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  1. Culture et exercice du pouvoir par les femmes dans les sphères de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Culture et exercice du pouvoir par les femmes dans les sphères de décisions en Afrique de l'Ouest. Cette recherche s'inscrit dans le contexte d'une superposition de deux faits : l'existence d'un arsenal juridique et de dispositions nationales et internationales favorables à une intégration des femmes dans les instances de ...

  2. Can-rupture detection in gas-cooled nuclear reactors; La detection des ruptures de gaine dans les piles nucleaires refroidies par gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roguin, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    Can-rupture detection (DRG) is one important aspect of pile safety, more particularly so in the case of gas-cooled reactors. A rapid and sure detection constitutes also an improvement as far as the efficiency of electricity-producing nuclear power stations are concerned. Among the numerous can-rupture detection methods, that based on the measurement of the concentration of short-lived fission gases in the heat-carrying fluid has proved to be the most sensitive and the most rapid. A systematic study of detectors based on the electrostatic collection of the daughter products of fission gases has been undertaken with a view to equip the reactors EL 2, G 3, EDF 1, EDF 2 and EDF 3, the gas loops of PEGASE and EL 4. The different parameters are studied in detail in order to obtain a maximum sensitivity and to make it possible to construct detection devices having the maximum operational reliability and requiring the minimum maintenance. The primary applications of these devices are examined in the case of the above-mentioned reactors. (author) [French] La Detection des Ruptures de Gaines (D. R. G.) est un aspect important de la securite des piles et plus particulierement des piles refroidies par un gaz. Une detection rapide et sure constitue aussi un element d'amelioration du rendement des centrales nucleaires productrices d'energie electrique. Parmi les nombreuses methodes de detection des ruptures de gaines, la mesure de la concentration dans le fluide caloporteur des gaz de fission a vie courte s'est revelee comme la plus sensible et la plus rapide. Une etude systematique des detecteurs a collection electrostatique des descendants des gaz de fission a ete entreprise en vue d'equiper les piles EL 2, G 3, EDF 1, EDF 2 et EDF 3, les boucles a gaz de la pile Pegase et la pile EL 4. Les divers parametres sont etudies en detail pour obtenir une sensibilite maximum et permettre la realisation de dispositifs de detection ayant le maximum de securite de

  3. Can-rupture detection in gas-cooled nuclear reactors; La detection des ruptures de gaine dans les piles nucleaires refroidies par gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roguin, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    Can-rupture detection (DRG) is one important aspect of pile safety, more particularly so in the case of gas-cooled reactors. A rapid and sure detection constitutes also an improvement as far as the efficiency of electricity-producing nuclear power stations are concerned. Among the numerous can-rupture detection methods, that based on the measurement of the concentration of short-lived fission gases in the heat-carrying fluid has proved to be the most sensitive and the most rapid. A systematic study of detectors based on the electrostatic collection of the daughter products of fission gases has been undertaken with a view to equip the reactors EL 2, G 3, EDF 1, EDF 2 and EDF 3, the gas loops of PEGASE and EL 4. The different parameters are studied in detail in order to obtain a maximum sensitivity and to make it possible to construct detection devices having the maximum operational reliability and requiring the minimum maintenance. The primary applications of these devices are examined in the case of the above-mentioned reactors. (author) [French] La Detection des Ruptures de Gaines (D. R. G.) est un aspect important de la securite des piles et plus particulierement des piles refroidies par un gaz. Une detection rapide et sure constitue aussi un element d'amelioration du rendement des centrales nucleaires productrices d'energie electrique. Parmi les nombreuses methodes de detection des ruptures de gaines, la mesure de la concentration dans le fluide caloporteur des gaz de fission a vie courte s'est revelee comme la plus sensible et la plus rapide. Une etude systematique des detecteurs a collection electrostatique des descendants des gaz de fission a ete entreprise en vue d'equiper les piles EL 2, G 3, EDF 1, EDF 2 et EDF 3, les boucles a gaz de la pile Pegase et la pile EL 4. Les divers parametres sont etudies en detail pour obtenir une sensibilite maximum et permettre la realisation de dispositifs de detection ayant le maximum de securite de fonctionnement et le

  4. MODELISATION DE LA CINETIQUE CHIMIQUE DANS LA REDUCTION DES OXYDES D4AZOTE PAR DECHARGE COURONNE.

    OpenAIRE

    MEDJAHDI, Sarah ines

    2015-01-01

    CE TRAVAIL DE recherche rentre dans le cadre général de modélisation de la réduction des oxydes d'azote . l'utilisation des réacteurs a plasma froid non-thermique généré par des décharges couronnes est actuellement l'une des techniques les puis promettre .ses pour la destruction des oxydes d'azote .en effet , le traitement des gaz pollués par les décharges couronnes est notamment rendu possible par la multiplication des décharges Électriques .

  5. Dosage simultané des acides sorbique et benzoïque dans les vins par chromatographie en phase gazeuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ureta

    1984-12-01

    Dans ce travail nous décrivons une méthode par chromatographie en phase gazeuse sur colonne capillaire qui permet en une seule opération de déterminer les acides benzoïque et sorbique dans les vins.

  6. Détermination en tridimensionnel des pertes par courant de Foucault dans la cuve d'un transformateur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Christophe; Tanneau, Gérard; Meunier, Gérard; Sakellaris, Ioannis

    1993-03-01

    This paper deals with 3D electromagnetic modelling of a transformer so as to evaluate eddy current losses in the tank. In this purpose, several numerical methods have been used with two 3D softwares, FLUX3D (LEG) and TRIFOU (EDF). These methods use either nodal finite elements with the magnetic vector potential (FLUX3D), or the edge finite elements with the magnetic field as the state variable (TRIFOU). Classical volume elements and several special elements have been used : shell elements with the magnetic vector potential for the modelling of thin conducting regions, and surface elements for conducting regions with a small skin depth. The results given by these methods with several characteristics of the tank and magnetic core have been compared and their validity domain has been verified. The shell elements suit well when the skin depth is larger than the tank thickness, whereas in the opposite case, the surface elements for thin skin depth regions are well adapted. Nous présentons la modélisation tridimensionnelle d'un transformateur pour la détermination des pertes par courants de Foucault dans sa cuve. Pour cela, plusieurs méthodes numériques ont été utilisées à l'aide de deux codes de calcul tridimensionnels : FLUX3D (LEG) et TRIFOU (EDF). Ces méthodes utilisent soit les éléments finis nodaux avec le potentiel vecteur magnétique (FLUX3D), soit les éléments finis d'arête avec le champ magnétique comme variable d'état (TRIFOU). Outre l'utilisation des éléments volumiques, nous avons employé des éléments surfaciques de type coque en potentiel vecteur magnétique pour la modélisation de regions conductrices minces, ainsi que des éléments surfaciques pour les régions conductrices présentant une faible épaisseur de peau. Les résultats obtenus avec ces méthodes pour différentes caractéristiques du matériau de la cuve et du circuit magnétique ont permis de vérifier leur domaine de validité. Les éléments de type coque conviennent

  7. Mentorat par les pairs de journalistes scientifiques dans les pays en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce réseau, établi à Londres, exploite des noeuds régionaux dans les pays en développement; il a joué un rôle de premier plan à l'occasion de la quatrième Conférence mondiale des journalistes scientifiques (102484). Le projet de formation entre pairs est issu de la conférence. Par l'entremise de la Fédération mondiale ...

  8. Electron microscope study of vacancy clusters produced by quenching in magnesium; Etude par microscopie electronique des amas de lacunes crees par trempe dans le magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, V; Espinasse, J; Mairy, C; Hillairet, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Vacancy clustering in quenched magnesium has been studied by transmission electron microscopy. The nature of the vacancy loops observed, seems to depend essentially on the impurity content of the metal; this effect can be attributed to a variation of the stacking fault energy of magnesium due to impurities. (authors) [French] On a etudie par microscopie electronique en transmission les defauts crees par trempe dans le magnesium. Un effet considerable des impuretes du metal sur la nature des boucles obtenues par condensation de lacunes a ete mis en evidence; cet effet semble s'expliquer de facon satisfaisante par un abaissement de l'energie de faute d'empilement du magnesium du aux impuretes. (auteur)

  9. New purchase conditions by EDF, of the electrical power produced by the energy valorization installations of domestic wastes and assimilated; Nouvelles conditions d'achat par EDF de l'electricite produite par les installations de valorisation energetique des dechets managers et assimiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    The State Secretary for the Industry, C. Pierret, approved the new purchase conditions by EDF, concerning the electric power, produced by the installations of domestic wastes energy valorization. This action is in agreement with the energy policy. The purchase conditions are presented and commented. (A.L.B.)

  10. 1996, a turning point in the evolution of the EDF with good financial results; 1996, une annee charniere dans l'evolution d'EDF avec de bons resultants financiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This conference held on March 1997 presents the financial results obtained in 1996 by French Electricity Company EDF (Electricite de France). This year represented a turning point because essential landmarks were established in 1996. An european directive has been adopted in 1996 defining the framework in which european electricity market will function as well as the rules for its opening to competition. Discussions with the trade unions were conducted at the beginning of 1997and a social agreement aiming at the amelioration of services and hiring of 11,000 to 15,000 young people in the next three years. Finally, a new contract of enterprise with the state has been discussed and approved in March 5, 1997, which redefined the place and the role of EDF in the French economy, in the new stage of electricity market started by the opening to competition. The document contains the following 8 chapters: 1. Financial results and enterprise management; 2. Institutional frame and the relation with the state; 3. Development in France; 4. International development; 5. Alliances, partnerships and cooperation; 6. Management, social and human resources; 7. Environment; 8. Technical results.

  11. 1996, a turning point in the evolution of the EDF with good financial results; 1996, une annee charniere dans l'evolution d'EDF avec de bons resultants financiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This conference held on March 1997 presents the financial results obtained in 1996 by French Electricity Company EDF (Electricite de France). This year represented a turning point because essential landmarks were established in 1996. An european directive has been adopted in 1996 defining the framework in which european electricity market will function as well as the rules for its opening to competition. Discussions with the trade unions were conducted at the beginning of 1997and a social agreement aiming at the amelioration of services and hiring of 11,000 to 15,000 young people in the next three years. Finally, a new contract of enterprise with the state has been discussed and approved in March 5, 1997, which redefined the place and the role of EDF in the French economy, in the new stage of electricity market started by the opening to competition. The document contains the following 8 chapters: 1. Financial results and enterprise management; 2. Institutional frame and the relation with the state; 3. Development in France; 4. International development; 5. Alliances, partnerships and cooperation; 6. Management, social and human resources; 7. Environment; 8. Technical results.

  12. Modification de la surface du cuivre par implantation ionique par source plasma (IISP): applications à l’érosion cathodique dans les systèmes à arcs

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, F

    2006-01-01

    L’érosion cathodique est un phénomène bien connu qui limite la durée de vie de l’électrode négative dans les systèmes à arcs. Dans le présent mémoire, nous avons tenté de voir si la formation de précipités nanométriques d’oxyde de cuivre pouvait réduire l’érosion cathodique nécessaire au maintien de l’arc en mode thermo-champ (T-F). Les dits précipités ont été produits par implantation ionique par source plasma (IISP). Avec l’aide de techniques de caractérisation telle que la microscopie à fo...

  13. TRANSFERT THERMIQUE INSTATIONNAIRE DANS UN MUR TRICOUCHES SUBISSANT UN CHANGEMENT DE PHASE PAR SOLIDIFICATION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Arfi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Une étude numérique du transfert de chaleur instationnaire dans un mur tricouches est présentée. Le modèle physique est basé sur l’équation de conduction thermique unidirectionnelle en tenant compte des équations de couplages au niveau des interfaces et des conditions convectives de surfaces. Les équations de transfert sont données en représentation enthalpique pour le matériau à changement de phase (MCP, et en formulation générale pour les régions solides. La formulation adimensionnelle a permis de dégager les principaux paramètres affectant le transfert : nombre de Biot (Bi, nombre de Stephan (Ste et le degré de surchauffe (qm. La discrétisation des équations est réalisée en utilisant la méthode des volumes finis selon un schéma explicite. La solution numérique est obtenue par une méthode itérative basée sur la notion d’enthalpie critique. L’étude de l’influence de la condition convective chaude, gouvernée par  Bi¥,cet θ¥,c , a montré que la présence des couches solides affecte la cinétique de la solidification, les limites de la solidification et le transfert de chaleur par un effet de stockage et de déstockage d’énergie sensible. L’influence de la température θ¥,c sur le processus de changement de phase est fortement dépendante du nombre de Biot Bi¥,c.

  14. Les paradoxes des distances dans la construction des identités alimentaires par acculturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Dedeire

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available À partir d’une problématique issue d’observations et de lectures sur la mobilité des hommes, le(s distance(s et l’ancrage territorial, nous nous interrogeons sur les paradoxes de l’acculturation dans la (reconstruction des identités alimentaires. Pourquoi certaines populations développent-elles leur culture alimentaire locale dans des territoires d’accueil ? Quel est le rôle du migrant et de la distance sur cette diffusion appuyée par l’acculturation ? Et quelles sont les formes d’ancrages territoriaux expliquant les diffusions de certains produits locaux ?The authors base their research question on the observations and the literature concerning different forms of mobility of human beings and food products, distances and territorial anchoring. They further their analysis on the paradoxes of acculturation process that arise during the identity (reconstruction in the field of food consumption and eating habits. They focus on the place of cross-border migrations in the spreading of genuine country products and/or local eating specialities of the migrant populations in their host countries. What are the different definitions of distance(s that separate the migrant from its home country and from the host culture? What role dœs the migrant play in the spreading of these eating habits? How the acculturation process works? What are the different forms of territorial anchoring to explain the spreading of these genuine country food products?

  15. Problems presented by the filtration and sampling of aerosols in the atomic energy programme; Problemes poses par la filtration et le prelevement des aerosols dans le cadre de l'energie atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochinal, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    The maximum permissible limits for radioactive aerosols are much lower than those for aerosols encountered in the non-nuclear industries. These limits depend on numerous factors such as: nature of the radiation, half-life, etc. The radioactive aerosols can be prepared by various methods. The filtering of the air in high activity laboratories or in plutonium treatment factories necessitates an installation consisting of: - aspiration filters, - extraction filters of very high efficiency (those used for {alpha} emitter cells: designed to be replaced without incurring contamination risks; those used for {gamma} emitter cells: designed to be replaced by remote control). The filtering in nuclear reactors is also effectuated by filter papers: - the G1 reactor with open circuit: the air coolant is entirely filtered at the entry and on leaving; - the G2, G3 and EDF1 reactors with closed circuits: filtering under pressure of a small portion of the coolant gas. (author) [French] Les limites maxima permises des aerosols radioactifs sont beaucoup plus faibles que celles des aerosols rencontres dans l'industrie classique. Elles dependent de nombreux facteurs tel que: nature du rayonnement, periode radioactive, etc... La formation des aerosols radioactifs est de nature diverse. La filtration des laboratoires de haute activite, ou d'usines d'elaboration de plutonium conduit a des types d'installations comportant: - des filtres d'aspiration; - des filtres d'extraction a rendement extremement eleve (type pour cellules emettrices {alpha} concu pour etre change sans risque de contamination, type pour cellules emettrices {gamma}: concu pour etre change a distance) La filtration des reacteurs nucleaires sont egalement effectuee par des papiers filtres: - reacteur G1 a circuit ouvert: air de refroidissement totalement filtre a l'aspiration et a l'extraction; - reacteurs G2, G3, EDF1: a circuit ferme: filtration sous pression d'une faible partie du gaz de refroidissement. (auteur)

  16. MODÉLISATION DES FLUX DE CHALEUR GÉNÉRÉS PAR FROTTEMENT GLISSANT DANS UN CONTACT CUIVRE-ACIER TRAVERSÉ PAR UN COURANT ÉLECTRIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A BOUCHOUCHA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Le problème de la conduction de la chaleur dans un contact électrique glissant cuivre–acier est étudié. Le couple fonctionne dans des conditions atmosphériques et est donc refroidi par convection naturelle à travers les faces latérales. En utilisant l'équation de la chaleur, un modèle de calcul de la température interfaciale a été élaboré. A l'aide de la méthode des volumes finis, les résultats de la température en fonction de la charge normale, la vitesse de glissement et le courant électrique sont donnés. Une comparaison avec la méthode d'Archard est faite. Les résultats montrent une bonne concordance. Une discussion globale du modèle élaboré et son application dans les contacts électriques glissants a été dégagée.

  17. De nouveaux acteurs de la régulation du travail dans la gestion par projets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Josée Legault

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Dans le contexte d’une grande transformation de l’économie mondiale, on constate de plus en plus l’inadéquation des efforts de théorisation des relations de travail qui datent du fordisme, notamment du modèle d’analyse systémique (Dunlop, 1958 comme du modèle stratégique (Kochan, Katz et McKersie, 1986 ; dans ces deux modèles en effet, trois acteurs se partagent exclusivement la scène de l’action : les syndicats, les employeurs et l’État, et leurs interactions se déroulent essentiellement dans le cadre de l’État-nation. Or, on voit émerger de nouveaux modes de régulation qui, à leur tour, illustrent la nécessité d’intégrer de nouveaux acteurs et de nouvelles frontières aux modèles théoriques du système de relations industrielles. Une enquête menée auprès de 88 professionnels de l’informatique des entreprises de services technologiques aux entreprises, dans une population composée à parts égales d’hommes et de femmes, a permis d’y relever des pratiques de régulation qui non seulement remettent en cause les termes traditionnels de la régulation fordiste qui hier encore dominaient les bureaucraties professionnelles où on employait les professionnels de l’informatique, mais encore les frontières traditionnelles du système de relations industrielles selon deux aspects : celui des trois acteurs principaux : les employeurs, les travailleurs et l’État, par l’ajout du client et des équipes de travail ; et celui de la séparation entre les contextes du système de relations industrielles et ce système lui-même.As the global economy undergoes a major transformation, the inadequacy of labour relations theories dating back to Fordism, especially the systemic analysis model (Dunlop, 1958 and the strategic model (Kochan, Katz, & McKersie, 1986, in which only three actors—union, employer and State—share the stage is becoming increasingly obvious. A good example is provided by companies

  18. La Dialectique autonomie / contrôle dans le management par projet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Lapayre

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Beaucoup a été écrit au cours des dernières années sur les nouvelles formes d’organisation du travail (NFOT, et sur ce à quoi pourrait ressembler une organisation post bureaucratique ; une grande partie de ces écrits tendraient à laisser croire que nos organisations se sont débarrassées de leurs vieux habits du taylorisme et de la bureaucratie, et sont devenues aujourd’hui un lieu de bien-être pour les salariés, un lieu d’épanouissement, d’apprentissage, voire d’émancipation. Les diverses enquêtes réalisées concernant l’évolution des conditions de travail, de l’autonomie, de la participation, montrent une image beaucoup plus contrastée et ambigüe. Poursuivant cette réflexion, nous avons voulu nous intéresser à une NFOT qui nous apparaît comme particulièrement productive d’autonomie et de liberté pour les acteurs : l’organisation par projets. Nous nous sommes penchés sur l’étude des modes de contrôle, dans ces formes modernes d’organisation du travail, qui visent tantôt à contrôler les acteurs, afin de respecter les contraintes du projet, tantôt à leur laisser un maximum de champ libre en vue de libérer les énergies créatrices. Cet article livre les questionnements qui émergent de la revue de la littérature sur le sujet et qui conduisent à se demander si les processus de contrôle mis en place dans ces organisations ne seraient pas à rapprocher des systèmes de surveillance, voire de Gouvernementalité qu’avait développés, en son temps, M. Foucault.This paper adresses the issue of the new forms of work organization and questions the issue of the post-bureaucratic organization, particularly the idea that workplaces have gone beyond taylorism and bureaucracy and have become a place where workers learn and develop themselves. The reality appears more nuanced. The author looks into the specific form of work organization, which is work by project, its modes of control of actos in

  19. EDF at a glance. EDF group 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document presents the organization and key data of the Electricite de France (EdF) group for 2002: business (generation and trading, transmission, distribution, supply, energy services), corporate governance (board of directors, executive committee), different branches of the group (continental Europe, western Europe, Middle-East and Africa, Asia-Pacific, Americas), main affiliates, international contacts and addresses, financial performance (consolidated sales, Ebitda), customers (residential, commercial, business and industrial, local authorities), generation (balanced energy mix), human resources, corporate social responsibility, sustainable development indicators. (J.S.)

  20. STIMULATION PAR LES CYTOKININES DE L’ACCUMULATION ALCALOÏDIQUE DANS DES SUSPENSIONS CELLULAIRES: IMPLICATION DE L’ETHYLENE COMME SECOND MESSAGER ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A YAHIA

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans ce travail, nous avons cherché à savoir si l’éthylène pouvait être impliquée lors de la stimulation de la production alcaloïdique par les cytokinines dans les suspensions cellulaires de Catharanthus roseus. La stratégie expérimentale a été double: 1 modifier les teneurs en éthylène endogène en traitant les cellules par différents agonistes ou antagonistes de la voie de biosynthèse de l’éthylène, 2 soumettre les cellules à des apports exogène d’éthylène.      Les résultats obtenus montrent que les inhibiteurs de l’éthylène AVG, Co+2  bloquent partiellement la stimulation alcaloïdique dans les cellules traitées par les cytokinines alors que le précurseur de l’éthylène ACC n’a pas d’effet sur la production alcaloïdique dans les cellules non traitées par les cytokinines. En revanche, lorsque l’éthylène est apporté de manière exogène (traitement par l’éthephon, la production alcaloïdique est multipliée par quatre.

  1. Renforcer la résilience dans les collectivités touchées par le tsunami ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Lors du tsunami qui a frappé l'Asie du Sud en décembre 2004, des études ont indiqué qu'une épaisse végétation côtière, telles les mangroves, avait permis de sauver des vies et de réduire les pertes matérielles en servant de barrières naturelles. Par ailleurs, des villageois, comme ceux de Nallavadu dans le territoire de ...

  2. Quantification des cellules viables de P. phosphoreum dans les pavés de saumon cru par PCR temps reel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macé, Sabine; Mamlouk, Kelthoum; Chipchakova, Stoyka

    ’altération. Par conséquent, nous avons développé une méthode de PCR temps réel spécifique combinée avec une étape de traitement au PMA pour quantifier les cellules viable de P.phosphoreum dans le saumon cru conditionné sous atmosphère modifiée. Les amorces spécifiques ont été dessinées pour amplifier un fragment...

  3. The photovoltaic ambitious of EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houot, G.

    2008-01-01

    Added to the wind energy, EDF develops the photovoltaic by its subsidiaries EDF Energies Nouvelles, for the big power plants and EDF Energies Nouvelles Reparties centralized on the market of small installations for roofs. The author analyzes the society management and project concerning the photovoltaic development. (A.L.B.)

  4. Les proverbes dans Kongo Proverbs and the Origins of Bantu Wisdom par Mukumbuta Lisimba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwine Mabika Mbokou

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Résumé: On emploie tous les jours des proverbes, des maximes, des devinettes et des dictons.Malgré les progrès techniques des denières décénies en matière d'outils didactiques, le proverbefait partie du quotidien des sociétés africaines en particulier et de celles du monde en général. Ilreste un instrument d'éducation indispensable et vital pour les générations futures, et quiconquedésire un conseil ou une orientation dans une certaine situation s'y réfère. Il fait partie intégrantede l'acte de communication.À la lumière des analyses du Dr Lisimba de certains proverbes de la famille bantu, nousdécouvrons l'importance que revêt la dynamique du langage offert par les proverbes. Ils peuventainsi être employés comme données dans la compilation de dictionnaires. En effet, pour la disciplinedes sciences du langage qu'est la lexicographie, le traitement des proverbes et idiomes estd'une importance capitale parce que ces derniers sont le véhicule de la culture et des moeurs d'unpeuple. Ainsi, pour mener à bien une telle entreprise, le lexicographe devra choisir le traitement àl'intérieur de la liste centrale, sinon à l'extérieur de la liste centrale, l'option la plus profitable pourlui restant une classification thématique qui tient compte non seulement de l'aspect sémantique duproverbe, mais aussi de son aspect formel.

    Mots-clés: ANALYSE FORMELLE, ANALYSE SÉMANTIQUE, CLASSIFICATION THÉMATIQUE,DIDACTIQUE, DICTIONNAIRE, GENRE PROVERBIAL, IDIOMES, LEXICOGRAPHE,LEXICOGRAPHIE, LISTE CENTRALE, LITTÉRATURE ORALE, PRÉ-TEXTES, POST-TEXTES,PROVERBES

    Abstract: Proverbs according to Kongo Proverbs and the Origins of Bantu Wisdom by Mukumbuta Lisimba. Proverbs, maxims, riddles and sayings are used every day. In spite of the technical progress during the last decades as far as didactic tools are concerned, the proverb forms part of the daily life of African societies in particular and those of the world in

  5. EDF's fiftieth anniversary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spann, L.

    1996-01-01

    During its half-century of existence, EdF (Electricite de France) has carried out an impressive productivity effort. The company, the manpower of which has remained practically the same from the beginning, produces today 22 times more kW per hour than in 1946. In 1995, the French production of electric power reached 442.2 TWh, which corresponds to a 3.9 % increase with respect to the previous year. This production corresponds to a 99000 MW installed capacity of nuclear (59 %), thermal (17 %) and hydraulic (24 %) origin, respectively. This example illustrates the success of EdF, which is considered as ''the result of a huge technical and industrial adventure'' said Franck Borotra, French Ministry of Industry, Post and Telecommunications. This paper comprises three parts. The first part describes some historical and political aspects of the creation and development of the company with the building of several hydro-electric dams up to 1957, the starting of the nuclear program in 1973-74 during the petroleum crisis, the new goals and the evolution of the company inside the European Community. The second part describes the political, ecological and financial controversy about the Saone-Rhine rivers connection project, in which EdF is involved, and which would allow a 15 times increase of the rivers transportation capacity. The last part is a comparative summary of EdF's 1994 and 1995 balance sheet of production, financing, expenditures, trade, contracts etc.. (J.S.). 2 photos

  6. Determination of oxygen in uranium compounds using sulfur monochloride; Dosage de l'oxygene dans les composes de l'uranium par la methode au monochlorure de soufre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudin, G; Besson, J; Blum, P L; Tran-Van, Danh [Commisariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The authors have described in an other paper (Anal. Chim. Acta, in press) a method for oxygen determination in uranium compounds, in which the sample is attacked by sulfur monochloride. The present paper is concerned with the experimental aspects of the method: apparatus procedure. (authors) [French] Les auteurs ont decrit dans une autre publication (Anal. Chim. Acta) a paraitre, une methode de dosage de l'oxygene dans les composes de l'uranium par attaque par le monochlorure de soufre, La presente note a pour but d'en preciser les techniques experimentale: appareillage, mode operatoire. (auteurs)

  7. Total and EDF invest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, St.

    2008-01-01

    So as to prepare the future of their industrial sector,the Total company plans to invest (14 billion Euros in 2008) to increase its production capacities and strengthen in of other activities as the liquefied natural gas and the renewable energies; EDF plans to inject 35 billion Euros over three years to multiply the new projects of power plants (wind turbines, coal in Germany, gas in Great Britain and nuclear power in Flamanville). EDF wants to exploit its knowledge of leader to run more than ten E.P.R.(European pressurized water reactor) in the world before 2020, projects are in examination with China, Great Britain, South Africa and United States. (N.C.)

  8. EDF's dismantling experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mira, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The dismantling policy at EDF, taking into account technical, economical and socio-political factors, is presented. The various current realizations are reviewed and their dismantling solution discussed: Chinon A2, Chinon A1, Marcoule G1, G2, G3, Brennilis (EL4). Several dismantling projects are also described (Chinon A3, St-Laurent A1-A2, Chooz A). The various dismantling operations are presented and scheduled

  9. Culture du résultat et pilotage par les indicateurs dans le secteur public

    OpenAIRE

    Chatelain-Ponroy, Stéphanie; Sponem, Samuel

    2008-01-01

    Depuis 20 ans, la question de la gestion de l’État est au cœur des réformes de l’administration dans tous les pays de l’OCDE. À cet égard, l’introduction d’une culture du résultat et des dispositifs de contrôle de gestion qui l’accompagnent dans l’administration publique telle qu’elle est mise en avant dans la LOLF, si elle peut avoir des effets positifs en termes d’évaluation des politiques publiques et d’incitation des agents, peut aussi engendrer des effets pervers. En la matière, l’expéri...

  10. Etude de la propagation sous critique dans les fibres de verre par relaxation de la charge

    OpenAIRE

    R'Mili , M.; Godin , N.; Lamon , J.

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Plusieurs fibres inorganiques de type verre ou céramique (à base de carbure de silicium) sont très sensibles à la propagation sous critique de fissures, activée chimiquement ou thermiquement. Dans ce cas la rupture survient d'une façon prématurée à un niveau de contrainte relativement bas comparé à la contrainte de rupture. Cet article propose une approche statistique de la rupture en fatigue statique fondée sur l'analyse de la rupture des fibres dans une mèche sollici...

  11. Mentorat par les pairs de journalistes scientifiques dans les pays en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce n'est pas d'hier que le CRDI appuie l'avancement du journalisme scientifique dans le Tiers-Monde. Depuis 2000, le CRDI a aidé à mettre en place le Réseau Sciences et Développement (SciDev.Net). Ce réseau, établi à Londres, exploite des noeuds régionaux dans les pays en développement; il a joué un rôle de ...

  12. Ansiedade e parâmetros funcionais respiratórios de idosos praticantes de dança

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A ansiedade é um diagnóstico comum encontrado em idosos e se associa comumente a anormalidades respiratórias. Ligado ao envelhecimento, encontra-se também o sedentarismo, o qual é um importante fator de risco para diversas patologias. A prática de atividade física regular melhora a ansiedade e a condição cardiorrespiratória. Entre os tipos de atividades físicas, a dança destaca-se como uma boa opção para os idosos. OBJETIVO: Descrever os parâmetros respiratórios de idosas praticantes de dança quando comparadas com idosas sedentárias e a influência da prática regular de dança sobre a ansiedade. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 18 idosas, divididas em dois grupos: praticantes de dança (grupo G1 e sedentárias (grupo G2. Nos grupos G1e G2, foram aplicados o inventário de ansiedade traço-estado IDATE, a cirtometria, a espirometria e a manovacuometria, além de ser utilizado o questionário de Baecke modificado para idosos, apenas para o grupo G2, a fim de garantir o sedentarismo dos participantes. Foi realizada a estatística descritiva para sintetizar os dados. RESULTADOS: As participantes do grupo G1 apresentaram valores superiores em relação à ansiedade-estado e à pressão expiratória máxima. A cirtometria em nível basal foi maior nas participantes do grupo G1, enquanto em nível xifoide foi maior nas idosas do grupo G2. Todas as participantes obtiveram valores de espirometria dentro da normalidade, sem diferenças entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: Observaram-se nas idosas que praticam dança de forma regular menor nível de ansiedade-traço, valores adequados de pressão expiratória máxima e maior valor na cirtometria em nível basal.

  13. Cultures et recherche dans une ville ravagée par la guerre | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    4 févr. 2011 ... ... cette décharge pour la transformer en une mosaïque de verdure. .... Est-il possible d'améliorer la distribution de produits comme les ... Étendre la protection de la loi aux populations à risque au Canada et dans le monde.

  14. Techniques d'inspection par ondes guidees ultrasonores d'assemblages brases dans des reacteurs aeronautiques =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comot, Pierre

    L'industrie aeronautique, cherche a etudier la possibilite d'utiliser de maniere structurelle des joints brases, dans une optique de reduction de poids et de cout. Le developpement d'une methode d'evaluation rapide, fiable et peu couteuse pour evaluer l'integrite structurelle des joints apparait donc indispensable. La resistance mecanique d'un joint brase dependant principalement de la quantite de phase fragile dans sa microstructure. Les ondes guidees ultrasonores permettent de detecter ce type de phase lorsqu'elles sont couplees a une mesure spatio-temporelle. De plus la nature de ce type d'ondes permet l'inspection de joints ayant des formes complexes. Ce memoire se concentre donc sur le developpement d'une technique basee sur l'utilisation d'ondes guidees ultrasonores pour l'inspection de joints brases a recouvrement d'Inconel 625 avec comme metal d'apport du BNi-2. Dans un premiers temps un modele elements finis du joint a ete utilise pour simuler la propagation des ultrasons et optimiser les parametres d'inspection, la simulation a permis egalement de demontrer la faisabilite de la technique pour la detection de la quantite de phase fragile dans ce type de joints. Les parametres optimises sont la forme de signal d'excitation, sa frequence centrale et la direction d'excitation. Les simulations ont montre que l'energie de l'onde ultrasonore transmise a travers le joint aussi bien que celle reflechie, toutes deux extraites des courbes de dispersion, etaient proportionnelles a la quantite de phase fragile presente dans le joint et donc cette methode permet d'identifier la presence ou non d'une phase fragile dans ce type de joint. Ensuite des experimentations ont ete menees sur trois echantillons typiques presentant differentes quantites de phase fragile dans le joint, pour obtenir ce type d'echantillons differents temps de brasage ont ete utilises (1, 60 et 180 min). Pour cela un banc d'essai automatise a ete developpe permettant d'effectuer une analyse similaire

  15. EDF national emergency organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverge, J.

    1992-01-01

    The scope of French nuclear power led Electricite de France (EDF) to design standard products, manufactured in series but adaptable to different sites. Standardization is based on the decision on a single technology: pressurized water reactors (PWR). Thirty-four 900 MW and seventeen 1300 MW units are in operation on seventeen sites. The specific nature of French organization for normal operation and accident management results from equipment standardization and single licensee. This specificity is based on emergency plan standardization and highly structured national organization. Figs

  16. Development and testing of the EDF-2 reactor fuel element; Essais et mise au point de l'element combustible pour le reacteur EDF-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delpeyroux, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Furhmann, R [Societe Industrielle de Combustible Nucleaire (France)

    1964-07-01

    rassemble les etudes qui ont ete necessaires pour mener a bien la definition de l'element combustible EdF 2. Apres un bref rappel des caracteristiques du reacteur EdF 2 et des options preliminaires ayant permis de fixer un avant-projet d'element combustible, on aborde les etudes proprement dites: - Etudes uranium: essais de passage d'une couronne interne du tube en phase {beta}, flechage du tube sous l'action d'une force concentree, soudage des pastilles d'extremites et verification de leur etancheite. La tenue du tube a l'ecrasement et la resistance des pastilles a l'enfoncement sous l'action de la pression externe sont etudiees en detail dans un autre rapport CEA - Etudes gaine: rappel des conditions de fabrication et verification de l'etancheite de la gaine, tenue des ailettes au fluage sous l'action du courant gazeux - Etudes d'extremites: fluage en compression et soudage des bouchons a la gaine. - Etudes cartouche: determination des caracteristiques des gorges d'ancrage gaine-combustible et des conditions de gainage, verification de la tenue au cyclage thermique de l'element combustible, determination de la chute de temperature au contact gaine-combustible traitee en detail dans un autre rapport CEA, - Etudes de l'ensemble: les etudes se rapportant a la chemise de graphite, au support et aux vibrations de la cartouche ont ete traitees par le service des Etudes Mecaniques et Thermiques (Section de Mecanique), Dans ce domaine, la Section d'Etude d'Elements Combustibles a etudie la tenue des centreurs sous l'action du courant gazeux. L'aboutissement des etudes est constitue par le dessin de l'element combustible, le schema de fabrication et les normes de fabrication. La validite de l'ensemble de ces essais hors pile sera confirmee par des assais en pile qui sont en cours et par l'irradiation des elements dans le reacteur EdF 2 lui-meme. En conclusion, on donne l'orientation des etudes pour l'amelioration de l'element combustible et la definition d'un element combustible

  17. Corrosion of magnesium and some magnesium alloys in gas cooled reactors; Corrosion du magnesium et de certains de ses alliages dans les piles refroidies par gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillat, R; Darras, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The results of corrosion tests on magnesium and some magnesium alloys (Mg-Zr and Mg-Zr-Zn) in moist air (like G1 reactor) and in CO{sub 2}: (like G2, G3, EDF1 reactors) are reported. The maximum temperature for exposure of magnesium to moist air without any risk of corrosion is 350 deg. C. Indeed, the oxidation rate follows a linear law above 350 deg. C although it reaches a constant level and keeps on very low under 350 deg. C. However, as far as corrosion is concerned this temperature limit can be raised up to 500 deg. C if moist air is very slightly charged with fluorinated compounds. Under pressure of CO{sub 2}, these three materials oxidate much more slowly even if 500 deg. C is reached. The higher is the temperature, the higher is the constant level of the weight increase and the quicker is reached this one. However, Mg-Zr alloy behaves quite better than pure magnesium and especially than Mg-Zr-Zn alloy. (author)Fren. [French] On expose essentiellement les resultats d'etudes sur la corrosion du magnesium et de certains de ses alliages (Mg-Zr et Mg-Zr-Zn) dans l'air humide (cas de la pile G1) et dans le gaz carbonique (cas des piles G2, G3, EDF1, etc...). La temperature limite d'exposition du magnesium dans l'air humide sans risque de corrosion se situe a 350 deg. C; en effet l'oxydation a un caractere lineaire au-dessus de cette temperature, alors qu'elle atteint un palier et reste tres limitee au-dessous de 350 deg. C. Du point de vue de la corrosion, cette temperature limite d'emploi peut cependant etre elevee jusqu'a 500 deg. C si l'on introduit dans l'air humide de tres faibles teneurs de composes fluores. Dans le gaz carbonique sous pression, l'oxydation est beaucoup plus faible, meme jusqu'a 50g. C pour les trois materiaux: l'augmentation de poids atteint un palier d'autant plus eleve et ceci d'autant plus rapidement que la temperature est elle-meme plus elevee. Cependant, l'alliage Mg-Zr se comporte nettement mieux que le magnesium pur et surtout que l

  18. Corrosion of magnesium and some magnesium alloys in gas cooled reactors; Corrosion du magnesium et de certains de ses alliages dans les piles refroidies par gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillat, R.; Darras, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The results of corrosion tests on magnesium and some magnesium alloys (Mg-Zr and Mg-Zr-Zn) in moist air (like G1 reactor) and in CO{sub 2}: (like G2, G3, EDF1 reactors) are reported. The maximum temperature for exposure of magnesium to moist air without any risk of corrosion is 350 deg. C. Indeed, the oxidation rate follows a linear law above 350 deg. C although it reaches a constant level and keeps on very low under 350 deg. C. However, as far as corrosion is concerned this temperature limit can be raised up to 500 deg. C if moist air is very slightly charged with fluorinated compounds. Under pressure of CO{sub 2}, these three materials oxidate much more slowly even if 500 deg. C is reached. The higher is the temperature, the higher is the constant level of the weight increase and the quicker is reached this one. However, Mg-Zr alloy behaves quite better than pure magnesium and especially than Mg-Zr-Zn alloy. (author)Fren. [French] On expose essentiellement les resultats d'etudes sur la corrosion du magnesium et de certains de ses alliages (Mg-Zr et Mg-Zr-Zn) dans l'air humide (cas de la pile G1) et dans le gaz carbonique (cas des piles G2, G3, EDF1, etc...). La temperature limite d'exposition du magnesium dans l'air humide sans risque de corrosion se situe a 350 deg. C; en effet l'oxydation a un caractere lineaire au-dessus de cette temperature, alors qu'elle atteint un palier et reste tres limitee au-dessous de 350 deg. C. Du point de vue de la corrosion, cette temperature limite d'emploi peut cependant etre elevee jusqu'a 500 deg. C si l'on introduit dans l'air humide de tres faibles teneurs de composes fluores. Dans le gaz carbonique sous pression, l'oxydation est beaucoup plus faible, meme jusqu'a 50g. C pour les trois materiaux: l'augmentation de poids atteint un palier d'autant plus eleve et ceci d'autant plus rapidement que la temperature est elle-meme plus elevee. Cependant, l

  19. EDF - Quarterly Financial Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivi, Carole; Boissezon, Carine de; Hidra, Kader

    2014-01-01

    EDF's sales in the first quarter of 2014 were euro 21.2 billion, down 3.9% from the first quarter of 2013. At constant scope and exchange rates, sales were down 4.2% due to mild weather conditions, which impacted sales of electricity in France, gas sales abroad and trading activities in Europe. UK sales were nonetheless sustained by B2B sales due to higher realised wholesale market prices. In Italy, sales growth was driven by an increase in electricity volumes sold. The first quarter of 2014 also saw the strengthening of the Group's financial structure with the second phase of its multi-annual hybrid funding programme (nearly euro 4 billion equivalent) as well as the issue of two 100-year bonds in dollars and sterling aimed at significantly lengthening average debt maturity. 2014 outlook and 2014-2018 vision: - EDF Group has confirmed its financial objectives for 2014; - Group EBITDA excluding Edison: organic growth of at least 3%; - Edison EBITDA: recurring EBITDA target of euro 1 billion and at least euro 600 million in 2014 before effects of gas contract re-negotiations; - Net financial debt / EBITDA: between 2x and 2.5x; - Pay-out ratio of net income excluding non-recurring items post-hybrid: 55% to 65%. The Group has reaffirmed its goal of achieving positive cash flow after dividends, excluding Linky, in 2018

  20. Alimentation et parémiologie dans la socioculture bulu (Sud-Cameroun : ethnanalyse de quelques proverbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ulrich Otye Elom

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available L’alimentation dans les négro-cultures en général et chez les Bulu en particulier revêt une importance qui va bien au-delà de la satisfaction organoleptique. En effet, elle intervient dans la société comme un fait social total permettant de l’appréhender sous l’angle politique, économique, médical, religieux, artistique, juridique, linguistique. Du point de vue linguistique, les proverbes constituent un espace propice à la démonstration des représentations autour de l’aliment. Utilisés pour illustrer une situation, donner une leçon ou encore appuyer un discours, les proverbes sont un canevas linguistique dont on ne peut se passer dans les joutes oratoires. Pour ce qui concerne est des proverbes alimentaires, on peut se rendre compte qu’ils permettent d’observer comment les Bulu appréhendent le monde et montrent de ce fait la société dans sa dimension holistique. Cet article s’attèle à une analyse anthropologique de quelques proverbes alimentaires de la socioculture bulu. Ces parémies font intervenir la vision bulu de l’organisation politique, de l’économie, des relations de parenté, de la diplomatie, de l’education, de la mort, de la justice, de la construction de la personnalité,etc. Feeding in negro-cultures generally and particularly on Bulu’s people have an importance which goes beyond the biological needs. In fact, it intervenes in this society as a social total fact and permits to apprhehend it on political, economical, medical, religious, artistic, juridical, linguistic angle. From the linguistic point of view, proverbs constitute a favorable space to the demonstration of representations on food. Used to illustrate a situation, to give a learning or to support a speech, proverbs are a linguistic framework which is not possible to avoid during verbal sparrings. Concerning food proverbs, it can be realized that, they permit to observe how Bulu’s people apprehend world and show society in this

  1. Association entre le travail par quarts et l’obésité chez les hommes dans le nord-est de l’Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Grundy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Même si certaines études suggèrent une association entre le travail par quarts et l’obésité, peu sont fondées sur la population ou tiennent compte de divers horaires de travail par quarts. L’obésité étant associée à plusieurs problèmes de santé chroniques, il est important de comprendre quelles formes de travail par quarts ont une incidence sur elle et d’effectuer des travaux permettant d’évaluer de façon plus détaillée l’exposition au travail par quarts. Méthodologie : Au moyen d’une régression logistique polytomique multivariée, nous avons étudié l’association entre le travail par quarts (de soir ou nuit, par quarts ou autre type de rotation et le surpoids et l’obésité, en fonction d’une mesure transversale de l’indice de masse corporelle chez 1 561 hommes. Ces hommes avaient déjà servi de témoins dans une étude cas-témoins sur le cancer de la prostate menée dans le nord-est de l’Ontario de 1995 à 1999. Nous avons obtenu l’information sur leurs antécédents de travail (notamment sur le travail par quarts, leur taille et leur poids à partir de données autodéclarées recueillies par questionnaire. Résultats : Nous avons observé une association entre le fait d’avoir déjà travaillé par quarts (par opposition au fait de n’avoir jamais travaillé par quarts et le surpoids (RC [rapport de cotes] = 1,34; IC [intervalle de confiance] à 95 % : 1,05 à 1,73 ainsi que l’obésité (RC = 1,57; IC à 95 % : 1,12 à 2,21. Nous avons également observé des associations statistiquement non significatives avec le fait d’avoir déjà travaillé (par opposition au fait de n’avoir jamais travaillé de façon permanente selon un quart de soir ou de nuit. Nous avons par ailleurs observé une tendance à la hausse statistiquement significative en ce qui concerne le risque de surpoids et d’obésité en fonction de la durée du travail par quarts. Conclusion : Tant l

  2. Neutron flux in a periodical slab geometry (1960); Flux neutronique dans un milieu multiplicateur perturbe par la presence de lames planes (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamare, J de; Mathelot, P; Cadhilac, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    In the present report, we explain an original method to perform exact calculations of neutron flux in either of two geometries: a slab surrounded by an infinite multiplying medium or a periodical, one dimensional array of two different media. (author) [French] La methode exposee dans ce rapport permet de calculer exactement la distribution du flux dans un milieu multiplicateur infini dont l'uniformite est perturbee par l'interposition d'une lame plane de nature differente, ou dont l'heterogeneite est de caractere periodique et unidimensionnel. (auteur)

  3. 2002 annual report EDF group; 2002 rapport annuel groupe EDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document is the 2002 annual report of Electricite de France (EdF) group, the French electric utility. Content: Introductory section (EDF at a glance, Chairman's message, 2002 Highlights); Corporate governance and Group strategy (Corporate governance, sustainable growth strategy, EDF branches); Financial performance (Reaching critical mass, Margins holding up well, Balance sheet); Human resources (Launching Group-wide synergies, Optimising human resources); Customers (Major customers, SMEs and professional customers, Local authorities, Residential customers, Ensuring quality access to electricity); Generation (A balanced energy mix, Nuclear generation, Fossil-fuelled generation, Renewable energies); Corporate social responsibility (Global and local partnerships, Promoting community development)

  4. 2002 annual report EDF group; 2002 rapport annuel groupe EDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document is the 2002 annual report of Electricite de France (EdF) group, the French electric utility. Content: Introductory section (EDF at a glance, Chairman's message, 2002 Highlights); Corporate governance and Group strategy (Corporate governance, sustainable growth strategy, EDF branches); Financial performance (Reaching critical mass, Margins holding up well, Balance sheet); Human resources (Launching Group-wide synergies, Optimising human resources); Customers (Major customers, SMEs and professional customers, Local authorities, Residential customers, Ensuring quality access to electricity); Generation (A balanced energy mix, Nuclear generation, Fossil-fuelled generation, Renewable energies); Corporate social responsibility (Global and local partnerships, Promoting community development)

  5. TRANSFERT THERMIQUE INSTATIONNAIRE DANS UN MUR TRICOUCHES SUBISSANT UN CHANGEMENT DE PHASE PAR SOLIDIFICATION.

    OpenAIRE

    O Arfi; E Mezaache

    2016-01-01

    Une étude numérique du transfert de chaleur instationnaire dans un mur tricouches est présentée. Le modèle physique est basé sur l’équation de conduction thermique unidirectionnelle en tenant compte des équations de couplages au niveau des interfaces et des conditions convectives de surfaces. Les équations de transfert sont données en représentation enthalpique pour le matériau à changement de phase (MCP), et en formulation générale pour les régions solides. La formulation adimensionnelle a p...

  6. EDF Group - Annual Report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The EDF Group is a leading player in the energy industry, active in all areas of the electricity value chain, from generation to trading and network management, with expanding operations in the natural gas chain. It has a sound business model, evenly balanced between regulated and deregulated activities. The EDF Group is the leader in the French and British electricity markets and has solid positions in Germany and Italy and numerous other European countries, as well as industrial operations in Asia and the United States. Everywhere it operates, the EDF Group is a model of quality public service for the energy sector. With fi rst-rate human resources, R and D capability and generation expertise in nuclear, fossil-fired and renewable energies, particularly hydro, together with energy eco-efficiency offers, the EDF Group delivers competitive solutions that help ensure sustainable economic development and climate protection. This document is EDF Group's annual report for the year 2009. It contains information about Group profile, governance, business, development strategy, sales and marketing, positions in Europe and international activities. The document is made of several reports: the Activity and Sustainable Development Report, the Financial Report, the Management Report, the Report by the Chairman of EDF Board of Directors on corporate governance and internal control procedures, the Milestones report, the 'EDF at a glance' report, and the Sustainable Development Indicators

  7. Neutron Tests at the Start-Up of EDF1; Les essais neutroniques au demarrage du reacteur EDF1; Nejtronnye izmereniya pri puske reaktora EDF1; Ensayos neutronicos efectuados durante la puesta en marcha del reactor EDF1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teste du Bailler, A. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France); Janin, R. [Electricite de France, Paris (France)

    1963-10-15

    A series of neutron measurements, for which the principal experimental methods perfected at the Marcoule reactors were used, was carried out at the start-up of EDF1. The measurements were designed mainly to determine the efficiency of the control rods at different depths of insertion. From them a rod-withdrawal configuration was derived which allowed full-power operation without infringing certain limitations on cladding and gas temperatures. At the same time flux measurements were made for different shim-rod positions and different absorber loadings in certain channels. These measurements based on preliminary two-dimensional calculations, were obtained by activation of point detectors,using the standard technique of air poisoning. At certain temperature plateaus (up to 140{sup o}C), measurements of temperature coefficients and control-rod efficiency were made. Spectrum index measurements were carried out at the same time by activation of appropriate detectors (U, Pu, Lu, Mn, In, Au). The oscillation technique was used to measure the efficiency of certain shim rods. Finally, fast-neutron measurements were made in connection with studies of shielding and graphite damage. (author) [French] Une serie de mesures neutroniques utilisant les principales methodes experimentales mises au point sur les reacteurs de Marcoule a ete effectuee au cours du demarrage d'EDF1. Les mesures portent essentiellement sur l 'efficacite des barres de controle a differents enfoncements. On en deduit une configuration de montee des barres permettant d'obtenir la pleine puissance en respectant certaines limitations sur les temperatures de gaines et de gaz. Parallelement des mesures de flux ont ete faites pour differentes positions des barres de compensation et pour divers chargements d'absorbants dans certains canaux, suivant des calculs previsionnels a deux dimensions. Ces mesures sont obtenues par activation de detecteurs ponctuels, au moyen de la technique classique par empoisonnement a l

  8. Quantitative analysis of strontium 90 in the radioactive wastes by means of thenoyltrifluoroacetone; Dosage du strontium 90 dans les effluents radioactifs par le thenoyltrifluoroacetone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testemale, G; Leredde, J L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    A simple method of analysing the quantity of {sup 90}Sr has been perfected. It consists in a double extraction of it by means of thenoyltrifluoroacetone and tributylphosphate in tetrachloride of carbon followed by eliminating yttrium 90 by means of thenoyltrifluoroacetone in the benzene. Numberings on aliquot parts of wastes make the determination of that element possible. The yield is about 97 per cent. (authors) [French] Une technique simple du dosage du {sup 90}Sr a ete mise au point. Elle consiste en une double extraction par le thenoyltrifluoroacetone et le tributylphosphate dans le tetrachlorure de carbone, suivie de l'elimination de l'yttrium 90 par le thenoyltrifluoroacetone dans le benzene, Des comptages sur des parties aliquotes d'effluents permettent la dermination de cet element. Rendement environ 97 pour cent. (auteurs)

  9. 2002 annual report EDF group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is the 2002 annual report of Electricite de France (EdF) group, the French electric utility. Content: Introductory section (EDF at a glance, Chairman's message, 2002 Highlights); Corporate governance and Group strategy (Corporate governance, sustainable growth strategy, EDF branches); Financial performance (Reaching critical mass, Margins holding up well, Balance sheet); Human resources (Launching Group-wide synergies, Optimising human resources); Customers (Major customers, SMEs and professional customers, Local authorities, Residential customers, Ensuring quality access to electricity); Generation (A balanced energy mix, Nuclear generation, Fossil-fuelled generation, Renewable energies); Corporate social responsibility (Global and local partnerships, Promoting community development)

  10. EDF group - annual report 2003; Groupe EDF - rapport annuel 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document contains the magazine, the financial statements and the sustainable development report of Electricite de France (EdF) group for 2003: 1 - the magazine (chairman's statement, group profile, vision and strategy); 2 - the consolidated financial statements for the period ended 31 December 2003 (statutory auditors' report on the consolidated financial statements, EDF's summary annual financial statements); 3 - sustainable development report (transparency and dialogue, responsibility, commitment, partnerships for progress). (J.S.)

  11. EDF group - annual report 2003; Groupe EDF - rapport annuel 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document contains the magazine, the financial statements and the sustainable development report of Electricite de France (EdF) group for 2003: 1 - the magazine (chairman's statement, group profile, vision and strategy); 2 - the consolidated financial statements for the period ended 31 December 2003 (statutory auditors' report on the consolidated financial statements, EDF's summary annual financial statements); 3 - sustainable development report (transparency and dialogue, responsibility, commitment, partnerships for progress). (J.S.)

  12. Diffusion d'informations dans les autobus par couplage de technologies wifi et satellitaires

    OpenAIRE

    GRANSART, C; AMBELLOUIS, S; RIOULT, J

    2004-01-01

    Dans cet article, nous présentons les résultats d'un projet de recherche visant à fournir de l'information en temps réel aux usagers des transports en commun de type autobus. Nous montrons que de nouveaux services innovants peuvent être développés à l'attention des objets mobiles avec une bonne qualité de service (avec une bande passante moyenne ou élevée), et un accès à l'information, au contenu multimédia et aux bases de données. Ce projet utilise un couplage de technologies innovantes pour...

  13. PEDAGOGIE PAR PROJET: UNE ÉTUDE DE CAS DANS L'ENSEIGNEMENT SUPERIEUR TECHNOLOGIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo van Thien

    Full Text Available Cet article rapporte les résultats d'un questionnaire proposé aux étudiants d'une formation d'enseignement supérieur technologique en génie électrique et informatique industrielle. L'objectif de ce questionnaire est d'évaluer le profit que les étudiants ont retiré d'un enseignement des techniques de gestion de projet, et l'utilisation qu'ils en ont fait, d'une part au cours d'une série de travaux pratiques utilisant la pédagogie par projet, d'autre part au cours de leur stage de fin d'études en entreprise.

  14. Perfection of the individual photographic emulsion dosimeter; Perfectionnements dans la dosimetrie individuelle par emulsion photographique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soudain, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    A photographic dosimeter making possible the measurement of {gamma} radiation doses of from 10 mr up to 800 r by means of 3 emulsion bands of varying sensitivity stuck to the same support is described. The dosimeter has also a zone for marking and a test film insensitive to radiation. This requires a photometric measurement by diffuse reflection an d makes it possible to measure doses with an accuracy of 20 per cent. (author) [French] On decrit un dosimetre photographique permettant la mesure des doses de rayonnement {gamma} depuis 10 mroentgens jusqu'a 800 roentgens, au moyen de trois bandes d'emulsions de sensibilites differentes collees sur le meme support. Le dosimetre comporte egalement une plage de marquage et un temoin de developpement insensibles au rayonnement. Ceci impose la mesure photometrique par reflexion diffuse et permet l'appreciation visuelle des doses a 20 pour cent pres. (auteur)

  15. EDF group - annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document contains the magazine, the financial statements and the sustainable development report of Electricite de France (EdF) group for 2003: 1 - the magazine (chairman's statement, group profile, vision and strategy); 2 - the consolidated financial statements for the period ended 31 December 2003 (statutory auditors' report on the consolidated financial statements, EDF's summary annual financial statements); 3 - sustainable development report (transparency and dialogue, responsibility, commitment, partnerships for progress). (J.S.)

  16. EDF Group - 2010 Reference Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-04-01

    Beside the accounts of EDF for 2008 and 2009, this voluminous document presents persons in charge, legal account auditors, and how risks are managed within the company. It gives an overview of EDF activities, of its organization, of its assets. It presents and discusses its financial situation and results, indicates the main contracts, and proposes other documents concerning the company. Many documents and reports are provided in appendix

  17. Gestion par projets et risques pour la santé psychologique au travail dans la nouvelle économie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Josée Legault

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Y a-t-il des problèmes de santé mentale propres au travail dans la nouvelle économie ? Quoiqu’on puisse constater que le modèle de demande psychologique - autonomie décisionnelle de Karasek et Theorell- trouve aussi son application dans les milieux de travail qui empruntent cette forme, on observe, en fait, des formes particulières de ces facteurs dans la forme d’organisation du travail propre à la gestion par projets. Assimilables à « l’hypersollicitation par le client » comme il a été repéré par Christophe Dejours, ces formes ont été observées lors d’une enquête menée récemment sur la conciliation entre la vie privée et la vie professionnelle dans sept organisations montréalaises. La recherche qualitative a recueilli en tout le discours de 88 répondants distribués également selon le sexe et exerçant des fonctions liées au génie informatique. Ces observations permettent d’envisager une nuance au modèle théorique de la santé mentale ci-haut mentionné, visant à tenir compte des effets délétères d’une très grande latitude décisionnelle assortie de très grandes responsabilités chez des travailleurs hautement qualifiés.Are there distinct mental health problems among workers in the new economy? Although we may observe that the psychological demand - decision latitude model of Karakek and Theorell is appropriate and also finds its application in this type of workplace, we also notice some particular forms that these factors take in the management-by-project work organization model. Akin to the so-called "client’s hyper-demanding activity" as identified by Christophe Dejours, these forms were observed during a recent field study about balancing work and family in seven Montreal organizations. The qualitative study collected data from 88 individual interviews of information technology engineers, evenly distributed by gender. These observations allow a nuance of the above-mentioned theoretical

  18. Neutron detection in an atomic reactor core using semi-conductors; Detection des neutrons par semi-conducteur dans un coeur de reacteur atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divoux, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    In this paper, the first part describes the principle of nuclear particle detection by means of semiconductor diodes and the general application of these. The second part describes fabrication of the device used to estimate thermic neutron fluxes in core of a swimming pool type reactor. The useful volume (2.9 mm thickness) is in the light water moderator, between combustible elements plates. The results, principally obtained in the core of Siloette reactor at the 'Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble' at low power, are mentioned in the third part. Flux maps have been set and comparison between converter's products: Bore 10, Lithium 6, Uranium 235 is made. (author) [French] Dans ce rapport, une premiere partie porte sur la description du principe de detection des particules nucleaires par diodes a semi-conducteur et sur l'application generale de celles-ci. Une deuxieme partie s'attache a decrire la fabrication du materiel utilise pour evaluer les flux de neutrons thermiques dans un coeur de reacteur type pile piscine. L'espace de mesure (2,9 mm d'epaisseur) se situe entre les plaques des elements combustibles, dans le moderateur eau legere. Les resultats, obtenus principalement dans le coeur du reacteur Siloette du Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble aux basses puissances de fonctionnement, sont rapportes dans la troisieme partie. Des cartes de flux ont ete dressees et une comparaison est faite entre les produits 'convertisseurs' suivants: Bore 10, Lithium 6, Uranium 235. (auteur)

  19. Kinetic ion exchange studies in ultramarines by the radioactive tracer method; Etudes cinetiques d'echanges d'ions dans les outremers par la technique des traceurs radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, S; Goenvec, H; Pinte, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The possibility of ion exchanges in various ultramarines has been studied in the aqueous phase. The kinetics of the exchange reactions is followed by studying the behaviour of a radioactive ion, either in the solution of the exchanging salt or in the ultramarine itself. The sodium in the make-up of the ultramarine, is found to exchange with various ions in solution. The reaction speeds appear to be governed by a diffusion process inside the grains of ultramarine. The diffusion coefficients and the activation energies are determined for the exchanges studied. Several exchange studies were carried out in an organic medium. The kinetics of ion exchange is also investigated in ultramarines from which most of the constituent sulphur has been eliminated. The results obtained in these ultramarines are compared with the exchange kinetics of the same ions in ordinary ultramarine. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie la possibilite d'echanges ioniques dans differents outremers, en phase aqueuse. L'etude cinetique des reactions d'echanges est suivie en etudiant le comportement d'ion radioactif, soit dans la solution du sel echangeant, soit dans l'outremer lui-meme. C'est le sodium de constitution de l'outremer qui s'echange avec differents ions en solution. Les vitesses de reactions semblent etre controlees par un processus de diffusion a l'interieur des grains d'outremer. Les coefficients de diffusion et les energies d'activation sont determines pour les echanges etudies. Quelques etudes sont realisees en milieu organique ou quelques echanges ont ete etudies. La cinetique d'echange d'ions est egalement etudie dans des outremers dans lesquels la majorite du soufre de constitution a ete eliminee. On compare les resultats obtenus dans ces outremers avec les cinetiques d'echanges des memes ions dans l'outremer ordinaire. (auteur)

  20. Causes de décès des patients infectés par le VIH dans le Centre tunisien

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelli, Jihène; Bellazreg, Foued; Aouem, Abir; Hattab, Zouhour; Mesmia, Hèla; Lasfar, Nadia Ben; Hachfi, Wissem; Masmoudi, Tasnim; Chakroun, Mohamed; Letaief, Amel

    2016-01-01

    La trithérapie antirétrovirale a contribué à une baisse considérable de la mortalité liée au VIH. Les causes de décès sont dominées par les infections opportunistes dans les pays en voie de développement et par les maladies cardiovasculaires et les cancers dans les pays développés. L’objectif était de déterminer les causes et les facteurs de risque de décès des patients infectés par le VIH dans le Centre Tunisien. Une étude transversale auprès des patients infectés par le VIH âgés de plus de 15 ans suivis à Sousse et à Monastir entre 2000 et 2014. Le décès était considéré lié au VIH si la cause était un évènement classant SIDA ou s’il était la conséquence d’une infection opportuniste d’étiologie indéterminée avec des CD4 VIH si la cause n’était pas un évènement classant SIDA, et de cause inconnue si aucune information n’était disponible. Deux cents treize patients, 130 hommes (61%) et 83 femmes (39%), d’âge moyen 40±11 ans ont été inclus. Cinquante quatre patients sont décédés, avec une mortalité de 5,4/100 patients-années. La mortalité annuelle a baissé de 5,8% en 2000-2003 à 2,3% en 2012-2014. La survie était de 72% à 5 ans et de 67% à 10 ans. Les décès étaient liés au VIH dans 70,4% des cas. Les causes de décès les plus fréquentes étaient la pneumocystose pulmonaire et la cryptococcose neuroméningée dans 6 cas (11%) chacune. Les facteurs de risque de décès étaient les antécédents d’infections opportunistes, la durée de la trithérapie antirétrovirale VIH en Tunisie. PMID:28292068

  1. EDF Group - Annual Report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The EDF Group is one of the world's leading energy companies, active in all areas from generation to trading and network management. It has a sound business model, evenly balanced between regulated and deregulated activities. With its first-rate human resources, R and D capability, expertise in engineering and operating generation plants and networks, as well as its energy eco-efficiency offers, the Group delivers competitive solutions that help ensure sustainable economic development and climate protection. The EDF Group is the leader in the French and UK electricity markets and has solid positions in Italy and numerous other European countries, as well as industrial operations in Asia and the United States. Everywhere it operates, the Group is a model of quality public service for the energy sector. This document is EDF Group's annual report for the year 2010. It contains information about Group profile, governance, business, development strategy, sales and marketing, positions in Europe and international activities. The document is made of several reports: the Activity and Sustainable Development Report, the Financial Report, the Management Report, the Report by the Chairman of EDF Board of Directors on corporate governance and internal control procedures, the Milestones report, the 'EDF at a glance' report, and the Sustainable Development Indicators

  2. Study of the point defects formed in cobalt by electron bombardment; Etude des defauts ponctuels crees par bombardement electronique dans le cobalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulpice, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 38 - Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-12-01

    A study of the point defects formed in cobalt by electron bombardment is presented. The results are compared with those previously obtained for two other ferromagnetic metals of different structure, iron and nickel. In the first part we give a review of the literature concerning the creation of point defects, their contribution to resistivity and their annihilation mode in the three structure types. We then describe the experimental techniques adapted, in particular the study of the resistivity increase during a linear temperature rise. Our investigations concern the following, essential points : the observation of the successive annihilation stages of the point defects formed in pure cobalt, a study of the variations with respect to the doses and energy of the incident particles, and the determination of the annealing kinetics and the corresponding activation energies. The results are finally compared with the various models of point defect annihilation proposed for other metals: none of these interpretations is in perfect agreement with our results. In the case of cobalt we are thus led to modify the model proposed by our laboratory for iron an nickel. The difference between these three metals is explained by the anisotropic character of the cobalt matrix. (author) [French] Nous presentons une etude des defauts ponctuels crees par bombardement electronique dans le cobalt et comparons nos resultats a ceux obtenus precedemment dans deux autres metaux ferromagnetiques de structure differente, le fer et le nickel. Dans une premiere partie nous faisons une mise au point bibliographique comparee sur la creation des defauts, leur contribution a la resistivite et leur mode d'annihilation dans les trois types de structure. Nous decrivons ensuite les techniques experimentales mises au point, en particulier l'etude du revenu de la resistivite au cours d'une montee lineaire de temperature. Au cours de ce travail, nous avons mis en evidence les stades successifs d

  3. Dosage of plutonium by isotopic dilution in irradiated fuels; Dosage du plutonium par dilution isotopique dans les combustibles irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Plutonium determination in irradiated fuels has been carried out for several years by isotopic dilution by Sebaci and SSM in collaboration. SECACI has made available to the SSM the necessary space and equipment in its Fontenay laboratories. This work has shown the importance of the valency cycle which should make it possible to obtain a uniform isotopic distribution in sample tracer mixtures, and also a satisfactory U/Pu separation. Now it has been noticed that the presence of an excess of uranium considerably modifies the oxidation-reduction reaction kinetics of the plutonium. We have therefore been led to change certain parts of the operational technique so as to have an efficient cycle and to thereby improve the U/Pu separation; the stability of the thermionic emission of the plutonium, connected to the quantity of residual uranium, has at the same time been improved and we can now carry out more precise isotopic analyses. We have also tried to eliminate as far as possible the isotopic contaminations by:using a more rational operational method; the equipment used has been the object of a special study. The evaporations are carried out so as to prevent the formation of saturated vapours inside the glove box. The material which cannot be changed after each operation is carefully cleaned every time a new sample is treated. With this technique, a second calibration of the tracer T{sub 2} has been undertaken using a new standard solution. This solution has been prepared very carefully by weighing uranium and plutonium of known chemical purity, and we believe that it can be guaranteed to be a good reference solution. The value of the {sup 233}U/{sup 242}Pu ratio of the tracer has been obtained with a relative accuracy of 0,5 per cent. This modified method is now being applied to the analysis of rods irradiated in G-3. (author) [French] La determination du plutonium par dilution isotopique dans les combustibles irradies est pratiquee depuis plusieurs annees en

  4. EDF Group - Annual Report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The EDF Group is emerging as a global leader in electricity and an industrial benchmark spanning the entire business from generation and networks to sales and marketing. The group is growing stronger and changing. A long-term vision and relentless determination to provide a modern public service underpin its robust business model. This document is EDF Group's annual report for the year 2013. It contains information about Group profile, governance, business, development strategy, sales and marketing, positions in Europe and international activities. The document comprises the Activity Report and the Sustainable Development Indicators

  5. Hyperfine coupling in gadolinium-praseodymium alloys by specific heat measurements; Etude du couplage hyperfin dans les alliages gadolinium-praseodyme par mesures de chaleur specifique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-12-01

    We have studied the hyperfine coupling in gadolinium-praseodymium alloys by specific heat measurements down to 0.3 K. In the first part we describe the apparatus used to perform our measurements. The second part is devoted to some theoretical considerations. We have studied in detail the case of praseodymium which is an exception in the rare earth series. The third part shows the results we have obtained. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie le couplage hyperfin d'alliages de gadolinium-praseodyme par des mesures de chaleur specifique jusqu'a 0.3 K. Dans la premiere partie de cette etude nous decrivons le dispositif experimental. La deuxieme partie est consacree a des considerations theoriques. Nous avons etudie en detail le cas du praseodyme qui est une exception dans la serie des terres rares. La troisieme partie est consacree aux resultats experimentaux. (auteur)

  6. Variation de la composition de nanoparticules de 1-10 nm obtenues par séparation de phase dans un verre de silice

    OpenAIRE

    Blanc , W; Francois-Saint-Cyr , H; Martin , I; Lecoustumer , P; Hombourger , C; R. Neuville , D.; Larson , D.J.; Prosa , T.J.; Guillermier , C

    2014-01-01

    National audience; Les verres contenant des nanoparticules ont de nombreuses applications industrielles, notamment grâce à leurs excellentes propriétés thermo-mécaniques [1]. Ils présentent aussi un intérêt pour les propriétés optiques. En effet, l'encapsulation d'ions luminescents (ions de terre rare par exemple) dans des nanoparticules entraînent de nouvelles propriétés de luminescence qui n'existeraient pas dans le verre hôte (bande d'émission élargie, efficacité quantique augmentée, etc) ...

