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Sample records for par 400-700 nm

  1. Spectral variations of UV-A and PAR solar radiation in estuarine waters of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Talaulikar, M.; Suresh, T.; Silveira, N.; Desa, E.; Matondkar, S; Lotlikar, A

    radiation (400 to 700 nm), PAR and ultraviolet radiation in the range 350-400 nm (UV-A) are presented here. The mean PAR values at the surface were 327 W/m sup(2) and reduced to 84 W/m sup(2) at first optical depth, Z sub(90) (m) in water. The first optical...

  2. PAR and UVBR effects on photosynthesis, viability, growth and DNA in different life stages of two coexisting Gigartinales : implications for recruitment and zonation pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roleda, MY; van de Poll, WH; Hanelt, D; Wiencke, C

    2004-01-01

    The effects that ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280 to 400 nm) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400 to 700 nm) had on early life stages of Mastocarpus stellatus and Chondrus crispus were studied to determine if differences in UVR tolerance could influence their recruitment success on the

  3. The Effects of UV Radiation on Chloroplast Clumping and Photosynthesis in the Seagrass Halophila stipulacea Grown under High-PAR Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoni Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since potentially harmful ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280–400nm and high photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400700nm are present in the shallow waters of the Gulf of Aqaba where part of the seagrass Halophila stipulacea's population thrives, we examined the effects of high PAR with and without UVR on its photosynthesis and midday chloroplast “clumping phenomenon” (Sharon and Beer 2008. It was found that midday clumping occurred only under high PAR in the presence of UVR, which resulted in a 44% reduction in the absorption cross section (or absorption factor, AF of the leaves and, accordingly, a parallel lowering of midday electron transport rates (ETR. In addition, UVR had a direct effect on the photosynthetic apparatus by lowering quantum yields and, thus, ETRs, while pigment relations remained unaltered. We conclude that the potentially harmful effects of UVR and high PAR on the photosynthetic apparatus of Halophila stipulacea are mitigated by their activation of chloroplast clumping, which functions as a means of protecting most chloroplasts from high irradiances, including UVR.

  4. Microstructure and mechanical properties of titanium aluminum carbides neutron irradiated at 400700 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, Caen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Parish, Chad M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shih, Chunghao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Silva, Chinthaka [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-02-23

    Here, this work reports the first mechanical properties of Ti3AlC2-Ti5Al2C3 materials neutron irradiated at ~400, 630 and 700 °C at a fluence of 2 × 1025 n m-2 (E > 0.1 MeV) or a displacement dose of ~2 dpa. After irradiation at ~400 °C, anisotropic swelling and loss of 90% flexural strength was observed. After irradiation at ~630–700 °C, properties were unchanged. Microcracking and kinking-delamination had occurred during irradiation at ~630–700 °C. Further examination showed no cavities in Ti3AlC2 after irradiation at ~630 °C, and MX and A lamellae were preserved. However, disturbance of (0004) reflections corresponding to M-A layers was observed, and the number density of line/planar defects was ~1023 m-3 of size 5–10 nm. HAADF identified these defects as antisite TiAl atoms. Finally, Ti3AlC2-Ti5Al2C3 shows abrupt dynamic recovery of A-layers from ~630 °C, but a higher temperature appears necessary for full recovery.

  5. Row orientation effect on UV-B, UV-A and PAR solar irradiation components in vineyards at Tuscany, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoni, D.; Carreras, G.; Zipoli, G.; Sabatini, F.; Dalla Marta, A.; Orlandini, S.

    2008-11-01

    Besides playing an essential role in plant photosynthesis, solar radiation is also involved in many other important biological processes. In particular, it has been demonstrated that ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation plays a relevant role in grapevines ( Vitis vinifera) in the production of certain important chemical compounds directly responsible for yield and wine quality. Moreover, the exposure to UV-B radiation (280-320 nm) can affect plant-disease interaction by influencing the behaviour of both pathogen and host. The main objective of this research was to characterise the solar radiative regime of a vineyard, in terms of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and UV components. In this analysis, solar spectral UV irradiance components, broadband UV (280-400 nm), spectral UV-B and UV-A (320-400 nm), the biological effective UVBE, as well as the PAR (400-700 nm) component, were all considered. The diurnal patterns of these quantities and the UV-B/PAR and UV-B/UV-A ratios were analysed to investigate the effect of row orientation of the vineyard in combination with solar azimuth and elevation angles. The distribution of PAR and UV irradiance at various heights of the vertical sides of the rows was also studied. The results showed that the highest portion of plants received higher levels of daily radiation, especially the UV-B component. Row orientation of the vines had a pronounced effect on the global PAR received by the two sides of the rows and, to a lesser extent, UV-A and UV-B. When only the diffused component was considered, this geometrical effect was greatly attenuated. UV-B/PAR and UV-A/PAR ratios were also affected, with potential consequences on physiological processes. Because of the high diffusive capacity of the UV-B radiation, the UV-B/PAR ratio was significantly lower on the plant portions exposed to full sunlight than on those in the shade.

  6. UVR-induced photosynthetic inhibition dominates over DNA damage in marine dinoflagellates exposed to fluctuating solar radiation regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbling, E. Walter; Buma, Anita G. J.; van de Poll, Willem; Fernandez Zenoff, M. Veronica; Villafane, Virginia E.

    2008-01-01

    The combined effect of solar radiation (UV-B (280-315 nm), UWA (315-400 nm) and PAR (400-700 nm)) and vertical mixing (i.e., fluctuating radiation regimes) on the marine dinoflagellates Gymnodinium chlorophorum, Heterocapsa triquetra and Prorocentrum micans was investigated during the austral spring

  7. Does ultraviolet radiation affect the xanthophyll cycle in marine phytoplankton?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Poll, W.H.; Buma, A.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    This Perspective summarizes the state of knowledge of the impact of ultraviolet radiation on the photoprotective xanthophyll cycle in marine phytoplankton. Excess photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR; 280-400 nm) affect various cellular processes and

  8. MODIS-derived daily PAR simulation from cloud-free images and its validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Liangfu; Gu, Xingfa; Tian, Guoliang [State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100101 (China); The Center for National Spaceborne Demonstration, Beijing 100101 (China); Gao, Yanhua [State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100101 (China); Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Yang, Lei [State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100101 (China); Jilin University, Changchun 130026 (China); Liu, Qinhuo [State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2008-06-15

    In this paper, a MODIS-derived daily PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) simulation model from cloud-free image over land surface has been developed based on Bird and Riordan's model. In this model, the total downwelling spectral surface irradiance is divided into two parts: one is beam irradiance, and another is diffuse irradiance. The attenuation of solar beam irradiance comprises scattering by the gas mixture, absorption by ozone, the gas mixture and water vapor, and scattering and absorption by aerosols. The diffuse irradiance is scattered out of the direct beam and towards the surface. The multiple ground-air interactions have been taken into account in the diffuse irradiance model. The parameters needed in this model are atmospheric water vapor content, aerosol optical thickness and spectral albedo ranging from 400 nm to 700 nm. They are all retrieved from MODIS data. Then, the instantaneous photosynthetically available radiation (IPAR) is integrated by using a weighted sum at each of the visible MODIS wavebands. Finally, a daily PAR is derived by integration of IPAR. In order to validate the MODIS-derived PAR model, we compared the field PAR measurements in 2003 and 2004 against the simulated PAR. The measurements were made at the Qianyanzhou ecological experimental station, Chinese Ecosystem Research Network. A total of 54 days of cloud-free MODIS L1B level images were used for the PAR simulation. Our results show that the simulated PAR is consistent with field measurements, where the correlation coefficient of linear regression between calculated PAR and measured PAR is 0.93396. However, there were some uncertainties in the comparison of 1 km pixel PAR with the tower flux stand measurement. (author)

  9. Process of treating carbonaceous materials. [400 to 700/sup 0/C, high vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, O J

    1913-11-24

    A process is given of treating carbonaceous materials, characterized by the material being submitted simultaneously to a temperature of 400 to 700/sup 0/C, a pressure between 5.0 mm of mercury under atmospheric and a practically perfect vacuum, and by the volatile material able to condense under the vacuum used being condensed practically under the same pressure for the production of a high proportion of condensable products and a superior fuel.

  10. UTILITY OF A WIDE SPECTRUM LIGHT METER AS AN UNDERWATER SENSOR OF PHOTOSYNTHETICALLY ACTIVE RADIATION (PAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The strong attenuation of infra red wavelengths (>700 nm) in coastal waters is suggestive that some instruments with broad spectral responses might be useful, inexpensive substitutes for PAR sensors in studies of estuarine plant dynamics. Wide spectrum (350-1100 nm) light intensi...

  11. Cryogenic Etching of High Aspect Ratio 400 nm Pitch Silicon Gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Houxun; Chen, Lei; Mirzaeimoghri, Mona; Kasica, Richard; Wen, Han

    2016-10-01

    The cryogenic process and Bosch process are two widely used processes for reactive ion etching of high aspect ratio silicon structures. This paper focuses on the cryogenic deep etching of 400 nm pitch silicon gratings with various etching mask materials including polymer, Cr, SiO 2 and Cr-on-polymer. The undercut is found to be the key factor limiting the achievable aspect ratio for the direct hard masks of Cr and SiO 2 , while the etch selectivity responds to the limitation of the polymer mask. The Cr-on-polymer mask provides the same high selectivity as Cr and reduces the excessive undercut introduced by direct hard masks. By optimizing the etching parameters, we etched a 400 nm pitch grating to ≈ 10.6 μ m depth, corresponding to an aspect ratio of ≈ 53.

  12. Physiological responses and toxin production of Microcystis aeruginosa in short-term exposure to solar UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, Marcelo; Minaglia, Melina Celeste Crettaz; Malanga, Gabriela; Houghton, Christian; Andrinolo, Darío; Sedan, Daniela; Rosso, Lorena; Giannuzzi, Leda

    2018-01-17

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-term (hours) exposure to solar UV radiation (UVR, 280-400 nm) on the physiology of Microcystis aeruginosa. Three solar radiation treatments were implemented: (i) PAR (PAR, 400-700 nm), (ii) TUVA (PAR + UVAR, 315-700 nm) and (iii) TUVR (PAR + UVAR + UVBR, 280-700 nm). Differential responses of antioxidant enzymes and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production to UVR were observed. Antioxidant enzymes were more active at high UVR doses. However, different responses were observed depending on the exposure to UVAR or UVBR and the dose level. No effects were observed on the biomass, ROS production or increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) compared to the control when UVR + PAR doses were lower than 9875 kJ m -2 . For intermediate doses, UVR + PAR doses between 9875 and 10 275 kJ m -2 , oxidative stress increased while resistance was imparted through SOD and CAT in the cells exposed to UVAR. Despite the increased antioxidant activity, biomass decrease and photosynthesis inhibition were observed, but no effects were observed with added exposure to UVBR. At the highest doses (UVR + PAR higher than 10 275 kJ m -2 ), the solar UVR caused decreased photosynthesis and biomass with only activation of CAT by UVBR and SOD and CAT by UVAR. In addition, for such doses, a significant decrease of microcystins (MCs, measured as MC-LR equivalents) was observed as a consequence of UVAR. This study facilitates our understanding of the SOD and CAT protection according to UVAR and UVBR doses and cellular damage and reinforces the importance of UVR as an environmental stressor. In addition, our results support the hypothesized antioxidant function of MCs.

  13. The efficacy of selective calculus ablation at 400 nm: comparison to conventional calculus removal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenly, Joshua E.; Seka, Wolf; Romanos, Georgios; Rechmann, Peter

    A desired outcome of scaling and root planing is the complete removal of calculus and infected root tissue and preservation of healthy cementum for rapid healing of periodontal tissues. Conventional periodontal treatments for calculus removal, such as hand instrument scaling and ultrasonic scaling, often deeply scrape the surface of the underlying hard tissue and may leave behind a smear layer. Pulsed lasers emitting at violet wavelengths (specifically, 380 to 400 nm) are a potential alternative treatment since they can selectively ablate dental calculus without ablating pristine hard tissue (i.e., enamel, cementum, and dentin). In this study, light and scanning electron microscopy are used to compare and contrast the efficacy of in vitro calculus removal for several conventional periodontal treatments (hand instruments, ultrasonic scaler, and Er:YAG laser) to calculus removal with a frequency-doubled Ti:sapphire (λ = 400 nm). After calculus removal, enamel and cementum surfaces are investigated for calculus debris and damage to the underlying hard tissue surface. Compared to the smear layer, grooves, and unintentional hard tissue removal typically found using these conventional treatments, calculus removal using the 400-nm laser is complete and selective without any removal of pristine dental hard tissue. Based on these results, selective ablation from the 400-nm laser appears to produce a root surface that would be more suitable for successful healing of periodontal tissues.

  14. Vulnerability and acclimation of Mediterranean Sea macroalgae, to environmental stress related to climate change: use of indicators physiological state = Vulnerabilidad y aclimatación de macroalgas del Mar Mediterráneo, frente al estrés ambiental derivado del Cambio Climático: uso de indicadores del estado fisiológico

    OpenAIRE

    Celis Plá, Paula Soledad María

    2015-01-01

    [eng] In this thesis, the vulnerability and capacity of acclimation to environmental stress related to Climate change mainly in Cystoseira tamariscifolia and other species as Ellisolandia elongata, Cystoseira compressa and Padina pavonica are evaluated. The effects of physical stressors as elevated irradiance of PAR (lambda=400-700 nm) and UVR (lambda=280-400 nm) and temperature and chemical stressors as nutrient, heavy metals and CO2, separately and in interaction with different levels were...

  15. Bragg grating photo-inscription in doped microstructured polymer optical fiber by 400 nm femtosecond laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, X.; Woyessa, Getinet; Kinet, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report the manufacturing of high-quality endlessly single-mode doped microstructured poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) optical fibers. Bragg gratings are photo-inscribed in such fibers by means of 400 nm femtosecond laser pulses through a 1060-nm-period uniform phase mask...

  16. Photolysis of butenedial at 193, 248, 280, 308, 351, 400, and 450 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongxin; Zhu, Lei

    2005-06-01

    We have studied the photolysis of butenedial at 193, 248, 280, 308, 351, 400, and 450 nm by using laser photolysis combined with cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The HCO radical is a photodissociation product at 193 and 248 nm. The corresponding HCO quantum yields are 0.55 ± 0.07 and 0.12 ± 0.01, independent of butenedial pressure and nitrogen buffer gas pressure. Absorption cross-sections of butenedial are (6.88 ± 0.39) × 10 -18 and (3.62 ± 0.69) × 10 -19 cm 2 at 193 and 248 nm. The end-products from the photolysis of butenedial at 193, 248, 308, and 351 nm were measured by FTIR. Acrolein and 3H-furan-2-one were observed and their yields have been estimated.

  17. Ellipticity dependence of high harmonics generated using 400 nm driving lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yan; Khan, Sabih; Zhao, Kun; Zhao, Baozhen; Chini, Michael; Chang, Zenghu

    2011-05-01

    High order harmonics generated from 400 nm driving pulses hold promise of scaling photon flux of single attosecond pulses by one to two orders of magnitude. We report ellipticity dependence and phase matching of high order harmonics generated from such pulses in Neon gas target and compared them with similar measurements using 800 nm driving pulses. Based on measured ellipticity dependence, we predict that double optical gating (DOG) and generalized double optical gating (GDOG) can be employed to extract intense single attosecond pulses from pulse train, while polarization gating (PG) may not work for this purpose. This material is supported by the U.S. Army Research Office under grant number W911NF-07-1-0475, and by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy.

  18. Wavelength dependence of the single pulse femtosecond laser ablation threshold of indium phosphide in the 400-2050 nm range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowiec, A.; Tiedje, H.F.; Haugen, H.K.

    2005-01-01

    We present single pulse femtosecond laser ablation threshold measurements of InP obtained by optical, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopy. The experiments were conducted with laser pulses 65-175 fs in duration, in the wavelength range from 400 to 2050 nm, covering the photon energy region above and below the bandgap of InP. The ablation thresholds determined from depth and volume measurements varied from 87 mJ/cm 2 at 400 nm to 250 mJ/cm 2 at 2050 nm. In addition, crater depths and volumes were measured over a range of laser fluences extending well above the ablation threshold

  19. Near-Infrared Phosphorus-Substituted Rhodamine with Emission Wavelength above 700nm for Bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xiaoyun; Cui, Xiaoyan; Wang, Baogang; Yang, Fan; Cai, Yi; Wu, Qiuye; Wang, Ting

    2015-11-16

    Phosphorus has been successfully fused into a classic rhodamine framework, in which it replaces the bridging oxygen atom to give a series of phosphorus-substituted rhodamines (PRs). Because of the electron-accepting properties of the phosphorus moiety, which is due to effective σ*-π* interactions and strengthened by the inductivity of phosphine oxide, PR exhibits extraordinary long-wavelength fluorescence emission, elongating to the region above 700nm, with bathochromic shifts of 140 and 40 nm relative to rhodamine and silicon-substituted rhodamine, respectively. Other advantageous properties of the rhodamine family, including high molar extinction coefficient, considerable quantum efficiency, high water solubility, pH-independent emission, great tolerance to photobleaching, and low cytotoxicity, stay intact in PR. Given these excellent properties, PR is desirable for NIR-fluorescence imaging in vivo. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Ocean dynamic noise energy flux directivity in the 400 Hz to 700 Hz frequency band

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir A. Shchurov; Galina F. Ivanova; Marianna V. Kuyanova; Helen S. Tkachenko

    2007-01-01

    Results of field studies of underwater dynamic noise energy flux directivity at two wind speeds, 6 m/s and 12 m/s, in the 400 Hz to 700 Hz frequency band in the deep open ocean are presented. The measurements were made by a freely drifting telemetric combined system at 500 m depth. Statistical characteristics of the horizontal and vertical dynamic noise energy flux directivity are considered as functions of wind speed and direction. Correlation between the horizontal dynamic noise energy flux direction and that of the wind was determined; a mechanism of the horizontal dynamic noise energy flux generation is related to the initial noise field scattering on ocean surface waves.

  1. Impact des traitements physicochimiques sur la clarte des hydrogels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Méthodes : La préparation est réalisée selon la méthode décrite par PINGNAULT utilisant 4% (P/P) d'amidon en base sèche.Sur les gels obtenu ont été déterminés successivement l'influence de la conservation au froid (4°C) par la méthode de CRAIG, de la longueur d'onde entre 400 et 700 nm, de la concentration en ...

  2. Bragg grating photo-inscription in doped microstructured polymer optical fiber by 400 nm femtosecond laser pulses.

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, X.; Woyessa, Getinet; Kinet, D.; Janting, Jakob; Nielsen, Kristian; Bang, Ole; Mégret, P.; Caucheteur, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report the manufacturing of high-quality endlessly single-mode doped microstructured poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) optical fibers. Bragg gratings are photo-inscribed in such fibers by means of 400 nm femtosecond laser pulses through a 1060-nm-period uniform phase mask. Preliminary results show a rapid growing process of the reflection band. To preserve a good spectral shape, the photo-inscription process was limited to ~20 seconds, yielding an FBG reflectivity close to 40 %.

  3. Responses of phylloplane yeasts to UV-B (290-320 nm) radiation: interspecific differences in sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunasekera, T.S.; Paul, N.D.; Ayres, P.G.

    1997-01-01

    The sensitivity to UV-B (290–320 nm) radiation of common phylloplane yeasts from two contrasting UV-B environments was compared in the laboratory using mixtures of white light (PAR: 400700 nm) and UV-B radiation from artificial lamp sources. Sporidiobolus salmonicolor, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Cryptococcus sp., the dominant yeasts on leaves of tea (Camellia sinensis), were isolated in Sri Lanka (SL), while Sporidiobolus sp. and Bullera alba, dominant on faba bean (Vicia faba), were isolated in the U.K. Dose responses were determined separately for each yeast. UV-B reduced colony forming units (due to cell mortality or inactivation) and colony size (due to reduced multiplication) of all yeasts. The LD 50 values and doses causing 50% reduction of cells per colony were higher for SL isolates than U.K. isolates. Results indicated that each yeast is somewhat vulnerable to UV-B doses representative of its natural habitat. The relative insensitivity of SL isolates was shown when SL and U.K. isolates were irradiated simultaneously with the same dose of UV-B. Of the two U.K. yeasts, B. alba was significantly more sensitive than Sporidiobolus sp. to UV-B. Except for R. mucilaginosa from SL, all yeasts demonstrated some photorepair in the presence of white light. White light provided relatively little protection for the U.K. isolate of Sporidiobolus sp. although it allowed increased colony size. The spectral responses of Sporidiobolus sp. (U.K.) and of B. alba (U.K.) were broadly similar. Wavelengths longer than 320 nm had no measurable effect on colony forming units. However, colony survival was significantly reduced at 310 nm and all shorter wavebands. No colonies were counted at 290 nm or below. (author)

  4. Preliminary results of a randomized trial comparing 400 cGy vs 700 cGy as an adjuvant to prevent heterotopic ossification after total hip arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Cam; Gupta-Burt, Shalina; Silverton, Craig; Cummings, Marilyn; Galante, Jorge O.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: We report our preliminary results of a randomized trial comparing one single dose of 400 cGy versus 700 cGy given postoperatively in an attempt to prevent heterotopic ossification after total hip arthroplasty. Materials and Methods: From 09/1993 and 05/1996, over 800 total hip replacements were performed at our hospital. From this group of patients, 120 hips in 114 high-risk patients (14%) were enrolled in a randomized trial to determine if 400 cGy (Group A) is as efficacious as 700 cGy (Group B) in preventing heterotopic ossification. In Group A, there were 42 males (46 hips) and 12 females (12 hips) with a mean age of 60 (range 41-79); with 18 primary cementless femoral components (33%), 30 primary cemented stems (55%) and 10 revisions. In Group B, there were 30 males (32 hips) and 30 females (31 hips) with a median age of 59 (range 41-85); with 12 primary cementless femoral components (20%), 44 primary cemented stems (73%) and 6 revisions. All acetabular components were of the cementless type. Patients were randomized to receive either 400 cGy or 700 cGy in one fraction. Radiotherapy is given within 48 hours post-operatively using paired anterior and posterior fields, with blocking of the cementless acetabular component and the femoral component. Results: All 114 patients were available for a minimum follow-up of 6 months (range 6-30 months). None of the arthroplasties has failed at the latest follow-up. There were no radiation therapy complications noted. Statistical analysis revealed no difference in the distribution of patients in either group according to age, sex, primary or revision arthroplasty, cemented or cementless femoral component fixation, preoperative heterotopic ossification risk, or surgical approach. Of the 58 hips in Group A, heterotopic ossification was graded as Grade 0 in 24 hips, Grade I in 10 hips, Grade II in 18 hips, Grade III in 6 hips, with no cases of Grade IV. Of the 63 hips in Group B, heterotopic ossification was

  5. Amorphous silicon cells for the measurement of photosynthetically active radiation; Utilisation des cellules au silicium amorphe pour la mesure du rayonnement photosynthétiquement actif (400-700 nm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chartier, M. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Thiverval-Grignon (France); Bonchretien, P.; Allirand, J. M.; Gosse, G.

    1989-07-01

    Numerical simulation and experimental measurements from amorphous silicon cells in comparison with these now used in ecophysiology illustrate the interest of amorphous silicon cells for the measurement of PAR incident, reflected, and transmitted below the canopy [French] La simulation et la confrontation expérimentale ces réponses des cellules au silicium amorphe par rapport à celles des capteurs existants montrent l’intérêt des cellules au silicium amorphe pour la mesure du rayonnement PAR (exprimé en densité de flux de photons) incident, réfléchi et transmis sous un couvert végétal.

  6. Bragg gratings inscription in step-index PMMA optical fiber by femtosecond laser pulses at 400 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X.; Kinet, D.; Chah, K.; Mégret, P.; Caucheteur, C.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we report photo-inscription of uniform Bragg gratings in trans-4-stilbenemethanol-doped photosensitive step-index polymer optical fiber. Gratings were produced at ~1575 nm by the phase mask technique with a femtosecond laser emitting at 400 nm with different average optical powers (8 mW, 13 mW and 20 mW). The grating growth dynamics in transmission were monitored during the manufacturing process, showing that the grating grows faster with higher power. Using 20 mW laser beam power, the reflectivity reaches 94 % (8 dB transmission loss) in 70 seconds. Finally, the gratings were characterized in temperature in the range 20 - 45 °C. The thermal sensitivity has been computed equal to - 86.6 pm/°C.

  7. Solar Irradiance Changes and Phytoplankton Productivity in Earth's Ocean Following Astrophysical Ionizing Radiation Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Patrick J.; Thomas, Brian C.

    2016-04-01

    Two atmospheric responses to simulated astrophysical ionizing radiation events significant to life on Earth are production of odd-nitrogen species, especially NO2, and subsequent depletion of stratospheric ozone. Ozone depletion increases incident short-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UVB, 280-315 nm) and longer (>600 nm) wavelengths of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm). On the other hand, the NO2 haze decreases atmospheric transmission in the long-wavelength UVA (315-400 nm) and short-wavelength PAR. Here, we use the results of previous simulations of incident spectral irradiance following an ionizing radiation event to predict changes in terran productivity focusing on photosynthesis of marine phytoplankton. The prediction is based on a spectral model of photosynthetic response, which was developed for the dominant genera in central regions of the ocean (Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus), and on remote-sensing-based observations of spectral water transparency, temperature, wind speed, and mixed layer depth. Predicted productivity declined after a simulated ionizing event, but the effect integrated over the water column was small. For integrations taking into account the full depth range of PAR transmission (down to 0.1% of utilizable PAR), the decrease was at most 2-3% (depending on strain), with larger effects (5-7%) for integrations just to the depth of the surface mixed layer. The deeper integrations were most affected by the decreased utilizable PAR at depth due to the NO2 haze, whereas shallower integrations were most affected by the increased surface UV. Several factors tended to dampen the magnitude of productivity responses relative to increases in surface-damaging radiation, for example, most inhibition in the modeled strains is caused by UVA and PAR, and the greatest relative increase in damaging exposure is predicted to occur in the winter when UV and productivity are low.

