein expression level. From the 52 protein spots displaying significant interaction effects of temperature and Cd exposure, a total of 28 different proteins were identified using nano LC–MS/MS and the Peptide and Protein Prophet algorithms of Scaffold software. The identified differentially expressed proteins can be categorized into diverse functional classes, related to protein turnover, folding and chaperoning, metabolic process, ion transport, cell

  16. Effects of cadmium exposure on the gill proteome of Cottus gobio: Modulatory effects of prior thermal acclimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorts, Jennifer; Kestemont, Patrick; Thézenas, Marie-Laetitia; Raes, Martine; Silvestre, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fish acclimated to elevated temperature were subsequently exposed to cadmium. • Interaction of both stressors on LDH activity and protein expression was complex. • Both stressors have opposite effects at branchial protein expression level. • Proteins belonging to the same functional class exhibited differing responses. • Prior acclimation to elevated temperature modulated the effects of cadmium exposure. - Abstract: Temperature and trace metals are common environmental stressors, and their importance is increasing due to global climate change and anthropogenic pollution. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether acclimation to elevated temperature affects the response of the European bullhead (Cottus gobio) to subsequent cadmium (Cd) exposure by using enzymatic and proteomic approaches. Fish acclimated to 15 (standard temperature), 18 or 21 °C for 28 days were exposed to 1 mg Cd/L for 4 days at the respective acclimation temperature. First, exposure to Cd significantly decreased the activity of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in gills of fish acclimated to 15 or 18 °C. However, an acclimation to 21 °C suppressed the inhibitory effect of Cd. Second, using a proteomic analysis by 2D-DIGE, we observed that thermal acclimation was the first parameter affecting the protein expression profile in gills of C. gobio, while subsequent Cd exposure seemed to attenuate this temperature effect. Moreover, our results showed opposite effects of these two environmental stressors at protein expression level. From the 52 protein spots displaying significant interaction effects of temperature and Cd exposure, a total of 28 different proteins were identified using nano LC–MS/MS and the Peptide and Protein Prophet algorithms of Scaffold software. The identified differentially expressed proteins can be categorized into diverse functional classes, related to protein turnover, folding and chaperoning, metabolic process, ion transport, cell

  17. The double par locus of virulence factor pB171: DNA segregation is correlated with oscillation of ParA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebersbach, G; Gerdes, K; Charbon, Gitte Ebersbach

    2001-01-01

    Prokaryotic plasmids and chromosomes encode partitioning (par) loci that segregate DNA to daughter cells before cell division. Recent database analyses showed that almost all known par loci encode an ATPase and a DNA-binding protein, and one or more cis-acting regions where the proteins act. All...

  18. ParABS Systems of the Four Replicons of Burkholderia cenocepacia: New Chromosome Centromeres Confer Partition Specificity†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubarry, Nelly; Pasta, Franck; Lane, David

    2006-01-01

    Most bacterial chromosomes carry an analogue of the parABS systems that govern plasmid partition, but their role in chromosome partition is ambiguous. parABS systems might be particularly important for orderly segregation of multipartite genomes, where their role may thus be easier to evaluate. We have characterized parABS systems in Burkholderia cenocepacia, whose genome comprises three chromosomes and one low-copy-number plasmid. A single parAB locus and a set of ParB-binding (parS) centromere sites are located near the origin of each replicon. ParA and ParB of the longest chromosome are phylogenetically similar to analogues in other multichromosome and monochromosome bacteria but are distinct from those of smaller chromosomes. The latter form subgroups that correspond to the taxa of their hosts, indicating evolution from plasmids. The parS sites on the smaller chromosomes and the plasmid are similar to the “universal” parS of the main chromosome but with a sequence specific to their replicon. In an Escherichia coli plasmid stabilization test, each parAB exhibits partition activity only with the parS of its own replicon. Hence, parABS function is based on the independent partition of individual chromosomes rather than on a single communal system or network of interacting systems. Stabilization by the smaller chromosome and plasmid systems was enhanced by mutation of parS sites and a promoter internal to their parAB operons, suggesting autoregulatory mechanisms. The small chromosome ParBs were found to silence transcription, a property relevant to autoregulation. PMID:16452432

  19. Branchial histopathological study of Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii (Castelnau, 1855 in the Guajará bay, Belém, Pará State, Brazil = Estudo histopatológico da brânquia de Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii na baía do Guajará, Belém, Estado do Pará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline da Silva Montes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the morphological alterations in Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii gills and evaluates whether this species can be considered an environmental monitoring biomarker of Guajará Bay. Sampling was carried out in four areas around Belém, Brazil, in four annual periods: dry/wet season, wet season, wet/dry season and dry season. Water pH, temperature and suspended material were evaluated. A total of 36 specimens were collected. The second right gill arch of each animal was removed and immediately fixed and processed for histopathology analysis with light microscopy. The physicochemical analysis of the water during the study period showed slight acidity, temperature and material in suspension within normal levels. Histopathological analysis of the gills from 14 individuals from area I presented no alterations, and only 2 individuals from this area presented some significant type of alteration. In contrast, all individuals captured in areas II, III, and IV presented at least one of the following alterations: aneurism-like alterations, epithelial elevation, infiltration, cell proliferation and cell hypertrophy. Based on the gill histopathological analysis, this organ is considered a good biomarker and the native species B. rousseauxii could be used as a bioindicator for environmental monitoring.O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar as alterações morfológicas branquiais em Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii e verificar se esta espécie pode ser considerada como indicador biológico para o monitoramento ambiental da baía do Guajará. As coletas aconteceram em quatro áreas ao redor da cidade de Belém: I (controle, II, III e IV (forte influência antrópica, nos quatro períodos anuais: estação seco/chuvoso, estação chuvoso, estação chuvoso/seco e estação seco. Nesses períodos foram medidos pH, temperatura e material em suspensão. Foram capturados 36 exemplares. O segundo arco branquial direito de cada animal foi retirado

  20. Future migratory behaviour predicted from premigratory levels of gill Na+/K(+-)ATPase activity in individual wild brown trout ( Salmo trutta )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C.; Aarestrup, Kim; Norum, U.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between premigratory gill Na+/K(+-)ATPase activity, determined at two dates during spring, and future migratory behaviour was investigated using non-lethal gill biopsies and PIT-tagging in wild brown trout (Salmo trutta) from two tributaries. No significant relationship between......(-1)), with an average of 91 % of the predictions being correct. The present study shows that a non-lethal premigratory biochemical measurement can successfully select individual brown trout with high probability of migration...... was obtained. The ability of this regression model from the tributaries to predict future migratory behaviour in an independent group of trout caught in early April in the mainstream was evaluated. A threshold probability of migration was used to predict the behaviour of the mainstream individuals as either...