  7. Câbles electriques - Calcul du courant admissible - Partie 1: Equations de l'intensité du courant admissible (facteur de charge 100%) et calcul des pertes - Section 2: Facteurs de pertes par courants de Foucault dans les gaines dans le cas de deux circuits disposés en nappe

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1993-01-01

    Câbles electriques - Calcul du courant admissible - Partie 1: Equations de l'intensité du courant admissible (facteur de charge 100%) et calcul des pertes - Section 2: Facteurs de pertes par courants de Foucault dans les gaines dans le cas de deux circuits disposés en nappe

  8. EDF Group - Annual Report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The EDF Group is one of the world's leading energy companies, active in all areas from generation to trading and network management. It has a sound business model, evenly balanced between regulated and deregulated activities. With its first-rate human resources, R and D capability, expertise in engineering and operating generation plants and networks, as well as its energy eco-efficiency offers, the Group delivers competitive solutions that help ensure sustainable economic development and climate protection. The EDF Group is the leader in the French and UK electricity markets and has solid positions in Italy and numerous other European countries, as well as industrial operations in Asia and the United States. Everywhere it operates, the Group is a model of quality public service for the energy sector. This document is EDF Group's annual report for the year 2012. It contains information about Group profile, governance, business, development strategy, sales and marketing, positions in Europe and international activities. The document is made of several reports: the Activity and Sustainable Development Report, the Financial Report, the 'EDF at a glance' report, and the Sustainable Development Indicators

  9. EDF Group - Annual Report 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    EDF group is the world's leading electricity company and global leader for low-carbon energy production. Particularly well established in Europe, especially France, the United-Kingdom, Italy and Belgium, as well as North and South America, the Group covers all businesses spanning the electricity value chain - from generation to distribution and including energy transmission and trading activities - to continuously balance supply. A marked increase in the use of renewables is bringing change to its electricity generation operations, which are underpinned by a diversified and complementary energy mix founded on nuclear power capacity. EDF offers products and advice to help residential customers manage their electricity consumption, to support the energy and financial performance of its business customers, and to help local authorities find sustainable solutions. This document is EDF Group's annual report for the year 2016. It contains information about Group profile, governance, business, development strategy, sales and marketing, positions in Europe and international activities. The document comprises the Group's activities and performances Report and the 'EDF at a glance' 2017 report

  10. EDF group - Reference Document 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and holds strong positions in the other three principal European markets (Germany, the United Kingdom, Italy) making it one of the leading electricity groups in Europe, and a recognized actor in the gas market. With an installed capacity of 123.7 GW in Europe (128.2 GW worldwide) it holds, among the major European energy specialists, the largest production fleet and the one emitting the least CO 2 , owing to the share of nuclear technology and hydropower in its generation mix. The EDF group supplies electricity, gas and associated services to more than 37.8 million customers throughout the world and in Europe (more than 28 million of whom are in France). The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between France and the international markets, and between deregulated and regulated operations. In 2006, the Group recorded consolidated sales of euros 58,932 million, net income (Group share) of euros 5,605 million, and it achieved earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization of euros 13,930 million. From July 1, 2007, the EDF group will carry out its trading activities in a European energy market fully open to competition. This document is EDF Group's Reference Document for the year 2006. It contains information about: the Group activities, risk factors, Business overview, Organizational structure, Property, plants and equipment, Operating and financial review, Capital resources and cash flows, Research and Development, Patents and Licenses, Trend information, Financial forecasts or estimates, Administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management, Remuneration and benefits, Board practices, Employees/Human resources, Major shareholders, Related party transactions, Financial information

  11. Investigation of aluminium and manganese uptake in Congolese flora by activation analysis; Recherche d'accumulateurs D’ Aluminium Et De Manganese Dans La Flore Congolaise Par La Methode D'Analyse Par Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evrard, C.; Roels, J.; Pauwels, L.; Pollak, H. [Centre nucléaire TRICO, Kinshasa (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the); Université Lovanium, Kinshasa (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the)

    1970-01-15

    It is known that certain plants accumulate one or more elements in their tissues. This characteristic can make a valuable contribution to the taxonomy of groups, families and even of species. The ecology characteristic of each species may also be demonstrated by the accumulation of certain elements. Soil acidity can have a strong effect on accumulation. High acidity favours the accumulation of manganese, for example. The authors have endeavoured to perfect a technique of analysis based on neutron activation (nondestructive). Thermal neutron activation is carried out in the TRIGA Mk I reactor of the TRICO Nuclear Centre, which has a flux of about 10{sup 11}n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Activation analysis is quicker than chemical methods and has the additional advantage that it can be used for small quantities of plant material. At least forty species of local plants have been tested. In addition to these specific tests, we have analysed leaves from trees of a given species growing in different soils, in order to get some idea of individual variations from one plant to another. (author) [French] Il est connu que certaines plantes accumulent un ou plusieurs éléments dans leurs tissus. Cette particularité peut apporter une précieuse contribution à la taxonomie des groupes, des familles ou même des espèces. L'écologie propre â chaque espèce peut aussi être mise en évidence par l'accumulation de certains éléments. Le degré d'acidité du sol, par exemple, peut fortement influencer cette accumulation. Dans le cas de manganèse, une forte acidité du sol favorise l'accumulation de cet élément. Les auteurs ont cherché à mettre au point une méthode d'analyse par activation neutronique (non destructive). Les activations aux neutrons thermiques ont été effectuées dans le réacteur TRIGA Mk I du Centre nucléaire TRICO, dans un flux d'environ 10{sup 11} n cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}. Comparée à la méthode chimique, l'analyse par activation est plus rapide et peut

  12. Corrosion inhibition of magnesium heated in wet air, by surface fluoridation; Inhibition de la corrosion du magnesium chauffe dans l'air humide, par fluoruration superficielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillat, R; Darras, R; Leclercq, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The maximum temperature (350 deg. C) of magnesium corrosion resistance in wet air may be raised to 490-500 deg. C by the formation of a superficial fluoride film. This can be obtained by two different ways: either by addition of hydrofluoric acid to the corroding medium in a very small proportion such as 0,003 mg/litre; at atmospheric pressure, or by dipping the magnesium in a dilute aqueous solution of nitric and hydrofluoric acids at room temperature before exposing it to the corroding atmosphere. In both cases the corrosion inhibition is effective over a very long time, even several thousand hours. (author) [French] La temperature limite (350 deg. C) de resistance du magnesium a la corrosion par l'air humide, peut etre elevee jusque 490-500 deg. C par la formation d'une couche fluoruree superficielle. Deux procedes permettent d'obtenir ce resultat: l'atmosphere corrodante peut etre additionnee d'acide fluorhydrique a une concentration aussi faible que 0,003 mg/litre, a la pression atmospherique, ou bien le magnesium peut etre traite a froid, avant exposition a la corrosion, dans une solution aqueuse diluee d'acides nitrique et fluorhydrique. Dans les deux cas, la protection est assuree, meme pour de tres longues durees d'exposition: plusieurs milliers d'heures. (auteur)

  13. Corrosion inhibition of magnesium heated in wet air, by surface fluoridation; Inhibition de la corrosion du magnesium chauffe dans l'air humide, par fluoruration superficielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillat, R.; Darras, R.; Leclercq, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The maximum temperature (350 deg. C) of magnesium corrosion resistance in wet air may be raised to 490-500 deg. C by the formation of a superficial fluoride film. This can be obtained by two different ways: either by addition of hydrofluoric acid to the corroding medium in a very small proportion such as 0,003 mg/litre; at atmospheric pressure, or by dipping the magnesium in a dilute aqueous solution of nitric and hydrofluoric acids at room temperature before exposing it to the corroding atmosphere. In both cases the corrosion inhibition is effective over a very long time, even several thousand hours. (author) [French] La temperature limite (350 deg. C) de resistance du magnesium a la corrosion par l'air humide, peut etre elevee jusque 490-500 deg. C par la formation d'une couche fluoruree superficielle. Deux procedes permettent d'obtenir ce resultat: l'atmosphere corrodante peut etre additionnee d'acide fluorhydrique a une concentration aussi faible que 0,003 mg/litre, a la pression atmospherique, ou bien le magnesium peut etre traite a froid, avant exposition a la corrosion, dans une solution aqueuse diluee d'acides nitrique et fluorhydrique. Dans les deux cas, la protection est assuree, meme pour de tres longues durees d'exposition: plusieurs milliers d'heures. (auteur)

  14. Detection of burst cans in the reactors cooled by gaseous phase; Detection des ruptures de gaine dans les reacteurs refroidis par phase gazeuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labeyrie, J; Roguin, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    In a nuclear reactor including the bars or plates cooled by a gaseous fluid, burst risks to occur in the sheath assuring the tightness separation between the cooling gas and the fissile materials. It is necessary to be able to detect the formation of these cracks as possible in order to avoid all risk of fission products release or any reaction of uranium to the contact of the refrigerating gas. It is however the increase of the radioactivity in the cooling gas due to the scattering of the fission products that permits to signal the apparition of a crack or to follow its evolution. It is possible to detect cracks of the order of the square millimeter. In this report, we will detail the principle and the realization of a device used for the surveillance of a natural uranium reactor cooled by air circulation. (M.B.) [French] Dans un reacteur nucleaire comportant des barres ou des plaques refroidies par un fluide gazeux des fissures risquent de se produire dans les gaines assurant la separation etanche entre le gaz de refroidissement et les materiaux fissiles. II est necessaire de pouvoir detecter la formation de ces fissures des que possible afin d'eviter tout risque de liberation de produits de fission ou de reaction de l'uranium au contact du gaz refrigerant. C'est cependant l'augmentation de la radioactivite du gaz de refroidissement due a la dispersion des produits de fission qui permet de signaler l'apparition d'une fissure ou de suivre son evolution. On peut ainsi detecter des fissures de l'ordre du millimetre carre. Dans ce rapport, nous detaillerons le principe et la realisation d'un appareil utilise pour la surveillance d'un reacteur a uranium naturel refroidi par circulation d'air. (M.B.)

  15. Analytical methods used in plutonium purification cycles by trilaurylamine; Methodes analytiques utilisees dans les cycles de purification du plutonium par la trilaurylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, J J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The utilisation of trilaurylamine as a solvent extractant for the purification of plutonium has entailed to perfect a set of analytical methods which involves, various techniques. The organic impurities of the solvent can be titrated by gas-liquid chromatography. The titration of the main degradation product, the di-laurylamine, can be accomplished also by spectro-colorimetry. Potentiometry is used for the analysis of the different salts of amine-nitrate-sulfate-bisulfate as also the extracted nitric acid. The determination of the nitrate in aqueous phase is carried out by constant current potentiometry. The range of application, the accuracy and the procedure of these analysis are related in the present report. (author) [French] L'utilisation de la trilaurylamine comme solvant d'extraction pour la purification du plutonium a necessite la mise au point d'un ensemble de methodes analytiques qui ressortent de techniques diverses. Les impuretes organiques du solvant peuvent etre dosees par chromatographie gaz-liquide. Le dosage du principal produit de degradation, la dilaurylamine, peut egalement etre effectue par spectrocolorimetrie. La potentiometrie est utilisee pour les analyses des differents sels d'amine: nitrate, sulfate, bisulfate, ainsi que de l'acide nitrique extrait. La determination des nitrates en phase aqueuse est executee par potentiometrie a courant impose. Le domaine d'application, la precision et le mode operatoire de ces analyses sont indiques dans le present rapport. (auteur)

  16. EDF Skills Management for Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poizat, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Training Standards: EDF Nuclear Generation Training Strategy & Fundamentals for Managing Competencies - Adaptation of INPO ACAD02-001: 1 – Management of Competencies; 2 – Training Management for Performance Improvement; 3 – Management of Training Processes & Resources; 4 – Initial Training; 5 – Continuing Training; 6 – Training Implementation & Trainee Evaluation; 7 – Training Effectiveness Evaluation; 8 – Engagement of NPP’s Personnel in Competencies

  17. EDF group - Reference Document 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. With an installed capacity of 130.8 GW (123.9 GW in Europe), it contributes to the supply of energy and services to more than 40 million customers throughout the world (with approximately 36.7 million customers in Europe, more than 28 million of whom are in France). The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. In 2005, the Group recorded consolidated sales of euros 51,051 million, net income (Group share) of euros 3,242 million, and it achieved earnings before interests, taxes, depreciation and amortization of euros 13,010 million. This document is EDF Group's Reference Document for the year 2005. It contains information about: the Group activities, risk factors, Business Overview, Organizational Structure, Property, Plants and Equipment, Operating and Financial Review, Capital Resources, Research and Development, Patents and Licences, Trend Information, Financial Prospects, Administrative, Management, and Supervisory Bodies and Senior Management, Remuneration and Benefits, Board Practices, Employees/Human Resources, Major Shareholders, Related Party Transactions, Financial Information Concerning the Company's Assets and Liabilities, Financial Position and Profits and Losses, Material Contracts, Information on Holdings etc

  18. EDF Group - Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The EDF Group is a leading player in the European energy industry, present in all areas of the electricity value chain, from generation to trading, and increasingly active in the gas chain in Europe. Leader in the French electricity market, the Group also has solid positions in the United Kingdom, Germany and Italy. In the electricity sector, it has the premier generation fleet and customer portfolio in Europe and operates in strategically targeted areas in the rest of the world. The Group is also the leading network operator in Europe, giving it a sound business model, equally balanced between regulated activities and those open to competition. This document is EDF Group's annual report for the year 2005. It contains information about Group profile, governance, business, development strategy, sales and marketing, positions in Europe and international activities. The document is made of several reports: the Activity and Sustainable Development report, the Financial Report, the Sustainable Development Report, the Sustainable Development Indicators, the Management Report, the Report by the Chairman of EDF Board of Directors on corporate governance and internal control procedures

  19. EDF Group - Annual Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The EDF Group is a leading player in the European energy industry, present in all areas of the electricity value chain, from generation to trading, and increasingly active in the gas chain in Europe. Leader in the French electricity market, the Group also has solid positions in the United Kingdom, Germany and Italy. In the electricity sector, it has the premier generation fleet and customer portfolio in Europe and operates in strategically targeted areas in the rest of the world. The Group is also the leading network operator in Europe, giving it a sound business model, equally balanced between regulated activities and those open to competition. This document is EDF Group's annual report for the year 2006. It contains information about Group profile, governance, business, development strategy, sales and marketing, positions in Europe and international activities. The document is made of several reports: the Activity and Sustainable Development Report, the Financial Report, the Sustainable Development Report, the Sustainable Development Indicators, and the Report by the Chairman of EDF Board of Directors on corporate governance and internal control procedures

  20. EDF Group - Annual Report 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    EDF Group is the world's leading electricity company and it is particularly well established in Europe, especially France, the United Kingdom, Italy and Belgium. Its business covers all electricity-related activities, from generation to distribution and including energy transmission and trading activities to continuously balance supply with demand. A marked increase in the use of renewables is bringing change to its power generation operations, which are underpinned by a diversified low-carbon energy mix founded on nuclear power capacity. With activities across the entire electricity value chain, EDF is reinventing the products and services it offers to help residential customers manage their electricity consumption, to support the energy and financial performance of business customers and to support local authorities in finding sustainable solutions for the cities of the future. This document is EDF Group's annual report for the year 2015. It contains information about Group profile, governance, business, development strategy, sales and marketing, positions in Europe and international activities. The document is made of several reports: the 2016 Book, the '2016 at a glance' report, the Profile and Performance 2015 report, the 2015 Reference Document - Annual Financial Report

  1. EDF group - Reference Document 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The EDF Group is a leading player in the European energy industry, active in all areas of the electricity value chain, from generation to trading and network management. The leader in the French electricity market, the Group also has solid positions in the United Kingdom, Germany and Italy, with a portfolio of 38.5 million European customers and a generation fleet which is unique in the world. It intends to play a major role in the global revival of nuclear and is increasingly active in the gas chain. The Group has a sound business model, evenly balanced between regulated and deregulated activities. Given its R and D capability, its track record and expertise in nuclear, fossil-fired and hydro generation and in renewable energies, together with its energy eco-efficiency offers, EDF is well placed to deliver competitive solutions to reconcile sustainable economic growth and climate preservation. This document is EDF Group's Reference Document and Annual Financial Report for the year 2007. It contains information about Group profile, governance, business, investments, property, plant and equipment, management, financial position, human resources, shareholders, etc. The document includes the 2008 half-year financial report and consolidated financial statements, and the report drafted by the Statutory Auditors

  2. EDF group - Reference Document 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. With an installed capacity of 125,4 GW, it contributes to the supply of energy and services to more than 42 million customers throughout the world (with approximately 36 million customers in Europe, more than 28 million of whom are in France). The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. In 2004, the Group recorded consolidated sales of euros 46,928 million, net income (Group share) of euros 1,341 million, and it achieved earnings before interests, taxes, depreciation and amortization of euros 12,127 million. This document is EDF Group's Reference Document for the year 2004. It contains information about: the Group activities, capital, relations with Gaz de France utility, strategy, industrial environment, history, activity in France, international activity, transverse activities and functions, disputes, arbitration and risk factors, Property, Plants and Equipment, Operating and Financial Review, Administrative, Management, and Supervisory Bodies and Senior Management, Remuneration and Benefits, recent trends and perspectives

  3. EDF group. Annual report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    This document is the English version of the 2001 annual report of Electricite de France (EdF) Group, the French electric utility. It comprises 4 parts: introduction (statement of the chairman and chief executive officer, corporate governance, group key figures, sustainable growth indicators - parent company, energy for a sustainable future, EdF group worldwide); dynamics and balanced growth (financial results, EdF's strategy in building a competitive global group: consolidating the European network, moving forward in energy-related services, responding to increasing energy demand in emerging countries); sustainable solutions for all (empowering the customer: competitive solutions for industrial customers, anticipating the needs of residential customers and SMEs, environmental solutions to enhance urban life, upgrading the network and providing access to energy; a sound, sustainable and secure energy mix: a highly competitive nuclear fleet, the vital resource of fossil-fuelled plants, a proactive approach to renewable energies); a global commitment to corporate social responsibility (human resources and partnerships). (J.S.)

  4. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of radicals formed by radiolysis at 77 K of nitroalkanes and of their solutions in organic glasses. Chromatography analysis of radiolysis products of nitromethane in ethanol solution in a vitreous medium; Etude par resonance paramagnetique electronique des radicaux formes par radiolyse a 77 K des nitroalcanes et de leurs solutions dans les verres organiques analyse par chromatographie des produits de la radiolyse du nitromethane en solution dans l'ethanol en milieux vitreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosilio, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-05-01

    etude porte sur la structure et la reactivite des radicaux formes par irradiation 7 des derives nitres a 77 K, et sur le mecanisme de formation et de disparition de ces radicaux dans les differentes matrices utilisees. Les radicaux resultant de l'arrachement d'un hydrogene en {alpha} du groupe NO{sub 2}, et les radicaux resultant de reactions d'addition sur le groupe nitre caracterises par un electron non apparie sur l'azote ont ete identifies, soit dans la radiolyse des nitroalcanes purs, soit dans la radiolyse a 77 K des nitroalcanes en solution dans les verres organiques. La conformation et les mouvements des radicaux dans les matrices, le mecanisme de formation des radicaux observes resultant generalement de la capture par les nitroalcanes des especes primaires de la radiolyse ont ete etudies. Les nitroalcanes en solution dans l'ethanol se manifestent a la fois comme capteurs d'electrons et de radicaux libres. L'etude de la radiolyse des nitroalcanes en solution dans un verre polaire d'ethanol a ete completee par des analyses chimiques des produits finals de la radiolyse; elle nous a permis de deduire l'efficacite de capture des electrons pieges et des radicaux libres par les nitroalcanes dans l'ethanol. Pour cela nous avons dose, pour le systeme nitro-methane - ethanol les rendements radiochimiques de-l'hydrogene, de l'acetaldehyde et du glycol en fonction de la concentration en capteur. Un mecanisme de disparition des radicaux observes a ete propose. (auteur)

  5. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of radicals formed by radiolysis at 77 K of nitroalkanes and of their solutions in organic glasses. Chromatography analysis of radiolysis products of nitromethane in ethanol solution in a vitreous medium; Etude par resonance paramagnetique electronique des radicaux formes par radiolyse a 77 K des nitroalcanes et de leurs solutions dans les verres organiques analyse par chromatographie des produits de la radiolyse du nitromethane en solution dans l'ethanol en milieux vitreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosilio, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-05-01

    radiolyse. Notre etude porte sur la structure et la reactivite des radicaux formes par irradiation 7 des derives nitres a 77 K, et sur le mecanisme de formation et de disparition de ces radicaux dans les differentes matrices utilisees. Les radicaux resultant de l'arrachement d'un hydrogene en {alpha} du groupe NO{sub 2}, et les radicaux resultant de reactions d'addition sur le groupe nitre caracterises par un electron non apparie sur l'azote ont ete identifies, soit dans la radiolyse des nitroalcanes purs, soit dans la radiolyse a 77 K des nitroalcanes en solution dans les verres organiques. La conformation et les mouvements des radicaux dans les matrices, le mecanisme de formation des radicaux observes resultant generalement de la capture par les nitroalcanes des especes primaires de la radiolyse ont ete etudies. Les nitroalcanes en solution dans l'ethanol se manifestent a la fois comme capteurs d'electrons et de radicaux libres. L'etude de la radiolyse des nitroalcanes en solution dans un verre polaire d'ethanol a ete completee par des analyses chimiques des produits finals de la radiolyse; elle nous a permis de deduire l'efficacite de capture des electrons pieges et des radicaux libres par les nitroalcanes dans l'ethanol. Pour cela nous avons dose, pour le systeme nitro-methane - ethanol les rendements radiochimiques de-l'hydrogene, de l'acetaldehyde et du glycol en fonction de la concentration en capteur. Un mecanisme de disparition des radicaux observes a ete propose. (auteur)

  6. Study of points defects produced by irradiation of monocrystalline nickel and polycrystalline gadolinium; Etude des defauts ponctuels crees par irradiation dans: - le nickel monocristallin - le gadolinium polycristallin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The work described in this thesis falls into two parts: the first comprises a study of magnetocrystalline nickel by resistivity measurements; the second is a description of resistivity and magnetic after effect measurements on an h.c.p. ferromagnetic crystal other than cobalt, namely gadolinium. For the first part we have demonstrated the existence of a small but definite orientation dependence in the creation of point defects by electron irradiation (20 deg. K) of a nickel single crystal. In particular, the effect is manifested in the form of the stage I{sub C}, II and III in the resistivity recovery. In the second part an important result has emerged: namely that there is no magnetic after effect phenomenon in a neutron irradiated (27 deg. K) ferromagnetic metal. Several considerations are discussed by way of a preliminary interpretation of this important difference between gadolinium and cobalt. (author) [French] Le travail qui a fait l'objet de ce memoire comporte deux parties distinctes: une premiere constituee de l'etude du nickel sous la forme de monocristaux, a l'aide de mesures de resistivite; la seconde partie est composee d'experiences de resistivite et de trainage magnetique sur un cristal h.c.p. ferromagnetique autre que le cobalt, le gadolinium. Dans la premiere partie, nous avons mis en evidence un effet sensible de la direction de l'irradiation electronique (a 20 deg. K) sur la creation des defauts ponctuels dans le nickel monocristallin, en particulier au niveau des stades I{sub C}, II et III des courbes de revenu de la resistivite. Dans la deuxieme partie, un point particulier a ete mis en evidence: l'absence de phenomene de trainage magnetique dans un metal ferromagnetique irradie par des neutrons (a 27 deg. K). Quelques points d'interpretations preliminaires sont avances pour expliquer la difference notable entre le gadolinium et le cobalt. (auteur)

  7. New EdF's three challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, V.

    2005-01-01

    The opening of 15% of Electricite de France (EdF) capital to the private sector will allow the first world electric utility to raise 7 billions of euros of cash flow. EdF will have also to face the new European situation: a strained market, several consolidations to come and many competitors to deal with. EdF has to re-launch its production tool and to reinforce its interconnection capacities if it wants to stay the number one of power exports in Europe. The integration of Edison company (Italy) by EdF gives access to new gas capacities but other resources have to be found if EdF wants to enlarge its gas offer. A new concentration era is foreseen in Europe and EdF will have to seize the economic growth opportunities in particular in Europe and China. (J.S.)

  8. Evaluation du niveau de connaissance des patients sur la gestion du traitement par les antis vitamines K dans le service de cardiologie de Ouagadougou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadoulougou, André; Temoua Naibe, Dangwé; Mandi, Germain; Yameogo, Relwendé Aristide; Kabore, Elisé; Millogo, Georges; Yameogo, Nobila Valentin; Kologo, Jonas Koudougou; Thiam/Tall, Anna; Toguyeni, Boubacar Jean Yves; Zabsonre, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Les antivitamines K (AVK), traitement anticoagulant oral le plus largement prescrit, posent un réel problème de santé publique du fait de leur risque iatrogène. L'objectif de cette étude était de préciser le niveau de connaissance des patients sur la gestion de leur traitement par les AVK. Méthodes Il s'est agi d'une enquête transversale descriptive réalisée au CHU-Yalgado Ouédraogo, sur une période de 03 mois : du 1er mars au 31 mai 2012. Un questionnaire a été administré aux patients bénéficiant d'un traitement AVK depuis au moins un mois. Résultats Soixante-dix patients ont été inclus dans l'étude dont 30 hommes. L'âge moyen était de 49 ans ± 16 ans. Les cardiopathies et la maladie thromboembolique veineuse justifiant l'institution du traitement AVK étaient retrouvées respectivement dans 58,6% et 41,4% des cas. Le nom de l'AVK et la raison exacte du traitement étaient connus respectivement dans 91,4% et 67,1% des cas. Plus de la moitié des patients (68,6%) savaient que les AVK rendaient le sang plus fluide. Quarante-six patients (65,7%) citaient l'INR comme examen biologique de surveillance du traitement et seulement 28 patients (40%) connaissaient les valeurs cibles. La majorité des patients ne connaissait pas les risques encourus en cas de surdosage (72,8%) et de sous-dosage (71,4%). Une automédication par anti-inflammatoire non stéroïdien était signalée par 18 patients (25,7%). Les choux (74,3%) et la laitue (62,9%), aliments à consommer avec modération, étaient les plus cités. Conclusion Les connaissances des patients sur la gestion des AVK étaient fragmentaires et insuffisantes pour assurer la sécurité et l'efficacité du traitement. La création d'un programme d'éducation thérapeutique sur les AVK s'avère alors nécessaire. PMID:25870741

  9. Contribution to the study of point defects formed in nickel by electron bombardment; Contribution a l'etude des defauts ponctuels crees par bombardement electronique dans le nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oddou, J L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 38 - Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-12-01

    et la migration des defauts ponctuels dans le nickel, en tenant compte des resultats de trainage magnetique obtenus par P. PERETTO. Nous en deduisons un modele en bon accord avec les calculs et les resultats experimentaux au niveau des premiers stades. Dans une seconde partie, nous etudions le nickel contenant certaines impuretes. Nous exposons d'abord les resultats concernant le taux d'accroissement de la resistivite, fonction de la purete de l'echantillon. Deux explications possibles du phenomene observe sont proposees: deviation a la regle de Matthiessen ou augmentation,du nombre de defauts crees en presence d'impuretes. Ensuite, une etude de la restauration de la resistivite des echantillons impurs permet de proposer un ordre de grandeur de l'energie de liaison interstitiel- impurete dans le nickel. (auteur)

  10. Dosage du mercure dans le gaz naturel par absorption atomique sans flammes Mercury Titration in Natural Gas by Flameless Atomic Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Villa F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente la méthode mise au point par l'Institut Français du Pétrole pour déterminer par absorption atomique sans flamme, les traces de mercure métallique contenu dans un gaz naturel. La méthode d'analyse nécessite une extraction du mercure soit sous forme d'ion mercurique en faisant passer le gaz dans une solution oxydante, soit sous forme d'amalgame avec de l'or ou de l'argent. Le premier mode opératoire s'applique aux échantillons dont la concentration en mercure est supérieure à I ttg/Nm3, le second pour des concentrations inférieures à 5 pg/Nm3. Les seuils de détection sont respectivement 10 ng (en solution et 0,3 ng (en amalgame. La répétabilité pour 100 ng de mercure (en amalgame est de ± 7% pour une probabilité de.95 %. En conclusion, dans un échantillon de gaz naturel, compte tenu du volume des prélèvements effectués, il est possible de détecter des concentrations de l'ordre du nanogramme de mercure par mètre cube de gaz. This article describes the method developed by IFP using flameless atomic absorption to determine metallic mercury traces in a natural gas. The analyst method requires a mercury extraction either in the form of mercuric ions by making the gas pass through an oxidizing solution or in the form of an amalgam with gold or silver. The former operating method applies ta samples having a mercury concentration greater than I !ag/Nm3, and the latter for concentrations smaller than 5 (-Lg/Nm3. Detection thresholds are respectively 10 ng (in solution and 0.3 ng (in amalgam. The repeatability for 100 ng of mercury (in amalgam is ± 7 % with a probability of 95%. To conclude, in a sample of natural gas, considering the volume of the samples taken, it is possible ta detect concentrations in the vicinity of one nanogrom of mercury per cubic meter of gas.

  11. Optimisation de tournées de véhicules dans le cadre de la logistique inverse : modélisation et résolution par des méthodes hybrides

    OpenAIRE

    Grellier , Emilie

    2008-01-01

    Vehicle routing problems in inverse logistics : modelling and solving with hybrid methods; Optimisation des tournées de véhicules dans le cadre de la logistique inverse : modélisation et résolution par des méthodes hybrides

  12. 2003 annual results of EdF group; Resultats annuels 2003 du groupe EDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    The Electricite de France (EdF) group Board of Directors, meeting on March 11, 2004, under the Chairmanship of Francois Roussely, reviewed the audited consolidated financial statements for the year ended 12/31/2003. This document presents the consolidated results of EdF group for 2003: consolidated financial statements, highlights of the year, focus on 2003 events, commercial results, EDF in Europe and worldwide, EDF France highlights, key figures. (J.S.)

  13. Power dissipated - or generated - by the various excited modes in a plasma; Puissance dissipee - ou generee - par les differents modes excites dans un plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolland, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The energy exchange between a plasma and a source of excitation J(r)sin(w{sub 0}t) is investigated. In order to include the case of growing waves associated with connective instabilities, this problem is treated in the context of the wave-packet theory, by writing the field as a double integral in two complex planes. the paths of the integration are defined after a separation into two classes of the root k(w) of the dispersion equation. We find that - at even in the absence of collisions - there is still a power exchange exchange, due to the spatial dispersion. Thus a connexion can be established with the kinematic theories of growing waves [1][2] and the modes generating power can be found. Moreover, the power dissipated by spatial dispersion is found to be critical with that due to Landau's effect for long waves. This confirms the kinematic character of the latter and bridges a gap between macroscopic and microscopic theories. (author) [French] On etudie les echanges d'energie entre un plasma et une source d'excitation J(r)sin(w{sub 0}t). Pour inclure le cas des ondes croissantes associees aux instabilites convectives, on traite ce probleme dans le cadre de la theorie du paquet d'ondes en definissant le champ par une integrale double dans deux plans complexes; les parcours d'integration sont precises apres avoir separe en deux classes les racines k(w) de l'equation de dispersion. On trouve que meme en l'absence de collisions, la puissance echangee n'est pas nulle, a cause de la dispersion spatiale. Ceci permet d'etablir une connexion avec les theories cinematiques des ondes croissantes [1][2], tout en precisant quels sont les modes generateurs d'energie. Par ailleurs, la puissance dissipee par dispersion spatiale se revele identique a la dissipation par effet Landau pour les grandes ondes, ce qui confirme le caractere cinematique de ce dernier et fait la jonction entre les theories microscopique et macroscopique. (auteur)

  14. EDF Group: activity and sustainable development 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a map illustrating the worldwide dimension of EDF, and an interview of the EDF's chairman, this report presents and comments some sustainable development indicators for EDF activity in 2010. Then, after a presentation of the world energy context, it presents and comments EDF's main activities: energy production and engineering, network management, trading. It presents and comments the operational performance of the company in different countries (France, United Kingdom, Italy, and other countries) and evokes additional activities. The next chapter deals with human resources and with innovation and R and D activities. The last chapter presents governance structures and financial results

  15. Rôle de la dispersion dans la réponse des populations de truites aux habitats formés par les grands débris ligneux dans les ruisseaux de montagne du Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAUSCH K. D.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Un peu partout dans le monde, les aménagistes des pêches utilisent souvent des rondins pour réaliser des mouilles pour les salmonidés, souvent pour compenser l'absence de grands débris ligneux (LWD due à la déforestation ou à d'autres perturbations des forêts alluviales. Des mesures des LWD réalisées sur 11 ruisseaux de montagne du Colorado drainant de vieilles forêts de résineux (Picea - Abies montrent qu'ils sont à l'origine de la plupart des mouilles. Les morceaux qui contribuent à la formation des mouilles sont, en moyenne, plus grands que ceux qui n'en forment pas. La plupart enjambe le chenal perpendiculairement à l'écoulement et forme des mouilles de chute («plunge pool» et des mouilles de retenue («dammed pool». Les aménagistes des pêches qui utilisent des troncs perpendiculaires à l'écoulement pour réaliser des mouilles considèrent généralement que cette addition d'habitat améliore la survie des salmonidés résidents pendant les périodes critiques comme l'hiver. Une expérience de longue durée, réalisée pour tester cette hypothèse dans six ruisseaux de montagne du Colorado, a montré que les populations de truites résidentes augmentaient rapidement et significativement dans des portions expérimentales de 250m, par rapport à des témoins adjacents. Cependant, des mesures de la dispersion réalisées par des piégeages et des recaptures de truites marquées ont montré que les mouilles formées par des troncs augmentent les populations de truites adultes en permettant aux truites qui étaient en phase de déplacement de rester dans les portions expérimentales plutôt qu'en améliorant la survie hivernale sur place, comme le décrivent d'autres auteurs. La recherche sur les salmonidés d'eau courante non migrateurs et leur gestion a jusqu'à présent été marquée par un modèle impliquant des déplacements limités, ce qui implique que les adultes soient relativement sédentaires. Cependant, l

  16. Protection of personnel against atmospheric contamination by plutonium in the laboratory (1963); Protection du personnel contre la contamination atmospherique par le plutonium, dans les laboratoires (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliers, P; Pomarola, J; Risselin, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    Various problems about measurement of atmospheric contamination by plutonium in laboratories are considered. In particular are studied sampling methods, continuous measurement for alarm, criteria used for fixation of the concentrations to be measured, sensitivity of apparatus and effects of natural atmospheric contamination. The means actually available for measurement of contamination and their limits of use are briefly analysed. (authors) [French] Les differents problemes a resoudre pour realiser un controle satisfaisant de la contamination atmospherique par le plutonium, dans les laboratoires, sont abordes. On etudie en particulier les differents modes d'echantillonnage, le controle continu en vue de l'alarme, les criteres qui servent a la fixation des concentrations a mesurer, la sensibilite a donner aux moyens de mesure, les difficultes provenant de la contamination atmospherique naturelle. Les moyens actuellement disponibles pour le controle de la contamination et leurs moyens limites d'emploi sont analyses sommairement. (auteurs)

  17. Use of gamma spectroscopy in activation analysis; Utilisation de la spectrographie gamma dans l'analyse par activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveque, [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Brief review of the principles of activation analysis: calculation of activities, decay curves, {beta} absorption curves, examples of application. - Principle and description of the {gamma} spectrograph. - Practical utilisation of the {gamma} spectrograph: analysis by activation, analysis by {beta} - x fluorescence. - Sensitivity limit of the method and precision of the measurements. - Possible improvements to the method: {gamma} spectroscopy with elimination of the Compton effect. (author) [French] Bref rappel des principes de l'analyse par activation: calcul des activites, courbes de decroissance, courbes d'absorption {beta}, exemples d'utilisation. - Principe et description du spectrographe {gamma}. - Utilisation pratique de la spectrographie {gamma}: analyse par activation, analyse par fluorescence {beta} - x. - Limite de sensibilite de la methode et precision des mesures. - Ameliorations possibles de la methode: spectrographe {gamma} avec elimination de l'effet Compton. (auteur)

  18. A study on the isotope effects in the reduction of carbon dioxide by zinc; Etude des effets isotopiques dans la reduction du gaz carbonique par le zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senegacnik, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-06-15

    We have determined the isotope effects which occur in the reduction of carbon dioxide by zinc. It has been shown that in the case of irreversible surface reactions, Bernstein's equation which permits the calculation of the fractionation factor is still valid. These experimental factors are in good agreement with those obtained by calculating the partition functions of the adsorbed activated complexes. In the reaction mechanism used, the model of the activated complex corresponds to the dissociation of one of the carbon oxygen bonds CO{sub 2} {yields} CO + O. Perturbations arising from the slight reversibility of the reaction Zn + CO{sub 2} {r_reversible} ZnO + CO on the isotope effects on the carbon and oxygen atoms have also been calculated. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie les effets isotopiques qui ont lieu dans la reduction du gaz carbonique par le zinc. La validite de l'equation de Bernstein qui permet de calculer le facteur de fractionnement a ete demontree pour le cas d'une reaction irreversible de surface. Ces facteurs de fractionnement experimentaux sont en bon accord avec ceux obtenus par le calcul des fonctions de partition isotopiques des complexes actives adsorbes. Dans le mecanisme de reaction utilise, le modele du complexe active correspond a la dissociation d'une des liaisons carbone oxygene CO{sub 2} {yields} CO + O. Les effets perturbateurs de la reversibilite de la reduction Zn + CO{sub 2} {r_reversible} ZnO + CO sur les effets isotopiques du carbone et ceux de l'oxygene ont ete egalement evalues. (auteur)

  19. A study on the isotope effects in the reduction of carbon dioxide by zinc; Etude des effets isotopiques dans la reduction du gaz carbonique par le zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senegacnik, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-06-15

    We have determined the isotope effects which occur in the reduction of carbon dioxide by zinc. It has been shown that in the case of irreversible surface reactions, Bernstein's equation which permits the calculation of the fractionation factor is still valid. These experimental factors are in good agreement with those obtained by calculating the partition functions of the adsorbed activated complexes. In the reaction mechanism used, the model of the activated complex corresponds to the dissociation of one of the carbon oxygen bonds CO{sub 2} {yields} CO + O. Perturbations arising from the slight reversibility of the reaction Zn + CO{sub 2} {r_reversible} ZnO + CO on the isotope effects on the carbon and oxygen atoms have also been calculated. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie les effets isotopiques qui ont lieu dans la reduction du gaz carbonique par le zinc. La validite de l'equation de Bernstein qui permet de calculer le facteur de fractionnement a ete demontree pour le cas d'une reaction irreversible de surface. Ces facteurs de fractionnement experimentaux sont en bon accord avec ceux obtenus par le calcul des fonctions de partition isotopiques des complexes actives adsorbes. Dans le mecanisme de reaction utilise, le modele du complexe active correspond a la dissociation d'une des liaisons carbone oxygene CO{sub 2} {yields} CO + O. Les effets perturbateurs de la reversibilite de la reduction Zn + CO{sub 2} {r_reversible} ZnO + CO sur les effets isotopiques du carbone et ceux de l'oxygene ont ete egalement evalues. (auteur)

  20. EDF at a glance 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document presents the organization and key data of Electricite de France (EdF) group for 2003: business, priorities, values, different branches of the group (continental Europe, western Europe, Mediterranean branch, Africa, Asia-Pacific, Americas, Dalkia energy services, development branch), management, board of directors, market opening in France, human resource strategy, R and D, customers (residential, commercial, business and industrial, local authorities), industrial tool (fossil-fired generation, network management, renewable energy sources), reliability, financial flexibility, sustainable development (role of renewables in generation, CO 2 emissions, radiation protection, nuclear waste, environment, handling fuel poverty, landscape conservation), contacts and affiliates outside France. (J.S.)

  1. EDF group - Reference Document 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The EDF group is an integrated energy company with a presence in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, supply and energy trading. It is France's leading electricity operator and has a strong position in the three other main European markets (Germany, the United Kingdom and Italy), making it one of Europe's leading electrical players as well as a recognized player in the gas industry. With worldwide installed power capacity totaling 136.3 GW as of December 31, 2009 (134.0 GW in Europe) and global energy generation of 618.5 TWh, it has the largest generating capacity of all the major European energy corporations with the lowest level of CO 2 emissions due to the significant proportion of nuclear and hydroelectric power in its generation mix. The EDF group supplies gas, electricity, and associated services to more than 37.9 million customer accounts worldwide (including approximately 27.7 million in France). The EDF group's businesses reflect its adoption of a model aimed at finding the best balance between French and international activities, competitive and regulated operations and based on an upstream-downstream integration. In 2009, the Group's consolidated revenues were euros 66.3 billion, the net income (Group share) was euros 3.9 billion, and earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization was euros 17.5 billion. This document is EDF Group's Reference Document and Annual Financial Report for the year 2009. It contains information about: the Group activities, risk factors, Business, Organizational structure, Property plant and equipment, Operating and financial review, Capital resources and cash flows, Research and Development, Patents and Licenses, Information on trends, Financial outlook, Administrative, management, and supervisory bodies and senior management, Compensation and benefits, Functioning of the administration and management bodies, Employees/Human resources

  2. Safety experience on EDF's PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, P.

    1986-01-01

    The french nuclear programme has been widely publicized. In 1985, the total nuclear electricity generated was around 216 GWh, i. e. 70% of the electricity produced by electricity de France (EDF). If we consider only pressurized water reactors, at the end of 1985, 37 units were in operation (32 900 MWe and 5 1300 MWe) and 18 were under construction. I intend to review our experience with the safety of PWR's, but I will first present briefly some aspects related to the safety organization in France and the standardization policy. (author) [pt

  3. Rôle des verbes de base dans l'acquisition de la L1 par les enfants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tout enfant biologiquement normal mis dans les conditions sociales requises acquiert sans heurts sa langue maternelle (L1) (Klein 1989). Cependant, cette forme d'acquisition apparemment facile, relève d'un travail cognitif complexe et sélectif (Afola-Amey, 2006). Certes, les noms s'acquièrent plus vite mais les verbes ...

  4. Results in pion proton scattering near the higher resonances (1961); Resultats pour la diffusion des mesons pi par les protons dans le domaine des hautes resonances (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk-Vairant, P; Valladas, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    We present briefly the available Information on the total cross sections for pion proton scattering in the energy region from 400 MeV to 1.5 GeV. We also have collected all results on total cross sections for particular channels like elastic scattering, inelastic scattering and charge exchange. Using new results on the total cross section for neutral events, we have plotted separately the cross section for elastic and for inelastic scattering in the T = 1/2 state. (authors) [French] On presente brievement les donnees connues concernant la section efficace totale pour la diffusion des mesons pi par les protons dans le domaine d'energie de 400 MeV a 1,5 GeV. On a egalement rassemble tous les resultats concernant les sections efficaces totales pour des canaux particuliers: diffusion elastique, diffusion inelastique et echange de charge. En partant des nouveaux resultats sur la section efficace pour la diffusion elastique et inelastique dans l'etat T = 1/2. (auteurs)

  5. Détermination de la polarisation des gluons dans le nucléon par la production de hadrons à grande impulsion transverse à COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Procureur, Sébastien

    L\\'objectif principal de l\\'expérience COMPASS au CERN est la détermination de la polarisation des gluons dans le nucléon, $\\\\frac{\\\\Delta G}{G}$. On mesure pour cela l\\'asymétrie d\\'hélicité du processus de fusion photon gluon, dans la diffusion de muons polarisés sur une cible de deutérons polarisés. Ce processus peut être sélectionné par la production de hadrons à grande impulsion transverse ($p_T$), ce qui permet de disposer d\\'une grande statistique. En contrepartie, la présence d\\'un bruit de fond physique complique l\\'extraction de $\\\\frac{\\\\Delta G}{G}$. Ce mémoire de thèse présente différentes études menées afin d\\'optimiser la détermination de $\\\\frac{\\\\Delta G}{G}$ dans ce canal. Une étude sur l\\'alignement des quelques 200 plans de détection est notamment présentée, améliorant ainsi la résolution du spectromètre. Les performances des 12 détecteurs de type Micromegas ont également été déterminées au cours de la prise de données 2004. Puis, les asymétries obtenues...

  6. The human factors approach at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colas, A.

    2004-01-01

    At the dawn of the 21st century, French electricity utility EDF is facing a number of major changes, in particular the liberalisation of European energy markets and the restructuring needed to cope with this development. EDF's approach to human factors (HF) aspects is also undergoing major changes, since people obviously play a predominant role in any organisational structure. (author)

  7. EDF Energies Nouvelles - 2010 Registration Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    EDF Energies Nouvelles is a world leader in renewable energy electricity. The company develops, builds and operates clean energy power plants both for its own account and for third parties. Historically, EDF Energies Nouvelles primarily developed its business in two geographical areas, Europe and North America (U.S., Canada and Mexico). EDF Energies Nouvelles is a subsidiary of EDF, helping the Group to achieve its renewable energy goals. The EDF Group generates low-carbon electricity around the world and actively participates in the energy transition. EDF Energies Nouvelles prioritizes development of wind and photovoltaic solar capacity. As an integrated operator with global reach, EDF Energies Nouvelles covers the entire renewable energy chain, from development to operation and maintenance, and manages all project phases in-house. This document is EDF Energies Nouvelles' registration document for the year 2010. It contains information about Group profile, governance, business, investments, property, plant and equipment, management, financial position, employees, shareholders, etc. The document includes the half-year and full year financial reports

  8. EDF group. Annual report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    This document is the English version of the 2001 annual report of Electricite de France (EdF) Group, the French electric utility. It comprises 4 parts: introduction (statement of the chairman and chief executive officer, corporate governance, group key figures, sustainable growth indicators - parent company, energy for a sustainable future, EdF group worldwide); dynamics and balanced growth (financial results, EdF's strategy in building a competitive global group: consolidating the European network, moving forward in energy-related services, responding to increasing energy demand in emerging countries); sustainable solutions for all (empowering the customer: competitive solutions for industrial customers, anticipating the needs of residential customers and SMEs, environmental solutions to enhance urban life, upgrading the network and providing access to energy; a sound, sustainable and secure energy mix: a highly competitive nuclear fleet, the vital resource of fossil-fuelled plants, a proactive approach to renewable energies); a global commitment to corporate social responsibility (human resources and partnerships). (J.S.)

  9. EDF at a glance. EDF group 2002; Organisation et chiffres cles. Groupe EDF 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document presents the organization and key data of the Electricite de France (EdF) group for 2002: business (generation and trading, transmission, distribution, supply, energy services), corporate governance (board of directors, executive committee), different branches of the group (continental Europe, western Europe, Middle-East and Africa, Asia-Pacific, Americas), main affiliates, international contacts and addresses, financial performance (consolidated sales, Ebitda), customers (residential, commercial, business and industrial, local authorities), generation (balanced energy mix), human resources, corporate social responsibility, sustainable development indicators. (J.S.)

  10. Facteurs de risque de l'infection par le VIH dans le district de santé de Meyomessala au Cameroun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbopi-Keou, Francois-Xavier; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kalla, Ginette Claude Mireille; Abessolo, Stéphanie Abo'o; Angwafo, Fru; Muna, Walinjom

    2014-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer les facteurs de risque de l'infection par le VIH dans le district de santé de Meyomessala (Région du Sud) au Cameroun. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale, descriptive et analytique qui s'est déroulée de Février à Mai 2011. Pour cette étude, nous avons obtenu une clairance éthique. Résultats L’échantillon était constitué de 315 participants dont 181 (57,46%) hommes et 134 (42,54%) femmes. L’âge moyen était de 24,5±8ans (extrême: 15-45ans). Quarante personnes (40) étaient séropositifs, soit une prévalence de l'infection par le VIH de 12,7%. Cette prévalence augmentait significativement (p = 0) avec le nombre de partenaires occasionnels au cours des douze derniers mois, allant de 2,7% chez ceux n'ayant eu aucun partenaire occasionnel à 21,25% chez ceux ayant plus de trois partenaires occasionnels (RC = 9,72; IC = 1,27-74,14; P = 0,03). le fait d’être âgé entre 20 et 24 ans (RC = 4,88; IC = 1,74-13,67; p = 0), avoir plus de trois partenaires sexuels au cours des douze derniers mois (RC = 9,72; IC = 1,27-74,14; p = 0,03), avoir les rapports sexuels avec les prostitués (RC = 2,86; IC = 1,42-5,76; p = 0), avoir eu le chlamydia (RC = 3,00; IC = 1,07-8,39; p = 0,04), avoir eu la syphilis (RC = 3,35; IC = 1,57-7,14; p = 0), avoir des avantages sociaux lors du premier rapport sexuel (RC = 2,57; IC = 1,03-6,43; p = 0,04) constituaient des potentiels facteurs de risque du VIH. Conclusion Il apparait urgent d'intensifier les campagnes de sensibilisation au risque d'infection par le VIH et les maladies sexuellement transmissibles dans le district de santé de Meyomessala PMID:25419299

  11. Improvement of spectrographic analyses by the use of a mechanical packer in the arc distillation technique; Amelioration de l'analyse spectrograpique par l'utilisation d'un tasseur mecanique dans la methode de distillation dans l'arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffereau, M; Deniaud, S; Pichotin, B; Violet, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    One studies improvement of spectrographic analysis by the 'carrier distillation' method with the help of a mechanical device. Experiments and advantages of such an apparatus are given (precision and reproducibility improvement, operator factor suppression). A routine apparatus (French patent no 976.493) is described. (authors) [French] On etudie l'amelioration des analyses spectrographiques par la methode de distillation avec entra eur dans l'arc au moyen d'un tasseur mecanique. On indique les experiences realisees et les avantages de l'emploi d'un tel appareil (amelioration de la precision et de la reproductibilite, suppression du facteur operateur). On decrit l'appareil de routine objet du brevet no 976.493 du 29 mai 1964. (auteurs)

  12. The determination of iodine in biological media using radioactivation analysis (1962); Dosage de l'iode dans les milieux biologiques au moyen de l'analyse par radioactivation (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comar, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-06-15

    The object of this study is to show that the application of radioactivation analysis to the determination of iodine in biological media makes it possible to measure iodine concentrations of the order of 0.0001 {mu}g. After a review of the chemical methods with a mention of the difficulties they present, the optimum conditions for the determination of iodine in biological liquids are given. Three methods are described: - the first consists of a chemical treatment which liberates the protein bound iodine in an inorganic form. After distillation this iodine is irradiated in a flux of thermal neutrons. The induced radioactivity is compared to that of a standard sample irradiated in the same conditions by {gamma} spectrometry. - the second method which is of more general application consists in irradiating the sample and then extracting the iodine; its induced radio-activity is then measured by {beta}-counting. - the third method measures the iodine directly in the thyroid tissue by anti-compton spectrometry. The sensitivity, the reproducibility and the accuracy are discussed. Some applications are described: determination of iodine in its various organic forms in serum, determination of iodine in urines, in food-stuffs, etc., in the thyroid tissue, etc. (author) [French] Le but de cette etude est de montrer que l'analyse par radioactivation appliquee au dosage de l'iode dans les milieux biologiques permet de mesurer des taux d'iode de l'ordie de 0,0001 {mu}g. Apres avoir rappele le principe des methodes chimiques et montre les difficultes de leur mise en oeuvre, il est etabli les conditions optima pour realiser le dosage de l'iode dans les liquides biologiques. Trois methodes sont decrites; - la premiere consiste a pratiquer un traitement chimique liberant l'iode proteique sous forme minerale. Apres distillation cet iode est irradie dans un flux de neutrons thermiques. La radioactivite induite est mesuree comparativement a celle d'un etalon traite dans les memes

  13. L'Empowerment au coeur des bouleversements induits par les TIC dans la gestion des ressources humaines

    OpenAIRE

    Blavier, André

    2012-01-01

    Observer l’influence des TIC (Technologies de l’Information et de la Communication” sur les ressources humaines à la lumière du seul débat “pour ou contre les réseaux sociaux dans l’entreprise ou l’organisation ?” est une approche bien trop restrictive. Les défis relatifs à l’évolution des ressources humaines s’inscrivent dans une perspective plus large, celle d’un environnement numérique global. Comme l’a souligné le rapport “Digital Economy Rankings 2010” d’IBM en collaboration avec l’Econ...

  14. Precursor incident program at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourest, B.; Maliverney, B.; Rozenholc, M.; Piovesan, C.

    1998-01-01

    The precursor program was started by EDF in 1994, after an investigation of the US NRC's Accident Sequence Precursor Program. Since then, reported operational events identified as Safety Outstanding Events have been analyzed whenever possible using probabilistic methods based on PSAs. Analysis provides an estimate of the remaining protection against core damage at the time the incident occurred. Measuring the incidents' severity enables to detect incidents important regarding safety. Moreover, the most efficient feedback actions can be derived from the main accident sequences identified through the analysis. Therefore, incident probabilistic analysis provides a way to assess priorities in terms of treatment and resource allocation, and so, to implement countermeasures preventing further occurrence and development of the most significant incidents. As some incidents cannot be analyzed using this method, probabilistic analysis can only be one among the methods used to assess the nuclear power plants' safety level. Nevertheless, it provides an interesting complement to classical methods of deterministic studies. (author)

  15. Stéréotypes et discriminations ethnoraciales dans et par les albums illustrés pour la jeunesse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Francis

    2015-08-01

    of fiction books and show the importance of studying, besides the books, the voices that come with them, as they may – or not – influence our reading and, especially, our criticism. L’intégration dans le droit français de la directive européenne 2000-43 du 29/6/2000 pour l’égalité de traitement entre les personnes sans distinction de race ou d’origine ethnique et la reconnaissance officielle de la question des discriminations raciales (EUROSTAT, 2007; FASSIN, 2010; MASCLET, 2012 a conduit les organismes publics à développer des actions autour de la lutte contre les préjugés et les stéréotypes raciaux, et à promouvoir l’éducation à la diversité (DIM, 2012. Ce travail s’inscrit dans le champ des recherches en éducation sur les discriminations dans l’éducation des enfants dès le plus jeune âge (DERMAN-SPARKS, 1989; VANDENBROECK, 2005. Il examine les albums illustrés pour la jeunesse ainsi que sur les discours des professionnels concernant ces ouvrages. Elle fait suite à deux études (FRANCIS; THIERY, 2011; THIERY; FRANCIS, 2013 qui ont permis de constater le faible nombre d’albums de fiction, publiés entre 1980 et 2010, où le personnage principal est un enfant noir. Les albums où les enfants noirs vivent des situations paisibles voire heureuses de l’expérience enfantine sont rares et dans leur grande majorité, ils apparaissent dans des situations traitant de la différence, la tolérance, l’identité, l’exclusion, le racisme (THIERY; FRANCIS, 2015. L’étude propose une analyse de quelques ouvrages emblématiques et des énoncés qui les accompagnent, produits par les institutions du livre et de la lecture, les bibliothécaires, les conseillers pédagogiques, les enseignants, notamment ceux de l’école maternelle. Dans les albums de fiction, les personnages d’enfants noirs sont associés de manière récurrente à des thèmes, des toponymes, des objets. Les représentations des corps, notamment leur nudité totale

  16. Optimisation de Capteurs de Diagnostic de Défauts par Réflectométrie dans les Réseaux Filaires Complexes en utilisant les Réseaux Bayésiens

    OpenAIRE

    BEN HASSEN , Wafa; Auzanneau , Fabrice; Pérès , François; Tchangani , Ayeley

    2013-01-01

    Cet article presente une strat ' egie de diagnostic ' distribuee par la m ' ethode de r ' eflectom ' etrie dans un r ' eseau ' filaire complexe. L'idee principale consiste ' a injecter un signal ' de test en plusieurs points du reseau et r ' ecup ' erer, ensuite, le ' signal refl' echi afin d'en d ' eduire les caract ' eristiques du d ' efaut ' detect ' e. L'objectif de cet article est d'optimiser le nombre de ' capteurs a impl ' ementer dans le r ' eseau afin de r ' eduire le co ' ut du ˆ systeme...

  17. La subjugation des femmes musulmanes et la sororité dans Loin de Médine par Assia Djebar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel van Deventer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article porte sur les premières femmes musulmanes telles qu’elles sont représentées dans l’oeuvre d’Assia Djebar, Loin de Médine, récit situé au tout début de l’histoire de l’Islam. A travers les parcours narratifs de plusieurs femmes marquantes de l’histoire de l’Islam, l’auteur identifie la sororité comme arme unique contre toute oppression. Une lecture critique invite non seulement les lectrices mais aussi les lecteurs contemporains à examiner le statut actuel des femmes musulmanes.

  18. Corrosion by cooling gases in nuclear reactors; la corrosion par les gaz caloporteurs dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darras, R. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Centre de Saclay, Section d' etude de la corrosion par gaz et metaux liquides (France)

    1960-07-01

    This article begins with a review of the various materials which can be used and the cooling gases in which they may be heated, emphasis being placed on the importance of reaching temperatures as high as possible. This is followed by a few general remarks on the dry oxidation of metals and alloys, particularly with regard to diffusion phenomena and their various possible mechanisms, and also the methods of investigation employed. Finally, the behaviour of the chief nuclear materials heated in the various gases is studied successively. Materials used for fuel (metallic uranium, uranium oxide, carbides and silicides), canning materials (magnesium, aluminium, zirconium, beryllium, stainless and refractory steels), structural materials (ordinary or slightly alloyed steels), and finally moderators (graphite, beryllium oxide) are deal with in this way. This account is backed up both by the results obtained at the CEA and by work published outside or abroad up to the present day. In conclusion, every effort has been made to direct future research on the basis of the foregoing. Reprint of a paper published in Industries Atomiques - no. 9/10, 1959, p. 3-23 [French] Dans cet article, on passe tout d'abord en revue les divers materiaux utilisables et les gaz de refroidissement dans lesquels ils peuvent etre chauffes, en insistant sur l'interet d'atteindre des temperatures aussi elevees que possible. On rappelle ensuite quelques generalites sur l'oxydation seche des metaux et alliages, notamment en ce qui concerne les phenomenes de diffusion et leurs divers mecanismes possibles ainsi que les methodes d'etude. Enfin, le comportement des principaux materiaux nucleaires chauffes dans les divers gaz est etudie successivement. On traita ainsi des materiaux combustibles (uranium metallique, oxyde, carbures et siliciures d'uranium), des materiaux de gainage (magnesium, aluminium, zirconium, beryllium, aciers inoxydables et refractaires), des materiaux de structure (aciers ordinaires

  19. Interactions between impurities and defects created by irradiation in iron; Interactions entre les impuretes et les defauts crees par irradiation dans le fer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigier, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    'expose et aux discussions de nouveaux resultats experimentaux. Grace a l'addition d'impurete dans le fer, des experiences de trainage magnetique, energie stockee, resistivite et dilatometrie ont permis d'etablir que le stade I se rattache au modele propose par Granato et Nilan (90): seul le dernier sous-stade I{sub E} provient de la disparition des interstitiels dans les lacunes apres leur libre migration dans le reseau. Divers modeles sont discutes pour le stade II; s'il est probable que les diinterstitiels sont observables apres une irradiation aux electrons, aucune bande de trainage ne semble leur correspondre apres une irradiation aux neutrons. Des phenomenes particuliers apparaissent dans le fer irradie lorsqu'il contient des impuretes telles que nickel ou silicium (apparition de nouvelles bandes de trainage, leur transformation les unes dans les autres); ils refletent la complication successive du defaut elementaire interstitiel de fer-atome d'impurete. Enfin, dans une derniere section, l'auteur decrit quelques experiences effectuees sur des alliages fer-carbone irradies ou non ; elles montrent que le carbone apres avoir precipite a une temperature inferieure a 300 deg. C, se remet en solution lorsque l'alliage est chauffe au-dela de 330 deg. C. (auteur)

  20. Experimental adoption of RCM in EDF substations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heroin, G.; Aupied, J.; Sanchis, G.

    1995-12-01

    EDF, after testing Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) on systems used in nuclear power plants, has now successfully extended RCM to all of its nuclear power plants. In the light of this experience, EDF has committed itself to a pilot study on a line bay of a 400 kV substation in 1992. The RCM method as applied benefited from EDF's policy of maintenance, introduced five years ago on all substations, which has enhanced prospects of reliability. The original feature in the selection of maintenance tasks was that it brought into play two criteria for failure assessment: frequency and seriousness, and two criteria for maintenance task selection: efficiency and facility. (author)

  1. EDF - Electricite de France, 2004 annual Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. This document is EDF Group's annual Results for 2004. It is made of several reports: The Consolidated financial statements at 31 December 2004, the 2004 Half-year results presentation, and The Consolidated financial statements at 30 June 2004

  2. EDF - Electricite de France, 2005 annual Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. This document is EDF Group's annual Results for 2005. It is made of several reports: the 2005 Annual Results presentation, the consolidated financial statements at 31 December 2005, the 2005 Half-year results presentation, and the Consolidated financial statements at 30 June 2005

  3. Burst slug detection system in french power reactors (1961); La detection des ruptures de gaines dans les reacteurs de puissance francais (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megy, J; Roguin, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    Gas samples are taken from the channels of the reactor and the short lived fission products are electrostatically collected to be analysed by a phosphor and photomultiplier system. The electrostatic collection and rotating electrode detector is described and its main uses exposed. Experience has shown the interest of measuring the evolution of fission products activities and not their absolute value only. In this way, data processing equipment have been designed and adapted to the detection apparatus. The system developed and realized for the G-l - G-2 - G-3 - EDF-1 - EDF-2 reactors are compared. (authors) [French] Un prelevement de gaz est effectue dans les canaux du reacteur et les produits de fission a vie courte sont collectes electrostatiquement pour etre analyses par un ensemble scintillateur-photomultiplicateur. Le detecteur a collection electrostatique et electrode tournante est decrit et ses applications principales sont exposees. L'experience a montre l'interet de mesurer l'evolution des activites en produits de fission et non seulement leur valeur absolue. D'ou le developpement d'ensembles de traitement des informations associes aux chaines de detection. Comparaison des realisations sur les reacteurs G-l - G-2 - G-3 - EDF-1 et EDF-2. (auteurs)

  4. Inspection systems for valves monitoring at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germain, J.L.; Granal, L.; Provost, D.; Touillez, M.

    1997-01-01

    Electricite de France (EDF) makes increasing use of valve inspection systems to guarantee safety in its pressurized water reactor plants, improve plant availability and facilitate condition-based maintenance. A portable system known as SAMIR has been developed for inspection of motor-operated valves, and is now used on EDF's 900-MW sites. For its 1300-MW units, EDF has chosen a more complete system which enables measuring thrust on the valve stem during a maneuver, using a sensor mounted on the yoke. To detect internal vale leaks, an on-site assessment has demonstrated the economic benefits of acoustic emission techniques. EDF has equipped its sites with analog leak detection systems which may soon be replaced by a digital model now being developed. (authors)

  5. At the heart of EDF's education plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, C.

    2010-01-01

    Facing a high and growing number of retirements and the present revival of nuclear energy, Electricite de France (EDF), the French state-owned electric utility, is struggling to find the competencies it needs, especially in domains such as reactor operators, mechanic technicians and engineers in the fields of fittings, boiler fabrication, maintenance, automation, etc. EDF is thus engaged in an important education and training program. The author reports from Bugey (France), where is located one of the main EDF production-engineering training center, and describes the variety of learning activities available in the center. An important effort is devoted to the training of foreign operators in order for EDF to better compete on the nuclear energy international market

  6. The nuclear cleanliness: a priority for EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Since autumn 1998 EDF implemented an action plan to improve the nuclear cleanliness on its sites. The first objective is to eliminate the contamination risk, by a better professional training and installation of new detection gantries. (A.L.B.)

  7. EDF, the 2003-2007 project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This brochure presents the 2003-2007 project of Electricite de France (EdF) in the framework of the opening of European energy markets. The aim of this project is to take over the present day contract of EdF with the French government in order to become an anonymous company. The wish of F. Roussely, president of EdF, is to open and increase the capital of the company but also to fulfill its public utility missions. The stake of EdF is to stay competitive, to become a European energy leader, to stay an integrated company combining production, transport, distribution and commercialization, and finally to maintain its historical public utility standards: specific tariff conditions and services for low income people, financing of renewable energy projects. (J.S.)