  8. Disentangling the effects of solar radiation, wrack macroalgae and beach macrofauna on associated bacterial assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodil, Iván F; Fernandes, Joana P; Mucha, Ana P

    2015-12-01

    Wrack detritus plays a significant role in shaping community dynamics and food-webs on sandy beaches. Macroalgae is the most abundant beach wrack, and it is broken down by the combination of environmental processes, macrofauna grazing, and microbial degradation before returning to the sea as nutrients. The role of solar radiation, algal species and beach macrofauna as ecological drivers for bacterial assemblages associated to wrack was investigated by experimental manipulation of Laminaria ochroleuca and Sargassum muticum. We examined the effects of changes in solar radiation on wrack-associated bacterial assemblages by using cut-off filters: PAR + UVA + UVB (280-700 nm; PAB), PAR + UVA (320-700 nm; PA), PAR (400-700 nm; P), and a control with no filter (C). Results showed that moderate changes in UVR are capable to promote substantial differences on bacterial assemblages so that wrack patches exposed to full sunlight treatments (C and PAB) showed more similar assemblages among them than compared to patches exposed to treatments that blocked part of the solar radiation (P and PA). Our findings also suggested that specific algal nutrient quality-related variables (i.e. nitrogen, C:N ratio and phlorotannins) are main determinants of bacterial dynamics on wrack deposits. We showed a positive relationship between beach macrofauna, especially the most abundant and active wrack-users, the amphipod Talitrus saltator and the coleopteran Phaleria cadaverina, and both bacterial abundance and richness. Moderate variations in natural solar radiation and shifts in the algal species entering beach ecosystems can modify the role of wrack in the energy-flow of nearshore environments with unknown ecological implications for coastal ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of exogenous catalase on broad-spectrum near-UV (300-400nm) treated Escherichia coli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammartano, L.J.; Tuveson, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Catalase incorporated into plating medium protects against inactivation and mutagenesis by broad-spectrum near-ultraviolet wavelength (300-400nm) (NUV) radiation in strains of Escherichia coli. Plating medium containing catalase does not provide protection against inactivation by wavelengths in the FUV region. Catalase added to the cell suspension during or added immediately after NUV exposure also protects against inactivation. The protection provided by catalase suggests a possible role for hydrogen peroxide in the processes of inactivation and mutagenesis by broad-spectrum NUV. (author)

  10. Arctic, Antarctic, and temperate green algae Zygnema spp. under UV-B stress: vegetative cells perform better than pre-akinetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Andreas; Albert, Andreas; Aigner, Siegfried; Uhl, Jenny; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Trumhová, Kateřina; Pichrtová, Martina

    2018-02-22

    Species of Zygnema form macroscopically visible mats in polar and temperate terrestrial habitats, where they are exposed to environmental stresses. Three previously characterized isolates (Arctic Zygnema sp. B, Antarctic Zygnema sp. C, and temperate Zygnema sp. S) were tested for their tolerance to experimental UV radiation. Samples of young vegetative cells (1 month old) and pre-akinetes (6 months old) were exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm, 400 μmol photons m -2  s -1 ) in combination with experimental UV-A (315-400 nm, 5.7 W m -2 , no UV-B), designated as PA, or UV-A (10.1 W m -2 ) + UV-B (280-315 nm, 1.0 W m -2 ), designated as PAB. The experimental period lasted for 74 h; the radiation period was 16 h PAR/UV-A per day, or with additional UV-B for 14 h per day. The effective quantum yield, generally lower in pre-akinetes, was mostly reduced during the UV treatment, and recovery was significantly higher in young vegetative cells vs. pre-akinetes during the experiment. Analysis of the deepoxidation state of the xanthophyll-cycle pigments revealed a statistically significant (p UV-absorbing phenolic compounds was significantly higher (p UV-B stress than pre-akinetes.

  11. A database of 10 min average measurements of solar radiation and meteorological variables in Ostrava, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Opálková

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A database containing 10 min means of solar irradiance measured on a horizontal plane in several ultraviolet and visible bands from July 2014 to December 2016 at three stations in the area of the city of Ostrava (Czech Republic is presented. The database contains time series of 10 min average irradiances or photosynthetic photon flux densities measured in the following spectral bands: 280–315 nm (UVB; 315–380 nm (UVA; and 400700nm (photosynthetically active radiation, PAR; 510–700nm; 600–700nm; 610–680 nm; 690–780 nm; 400–1100 nm. A series of meteorological variables including relative air humidity and air temperature at surface is also provided at the same 10 min time step at all three stations, and precipitation is provided for two stations. Air pressure, wind speed, wind direction, and concentrations of air pollutants PM10, SO2, NOx, NO, NO2 were measured at the 1 h time step at the fourth station owned by the Public Health Institute of Ostrava. The details of the experimental sites and instruments used for the measurements are given. Special attention is given to the data quality, and the original approach to the data quality which was established is described in detail. About 130 000 records for each of the three stations are available in the database. This database offers a unique ensemble of variables having a high temporal resolution and it is a reliable source for radiation in relation to environment and vegetation in highly polluted areas of industrial cities in the of northern mid-latitudes. The database has been placed on the PANGAEA repository (https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.879722 and contains individual data files for each station.

  12. A database of 10 min average measurements of solar radiation and meteorological variables in Ostrava, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opálková, Marie; Navrátil, Martin; Špunda, Vladimír; Blanc, Philippe; Wald, Lucien

    2018-04-01

    A database containing 10 min means of solar irradiance measured on a horizontal plane in several ultraviolet and visible bands from July 2014 to December 2016 at three stations in the area of the city of Ostrava (Czech Republic) is presented. The database contains time series of 10 min average irradiances or photosynthetic photon flux densities measured in the following spectral bands: 280-315 nm (UVB); 315-380 nm (UVA); and 400-700 nm (photosynthetically active radiation, PAR); 510-700 nm; 600-700 nm; 610-680 nm; 690-780 nm; 400-1100 nm. A series of meteorological variables including relative air humidity and air temperature at surface is also provided at the same 10 min time step at all three stations, and precipitation is provided for two stations. Air pressure, wind speed, wind direction, and concentrations of air pollutants PM10, SO2, NOx, NO, NO2 were measured at the 1 h time step at the fourth station owned by the Public Health Institute of Ostrava. The details of the experimental sites and instruments used for the measurements are given. Special attention is given to the data quality, and the original approach to the data quality which was established is described in detail. About 130 000 records for each of the three stations are available in the database. This database offers a unique ensemble of variables having a high temporal resolution and it is a reliable source for radiation in relation to environment and vegetation in highly polluted areas of industrial cities in the of northern mid-latitudes. The database has been placed on the PANGAEA repository (https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.879722" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.879722) and contains individual data files for each station.

  13. Simultaneous quantum dash-well emission in a chirped dash-in-well superluminescent diode with spectral bandwidth >700 nm

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2013-10-01

    We report on the quantitative evidence of simultaneous amplified spontaneous emission from the AlGaInAs/InAs/ InP-based quantum-well (Qwell) and quantum-dashes (Qdash) in a multistack dash-in-an-asymmetric-well superluminescent diode heterostructure. As a result, an emission bandwidth (full width at half-maximum) of 700 nm is achieved, covering entire O-E-S-C-L-U communication bands, and a maximum continuous wave output power of 1.3 mW, from this device structure. This demonstration paves a way to bridge entire telecommunication bands through proper optimization of device gain region, bringing significant advances and impact to a variety of cross-disciplinary field applications. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  14. Simultaneous quantum dash-well emission in a chirped dash-in-well superluminescent diode with spectral bandwidth >700 nm

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa; Cha, Dong Kyu; Majid, Mohammed Abdul; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the quantitative evidence of simultaneous amplified spontaneous emission from the AlGaInAs/InAs/ InP-based quantum-well (Qwell) and quantum-dashes (Qdash) in a multistack dash-in-an-asymmetric-well superluminescent diode heterostructure. As a result, an emission bandwidth (full width at half-maximum) of 700 nm is achieved, covering entire O-E-S-C-L-U communication bands, and a maximum continuous wave output power of 1.3 mW, from this device structure. This demonstration paves a way to bridge entire telecommunication bands through proper optimization of device gain region, bringing significant advances and impact to a variety of cross-disciplinary field applications. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  15. 700 W blue fiber-coupled diode-laser emitting at 450 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balck, A.; Baumann, M.; Malchus, J.; Chacko, R. V.; Marfels, S.; Witte, U.; Dinakaran, D.; Ocylok, S.; Weinbach, M.; Bachert, C.; Kösters, A.; Krause, V.; König, H.; Lell, A.; Stojetz, B.; Löffler, A.; Strauss, U.

    2018-02-01

    A high-power blue laser source was long-awaited for processing materials with low absorption in the near infrared (NIR) spectral range like copper or gold. Due to the huge progress of GaN-based semiconductors, the performance of blue diode-lasers has made a major step forward recently. With the availability of unprecedented power levels at cw-operating blue diode-lasers emitting at 450 nm, it was possible to set up a high-power diode-laser in the blue spectral range to address these conventional laser applications and probably beyond that to establish completely new utilizations for lasers. Within the scope of the research project "BlauLas", funded within the German photonic initiative "EFFILAS" [8] by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), Laserline in cooperation with OSRAM aims to realize a cw fiber-coupled diode-laser exceeding 1 kW blue laser power. In this paper the conceptual design and experimental results of a 700 W blue fiber-coupled diode-laser are presented. Initially a close look had to be taken on the mounting techniques of the semiconductors to serve the requirements of the GaN laser diodes. Early samples were used for extensive long term tests to investigate degradation processes. With first functional laser-modules we set up fiber-coupled laser-systems for further testing. Besides adaption of well-known optical concepts a main task within the development of the laser system was the selection and examination of suitable materials and assembling in order to minimize degradation and reach adequate lifetimes. We realized R&D blue lasersystems with lifetimes above 5,000 h, which enable first application experiments on processing of various materials as well as experiments on conversion to white-light.

  16. Absolute UV and VUV emission in the 110-400 nm region from 13.56 MHz driven hollow slot microplasmas operating in open air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A; Yalin, A P; Surla, V; Stan, O; Hoshimiya, K; Yu, Z; Littlefield, Eric; Collins, G J

    2004-01-01

    We present absolute optical emission spectra in the 110-400 nm regions from radio-frequency-driven (13.56 MHz) hollow slot microplasmas operating in open air at atmospheric pressure. The term microplasma in our research refers to inter-electrode separation (100-600 μm) only, as electrode lengths are scalable from 1 to 30 cm. This creates an extended slot plasma and an associated afterglow plume as described herein. Spectra are presented for gas flows through the microelectrodes of argon and helium with small admixtures of hydrogen and nitrogen into open air. The spectra are discussed in terms of species origin and magnitude of the dominant emission lines. Atomic O and N lines dominate the 110-200 nm region, whereas, in the 200-400 nm region, NO, N 2 , N 2 + and NH molecular lines are strongest. The role of the N 2 A 3 Σ u state in the open air microplasmas is discussed and the second positive system of molecular nitrogen (N 2 (C 3 Π g -B 3 Π g )), is used to measure the rotational (gas) temperature. Finally, we compare the efficiency and magnitude of light emission from the open air microplasmas with values attainable from commercial sealed mercury lamps in the UVB and UVC regions

  17. Total L-shell X-ray production cross sections by 400-700 keV proton impact for elements with 34≤Z≤53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, J.; Ledesma, R.; Lucio, O.G. de

    2001-01-01

    Total L-shell X-ray production cross sections induced by protons with energies between 400 and 700 keV were measured for elements with atomic number Z between 34 and 53. The ECPSSR theory describes appropriately the results. This model modifies the plane wave born approximation by considering projectile energy loss (E), Coulomb deflection of the incoming ion (C), polarization and change in electron binding energies through a perturbed stationary states method (PSS) and relativistic values of target electron mass (R). A comparison is given with previously published data for proton energies below 1 MeV and 26 ≤ Z ≤ 53, based on a scaling obtained from a reduced velocity parameter ξ L R . The results show that the scaling for these atomic numbers and energy ranges is adequate and a semi-empirical expression to calculate those cross sections is proposed

  18. Analysis of optical transmission by 400-500 nm visible light into aesthetic dental biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, D C; Cash, A J

    1994-04-01

    The penetration of visible light into dental biomaterials is an essential factor in photoinitiation of setting reactions and in the optical aspects of dental aesthetics. Light of visible blue wavelengths, 400-500 nm, has been applied at normal angles to 0.2-5.0 mm sections of human dentine and representative ceramic, polymerceramic composites and hybrid glass-polyalkenoate materials. The integrated optical transmission has been determined for each material section. The data have been converted to absorbance values and analysed to check for mathematical conformity to the Beer-Lambert Law. It is found that conformity (typically, P ratio. This factor ranges from 30% to 90% in the materials investigated. It follows that there is a high degree of inefficiency in the transmission of visible light into and through aesthetic biomaterials for the purposes of photoactivation using existing technology. Means by which this limitation and inefficiency may be reduced are discussed. While the reflectivity of aesthetic biomaterials has been perceived by dental practitioners, the magnitude of this effect and its implications in connection with light-cured materials have not been analysed and emphasized hitherto.

  19. The atmospheric nightglow in the 300-400 nm wavelength Results by the balloon-borne experiment 'BABY'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalano, O.; Agnetta, G.; Biondo, B.; Celi, F.; Di Raffaele, R.; Giarrusso, S.; Linsley, J.; La Rosa, G.; Lo Bue, A.; Mangano, A.; Russo, F.

    2002-01-01

    The balloon-borne experiment, named BAckground BYpass (BABY) belongs to a wider program that has as its final goal the detection and study of high-energy cosmic rays from space (satellite, Space Station). An information of fundamental importance for this class of projects concerns the nighttime background light. The instrument designed to detect fluorescence photons is basically composed of two collimated photomultipliers: a single photon-counting PMT and a charge integration PMT. We briefly report the details of the design, operation and performance of the detector, which was designed and completely built at the IFCAI-CNR Institute in Palermo. Preliminary analysis and results of the nocturnal background in the range of 300-400 nm are presented for the whole duration of the flight during the 1998 Mediterranean balloon flight campaign. A substantial part of the flight was at night over the sea

  20. The atmospheric nightglow in the 300-400 nm wavelength Results by the balloon-borne experiment 'BABY'

    CERN Document Server

    Catalano, O; Biondo, B; Celi, F; Di Raffaele, R; Giarrusso, S; Linsley, J; Lo Bue, A; Mangano, A; Russo, F

    2002-01-01

    The balloon-borne experiment, named BAckground BYpass (BABY) belongs to a wider program that has as its final goal the detection and study of high-energy cosmic rays from space (satellite, Space Station). An information of fundamental importance for this class of projects concerns the nighttime background light. The instrument designed to detect fluorescence photons is basically composed of two collimated photomultipliers: a single photon-counting PMT and a charge integration PMT. We briefly report the details of the design, operation and performance of the detector, which was designed and completely built at the IFCAI-CNR Institute in Palermo. Preliminary analysis and results of the nocturnal background in the range of 300-400 nm are presented for the whole duration of the flight during the 1998 Mediterranean balloon flight campaign. A substantial part of the flight was at night over the sea.

  1. The effect of UV radiation on photosynthesis in an Antarctic diatom (Thalassiosira sp.): does vertical mixing matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernando, Marcelo P.; Ferreyra, Gustavo A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The reduction of the Antarctic stratospheric ozone resulted in significant increases in ultraviolet B radiation (UVBR, 280-320 nm) reaching the surface of the ocean. A series of laboratory and field experiments were conducted at Potter Cove (25 de Mayo Is., South Shetland Is., Antarctica) to study the effects of UVBR on photosynthesis of a typical Antarctic bloom forming diatom (Thalassiosira sp.) in fixed and moving incubations. There were three irradiance treatments: PART (with only photosynthetic active radiation, PAR, 400- 700 nm), UVAT (with PAR and ultraviolet A radiation, UVAR, 320-400 nm) and UVBT (with PAR, UVAR and UVBR). The three treatments were incubated in the field and laboratory with a solar simulator (SOLSI) in fixed frames at 0.5 and 5 m depth (S fix and B fix , respectively), while for the moving incubations were done within 6 h cycles (Mix). Considering the field and laboratory pooled data, results suggest an overall 45-50 % photosynthesis inhibition of S fix incubations in relation with Mix ones. During SOLSI experiments no significant differences were found between irradiance treatments under normal and medium ozone concentrations. Under low ozone conditions, a 40 % reduction in photosynthesis was observed in the UVBT for S fix . In contrast, no significant differences were observed between the irradiance treatments for Mix. Field experiment showed results similar to the laboratory ones, but in this case not only S fix but Mix incubations presented a significant reduction in photosynthesis under low ozone. The differences between laboratory and field experiments are discussed in terms of the relative significance of UVBR dose and dose rate on both types of experiments. (author)

  2. Ammonium production off central Chile (36°S by photodegradation of phytoplankton-derived and marine dissolved organic matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Rain-Franco

    Full Text Available We investigated the production of ammonium by the photodegradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM in the coastal upwelling system off central Chile (36°S. The mean penetration of solar radiation (Z1% between April 2011 and February 2012 was 9.4 m, 4.4 m and 3.2 m for Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm, UV-A (320-400 nm and UV-B (280-320 nm, respectively. Ammonium photoproduction experiments were carried out using exudates of DOM obtained from cultured diatom species (Chaetoceros muelleri and Thalassiosira minuscule as well as natural marine DOM. Diatom exudates showed net photoproduction of ammonium under exposure to UVR with a mean rate of 0.56±0.4 µmol L(-1 h(-1 and a maximum rate of 1.49 µmol L(-1 h(-1. Results from natural marine DOM showed net photoproduction of ammonium under exposure to PAR+UVR ranging between 0.06 and 0.2 µmol L(-1 h(-1. We estimated the potential contribution of photochemical ammonium production for phytoplankton ammonium demand. Photoammonification of diatom exudates could support between 117 and 453% of spring-summer NH4(+ assimilation, while rates obtained from natural samples could contribute to 50-178% of spring-summer phytoplankton NH4(+ requirements. These results have implications for local N budgets, as photochemical ammonium production can occur year-round in the first meters of the euphotic zone that are impacted by full sunlight.

  3. Thermal coagulation-induced changes of the optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro in the spectral range 400-1100 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ao Huilan; Xing Da; Wei Huajiang; Gu Huaimin; Wu Guoyong; Lu Jianjun

    2008-01-01

    The absorption coefficients, the reduced scattering coefficients and the optical penetration depths for native and coagulated human normal and adenomatous colon tissues in vitro were determined over the range of 400-1100 nm using a spectrophotometer with an internal integrating sphere system, and the inverse adding-doubling method was applied to calculate the tissue optical properties from diffuse reflectance and total transmittance measurements. The experimental results showed that in the range of 400-1100 nm there were larger absorption coefficients (P < 0.01) and smaller reduced scattering coefficients (P < 0.01) for adenomatous colon tissues than for normal colon tissues, and there were smaller optical penetration depths for adenomatous colon tissues than for normal colon tissues, especially in the near-infrared wavelength. Thermal coagulation induced significant increase of the absorption coefficients and reduced scattering coefficients for the normal and adenomatous colon tissues, and significantly reduced decrease of the optical penetration depths for the normal and adenomatous colon tissues. The smaller optical penetration depth for coagulated adenomatous colon tissues is a disadvantage for laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT). It is necessary to adjust the application parameters of lasers to achieve optimal therapy

  4. The hydrogen 700 project - 700 Bar Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambone, L.; Webster, C.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Major automotive companies, including DaimlerChrysler, Ford, Hyundai, Nissan, PSA Peugeot-Citroen, and Toyota, are co-operating in the Hydrogen 700 project at Powertech to establish a global basis for high pressure hydrogen fuel systems for vehicles. The fuel systems will store compressed hydrogen on-board at pressures up to 700 bar (10,000psi). It is anticipated that the 700 bar storage pressure will provide hydrogen powered vehicles with a range comparable to the range of petroleum-fueled vehicles. The Hydrogen 700 project has contracted world leaders in high pressure technologies to provide 700 bar fuel system components for evaluation. The data from these tests will be used as the basis for the development of relevant standards and regulations. In a development that complements the Hydrogen 700 project, Powertech Labs has established the world's first 700 bar hydrogen station for fast filling operations. This prototype station will be used to evaluate the performance of the 700 bar vehicle fuel system components. The presentation will provide an overview of the Hydrogen 700 project. Safety issues surrounding the use of compressed hydrogen gas as a vehicle fuel, as well as the use of higher storage pressures, will be reviewed. Test data involving the fire testing of vehicles containing hydrogen fuel systems will be presented. The project is intended to result in the introduction of 700 bar fuel systems in the next generation of hydrogen powered vehicles. (author)

  5. Interactive Effects of Temperature and UV Radiation on Photosynthesis of Chlorella Strains from Polar, Temperate and Tropical Environments: Differential Impacts on Damage and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chiew-Yen; Teoh, Ming-Li; Phang, Siew-Moi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Beardall, John

    2015-01-01

    Global warming and ozone depletion, and the resulting increase of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), have far-reaching impacts on biota, especially affecting the algae that form the basis of the food webs in aquatic ecosystems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interactive effects of temperature and UVR by comparing the photosynthetic responses of similar taxa of Chlorella from Antarctic (Chlorella UMACC 237), temperate (Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 248) and tropical (Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 001) environments. The cultures were exposed to three different treatments: photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400700 nm), PAR plus ultraviolet-A (320–400 nm) radiation (PAR + UV-A) and PAR plus UV-A and ultraviolet-B (280–320 nm) radiation (PAR + UV-A + UV-B) for one hour in incubators set at different temperatures. The Antarctic Chlorella was exposed to 4, 14 and 20°C. The temperate Chlorella was exposed to 11, 18 and 25°C while the tropical Chlorella was exposed to 24, 28 and 30°C. A pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometer was used to assess the photosynthetic response of microalgae. Parameters such as the photoadaptive index (Ek) and light harvesting efficiency (α) were determined from rapid light curves. The damage (k) and repair (r) rates were calculated from the decrease in ΦPSIIeff over time during exposure response curves where cells were exposed to the various combinations of PAR and UVR, and fitting the data to the Kok model. The results showed that UV-A caused much lower inhibition than UV-B in photosynthesis in all Chlorella isolates. The three isolates of Chlorella from different regions showed different trends in their photosynthesis responses under the combined effects of UVR (PAR + UV-A + UV-B) and temperature. In accordance with the noted strain-specific characteristics, we can conclude that the repair (r) mechanisms at higher temperatures were not sufficient to overcome damage caused by UVR in the Antarctic Chlorella strain

  6. Interactive Effects of Temperature and UV Radiation on Photosynthesis of Chlorella Strains from Polar, Temperate and Tropical Environments: Differential Impacts on Damage and Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiew-Yen Wong

    Full Text Available Global warming and ozone depletion, and the resulting increase of ultraviolet radiation (UVR, have far-reaching impacts on biota, especially affecting the algae that form the basis of the food webs in aquatic ecosystems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interactive effects of temperature and UVR by comparing the photosynthetic responses of similar taxa of Chlorella from Antarctic (Chlorella UMACC 237, temperate (Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 248 and tropical (Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 001 environments. The cultures were exposed to three different treatments: photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm, PAR plus ultraviolet-A (320-400 nm radiation (PAR + UV-A and PAR plus UV-A and ultraviolet-B (280-320 nm radiation (PAR + UV-A + UV-B for one hour in incubators set at different temperatures. The Antarctic Chlorella was exposed to 4, 14 and 20°C. The temperate Chlorella was exposed to 11, 18 and 25°C while the tropical Chlorella was exposed to 24, 28 and 30°C. A pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM fluorometer was used to assess the photosynthetic response of microalgae. Parameters such as the photoadaptive index (Ek and light harvesting efficiency (α were determined from rapid light curves. The damage (k and repair (r rates were calculated from the decrease in ΦPSIIeff over time during exposure response curves where cells were exposed to the various combinations of PAR and UVR, and fitting the data to the Kok model. The results showed that UV-A caused much lower inhibition than UV-B in photosynthesis in all Chlorella isolates. The three isolates of Chlorella from different regions showed different trends in their photosynthesis responses under the combined effects of UVR (PAR + UV-A + UV-B and temperature. In accordance with the noted strain-specific characteristics, we can conclude that the repair (r mechanisms at higher temperatures were not sufficient to overcome damage caused by UVR in the Antarctic Chlorella strain

  7. Comparison of the ablation ability of nucleus pulposus after 1,064 nm Nd:YAG laser and 980 nm diode laser radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jian; Han, Zhengfeng; Guo, Baofeng; Guo, Han; Zhang, Tongtong; Zeng, Yanjun; Ren, Longxi

    2015-07-01

    To compare the ablation ability of nucleus pulposus after 1,064 nm Nd:YAG laser and 980 nm diode laser radiation. Goat spine specimen (GSS) was radiated using Nd:YAG laser and 980 nm diode laser and then divided into five groups based on the final energy--200, 400, 600, 800 and 1,000 J groups. The ablation quality of nucleus pulposus after radiation was recorded. The ablation quality of GSS was greater at higher radiation energies in both lasers. When compared at the same energy level, the ablation quality of GSS was greater in 980 nm diode laser than in 1,064 nm Nd:YAG laser. Statistical significance was observed in 200 and 400 J groups (P diode laser showed better ablation ability than 1,064 nm Nd:YAG laser.

  8. Beta-Carotene production enhancement by UV-A radiation in Dunaliella bardawil cultivated in laboratory reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogedas, B.; Casal, C.; Forjan, E.; Vilchez, C.

    2009-01-01

    beta-Carotene is an antioxidant molecule of commercial value that can be naturally produced by certain microalgae that mostly belong to the genus Dunaliella. So far, nitrogen starvation has been the most efficient condition for enhancing beta-carotene accumulation in Dunaliella. However, while nitrogen starvation promotes beta-carotene accumulation, the cells become non-viable; consequently under such conditions, continuous beta-carotene production is limited to less than 1 week. In this study, the use of UV-A radiation as a tool to enhance long-term beta-carotene production in Dunaliella bardawil cultures was investigated. The effect of UV-A radiation (320-400 nm) added to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) on growth and carotenoid accumulation of D. bardawil in a laboratory air-fluidized bed photobioreactor was studied. The results were compared with those from D. bardawil control cultures incubated with PAR only. The addition of 8.7 W/square m UV-A radiation to 250 W/square m PAR stimulated long-term growth of D. bardawil. Throughout the exponential growth period the UV-A irradiated cultures showed enhanced carotenoid accumulation, mostly as beta-carotene. After 24 days, the concentration of beta-carotene in UV-A irradiated cultures was approximately two times that of control cultures. Analysis revealed that UV-A clearly induced major accumulation of all-trans beta-carotene. In N-starved culture media, beta-carotene biosynthesis in UV-A irradiated cultures was stimulated. We conclude that the addition of UV-A to PAR enhances carotenoid production processes, specifically all-trans beta-carotene, in D. bardawil cells without negative effects on cell growth

  9. Competition for inorganic carbon between oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs in a hypersaline microbial mat, Guerrero Negro, Mexico

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finke, Niko; Hoehler, Tori M.; Polerecky, Lubos

    2013-01-01

    While most oxygenic phototrophs harvest light only in the visible range (400-700 nm, VIS), anoxygenic phototrophs can harvest near infrared light (> 700 nm, NIR). To study interactions between the photosynthetic guilds we used microsensors to measure oxygen and gross oxygenic photosynthesis (gOP)...

  10. Ultraviolet-B and photosynthetically active radiation interactively affect yield and pattern of monoterpenes in leaves of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behn, Helen; Albert, Andreas; Marx, Friedhelm; Noga, Georg; Ulbrich, Andreas

    2010-06-23

    Solar radiation is a key environmental signal in regulation of plant secondary metabolism. Since metabolic responses to light and ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure are known to depend on the ratio of spectral ranges (e.g., UV-B/PAR), we examined effects of different UV-B radiation (280-315 nm) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) levels and ratios on yield and pattern of monoterpenoid essential oil of peppermint. Experiments were performed in exposure chambers, technically equipped for realistic simulation of natural climate and radiation. The experimental design comprised four irradiation regimes created by the combination of two PAR levels including or excluding UV-B radiation. During flowering, the highest essential oil yield was achieved at high PAR (1150 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) and approximate ambient UV-B radiation (0.6 W m(-2)). Regarding the monoterpene pattern, low PAR (550 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) and the absence of UV-B radiation led to reduced menthol and increased menthone contents and thereby to a substantial decrease in oil quality. Essential oil yield could not be correlated with density or diameter of peltate glandular trichomes, the epidermal structures specialized on biosynthesis, and the accumulation of monoterpenes. The present results lead to the conclusion that production of high quality oils (fulfilling the requirements of the Pharmacopoeia Europaea) requires high levels of natural sunlight. In protected cultivation, the use of UV-B transmitting covering materials is therefore highly recommended.

  11. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on photosynthetic performance and N2 fixation in Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaoni; Hutchins, David A.; Fu, Feixue; Gao, Kunshan

    2017-10-01

    Biological effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR; 280-400 nm) on marine primary producers are of general concern, as oceanic carbon fixers that contribute to the marine biological CO2 pump are being exposed to increasing UV irradiance due to global change and ozone depletion. We investigated the effects of UV-B (280-320 nm) and UV-A (320-400 nm) on the biogeochemically critical filamentous marine N2-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium (strain IMS101) using a solar simulator as well as under natural solar radiation. Short exposure to UV-B, UV-A, or integrated total UVR significantly reduced the effective quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) and photosynthetic carbon and N2 fixation rates. Cells acclimated to low light were more sensitive to UV exposure compared to high-light-grown ones, which had more UV-absorbing compounds, most likely mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). After acclimation under natural sunlight, the specific growth rate was lower (by up to 44 %), MAA content was higher, and average trichome length was shorter (by up to 22 %) in the full spectrum of solar radiation with UVR, than under a photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) alone treatment (400-700 nm). These results suggest that prior shipboard experiments in UV-opaque containers may have substantially overestimated in situ nitrogen fixation rates by Trichodesmium, and that natural and anthropogenic elevation of UV radiation intensity could significantly inhibit this vital source of new nitrogen to the current and future oligotrophic oceans.

  12. Impacts of diurnal variation of ultraviolet-B and photosynthetically active radiation on phycobiliproteins of the hot-spring cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. strain HKAR-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannaujiya, Vinod K; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2017-01-01

    The effects of diurnal variation of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm) and ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-315 nm) radiation on phycobiliproteins (PBPs) and photosynthetic pigments (PP) have been studied in the hot-spring cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. strain HKAR-2. The variations in PBPs and PP were monitored by alternating light and dark under PAR, UV-B, and PAR + UV-B radiations over a period of 25 h. There was a decline in the amount of Chl a and PBPs during light periods of UV-B and PAR + UV-B and an increase during dark periods showing a circadian rhythm by destruction and resynthesis of pigment-protein complex. However, a marked induction in carotenoids was recorded during light periods of the same radiations. Moreover, the ratio of Chl a/PE and Chl a/PC was increased in dark periods showing the resynthesis of bleached Chl a. The wavelength shift in emission fluorescence of PBPs toward shorter wavelengths further indicated the bleaching and destruction of PBPs during light periods. Oxidative damage upon exposure to PAR, UV-B, and PAR + UV-B was alleviated by induction of antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). The studied cyanobacterium exhibits a significant increase in the activities of SOD, CAT, and APX upon exposure to UV-B and PAR + UV-B radiations. The results indicate that pigment-protein composition of Nostoc sp. stain HKAR-2 was significantly altered during diurnal variation of light/radiation, which might play an important role in optimization for their productivity in a particular cyanobacterium.

  13. Induction of the SOS system in Escherichia coli after UVA (320 - 400 nm) irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batbyamba, G.; Drasil, V.

    1988-01-01

    Induction of the SOS repair system in E. coli caused by broad-band (320 - 400 nm) UVA radiation and an oxygen effect in this induction were studied using the sfiA::lacZ operon fusion. Moreover, an oxygen effect on the broad-band UVA radiation-induced cell killing was studied. The experiments indicate that: (1) Broad-band UVA light can produce lethal damage to cells as well as DNA damage able to generate an SOS-inducing signal. This damage is O 2 -dependent to a significant extent: SOSIP (O 2 )/ SOSIP (Ar) = 1.61 and OER = 1.96; (2) After UVA irradiation the SOS induction factor increases monotonously in the time interval longer than 4 h indicating that the SOS-inducing DNA damage caused by UVA irradiation has a 'long-lived' character; (3) Oxic and hypoxic incubation following UVA irradiation carried out under aerobic and anaerobic conditions resulted in a strong oxygen effect: SOSIP(O 2 )/SOSIP(Ar) ∼ 5. On the basis of these results and literary data it was concluded that one of the main toxic photoproducts formed as a result of UVA irradiation of the cells in a culture medium might be hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). H 2 O 2 decays gradually during post-irradiation incubation and yields reactive radical species, mainly OH radical, that result in a formation of SOS-inducing DNA damages and contribute to cell lethality, and prolonged SOS induction. (author)

  14. In vivo measurements of the seasonal photosynthetic fluorescence of the Mediterranean coral Cladocora caespitosa (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Peirano

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In situ photosynthetic fluorescence of the zooxanthellate Mediterranean coral Cladocora caespitosa (L. was measured seasonally on colonies from 5 to 27 m depth using an INF-300 Integrating Natural Fluorometer (Biospherical Instrument Inc.. This oceanographic instrument, used to measure the in vivo phytoplankton chlorophyll a (Chl a fluorescence, was adapted to record the natural fluorescence of C. caespitosa by SCUBA divers. The resulting curves of natural fluorescence of Chl a vs photosynthetically active radiation (PAR 400-700 nm showed that: (1 natural fluorescence was limited by light availability in both deep and shallow colonies in all seasons; (2 photosynthesis occurred in C. caespitosa also in winter, when temperature is low and seawater turbidity contributes significantly to PAR attenuation; and (3 the efficiency of the Chl a fluorescence increased from summer to winter. This last finding outlines the winter coupling between zooxanthellae activity and calcification processes and is consistent with the formation of the high density band in the coral skeleton.

  15. 700 C power plant technology. Status and challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschaffon, Helmut [E.ON Energie AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Coal will remain an indispensable major source of energy for power generation in the world in the coming decades, because there are resources for hundreds of years. Coal fired power plants can be operated very flexible which gets increasing importance due to the stochastic input from regenerative energies like wind and solar energy. Sustainable technologies for cool-fired power plants have to be developed to optimise environmental protection and to save valuable resources and reduce CO{sub 2}-emissions. Future coal fired steam power plants aim an elevated steam temperature of about 700 C to reach a net efficiency of about 50%. This paper will give an overview over the status of the development of the 700 C technology and will highlight the challenges to be overcome before their commercial use. The European way to a 700 C Power plant started with the project AD700 in the year 1998. In this project the basic design of a 400 MW demo plant was done and some material tests and component qualifications for nickel-based alloys and new austenitic steels were started and terminated. AD700 delivered the basis of the design of the Component Test Facility COMTES700 (RFCS funded project with European manufacturers and utilities). COMTES 700 was operated between 2005 and 2009. It was integrated into the E.ON power plant Scholven in Germany to test mainly nickel based materials and power plant components. In the project NRWPP700 (2006-2010, funded by NRW and financed by European utilities) the detail design of the steam generator, piping system and turbine of a 500 MW power plant was done. In 7 material projects the qualification of components and materials was supported. At the same time of lot of national and international R and D projects (e.g. MARCKO and COORETEC) were performed. Due to the high amount of these projects they cannot be mentioned here in a detailed way. In 2007 the E.ON project 50plus was started. The aim was to plan and build a 700 C demo plant in

  16. Remote Sensing of Black Lakes and Using 810 nm Reflectance Peak for Retrieving Water Quality Parameters of Optically Complex Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiit Kutser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many lakes in boreal and arctic regions have high concentrations of CDOM (coloured dissolved organic matter. Remote sensing of such lakes is complicated due to very low water leaving signals. There are extreme (black lakes where the water reflectance values are negligible in almost entire visible part of spectrum (400700 nm due to the absorption by CDOM. In these lakes, the only water-leaving signal detectable by remote sensing sensors occurs as two peaks—near 710 nm and 810 nm. The first peak has been widely used in remote sensing of eutrophic waters for more than two decades. We show on the example of field radiometry data collected in Estonian and Swedish lakes that the height of the 810 nm peak can also be used in retrieving water constituents from remote sensing data. This is important especially in black lakes where the height of the 710 nm peak is still affected by CDOM. We have shown that the 810 nm peak can be used also in remote sensing of a wide variety of lakes. The 810 nm peak is caused by combined effect of slight decrease in absorption by water molecules and backscattering from particulate material in the water. Phytoplankton was the dominant particulate material in most of the studied lakes. Therefore, the height of the 810 peak was in good correlation with all proxies of phytoplankton biomass—chlorophyll-a (R2 = 0.77, total suspended matter (R2 = 0.70, and suspended particulate organic matter (R2 = 0.68. There was no correlation between the peak height and the suspended particulate inorganic matter. Satellite sensors with sufficient spatial and radiometric resolution for mapping lake water quality (Landsat 8 OLI and Sentinel-2 MSI were launched recently. In order to test whether these satellites can capture the 810 nm peak we simulated the spectral performance of these two satellites from field radiometry data. Actual satellite imagery from a black lake was also used to study whether these sensors can detect the peak

  17. Determination of Pesticides by Gas Chromatography Combined with Mass Spectrometry Using Femtosecond Lasers Emitting at 267, 400, and 800 nm as the Ionization Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xixiang; Imasaka, Tomoko; Imasaka, Totaro

    2018-04-03

    A standard sample mixture containing 51 pesticides was separated by gas chromatography (GC), and the constituents were identified by mass spectrometry (MS) using femtosecond lasers emitting at 267, 400, and 800 nm as the ionization source. A two-dimensional display of the GC/MS was successfully used for the determination of these compounds. A molecular ion was observed for 38 of the compounds at 267 nm and for 30 of the compounds at 800 nm, in contrast to 27 among 50 compounds when electron ionization was used. These results suggest that the ultraviolet laser is superior to the near-infrared laser for molecular weight determinations and for a more reliable analysis of these compounds. In order to study the conditions for optimal ionization, the experimental data were examined using the spectral properties (i.e., the excitation and ionization energies and absorption spectra for the neutral and ionized species) obtained by quantum chemical calculations. A few molecules remained unexplained by the currently reported rules, requiring additional rules for developing a full understanding of the femtosecond ionization process. The pesticides in the homogenized matrix obtained from kabosu ( citrus sphaerocarpa) were measured using lasers emitting at 267 and 800 nm. The pesticides were clearly separated and measured on the two-dimensional display, especially for the data measured at 267 nm, suggesting that this technique would have potential for use in the practical trace analysis of the pesticides in the environment.

  18. Deconvolution of ferredoxin, plastocyanin, and P700 transmittance changes in intact leaves with a new type of kinetic LED array spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klughammer, Christof; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    A newly developed compact measuring system for assessment of transmittance changes in the near-infrared spectral region is described; it allows deconvolution of redox changes due to ferredoxin (Fd), P700, and plastocyanin (PC) in intact leaves. In addition, it can also simultaneously measure chlorophyll fluorescence. The major opto-electronic components as well as the principles of data acquisition and signal deconvolution are outlined. Four original pulse-modulated dual-wavelength difference signals are measured (785-840 nm, 810-870 nm, 870-970 nm, and 795-970 nm). Deconvolution is based on specific spectral information presented graphically in the form of 'Differential Model Plots' (DMP) of Fd, P700, and PC that are derived empirically from selective changes of these three components under appropriately chosen physiological conditions. Whereas information on maximal changes of Fd is obtained upon illumination after dark-acclimation, maximal changes of P700 and PC can be readily induced by saturating light pulses in the presence of far-red light. Using the information of DMP and maximal changes, the new measuring system enables on-line deconvolution of Fd, P700, and PC. The performance of the new device is demonstrated by some examples of practical applications, including fast measurements of flash relaxation kinetics and of the Fd, P700, and PC changes paralleling the polyphasic fluorescence rise upon application of a 300-ms pulse of saturating light.

  19. Effects of UVA (320-400 nm) on the barrier characteristics of the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAuliffe, D.J.; Blank, I.H.

    1991-01-01

    The stratum corneum serves as the major barrier to the entrance of most molecules into the skin. In the studies presented here, the effects of UVA radiation (320-400 nm) on the barrier capacity of human stratum corneum were examined. Penetration of a homologous series of primary alcohols through unirradiated (control) and UVA-irradiated (test) human epidermis was determined in vitro. Permeability constants, kp, were calculated. Mean ratios of permeability constants for UVA-irradiated and unirradiated epidermis (mean kp test)/(mean kp control) ranged from 2.3 to 3.0 for methanol and from 2.2 to 2.5 for ethanol. These mean ratios were determined using different pieces of epidermis from the same piece of skin for test and control samples. When kp control and kp test were determined on the same piece of epidermis on successive days, the ratios (kp test/kp control) were similar to the mean ratios determined on different pieces of epidermis. For other primary alcohols, propanol, butanol, hexanol, and heptanol, UVA radiation did not alter their permeability constants significantly. Partition coefficients, Km, were determined for ethanol and heptanol using UVA-irradiated and unirradiated stratum corneum. For ethanol, irradiation resulted in a 1.5 to 2.6 times increase in Km. For heptanol, irradiation caused no change in Km. These results demonstrate that the barrier capacity of stratum corneum for small, polar, primary alcohols is diminished (permeability increases) and for higher molecular weight less polar alcohols, is unaffected by small doses of UVA radiation. This increased permeability of small polar alcohols through human skin may be due to enhanced partitioning into UVA-irradiated stratum corneum, which was not apparent for a higher molecular weight less polar alcohol

  20. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on photosynthetic performance and N2 fixation in Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS 101

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Cai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR; 280–400nm on marine primary producers are of general concern, as oceanic carbon fixers that contribute to the marine biological CO2 pump are being exposed to increasing UV irradiance due to global change and ozone depletion. We investigated the effects of UV-B (280–320 nm and UV-A (320–400nm on the biogeochemically critical filamentous marine N2-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium (strain IMS101 using a solar simulator as well as under natural solar radiation. Short exposure to UV-B, UV-A, or integrated total UVR significantly reduced the effective quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII and photosynthetic carbon and N2 fixation rates. Cells acclimated to low light were more sensitive to UV exposure compared to high-light-grown ones, which had more UV-absorbing compounds, most likely mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs. After acclimation under natural sunlight, the specific growth rate was lower (by up to 44 %, MAA content was higher, and average trichome length was shorter (by up to 22 % in the full spectrum of solar radiation with UVR, than under a photosynthetically active radiation (PAR alone treatment (400700nm. These results suggest that prior shipboard experiments in UV-opaque containers may have substantially overestimated in situ nitrogen fixation rates by Trichodesmium, and that natural and anthropogenic elevation of UV radiation intensity could significantly inhibit this vital source of new nitrogen to the current and future oligotrophic oceans.

  1. Advances in 750 nm VECSELs (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarinen, Esa J.; Ranta, Sanna; Lyytikäinen, Jari; Saarela, Antti; Sirbu, Alexei; Iakovlev, Vladimir; Kapon, Eli; Guina, Mircea

    2017-03-01

    Lasers operating in the transmission window of tissue at wavelengths between 700 and 800 nm are needed in numerous medical and biomedical applications, including photodynamic therapy and fluorescence microscopy. However, the performance of diode lasers in this spectral range is limited by the lack of appropriate compound semiconductors. Here, we review our recent research on 750 nm VECSELs. Two approaches to reaching the 750 nm wavelength will be discussed. The first approach relies on intra-cavity frequency doubling a wafer-fused 1500 nm VECSEL. The VECSEL gain chip comprises a GaAs-based DBR and an InP-based gain section, which allows for optical pumping with low-cost commercial diodes at 980 nm. With this scheme we have achieved watt-level output powers and tuning of the laser wavelength over a 40 nm band at around 750 nm. The second approach is direct emission at 750 nm using the AlGaAs/GaAs material system. In this approach visible wavelengths are required for optical pumping. However, the consequent higher costs compared to pumping at 980 nm are mitigated by the more compact laser setup and prospects of doubling the frequency to the ultraviolet range.

  2. The response of bean plants to UV-B radiation under different irradiances of background visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cen, Y.P.; Bornman, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    Plants of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (cv. Stella) were grown in controlled conditions under three different irradiances of visible light with or without UV-B (280–320nm) radiation. The biologically effective UV-B radiation (UV-BBE) was 6.17 kJ m −2 d −1 , and simulated a c. 5% decrease in stratospheric ozone at 55.7°N, 13.4°E. The photon flux densities of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400700 nm) were either 700 μmol m −2−1 (HL), 500, μmol m −2 s −1 (ML) or 230 μmol m −2 s −1 PAR (LL). Under high light (HL) conditions plus UV-B radiation, bean plants appeared most resistant to the enhanced levels of UV-B radiation, and responded only by increasing leaf thickness by c. 18%. A small increase in UV screening pigments was also observed. Both the lower irradiances (ML and LL) increased the sensitivity of the plants to UV-B radiation. Changes in leaf structure were also observed. Photosystem II was inhibited under ML and LL together with UV-B radiation, as determined by Chi fluorescence induction and calculation of the fluorescence half-rise times. Leaf reflectivity measurements showed that the amount of PAR able to penetrate leaves of UV-B treated plants was reduced, and that a possible correlation may exist between the reduced PAR levels, loss of Chi and lowered photosynthetic activity, especially for LL +UV-B grown plants, where surface reflection from leaves was highest. Changes in leaf chlorophyll content were mostly confined to plants grown under LL + UV-B, where a decrease of c. 20% was found. With regard to protective pigments (the carotenoids and UV screening pigments) plants subjected to different visible light conditions responded differently. Among the growth parameters measured, there was a substantial decrease in leaf area, particularly under LL + UV-B (c. 47% relative to controls), where leaf dry weight was also reduced by c. 25%. (author)

  3. n/p-Type changeable semiconductor TiO{sub 2} prepared from NTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Qiuye; Wang Xiaodong; Jin Zhensheng, E-mail: zhenshengjin@henu.edu.cn; Yang Dagang; Zhang Shunli; Guo Xinyong; Yang Jianjun; Zhang Zhijun [Henan University, Key Laboratory of Special Functional Materials (China)

    2007-10-15

    A novel kind of nano-sized TiO{sub 2} (anatase) was obtained by high-temperature (400-700 deg. C) dehydration of nanotube titanic acid (H{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 2}, NTA). The high-temperature (400-700 deg. C) dehydrated nanotube titanic acids (HD-NTAs) with a unique defect structure exhibited a p-type semiconductor behavior under visible-light irradiation ({lambda}{>=} 420nm, E{sub photon}=2.95 eV), whereas exhibited an n-type semiconductor behavior irradiated with UV light ({lambda}{>=} 365nm, E{sub photon}=3.40 eV)

  4. Alveolar macrophage accumulation rates, for 28 nm and 250 nm PSL, are mediated by separate mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, O R; Wong, V A, E-mail: moss@thehamner.or [Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27509-2137 (United States)

    2009-02-01

    When macrophages accumulate 28 nm and 250 nm diameter polystyrene latex (PSL) beads, the accumulation rates should reflect differences in molecular and cellular function. We used a confocal microscope to measure the accumulation rates of nanoparticles by F344-rat-alveolar macrophages (approx25,000 cells adhered to a 0.7 cm{sup 2} surface). Over the cells were layered 0.1 ml of media, and 0.1 ml of media-with-beads. Fresh cells were introduced for each exposure scenario. The maximum possible individual macrophage exposures were as follows: 8x10{sup 6}, 8x10{sup 5}, and 8x10{sup 4} 28 nm beads per macrophage; and 8x10{sup 4} and 1.12x10{sup 4} 250 nm beads per macrophage. Accumulation rates were estimated over 23 minutes. The increase in bead accumulation-rate matched changes in bead-availability: 7x increase for 250 nm beads; 100x increase for 28 nm beads; and 700x increase for all bead availabilities. The maximum sustained 28 nm bead accumulation rate was > 30,000 /min (for 5 min). Increases in bead accumulation could be explained by two mechanisms: bead-diffusion; and, for the macrophage, macropinocytosis. Also for the highest concentrations of 28 nm beads, we saw a colligative threshold - possibly due to beads masking the cell surface or obstructing cellular mechanisms.

  5. Decontamination of lead by fusion (1962); Decontamination du plomb par fusion (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutot, P; Giachetto, L; Capitaine, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    Various attempts to decontaminate using mechanical and chemical methods having given questionable results, a fusion method has been developed. The apparatus consists of a propane-heated oven fitted with a steel crucible of 1 400 kg capacity, with two ventilation systems, and with a vacuum gauge for preventing the diffusion of toxic gases. There are three operational controls : 1. On the samples taken before during and after the operation, 2. On the plugs taken from the ingots, 3. On the ingot itself. The continuous sanitary control is done by a radioactive aerosol recorder and by periodic sampling. This decontamination process will be improved, especially as far as the productivity and the safety precautions are concerned. (authors) [French] Divers essais de decontamination par voies mecaniques et chimiques ayant donne des resultats discutables, un procede par fusion a ete mis au point. L'appareil se compose d'un four, chauffe au propane, muni d'un creuset en acier d'une capacite de 1 400 kg, de deux systemes de ventilation et d'un deprimometre afin d'eviter la diffusion de vapeurs nocives. Trois controles d'activite sont effectues: 1. sur des echantillons preleves avant, pendant et apres l'operation, 2. sur des carottages realises sur les lingots, 3. sur le lingot lui-meme. Le controle sanitaire permanent est assure par un enregistreur d'aerosols radioactifs et par des prelevements periodiques. Ce procede de decontamination doit encore etre ameliore, principalement en ce qui concerne la productivite et la securite. (auteurs)

  6. Bactericidal effect of a 405-nm diode laser on Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotoku, Y; Kato, J; Akashi, G; Hirai, Y [Department of Operative Dentistry, Tokyo Dental College, 1-2-2, Masago, Mihama-ku, Chiba, 261-8502 (Japan); Ishihara, K [Department of Microbiology, Tokyo Dental College, 1-2-2, Masago, Mihama-ku, Chiba, 261-8502 (Japan)

    2009-05-15

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of 405-nm diode laser irradiation on periodontopathic bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis in vitro. A diluted suspension of P. gingivalis was irradiated directly with a 405-nm diode laser under conditions of 100 mW-10 sec, 100 mW-20 sec, 200 mW-5 sec, 200 mW-10 sec, 200 mW-20 sec, 400 mW-5 sec, 400 mW-10 sec, and 400 mW-20 sec. The energy density ranged from 2.0 to 16.0 J/cm{sup 2}. The irradiated bacterial suspension was spread on a blood agar plate and growth of the colonies was examined after an anaerobic culture for 7 days. Bacterial growth was inhibited under all irradiation conditions, but the bactericidal effect of the 405-nm diode laser depended on the energy density. More than 97% of bacterial growth was inhibited with irradiation at an energy density > 4.0 J/cm{sup 2}. The mechanism of the bactericidal effect is photochemical, rather than photothermal. These findings suggest that a 405-nm diode laser has a high bactericidal effect on P. gingivalis.

  7. Bactericidal effect of a 405-nm diode laser on Porphyromonas gingivalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotoku, Y; Kato, J; Akashi, G; Hirai, Y; Ishihara, K

    2009-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of 405-nm diode laser irradiation on periodontopathic bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis in vitro. A diluted suspension of P. gingivalis was irradiated directly with a 405-nm diode laser under conditions of 100 mW-10 sec, 100 mW-20 sec, 200 mW-5 sec, 200 mW-10 sec, 200 mW-20 sec, 400 mW-5 sec, 400 mW-10 sec, and 400 mW-20 sec. The energy density ranged from 2.0 to 16.0 J/cm 2 . The irradiated bacterial suspension was spread on a blood agar plate and growth of the colonies was examined after an anaerobic culture for 7 days. Bacterial growth was inhibited under all irradiation conditions, but the bactericidal effect of the 405-nm diode laser depended on the energy density. More than 97% of bacterial growth was inhibited with irradiation at an energy density > 4.0 J/cm 2 . The mechanism of the bactericidal effect is photochemical, rather than photothermal. These findings suggest that a 405-nm diode laser has a high bactericidal effect on P. gingivalis

  8. Bactericidal effect of a 405-nm diode laser on Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotoku, Y.; Kato, J.; Akashi, G.; Hirai, Y.; Ishihara, K.

    2009-05-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of 405-nm diode laser irradiation on periodontopathic bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis in vitro. A diluted suspension of P. gingivalis was irradiated directly with a 405-nm diode laser under conditions of 100 mW-10 sec, 100 mW-20 sec, 200 mW-5 sec, 200 mW-10 sec, 200 mW-20 sec, 400 mW-5 sec, 400 mW-10 sec, and 400 mW-20 sec. The energy density ranged from 2.0 to 16.0 J/cm2. The irradiated bacterial suspension was spread on a blood agar plate and growth of the colonies was examined after an anaerobic culture for 7 days. Bacterial growth was inhibited under all irradiation conditions, but the bactericidal effect of the 405-nm diode laser depended on the energy density. More than 97% of bacterial growth was inhibited with irradiation at an energy density > 4.0 J/cm2. The mechanism of the bactericidal effect is photochemical, rather than photothermal. These findings suggest that a 405-nm diode laser has a high bactericidal effect on P. gingivalis.