  8. Contribution to the study of detonation initiation by shock in solid explosives (1961); Contribution a l'etude de l'initiation de la detonation par choc dans les explosifs solides (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauquignon, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-05-15

    When a shock wave is induced in an explosive, it can initiate chemical reactions which lead more or less rapidly to a stable detonation state. In this study more particular attention was paid to the transition phase, in which has been evaluated the increases in the wave velocity, the pressure, and the electrical conductivity. The influence of the nature of the medium in front of the wave and in contact with the explosive has also been the subject of an experimental study designed to determine the extent to which its nature can be ignored and, subsequently, to characterise the initiation conditions using only the shock intensity induced in the explosive. Finally, the results were generalized for various explosive compositions and led to the development of a possible mechanism for shock initiation. (author) [French] Lorsqu'une onde de choc est induite dans un explosif, elle peut y amorcer des reactions chimiques qui conduisent plus ou moins rapidement a un regime de detonation stable. Dans cette etude, on s'est interesse plus particulierement a la phase transitoire dans laquelle on a evalue l'accroissement de la vitesse d'onde, de la pression et de la conductibilite electrique. L'influence du milieu amont, au contact de l'explosif, a egalement fait l'objet de recherches experimentales de facon a determiner dans quelle mesure on pouvait s'affranchir de sa nature et, par suite, caracteriser les conditions d'initiation par la seule intensite du choc induit dans l'explosif. Enfin, les resultats ont ete generalises a diverses compositions explosives et ont conduit a l'elaboration d'un schema possible du mecanisme de l'initiation par choc. (auteur)

  9. Contribution to the study of detonation initiation by shock in solid explosives (1961); Contribution a l'etude de l'initiation de la detonation par choc dans les explosifs solides (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauquignon, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-05-15

    When a shock wave is induced in an explosive, it can initiate chemical reactions which lead more or less rapidly to a stable detonation state. In this study more particular attention was paid to the transition phase, in which has been evaluated the increases in the wave velocity, the pressure, and the electrical conductivity. The influence of the nature of the medium in front of the wave and in contact with the explosive has also been the subject of an experimental study designed to determine the extent to which its nature can be ignored and, subsequently, to characterise the initiation conditions using only the shock intensity induced in the explosive. Finally, the results were generalized for various explosive compositions and led to the development of a possible mechanism for shock initiation. (author) [French] Lorsqu'une onde de choc est induite dans un explosif, elle peut y amorcer des reactions chimiques qui conduisent plus ou moins rapidement a un regime de detonation stable. Dans cette etude, on s'est interesse plus particulierement a la phase transitoire dans laquelle on a evalue l'accroissement de la vitesse d'onde, de la pression et de la conductibilite electrique. L'influence du milieu amont, au contact de l'explosif, a egalement fait l'objet de recherches experimentales de facon a determiner dans quelle mesure on pouvait s'affranchir de sa nature et, par suite, caracteriser les conditions d'initiation par la seule intensite du choc induit dans l'explosif. Enfin, les resultats ont ete generalises a diverses compositions explosives et ont conduit a l'elaboration d'un schema possible du mecanisme de l'initiation par choc. (auteur)

  10. Mass-spectrometric analysis of trace oxygen in carbon dioxide; Analyse de traces d'oxygene dans le gaz carbonique par spectrometrie de masse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nief, G; Severin, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The mass spectrum of pure CO{sub 2} contains a peak of weight 32 whose relationship to peak at 44 varies greatly depending on the previous history of the source of ions and even during the course of an analysis. The fact that this peak is more or less proportional to the pressure and that its appearance potential is the same as that of oxygen leads us to suppose that it is produced from oxygen formed by dissociation of the carbon dioxide on the tungsten filament. A prior treatment of the ion source with acetylene reduces the ratio 32/44 to a value of about 15.10{sup -5}. This same treatment also stabilises the spectrometer's sensitivity to oxygen. Two lines of introduction enable pure carbon dioxide, the specimen to be estimated and a reference mixture of known oxygen content to be sent into the mass spectrometer in quick succession. Oxygen in the carbon dioxide in amounts ranging between 0 and 500 p.p.m. can thus be determined to an accuracy of {+-} 5 p.p.m., the analysis taking 30 minutes. (author) [French] Le spectre de masse de CO{sub 2} pur contient un pic de masse 32 dont le rapport au pic 44 varie enormement suivant l'histoire anterieure de la source d'ions et meme au cours d'une analyse. Le fait que ce pic soit grossierement proportionnel a la pression et que son potentiel d'apparition soit le meme que celui de l'oxygene permet de supposer qu'il est engendre a partir de l'oxygene produit par dissociation du gaz carbonique sur le filament de tungstene. Un conditionnement prealable de la source d'ions avec de l'acetylene reduit le rapport 32/44 a une valeur d'environ 15.10{sup -5}. Ce meme traitement stabilise egalement la sensibilite du spectrometre vis-a-vis de l'oxygene. Une double ligne d'introduction de gaz permet d'envoyer en successions rapides dans le spectrometre de masse le gaz carbonique pur, l'echantillon a doser et un melange de reference de teneur en oxygene connue. On arrive ainsi a doser l'oxygene dans le gaz carbonique dans la gamme de 0 a

  11. Characterization of junctions produced by medium-energy ion implantation in silicon; Caracterisation de jonctions obtenues par implantation d'ions de moyenne energie dans le silicium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monfret, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    Characteristics of diodes made by implanting 20 keV boron and phosphorus ions into silicon are reviewed. Special features of theses diodes are presented, and correlation with technology is studied. This paper includes three parts: - in the first part, the theory of range distribution is considered for both amorphous and single-crystal targets, - In the second part, a brief description of the experimental conditions is given. - In the third part, the experimental results are presented. The results lead to a schematic model of the component. They also show the influence of cleaning and annealing treatments from which optimized process of fabrication can be determined. In this study, the influence of a two stage annealing process is shown. For phosphorus and boron implants, the first stage is performed at 150 deg. C while the second stage is 450 deg. C for phosphorus and 550 deg. C for boron implants. The implanted diodes are found to exhibit good electrical characteristics. Comparisons with standard diffused diodes are quite favourable. (author) [French] On examine les caracteristiques de diodes obtenues par implantation d'ions bore et phosphore de 20 keV dans le silicium. On met en evidence le comportement particulier de ces diodes et on presente certaines correlations avec la technologie. L'expose comprend trois parties: - la premiere partie est consacree au calcul du profil de dopage en mode canalise ou non. - Dans la deuxieme partie, on decrit l'appareillage et les conditions experimentales d'implantation. - Dans la troisieme partie, on presente les resultats experimentaux. On propose un modele schematique pour expliquer le comportement des tenues en tension des diodes. L'etude des courants de fuite en fonction de la preparation des echantillons et des traitements thermiques permet de determiner des conditions optimales d'elaboration. Au cours de cette etude on met en evidence l'influence de deux stades de recuit: le premier a 150 deg. C pour les implantations de

  12. Application of neutron activation analysis to the study of impurities in molybdenum, tungsten and nuclear graphite; Application de l'analyse par activation neutronique a l'etude des impuretes dans le molybdene, le tungstene et le graphite nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinte, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-10-15

    A neutron activation method is described for the analysis of a maximum number of foreign elements in molybdenum, tungsten and graphite. The various elements are isolated using a systematic separation programme; the elements are subsequently analysed qualitatively and quantitatively using {gamma}-spectrometry. By this method are dosed 27 elements in molybdenum and tungsten, and 20 elements in graphite to which can be added those elements which are already the object of routine analysis: V, Mn, Si, P, S, Cl and 14 rare earths. (author) [French] On decrit une methode d'analyse par activation neutronique permettant de doser un maximum d'elements etrangers dans le molybdene, le tungstene et le graphite. En suivant un schema de separation systematique, on isole les differents elements dont les analyses qualitatives et quantitatives sont ensuite effectuees par spectrometrie {gamma}. Par cette methode, on dose 27 elements dans le molybdene et le tungstene, 20 elements dans le graphite, auxquels on peut encore ajouter les elements doses couramment: V, Mn, Si, P, S, Cl et 14 Terres Rares. (auteur)

  13. Les recherches menées par le Gaz de France dans le domaine de l'hydrogène Research on Hydrogen by Gaz de France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donat G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les besoins en énergie de l'humanité allant croissant et les ressources en combustibles de la Terre étant obligatoirement limitées, le temps viendra où la demande en hydrocarbures excédera la capacité mondiale de production; cette situation s'aggravera encore ultérieurement du fait de l'épuisement des réserves récupérables. Un recours massif aux énergies nucléaire et solaire semble donc indispensable et l'utilisation de l'hydrogène comme vecteur de ces énergies retient depuis quelques années l'attention, notamment en France où les ressources propres en pétrole sont faibles. Le Gaz de France a entrepris des recherches sur la production massive de l'hydrogène par décomposition de l'eau et vient de parvenir à des conclusions pessimistes quant à la compétitivité, par rapport à la voie électrolytique, de la filière utilisant des cycles thermochimiques. Par contre, l'électrolyse de l'eau offre des perspectives intéressantes à condition d'améliorer ses performances et son économie. D'autre part, des études concernant le stockage et le transport de l'hydrogène ont permis d'ores et déjà de tirer quelques conclusions dans ces domaines où les vecteurs gazeux disposent d'excellents atouts. With the increasing energy needs of mankind and the earth's necessarily limited resources of fuel, the time will come when the demand for hydrocarbons will exceed the world production capacity. This situation will subsequently get even worse becouse of the depletion of recoverable reserves. Massive recourse ta nuclear and solar energy thus appears indispensable, and the use of hydrogen as a vector for such energies has been under consideration for several years, especially in France where petroleum resources are very limited. Gaz de France has been doing research on the mass production of hydrogen by the decomposition of water and has just come ta rather pessimistic conclusions as ta the competitiveness of thermochemical processes in

  14. Computerized dosimetry management systems within EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daubert, G.

    1996-01-01

    EDF, using the ALARA approach, has embarked an ambitious project of optimising the doses received in its power plants. In directing its choice of actions and the effectiveness of such actions, the French operator is using a computerized personal and collective dosimetry management system. This system provides for ongoing monitoring of dosimetry at personal, site and unit level or indeed for the entire population of EDF nuclear power plants. (author)

  15. Synthesis of the arginine labelled by {sup 15}N on the amidine group; Synthese de l'arginine marquee par {sup 15}N dans le groupe amidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichat, L; Clement, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    For some biologic studies, it was necessarily to have (+) arginine marked by nitrogen 15 in the amidine group. This report describes the synthesis of the labelled arginine. The first step is the synthesis of the methyl-isourated hydro-chlorate, the intermediate reactive, from the ClNH{sub 4} isotope. The arginine is obtained from the ornithine which we previously blocked the amino group as cupric complex. The mean yield in arginine reaches 30%, based on the ammonium chloride uses. (M.B.) [French] Pour certaines etudes biologiques, il etait indispensable de disposer de (+) arginine marquee par l'azote 15 dans le groupement amidine. Ce rapport decrit la synthese de l'ariginine marquee. La premiere etape est la synthese du chlorhydrate de methylisouree, intermediaire reactif, a partir du ClNH{sub 4} isotopique. L'obtention de l'arginine est obtenue a partir de l'ornithine dont on a prealablement bloque le groupe amino sous forme de complexe cuivrique. Le rendement global moyen en arginine atteint 30 %, base sur le chlorure d'ammonium utilise. (M.B.)

  16. Re-enrichment of depleted uranium by passage through a gaseous diffusion installation; Reenrichissement de l'uranium appauvri par passage dans une installation de diffusion gazeuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagrange, P; Billous, O [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The reader will find in this paper an economic study of the re-utilization of depleted uranium from nuclear reactors, whether its content be above or under natural proportions. Re-utilization is possible either through bringing the depleted product up to its initial content of {sup 235}U by mixture with a richer concentrate, or else by passing it through a gaseous diffusion plant. The economic area of such re-utilization depends on a number of considerations. We give a general study of it, with reference to some typical gaseous diffusion facilities. (author)Fren. [French] Ce rapport examine au point de vue economique la reutilisation de l'uranium appauvri provenant des reacteurs nucleaires, qu'il soit indifferemment en dessus ou en dessous de la teneur naturelle. Cette reutilisation peut se faire soit en ramenant le produit a sa teneur initiale en isotope 235 par un melange convenable avec un concentre plus riche, soit en le faisant passer dans une usine de Diffusion Gazeuse. La zone de rentabilite de cette reutilisation depend de diverses conditions economiques. Elle est etudiee ci-dessous d'une maniere generale, puis en se referant a des installations-type de diffusion gazeuse. (auteur)

  17. Parálisis cerebral :

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrero Izquierdo, María del Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Se aborda el tema de la parálisis cerebral definiendo qué es, clasificando los tipos de parálisis dependiendo de la afectación y las características principales. Se explican algunos de sus tratamientos, se dan sistemas alternativos y/o aumentativos de comunicación para un alumno con PC (parálisis cerebral).

  18. Représentation de l’espace et du temps dans le modèle situationnel construit par un lecteur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Bestgen

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Depuis plus de vingt ans, un des défis majeurs de la psycholinguistique est de décrire la nature de la représentation mentale construite par un lecteur. Si cette question est à l’étude depuis tant d’années, c’est que, contrairement à d’autres processus comme l’accès lexical ou l’analyse syntaxique, la compréhension d’un texte est restée pendant longtemps un objet difficilement étudiable scientifiquement en raison du manque de rigueur dans sa définition et de l’absence de modèles suffisamment explicites. Tel n’est plus le cas aujourd’hui. Les chercheurs s’accordent, en effet, pourdéfinir la compréhension d’un texte comme la construction d’une représentation situationnelle qui combine les propositions extraites du texte à celles qui ont été réactivées en mémoire à long terme afin de constituer une représentation non du texte, mais de ce dont le texte parle. Parmi les multiples dimensions censées être représentées dans le modèle situationnel, l’espace et le temps sont certainement ceux qui ont retenu le plus d’attention. L’objet du présent travail est de confronter nos connaissances à propos du rôle de ceux-ci lors de la construction du modèle situationnel. Une telle analyse semble particulièrement fructueuse parce que le temps et l’espace ont été étudiés selon deux points de vues différents et pourtant complémentaires. L’étude du temps s’est focalisée principalement sur les moyens linguistiques permettant d’exprimer celui-ci dans les textes (p. ex. les adverbiaux temporels et sur leur impact lors de la compréhension. Par contre, la manière dont les informations spatiales sont présentées dans un texte a retenu bien peu l’attention au profit de la question de savoir si et comment la multidimensionnalité de l’espace peut être reconstruite par le lecteur sur la base de la linéarité d’un texte. Un des objectifs spécifiques de ce travail est de proposer, sur

  19. Microscopie par rayons X dans la fenêtre de l'eau : faisabilité et intérêt pour la biologie d'un instrument de laboratoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, J. F.; Moy, J. P.

    2005-06-01

    La biologie étudie des structures ou des phénomènes sub-cellulaires. Pour cela la microscopie est la technique d'observation privilégiée. La résolution spatiale de la microscopie optique s'avère bien souvent insuffisante pour de telles observations. Les techniques plus résolvantes, comme la microscopie électronique par transmission sont souvent destructrices et d'une complexité peu adaptée aux besoins des biologistes. La microscopie par rayons X dans la fenêtre de l'eau permet l'imagerie rapide de cellules dans leur milieu naturel, nécessite peu de préparation et offre des résolutions de quelques dizaines de nanomètres. De plus, il existe un bon contraste naturel entre les structures carbonées (protéines, lipides) et l'eau. Actuellement cette technique est limitée aux centres de rayonnement synchrotron, ce qui impose une planification et des déplacements incompatibles avec les besoins de la biologie. Un tel microscope fonctionnant avec uns source de laboratoire serait d'une grande utilité. Ce document présente un état de l'art de la microscopie par rayons X dans la fenêtre de l'eau. Un cahier des charges détaillé pour un appareil de laboratoire ayant les performances optiques requises par les biologistes est présenté et confronté aux microscopes X de laboratoire déjà existants. Des solutions concernant la source et les optiques sont également discutées.

  20. Some magnetic resonance properties of solutions of sodium in liquid ammonia; Contribution a l'etude des solutions de sodium dans l'ammoniac liquide par resonance magnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-02-01

    Dilute solutions of sodium in liquid ammonia are studied by the mean of dynamic polarization techniques, and with the aid of Becker Lindquist and Alder model. Paramagnetic shifts are computed as a function of the 'average spin density', for each of the nuclear spin system. The nuclear contributions to the Overhauser shift are computed in the same way. A theoretical study of the main relaxation processes is carried out for each of the nuclear spin system and for the electronic spin system. The dynamic polarization experiments consist in classical measurement of the Overhauser enhancement for nitrogen, and in direct measurements of nitrogen Knight shift and nuclear contributions to the Overhauser shift by the mean of double irradiation techniques. The results show that, in dilute solutions, the relaxation of nitrogen arises from quadrupole interaction and from hyperfine interaction with unpaired electrons. Both interactions are of the same order of magnitude. Overhauser shift measurements show that the spin density is negative at the proton site, in agreement with Hughes results. (author) [French] Les solutions diluees de sodium dans l'ammoniac sont etudiees au moyen des techniques de la polarisation dynamique, sur la base du modele de Becker Lindquist et Aider. Les deplacements paramagnetiques des raies de resonance nucleaire des differents noyaux sont analyses en faisant appel a la notion de ''densite moyenne de spin'' introduite par l'auteur; et les differentes contributions nucleaires au deplacement d'Overhauser sont calculees en fonction de cette meme grandeur. Une etude theorique de la relaxation de chaque systeme de spin permet d'evaluer l'importance relative des differents mecanismes mis en jeu. Les experiences de polarisation dynamique effectuees au cours de ce travail consistent en mesures classiques de l'effet Overhauser sur l'azote, d'une part, et en la mise en oeuvre de techniques originales pour mesurer le deplacement de Knight de l'azote et les

  1. Migration-Velocity Analysis for Ti and Orthorhombic Background Media Analyse de vitesse par migration dans les cas de milieux environnantsTI et orthorhombiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikelle L. T.

    2006-12-01

    migration instead of using directly. Il est essentiel de connaître le modèle de vitesse du milieu environnant pour effectuer la description précise du réservoir que l'on veut obtenir par imagerie et par inversion. Les méthodes conventionnelles permettant de reconstituer le modèle de vitesse de fond, telles que les méthodes de vitesse migratoire, supposent souvent une sous-surface isotrope et peuvent donner des descriptions de réservoirs manquant de précisions lorsque la sous-surface contient des formations de roches anisotropes. Nous généralisons ici le concept de vitesse migratoire en permettant à la vitesse de fond d'être transversalement isotrope (TI par rapport à l'axe vertical ou orthorhombique. Cette méthode consiste à scanner différents modèles de vitesse anisotropes à l'aide d'une migration à décalage de phases et de sélectionner des paramètres anisotropes sur la base des variations d'amplitude des résultats migrés (analyse par focalisation. Sachant que le modèle de vitesse de fond anisotrope est généralement décrit par plusieurs coefficients d'élasticité, il importe d'adopter une procédure de scannage efficace. Nous avons choisi de travailler sur des sections azimutales communes. Pour une section azimutale commune donnée, nous avons effectué une analyse continue de deux paramètres : la vitesse normale de déplacement et le paramètre anisotrope connu sous le nom d'anellipticité. Ces deux balayages nous permettent de reconstituer un modèle de vitesse azimutalement isotrope. L'opération est ensuite répétée pour différentes sections azimutales communes ; chacune d'entre elles donne un nouveau modèle de vitesse azimutalement isotrope si le support est azimutalement anisotrope. Le nombre de sections azimutales communes, et par conséquent le nombre de modèles de vitesse azimutalement isotropes nécessaires pour reconstituer un modèle de vitesse azimutalement anisotrope, dépend du type de symétries. Par exemple, il faut

  2. Measurement of the production of K{sup +} mesons by protons in nuclei (1960); Mesure de la production des mesons K{sup +} par des protons dans les noyaux (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teiger, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    K{sup +} mesons produced by the internal proton beam of Saturne have been identified by means of scintillation and Cerenkov counters. The production cross sections are given per target nucleus measured at a laboratory angle of 35 deg. as well as the cross section relative to {pi}{sup +} mesons of the same momentum for: - incident protons of kinetic energy between 1.3 and 2.8 GeV, - targets of C, Cu and Pb, - K{sup +} produced with kinetic energies between 0.45 and 0.65 GeV. From these results we have tried to deduce the importance of indirect production by intermediate {pi} mesons with respect to direct production by proton-nucleon collisions. (author) [French] Au moyen de detecteurs a scintillations et a rayonnement Cerenkov, on a identifie les mesons lourds K{sup +} produits par les protons du faisceau interne de 'Saturne'. On donne les sections efficaces de production, par noyau cible, mesurees a 35 deg. dans le laboratoire, ainsi que les sections efficaces relatives par rapport aux mesons {pi}{sup +} de meme impulsion pour: - des protons incidents d'energie cinetique entre 1,3 GeV et 2,8 GeV, - des cibles de C, de Cu et de Pb, - des K{sup +} produits avec des energies cinetiques entre 0,45 et 0,65 GeV. De ces resultats, on a essaye de deduire l'importance de la production indirecte, par mesons {pi} intermediaires, par rapport a la production directe dans un choc proton-nucleon. (auteur)

  3. EDF - Electricite de France, 2007 annual Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. This document is EDF Group's annual Results for 2007. It is made of several reports: the 2007 Annual Results presentation, the 2007 Financial Report, the press releases for the first and third quarters 2007 quarterly financial information, the 2007 Half-year results presentation, the Management Report for the first half 2007, and the consolidated financial statements at 30 June 2007

  4. EDF - Electricite de France, 2009 annual Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. This document is EDF Group's annual Results for 2009. It is made of several reports: The Annual Results press release, the 2009 Annual Results presentation and its appendices of the presentation the press releases for the first and third quarters 2009 quarterly financial information, the presentation of the Sales for the 3rd quarter 2009, the 2009 Half-year results presentation, the Financial Report for the first half 2009

  5. EDF - Electricite de France, 2008 annual Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. This document is EDF Group's annual Results for 2008. It is made of several reports: The Annual Results press release, the 2008 Annual Results presentation, the 2008 Financial Report, the press releases for the first and third quarters 2008 quarterly financial information, the 2008 Half-year results presentation, the Financial Report for the first half 2008

  6. EDF - Electricite de France, 2006 annual Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. This document is EDF Group's annual Results for 2006. It is made of several reports: the 2006 Annual Results presentation, the 2006 Financial Report, the press releases for the first and third quarters 2006 quarterly financial information, the 2006 Half-year results presentation, the Management Report for the first half 2006, and the consolidated financial statements at 30 June 2006

  7. Study by electron spin resonance of the free radicals created under irradiation in glycine; Etude par la technique de resonance paramagnetique electronique des radicaux crees sous irradiation dans la glycine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomet, P; Rassat, A; Servoz-Gavin, P; Choudens, H de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The free radicals created by different radiations in glycine are measured by electron spin resonance and their number is evaluated in function of the absorbed dose. This number decreases when the LET of the radiations increases ; in other words,high LET radiations gives less radiochemical effects; in contrary with the fact that high LET radiations creates more damage in biological materials. The decreasing with time of the number of free radicals and the speed of this decrease is a function of temperature; by the study of the kinetics of this decrease, an attempt has been made to prove the presence of three radicals. (authors) [French] Les radicaux crees par divers rayonnements dans la glycine sont detectes par resonance paramagnetique electronique et leur nombre est evalue en fonction de la dose. Ce nombre varie dans le sens inverse du T.E.L moyen, c'est-a-dire que les rayonnements de T.E.L eleves donnent des effets radiochimiques plus petits alors que les effets radiobiologiques sont importants avec des T.E.L eleves. La decroissance dans le temps du nombre de radicaux est observee et la vitesse de diminution des radicaux est liee a la temperature. Etudiant la cinetique de recombinaison, on peut faire l'hypothese de l'existence de 3 radicaux. (auteurs)

  8. EDF plan for a dispersant injection trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, Stephane; Corredera, Geraldine; Alves-Vieira, Maria; Mansour, Carine; You, Dominique

    2012-09-01

    In its strategy for SG fouling control, EDF is considering the use of dispersant as a preventive remedy. A trial on Golfech 2 started in May 2012. The dispersant selected for the trial is Polyacrylic Acid (PAA). The main goals of the test are to check and quantify the gain on iron transport to blowdown, to evaluate the possible effects on secondary side chemistry and the operational costs of the injection - reactant, ion exchange resins and filters. The results of the test, if satisfying, will be used to set EDF strategy for dispersant long term use on its fleet. So, one concern about the trial is to make sure that the conclusions of this test will be applicable to a wide range of EDF plants. For that purpose, several criteria have been examined for the choice of the candidate plant such as fouling level, secondary circuit materials (presence or absence of copper alloys,...), SG tube material, thermal power margin, secondary side chemistry (amine used and pH applied). Before starting the trial, EDF had to take into account the international feedback and to adapt it to its specific requirements: the neutralization amine was switched from ETA to morpholine, additional work had been completed to validate the innocuousness of PAA injection for EDF plants... This work especially includes laboratory testing of secondary side corrosion cracking in the presence of PAA and water chemistries used in EdF plants. Moreover, investigation on the thermal stability of PAA and degradation products was completed and further evaluation of environmental impact was performed. A dedicated skid for the injection of PAA was implemented in Golfech Chemicals injection room. The installation and the process were notably designed to take into account the high viscosity of the commercial product, and the need to proceed to a good rinsing of the pipes without increasing the discharged effluents. The first available data from Golfech 2 trial are also provided and discussed. (authors)

  9. Group EDF annual report 2005 sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    The EDF Group's Sustainable Development Report for 2005 is designed to report on Group commitments particularly within its Agenda 21, its ethical charter, and the Global Compact. It has also been prepared with reference to external reference frameworks: the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines and the French New Economic Regulations (NRE) contained in the May 15, 2001 French law. It contents the Chairman's statement, the evaluation of renewing and sharing commitments with all stakeholders, the managing local issues, EDF responses to the challenges of the future. Indicators are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  10. 2003 annual results of EdF group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    The Electricite de France (EdF) group Board of Directors, meeting on March 11, 2004, under the Chairmanship of Francois Roussely, reviewed the audited consolidated financial statements for the year ended 12/31/2003. This document presents the consolidated results of EdF group for 2003: consolidated financial statements, highlights of the year, focus on 2003 events, commercial results, EDF in Europe and worldwide, EDF France highlights, key figures. (J.S.)

  11. Perspectives de développement de la production industrielle d'hydrogène par électrolyse alcaline avancée Development Outlook for Industrial Hydrogen Production by Advanced Alkaline Electrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Derive C.; Pottier J.; Montet A.; Avallet M.; Robin J. -Y.

    2006-01-01

    Dans les conditions du développement du programme nucléaire français qui permettent une production d'électricité à un coût intéressant en heures creuses, la production d'hydrogène par électrolyse de l'eau peut être envisagée à moyen terme en compétition avec les autres procédés de fabrication d'hydrogène tels que le reformage de gaz naturel. Dans le cadre de leur coopération, Électricité de France (EDF) et le Gaz de France (GDF) conduisent, depuis 1976, un programme de recherches et développe...

  12. Recherche documentaire par titrage automatique

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez , Cédric; Prince , Violaine; Roche , Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    Nous proposons dans cet article un système facilitant la recherche d'information dans un ensemble de documents textuels, basé sur le titrage (et sous-titrage) automatique. Ce dernier peut se révéler crucial, par exemple, dans le cadre de la problématique de l'accessibilité des pages web (norme W3C). Notre processus de titrage automatique consiste à extraire des syntagmes nominaux pertinents dans les textes, pouvant constituer des titres ou sous-titres candidats. Une approche originale combina...

  13. Radioactive waste management at EDF plants: General overview and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debes, M.; Bordier, M.

    2001-01-01

    During the last fifteen years a significant decrease in solid radioactive waste generated by nuclear power plants of Electricite de France (EDF) has taken place. Technology used by EDF is described, with emphasis on innovative technologies. Experience and lessons learned are described showing how EDF has responded to meet increasingly stringent regulations for radioactive waste management. (author)

  14. Main results obtained in France in the development of the gaseous diffusion process for uranium isotope separation; Principaux resultats obtenus en France dans les etudes sur la separation des isotopes de l'uranium par diffusion gazeuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frejacques, C; Bilous, O; Dixmier, J; Massignon, D; Plurien, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The main problems which occur in the study of uranium isotope separation by the gaseous diffusion process, concern the development of the porous barrier, the corrosive nature of uranium hexafluoride and also the chemical engineering problems related to process design and the choice of best plant and stage characteristics. Porous barriers may be obtained by chemical attack of non porous media or by agglomeration of very fine powders. Examples of these two types of barriers are given. A whole set of measurement techniques were developed for barrier structure studies, to provide control and guidance of barrier production methods. Uranium hexafluoride reactivity and corrosive properties are the source of many difficult technological problems. A high degree of plant leak tightness must be achieved. This necessity creates a special problem in compressor bearing design. Barrier lifetime is affected by the corrosive properties of the gas, which may lead to a change of barrier structure with time. Barrier hexafluoride permeability measurements have helped to make a systematic study of this point. Finally an example of a plant flowsheet, showing stage types and arrangements and based on a minimisation of enriched product costs is also given as an illustration of some of the chemical engineering problems present. (author) [French] Les principaux problemes qui se sont poses dans l'etude de la separation des isotopes de l'uranium par diffusion gazeuse, sont ceux relatifs a l'obtention de barrieres poreuses, ceux lies a l'utilisation de l'hexafluorure d'uranium, enfin les problemes de genie chimique relatifs au procede et a l'agencement optimum des etages et des cascades entre elles. On peut obtenir des barrieres poreuses soit par attaque de membranes pleines, soit par agglomeration de poudres de petites dimensions. Des exemples de ces deux types de barrieres seront donnes. L'etude des proprietes de texture des barrieres obtenues, necessaire pour orienter les recherches de

  15. EDF, the 2003-2007 project; EDF, le projet 2003-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This brochure presents the 2003-2007 project of Electricite de France (EdF) in the framework of the opening of European energy markets. The aim of this project is to take over the present day contract of EdF with the French government in order to become an anonymous company. The wish of F. Roussely, president of EdF, is to open and increase the capital of the company but also to fulfill its public utility missions. The stake of EdF is to stay competitive, to become a European energy leader, to stay an integrated company combining production, transport, distribution and commercialization, and finally to maintain its historical public utility standards: specific tariff conditions and services for low income people, financing of renewable energy projects. (J.S.)

  16. Determination of local boiling in light water reactors by correlation of the neutron noise; Determination de l'ebullition locale dans les reacteurs a eau legere par correlation du bruit neutronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwingelstein, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The power limit of swimming-pool type reactors depends on the phenomenon of the appearance of burn-out. In order to determine this limit we have attempted to detect the local boiling which usually occurs before the burn out. Local boiling has been simulated by an electrically heated plate placed in the core of the reactor Siloette. The study of local boiling, which is based on the properties of the correlation functions for the neutron noise of detectors placed in the core, shows that a privileged frequency occurs in the power spectrum of the noise. It is intended in the future to determine the influence of various parameters on this characteristic frequency. (author) [French] La limitation de la puissance des reacteurs nucleaires de type piscine est due au phenomene d'apparition de 'burn out'. Pour determiner cette limitation, nous nous sommes proposes dans ce rapport de detecter l'ebullition locale qui apparait generalement avant le 'burn out'. L'ebullition locale a ete simulee par une plaque chauffee electriquement et placee dans le coeur du reacteur SILOETTE. L'etude de l'ebullition locale, qui est basee sur les proprietes des fonctions de correlation du bruit neutronique de detecteurs places clans le coeur, fait apparaitre une frequence privilegiee dans le spectre de puissance du bruit. On envisage dans l'avenir, de determiner l'influence des divers parametres sur cette frequence caracteristique. (auteur)

  17. The EDF group and the sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document deals with the management policy of the EDF Group, concerning the sustainable development. The program is presented showing the Group will to contribute to an environmental quality: a control of the activities impact on the environment, the development of the renewable energies, the solidarity and the electric power access development in developing countries. (A.L.B.)

  18. To EDF: PHOEBUS, computer-assisted engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecocq, P.; Goudal, J.C.; Barache, J.M.; Feingold, D.; Cornon, P.

    1986-01-01

    EDF has built a modular integrated computer-assisted nuclear engineering (CAE) system called POEBUS. Since 1975, the Organization has been interested in CAE which places computer methods and technology at the disposal of the engineering department. This paper describes the changes and their effect on the techniques in use, working methods and the personnel called on to put them into operation [fr

  19. Quels sont les problemes ethiques souleves par l’augmentation des capacites cognitives dans le cadre de la defense : cadre legal francais, position ethique du service de sante des armees francais

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    révolution actuelle des neurosciences qui répond à celle de la psychopharmacologie qui s’est déroulée dans les années 1950-70. Voir le cerveau fonctionner...c’est aussi profiler le cerveau d’un individu sur une antienne au détriment de sa capacité multimodale de décoder le monde. Le prix à payer...disponibilité en énergie au niveau du cerveau . Par ailleurs, certains compléments alimentaires ont été identifiés comme ayant des conséquences sur la

  20. EDF specifications on nuclear grade resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarenhas, Darren; Gressier, Frederic; Taunier, Stephane; Le-Calvar, Marc; Ranchoux, Gilles; Marteau, Herve; Labed, Veronique

    2012-09-01

    Ion exchange resins are widely used across EDF, especially within the nuclear division for the purification of water. Important applications include primary circuit, secondary circuit and effluent treatment, which require high quality nuclear grade resins to retain the dissolved species, some of which may be radioactive. There is a need for more and more efficient purification in order to decrease worker dose during maintenance but also to decrease volumes of radioactive resin waste. Resin performance is subject to several forms of degradation, including physical, chemical, thermal and radioactive, therefore appropriate resin properties have to be selected to reduce such effects. Work has been done with research institutes, manufacturers and on EDF sites to select these properties, create specifications and to continuously improve on these specifications. An interesting example of research regarding resin performance is the resin degradation under irradiation. Resins used in the CVCS circuit of EDF nuclear power plants are subject to irradiation over their lifetime. A study was carried out on the effects of total integrated doses of 0.1, 1 and 10 MGy on typically used EDF mixed bed resins in a 'mini-CVCS' apparatus to simultaneously test actual primary circuit fluid. The tests confirmed that the resins still perform efficiently after a typical CVCS radiation dose. Certain resins also need additional specifications in order to maintain the integrity of the particular circuits they are used in. Recently, EDF has updated its requirements on these high purity nuclear grade resins, produced generic doctrines for all products and materials used on site which include resins of all grades, and as a result have also updated a guide on recommended resin usage for the French fleet of reactors. An overview of the evolutions will be presented. (authors)

  1. EDF Group - Annual Report 2014. The people who power tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The EDF Group is the world's leading electricity company and very well established in Europe. Its business covers all electricity-related activities, from generation to networks and commerce. It is an important player in energy trading through EDF trading. This document is EDF Group's annual report for the year 2014. It contains information about Group profile, governance, business, development strategy, sales and marketing, positions in Europe and international activities. The document is made of several reports: the Activity and Sustainable Development Report, the 'EDF at a glance' report, and the EDF Group Performance sheet

  2. Cycle annuel d'activité de la truite commune (Salmo trutta L. adulte : Étude par radio-pistage dans un cours d'eau de l'Ardenne belge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OVIDIO M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Sur une durée totale d'expérience de vingt-six mois, vingt truites (26,0-57,0 cm LF ; 198-1 685 g ont été quotidiennement suivies par radio-pistage dans l'Aisne (affluent de l'Ourthe durant des périodes variant de 466 à 16 jours selon les individus et les contraintes techniques expérimentales, notamment la durée de vie des batteries. Il apparaît que l'amplitude et la fréquence des mouvements sont le plus élevées d'octobre à décembre, pendant la période de reproduction. Les migrations vers l'amont (max. : 25 km ont principalement lieu en octobre et pendant la première quinzaine de novembre et sont déclenchées par des variations combinées du niveau d'eau et de la température, dans une gamme thermique précise (10°C à 14°C. Le frai (de la deuxième quinzaine de novembre à la fin décembre a lieu dans le cours principal (largeur maximale : 10 m ou dans de petits affluents. Les truites qui survivent effectuent un homing post-reproducteur rapide (max. : 9 200 m en 24 h et précis. En dehors du contexte de la reproduction, les déplacements sont moins longs et correspondent essentiellement à des changements alternés de gîtes dans un domaine vital bien défini dont la longueur est corrélée avec la taille des truites. En mars et juin, certaines truites effectuent des migrations unidirectionnelles de grande amplitude vers l'amont dont la signification biologique est inconnue. Les résultats sont discutés dans le contexte des stratégies de vie de la truite et de la gestion des populations.

  3. Measurement of the quantity of water in organic solvents by infrared absorption an measurement of the dielectric constants; Dosage de l'eau dans les solvants organiques par absorption infra-rouge et mesure des constantes dielectriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desnoyer, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-06-15

    Some chemical methods for the analysis of the quantity of water in solvents are first described, their object being the determination of the maximum error for cases where the water content is less than 1 per cent. - The first part of the work consists in describing infrared spectrometry as applied to the analysis of water in carbon tetrachloride, chloroform aniline, acetone and dioxane. A method based on isotopic exchange between heavy and light water is used on the one hand for determining the solubility of water in carbon tetrachloride and on the other hand for establishing standard solutions (sensitivity of the method). - In the second part the dielectric constant of water solvent solutions is measured. A table is presented giving the precision obtained by the two principal methods. These are comparable and further than that the appearance of the spectra suggests an interpretation of the anomalies observed in calibration curves obtained by the dielectric constant method. (author) [French] Quelques methodes chimiques d'analyses de l'eau dissoute dans les solvants sont decrites tout d'abord en vue de determiner l'erreur maxima dans le cas ou la teneur en eau ne depasse pas 1 pour cent. - Une premiere partie du travail expose la technique utilisee en spectrometrie infrarouge pour doser l'eau dans le tetrachlorure de carbone, chloroforme, aniline, acetone et le dioxane. Une methode basee sur l'echange isotopique entre l'eau legere et l'eau lourde permet de determiner d'une part la solubilite de l'eau dans le tetrachlorure de carbone et le chloroforme et d'autre part le titre en valeur absolue des solutions etalons (sensibilite de la methode). - Dans une deuxieme partie, on mesure la constante dielectrique des solutions eau-solvant. On dresse un tableau des precisions obtenues par les deux methodes principales. Celles-ci sont comparables et en outre, l'aspect du spectre suggere une interpretation des anomalies observees dans les courbes d'etalonnage tracees par la

  4. Some particular aspects of control in nuclear power reactors; Quelques aspects particuliers du controle dans les piles atomiques de puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furet, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Pupponi, J [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1964-07-01

    les differents laboratoires du Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et de l'Electricite de France. A - Dans le domaine de l'instrumentation, ces etudes portent actuellement sur les technologies utilisees pour le developpement des detecteurs et cables susceptibles de fonctionner a haute temperature; sous rayonnement {gamma} eleve - et sur les techniques d'electronique rapide appliquees aux chambres a fissions qui permettent de faire des mesures de flux neutronique sous rayonnement {gamma} eleve (105 R/h). B - Dans le domaine general du controle et de la securite, les difficultes de redemarrage liees aux empoisonnements par les produits de fission conduisent a des etudes approfondies sur le comportement du reacteur en regime sous-critique. Les perturbations apportees aux mesures neutroniques par le mouvement des barres de controle necessitent une nouvelle organisation des chaines de mesure et de securite neutronique faisant intervenir au niveau de puissance des parametres correcteurs tels que: puissance thermique, temperature, activation Azote 16. En ce qui concerne les demarrages rapides, deux methodes nouvelles sont decrites liees essentiellement a la mesure du taux de fissions en fonction du temps, soit dans le cas d'une liberation continue a vitesse constante et elevee de reactivite, soit dans le cas d'une liberation de reactivite par paliers. Par ailleurs, l'application des techniques de deplacement automatique des detecteurs dans le cas des demarrages normaux semblent apporter une solution rationnelle au controle et a la securite. C - Dans le cadre des techniques ci-dessus, on decrit les dispositifs retenus pour la mesure et le controle de la puissance de la pile EDF III. (auteurs)

  5. PROTEINES Les oléagineux dans le contexte de la substitution des protéines animales par les protéines végétales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasquet Olivier de

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available La suspension de l’utilisation des farines de viandes en alimentation animale, décidée par l’Union européenne le 4 décembre 2000, se traduit à court terme par une augmentation des importations de tourteaux de soja en provenance du continent américain. Mais à moyen terme, les fabricants d’aliments pour animaux seront sans doute amenés à accroître dans leurs formules - pour des raisons commerciales autant que logistiques - la part des matières premières produites localement. Les tourteaux des graines oléagineuses cultivées en Europe représentent le principal élément de réponse à cette demande potentielle. Il est vrai que la réforme de l’Agenda 2000 n’encourage guère, au moins dans un premier temps, les agriculteurs européens à développer ces productions. C’est pourquoi le réexamen à mi-parcours de cette réforme, prévu pour 2002/2003, constitue un enjeu essentiel.

  6. Modifier le cadre participatif pour résoudre un problème client : exemples d’ajustement opéré par les professionnels dans les interactions en centre d’appels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colón De Carvajal Isabel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Si, dans les interactions de service en centre d’appels, la conversation principale est celle engagée entre l’appelant et l’appelé, une multitude d’autres interactions caractérise le travail des opérateurs. Cet article présente une étude linguistique sur les interactions entre les opérateurs du centre d’appels LocBike, qui propose l’accès à des vélos en libre service dans une grande ville française, et les clients, qui empruntent ces vélos et appellent le centre en cas de problèmes. Ces interactions ont la particularité d’être menées autour d’objets technologiques, afin d’interagir avec le client et traiter son dossier. L’accès à cet environnement d’interactions téléphoniques médiées par ordinateur permet d’analyser la résolution du problème client du point de vue de l’opérateur, et d’observer que ce travail se réalise parfois en collaboration avec son collègue co-présent dans son environnement immédiat. Les professionnels opèrent alors des ajustements par rapport au dispositif de communication, ou s’ajustent eux-mêmes à ce dispositif, pendant l’interaction principale avec le client, ce qui tend à modifier le cadre participatif. L’objectif de notre travail est d’analyser les pratiques des professionnels lors de modifications du cadre participatif, et ce, dans le but de résoudre un problème client. A travers des exemples de collaboration, nous étudierons les formes d’ajustement que les professionnels mettent en place par rapport au dispositif de communication, modifiant ainsi temporairement le cadre participatif.

  7. Contribution to the study of the evolution of radiation induced He in Be O; Etudes sur l'evolution de l'helium produit par reactions nucleaires dans l'oxyde de beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bareau, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-11-15

    The purpose of this work in-pile investigation of He formed by (n, 2n) and (n, {alpha}) nuclear reactions, released from irradiated BeO, in the temperature range 1000 - 1350 deg. C. The experimental results show that, for an instantaneous neutron fast flux of 10{sup 13} n cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}, an equilibrium is attempted, after several days, for a part lower than 20 per cent of the quantity of He formed, theoretically calculated from the neutron cross sections of nuclear reactions, and from the analytical form of the neutron fast flux, releases from the solid. The validity of the values of calculated helium and the gas chromatographic analytical method are also verified by dissolution of the BeO pellets in cryolite. A new fast neutron flux measuring method may be so defined. The discussion of the experimental results enables to establish that the processus of He release is characterized by two phenomena: the first one which controls the release of He atoms out of the solid and the second which reveals a capture processus, connected to the irradiation and probably due to the vacancies induced in the lattice. (author) [French] On etudie en pile le degagement de l'helium forme par reactions nucleaires (n, 2 n) et (n, {alpha}) dans l'oxyde de beryllium irradie entre 1000 et 1350 deg. C. Les resultats experimentaux montrant que, pour un flux rapide instantane de 10{sup 13} n{sub r} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, on aboutit, au bout de quelques jours, a un etat d'equilibre pour lequel une partie, inferieure a 20 pour cent de la quantite d'helium forme, calculee theoriquement a partir des sections efficaces des reactions nucleaires et de la forme analytique du flux rapide, s'echappe du solide. On verifie egalement par dissolution des echantillons de BeO dans la cryolithe la validite du calcul de l'helium et de la methode de dosage par chromatographie en phase gazeuse. On peut ainsi definir une methode nouvelle de mesure des flux rapides. La discussion des resultats experimentaux

  8. Contribution to the study of the evolution of radiation induced He in Be O; Etudes sur l'evolution de l'helium produit par reactions nucleaires dans l'oxyde de beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bareau, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-11-15

    The purpose of this work in-pile investigation of He formed by (n, 2n) and (n, {alpha}) nuclear reactions, released from irradiated BeO, in the temperature range 1000 - 1350 deg. C. The experimental results show that, for an instantaneous neutron fast flux of 10{sup 13} n cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}, an equilibrium is attempted, after several days, for a part lower than 20 per cent of the quantity of He formed, theoretically calculated from the neutron cross sections of nuclear reactions, and from the analytical form of the neutron fast flux, releases from the solid. The validity of the values of calculated helium and the gas chromatographic analytical method are also verified by dissolution of the BeO pellets in cryolite. A new fast neutron flux measuring method may be so defined. The discussion of the experimental results enables to establish that the processus of He release is characterized by two phenomena: the first one which controls the release of He atoms out of the solid and the second which reveals a capture processus, connected to the irradiation and probably due to the vacancies induced in the lattice. (author) [French] On etudie en pile le degagement de l'helium forme par reactions nucleaires (n, 2 n) et (n, {alpha}) dans l'oxyde de beryllium irradie entre 1000 et 1350 deg. C. Les resultats experimentaux montrant que, pour un flux rapide instantane de 10{sup 13} n{sub r} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, on aboutit, au bout de quelques jours, a un etat d'equilibre pour lequel une partie, inferieure a 20 pour cent de la quantite d'helium forme, calculee theoriquement a partir des sections efficaces des reactions nucleaires et de la forme analytique du flux rapide, s'echappe du solide. On verifie egalement par dissolution des echantillons de BeO dans la cryolithe la validite du calcul de l'helium et de la methode de dosage par chromatographie en phase gazeuse. On peut ainsi definir une methode nouvelle de mesure des flux rapides. La

  9. Operation problems as viewed by EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheimanoff, Andre; Gaborit, Jean; Thom, Roger

    1983-01-01

    The installation of a plant such as Eurodif, whose power will reach, when fully operational, a maximum of 3,200 MW, and of a nuclear power plant of 4x900 MW, such as the one located in the Tricastin area, has considerable effects on the structure and operation of the EDF's network, both at the national and regional levels. The paper presents the situation regarding the Tricastin-Eurodif complex in the context of the EDF's network, the main operation problems that are encountered and the organization that had to be created to tackle these problems. Finally, it affords the opportunity to give an appreciation of the situation about the operation of the complex in 1982 [fr

  10. Group EDF at a glance 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    The EDF Group is a leading player in the European energy industry, present in all areas of the electricity value chain, from generation to trading, and increasingly active in the gas chain in Europe. 2005 was a crucial year for EDF: growth in sales and a doubling of net income, the opening of the capital, the stepping up of our strategic development plan focused on Europe, a new public service agreement in France. This document presents the main points of the group activities in 2005: the group profile, the growing of the group, the solid position in France (sales and marketing, production and global warming, the radioactive wastes management and the business), consolidating positions in Europe and the international activities by pursuing a selective strategy. (A.L.B.)

  11. New package systems for EDF recycling policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leboucher, I.; Michels, L.; Hugon, F.C. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France); Penoty, C. [EDF - Electricite de France (France); Froment, A. [COGEMA (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    Since the beginning of the nineties, EDF (Electricite France) has been carrying out a policy towards increasing burn-up. As a consequence and to keep energetic performances of the MOX (Mixed OXide uranium and plutonium) fresh fuel assemblies at parity with UO2 fuel, the concentration in plutonium increased up to 7.1%, soon up to 8.65% and even more. To take into account the increased dose rate and the increased thermal power of these MOX fresh fuels in the transportation system, COGEMA LOGISTICS designed, manufactured and licensed the MX8 package to replace the previous packaging. Simultaneously new high-secured transport system was developed. Due to the capacity of the reactor pool, the spent fuel assemblies must be evacuated with a short cooling time and high residual power. Because of the neutron source of these future MOX spent fuel assemblies, the TNa12/2 packaging, which has been in operation since 1980's to transport UO2 or MOX spent fuel to COGEMA La Hague, from EDF, other European and Japanese NPP lacks flexibility. COGEMA LOGISTICS is designing a new cask (TN trademark 112) to transport the future EDF MOX spent fuel assemblies. The TN trademark 112 has to comply with the 1996 edition of the IAEA transport regulations and with the transport and handling equipment presently used for the transport of spent fuel in France. It can be loaded with 12 assemblies, either MOX or UO2. This paper gives a description of two packages belonging to the new generation: - one for fresh MOX fuel assemblies transportation, used on EDF's power plants for MOX reloads, - one for spent MOX fuel assemblies transportation, presently under development with a first transport planned for mid-2007.

  12. New package systems for EDF recycling policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leboucher, I.; Michels, L.; Hugon, F.C.; Penoty, C.; Froment, A.

    2004-01-01

    Since the beginning of the nineties, EDF (Electricite France) has been carrying out a policy towards increasing burn-up. As a consequence and to keep energetic performances of the MOX (Mixed OXide uranium and plutonium) fresh fuel assemblies at parity with UO2 fuel, the concentration in plutonium increased up to 7.1%, soon up to 8.65% and even more. To take into account the increased dose rate and the increased thermal power of these MOX fresh fuels in the transportation system, COGEMA LOGISTICS designed, manufactured and licensed the MX8 package to replace the previous packaging. Simultaneously new high-secured transport system was developed. Due to the capacity of the reactor pool, the spent fuel assemblies must be evacuated with a short cooling time and high residual power. Because of the neutron source of these future MOX spent fuel assemblies, the TN 12/2 packaging, which has been in operation since 1980's to transport UO2 or MOX spent fuel to COGEMA La Hague, from EDF, other European and Japanese NPP lacks flexibility. COGEMA LOGISTICS is designing a new cask (TN trademark 112) to transport the future EDF MOX spent fuel assemblies. The TN trademark 112 has to comply with the 1996 edition of the IAEA transport regulations and with the transport and handling equipment presently used for the transport of spent fuel in France. It can be loaded with 12 assemblies, either MOX or UO2. This paper gives a description of two packages belonging to the new generation: - one for fresh MOX fuel assemblies transportation, used on EDF's power plants for MOX reloads, - one for spent MOX fuel assemblies transportation, presently under development with a first transport planned for mid-2007

  13. Perturbation analysis of cyclotron resonance in the electromagnetic field of a TE{sub 011} mode; Analyse par perturbation de la resonance cyclotronique dans le champ electromagnetique en mode TE{sub 011} mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreicer, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The motion of an electron orbiting under the combined action of a static magnetic field and the AC azimuthal electric field of a cylindrical TE{sub 011} mode is analyzed with help of a perturbation technique. The first and second order perturbation results indicate that at cyclotron resonance the electron's center of gyration oscillates slowly at right angles to the magnetic field between two turning points. We find that superimposed upon this nearly static Exb drift the electron cyclically undergoes the process of cyclotron absorption and induced emission. Our results indicate that it is possible to insure maser action (i.e. induced emission rather than absorption) without special preparation of the electron's velocity provided that the electron is introduced into the field in certain special regions of space pervaded by the TE mode. This is a case where over-population of the upper state is accomplished through 'pumping' in real space. The relation between an electron cyclotron resonance maser based upon this principle and one based upon the principle of velocity space pumping, due to Twiss, is examined. This treatment provides physical interpretations and verifies the numerical results found earlier by Le Gardeur. (author) [French] Le mouvement d'un electron soumis a l'action combinee d'un champ magnetique statique et d'un champ electrique haute frequence azimutal engendre dans une cavite cylindrique en mode TE{sub 011} est analyse a partir d'une methode de perturbation. Les resultats des perturbations au premier et deuxieme ordre indiquent qu'a la resonance cyclotronique, le centre de giration de l'electron oscille lentement dans le plan perpendiculaire au champ magnetique entre deux points de rebroussement. En plus de la derivee quasi-statique ExB, l'electron passe par des etats d'absorption et emission cyclotronique. Les resultats du calcul confirment la possibilite d'avoir une action maser (c'est-a-dire: emission au lieu d'absorption) sans que la vitesse des

  14. EDF - Electricite de France, 2012 annual Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. This document is EDF Group's annual Results for 2012. It is made of several reports: the Annual Results press release, the 2012 Annual Results presentation and its appendices, the transcript of the Analysts Conference, the Consolidated Financial Statements at 31 December 2012, the Statutory Auditors' report, the Management Report, the 3rd quarter 2012 Sales press release, the 3rd quarter 2012 Sales presentation with its appendices, updated presentation and transcript, the first quarter 2012 Sales press release, the first quarter 2012 Sales updated presentation and regulatory information with its appendices and transcript, The Half-year results press release, the 2012 Half-year results presentation with its appendices, the Consolidated financial statements at 30 June 2012, the Management Report for the first half 2012, the 2012 Half-year Statutory Auditors' reports, the transcript of the Investors and Analysts conference

  15. EDF - Electricite de France, 2014 annual Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. This document is EDF Group's annual Results for 2014. It is made of several reports: the Annual Results press release, the 2014 Annual Results presentation and its appendices, the transcript of the Investors and Analysts conference, the Consolidated financial statements at 31 December 2014, the Statutory Auditors' report, the 2014 Management report and Group results, the 2014 financial annual statements, the 3rd quarter 2014 Sales press release, the 3rd quarter 2014 Sales presentation with its appendices and transcript, the first quarter 2014 Sales press release, the first quarter 2014 Sales presentation with its appendices and transcript, the 2014 Half-year Results press release, the 2014 Half-year Results presentation and its appendices, the transcript of the Investors and Analysts conference, the Consolidated Financial Statements at 30 June 2014, the 2014 Half-year Statutory Auditors' report, the Financial Report for the first half 2014

  16. EDF - Electricite de France, 2010 annual Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. This document is EDF Group's annual Results for 2010. It is made of several reports: The Annual Results press release, the 2010 Annual Results presentation and its appendices, the 2010 Financial Report, the transcript of the analysts conference, the 3rd quarter 2010 sales press release, the 3rd quarter 2010 Sales presentation, the 3rd quarter 2010 Sales transcript, The first quarter 2010 Sales press release, the first quarter 2010 Sales presentation, the 2010 Half-year results press release, the 2010 Half-year results presentation and its appendices, the Consolidated financial statements at 30 June 2010, the Management Report for the first half 2010, the 2010 Half-year Statutory Auditors' report, the transcript of the Investors and Analysts conference

  17. EDF - Electricite de France, 2011 annual Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. This document is EDF Group's annual Results for 2011. It is made of several reports: The Annual Results press release, the 2011 Annual Results presentation and its appendices, the Consolidated Financial Statements at 31 December 2011, the Statutory Auditors' report, the Management Report, the first quarter 2011 Sales press release, the first quarter 2011 Sales presentation and its appendices and transcript, the 3rd quarter 2011 Sales press release, the 3rd quarter 2011 Sales presentation and its appendices, transcript, and transcription of the questions and answers, the Half-year results press release, the 2011 Half-year results presentation and its appendices, the transcript of the Investors and Analysts conference, the Consolidated financial statements at 30 June 2011, the Management Report for the first half 2011, the 2011 Half-year Statutory Auditors' report

  18. EDF - Electricite de France, 2016 annual Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. This document is EDF Group's annual Results for 2016. It is made of several reports: the Annual Results press release, the 2016 Group Annual Results presentation and its appendices, the 2016 Management report and Group results, the Consolidated Financial Statements at 31 December 2016, the Statutory Auditors' report, the transcript of the Investors and Analysts conference, the 3rd quarter 2016 presentation with its appendices and the transcript of the conference, the first quarter 2016 presentation with its appendices and the transcript of the conference, the 2016 Half-year results presentation with its appendices, the Financial Report for the first half 2016, the Consolidated Financial Statements at 30 June 2016, the 2016 Half-year Statutory Auditors' report, the transcript of the presentation to investors and analysts

  19. EDF - Electricite de France, 2013 annual Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. This document is EDF Group's annual Results for 2013. It is made of several reports: the Annual Results press release, the 2013 Annual Results presentation and its appendices, the Consolidated Financial Statements at 31 December 2013 and the Statutory Auditors' report, the Management Report, the transcript of the Analysts Conference, the 3rd quarter 2013 Sales press release, the 3rd quarter 2013 Sales presentation with its appendices and transcript, the first quarter 2013 Sales press release, the first quarter 2013 Sales presentation with its appendices and transcript, the 2013 Half-year results press release, the 2013 Half-year results presentation and its appendices, the Consolidated Financial Statements at 30 June 2013, the Management Report for the first half 2013, the 2013 Half-year Statutory Auditors' report, the transcript of the Investors and Analysts conference

  20. MOX use in PWRs. EDF operation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provost, Jean-Luc; Debes, Michel

    2011-01-01

    From the origin, EDF back-end fuel cycle strategy has focused on 'closing the fuel cycle', in other words integrating fuel reprocessing, with vitrification of high level waste concentrated within small volumes, and the recycling of valuable materials. The implementation of this policy was marked in 1987 by the first loading of sixteen MOX. By December 2010, 20 reactors have been loaded with 1750 tHM of MOX. EDF current strategy is to match the reprocessing program with MOX manufacturing capacity to limit the quantity of separated plutonium. This is routinely called the 'flow ad-equation' strategy. Currently, the MOX Parity core management achieves balance of MOX and UOX performance with a significant increase of the MOX discharge burn-up. Globally, the behavior under irradiation of MOX fuel assemblies has been satisfactory. So far, from the beginning of MOX use in EDF PWRs, only 6 MOX FAs with rod leakage have been identified, which gives a very satisfactory level of reliability. The industrial maturity of MOX fuel, with increased performances, allows the improvement of nuclear KWh competitiveness and of the plant operation performance, while maintaining in operation the same safety level, without significant impact on environment and radiological protection. (author)

  1. EDF - Electricite de France, 2017 annual Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. This document is EDF Group's annual Results for 2017. It is made of several reports: The annual Results press release, The annual Results presentation and its appendices, The financial report, The Consolidated Financial Statements at 31 December 2017, The Statutory Auditors' report, The transcript of the Investors and Analysts conference, The 3rd quarter 2017 results press release, the 3rd quarter 2017 results presentation and its appendices, The transcript of the Investors and Analysts conference, The first quarter 2017 results press release, The first quarter 2017 results presentation with its appendices, The transcript of the Investors and Analysts conference, The 2017 half-year results press release, The 2017 half-year results presentation with its appendices, The 2017 half-year financial report, The Consolidated Financial Statements at 30 June 2017, The 2017 half-year Statutory Auditors' report, The transcript of the Investors and Analysts conference

  2. EDF - Electricite de France, 2015 annual Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. This document is EDF Group's annual Results for 2015. It is made of several reports: the 2015 Annual Results presentation, the 2015 Management report and Group results, the Consolidated Financial Statements at 31 December 2015, the Statutory Auditors' report, the appendices of the Annual Results presentation, the transcript of the Investors and Analysts conference, the 3rd quarter 2015 Sales press release, the 3rd quarter 2015 Sales presentation and its appendices, the transcript of the Investors and Analysts conference call, the first quarter 2015 Sales press release, the first quarter 2015 Sales presentation and its appendices, the transcript of the Investors and Analysts conference call, the 2015 Half-year results press release, the 2015 Half-year results presentation with its appendices, the transcript of the Investors and Analysts conference, the Financial Report for the first half 2015, the Consolidated Financial Statements at 30 June 2015, the 2015 Half-year Statutory Auditors' report

  3. Hearing of Mr. Francois Roussely, President of EdF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussely, F.

    2005-01-01

    This document is the proceedings of the hearing of F. Roussely, President of Electricite de France (EdF), at the commission of economic affairs of the French house of commons, about the advisability of the construction of the EPR (European pressurized reactor) demonstration plant and about its possible financing by EdF. In a first part, F. Roussely recalls the European context of deregulation of energy markets and its impact of the French electric power industry (opening of the French market, industrial and social actions of EdF, need of a new generation of nuclear reactor, preservation of EdF's energy mix, warranty of public utility, un-bundling between energy trade and distribution, EdF's turnover and profitability, EdF's foreign daughter companies). In a second part, F. Roussely answers a series of questions asked by the different members of the commission concerning the different points presented in the first part. (J.S.)

  4. Group EDF annual report 2005 sustainable development; Groupe EDF rapport annuel 2005 developpement durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    The EDF Group's Sustainable Development Report for 2005 is designed to report on Group commitments particularly within its Agenda 21, its ethical charter, and the Global Compact. It has also been prepared with reference to external reference frameworks: the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines and the French New Economic Regulations (NRE) contained in the May 15, 2001 French law. It contents the Chairman's statement, the evaluation of renewing and sharing commitments with all stakeholders, the managing local issues, EDF responses to the challenges of the future. Indicators are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  5. Numerical analysis of resonances induced by s wave neutrons in transmission time-of-flight experiments with a computer IBM 7094 II; Methodes d'analyse des resonances induites par les neutrons s dans les experiences de transmission par temps de vol et automatisation de ces methodes sur ordinateur IBM 7094 II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corge, Ch [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-01-01

    Numerical analysis of transmission resonances induced by s wave neutrons in time-of-flight experiments can be achieved in a fairly automatic way on an IBM 7094/II computer. The involved computations are carried out following a four step scheme: 1 - experimental raw data are processed to obtain the resonant transmissions, 2 - values of experimental quantities for each resonance are derived from the above transmissions, 3 - resonance parameters are determined using a least square method to solve the over determined system obtained by equalling theoretical functions to the correspondent experimental values. Four analysis methods are gathered in the same code, 4 - graphical control of the results is performed. (author) [French] L'automatisation, sur ordinateur IBM 7094/II, de l'analyse des resonances induites par les neutrons s dans les experiences de transmission par temps de vol a ete accomplie en la decomposant selon un schema articule en quatre phases: 1 - le traitement des donnees experimentales brutes pour obtenir les transmissions interfero-resonnantes, 2 - la determination des grandeurs d'analyse a partir des transmissions precedentes, 3 - l'analyse proprement dite des resonances dont les parametres sont obtenus par la resolution d'un systeme surabondant. Quatre methodes d'analyse sont groupees en un meme programme, 4 - la procedure de verification graphique. (auteur)

  6. Numerical analysis of resonances induced by s wave neutrons in transmission time-of-flight experiments with a computer IBM 7094 II; Methodes d'analyse des resonances induites par les neutrons s dans les experiences de transmission par temps de vol et automatisation de ces methodes sur ordinateur IBM 7094 II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corge, Ch. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-01-01

    Numerical analysis of transmission resonances induced by s wave neutrons in time-of-flight experiments can be achieved in a fairly automatic way on an IBM 7094/II computer. The involved computations are carried out following a four step scheme: 1 - experimental raw data are processed to obtain the resonant transmissions, 2 - values of experimental quantities for each resonance are derived from the above transmissions, 3 - resonance parameters are determined using a least square method to solve the over determined system obtained by equalling theoretical functions to the correspondent experimental values. Four analysis methods are gathered in the same code, 4 - graphical control of the results is performed. (author) [French] L'automatisation, sur ordinateur IBM 7094/II, de l'analyse des resonances induites par les neutrons s dans les experiences de transmission par temps de vol a ete accomplie en la decomposant selon un schema articule en quatre phases: 1 - le traitement des donnees experimentales brutes pour obtenir les transmissions interfero-resonnantes, 2 - la determination des grandeurs d'analyse a partir des transmissions precedentes, 3 - l'analyse proprement dite des resonances dont les parametres sont obtenus par la resolution d'un systeme surabondant. Quatre methodes d'analyse sont groupees en un meme programme, 4 - la procedure de verification graphique. (auteur)

  7. A method for reducing memory errors in the isotopic analyses of uranium hexafluoride by mass spectrometry; Methode de reduction des erreurs de memoire dans les analyses isotopiques de l'hexafluorure d'uranium par spectrometrie de masse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bir, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    One of the most serious causes of systematic error in isotopic analyses of uranium from UF{sub 6} is the tendency of this material to become fixed in various ways in the mass spectrometer. As a result the value indicated by the instrument is influenced by the isotopic composition of the substances previously analysed. The resulting error is called a memory error. Making use of an elementary mathematical theory, the various methods used to reduce memory errors are analysed and compared. A new method is then suggested, which reduces the memory errors to an extent where they become negligible over a wide range of {sup 235}U concentration. The method is given in full, together with examples of its application. (author) [French] Une des causes d'erreurs systematiques les plus graves dans les analyses isotopiques d'uranium a partir d'UF{sub 6} est l'aptitude de ce produit a se fixer de diverses manieres dans le spectrometre de masse. Il en resulte une influence de la composition isotopique des produits precedemment analyses sur la valeur indiquee par l'appareil. L'erreur resultante est appelee erreur de memoire. A partir d'une theorie mathematique elementaire, on analyse et on compare les differentes methodes utilisees pour reduire les erreurs de memoire. On suggere ensuite une nouvelle methode qui reduit les erreurs de memoire dans une proportion telle qu'elles deviennent negligeables dans un grand domaine de concentration en {sup 235}U. On donne le mode operatoire complet et des exemples d'application. (auteur)

  8. Caesium absorption by barley - influence of its retention by the soil - competitive action of potassium; Absorption du cesium par l'orge - influence de sa retention dans le sol - action competitive du potassium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferron-Trosseau, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-06-01

    plants such as rice and cress growing on flooded soils. Radio-active caesium however incorporated without carrier into a soil of medium-exchange capacity (of about 150 milli-equivalents per kilo) presents relatively little danger because of the close interdependence of the radioactive caesium take-up from the soil by the plants and its retention by the soil. Our research has made it possible furthermore to examine the value of various partial decontamination methods for soils proposed by certain atomic scientists: just as isotopic dilution appears totally inadequate for this purpose, so does it seems that the addition of potassium salts in amounts greater than nutritive optimum is incapable of reducing the absorption of radioactive caesium by the plant. (author) [French] Nous avons recherche, dans divers milieux de culture, comment l'absorption du cesium par l'orge varie avec sa concentration et comment cette absorption peut etre concurrencee par un cation alcalin voisin,le potassium. En outre, nous avons considere la distribution du cesium dans le sol - notamment du cesium radioactif - entre terre et solution, en fonction du taux de cesium. De notre etude ressort une nette opposition entre le comportement de l'orge vis a vis du cesium d'une solution nutritive et vis a vis du cesium d'un sol: sur solution nutritive, la fraction du cesium (radioactif et stable) absorbee par l'orge demeure pratiquement constante en presence de proportions croissantes (relativement petites) de cesium stable; sur sol, la fraction du cesium radioactif absorbee par l'orge a augmente en meme temps que le taux (relativement petit) de cesium stable du sol, en relation avec une selectivite rapidement decroissante du sol pour Cs. La difference entre ces resultats est donc expliquee par une tres forte selectivite du sol illitique experimente pour Cs{sup +} tant que la proportion da cesium reste tres petite, de l'ordre de celle de la plupart des sols naturels

  9. Caesium absorption by barley - influence of its retention by the soil - competitive action of potassium; Absorption du cesium par l'orge - influence de sa retention dans le sol - action competitive du potassium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferron-Trosseau, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-06-01

    as rice and cress growing on flooded soils. Radio-active caesium however incorporated without carrier into a soil of medium-exchange capacity (of about 150 milli-equivalents per kilo) presents relatively little danger because of the close interdependence of the radioactive caesium take-up from the soil by the plants and its retention by the soil. Our research has made it possible furthermore to examine the value of various partial decontamination methods for soils proposed by certain atomic scientists: just as isotopic dilution appears totally inadequate for this purpose, so does it seems that the addition of potassium salts in amounts greater than nutritive optimum is incapable of reducing the absorption of radioactive caesium by the plant. (author) [French] Nous avons recherche, dans divers milieux de culture, comment l'absorption du cesium par l'orge varie avec sa concentration et comment cette absorption peut etre concurrencee par un cation alcalin voisin,le potassium. En outre, nous avons considere la distribution du cesium dans le sol - notamment du cesium radioactif - entre terre et solution, en fonction du taux de cesium. De notre etude ressort une nette opposition entre le comportement de l'orge vis a vis du cesium d'une solution nutritive et vis a vis du cesium d'un sol: sur solution nutritive, la fraction du cesium (radioactif et stable) absorbee par l'orge demeure pratiquement constante en presence de proportions croissantes (relativement petites) de cesium stable; sur sol, la fraction du cesium radioactif absorbee par l'orge a augmente en meme temps que le taux (relativement petit) de cesium stable du sol, en relation avec une selectivite rapidement decroissante du sol pour Cs. La difference entre ces resultats est donc expliquee par une tres forte selectivite du sol illitique experimente pour Cs{sup +} tant que la proportion da cesium reste tres petite, de l'ordre de celle de la plupart des sols naturels. Par ailleurs, l'ion K{sup +} n'a concurrence l

  10. Étude des interactions hadroniques à deux corps chargés, induites sur des protons par un faisceau de $\\pi^{-}, K^{-}$, et $\\overline{p}$ entre 3 et 12 GeV/c, avec un angle de diffusion dans le centre de masse voisin de 90$^{o}$

    CERN Document Server

    Billoir, Pierre

    1983-01-01

    Étude des interactions hadroniques à deux corps chargés, induites sur des protons par un faisceau de $\\pi^{-}, K^{-}$, et $\\overline{p}$ entre 3 et 12 GeV/c, avec un angle de diffusion dans le centre de masse voisin de 90$^{o}$

  11. Study and Construction of the Metal Vessels for the Reactors of the EDF1 and EDF2 Sectors at Chinon; Etude et construction des caissons metalliques des reacteurs des tranches EDF1 et EDF2 de la centrale de Chinon; Izuchenie i konstruktsiya metallicheskikh korpusov reaktorov pervoj i vtoroj chasti programm ehlektrostantsij; Estudio y construccion de los recipientes metalicos de los reactores EDF1 y EDF2 de la central de Chinon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamiral, G.; Millot, R.; Passerieux, P. [Electricite de France, Clamart, Seine (France)

    1963-10-15

    de travaux conduisit a reprendre entierement le mode de construction et, a priori, les operations de soudure sous prechauffage generalise et l'elimination des contraintes par des traitements de detente multiples. Ce mode operatoire permit la realisation des caissons des tranches EDF1 et EDF2, mais entraina certaines sujetions qui compliquerent sensiblement les travaux sur le chantier. (author) [Spanish] Los dos primeros reactores de uranio natural-grafito-anhidrido carbonico de la central de Chinon poseen recipientes metalicos construidos con plancha de acero al manganeso-molibdeno de gran espesor. El estudio de estos recipientes ha planteado ciertos problemas, especialmente en lo que atane al diseno y las dimensiones de los refuerzos de las aberturas. Los refuerzos de los pasos de las barras de control y de los orificios de carga se estudiaron en maquetas, y los resultados obtenidos se controlaron una vez terminada la obra durante los ensayos hidraulicos. El modo de construccion inicialmente empleado para el recipiente del reactor EDF1 era relativamente sencillo; las planchas se precalentaron localmente antes de soldarlas y, despues de ejecutadas todas las soldaduras, el recipiente no tenia que someterse mas que a un tratamiento termico para eliminar las tensiones internas. Durante los trabajos se produjeron considerables fisuras que obligaron a modificar por completo el modo de construccion y de soldadura, procediendo a un precalentamiento general y a tratamientos repetidos para eliminar las tensiones. Este modo de operar permitio construir los recipientes de los reactores EDF1 y EDF2, pero obligo a cumplir ciertos requisitos que complicaron sensiblemente las obras. (author) [Russian] Uraio-grafitovye reaktory s uglekislym gazom v kachestve teplonositelya v pervykh dvukh ehlektrostantsiyakh v Shinone imeyut metallicheskij korpus iz listovoj margantsovo- molibdenovoj stali bol'shoj tolshchiny. Pri razrabotke korpusa voznikli nekotorye problemy, v tom chisle problemy

  12. EDF PWRs primary coolant purification strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gressier, Frederic; Mascarenhas, Darren; Taunier, Stephane; Le-Calvar, Marc; Bretelle, Jean-Luc; Ranchoux, Gilles

    2012-09-01

    In order to achieve a good physico-chemical quality of the primary coolant fluid, the primary water is continuously treated by the Chemical and Volume Control System (CVCS). This system is composed of a treatment chain containing filters and ion-exchange resins. In the EDF design, an upstream filter is placed before the resin so as to prevent it from being saturated with insoluble particles. Then, the fluid passes through several resin beds (up to 3 depending on the configuration) and again through a downstream filter that prevents resin fines dissemination into the reactor coolant. Much work has been conducted in the last 5 years on the homogenisation of products and usage on French EDF NPP primary coolant treatment, while taking into account the compromise between source term reduction, liquid and solid waste, and buying and disposal costs. Two national markets have been created, and two operational documents for chemists on site have been published: a filtration guideline and an ion-exchange resin guideline. Both documents give general information about the products used, how are they characterized and selected for national market (technical requirements, standards and tests), how they should be used and what are the change-out criteria. They are also periodically updated based on feedback from sites. The positive impact on resin and filter lifetime (extension of some, limitation of others), homogenisation of products and usage will be presented. Moreover, EDF is constantly in the process of improving the current purification methods, as well as researching the use of existing and novel technologies. In this field, recent experiments on short loading of resin during reactor shutdown has been tested on site with success. In addition, work is done on silica free filters, filter consumption and filter chemical release. An overview of these optimization methods will be given. (authors)

  13. Civil engineering: EDF needs for concrete modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didry, O.; Gerard, B.; Bui, D.

    1997-01-01

    Concrete structures which are encountered at EDF, like all civil engineering structures, age. In order to adapt the maintenance conditions of these structures, particularly to extend their service life, and also to prepare constructions of future structures, tools for predicting the behaviour of these structures in their environment should be available. For EDF the technical risks are high and consequently very appropriate R and D actions are required. In this context the Direction des Etudes et Recherches (DER) has developed a methodology for analysing concrete structure behaviour modelling. This approach has several aims: - making a distinction between the problems which refer to the existing models and those which require R and D; - displaying disciplinary links between different problems encountered on EDF structures (non-linear mechanical, chemical - hydraulic - mechanical coupling, etc); - listing of the existing tools and positioning the DER 'Aster' finite element code among them. This document is a state of the art of scientific knowledge intended to shed light on the fields in which one should be involved when there is, on one part a strong requirement on the side of structure operators, and on the other one, the present tools do not allow this requirement to be satisfactorily met. The analysis has been done on 12 scientific subjects: 1) Hydration of concrete at early ages: exothermicity, hardening, autogenous shrinkage; 2) Drying and drying shrinkage; 3) Alkali-silica reaction and bulky stage formation; 4) Long term deterioration by leaching; 5) Ionic diffusion and associated attacks: the chlorides case; 6) Permeability / tightness of concrete; 7) Concretes -nonlinear behaviour and cracking (I): contribution of the plasticity models; 8) Concretes - nonlinear behaviour and cracking (II): contribution of the damage models; 9) Concretes - nonlinear behaviour and cracking (III): the contribution of the probabilistic analysis model; 10) Delayed behaviour of

  14. The EDF group and the sustainable development; Le groupe EDF et le developpement durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document deals with the management policy of the EDF Group, concerning the sustainable development. The program is presented showing the Group will to contribute to an environmental quality: a control of the activities impact on the environment, the development of the renewable energies, the solidarity and the electric power access development in developing countries. (A.L.B.)

  15. And thus EDF met information science; Ainsi EDF rencontra l`informatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caseau, P. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Poujet, J. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-06-01

    A historical review of the parallel evolution of digital computers and scientific calculations at Electricite de France, is presented, with numerous examples of computers (Bull, IBM, Cray) models, the improvement of their performances and the studies they allowed in the energy generation and transmission fields since the beginnings in 1955 and up to 1972 at EDF

  16. The functioning of the reactors G2-G3 at Marcoule and E.D.F. 1; Experience de fonctionnement des reacteurs G2-G3 de Marcoule et enseignements des essais de demarrage du reacteur E.D.F. 1 de Chinon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussard, R; Conte, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Stolz, J M [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1964-07-01

    After resuming briefly the characteristics of the installations G2-G3 at Marcoule and EDF 1 at Chinon, the authors review the main aspects of the tests, the starting and the exploitation of these reactors. Among the various points examined, particular emphasis is given to the devices of original nature such as tubular fuel elements, flattening of the neutron flux by stuffing, behaviour of the reactor tanks and the cooling circuits, the blowers, unloading devices, regulation and functioning of the informations. This analysis deals equally with the performances obtained and the difficulties and the various incidents experienced during the initial starting period. Among the more interesting results, the progressive increase in the power of the Marcoule reactors is mentioned, obtained through a better knowledge of the parameters covering the functioning of the reactors such as the distribution of the flux and the temperatures etc... acquired during the course of the exploitation of the reactor. The conclusion reached by the authors is that the experience gained on these installations has shown: - that during an initial period, adjustments became necessary, all of which turned out to be possible, - that an analysis of their functioning has permitted the progressive movement towards a truly industrial exploitation. (authors) [French] Les auteurs, apres un bref rappel des caracteristiques des installations G2 - G3 de MARCOULE et E.D.F. 1 de CHINON, passent en revue les principaux aspects des essais, de la mise en service et de l'exploitation de ces centrales. Parmi les divers points examines, une attention speciale est accordee aux dispositifs presentant un caractere original tels que elements combustibles tubulaires, aplatissement du flux neutronique par gavage, comportement des caissons des reacteurs et des circuits de refroidissement, soufflantes, appareils de dechargement, regulation et fonctionnement des informations. L'analyse presentee porte tant sur les

  17. Valorisation de l’eau par l’élevage bovin : enseignements tirés de longs suivis d’exploitations dans le plateau du Saïs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Taher Sraïri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available La contrainte hydrique constitue un facteur limitant avéré de la production agricole dans un pays aride à semi-aride comme le Maroc. Dans cette étude, la valorisation de l’eau par l’élevage bovin a été étudiée, dans des exploitations du plateau du Saïs irriguant à partir de la nappe et/ou de sources. Le protocole de recherche a caractérisé les termes de la valorisation volumétrique et économique de l’eau par l’élevage bovin, par l’adoption d’une série de visites mensuelles à quatre exploitations au cours de deux années successives : 2014 et 2015. Les objectifs de ces suivis visaient : i la détermination des volumes d’eau utilisés, en prenant en compte la diversité de leurs origines (précipitations, eau d’irrigation de surface ou souterraine, et eau virtuelle correspondant aux volumes utilisés pour la production des aliments achetés à l’extérieur de l’exploitation, ii les quantités de biomasse des fourrages fauchés, iii le suivi des rations distribuées aux vaches et celles destinées à leur descendance ainsi que leurs contenus en nutriments (énergie et azote, et iv les quantités de lait et de viande produites. Les résultats démontrent que l’élevage bovin est surtout lié à l’eau pluviale et, à un degré moindre, à l’eau virtuelle puisque ces sources hydriques représentent respectivement 52,5 et 31,7 % des besoins totaux pour produire du lait et 37,9 et 57,5 % pour produire de la viande. L’élevage bovin ne mobilise que très peu l’eau souterraine qui représente en moyenne 7,6 et 0,7 % des besoins hydriques pour produire du lait et de la viande. Les empreintes hydriques moyennes pour les productions bovines, définies comme la somme des consommations d’eau de toutes origines, étaient respectivement de 1,33 m3 par litre de lait et 7,5 m3 par kg de poids vif. Les valorisations économiques de l’eau d’irrigation par l’élevage bovin étaient de 3,8 et 15,5 DH par m3

  18. Evaluation by electronic paramagnetic resonance of the number of free radicals produced in irradiated rat bone; Evaluation par resonance paramagnetique electronique du nombre de radicaux libres produits dans l'os de rat irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marble, G; Valderas, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The number of long half-life free radicals created by gamma irradiation in the bones of the rat has been determined from the electrons paramagnetic resonance spectrum. This number decreases slowly with time (calculated half life: 24 days). It is proportional to the dose of gamma radiation given to the rat. The method could find interesting applications in the field of biological dosimetry. (authors) [French] Le nombre de radicaux libres a vie longue crees par irradiation gamma dans l'os de rat a ete determine a partir du spectre de resonance paramagnetique electronique. Ce nombre decroit lentement avec le temps (demi-vie calculee {approx_equal} 24 jours). IL est proportionnel a la dose de rayonnement gamma delivree au rat. La methode pourra trouver en dosimetrie biologique des applications interessantes. (auteurs)

  19. Comment les différences entre consommateurs francophones et néerlandophones sont-elles perçues et prises en compte par les professionnels du marketing en Belgique, dans le domaine du B2C ?

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Robin

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif du mémoire est de comprendre comment les différences entre les consommateurs francophones et néerlandophones de Belgique sont perçues et prises en compte par les professionnels du marketing dans le domaine du B2C. La méthodologie d'étude consiste premièrement en une revue de la littérature sur les thèmes du marketing multiculturel et des différences entre francophones et néerlandophones de Belgique. Sur base de cette revue de littérature et d'interviews, des hypothèses de recherche...

  20. Evaluation by electronic paramagnetic resonance of the number of free radicals produced in irradiated rat bone; Evaluation par resonance paramagnetique electronique du nombre de radicaux libres produits dans l'os de rat irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marble, G.; Valderas, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The number of long half-life free radicals created by gamma irradiation in the bones of the rat has been determined from the electrons paramagnetic resonance spectrum. This number decreases slowly with time (calculated half life: 24 days). It is proportional to the dose of gamma radiation given to the rat. The method could find interesting applications in the field of biological dosimetry. (authors) [French] Le nombre de radicaux libres a vie longue crees par irradiation gamma dans l'os de rat a ete determine a partir du spectre de resonance paramagnetique electronique. Ce nombre decroit lentement avec le temps (demi-vie calculee {approx_equal} 24 jours). IL est proportionnel a la dose de rayonnement gamma delivree au rat. La methode pourra trouver en dosimetrie biologique des applications interessantes. (auteurs)

  1. L'intégration des TIC dans un environnement éducatif conditionné par le système du 'spoon-feeding.'

    OpenAIRE

    Saurty , Krishnah Moortee

    2013-01-01

    Cet article prend son essence dans un projet pédagogique dont la préoccupation est de renforcer les savoirs notamment à travers le concept d'apprentissage intégrant les Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication (Tic) afin de développer des actions éducatives pouvant apporter des réponses réelles aux principes du 'spoon-feeding', véritable pilier du système éducatif mauricien s'appuyant sur le contenu du savoir disciplinaire et conditionnant l'apprenant dans sa capacité à développer...

  2. Dosage direct des alcools dans les carburols par chromatographie en phase gazeuse Direct Gas Chromatographie Determination of Alcohols in Gasolines Blended by Oxygenated Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petroff N.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans cette étude, on décrit une méthode de chromatographie en phase gazeuse utilisant une colonne remplie ; elle permet de doser, sans préfractionnement, les alcools jusqu'aux butanols dans les carburols (carburants additionnés de composés oxygénés. La phase stationnaire sélectionnée est le glycérol. This report describes a gas chromatographie method using a packed column. It allows the direct determination of alcohols up to butanols in gasolines blended with oxygenated compounds without prefractionation. Glycerol has been selected as stationary phase.

  3. A study of point defects created by electron irradiation of dilute iron-carbon alloys; Etude des defauts crees par irradiation electronique dans les alliages de fer carbone dilues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveque, J L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-10-01

    Resistivity and magnetic after effect (m.a.e.) measurements are used to study the influence of carbon atoms on the annealing process of point defects created by electron irradiation (3 MeV) at low temperature (20 deg. K). The presence of the carbon atoms has a strong influence on the recovery sub-stage I{sub E} and stage III. For the former, the carbon impurity traps the freely migrating iron interstitial. For the latter the effect is interpreted as being due to formation during annealing, of a carbon vacancy pair. A pronounced m.a.e. band is attributed to the reorientation of this carbon vacancy complex. All these results are coherent with the interpretation of a low temperature migrating free interstitial. (author) [French] L'influence des atomes de carbone sur le recuit des defauts ponctuels crees par irradiation electronique (3 MeV) a basse temperature (20 deg. K) dans le fer est mise en evidence par des mesures de resistivite electrique, et de trainage magnetique. Cette influence se manifeste principalement au cours du sous stade I{sub E} et du stade III de resistivite. Au sous stade I{sub E} les atomes de carbone piegeraient les interstitiels libres de fer au cours de leur migration. Le stade III est interprete comme etant du a la recombinaison du carbone dans les lacunes. Une importante bande de tramage magnetique etant attribuee a la reorientation de ce complexe. Ces resultats sont coherents avec l'interpretation faisant migrer a basse temperature l'interstitiel libre. (auteur)

  4. Les types d’arguments dans le traitement du débat sur la crise des banlieues par la télévision Types of Arguments Used on TV in the French Suburban Crisis Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kalinic

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Les émeutes de novembre 2005 survenues dans les banlieues françaises ont suscité un débat médiatisé à propos des causes de la crise et des modes d’intervention pour sa résolution. A travers son traitement discursif, le journal télévisé configure un cadrage du débat dans lequel les prises de position des différents acteurs interviewés viennent s’opposer. L’analyse des arguments des discours cités se décomposera sur les trois niveaux proposés par P. Charaudeau : problématisation, positionnement et probation, en tenant compte de leur valeur - par exemple, éthique, pragmatique ou émotionnelle - afin de dégager les différentes stratégies à visée persuasive.The October and November 2005 riots of the French suburbs, following the death of two teenagers chased by the police, have kindled a debate in the media on the causes of the crisis and the means used to resolve it. By its treatment of the question, TV discourse frames this debate, in which the stands of the various interviewed actors are in conflict. The analysis of the quoted arguments is performed on the three levels described by P. Charaudeau: “problematizing”, positioning, proving, while considering their value—for example, ethical, pragmatical or emotional—in order to find out the different strategies meant at persuading.

  5. Study of the propagation of fast neutrons in water, by Monte-Carlo methods; Etude de la propagation des neutrons rapides dans l'eau par des methodes de Monte-Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafore, P; Lattes, R; Millot, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    We have studied the propagation in water of neutrons from mono-directional plane sources with energies ranging from 300 keV to 19,66 MeV, placed in an infinite water medium. The exact paths of a number of neutrons are determined, taking into account the microscopic sections, assuming that inelastic collisions of the neutrons on oxygen are absorptions, and neglecting the loss of energy by elastic collisions on oxygen. The neutron lifetimes have been made use of to study the propagation of neutrons from fission sources, Po-Be, Po-B and Ra-Be, as well as the reflection of fast neutrons on a semi-infinite water medium. We have taken complete account of the first collision in order to improve the precision of the results. The calculations were carried out by Mrs J. VASSEUR and Mr A. GUILLOU. (author)Fren. [French] Nous etudions la propagation dans l'eau des neutrons a partir de sources planes monodirectionnelles dont les energies sont repartis de 300 keV a 19,66 MeV, placees dans un milieu infini d'eau. Nous determinons les trajectoires exactes d'un certain nombre de neutrons en tenant compte des sections microscopiques, en supposant que les chocs inelastiques des neutrons sur l'oxygene sont des absorptions, et en negligeant la perte d'energie par chocs elastiques sur l'oxygene. Les vies de neutrons ont ete exploitees pour etudier la propagation des neutrons a partir de sources de fission, Po-Be, Po-B et Ra-Be, ainsi que la reflexion des neutrons rapides sur un milieu semi-infini d'eau. On a tenu compte integralement du premier choc pour ameliorer la precision des resultats. Les calculs ont ete effectues par Mme J. VASSEUR et M.A. GUILLOU. (auteur)

  6. EdF: high tension(s) metamorphosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussely, F.; Arnoux, P.; Baritault, A.; Alto, P.; Castets, C.; Secondi, J.

    2003-01-01

    Electricite de France, the French electric utility, has to face a formidable mutation. The deregulation of the power market will lead to a social, commercial, judicial, financial and international 'big-bang'. The company has been weakened by disappointing results and by an embarrassing running into debts. This dossier analyzes the consequences of the deregulation of the French power market on the future evolution of EdF. It includes the analysis made by a French economist, E. Cohen, an interview and a portrait of F. Roussely, head of EdF, a presentation of Easenergy, a start-up of EdF which makes partnerships with US energy-related companies, the worries of EdF's employees and the redistribution of the syndicates power inside the company, the controversy around EdF's 2002 results and the points that remained in the shade, EdF's European competitors and the progressive opening of the French power market, EDF's production tool and its availability (58 nuclear reactors, 538 hydroelectric power plants and 26 thermal power plants), the costly foreign markets strategy of EdF and the under-capitalization of the company. (J.S.)

  7. EDF Energies Nouvelles. Financial report at June 30, 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    EDF Energies Nouvelles is a world leader in renewable energy electricity. The company develops, builds and operates clean energy power plants both for its own account and for third parties. Historically, EDF Energies Nouvelles primarily developed its business in two geographical areas, Europe and North America (U.S., Canada and Mexico). EDF Energies Nouvelles is a subsidiary of EDF, helping the Group to achieve its renewable energy goals. The EDF Group generates low-carbon electricity around the world and actively participates in the energy transition. EDF Energies Nouvelles prioritizes development of wind and photovoltaic solar capacity. As an integrated operator with global reach, EDF Energies Nouvelles covers the entire renewable energy chain, from development to operation and maintenance, and manages all project phases in-house. This document is EDF Energies Nouvelles's half-year financial report for 2011. It contains a half-year activity report, the consolidated financial statements at June 30, 2011 and the report drafted by the Statutory Auditors

  8. EDF Energies Nouvelles. Consolidated financial statements at 30 June 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    EDF Energies Nouvelles is a world leader in renewable energy electricity. The company develops, builds and operates clean energy power plants both for its own account and for third parties. Historically, EDF Energies Nouvelles primarily developed its business in two geographical areas, Europe and North America (U.S., Canada and Mexico). EDF Energies Nouvelles is a subsidiary of EDF, helping the Group to achieve its renewable energy goals. The EDF Group generates low-carbon electricity around the world and actively participates in the energy transition. EDF Energies Nouvelles prioritizes development of wind and photovoltaic solar capacity. As an integrated operator with global reach, EDF Energies Nouvelles covers the entire renewable energy chain, from development to operation and maintenance, and manages all project phases in-house. This document is EDF Energies Nouvelles's registration document for the year 2009. It contains information about Group profile, governance, business, investments, property, plant and equipment, management, financial position, employees, shareholders, etc. The document includes the group's consolidated financial statements at 31 December 2008

  9. Main prospects of EDF's nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierre Bacher, M.; Jean Pierrard, M.

    1994-01-01

    Today, EDF is at a half way point in its third major standardized series, the N4 1400 MW series. The main objective agreed upon for this N4 series, was to improve the insertion of man in the control loop. After the TMI accident in 1979, selective improvements had already been introduced in the 900 series ; the 1300 series, which was the underway, was also the object of more significant improvements (for instance a digital control system) ; but it still seemed desirable that all the lessons to be learned from the accident be reflected in the third series : the fully computerized instrumentation and control system developed for the N4 series ?comparable to the one developed for Airbus ?is today the first of its kind in the world. The demand increase for electric energy dramatically stopped in 1993. However, the prospect for the coming years is more optimistic. Electricity consumption is expected to increase slowly by an average 2% per year. In this context, EDF is preparing its energy program for the nest century and takes into account that hydraulic generation capacity will remain stable and that the French thermal units fueled with coal are rather old and will have to be replaced.

  10. Low-level wastes pathways at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmoine, R.; Casseau, L.Ph.

    1999-01-01

    First, what are, for EDF, the main issues dealing with the future management of low level wastes (LLW) will be recalled; and followed by a description of what are the implications of implementing these management principles: areas zoning, set up of pathways, traceability of the wastes and associated controls. The origin of the wastes will then be described using both qualitative and quantitative approaches; the description will specifically address the spreading of wastes production in time. LLW management at EDF will then be envisaged: storage in a specific discharge, pathways for treatment and elimination of wastes with acceptable radiological impact and costs. The example of LLW oils will be developed: particularly as far as hypothesis and results concerning the radiological impacts are concerned. The choice of incineration will then be justified, however expected difficulties to implement it industrially will be pointed out. Other on going studies and their main results will be mentioned: the present time is a turning point on that issue between thought and action; to be on going dismantling must take into account the emerging principles and give rise to good communication. (author)

  11. EDF - 2004 annual results, Financial statements 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadonneix, Pierre; Camus, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    As the world's biggest electricity generator, the EDF Group covers every sector of expertise, from generation to trading and transmission grids. EDF builds on the expertise of its people, its R and D and engineering skills, its experience as a leading industry operator and the attentive support of its customers to deliver competitive solutions that successfully reconcile economic growth with climate protection. This document presents the 2004 annual results of the Group (key figures, financial results, strategy and perspectives) as well as its Consolidated financial statements at 31 December 2004: 1. Accounting principles and methods; 2. French law of 9 August 2004 on the Public Electricity and Gas Services and Electricity and Gas Companies; 3. Significant events of 2004; 4. Changes in the scope of consolidation; 5. Information by business segment and geographical area; 6. Sales; 7. Purchases and other external expenses; 8. Average workforce; 9. Other operating income and expenses; 10. Net (increase) decrease in provisions; 11. Interest expenses; 12. Foreign exchange result; 13. Other financial income and expenses; 14. Income taxes

  12. Assessment of public safety around EDF facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poupart, M. [Electricite de France, Paris (France)

    2004-09-01

    Electricite de France (EDF) recognizes that a dam's structural resistance and its capacity to withstand heavy flooding are 2 of the most significant safety aspects for hydroelectric power stations. However, in addition to dam failure, there are safety risks for the public who frequent the rivers up and down stream from the dam, as well as on property and the environment. A fatal accident which occurred in 1995 down river from EDF's Monteynard hydroelectric facility on the Drac River prompted the utility to take measures to improve control over this type of hazard. Collaboration with public authorities led to an action plan to educate the public about possible danger areas and to improve methods of reducing risks. Regulations regarding access to these areas were also studied along with ways of informing and warning the public. All the stretches of river directly above and below the power stations and dams were listed systematically and a qualitative analysis was carried out of any possible dangers. This led to changes in operating rules, technical instructions and power plant operating regulations. Certain areas are designated as prohibited areas, such as places subject to hazards caused by violent and unexpected water discharges. This paper outlined the Hydraulic Safety Significant Event (HSSE) classification which relates to an operational event related to water that is liable to affect human beings, the environment, water level or flow rate. 9 figs.

  13. Séparation par coalescence en lit fixe d'une phase aqueuse émulsionnée dans une phase organique Fixed-Bed Coalescence to Separate an Emulsified Aqueous Phase in an Organic Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calteau J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cette publication étudie la séparation de l'eau émulsionnée dans un kérosène par passage à travers un milieu granulaire. Les propriétés physico-chimiques du matériau coalesceur (nature et état de surface sont considérées. L'efficacité de séparation est étudiée en fonction ; - de la mouillabilité; - de la granulométrie; - de l'état de surface du matériau ; - de la vitesse de passage de l'émulsion; - de la hauteur de lit. L'analyse qualitative et quantitative de la rétention de l'eau dans le lit permet de mieux comprendre les mécanismes de coalescence. This article examines the séparation of emulsified water in kerosene by passing it through a granular medium. The physico-chemical properties of the coolescing material, i. e. nature and surface state, are considered. Separation efficiency is analyzed as a fonction of : - wettability; - grain size ; - surface state of the material ; - emulsion pass-through rate; - height of the bed. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of water retention in the bed gives a better understanding of the coalescence mechanisms.

  14. Dosages d'hydrocarbures dans l'eau et le sédiment marins par infrarouge et chromatographie gazeuse sur colonne capillaire Hydrocarbon Titration in Water and Marine Sediments by Infrared Analysis and Gas Chromatography in a Capillary Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Nous avons étudié l'évolution des hydrocarbures pétroliers dans un site confiné, celui de l'Aber-Benoît (Finistère, à la suite de l'accident du super-pétrolier Amoco-Cadiz en mars 1978. Pour ce faire, plusieurs méthodes ont été mises en oeuvre, et tout particulièrement la chromato-graphie gazeuse sur colonne capillaire : le protocole analytique est décrit pour l'eau et pour le sédiment, après optimisation des techniques de filtration, de préconcentration et de fractionnement préalables à la mesure. Il est possible de travailler sur des échantillons de deux litres d'eau de mer ou de cinquante grammes de sédiment, avec des seuils de détection du niveau de la partie par trillion (ppt dans l'eau et de la centaine de ppt dans le sédiment. The evolution of petroleum hydrocarbons was analyzed in a confined site, at Aber-Benoît in the Finistère department, following the accident of the supertanker Amoco Cadiz in March 1978. To do this, several methods were developed, including, in particular, capillary coulumn as chromatography. The analytical procedure is described for water and sediment after optimization of filtering, preconcentrating and fractionating techniques prior to measuring. Analyses can be made with two liters of seawater or fifty grams of sediment, with detection thresholds in parts per trillion (ppt in water and the hundredth of a ppt in sediment.

  15. Aerodynamic and thermal studies of cans of gas cooled fuel elements; Etudes aerodynamiques et thermiques de gaines d'elements combustibles refroidis par gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelin, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Milliat, J P [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1964-07-01

    l'amelioration des grappes et s'est ensuite poursuivie dans les deux Laboratoires pour le refroidissement interne des elements combustibles annulaires. Au fur et a mesure de l'avancement de ces etudes, les moyens d'essais se sont amplifies tandis que les methodes experimentales n'ont cesse de s'ameliorer. Actuellement, les deux Laboratoires, qui travaillent en pleine collaboration, disposent de moyens puissants. Pour les grappes, l'effort a surtout porte sur les pertes de charge dues aux pieces d'assemblage et sur les variations de temperature autour des elements de la grappe. On est arrive ainsi a determiner d'une facon satisfaisante les points chauds de gaine, les deformations des crayons et les conditions de stabilite de ces deformations. Pour les gaines a chevrons, les etudes ont porte, d'une part sur l'evolution des performances en fonction des parametres geometriques, et, d'autre part sur les singularites aerodynamiques et thermiques creees tant par les ailettes que par les interruptions de cartouche. Ces etudes ont abouti a une connaissance tres complete des cartouches choisies pour les reacteurs EDF2 et EDF3, et ouvrent maintenant des perspectives tres encourageantes pour les reacteurs a venir, en particulier les reacteurs equipes d'elements annulaires; parmi les solutions convenant a la gaine interne de l'element annulaire, les corrugations et les ailettes longitudinales ont fait l'objet d'essais assez etendus dans une large plage de nombre de Reynolds. (auteurs)

  16. Analyse des stratégies d’apprentissage dans une méthode d’apprentissage par problèmes : le cas d’étudiantes en soins infirmiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Larue

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Plusieurs institutions d’enseignement supérieur ont adopté l’apprentissage par problèmes comme méthode pédagogique, mais peu d’études, à notre connaissance, se sont intéressées à décrire les stratégies utilisées par les étudiants dans un curriculum d’apprentissage par problèmes. Le but de cette recherche est justement l’étude de ces stratégies. L’analyse des verbatims obtenus auprès de 31 étudiantes1 de soins infirmiers a permis de dégager un ensemble de stratégies et d’en évaluer la fréquence. Les résultats suggèrent que les étudiantes utilisent davantage des stratégies de traitement en surface de l’information que des stratégies de traitement en profondeur malgré des indications voulant que l’utilisation d’une approche en profondeur soit associée à une meilleure réussite au cours.Several higher education institutions have adopted problem-based learning as an educational method. But, as far as we know, very few studies try to describe the strategies which are used by students in order to succeed in a problem-based learning context. The purpose of this research is to study those strategies. The analysis of the verbatim obtained from 31 nursing students uncovered the main strategies and their respective frequency. The results suggest that the students are more likely to use strategies based on surface treatment of the information than in-depth learning strategies. This preference is maintained even though they were told that in-depth learning strategies increase their academic achievements.

  17. Study of recombination processes for 'electron-hole' pairs in germanium irradiated by {gamma} rays from {sup 60}Co using the photovoltaic effect in P-N junctions; Etude du processus de recombinaison des paires ''electron-trou'' dans le germanium irradie par les rayons {gamma} du cobalt 60 a l'aide de l'effet photovoltaique dans les jonctions P-N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahedi-Mochadam, A A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-10-01

    Using the photo-voltaic effect in p-n junctions, we have studied, during bombardment, the mechanism of the recombination of 'electron-hole' pairs in the presence of structure defects produced in germanium of the N and P types by {gamma} rays from a Co{sup 60} source. At 310 K the level of the recombination centres is situated 0.25 eV above the conduction band and the capture cross-sections of the holes and of the electrons have the respective values of: {sigma}{sub p} = 4 X 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2} and {sigma}{sub n} = 3 X 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2}. The value of {sigma}{sub n} appears to be under-estimated because the number of defects in P-type samples appears to be lower than that in N-type samples. These results lead to the conclusion that the interstitials are responsible for the recombination. At 80 K it has been found that in N-type samples, a shallow level exists at O.05 eV below the conduction band with a capture cross-section for the holes of {sigma}{sub p} {>=} 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2}. We believe that in this case the recombination of charge carriers is controlled by the neighbouring 'defect-interstitial' pairs. In P-type samples at low temperature, the life-time is practically constant during irradiation. This fact is attributed to a spontaneous annealing of defects ol purely electrical origin. In the last part of the work the study of the photo-voltaic effect applied to the problem of gamma radiation dosimetry is considered. It is shown that such dosimeters, based on this principle, make it possible to measure the intensity of gamma rays over a very wide range. (author) [French] En utilisant l'effet photovoltaique dans les jonctions p-n, nous avons etudie au cours du bombardement le mecanisme de recombinaison des paires 'electron-trou' en presence des defauts de structure introduits dans le germanium de type N et de type P par les rayons gamma d'une source de Co{sup 60}. A 310 K, le niveau des centres de recombinaison se trouve a 0,25 eV au-dessous de la bande

  18. Savoir y être. Production de localité par l’engagement dans un folklore festif How to be(long. Production of localness through participation in folk festivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Bouchat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chaque année, des milliers de Belges défilent habillés en soldats de l’Empire dans les rues d’une centaine de localités de l’Entre-Sambre-et-Meuse, en Belgique francophone. Le succès croissant rencontré par ces Marches folkloriques s’explique notamment par l’important potentiel identificatoire inhérent à la pratique festive. Ces Marches reflètent notamment des dynamiques sociales et identitaires originales qui émergent dans des localités rurales wallonnes en pleine mutation depuis plusieurs décennies. La participation aux Marches permet de recréer un local pouvant faire l’objet d’une identification collective. Cette construction s’accommode de la variété croissante des profils et des trajectoires des participants, en termes d’ancrage généalogique, de mobilité professionnelle ou même de lieu de vie. Elle s’appuie sur une série de dispositifs corporels, matériels et spatiaux, propres au répertoire folklorique. Dans ce cadre, les catégories du rural et de l’urbain sont mobilisées en tant qu’univers de représentations et de pratiques, pour faire valoir et matérialiser contextuellement des formes d’attachement variées aux villages et, plus globalement, à la ruralité.Every year, thousands of Belgian citizens in imperial soldiers’ uniforms parade through the streets of about a hundred villages of the Entre-Sambre-et-Meuse region, in Francophone Belgium. The growing success enjoyed by these “folk walks” stems most notably from their inherent yet remarkable potential for constructing and combining a wide range of both social affiliation and differentiation processes. In particular, they reflect social and identity dynamics that have arisen in rural Walloon areas that for decades have been undergoing major changes. Participating in the walks thus allows recreating a localness that can ground collective identification. This social construction accommodates the growing diversity in participants

  19. Forced transitions for EDF: the EDF ship facing head-winds; Dalkia, the renewable trump card to be valorized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaux, Aurelie

    2018-01-01

    Electricite de France (EDF), the state-owned and main power producer in France is, as the Titanic liner, lacking agility to navigate into the wild seas of the French energy transition policy. Besides, the era of engineers that construct energy cathedrals and of nuclear full supremacy is now well over, giving the way to innovative management policies with workers participation and digitalisation. EDF is preparing a new strategy addressing market opening and deregulation, renewable energy sources, and more freedom for EDF's numerous subsidiary companies. A second paper precisely concerns Dalkia, one of EDF's subsidiaries which is specialized in energy efficiency, heat and cold generation and networks that are more and more supplied by renewable energies. A third paper addresses EDF-SEI, whose specialty is energy autonomy in isolated areas (islands, etc.)

  20. Group EDF at a glance 2005; Groupe EDF l'essentiel 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    The EDF Group is a leading player in the European energy industry, present in all areas of the electricity value chain, from generation to trading, and increasingly active in the gas chain in Europe. 2005 was a crucial year for EDF: growth in sales and a doubling of net income, the opening of the capital, the stepping up of our strategic development plan focused on Europe, a new public service agreement in France. This document presents the main points of the group activities in 2005: the group profile, the growing of the group, the solid position in France (sales and marketing, production and global warming, the radioactive wastes management and the business), consolidating positions in Europe and the international activities by pursuing a selective strategy. (A.L.B.)

  1. La santé dans les Caraïbes Contrer l'obésité par la diversité des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    à Saint-Kitts-et-Nevis en raison de la détérioration qui se produit sur les exploitations agricoles, de l'exposition à la lumière solaire, des températures élevées et de la manipulation inappropriée dans les commerces de détail ? • des techniques simples comme l'utilisation de pellicule de plastique peuvent tripler la durée de.

  2. Study by neutron diffusion of magnetic fluctuations in iron in the curie temperature region; Etude des fluctuations d'aimantation dans le fer au voisinage de la temperature de curie par diffusion des neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericson-Galula, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-12-15

    Heinsenberg model and a simple band model; our values in good agreement with those calculated in the Heisenberg model and exclude the band model used. Finally, in chapter IV we recall the chief results obtained. (author) [French] La diffusion critique des neutrons dans le fer est due aux fluctuations d'aimantation qui existent dans les substances ferromagnetiques au voisinage de la temperature de Curie. Les fluctuations peuvent se decrire en termes de correlations; on definit une fonction de correlation: {gamma}{sub R{sub vector}} (t), {gamma}{sub R{sub vector}} (t) , valeur moyenne du produit scalaire d'un spin de reference et d'un spin situe a la distance (R) du premier et considere a l'instant t. Dans le chapitre I nous rappelons les generalites sur les sections efficaces de diffusion des neutrons; nous donnons un bref resume de la theorie de VAN HOVE qui a montre que la section efficace de diffusion magnetique des neutrons est la transformee de FOURIER de la fonction de correlation. Dans le chapitre II nous etudions la dependance spatiale de la fonction de correlation, supposee independante du temps. On peut alors la caracteriser par deux parametres K{sub 1} et r{sub 1} qui permettent de calculer respectivement la portee et l'intensite des correlations. Apres avoir expose le principe de la mesure de ces parametres, nous decrirons l'appareillage experimental. Les valeurs experimentales obtenues sont en bon accord avec celles calculees, l'accord est meilleur si on suppose que ce sont les deuxiemes et non les premiers voisins d'un atome de fer qui sont magnetiquement actifs, ainsi que l'a propose NEEL. Dans le chapitre III nous etudions l'evolution dans le temps de la fonction de correlation; cette evolution est caracterisee par un parametre {lambda} dependant de la temperature, qui intervient dans l'equation de diffusion, a laquelle obeissent les fluctuations d'aimantation {delta}M{sub vector}/{delta}t = {lambda} {nabla

  3. Dosage of cesium 137 in radioactive wastes by the application of sodium tetraphenylborate; Dosage du cesium 137 dans les effluents radioactifs par le tetraphenylborate de sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testemale, G; Girault, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    A simple technique of the dosage of {sup 137}Cs has been developed. The technique consists in the formation of cesium tetraphenyl borate, followed by a double extraction with isoamyl acetate, and washing of the organic phase. The counting of known parts of the cesium solution assaying of its purity by {gamma} spectrometry enable the determination of the {sup 137}Cs. The yield is about 98 per cent. (authors) [French] Une technique simple du dosage du {sup 137}Cs a ete mise au point. Elle consiste en une double extraction du tetraphenylborate de cesium forme par l'acetate d'isoamyle suivie d'un lavage de la phase organique. Des comptages sur des parties aliquotes de la solution de cesium et un controle de purete par spectrometrie {gamma} permettent la determination de cet element. Rendement: environ 98 pour cent. (auteurs)

  4. Etude pilote par PET/CT de la réponse à l'ipilimumab dans le traitement du mélanome métastatique.

    OpenAIRE

    Rochat, N.

    2012-01-01

    0 Abstract L'incidence du mélanome est en nette augmentation en Europe et aux Etats-Unis. La Chirurgie peut être curative au stade précoce de la maladie,la radiothérapie se pratique À visée palliative, les chimiothérapies n'ont montré que peu d'effet. Les progress actuels se font via l'immunothérapie. Des traitements par l'interleukine-2 et l'interféron-α se sont montrés efficaces chez certains patients, mais leur utilisation est limitée par leur forte toxicité. Depuis 201...

  5. EDF and GDF diversification; La diversification d'EDF et de GDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-08

    In the last years Electricite de France (EDF) and Gaz de France (GDF) developed intervening strategies in a number of sectors opened to competition, the so-called strategies of diversification or complementary activities. These new strategies have multiple objectives as, for instance, prospective monopole evolution, increasing exigence of the consumers' demand, or else competence valuing. Ever since 1991, these strategic orientations developed with the support of public powers that worked out first measures of organization and monitoring. Although the frame was loose and rather tolerant, boosting EDF and GDF diversification was perceived by the concerned professionals as an aggression directed against them. Following a strong mobilization of professional organizations and a number of elected persons, in mid 1993, the minister of industry was impelled to tackle personally with the matter what resulted in an accurate system of framing. The GDF diversification is essentially characterized by a 'thermal pole' corresponding to the activities of heating operation. GDF controls, around the company Danto Rogeat and the old branches of Shell group, about 5% of a market of heating operation in France, i.e., represents the third place in a rather monopolized sector where the two main operators represent almost 75%. The EDF diversification is but more diffuse. Three main fields emerge distinctly: the waste processing, public lighting, and engineering. EDF is also present on more restraint markets as cartography, tele-surveillance, cable TV, aquaculture. The implementation of the system is presented where prerogatives of the Council of State on one hand and the Council of Competition on the other hand are stipulated. The disposition frame system is constituted of two measures stipulating the application of commendation from the two councils and provisions ensuring the transparency, respectively.

  6. Study of magnetic interactions in some ferri- and antiferromagnetic normal spinels studied by neutron diffraction; Contribution a l'etude des interactions magnetiques dans quelques spinelles ferri-et antiferromagnetiques normaux etudies par diffraction des neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plumier, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    permet d'abaisser l'energie totale de ces composes mais elle introduit egalement un terme d'energie d'anisotropie axiale. A cote de cette energie d'anisotropie axiale, il faut egalement, dans le cas de structures coplanaires retenir la possibilite de l'existence d'une energie d'anisotropie basale dans le plan perpendiculaire a l'axe quadratique. Ce dernier terme d'energie d'anisotropie permet d'expliquer pourquoi les structures magnetiques antiferromagnetiques de tels spinelles normaux ont frequemment un ou plusieurs parametres doubles de celui de la maille chimique. Enfin la comparaison des structures magnetiques des spinelles antiferromagnetiques dans lesquels le terme d'energie magnetique dominant est le terme d'interaction magnetique entre ions premiers voisins met en evidence l'existence d'interactions magnetiques entre ions plus eloignes. De telles interactions de superechange indirect s'exercent soit par l'intermediaire de deux anions, soit par l'intermediaire de deux anions et d'un cation tetraedrique. Bien que de l'ordre de grandeur de quelques pour cent seulement des precedentes, l'importance de ces interactions n'est pas negligeable puisque de telles interactions relient un ion donne a ses douze seconds voisins, six troisiemes voisins et douze quatriemes voisins. (auteur)

  7. REPEUPLEMENTS EN ALEVINS NOURRIS ET DÉMOGRAPHIE DE LA POPULATION DE TRUITE (SALMO TRUTTA L. DANS LE REDON, UN AFFLUENT DU LAC LÉMAN INTERROMPU PAR UN OBSTACLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHAMPIGNEULLE A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La démographie d’une population de truite (Salmo trutta L. a été étudiée, dans un contexte de repeuplements en alevins nourris, sur le Redon, un affluent du lac Léman. On trouve sur le Redon une situation typique de nombreux affluents du Léman : une zone aval ouverte sur le lac mais rapidement interrompue par un obstacle empêchant la remontée des truites de lac. Des relâchers d’alevins nourris issus d’œufs de géniteurs sauvages de truite de lac ou de géniteurs domestiques, pratiqués en fin de printemps-début été à des densités de 40-60 ind./100 m2, fournissent un recrutement additionnel important pouvant constituer la part dominante du peuplement automnal en 0 +, puis 1 +. Sur les zones ouvertes à la pêche, colonisées ou non par la truite de lac, la densité de la population automnale en place s’effondre entre le stade 1 + et les stades > 1 +. Les résultats comparatifs entre zones ouvertes ou fermées à la pêche indiquent que la pêche peut être un facteur de mortalité important. La dynamique comparée des truites d’origine lacustre ou sédentaire suggère l’existence d’un taux de sédentarisation plus faible pour les 1 + issus de truites de lac comparativement aux 1 + issus de la fraie de truites sédentaires en zone de réserve. Une expérimentation suggère l’existence de mouvements de dévalaison ayant lieu avant octobre et touchant préférentiellement les 0 + d’origine lacustre ayant eu la croissance initiale la plus forte. L’étude montre que : - des alevins nourris d’origine lacustre ou domestique, relâchés en fin de printemps-début été, fournissent des géniteurs de truite de lac remontant dans la rivière de relâcher, avec cependant une proportion moindre (4 fois dans le cas de l’origine domestique comparativement à l’origine lacustre. Malgré leur forte contribution aux stades de juvéniles 0 + et 1 +, les alevins domestiques de pisciculture contribuent peu aux retours de g

  8. Contribution to the activation analysis of the rare gases. Contribution to the analysis of carbon monoxide and water vapour in gases (1963); Contribution a l'analyse par activation des gaz rares. Contribution a l'analyse de l'oxyde de carbone et de la vapeur d'eau dans les gaz (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebolt, J [Commisariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-15

    In the present work, we have applied radioactive analysis to the general technique of rare gas separation. This separation is carried out on active charcoal, at constant pressure. The desorption of the gas is caused by an increase in the initial temperature of adsorption. These separations are quantitative and can be confirmed by chemical analysis. The volumes of desorbed gas are measured by radioactive counting. We have also used radioactivation to study the reduction of palladous chloride by carbon monoxide. Since this reduction is quantitative, we can have a knowledge of the mass of palladium reduced by measuring its activity. We have used the property which have organic chlorides of being hydrolysed by water vapour and of liberating hydrochloric acid to study quantitatively the amount of water vapour which a gas contains. The hydrochloric acid formed is measured by activation of the chlorine in the acid. (author) [French] Dans les travaux que nous presentons, nous avons applique l'analyse par radioactivation, a la technique generale de separation des gaz rares. Cette separation est faite sur charbon active, a pression constante. La desorption des gaz est provoquee par une augmentation de la temperature initiale d'adsorption. Ces separations sont quantitatives, et peuvent etre exploitees par l'analyse chimique. Les volumes de gaz dedorbes sont mesures par comptage de la radioactivite. Nous avons egalement utilise la radioactivation pour l'etude de la reduction du chlorure palladeux par l'oxyde de carbone. Cette reduction etant quantitative, nous pouvons connaitre la masse de palladium reduit par la mesure de son activite. Nous avons exploite la propriete que possede un chlorure organique d'etre hydrolise par la vapeur d'eau et de liberer de l'acide chlorhydrique pour etudier quantitativement la vapeur d'eau contenue dans un gaz. L'acide chlorhydrique forme est mesure par l'activation du chlore de l'acide. (auteur)

  9. EDF studies on PWR vessel internal loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellet, S.; Vallat, S.

    1998-01-01

    EDF has undertaken some mechanics and thermal-hydraulics studies with the objective of mastering plant phenomena today and in order to numerically predict the behaviour of vessel internals on units planned for the future. From some justifications already underway after in operation incidents (wear and drop time of RCCA rods, fuel deflection, adapter cracks, baffle bolt cracks) we intend to control reactor vessel flows and mechanical behaviour of internal structures. During normal operation, thermal-hydraulic is the main load of vessel internals. The current approach consists of acquiring the capacity to link different calculations, taking care that codes are qualified for physical phenomena and complex 3D geometries. For baffle assembly, a more simple model of this structure has been used to treat the physical phenomena linked to the LOCA transient. Results are encouraging mainly due to code capacity progression (resolution and models), which allows more and more complex physical phenomena to be treated, like turbulence flow and LOCA. (author)

  10. Monitoring large rotating machines at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, R.; Bourgeois, P.; Le Reverend, D.

    1992-09-01

    At Electricite de France (EDF), since 1978, the operating instruments which ensure the DETECTION function, have been completed on turbogenerators by a specialized ''off-line'' vibration monitoring system, which allows a posteriori DIAGNOSIS analysis. However because of a need of a real time and more elaborated DETECTION function, the concept of the Monitoring and Diagnosis Aid Station (Poste de Surveillance et d'Aide au Diagnostic: PSAD) has been developed. It federates the processing of monitoring, organized into several functions, and includes the monitoring of turbogenerators (TGS) and reactor coolant pumps (RCP). The purpose of this paper is to present, on the one hand, the monitoring functions of TGS and RCP and on the other, the first experimental results on the behaviour of three RCP, obtained through a SAMT (Surveillance Automatisee des Machines Tournantes - Automatic monitoring of rotating machines) prototype. (authors). 2 figs., 4 tabs., 4 refs

  11. Monitoring of large rotating machines at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, R.; Oswald, G.P.; Morel, J.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of equipment surveillance is the prevention of major risks, the early detection of abnormal conditions and post-incident analysis to correct faults observed. At EDF, overall vibration monitoring in the control room was supplemented by a special vibration monitoring system. However, in order to satisfy more elaborate, real time detection requirements and benefit from the new possibilities offered by computer-based systems, EDF has developed the PSAD concept (Surveillance and Diagnosis-aid Station) which groups surveillance processing, organized on surveillance functions including turbogenerator and reactor coolant pump surveillance. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the turbogenerator and reactor coolant pump surveillance functions and present the first examples of reactor coolant pump behaviour feedback using a PSAD mockup (Automated Surveillance of Rotating Machines). In the first place, surveillance implies determining exactly what has to be monitored. This entails considering incidents liable to affect machine behaviour and, of course, specifying both the vibration quantities and those defining the operating condition of the machine considered which are necessary to be able to interpret the vibrations. Data processing requirements concern detection of faults and diagnosis aids. Faults detection must be automatic, but not the diagnosis function. Data can be processed to evidence one or several faults, using the most appropriate data display system. Interpretation is then entrusted to experts. To satisfy the above requirements, the PSAD system integrates two new concepts: distributed surveillance, involving depth distribution (different layers of software organized for increasingly sophisticated and gradually narrowing data processing) and space distribution (the work is performed in the most appropriate place, whether this be the plant, with automatic real time processing, or elsewhere if the complexity of the diagnosis so requires

  12. EDF - 2007 results, 2007 Financial report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadonneix, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    As the world's biggest electricity generator, the EDF Group covers every sector of expertise, from generation to trading and transmission grids. EDF builds on the expertise of its people, its R and D and engineering skills, its experience as a leading industry operator and the attentive support of its customers to deliver competitive solutions that successfully reconcile economic growth with climate protection. This document presents the 2007 annual results and Consolidated financial statements of the Group at 31 December 2007: Consolidated income statements; Consolidated balance sheets; Consolidated cash flow statements; Changes in consolidated equity; Notes to the consolidated financial statements: Group accounting standards; Summary of the principal accounting and valuation methods; Public electricity distribution concessions in France and concession agreements for other activities; Comparability; Significant events and transactions of 2007 and 2006; Changes in the scope of consolidation; Segment reporting; Sales; Fuel and energy purchases; Other external expenses; Contractual obligations and commitments; Personnel expenses; Other operating income and expenses; Impairments / reversals; Other operating income and expenses; Financial result; Income taxes; Goodwill; Other intangible assets; Property, plant and equipment operated under French public electricity distribution concessions; Property, plant and equipment operated under concessions for other activities; Property, plant and equipment used in generation and other tangible assets owned by the Group; Investments in companies accounted for under the equity method; Current and non-current financial assets; Inventories, including work-in-process; Trade receivables; Other receivables; Cash and cash equivalents; Held-for-sale assets and liabilities; Equity; Provisions; Specific French public electricity distribution concession liabilities for existing assets and assets to be replaced; Current and non

  13. 70 years of EDF archives and a lot more

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holgado, S.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1968 'EDF Archives' has been in charge of collecting and preserving EDF's documents. EDF distinguishes 2 types of documents: documents (including data) that are still used by EDF teams in their daily work for knowledge transmission or legal aspects and earlier materials that are used for research works in history, sociology or economics. EDF being a public limited liability company (SA) with a public service mission, its archives are both private and public. The oldest documents date back in the 19. century as a legacy of the 2400 enterprises producing or transporting or dispatching electricity or gas that were nationalized in 1946 to form the EDF company. EDF's archives represent 100 linear kilometers of documents, 8 kilometers of which can be consulted by the public. In 2015 a club of the archivists from the nuclear industry was created, its aims were to manage common archives, to build a mapping of all corporate archives and to harmonize managing rules. (A.C.)

  14. Instabilities and growing waves: power absorbed or generated by the various excited modes in a plasma; Instabilites et ondes croissantes: puissance absorbee - ou engendree - par les differents modes excites dans un plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolland, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-05-01

    The character, stable or unstable, of a medium can be deduced from the behavior of an ideal model of a semi-infinite medium which is subjected to an excitation only at the boundary. A new analytic method is used to solve this problem. The results obtained show a connection between the character of the medium and certain properties of the dispersion equation, and agree with those derived from other methods. Then, the energy exchange between a medium and a source of excitation is investigated. In order to include the case of growing waves associated with convective instabilities, this problem is treated in the context of the wave packet theory. We find that - even in the absence of collisions - there still is a power exchange. Thus a connexion can be established with the kinematic theories of growing waves and the modes generating power can be found. Moreover, the power absorbed by spatial dispersion is found to be identical with that due to Landau's effect for long waves. This confirms the kinematic character of the latter and bridges a gap between macroscopic and microscopic theories. (author) [French] Le caractere, stable ou instable, d'un milieu peut etre deduit du comportement d'un milieu semi-indefini soumis a une excitation a la frontiere. Une nouvelle methode analytique est developpee pour resoudre ce probleme. Les resultats obtenus montrent une connexion entre le comportement du milieu et certaines proprietes de l'equation de dispersion, et generalisent les resultats obtenus par d'autres methodes. On etudie ensuite les echanges d'energie entre un milieu et une source d'excitation. Pour inclure le cas des ondes croissantes associees aux instabilites convectives, on traite ce probleme dans le cadre de la theorie du paquet d'ondes. On trouve que meme en l'absence de collisions, la puissance echangee n'est pas nulle. Ceci permet d'etablir une connexion avec les theories cinematiques des ondes croissantes, tout en precisant quels sont les modes generateurs d

  15. La pelade par plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre l’épidémiologie, la pathogenèse, l’histologie et l’approche clinique au diagnostic de la pelade par plaques. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant la pathogenèse, le diagnostic et le pronostic de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme de perte pileuse auto-immune dont la prévalence durant une vie est d’environ 2 %. Des antécédents personnels ou familiaux de troubles auto-immuns concomitants, comme le vitiligo ou une maladie de la thyroïde, peuvent être observés dans un petit sous-groupe de patients. Le diagnostic peut souvent être posé de manière clinique en se fondant sur la perte de cheveux non cicatricielle et circulaire caractéristique, accompagnée de cheveux en « point d’exclamation » en périphérie chez ceux dont le problème en est aux premiers stades. Le diagnostic des cas plus complexes ou des présentations inhabituelles peut être facilité par une biopsie et un examen histologique. Le pronostic varie largement et de mauvais résultats sont associés à une apparition à un âge précoce, une perte importante, la variante ophiasis, des changements aux ongles, des antécédents familiaux ou des troubles auto-immuns concomitants. Conclusion La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte de cheveux périodiquement observée en soins primaires. Les médecins de famille sont bien placés pour identifier la pelade par plaques, déterminer la gravité de la maladie et poser le diagnostic différentiel approprié. De plus, ils sont en mesure de renseigner leurs patients à propos de l’évolution clinique de la maladie ainsi que du pronostic général selon le sous-type de patients.

  16. Reduction by metals dissolved in liquid ammonia of keto steroids. Equilibration of the alcohols; Reduction par les metaux dissous dans l'ammoniac liquide de cetones en serie steroide. Equilibration des alcools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giroud, A M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    'une cetone par les metaux en dissolution fait intervenir deux electrons: on peut considerer comme intermediaire un radical-anion, puis un dianion ou un carbanion. Le radical-anion pouvant aussi se dimeriser pour donner des pinacols. Pour interpreter les resultats des reductions, il nous fallait connaitre les stabilites relatives des alcools ce qui nous a conduit a faire des equilibrations. Dans un premier chapitre, nous etudions les methodes de preparation de l'androstanone-ll et des androstanols-ll{alpha} et ll{beta}. Nous verifions ensuite qu'il n'est pas possible selon nos methodes de conclure sur la stabilite relative des deux alcools par equilibrations experimentales. Nous decrivons enfin les methodes de reduction de la cetone par les metaux alcalins et alcalino-terreux dissous dans l'ammoniac liquide, suivant deux procedes: soit en presence de donneur de protons, soit avec addition posterieure de donneur de protons. Ces reductions conduisent a un melange des deux alcools ou l'isomere {alpha} equatorial stable predomine. Dans un deuxieme chapitre, nous etudions l'action de l'acide selenique et de l'eau oxygenee sur la cholestanone-3, reaction qui nous a permis d'etudier la preparation et la stereochimie des derives du A-nor cholestane. Nous decrivons ensuite la preparation des A-nor cholestanols 2{alpha} et 2{beta} et des acetates correspondants. L'equilibration par des methodes chimiques de ces alcools montre que l'alcool 2 {alpha} est plus stable que l'alcool 2{beta}, ce qui est confirme par le calcul. Enfin, la reduction de la A-nor cholestanone-2 par les metaux en dissolution conduit toujours de facon preponderante a l'epimere 2 {beta} le moins stable avec en outre formation de pinacols. Nous consacrons enfin le troisieme chapitre a l'etude des reductions de l'androstanone-17 et des stabilites relatives des deux alcools 17{alpha} et 17{beta}. Quel que soit le mode operatoire utilise, nous obtenons toujours presque exclusivement l'acool 17{beta} le plus stable. D

  17. Reduction by metals dissolved in liquid ammonia of keto steroids. Equilibration of the alcohols; Reduction par les metaux dissous dans l'ammoniac liquide de cetones en serie steroide. Equilibration des alcools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giroud, A.M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    'une cetone par les metaux en dissolution fait intervenir deux electrons: on peut considerer comme intermediaire un radical-anion, puis un dianion ou un carbanion. Le radical-anion pouvant aussi se dimeriser pour donner des pinacols. Pour interpreter les resultats des reductions, il nous fallait connaitre les stabilites relatives des alcools ce qui nous a conduit a faire des equilibrations. Dans un premier chapitre, nous etudions les methodes de preparation de l'androstanone-ll et des androstanols-ll{alpha} et ll{beta}. Nous verifions ensuite qu'il n'est pas possible selon nos methodes de conclure sur la stabilite relative des deux alcools par equilibrations experimentales. Nous decrivons enfin les methodes de reduction de la cetone par les metaux alcalins et alcalino-terreux dissous dans l'ammoniac liquide, suivant deux procedes: soit en presence de donneur de protons, soit avec addition posterieure de donneur de protons. Ces reductions conduisent a un melange des deux alcools ou l'isomere {alpha} equatorial stable predomine. Dans un deuxieme chapitre, nous etudions l'action de l'acide selenique et de l'eau oxygenee sur la cholestanone-3, reaction qui nous a permis d'etudier la preparation et la stereochimie des derives du A-nor cholestane. Nous decrivons ensuite la preparation des A-nor cholestanols 2{alpha} et 2{beta} et des acetates correspondants. L'equilibration par des methodes chimiques de ces alcools montre que l'alcool 2 {alpha} est plus stable que l'alcool 2{beta}, ce qui est confirme par le calcul. Enfin, la reduction de la A-nor cholestanone-2 par les metaux en dissolution conduit toujours de facon preponderante a l'epimere 2 {beta} le moins stable avec en outre formation de pinacols. Nous consacrons enfin le troisieme chapitre a l'etude des reductions de l'androstanone-17 et des stabilites relatives des deux alcools 17{alpha} et 17{beta}. Quel que soit le mode operatoire utilise, nous

  18. Company of the month: French EDF opts for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Siw Linnea

    2006-01-01

    EDF is Europe's largest power company with 640 TWh produced in 2005 and 36,7 million customers in Europe. On a global scale the company has more than 40 million customers. EDF has significant positions in the four big energy markets in Europe: Germany, France, Great Britain and Italy. EDF has an ambitious investment program in the area of nuclear power, and holds that increased investments in this sector is the best and most beneficial way of keeping up with Europe's increasing energy demand (ml)

  19. EDF group - Reference Document, Annual Financial Report 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The EDF Group is the world's leading electricity company and very well established in Europe. Its business covers all electricity-related activities, from generation to networks and commerce. It is an important player in energy trading through EDF trading. This document is EDF Group's Reference Document and Annual Financial Report for the year 2014. It contains information about Group profile, governance, business, investments, property, plant and equipment, management, financial position, human resources, shareholders, etc. The document includes the half-year financial report

  20. EDF - Electricite de France, 2003 First Half Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. This document is EDF Group's first half results for 2003. It contains a presentation of the First Half Developments and Outlook and the Financial Results, followed by the consolidated half year financial statements for the period ended 30 June 2003

  1. Heat transfer by liquids in suspension in a turbulent gas stream (1960); Transfert de chaleur par liquides entraines dans un ecoulement gazeux turbulent (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grison, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. de Physique-Chimie et basses temperatures, Grenoble (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The introduction of a small volume of liquid into a turbulent gas stream used as cooling agent improves considerably the heat transfer coefficient of the gas. When the turbulent regime is established, one observes in a cylindrical tube two types of flow whether the liquid wets or does not wet the wall. In the first case, one gets on the wall an annular liquid film and droplets in suspension are in the gas stream. In the second case, a fog of droplets is formed without any liquid film on the wall. Experiments were performed with the following mixtures: water-hydrogen, water-nitrogen, ethanol-nitrogen (wetting liquids) introduced into a stainless steel tube of 4 mm ID, electrically heated on 320 mm of length. We varied the gas flow rate (Reynolds until 50000), the rate of the liquid flow rate to gas flow rate (until 15), the pressure (until 10 kg/cm{sup 2}), the temperature (until the boiling point) and the heat flux (until 250 W/cm{sup 2}). Two types of burnout were observed. A formula of correlation of the burnout heat flux is given. Making use of the analogy between mass transfer and heat transfer, a dimensionless formula of correlation of the local heat transfer coefficients is established. (author) [French] L'introduction d'un faible volume de liquide dans un ecoulement gazeux turbulent utilise comme fluide refrigerant permet une amelioration considerable des coefficients d'echanges thermiques que l'on aurait si le gaz etait employe seul (nous avons obtenu un facteur d'amelioration superieur a 10). En regime turbulent etabli, on observe dans un tube deux modes d'ecoulements selon que le liquide mouille ou ne mouille pas la paroi. Dans le premier cas, on obtient sur la paroi un film annulaire liquide et des gouttelettes en suspension dans le coeur gazeux. Dans le deuxieme cas, il se forme un veritable brouillard sans film liquide sur la paroi. Les etudes experimentales ont ete effectuees avec les melanges eau-hydrogene, eau-azote, ethanol-azote (liquides

  2. Une quête d’identité par le détour : ''Dans ces bras-là'', de Camille Laurens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Almeida Rosa de Faria

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scholarly linking between autobiographical elements, fiction, and diversion of conventions are characteristic of Camille Laurens’work. Dans ces bras-là (2000 can be described as a search for identity by the detour of the other. Indeed, the novel is built on three dichotomous relations namely autobiography-fiction, woman-man and writing-oral language. The result is a complex and deep look at Camille Laurens’ identity: a woman, an author, but also the narrator of a narrative

  3. Localization of alpha emitters by damage production in a thin film. Application to the study of alpha emitter diffusion in irradiated samples; Localisation des emetteurs alpha par creation de dommages dans un film mince. Application a l'etude de la diffusion des emetteurs alpha dans des echantillons irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houdaille, B; Perrot, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The process of recording {alpha} particles on cellulose nitrate films, called alpha-graphy, is applied to the study of the diffusion of {alpha}-emitting elements in irradiated alloys. The existence of diffusion is shown by attacking the film with concentrated caustic soda after exposition. The insensitivity of the recorder to {beta} {gamma} radiation emitted by the sample after passing in the reactor makes it possible to operate with long exposure times and to detect small diffusions. The concentration-penetration curves are drawn up after carrying out a densitometric analysis of the alpha-graphies. - As the cellulose nitrate is affected only by {alpha} particles of energies of between 0.5 and 4 MeV, it was first necessary to determine the yield of the recorder for {alpha} particles emitted by a thick source, i.e. whose energy varies between 0 and E{sub 0}, E{sub 0} being the energy of the alpha emitter. - The concentration C of the {alpha}-emitter, as a function of the optical density D of the alpha-graphy, and of the exposure time t is given by a simple relationship: C = D/at where a is an experimental constant determined by calibration. It depends on the nature of the cellulose nitrate, of the {alpha}-emitting element and of the alloy studied. (authors) [French] Le procede d'enregistrement des particules alpha sur film de nitrate de cellulose, ou alphagraphie, est applique a l'etude de la diffusion d'elements emetteurs alpha dans des alliages irradies. La diffusion est mise en evidence par une attaque du film de nitrate, apres exposition, dans de la soude concentree. L'insensibilite de l'enregistreur au rayonnement {beta} {gamma}, emis par l'echantillon apres son sejour en pile, permet d'operer sur de longs temps de pose et de detecter des diffusions faibles. Les courbes concentration - penetration sont etablies par exploitation densitometrique des alphagraphies. - Comme le nitrate de cellulose n'est impressionne que par des particules alpha dont l'energie est

  4. Audit of EDF generation and transmission division suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leconte, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the process for acceptance by EDF/production and transmission group of suppliers, industrial equipment manufacturers and providers of repair activities or services for the maintenance of nuclear plants. 1 tab

  5. Les hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques dans l'environnement. Deuxième partie : La dégradation par voie microbienne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Environment. Part Two: Microbial Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchez M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La microbiologie de la dégradation des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques (HAP est un domaine de recherche en plein développement. C'est à la fois le devenir dans l'environnement de ces composés ubiquistes et génotoxiques et l'utilisation de procédés microbiologiques de dépollution des sols industriels contaminés par ces produits qui motivent cet intérêt. On présente ici une synthèse des connaissances actuelles dans ce domaine. Les organismes dégradeurs sont essentiellement les bactéries et les champignons. Le processus de dégradation, aérobie, est initié par des oxygénases. Les bactéries utilisent les HAP de deux à quatre cycles comme substrats de croissance, ce qui conduit à leur minéralisation. Les champignons, lignolytiques et non lignolytiques, attaquent les HAP par cométabolisme, ce que font également les bactéries. L'ensemble des micro-organismes dégradant les HAP, et les voies métaboliques impliquées, sont présentés. Le mode d'accession des micro-organismes à leurs substrats très peu solubles est un point important. Les études menées avec les bactéries ont montré l'existence de deux mécanismes, le transfert par solubilisation dans la phase aqueuse et l'accession interfaciale directe. Un autre aspect présenté est le devenir des HAP, en termes de bilans carbone, lors de la dégradation bactérienne de HAP individuels et de mélanges de HAP. Des taux de minéralisation élevés peuvent être obtenus. Dans le cas des mélanges, ces taux élevés impliquent la mise en oeuvre de microflores complexes où le cométabolisme joue un rôle important. Les progrès accomplis ces dernières années conduisent à ne plus considérer les HAP comme des composés intrinsèquement récalcitrants à la biodégradation. Dans l'environnement, un facteur important limitant la dégradation des HAP est leur accessibilité aux micro-organismes. The microbiology of the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

  6. Nuclear energy in France. Respective part of CEA, EDF, FRAMATOME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    In France, the three actors on the nuclear stage are CEA, EDF, and industry. The CEA, important organism of research and development, represents the public power, counsels the Government for safety and constitutes the State interference by the indirect mean of budget which is assigned to it. The industry, FRAMATOME, is commissioned to build plants. EDF has vocation to provide electricity at the lower costs [fr

  7. Phasing out nuclear: shock statements by the EDF's CEO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benezet, E.; Mouchon, F.; Lomazzi, M.; Jeanne, M.