  9. Picosecond laser texturization of mc-silicon for photovoltaics: A comparison between 1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm radiation wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binetti, Simona [Department of Materials Science and Milano-Bicocca Solar Energy Research Center (MIB-SOLAR), University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 55, 20125 Milano (Italy); Le Donne, Alessia, E-mail: alessia.ledonne@mater.unimib.it [Department of Materials Science and Milano-Bicocca Solar Energy Research Center (MIB-SOLAR), University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 55, 20125 Milano (Italy); Rolfi, Andrea [Department of Materials Science and Milano-Bicocca Solar Energy Research Center (MIB-SOLAR), University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 55, 20125 Milano (Italy); Jäggi, Beat; Neuenschwander, Beat [Bern University of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Information Technology, Institute for Applied Laser, Photonics and Surface Technologies ALPS, Pestalozzistrasse 20, CH-3400 Burgdorf (Switzerland); Busto, Chiara [ENI Spa, Via Giacomo Fauser, 4, 28100 Novara (Italy); Frigeri, Cesare [CNR-IMEM Institute, Parco Area Delle Scienze 37/A, Fontanini, 43010 Parma (Italy); Scorticati, Davide; Longoni, Luca; Pellegrino, Sergio [Laserpoint Srl, Via Della Burrona 51, 20090 Vimodrone, Milano (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Self-organized surface structures were produced by picosecond laser pulses on mc-Si. • Three laser wavelengths were used which effectively reduce Si reflectivity up to 8%. • The subsurface damage induced by the three lasers was studied in detail. • μ-Raman, PL and TEM proved that UV laser provides the lowest subsurface damage. • UV laser induced damage is located above the depletion region of the p–n junction. - Abstract: Self-organized surface structures were produced by picosecond laser pulses on multi-crystalline silicon for photovoltaic applications. Three different laser wavelengths were employed (i.e. 1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm) and the resulting morphologies were observed to effectively reduce the reflectivity of the samples after laser irradiation. Besides, a comparative study of the laser induced subsurface damage generated by the three different wavelengths was performed by confocal micro-Raman, photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy. The results of both the structural and optical characterization showed that the mc-Si texturing performed with the laser at 355 nm provides surface reflectivity between 11% and 8% over the spectral range from 400 nm to 1 μm, while inducing the lowest subsurface damage, located above the depletion region of the p–n junction.

  10. Improved bandwidth and quantum efficiency in silicon photodiodes using photon-manipulating micro/nanostructures operating in the range of 700-1060 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansizoglu, Hilal; Gao, Yang; Ghandiparsi, Soroush; Kaya, Ahmet; Perez, Cesar Bartolo; Mayet, Ahmed; Ponizovskaya Devine, Ekaterina; Cansizoglu, Mehmet F.; Yamada, Toshishige; Elrefaie, Aly F.; Wang, Shih-Yuan; Islam, M. Saif

    2017-08-01

    Nanostructures allow broad spectrum and near-unity optical absorption and contributed to high performance low-cost Si photovoltaic devices. However, the efficiency is only a few percent higher than a conventional Si solar cell with thicker absorption layers. For high speed surface illuminated photodiodes, the thickness of the absorption layer is critical for short transit time and RC time. Recently a CMOS-compatible micro/nanohole silicon (Si) photodiode (PD) with more than 20 Gb/s data rate and with 52 % quantum efficiency (QE) at 850 nm was demonstrated. The achieved QE is over 400% higher than a similar Si PD with the same thickness but without absorption enhancement microstructure holes. The micro/nanoholes increases the QE by photon trapping, slow wave effects and generate a collective assemble of modes that radiate laterally, resulting in absorption enhancement and therefore increase in QE. Such Si PDs can be further designed to enhance the bandwidth (BW) of the PDs by reducing the device capacitance with etched holes in the pin junction. Here we present the BW and QE of Si PDs achievable with micro/nanoholes based on a combination of empirical evidence and device modeling. Higher than 50 Gb/s data rate with greater than 40% QE at 850 nm is conceivable in transceivers designed with such Si PDs that are integrated with photon trapping micro and nanostructures. By monolithic integration with CMOS/BiCMOS integrated circuits such as transimpedance amplifiers, equalizers, limiting amplifiers and other application specific integrated circuits (ASIC), the data rate can be increased to more than 50 Gb/s.

  11. Development of simple band-spectral pyranometer and quantum meter using photovoltaic cells and bandpass filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilguun, Amarsaikhan, E-mail: bilguun@pes.ee.tut.ac.jp; Nakaso, Tetsushi; Harigai, Toru; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi, E-mail: takikawa@ee.tut.ac.jp [Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Habarigaoka, Tempaku, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Tanoue, Hideto [Kitakyushu National College of Technology, 5-20-1, Kokuraminami, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 802-0985 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, greenhouse automatic-control, based on the measurement of solar irradiance, has been attracting attention. This control is an effective method for improving crop production. In the agricultural field, it is necessary to measure Photon Flux Density (PFD), which is an important parameter in the promotion of plant growth. In particular, the PFD of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR, 400-700nm) and Plant Biologically Active Radiation (PBAR, 300-800 nm) have been discussed in agricultural plant science. The commercial quantum meter (QM, PAR meter) can only measure Photosynthetically Photon Flux Density (PPFD) which is the integrated PFD quantity on the PAR wavelength. In this research, a band-spectral pyranometer or quantum meter using PVs with optical bandpass filters for dividing the PBAR wavelength into 100 nm bands (five independent channels) was developed. Before field testing, calibration of the instruments was carried out using a solar simulator. Next, a field test was conducted in three differing weather conditions such as clear, partly cloudy and cloudy skies. As a result, it was found that the response rate of the developed pyranometer was faster by four seconds compared with the response rate of the commercial pyranometer. Moreover, the outputs of each channel in the developed pyranometer were very similar to the integrated outputs of the commercial spectroradiometer. It was confirmed that the solar irradiance could be measured in each band separately using the developed band-spectral pyranometer. It was indicated that the developed band-spectral pyranometer could also be used as a PV band-spectral quantum meter which is obtained by converting the band irradiance into band PFD.

  12. Development of simple band-spectral pyranometer and quantum meter using photovoltaic cells and bandpass filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilguun, Amarsaikhan; Nakaso, Tetsushi; Harigai, Toru; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Tanoue, Hideto

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, greenhouse automatic-control, based on the measurement of solar irradiance, has been attracting attention. This control is an effective method for improving crop production. In the agricultural field, it is necessary to measure Photon Flux Density (PFD), which is an important parameter in the promotion of plant growth. In particular, the PFD of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) and Plant Biologically Active Radiation (PBAR, 300-800 nm) have been discussed in agricultural plant science. The commercial quantum meter (QM, PAR meter) can only measure Photosynthetically Photon Flux Density (PPFD) which is the integrated PFD quantity on the PAR wavelength. In this research, a band-spectral pyranometer or quantum meter using PVs with optical bandpass filters for dividing the PBAR wavelength into 100 nm bands (five independent channels) was developed. Before field testing, calibration of the instruments was carried out using a solar simulator. Next, a field test was conducted in three differing weather conditions such as clear, partly cloudy and cloudy skies. As a result, it was found that the response rate of the developed pyranometer was faster by four seconds compared with the response rate of the commercial pyranometer. Moreover, the outputs of each channel in the developed pyranometer were very similar to the integrated outputs of the commercial spectroradiometer. It was confirmed that the solar irradiance could be measured in each band separately using the developed band-spectral pyranometer. It was indicated that the developed band-spectral pyranometer could also be used as a PV band-spectral quantum meter which is obtained by converting the band irradiance into band PFD.

  13. Development of simple band-spectral pyranometer and quantum meter using photovoltaic cells and bandpass filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilguun, Amarsaikhan; Nakaso, Tetsushi; Harigai, Toru; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Tanoue, Hideto

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, greenhouse automatic-control, based on the measurement of solar irradiance, has been attracting attention. This control is an effective method for improving crop production. In the agricultural field, it is necessary to measure Photon Flux Density (PFD), which is an important parameter in the promotion of plant growth. In particular, the PFD of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR, 400-700nm) and Plant Biologically Active Radiation (PBAR, 300-800 nm) have been discussed in agricultural plant science. The commercial quantum meter (QM, PAR meter) can only measure Photosynthetically Photon Flux Density (PPFD) which is the integrated PFD quantity on the PAR wavelength. In this research, a band-spectral pyranometer or quantum meter using PVs with optical bandpass filters for dividing the PBAR wavelength into 100 nm bands (five independent channels) was developed. Before field testing, calibration of the instruments was carried out using a solar simulator. Next, a field test was conducted in three differing weather conditions such as clear, partly cloudy and cloudy skies. As a result, it was found that the response rate of the developed pyranometer was faster by four seconds compared with the response rate of the commercial pyranometer. Moreover, the outputs of each channel in the developed pyranometer were very similar to the integrated outputs of the commercial spectroradiometer. It was confirmed that the solar irradiance could be measured in each band separately using the developed band-spectral pyranometer. It was indicated that the developed band-spectral pyranometer could also be used as a PV band-spectral quantum meter which is obtained by converting the band irradiance into band PFD

  14. Sensitivity of winter phytoplankton communities from Andean lakes to artificial ultraviolet-B radiation Sensibilidad de comunidades fitoplanctónicas invernales de lagos andinos a la radiación ultravioleta-B artificial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. WALTER HELBLING

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available During July of 1999 sampling was carried out in five Andean lakes to determine the sensitivity of winter phytoplankton communities to ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280-320 nm. The studied lakes, Moreno, El Trébol, Nahuel Huapi, Gutiérrez, and Morenito, located in the Patagonia region (41° S, 71° W, 800 m of altitude, had attenuation coefficients for UV-B that ranged from 0.36 m-1 (Lake Moreno to 2.8 m-1 (Lake Morenito. The samples were inoculated with labeled carbon (NaH14CO3 and incubated in an illuminated chamber (UV-B = 0.35 W m-2, UV-A [320-400 nm] = 1.1 W m-2, and PAR [400-700 nm] = 10.8 W m-2 at 10 °C. The phytoplankton cells were exposed to UV radiation (280-400 nm + PAR (quartz tubes, and to UV-A + PAR (quartz tubes covered with Mylar-D. The total duration of the experiments was 4 h and two samples were taken from each treatment every hour. In lakes Moreno, El Trébol, Nahuel Huapi and Gutiérrez, the photosynthetic inhibition increased linearly with UV-B doses, while in Lake Morenito just a slight relationship was observed. After receiving a dose of 1.25 kJ m-2 (UV-B, phytoplankton from Lake Morenito had the highest cumulative photosynthetic inhibition (44 %, whereas in Lakes Moreno, El Trébol, Nahuel Huapi and Gutiérrez the inhibition was of 22, 11, 5, and 1 %, respectively. However, at the end of incubation period and after receiving doses of 5 kJ m-2, the most inhibited phytoplankton cells were from Lake Moreno (70 % and the most resistant (27 % was that from Lake Gutiérrez. The kinetics of inhibition was different in each lake, and transparent lakes, with higher proportion of large cells, had higher inhibition rates. The results suggest that an increase in UV-B radiation (e.g., produced by a decrease in stratospheric ozone would have a greater impact on microplankton from clear lakes, while pico- and nanoplankton from less transparent lakes will be less affectedDurante julio de 1999 se realizaron muestreos en cinco lagos

  15. Vapor-phase deposition of regioregular and oriented poly(3-hexylthiophene) structures and novel nanostructured composites of interpenetrating poly(3-hexylthiophene) and polyaniline exhibiting full-color wavelength (400-1000 nm) photoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, A.; Bayer, I. S.; Karulkar, P. C.; Tripathi, A.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2007-10-01

    A promising solvent-free technique of electron-beam-assisted vapor-phase codeposition method is presented which allows uniform blending of different conjugated and nonconjugated polymers at the nanoscale. The technique allows direct incorporation of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) polymer with different structural orientations into conventional and semiconducting polymers without fractionation or degradation of P3HT while maintaining the nanoscale morphology of deposited organic films. The results of fabricated novel nanostructured organic composites (˜100-200nm) comprising regioregular and oriented P3HT and different conjugated and nonconjugated polymers including selective assembly of P3HT nanonodules into a copolymer template are presented. We show a typical example of blending of P3HT and polyaniline (PANI) that formed a unique nanoscale morphology comprising interpenetrating networks of different shapes and sizes of nanospherulites (˜100nm) of P3HT in PANI. The so fabricated nanocomposites (˜200nm) exhibited remarkable broadband photoluminescence features covering the entire blue, green, and red wavelength regions between 400 and 1000nm. Such organic nanocomposites might be useful for flexible full-color screen flat panel displays and organic white-light solid-state lighting applications.

  16. 700 F hybrid capacitors cells composed of activated carbon and Li4Ti5O12 microspheres with ultra-long cycle life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Dianbo; Kim, Myeong-Seong; Yang, Bin; Qin, Jun; Kim, Kwang-Bum; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Liu, Qiuxiang; Tan, Lei; Qiao, Zhijun

    2017-10-01

    To address the large-scale application demands of high energy density, high power density, and long cycle lifetime, 700-F hybrid capacitor pouch cells have been prepared, comprising ∼240-μm-thick activated carbon cathodes, and ∼60-μm-thick Li4Ti5O12 anodes. Microspherical Li4Ti5O12 (M-LTO) synthesized by spray-drying features 200-400 nm primary particles and interconnected nanopore structures. M-LTO half-cells exhibits high specific capacities (175 mAhh g-1), good rate capabilities (148 mAhh g-1 at 20 C), and ultra-long cycling stabilities (90% specific capacity retention after 10,000 cycles). In addition, the obtained hybrid capacitors comprising activated carbon (AC) and M-LTO shows excellent cell performances, achieving a maximum energy density of 51.65 Wh kg-1, a maximum power density of 2466 W kg-1, and ∼92% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles, thus meeting the demands for large-scale applications such as trolleybuses.

  17. Non-Destructive Quality Evaluation of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. Seeds Using LED-Induced Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyeun Mo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a viability evaluation method for pepper (Capsicum annuum L. seeds based on hyperspectral reflectance imaging. The reflectance spectra of pepper seeds in the 400700 nm range are collected from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained using blue, green, and red LED illumination. A partial least squares–discriminant analysis (PLS-DA model is developed to classify viable and non-viable seeds. Four spectral ranges generated with four types of LEDs (blue, green, red, and RGB, which were pretreated using various methods, are investigated to develop the classification models. The optimal PLS-DA model based on the standard normal variate for RGB LED illumination (400700 nm yields discrimination accuracies of 96.7% and 99.4% for viable seeds and nonviable seeds, respectively. The use of images based on the PLS-DA model with the first-order derivative of a 31.5-nm gap for red LED illumination (600–700 nm yields 100% discrimination accuracy for both viable and nonviable seeds. The results indicate that a hyperspectral imaging technique based on LED light can be potentially applied to high-quality pepper seed sorting.

  18. Contrasting optical properties of surface waters across the Fram Strait and its potential biological implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, Alexey K.; Granskog, Mats A.; Stedmon, Colin A.

    2015-01-01

    radiation (PAR, 400-700nm), but does result in notable differences in ultraviolet (UV) light penetration, with higher attenuation in the EGC. Future changes in the Arctic Ocean system will likely affect EGC through diminishing sea-ice cover and potentially increasing CDOM export due to increase in river......Underwater light regime is controlled by distribution and optical properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and particulate matter. The Fram Strait is a region where two contrasting water masses are found. Polar water in the East Greenland Current (EGC) and Atlantic water in the West...... Spitsbergen Current (WSC) differ with regards to temperature, salinity and optical properties. We present data on absorption properties of CDOM and particles across the Fram Strait (along 79° N), comparing Polar and Atlantic surface waters in September 2009 and 2010. CDOM absorption of Polar water in the EGC...

  19. Un débat d'experts organisé par le CRDI s'attaque au mariage ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    8 mars 2018 ... Des chercheurs appuyés par le CRDI parleront de leurs expériences de lutte contre le mariage d'enfants, précoce et forcé lors du forum parallèle sur les ONG qui aura lieu pendant la 62e session annuelle de la Commission de la condition de la femme à New York. Plus de 700 millions de filles se ...

  20. Evolution of microstructure and tensile properties of Fe–18Ni–12Cr based AFA steel during aging at 700 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Man [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 10083 (China); Nuclear Materials Development Division, Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Sun, Hongying [School of Mechanical Engineering, Anyang Institute of Technology, Anyang 455002 (China); Phaniraj, Madakashira P.; Han, Heung Nam [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jinsung [Nuclear Materials Development Division, Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Zhou, Zhangjian, E-mail: zhouzhj@mater.ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 10083 (China)

    2016-08-30

    The effects of aging at 700 °C on the microstructure and tensile properties of an alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel were investigated. With increasing aging time, B2-NiAl and Laves phase precipitated first on grain boundaries (GB) and then in the grain interior. The GB precipitate coverage reached 74% after aging for 1000 h. The GB precipitates not only suppressed grain coarsening during aging, but also influenced the tensile fracture mode at 700 °C by partitioning stress concentration on triple junctions. Moreover plate-like and spherical NbC particles precipitated during aging. Spherical NbC with size of around 5 nm were stable, while plate-like NbC grew to 89 nm after aging for 1000 h. These precipitates played an important role on the tensile strength. Age hardening contributed to the increasing tensile strength at RT with aging time, while the softening mechanism of dynamic recovery dominated the tensile tests at 700 °C.

  1. Irradiation Effect of Argon Ion on Interfacial Structure Fe(2nm/Si(tsi=0.5-2 nm Multilayer thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Purwanto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigation includes formation of interfacial structure of Fe(2nm/Si(tSi= 0.5-2 nm multilayer thin film and the behavior of antiferromagnetic coupling between Fe layers due to Argon ion irradiation was investigated. [Fe(2nm/Si]30 multilayers (MLs with a thickness of Si spacer 0.5 - 2 nanometer were prepared on n-type (100 Si substrate by the helicon plasma sputtering method. Irradiation were performed using 400keV Ar ion to investigate the behavior of magnetic properties of the Fe/Si MLs. The magnetization measurements of Fe/Si MLs after 400keV Ar ion irradiation show the degradation of antiferromagnetic behavior of Fe layers depend on the ion doses. The Magnetoresistance (MR measurements using by Four Point Probe (FPP method also confirm that MR ratio decrease after ion irradiation. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns indicate that the intensity of a satellite peak induced by a superlattice structure does not change within the range of ion dose. These results imply that the surface of interface structures after ion irradiation become rough although the layer structures are maintained. Therefore, it is considered that the MR properties of Fe/Si MLs also are due to the metallic superlattice structures such as Fe/Cr and Co/Cu MLs.

  2. Refinement and fracture mechanisms of as-cast QT700-6 alloy by alloying method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-qiang Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The as-cast QT700-6 alloy was synthesized with addition of a certain amount of copper, nickel, niobium and stannum elements by alloying method in a medium frequency induction furnace, aiming at improving its strength and toughness. Microstructures of the as-cast QT700-6 alloy were observed using a scanning-electron microscope (SEM and the mechanical properties were investigated using a universal tensile test machine. Results indicate that the ratio of pearlite/ferrite is about 9:1 and the graphite size is less than 40 μm in diameter in the as-cast QT700-6 alloy. The predominant refinement mechanism is attributed to the formation of niobium carbides, which increases the heterogeneous nucleus and hinders the growth of graphite. Meanwhile, niobium carbides also exist around the grain boundaries, which improve the strength of the ductile iron. The tensile strength and elongation of the as-cast QT700-6 alloy reach over 700 MPa and 6%, respectively, when the addition amount of niobium is 0.8%. The addition of copper and nickel elements contributed to the decrease of eutectoid transformation temperature, resulting in the decrease of pearlite lamellar spacing (about 248 nm, which is also beneficial to enhancing the tensile strength. The main fracture mechanism is cleavage fracture with the appearance of a small amount of dimples.

  3. Plant photomorphogenesis and canopy growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballare, Carlos L.; Scopel, Ana L.

    1994-01-01

    An important motivation for studying photomorphogenesis is to understand the relationships among plant photophysiology in canopies, canopy productivity, and agronomic yield. This understanding is essential to optimize lighting systems used for plant farming in controlled environments (CE) and for the design of genetically engineered crop strains with altered photoresponses. This article provides an overview of some basic principles of plant photomorphogenesis in canopies and discusses their implications for (1) scaling up information on plant photophysiology from individual plants in CE to whole canopies in the field, and (2) designing lighting conditions to increase plant productivity in CE used for agronomic purposes (e.g. space farming in CE Life Support Systems). We concentrate on the visible (lambda between 400 and 700 nm) and far-infrared (FR; lambda greater than 700 nm) spectral regions, since the ultraviolet (UV; 280 to 400 nm) is covered by other authors in this volume.

  4. Plant photomorphogenesis and canopy growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballare, C.L.; Scopel, A.L. [Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1994-12-31

    An important motivation for studying photomorphogenesis is to understand the relationships among plant photophysiology in canopies, canopy productivity, and agronomic yield. This understanding is essential to optimize lighting systems used for plant farming in controlled environments (CE) and for the design of genetically engineered crop strains with altered photoresponses. This article provides an overview of some basic principles of plant photomorphogenesis in canopies and discusses their implications for (1) scaling up information on plant photophysiology from individual plants in CE to whole canopies in the field, and (2), designing lighting conditions to increase plant productivity in CE used for agronomic purposes [e.g. space farming in CE Life-Support-Systems]. We concentrate on the visible ({lambda} between 400 and 700 nm) and far red (FR; {lambda} > 700 nm) spectral regions, since the ultraviolet (UV; 280 to 400 nm) is covered by other authors in this volume.

  5. Low-noise low-jitter 32-pixels CMOS single-photon avalanche diodes array for single-photon counting from 300 nm to 900 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarcella, Carmelo; Tosi, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.tosi@polimi.it; Villa, Federica; Tisa, Simone; Zappa, Franco [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    We developed a single-photon counting multichannel detection system, based on a monolithic linear array of 32 CMOS SPADs (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes). All channels achieve a timing resolution of 100 ps (full-width at half maximum) and a photon detection efficiency of 50% at 400 nm. Dark count rate is very low even at room temperature, being about 125 counts/s for 50 μm active area diameter SPADs. Detection performance and microelectronic compactness of this CMOS SPAD array make it the best candidate for ultra-compact time-resolved spectrometers with single-photon sensitivity from 300 nm to 900 nm.

  6. B700, a murine melanoma-specific antigen, binds Vitamin D3; conservation of binding among albuminoid molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farzaneh, N.K.; Walden, T.L. Jr.; Hearing, V.J.; Gersten, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    B700, a murine melanoma-specific antigen, is a member of the serum albumin protein family. Other members of this family include serum albumin (SMA), a-fetoprotein (AFP), vitamin D binding protein (DBP), and C700. The primary structure and biochemical functions of B700, as well as its in vivo metabolic fate are largely unknown. The authors examined the functional characteristics of MSA, AFP, and DBP, and for their ability to specifically bind [ 3 H]-1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D 3 . Scatchard analysis revealed a single binding site for B700 with a Kd of 51,000 M and a Bmax of 4.51 x 10 -7 . There is no significant difference between the Kd and Bmax values among the albuminoid proteins. However, differences in the binding sites could be distinguished by competition of the 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D 3 with other steroids. 2nM of vitamin D 3 , vitamin D 2 , or estrogen competed for the specific binding of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D 3 by B700 but not by DBP. The MSA binding site for 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D 3 more closely resembles that of DBP than B700. These data indicate that the binding function of the albuminoid proteins has been conserved in the B700 melanoma antigen

  7. Structure and tribological properties of MoCN-Ag coatings in the temperature range of 25–700 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shtansky, D.V., E-mail: shtansky@shs.misis.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky Prospect 4, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bondarev, A.V.; Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, Ph.V. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky Prospect 4, Moscow (Russian Federation); Rojas, T.C.; Godinho, V.; Fernández, A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla CSIC-US, Avda. Américo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2013-05-15

    The preparation of hard coatings with low friction coefficient over a wide temperature range is still a challenge for the tribological community. The development of new nanocomposite materials consisting of different metal-ceramic phases, each of which exhibiting self-lubricating characteristics at different temperatures, may help to solve this problem. We report on the structure and tribological properties of MoCN-Ag coatings deposited by magnetron co-sputtering of Mo and C (graphite) targets and simultaneous sputtering of an Ag target either in pure nitrogen or in a gaseous mixture of Ar + N{sub 2}. The structure and elemental composition of the coatings were studied by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy. The tribological properties of the coatings against an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ball were investigated first at discrete temperatures of 25, 500, and 700 °C, and then during continuous heating in the temperature range of 25–700 °C. The coating structure and their respective wear tracks were also examined to elucidate their phase transformations during heat treatments. The lowest friction coefficients (<0.4) were observed in the temperature ranges of 25–100 °C and 400700 °C and can be explained by the presence of a free amorphous carbon phase, which served as a lubricant at low temperatures, and by a positive role of silver and two phases forming at elevated temperatures, molybdenum oxide and silver molybdate, which provided lubrication above 400 °C. In the temperature range between 100 and 400 °C, the friction coefficient was relatively high. This problem is to be addressed in future works.

  8. Structure and tribological properties of MoCN-Ag coatings in the temperature range of 25–700 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shtansky, D.V.; Bondarev, A.V.; Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, Ph.V.; Rojas, T.C.; Godinho, V.; Fernández, A.

    2013-01-01

    The preparation of hard coatings with low friction coefficient over a wide temperature range is still a challenge for the tribological community. The development of new nanocomposite materials consisting of different metal-ceramic phases, each of which exhibiting self-lubricating characteristics at different temperatures, may help to solve this problem. We report on the structure and tribological properties of MoCN-Ag coatings deposited by magnetron co-sputtering of Mo and C (graphite) targets and simultaneous sputtering of an Ag target either in pure nitrogen or in a gaseous mixture of Ar + N 2 . The structure and elemental composition of the coatings were studied by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy. The tribological properties of the coatings against an Al 2 O 3 ball were investigated first at discrete temperatures of 25, 500, and 700 °C, and then during continuous heating in the temperature range of 25–700 °C. The coating structure and their respective wear tracks were also examined to elucidate their phase transformations during heat treatments. The lowest friction coefficients (<0.4) were observed in the temperature ranges of 25–100 °C and 400700 °C and can be explained by the presence of a free amorphous carbon phase, which served as a lubricant at low temperatures, and by a positive role of silver and two phases forming at elevated temperatures, molybdenum oxide and silver molybdate, which provided lubrication above 400 °C. In the temperature range between 100 and 400 °C, the friction coefficient was relatively high. This problem is to be addressed in future works.