    2011-01-01

    While costs associated with phasing out nuclear or cancelling of nuclear programs are briefly evoked for different European countries (Belgium, Germany, Italy), the EDF Chairman, Mr Proglio, comments the decisions of these countries, outlines the various risks associated with such a decision in France (job losses, greenhouse gas emissions), also outlines EDF involvement in nuclear safety and evokes the issues of Fessenheim and of the EPR. Some French political aspects on that matter are also evoked

  8. The fortran programme for the calculation of the absorption and double scattering corrections in cross-section measurements with fast neutrons using the monte Carlo method (1963); Programme fortran pour le calcul des corrections d'absorption et de double diffusion dans les mesures de sections efficaces pour les neutrons rapides par la methode de monte-carlo (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    A calculation for double scattering and absorption corrections in fast neutron scattering experiments using Monte-Carlo method is given. Application to cylindrical target is presented in FORTRAN symbolic language. (author) [French] Un calcul des corrections de double diffusion et d'absorption dans les experiences de diffusion de neutrons rapides par la methode de Monte-Carlo est presente. L'application au cas d'une cible cylindrique est traitee en langage symbolique FORTRAN. (auteur)

  9. The public utility contract between the French government and EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The public utility contract as foreseen by article 1 of the law from August 9, 2004 was signed on October 24, 2005. It represents the reference of EDF's (Electricite de France) commitments for its different activities of power producer-supplier and network manager. It precises also the commitments of the manager of the public energy transportation system (RTE EDF-Transport). It describes the level of commitment of EDF group over the 2005-2006-2007 era and precises the financial compensation modalities of its public utility missions and of its commitments as described in the contract. The public utility plan indicates the level of investments planned by EDF in the domain of power generation and networks. This document gathers: the talk given by D. de Villepin, Prime Minister, during the signature of the contract, the talk and presentation (slides) given by P. Gadonneix, head of EDF, the public utility contract between the government and EDF, and the public utility plan. (J.S.)

  10. EDF's Engineering Experience and Contribution to the Nuclear Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salha, Bernard; Fourest, Bernard; Arpino, Jean-Marc

    2002-01-01

    Electricite de France (EDF) is now operating 58 nuclear power units which produce 76% of the electricity generated in France. This EDF's industrial success is the result of its capacity to master and optimize its production tool, from design through operation. EDF's integrated engineering is in the heart of this process of technical expertise and economic optimization. It allows to be in interface between the needs of operators and industrials suppliers, while accumulating a significant feedback of operating experience. The will of achieving the process of frenchifying PWR technology and to implement new industrial innovations have ended up in the new NPP of 100 % french design, the N4 series and its significant innovations. EDF energy policy is to keep the nuclear option open for the future. This strategy results from the need to improve the availability and the life extension of the units in operation and to prepare the replacement of the operating reactors around 2015. This is the objective of the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR), a French-German joint project. EDF is also applying this industrial process in its international projects. For example China, which desires to implement a standardized nuclear program and to move forward the complete autonomy of its nuclear industry, has decided to adopt a similar approach to EDF's one. (authors)

  11. About the EDF formation in a capacitively coupled argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatanova, M; Thieme, G; Basner, R; Hannemann, M; Golubovskii, Yu B; Kersten, H

    2006-01-01

    The formation of the electron distribution function (EDF) in the bulk plasma of a capacitively coupled radio-frequency (rf) discharge in argon generated in the plasma-chemical reactor PULVA-INP is investigated experimentally and theoretically. Measurements of the EDF and internal plasma parameters were performed by means of a Langmuir probe at pressures of 0.5-100 Pa and discharge powers of 5-100 W. The observed EDFs have revealed a two-temperature behaviour at low pressures and evolved into a Maxwellian distribution at high gas pressures and large discharge powers. Theoretical determination of the EDF is based on the numerical solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation in the local and non-local approaches under experimental conditions. The model includes elastic and inelastic electron-atom collisions and electron-electron interactions. Low electron temperatures and relatively high ionization degrees are the features of the PULVA-INP rf discharge. This leads to significant influence of the electron-electron collisions on the EDF formation. The modelled and measured distributions show good agreement in a wide range of discharge parameters, except for a range of low gas pressures, where the stochastic electron heating is intense. Additionally, mechanisms of the EDF formation in the dc and rf discharge were compared under similar discharge conditions

  12. About the EDF formation in a capacitively coupled argon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatanova, M [Institute of Physics, Saint-Petersburg State University, ul. Ulianovskaja 1, 198504 Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Thieme, G [Institut fur Niedertemperatur-Plasmaphysik, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Str 19, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Basner, R [Institut fur Niedertemperatur-Plasmaphysik, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Str 19, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Hannemann, M [Institut fur Niedertemperatur-Plasmaphysik, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Str 19, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Golubovskii, Yu B [Institute of Physics, Saint-Petersburg State University, ul. Ulianovskaja 1, 198504 Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kersten, H [Institut fur Niedertemperatur-Plasmaphysik, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Str 19, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2006-08-01

    The formation of the electron distribution function (EDF) in the bulk plasma of a capacitively coupled radio-frequency (rf) discharge in argon generated in the plasma-chemical reactor PULVA-INP is investigated experimentally and theoretically. Measurements of the EDF and internal plasma parameters were performed by means of a Langmuir probe at pressures of 0.5-100 Pa and discharge powers of 5-100 W. The observed EDFs have revealed a two-temperature behaviour at low pressures and evolved into a Maxwellian distribution at high gas pressures and large discharge powers. Theoretical determination of the EDF is based on the numerical solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation in the local and non-local approaches under experimental conditions. The model includes elastic and inelastic electron-atom collisions and electron-electron interactions. Low electron temperatures and relatively high ionization degrees are the features of the PULVA-INP rf discharge. This leads to significant influence of the electron-electron collisions on the EDF formation. The modelled and measured distributions show good agreement in a wide range of discharge parameters, except for a range of low gas pressures, where the stochastic electron heating is intense. Additionally, mechanisms of the EDF formation in the dc and rf discharge were compared under similar discharge conditions.

  13. EDF and Areva: a hazardous and risky strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teule, Rianne; Thomas, Steve

    2009-06-01

    As EDF and Areva have been developing for several years a strategy exclusively based on a nuclear revival in the world, this document proposes a synthesis of a study in which the author describes and analyses this strategy, as well as the actual trade perspectives of the sector, and outlines the many uncertainties regarding development projects. It addresses the financial and political context for EDF (a record indebtedness) and Areva (an inability to face investments) and outlines the supporting role of the Coface (the only way for the French government to support EDF and Areva). It highlights and discusses the failures of both ERP projects, in Flamanville (cost overruns and consequences) and in Finland. It addresses the actual status of markets, notices that France's strategy (lifetime extension for the existing reactors) implies that the construction of new EPRs might finally be postponed, that which would mean a loss of prospects for Areva and a catastrophe for the EPR program. It comments the commitment of EDF in the UK and outlines that the success of the development of new nuclear plants still depends on public subsidies which are not yet decided. The author considers that investments made by EDF in the USA seem rather speculative, and outlines that there are still financial issues and uncertainties like in the UK. The presence and activities of EDF and Areva in China are also commented, and more briefly for the rest of the world

  14. Study of the effect of the energy spectrum and of the total flux on the damage produced by neutrons in solids; Contribution a l'etude de l'influence du spectre et du flux integre sur les dommages crees par les neutrons dans les solides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulieu, P C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-01-01

    In the first part are studied the general relationships between the physical effects produced by neutrons in solids, and the total flux and neutron energy spectrum; some examples are given. The second part, describes the application to a silicon damage detector whose principle is to use the damage produced in a PIN Junction for measuring the neutron flux (intermediate and fast) received by the detector. Chapter I is devoted to the experimental determination of the energy given to the atoms by a primary in the silicon. The results and conclusions drawn from this determination make it possible to consider, in chapter II, the calculation of the detectors response characteristics.Chapter III deals with the measurement of the detectors response function and it is noted that good agreement is obtained between the calculation and experimental results. The whole of the second part constitutes a test of the methods presented in the first part. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie, nous etudions les relations generales qui lient les effets physiques engendres par les neutrons dans les solides au flux integre et au spectre des neutrons et nous donnons des exemples d'utilisation. La deuxieme partie est une application au detecteur de dommages en silicium, dont le principe est d'utiliser les dommages crees dans une jonction PIN pour mesurer les flux de neutrons (intermediaires et rapides) recus par le detecteur. Le chapitre I est consacre a la determination experimentale de l'energie cedee aux atomes par un primaire dans le silicium. Les resultats et les conclusions que l'on peut tirer de cette determination permettent d'aborder, au chapitre II, le calcul de la fonction de reponse du detecteur. Le chapitre III porte sur la mesure de la fonction de reponse du detecteur et on constate qu'il y a un bon accord entre le calcul et l'experience. L'ensemble de la deuxieme partie constitue un test des methodes exposees dans la premiere partie. (auteur)

  15. EDF at a glance 2003; Groupe EDF - organisation et chiffres cles 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document presents the organization and key data of Electricite de France (EdF) group for 2003: business, priorities, values, different branches of the group (continental Europe, western Europe, Mediterranean branch, Africa, Asia-Pacific, Americas, Dalkia energy services, development branch), management, board of directors, market opening in France, human resource strategy, R and D, customers (residential, commercial, business and industrial, local authorities), industrial tool (fossil-fired generation, network management, renewable energy sources), reliability, financial flexibility, sustainable development (role of renewables in generation, CO{sub 2} emissions, radiation protection, nuclear waste, environment, handling fuel poverty, landscape conservation), contacts and affiliates outside France. (J.S.)

  16. SECHAGE DE PRODUITS GRANULAIRES PAR DESHYDRATATION PAR DETENTES SUCCESSIVES (DDS)

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulla , Galal; Mellouk , Hamid; Belghit , Abdelhamid; Allaf , Karim

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Dans cette étude, nous avons évalué les performances d'un nouveau procédé de séchage dans le cas du liège en granulés. Ce procédé (La déshydratation par détentes successives : DDS) consiste à soumettre le matériau liège dans une chambre hermétique aux variations cycliques de la pression. Chaque cycle est composé d'une compression et d'une décompression. La phase de compression est réalisée en injectant de l'air comprimé à température ambiante provenant d'un compresseur...

  17. Use of a Monte-Carlo method for studying the statistical distribution of electric fields around an ion in a one-component plasma; Etude, par une methode de Monte-Carlo de la repartition statistique des champs electriques au niveau d'un ion, dans un plasma a une composante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossignol-Guzzi, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 94 - Limeil-Brevannes (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-11-01

    A Monte-Carlo simulation has been made of the equilibrium configurations taken by a plasma of equally charged punctual ions, immersed in a uniform neutralizing background of electrons. The statistical repartition of the electric field acting on one ion, needed to obtain Stark effect, was specially obtained. Comparison for dense plasmas, was made with the former works of Holtzmark, Mayer, Broyles. (author) [French] On simule sur ordinateur, suivant une methode de Monte-Carlo, les configurations prises a l'equilibre thermodynamique par un plasma d'ions ponctuels et de meme charge, places dans un milieu d'electrons uniformement distribues. On etudie, en particulier, la repartition statistique des champs electriques au niveau d'un ion, utilisee dans les calculs d'effets Stark. On compare, dans le cadre des plasmas denses, les resultats obtenus aux travaux precedents de Holtzmark, Mayer, Broyles. (auteur)

  18. A solvent proceed for the extraction of the irradiate uranium and plutonium in the reactor core; Un procede par solvant pour l'extraction du plutonium de l'uranium irradie dans les piles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, B; Regnaut, P; Prevot, I [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    Description of the conditions of plutonium, fission products and of uranium separation by selective extraction of the nitrates by organic solvent, containing a simultaneous extraction of plutonium and uranium, followed by a plutonium re-extraction after reduction, and an uranium re-extraction. The rates of decontamination being insufficient in this first stage, we also describes the processes of decontamination permitting separately to get the rates wanted for uranium and plutonium. Finally, we describes the beginning of the operation that consists in a nitric dissolution of the active uranium while capturing the products of gaseous fission, as well as the final concentration of the products of fission in a concentrated solution. (authors) [French] Description des conditions de separation du plutonium, des produits de fission et de l'uranium au moyen d'une extraction selective des nitrates par solvant organique, comprenant une extraction simultanee du plutonium et de l'uranium, suivie d'une reextraction du plutonium apres reduction, et d'une reextraction de l'uranium. Les taux de decontamination etant insuffisants dans ce premier stade, on decrit egalement les processus de decontamination permettant separement d'obtenir les taux desires pour l'uranium et le plutonium. Enfin, on decrit aussi le debut de l'operation qui consiste en une dissolution nitrique de l'uranium actif en captant les produits de fission gazeux, ainsi que la concentration finale des produits de fission sous forme de solution concentree. (auteurs)

  19. Improvement of the heat exchanges by application of an electric field in the boiling freon 12; Amelioration des echanges thermiques par application d'un champ electrique dans le freon 12 bouillant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonjour, Emmanuel; Verdier, Jacques; Weil, Louis [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble (France)

    1960-07-01

    lt was already known that the heat exchanges by simple convection are considerably improved by the application of an electric field, but no study about the effect of this field when there is ebullition has been issued until now. The authors indicate the result of their experimental investigations which present a very great interest for the increase of the efficiency of the refrigeration cycles. Reprint of a paper published in Revue generale du froid, Sep 1960 [French] On savait deja qu'il etait possible d'ameliorer sensiblement les echanges thermiques dus a la simple convection par l'application d'un champ electrique, mais jusqu'a present, il n'existait pas de resultats concernant l'effet de ce champ en presence d'ebullition. Les auteurs indiquent les resultats de leur investigation experimentale qui presente un tres grand interet pour l'accroissement de l'efficacite du cycle de refrigeration. Reproduction d'un article publie dans Revue generale du froid, Sep 1960.

  20. GEDEON: A joint venture between research (CEA and CNRS) and industry (EDF and FRAMATOME)

    CERN Document Server

    Schapira, J P

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear waste partitioning and transmutation (P and T) are considered in France as an official line of research, in accordance with the Law of December 30, 1991 concerning research in the field of long lived and highly active nuclear waste. A research group called GEDEON (GEstion des DEchets par des Options Nouvelles) has been set up between CEA, CNRS, EDF and FRAMATOME with the aim to carry out basic research related to the use of accelerator driven subcritical systems (ADS) and of thorium as an option to reduce the waste long term impacts. In the partners agreement of GEDEON, the following subjects have been identified: spallation physics, nuclear data, subcritical neutronic studies, materials, thorium, system and scenario studies. The organization as well as the scientific program and activities of GEDEON are presented.

  1. Study of the annealing of defects introduced in silver by cold-working (1962); Etude sur le recuit des defauts introduits dans l'argent par ecrouissage (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnier-Lebouteux, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    The tempering and the recrystallisation of silver (99.99 per cent purity) following cold-working is studied by means of density ({delta}d / d {approx_equal} 5.10{sup -6}) and microhardness measurements, and of X-ray diagrams. The results depend in particular on the type and the conditions of the cold-working. For a rolling of 200 per cent carried out at temperatures under 80 deg. C, the recrystallisation occurs already at room temperature. By means of isothermal annealings it has been possible to measure the self-diffusion energy (1.90 eV). For a rolling of 200 per cent carried out at room temperature, there occurs already at 25 deg. C an increase in the density corresponding to an elimination of vacancies. For a bicrystal subjected to a 200 per cent rolling, the tempering is accompanied, from 65 to 90 deg. C, by a decrease in the density due probably to the evaporation of vacancy-impurity complexes formed during the cold-working, the impurity is very likely oxygen. At high temperature, after recrystallisation, a new and big decrease in the density let on a swelling of the silver due no doubt to slightly soluble oxygen. The density of the dislocations formed is evaluated for the different types of cold working. (author) [French] On etudie par des mesures de densite ({delta}d / d {approx_equal} 5.10{sup -6}) I de microdurete, et par des diagrammes de rayons X le revenu et la recristallisation de l'argent (purete 99,99 pour cent) apres ecrouissage. Les resultats dependent notablement du type et des conditions de l'ecrouissage. Pour un laminage de 200 pour cent effectue a temperature inferieure a 80 deg. C, on a observe la recristallisation des l'ambiante. Des recuits isothermes ont permis de mesurer l'energie d'autodiffusion (1,90 eV). Pour un laminage de 200 pour cent effectue a temperature ambiante, on constate des 25 deg. C une augmentation de densite correspondant a l'elimination de lacunes. Pour un bicristal lamine de 200 pour cent, le revenu s'accompagne, de 65

  2. Lifetime measurement in Proserpine by reactivity modulation (1960); Mesure du temps de vie dans proserpine par modulation de la reactivite (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clouet d' Orval, C; Tachon, J; Bertrand, J; Lecoustey, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The measurement method consists in varying the neutron flux periodically by means of an oscillator with cadmium sectors. From the signal received on a detector the lifetime {tau} can be determined; for various velocities {omega}, we have: (n/{delta}n){sup 2} = ({beta}{sub eff}/{delta}k){sup 2} + ({tau}/{delta}k){sup 2}{omega}{sup 2}. Various corrections are involved, in particular the calculation of the rates of different harmonics in the oscillator signal. (author) [French] La methode de mesure consiste a faire varier periodiquement le flux de neutrons au moyen d'un oscillateur a secteurs de cadmium. Le signal recu sur un detecteur permet la determination du temps de vie {tau}; pour differentes vitesses {omega}, on a: (n/{delta}n){sup 2} = ({beta}{sub eff}/{delta}k){sup 2} + ({tau}/{delta}k){sup 2}{omega}{sup 2}. Differentes corrections interviennent, en particulier, le calcul du taux des differents harmoniques dans le signal de l'oscillateur. (auteur)

  3. The study by means of a photomultiplier of the scintillations produced by {alpha} particles striking a zinc sulphide screen; Etude, au photomultiplicateur, des scintillations produites par les particules {alpha} dans un ecran de sulfure de zinc. Application a la numeration precise des particules {alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-06-15

    The object of the study is the accurate counting of {alpha} particles by p-m. detection of their scintillations upon impact with a zinc sulphide screen. The main advantage of the method is the extreme simplicity of the electronics used: the possibility of obtaining a utilizable pulse from the p-m. (EMI5311) without any amplification, and in linear response, is demonstrated. The scintillation produced by an impact on Zn-S has also been studied experimentally. The decrease of light intensity in relation to time may be interpreted by the exponential relation: I = I{sub 0} exp (-t / {tau}) whereby {tau} = (39 {+-} 0,1) 10{sup -6} s. The relation between scintillation intensity and remaining trajectory after travel through a given air-space has also been determined. Possible suitable applications of this method of {alpha} counting are those where good stability and low background are necessary. Results stated bear on air contamination studies, isotopic composition variation measurement of uranium, bismuth content measurement in alloys by irradiation of specimens in a thermal neutron flux and {alpha} count on the Po formed. (author) [French] Ce travail est consacre a l'etude de la numeration precise des particules {alpha} par detection au photomultiplicateur des scintillations produites par ces particules dans un ecran de sulfure de zinc. Le principal avantage de cette methode reside dans l'extreme simplicite de l'appareillage electronique; il est en effet montre qu'il est possible, tout en convoyant une reponse lineaire, d'obtenir du photomultiplicateur (EMI5311) un signal electrique utilisable sans aucune amplification. La scintillation produite par l'impact des particules {alpha} sur un ecran de Zn-S est etudiee experimentalement. La decroissance de l'intensite lumineuse en fonction du temps est interpretable par la relation exponentielle I = I{sub 0} exp (-t / {tau}) avec {tau} = (39 {+-} 0,1) 10{sup -6} s. La relation entre l'intensite de la scintillation et le

  4. Catalogue of EDF`s technical specifications (HN reference). Centre of standardization; Catalogue des specifications techniques EDF (reference HN). Centre de normalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-12-31

    This document edited by Electricite de France (EdF), is a catalogue of the French standard documents relative to any type of electrical material and equipment and which contain the technical specifications of these materials and equipments. A brief description of these specifications is given for each type of material or equipment listed. (J.S.)

  5. Absorption of radioelements from the soil by various vegetables grown under normal condition of cultivation; Absorption de radioelements du sol par divers legumes cultives dans les conditions de la pratique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huguet; Delas; Delmas; Demias; Flanzy; Benard; Puyaubert; Fioramonti; Marty; Barbier; Le Blaye; Michon

    1961-07-01

    Various vegetables were cultivated in 4 different types of soil, having received, or receiving periodically, strontium-90 or caesium-137 in fairly strong doses, in order to facilitate the measurement of the fraction of these radioelements taken up by the vegetables. In sandy soil, whole plants absorbed 2 to 3 per cent of Sr and 3 to 9 parts per thousand of Cs approximately; in clay soils, 1 to 6 parts per thousand of Sr and 0,2 to 2 parts per thousand of Cs; Cs, however, migrates relatively more than Sr in fruits or storage organs. The experiments confirmed that the quotient of the ratios {sup 90}Sr/Ca in the vegetables and in the ploughed layer varies comparatively slightly; these would be a certain safety margin in assuming this ratio to be slightly above unity (to be confirmed after homogenising the ploughed layer). In view of the fact that in an arid climate it is necessary to apply several tens of litres of irrigation water (up to 50) in order to produce 1 kg of vegetables (fresh whole plants) and that furthermore, the radioelements of the residue from the crop harvest return to the soil, it can be expected that the limit of accumulation 1 kg of certain vegetables will contain as much of each radioelement as several tens of litres of irrigation water. (author) [French] Divers legumes ont ete cultives dans 4 types de sols differents, ayant recu ou recevant periodiquement du strontium-90 ou du cesium-137, a doses relativement fortes, de maniere a faciliter la mesure de la fraction de ces radioelements absorbee par les legumes. En sol sableux, les plantes entieres ont absorbe 2 a 3 pour cent de Sr et 3 a 9 pour mille de Cs environ, en sol argileux, 1 a 6 pour mille de Sr et 0,2 a 2 pour mille de Cs; mais Cs migre relativement plus que Sr dans les fruits ou les organes de reserve. Les experiences ont confirme que le quotient des rapports {sup 90}Sr/Ca dans les legumes et dans la couche labouree est relativement peu variable; on conserverait une certaine marge de

  6. Absorption of radioelements from the soil by various vegetables grown under normal condition of cultivation; Absorption de radioelements du sol par divers legumes cultives dans les conditions de la pratique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huguet,; Delas,; Delmas,; Demias,; Flanzy,; Benard,; Puyaubert,; Fioramonti,; Marty,; Barbier,; Blaye, Le; Michon,

    1961-07-01

    Various vegetables were cultivated in 4 different types of soil, having received, or receiving periodically, strontium-90 or caesium-137 in fairly strong doses, in order to facilitate the measurement of the fraction of these radioelements taken up by the vegetables. In sandy soil, whole plants absorbed 2 to 3 per cent of Sr and 3 to 9 parts per thousand of Cs approximately; in clay soils, 1 to 6 parts per thousand of Sr and 0,2 to 2 parts per thousand of Cs; Cs, however, migrates relatively more than Sr in fruits or storage organs. The experiments confirmed that the quotient of the ratios {sup 90}Sr/Ca in the vegetables and in the ploughed layer varies comparatively slightly; these would be a certain safety margin in assuming this ratio to be slightly above unity (to be confirmed after homogenising the ploughed layer). In view of the fact that in an arid climate it is necessary to apply several tens of litres of irrigation water (up to 50) in order to produce 1 kg of vegetables (fresh whole plants) and that furthermore, the radioelements of the residue from the crop harvest return to the soil, it can be expected that the limit of accumulation 1 kg of certain vegetables will contain as much of each radioelement as several tens of litres of irrigation water. (author) [French] Divers legumes ont ete cultives dans 4 types de sols differents, ayant recu ou recevant periodiquement du strontium-90 ou du cesium-137, a doses relativement fortes, de maniere a faciliter la mesure de la fraction de ces radioelements absorbee par les legumes. En sol sableux, les plantes entieres ont absorbe 2 a 3 pour cent de Sr et 3 a 9 pour mille de Cs environ, en sol argileux, 1 a 6 pour mille de Sr et 0,2 a 2 pour mille de Cs; mais Cs migre relativement plus que Sr dans les fruits ou les organes de reserve. Les experiences ont confirme que le quotient des rapports {sup 90}Sr/Ca dans les legumes et dans la couche labouree est relativement peu variable; on conserverait une certaine marge de

  7. EDF Group - Annual Report 2011. Electricity, long-term choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The EDF Group is one of the world's leading energy companies, active in all areas from generation to trading and network management. It has a sound business model, evenly balanced between regulated and deregulated activities. With its first-rate human resources, R and D capability, expertise in engineering and operating generation plants and networks, as well as its energy eco-efficiency offers, the Group delivers competitive solutions that help ensure sustainable economic development and climate protection. The EDF Group is the leader in the French and UK electricity markets and has solid positions in Italy and numerous other European countries, as well as industrial operations in Asia and the United States. Everywhere it operates, the Group is a model of quality public service for the energy sector. This document is EDF Group's annual report for the year 2011. It contains information about Group profile, governance, business, development strategy, sales and marketing, positions in Europe and international activities. The document is made of several reports: the Activity and Sustainable Development Report, the Financial Report, the Management Report, the Report by the Chairman of EDF Board of Directors on corporate governance and internal control procedures, the Milestones report, the 'EDF at a glance' report, and the Sustainable Development Indicators

  8. EDF source term reduction project main outcomes and further developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranchoux, Gilles; Bonnefon, Julien; Benfarah, Moez; Wintergerst Matthieu; Gressier, Frederic; Leclercq, Stephanie

    2012-09-01

    The dose reduction is a strategic purpose for EDF in link with the stakes of, nuclear acceptability, respect of regulation and productivity gains. This consists not only in improving the reactor shutdown organization (time spent in control area, biological shielding,...) but also in improving the radiological state of the unit and the efficiency of the source term reduction operations. Since 2003, EDF has been running an innovative project called 'Source Term Reduction' federating the different EDF research and engineering centers in order to: - participate to the long term view about Radiological Protection issues (international feedback analyses), - develop contamination prediction tools (OSCAR software) suitable for the industrial needs (operating units and EPR design), - develop scientific models useful for the understanding of contamination mechanisms to support the strategic decision processes, - carry on with updating and analyzing of contamination measurements feedback in corrosion products (EMECC and CZT campaigns), - carry on with the operational support at short or middle term by optimizing startup and shutdown processes, pre-oxidation or and by improving purification efficiency or material characteristics. This paper will show in a first part the main 2011 results in occupational exposure (collective and individual dose, RCS index...). In a second part, an overview of the main EDF outcomes of the last 3 years in the field of source term reduction will be presented. Future developments extended to contamination issues in EDF NPPs will be also pointed out in this paper. (authors)

  9. CO2: EDF's competitiveness is due to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    The CO 2 emissions of EDF group (EDF-France + EDF-energy (UK) + Hidrocantabrico (Spain) + EnBW (Germany)) soared by 53% in 2002 which is due to the purchase of british and spanish electricity sub-companies using fossil energies. Despite this sharp increase EDF remains one of the most competitive electricity companies in Europe concerning greenhouse gas emissions. EDF group is the first electricity company in Europe, it generates 22% of the electricity produced in E.U and contributes to CO 2 emissions with a rate of 101 Kg CO 2 /MWh which 3 times less than the average rate of 20 other European companies (358 Kg CO 2 /MWh). This result is due to the large part of nuclear power in the French energy mix. The best electricity companies as far as CO 2 emissions are concerned are Statkraft (Norway) with 0 Kg CO 2 /MWh (100% hydrology) and British-energy (U.K) with 75 Kg CO 2 /MWh (75% nuclear power). At the other end we have the DEI company (Greece) with 863 Kg CO 2 /MWh (100% lignite). (A.C.)

  10. Detection of hard {beta} radiation in water using the Cerenkov effect; Detection des {beta} durs dans l'eau par effet Cerenkov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turck, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-01-01

    The light emitted from a liquid during the passage of a particle of sufficiently high energy can be used to determine the contamination of water by {beta}-emitters. The detector based on this principle requires no special treatment of the water. Particular attention has been paid to the optical yield of the detector. However the excellent sensitivity to which this principle leads can only be attained if the background noise is considerably reduced. The electronics associated with detector make it possible to detect a contamination of 8 x 10{sup -8} {mu}c/cm{sup 3} of strontium-90 in water in about ten minutes. The apparatus presents the double advantage of having a high sensitivity and of being easy to use. Its characteristics make it possible for it to be used for the continuous control of water. (author) [French] La lumiere emise au sein d'un liquide au passage d'une particule suffisamment energetique peut permettre de determiner la contamination d'une eau en emetteurs {beta}. Le detecteur realise sur ce principe ne necessite aucun traitement special de l'eau. Un soin tout particulier a ete apporte a l'etude du rendement optique du detecteur. Cependant l'excellente sensibilite attachee au principe ne peut etre utilisee que si l'on reduit considerablement le bruit de fond. L'electronique associee au detecteur permet de reperer l'existence d'une contamination de 8 x 10{sup -8} {mu}c/cm{sup 3} de strontium-90 dans l'eau en un temps d'une dizaine de minutes. L'appareil presente l'avantage d'allier une grande sensibilite a la facilite d'emploi. Ses performances autorisent son utilisation au controle continu des eaux. (auteur)

  11. L’excès de l’état par rapport à la situation dans L’être et l’événement de A. Badiou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Cassou-Noguès

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article est une discussion de l’ouvrage de A. Badiou, L’être et l’événement, autour de la question du rapport de l’état (et de l’Etat à la situation. Nous commençons par rappeler la place que donne A. Badiou aux mathématiques dans son dispositif. Nous parcourons ensuite L’être et l’événement en prenant comme fil directeur cette question, du rapport de l’état à la situation. La dernière partie compare la position de A. Badiou à la tradition « épistémologique » en France et, en particulier, aux textes de Jean Cavaillès, dont A. Badiou se réclame à plusieurs reprises. L’originalité de A. Badiou dans cette tradition est sans doute sa rupture avec la perspective historique mais le problème, que cette confrontation pose, est de savoir s’il est en effet possible de couper les théories mathématiques de leur histoire, comme A. Badiou doit le faire.This paper concerns A. Badiou’s treaty, L’être et l’évenement, and the question of the relationship between “state” and “situation”. We first discuss the role that is given to mathematics in A. Badiou’s philosophy. We then read rather extensively L’être et l’événement, following our problem, the relationship between “state” and “situation”. In the last part, we compare A. Badiou’s position to the tradition of “epistemology” in France, using in particular Cavaillès’ writings. A. Badiou appears to dissociate himself from the historical perspective that made the core of this tradition of epistemology since Brunschvicg. But the problem is whether one can indeed separate mathematical theories from their history and their context, as A. Badiou, or “Badiouism”, is bound to do.    

  12. A study by internal friction of defects produced in iron and nickel irradiated at very low temperatures; Etude au moyen du frottement interne des defauts crees par irradiation a tres basse temperature dans le fer et le nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating-Hart, G de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    This work represents a contribution to the study of point defects in metals. After a brief review of the theory of internal friction we will discuss some technical innovations aimed at increasing the flexibility of the apparatus at our disposal. These innovations have allowed us to extend our range of measurements down to 20 deg. K. We will then discuss our experimental results. Firstly, we describe preliminary experiments on electron irradiated iron and the evidence for a laminar structure. Secondly, we present and account of the first measurements on nickel after neutron irradiation at 27 deg. K. We will compare the results with those obtained by other methods in this laboratory. Essentially we have observed transitory peaks at low temperature due to close Frenkel pairs and we have noticed the absence of a peak which would correspond to the magnetic after effect band of stage I{sub E}. An attempt is made to explain the disappearance of the observed peaks upon the application of an internal saturating magnetic field. (author) [French] Ce memoire constitue une contribution a l'etude des defauts ponctuels dans les metaux. Apres un bref apercu theorique sur le frottement interne, nous presenterons quelques realisations techniques destinees a accroitre les possibilites des instruments qui nous ont ete confies. Ces dernieres nous ont permis d'etendre la gamme des mesures jusqu'a 20 deg. K. Nous parlerons ensuite de nos resultats experimentaux. En premier lieu, ceux obtenus au cours de premieres experiences, sur le fer irradie aux electrons mettent en evidence des structures de laminage. En second lieu, nous exposerons les premieres mesures realisees sur du nickel irradie aux neutrons; nous comparerons ces resultats avec ceux obtenus par d'autres moyens experimentaux dans le laboratoire. Nous avons observe essentiellement des pics fugitifs a basse temperature dus aux paires proches de Frenckel et nous avons constate l'absence d'un pic correspondant a la bande de tramage

  13. Model of a plasma without collisions in a cylindrical geometry by the study of the motions of the particles (1960); Modele d'un plasma sans collisions dans une geometrie cylindrique par l'etude des mouvements de particules (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebut, P H [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1960-07-01

    The Boltzmann equation for a group of particles in the absence of collisions may be written df/dt = 0, where f is the distribution function in the phase space. This equation means that f is an individual motion constant. This leads to a study, of the paths and to a research of the first integrals of the differential system related to them. This study leads also to a confinement condition on the velocities of a particle. The following step is related to the theoretical study of some distribution functions and of the resulting consequences. A differential system is obtained, giving density and magnetic and electric fields. This system has been in a number of cases solved by a digital computer. This solution allows an experimental comparison to be made. The first integrals obtained are still valid when magnetic 'screw-type' fields are concerned, which results in the obtention of a type of helicoidal deformation and of a stability criteria with respect to these deformations. (author) [French] L'equation de Boltzmann pour un groupe de particules en l'absence de collision peut s'ecrire df/dt = 0, ou f est la fonction de distribution dans l'espace des phases. Cette equation signifie que f est une constante du mouvement individuel. On est donc amene a etudier les trajectoires et a rechercher des integrales premieres du systeme differentiel qui leur est lie; cette etude conduit aussi a une condition de confinement portant sur les vitesses d'une particule. L'etape suivante se rapporte a l'etude theorique de certaines fonctions de distribution et des consequences qui en decoulent. On arrive a un systeme differentiel donnant densite, champs magnetiques et electriques, systeme qui a ete resolu dans un certain nombre de cas par une machine a calculer digitale. Cette resolution permet une confrontation experimentale. Les integrales premieres obtenues restent encore valables lors de champs magnetiques en 'vis'; il en resulte l'obtention d'un type de deformation helicoidale et d

  14. Récupération du platine contenu dans les piles à combustible basse température par voie hydrométallurgique Platinum Recovery from used PEMFC by hydrometallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Denis

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available La récupération du platine contenu dans la couche catalytique des piles à combustible est nécessaire pour viabiliser cette technologie vers le secteur industriel. Dans cette étude la voie purement hydrométallurgique a été privilégiée au procédé de récupération pyrométallurgique, évitant la destruction des autres constituants de la pile (membrane, … et limitant la formation de gaz toxique. Le procédé mise en œuvre est constitué d'une étape de lixiviation à partir d'un mélange HCl/HNO3, suivie par la précipitation d'un sel de platine (NH42PtCl6 pouvant soit servir à la synthèse d'un nouveau catalyseur soit à l'obtention de platine métallique. Sur l'ensemble de la chaîne un rendement de récupération de plus de 80 % a pu être obtenu mettant en avant le potentiel de cette stratégie. The recovery of platinum in the catalyst layers of PEMFCs (proton exchange membrane fuel cells is required to allow a transfer in industry. In this study, hydrometallurgical route was preferred to pyrometallurgical process, reducing both the destruction of the other components of the cell (membrane, … and the formation of hazardous gas. In this work, the process includes a leaching step from a diluted aqua regia solution, followed by a precipitation step of platinum under the (NH42PtCl6 form. This salt can be used either for the synthesis of a new catalyst or to obtain a metallic platinum. Considering these steps the recovery efficiency has been found to be over 80 %, which bring out the potential of this strategy.

  15. Use of an oscillation technique to measure effective cross-sections of fissionable samples in critical assemblies; Mesure des sections efficaces effectives d'echantillons fissiles par une methode d'oscillation dans les-assemblages critiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretiakoff, O; Vidal, R; Carre, J C; Robin, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The authors describe the technique used to measure the effective absorption and neutron-yield cross-sections of a fissionable sample. These two values are determined by analysing the signals due to the variation in reactivity (over-all signal) and the local perturbation in the flux (local signal) produced by the oscillating sample. These signals are standardized by means of a set of samples containing quantities of fissionable material ({sup 235}U) and an absorber, boron, which are well known. The measurements are made for different neutron spectra characterized by lattice parameters which constitute the central zone within which the sample moves. This technique is used to study the effective cross-sections of uranium-plutonium alloys for different heavy-water and graphite lattices in the MINERVE and MARIUS critical assemblies. The same experiments are carried out on fuel samples of different irradiations in order to determine the evolution of effective cross-sections as a function of the spectrum and the irradiations. (authors) [French] On decrit la methode utilisee pour mesurer les sections efficaces effectives d'absorption et de production de neutrons d'un echantillon fissile. Ces deux grandeurs sont determinees en analysant les signaux dus a la variation de reactivite (signal global) et a la perturbation locale de flux (signal local) produits par l'echantillon oscillant. Ces signaux sont etalonnes a l'aide d'un jeu d'echantillons dont les teneurs en materiau fissile ({sup 235}U) et en absorbeur (bore) sont bien connues. Les mesures sont realisees pour differents spectres de neutrons caracterises par les parametres du reseau constituant la zone centrale a l'interieur de laquelle se deplace l'echantillon. A l'aide de cette methode on etudie les sections efficaces effectives d'alliage uranium-plutonium pour differents reseaux a eau lourde et a graphite dans les assemblages crtiques MINERVE et MARIUS. Les memes experiences sont effectuees sur des echantillons de

  16. Recent progress in the determination of gases in metals by emission spectrography (1963); Progres recents dans la determination des gaz dans les metaux par spectrographie d'emission (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, G; Melamed, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The Fassel method for analysis of bases in metals was used. By employing a smaller, completely cooled chamber greater sensitivity and lover blank values were obtained. A straight calibration curve, independent of the sample nature was established for oxygen using graphite pellets containing known amounts of ZnO and SnO{sub 2}. The calibration curve for hydrogen was obtained from previously analysed Zircaloy samples. In bath cases a lower limit of sensitivity of 15 {mu}g was attained. (authors) [French] On a utilise la methode Fassel pour l'analyse des metalloides dans les metaux. En employant une chambre de volume reduit avec refroidissement des parois, ou a pu abaisser la limite de sensibilite et reduire le blanc a une valeur negligeable. Une courbe de dosage pour l'oxygene, lineaire jusqu'a environ 15 {mu}g et independante de la nature de l'echantillon, a ete obtenue a partir des melanges oxyde de zinc + graphite et oxyde d'etain + graphite. Une courbe de dosage pour l'hydrogene lineaire jusqu'a 15 {mu}g a ete obtenue en partant d'echantillons de Zircaloy a teneur connue en hydrogene. (auteurs)

  17. MOX and UOX PWR fuel performances EDF operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provost, Jean-Luc; Debes, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Based on a large program of experimentations implemented during the 90s, the industrial achievement of new FAs designs with increased performances opens up new prospects. The currently UOX fuels used on the 58 EDF PWR units are now authorized up to a maximum FA burn-up of 52 GWd/t with a large experience from 45 to 50 GWd/t. Today, the new products, along with the progress made in the field of calculation methods, still enable to increase further the fuel performances with respect to the safety margins. Thus, the conditions are met to implement in the next years new fuel managements on each NPPs series of the EDF fleet with increased enrichment (up to 4.5%) and irradiation limits (up to 62 GWd/t). The recycling of plutonium is part of EDF's reprocessing/recycling strategy. Up to now, 20 PWR 900 MW reactors are managed in MOX hybrid management. The feedback experience of 18 years of PWR operation with MOX is satisfactory, without any specific problem regarding manoeuvrability or plant availability. EDF is now looking to introduce MOX fuels with a higher plutonium content (up to 8.6%) equivalent to natural uranium enriched to 3.7%. It is the goal of the MOX Parity core management which achieve balance of MOX and UOX fuel performance with a significant increase of the MOX average discharge burn-up (BU max: 52 GWd/t for MOX and UOX). The industrial maturity of new FAs designs, with increased performances, allows the implementation in the next years of new fuel managements on each NPPs series of the EDF fleet. The scheduling of the implementation of the new fuel managements on the PWRs fleet is a great challenge for EDF, with important stakes: the nuclear KWh cost decrease with the improvement of the plant operation performance. (author)

  18. Computer Applications in Counselor Education: Developing Cultural Competencies Through Online Collaboration of Future School Counselors / L’informatique dans l’éducation des orienteurs : le développement du savoir-faire culturel par la collaboration en

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vessela Ilieva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the applications of computer-mediated student collaboration in a graduate multicultural counseling course. The course work included a reflective cultural competency building assignment that utilized online communication and collaboration using a wiki to extend and improve students’ multicultural counseling and social justice advocacy skills. The online assignment design was aligned with the current call for utilizing technology in the counseling profession. It further considered the needs of the future counselors, the current levels of exposure to and experience with available technology of the class members, and the opportunities for utilization of a variety of online-based tools to extend in-class and out-of-class discussions. Students’ response to this new form of class work and communication confirmed the potential of the online component to other aspects of counselor preparation, and the data analysis showed that the computer-mediated assignment was a valuable addition to developing students’ skills as multiculturally competent professionals. Cette étude a examiné les applications de la collaboration entre étudiants par l’entremise de l’informatique dans le cadre d’un cours d’études supérieures sur l’orientation en contexte multiculturel. Les travaux du cours comprenaient un travail de réflexion pour renforcer le savoir-faire culturel grâce à la communication et à la collaboration en ligne, en utilisant un wiki pour accroître et améliorer les aptitudes des étudiants en orientation en contexte multiculturel et en défense de la justice sociale. La conception du travail en ligne s’alignait sur la tendance actuelle pour une utilisation accrue de la technologie dans le métier de conseiller en orientation. On y tenait également compte des besoins des futurs conseillers, de leur degré d’exposition à la technologie et de leur expérience avec celle-ci, ainsi que des occasions pour l

  19. EDF analysis of hydrogen problem on present NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guieu, S.

    1997-01-01

    By letter dated March 1995, Electricite de France (EDF) has sent to the French Safety Authority (called DSIN, depending jointly from Industry and Environment Ministries) its position, for Present NPPs, regarding three main topics concerning severe accidents pointed by DSIN: hydrogen problem; high pressure core melt risk; and instrumentation. Concerning 'hydrogen problem', EDF answer is not only a state-of-the art analysis but intend to answer the question of the need (or not) for implementation of countermeasures in Present French NPPs. This position is presently under review by DSIN and its Technical Supports. (author)

  20. 75 FR 57911 - Application to Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading North America, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-373] Application to Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading...)). On August 30, 2010, DOE received an application from EDF for authority to transmit electric energy... service area. The electric energy that EDF proposes to export to Mexico would be surplus energy purchased...

  1. 75 FR 26202 - Application To Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading North America, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-367] Application To Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading...)). On April 27, 2010, DOE received an application from EDF for authority to transmit electric energy... franchised service area. The electric energy that EDF proposes to export to Canada would be surplus energy...

  2. Design, manufacturing and commissioning of mobile unit for EDF (Dow Chemical process)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cangini, D.; Cordier, J.P.; PEC Engineering, Osny, France)

    1985-01-01

    To process their spent ion exchange resins and the liquid wastes, EDF has ordered from PEC a mobile unit using the DOW CHEMICAL binder. This paper presents the EDF's design requirements as well as the new French regulation for waste embedding. The mobile unit was started in January 1983 and commissioned successfully in January 1985 in the TRICASTIN EDF's power plant

  3. Ensuring the sustainability of EDF power plant operating capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, J.

    2009-01-01

    The life extension of the power plants is considered whereas EDF must face an acceleration of the retirement rates due to the fact that the first generations of the baby-boom are ageing 60 years, now. Between 2000 and 2006, EDF gradually set up a system of management of competencies. On the one hand, EDF moved from logic of relatively standardized training to a more individualized logic of acquisition of competencies. In addition, the objective of maintenance of internat competencies defined in 2000 was supplemented in 2003 by a prospective dimension intended to anticipate the departures in inactivity. Then in 2006 competencies of sub-contractors were taken into account. During this period I.R.S.N. has assessed 3 times this system of management. This article briefly presents the principal lessons driven from these evaluations. It accounts for the undeniable effort made by EDF to ensure the maintenance of its competencies. However, it stresses that a high level of vigilance is still needed because it is not stabilized already. (author)

  4. Make use of EDF orientations in PWR fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloaguen, A.

    1989-01-01

    The EDF experience acquired permits to allow the PWR fuel performances and to make use of better management. In this domain low progress can be given considerable financial profits. The industrial and commercial structures, the time constant of the fuel cycle, has for consequence that the electric utilities can take advantage only progressively of the expected profits [fr

  5. EDF Group - Annual Report 2008. Leading the energy change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The EDF Group is a leading player in the energy industry, present in all areas of the electricity value chain, from generation to trading, along with network management and the natural gas chain. The Group has a sound business model, evenly balanced between regulated and deregulated activities. It is the leader in the French and British electricity markets and has solid positions in Germany and Italy. The Group has a portfolio of 38.1 million customers in Europe and the world's premier nuclear generation fleet. Given its R and D capability, its track record and expertise in nuclear generation and renewable energy, together with its energy eco-efficiency offers, EDF offers competitive solutions that reconcile sustainable economic development and climate preservation. EDF's goal is to deliver solutions that allow every customer to help create a world of competitive, low-carbon energies. This document is EDF Group's annual report for the year 2008. It contains information about Group profile, governance, business, development strategy, sales and marketing, positions in Europe and international activities. The document is made of several reports: the Activity and Sustainable Development Report, the Financial Report, the Sustainable Development Report and the Sustainable Development Indicators

  6. EDF/EPRI collaborative program on operator reliability experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villemeur, A.; Meslin, T.; Mosneron, F.; Worledge, D.H.; Joksimovich, V.; Spurgin, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Electricite de France (EDF) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have been involved in human reliability studies over the last few years, in the context of improvements in human reliability assessment (HRA) methodologies, and have been following a systematic process since 1982 which consists of addressing the following five ingredients: - First, classify human interactions into a limited number of classes. - Second, introduce an acceptable framework to organize the application of HRA to PRA studies. - Third, select approach(es) to quantification. - Fourth, test promising models. - Fifth, establish an appropriate data base for tested model(s) with regard to specific applications. EPRI has just recently completed Phase I of the fourth topic. This primarily focused on testing the fundamental hypotheses behing the human cognitive reliability (HCR) correlation, using power plant simulators. EDF has been carrying out simulator studies since 1980, both for man-machine interface validation and HRA data collection. This background of experience provided a stepping stone for the EPRI project. On the other hand, before 1986, EDF had mainly been concentrating on getting qualitative insights from the tests and lacked experience in quantitative analysis and modeling, while EPRI had made advances in this latter area. Before the EPRI Operator Reliability Experiments (ORE) project was initiated, it was abundantly clear to EPRI and EDF that cooperation between the two could be useful and that both parties could gain from the cooperation

  7. Environmental monitoring around nuclear power plants of EDF in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chretien, V.; Hemidy, P.Y.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the regulatory environmental monitoring around its nuclear power plants, EDF carries out every year more than 40.000 measurements. In addition EDF performs more precise radioecological surveys on all its sites. This monitoring shows the minor incidence of EDF's nuclear power plants on the environment and a general decrease of gamma emitters radionuclides in the environment. These results confirm the efforts lead by EDF to minimise its impacts on the environment, linked to an efficient waste management and demonstrate the good operating standards of its plants. On a qualitative viewpoint, significant efforts on both metrology and organization have lead to improved measurements capabilities, in order to achieve NF EN ISO/CEI 17025 standard compliance. More recently, a similar approach has been implemented with sampling methods. While today the level achieved in the number and quality of measurement complies with the objectives of the monitoring of the impact of the nuclear power plants on the environment, the results of this monitoring should be presented to the public with more pedagogy to give an adequate answer to their expectations. The new questions that will undoubtedly be raised by the recent availability of this information on the Internet should reinforce this dialogue and should also be the opportunity to improve the quality of our communication. (author)

  8. Digital publication of EDF's regulatory files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, Pauline

    2012-06-01

    The Engineering Centre of Deconstruction and Environment wants to modernize the distribution of its regulatory filings in digital form. This project requires a prior upstream of its implementation to determine the best publishing solution suited to the constraints of diffusion and heritage protection of EDF

  9. Does E.D.F. export at a loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laramee, V.

    1996-01-01

    As European Energy markets should progressively open themselves to the free competition, Electricite de France (E.D.F.) is suspected by an energy research institute to sell abroad its kilowatts at a price inferior to the production cost. The situation and the different parameters to calculate the production cost are explained here. (N.C.)

  10. EDF group - Reference Document 2008. Leading the energy change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The EDF group is an integrated energy company with a presence in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, supply and energy trading. It is France's leading electricity operator and has a strong position in the three other main European markets (Germany, the United Kingdom and Italy), making it one of Europe's leading electrical players as well as a recognized player in the gas industry. With worldwide installed power capacity totaling 127.1 GW (124.8 GW in Europe) and global energy generation of 609.9 TWh, it has the largest generating capacity of all the major European energy corporations with the lowest level of CO 2 emissions due to the significant proportion of nuclear and hydroelectric power in its generation mix. The EDF group supplies gas, electricity, and associated services to more than 38 million customer accounts worldwide (including approximately 28 million in France). The EDF group's businesses reflect its adoption of a model aimed at finding the best balance between French and international activities, and between competitive and regulated operations. In 2008, the Group's consolidated revenues were euros 64.3 billion, the net income (Group share) was euros 3.4 billion, and earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization was euros 14.2 billion. Since July 1, 2007, the EDF group conducts its business in a European market that is completely open to competition. Since January 1, 2008, ERDF, a wholly owned subsidiary of EDF, has assumed responsibility for all distribution in France, while RTE-EDF Transport is responsible for all transmission activities. This document is EDF Group's Reference Document for the year 2008. It contains information about: the Group activities, risk factors, Business overview, Organizational structure, Property plant and equipment, Operating and financial review, Capital resources and cash flows, Research and development, patents and licenses

  11. L'obtention du crédit bancaire par les PME au Cameroun

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Doctorante en sciences de gestion Université de Ngaoundéré, Cameroun. .... vient à point nommé dans son contexte et dans son domaine dans la mesure ... confrontant la performance des entreprises à leur structure financière, Wanda ..... est le plus souvent la perte du contrôle de l'entreprise par les actionnaires.

  12. The safety approach in the operation of EDF power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertron, L.; Mira, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    To get a view on what is involved in maintaining a high level of safety in the operation of EdF nuclear power plants, it may be recalled that in 1987, 76 % of the EdF production was nuclear. The nuclear plants include thirty-four standard PWR 900 plants, fourteen PWR 1300 plants, the 305 MW SENA PWR, the four 500 MW GCR: CHINON A3 plant, St-LAURENT A1 (390 MW), A2 (450 MW) and BUGEY 1 (540 MW), the 233 MW PHENIX fast breeder reactor and the CREYS-MALVILLE 1200 MW fast breeder reactor, now being prepared for a new startup after the 1987 incident. So the importance of a safe operation of this investment is considerable for EdF, which is the designer, owner, industrial architect and operator. According to the French regulations, EdF is responsible for the safe operation of its power plants. A considerable human component is also at stake, as the safe operation of plants implies all the personnel to varying degrees. There are 15,000 such employees, all of whom have to be trained, competent and motivated. The operation of this system for 340 reactor-years has to-date resulted in no incident of any significant impact on the environment. Right from the start, safety in operation has always been an essential and clearly stated priority. Among other lessons the Three-Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have reinforced the conviction that the human factors, the man-machine interface, and the safety culture were determining elements. With forty-eigh PWR plants in service, the problem is to maintain safe operation of a system now running at cruising speed, but also including some units (particularly the GCRs) that must be prepared for decommissioning. In addition EDF has to demonstrate the safe operations of CREYS MALVILLE, fast breeder reactor

  13. Calculation of the life-time of thermal neutrons in a heterogeneous moderator: graphite-cadmium. Experimental verification using the pulsed neutrons method; Calcul du temps de vie des neutrons thermiques dans un moderateur heterogene: graphite-cadmium. Verification experimentale par la methode des neutrons pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean, Lalande [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The heterogeneous medium is made up of an oblong assembly consisting 23 cm cells containing a cadmium bar having a diameter of 3.31 cm. The experimental value found for the lattice absorption v{sigma}a = 941 sec{sup -1} is in agreement with the value calculated from a one-group theory for one cell taking d = 2.55 {+-} 0.12 cm for the extrapolation distance in the cadmium rod. (author) [French] Le milieu heterogene est constitue par un assemblage parallelepipedique de cellules carrees de pas 23 cm contenant une barre de cadmium de diametre 3,31 cm. La valeur experimentale trouvee pour l'absorption du reseau v{sigma}a = 941 s{sup -1} concorde avec la valeur calculee par une theorie a un groupe sur une cellule en prenant comme distance d'extrapolation dans la barre de cadmium d = 2,55 {+-} 0,12 cm. (auteur)

  14. La Vie de Marillac : un essai hagiographique ? Analyse comparée des sources utilisées par Nicolas Lefèvre de Lezeau dans la Vie de Marillac et la Vie de Morvillier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora De Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Considérer Nicolas Lefèvre de Lezeau comme le biographe de son grand oncle ou comme l’hagiographe de son ami Michel de Marillac revient à glorifier la mémoire des trois héros au détriment du projet d’écriture de l’auteur. La Vie de Jean de Morvillier et la Vie de Michel de Marillac sont vivement marquées par l’omniprésence de leur auteur, quand bien même l’illusion de la richesse documentaire sur les trois héros voudrait l’estomper. Parce qu’ils convoquent une documentation riche et de nombreuses références littéraires, les trois récits de vie retrouvés témoignent d’une quête d’authenticité par leur auteur. En ce sens, la Vie de Marillac se dégage des deux autres récits de vie écrits par Lezeau. Le conseiller d’état n’y cherche effectivement pas seulement à raviver la mémoire de la Ligue dans le milieu dévot, ni même à construire une filiation entre ces deux partis. L’originalité de la Vie de Marillac tient de l’abondance des références spirituelles et de l’autorité que les mystiques incarnent pour sa validation. Pour les mystiques, la vie chargée d’un officier d’état demeure incompatible avec le mode de vie humble et contemplatif d’un « petit ». Du côté des politiques, la « cabale des dévots » représente une menace croissante pour l’autorité du roi. Dès lors, la Vie de Marillac de Lezeau nous invite à réfléchir sur les caractéristiques de rejet d’un modèle de sainteté (E. Suire. La postérité retient Marillac pour sa témérité et sa faillite face à la raison d’état de Richelieu, comme l’attestent le peu de biographies des xixe-xxe siècles de ce garde des sceaux. Parallèlement, si Marillac est décrit comme un laïc ayant fait preuve d’une grande dévotion dans les Histoires de l’ordre des Carmélites déchaussées parues aux xixe et xxe siècles, sa part active à la fondation de l’ordre en France ne suffit pas à faire de lui un saint

  15. The EDF catalogue of technical specifications (reference HN), standardization center; Catalogue des specifications techniques EDF (reference HN) centre de normalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    A list of EDF technical specifications, valid at the 01/01/1996 date, is presented. Specifications domains such as electrical installations, equipment and materials, uninsulated and insulated conductors, measurement, control and command, electric power generating or transforming equipment, electrical appliances, telecommunications, electronic and computer systems, are covered

  16. La régulation par des tâches médiatisées et scénarisées dans un dispositif hybride utilisant le TBI Regulation through mediated and didactised tasks in a blended learning course in which an interactive whiteboard is used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Aguerre

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available L'auteure présente un dispositif hybride de "formation à distance enrichie par le présentiel" dans lequel le temps en présentiel a pour fonction spécifique la régulation. Cette régulation concerne aussi bien le versant apprentissage que le versant enseignement de la situation. Elle s'attache notamment à situer les tâches et les sous-tâches par rapport à la réalisation d'une tâche globale et par rapport à l'apprentissage, notamment par un travail de décontextualisation et recontextualisation de ces tâches. L'utilisation du TBI lors du temps en présentiel a un effet non seulement sur la médiatisation pendant cette séance, mais aussi sur la scénarisation et la médiatisation (tant dans son aspect humain que technologique des tâches réalisées à distance, en permettant à l'apprenant de prendre part à la scénarisation et à la médiation.The author presents a blended-learning environment in which most learning activities are e-learning activities, and face to face situation is dedicated to regulation. Regulation is a mean to adapt learning as well as teaching; it aims particularly at considering tasks and sub-tasks in relation to a global task, and to learning. This control allows decontextualization and re-contextualization of the tasks. The use of the interactive whiteboard during face to face situation has an effect on task setting and task mediation (technological as well as human, making possible for the learner to take part in these.

  17. Study of the effect of the energy spectrum and of the total flux on the damage produced by neutrons in solids; Contribution a l'etude de l'influence du spectre et du flux integre sur les dommages crees par les neutrons dans les solides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulieu, P.C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-01-01

    In the first part are studied the general relationships between the physical effects produced by neutrons in solids, and the total flux and neutron energy spectrum; some examples are given. The second part, describes the application to a silicon damage detector whose principle is to use the damage produced in a PIN Junction for measuring the neutron flux (intermediate and fast) received by the detector. Chapter I is devoted to the experimental determination of the energy given to the atoms by a primary in the silicon. The results and conclusions drawn from this determination make it possible to consider, in chapter II, the calculation of the detectors response characteristics.Chapter III deals with the measurement of the detectors response function and it is noted that good agreement is obtained between the calculation and experimental results. The whole of the second part constitutes a test of the methods presented in the first part. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie, nous etudions les relations generales qui lient les effets physiques engendres par les neutrons dans les solides au flux integre et au spectre des neutrons et nous donnons des exemples d'utilisation. La deuxieme partie est une application au detecteur de dommages en silicium, dont le principe est d'utiliser les dommages crees dans une jonction PIN pour mesurer les flux de neutrons (intermediaires et rapides) recus par le detecteur. Le chapitre I est consacre a la determination experimentale de l'energie cedee aux atomes par un primaire dans le silicium. Les resultats et les conclusions que l'on peut tirer de cette determination permettent d'aborder, au chapitre II, le calcul de la fonction de reponse du detecteur. Le chapitre III porte sur la mesure de la fonction de reponse du detecteur et on constate qu'il y a un bon accord entre le calcul et l'experience. L'ensemble de la deuxieme partie constitue un test des methodes exposees dans la premiere partie

  18. La preuve par le nombre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Verdier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available S’il en était besoin, la question des usages et de la finalité des résultats de l’inventaire général pourrait être abordée par le nombre : nombre d’œuvres répertoriées, de communes inventoriées, de clichés photographiques réalisés, de dossiers, de consultations des notices dans les bases de données… Les additions aujourd’hui sont éloquentes, mais elles laissent dans l’ombre le rôle de l’inventaire qui, en mettant en œuvre une démarche systématique de connaissance, participe à l’ identificatio...

  19. Peut-on voyager dans le temps ?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    La possibilité de voyager dans le temps est régulièrement évoquée par les magazines scientifiques (et parfois même par les scientifiques). Elle est également le sujet de nombreux romans de science-fiction. Nous discuterons d’abord du sens qu’on peut donner à l’expression « voyager dans le temps », puis nous expliciterons ce que la physique contemporaine dit à ce propos.

  20. EDF advanced fuel management strategies for the next century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, A.; Charmensat, P.; Larderet, M.

    1999-01-01

    The French nuclear fleet represents 57 PWRs in operation, accounting for 80 % of France's total electricity production. The performance achieved by EDF reactors, in terms of availability (82.6% in 1997) and good cost control, have allowed to improve the nuclear KWh cost by 2% since 1992. The implementation of longer fuel cycles on the 1300 MW reactors from 1996 has contributed to this improvement and, as competitiveness is one of the main challenges for EDF, improving core management strategies is still at the order of the day. With this aim, a thinking process has been initiated to evaluate the benefit brought by the use of a fuel assembly like ALLIANCE, the new fuel product developed by Framatome-Fragema and FCF (Framatome Cogema Fuels) in close cooperation with EDF. The considered product provides enhanced performance, particularly as regards discharge burnup (at least up to 70 GWd/t) and thermal-hydraulic and mechanical behaviour. Fuel management improvements rely on the expertise gained by Framatome through designing core management strategies in a wide range of operating conditions prevailing in nuclear reactors all over the world. It will however be taken into account the necessity for EDF to adopt a policy of stepwise change owing to the potential impact of a 'series effect' on its numerous units. The proposed paper will describe innovative fuel managements, achievable thanks to advanced fuel assembly performance, that are jointly investigated by EDF and Framatome. It includes the following optimization schemes: extending cycle length by using higher enrichments up to 5%, while keeping the same reload size (1/3 core for example for the 1300 MW reactors); decreasing reload size (from 1/3 to 1/4 core), while keeping the same cycle length, using more enriched (up to 5 %) fuel assemblies; reaching annual cycle, with maximization of fuel cycle cost optimization (1/5 core). Beyond such schemes, combinations of optimized loading patterns and neutronic features of

  1. PARs for combustible gas control in advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosler, J.; Sliter, G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress being made in the United States to introduce passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) technology as a cost-effective alternative to electric recombiners for controlling combustible gas produced in postulated accidents in both future Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) and certain U. S. operating nuclear plants. PARs catalytically recombine hydrogen and oxygen, gradually producing heat and water vapor. They have no moving parts and are self-starting and self-feeding, even under relatively cold and wet containment conditions. Buoyancy of the hot gases they create sets up natural convective flow that promotes mixing of combustible gases in a containment. In a non-inerted ALWR containment, two approaches each employing a combination of PARs and igniters are being considered to control hydrogen in design basis and severe accidents. In pre-inerted ALWRs, PARs alone control radiolytic oxygen produced in either accident type. The paper also discusses regulatory feedback regarding these combustible gas control approaches and describes a test program being conducted by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Electricite de France (EdF) to supplement the existing PAR test database with performance data under conditions of interest to U.S. plants. Preliminary findings from the EPRI/EdF PAR model test program are included. Successful completion of this test program and confirmatory tests being sponsored by the U. S. NRC are expected to pave the way for use of PARs in ALWRs and operating plants. (author)

  2. C9.A/14 steelwork joints de poutres par plaque frontale : assemblages par gousset

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Les Tables de résistances ultimes des assemblages boulonnés par plaque frontale et par gousset, complétées par une description des modèles de calcul et des exemples d’application, ont pour but de faciliter la tâche de l'ingénieur et du constructeur. Cette première partie C9.A/14 contient les chapitres suivants: - Joints de poutres par plaque frontale en acier S235 et S355 - Assemblages par gousset en acier S235 et S355 Les Tables contiennent des données relatives à la géométrie ainsi que les valeurs de calcul correspondantes des résistances ultimes des assemblages ; elles remplacent le chapitre « Assemblages par plaques frontales et boulons HR » des anciennes Tables C9.1 de 1983 / 2002. Le calcul de ces assemblages par plaque frontale est basé sur les hypothèses du modèle de la méthode des composants décrite dans la norme SN EN 1993-1-8. Les vérifications sont effectuées selon la norme SIA 263:2013. Les assemblages par gousset remplacent les assemblages par double cornière, (telle...

  3. Best Speed Fit EDF Scheduling for Performance Asymmetric Multiprocessors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of a real-time system, asymmetric multiprocessors have been proposed. The benefits of improved system performance and reduced power consumption from such architectures cannot be fully exploited unless suitable task scheduling and task allocation approaches are implemented at the operating system level. Unfortunately, most of the previous research on scheduling algorithms for performance asymmetric multiprocessors is focused on task priority assignment. They simply assign the highest priority task to the fastest processor. In this paper, we propose BSF-EDF (best speed fit for earliest deadline first for performance asymmetric multiprocessor scheduling. This approach chooses a suitable processor rather than the fastest one, when allocating tasks. With this proposed BSF-EDF scheduling, we also derive an effective schedulability test.

  4. Energy - EDF takes back the control of the nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    This article comments the statement made by an EDF official before the inquiry commission of the French National Assembly, about the works initiated by EDF and Areva to improve the EPR profitability. This would lead to the design of a safer, more efficient and less costly new reactor which would however require a certification. This project is based on an optimization of the Areva's EPR, and would propose different power levels, notably less powerful reactors for less connected grids (for example in Saudi Arabia), and less powerful reactors would mean less expensive reactors. The article also evokes the issue of the cost of the Finnish EPR, and the different existing and projected EPR reactors

  5. Equipping simulators with an advanced thermal hydraulics model EDF's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldermann, R.; Poizat, F.; Sekri, A.; Faydide, B.; Dumas, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The development of an accelerated version of the advanced CATHARe-1 thermal hydraulics code designed for EDF training simulators (CATHARE-SIMU) was successfully completed as early as 1991. Its successful integration as the principal model of the SIPA Post-Accident Simulator meant that its use could be extended to full-scale simulators as part of the renovation of the stock of existing simulators. In order to further extend the field of application to accidents occurring in shutdown states requiring action and to catch up with developments in respect of the CATHARE code, EDF initiated the SCAR Project designed to adapt CATHARE-2 to simulator requirements (acceleration, parallelization of the computation and extension of the simulation range). In other respects, the installation of SIPA on workstations means that the authors can envisage the application of this remarkable training facility to the understanding of thermal hydraulics accident phenomena

  6. Optimization of the decontamination in EDF PWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosset, P.; Dupin, M.; Buisine, D.; Buet, J.F.; Brunel, V.

    2002-01-01

    The optimisation of decontamination in EDF PWR power plants is the result of a permanent collaborative work between the plant operators, the subcontractors, central services of nuclear power division of EDF. This collaborative work enables the saving of all the feedback experience. The main operations carried out on nuclear sites like mechanical decontamination of valves, use of the ''EMMAC'' process on big components (replacement of steam generator, hydraulic parts of the reactor coolant pumps), use of foam on pools walls and divers in highly contaminated pools have been discussed. This paper shows that the choice of decontamination processes is very dependant on the components, on the dose rate reduction to be aimed and on the possibility to treat the waste on site. (authors)

  7. Nuclear Energy: A Competitive and Safe Option, The EDF Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colas, F.

    1998-01-01

    Today, nuclear energy seems challenged by fossil energies, especially gas. However, the 1997's French government survey over energy options still places nuclear energy at the top of the list. The reasons why and how safe nuclear energy is still competitive are detailed in this paper. Most recent data from EDF's reactor will be discussed in terms of environmental and electricity production issues. The methods and management used to attain these results are explained for the different phases: design, construction, operation, and maintenance. The beneficial aspects over industrial development and local employment will be underlined. The influence of nuclear energy on EDF's financial results are shown, from past programme to today's operation. As most of french reactors are designed to adapt their output to the changes of load in the national grid, results are, as a conclusion, discussed in a small and medium electrical grid perspective. (author)

  8. Applied Technologies and Prospects of Conformance Control Treatments in China Technologies et perspectives pour l’amélioration du profil de balayage dans les champs pétroliers matures produits par injection d’eau en Chine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yuzhang

    2010-02-01

    . Les techniques permettant l’amélioration du profil de balayage sont passées en revue, ainsi que les leçons qui ont pu en être tirées. Le papier aborde ensuite quelques technologies majeures et spécifiques : l’injection de traceurs et l’identification de la présence de chenaux, l’analyse potentiométrique pour l’identification de l’efficacité superficielle de balayage, la technologie de prise de décision fondée sur l’indice de pression (IP pour le choix d’un puits candidat, une technique de prise de décision complémentaire pour sélectionner des puits candidats et des paramètres de développement, et enfin les principaux produits chimiques utilisés pour la diversion des fluides en profondeur dans le réservoir. De plus, cet article décrit les principes et applications de quelques technologies prometteuses combinant les traitements par méthode chimique avec d’autres procédés EOR/IOR, comme la mise en oeuvre de tensioactifs et le traitement de venues d’eau, le contrôle de profil et l’injection de tensioactifs à petite échelle, le traitement à l’acide et le contrôle du profil. Enfin, ce papier résume les problèmes et défis auxquels doivent faire face les champs pétroliers matures balayés à l’eau en Chine. D’après de récents essais sur puits, des analyses de traceurs et de leurs interprétations, et l’expérience en matière de traitement de la gestion de l’eau, il apparaît que les canaux ou les drains de forte perméabilité soient courants dans les champs pétroliers matures balayés à l’eau. Des axes de recherche et des technologies prometteuses sont suggérés.

  9. Lost in the lifeworld: Technology help seeking and giving on diverse, post-secondary campuses / Perdu dans le monde vécu: solliciter et fournir une aide technologique dans les institutions postsecondaires marquées par la diversité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Tannis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Information and communications technology (ICT is integrated throughout a student’s lived experience in their post-secondary learning environment. In order for students with limited or no background with ICT to achieve their academic goals, a central part of their adaptation involves an intensive period of ICT help seeking. Using anecdotes from phenomenological research, this paper explores what we can learn about our practice as help givers through reflecting upon the lived experience of cross-cultural ICT help seeking and giving on diverse, post-secondary campuses. What surfaces from this investigation is the importance of developing an ICT support and training structure that appreciates the inter-subjective, activity-embedded nature of ICT help seeking and giving. An phenomenological educational approach to ICT help giving would be thoughtfully interwoven into a post-secondary learning environment, not as a remedial construct, but as an integral part of the learning, and help seeking, experience itself. Solliciter et fournir une aide technologique font de toute évidence partie intégrante de l’expérience étudiante, et ce, tout au long de la formation postsecondaire. Pour permettre aux étudiants avec peu ou pas d’expérience en TIC d’atteindre leurs objectifs universitaires, on doit présumer qu’une composante cruciale de leur adaptation consiste en une phase intensive de demandes d’aide technologique. À partir d’anecdotes tirées de la recherche phénoménologique, cet article explore ce que l’on peut apprendre sur nos pratiques d’assistance grâce à une réflexion sur l’expérience de demande d’aide technologique en contexte interculturel dans les institutions d’enseignement supérieur marquées par la diversité. Les résultats de cette enquête mettent en évidence l’importance de développer une structure d’aide et de formation en TIC qui prend en considération la nature intersubjective et active de la

  10. Problems related with the power regulation of reactors by physico-chemical methods, and the behaviour of water and heavy water in nuclear reactors; Comportement de l'eau et de l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires et problemes de la regulation de puissance par voie physico-chimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolle, L; Conan, D; Dirian, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Experience of the CEA heavy water reactors and a systematic study of the radiolytic decomposition of water in the core of swimming-pool reactors are described. Setting up of reactivity control by physico-chemical methods. Reactivity control by homogeneous poisoning of the reactor A comparison of the evolution of xenon poisoning with the residual anti reactivity of the poison in solution during its nuclear consumption establishes the programme which must govern the variation in its concentration if the exact compensation is to be produced The behaviour of the poison towards the reactor materials under the particular operational conditions must be taken into account. Radiolytic decomposition of water in the reactors in the presence of soluble poisons: A study of the effect of certain chemically inert salts, present in small concentrations in the water, on its radiolytic decomposition rate, has led to some new results which are discussed. The choice of a soluble poison is justified on the basis of the above results. Reactivity control by the use of a gaseous absorbent The use of a gas control rod circuit for compensation purposes, in place of solid control rods is described. The use of soluble poisons in the moderator to compensate the xenon effect, and of a gaseous absorbent in a circuit known as a gas control rod form original aspects of the reactivity control in the reactor EL 4. (authors) [French] L'observation du comportement de l'eau et de l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs en exploitation, contribue au fonctionnement sur de ceux-ci et oriente certaines etudes relatives aux techniques de controle de la reactivite par mise en oeuvre de poisons solubles. L'utilisation de poisons nucleaires dissous dans l'eau du reacteur entraine une pollution chimique de celle-ci. Les conditions d'emploi permettant d'eviter les effets indesirables de cette pollution sont etudiees. Les problemes analytiques - bien qu'importants - ne sont pas abordes dans le cadre de la communication

  11. LA BANCARISATION DANS LE CONTEXTE DE LIBERALISATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    les départs en retraite et par une politique austère en matière de recrutement mais aussi par les départs de cadres vers les banques privées. Leur nombre ..... L'absence de cadre adéquat et de stratégie dans les restructurations du secteur ...

  12. Contribution to the study of defects created by {alpha} particles in uranium at 4.2 K; Contribution a l'etude des defauts crees par irradiation a l'aide de particules {alpha} dans l'uranium a 4.2 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raharinaivo, A.L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    A device is described for the irradiation, in liquid helium, of metallic strips with {alpha} particles produced by radioactive sources. It has thereby been possible to measure changes in resistivity of variously treated uranium samples (cold- worked, annealed, previously exposed to neutrons, etc. ) as a function of the irradiation flux. The annealings carried out after irradiation compare favorably to those effected after a quenching from 100 to 4 K (JOUSSET experiments). The results are discussed; it is concluded that a defect, very probably of the interstitial type, is mobile in uranium at temperatures below 5 K. (author) [French] On decrit un dispositif permettant d'irradier, dans l'helium liquide, des lames metalliques par des particules {alpha} issues de sources radioactives. On a ainsi mesure les variations de resistivite, en fonction du flux d'irradiation, d'uranium diversement traite (ecroui, recuit, prealablement irradie par des neutrons...). Les recuits apres irradiation se comparent bien aux recuits apres trempe de 100 a 4 K (experiences de JOUSSET). L'ensemble des resultats est discute et il conduit a la conclusion qu'un defaut, tres vraisemblablement interstitiel, est mobile dans l'uranium a des temperatures inferieures a 5 K. (auteur)

  13. Contribution to the study of defects created by {alpha} particles in uranium at 4.2 K; Contribution a l'etude des defauts crees par irradiation a l'aide de particules {alpha} dans l'uranium a 4.2 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raharinaivo, A L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    A device is described for the irradiation, in liquid helium, of metallic strips with {alpha} particles produced by radioactive sources. It has thereby been possible to measure changes in resistivity of variously treated uranium samples (cold- worked, annealed, previously exposed to neutrons, etc. ) as a function of the irradiation flux. The annealings carried out after irradiation compare favorably to those effected after a quenching from 100 to 4 K (JOUSSET experiments). The results are discussed; it is concluded that a defect, very probably of the interstitial type, is mobile in uranium at temperatures below 5 K. (author) [French] On decrit un dispositif permettant d'irradier, dans l'helium liquide, des lames metalliques par des particules {alpha} issues de sources radioactives. On a ainsi mesure les variations de resistivite, en fonction du flux d'irradiation, d'uranium diversement traite (ecroui, recuit, prealablement irradie par des neutrons...). Les recuits apres irradiation se comparent bien aux recuits apres trempe de 100 a 4 K (experiences de JOUSSET). L'ensemble des resultats est discute et il conduit a la conclusion qu'un defaut, tres vraisemblablement interstitiel, est mobile dans l'uranium a des temperatures inferieures a 5 K. (auteur)

  14. Organization of the operating quality in EDF nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolz, J.

    1976-01-01

    The organization of operating quality in EDF nuclear stations cover a number of planned and systematic actions of technical and management order carried on at station level and Nuclear Safety Department level. Priority is given to safety quality which has to remain the same during the whole life of the stations; the safety of a station depending from its designing, realization and starting up quality on one hand and from its operating methods on the other [fr

  15. The EDF Group - Reference Document, annual financial report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-04-01

    This report gathers information and comments about the French electric utility EDF, persons in charge of this document, account legal auditors, risk factors, activities in France and abroad, the company's organization and flowchart, its estate properties, its financial situation and results, its accounts and capitals, its research and development activities, patents and licenses, trends, financial perspectives, its administration, management and control bodies and their operation, its salaries, shareholders

  16. Structural mechanics studies at E.D.F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baylac, G.

    1983-01-01

    Structural mechanics studies at EDF have three goals: a better knowledge of the materials properties, an an improvement of the design, and a better in service surveillance of the components. This study has lead EDF to perform a large investment to make possible the fatigue survey of the primary circuit. This investment is of 10 men-years for the mechanical studies. A cumulative bookkeeping of the transients is now in action at Fessenheim I and II, Bugey II to V, Tricastin I, Gravelines I, Dampierre I. A catalog of the transients easy to use will be provided to each unit in the near future. The design of the new four loop plants will take advantage of a new catalog of the design transients, this catalog being used for the purpose of the design and the bookkeeping of the transients. Experimental and theoretical investigations concerning the vibrations of PWR internals and primary circuit have been carried out at Fessenheim I, Bugey V and Tricastin I . As a result of these studies and complementary studies on Safran mock-up, EDF has been able to define with FRAMATOME and CEA a monitoring system to meet the requirements of the safety authorities. The monitoring system is divided in to three parts: loose - parts detection system accelerometers; monitoring of reactor internals by neutron noise measurements; monitoring of heavy components vibrations by accelerometers. This system is now installed in all PWR units. Some developments are in progress at EDF mainly at the Directorate of Research and Development to improve the procedures of the control and to define the criteria for an early diagnostic of the anomalies. The major reports are Surveillance du comportement vibratoire des composants de circuit primaire; Vibration studies on a three loop PWR internals model; and Nuclear Reactor Surveillance - Neutron noise measurements and vibrations analysis on French PWR Internal structures

  17. EDF'S nuclear strategy: new markets and skilled players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machenaud, H.

    2000-01-01

    French nuclear power has a bright future ahead, as a major contributor to the limitation of CO 2 emissions in the European Union, and as a cheap way of balancing the electricity supply. Of course, this future could be called into question if public no longer trusted us. This means we need to be stringent on the issues of safety, radiological protection of workers and maintenance. EDF will follow the debate raised by the French government on nuclear energy, through an attitude of openness and constant exchange of view ports, in order to give an objectively elaborated and clear answers to the questions raised by our industrial activities, and their future. EDF wants to answer these questions not only in technical, economic and scientific terms, but also by taking into account people's specific concerns, their expectations and their opinions. Citizens and customers should see a consistency in high standards between our ecological, technological, and commercial activities. It is only on this condition that EDF, and nuclear energy can keep the confidence they have earned in France. (author)

  18. Stereochemistry and mechanism of the reduction of some bicyclo (2-2-1-) heptane-2-ones by metals dissolved in liquid ammonia; Stereochimie et mecanisme de la reduction de quelques bicyclo (2-2-1) heptanones-2 par les metaux dissous dans l'ammoniac liquide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulombeau, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    A systematic experimental study of the reduction of four bicyclo(2-2-1)hepta n-2-ones by dissolved alkaline and alkaline-earth metals in liquid ammonia is reported. Chapter one: models of metal-ammonia solutions and mechanisms of the reduction of ketones by these solutions are rapidly recalled. Chapter two: results obtained in the thermodynamic equilibration of three pairs of epimeric alcohols which formally derive from three of the starting ketones are presented. Chapter three: deals with the results obtained in the reduction of the ketones in the absence or the presence of a proton source. A new interpretation of these results is given and is based upon two different effects: - the torsional interaction created by the bridgehead substituent on the C-O bond which favours the formation of the endo alcohol; - the difference of steric hindrance between the two sides (exo and endo) defined by the plane of the carbonyl group of the starting molecule, which favours the attack of the metal cation from one side or the other, and therefore the formation of the exo or the endo epimer. This mechanism is generalised in a model which is tested by means of some examples published in the literature. It then appears able to construe correctly the obtained results. (author) [French] Une etude experimentale systematique de la reduction de quatre bicyclo-(2-2-1)heptanones-2 par les metaux alcalins et alcalino-terreux dissous dans l'ammoniac liquide a ete effectuee. 1er chapitre: on y rappelle rapidement les modeles proposes pour la structure des solutions metalliques dans l'ammoniac liquide, ainsi que les mecanismes de reduction des cetones par ces solutions. 2eme chapitre: on y presente les resultats obtenus lors de l'equilibration thermodynamique de trois couples d'alcools epimeres derivant de trois des cetones reduites. 3eme chapitre: il concerne les resultats obtenus lors de la reduction des cetones en l'absence ou en presence de donneurs de protons. Une interpretation nouvelle

  19. Épidémiologie de l'intoxication par envenimation chez les enfants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: L'intoxication par envenimation est l'ensemble des manifestations locales et générales induites par la pénétration dans l'organisme d'une substance toxique produite par un animal venimeux. Le but de notre travail était d'étudier les signes cliniques des intoxications par envenimation chez les enfants de 0 à 15 ...

  20. EDF crippled by nuclear. Study of EDF's nuclear activity perspectives in France - November 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Juan Camilo

    2016-11-01

    After a discussion of the general context in terms of evolution of the energy market (over-capacity related to the development of renewable energies, limited export perspectives, low prices), of difficult position for the nuclear sector in Europe (an inadequate business model, shutting down of always more plants), of perspectives for EDF (a difficult passage from a monopoly to a competitive market, and a constraining legal framework), this study reports an assessment of EDF's assets. In the next part, it addresses issues related to dismantling and to waste management for French nuclear reactors. It describes the context, outlines that dismantling charges have been under-provisioned, and that assessments made for waste management are not completely reliable, and also discusses consequences in terms of accounting. The cost of future investments is then discussed, with also their consequences in terms of accounting. Financial consequences are finally discussed

  1. Contribution to the study of molecular movements in cyclohexane by electron spin resonance and electron-nuclear double resonance using a radical probe; Contribution a l'etude des mouvements moleculaires dans le cyclohexane par resonance paramagnetique electronique et double resonance electronique-nucleaire a l'aide d'une sonde radicalaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volino, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Solutions of stable free radicals of the nitroxide type have been studied as a function of temperature. In the plastic or globular state, the cyclohexane molecules have rapid rotational and diffusional movements. They transmit this movement to dissolved free radicals. Conversely, measurements by electron spin resonance of the absolute movement of the radicals, and by electron nuclear double resonance of their movement relative to the cyclohexane molecules give very precise methods for local analyses of the movement present in the cyclohexane matrix. The principle of these techniques makes up the 'radical probe method'. (author) [French] Des solutions de radicaux libres stables, du type nitroxyde dans le cyclohexane ont ete etudiees, en fonction de la temperature. Les molecules de cyclohexane, dans l'etat plastique ou globulaire, sont animees de mouvements rapides de rotation sur elles-memes et de diffusion. Elles transmettent leur mobilite aux radicaux libres dissous. Reciproquement, la mesure du mouvement absolu des radicaux, a l'aide de la resonance paramagnetique electronique, et celle du mouvement relatif des radicaux et des molecules de cyclohexane par double resonance electronique-nucleaire, constituent des methodes tres precises pour analyser localement les mouvements presents dans la matrice de cyclohexane. Ce principe et ces techniques constituent la 'methode de la sonde radicalaire'. (auteur)

  2. Contribution to the study of molecular movements in cyclohexane by electron spin resonance and electron-nuclear double resonance using a radical probe; Contribution a l'etude des mouvements moleculaires dans le cyclohexane par resonance paramagnetique electronique et double resonance electronique-nucleaire a l'aide d'une sonde radicalaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volino, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Solutions of stable free radicals of the nitroxide type have been studied as a function of temperature. In the plastic or globular state, the cyclohexane molecules have rapid rotational and diffusional movements. They transmit this movement to dissolved free radicals. Conversely, measurements by electron spin resonance of the absolute movement of the radicals, and by electron nuclear double resonance of their movement relative to the cyclohexane molecules give very precise methods for local analyses of the movement present in the cyclohexane matrix. The principle of these techniques makes up the 'radical probe method'. (author) [French] Des solutions de radicaux libres stables, du type nitroxyde dans le cyclohexane ont ete etudiees, en fonction de la temperature. Les molecules de cyclohexane, dans l'etat plastique ou globulaire, sont animees de mouvements rapides de rotation sur elles-memes et de diffusion. Elles transmettent leur mobilite aux radicaux libres dissous. Reciproquement, la mesure du mouvement absolu des radicaux, a l'aide de la resonance paramagnetique electronique, et celle du mouvement relatif des radicaux et des molecules de cyclohexane par double resonance electronique-nucleaire, constituent des methodes tres precises pour analyser localement les mouvements presents dans la matrice de cyclohexane. Ce principe et ces techniques constituent la 'methode de la sonde radicalaire'. (auteur)

  3. Ultrasonic Inspection following Heat Treatment of Uranium Alloys; Controle des Traitements Thermiques d'Alliage d'Uranium par Ultrasons; Kontrol' termicheskoj obrabotki uranovykh splavov s pomoshch'yu ul'trazvuka; Control Ultrasonico de los Tratamientos Termicos de Aleaciones de Uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destribats, Marie-Therese; Cherpentier, C.; Papezik, F.; Pigeon, M. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires Desaclay (France)

    1965-10-15

    To improve the behaviour of low uranium alloys in reactors it is often necessary to reduce grain size by heat treatment. It has proved essential to provide for inspection of the whole element and the entire output in order to discover the exact quality of the fuel used. This inspection cannot be made by micrography because of the time required and the fact that the data obtained are incomplete. The inspection system adopted is based on the principle of absorption of ultrasonic waves by materials. This absorption depends on the structure of the medium. If {lambda} is small in relation to grain size G, absorption is low; whereas if G is of the order of {lambda}/2, absorption is very high. The tests were made first in air, using the multiple-echo system, then by measuring the height of the first echo, and finally by transmission in water, the height of the transmitted echo being compared with that of the initial signal. In industrial use, the amplitude of the echo transmitted by the material is compared with the echo obtained from a standard of the same characteristics and shape. Inspection takes place in a special machine in which the materials are rotated by rollers and adjustable transducers move over the element. The helicoidal scanning is carried out with a pitch of less than 5 mm. The ultrasonic generator includes a control system ensuring a constant reference echo. The paper quotes a series of records showing the results obtained with various alloys and in particular the faults observed in elements treated by induction upon linear displacement. The arrangement can detect faulty treatment zones of less than 1 cm{sup 2}. The system is at present used to inspect all low alloy uranium fuels of the G2, EL3, EDF1, EDF2 and INCA reactors, i.e. rods and tubes with diameters between 20 and 95 mm. (author) [French] Afin d'obtenir une meilleure tenue des alliages d'uranium faiblement allies dans les reacteurs, un affinage du grain par traitements thermiques est souvent

  4. Design and Implementation  of an EDF Scheduer for Fiasco.OC L4

    OpenAIRE

    Arnelöv, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of an EDF scheduler for the FIASCO microkernel. Benchmark test shows that the average case gain an improvement of 16-34%, in regards to schedule calls, running EDF over the existing fixed priority scheduler using Rate Monotonic (RM). A possible approach to mimic EDF scheduling with fixed priority is described using dynamic counters and worst case ready queue. The advantages and disadvantages are compared to the Fixed Priority with the Priority Promotion...

  5. Studies on the translocation pattern, persistence characteristics and metabolic pathway of sumithion [O, O-dimethyl-O-(3-methyl-4-nitrophenyl) phosphorothioate] in the cocoa tree Theobroma Cacao L; Etudes sur la repartition par translocation, les caracteristiques de persistance et les processus metabolitiques du sumithion [O, O-dimethyl-O-(3-methyl-4-nitrophenyl) phosphorothionate] dans le cacaoyer Theobroma Cacao L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, Alamelu; Sundaram, K. M.S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Ghana, Legon (Ghana)

    1970-01-15

    undergone complete degradation within an interval of 10 days after treatment, i. e. within an interval of 5 days after the day from which it was detectable. Thus the presence of anticholinesterase agents in the cocoa plants was shown to be practically nil after a period of 10 days from the date of application. In the present investigation it became evident from the uptake studies that {sup 32}P-materials were detectable in the tree even up to 72 days after the insecticide was applied; the chloroform/water partition technique showed the presence of {sup 32}P-materials in the water layer and in the residue up to 28 days after treatment whereas the spectrophotometric and column-chromatographic techniques were able to detect sumithion and sumioxon only up to 10 days after application. This definitely indicated that during this 10-day period sumithion and sumioxon underwent complete degradation and were hydrolysed into water-soluble phosphoric and substituted phosphoric acid-{sup 32}P which were probably utilised later in the formation of water-insoluble proteins- {sup 32}P of high molecular weights. These proteins- {sup 32}P seem to persist for a considerable length of time in the tree thus accounting for the persistent radioactivity even up to ca. 3 months after application. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont étudié la répartition par translocation et les processus métabolitiques du sumithion, insecticide par contact, dans le cacaoyer, après application foliaire de ce produit, soit ordinaire, soit marqué avec {sup 32}P. La répartition par translocation montre que la radioactivité est initialement le plus élevée dans les échantillons d’écorce et le plus faible dans les échantillons de fruits (fèves de cacao en particulier). Ensuite, pendant environ deux mois et demi, la radioactivité de l'écorce décroît rapidement alors que celle des fèves augmente constamment, ce qui prouve que {sup 32}P de l'insecticide finit par être incorporé dans les protéines qui

  6. Layup practices at EDF PWR fleet and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Olga Alos; Pablo, Sergio De Maria; Wintergerst, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    A proper lay-up can only be achieved by plant specific lay-up procedures. The layup control practices are necessary to prevent corrosion damage during shutdown and are an important part of the life time extension of a nuclear power plant. EDF operational experience in this area confirms that damage to plant equipment from improper layup procedures is a cause of reduced plant reliability and availability and can increase the corrosion products ingress into the SG during start-up. The plant preservation strategy applied across the EDF fleet is based on the following principles: Anticipated time frame of the required layup: short-term outages can become long-term outages, and can necessitate the use of unplanned preservation techniques. Dry layup for a long-term outage of the condensate/feedwater system: condenser vacuum assisted draining at high temperature, estimation of air requirements (flow rate, humidity...) to guarantee the optimum conditions inside the system. Wet lay up for a short-term outage of the condensate/feedwater system: system filled with operating medium, avoiding air ingress into the system, injection of chemical agents if necessary. Dry lay-up or wet lay up for the steam generators depending on maintenance work or radiation protection needed. This article presents the EDF layup program and the improvements in layup practices. It provides information on the layup procedures, best practices and recommendations, operating experience, considerations for different durations of outages; the implementation of a preservation working group, the selection of the systems that will be included in the lay-up program. Finally, future developments will be presented, such as the development of a 'convective model' to determine air requirements (humidity, flow rate...) and the drying rate to dry a heat exchanger. (author)

  7. Solution volumes finis polynomiale par morceaux pour les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nous présentons dans ce papier un concept de solution volumes finis continue pour des problèmes de diffusion-convection avec des données régulières. Nous comparons dans certains cas particuliers la solution proposée avec la solution volumes finis classiques (qui est une fonction constante par morceaux) et la ...

  8. Mortal waiting for EdF and Gaz de France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2003-01-01

    Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) utilities have announced important investment programs for the forthcoming opening of gas and electricity markets to 2.5 millions of professionals by July 1, 2004. However, nothing can be done before the approval of the French government has been given for the change of their statuses (from the industrial and commercial public company status to the anonymous company status) and for the opening of their capital. Short paper. (J.S.)

  9. Digital technology strengthens EDF's nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes an overview of the development of the use of various and new digital technologies of information and communication by EDF to train its nuclear operators, field technicians who are maintaining nuclear power plants, personnel in charge of risk management, and so on. Trainees are using tablets with augmented reality software, serious games, virtual reality helmets, and also digital simulators to learn how to control a reactor. More practical training also exists: people are taught how to practically and correctly assemble tubes for example

  10. Fine numerical modelling of thermohydraulic phenomena in EDF PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulot, F.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, EDF has developed a family of 2D and 3D industrial thermohydraulics software to solve problems encountered in existing PWR power plants and to design new reactors for the future. The equations used in the models are the averaged Navier-Stokes and energy equations. A brief description is given of the four main codes developed for single-phase and two-phase water-steam flows, some of which use finite differences or finite volumes methods, while others make use of finite elements methods. An example of application is given for each code. (author). 4 figs., 4 refs

  11. Material control and accountancy at EDF PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Cormis, F.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the comprehensive system which is developed and implemented at Electricite de France to provide a single reliable nuclear material control and accounting system for all nuclear plants. This software aims at several objectives among which are: the control and the accountancy of nuclear material at the plant, the optimization of the consistency of data by minimizing the possibility of transcription errors, the fulfillment of the statutory requirements by automatic transfer of reports to national and international safeguards authorities, the servicing of other EDF users of nuclear material data for technical or commercial purposes

  12. EDF view on next generation reactor safety and operability issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serviere, G.

    2002-01-01

    In the foreseeable future, EDF will have to compete in an economically de-regulated market. Nuclear currently accounts for more than 80% of the electricity generated by the company, and generation costs are quite competitive compared to that of other competing energies. It is so likely that nuclear units will remain the backbone of EDF generating fleet in the years to come. However, to remain a viable option for electricity generation in the longer term, nuclear will have to maintain both its cost-effectiveness and a very high safety level. This could seem quite straightforward considering the current situation where safety records are at an all time high and Operating and Maintenance costs are under tight control. In fact, it could be a real challenge. Competing fossil technologies progress and there is a concurrent trend to try and improve the performance of future nuclear units. However, in most cases, proposed designs depart from the well-known Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology. They are either new concepts or designs already tested in the past and modified to address some of their perceived drawbacks. Contrary to the prevailing situation where short-term alternatives like the EPR, the ABWR or the AP600 largely build upon experience gathered on operating units, most designs contemplated for implementation beyond 2020 or 2030 cannot be considered proven. Considering the above mentioned uncertainties, EDF have confirmed their preference for proven designs with higher outputs, such as the EPR. However, it would appear unreasonable to consider that new designs are doomed to fail: they could well turn out to be adequate for specific niches in a de-regulated market and provide reasonable alternatives for the utility. Nevertheless, for such an alternative to be considered, additional evidence is needed that utility preferences are reflected in the design, and that all potential technical issues have been identified, adequately addressed and resolved. Currently, EDF

  13. Cooperation between regional fire brigades and EDF's power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudin, B.; Pigeon, M.

    2000-01-01

    An emergency plan has been worked out at each nuclear power plant. This plan involves public authorities, regional fire brigades, hospitals, and EDF's own emergency means. This organization implies that in case of emergency both outside help and intern means have to cooperate efficiently on the site. In order to clarify roles and order hierarchy, common intervention protocols have been written and tested. Joint exercises involving outside help and intern means are regularly organized to test the emergency organization and train the staff. (A.C.)

  14. EDF guide book for decontamination at power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glorennec, C.; Bemer, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant components or equipment often need to be more or less decontaminated before undergoing maintenance. In order to coordinate the activities of the different maintenance specialists belonging to the corporate or site organizations, the management of EDF/Nuclear and Fossil Division has created a decontamination task force. One of the objectives of this task force was to elaborate the present Guide Book for Decontamination at Power Plants. This paper provides assistance to nuclear plants operators in the very specific field of decontamination

  15. Signal and image processing for monitoring and testing at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgel, B.; Garreau, D.

    1992-04-01

    The quality of monitoring and non destructive testing devices in plants and utilities today greatly depends on the efficient processing of signal and image data. In this context, signal or image processing techniques, such as adaptive filtering or detection or 3D reconstruction, are required whenever manufacturing nonconformances or faulty operation have to be recognized and identified. This paper reviews the issues of industrial image and signal processing, by briefly considering the relevant studies and projects under way at EDF. (authors). 1 fig., 11 refs

  16. The law that threatens EdF's monopoly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, L.

    2010-01-01

    The French house of commons has examined the bill about the new organisation of the French electricity market (Nome in French). Its goal is to reform the actual market and to create a real competition. The bill has five stakes: to put an end to the European dispute, to give to EdF's competitors an access to its nuclear production, to improve the management of consumption peaks, to harmonize the generation and the consumption prices, to prepare the French market to the real competition. (J.S.)

  17. Offensive strategy: Suez wants to hustle EdF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2003-01-01

    Using Electrabel, its new energy pole, the private company Suez is looking for multiple ways of entry to reinforce its positions in France in the gas and electric power sectors in the prospect of the complete opening of energy markets in 2004. This article analyzes the strategy of Suez to become the most credible challenger of EdF, the French historical national electric utility: reorganization of its industrial and commercial activities, gain of new clients and definition of a new strategy for the gas market. (J.S.)

  18. The Permanent Disposal of Highly Radioactive Wastes by Incorporation into Glass; Elimination Permanente de Dechets Hautement Radioactifs par Incorporation dans le Verre; 041e 041a 041e 041d 0427 0414 ; La Evacuacion Permanente de Desechos de Elevada Radiactividad Incorporandolos en Vidrio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, L. C.; Aikin, A. M.; Bancroft, A. I. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (Canada)

    1960-07-01

    verre contenant un melange de produits de fission ayant cinq ou six ans d'age et dont l'activite allait jusqu'a 50 curies par kilogramme. L'operation s'est faite en discontinu, par lots de quatre kilogrammes. On a constate que les produits de fission peuvent etre incorpores dans le verre commodement et sans danger. En etudiant les nombreux problemes que posent le stockage et l'elimination permanents du verre hautement radioactif, on est parvenu a la conclusion que ce verre devrait etre, soit enfoui dans le sol, soit entrepose dans des souterrains artificiels. Dans ces conditions, il est toujours possible, en cas de besoin, de' proceder a un nouveau controle de l'elimination. Lorsque l'enfouissement se fait directement dans le sol, les produits de fission peuvent surtout etre liberes dans le milieu ambiant par lixiviation du verre dans l'eau. On estime donc important de connaitre le rythme auquel les produits de fission se dispersent par ce mecanisme. Une documentation abondante sur la lixiviation par l'eau a ete recueillie en laboratoire. On a constate que le rythme de liberation depend de la composition du verre. Pour toutes les compositions mises a l'epreuve, les mesures montrent que le rythme de lixiviation des produits de fission incorpores dans le verre decroit avec le temps. Apres plusieurs mois d'immersion dans l'eau, le rythme auquel les substances radioactives se degageaient du verre de differentes compositions etait de 10{sup -4} pour cent par an environ, pour des hemispheres en verre pesant deux kilogrammes. Les donnees recueillies ont servi a evaluer les quantites de produits de fission qui s'echapperont du verre auquel auront ete incorporees les masses importantes de produits de fission qui s'accumuleront par suite du fonctionnement des reacteurs de puissance. (author) [Spanish] En Chalk River se ha continuado el estudio de un proceso para incorporar en vidrio para su evacuacion permanente los desechos de alto nivel radiactivo resultantes de los procesos de

  19. Appréciation de l’alimentation en zinc du maïs par la détermination du rapport Fe/Zn dans les parties aériennes du végétal

    OpenAIRE

    Lubet, E.; Soyer, Jean-Pierre; Juste, Catherine

    1983-01-01

    On a mesuré de 1972 à 1981 le rapport Fe/Zn dans les parties aériennes de maïs atteints ou non de carence en zinc. Les échantillons ont été prélevés, à deux stades de végétation, soit dans des dispositifs expérimentaux de plein champ, soit dans des cultures où se manifestait la carence. Le rapport Fe/Zn apparaît comme beaucoup plus discriminant que la seule détermination de la teneur en zinc pour la prévision de la carence zincique chez les plantes qui se développent en sols non calcaire...

  20. The French Electricity Company (EDF) and the environment. Press file for 1996; EDF et l'environnment 1996. Dossier de presse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdier, Jean-Pierre [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-03-27

    In 1996 the actions of EDF in the domain of environment have recorded FF 4 billions (FF 3.5 billion in 1995), representing about 2% of the EDF's turnover. The EDF keeps on its efforts for reducing the impact of its activities upon environment. Several applications of an environment protective electricity generation are promoted by the company. The company brings services and technical solutions to its clients which meet their energy needs and conserving at the same time the life conditions. Furthermore, EDF participates in the activity of numerous national and international organisms, intervening in the environmental questions, in decision making, participating in studies and actions and following continually the direction of a durable economic and social development. The report is structured in three chapters: 1. an industrial responsibility; 2. services and techniques for environment; 3. action towards a durable development.

  1. Report from the commission about the industrial and financial project of EdF; Rapport de la commission sur le projet industriel et financier d'EDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report takes stock of the work carried out by the commission appointed by the French ministry of economy, finances and industry about the industrial and financial project of Electricite de France (EdF) in the framework of the liberalization of European energy markets. The report presents the conclusions of the commission about EdF's position in the new competition context, about the financial position of the group and about the foreseeable strategic options and their consequences in terms of equity fund needs. 5 appendixes present: the evolution of electricity prices, EdF and the energy policy, the electricity market and the competition in Europe, the EdF group: presentation and main adaptation stakes, the financial situation of EdF group. (J.S.)

  2. The French Electricity Company (EDF) and the environment. Press file for 1996; EDF et l'environnment 1996. Dossier de presse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdier, Jean-Pierre [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-03-27

    In 1996 the actions of EDF in the domain of environment have recorded FF 4 billions (FF 3.5 billion in 1995), representing about 2% of the EDF's turnover. The EDF keeps on its efforts for reducing the impact of its activities upon environment. Several applications of an environment protective electricity generation are promoted by the company. The company brings services and technical solutions to its clients which meet their energy needs and conserving at the same time the life conditions. Furthermore, EDF participates in the activity of numerous national and international organisms, intervening in the environmental questions, in decision making, participating in studies and actions and following continually the direction of a durable economic and social development. The report is structured in three chapters: 1. an industrial responsibility; 2. services and techniques for environment; 3. action towards a durable development.

  3. Effect of {alpha}-Particle and X-Ray Irradiation on DNA Synthesis in Tissue Cultures; Effet de l'Irradiation par les Particules a et par les Rayons X sur la Synthese de l'ADN dans des Cultures de Tissus; 0412 043b 0438 044f 0414 ; Efectos de la Irradiacion con Particulas Alfa y con Rayos X sobre la Sintesis de ADN en Cultivos de Tejidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C. L. [Department of Radiotherapeutics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1962-02-15

    fibrolbaste chez la souris et au niveau des cellules HeLa dans des cultures de tissus. Il a utilise la micro-autoradiographie a l'aide de thymidine tritiee pour determiner la vitesse de synthese dans des cultures en couche unique. Les experiences ont montre que: 1. Le nombre des cellules synthetisant l'ADN n'est pas influence par les particules ac et les rayons X, pour les doses utilisees pendant l'experience. 2. Les deux types de rayonnements ont pour effet de reduire la vitesse de synthese de l'ADN dans les cellules irradiees. 3. Une dose determinee de l'un des deux types de rayonnements a pour effet de ramener la vitesse de synthese dans toutes les cellules a une fraction constante de la vitesse observee pour les cellules non irradiees. 4. La vitesse de synthese de l'ADN est reduite a 37% de sa valeur initiale a 37% (1/e) par une dose d'environ 25 {alpha}/p{sup 2} ou par une dose de rayons X de 14 000 rad pour les cultures de fibroblastes de souris. Pour les cultures de cellules HeLa, il faut une dose d'environ 90 000 rads pour reduire la vitesse de synthese de l'ADN a 37% de sa valeur initiale. 5. Le ralentissement de la synthese se manifeste au plus tard une demi-heure apres l'irradiation ; il peut etre immediat. Les indications donnees au point 4 ci-dessus permettent de calculer approximativement la forme de la cible; si l'on admeto qu'elle est cylindrique, elle semble avoir pour dimensions environ 16 A dans un sens et 16 000 A dans l'autre; c'est donc un long filament mince, d'un poids moleculaire d'environ 5 * 10{sup 7}, dans les experiences faites sur les fibroblastes de souris. Dans les experiences faites sur les cellules HeLa, le volume des cibles donne un poids moleculaire de 10{sup 7} environ. Les resultats concordent avec l'opinion selon laquelle la cible pourrait etre la structure type de l'ADN (ou eventuellement de la molecule de nucleoproteine etant donne le poids moleculaire eleve dans l'un des deux cas). S'il est vrai que les effets decrits sont dus a des

  4. Analysis of resonances due to 'S' neutrons in experiments on transmission by time-of-flight. 1. without the interference term; Analyse des resonances dues aux neutrons 'S' dans les experiences de transmission par temps de vol. 1. sans terme d'interference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corge, C R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    Various methods of transmission resonance analysis for 's' wave neutrons in time of flight experiments are described in this report. Only the case when the interference term can be neglected is treated in this first part. Results are given relative to a more complete partial area method and also to a new method so-called the width at half depth method. (author) [French] Le present rapport est consacre a l'expose de differentes methodes d'analyse des resonances dues aux neutrons d'ondes 's' dans les experiences de transmission par temps de vol, cette premiere partie traitant uniquement le cas ou l'on peut negliger le terme d'interference. Y figurent en particulier sous forme de reseaux de courbes, les resultats relatifs a une methode des aires partielles amelioree et ceux relatifs a une nouvelle methode dite de la largeur a mi-profondeur. (auteur)

  5. EDF Energies Nouvelles. Consolidated financial statements at 31 December 2008 Prepared in accordance with IFRSs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    EDF Energies Nouvelles is a world leader in renewable energy electricity. The company develops, builds and operates clean energy power plants both for its own account and for third parties. Historically, EDF Energies Nouvelles primarily developed its business in two geographical areas, Europe and North America (U.S., Canada and Mexico). EDF Energies Nouvelles is a subsidiary of EDF, helping the Group to achieve its renewable energy goals. The EDF Group generates low-carbon electricity around the world and actively participates in the energy transition. EDF Energies Nouvelles prioritizes development of wind and photovoltaic solar capacity. As an integrated operator with global reach, EDF Energies Nouvelles covers the entire renewable energy chain, from development to operation and maintenance, and manages all project phases in-house. This document is EDF Energies Nouvelles's registration document for the year 2008. It contains information about Group profile, governance, business, investments, property, plant and equipment, management, financial position, employees, shareholders, etc. The document includes the group's consolidated financial statements at 31 December 2008

  6. EDF Energies Nouvelles. Consolidated financial statements at 31 December 2007 Prepared in accordance with IFRSs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    EDF Energies Nouvelles is a world leader in renewable energy electricity. The company develops, builds and operates clean energy power plants both for its own account and for third parties. Historically, EDF Energies Nouvelles primarily developed its business in two geographical areas, Europe and North America (U.S., Canada and Mexico). EDF Energies Nouvelles is a subsidiary of EDF, helping the Group to achieve its renewable energy goals. The EDF Group generates low-carbon electricity around the world and actively participates in the energy transition. EDF Energies Nouvelles prioritizes development of wind and photovoltaic solar capacity. As an integrated operator with global reach, EDF Energies Nouvelles covers the entire renewable energy chain, from development to operation and maintenance, and manages all project phases in-house. This document is EDF Energies Nouvelles's registration document for the year 2007. It contains information about Group profile, governance, business, investments, property, plant and equipment, management, financial position, employees, shareholders, etc. The document includes the group's consolidated financial statements at 31 December 2007

  7. EDF Energies Nouvelles. Consolidated financial statements at 31 December 2006 Prepared in accordance with IFRSs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    EDF Energies Nouvelles is a world leader in renewable energy electricity. The company develops, builds and operates clean energy power plants both for its own account and for third parties. Historically, EDF Energies Nouvelles primarily developed its business in two geographical areas, Europe and North America (U.S., Canada and Mexico). EDF Energies Nouvelles is a subsidiary of EDF, helping the Group to achieve its renewable energy goals. The EDF Group generates low-carbon electricity around the world and actively participates in the energy transition. EDF Energies Nouvelles prioritizes development of wind and photovoltaic solar capacity. As an integrated operator with global reach, EDF Energies Nouvelles covers the entire renewable energy chain, from development to operation and maintenance, and manages all project phases in-house. This document is EDF Energies Nouvelles's registration document for the year 2006. It contains information about Group profile, governance, business, investments, property, plant and equipment, management, financial position, employees, shareholders, etc. The document includes the group's Consolidated financial statements at 31 December 2006

  8. Integrating availability and maintenance objectives in plant design. EDF approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrave, Claude; Martin-Onraet, Michel

    1995-01-01

    Energy self sufficiency is a major strategic necessity for France. Regarding the fossil fuels power, competitiveness of nuclear energy is a key goal for Electricite de France. Accordingly, for future nuclear power plants to remain competitive, it is necessary to maintain the kWh production costs of the future units at a level close to those of the latest units under construction (N4 series), while raising the safety level. EDF therefore decided to implement an analytical and systematic process for study of the new projects to optimize the design by integration of the maintenance (durations, costs), availability and radiation exposure goals from the related operating experience. This approach, CIDEM (French acronym for Design Integrating Availability, operating Experience and Maintenance) aims at a single goal: to minimize the kWh production cost incorporating investment, operation and fuel costs, allowing for the operating experience from French and foreign units. The implementation of the CIDEM process constitutes for EDF a new approach to the study of the new Nuclear Power Plant projects. The competitivity of nuclear energy greatly depends on the success of such an approach. The studies conducted in the availability field have already highlighted a number of critical points and have made it possible to define the corresponding goal allocations and to establish a first series of structuring specifications for the project. (J.P.N.)

  9. EDF experience with open-quotes hot spotclose quotes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guio, J.M. de

    1995-01-01

    During the past few years, open-quotes hot spotsclose quotes due to the presence of particles of metal activated during their migration through the reactor core, have been detected at several French pressurized water reactor (PWR) units. These open-quotes hot spots,close quotes which generate very high dose rates (from about 10 Gy/h to 200 G/h) are a significant factor in increase occupational exposures during outrates. Of particular concern are the difficult cases which prolong outage duration and increase the volume of radiological waste. Confronted with this situation, Electricite de France (EDF) has set up a national research group, as part of its ALARA program, to establish procedures and techniques to avoid, detect, and eliminate of hot spots. In particular, specific processes have been developed to eliminate these hot spots which are most costly in terms of occupational exposure due to the need for reactor maintenance. This paper sets out the general approach adopted at EDF so far to cope with the problem of hot spots, illustrated by experience at Blayais 3 and 4

  10. EDF - 2006 full-year results, 2006 Financial report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadonneix, Pierre

    2007-04-01

    As the world's biggest electricity generator, the EDF Group covers every sector of expertise, from generation to trading and transmission grids. EDF builds on the expertise of its people, its R and D and engineering skills, its experience as a leading industry operator and the attentive support of its customers to deliver competitive solutions that successfully reconcile economic growth with climate protection. This document presents the 2006 annual results and Consolidated financial statements of the Group at 31 December 2006: Consolidated income statements, Consolidated balance sheets, Consolidated cash flow statements, Changes in consolidated equity, Notes: Group accounting policies, Summary of accounting and valuation methods, Public distribution concessions in France, Comparability, Significant events and transactions of 2006 and 2005, Changes in the scope of consolidation, Segment reporting, Sales, Fuel and energy purchases, Other external expenses, Contractual obligations and commitments, Personnel expenses, Other operating income and expenses, Impairments / reversals, Other income and expenses, Financial result, Income taxes, Goodwill, Other intangible assets, Property, plant and equipment, Investments in companies accounted for under the equity method, Financial assets, Inventories including work-in-process, Trade receivables, Other receivables, Cash and cash equivalents, Held-for-sale assets and liabilities, Equity, Provisions, Special concession liabilities, Current and non-current financial liabilities, Derivatives, Other liabilities, Contribution of joint ventures, Related parties, Environment, Subsequent events, Transition to standards IAS 32 and 39 concerning financial instruments, Scope of consolidation

  11. Evaluation du risque de déstabilisation des infrastructures de haute montagne engendré par le réchauffement climatique dans les Alpes françaises

    OpenAIRE

    Duvillard, Pierre-Allain; Ravanel, Ludovic; Deline, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Dans le contexte du changement climatique actuel, les milieux de haute montagne sont soumis à de profonds bouleversements tels que la fonte des glaciers ou la dégradation du permafrost, à l’origine de mouvements de versant au sein des parois rocheuses comme des formations superficielles. Ces processus impliquent des risques directs de déstabilisation pour les infrastructures (refuges, remontées mécaniques, etc.). Dans un but de prévention de ces risques, un recensement des infrastructures de ...

  12. The contractual agreement State-EDF signature the 8. april 1997; Signature du contrat d`entreprise Etat-EDF le 8 avril 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-31

    The corporation agreement between the State and Electricite De France (EDF) was signed for the period of 1997-2000. With the agreement of the State, this new contract brings to EDF the ways to progress: becoming the reference public utilities in Europe and asserting its authority as an industrial corporation, leader of the electrical service in France and in international markets. The agreement precise the main orientations of the development plan and the economical policy. (A.L.B.)

  13. The contractual agreement State-EDF signature the 8. april 1997; Signature du contrat d`entreprise Etat-EDF le 8 avril 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The corporation agreement between the State and Electricite De France (EDF) was signed for the period of 1997-2000. With the agreement of the State, this new contract brings to EDF the ways to progress: becoming the reference public utilities in Europe and asserting its authority as an industrial corporation, leader of the electrical service in France and in international markets. The agreement precise the main orientations of the development plan and the economical policy. (A.L.B.)

  14. EdF let Germans manage Stredoslovenska Energetika

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2003-01-01

    According to provisions of privatisation and shareholders agreement Stredoslovenska energetika (SSE), a.s., Zilina should be managed by the largest European power concern Electricite de France (EdF). But so far, one year after the acquisition, the only French member of the Supervisory board is its Chairman Patrick Luccioni. The Board has 5 members and two of them are German - Peter Weis and Martin Konerman. The latter joined in September this year. He came to Slovakia after years spent in Boards of Hungarian distribution companies - Elmu in Budapest and Emasz in Miskolcz. The name of Peter Weis still can be found on the web page of Emasz on the list of members of Supervisory Board. Strategic partner in both the mentioned Hungarian distribution companies is the third largest player on the German energy market - Energie Baden-Wurttemberg (EnBW). The French concern with its 35-percent stake is the biggest individual shareholder of the EnBW. EdF is reassessing its international projects. Due to an investment embargo the French will not be among the prospects interested in acquisition of Slovenske elektrarne, a.s., Bratislava but the company management has also announced its intention to sell its minority stakes in northern and eastern Europe. The Paris head office of EdF announced its decision in the time when privatisation of Slovak distribution companies was culminating. And so in order to maintain its influence the 49-percent stake in SSE together with management control over the company will be transferred to EnBW. Spokeswoman of EnBW, Petra Wollmer did not say the company would not plan any acquisitions in area of its core business but stressed that these would have to be thoroughly examined. She did not wish to comment on any potential plans the company may have in Slovakia or that would relate to changes in the management bodies of SSE. Not even the Head of Communication Department of the Slovak distribution company, Pavel Muller was allowed to publish any

  15. Écoulement polyphasique dans un milieu poreux stratifié. Résultats expérimentaux et interprétation par la méthode de prise de moyenne à grande échelle Multiphase Flow in Stratified Porous Media Experimental Results and Interpretation by the Large-Scale Averaging Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertin H.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Nous abordons l'étude des écoulements polyphasiques en milieu poreux hétérogène d'un point de vue théorique (méthodologie de la prise de moyenne à grande échelle et expérimental. Dans une première partie nous présentons la méthodologie permettant d'obtenir les équations à grande échelle. Le point de départ de l'étude est les équations locales, analogues aux équations de Darcy généralisées obtenues par prise de moyenne des équations de Stokes à l'échelle du pore. La prise de moyenne à grande échelle de ces équations permet d'écrire un système d'équations où les coefficients de transport équivalents sont calculés à partir des données locales, par la résolution d'un problème de fermeture explicité dans le cas quasi-statique (effets capillaires dominants. La seconde partie de notre travail concerne l'étude expérimentale d'un écoulement eau-huile dans un milieu poreux stratifié constitué de deux régions de caractéristiques physiques différentes. Les champs de saturation bidimensionnels sont mesurés tout au long de l'imbibition par absorption d'un rayonnement gamma. Les résultats expérimentaux, évolution de la fraction volumique moyenne par section en fonction du temps, sont comparés aux résultats d'une simulation numérique des équations de transport où les coefficients utilisés ont été déterminés par la méthode de prise de moyenne à grande échelle. Two-phase flow in heterogeneous porous media is studied from a theoretical point of view (the large-scale averaging method and experimentally. In the first part, we present the methodology leading to the large-scale equations. The starting point of the study is the local equation, analogous to the generalized Darcy's law obtained by averaging the Stokes equation at the pore level. The large-scale averaging of these equations leads to a system where the equivalent transport coefficients are computed from the local data by solving a closure

  16. Report from the commission about the industrial and financial project of EdF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report takes stock of the work carried out by the commission appointed by the French ministry of economy, finances and industry about the industrial and financial project of Electricite de France (EdF) in the framework of the liberalization of European energy markets. The report presents the conclusions of the commission about EdF's position in the new competition context, about the financial position of the group and about the foreseeable strategic options and their consequences in terms of equity fund needs. 5 appendixes present: the evolution of electricity prices, EdF and the energy policy, the electricity market and the competition in Europe, the EdF group: presentation and main adaptation stakes, the financial situation of EdF group. (J.S.)

  17. EDF's experience with supercomputing and challenges ahead - towards multi-physics and multi-scale approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delbecq, J.M.; Banner, D.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are a major asset of the EDF company. To remain so, in particular in a context of deregulation, competitiveness, safety and public acceptance are three conditions. These stakes apply both to existing plants and to future reactors. The purpose of the presentation is to explain how supercomputing can help EDF to satisfy these requirements. Three examples are described in detail: ensuring optimal use of nuclear fuel under wholly safe conditions, understanding and simulating the material deterioration mechanisms and moving forward with numerical simulation for the performance of EDF's activities. In conclusion, a broader vision of EDF long term R and D in the field of numerical simulation is given and especially of five challenges taken up by EDF together with its industrial and scientific partners. (author)

  18. The public utility contract between the French government and EDF; Le contrat de service public entre l'Etat et EDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The public utility contract as foreseen by article 1 of the law from August 9, 2004 was signed on October 24, 2005. It represents the reference of EDF's (Electricite de France) commitments for its different activities of power producer-supplier and network manager. It precises also the commitments of the manager of the public energy transportation system (RTE EDF-Transport). It describes the level of commitment of EDF group over the 2005-2006-2007 era and precises the financial compensation modalities of its public utility missions and of its commitments as described in the contract. The public utility plan indicates the level of investments planned by EDF in the domain of power generation and networks. This document gathers: the talk given by D. de Villepin, Prime Minister, during the signature of the contract, the talk and presentation (slides) given by P. Gadonneix, head of EDF, the public utility contract between the government and EDF, and the public utility plan. (J.S.)

  19. EDF-1 downregulates the CaM/Cn/NFAT signaling pathway during adipogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Victorio, Carlos J.; Velez-delValle, Cristina; Beltrán-Langarica, Alicia; Kuri-Harcuch, Walid

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► EDF-1 participates early adipogenesis in 3T3F442A cells induced with Staurosporine/Dexamethasone. ► EDF-1 associates with CaM and Cn, most likely inactivating Cn. ► EDF-1/CaM complex seems to prevent NFATc1 activation by Cn. ► EDF-1 regulates the Cn/CaM/NFATc1 pathway during adipogenesis. ► EDF-1 may regulate the activation of Cn through a complex formation with CaM. - Abstract: The endothelial differentiation factor-1 (EDF-1) is a calmodulin binding protein that regulates calmodulin-dependent enzymes. In endothelial cells, this factor can form a protein complex with calmodulin. We analyzed the relationship between this factor and the members of calmodulin/calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) signaling pathway during adipogenesis of 3T3-F442A cells. We found that the expression of edf1 is upregulated during early adipogenesis, whereas that of calcineurin gene is lowered, suggesting that this pathway should be downregulated to allow for adipogenesis to occur. We also found that EDF-1 associates with calmodulin and calcineurin, most likely inactivating calcineurin. Our results showed that EDF-1 inactivates the calmodulin/calcineurin/NFAT pathway via sequestration of calmodulin, during early adipogenesis, and we propose a mechanism that negatively regulates the activation of calcineurin through a complex formation between EDF-1 and calmodulin. This finding raises the possibility that modulating this pathway might offer some alternatives to regulate adipose biology

  20. EDF-1 downregulates the CaM/Cn/NFAT signaling pathway during adipogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Victorio, Carlos J.; Velez-delValle, Cristina; Beltrán-Langarica, Alicia [Department of Cell Biology, Center for Research and Advanced Studies-IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, México City 07000 (Mexico); Kuri-Harcuch, Walid, E-mail: walidkuri@gmail.com [Department of Cell Biology, Center for Research and Advanced Studies-IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, México City 07000 (Mexico)

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: ► EDF-1 participates early adipogenesis in 3T3F442A cells induced with Staurosporine/Dexamethasone. ► EDF-1 associates with CaM and Cn, most likely inactivating Cn. ► EDF-1/CaM complex seems to prevent NFATc1 activation by Cn. ► EDF-1 regulates the Cn/CaM/NFATc1 pathway during adipogenesis. ► EDF-1 may regulate the activation of Cn through a complex formation with CaM. - Abstract: The endothelial differentiation factor-1 (EDF-1) is a calmodulin binding protein that regulates calmodulin-dependent enzymes. In endothelial cells, this factor can form a protein complex with calmodulin. We analyzed the relationship between this factor and the members of calmodulin/calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) signaling pathway during adipogenesis of 3T3-F442A cells. We found that the expression of edf1 is upregulated during early adipogenesis, whereas that of calcineurin gene is lowered, suggesting that this pathway should be downregulated to allow for adipogenesis to occur. We also found that EDF-1 associates with calmodulin and calcineurin, most likely inactivating calcineurin. Our results showed that EDF-1 inactivates the calmodulin/calcineurin/NFAT pathway via sequestration of calmodulin, during early adipogenesis, and we propose a mechanism that negatively regulates the activation of calcineurin through a complex formation between EDF-1 and calmodulin. This finding raises the possibility that modulating this pathway might offer some alternatives to regulate adipose biology.

  1. Automation on computers of the partial area method for the analysis of 's' neutron induced resonances. I. Without interference terms. (1962); Automatisation sur ordinateur de la methode des aires partielle dans l'analyse des resonances induites par les neutrons 's'. I. sans terme d'interference. (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, G; Corge, C R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    This report deals with numerical analysis of transmission resonances induced by 's' wave neutrons in time of flight experiments. The analysis method used is the partial area one. The only case treated here, in this first part, is the one when the interference term can be neglected. Programs and subroutines are thoroughly described, which determine from experimental raw data the resonant transmission, the partial areas, and the resonance parameters. (authors) [French] Le present rapport a pour objet l'analyse numerique sur ordinateur IBM 7090, des resonances dues aux neutrons 's' dans les experiences de transmission par temps de vol, la methode d'analyse utilisee etant la methode des aires partielles. Dans cette premiere partie, seul a ete envisage le cas ou le terme d'interference peut etre neglige. On y trouvera une description detaillee des programmes et sous programmes elabores pour determiner les transmissions resonantes avec leur trace, a partir des donnees experimentales brutes, les aires partielles afferentes ainsi que les parametres caracteristiques des resonances. (auteurs)

  2. Elaboration d’une réglementation de biosécurité par certains pays en développement: expériences dans la mise en oeuvre du Protocole de Cartagena en Afrique de l'Ouest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Frison & Thomas Joie

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Cet article analyse l'élaboration de législations nationales adaptées et conformes au Protocole de Cartagena en matière de biotechnologie et de biosécurité par certains pays d'Afrique de l'Ouest participant au 'Projet de Développement de Cadre Nationaux de Biosécurité' du PNUE-FEM. Les auteurs tentent de dégager les perspectives de réglementation et les difficultés potentielles auxquelles ces pays pourront être confrontés. Ainsi, sont analysés les différents moyens et outils choisis par les pays ouest-africains pour répondre aux droits et obligations découlant du Protocole ainsi qu'à leurs besoins et contraintes internes. Dans la mesure où ces pays n'ont pas encore adopté de réglementation nationale, cet article s'appuie prudemment sur les cadres nationaux de biosécurité développés pour traiter des questions clés de biosécurité: les questions institutionnelles et réglementaires, les procédures de décision, la participation du public ainsi que d'autres considérations pertinentes pour ces pays.

  3. EDF - The Inspector General's report on Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandonnet, Jean

    2012-01-01

    This report is destined for the President of EDF with the purpose of informing him of the judgement the Inspector General has about the nuclear safety and radiation protection within the EDF Group. It is also intended for all who, in any way, play a role at EDF in improving nuclear safety. It may also prove useful to those outside the company who work in the nuclear field or indeed any branch of industry where there are risks to be managed and who wish to participate in the debate. It also contributes to the pool of information shared with the other nuclear operators under the auspices of WANO. The continuous improvement of nuclear safety results is a fundamental commitment of the EDF Group. This is notably reflected in a policy of transparency, whether in France, Britain, America or China. This document constitutes an example of this, offering an independent view of the operational situation. It is based on facts and findings derived in EDF's contacts with field staff and meetings with the decision makers, managers, medical personnel and players on both sides of this industry as well as outside stakeholders, especially contractor companies. The resulting snapshot of the situation in the field is particularly instructive. This report therefore concentrates more on problems and weaknesses rather than strengths and progress, except as concerns happenings outside France, where the focus is more on good practices than difficulties. Contents: 1 - The view from the Inspector General of EDF about the nuclear safety in the EDF group; 2 - A panorama of 2011: The management, The state of the installations, Maintenance of the French nuclear power plants, Relations with the French nuclear safety authority (ASN), The EPR projects, The players in the fields of health and safety, Radiation protection, Fire prevention and fire fighting, Increasing nuclear power plant security, Decommissioning; 3 - Nuclear safety management; 4 - The Fukushima Daiichi accident; 5 - Training to

  4. Modeling by artificial neural networks. Application to the management of fuel in a nuclear power plant; Modelisation par reseaux de neurones. Application a la gestion du combustible dans un reacteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudier, F

    1999-07-01

    The determination of the family of optimum core loading patterns for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) involves the assessment of the core attributes, such as the power peaking factor for thousands of candidate loading patterns. Despite the rapid advances in computer architecture, the direct calculation of these attributes by a neutronic code needs a lot of of time and memory. With the goal of reducing the calculation time and optimizing the loading pattern, we propose in this thesis a method based on ideas of neural and statistical learning to provide a feed forward neural network capable of calculating the power peaking corresponding to an eighth core PWR. We use statistical methods to deduct judicious inputs (reduction of the input space dimension) and neural methods to train the model (learning capabilities). Indeed, on one hand, a principal component analysis allows us to characterize more efficiently the fuel assemblies (neural model inputs) and the other hand, the introduction of the a priori knowledge allows us to reducing the number of freedom parameters in the neural network. The model was built using a multi layered perceptron trained with the standard back propagation algorithm. We introduced our neural network in the automatic optimization code FORMOSA, and on EDF real problems we showed an important saving in time. Finally, we propose an hybrid method which combining the best characteristics of the linear local approximator GPT (Generalized Perturbation Theory) and the artificial neural network. (author)

  5. Localizing by autoradiography at -195 deg radioactive areas in rats exposed to a high flux of thermal neutrons, importance of phosphorus 32 in consecutive internal irradiation; Localisation par autoradiographie a -195 deg des zones radioactives chez le rat expose a un haut flux de neutrons thermiques, importance du phosphore 32 dans l'irradiation interne consecutive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanteur, J; Pellerin, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    Rats weighing 25 g were exposed for 5 mn to a flux of 6.10{sup 12} thermal neutrons/cm{sup 2}/s. Anatomical autoradiography at -195 deg. C has enabled the radioactive organs to be easily localised, to follow in course of time the decrease of radioactivity, and from it to deduce the probable nature of the numerous emitters in question. In particular, the phosphorus 32 has thus appeared to be one of those responsible for internal irradiation, general, on the one hand, by activating cellular phosphorus, local, on the other, by activating bony phosphates. Owing to this, an accidental irradiation by neutrons might have consequences that are both somatic (elective irradiation of the bone marrow) and genetic (activation of nucleic acids). The gamma spectrometry has confirmed the nature of certain other emitters. (author) [French] Des rats de 25 g ont ete exposes pendant 5 mn a un flux de 6.10{sup 12} neutrons thermiques/cm{sup 2}/s. L'autoradiographie anatomique a -195 deg. C a permis de localiser facilement les organes radioactifs, de suivre dans le temps la decroissance de la radioactivite, et d'en deduire la nature probable des nombreux emetteurs en cause. En particulier, le phosphore 32 est ainsi apparu comme l'un des responsables de l'irradiation interne, d'une part generale par activation du phosphore cellulaire, d'autre part locale par activation des phosphates osseux. Une irradiations accidentelle par neutrons aurait, de ce fait, des consequences a la fois somatiques (irradiation elective de la moelle osseuse) et genetiques (activation des acides nucleiques). La spectrometrie gamma a confirme la nature de certains autres emetteurs. (auteur)

  6. Development and testing of the EDF-2 reactor fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpeyroux, P.

    1964-01-01

    This technical report reviews the work which has been necessary for defining the EDF-2 fuel element. After giving briefly the EDF-2 reactor characteristics and the preliminary choice of parameters which made it possible to draw up a draft plan for the fuel element, the authors consider the research proper: - Uranium studies: tests on the passage into the β phase of an internal crown of a tube, bending of the tube under the effect of a localized force, welding of the end-pellets and testing for leaks. The resistance of the tube to crushing and of the pellets to yielding under the external pressure have been studied in detail in another CEA report. - Can studies: conditions of production and leak proof testing of the can, resistance of the fins to creep due to the effect of the gas flow. - Studies of the extremities of the element: creep under compression and welding of the plugs to the can. - Cartridge studies: determination of the characteristics of the can fuel fixing grooves and of the canning conditions, verification of the resistance of the fuel element to thermal cycling, determination of the temperature drop at the can-fuel interface dealt with in more detail in another CEA report. - Studies of the whole assembly: this work which concerns the graphite jacket, the support and the cartridge vibrations has been carried out by the Mechanical and Thermal Study Service (Mechanics Section). In this field the Fuel Element Study Section has investigated the behaviour of the centering devices in a gas current. The outcome of this research is the defining of the plan of the element the production process and the production specifications. The validity of ail these out-of-pile tests will be confirmed by the in-pile tests already under way and by irradiation of the elements in the EDF-2 reactor itself. In conclusion the programme is given for improving the fuel element and for defining the fuel element for the second charge. (authors) [fr

  7. EDF group - Reference Document, Annual Financial Report 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The EDF group is an integrated energy company, active in all electricity businesses: nuclear, renewable and thermal generation, transmission (activity handled by RTE, share-holding consolidated resorting to the equity method), distribution (handled by Enedis), sales and marketing, efficiency and energy services and energy trading. It is the leading player in the French electricity market and holds strong positions in Europe (mainly in the United Kingdom (UK), Italy and Belgium), which makes it one of the world's leading electric energy companies and a renowned gas player. With a global installed net generation capacity of 132.3 GWe 2 as at 31 December 2016, generating 583.9 TWh, the Group has one of the largest generation fleets in the world. Among the ten largest global power suppliers, it produces the smallest amount of CO 2 per kilowatt-hour generated 3 thanks to the share of nuclear, hydro and other renewable energies in its generation mix. The EDF group supplies electricity, gas and related services to 37.1 million customer accounts 4 worldwide (of which 26.2 million in France). Electricity generation is a non-regulated activity, which is open to competition in the same way as the sale of electricity and gas and upstream/downstream optimisation. The Group is thus implementing an integrated model for the joint operational management of its portfolio of assets upstream (generation and procurement of energy and fuels) and downstream (wholesale and retail) to guarantee supply of energy to its customers through the best possible management of operational and market risks and with a view to maximising gross margin. In addition, the Group is also present in regulated sectors such as electricity transmission and distribution, in particular via RTE and Enedis, respectively, which are fully independent subsidiaries as for the purposes of the Energy Code. This document is EDF Group's Reference Document and Annual Financial Report for the year 2016. It contains

  8. EDF group - Reference Document, Annual Financial Report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy utility active in all areas of the electricity market: nuclear, renewable and fossil fuel energy generation, transmission, distribution and marketing, energy efficiency and management services, as well as energy trading. It is the leading player in the French electricity market, and holds strong positions in Europe (UK, Italy, Central and Eastern Europe) that make it one of the world's leading electricity utilities and a renowned player in the gas industry. With a net installed capacity of 140.4 GWe worldwide at 31 December 2013 and global production of 653.9 TWh, the Group ranks among the world's leading energy utilities, with the biggest fleet emitting the least amount of CO 2 per kilowatt-hour generated 2 thanks to the proportion of nuclear, hydropower and other renewable energies in its generation mix. The EDF Group supplies electricity, gas and related services to more than 39.1 million customer accounts 3 worldwide (nearly 28.5 million in France). The Group's activities reflect the choice of a model balanced between France and international markets, spanning competitive and regulated operations and based on upstream-downstream integration. In 2013, the Group recorded consolidated revenue of euros 75.6 billion, operating profit before depreciation and amortisation of euros 16.8 billion and net income excluding non-recurring items of euros 4.1 billion. This document is EDF Group's Reference Document and Annual Financial Report for the year 2013. It contains information about: the Group activities, Organisational charts, Property, plant and equipment, Operating and financial data, Cash flows and capital, Research and development, patents and licenses, Information on trends, Financial outlook, Administrative, management and supervisory bodies and Executive Management, Compensation and benefits, Functioning of administrative and management bodies, Employees - Human Resources, Major Shareholders, Related

  9. EDF group - Reference Document, Annual Financial Report 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The EDF group is an integrated utility, active in all electricity businesses: nuclear, renewable and thermal generation, transmission, distribution, supply, efficiency and energy services and trading. It is the leading player in the French electricity market and holds strong positions in Europe (United Kingdom (UK), Italy, central and eastern European countries), which makes it one of the world's leading electric utility and a renowned gas player. With a global installed net generation capacity of 134.2 GWe as at 31 December 2015 producing 619.3 TWh, the Group has one of the largest generation fleet in the world. Among the ten largest global power suppliers, it produces the smallest amount of CO 2 per kilowatt-hour generated 2 thanks to the share of nuclear, hydro and other renewable energies in its generation mix. The EDF group supplies electricity, gas and related services to 37.6 million customer accounts 3 worldwide (of which 27.8 million in France). Electricity generation is a non-regulated activity, which is open to competition in the same way as the sale of electricity and gas and upstream/downstream optimisation. The Group is thus implementing an integrated model for the joint operational management of its portfolio of assets upstream (generation and procurement of energy and fuels) and downstream (wholesale and retail) to guarantee supply of energy to its customers through the best possible management of operational and market risks and with a view to maximising gross margin. In addition, the Group is also active in regulated sectors such as electricity transmission and distribution. This document is EDF Group's Reference Document and Annual Financial Report for the year 2015. It contains information about: the History and development of the Company, the organisation of the Group, the risk factors and control framework, the environmental and societal information - Human Resources, the corporate governance, The Group's performance in 2015 and

  10. EDF group - Reference Document, Annual Financial Report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The EDF group is an integrated energy company with a presence in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: nuclear, renewable and fossil-fuel fired energy production, transmission, distribution, marketing as well as energy management and efficiency services, along with energy trading. It is France's leading electricity operator and has a strong position in Europe (United Kingdom, Italy, countries in Central and Eastern Europe), making it one of the world's leading electrical providers as well as a recognized player in the gas industry. With a worldwide net installed capacity of 134.6 GWe as of 31 December 2011 (124.2 GWe in Europe) and global energy generation of 628.2 TWh, the Group has one of the largest generating capacities of all the major worldwide energy corporations with the lowest level of CO 2 emissions per KWh generated due to the proportion of nuclear, hydroelectric power and other renewable energies in its generation mix. The EDF group supplies electricity, gas and associated services to more than 37.7 million customer accounts worldwide (including nearly 27.9 million in France). The Group's businesses reflect its adoption of a model aimed at finding the best balance between French and international activities, competitive and regulated operations and based on an upstream-downstream integration. In 2011, the Group's consolidated sales revenues was 65.3 billion Euros, earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization came to 14.8 billion Euros, and net income excluding non-recurring items stood at 3.5 billion Euros. This document is EDF Group's Reference Document and Annual Financial Report for the year 2012. It contains information about: the Group activities, risk factors, Investments, Business, Strategy, Organisational charts, Property, plant and equipment, Operating and financial review, Cash flows and capital, Research and development, patents and licenses, Information on trends, Financial outlook

  11. EDF group - Reference Document, Annual Financial Report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy utility active in all areas of the electricity market: nuclear, renewable and fossil fuel energy generation, transmission, distribution and marketing, energy efficiency and management services, as well as energy trading. It is the leading player in the French electricity market, and holds strong positions in Europe (UK, Italy, Central and Eastern Europe) that make it one of the world's leading electricity utilities and a renowned player in the gas industry. With a net installed capacity of 139.5 GWe worldwide at 31 December 2012 (128.5 GWe in Europe), and global production of 642.6 TWh, the Group ranks among the world's leading energy utilities, with the biggest fleet emitting the least amount of CO 2 per kilowatt-hour generated 3 thanks to the proportion of nuclear, hydropower and other renewable energies in its generation mix. The EDF Group supplies electricity, gas and related services to more than 39.3 million customer accounts 4 worldwide (nearly 28.6 million in France). The Group's activities reflect the choice of a model balanced between France and international markets, spanning competitive and regulated operations and based on upstream-downstream integration. In 2012, the Group recorded consolidated revenue of euros 72.7 billion, operating profit before depreciation and amortisation of euros 16.1 billion and net income excluding non-recurring items of euros 4.2 billion. This document is EDF Group's Reference Document and Annual Financial Report for the year 2012. It contains information about: the Group activities, risk factors, Organisational charts, Property, plant and equipment, Operating and financial data, Cash flows and capital, Research and development, patents and licenses, Information on trends, Financial outlook, Administrative, management and supervisory bodies and Executive Management, Compensation and benefits, Functioning of administrative and management bodies, Employees - Human

  12. La bio-indication de la pollution aquatique par les microalgues (Cas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ecosystCmes et introduisent des micro- organismes pathogmes qui ... organismes vivants dont on connait la sensibilite et les exigences ..... En effet, certains genres proliferent dans des milieux acides, alors que d'autres preferent des milieux alcalins. Par ailleurs, dans les milieux a fortes teneurs en elements acides tel que ...