  9. 25 CFR 700.543 - Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gambling. 700.543 Section 700.543 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.543 Gambling. An employee shall not sponsor or participate in any gambling activity...

  10. 15 CFR 700.2 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 700.2 Section 700.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Overview § 700.2 Introduction. (a) Certain national defense and energy...

  11. 25 CFR 700.45 - Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business. 700.45 Section 700.45 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.45 Business. The term business means any lawful activity, except a nonprofit...

  12. 25 CFR 700.77 - Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Livestock. 700.77 Section 700.77 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.77 Livestock. The term livestock shall mean all domesticated animals of every...

  13. 25 CFR 700.803 - Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority. 700.803 Section 700.803 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.803 Authority. The regulations in this part are promulgated pursuant to section 10(b) of the...

  14. 25 CFR 700.703 - Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority. 700.703 Section 700.703 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.703 Authority. It is within the authority of the Commissioner on Navajo and Hopi Indian Relocation to...

  15. Nanomechanical recognition of prognostic biomarker suPAR with DVD-ROM optical technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bache, Michael; Bosco, Filippo G; Brøgger, Anna L; Frøhling, Kasper B; Boisen, Anja; Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Hwu, En-Te; Chen, Ching-Hsiu; Hwang, Ing-Shouh; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    In this work the use of a high-throughput nanomechanical detection system based on a DVD-ROM optical drive and cantilever sensors is presented for the detection of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor inflammatory biomarker (uPAR). Several large scale studies have linked elevated levels of soluble uPAR (suPAR) to infectious diseases, such as HIV, and certain types of cancer. Using hundreds of cantilevers and a DVD-based platform, cantilever deflection response from antibody–antigen recognition is investigated as a function of suPAR concentration. The goal is to provide a cheap and portable detection platform which can carry valuable prognostic information. In order to optimize the cantilever response the antibody immobilization and unspecific binding are initially characterized using quartz crystal microbalance technology. Also, the choice of antibody is explored in order to generate the largest surface stress on the cantilevers, thus increasing the signal. Using optimized experimental conditions the lowest detectable suPAR concentration is currently around 5 nM. The results reveal promising research strategies for the implementation of specific biochemical assays in a portable and high-throughput microsensor-based detection platform. (paper)

  16. Spectral interdependence of remote-sensing reflectance and its implications on the design of ocean color satellite sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Zhongping; Shang, Shaoling; Hu, Chuanmin; Zibordi, Giuseppe

    2014-05-20

    Using 901 remote-sensing reflectance spectra (R(rs)(λ), sr⁻¹, λ from 400 to 700 nm with a 5 nm resolution), we evaluated the correlations of R(rs)(λ) between neighboring spectral bands in order to characterize (1) the spectral interdependence of R(rs)(λ) at different bands and (2) to what extent hyperspectral R(rs)(λ) can be reconstructed from multiband measurements. The 901 R(rs) spectra were measured over a wide variety of aquatic environments in which water color varied from oceanic blue to coastal green or brown, with chlorophyll-a concentrations ranging from ~0.02 to >100  mg  m⁻³, bottom depths from ~1  m to >1000  m, and bottom substrates including sand, coral reef, and seagrass. The correlation coefficient of R(rs)(λ) between neighboring bands at center wavelengths λ(k) and λ(l), r(Δλ)(λ(k), λ(l)), was evaluated systematically, with the spectral gap (Δλ=λ(l)-λ(k)) changing between 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 nm, respectively. It was found that r(Δλ) decreased with increasing Δλ, but remained >0.97 for Δλ≤20  nm for all spectral bands. Further, using 15 spectral bands between 400 and 710 nm, we reconstructed, via multivariant linear regression, hyperspectral R(rs)(λ) (from 400 to 700 nm with a 5 nm resolution). The percentage difference between measured and reconstructed R(rs) for each band in the 400-700 nm range was generally less than 1%, with a correlation coefficient close to 1.0. The mean absolute error between measured and reconstructed R(rs) was about 0.00002  sr⁻¹ for each band, which is significantly smaller than the R(rs) uncertainties from all past and current ocean color satellite radiometric products. These results echo findings of earlier studies that R(rs) measurements at ~15 spectral bands in the visible domain can provide nearly identical spectral information as with hyperspectral (contiguous bands at 5 nm spectral resolution) measurements. Such results provide insights for data

  17. The effect of ionizing radiation on intraocular lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellerin, Bruce E.; Nisce, Lourdes Z.; Roberts, Calvin W.; Thornell, Cliff; Sabbas, Albert; Wang Huili; Li, P. Mark; Nori, Dattatreyudu

    2001-01-01

    Background: The native crystalline lens is the principal shield against ultraviolet radiation (UV), damage to the human retina. Every year in the United States, more than one million patients undergo removal of the natural lens in the course of cataract surgery (phakectomy), at which time an intraocular lens (IOL) is placed in the lens capsule. The IOL thenceforth serves as the principal barrier to ultraviolet radiation over the life of the implant, potentially for decades. The synthetic organic molecules of which IOLs are composed offer little UV protection unless ultraviolet-absorbing chromophores are incorporated into the lens material during manufacture. However, chromophores are alkenes potentially subject to radiolytic degradation. It is unknown whether ionizing radiation at clinical doses (e.g., to the brain or in the head-and-neck region) affects the UV-absorbing capacity of chromophore-bearing IOLs and consequently exposes the retina to potentially chronic UV damage. In addition, the polymers of which IOLs are composed are themselves subject to radiation damage, which theoretically might result in optical distortion in the visible light range. Objective: To determine whether megavoltage photon ionizing radiation alters the absorption spectra of ultraviolet-shielding polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and organopolysiloxane (silicone) intraocular lenses (IOLs) in the UV (280 nm ≤ λ < 400 nm), visible (400 nm ≤ λ ≤ 700 nm), and low-end near-infrared (700 nm < λ ≤ 830 nm) ranges. Design: Prospective, nonrandomized trial of dose-paired IOL cohorts. Methods: Fourteen IOLs, seven of PMMA (Chiron 6842B) and seven of silicone (IOLAB L141U), were paired and examined for absorption spectra in 1-nm intervals over the range λ = 280-830 nm on a Cary 400 deuterium and quartz halogen source-lamp UV/visible spectrophotometer before and after undergoing megavoltage ionizing irradiation to doses of 2, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 100 Gray, respectively. Because of

  18. Modificaciones en la composición corporal después de realizar una prueba de ultrarresistencia de 1.700 km en bicicleta de montaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Clemente Suárez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de los cambios en la composición corporal en pruebas de resistencia se ha limitado en la mayoría de los casos al estudio de las pérdidas de peso corporal. El presente estudio pretende analizar los cambios producidos en la composición corporal (agua, proteínas, minerales, grasa, y músculo producidos después de realizar una prueba de 1.700 Km en bicicleta de montaña cruzando África de este a oeste. Se analizaron 5 sujetos (73,3±10,2 kg, 170±0,1 cm, 51,2±6,9 años antes y después de realizar una prueba de ultrarresistencia en bicicleta de montaña de 1.700 km durante 17 días (100-110 km por etapa. Se analizaron los siguientes parámetros: Masa Agua Intracelular, Masa Agua Extracelular, Proteínas, Masa Mineral, Masa Grasa Corporal, Agua Corporal Total, Masa Músculo Esquelético, Masa Libre de Grasa, Peso y Área Grasa Visceral mediante bioimpedancia eléctrica (BIA con el analizador INBODY 720. Los resultados muestran una disminución no significativa de los parámetros de peso corporal y masa grasa, una disminución significativa en el área de grasa visceral (p>0,05. El resto de parámetros se mantuvieron en valores cercanos a la toma inicial. En conclusión este tipo de pruebas de ultrarresistencia únicamente afecta a los parámetros de grasa visceral, manteniendo el resto de variables de composición corporal sin cambios significativos.

  19. Compact superconducting cyclotron C400 for hadron therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jongen, Y.; Abs, M.; Blondin, A.; Kleeven, W.; Zaremba, S.; Vandeplassche, D. [IBA, Chemin du Cyclotron 3, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Aleksandrov, V.; Gursky, S.; Karamyshev, O. [JINR, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Karamysheva, G., E-mail: gkaram@nu.jinr.r [JINR, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Kazarinov, N.; Kostromin, S.; Morozov, N.; Samsonov, E.; Shirkov, G.; Shevtsov, V.; Syresin, E.; Tuzikov, A. [JINR, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-01

    The compact superconducting isochronous cyclotron C400 has been designed by the IBA-JINR collaboration. It will be the first cyclotron in the world capable of delivering protons, carbon and helium ions for cancer treatment. The cyclotron construction is started this year within the framework of the Archade project (Caen, France). {sup 12}C{sup 6+} and {sup 4}He{sup 2+} ions will be accelerated to 400 MeV/uu energy and extracted by the electrostatic deflector, H{sub 2}{sup +} ions will be accelerated to the energy of 265 MeV/uu and extracted by stripping. The magnet yoke has a diameter of 6.6 m, the total weight of the magnet is about 700 t. The designed magnetic field corresponds to 4.5 T in the hills and 2.45 T in the valleys. Superconducting coils will be enclosed in a cryostat; all other parts of the cyclotron will be warm. Three external ion sources will be mounted on the switching magnet on the injection line located below the cyclotron. The main parameters of the cyclotron, its design, the current status of the development work on the cyclotron systems are presented.

  20. Fragilisation par le zinc liquide des aciers haute résistance pour l'automobile Liquid zinc embrittlement of high strength automotive steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frappier Renaud

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude présente les investigations menées sur la fragilisation par le zinc liquide d'un acier électro-zingué. La caractérisation mécanique par essais de traction à haute température montre un important puits de ductilité entre environ 700 ∘C et environ 950 ∘C. L'observation au MEB des éprouvettes de traction indique que, dans la gamme de température observée pour laquelle il y a fragilisation, on a mouillage intergranulaire des joints de grains de l'acier à l'interface acier/revêtement par des films de Zn. La corrélation entre mouillage intergranulaire thermiquement activé d'une part, et propagation de fissure lors du chargement d'autre part, est discutée. This study deals with liquid zinc embrittlement for electro-galvanized steel. Mechanical characterization by high temperature tensile tests shows a drastic loss of ductility between 700 ∘C and 950 ∘C. SEM investigations show that steel grain boundaries under the steel/coating interface are penetrated by a liquid Zn channel, only in the temperature range of embrittlement. A correlation can be drawn between i thermal activated-grain boundary wetting and ii crack propagation in presence of external stress.

  1. Predictability effect on N400 reflects the severity of reading comprehension deficits in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Ting; Lee, Chia-Ying; Chou, Chia-Ju; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Wu, Hsin-Chi

    2016-01-29

    Predictability effect on N400, in which low predictability words elicited a larger N400 than high predictability words did over central to posterior electrodes, has been used to index difficulty of lexical retrieval and semantic integration of words in sentence comprehension. This study examined predictability effect on N400 in aphasic patients to determine if the properties of N400 are suited to indexing the severity of reading comprehension deficits. Patients with aphasia were divided into high and low ability groups based on scores on the reading comprehension subtest in the Chinese Concise Aphasia Test (CCAT). The two aphasia groups, a group of healthy elders who were age-matched to the aphasic participants, and a group of young adults, were requested to read sentences that either ended with highly predictable words or unexpected but plausible words, while undergoing electroencephalography (EEG). The young adult and healthy elderly groups exhibited the typical centro-parietal distributed effect of predictability on N400; however, healthy elders exhibited a reduced N400 effect in a delayed time window compared to the young adults. Compared with the elderly control, the high ability aphasia group exhibited a comparable N400 effect in a more restricted time window; by contrast, the low ability aphasia group exhibited a frontal distributed N400 in a much later time window (400-700 ms). These data suggest that the severity of reading comprehension deficits affects predictability effect on a set of N400 characteristics (i.e., amplitude, time window, and topographic distribution), which may be effective as ERP signatures in the evaluation of language recovery in aphasia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of fiber optic performance in the ACRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodette, D.E.; Brannon, P.J.

    1993-05-01

    Four fluorosilica clad, all silica core fibers with polyamide buffers were examined for radiation-induced, transient absorption in the central cavity of the Annular Core Research Reactor. The reactor operated 24 times in the pulse mode, typically yielding gamma doses of 15 krad(Si) and neutron fluences of 1.4 x10 14 nts/cm 2 thermal and 1.0 x 10 15 nts/cm 2 (fast). The two low-OH fibers absorbed 90% of the light in the 400 to 500 nm region and 30% in the 700 and 800 nm region. The high-OH fibers absorbed 20% in the 400 to 500 nm region and 50% in the 700 to 800 nm region. Saturation of the transient induced absorption was observed in all the fibers. No systematic measurements were taken of long term induced absorption. However, excessive absorption was not a problem in any fibers, even those that received total gamma doses of 5 Mrad(Si). Scintillation in the 680 to 820 mn band was observed. This report documents the data from these experiments

  3. State waste discharge permit application 400 Area secondary cooling water. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document constitutes the Washington Administrative Code 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit Application that serves as interim compliance as required by Consent Order DE 91NM-177, for the 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream. As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site that affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permitting Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order DE 91NM-177. The Consent Order DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. Based upon compositional and flow rate characteristics, liquid effluent streams on the Hanford Site have been categorized into Phase 1, Phase 2, and Miscellaneous streams. This document only addresses the 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream, which has been identified as a Phase 2 stream. The 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream includes contribution streams from the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility, the Maintenance and Storage Facility, the 481-A pump house, and the Fast Flux Test Facility

  4. Impacts of varying light regimes on phycobiliproteins of Nostoc sp. HKAR-2 and Nostoc sp. HKAR-11 isolated from diverse habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannaujiya, Vinod K; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2015-11-01

    The adaptability of cyanobacteria in diverse habitats is an important factor to withstand harsh conditions. In the present investigation, the impacts of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm), ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-315 nm), and PAR + UV-B radiations on two cyanobacteria viz., Nostoc sp. HKAR-2 and Nostoc sp. HKAR-11 inhabiting diverse habitats such as hot springs and rice fields, respectively, were studied. Cell viability was about 14 % in Nostoc sp. HKAR-2 and Nostoc sp. HKAR-11 after 48 h of UV-B exposure. PAR had negligible negative impact on the survival of both cyanobacteria. The continuous exposure of UV-B and PAR + UV-B showed rapid uncoupling, bleaching, fragmentation, and degradation in both phycocyanin (C-PC) and phycoerythrin (C-PE) subunits of phycobiliproteins (PBPs). Remarkable bleaching effect of C-PE and C-PC was not only observed with UV-B or PAR + UV-B radiation, but longer period (24-48 h) of exposure with PAR alone also showed noticeable negative impact. The C-PE and C-PC subunits of the rice field isolate Nostoc sp. HKAR-11 were severely damaged in comparison to the hot spring isolate Nostoc sp. HKAR-2 with rapid wavelength shifting toward shorter wavelengths denoting the bleaching of both the accessory light harvesting pigments. The results indicate that PBPs of the hot spring isolate Nostoc sp. HKAR-2 were more stable under various light regimes in comparison to the rice field isolate Nostoc sp. HKAR-11 that could serve as a good source of valuable pigments to be used in various biomedical and biotechnological applications.

  5. Solar UV irradiances modulate effects of ocean acidification on the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kai; Gao, Kunshan

    2015-01-01

    Emiliania huxleyi, the most abundant coccolithophorid in the oceans, is naturally exposed to solar UV radiation (UVR, 280-400 nm) in addition to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). We investigated the physiological responses of E. huxleyi to the present day and elevated CO2 (390 vs 1000 μatm; with pH(NBS) 8.20 vs 7.86) under indoor constant PAR and fluctuating solar radiation with or without UVR. Enrichment of CO2 stimulated the production rate of particulate organic carbon (POC) under constant PAR, but led to unchanged POC production under incident fluctuating solar radiation. The production rates of particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) as well as PIC/POC ratios were reduced under the elevated CO2, ocean acidification (OA) condition, regardless of PAR levels, and the presence of UVR. However, moderate levels of UVR increased PIC production rates and PIC/POC ratios. OA treatment interacted with UVR to influence the alga's physiological performance, leading to reduced specific growth rate in the presence of UVA (315-400 nm) and decreased quantum yield, along with enhanced nonphotochemical quenching, with addition of UVB (280-315 nm). The results clearly indicate that UV radiation needs to be invoked as a key stressor when considering the impacts of ocean acidification on E. huxleyi. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  6. 25 CFR 700.83 - Nonprofit organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonprofit organization. 700.83 Section 700.83 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.83 Nonprofit organization. The term nonprofit organization...

  7. 25 CFR 700.467 - Construction costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Construction costs. 700.467 Section 700.467 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Discretionary Funds § 700.467 Construction costs. Construction costs and costs relating to construction such as...

  8. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C; Liu, Jian

    2015-12-22

    The segregation of DNA before cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of low-copy number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of a nonspecific DNA-binding ATPase, ParA, and its stimulator protein ParB. The ParA/ParB system drives directed and persistent movement of DNA cargo both in vivo and in vitro. Filament-based models akin to actin/microtubule-driven motility were proposed for plasmid segregation mediated by ParA. Recent experiments challenge this view and suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. Here, we develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA-nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB-bound cargo. Paradoxically, this resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work thus sheds light on an emergent phenomenon in which nonmotor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos-an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria.

  9. The Cu-Sb-Se phase system at temperatures between 350 and 700 degree C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup-Møller, Sven

    1999-01-01

    Phase relations were determined in the Cu-Sb-Se phase system at 300o, 400o, 450o, 500o, 600o and 700oC. Five three-component phases are present at 300oC: permingeatite (Cu3SbSe4), phase A (Cu3SbSe3, the Se-equivalent to skinnerite Cu3SbS3), phase B (CuSbSe2, the Se-equivalent to chalcostibite Cu......SbS2), phase C (Cu5.04Sb35.9Se59.1) and phase D (Cu38.8Sb6.10Se55.1). An X-ray crystallographic study is currently in progress on phase C. Phase D is present in insufficient amounts for such a study. At 400oC phase C and D does not exist and at 500oC all solid ternary phase are absent. At 450oC two...

  10. 24 CFR 700.115 - Program costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program costs. 700.115 Section 700... PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING PROGRAMS) CONGREGATE HOUSING SERVICES PROGRAM § 700.115 Program costs. (a) Allowable costs. (1) Allowable costs for direct provision of supportive services includes the provision of...

  11. 25 CFR 700.549 - Employee organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee organizations. 700.549 Section 700.549 Indians... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.549 Employee organizations. An employee may not knowingly be a member of an organization of Government employees that advocates the overthrow of the United States...

  12. 25 CFR 700.93 - Relocation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relocation plan. 700.93 Section 700.93 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.93 Relocation plan. The relocation plan shall be the plan prepared...

  13. 700 Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 700 Area of the Hanford Site is located in downtown Richland.Called the Federal Office Building, the Richland Operations Site Manager and the Richland Operations...

  14. Genetic control of near-UV (300-400 nm) sensitivity independent of the recA gene in strains of Escherichia coli K12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuveson, R.W.; Jonas, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    Stationary cells of isogenic pairs of Escherichia coli K12 strains presumably differing only in the recA function, were inactivated with near-UV (300-400 nm) radiation. Based on near-UV inactivation kinetics, the strains can be divided into two discrete categories in which near-UV sensitivity does not necessarily correlate with far-UV sensitivity conferred by two different recA alleles. Lack of overlap between near-UV and far-UV (recA) sensitivity can be explained by assuming that a different chromosomal gene (nur) controls near-UV sensitivity. Support for this hypothesis came from a mating experiment in which four selected recombinants, isogenic with respect to auxotrophic markers, were identified exhibiting all four possible combinations of far-UV (recA1 vs recA + ) and near-UV sensitivity (nur vs nur + ). Transduction with phase P1 showed that introduction of the recA1 allele into a recA + recipient did not affect the near-UV sensitivity of the recipient. Additional matings together with transduction experiments suggested that the nur gene is located at a position on the E. coli linkage map clearly separable from recA (minute 58). (author)

  15. Growing Escherichia coli mutants deficient in riboflavin biosynthesis with non-limiting riboflavin results in sensitization to inactivation by broad-spectrum near-ultraviolet light (320-400 nm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.E.; Rinkenberger, J.L.; Hug, B.A.; Tuveson, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Two mutants of Escherichia coli unable to synthesize riboflavin were grown with limiting (2 μg ml -1 ) and non-limiting (10 μg ml -1 ) concentrations of riboflavin. These riboflavin auxotrophs when grown to exponential phase with non-limiting riboflavin are more sensitive to broad spectrum near-ultraviolet light (NUV, 320-400 nm) inactivation than when they are grown with limiting riboflavin. Exponential phase cells of the riboflavin auxotrophs grown with limiting riboflavin are sensitized when irradiated in saline supplemented with riboflavin. This suggests that extracellular riboflavin is important as a NUV sensitizer when intracellular levels of riboflavin are reduced. The concentration of riboflavin in crude extracts from exponentially growing cells correlates well with the sensitivity of these mutants to NUV inactivation. The level of riboflavin supplementation has little effect on the NUV sensitivity of the parental strain. (author)

  16. uPAR Targeted Radionuclide Therapy with 177Lu-DOTA-AE105 Inhibits Dissemination of Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; Juhl, Karina; Rasmussen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is implicated in cancer invasion and metastatic development in prostate cancer and provides therefore an attractive molecular target for both imaging and therapy. In this study, we provide the first in vivo data on an antimetastatic effect...... of uPAR radionuclide targeted therapy in such lesions and show the potential of uPAR positron emission tomography (PET) imaging for identifying small foci of metastatic cells in a mouse model of disseminating human prostate cancer. Two radiolabeled ligands were generated in high purity and specific...... value of 100 nM in a competitive binding experiment. In vivo, uPAR targeted radionuclide therapy significantly reduced the number of metastatic lesions in the disseminated metastatic prostate cancer model, when compared to vehicle and nontargeted 177Lu groups (p

  17. 32 CFR 700.826 - Physical security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Physical security. 700.826 Section 700.826... Commanding Officers in General § 700.826 Physical security. (a) The commanding officer shall take appropriate... officer shall take action to protect and maintain the security of the command against dangers from fire...

  18. 25 CFR 700.99 - Salvage value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salvage value. 700.99 Section 700.99 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.99 Salvage value. Salvage value means the probable sale price of an...

  19. The properties of ITE's silicon avalanche photodiodes within the spectral range used in scintillation detection

    CERN Document Server

    Wegrzecka, I

    1999-01-01

    The design and properties of 3 mm silicon avalanche photodiodes developed at ITE are presented. Their performance parameters within the spectral range applicable in scintillation detection (400-700 nm) are discussed and compared to those for near infrared radiation.

  20. The properties of ITE's silicon avalanche photodiodes within the spectral range used in scintillation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzecka, Iwona; Wegrzecki, Maciej

    1999-04-01

    The design and properties of 3 mm silicon avalanche photodiodes developed at ITE are presented. Their performance parameters within the spectral range applicable in scintillation detection (400-700 nm) are discussed and compared to those for near infrared radiation.

  1. Investigation into the optimum beam shape and fluence for selective ablation of dental calculus at lambda = 400 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenly, Joshua E; Seka, Wolf; Rechmann, Peter

    2010-01-01

    A frequency-doubled Ti:sapphire laser is shown to selectively ablate dental calculus. The optimal transverse shape of the laser beam, including its variability under water-cooling, is determined for selective ablation of dental calculus. Intensity profiles under various water-cooling conditions were optically observed. The 400-nm laser was coupled into a multimode optical fiber using an f = 2.5-cm lens and light-shaping diffuser. Water-cooling was supplied coaxially around the fiber. Five human tooth samples (four with calculus and one pristine) were irradiated perpendicular to the tooth surface while the tooth was moved back and forth at 0.3 mm/second, varying between 20 and 180 iterations. The teeth were imaged before and after irradiation using light microscopy with a flashing blue light-emitting diode (LED). An environmental scanning electron microscope imaged each tooth after irradiation. High-order super-Gaussian intensity profiles are observed at the output of a fiber coiled around a 4-in. diameter drum. Super-Gaussian beams have a more-homogenous fluence distribution than Gaussian beams and have a higher energy efficiency for selective ablation. Coaxial water-cooling does not noticeably distort the intensity distribution within 1 mm from the optical fiber. In contrast, lasers focused to a Gaussian cross section (Calculus is preferentially ablated at high fluences (> or =2 J/cm(2)); below this fluence, stalling occurs because of photo-bleaching of the calculus. Healthy dental hard tissue is not removed at fluences calculus with a frequency-doubled Ti:sapphire laser. Fluences over 2 J/cm(2) are required to remove calculus efficiently since photo-bleaching stalls calculus removal below that value.

  2. 25 CFR 700.53 - Dwelling, replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dwelling, replacement. 700.53 Section 700.53 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.53 Dwelling, replacement. The term replacement dwelling means a dwelling selected by the head of a household as a replacement dwelling that meets the criteria of this...

  3. 32 CFR 700.832 - Environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental pollution. 700.832 Section 700.832 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS The Commanding Officer Commanding Officers in General § 700.832...

  4. Importance of the green color, absorption gradient, and spectral absorption of chloroplasts for the radiative energy balance of leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Atsushi

    2017-05-01

    Terrestrial green plants absorb photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm) but do not absorb photons evenly across the PAR waveband. The spectral absorbance of photosystems and chloroplasts is lowest for green light, which occurs within the highest irradiance waveband of direct solar radiation. We demonstrate a close relationship between this phenomenon and the safe and efficient utilization of direct solar radiation in simple biophysiological models. The effects of spectral absorptance on the photon and irradiance absorption processes are evaluated using the spectra of direct and diffuse solar radiation. The radiation absorption of a leaf arises as a consequence of the absorption of chloroplasts. The photon absorption of chloroplasts is strongly dependent on the distribution of pigment concentrations and their absorbance spectra. While chloroplast movements in response to light are important mechanisms controlling PAR absorption, they are not effective for green light because chloroplasts have the lowest spectral absorptance in the waveband. With the development of palisade tissue, the incident photons per total palisade cell surface area and the absorbed photons per chloroplast decrease. The spectral absorbance of carotenoids is effective in eliminating shortwave PAR (solar radiation. However, most of the near infrared radiation is unabsorbed and heat stress is greatly reduced. The incident solar radiation is too strong to be utilized for photosynthesis under the current CO 2 concentration in the terrestrial environment. Therefore, the photon absorption of a whole leaf is efficiently regulated by photosynthetic pigments with low spectral absorptance in the highest irradiance waveband and through a combination of pigment density distribution and leaf anatomical structures.