  13. A modification of the method for determining current efficiency of aluminium electrolytic cells; Modification de la methode permettant de determiner le rendement des cuves dans la production d'aluminium par electrolyse; Izmenenie metoda opredeleniya ehffektivnosti toka v alyuminievykh ehlektroliticheskikh bakakh; Modificacion del metodo para determinar el rendimiento de las celdas utilizadas en la produccion de aluminio por electrolisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradzynski, A [Institute of Basic Technical Problems, Polish Academy of Sciences. Warsaw (Poland); Orman, Z [Institute of Nonferrous Metals, Gliwice (Poland)

    1962-01-15

    The method for determining the current efficiency of aluminium electrolytic cells described first by REMPEL et al. was improved by BOZOKY et al. by using the radioisotope Au{sup 198}. In that work, master alloys of aluminium with Au{sup 198} were made, and samples of this were measured by means of a G-M tube with a lead absorber inserted between the tube and the sample. In this work the specific activity of the master alloy was reduced by diluting with a known quantity of pure aluminium. In that way samples of diluted master alloy and samples taken from the electrolytic cell were of the same order of specific activity and could be measured without any absorber. Radioactivation analysis was employed in order to facilitate the application of the above method in aluminium plants and to avoid all restrictions and dangers connected with the handling of unsealed radioactive sources outside special radioisotope laboratories. Inactive gold was introduced into the master alloy and into the smelting bath in the electrolytic cell. The concentration of gold in samples of both the master alloy and the smelt was then measured after irradiating the samples in a nuclear reactor. (author) [French] La methode permettant de determiner le rendement des cuves a aluminium, exposee tout d'abord par Rempel et al., a ete perfectionnee par Bozoky et al. qui ont utilise a cet effet le radioisotope or-198. Des alliages types d'aluminium et d'or-198 ont ete prepares et des echantillons mesures au moyen d'un tube Geiger-Muller, un absorbeur en plomb etant insere entre le tube et l'echantillon. Les auteurs du memoire ont mesure l'activite specifique de l'alliage type apres dilution dans une quantite connue d'aluminium pur. Les echantillons d'alliage type ainsi dilue et les echantillons preleves dans la cuve electrolytique ayant alors une activite specifique du meme ordre, il a ete possible de la mesurer sans aucun absorbeur. Les auteurs ont procede a des essais d'analyse par radioactivation afin

  14. Report 2000 of EDF nuclear park '' Humans, architects of the progress; Bilan 2000 du parc nucleaire d'EDF ''les hommes, artisans du progres''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricker, L.

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the results of the EDF nuclear park, during 2000, in matter of safety, environment and competitiveness. In 2000, the EDF nuclear installations safety still improved. Hopeful the nuclear energy part in its power production, EDF avoids the carbon dioxide diffusion in the atmosphere. EDF also commits itself to reduce the liquid effluents, the gaseous emissions and the solid wastes. At the same time EDF remained competitive with a decrease of the kWh price of 7%. (A.L.B.)

  15. Parasitisme des champs semenciers de cacaoyers par les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 janv. 2015 ... J. Appl. Biosci. Parasitisme des champs semenciers de cacaoyers par les loranthaceae dans la localité de Nkoemvone (sud Cameroun). 7795 to the various clones, Phragmanthera capitata was the most abundant Loranthaceae; the level of parasitism of cacao trees is more important at the cacao trees of ...

  16. Problems Arising from Disposal of Low-Activity Radioactive Waste in the Coastal Waters of the Netherlands; Problemes Poses par l'Evacuation des dechets de Faible Radioactivite dans les Eaux Cotieres des Pays-Bas; 041f 0420 041e 0414 ; Problemas que Plantea la Evacuacion de Desechos Radiactivos de Baja Actividad en las Aguas Costeras de los Paises Bajos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korringa, P. [Netherlands Institute for Fishery Investigations, Ijmuiden (Netherlands)

    1960-07-01

    Low-activity waste discharged in coastal waters will find its way into the marine food chain in two entirely different ways: 1. Adsorption to the surface of plankton organisms and adsorption to silt particles. In the latter case, fish and other creatures may ingest the loaded particles with their regular food. If the elements under consideration are not of primary biological importance to the organisms concerned, accumulation will not increase geometrically. Much of the radioactive material attached to ingested silt particles will leave the organisms later. 2. Accumulation through active uptake of elements collected in dissolved state by shell-bearing organisms. Copper, zinc, manganese, cobalt and the like are accumulated very strongly by shell-forming creatures like molluscs, and are stored in the connective tissues. If a part worth mentioning of these elements is of a radioactive nature, accumulation could attain alarming levels. Shrimps, Dover soles, plaice, and mussels being the main fishery products in the vicinity of the pipeline planned for the Netherlands centre for reactor research, noticeable accumulation of radioactive waste in these organisms should be prevented. The special international position of the Netherlands fish market requires extra care, and migration of fishes and shrimps makes it impossible to avoid a contaminated area. (author) [French] Les dechets de faible radioactivite evacues dans les eaux cotieres atteindront le milieu biologique marin par deux voies totalement distinctes: 1. Adsorption par le plancton et adsorption par les particules sedimentaires. Dans ce dernier cas, les poissons et autres animaux peuvent ingerer les particules chargees avec leur nourriture habituelle. Si les elements en question ne presentent pas pour ces organismes une grande importance biologique, la quantite accumulee ne croitra pas dans une proportion geometrique. Une grande partie des produits radioactifs fixes sur les particules sedimentaires ingerees sera

  17. EDF Energy Nuclear New Build: Lessons Learned in Knowledge Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachar, M.; Borlodan, G.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: EDF Energy Nuclear New Build (NNB) is building two EPR reactors at Hinkley Point C in Somerset in the United Kingdom that will provide reliable, low carbon electricity to meet approximately 7% of the UK’s electricity needs. The Hinkley Point C project is well advanced. It has achieved planning consent, design approval for the EPR reactor and a nuclear site license. There is a well-developed supply chain with identified preferred bidders who are already heavily involved in construction planning. Training for needed skills is underway and industrial agreements with trade unions are in place. NNB has the unique opportunity to set Knowledge Management behaviours, culture, and standards for the Hinkley Point C project from project inception instead of working to change them, such as on an operational site. (author

  18. The ALARA project of the EDF nuclear park exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potoczek, J.

    1998-01-01

    To bring the exploitation of the nuclear park of EDF at the level of the best exploiters in the world in matter of collective and individual dosimetry, the ALARA principle coordinates numerous actions: to associate the temporary societies, to define common language, methods and tools for the whole park to organize a level effect in this area, to optimize the maintenance that is expansive in radiation doses, to make the different levels of management responsible on dosimetric stakes, to reduce the singular sources of exposure, to assure the organisation and exploitation of the experience back in this field and adapt consequently the system of information. The results are cheerful and the objectives for 2000 are: less than 1.2 h.Sv by year and by reactor, no intervener whom annual radiation dose is upper than 20 mSv (out of exceptional case). (N.C.)

  19. EDF's nuclear safety approach for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, P.; Kus, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The realization of the important French program fifty-four units equipped with pressurized water reactors in service, or under construction-had led to the progressive implementation of an original approach in the field of nuclear safety. From an initial core consisting of the deterministic approach to safety devised on the other side of the Atlantic, which has been entirely preserved and often specified, further extras have been added which overall increase the level of safety of the installations, without any particular complications. This paper aims at presenting succinctly the outcome of the deliberation, which constitutes now the approach adopted by Electricite de France for the safety of nuclear units equipped with pressurized water reactors. This approach is explained in more detail in EDF's 'with book' on nuclear safety. (author)

  20. EDF energy generation UK transport of irradiated fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, R. [EDF Energy, London, (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    This paper give an overview of irradiated fuel transport in the UK. It describes the design of irradiated fuel flask used by EDF Energy; operational experience and good practices learnt from over 50 years of irradiated fuel transport. The AGRs can store approximately 9 months generation of spent fuel, hence the ability to transport irradiated fuel is vital. Movements are by road to the nearest railhead, typically less than 2 miles and then by rail to Sellafield, up to 400 miles, for reprocessing or long term storage. Road and rail vehicles are covered. To date in the UK: over 30,000 Magnox flask journeys and over 15,000 AGR A2 flask journeys have been carried out.

  1. Development and industrial utilisation of rotor balancing techniques at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanton, J.P.; Rondelet, D.

    1997-01-01

    The object of this document is to present, on the one hand, the industrial practice that exists at EDF in the area of rotor balancing, and, on the other hand, some recent development works, also in this area. One describes in a first part, for different types of machines concerned, the tools of calculation used, the performances that are obtained, and the encountered problems. Considering developments, one reminds first the characteristics of the EQUILOP 3.0 software, then one describes the validation that has been realized for it under a new computer environment. Additional operational possibilities that would be foreseeable for a new version of this software are indicated. A study currently under way of a balancing process which makes use of active control techniques is briefly described. Perspectives open by the utilization of numerical models of the machines as deduced from a recent study are exposed, and illustrated by a very simple example. (authors)

  2. EDF Contribution to the Mochovce completion and safety upgrading project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norvez, G.

    1997-01-01

    The challenge that SE a.s. took up in April 1996 to start Mochovce units 1 and 2 within a very demanding time frame and in satisfactory conditions is on the way to being wined. EMO managed to put in place an organisation able to ensure the continuity of the design and construction works and to integrate the requirements of modern safety. EDF is proud and happy to contribute to this effort by making available its expertise and experience in building and operating nuclear power plants. The success of Mochovce will not only contribute to the Slovak electricity needs coverage, but will be the first demonstration of a soviet design nuclear power plant brought to international safety standards. (author)

  3. EDF, AREVA, Alstom and the others: where is the problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    After having recalled the context of the Messmer plan of 1974 according to which the roles of the different actors of the nuclear sector were clearly distributed, this article describes and comments the evolution of this context, notably after the N4 threshold has been reached: the French industry has lost many experts (they are retired), the concurrence has evolved as well as relationships between clients and providers. The article outlines that a new balance between the main actors is now needed. It comments the case of the EPR, the emergence of new PWR concepts, the different roles EDF, AREVA, GDF-Suez or Total may have depending on the project (they can be client, investor, or operator). Principles for a new strategy and operation for this sector and its actors are formulated

  4. EDF requirements for hot cells examinations on irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura, J.C.; Ducros, G.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of increasing French Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) availability while lengthening the fuel irradiation cycle and reaching higher burnups lead EDF to carry out on site and hot cell examinations. The data issued from such fuel behaviour monitoring programmes will be used to ascertain that the design criteria are met. Data are also needed for modelling, development and validation. The paper deals quickly with the logistics linked to the selection and transport of fuel rods from NPP to hot cell laboratory. Hot cell PIEs remain a valuable method to obtain data in such fields as PCI (Pellet-Cladding Interaction), internal pressure, FGR (Fission Gas Release), oxide thickness, metallurgical aspects. The paper introduces burnup determination methods, inner pressure evaluation, preparation of samples for further irradiation such as power ramps for PCI and RIA (Reactivity Initiated Accident) testing. The nuclear microprobe of Perre Suee laboratory is also presented. (author)

  5. Multiple metamorphoses for EdF and GdF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2004-01-01

    The draft of law, modifying the statute of the French electric and gas utilities, Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF), that the French government has presented to the Council of State, mixes some European and French preoccupations. The reason is the urgency of the planning and the date line of July 1, 2004 with the opening of the gas and power markets to 3.5 millions of professionals. The draft includes the obligations and missions of public utility of both companies, the transposition of the European directives, the conclusions of the negotiation of retirement pensions with the syndicate organizations, and the transformation of both public companies into anonymous companies. Short paper. (J.S.)

  6. Competition at the attack of EdF's dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, O.; Gateaud, P.; Dupin, L.

    2010-01-01

    The exploitation of French hydroelectric dams is at the eve of a big upheaval. EdF, the historical operator, and GdF Suez the French number two of hydropower generation are going to face the strong competition of the big European energy groups. France will open 20% of its hydroelectric potential to competition in order to be in agreement with the opening of energy markets imposed by the European Union, and to increase by 10% the hydroelectric power as requested by the French government policy. The candidates will have to fulfill 3 criteria: investing to increase production, reducing the environmental impacts, and accepting the principle of paying fees. However, some of the French dams suffer from serious pathologies and the health of thousands of small dams remains unknown because of the lack of available data. (J.S.)

  7. Chemistry evaluation in French EDF Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquier, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Production Division of EDF is comprised of 19 power stations (58 PWR reactors) and 2 national engineering organisations. Nuclear Inspection (IN) is an internal assessment unit of the EDF Nuclear Production Directorate. At the request of the Directorate, it carries out periodic evaluations of all the units of the division. The evaluation of the nuclear sites (EGE: Overall Excellence Assessment) is carried out every 4 years, an intermediate evaluation is also carried out between each EGE. These evaluations are independent of the WANO and IAEA evaluations. Exchanges are carried out between Nuclear Inspection and the other international operators (for example, USA (INPO), England, China...) to share site evaluation methods. These evaluations are carried out by a team of 30 inspectors, reinforced during each evaluation by 10 peers who come from the various French nuclear sites. Nuclear Inspection produces a performance standards document for each FUNCTIONAL AREA, which is based on the requirements of the company. On the whole, 13 areas are evaluated during each inspection, in particular: Management, Operations, Maintenance, Engineering and Chemistry. The area of reactor plant chemistry has been evaluated since 2009. The Chemistry performance standards document is written from the EDF internal requirements and international references. During site evaluations, all the performance standards are assessed for compliance. The Chemistry performance standards document is comprised of 3 topics: Management of plant chemistry, The respect of the chemical and radiochemical specifications, The condition of the laboratories and the sampling lines, measuring equipment, and chemical products. The evaluations carried out make it possible to define strengths and weaknesses which the sites must address. After each evaluation, the assessment is presented to the site management and to the director of EDF Nuclear Production. For 4 years these evaluations have allowed progress to

  8. EDF'S nuclear safety approach for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, P.; Kus, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    The realization of the important French program fifty-four units equipped with pressurized water reactors in service, or under construction - had led to the progressive implementation of an original approach in the field of nuclear safety. From an initial core consisting of the deterministic approach to safety devised on the other side of the Atlantic, which has been entirely preserved and often specified, further extras have been added which overall increase the level of safety of the installations, without any particular complications. This paper aims at presenting succinctly the outcome of the deliberation, which constitutes now the approach adopted by Electricite de France for the safety of nuclear units equipped with pressurized water reactors. This approach is explained in more detail in EDF's white book on nuclear safety

  9. Evaluation de l'efficacité vis-à-vis du ruissellement de surface et des transferts latéraux dans le sol de différentes options de gestion utilisant (ou non) un couvert enherbé : Application en vue de limiter la contamination des eaux par les pesticides dans le contexte du Beaujolais viticole de coteaux

    OpenAIRE

    Gouy, V.; Peyrard, X.; Liger, L.

    2015-01-01

    / Cette étude apporte des éléments de réponse aux questions suivantes dans le contexte du Nord Beaujolais : - dans quelle mesure une zone tampon enherbée rivulaire recevant un ruissellement concentré de surface est-elle capable de réduire significativement le transfert des pesticides associés sans engendrer une contamination de nappe sous-jacente ? - dans quelle mesure une infiltration en amont en parcelle de vigne peut-elle contribuer à l'atténuation des transferts de pesticides ou engendrer...

  10. Réduction du risque d'infection par le VIH au Botswana - essais ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Au Botswana, ce sont les jeunes femmes qui sont le plus touchées par les nouvelles infections par le VIH. Le présent projet a pour but de réduire le nombre de nouveaux cas d'infection par le VIH, en particulier chez les femmes de 15 à 29 ans. Bien que l'on recense des cas de VIH/sida dans la plupart des régions du ...

  11. Chemical elimination of alumina in suspension in nuclear reactors heavy water; Elimination de l'alumine en suspension dans l'eau lourde des reacteurs nucleaires par voie chimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledoux, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-02-01

    Corrosion of aluminium in contact with moderating water in nuclear reactor leads to the formation of an alumina hydrosol which can have an adverse effect on the operation of the reactor. Several physical methods have been used in an attempt to counteract this effect. The method proposed here consists in the elimination of the aluminium by dissolution and subsequent fixation in the ionic form on mixed-bed ion-exchange resin. In order to do this, the parameters and the values of these parameters most favorable to the dissolution process have been determined. If the moderator is heavy water, the deuterated acid can be prepared by converting a solution in heavy water to a salt of the acid using a deuterated cationic resin. (author) [French] La corrosion de l'aluminium au contact de l'eau moderatrice des reacteurs nucleaires, donne lieu a la formation d'un hydrosol d'alumine nuisible au bon fonctionnement des reacteurs. Plusieurs methodes physiques ont ete mises en oeuvre pour pallier ces inconvenients. On propose ici d'eliminer l'alumine par solubilisation pour la fixer ensuite sous forme ionique par des resines echangeuses d'ions, en lit melange. A cette fin on determine les parametres et leurs grandeurs favorables a cette solubilisation. Si le moderateur est de l'eau lourde la preparation d'acide deutere peut etre effectuee par passage d'une solution en eau lourde a un sel de l'acide sur resine cationique deuteree.

  12. Electricity production from wind energy: world situation and the French program EOLE 2005; Production d'electricite par energie eolienne: situation dans le monde et programme francais EOLE 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Electricite de France [ed.] [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-06-07

    The wind electricity world market shows at present an important development stage characterized by an annual increase rate of 20% to 30%. The total installed power in the world reached the value 7,200 MW in November 1997 and, according to forecasts, it could increase fivefold up to 2005. For France's high wind potential sites, namely the DOM-TOM and in Corsica, where the electricity production is more expensive than in inland France, this energy production mode approaches the threshold of competitiveness with other production means. The program EOLE 2005 (targeting 250 to 500 MW from wind turbines to be installed in France until 2005), launched in 1996 by EDF in collaboration with ADEME, on request of public authorities, is thought to implement this demand. The sections of the report are titled as following: - An energy used by man from long time ago; - Momentous developments of the wind power technology since eighties; - From wind turbines of some hundreds kW to 3 MW, based on robust technologies and newly devised methods; - Wind energy becomes equally interesting from economic viewpoint but for which applications?; - This option presents some drawbacks; - Which is the wind potential economically acceptable if the mentioned constraints are taken into account?; - The wind generators will be installed on sea near seashores; - An outstanding change in this field in France since 1996: the programme EOLE 2005; - 35 selected projects of 125,3 MW total power; - Future. The electricity production from wind energy seems promising particularly for the countries that have not resorted to either nuclear energy or hydropower options and which possess important wind resources.

  13. Numerical Simulation of Multiphase Hydromechanical Processes Induced by CO2 Injection into Deep Saline Aquifers Simulation numérique des processus hydromécaniques polyphasiques provoqués par l’injection de CO2 dans des aquifères salins profonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goerke U.-J.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the conceptual modeling and the numerical simulation of two-phase flow during CO2 injection into deep saline aquifers is presented. The work focuses on isothermal short-term processes in the vicinity of the injection well. Governing differential equations are based on balance laws for mass and momentum, and completed by constitutive relations for the fluid and solid phases as well as their mutual interactions. Constraint conditions for the partial saturations and the pressure fractions of CO2 and brine are defined. To characterize the stress state in the solid matrix, the effective stress principle is applied. The coupled problem is solved using the inhouse scientific code OpenGeoSys (an open source finite element code and verified with benchmarks. Cet article présente le concept de la modélisation ainsi que la simulation numérique d’écoulement biphasé lors de l’injection de CO2 dans des aquifères salins profonds. L’étude se concentre sur des processus à court terme dans la proximité de puits d’injection dans les conditions isothermes. Les équations différentielles principales sont dérivées des équations de bilan de masse et de la quantité de mouvement, et elles sont complétées par des relations constitutives pour des phases solides et fluides ainsi que leur interaction. Les conditions de contrainte sont définies pour la saturation partielle, les fractions de pression de CO2 et l’eau salée. Pour caractériser l’état de contrainte dans la matrice solide, le principe de contrainte effective est appliqué. Le problème couplé considéré est résolu en utilisant le logiciel scientifique interne OpenGeoSys (un logiciel d’éléments finis libre d’accès et vérifié avec des exemples pour les processus concernés.

  14. Le souffre thiophénique dans les pétroles et les extraits de roche. Analyse par spectrométrie de masse et chromatographie en phase gazeuse Mass-Spectrometry and Gas-Chromatography Analysis of Thiophene Sulfur in Oil and Rock Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castex H.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On étudie par spectrométrie de masse à haute résolution la répartition du soufre thiophénique par coupe de distillation et par nombre de carbone dans la fraction > C10 d'un pétrole brut. Parallèlement on chromatographie à l'aide d'un détecteur sélectif à photométrie de flamme les diverses fractions thiophéniques. L'examen des chromatogrammes permet de déterminer les zones dé réponse et l'allure générale des différentes coupes thiophéniques. Les applications sont variées : on vérifie le bien-fondé de l'utilisation d'un spectromètre de masse à basse résolution pour les analyses en routine d'huiles brutes et on peut, par la connaissance des différents profils de type thiophénique prévoir des analogies ou des différences au sein d'huiles brutes et d'extraits de roche d'un même bassin pétrolier, ce qui limite le nombre d'échantillons à analyser en détail. High-resolution mass spectrometry is used to analyze the distribution of thiophenic sulfur per distillation cut and per carbon number in the > C10 fraction of a crude oil. At the same time, a selective flame-photometry sensor is used to chromatograph the different thiophenic fractions. An analysis of the chromatograms serves to determine the response zones and the general aspect of the different thiophenic cuts. There are various applications of this process. The validity of using a low-resolution mass spectrometer is checked for routine crude-cil analyses. By determining the different profiles of the thiophenic type, similarities or differences can be predicted in the crude cils and rock extracts from the saure cil basin. This limits the number of samples having to be analyzed in detail.

  15. Étude diachronique des changements du couvert végétal dans un écosystème montagneux par télédétection spatiale : cas des monts du Tessala (Algérie occidentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Eddine Bachir Bouiadjra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Une meilleure compréhension de l'évolution des modes d'utilisation des sols et du couvert végétal est une préoccupation majeure pour les pays dont les écosystèmes subissent des dégradations sévères. En effet, les dynamiques d'occupation des sols ont des implications directes sur la disponibilité des ressources naturelles. Notre étude menée sur les monts du Tessala en Algérie occidentale, en utilisant l'indice de végétation par différence normalisée (NDVI, met en évidence l'ampleur des changements du couvert végétal entre 1987 à 2007. Une évolution régressive prononcée du couvert végétal est constatée au sud-est et au nord-ouest des monts du Tessala, tout particulièrement dans la "forêt de Tessala", sur les communes d'Aïn-Thrid, Tessala et Sehala. Les principaux facteurs contribuant à la régression du couvert végétal sont : la déforestation (plus de 26 délits de coupe par an, le surpâturage (420 délits de pâturage illicite par an, les incendies de forêts (plus de 20 incendies par an et l'érosion hydrique qui en résulte (environ 72 % des superficies sont concernées.A better understanding of the changing patterns of land use and land cover, is a major concern for countries where ecosystems are being severely degraded. Indeed, the dynamic feature of land use has important implications on natural resources. Our study conducted on the Tessala mountains, by using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, put in evidence the importance of changes in vegetation cover between 1987 and 2007. A pronounced regressive evolution is observed in south-east and north-west of the Tessala mountains, especially in the "forest of Tessala", in the communes of Aïn-Thrid, Tessala and Sehala. The main factors of environmental degradation, are : deforestation (over 26 offenses cut every year, overgrazing (420 crimes of illegal grazing every year, forest fires (more than 20 fires every year and resultant erosion (more

  16. Svetislav Basara, Perdu dans un supermarché

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Vandenborre

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Tomber amoureux dans le jazz de la nature quand on est pris d’élancements dans le bras. Souffrir d’un incurable serpent dans le sein après que sa mère ait été enlevée par des esclavagistes. Se dégonfler à la brûlure de cigarette lors d’une boum fatale. Discuter avec Dieu par téléphone dans un supermarché. Telles sont les aventures plus loufoques les unes que les autres dont Svetislav Basara nous tisse le décousu dans Perdu dans un supermarché. Ce recueil réunit une vingtaine de nouvelles liée...

  17. Perspectives de développement de la production industrielle d'hydrogène par électrolyse alcaline avancée Development Outlook for Industrial Hydrogen Production by Advanced Alkaline Electrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derive C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans les conditions du développement du programme nucléaire français qui permettent une production d'électricité à un coût intéressant en heures creuses, la production d'hydrogène par électrolyse de l'eau peut être envisagée à moyen terme en compétition avec les autres procédés de fabrication d'hydrogène tels que le reformage de gaz naturel. Dans le cadre de leur coopération, Électricité de France (EDF et le Gaz de France (GDF conduisent, depuis 1976, un programme de recherches et développement sur la production d'hydrogène par électrolyse alcaline de l'eau ayant pour but, par comparaison avec des installations existantes, de réduire le coût d'investissement et de conserver un rendement identique. Les études préalables ont montré que ces objectifs pouvaient être atteints par une électrolyse avancée avec élévation de la densité de courant et de la température. Ces contraintes techniques ont conduit EDF et le GDF à lancer des études sur la tenue chimique et la résistance mécanique des matériaux, sur une sélection de composants de cellules adaptés et sur l'amélioration de la conception d'ensemble des installations. Les deux groupements industriels français - pilotés par Alsthom-Atlantique et Creusot-Loire - associés à ces travaux depuis 1979, ont fixé les conditions de fonctionnement suivantes : - électrolyte à base de potasse (40 % en masse; - température de 120 et 160°C; - pression de 30 et 70 bar. Dans un premier temps, les constructeurs ont réalisé une étude technico-économique sur la production massive d'hydrogène à partir d'usines de puissance d'environ 300 MWe, fourni les plans de détail d'une installation pilote de 2 MWe et entrepris la qualification de leurs choix technologiques sur des boucles-prototypes de 25-30 kWe. Afin de valider plus complètement les choix retenus et d'approfondir les problèmes d'extrapolation à des électrolyseurs de grande taille, les essais sur boucles

  18. Les savants genevois dans l'Europe intellectuelle du XVIIe au milieu du XIXe siècle

    CERN Document Server

    1987-01-01

    Après une introduction sur l'essor de la science genevoise par Jean STAROBINSKI et un chapitre sur l'Europe savante (1700-1850) par Jacques ROGER, sont présentés les travaux et recherches dans les différentes disciplines: l'astronomie par Marcel GOLAY, les mathématiques par Pierre SPEZIALI, la physique par Pierre SPEZIALI, la chimie par Armand BUCHS, la géologie par Albert V. CAROZZI, la zoologie par Marino BUSCAGLIA, la botanique par Jacques NAEF; suivis des biographies des savants genevois par Jean-Michel PICTET, avec petits portraits; notes; index; photos et fac-similés de documents; bibliographies par chapitre. Ouvrage publié par l'Association pour le Musée d'histoire des sciences de Genève, présidé par Jacques TREMBLEY.

  19. L’efficacité du conseil d’administration dans les sociétés anonymes au Cameroun: Une lecture par l’hétérogénéité des administrateurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Kriyoss Mfouapon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Le but de cet article est d’analyser l’effet de l’homogénéité ou de l’hétérogénéité du profil des administrateurs sur l’efficacité de leur conseil d’administration (CA. Les données analysées sont collectées auprès de 386 administrateurs répartis sur un échantillon de 64 CA des sociétés anonymes (SA installées au Cameroun. Les résultats obtenus indiquent que l’homogénéité socioprofessionnelle, de l’indépendance et clanique du CA sont d’une influence notable sur leur efficacité. Ces résultats montrent, en fait que, l’hétérogénéité du CA est source d’efficacité supérieure dans les choix stratégiques, et d’inefficacité dans les opérations de contrôle et de surveillance de l’équipe dirigeante. Ces résultats s’inscrivent dans la même perspective que les travaux d’Hambrick & Mason (1984 sur la Upper Echelons Research, la théorie de la régulation clanique d’Ouchi (1980 et constituent en même temps une confirmation des résultats de Jensen (1993.

  20. DYNAMIQUE DES PEUPLEMENTS DE POISSONS DANS LE RÉSERVOIR DE PETIT-SAUT (FLEUVE SINNAMARY, GUYANE FRANÇAISE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DE MÉRONA B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La modélisation des effets des barrages hydroélectriques nécessite un grand nombre de données d’observation dans chacune des situations concrètes. En zone tropicale ces données sont souvent incomplètes et de nature hétérogène rendant difficile la comparaison entre des situations différentes. En janvier 1994, Electricité de France (EDF : Compagnie Nationale française d’Electricité a procédé à la fermeture du barrage de Petit-Saut sur le fleuve Sinnamary en Guyane française. A cette occasion, un suivi environnemental a été mené sur une période s’étendant depuis 5 années avant la fermeture jusqu’à 7 années après. En ce qui concerne les poissons, trois phases successives dans le processus de colonisation du lac ont été identifiées. Pendant la phase de mise en eau, les captures de poissons ont rapidement augmenté alors que la richesse spécifique diminuait. Une espèce dominait le peuplement. Durant les 2 années qui ont suivi, les captures se sont maintenues à un niveau élevé alors que la richesse spécifique continuait à diminuer. Le peuplement était dominé par deux espèces capables de tirer avantage des nouvelles ressources offertes par le lac. Enfin, au cours des 4 années suivantes, les captures diminuaient lentement et régulièrement et la composition spécifique se modifiait profondément. Ce schéma semble conforme à ce qui a été observé dans plusieurs grandes retenues en zone tropicale.

  1. EDF's (Electricite de France) in service control for GCR type reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douillet, M.G.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the performance of the data acquisition and processing systems developed by the French EDF for controlling and testing the mechanical properties (thermal stress, deformations, cracks,...) of prestressed concrete vessels for GCR type reactors

  2. The French Electricity Company (EDF) and the environment. Press file for 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdier, Jean-Pierre

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 the actions of EDF in the domain of environment have recorded FF 4 billions (FF 3.5 billion in 1995), representing about 2% of the EDF's turnover. The EDF keeps on its efforts for reducing the impact of its activities upon environment. Several applications of an environment protective electricity generation are promoted by the company. The company brings services and technical solutions to its clients which meet their energy needs and conserving at the same time the life conditions. Furthermore, EDF participates in the activity of numerous national and international organisms, intervening in the environmental questions, in decision making, participating in studies and actions and following continually the direction of a durable economic and social development. The report is structured in three chapters: 1. an industrial responsibility; 2. services and techniques for environment; 3. action towards a durable development

  3. EDF Energy Holdings Limited, Registered Number 06930266, Annual report and financial statements 31 December 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    EDF Energy Holdings Limited and subsidiaries make up EDF Energy. The companies' principal activities are to provide and supply electricity and gas to commercial, residential and industrial customers, and to generate electricity through a portfolio of generation assets including nuclear, coal fired, gas and renewable generation. EDF Energy is also involved in the construction of new build nuclear assets. This document is the annual report and financial statements of the company for the year 2016. Contents: 1 - Strategic report; 2 - Directors' report; 3 - Directors' responsibility statement; 4 - Independent Auditor's report to the Members of EDF Energy Holdings Limited; 5 - Consolidated income statement; 6 - Consolidated statement of comprehensive income; 7 - Consolidated balance sheet; 8 - Consolidated cash flow statement; 9 - Consolidated statement of changes in equity 10 - Notes to the consolidated financial statements; 11 - Company balance sheet; 12 - Company statement of changes in equity; 13 - Notes to the Company financial statements

  4. La régulation sociale par la violence : le rôle de la criminalité organisée dans l'Italie méridionale

    OpenAIRE

    Catanzaro, Raimondo

    2006-01-01

    Les activités illicites en Italie semblent avoir atteint, dans la dernière décennie, un niveau "critique". L'Etat italien n'a manifestement plus le monopole de l'usage de la violence sur son propre territoire. Toutefois, le développement de la criminalité dite organisée, qui rentre directement en concurrence avec l'Etat, au titre notamment d'entreprise de protection garante des biens et de la sécurité physique, n'est "possible" que si ce dernier est incapable de tenir et d'assurer sa situatio...

  5. Des (bio)nano-composites utilisés dans le traitement d'eaux contaminées par de l'arsenic/gentamicine ou pour des applications médicales

    OpenAIRE

    HE, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Les composés dits 'bionano' (bionanocomposites) apparaissent comme un nouveau groupe de matériaux hybrides nano-structurés. Ils sont issus de la combinaison de polymères naturels et de solides inorganiques et sont de l'ordre du nanomètre dans au moins une direction. Ces matériaux hybrides conservent les structures et les propriétés fonctionnelles des polymères et matériaux inorganiques dont ils sont composés. Parallèlement, la présence de biopolymères permet de diminuer les risques environnem...

  6. Study of total ionization by {alpha} particles, in pure gases and gaseous mixtures containing metastable atoms, as a function of temperature; Etude de l'ionisation totale par les paricules {alpha}, dans les gaz purs et les melanges gazeux contenant des atomes metastables, en fonction de la temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristeau, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Experiments have been carried out on the total ionization by alpha particles, in pure gases and gaseous mixtures containing metastable atoms, as a function of temperature. Using a different experimental method, the results for the mean ionization energy at 300 K given by Jesse in 1953 have been confirmed to within 1 per cent. It is established that in pure gases the mean energy W required to form a pair of ions remains constant as the temperature varies from 77 to 300 K. It is shown that there is a temperature effect for W in binary gas mixtures of the type A-B containing meta-stable atoms A{sup *} and an 'impurity' B. A systematic study is made of the change {delta}W in W as a function of the temperature and of the B 'impurity' concentration in the mixtures Ne - Ar, Ne - Kr, Ne - H{sub 2}, Ne - N{sub 2}, Ne - CH{sub 4} and He - Ar. Experiments have been carried out on a ternary gas mixture of the type A - B - C, where C is a second ionizable 'impurity' added to the binary mixture A - B; they show the existence of excited atoms B{sup *} formed from the 'impurity' B. Finally, it is shown that the amount of metastable atoms formed in a pure gas must be very close to the number N{sub 0} of ion pairs, and that there must exist a correlation between the number N{sub 0} of ion pairs and the number {approx_equal} N{sub 0} of metastable atoms created in the pure rare gases. (author) [French] On realise des experiences sur l'ionisation totale par les particules alpha, dans les gaz purs et les melanges gazeux contenant des atomes metastables, en fonction de la temperature. Avec une methode experimentale differente, on retrouve a mieux que 1 pour cent pres les valeurs de l'energie moyenne d'ionisation que JESSE a obtenues en 1953 et a 300 K. On etablit que dans les gaz purs, l'energie moyenne W pour creer une paire d'ions demeure constante, quand la temperature varie entre 77 et 300 K. On met en evidence un effet de temperature sur W, dans les melanges gazeux binaires du type

  7. suPAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodges, Gethin W; Bang, Casper N; Wachtell, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental role of inflammation in cardiovascular disease (CVD) has prompted interest in numerous biomarkers that detect subclinical levels of inflammation. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a novel biomarker that correlates significantly with cardiovascular events ...... comprehensive review of suPAR in CVD and explore its function and usefulness in predicting cardiovascular events....

  8. Description of the EDF research and development laboratory's radiographic picture processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brillault, B.

    1985-01-01

    A digital radiographic picture processing system has been developed at the EDF Research and Development Laboratory to be supplied to EDF radiography experts. We describe it in pointing out the difficulties of radiograph digitization but also the numerous processing possibilities. The final goal of the Laboratory work is to extract the information from industrial radiographs by digital means. Our study is divided into three parts: digitization by a microdensitometer; display, processing and quantization of flaws; and, digital storing. 5 refs

  9. The contractual agreement State-EDF signature the 8. april 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The corporation agreement between the State and Electricite De France (EDF) was signed for the period of 1997-2000. With the agreement of the State, this new contract brings to EDF the ways to progress: becoming the reference public utilities in Europe and asserting its authority as an industrial corporation, leader of the electrical service in France and in international markets. The agreement precise the main orientations of the development plan and the economical policy. (A.L.B.)

  10. EDF launching a new advertising campaign for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouilloux, Jean-Michel; Chaussade, Jean-Pierre

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Starting on November 12 [art, Electricite de France launched its sixth advertising campaign for nuclear power, running in newspapers, magazines and on television. Inserts were published in 10 national daily newspapers and 7 magazines spread over a week period. A 40 second TV commercial will also be broadcast on 15 different channels between November 17 and December 7,1997. In a setting of renewed opposition to nuclear power, the 1997 campaign is a deliberate voicing of opinion and a response designed to instill responsibility and clearly inform the public over the results of the French nuclear electricity programme. The campaign, costing 22 million francs 9 million for the publication of inserts and 13 million for the TV spots) dwells heavily on the programme's comparative benefits for France. The TV commercial, created by the ad agency Callegari Berville, conveys communication based on proof. The rationale is informative in tone, stating that nuclear power ensures a part, of France's independence for energy, and that this is an inexpensive form of power, the results of which are visible on every electricity bill. What is more, nuclear power is a clean and non-polluting energy form. Through scenes of daily life and other imaginary scenes, the spot highlights the advantages nuclear power gives our country. The press campaign is a continuity of the campaign run in November 1996, with EDF using information developed in advertisements to respond to the major questions being asked by the public: how does nuclear power make the cost of electricity competitive? Why does, nuclear power create more jobs in France than other forms of energy? What is the impact of nuclear power on global warming? What do we do with nuclear waste? Why does nuclear power help put our trade balance in the black? The campaign also helps meet a demand by using a reply coupon to propose a number of documents such as 'Focus on the French Nuclear Electricity Programme' or 'Nuclear Waste in

  11. General review of diagnostic systems in EDF PWR units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, R.; Brasseur, S.; Ricard, B.

    1998-01-01

    Since the beginning of the French nuclear program, Electricite de France (EDF) has looked for ways to improve the availability and safety of its nuclear units. Therefore, monitoring systems on turbogenerators, reactor coolant pumps, primary circuits and core internal structures were designed by the Research and Development Division and implemented with technologies available during the 1970's. However, mainly because of difficulties for data interpretation by plant personnel, EDF subsequently decided to design and develop different tools to help plant operators to process a diagnosis: - a new generation of the Monitoring and Diagnostic System called PSAD, - expert systems for diagnosis on reactor coolant pumps (RCP) 'DIAPO' and turbogenerator units (TG) 'DIVA', - diagnostic guides written for most equipment pending the installation of new monitoring and diagnosis systems. The first version of PSAD, installed in five units, performs on-line monitoring of the turbogenerator shaft line, steam inlet valves, the reactor coolant pumps and the generator stator. The second version not yet implemented, will include Loose Part Detection (LPD) and Core Internal Structure Monitoring (CISM). The level of diagnosis achieved by PSAD depends on the component monitored. The TG and RCP monitoring functions of PSAD compute high level diagnosis descriptors such as natural frequencies and long term trends but do not elaborate a diagnosis automatically. However, a diagnostic assistance window is available on-line, whenever a warning message is displayed, whether for immediate or later action. The window presents a diagnostic approach whose purpose is to find the causes of the symptoms observed. This diagnosis approach is automated in the DIVA and DIAPO expert systems. Numerous potential faults can be identified for both systems thanks to a hierarchy of abnormal situations. The user interactively answers questions when information is needed to progress in the diagnosis. The resulting

  12. Performance Evaluation of New Joint EDF-RM Scheduling Algorithm for Real Time Distributed System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Real Time System, the achievement of deadline is the main target of every scheduling algorithm. Earliest Deadline First (EDF, Rate Monotonic (RM, and least Laxity First are some renowned algorithms that work well in their own context. As we know, there is a very common problem Domino's effect in EDF that is generated due to overloading condition (EDF is not working well in overloading situation. Similarly, performance of RM is degraded in underloading condition. We can say that both algorithms are complements of each other. Deadline missing in both events happens because of their utilization bounding strategy. Therefore, in this paper we are proposing a new scheduling algorithm that carries through the drawback of both existing algorithms. Joint EDF-RM scheduling algorithm is implemented in global scheduler that permits task migration mechanism in between processors in the system. In order to check the improved behavior of proposed algorithm we perform simulation. Results are achieved and evaluated in terms of Success Ratio (SR, Average CPU Utilization (ECU, Failure Ratio (FR, and Maximum Tardiness parameters. In the end, the results are compared with the existing (EDF, RM, and D_R_EDF algorithms. It has been shown that the proposed algorithm performs better during overloading condition as well in underloading condition.

  13. Legal and Administrative Problems of Controlling the Disposal of Nuclear Wastes in the Sea; Problemes Juridiques et Administratifs Poses par le Controle de l'Elimination des Dechets Nucleaires dans la Mer; 041f 0420 041e 0414 ; Problemas Juridicos y Administrativos que Plantea el Control de la Evacuacion de Desechos Nucleares En El Mar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hydeman, Lee M.; Berman, William H. [Atomic Energy Research Project, University of Michigan Law School (United States)

    1960-07-01

    The basic purpose of the paper is to present some approaches to multinational control of the sea disposal of nuclear wastes, considering both the type of international .control which may be appropriate and the means for accomplishing such control. First, the authors give a brief description of the kind of control which appears to be necessary in protecting public health against the hazards of the disposal of wastes in the sea. The second part consists of a general analysis of the legal problems posed by nuclear wastes. Emphasis is placed on the authority of coastal states to impose unilateral control on the disposal of wastes by other nations if such disposal might adversely affect their interests. The authors inquire into the adequacy of legal remedies as well as the possible rule of law regarding the prevention of damage from waste disposal and the apportionment of liability in the event that such damage does occur. The third part is an analysis of how other problems of control have been handled, both unilaterally and multilaterally. The final part consists of an inquiry into various means of internationally controlling the sea disposal of nuclear wastes. The role of existing international bodies in the maintenance of continuing administrative control at the international level is mentioned. (author) [French] Le but essentiel du memoire est d'exposer diverses facons d'envisager le probleme du controle multinational de l'evacuation des dechets nucleaires dans l'eau de mer, en examinant a la fois le type de controle international approprie et les moyens de le mettre en oeuvre. La premiere partie contiendra une description succincte du genre de controle qui semble necessaire pour la protection de la sante publique contre les effets de l'evacuation des dechets dans la mer. La deuxieme partie consistera en une analyse generale des problemes juridiques poses par. l'elimination des dechets nucleaires. Les auteurs traiteront particulierement du droit des Etats riverains

  14. Operating procedures for emergency situations in EDF PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depond, G.; Resse, L.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of incidents and accidents occurring at French and foreign power plants - particularly the TMI accident - and the commissioning of many units in France, as well as tests on simulators, have all demonstrated that an improvement of safety in nuclear power units depends largely on the improvement of the man-machine interface and particularly of emergency operating procedures (EOP). EDF has taken numerous actions in this direction, especially since 1979. First of all, in improving the classical approach based on event-oriented procedures: Rewriting of initial accident operating procedures with regard to their technical contents their form, and the organization of the operating team (procedures I and A); Extension of initial procedures into areas at the limits of design basis and beyond the design basis limits (procedures H). Nevertheless, this approach is subject to several weaknesses. Dependence on a precise initial diagnosis, impossibility to take into account all the conceivable accidental situations, discrepancies between the predicted pattern and the reality. These drawbacks of the event approach have led us to revise the technical conception of the EOPs, and to develop a new approach based on a continuous monitoring of the physical states of the plant and the ability to define a relationship between the physical state of the plant and the operator actions. (author). 4 figs

  15. EDF: The revision of the electrical supply tariff system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaczmarek, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    The article deals with proposals by EDF for restructuring their tariffs for the supply of electricity. The objective is to take account of probable developments in demand, notably the steadily increasing gap between the summer and winter rates of consumption, and in generation, notably the large increase in the fraction of the total load that is met by nuclear stations. It is estimated that by 1990 generation will be 70% nuclear, 16% hydraulic, 9% by coal and 4% by oil, nuclear generation being by far the cheapest. The general philosophy of the new tariffs is: to retain the two-part (kW and kWh) structure; to simplify tariffs for small consumers; to apply to large consumers sophisticated tariffs that accurately reflect true costs of supply; to make maximum demand rather than supply voltage the determining factor; tariffs will be geographically uniform except for a few very large consumers favourably situated with respect to key points in the network; to adopt special means to spread peak loads. The new tariffs and some additional related measures for influencing the incidence of electricity consumption are described in some detail. (C.J.O.G.)

  16. The training for nuclear fuel handling at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The handling of fuel assemblies in a nuclear power plant presents 3 types of work: the taking delivery of fresh fuel, the refueling and the disposal of spent fuel. These operations are realized by teams made up of 3 handling operators and a supervisor. The refueling is made by 3*8-hour teams. These handling operations are important for the nuclear safety, a mishandling can damage the fuel cladding which is the first containment barrier, so a training center (CETIC) has been created. This center was founded in 1986 by EDF and Framatome, the purpose was to validate maintenance procedures, to test handling equipment and to train the teams which work on site. Various training programmes have been set up and a system of qualification degrees has been organized. The CETIC is fitted up with equipment that are full-sized mockups of real installations. Fuel assemblies don't react in a similar way to the different mechanical and neutronic stresses they undergo while they are in the core, they get deformed and the handling operations become more delicate. The mockup fuel assemblies are quite deformed to train the teams and prepare them to face any real situation. (A.C.)

  17. MERMOS. An EDF project to update the PHRA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bot, P.; Desmares, E.; Bieder, C.; Bonnet, J.L.; Cara, F.

    1997-09-01

    To account for successive evolution of nuclear power plants emergency operation, EDF had several times to review PHRA methodologies. It was particularly the case when event-based procedures were left behind to the benefit of state-based procedures. These are the main ambitions of the project named MERMOS that started in 1996. The design effort for a new PHRA method is carried out by a multidisciplinary team involving reliability engineers, psychologists and ergonomists. The method, considered as the analysis tool dedicated to PHRA analysts, is one of the two outcomes of the project. The other one is the formalization of the design approach for the method, aimed at a good appropriation of the method by the analysts. The PHRA method is based upon a model of emergency operation called 'SAD model'. The formalization effort of the design approach lead to clarify and justify it. The model describes and explains both functioning and dys-functioning of emergency operation in PSA scenarios. It combines a systemic approach and what is called distributed cognition in cognitive sciences. Collective aspects are considered as an important feature in explaining phenomena under study in operation dys-functioning. The PHRA method is to be operational early next year (1998). Preliminary validation tests were performed quite early in the design process. These tests will set the grounds for the presentation of examples of the application of the method. (author)

  18. Innovative Approaches to Knowledge Management in EDF Energy Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.; Robinson, P.; Roberts, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Organizational learning is a key discipline in the safe, sustainable operation of civil nuclear fleet. In order to have an effective organizational learning culture a free flow of information is required. To facilitate this free flow of information and ideas EDF Energy Nuclear Generation created the concept of the Organizational Learning Portal (OLP). The OLP was created to remove existing barriers to knowledge sharing and allow easy exchange of information and ideas. To transfer existing data from legacy systems onto the OLP required a considerable effort, to ensure that information and knowledge was preserved and available to recall easily for future use. The OLP, was designed using the latest ‘App’ design to promote accessibility, in line with contemporary information portals and applications sites to ensure a positive and intuitive user journey. A key operational use of the OLP is for accelerated learning, after significant events, e.g., reactor Trips or SCRAM. Additional functionality within the OLP allows implementation of video OPEX and cataloguing of information sources. The OLP was recognized in the 2015 Operational and Safety Assessment Readiness Team as a Best Practice. (author

  19. Seismic isolation of nuclear power plants - EDF's philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coladant, C.

    1989-01-01

    The elastomer bearing pads used since 1963 as supports for prestressed concrete pressure vessels (PCPVs) was quickly chosen by Electricite de France (ED) to improve the capability of nuclear power plants (NPPs) to withstand strong earthquakes and to reduce the seismic loads on structures and equipment. The standardized units for 900 and 1,300 MW(e) pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants have moderate seismic design loads of 0.2 and 0.15 g, respectively. These design loads were exceeded by the site dependent spectra of Cruas (France) and Koeberg (South Africa). To keep the plant design unchanged and to take the advantages of standardization, these units were put on laminated bearings with or without sliding plates. For the future French 1,500 MW(e) fast breeder reactors (FBRs), which are more sensitive to seismic loads, the base isolation is considered by EDF at the beginning of the design, even for low ground motions of 0.1 g. The buildings are placed on laminated bearings while the reactor block is supported by springs and dampers. The isolated plant has identical costs as a conventional design such as SPX1 at Creys-Malville

  20. Vibration monitoring of EDF rotating machinery using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alguindigue, I.E.; Loskiewicz-Buczak, A.; Uhrig, R.E.; Hamon, L.; Lefevre, F.

    1991-01-01

    Vibration monitoring of components in nuclear power plants has been used for a number of years. This technique involves the analysis of vibration data coming from vital components of the plant to detect features which reflect the operational state of machinery. The analysis leads to the identification of potential failures and their causes, and makes it possible to perform efficient preventive maintenance. Earlydetection is important because it can decrease the probability of catastrophic failures, reduce forced outgage, maximize utilization of available assets, increase the life of the plant, and reduce maintenance costs. This paper documents our work on the design of a vibration monitoring methodology based on neural network technology. This technology provides an attractive complement to traditional vibration analysis because of the potential of neural networks to operate in real-time mode and to handle data which may be distorted or noisy. Our efforts have been concentrated on the analysis and classification of vibration signatures collected by Electricite de France (EDF). Two neural networks algorithms were used in our project: the Recirculation algorithm and the Backpropagation algorithm. Although this project is in the early stages of development it indicates that neural networks may provide a viable methodology for monitoring and diagnostics of vibrating components. Our results are very encouraging

  1. Improving the Modeling of Hydrogen Solubility in Heavy Oil Cuts Using an Augmented Grayson Streed (AGS Approach Modélisation améliorée de la solubilité de l’hydrogène dans des coupes lourdes par l’approche de Grayson Streed Augmenté (GSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres R.

    2013-04-01

    cependant que sa précision se dégrade rapidement pour les coupes lourdes. Une amélioration est proposée dans ce travail, basée sur l’ajout d’un terme de Flory dans le calcul du coefficient d’activité. L’étude de la solubilité de l’hydrogène dans les n-alcanes du n-C7 au n-C36 fait apparaître que la constante de Henry diminue avec la masse molaire. L’analyse de ce comportement suggère la présence d’une déviation entropique à l’idéalité non prise en compte dans le modèle des solutions régulières. L’utilisation d’une correction de Flory permet de garder l’aspect prédictif du modèle. Elle nécessite néanmoins un nouveau calage de certains paramètres de la corrélation d’origine pour l’hydrogène. Le modèle qui résulte se comporte mieux pour les composés lourds et aromatiques. La qualité du nouveau modèle de Grayson Streed Augmenté (GSA est évaluée sur des données de solubilité d’hydrogène dans des coupes pétrolières issues de Cai et al. [Cai H.Y. et al. (2001 Fuel 80, 1055-1063] ainsi que Lin et al. [Lin H.M. et al. (1981 Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev. 20, 2, 253-256]. L’importance de la caractérisation de ces coupes est mise en avant. Une analyse de sensibilité montre qu’une perturbation du paramètre de solubilité a un effet beaucoup plus important que pour les autres paramètres. Il en résulte qu’un grand soin doit être apporté au calcul de cette grandeur. La prédiction de la solubilité de l’hydrogène dans des fractions pétrolières lourdes et dans des charbons liquéfiés a été améliorée par rapport au modèle de Grayson Streed : une déviation absolue moyenne de 30 % est obtenue pour GSA, à comparer avec 55 % avec la méthode GS, avec les données utilisées dans un domaine de 80-380 °C et 6,3-258,9 bar.

  2. Brulure par Plaque de Bistouri Electrique: a Propos de Quatre Cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khales, A.; Achbouk, A.; Belmir, R.; Cherkab, L.; Ennouhi, M.A.; Ababou, K.; Ihrai, H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary La brûlure par plaque de bistouri électrique est un accident rare mais grave par la profondeur de la lésion et par sa localisation, surtout quand qu’elle survient dans un contexte chirurgical dont le vécu reste difficile de la part du malade et du chirurgien. Cette brûlure bien que imprévisible reste grave par la profondeur et la localisation de la brûlure et par sa survenue dans un contexte opératoire, chez des patients malades. La prise en charge de la brûlure doit se faire en milieu spécialisé. La prévention reste le seul moyen d’éviter ce type d’accident. PMID:21991216

  3. Detection of tritium in the CO{sub 2} of the reactors G2/G3 using gas chromatography; La detection du tritium par chromatographie gazeuse dans le CO{sub 2} des piles G2/G3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillermin, P; Rossi, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    This gas-phase chromatographic method, based on the principle of the decomposition of a gas mixture into its pure constituents, makes it possible to identify and rapidly measure the tritium present in the heat-carrying fluid of the reactors G2/G3. The sensitivity limit corresponds to 5 x 10{sup -6} {mu}Ci/cm{sup 3} of tritiated gas, whereas the threshold reading of the D.C.C.A. is 10{sup -3} {mu}Ci/cm{sup 3} in the presence of {sup 41}A. This apparatus has interesting applications in the conditions where certain {beta} emitters (products of fission or of activation) interfere with the measurement of the tritium. It can easily be adapted to the detection of tritiated steam on condition that a reducing chemical treatment is applied for the atmospheric humidity. In fact, although this method is not as sensitive for the measurement of tritiated vapour as p-spectrometry in a scintillating medium, it may be set up very easily for measuring the C.M.A of tritium in air and is not affected by the presence of radio-active gases. (authors) [French] Cette methode de chromatographie en phase gazeuse, basee sur le principe de decomposition d'un melange gazeux en ses constituants purs, permet l'identification et la mesure rapide du tritium present dans le fluide caloporteur des piles G2/G3. La limite de sensibilite correspond a 5.10{sup -6} {mu}Ci/cm{sup 3} de gaz tritie, alors que le seuil de lecture du D.C.C.A. s'eleve a 10{sup -3} {mu}Ci/cm{sup 3} en presence de {sup 41}A. Cet appareillage presente un champ d'application interessant dans les domaines ou certains emetteurs {beta} (produits de fission ou d'activation) genent la mesure du tritium. Il peut s'adapter sans difficulte a la detection de la vapeur tritiee moyennant un traitement chimique reducteur de l'humidite atmospherique. En definitive, bien que cette methode ne soit pas aussi sensible pour la determination de la vapeur tritiee que la spectrometrie {beta} en milieu scintillant, elle permet de mesurer la C.M.A de

  4. Examining Informal Learning using Mobile Devices in the Healthcare Workplace / Examen de l’apprentissage informel par l’utilisation d’appareils mobiles dans le milieu des soins de santé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy (Willy Fahlman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of workplace learning and informal learning are not new to adult education and pedagogy. However, the use of mobile devices as learning tools for informal learning in the workplace is an understudied area. Using theories on informal learning and constructivism as a framework, this paper explores informal learning of registered nurses using mobile devices to meet their learning needs for continuing professional education, professional development, and continuing competence within the challenging healthcare workplace. In this mixed methods study, participants used their devices for self-directed informal learning with non-collaborative strategies/processes for evidence-based support, new procedures/treatments, professional development, patient/client teaching, and maintaining competency. Positive perceptions were articulated. Minimal differences were associated to the nurses’ age. However, workplace-related influences were relevant to the informal learning experiences with the mobile devices. L'étude de l'apprentissage en milieu de travail et de l’apprentissage informel n’est pas nouvelle dans le domaine de l'éducation des adultes et de la pédagogie. Cependant, l'utilisation d'appareils mobiles comme outils pour l'apprentissage informel en milieu de travail est un domaine peu étudié. En utilisant comme cadre d’analyse des théories de l'apprentissage informel et le constructivisme, cet article examine l'apprentissage informel des infirmières utilisant des appareils mobiles pour répondre à leurs besoins d'apprentissage en contexte de formation professionnelle continue, de perfectionnement professionnel et de maintien de leurs compétences dans le milieu difficile de la santé. Dans cette étude à méthodologies mixtes, les participants ont utilisé leurs appareils pour un apprentissage autodirigé informel à l’aide de stratégies et de processus non collaboratifs permettant un appui sur des données factuelles, pour

  5. Par Pond water balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

    1996-06-01

    A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs

  6. Caractérisation de l'état chimique d'un élément par fluorescence X : l'aluminium dans les zéolithes Characterizing the Chemical State of an Element by X-Ray Fluorescence: Aluminium in Zeolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freund E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La fluorescence X est essentiellement connue dans le domaine de l'analyse quantitative, mais c'est aussi une méthode qui permet d'obtenir des informations détaillées sur la structure électronique des éléments. Dans cet article, nous montrons qu'il est possible de mettre au point une technique simple de caractérisation de l'état chimique d'un élément en utilisant de façon conjointe un spectromètre commercial et un programme adapté de traitement des données. Nous avons appliqué cette technique au cas de l'aluminium dans une zéolithe particulière : la mordénite dite à petits pores modifiée par différents traitements. Nous avons ainsi pu classer les solides suivant leur rapport (AI hexa-coordinné/AI tétracoordinné et montrer que le débouchage de la mordénite dite à petits pores est lié à l'extraction d'atomes d'aluminium de la charpente cristalline. X-ray fluorescence is mainly known in the field of qua-titative analysis, but it is also a useful method for obtaining detailed informations about the electronic structure of elements. This article shows that it is possible to develop a simple technique for characterizing the chemical state of an element by combining a commercial spectrometer with a program suited for data processing. This technique has been applied to the case of aluminum in a specific zeolite, ( small portmodernite, modified by various treatments. We were thus able to classify the solids according to the ratio of hexacoordinated AI/tetracoordinated AI and to show that the deblocking of the small portmordenite is linked to the extraction of aluminum atomrs from the crystalline structure.

  7. Proposition d'explication de la formation d'hydrogène sulfuré dans les stockages souterrains de gaz naturel par réduction des sulfures minéraux de la roche magasin Proposed Explanation of Hydrogen-Sulfide Formation in Underground Natural-Gas Storage Structures by Reduction of Mineral Sulfides in the Reservoir Rock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourgeois J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La formation d'hydrogène sulfuré dans les structures de stockage peu expliquer autrement que par l'action de bactéries sulfato-réductrices. La contenue dans la roche magasin constitue une source de sulfures capable d'alimenter en H2S le gaz naturel. La réduction de la pyrite en sulfures du type Fe 1-x S et l'équilibre de dissolution précipitation, lié principalement à la pression de CO2, dans les structures stockages, constituent un processus de formation d'H2S capable d'expliquer tativement et quantitativement les phénomènes observés sur le terrain. Un modèle simplifié de stockage reprend ce schéma et teste la sensibililté de la teneur en H2S à la valeur des paramètres physiques et chimiques définissant le stockage. Cette étude permet de proposer un certain nombre d'actions susceptibles de limiter la formation d'H2S et d'orienter les choix futurs du couple gaz naturel - structures de stockage. The formation of hydrogen sulfide in storage structures can be explained otherwise thon by the action of sulfate-reducing bacteria. The pyrite contained in the reservoir rock makes up a source of sulfides capable of supplying the natural gas with H2S.Reduction of pyrite ta sulfides of the Fe,-,S type and the dissolution precipitation equilibrium, linked mainly ta C02 pressure in storage structures, make up an H2S for-mation process capable of qualitatively and quantitatively explained phenomena observed in the field.A simplified storage model reflects this scheme and can be used ta test the sensi-tivity of the H2S content ta the value of the physical and chemical parameters defining the storage structure.This investigation can be used to propose various means of action (sable ta "mit H2S formation and ta guide future choices of natural gas/storage-structure pairs.

  8. Élites musulmanes et processus d’acculturation par les activités physiques modernes dans les années vingt : de la Médersienne à l’Avant-garde Musulmane de Cirta

    OpenAIRE

    Boulebier, Djamel

    2013-01-01

    Dans l’Algérie coloniale, l’après guerre a eu pour première conséquence sur le plan sportif l’enclenchement d’un processus d’autonomisation des pratiques sportives vis-à-vis de l’Union des Sociétés Françaises des Sports Athlétiques devenue de plus en plus obsolète au vu de l’importance grandissante de ce qu’il était convenu d’identifier de plus en plus comme un phénomène social. Ces changements n’affectèrent en rien les sportsmen musulmans, bien au contraire. Nous assistons à leur redéploieme...

  9. Radio-protection problems presented by iodine isotopes in nuclear fuel chemical treatment plants (1962); Les problemes de radioprotection poses par les isotopes de l'iode dans les installations de traitement chimique des combustibles (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzigues, H; Scheidhauer, J; Messainguiral, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    The origin of radio-iodine and the conditions in which it is liberated are given. The authors review the question of the risks associated with the presence of this radioelement In the atmosphere. Finally a method is proposed for the trapping and rapid measuring of the iodine in the vapour form, applicable to radioprotection. (authors) [French] L'origine et les conditions de liberation du radioiode sont exposees. Les auteurs font le point de la question des risques associes a la presence de ce radioelement dans l'atmosphere. Enfin, une methode de piegeage et de mesure rapide de l'iode a l'etat de vapeur applicable a la radioprotection, est proposee. (auteurs)

  10. FooPar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hargreaves, F. P.; Merkle, D.

    2013-01-01

    We present FooPar, an extension for highly efficient Parallel Computing in the multi-paradigm programming language Scala. Scala offers concise and clean syntax and integrates functional programming features. Our framework FooPar combines these features with parallel computing techniques. Foo......, results based on a empirical analysis on two supercomputers are given. We achieve close-to-optimal performance wrt. theoretical peak performance. Based on this result we conclude that FooPar allows programmers to fully access Scalas design features without suffering from performance drops when compared...

  11. « On s’keep in Sosh » ou l’exemple du français libéré dans et par la publicité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Favreau

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A partir d’un certain nombre d’exemples choisis, cet article se propose tout d’abord d’analyser la frontière entre ce qu’il est coutume d’appeler le « jeu de mots » (résultant d’un écart volontaire à la norme de la part du locuteur, souvent dans le but de faire (sourire et ce qu’il convient de qualifier d’« infraction linguistique » (cette dernière relevant davantage d’un écart involontaire, même si l’un appelle parfois l’autre. Puis sera envisagée la façon dont le média publicitaire profite de l’affranchissement de contraintes linguistiques pour en retirer un réel gain communicationnel (Berthelot-Guiet, 2002, constituant en cela une véritable progression dans l’activité transgressive. "On s’keep in Sosh" as an example of French linguistic transgression in advertising Abstract: The aim of this paper is to examine, through the analysis of several examples, where the boundary stands between what is commonly known as the "play on words" (which is the result of an intentional deviation from linguistics norms mostly in order to make somebody smile or laugh and what should be called the linguistic violation (the latter being the result of an unintentional deviation, even though both realities can hardly be dissociated. The article will then focus on how advertising takes advantage of the real communicative profit (Berthelot-Guiet, 2002 generated by the transgression of linguistic constraints, which can be considered as a real progression in the transgressing activity.

  12. Automation on computer of the partial area method in the analysis of resonances induced by 'S' neutrons 2. with an interference term and extension of the method to the treatment of multi resonances (1963); Automatisation sur ordinateur de la methode des aires partielles dans l'analyse des resonances induites par les neutrons ''S''. 2, avec terme d'interference et extension de la methode au traitement des multiresonances (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, G; Corge, C R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    This report deals with the numerical analysis on an I.B.M. 7090 computer of transmission resonances induced by 's' wave neutrons in time of flight experiments. The analysis method used is the partial area one. In this second part the interference term is taken into account. Modifications have been made in the programs and subroutines described in the first part, to determine the resonant transmissions from experimental raw data, and the relating partial areas. Also programs and subroutines are thoroughly described, which estimate the resonance parameters. The field of the partial area method has been extended to cover the case where several resonances have to be treated simultaneously, provided they do not interfere. (authors) [French] Le pretent rapport a pour objet l'analyse numerique sur ordinateur I.B.M. 7090 des resonances dues aux neutrons ''s'' dans les experiences de transmission par temps de vol, la methode d'analyse utilisee etant la methode dea aires partielles. Dans cette deuxieme partie il a ete tenu compte du terme d'interference. On y trouvera une description des amenagements apportes aux programmes et sous-programmes decrits dans la premiere partie pour determiner les transmissions interfero-resonnantes a partir des donnees experimentales brutes et les aires partielles afferentes. Sont egalement decrits les programmes et sous-programmes necessaires au calcul des parametres caracteristiques des resonances. Le domaine d'application de la methode a ete etendu au traitement simultane de plusieurs resonances groupees n'interferant pas entre elles. (auteurs)

  13. The electric comfort in social housing. EDF is going on. Agreements with concrete results; Le confort electrique en logement social. EDF avance. Des engagements aux resultats concrets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    This document deals the wrap-up of the agreement signed between EDF and the HLM Union, in 1997, concerning the quality of the electric heating and warm water in social housing. The convention is described and technical solutions are discussed. The relations with the tenants and the mission of advice are also presented. (A.L.B.)

  14. Ensuring the sustainability of EDF power plant operating capacity; Assurer la perennite des competences d'exploitation des centrales d'EDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, J. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Service d' Etude des Facteurs Humains, 92 - Clamart (France)

    2009-07-15

    The life extension of the power plants is considered whereas EDF must face an acceleration of the retirement rates due to the fact that the first generations of the baby-boom are ageing 60 years, now. Between 2000 and 2006, EDF gradually set up a system of management of competencies. On the one hand, EDF moved from logic of relatively standardized training to a more individualized logic of acquisition of competencies. In addition, the objective of maintenance of internat competencies defined in 2000 was supplemented in 2003 by a prospective dimension intended to anticipate the departures in inactivity. Then in 2006 competencies of sub-contractors were taken into account. During this period I.R.S.N. has assessed 3 times this system of management. This article briefly presents the principal lessons driven from these evaluations. It accounts for the undeniable effort made by EDF to ensure the maintenance of its competencies. However, it stresses that a high level of vigilance is still needed because it is not stabilized already. (author)

  15. Joule Heating of Plasma in the Toroidal Tokamak-3 Device; Chauffage du Plasma par Effet Joule, dans l'Installation Torique; Dzhoulev nagrev plazmy na toroidal'noj ustanovke Tokamak-3; Calentamiento de un Plasma por Efeto Joule en la Instalacion Toroidal Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcimovich, L. A.; Afrosimov, V. V.; Gladkovskij, I. P.; Mirnov, S. V.; Petrov, M. P.; Strelkov, V. S. [Institut Atomnoj Ehnergii, Im. I.V. Kurchatova, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1966-04-15

    function increases during the process and reaches 100 to 200 eV. Spectroscopic measurements of the electron temperature give values close to the computed values. The measured energy distributions of the fast neutral-atom flux fit in well with the assumption that the ion distribution of the plasma resembles a Maxwellian distribution of about 100 eV. A significant departure of this distribution from a Maxwellian is observed in the unstable discharge at the same moments as the characteristic plasma column instabilities. In addition, a perceptible difference is observed in the flux of neutrals from the' ''upper'' and the ''lower'' portions of the column, which can be explained by ion drift fluxes inside the column that have large transverse velocities. (author) [French] Dans l'installation Tokamak-3, on cree un plasma d'hydrogene et on le chauffe par un courant electrique annulaire de 40 a 60 kA. Le temps de passage du courant est de 20 a 30 ms. Une grade partie des experiences a ete faite avec un champ magnetique longitudinal stabilisateur de 25 kOe. La composante transversale du champ magnetique parasite etait compensee au moyen de courants passant dans des spires de correction speciales. Dans ces conditions il ne s'est produit aucun deplacement perceptible du centre de la colonne a partir du plan equatorial du tore, au cours de la decharge, et les auteurs ont observe une derive de la colonne de plasma 'vers l'exterieur' (accroissement du grand rayon de la spire). Ce mouvement peut etre cause par une variation du rayon de la colonne de courant, par le chauffage du plasma ou par l'amortissement des courants de Foucault dans la chemise conductrice. Dans ces conditions, ies auteurs ont reussi a obtenir dans l'installation Tokamak-3 une colonne de plasma, stable du point de vue macroscopique; cependant la temperature du plasma etait inferieure a la temperature prevue en cas d'absence de pertes anormales d'energie. Les processus qui apparaissent dans le cas d'une interaction

  16. Electron and Proton Transfer by the Grotthuss Mechanism in Aqueous Solution and in Biological Systems; Transfert d'Electrons et de Protons par le Mecanisme de Grotthuss en Solution Aqueuse et dans les Systemes Biologiques; Perenos ehlektronov i protonov mekhanizmom grotkhusa v vodnom rastvore i v biologicheskikh sistemakh; Transferencia Electronica y Protonica por el Mecanismo de Grotthuss en Soluciones Acuosas y en Sistemas Biologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, R. A.; Courant, R. A.; Johnson, D. S. [Arthur D. Little, Inc. Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1965-10-15

    TheFe{sup ll}-Fe{sup III} electron-exchange reaction and certain long-range biological redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons by a Grotthuss-type mechanism over water bridges. The Grotthuss mechanism is also responsible for the anomalously great electrical conductivity of acidic aqueous solutions. At ordinary pressures the rate-determining step of the Grotthuss mechanism is the rotation of H{sub 2}O, or possibly H{sub 3}O+, and not the actual proton flip itself. The Grotthuss mechanism is confined to the ''free'' rotatable monomeric water between the Frank-Wen clusters in liquid water and avoids areas of relative order. The concentration dependence of protonic conduction can be represented by an equation based upon a cube root of concentration extrapolation and containing Arrhenius terms in which the activation energies are those for the rotation of and the formation of ''holes'' in the solvent water. Thus chemical energy and/or electrical energy can be transmitted rapidly over relatively great distances by the Grotthuss mechanism. Such processes are involved in a variety of phenomena of biological significance, examples being muscular contraction and the chemistry of the respiratory pigments. (author) [French] L'echange d'electrons dans Fe{sup II}-Fe{sup III} et certaines reactions biologiques d'oxydo-reduction a long terme font intervenir le transfert d'electrons par un mecanisme du type de Grotthuss sur des ponts d'eau. Le mecanisme de Grotthuss explique egalement la conductivite anormalement grande des solutions aqueuses d'acides. Sous les pressions ordinaires, l'etape du mecanisme de Grotthuss qui determine la vitesse est la rotation de H{sub 2}O ou peut-etre de H{sub 3}O+, et non pas le changement d'orientation du proton meme. Le mecanisme de Grotthuss est limite a l'eau monomerique ' libre ' , susceptible de rotation, entre les amas de Frank-Wen dans l'eau liquide et il evite les zones d'ordre relatif. On peut representer les variations de la

  17. Les stratégies incitatives mises en place par des tierces parties et la gestion des conflits en Afrique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2016-01-01

    Dans son article Nikolas Emmanuel se penche sur l’utilisation d’approches incitatives dans la gestion des conflits intra-étatiques en Afrique, l’exercice du seul pouvoir de coercition s’avérant souvent impraticable pour des questions de risques et de coûts. Par ailleurs, se contenter d’ignorer les...

  18. Contribution to nuclear power stations to environment conservation (EDF experience)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astolfi, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    It is a world scale opinion now, that industrial activities, such as power generation, and energy use which still heavily rely on fossil fuels, are disproportionately instrumental in affecting our environment, and changing earth's physical conditions. For example, sulphur and nitrogen oxides, generated by coal and oil combustion, which can be harmful for our health, are also supposed to induce acid rains which damage our lakes and forests. Carbon dioxide emissions, which are unavoidable in most of combustion facilities, are acknowledged as instrumental in the open-quotes greenhouse effectclose quotes, which is supposed to bring about significant changes in the climate during forthcoming centuries. Facing such problems, severe regulations are now issued in most of industralized countries, mainly in the EEC, the aim of which is to reduce drastically pollutant discharge to the atmosphere. They obviously apply to power plants and as a consequence, utilities which operate fossil-fired units, will be prompted in the next future, to carry out sophisticated and expensive technical solutions to limitate pollutant emission to an acceptable level. In this respect, clean combustion technologies, such as fluidized beds, pollutant abatement systems such as flue gas desulphurization or denoxification, or even natural gas-fired plants like combined cycles, shall be designed and implemented, which will unavoidably increase the cost of power generation without totally solving the problem. In such a context, EDF opinion is that safe operation of nuclear power plants can make a substantial contribution in reducing pollution of the atmosphere, and this is highlighted by the example of the French nuclear program

  19. EDF's ageing management program for cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roure, T.; Crolet, Y.

    2015-01-01

    EDF operates a large fleet of cooling towers for its thermal and nuclear plants. Proactive maintenance strategies require ranking the towers according to the risk of failure and the observed damage. The ranking includes monitoring data such as: foundation settlements, material properties, quantified crack patterns, shell deformation, meteorological data, and corrosion. The numerical tool suite includes a finite element analysis of each tower under thermal and mechanical loadings and a corrosion predicting tool, based on carbonation. The first module computes the behavior of cooling towers under five types of loading: soil differential settlement, self-weight, moisture transport, temperature and wind. By comparison with the ultimate resisting capacity of the reinforced concrete cross section, a risk index map is produced for each tower. This risk index is used to rank the cooling towers and then to identify which structures should be monitored more closely or reinforced - if needed - first in the case of an extended operating life. The second module aims to anticipate the corrosion depth of reinforcement steel of the towers in the future. Examination of the existing carbonation is currently done for each structure and evolution of the carbonation depth is computed so as to predict with reasonable assurance when carbonation reaches the rebars. A prediction of the eventual cross-section loss of rebars is then made for long term analysis (i.e. up to 60 years of operating life). When corrosion is predicted the first module takes into account this loss and computes the behavior of the predicted corrosion damaged structure under the same loadings. (authors)

  20. Temporalités dans la recherche biomédicale : la science au travail saisie par le temps Temporalities in biomedical research: time as a factor in scientific work Temporalidades en la investigación biomédica: el trabajo científico atrapado por el tiempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Brunet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article s’attache à comprendre et à analyser l’importance prise par le temps dans le travail scientifique. Le plus souvent, étant considérée comme une activité au rythme intrinsèque, la science semble échapper au temps. Pourtant, généré par le phénomène de contextualisation, on montrera que le temps s’installe comme mesure de son procès de travail. À partir de données extraites d’une étude d’un laboratoire développant des recherches en biomédecine, l’analyse permet d’identifier trois temporalités différentes : une temporalité professionnelle intrinsèque, une temporalité sociétale extrinsèque et une temporalité gestionnaire hybride. C’est à l’articulation de ces trois temporalités que des tensions s’exercent sur le procès de travail du laboratoire. Elles ont pour enjeu l’autonomie professionnelle des scientifiques. Dans le cas analysé, la temporalité gestionnaire apparaît alors comme une mesure du temps dans la science, protectrice de cette autonomie.The article seeks to understand and analyse the growing importance of time in scientific work. Science is usually seen as an activity with an intrinsic rhythm that seems to escape time. Based on the phenomenon of contextualisation, however, we will show that time has become a way of measuring work processes. Using data from a biomedical research laboratory study, the analysis identifies three time scales: an intrinsic professional temporality; an extrinsic social temporality; and a hybrid managerial temporality. It is at the interface between these three temporalities that tensions affect laboratory work processes. The main issue at stake is scientists’ professional autonomy. In the case being analysed here, managerial temporality appears as something that measures time in science and protects the autonomy thereof.En este artículo buscamos comprender y analizar la importancia que ha adquirido el tiempo en el trabajo científico. La mayor

  1. Tests on dynamic corrosion by water. Influence of the passage of a heat flux on the corrosion kinetics. pH measurement in water at high temperature; Essais de corrosion dynamique par l'eau. Influence du passage d'un flux thermique sur la cinetique de corrosion. Mesure du pH dans l'eau a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coriou, H.; Grall, L.; Hure, J.; Saint-James, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Berthod [Societe Grenobloise d' Etudes et d' Applications Hydrauliques, 38 (France); Le peintre [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1958-07-01

    The passage of a heat flux through the surface of a metal placed in a corrosive medium influences the rate of corrosion, these being higher than under adiabatic conditions. The apparatus developed for corrosion tests is described, it is possible to obtain with this equipment: 1) Heat fluxes greater than 200 W/cm{sup 2}, across aluminium canning, which is cooled by water (temperature 50 deg. C), circulating with flow rates of the order of 5 to 6 m/s. 2) Heat fluxes which can go up to 150 W/cm{sup 2}, across canning of zircaloy or stainless steel. The cooling fluid is pressurized water at a temperature around 280 deg. C, the flow-rate of circulation reaching 6 m/s. The results obtained on aluminium canning are studied from the viewpoint of corrosion, paying particular attention to cavitation phenomena which can cause serious damage in certain special circumstances. After developing a glass electrode system capable of supporting high pressures, the authors have investigated materials capable of functioning as a hydrogen electrode and of resisting satisfactorily corrosion by water at 200 deg. C. Various possibilities have been examined: electrodes of special glasses, quartz, metals, with a membrane etc... The results of the various tests and the practical limits of utilisation are given. (author)Fren. [French] Le passage d'un flux thermique a travers la surface d'un metal place dans un milieu corrosif influence les vitesses de corrosion, celles-ci etant plus elevees que dans des conditions adiabatiques. On decrit les appareils mis au point, pour essais de corrosion. Ils permettent d'obtenir: 1) A travers des gaine aluminium des flux thermiques depassant 200 W /cm{sup 2}. Les gaines sont refroidies par l'eau (temperature 50 deg. C), circulant a des vitesses de l'ordre de 5 a 6 m/s. 2) A travers des gaines en zircaloy ou acier inoxydable des flux thermiques pouvant s'elever a 150 W/cm{sup 2}. Le fluide de refroidissement est de l

  2. Tests on dynamic corrosion by water. Influence of the passage of a heat flux on the corrosion kinetics. pH measurement in water at high temperature; Essais de corrosion dynamique par l'eau. Influence du passage d'un flux thermique sur la cinetique de corrosion. Mesure du pH dans l'eau a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coriou, H; Grall, L; Hure, J; Saint-James, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Berthod, [Societe Grenobloise d' Etudes et d' Applications Hydrauliques, 38 (France); peintre, Le [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1958-07-01

    The passage of a heat flux through the surface of a metal placed in a corrosive medium influences the rate of corrosion, these being higher than under adiabatic conditions. The apparatus developed for corrosion tests is described, it is possible to obtain with this equipment: 1) Heat fluxes greater than 200 W/cm{sup 2}, across aluminium canning, which is cooled by water (temperature 50 deg. C), circulating with flow rates of the order of 5 to 6 m/s. 2) Heat fluxes which can go up to 150 W/cm{sup 2}, across canning of zircaloy or stainless steel. The cooling fluid is pressurized water at a temperature around 280 deg. C, the flow-rate of circulation reaching 6 m/s. The results obtained on aluminium canning are studied from the viewpoint of corrosion, paying particular attention to cavitation phenomena which can cause serious damage in certain special circumstances. After developing a glass electrode system capable of supporting high pressures, the authors have investigated materials capable of functioning as a hydrogen electrode and of resisting satisfactorily corrosion by water at 200 deg. C. Various possibilities have been examined: electrodes of special glasses, quartz, metals, with a membrane etc... The results of the various tests and the practical limits of utilisation are given. (author)Fren. [French] Le passage d'un flux thermique a travers la surface d'un metal place dans un milieu corrosif influence les vitesses de corrosion, celles-ci etant plus elevees que dans des conditions adiabatiques. On decrit les appareils mis au point, pour essais de corrosion. Ils permettent d'obtenir: 1) A travers des gaine aluminium des flux thermiques depassant 200 W /cm{sup 2}. Les gaines sont refroidies par l'eau (temperature 50 deg. C), circulant a des vitesses de l'ordre de 5 a 6 m/s. 2) A travers des gaines en zircaloy ou acier inoxydable des flux thermiques pouvant s'elever a 150 W/cm{sup 2}. Le fluide de refroidissement est de l'eau sous pression a une temperature

  3. Usage pédagogique de Facebook dans une activité d’apprentissage en groupe par des étudiants tunisiens : analyse de l’efficacité du travail collaboratif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen BEN REBAH

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente une analyse de l’usage pédagogique du réseau socio-numérique Facebook comme dispositif d’apprentissage collaboratif à distance dans l’enseignement supérieur, notamment à l’Institut supérieur des études technologiques de Mahdia (Tunisie. Cette recherche qualitative vise à évaluer l’efficacité du travail collaboratif dans le cadre d’une activité d’apprentissage impliquant des étudiants en informatique. Nous tentons à cet effet de déterminer en quoi l’usage de Facebook comme outil de partage, de communication et d’échanges en réseau favoriserait la mise en place d’un processus efficace de co-construction des savoirs et d’interactions entre apprenants. Pour atteindre cet objectif, l’analyse s’appuie sur le paradigme de l’apprentissage social de Bandura (1977 qui met l’accent sur le jeu d’interactions permanentes entre les comportements d’un individu, son fonctionnement cognitif et les variables de l’environnement. Les données issues des traces d’activités sur le mur du groupe Facebook et des contenus d’entretiens semi-directifs ont permis après analyse d’établir que l’utilisation pédagogique de Facebook a effectivement favorisé la coproduction des savoirs attendus chez les étudiants au cours de l’activité. Ainsi, nous sommes parvenus à la conclusion que l’usage de Facebook est efficace pour la mise en place d’une activité d’apprentissage collaborative à distance. Cependant, cela nécessite l’élaboration en amont d’un véritable scénario de formation organisant le déroulement de l’activité.

  4. Flute Characteristics of and Microwave Emission from a Plasma in a Mirror; Instabilite en Cannelures et Emission de Micro-Ondes par un Plasma dans une Machine a Miroirs; Zhelobkovye kharakteristiki i ehmissiya mikrovoln iz plazmy v zerkale; Caracteristicas del Estriado y Emision de Microondas por un Plasma en un Espejo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, F. R.; Jensen, T. H.; Wharton, C. B. [General Atomic Division, General Dynamics Corporation, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1966-04-15

    construit une machine a miroirs puisee pour etudier la stabilite d'un plasma d'energie relativement faible. Le plasma de 70 eV, forme dans un canon, est canalise ven le miroir par un champ de guidage octopolaire lineaire. La duree du champ du miroir est egale au temps de transit du plasma. Les auteurs ont mesure des densites d'electrons de 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} dans le plan central du miroir. Ils ont observe deux modes distincts de fonctionnement qui ne dependent que des conditions regnant dans le champ de guidage. Dans le premier mode, le plasma dans le miroir ne semble pas presenter d'instabilite en cannelures, la plus grande partie du plasma d'echappe le long de l'axe', on observe une diffusion radiale anormale lente, il se produit une emission de micro-ondes dont les frequences sont des harmoniques de la frequence cyclotronique des electrons dans l'intervalle entre n = 1 et n = 19 au moins. L'emission de micro-ondes n'est pas compatible avec la branche electronique de l'instabilite de Harris. Les auteurs attribuent la stabilite de ce mode a la fixation des lignes de force par le plasma froid diffusant de la region du champ de guidage. Ils ont observe des densites d'electrons superieurs a 10{sup 11} cm{sup 3} pendant 200 {mu}s dans la region situee entre le miroir et le champ de guidage. La presence d'un cylindre de symetrie axiale dans le champ de guidage a pour effet de diminuer cette densite. Des mesures faites dans cette region fournissent des densites inferieures a 10u cm{sup 3}apres 40 {mu}s. Le plasma qui en resulte, piege dans le miroir, presente des instabilites en cannelures, des pertes de plasma radiales, une emission de micro-ondes irreguliere intense, ainsi qu'une decroissance de densite rapide. Les auteurs ont identifie la cannelure m = 1, dont ils ont suivi la phase dans l'angle 4{pi}. La vitesse de phase possede la meme direction que la derive electronique sous l'influence de B. Le signe de cette vitesse de phase peut s'expliquer par la theorie de Krall

  5. Are They Climbing the Pyramid? Rating Student-Generated Questions in a Game Design Project / Grimpent-ils la pyramide? Évaluation des questions produites par les étudiants dans un projet de conception de jeux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Paul Siko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have examined the use of homemade PowerPoint games as an instructional technique to improve learning outcomes. However, test data have shown no significant difference in performance between high school chemistry students who created games and students who did not (Siko, Barbour, & Toker, 2011. One of the justifications for the use of the games is that students will, with practice, write higher-order questions when constructing the games. Two subject matter experts rated over 2,500 questions from games created by students in an environmental chemistry class through thematic analysis using Bloom’s taxonomy as a coding scheme. The students wrote primarily recall questions, and students who created games on two occasions did not write more questions than students who only created games once. This suggests that changes to the question-writing aspect of the game project may be necessary in order to see improvements in achievement when compared to control groups. Les chercheurs ont étudié l’usage de jeux PowerPoint maison en tant que technique pédagogique visant à améliorer les résultats d'apprentissage. Les données des tests n'ont toutefois révélé aucune différence significative quant au niveau de performance des étudiants du secondaire en chimie ayant créé des jeux et celui des étudiants n’en ayant pas conçus (Siko, Barbour, et Toker, 2011. L’utilisation des jeux est notamment justifiée par l’idée que, pratique aidant, les étudiants écrivent des questions plus complexes lorsqu’ils élaborent des jeux. Au moyen d’une analyse thématique utilisant la taxonomie de Bloom comme système de codification, deux experts chimistes ont évalué plus de 2500 questions provenant de jeux conçus par des étudiants d’une classe de chimie environnementale. Les étudiants ont rédigé principalement des questions faisant appel à la mémoire, et les étudiants ayant créé des jeux à deux reprises n’ont pas produit

  6. Échecs thérapeutiques chez les enfants infectés par le VIH en suivi de routine dans un contexte à ressources limitées au Cameroun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penda, Calixte Ida; Bebey, Francine Same; Mangamba, Danielle Kedy; Moukoko, Else Carole Eboumbou; Ngwa, Victoria; Makouet, Nicaise; Bissek, Anne-Cécile; Minkemdefo, Blaise Dupont; Tetanye, Ekoe; Ndombo, Paul Koki

    2013-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de cette étude était de déterminer les facteurs associés aux échecs thérapeutiques chez les enfants infectés par le VIH à l'Hôpital Laquintinie de Douala. Méthodes Une étude transversale rétrospective a été menée sur une période de 5 mois en 2010, recrutant 222 enfants âgés de 1 à 18 ans et sous TARV depuis au moins 24 semaines. Les données sociodémographiques, cliniques, biologiques et de l'observance thérapeutique des patients ont été collectés à partir des dossiers des patients, et analysées avec le logiciel SPSS (version 16). Résultats 39 (17,6%) des enfants étaient en échec thérapeutique (délai moyen de survenue 26,8 mois) et 73,4% d'entre eux sont passés en seconde ligne. Les garçons avaient en moyenne un risque 5 fois plus élevé de faire un échec thérapeutique que les filles (OR=3,9; p=0,035). 94,4% des enfants suivis avaient un faible taux de CD4 à l'initiation (‘ 25%) associé au risque élevé d’échec thérapeutique (OR=5,2; p=0,007). Les enfants issus de famille monoparentale représentaient près de la moitié des cas d’échecs thérapeutiques. Sur 39 cas en échec thérapeutique, 41% des enfants étaient des orphelins. Parmi les enfants sous TARV, 46% prenaient leur trithérapie sous forme de médicaments séparés parmi lesquels 52,1% étaient en échec thérapeutique. Conclusion Les échecs thérapeutiques et le passage en seconde ligne dépendaient du contexte familial des enfants, de leur statut immunologique à l'initiation du traitement, de leur sexe et de la forme galénique du TARV. PMID:24171063

  7. Chemical Changes Induced by Irradiation in Meats and Meat Components; Transformations Chimiques Provoquees par les Rayonnements dans les Viandes et Leurs Constituants; Khimicheskie prevrashcheniya v myasnykh produktakh i ikh sostavnykh chastyakh pod vozdejstviem oblucheniya; Alteraciones Quimicas Producidas por Irradiacion de las Carnes y de sus Componentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merritt, C. Jr. [Pioneering Research Division, United States Army Natick Laboratories, Natick, MA (United States)

    1966-11-15

    The acceptability of meats preserved by irradiation has been hampered by the formation of an irradiation flavour and odour. This flavour and odour is believed to be due to the volatile chemical compounds produced by radiation impact on the protein and lipid molecules. The analysis of the volatile compounds has been accomplished, employing programmed cryogenic temperature gas chromatography for separation of the complex mixtures obtained, and rapid scanning mass spectrometry for identification of the individually separated components. Comprehensive analyses of the volatiles from irradiated ground beef, pork, mutton, lamb, and veal, as well as the volatile irradiation degradation products of several amino acids and proteins, animal fats, methyl esters of fatty acids, and triglycerides have been made. The results of the analysis of the irradiated component meat substances are compared with those obtained from the irradiation of meat itself, and of separate meat fractions, thus establishing the contribution of each fraction to the total. Mechanisms are postulated for the formation of the volatile components from each fraction and for interactions among intermediates from different fractions. (author) [French] La comestibilite des viandes conservees par les rayonnements s'est trouvee diminuee a la suite de l'apparition dans celles-ci d'un gout et d'une odeur engendres par l'irradiation. On pense que ces derniers sont dus aux composes chimiques volatils qui sont formes par l'action des rayonnements sur les molecules des proteines et des lipides. Il a ete procede a l'analyse des composes volatils a l'aide d'un programme de chromatographie en phase gazeuse a temperature cryogenique visant a separer les constituants des melanges complexes obtenus, et par spectrometrie de masse a balayage rapide destinee a identifier les constituants separes. L'auteur a effectue des analyses completes des composes volatils emanant de viande hachee de boeuf, de porc, de mouton, d'agneau et de

  8. A contribution to the study of radioactive waste dilution in the Rhone involving tests with a rhodamine B tracer; Contribution a l'etude de la dilution des effluents radioactifs dans le Rhone par le rejet experimental de rhodamine B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodier, J.; Marichal, M. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Centre de production de plutonium de Marcoule, Service de protection contre les radiations (France)

    1961-07-01

    The process whereby waste from the Marcoule plant mixes with the water in the Rhone was followed in tests with rhodamine as a chemical tracer. Satisfactory dispersion was noted less than 4 km downstream from the waste discharge duct outlet, and the degree of homogeneity was considered to be satisfactory at the bridge of Roquemaure, und perfect at Avignon. This investigation not only revealed a complete absence of any preferential flow paths containing high radioactive waste concentrations, but it also enabled the most representative points to be selected at which to take Rhone water samples during future radioactive waste discharges. Reprint of a paper published in 'La Houille Blanche' N. 5 - Aug 196, p. 636-641 [French] L'emploi de la rhodamine comme traceur chimique a permis de suivre l'evolution du melange des effluents du Centre de Marcoule aux eaux du Rhone. La dispersion est deja satisfaisante a moins de 4 km en aval de la conduite des rejets, et l'homogeneite peut etre consideree comme atteinte au pont de Roquemaure et parfaite a Avignon. Cette etude a montre que les veines preferentielles ou se concentrait l'ecoulement des effluents radioactifs n'existent pas. Elle a permis de preciser en outre les emplacements les plus representatifs des points d'echantillonnage des eaux du Rhone au cours des rejets. Reproduction d'un article publie dans 'La houille blanche' N. 5 - Aug 196, p. 636-641.

  9. Être parasité par les fictions des autres. Rôle et (impertinence du personnage de Gabriel Rivages dans la trilogie 1984 d’Éric Plamondon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Audet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Romans fragmentaires autant que romans duels, les trois tomes de la trilogie 1984 d’Éric Plamondon associent chacun à une figure américaine (Weissmuller, Brautigan, Jobs le personnage de Gabriel Rivages, dont le destin est placé en écho à ces mythes. Singulier dans son histoire, Rivages reste toutefois un personnage faible, jouant un rôle de relais et de faire-valoir. Son actantialité réduite pourrait être perçue, à la lumière de la fragmentation romanesque et de l’architecture livresque de cet ensemble, comme le signal d’une individualité tiraillée entre la grandeur du réel mythifié et la faiblesse de la fiction ordinaire. As much fragmentary novels as they are dual novels, each of the three volumes of Eric Plamondon’s 1984 trilogy associates the character Gabriel Rivages with an American figure (Weissmuller, Brautigan, Jobs, placing the destiny of the character as an echo to the myths surrounding each figure. Though unique within his story, Rivages nevertheless remains a weak character, playing the role of relay or foil. His reduced actantiality may be perceived, in light of the novelistic fragmentation and the architecture of the trilogy, as the signal of an individuality caught between the grandeur of a mythologized reality and the feebleness of ordinary fiction.

  10. Nuclear non-proliferation and security culture within EDF nuclear fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debes, M.

    2013-01-01

    This document describes the nuclear non-proliferation strategy and the safety culture of EDF. The author lists all the mandatory rules and regulations at international and national levels EDF has to comply with. All these requirements are applied in EDF nuclear facilities through adequate procedures that assure a nuclear material accountancy, a follow-up of any item containing nuclear material in the facility, and internal controls. External independent controls are also performed. The EDF security policy goal is to protect human, material and knowledge assets, and to preserve operational capacity, competitiveness and public confidence, within national regulatory framework and regulation on 'vital importance facilities'. The treatment of events or incident (detection, analysis, lessons drawn, experience feedback) is a tool to progress, along with reporting, internal control process and audits. The security requirements cover the different related domains important to EDF industrial assets: security of employees against assaults; security of data according to their sensibility level; security of the information system and telecom; awareness and training of employees; relations with external suppliers or contractors; business premises; security of staff and projects abroad. For industrial facilities and grids (facilities of 'vital importance'...), the defense in depth principles are applied against the different threat scenarios. Security measures are studied at the design stage in a consistent way with nuclear safety measures, while taking into account the protective means deployed by public authorities. These risk analysis are periodically reassessed. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (A.C.)

  11. Determination by neutron activation of the uranium-235 concentration in uranium oxides; Determination par activation neutronique de la concentration d'uranium-235 dans des oxydes d'urane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, S; Leveque, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Classical methods of measuring isotopic abundance have the disadvantage of being long and of requiring chemical separation. A non-destructive method of measuring the uranium-235 content is described. It is based on an overall measurement of the short lived fission product activity formed during a 15 s neutron irradiation. The precision is of the order {+-} 1.5 per cent for 20 per cent enriched samples. The error due to the contribution from fast fission is discussed in detail. (author) [French] Les methodes classiques de mesure de l'abondance isotopique presentent le gros inconvenient d'etre longues et de necessiter des separations chimiques. Nous exposons une methode non destructive de mesure de la concentration d'uranium-235. Elle est basee sur la mesure globale de l'activite des produits de fission de courte periode formes par une irradiation neutronique de 15 s de l'echantillon. La precision est de l'ordre de {+-} 1,5 pour cent pour des echantillons enrichis jusqu'a 20 pour cent. L'erreur a la contribution de la fission rapide est discutee en detail. (auteur)

  12. Improvement of Heavy Oil Recovery in the VAPEX Process using Montmorillonite Nanoclays Amélioration de la récupération d’huile lourde par utilisation de nanoargiles de Montmorillonite dans le procédé VAPEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourabdollah K.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the nanoclay particles were introduced as mobile adsorbents in oil reservoirs to adsorb the asphaltenes, reduce the viscosity and enhance the dispersion. The objective of this paper is experimental investigation of enhanced heavy oil recovery using in situ nanoparticles for the first time. Moreover, two thermal analysis methods (thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis were used to analyze the asphaltene content of residue hydrocarbons in the swept chambers in nano-assisted and conventional VAPEX processes. Experiments were carried out using Iranian heavy oil and propane: the setup consisted of two sand-packed cells; one packed only with glass beads as the oil matrix and the other with glass beads and modified montmorillonite as the nanoclay, while they had similar porosity and permeability. The content of deposited asphaltene in swept matrixes, the propagation pattern of vapor chambers in heavy oil matrixes, and the rates of solvent consumption and oil production were determined. The results elucidated that montmorillonite changed the matrix heterogeneity and led to forming enhanced breakthroughs, to increasing the interfacial surface of vapor/bitumen and to accelerating the oil production. It was found that not only was the rate of vapor injection diminished, but the heavy oil recovery was also markedly enhanced by 30(±4%. Dans cet article, on decrit l’utilisation de particules de nanoargile en tant qu’adsorbant mobile dans des reservoirs d’huile afin d’adsorber les asphaltenes, reduire la viscosite de l’huile et renforcer la dispersion. L’objectif de cet article consiste en la description d’une etude experimentale de recuperation amelioree d’huile lourde par l’utilisation de nanoparticules in situ. Ce qui constitue une premiere. En outre, deux methodes d’analyse thermique (thermogravimetrie et analyse thermique differentielle ont ete utilisees pour analyser la teneur en asphaltene des residus d

  13. La syphilis congenitale revelee par une fracture spontanee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounia Lakhdar Idrissi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Alors qu�elle est actuellement oubliee dans les pays developpes, la syphilis congenitale se voit encore chez nous faute du depistage antenatal. Ses formes cliniques sont polymorphes et orientent a tord vers d�autres pathologies surtout en periode neonatale. Le diagnostic n�est donc pas toujours facile. La revelation d�une syphilis congenitale par une fracture spontanee est exceptionnellement decrite. Nous rapportons dans ce travail le cas d�un nourrisson de 2 mois ramene en consultation pour limitation douloureuse des mouvements du bras droit. Le diagnostic est evoque sur les donnees radiologiques et confirme par la serologie syphilitique. Le traitement a repose essentiellement sur l�administration de la penicilline G avec une bonne evolution clinique.

  14. Maintenance of EDF nuclear power plants and servicing companies. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baize, Jean-Marc; Reveillon, Sylvie

    1997-01-01

    French Electricity Company (EDF - Electricite de France) and the associated servicing companies, engaged in maintenance partnership from 1991, reinforce and expand their policy by undersigning a progress charter, to cope with the safety and nuclear sector competition issues. This charter stipulates the mutual engagements in the following sectors: 1. Transparency in calling for servicing; 2. Development of the intervenors' professionalism; 3. Improvement in forecasting activity tasks; 4. Radioprotection; 5. Safety and working conditions. The 55 reactors of the EDF nuclear stock are stopped annually for around 6 weeks for refueling. On this occasion the essential maintenance works necessary to ensure the optimal safety of the installations are carried out. The maintenance requires the intervention of 30,000 employees, 10,000 EDF agents and 20,000 external intervenors and represents an amount of 14 million working hours. The full maintenance expenses amounts up to 11 billion FF in 1996, 6 billion of which are assigned to external companies

  15. CLI technical commission. Additional safety assessments within the EDF nuclear stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This slides presentation addresses additional safety assessments within the EDF nuclear stock. It describes the context and challenges of these assessments (institutional framework, European coherence, major objectives for EDF). It describes how EDF is organised to perform these assessments: a global project after Fukushima, assessments and tests which are beyond the existing safety referential, the three defence lines and their tests. It addresses the content of assessment reports for each topic (earthquake, flooding, loss of water, loss of electric supply, accident management). It indicates some improvements proposed after the first assessments. It describes the improvements concerning the Gravelines power plant. It recalls the assessment agenda, proposes a brief overview of events, comments the results of the third decennial visit of production unit no. 1 which comprised some proof test on the primary circuit, on the reactor vessel and on the reactor building

  16. Fusion special: E.ON/Ruhrgas, EDF/Gaz de France? Trends. Interview. Inquiry. Portrait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneid, O.; Carbier, M.Ch.

    2003-01-01

    This issue of 'Energies news' newsletter comprises 6 articles dealing with: the E.ON/Ruhrgas fusion and the birth of a leader of the gas-electric power convergence in Europe (the serial story of the fusion, the compromise with the adverse parties); the key economical data of RWE; the proposal of fusion between EdF (Electricite de France) and Gaz de France (interview of M. Boiteux, honorary president of EdF); the reorganization of RWE activities in France (interview of R. Felgentreff, head of RWE Solutions France); travel inside the French power market (part.2: opening of the power market to all professionals); portrait of J. Masdeu-Arus, co-president of a study group at the French house of commons, who made a report about the economical and financial situation of EdF. (J.S.)

  17. GAO report and EDF cost revisions reignite debate on Hinkley Point C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, David [NucNet, The Independent Global Nuclear News Agency, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-10-15

    The announcement by French state-controlled utility EDF that it has added pound 1.5 bn (Euro 1.7 bn, $ 1.9 bn) to its estimated costs for two new reactors at Hinkley Point C, has led to questions about whether the government should rethink the project, with some politicians calling for it to be abandoned. EDF's announcement came less than two weeks after a report from the Government Accountability Office (GAO) said the government's deal for the two EPR units, now estimated to be costing pound 19.6 bn (Euro 22.3 bn, $ 25.5 bn), has locked consumers into a risky and expensive project with uncertain strategic and economic benefits. The UK's Energy Technologies Institute (ETI), in a report prepared before the EDF announcement, had already said the requirement to improve the predictability and affordability of new nuclear power plants has never been stronger.

  18. GAO report and EDF cost revisions reignite debate on Hinkley Point C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, David

    2017-01-01

    The announcement by French state-controlled utility EDF that it has added pound 1.5 bn (Euro 1.7 bn, $ 1.9 bn) to its estimated costs for two new reactors at Hinkley Point C, has led to questions about whether the government should rethink the project, with some politicians calling for it to be abandoned. EDF's announcement came less than two weeks after a report from the Government Accountability Office (GAO) said the government's deal for the two EPR units, now estimated to be costing pound 19.6 bn (Euro 22.3 bn, $ 25.5 bn), has locked consumers into a risky and expensive project with uncertain strategic and economic benefits. The UK's Energy Technologies Institute (ETI), in a report prepared before the EDF announcement, had already said the requirement to improve the predictability and affordability of new nuclear power plants has never been stronger.

  19. EdF speaks about economic advantages of fuel reprocessing as compared with interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The French company Electricite de France (EdF) will prefer nuclear fuel reprocessing and plutonium recycling to spent fuel storage also in the years after 2000. This option is economically advantageous if the proportional cost of reprocessing does not exceed 1900 FRF/kg heavy metal. Economic analysis shows that this is feasible. EdF will soon have to reprocess annually about 1000 Mt spent fuel to supply enough plutonium for MOX fuel fabrication to feed as many as 28 PWR units and the Superphenix reactor. Spent fuel reprocessing is seen as promising as long as the efficiency of the MOX fuel approaches that of natural uranium based fuel. The French national industrial, political and legal context of EdF operations is also considered. (P.A.)

  20. EDF Energy Holdings Limited, Registered Number 06930266, Annual report and financial statements 31 December 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    EDF Energy Holdings Limited and subsidiaries make up EDF Energy. The companies' principal activities are to provide and supply electricity and gas to commercial, residential and industrial customers, and to generate electricity through a portfolio of generation assets including nuclear, coal fired, gas and renewable generation. EDF Energy is also involved in the construction of new build nuclear assets. This document is the annual report and financial statements of the company for the year 2013. Contents: 1 - Strategic report; 2 - Directors' report; 3 - Directors' responsibility statement; 4 - Independent Auditor's report; 5 - Consolidated income statement; 6 - Consolidated statement of comprehensive income; 7 - Consolidated balance sheet; 8 - Consolidated cash flow statement; 9 - Consolidated statement of changes in equity 10 - Notes to the consolidated financial statements; 11 - Company balance sheet; 12 - Notes to the Company financial statements

  1. EDF Energy Holdings Limited, Registered Number 06930266, Annual report and financial statements 31 December 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    EDF Energy Holdings Limited and subsidiaries make up EDF Energy. The companies' principal activities are to provide and supply electricity and gas to commercial, residential and industrial customers, and to generate electricity through a portfolio of generation assets including nuclear, coal fired, gas and renewable generation. EDF Energy is also involved in the construction of new build nuclear assets. This document is the annual report and financial statements of the company for the year 2014. Contents: 1 - Strategic report; 2 - Directors' report; 3 - Directors' responsibility statement; 4 - Independent Auditor's report; 5 - Consolidated income statement; 6 - Consolidated statement of comprehensive income; 7 - Consolidated balance sheet; 8 - Consolidated cash flow statement; 9 - Consolidated statement of changes in equity 10 - Notes to the consolidated financial statements; 11 - Company balance sheet; 12 - Notes to the Company financial statements

  2. EDF Energy Holdings Limited, Registered Number 06930266, Annual report and financial statements 31 December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    EDF Energy Holdings Limited and subsidiaries make up EDF Energy. The companies' principal activities are to provide and supply electricity and gas to commercial, residential and industrial customers, and to generate electricity through a portfolio of generation assets including nuclear, coal fired, gas and renewable generation. EDF Energy is also involved in the construction of new build nuclear assets. This document is the annual report and financial statements of the company for the year 2015. Contents: 1 - Strategic report; 2 - Directors' report; 3 - Directors' responsibility statement; 4 - Independent Auditor's report; 5 - Consolidated income statement; 6 - Consolidated statement of comprehensive income; 7 - Consolidated balance sheet; 8 - Consolidated cash flow statement; 9 - Consolidated statement of changes in equity 10 - Notes to the consolidated financial statements; 11 - Company balance sheet; 12 - Company statement of changes in equity; 13 - Notes to the Company financial statements

  3. Experience acquired by EDF in implementation of its dismantling programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaeyle, S.; Dalmas, R.; Davoust, M. [EDF - Centre d' Ingenerie Deconstruction Environnement (CIDEN), 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2008-07-01

    EDF decided in 2001 to implement immediate dismantling of its first generation nuclear plants. Seven years after this decision, the physical progress of the programme is 24% and is due to reach 50 % by 2013. This paper presents the experiences acquired in the fields of organization, project and programme management, purchasing strategies and waste management. Until now, the principal works involve Brennilis (Heavy water), ChoozA (PWR) and Creys Malville (fast breeder reactor). The detailed pre-project concerning the first of the six gas graphite reactors is complete and the call for bids process has been launched. The organization to manage projects, established at the De-construction and Environment Engineering Center (CIDEN), is effective and productive. Estimates of costs and expenses are coherent, which makes the forecasts put together to finance the programme secure. CIDEN has carried out significant engineering work over the last six years, making it possible to apply for the administrative authorizations which have now been obtained or are in the process of being obtained. Technical specifications are prepared at an optimized level of detail according to a contractual policy adapted to the complexity of the operations and the sharing of risk with manufacturers. The ChoozA contractualization process has been launched and the first dismantling work has begun in the nuclear auxiliary part. The main Brennilis contract will be completed in mid- 2008 and dismantling works will restart after renewal of the decree which was cancelled in mid-2007. Treatment of sodium from Creys Malville is about to begin, leading to elimination of the sodium risk by 2013. The very low activity waste (TFA) and low to medium activity waste (FA-MA) removal chains are operational. The intermediate activity/long lived (MA-VL) waste will be stored in a facility which will be brought into operational service in 2012. The graphite storage center is due to open between 2017 and 2019

  4. Corrosion behaviour of zircaloy 4 fuel rod cladding in EDF power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romary, H; Deydier, D [EDF, Direction de l` Equipment SEPTEN, Villeurbanne (France)

    1997-02-01

    Since the beginning of the French nuclear program, a surveillance of fuel has been carried out in order to evaluate the fuel behaviour under irradiation. Until now, nuclear fuels provided by suppliers have met EDF requirements concerning fuel behaviour and reliability. But, the need to minimize the costs and to increase the flexibility of the power plants led EDF to the definition of new targets: optimization of the core management and fuel cycle economy. The fuel behaviour experience shows that some of these new requirements cannot be fully fulfilled by the present standard fuel due to some technological limits. Particularly, burnup enhancement is limited by the oxidation and the hydriding of the Zircaloy 4 fuel rod cladding. Also, fuel suppliers and EDF need to have a better knowledge of the Zy-4 cladding behaviour in order to define the existing margins and the limiting factors. For this reason, in-reactor fuel characterization programs have been set up by fuel suppliers and EDF for a few years. This paper presents the main results and conclusions of EDF experience on Zy-4 in-reactor corrosion behaviour. Data obtained from oxide layer or zirconia thickness measurements show that corrosion performance of Zy-4 fuel rod cladding, as irradiated until now in EDF reactors, is satisfactory but not sufficient to meet the future needs. The fuel suppliers propose in order to improve the corrosion resistance of fuel rod cladding, low tin Zy-4 cladding and then optimized Zy-4 cladding. Irradiation of these claddings are ongoing. The available corrosion data show the better in-reactor corrosion resistance of optimized Zy-4 fuel rod cladding compared to the standard Zy-4 cladding. The scheduled fuel surveillance program will confirm if the optimized Zy-4 fuel rod cladding will meet the requirements for the future high burnup and high flexibility fuel. (author). 10 refs, 19 figs, 4 tabs.

  5. Fine structure and spectral index measurements in natural uranium - graphite lattices; Mesures fines dans des reseaux a graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogne, F; Journet, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The experiments described in this report have been carried out for the most part in the critical facility MARIUS, and a few during the start up of the EDF-1 power reactor. The first part deals with the fine structure measurements made in various lattices and with their analysis. Integration over the neutron spectrum of the mono-kinetic disadvantage factor derived by the A.B.H method yields results in good agreement with the experiments. The second part deals with spectral indexes measurements (Pu/U, In/Mn) made at room temperature in MARIUS. Comparison are made of experiments with calculations using various thermalization models. Experiments carried out at higher temperatures in EDF-1 are also described. (authors) [French] Les mesures decrites dans ce rapport ont ete faites pour la plupart dans l'empilement critique MARIUS sur des reseaux a graphite-uranium naturel. Une premiere partie traite des mesures de structure fine faites dans differents reseaux et de leur interpretation. On montre en particulier qu'une integration sur le spectre d'un calcul monocinetique type A.B.H. rend bien compte des experiences. Dans une deuxieme partie, on donne les resultats de mesures d'indices de spectre Pu/U et In/Mn faites sur des reseaux froids a MARIUS et leur comparaison avec les differents modeles de calculs de thermalisation. On donne egalement les resultats de quelques mesures en temperature effectuees lors du demarrage du reacteur EDF-1. (auteurs)

  6. Velocity Analysis Using Nonhyperbolic Move-Out in Anisotropic Media of Arbitrary Symmetry: Synthetic and Field Data Studies Analyse de vitesse par correction non hyperbolique des indicatrices dans les milieux anisotropes de symétrie arbitraire : étude sur des données synthétiques et réelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabti H.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A robust method for estimating the interval parameters (i. e. the normal move-out velocity Vnmo and the anisotropy parameter h of horizontally layered transversely isotropic media from reflected P-waves data has been recently proposed by Alkhalifah (1997 based on move-out equation from Tsvankin and Thomsen (1994. The method, tested on synthetic and field data, is based first on semblance analysis on nonhyberbolic (i. e. long spread move-out for the estimation of the effective parameters, and then on a layer stripping process. Sayers and Ebrom (1997 recently proposed another nonhyperbolic traveltime equation and a corresponding interval velocity analysis which can be used for azimuthally anisotropic layered media. The method was tested on synthetic and physical model data in homogeneous anisotropic media of various symmetry. Here we propose a generalization of the method proposed by Alkhalifah, which can deal with arbitrary, but moderately (i. e. anisotropy strength of roughly 20%, anisotropic layered media. The parametrization is a natural extension of the parametrization used by the previous author and based on generalized Thomsen's parameters (Thomsen, 1986 proposed by Mensch and Rasolofosaon (1997. The method is first applied to synthetic data on a six layer model of contrasted anisotropy (type and magnitude. The robustness of the method is demonstrated. All the interval parameters (here Vnmo and the horizontal velocity Vh are estimated with reasonable errors (typically Une méthode fiable, permettant d'estimer les paramètres d'intervalle (i. e. la vitesse de normal move-outVnmo et le paramètre d'anisotropie h dans les milieux tabulaires transversalement isotropes à partir des ondes P réfléchies, a été proposée récemment par Alkhalifah (1997. Elle est basée sur l'équation du temps de trajet réfléchi développée par Tsvankin et Thomsen (1994. Cette méthode, testée sur des données synthétiques et expérimentales, consiste en

  7. EdF in the core of UK's nuclear industry... before expecting more

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moal, C.

    2008-01-01

    With the announcement at the end of September 2008 of EdF's friendly takeover bid on British Energy, the French group confirms its will of dominating the European nuclear industry before going back to the assault of the US market. Together, EdF and British Energy (owner of 8 NPPs (9.5 GW) and 1 coal-fired power plant (2 GW)) will make a turnover of 11.9 billion euro with 19800 employees and 85.6 TWh of production. Short paper. (J.S.)

  8. Station blackout: Deterministic and probabilistic approach in the field of electrical supply losses by EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meslin, T.; Carnino, A.

    1986-01-01

    This example shows the thoroughness of EDF's approach in processing the difficult problems of the loss of electrical power supplies. Efforts are continuing in several directions: continued revision and improvement of operating procedures in the event of loss of electrical power supplies, PWR plant operator training courses devoted to the problems of power supply losses, and continued testing on simulators, and particularly testing under real conditions, including tests lasting several hours made possible by the performance of the new EDF simulators (two-phase code and taking all power losses into account)

  9. Single-longitudinal-mode BEFL incorporating a Bragg grating written in EDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ya; Sun, Junqiang; Chen, Guodong; Xie, Heng

    2015-06-01

    A stable and tunable single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) Brillouin/Erbium fiber laser (BEFL) with narrow linewidth is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A uniform Bragg grating written in a segment of unpumped Erbium-doped fiber (EDF) is incorporated as an auto-tracking filter to achieve SLM operation. A length of 5 m pumped EDF is used to provide both Brillouin and linear gain in the cavity. The linewidth is measured to be 18 kHz and the lasing peak power fluctuation and wavelength shift are monitored less than 0.027 dB and 2 pm respectively.

  10. EDF nuclear fuel cycle: report for the HCTISN meeting on the 20 of November 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The first part of this report describes the different steps of the EDF fuel cycle and the associated flows: overview, description of each step (natural uranium mines, enrichment, fabrication, production in reactors, processing, recycling). The second part deals with valuable materials and wastes (history of waste flows since 1994, MOX flows since 1994). It presents supply sources and flows (diversification to ensure supply safety, flows among different supply steps) and actions performed by EDF to promote information. Some propositions are given to improve information

  11. Elementary students’ affective variables in a networked learning environment supported by a blog: a case study / Variables affectives des élèves du primaire dans un contexte d'apprentissage en réseau soutenu par un blogue: une étude de cas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Allaire

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study documents to what extent writing on a blog in a blended learning environment could influence the affective variables of elementary-school students’ writing. We grounded our framework more specifically in Deci and Ryan’s theory of self-determination. Our research team used both pre and post-tests and we conducted the analysis on the basis of inferential and correlational statistics using SPSS 17®. Results indicate an increase in motivation to write in pupils who used the blog, whereas the number of comments made per post did not seem to have any definitive impact on this subject. Cette étude documente dans quelle mesure l'écriture de blogues dans un contexte d'apprentissage en réseau peut influencer les variables affectives de l'écriture chez les élèves du primaire. Le cadre d’analyse est fondé plus spécifiquement sur la théorie de l'autodétermination (Deci & Ryan, 1985, sur le rapport à l'écriture (Chartrand et Prince, 2009 et sur la théorie transactionnelle de Rosenblatt (1991. L’équipe de recherche a conduit des tests avant et après l’exercice d’écriture afin de mesurer les variables affectives. L’analyse est basée sur des statistiques déductives et corrélationnelles, traitées avec SPSS 17®. L’analyse qualitative est également utilisée pour identifier les intentions d’écriture et les thèmes des messages affichés sur le blogue. Les résultats indiquent une augmentation de la motivation d'écrire chez les élèves ayant utilisé le blogue, tandis que le nombre de commentaires formulés par message ne semble pas avoir eu d’effet décisif.

  12. Pratiques discursives et enjeux du pathos dans la présentation de l’Intifada al-Aqsa par la presse écrite en France Discursive Practices and the Stakes of Pathos in the Presentation of the Al-Aqsa Intifada in the French Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Sukiennik

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Mon étude porte sur les formes de mise en scène pratiquées par le discours qui construit les effets de pathos, et plus particulièrement sur la pitié et l’appel à la pitié. Mon cadre de recherche se limite à la mise en mots de l’Intifada al-Aqsa dans la presse écrite française. L’Intifada a éclaté en Israël et dans les « territoires occupés » en septembre 2000. Je me propose de problématiser ici la question paradoxale de la contribution au pathos de trois effets d’objectivité notoires : la citation ou le discours rapporté, les indications chiffrées et quelques effets de réel notoires, tels que les descriptions de paysages et les portraits de protagonistes palestiniens et israéliens. Il n’est pas rare en effet que les auteurs des articles de mon corpus utilisent l’instrument de la compassion en tant que procédé argumentatif alors que la déontologie de l’écriture de presse présente le devoir de neutralité rationnelle comme une obligation fondamentale.My study is based on the patterns of discourse which produce emotion and more particularly pity and the appeal to pity. My research is limited to the verbal description of Al-Aqsa Intifada in the French press, in Israel and in the “Occupied Territories” during September 2000. My purpose is to show how three effects of objectivity, namely quotation or direct speech, the appeal to numbers and some effects of reality such as the descriptions of landscapes and the portrayal of Palestinian and Israeli protagonists, actually contribute to the production of pathos. I will show that contrary to the code of ethics of the written press, which consists of presenting rational neutrality as a formal obligation of the press, compassion as an argumentative means is quite frequently used by the authors of the articles in question.

  13. It's quicker "Par Avignon"!

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    For a few years, the CERN Library has been receiving books from the University of Hanover sent via Avignon, at least that's what it says on the envelope. Such a detour would mean that parcels were travelling 720 km more than the distance separating Geneva and Hanover, which would be a very strange state of affairs. The explanation lies in a spelling mistake. The sender has been stamping parcels with a stamp that says "Par Avignon prioritaire" (first-class via Avignon) instead of "Par Avion prioritaire" (First Class Air Mail), a source of much amusement to the librarians!

  14. Five offshore wind farms by EDF, GDF Suez and Iberdrola. France; Vijf offshore windparken door EDF, GDF Suez en Iberdrola. Frankrijk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polo-Leemreis, J. [TWA Netwerk, Paris (France)

    2012-02-15

    Five offshore wind farms are planned to be built off the Northwest coast of France. On 11 January 2012, three international consortia, led by the French businesses EDF EN (Energie Nouvelles), GDF Suez and the Spanish business Iberdrola, submitted their project proposals to this end. The French government highly values the contribution that offshore wind farms can make to the development of a new industrial sector. This would bring highly needed benefits to the French economy [Dutch] Voor de Noordwest-kust van Frankrijk moeten vijf offshore windparken komen. Op 11 januari 2012 hebben drie internationale consortia onder leiding van de Franse bedrijven EDF EN (Energies Nouvelles), GDF Suez en het Spaanse Iberdrola hun projectvoorstellen hiervoor ingediend. De Franse regering hecht veel waarde aan de bijdrage die offshore windparken kunnen leveren aan de ontwikkeling van een nieuwe industriele sector. De Franse economie zou dit goed kunnen gebruiken.

  15. EDF - Electricite de France. Results 1997. 1997: The enterprise prepares for competition; EDF - Electricite de France. Resultats 1997. 1997: L'entreprise se prepare a la concurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    In 1997 the energy production of the French Electricity Company EDF (Electricite de France) reached the value of 457.7 billion kWh, of which 82% is nuclear, 14% hydraulic and 4% classical thermal power. The management of maintenance annual intervention allowed and availability of the nuclear sector of 82.6%. The safety level was also maintained at a high value. The quality of the supplied electricity has been improved continuously: the annual average interruption duration for low voltage supply has been reduced from 1.35 h in 1996 to 1.06 h in 1997. Sale volume in France (369.9 billion kWh) is 0.7% lower than in 1996. EDF remains the first electricity exporter in Europe. The EDF has strengthened in 1997 its international development. FF 4.2 billions have been invested in Europe, Latin America and Asia. A social policy has been developed in favor of employee, particularly, young people acting toward enterprise's development, better management and working time reduction. In the frame of its relation with the state the EDF Company has signed a new contract for the period 1997-2000 which will allow reaching its ambition: becoming a public service of reference in Europe and its promotion as leader in industrial services, in the electric sector of France and on the international market. The results of this first year has confirmed the course adopted. The report contains the following seven chapters: 1. Relations with the state and the evolution of the institutional frame; 2. The financial results and administration; 3. Technical results; 4. Development in France; 5. International development; 6. Social and human resources; 7. Environment.

  16. EDF - Electricite de France. Results 1997. 1997: The enterprise prepares for competition; EDF - Electricite de France. Resultats 1997. 1997: L'entreprise se prepare a la concurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    In 1997 the energy production of the French Electricity Company EDF (Electricite de France) reached the value of 457.7 billion kWh, of which 82% is nuclear, 14% hydraulic and 4% classical thermal power. The management of maintenance annual intervention allowed and availability of the nuclear sector of 82.6%. The safety level was also maintained at a high value. The quality of the supplied electricity has been improved continuously: the annual average interruption duration for low voltage supply has been reduced from 1.35 h in 1996 to 1.06 h in 1997. Sale volume in France (369.9 billion kWh) is 0.7% lower than in 1996. EDF remains the first electricity exporter in Europe. The EDF has strengthened in 1997 its international development. FF 4.2 billions have been invested in Europe, Latin America and Asia. A social policy has been developed in favor of employee, particularly, young people acting toward enterprise's development, better management and working time reduction. In the frame of its relation with the state the EDF Company has signed a new contract for the period 1997-2000 which will allow reaching its ambition: becoming a public service of reference in Europe and its promotion as leader in industrial services, in the electric sector of France and on the international market. The results of this first year has confirmed the course adopted. The report contains the following seven chapters: 1. Relations with the state and the evolution of the institutional frame; 2. The financial results and administration; 3. Technical results; 4. Development in France; 5. International development; 6. Social and human resources; 7. Environment.

  17. EDF's experience with supercomputing and challenges ahead - towards multi-physics and multi-scale approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M.; Banner, D. [Electricite de France (EDF)- R and D Division, 92 - Clamart (France)

    2003-07-01

    Nuclear power plants are a major asset of the EDF company. To remain so, in particular in a context of deregulation, competitiveness, safety and public acceptance are three conditions. These stakes apply both to existing plants and to future reactors. The purpose of the presentation is to explain how supercomputing can help EDF to satisfy these requirements. Three examples are described in detail: ensuring optimal use of nuclear fuel under wholly safe conditions, understanding and simulating the material deterioration mechanisms and moving forward with numerical simulation for the performance of EDF's activities. In conclusion, a broader vision of EDF long term R and D in the field of numerical simulation is given and especially of five challenges taken up by EDF together with its industrial and scientific partners. (author)

  18. Le CRDI investit dans la recherche et les connaissances afin de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    23 févr. 2018 ... (HomeNet South Asia Trust, 574 000 $ ; et Indian Institute for Human Settlements, 312 200 $) ... (Sedane Labour Resource Centre, 675 900 $) ... (par example Facebook, Twitter, Amazon) dans dix contextes locaux ou ...

  19. Lambeaux autofermants pour le traitement des brulures electriques du scalp par haut voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafidi, J.; El Mazouz, S.; El Mejatti, H.; Fejjal, N.; Gharib, N.E.; Abbassi, A.; Belmahi, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Les brûlures électriques par haut voltage sont responsables de gros dégâts tissulaires en immédiat et dans les jours suivant l’accident du fait de la chaleur importante dégagée par effet joule et de la thrombose microvasculaire évolutive. Les pertes de substances du scalp secondaires à ces brûlures nécessitent une couverture par lambeaux vu la destruction du périoste et du calvarium en regard. De juin 1997 à juin 2008, 15 patients ont été traités pour des pertes de substance du scalp secondaires à des brûlures électriques par haut voltage de diamètre allant de 8 à 11 cm et siégeant dans la région tonsurale. Ces patients ont été opérés dans la première semaine suivant l’accident. Les pertes de substance du scalp de taille moyenne secondaires à ces brûlures peuvent être couvertes per primam de façon fiable par des lambeaux locaux axialisés et multiples. Nous relatons l’expérience du Service de Chirurgie Plastique du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Ibn-Sina, Rabat, Maroc, dans la gestion et la prise en charge de ces brûlures. PMID:22262963

  20. Etude par simulation hil des performances d'un statcom pour la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ce travail présente l'étude par simulation Hardware In the Loop (HIL) des performances d'un STATCOM pour la stabilisation de la tension délivrée par une génératrice asynchrone triphasée auto excitée dans un réseau autonome. Nous avons combiné l'utilisation du logiciel de simulation LABVIEW et la carte ARDUINO ...

  1. The Determination of Uranium in Urine by Delayed Neutron Counting; Dosage de l'Uranium dans l'Urine par Comptage des Neutrons Differes; Opredelenie soderzhaniya urana v moche putem scheta zapazdyvayushchikh nejtronov; Determinacion del Uranio Contenido en la Orina por Recuento de Neutrones Retardados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookes, I. R. [Atomic Weapons Research Establishment, Aldermaston, Berks. (United Kingdom)

    1965-10-15

    For this method {sup 235}U is assayed by counting delayed neutrons emitted following the fission of {sup 235}U in the sample with thermal neutrons. The three groups of neutrons of interest have half-lives of 55.72, 22.72 and 6.22 s. A 100-ml sample of urine is evaporated to dryness on a water bath. The residue is transferred with about 4-5 ml of water to a 1-oz polythene bottle which is then heat sealed. The sample bottle is put into a ''rabbit'' and sent through a pneumatic tube system to the HERALD reactor core where it is irradiated in a thermal flux of 3.94 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup 2}/s. The sample automatically returns to the laboratory after 60 s irradiation where the sample bottle is transferred to the counter. This counter is switched on 25 s after the sample has left the reactor and counts the sample for 1 min. Blank samples consist of urine from persons occupationally unexposed to uranium and the calibration standard is a known amount of {sup 235}U (as natural uranium). The limit of detection is 0.020 pCi of 93% enriched uranium (0.007 of the maximum permissible body- burden) and 0.036 {mu}g of natural uranium per 100 ml of urine. The limit of detection is governed by the magnitude of the blank count. The main component of the blank is the response of the counter to {gamma}-radiation from activation products in irradiated urine. The counting and irradiation cycle takes about 3 Vulgar-Fraction-One-Half min and 50 samples at one time may be evaporated and bottled in the working day. Interference from {sup 239}Pu is likely to be negligible for the purposes of urine analysis. (author) [French] U methode decrite consiste a doser l'uranium-235 d'un echantillon en comptant les neutrons differes emis lors de la fission de {sup 235}U par neutrons thermiques. Les trois groupes de neutrons qui presentent un interet ont des periodes de 55,72, 22, 72 et 6, 22 s. On fait evaporer 100 ml d'urine au bain-marie. Le residu est transvase avec 4 a 5 ml d'eau dans un flacon en

  2. Preparation of Uranium Dioxide by Electrochemical Reduction in Ammonium Carbonate Solutions and Subsequent Precipitation; Preparation de bioxyde d'uranium par reduction electrochimique dans des solutions de carbonate d'ammonium et precipitation; Prigotovlenie dvuokisi urana metodom ehlektrokhimicheskogo vosstanovleniya v rastvore karbonata ammoniya s posleduyushchim osazhdeniem; Preparacion de dioxido de uranio por reduccion electroquimica en soluciones de carbonato amonico u precipitacion subsiguiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pravdic, V.; Branica, M.; Pucar, Z. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Serbia)

    1963-11-15

    'il est possible d'obtenir, avec un bon rendement, de l'uranium (IV) en solution carbonatee. Il suffit de chauffer la solution pour faire precipiter l'hydroxyde d'uranium (IV). Afin d'obtenir des matieres en quantites plus importantes, pour les essais technologiques, les auteurs ont fait une experience en plus grand. Ils ont construit une cellule d'electrolyse en chlorure de polyvynile dur, avec une cathode de mercure (environ 2,5dm{sup 2} ) et des anodes de platine. Le catholyte etait separe de l'anolyte par des membranes echangeuses de cations. Le catholyte circulait entre deux reservoirs de 50 1 et passait sur la cathode de mercure soumise a une agitation energique. Le potentiel du mercure etait controle par reference a une electrode temoin de Ag/AgCl/KCl (sat.), et maintenu constant a -1,5 V. Le rendement du courant etait d'environ 90% et la consommation d'energie, pour l'operation de reduction, d'environ 0,8 kWh/kg de bioxyde d'uranium. A la fin de l'electrolyse, on a provoque la precipitation par simple chauffage de la solution (limpide, d'un vert fonce) jusqu'a une temperature de 70 deg. C, dans un autre recipient tout en verre, de 60 1. Sur 50 1 de solution catholytique, on a obtenu 1 kg de produit centrifuge (contenant environ 20% d'eau). L'analyse coulombmetrique du rapport O/U a toujours donne des resultats compris entre 2,04 et 2,09. La methode decrite permet de faire precipiter l'hydroxyde d'uranium (IV) seul et le rapport O/U dans le precipite est independant du degre atteint par la reduction. En analysant la poudre par diffraction des rayons X, on a identifie le produit comme etant la phase alpha du bioxyde d'uranium. On procede maintenant a des experiences de frittage et a l'etude des caracteristiques du bioxyde d'uranium ainsi obtenu pour determiner s'il peut servir a la fabrication de combustible nucleaire ceramique. (author) [Spanish] Se intento ampliar la escala del proceso con el fin de obtener las cantidades de material que requieren los ensayos

  3. Thermal Evolution of Crude Oils in Sedimentary Basins: Experimental Simulation in a Confined System and Kinetic Modeling Evolution thermique des huiles dans les bassins sédimentaires : simulation expérimentale par pyrolyse en milieu confiné et modélisation cinétique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behar F.

    2006-11-01

    coefficients alphaij were optimized with reference to a dataset comprising the final compositions resulting from oil pyrolysis experiments. This optimization was carried out successively on each distillate and each residue, on both distillate and residue from the same oil, then on the two distillates and two residues altogether. The model accounts satisfactorily for the specific kinetics of cracking of both each oil and of the two oils together, suggesting that it is now possible to predict the thermal behavior of a given oil provided the proportions of the ten fractions selected for the model are known. The wide temperature range in which the model is valid, supports its extrapolation to the temperature range of sedimentary basins. Une meilleure connaissance des mécanismes du craquage thermique des huiles doit permettre de mieux comprendre leur évolution naturelle dans les bassins sédimentaires et donc d'améliorer les modèles actuels utilisés pour prédire la formation du gaz. Bien que les mécanismes de craquage soient bien connus pour des composés modèles ou des mélanges simples d'hydrocarbures, il n'existe pas à l'heure actuelle, à l'exception des modèles empiriques, de méthode pour rendre compte de la dégradation thermique des mélanges complexes, surtout, lorsque ces derniers sont enrichis en produits lourds. Au cours du craquage thermique, une huile produira à la fois des composés plus légers et des composés plus lourds que la charge initiale. En conséquence, les produits de pyrolyse seront un mélange complexe contenant des produits nouveaux et des composés non encore dégradés. Afin de pouvoir faire la distinction entre réactifs et produits, nous avons choisi de fractionner chaque huile en deux grandes fractions : la première (distillat 300- contenant des hydrocarbures légers de C6 à C16 et la seconde (résidu 300+ contenant des hydrocarbures et des produits polaires. Afin de simuler l'évolution thermique des huiles, nous avons réalisé une

  4. Study of the Plugging of Oil Well Sand Control Area in a Polymer Flooding Region Étude du colmatage aux abords des puits d’injection dans un réservoir d’hydrocarbure produit par balayage au polymère

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Dong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The plugging of the oil well sand control area in a polymer flooding region was studied and the plugging substances were analyzed through UV-Vis spectrophotometer analysis, plasma emission spectrometry analysis, laser particle size analysis, X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD analysis, microscopic observation, chromatograph-mass spectrometer, etc. It is inferred that the main reason for the plugging of the sand control area was the adsorption, gathering and bridging of PAM on the surface of the sand. The migration of the mineral fines from the stratum and the adsorption of the crude oil ingredients on the surface of the fines also result in plugging. An experimental study on the polymer degradation was performed and two types of plug removal agents, potassium persulfate and sodium thiosulfate, were selected and tested. It showed that potassium persulfate and sodium thiosulfate could degrade the plugging substances and recover core permeability effectively. Moreover, field application tests were conducted in Gudao oil field which showed the restoration of the performance of various wells. It also indicated that the injection pressure obviously decreased and liquid production per day increased greatly after application of the plug removal agents in the sand control area. Le colmatage des zones de puits où un contrôle de venues de sable est réalisé par injection de polymère a été étudié et les substances à l’origine du colmatage ont été analysées par spectrophotométrie UV-Visible, spectrométrie à émission de plasma, analyse de taille de particules par diffraction laser, diffraction X (DRX, observation microscopique, spectrométrie de masse, etc. Nous avons conclu que la raison principale du colmatage de la zone de contrôle des venues de sable était l’adsorption, l’accumulation et le pontage du polyacrylamide (PAM à la surface du sable. La migration des fines du milieu poreux et l’adsorption de composés du brut à la surface des

  5. EDF Group - Annual Report 2007. European leader for tomorrow's energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The EDF Group is a leading player in the European energy industry, active in all areas of the electricity value chain, from generation to trading and network management. The leader in the French electricity market, the Group also has solid positions in the United Kingdom, Germany and Italy, with a portfolio of 38.5 million European customers and a generation fleet which is unique in the world. It intends to play a major role in the global revival of nuclear and is increasingly active in the gas chain. The Group has a sound business model, evenly balanced between regulated and deregulated activities. Given its R and D capability, its track record and expertise in nuclear, fossil-fired and hydro generation and in renewable energies, together with its energy eco-efficiency offers, EDF is well placed to deliver competitive solutions to reconcile sustainable economic growth and climate preservation. This document is EDF Group's annual report for the year 2007. It contains information about Group profile, governance, business, development strategy, sales and marketing, positions in Europe and international activities. The document is made of several reports: the Activity and Sustainable Development Report, the Financial Report, the Sustainable Development Report, the Sustainable Development Indicators, and the Report by the Chairman of EDF Board of Directors on corporate governance and internal control procedures

  6. Nuclear tourists: the challenge of EDF's production sites accessibility, 1974-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Fanny

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the evolution of accessibility of Electricite de France (EDF) production sites when the country chose energy independence in 1974. If the nuclear program seems to be at the origins of French industrial tourism, which process made these energy plants a touristic attraction?

  7. Serial elongation derotation flexion (EDF) casting for patients with infantile and juvenile scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavese, Federico; Rousset, Marie; Mansour, Mounira; Samba, Antoine; Dimeglio, Alain

    2016-02-01

    Infantile and juveni