  5. Improving the precision of lake ecosystem metabolism estimates by identifying predictors of model uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kevin C.; Winslow, Luke A.; Read, Jordan S.; Read, Emily K.; Solomon, Christopher T.; Adrian, Rita; Hanson, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Diel changes in dissolved oxygen are often used to estimate gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) in aquatic ecosystems. Despite the widespread use of this approach to understand ecosystem metabolism, we are only beginning to understand the degree and underlying causes of uncertainty for metabolism model parameter estimates. Here, we present a novel approach to improve the precision and accuracy of ecosystem metabolism estimates by identifying physical metrics that indicate when metabolism estimates are highly uncertain. Using datasets from seventeen instrumented GLEON (Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network) lakes, we discovered that many physical characteristics correlated with uncertainty, including PAR (photosynthetically active radiation, 400-700 nm), daily variance in Schmidt stability, and wind speed. Low PAR was a consistent predictor of high variance in GPP model parameters, but also corresponded with low ER model parameter variance. We identified a threshold (30% of clear sky PAR) below which GPP parameter variance increased rapidly and was significantly greater in nearly all lakes compared with variance on days with PAR levels above this threshold. The relationship between daily variance in Schmidt stability and GPP model parameter variance depended on trophic status, whereas daily variance in Schmidt stability was consistently positively related to ER model parameter variance. Wind speeds in the range of ~0.8-3 m s–1 were consistent predictors of high variance for both GPP and ER model parameters, with greater uncertainty in eutrophic lakes. Our findings can be used to reduce ecosystem metabolism model parameter uncertainty and identify potential sources of that uncertainty.

  6. Optical limiting properties of 3,5-dipyrenylvinyleneBODIPY dyes at 532 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubheka, Gugu; Sanusi, Kayode; Mack, John; Nyokong, Tebello

    2018-02-01

    The optical limiting (OL) properties of 3,5-dipyrenylvinyleneBODIPY dyes that contain both electron withdrawing and donating moieties have been investigated by using the z-scan technique at 532 nm in the nanosecond pulse range. The extension of the π-conjugation at the 3,5-positions with pyrenylvinylene groups results in a ca. 200 nm red shift of the main BODIPY spectral band to ca. 700 nm, so there is relatively weak absorbance at 532 nm under ambient light conditions. Reverse saturable absorbance (RSA) profiles are observed in response to incident pulsed laser light that is consistent with a two photon absorption-assisted excited state absorption (ESA) mechanism in CH2Cl2 solution and when the dyes are embedded in poly(bisphenol carbonate A) (PBC) polymer thin films. This demonstrates that 3,5-divinyleneBODIPY dyes are potentially suitable for use in OL applications, since limiting threshold fluence (Ilim) values of below 0.95 J cm-2 are observed when thin films are prepared.

  7. A study of the reaction Li+HCl by the technique of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of Li (2 2PJ-2 2S1/2, λ=670.7 nm) between 700 and 1000 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plane, John M. C.; Saltzman, Eric S.

    1987-10-01

    A kinetic study is presented of the reaction between lithium atoms and hydrogen chloride over the temperature range 700-1000 K. Li atoms are produced in an excess of HCl and He bath gas by pulsed photolysis of LiCl vapor. The concentration of the metal atoms is then monitored in real time by the technique of laser-induced fluorescence of Li atoms at λ=670.7 nm using a pulsed nitrogen-pumped dye laser and box-car integration of the fluorescence signal. Absolute second-order rate constants for this reaction have been measured at T=700, 750, 800, and 900 K. At T=1000 K the reverse reaction is sufficiently fast that equilibrium is rapidly established on the time scale of the experiment. A fit of the data between 700 and 900 K to the Arrhenius form, with 2σ errors calculated from the absolute errors in the rate constants, yields k(T)=(3.8±1.1)×10-10 exp[-(883±218)/T] cm3 molecule-1 s-1. This result is interpreted through a modified form of collision theory which is constrained to take account of the conservation of total angular momentum during the reaction. Thereby we obtain an estimate for the reaction energy threshold, E0=8.2±1.4 kJ mol-1 (where the error arises from uncertainty in the exothermicity of the reaction), in very good agreement with a crossed molecular beam study of the title reaction, and substantially lower than estimates of E0 from both semiempirical and ab initio calculations of the potential energy surface.

  8. Diffuse-Illumination Systems for Growing Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, George; Ryan, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture in both terrestrial and space-controlled environments relies heavily on artificial illumination for efficient photosynthesis. Plant-growth illumination systems require high photon flux in the spectral range corresponding with plant photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) (400 700 nm), high spatial uniformity to promote uniform growth, and high energy efficiency to minimize electricity usage. The proposed plant-growth system takes advantage of the highly diffuse reflective surfaces on the interior of a sphere, hemisphere, or other nearly enclosed structure that is coated with highly reflective materials. This type of surface and structure uniformly mixes discrete light sources to produce highly uniform illumination. Multiple reflections from within the domelike structures are exploited to obtain diffuse illumination, which promotes the efficient reuse of photons that have not yet been absorbed by plants. The highly reflective surfaces encourage only the plant tissue (placed inside the sphere or enclosure) to absorb the light. Discrete light sources, such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), are typically used because of their high efficiency, wavelength selection, and electronically dimmable properties. The light sources are arranged to minimize shadowing and to improve uniformity. Different wavelengths of LEDs (typically blue, green, and red) are used for photosynthesis. Wavelengths outside the PAR range can be added for plant diagnostics or for growth regulation

  9. 15 CFR 700.7 - Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance. 700.7 Section 700.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE...

  10. 15 CFR 700.62 - Directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Directives. 700.62 Section 700.62 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE...

  11. FooPar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hargreaves, F. P.; Merkle, D.

    2013-01-01

    We present FooPar, an extension for highly efficient Parallel Computing in the multi-paradigm programming language Scala. Scala offers concise and clean syntax and integrates functional programming features. Our framework FooPar combines these features with parallel computing techniques. Foo......, results based on a empirical analysis on two supercomputers are given. We achieve close-to-optimal performance wrt. theoretical peak performance. Based on this result we conclude that FooPar allows programmers to fully access Scalas design features without suffering from performance drops when compared...

  12. Autonomous portable solar ultraviolet spectroradiometer (APSUS) - a new CCD spectrometer system for localized, real-time solar ultraviolet (280-400 nm) radiation measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, Rebecca; Pearson, Andy; O'Hagan, John

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation has significant implications for human health and increasing levels are a key concern regarding the impact of climate change. Monitoring solar UV radiation at the earth's surface is therefore of increasing importance. A new prototype portable CCD (charge-coupled device) spectrometer-based system has been developed that monitors UV radiation (280-400 nm) levels at the earth's surface. It has the ability to deliver this information to the public in real time. Since the instrument can operate autonomously, it is called the Autonomous Portable Solar Ultraviolet Spectroradiometer (APSUS). This instrument incorporates an Ocean Optics QE65000 spectrometer which is contained within a robust environmental housing. The APSUS system can gather reliable solar UV spectral data from approximately April to October inclusive (depending on ambient temperature) in the UK. In this study the new APSUS unit and APSUS system are presented. Example solar UV spectra and diurnal UV Index values as measured by the APSUS system in London and Weymouth in the UK in summer 2012 are shown. © 2014 Crown copyright. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology. This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland and Public Health England.

  13. Phosphorylation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB participates in regulating the ParABS chromosome segregation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronian, Grégory; Ginda, Katarzyna; Berry, Laurence; Cohen-Gonsaud, Martin; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta; Jakimowicz, Dagmara; Molle, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present for the first time that Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB is phosphorylated by several mycobacterial Ser/Thr protein kinases in vitro. ParB and ParA are the key components of bacterial chromosome segregation apparatus. ParB is a cytosolic conserved protein that binds specifically to centromere-like DNA parS sequences and interacts with ParA, a weak ATPase required for its proper localization. Mass spectrometry identified the presence of ten phosphate groups, thus indicating that ParB is phosphorylated on eight threonines, Thr32, Thr41, Thr53, Thr110, Thr195, and Thr254, Thr300, Thr303 as well as on two serines, Ser5 and Ser239. The phosphorylation sites were further substituted either by alanine to prevent phosphorylation or aspartate to mimic constitutive phosphorylation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a drastic inhibition of DNA-binding by ParB phosphomimetic mutant compared to wild type. In addition, bacterial two-hybrid experiments showed a loss of ParA-ParB interaction with the phosphomimetic mutant, indicating that phosphorylation is regulating the recruitment of the partitioning complex. Moreover, fluorescence microscopy experiments performed in the surrogate Mycobacterium smegmatis ΔparB strain revealed that in contrast to wild type Mtb ParB, which formed subpolar foci similar to M. smegmatis ParB, phoshomimetic Mtb ParB was delocalized. Thus, our findings highlight a novel regulatory role of the different isoforms of ParB representing a molecular switch in localization and functioning of partitioning protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  14. Phosphorylation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB participates in regulating the ParABS chromosome segregation system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Baronian

    Full Text Available Here, we present for the first time that Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB is phosphorylated by several mycobacterial Ser/Thr protein kinases in vitro. ParB and ParA are the key components of bacterial chromosome segregation apparatus. ParB is a cytosolic conserved protein that binds specifically to centromere-like DNA parS sequences and interacts with ParA, a weak ATPase required for its proper localization. Mass spectrometry identified the presence of ten phosphate groups, thus indicating that ParB is phosphorylated on eight threonines, Thr32, Thr41, Thr53, Thr110, Thr195, and Thr254, Thr300, Thr303 as well as on two serines, Ser5 and Ser239. The phosphorylation sites were further substituted either by alanine to prevent phosphorylation or aspartate to mimic constitutive phosphorylation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a drastic inhibition of DNA-binding by ParB phosphomimetic mutant compared to wild type. In addition, bacterial two-hybrid experiments showed a loss of ParA-ParB interaction with the phosphomimetic mutant, indicating that phosphorylation is regulating the recruitment of the partitioning complex. Moreover, fluorescence microscopy experiments performed in the surrogate Mycobacterium smegmatis ΔparB strain revealed that in contrast to wild type Mtb ParB, which formed subpolar foci similar to M. smegmatis ParB, phoshomimetic Mtb ParB was delocalized. Thus, our findings highlight a novel regulatory role of the different isoforms of ParB representing a molecular switch in localization and functioning of partitioning protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  15. 31 CFR 700.6 - Nuisances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nuisances. 700.6 Section 700.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FEDERAL LAW ENFORCEMENT..., unauthorized assembly, the creation of any hazard to persons or things, improper disposal of rubbish, or the...

  16. Comparative study of the oxidation of various qualities of uranium in carbon dioxide at high temperatures; Etude comparative de l'oxydation de diverses qualites d'uranium dans l'anhydride carbonique aux temperatures elevees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desrues, R; Paidassi, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    Uranium samples of six different qualities were subjected, in the temperature range 400 - 1000 C, to the action of carbon dioxide carefully purified to eliminate oxygen and water vapour; the resulting oxidation was followed micro-graphically and also (but only in the range 400 - 700 C) gravimetrically using an Ugine-Eyraud microbalance. A comparison of the results leads to the following 3 observations. First, the oxidation of the six uraniums studied obeys a linear law, (followed at 700 C by an accelerating law). The rates of reaction differ by a maximum of 100 per cent, the higher purity grades being oxidized more slowly except at 700 C when the reverse is true. Secondly, simultaneously with the growth, of an approximately uniform film of uranium dioxide on the metal, there occurs a localized attack in the form of blisters in the immediate neighbourhood of the monocarbide inclusions in the uranium. The relative importance of this attack is greater for lower oxidation temperatures and for a larger size, number and inequality of distribution of the inclusions, that is to say for higher carbon concentrations in the uranium (which have values from 7 to 1000 ppm in our tests). Thirdly, for oxidation temperatures above 600 C blistering is much less pronounced, but at 700 C the beginning of a general deformation of the sample occurs, which, above 750 C, becomes much greater; this leads to an acceleration of the reaction rate with respect to the linear law. In view of the over-heating, the sample must already be in the {gamma}-phase which is particularly easily deformed; furthermore this expansion phenomenon is more pronounced when the sample is more plastic and therefore purer. (authors) [French] Des echantillons de six qualites d'uranium ont ete soumis, dans l'intervalle 400-1000 C, a l'action de l'anhydride carbonique tres soigneusement purifie en oxygene et en vapeur d'eau, et leur oxydation a ete suivie par voie micrographique et egalement (mais seulement entre 400

  17. Very high resolution satellite data: New challenges in image analysis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathe, P.V.; Muraleedharan, P.M.

    with the exception that a ground-based view covers the entire optical range from 400 to 700 nm while satellite images will be wavelength-specific. Although the images will not surpass details observed by a human eye, they will, in principle, be comparable with aerial...

  18. ICC 700-2012: 2012 National Green Building Standard (ICC 700)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Description of the ICC 700-2012: 2012 National Green Building Standard, a rating and certification system that aims to encourage increased environmental and health performance in residences and residential portions of buildings.

  19. Effect of the Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation Estimation Error on Net Primary Production Estimation - A Study with MODIS FPAR and TOMS Ultraviolet Reflective Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Matsunaga, T.; Hoyano, A.

    2002-01-01

    Absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR), which is defined as downward solar radiation in 400-700 nm absorbed by vegetation, is one of the significant variables for Net Primary Production (NPP) estimation from satellite data. Toward the reduction of the uncertainties in the global NPP estimation, it is necessary to clarify the APAR accuracy. In this paper, first we proposed the improved PAR estimation method based on Eck and Dye's method in which the ultraviolet (UV) reflectivity data derived from Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) at the top of atmosphere were used for clouds transmittance estimation. The proposed method considered the variable effects of land surface UV reflectivity on the satellite-observed UV data. Monthly mean PAR comparisons between satellite-derived and ground-based data at various meteorological stations in Japan indicated that the improved PAR estimation method reduced the bias errors in the summer season. Assuming the relative error of the fraction of PAR (FPAR) derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to be 10%, we estimated APAR relative errors to be 10-15%. Annual NPP is calculated using APAR derived from MODIS/ FPAR and the improved PAR estimation method. It is shown that random and bias errors of annual NPP in a 1 km resolution pixel are less than 4% and 6% respectively. The APAR bias errors due to the PAR bias errors also affect the estimated total NPP. We estimated the most probable total annual NPP in Japan by subtracting the bias PAR errors. It amounts about 248 MtC/yr. Using the improved PAR estimation method, and Eck and Dye's method, total annual NPP is 4% and 9% difference from most probable value respectively. The previous intercomparison study among using fifteen NPP models4) showed that global NPP estimations among NPP models are 44.4-66.3 GtC/yr (coefficient of variation = 14%). Hence we conclude that the NPP estimation uncertainty due to APAR estimation error is small

  20. 32 CFR 700.304 - Recommendations to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommendations to Congress. 700.304 Section 700... The Secretary of the Navy § 700.304 Recommendations to Congress. After first informing the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the Navy may make such recommendations to Congress relating to the...

  1. 25 CFR 700.81 - Monthly housing cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monthly housing cost. 700.81 Section 700.81 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.81 Monthly housing cost. (a) General. The term monthly housing...) Computation of monthly housing cost for replacement dwelling. A person's monthly housing cost for a...

  2. 25 CFR 700.61 - Fair market value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair market value. 700.61 Section 700.61 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.61 Fair market value. Fair market value shall mean the value...

  3. 25 CFR 700.515 - Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conflicts of interest. 700.515 Section 700.515 Indians... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.515 Conflicts of interest. (a) A conflict of interest may exist... or herself, close friends, relatives, or business associates. A conflict of interest may also exist...

  4. 31 CFR 700.14 - Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking. 700.14 Section 700.14 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FEDERAL LAW ENFORCEMENT TRAINING CENTER, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN OR ON THE FEDERAL LAW ENFORCEMENT TRAINING CENTER (FLETC) BUILDINGS AND...

  5. Experiment and model for the viscosities of MEA-PEG400, DEA-PEG400 and MDEA-PEG400 aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Dong; Zhang, Pan; Du, LeiXia; Dai, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The viscosities of the amine-PEG400 aqueous solutions were measured. • The experiments were modeled satisfactorily by using the Weiland equation. • The effect of mass fractions of amine and PEG400 on the viscosity was illustrated. • The temperature dependence of the viscosity was demonstrated. - Abstract: The viscosities (η) of poly(ethylene oxide)400 (PEG400), monoethanolamine (MEA)-PEG400, diethanolamine (DEA)-PEG400 and N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA)-PEG400 aqueous solutions were measured by using the NDJ-5S digital rotational viscometer. A thermodynamic equation was used to model the viscosities and the calculated results are satisfactory. The effects of temperature, mass fractions of amines and PEG400 on the viscosities were demonstrated on the basis of experiments and calculations

  6. Protection of uranium by electrodeposition of nickel and diffusion; Protection de l'uranium par nickelage electrolytique et diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvin, G; Coriou, H; Hure, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    This work forms part of the overall scheme for investigating uranium canning for nuclear reactors. It is necessary to: - Protect the fuel (uranium) against corrosion by the cooling medium (heavy water, CO{sub 2}, etc.), in the case of a rupture of the can; - Avoid dangerous U-Al diffusion (when it is question of an aluminium can) by using an intermediate layer of a metal whose rate of diffusion in uranium is very much less than that of aluminium under the same conditions. In the present work based on the use of an intermediate layer of nickel the following points are apparent: 1) After having treated the uranium surface it is possible to electroplate nickel on it in such a way that after annealing without the application of any pressure these deposits give a very good intermetallic U-Ni diffusion. Though this diffusion is inferior to that of the UAl system, it enables the protection to be reinforced and thus the corrosion resistance to be increased. 2) When no other factor varies, the experiments show that the quality of the diffusion zones obtained depends on the nature of the electrolytic nickel bath. 3) The classical nickel baths used previously for this type of work contain 20 to 40 g/l of boric acid acting as an electrolytic buffer. As a result of this, the deposits are highly contaminated by boron (400 to 500 ppm of boron). We shall show that with a bath which does not contain nuclear poisons, a very clean U-Ni diffusion zone can be obtained. 4) After annealing for 100 hours at 700 deg. C, microscopic examination of the diffusion front reveals the existence of five layers under bright field illumination and six Layers in polarised light: at least four of these layers are well crystallised. 5) Important irregularities in the interface between uranium and the first intermetallic compound U{sub 6}Ni seem to be result of barriers to the diffusion caused by certain impurities in the uranium. 6) Of the seven definite compounds which can be formed during the

  7. Surgical performance of a 405-nm diode laser in treatment of soft tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, J; Akashi, G; Moriya, K; Hirai, Y; Hatayama, H; Inoue, A; Miyazaki, H

    2008-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the surgical performance of a 405-nm diode laser ex vivo. The experiments were carried out using tuna tissue, which was irradiated with a 405-nm diode laser at output powers of 400 mW (694 W/cm 2 ) to 1 W (1735 W/cm 2 ) on a motorized stage moving at a rate of 1 mm/sec. As a control, a 920-nm diode laser was used with the same irradiation conditions. After irradiation, the thickness of ablation and coagulation was measured by stereoscopic microscopy and evaluated statistically. Ablation and coagulation zones were obtained with 405-nm laser irradiation, but not with irradiation at 920 nm. Ablation depth increased significantly with output power and a thick coagulation zone was observed with 405-nm irradiation. The 405-nm diode laser performed well for incising and coagulating soft tissue at a low power density

  8. 25 CFR 700.269 - Accounting for disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting for disclosures. 700.269 Section 700.269... Privacy Act § 700.269 Accounting for disclosures. (a) Maintenance of an accounting. (1) Where a record is... person or agency to whom the disclosure was made. (3) Accountings prepared under this section shall be...

  9. 32 CFR 700.337 - The Auditor General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The Auditor General. 700.337 Section 700.337... Office of the Secretary of the Navy/the Staff Assistants § 700.337 The Auditor General. (a) The Auditor... Government auditing standards. (b) The Auditor General can provide information and may provide assistance and...

  10. 16 CFR 700.2 - Date of manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Date of manufacture. 700.2 Section 700.2... MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT INTERPRETATIONS OF MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT § 700.2 Date of manufacture... after July 4, 1975. When a consumer purchases repair of a consumer product the date of manufacture of...

  11. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces. To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins. PMID:27248800

  12. 25 CFR 700.33 - Act (The Act).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Act (The Act). 700.33 Section 700.33 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.33 Act (The Act). (a) The Act. The Act is Pub. L. 93-531, (88 Stat...

  13. Radio-sensitization of animals by bismuth; Radio sensibilisation de l'animal par le bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierotti, T; Verain, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Digestive absorption of bismuth by animals leads to radio-sensitization. This effect is very marked when the X-rays used are centered on the absorption line of bismuth. This work has involved the use of more than 2000 C3H/JAX mice, and has shown that a maximum lethal effect, with respect to the standard, occurs for bismuth sub-nitrate doses of the order of 3 g/kg and for exposures of 700 R. For stronger or weaker doses, the sensitization effect is less marked. (authors) [French] L'absorption digestive de bismuth provoque une radiosensibilisation de l'animal. Celle-ci est nette quand le rayonnement X utilise est centre sur la raie d'absorption du bismuth. L'etude portant sur plus de 2000 souris C3H/JAX a montre une lethalite maximale par rapport aux temoins pour des doses de sous-nitrate de bismuth de l'ordre de 3 g/kg et pour des expositions de 700 R. Pour des doses plus fortes ou plus faibles, l'effet de sensibilisation est moins net. (auteurs)

  14. Análise das propriedades ópticas da água do reservatório Rodolfo Costa e Silva – Itaara, RS, Brasil, usando dados espectrais de campo e imagens orbitais multiespectrais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrado de Moraes Rudorff

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho avaliou a separabilidade de classes de água, a partir de técnicas de análises da reflectância de superfície, com dados medidos em campo e imagens multiespectrais adquiridas em nível orbital. A área de estudo foi o reservatório Rodolfo Costa e Silva, localizado na região central do Rio Grande do Sul. A metodologia foi baseada na coleta de dados in situ – total de sólidos em suspensão, clorofila (a, b, c, transparência da água e espectros de reflectância bidirecional – em 21 pontos amostrais no dia 16 de maio de 2006. A técnica de remoção do contínuo foi aplicada aos espectros de campo em quatro intervalos de bandas de absorção: 400-550nm, 610-640nm, 650-680nm e 580-700nm. Os parâmetros de remoção do contínuo das bandas de absorção analisados foram: profundidade, área e largura. Verificou-se que os parâmetros de profundidade, área e a largura da banda de absorção não apresentaram potencial de separabilidade em classes espectrais relacionadas à pequena variação na concentração dos componentes opticamente ativos na água. Imagens CBERS-2/CCD e Landsat 5/TM adquiridas em datas próximas à atividade de campo foram corrigidas dos efeitos atmosféricos e classificadas. Os resultados das classificações não apresentaram correlações significativas com os parâmetros de qualidade da água, a fim de proporcionar uma caracterização espectral das classes de água ou compartimentos. A dificuldade no estabelecimento de relações entre os parâmetros de reflectância espectral e qualidade da água foi devida, principalmente, à baixa variabilidade dos componentes opticamente ativos na água do Reservatório Rodolfo Costa e Silva. Neste caso, as análises espectrais testadas neste trabalho não foram sensíveis às pequenas variações observadas por meio dos dados de campo.

  15. Par Pond water balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

    1996-06-01

    A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs

  16. Fluorescence-based calculus detection using a 405-nm excitation wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brede, O.; Schelle, F.; Krueger, S.; Oehme, B.; Dehn, C.; Frentzen, M.; Braun, A.

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the difference of fluorescence signals of cement and calculus using a 405 nm excitation wavelength. A total number of 20 freshly extracted teeth was used. The light source used for this study was a blue LED with a wavelength of 405nm. For each tooth the spectra of calculus and cementum were measured separately. Fluorescence light was collimated into an optical fibre and spectrally analyzed using an echelle spectrometer (aryelle 200, Lasertechnik Berlin, Germany) with an additionally bandpass (fgb 67, Edmund Industrial Optics, Karlsruhe, Germany). From these 40 measurements the median values were calculated over the whole spectrum, leading to two different median spectra, one for calculus and one for cementum. For further statistical analysis we defined 8 areas of interest (AOI) in wavelength regions, showing remarkable differences in signal strength. In 7 AOIs the intensity of the calculus spectrum differed statistically significant from the intensity of the cementum spectrum (p calculus and cement between 600nm and 700nm. Thus, we can conclude that fluorescence of calculus shows a significant difference to the fluorescence of cement. A differentiation over the intensity is possible as well as over the spectrum. Using a wavelength of 405nm, it is possible to distinguish between calculus and cement. These results could be used for further devices to develop a method for feedback controlled calculus removal.

  17. How to distinguish scattered and absorbed light from re-emitted light for white LEDs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meretska, Maryna; Lagendijk, Aart; Thyrrestrup Nielsen, Henri; Mosk, Allard; IJzerman, Wilbert; Vos, Willem L.

    2017-01-01

    We have studied the light transport through phosphor diffuser plates that are used in commercial solid-state lighting modules (Fortimo). These polymer plates contain YAG:Ce+3 phosphor particles that scatter, absorb and re-emit incident light in the visible wavelength range (400-700 nm). To

  18. Non-destructive quality evaluation of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds using LED-induced hyperspectral reflectance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we develop a viability evaluation method for pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seed based on hyperspectral reflectance imaging. The reflectance spectra of pepper seeds in the 400700 nm range are collected from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained using blue, green, and red LED illumin...

  19. Ratios of double to single ionization of He and Ne by strong 400-nm laser pulses using the quantitative rescattering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhangjin; Li, Xiaojin; Zatsarinny, Oleg; Bartschat, Klaus; Lin, C. D.

    2018-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of the ratio between double and single ionization of He and Ne by intense laser pulses at wavelengths of 390 and 400 nm, respectively. The yields of doubly charged ions due to nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) are obtained by employing the quantitative rescattering (QRS) model. In this model, the NSDI ionization probability is expressed as a product of the returning electron wave packet (RWP) and the total scattering cross sections for laser-free electron impact excitation and electron impact ionization of the parent ion. According to the QRS theory, the same RWP is also responsible for the emission of high-energy above-threshold ionization photoelectrons. To obtain absolute double-ionization yields, the RWP is generated by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) within a one-electron model. The same TDSE results can also be taken to obtain single-ionization yields. By using the TDSE results to calibrate single ionization and the RWP obtained from the strong-field approximation, we further simplify the calculation such that the nonuniform laser intensity distribution in the focused laser beam can be accounted for. In addition, laser-free electron impact excitation and ionization cross sections are calculated using the state-of-the-art many-electron R -matrix theory. The simulation results for double-to-single-ionization ratios are found to compare well with experimental data and support the validity of the nonsequential double-ionization mechanism for the covered intensity region.

  20. Estimating hourly variation in photosynthetically active radiation across the UK using MSG SEVIRI data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankaew, P; Milton, E J; Dash, J

    2014-01-01

    The amount of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) reaching the Earth's surface is a key input variable in most gross primary productivity models. However, poor representation of PAR due to large pixel size or limited temporal sampling is one of the main sources of uncertainty in such models. This paper presents a method to estimate PAR at up to 1 km spatial resolution at a regional to global scale. The method uses broadband radiance data (400–1100nm) and per-pixel estimates of relative cloud cover from a geostationary satellite to estimate the amount of PAR reaching the Earth's surface at high spatial and temporal resolution (1–2 km and hourly). The method was validated using data from 54 pyranometers located at sites across the UK. Hourly averaged PAR over the range 400–1400 μmol m −2 s −1 was estimated with a mean bias error = 5.01 μmol m −2 s −1 (R 2 = 0.87), providing a source of accurate data for high resolution models of gross primary productivity

  1. suPAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodges, Gethin W; Bang, Casper N; Wachtell, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental role of inflammation in cardiovascular disease (CVD) has prompted interest in numerous biomarkers that detect subclinical levels of inflammation. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a novel biomarker that correlates significantly with cardiovascular events ...... comprehensive review of suPAR in CVD and explore its function and usefulness in predicting cardiovascular events....

  2. C9.A/14 steelwork joints de poutres par plaque frontale : assemblages par gousset

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Les Tables de résistances ultimes des assemblages boulonnés par plaque frontale et par gousset, complétées par une description des modèles de calcul et des exemples d’application, ont pour but de faciliter la tâche de l'ingénieur et du constructeur. Cette première partie C9.A/14 contient les chapitres suivants: - Joints de poutres par plaque frontale en acier S235 et S355 - Assemblages par gousset en acier S235 et S355 Les Tables contiennent des données relatives à la géométrie ainsi que les valeurs de calcul correspondantes des résistances ultimes des assemblages ; elles remplacent le chapitre « Assemblages par plaques frontales et boulons HR » des anciennes Tables C9.1 de 1983 / 2002. Le calcul de ces assemblages par plaque frontale est basé sur les hypothèses du modèle de la méthode des composants décrite dans la norme SN EN 1993-1-8. Les vérifications sont effectuées selon la norme SIA 263:2013. Les assemblages par gousset remplacent les assemblages par double cornière, (telle...

  3. SN 2008iy: An Unusual Type IIn Supernova with an Enduring 400 Day Rise Time

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, A. A.; Silverman, J. M.; Butler, N. R.; Bloom, J. S.; Chornock, R.; Filippenko, A. V.; Ganeshalingam, M.; Klein, C. R.; Li, W.; Nugent, P. E.; Smith, N.; Steele, T. N.

    2009-01-01

    We present spectroscopic and photometric observations of the Type IIn supernova (SN) 2008iy. SN 2008iy showed an unprecedentedly long rise time of ~400 days, making it the first SN to take significantly longer than 100 days to reach peak optical luminosity. The peak absolute magnitude of SN 2008iy was M_r ~ -19.1 mag, and the total radiated energy over the first ~700 days was ~2 x 10^50 erg. Spectroscopically, SN 2008iy is very similar to the Type IIn SN 1988Z at late times, and, like SN 1988...

  4. 40 CFR 141.700 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... described in §§ 141.721 through 141.722. (7) Systems must address significant deficiencies identified in... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements. 141.700 Section 141.700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS...

  5. 15 CFR 700.70 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 700.70 Section 700.70 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...

  6. 15 CFR 700.61 - Rating Authorizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rating Authorizations. 700.61 Section 700.61 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...

  7. 15 CFR 700.60 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 700.60 Section 700.60 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...

  8. 15 CFR 700.50 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 700.50 Section 700.50 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...

  9. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metalworking machines. 700.31 Section 700.31 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...

  10. 15 CFR 700.75 - Compliance conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance conflicts. 700.75 Section 700.75 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...

  11. How to distinguish elastically scattered light from Stokes shifted light for solid-state lighting?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meretska, Maryna; Lagendijk, Aart; Thyrrestrup Nielsen, Henri; Mosk, Allard; IJzerman, W.L.; Vos, Willem L.

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the transport of light through phosphor diffuser plates that are used in commercial solid-state lighting modules (Fortimo). These polymer plates contain YAG:Ce+3phosphor particles that both elastically scatter and Stokes shift light in the visible wavelength range (400700nm). We

  12. Could photosynthesis function on Proxima Centauri b?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Raymond J.; Larkum, Anthony W. D.; Ribas, Ignasi

    2018-04-01

    Could oxygenic and/or anoxygenic photosynthesis exist on planet Proxima Centauri b? Proxima Centauri (spectral type - M5.5 V, 3050 K) is a red dwarf, whereas the Sun is type G2 V (5780 K). The light regimes on Earth and Proxima Centauri b are compared with estimates of the planet's suitability for Chlorophyll a (Chl a) and Chl d-based oxygenic photosynthesis and for bacteriochlorophyll (BChl)-based anoxygenic photosynthesis. Proxima Centauri b has low irradiance in the oxygenic photosynthesis range (400-749 nm: 64-132 µmol quanta m-2 s-1). Much larger amounts of light would be available for BChl-based anoxygenic photosynthesis (350-1100 nm: 724-1538 µmol quanta m-2 s-1). We estimated primary production under these light regimes. We used the oxygenic algae Synechocystis PCC6803, Prochlorothrix hollandica, Acaryochloris marina, Chlorella vulgaris, Rhodomonas sp. and Phaeodactylum tricornutum and the anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria Rhodopseudomonas palustris (BChl a), Afifella marina (BChl a), Thermochromatium tepidum (BChl a), Chlorobaculum tepidum (BChl a + c) and Blastochloris viridis (BChl b) as representative photosynthetic organisms. Proxima Centauri b has only ~3% of the PAR (400-700 nm) of Earth irradiance, but we found that potential gross photosynthesis (P g) on Proxima Centauri b could be surprisingly high (oxygenic photosynthesis: earth ~0.8 gC m-2 h-1 Proxima Centauri b ~0.14 gC m-2 h-1). The proportion of PAR irradiance useable by oxygenic photosynthetic organisms (the sum of Blue + Red irradiance) is similar for the Earth and Proxima Centauri b. The oxygenic photic zone would be only ~10 m deep in water compared with ~200 m on Earth. The P g of an anoxic Earth (gC m-2 h-1) is ~0.34-0.59 (land) and could be as high as ~0.29-0.44 on Proxima Centauri b. 1 m of water does not affect oxygenic or anoxygenic photosynthesis on Earth, but on Proxima Centauri b oxygenic P g is reduced by ~50%. Effective elimination of near IR limits P g by photosynthetic

  13. 30 CFR 700.10 - Information collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... longer a surface coal mining and reclamation operation and thereby when regulatory jurisdiction may end... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information collection. 700.10 Section 700.10 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL...

  14. 15 CFR 700.6 - Official actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official actions. 700.6 Section 700.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE...

  15. Pinch density measurements in compact plasma foci of 400J and 50J

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarifeño-Saldivia, Ariel; Pavez, Cristian; Soto, Leopoldo

    2014-01-01

    A Mach-Zehnder interferometer using a pulsed Nd-YAG laser (600 mJ, 532 nm, 8 ns) was implemented to measure the electron density and the dimensions of the pinch column in two sub-kJ compact plasma focus devices operating at hundred joules (PF-400J) and tens of joules (PF-50J).

  16. Parálisis cerebral :

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrero Izquierdo, María del Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Se aborda el tema de la parálisis cerebral definiendo qué es, clasificando los tipos de parálisis dependiendo de la afectación y las características principales. Se explican algunos de sus tratamientos, se dan sistemas alternativos y/o aumentativos de comunicación para un alumno con PC (parálisis cerebral).

  17. 21 CFR 584.700 - Hydrophobic silicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Product. Amorphous fumed hydrophobic silica or precipitated hydrophobic silica (CAS Reg. No. 68611-0944... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrophobic silicas. 584.700 Section 584.700 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE IN FEED AND...

  18. Synthesis and characterization of black, red and yellow nanoparticles pigments from the iron sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mufti, Nandang; Atma, T.; Fuad, A.; Sutadji, E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to synthesize nanoparticles of black pigment of Magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), red pigment of hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ), and yellow pigment of ghoetite (α-FeOOH) from the iron sand. The black pigment of Fe 3 O 4 and the yellow pigment α-FeOOH nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation method with variation of pH. Whereas, the red pigment Fe 2 O 3 was synthesized by sintering Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles at temperature between 400 °C and 700 7°C for 1 hour. All the pigments has been characterized using X-ray diffraction and SEM. The XRD results shown that the particle size of the black pigmen Fe 3 O 4 , red pigment Fe 3 O 4 and yellow pigment α-FeOOH are around 12, 32, and 30 nm respectively. The particle size of Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles increase by increasing sintering temperature from 32 nm at 400 °C to 39 nm at 700 °C. For yellow pigment of α-FeOOH, the particle size increase by increasing pH from 30,54 nm at pH 4 to 48,60 nm at pH 7. The SEM results shown that the morphologies of black, yellow and red pigments are aglomarated

  19. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are two...

  20. New WOLEDs based on π-extended azatrioxa[8]circulenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivaniuk, K. B.; Baryshnikov, Gleb V.; Stakhira, P. Y.

    2017-01-01

    New stable WOLEDs based on p-extended azatrioxa[8]circulenes have been fabricated. Combining the own blue emission of the azatrioxa[8]circulenes with the yellow-green emission of the "m-MTDATA:azatrioxa[8]circulene" exciplex a broad visible region, from 400 to 700 nm, is covered. The so constructed...

  1. ACR-700 advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, R.L.; Turner, C.W.; Yu, S.K.W.; Olmstead, R.; Speranzini, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    A successful advanced reactor plant will have optimized economics including reduced operating and maintenance costs, improved performance, and enhanced safety. Incorporating improvements based on advanced technologies ensures cost, safety and operational competitiveness of the ACR-700. These advanced technologies include modern configuration management; construction technologies; operational technology for the control centre and information systems for plant monitoring and analysis. This paper summarizes the advanced technologies used to achieve construction and operational improvements to enhance plant economic competitiveness, advances in the operational technology used for reactor control, and presents the development of the Smart CANDU suite of tools and its application to existing operating reactors and to the ACR-700. (author)

  2. 21 CFR 573.700 - Sodium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive... as a preservative and color fixative in canned pet food containing fish, meat, and fish and meat... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 573.700 Section 573.700 Food and...

  3. Enabling 4-Lane Based 400 G Client-Side Transmission Links with MultiCAP Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatarczak, Anna; Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Zuo, Tianjian

    2015-01-01

    We propose a uniform solution for a future client-side 400 G Ethernet standard based on MultiCAP advanced modulation format, intensity modulation, and direct detection. It employs 4 local area networks-wavelength division multiplexing (LAN-WDM) lanes in 1300 nm wavelength band and parallel optics...

  4. 32 CFR 700.1056 - Command of a ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Command of a ship. 700.1056 Section 700.1056 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS Precedence, Authority and Command Detail to Duty § 700.1056 Command of a...

  5. 10 CFR 2.700 - Scope of subpart G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope of subpart G. 2.700 Section 2.700 Energy NUCLEAR... Formal Adjudications § 2.700 Scope of subpart G. The provisions of this subpart apply to and supplement... authorization for high-level radioactive waste repository noticed under §§ 2.101(f)(8) or 2.105(a)(5...

  6. Internal energy of HCl upon photolysis of 2-chloropropene at 193 nm investigated with time-resolved Fourier-transform spectroscopy and quasiclassical trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.-M.; Huang, Y.-H.; Liu, S.-Y.; Lee, Y.-P.; Pombar-Perez, Marta; Martinez-Nunez, Emilio; Vazquez, Saulo A.

    2008-01-01

    Following photodissociation of 2-chloropropene (H 2 CCClCH 3 ) at 193 nm, vibration-rotationally resolved emission spectra of HCl (υ≤6) in the spectral region of 1900-2900 cm -1 were recorded with a step-scan time-resolved Fourier-transform spectrometer. All vibrational levels show a small low-J component corresponding to ∼400 K and a major high-J component corresponding to 7100-18 700 K with average rotational energy of 39± 3 11 kJ mol -1 . The vibrational population of HCl is inverted at υ=2, and the average vibrational energy is 86±5 kJ mol -1 . Two possible channels of molecular elimination producing HCl+propyne or HCl+allene cannot be distinguished positively based on the observed internal energy distribution of HCl. The observed rotational distributions fit qualitatively with the distributions of both channels obtained with quasiclassical trajectories (QCTs), but the QCT calculations predict negligible populations for states at small J. The observed vibrational distribution agrees satisfactorily with the total QCT distribution obtained as a weighted sum of contributions from both four-center elimination channels. Internal energy distributions of HCl from 2-chloropropene and vinyl chloride are compared.

  7. Novel role for proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in membrane trafficking of proteinase-activated receptor 4 (PAR4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Margaret R; McIntosh, Kathryn A; Pediani, John D; Robben, Joris; Cooke, Alexandra E; Nilsson, Mary; Gould, Gwyn W; Mundell, Stuart; Milligan, Graeme; Plevin, Robin

    2012-05-11

    Proteinase-activated receptors 4 (PAR(4)) is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) recognized through the ability of serine proteases such as thrombin and trypsin to mediate receptor activation. Due to the irreversible nature of activation, a fresh supply of receptor is required to be mobilized to the cell surface for responsiveness to agonist to be sustained. Unlike other PAR subtypes, the mechanisms regulating receptor trafficking of PAR(4) remain unknown. Here, we report novel features of the intracellular trafficking of PAR(4) to the plasma membrane. PAR(4) was poorly expressed at the plasma membrane and largely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a complex with the COPI protein subunit β-COP1. Analysis of the PAR(4) protein sequence identified an arginine-based (RXR) ER retention sequence located within intracellular loop-2 (R(183)AR → A(183)AA), mutation of which allowed efficient membrane delivery of PAR(4). Interestingly, co-expression with PAR(2) facilitated plasma membrane delivery of PAR(4), an effect produced through disruption of β-COP1 binding and facilitation of interaction with the chaperone protein 14-3-3ζ. Intermolecular FRET studies confirmed heterodimerization between PAR(2) and PAR(4). PAR(2) also enhanced glycosylation of PAR(4) and activation of PAR(4) signaling. Our results identify a novel regulatory role for PAR(2) in the anterograde traffic of PAR(4). PAR(2) was shown to both facilitate and abrogate protein interactions with PAR(4), impacting upon receptor localization and cell signal transduction. This work is likely to impact markedly upon the understanding of the receptor pharmacology of PAR(4) in normal physiology and disease.

  8. 32 CFR 700.710 - Organization of a staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organization of a staff. 700.710 Section 700.710... Commanders Staffs of Commanders § 700.710 Organization of a staff. (a) The term “staff” means those officers... operation of his or her command. (b) The officer detailed as chief of staff and aide to a fleet admiral or...

  9. Contribution to the study of nuclear structure using neutron total cross-section measurements between 400 and 1200 keV: isolated resonances and intermediate structure; Contribution a l'etude de la structure nucleaire par des mesures de sections efficaces neutroniques entre 400 keV et 1200 keV. Resonances isolees et structure intermediaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabe, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-06-15

    The neutron total cross sections have been measured over the energy range 400 keV - 1200 keV for fluorine, aluminium, silicon, phosphorus, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, cobalt and lead with an energy spread of 3 keV. The neutrons were produced by the T (p,n) {sup 3}He reaction, the proton beam was supplied by a 2 MeV Van de Graaff. The structure in {sup 56}Fe has been studied in a more detailed way by measuring six angular distributions in the above range and the elastic scattering excitation curves at four angles. The measurements have made it possible to show the existence of the compound nucleus, as well as the presence of an intermediate structure in certain nuclei. (author) [French] Nous avons mesure les sections efficaces totales neutroniques entre 400 keV et 1200 keV du fluor, de l'aluminium, du silicium, du phosphore, du vanadium, du chrome, du manganese, du fer, du nickel, du cobalt et du plomb avec une dispersion en energie de 3 keV. Les neutrons etaient produits a l'aide de la reaction T (p,n) {sup 3}He, les protons etant acceleres par un Van de Graaff 2 MeV. Nous presentons de plus quatre courbes d'excitation de la diffusion elastique des neutrons sur le fer ainsi que six distributions angulaires. Ces mesures ont permis de mettre en evidence un certain nombres de resonances du noyau compose, ainsi que la presence d'une structure intermediaire dans. certains noyaux. (auteur)

  10. 25 CFR 700.565 - Miscellaneous statutory provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Miscellaneous statutory provisions. 700.565 Section 700... States Code, relating to bribery, graftm and conflicts of interest, as appropriate to the employees... registered under the Foreign Agents Registration Act (18 U.S.C. 219). ...

  11. Synthesis of titanate, TiO2 (B), and anatase TiO2 nanofibers from natural rutile sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavasupree, Sorapong; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Yoshikawa, Susumu; Kawahata, Ryoji

    2005-01-01

    Titanate nanofibers were synthesized by hydrothermal method (150 deg. C for 72 h) using natural rutile sand as the starting materials. TiO 2 (B) and anatase TiO 2 (high crystallinity) nanofibers with the diameters of 20-100 nm and the lengths of 10-100 μm were obtained by calcined titanate nanofibers for 4 h at 400 and 700 deg. C (in air), respectively. The samples characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, SAED, HRTEM, and BET surface area. This synthesis method provides a simple route to fabricate one-dimensional nanostructured TiO 2 from low cost material. -- Graphical abstract: Titanate nanofibers (b) were synthesized by hydrothermal method (150 deg. C for 72 h) using natural rutile sand (a) as the starting materials. TiO 2 (B) (c) and anatase TiO 2 (d) nanofibers with the diameters of 20-50 nm and the lengths of 10-100 μm were obtained by calcined titanate nanofibers for 4 h at 400 deg. C and 700 deg. C (in air), respectively

  12. UV-Induced Cell Death in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawkar, Ganesh M.; Maibam, Punyakishore; Park, Jung Hoon; Sahi, Vaidurya Pratap; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kang, Chang Ho

    2013-01-01

    Plants are photosynthetic organisms that depend on sunlight for energy. Plants respond to light through different photoreceptors and show photomorphogenic development. Apart from Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR; 400700 nm), plants are exposed to UV light, which is comprised of UV-C (below 280 nm), UV-B (280–320 nm) and UV-A (320–390 nm). The atmospheric ozone layer protects UV-C radiation from reaching earth while the UVR8 protein acts as a receptor for UV-B radiation. Low levels of UV-B exposure initiate signaling through UVR8 and induce secondary metabolite genes involved in protection against UV while higher dosages are very detrimental to plants. It has also been reported that genes involved in MAPK cascade help the plant in providing tolerance against UV radiation. The important targets of UV radiation in plant cells are DNA, lipids and proteins and also vital processes such as photosynthesis. Recent studies showed that, in response to UV radiation, mitochondria and chloroplasts produce a reactive oxygen species (ROS). Arabidopsis metacaspase-8 (AtMC8) is induced in response to oxidative stress caused by ROS, which acts downstream of the radical induced cell death (AtRCD1) gene making plants vulnerable to cell death. The studies on salicylic and jasmonic acid signaling mutants revealed that SA and JA regulate the ROS level and antagonize ROS mediated cell death. Recently, molecular studies have revealed genes involved in response to UV exposure, with respect to programmed cell death (PCD). PMID:23344059

  13. 15 CFR 700.52 - Examples of assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Examples of assistance. 700.52 Section 700.52 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...

  14. 15 CFR 700.91 - Records and reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records and reports. 700.91 Section 700.91 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...

  15. 15 CFR 700.5 - Special priorities assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special priorities assistance. 700.5 Section 700.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...

  16. 15 CFR 700.90 - Protection against claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection against claims. 700.90 Section 700.90 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...

  17. 15 CFR 700.53 - Criteria for assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for assistance. 700.53 Section 700.53 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...

  18. 15 CFR 700.63 - Letters of Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Letters of Understanding. 700.63 Section 700.63 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...

  19. 25 CFR 700.55 - Decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling. 700.55 Section 700... PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.55 Decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling. (a) General. The term decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling means a dwelling which— (1) Meets applicable federal...

  20. 30 CFR 903.700 - Arizona Federal program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources has jurisdiction over the mining of minerals, and oil and gas under Title 27 of the Arizona....700 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.700 Arizona Federal...

  1. 30 CFR 700.14 - Availability of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of records. 700.14 Section 700.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL... authority having jurisdiction over the area involved. (b) Other records or documents in the possession of...

  2. Reconstruction of hyperspectral reflectance for optically complex turbid inland lakes: test of a new scheme and implications for inversion algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Deyong; Hu, Chuanmin; Qiu, Zhongfeng; Wang, Shengqiang

    2015-06-01

    A new scheme has been proposed by Lee et al. (2014) to reconstruct hyperspectral (400 - 700 nm, 5 nm resolution) remote sensing reflectance (Rrs(λ), sr-1) of representative global waters using measurements at 15 spectral bands. This study tested its applicability to optically complex turbid inland waters in China, where Rrs(λ) are typically much higher than those used in Lee et al. (2014). Strong interdependence of Rrs(λ) between neighboring bands (≤ 10 nm interval) was confirmed, with Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) mostly above 0.98. The scheme of Lee et al. (2014) for Rrs(λ) re-construction with its original global parameterization worked well with this data set, while new parameterization showed improvement in reducing uncertainties in the reconstructed Rrs(λ). Mean absolute error (MAERrs(λi)) in the reconstructed Rrs(λ) was mostly -1 between 400 and 700nm, and mean relative error (MRERrs(λi)) was rs(λ) spectra. When Rrs(λ) at the MODIS bands were used to reconstruct the hyperspectral Rrs(λ), MAERrs(λi) was -1 and MRERrs(λi) was rs(λ) at the MERIS bands were used, MAERrs(λi) in the reconstructed hyperspectral Rrs(λ) was -1 and MRERrs(λi) was rs(λ) data using spectral bands that may not exist on satellite sensors.

  3. Par Pond vegetation status 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  4. 32 CFR 700.1054 - Command of a naval base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Command of a naval base. 700.1054 Section 700.1054 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY... Command Detail to Duty § 700.1054 Command of a naval base. The officer detailed to command a naval base...

  5. 32 CFR 700.872 - Ships and craft in drydock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ships and craft in drydock. 700.872 Section 700... Special Circumstances/ships in Naval Stations and Shipyards § 700.872 Ships and craft in drydock. (a) The... ship or craft, not in commission, is in a naval drydock, the provisions of this article shall apply...

  6. 32 CFR 700.1053 - Commander of a task force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commander of a task force. 700.1053 Section 700... Command Detail to Duty § 700.1053 Commander of a task force. (a) A geographic fleet commander, and any other naval commander, may detail in command of a task force, or other task command, any eligible...

  7. One-pot silver nanoring synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Drogat , Nicolas; Granet , Robert; Sol , Vincent; Krausz , Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Silver colloidal nanorings have been synthesized by reducing silver ions with NaBH4 in trisodium citrate buffers. pH increase, by addition of NaOH, was used to speed up reduction reaction. The UV–vis absorption spectra of resulting silver nanorings showed two peaks accounting for transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon resonance, at ≈400 nm, and between 600 and 700 nm, respectively. The shapes of these silver nanoparticles (nanorings) depended on AgNO3/NaBH4 ratio, pH...

  8. Spectroscopie résolue en temps par continuum femtoseconde Applications en neurobiologie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstein, S.; Mottin, S.

    2003-06-01

    La spectroscopie résolue en temps utilisant un laser blanc femtoseconde est appliquée à la mesure in vivo des principaux absorbeurs du cerveau. Après génération adéquate du continuum de lumière blanche femtoseconde (50mW/[580-756nm] à 1Hz), cette source se propage dans la calvaria, les méninges et le cortex chez le rat anesthésié. La transmission est étudiée sur 7mm de distance entre l'impact laser et la fibre optique de collection. Le signal transmis est analysé dans la fenêtre 580-760nm, par un spectromètre couplé à une caméra à balayage de fente permettant la décorrélation de l'absorption et de la diffusion.

  9. Employment of MCNP in the study of TLDS 600 and 700 seeking the implementation of radiation beam characterization of BNCT facility at IEA-R1; Emprego do MCNP no estudo dos TLDS 600 e 700 visando a implementacao da caracterizacao do feixe de irradiacao da instalacao de BNCT do IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalieri, Tassio Antonio

    2013-07-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, BNCT, is a bimodal radiotherapy procedure for cancer treatment. Its useful energy comes from a nuclear reaction driven by impinging thermal neutron upon Boron 10 atoms. A BNCT research facility has been constructed in IPEN at the IEA-R1 reactor, to develop studies in this area. One of its prime experimental parameter is the beam dosimetry which is nowadays made by using activation foils, for neutron measurements, and TLD 400, for gamma dosimetry. For mixed field dosimetry, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, ICRU, recommends the use of pair of detectors with distinct responses to the field components. The TLD 600/ TLD 700 pair meets this criteria, as the amount of {sup 6}Li, a nuclide with high thermal neutron cross section, greatly differs in their composition. This work presents a series of experiments and simulations performed in order to implement the mixed field dosimetry based on the use of TLD 600/TLD 700 pair. It also intended to compare this mixed field dosimetric methodology to the one so far used by the BNCT research group of IPEN. The response of all TLDs were studied under irradiations in different irradiation fields and simulations, underwent by MCNP, were run in order to evaluate the dose contribution from each field component. Series of repeated irradiations under pure gamma field and mixed field neutron/gamma field showed differences in the TLD individual responses which led to the adoption of a Normalization Factor. It has allowed to overcome TLD selection. TLD responses due to different field components and spectra were studied. It has shown to be possible to evaluate the relative gamma/neutron fluxes from the relative responses observed in the two Regions of Interest, ROIs, from TLD 600 and TLD 700. It has also been possible to observe the TLD 700 response to neutron, which leads to a gamma dose overestimation when one follows the ICRU recommended mixed field dosimetric procedure. Dose

  10. Interactive effects of vertical mixing, nutrients and ultraviolet radiation: in situ photosynthetic responses of phytoplankton from high mountain lakes of Southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbling, E. W.; Carrillo, P.; Medina-Sanchez, J. M.; Durán, C.; Herrera, G.; Villar-Argaiz, M.; Villafañe, V. E.

    2012-07-01

    Global change, together with human activities had resulted in increasing amounts of organic material (including nutrients) received by water bodies. This input further attenuates the penetration of solar radiation leading to the view that opaque lakes are more "protected" from solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) than clear ones. Vertical mixing, however, complicates this view as cells are exposed to fluctuating radiation regimes, which effects have in general been neglected. Even more, the combined impacts of mixing, together with those of UVR and nutrients input are virtually unknown. In this study, we carried out in situ experiments in three high mountain lakes of Spain (Lake Enol in Asturias, and lakes Las Yeguas and La Caldera in Granada) to determine the combined effects of these three variables associated to global change on photosynthetic responses of natural phytoplankton communities. The experimentation consisted in all possible combinations of the following treatments: (a) solar radiation: UVR + PAR (280-700 nm) versus PAR alone (400-700 nm); (b) nutrient addition (phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N)): ambient versus addition (P to reach to a final concentration of 30 μg P l-1, and N to reach a N : P molar ratio of 31) and, (c) mixing: mixed (one rotation from surface to 3 m depth (speed of 1 m every 4 min, total of 10 cycles) versus static. Our findings suggest that under in situ nutrient conditions there is a synergistic effect between vertical mixing and UVR, increasing phytoplankton photosynthetic inhibition and EOC from opaque lakes as compared to algae that received constant mean irradiance within the epilimnion. The opposite occurs in clear lakes where antagonistic effects were determined, with mixing partially counteracting the negative effects of UVR. Nutrients input mimicking atmospheric pulses from Saharan dust, reversed this effect and clear lakes became more inhibited during mixing, while opaque lakes benefited from the fluctuating irradiance

  11. Spectral interferences in atomic absorption spectrometry, (5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daidoji, Hidehiro

    1979-01-01

    Spectral interferences were observed in trace element analysis of concentrated solutions by atomic absorption spectrometry. Molecular absorption and emission spectra for strontium chloride and nitrate, barium chloride and nitrate containing 12 mg/ml of metal ion in airacetylene flame were measured in the wavelength range from 200 to 700 nm. The absorption and emission spectra of SrO were centered near 364.6 nm. The absorption spectra of SrOH around 606.0, 671.0 and 682.0 nm were very strong. And, emission spectrum of BaOH in the wavelength range from 480 to 550 nm was stronger. But, the absorption of this band spectrum was very weak. In the wavelength range from 200 to 400 nm, some unknown bands of absorption were observed for strontium and barium. Absorption spectra of SrCl and BaCl were observed in the argon-hydrogen flame. Also, in the carbon tube atomizer, the absorption spectra of SrCl and BaCl were detected clearly in the wavelength range from 185 to 400 nm. (author)

  12. Marine CDOM accumulation during a coastal Arctic mesocosm experiment: No response to elevated pCO2 levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Alexey K.; Silyakova, Anna; Granskog, Mats A.; Bellerby, Richard G. J.; Engel, Anja; Schulz, Kai G.; Brussaard, Corina P. D.

    2014-06-01

    A large-scale multidisciplinary mesocosm experiment in an Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard; 78°56.2'N) was used to study Arctic marine food webs and biogeochemical elements cycling at natural and elevated future carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. At the start of the experiment, marine-derived chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) dominated the CDOM pool. Thus, this experiment constituted a convenient case to study production of autochthonous CDOM, which is typically masked by high levels of CDOM of terrestrial origin in the Arctic Ocean proper. CDOM accumulated during the experiment in line with an increase in bacterial abundance; however, no response was observed to increased pCO2 levels. Changes in CDOM absorption spectral slopes indicate that bacteria were most likely responsible for the observed CDOM dynamics. Distinct absorption peaks (at 330 and 360 nm) were likely associated with mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). Due to the experimental setup, MAAs were produced in absence of ultraviolet exposure providing evidence for MAAs to be considered as multipurpose metabolites rather than simple photoprotective compounds. We showed that a small increase in CDOM during the experiment made it a major contributor to total absorption in a range of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) and, therefore, is important for spectral light availability and may be important for photosynthesis and phytoplankton groups composition in a rapidly changing Arctic marine ecosystem.

  13. Estudo de simulações de microclimas em casas de vegetação visando à aclimatação de mudas micropropagadas de bananeira cv Grande Naine Simulations of microclimate in greenhouses aiming the acclimatization of micropropagated seedlings of banana cv. Grande Naine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Scaranari

    2008-12-01

    fotovoltaicos de silício, por volta das 9h, 12h e 15h, sob condições de céu claro e encoberto, durante o verão de 2004/05 e inverno de 2005. As malhas vermelhas apresentam transmitâncias diferenciadas ao longo do espectro da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa, constituindo-se assim em interessantes materiais para os pretendidos estudos sobre aclimatação. Resultados mostram maiores reduções na faixa RFA para as telas vermelhas, independentes do horário, insolação e estação do ano, concordantes com aqueles obtidos por espectro-radiômetro.In acclimatization processes, the environment control takes over a part of vital importance, since in in vitro condition banana seedlings do not efficiently operate the absorption of light, water and nutrients. Therefore, they should be submitted to controlled environments under feasible conditions of luminosity, temperature (around 28ºC, with minimum of 18ºC and maximum of 34ºC, and relative humidity above 75%. For this purpose, it was installed five mini tunnels with controlled temperature and relative humidity. For the control of temperature it was used pad-fan evaporative coolers at 28/25ºC. For the control of relative humidity it was used fogging during the day at 75% under intermittence of 6s at each 40s. For temperature and relative humidity monitoring, it was installed three aspirate psychrometers in each mini tunnel connected to a data logger for daily acquisition every 60s. Temperature and relative air humidity were adequate for plants development, however significant differences were observed between the different environment conditions. For luminosity study, under transparent plastic film (low density polyethylene of 100µm thickness, it was used four meshes with average shading in the PAR spectrum band (400 to 700nm of 69.92%, 50.73%, 29.73%, and 57.77%, being the first three in red color (with top level at 580nm, and abrupt reduction after that, the fourth mesh was black (linear behavior. The fifth tunnel had

  14. UV-B induction of NADP-malic enzyme in etiolated and green maize seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drincovich, M.F.; Casati, P.; Andreo, C.S.; Donahue, R.; Edwards, G.E.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of treatment of etiolated maize seedlings with UV-B and UV-A radiation, and different levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400700 nm), on the activity and quantity of NADP-malic enzyme (NADPME) and on RNA levels was determined. Under low levels of PAR (14 µmol m –2 s –1 ), exposure to UV-B radiation (9 µmol m –2 s –1 ) but not UV-A radiation (11 µmol m –2 s –1 ) for 6–24 h caused a marked increase in the activity of the enzyme similar to that observed under high PAR (300 µmol m –2 s –1 ) in the absence of UV-B. Western blot analysis indicated there was a specific increase of the photosynthetically active isoform of the enzyme. This increase was also measured at the RNA level by dot blot analysis, indicating that the induction is displayed at the level of NADP-ME transcription. UV-B treatment of green leaves after a 12 h dark period also caused an increase in the activity and level of NADP-ME. The UV-B induction of NADP-ME synthesis may reflect a mechanism for induction of photosynthetic processes in C4 photosynthesis. Alternatively, the relatively low intensity of UV-B radiation present under full sunlight might provide a signal that facilitates repair of UV-B-induced damage through the increased activity of different enzymes such as NADP-ME. It is speculated that the reducing power and pyruvate generated by activity of NADP-ME may be used for respiration in cellular repair processes and as substrates for the fatty acid synthesis required for membrane repair. (author)

  15. Regulation of the expression of NADP-malic enzyme by UV-B, red and far-red light in maize seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Casati

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The induction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-malic enzyme (NADP-ME in etiolated maize (Zea mays seedlings by UV-B and UV-A radiation, and different levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm was investigated by measuring changes in activity, protein quantity and RNA levels as a function of intensity and duration of exposure to the different radiations. Under low levels of PAR, exposure to UV-B radiation but not UV-A radiation for 6 to 24 h caused a marked increase in the enzyme levels similar to that observed under high PAR in the absence of UV-B. UV-B treatment of green leaves following a 12-h dark period also caused an increase in NADP-ME expression. Exposure to UV-B radiation for only 5 min resulted in a rapid increase of the enzyme, followed by a more gradual rise with longer exposure up to 6 h. Low levels of red light for 5 min or 6 h were also effective in inducing NADP-ME activity equivalent to that obtained with UV-B radiation. A 5-min exposure to far-red light following UV-B or red light treatment reversed the induction of NADP-ME, and this effect could be eliminated by further treatment with UV-B or red light. These results indicate that physiological levels of UV-B radiation can have a positive effect on the induction of this photosynthetic enzyme. The reducing power and pyruvate generated by the activity of NADP-ME may be used for respiration, in cellular repair processes and as substrates for fatty acid synthesis required for membrane repair.

  16. Ultrafast Self-Assembly of Sub-10 nm Block Copolymer Nanostructures by Solvent-Free High-Temperature Laser Annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Jacobs, Alan G; Wenning, Brandon; Liedel, Clemens; Thompson, Michael O; Ober, Christopher K

    2017-09-20

    Laser spike annealing was applied to PS-b-PDMS diblock copolymers to induce short-time (millisecond time scale), high-temperature (300 to 700 °C) microphase segregation and directed self-assembly of sub-10 nm features. Conditions were identified that enabled uniform microphase separation in the time frame of tens of milliseconds. Microphase ordering improved with increased temperature and annealing time, whereas phase separation contrast was lost for very short annealing times at high temperature. PMMA brush underlayers aided ordering under otherwise identical laser annealing conditions. Good long-range order for sub-10 nm cylinder morphology was achieved using graphoepitaxy coupled with a 20 ms dwell laser spike anneal above 440 °C.

  17. Creep fatigue of low-cobalt superalloys: Waspalloy, PM U 700 and wrought U 700

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leis, B. N.; Rungta, R.; Hopper, A. T.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of cobalt content on the high temperature creep fatigue crack initiation resistance of three primary alloys was evaluated. These were Waspalloy, Powder U 700, and Cast U 700, with cobalt contents ranging from 0 up to 17 percent. Waspalloy was studied at 538 C whereas the U 700 was studied at 760 C. Constraints of the program required investigation at a single strain range using diametral strain control. The approach was phenomenological, using standard low cycle fatigue tests involving continuous cycling tension hold cycling, compression hold cycling, and symmetric hold cycling. Cycling in the absence of or between holds was done at 0.5 Hz, whereas holds when introduced lasted 1 minute. The plan was to allocate two specimens to the continuous cycling, and one specimen to each of the hold time conditions. Data was taken to document the nature of the cracking process, the deformation response, and the resistance to cyclic loading to the formation of small cracks and to specimen separation. The influence of cobalt content on creep fatigue resistance was not judged to be very significant based on the results generated. Specific conclusions were that the hold time history dependence of the resistance is as significant as the influence of cobalt content and increased cobalt content does not produce increased creep fatigue resistance on a one to one basis.

  18. Ocean acidification alters the photosynthetic responses of a coccolithophorid to fluctuating ultraviolet and visible radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Peng; Gao, Kunshan; Villafañe, Virginia E; Campbell, Douglas A; Helbling, E Walter

    2013-08-01

    Mixing of seawater subjects phytoplankton to fluctuations in photosynthetically active radiation (400-700 nm) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR; 280-400 nm). These irradiance fluctuations are now superimposed upon ocean acidification and thinning of the upper mixing layer through stratification, which alters mixing regimes. Therefore, we examined the photosynthetic carbon fixation and photochemical performance of a coccolithophore, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, grown under high, future (1,000 μatm) and low, current (390 μatm) CO₂ levels, under regimes of fluctuating irradiances with or without UVR. Under both CO₂ levels, fluctuating irradiances, as compared with constant irradiance, led to lower nonphotochemical quenching and less UVR-induced inhibition of carbon fixation and photosystem II electron transport. The cells grown under high CO₂ showed a lower photosynthetic carbon fixation rate but lower nonphotochemical quenching and less ultraviolet B (280-315 nm)-induced inhibition. Ultraviolet A (315-400 nm) led to less enhancement of the photosynthetic carbon fixation in the high-CO₂-grown cells under fluctuating irradiance. Our data suggest that ocean acidification and fast mixing or fluctuation of solar radiation will act synergistically to lower carbon fixation by G. oceanica, although ocean acidification may decrease ultraviolet B-related photochemical inhibition.

  19. The future 700 MWe pressurized heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhardwaj, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    The design of a 700 MWe pressurized heavy water reactor has been developed. The design is based on the twin 540 MWe reactors at Tarapur of which the first unit has been made critical in less than 5 years from construction commencement. In the 700 MWe design boiling of the coolant, to a limited extent, has been allowed near the channel exit. While making the plant layout more compact, emphasis has been on constructability. Saving in capital cost of about 15%, over the present units, is expected. The paper describes salient design features of 700 MWe pressurized heavy water reactor

  20. Photoinhibition and photosynthetic pigment reorganisation dynamics in light/darkness cycles as photoprotective mechanisms of Porphyra umbilicalis against damaging effects of UV radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aguilera

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Porphyra umbilicalis L. Kutzing collected from the upper intertidal zone at Helgoland, North Sea, was exposed to different spectral ranges of UV radiation under both 12/12 h light/dark cycles and continuous irradiation. In light/dark cycles, oscillations of the optimal quantum yield (Fv /Fm were observed during the experiments, reaching maximal values at the end of the light phase followed by lower values during the dark phase. Decreased Fv /Fm was observed in thalli illuminated with photosynthetic active radiation (PAR plus UV-A and PAR+UV-A+UV-B, compared with the PAR control, indicating a certain degree of UV-induced photoinhibition. In addition, a decrease in the percentage of change of the linear initial slope and maximum electron transport rate (ETR estimated from ETR vs. irradiance curves was induced by UV radiation during the light phase. Recovery during the 12 h dark phase was almost completed in UV-A treated plants. PAR+UV-A seemed not to affect the photosynthesis, measured as O2 production. However, a decrease in O2 production was observed in the PAR+UV-A+UV-B treatment, but it recovered to initial values after 48 h of culture. No changes in total content of photosynthetic pigments were observed. However, thallus absorptance and the in vivo absorption cross-section in the PAR range (400-700 nm normalised to Chl a (a* parameter fluctuated during light/dark cycles and were positively correlated with changes in the optimum quantum yield, thus indicating that daily pigment reorganisation in the light-harvesting complex may play a key role in the photosynthetic performance of the algae. Both UV-A and UV-B treatments under continuous irradiation induced a significant reduction in the optimal quantum yield, ETR efficiency and photosynthetic oxygen production during the first 36 h to values around 30% of the initial ones. Thus, different protective mechanisms against UV stress can be observed in P. umbilicalis: dynamic photoinhibition when

  1. The dynamics of femtosecond pulsed laser removal of 20 nm Ni films from an interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrider, Keegan J.; Yalisove, Steven M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Torralva, Ben [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    The dynamics of femtosecond laser removal of 20 nm Ni films on glass substrates was studied using time-resolved pump-probe microscopy. 20 nm thin films exhibit removal at two distinct threshold fluences, removal of the top 7 nm of Ni above 0.14 J/cm{sup 2}, and removal of the entire 20 nm film above 0.36 J/cm{sup 2}. Previous work shows the top 7 nm is removed through liquid spallation, after irradiation the Ni melts and rapidly expands leading to tensile stress and cavitation within the Ni film. This work shows that above 0.36 J/cm{sup 2} the 20 nm film is removed in two distinct layers, 7 nm and 13 nm thick. The top 7 nm layer reaches a speed 500% faster than the bottom 13 nm layer at the same absorbed fluence, 500–2000 m/s and 300–700 m/s in the fluence ranges studied. Significantly different velocities for the top 7 nm layer and bottom 13 nm layer indicate removal from an interface occurs by a different physical mechanism. The method of measuring film displacement from the development of Newton's rings was refined so it could be shown that the 13 nm layer separates from the substrate within 70 ps and accelerates to its final velocity within several hundred picoseconds. We propose that removal of the bottom 13 nm is consistent with heterogeneous nucleation and growth of vapor at the Ni-glass interface, but that the rapid separation and acceleration of the 13 nm layer from the Ni-glass interface requires consideration of exotic phases of Ni after excitation.

  2. 15 CFR 700.74 - Violations, penalties, and remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Violations, penalties, and remedies. 700.74 Section 700.74 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE...

  3. 15 CFR 700.1 - Purpose of this regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose of this regulation. 700.1 Section 700.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...

  4. Employment of MCNP in the study of TLDS 600 and 700 seeking the implementation of radiation beam characterization of BNCT facility at IEA-R1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalieri, Tassio Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, BNCT, is a bimodal radiotherapy procedure for cancer treatment. Its useful energy comes from a nuclear reaction driven by impinging thermal neutron upon Boron 10 atoms. A BNCT research facility has been constructed in IPEN at the IEA-R1 reactor, to develop studies in this area. One of its prime experimental parameter is the beam dosimetry which is nowadays made by using activation foils, for neutron measurements, and TLD 400, for gamma dosimetry. For mixed field dosimetry, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, ICRU, recommends the use of pair of detectors with distinct responses to the field components. The TLD 600/ TLD 700 pair meets this criteria, as the amount of 6 Li, a nuclide with high thermal neutron cross section, greatly differs in their composition. This work presents a series of experiments and simulations performed in order to implement the mixed field dosimetry based on the use of TLD 600/TLD 700 pair. It also intended to compare this mixed field dosimetric methodology to the one so far used by the BNCT research group of IPEN. The response of all TLDs were studied under irradiations in different irradiation fields and simulations, underwent by MCNP, were run in order to evaluate the dose contribution from each field component. Series of repeated irradiations under pure gamma field and mixed field neutron/gamma field showed differences in the TLD individual responses which led to the adoption of a Normalization Factor. It has allowed to overcome TLD selection. TLD responses due to different field components and spectra were studied. It has shown to be possible to evaluate the relative gamma/neutron fluxes from the relative responses observed in the two Regions of Interest, ROIs, from TLD 600 and TLD 700. It has also been possible to observe the TLD 700 response to neutron, which leads to a gamma dose overestimation when one follows the ICRU recommended mixed field dosimetric procedure. Dose

  5. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 is required for PAR-1 signalling in pulmonary fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Cong; von der Thüsen, Jan; Daalhuisen, Joost; ten Brink, Marieke; Crestani, Bruno; van der Poll, Tom; Borensztajn, Keren; Spek, C. Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most devastating diffuse fibrosing lung disease of unknown aetiology. Compelling evidence suggests that both protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and PAR-2 participate in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Previous studies have shown that bleomycin-induced

  6. 32 CFR 700.860 - Customs and immigration inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Customs and immigration inspections. 700.860... Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.860 Customs and immigration inspections. (a) The... a customs officer or immigration officer of the United States to make on board the ship or aircraft...

  7. 32 CFR 700.320 - The Civilian Executive Assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Navy. (b) Each Civilian Executive Assistants, within his or her assigned area of responsibility... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The Civilian Executive Assistants. 700.320... of the Navy The Office of the Secretary of the Navy/the Civilian Executive Assistants § 700.320 The...

  8. 32 CFR 700.705 - Observance of international law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Observance of international law. 700.705 Section... Other Commanders Titles and Duties of Commanders § 700.705 Observance of international law. At all times, commanders shall observe, and require their commands to observe, the principles of international law. Where...

  9. 29 CFR 825.700 - Interaction with employer's policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interaction with employer's policies. 825.700 Section 825.700 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Effect of Other Laws, Employer Practices, and Collective...

  10. 25 CFR 700.79 - Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Instructions Definitions § 700.79 Marriage. Marriage is a legally recorded marriage or a traditional commitment between a man or woman recognized by the law of the Hopi Tribe or the Navajo Tribe. ...

  11. First Real-Time 400G PAM-4 Demonstration for Inter-Data Center Transmission over 100 km of SSMF at 1550 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Wei, Jinlong; Griesser, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Real-time transmission of 400G (8x50G DWDM) PAM-4 signals for data center interconnects up to 100 km SSMF is successfully demonstrated. All channels stay well below the 802.3bj KR4 FEC limit, thus allowing error free transmission...

  12. Spectral dependence of the main parameters of ITE silicon avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzecka, Iwona; Grynglas, Maria; Wegrzecki, Maciej

    2001-08-01

    New applications for avalanche photodiodes (APDs) as in systems using visible radiation, have prompted the need for the evaluation of detection properties of ITE APDs in the 400 divided by 700 nm spectral range. The paper presents the method and result of studies on the spectral dependence of the gain, dark and noise currents, sensitivity and excess noise factor of ITE APDs. The studies have shown that ITE APDs optimized for the near IR radiation can be effectively applied in the detection of radiation above the 500 nm wavelength.

  13. Synthesis of single crystalline CdS nanowires with polyethylene glycol 400 as inducing template

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Solvothermal technique, an one-step soft solution-processing route was successfully employed to synthesize single crystalline CdS nanowires in ethylenediamine medium at lower temperature (170 □) for 1-8 d. In this route, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400)was used as surfactant, which played a crucial role in preferentially oriented growth of semiconductor nanowires. Characterizations of as-prepared CdS nanowires by X-ray powder diffraction(XRD), transmission electron microscopy(TEM) indicate that the naonowires,with typical diameters of 20nm and lengths up to several micrometers, have preferential [001] orientation. Also, investigations into the physical properties of the CdS nanowires were conducted with UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence emission spectroscopy. The excitonic photo-optical phenomena of the nanowires shows the potential in the practical applications.

  14. 21 CFR 700.25 - Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.25 Section 700.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.25 Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products. (a) General. Because most cosmetic liquid...

  15. Studies on nanosecond 532nm and 355nm and ultrafast 515nm and 532nm laser cutting super-hard materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Tao, Sha; Wang, Brian; Zhao, Jay

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, micro-processing of three kinds of super-hard materials of poly-crystal diamond (PCD)/tungsten-carbide (WC), CVD-diamond and cubic boron nitride (CNB) has been systematically studied using nanosecond laser (532nm and 355nm), and ultrafast laser (532nm and 515nm). Our purpose is to investigate a full laser micro-cutting solution to achieve a ready-to-use cutting tool insert (CTI). The results show a clean cut with little burns and recasting at edge. The cutting speed of 2-10mm/min depending on thickness was obtained. The laser ablation process was also studied by varying laser parameters (wavelength, pulse width, pulse energy, repetition rate) and tool path to improve cutting speed. Also, studies on material removal efficiency (MRE) of PCD/WC with 355nm-ns and 515nm-fs laser as a function of laser fluence show that 355nm-ns laser is able to achieve higher MRE for PCD and WC. Thus, ultrafast laser is not necessarily used for superhard material cutting. Instead, post-polishing with ultrafast laser can be used to clean cutting surface and improve smoothness.

  16. 47 CFR 400.10 - Closeout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closeout. 400.10 Section 400.10 Telecommunication NATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, AND NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION E-911 GRANT PROGRAM § 400.10 Closeout...

  17. 47 CFR 10.400 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification. 10.400 Section 10.400 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Alert Message Requirements § 10.400 Classification. A Participating CMS Provider is required to receive and transmit three...

  18. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  19. Hydrogen-related defects in Al2O3 layers grown on n-type Si by the atomic layer deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkovsky, Vl.; Stübner, R.

    2018-04-01

    The electrical properties of alumina films with thicknesses varying from 15 nm to 150 nm, grown by the atomic layer deposition technique on n-type Si, were investigated. We demonstrated that the annealing of the alumina layers in argon (Ar) or hydrogen (H) atmosphere at about 700 K resulted in the introduction of negatively charged defects irrespective of the type of the substrate. These defects were also observed in samples subjected to a dc H plasma treatment at temperatures below 400 K, whereas they were not detected in as-grown samples and in samples annealed in Ar atmosphere at temperatures below 400 K. The concentration of these defects increased with a higher H content in the alumina films. In good agreement with theory we assigned these defects to interstitial H-related defects.

  20. 47 CFR 400.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 400.1 Section 400.1 Telecommunication NATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, AND NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION E-911 GRANT PROGRAM § 400.1 Purpose. This part...

  1. 15 CFR 400.53 - Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information. 400.53 Section 400.53..., Record and Information § 400.53 Information. (a) Request for information. The Board may request submission of any information, including business proprietary information, and written argument necessary or...

  2. 7 CFR 400.94 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation. 400.94 Section 400.94 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Appeal Procedure § 400.94 Mediation. For adverse decisions only: (a) Appellants have the right to seek mediation or other forms of alternative dispute resolution in...

  3. ParABS system in chromosome partitioning in the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A Iniesta

    Full Text Available Chromosome segregation is an essential cellular function in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. The ParABS system is a fundamental player for a mitosis-like process in chromosome partitioning in many bacterial species. This work shows that the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus also uses the ParABS system for chromosome segregation. Its large prokaryotic genome of 9.1 Mb contains 22 parS sequences near the origin of replication, and it is shown here that M. xanthus ParB binds preferentially to a consensus parS sequence in vitro. ParB and ParA are essential for cell viability in M. xanthus as in Caulobacter crescentus, but unlike in many other bacteria. Absence of ParB results in anucleate cells, chromosome segregation defects and loss of viability. Analysis of ParA subcellular localization shows that it clusters at the poles in all cells, and in some, in the DNA-free cell division plane between two chromosomal DNA masses. This ParA localization pattern depends on ParB but not on FtsZ. ParB inhibits the nonspecific interaction of ParA with DNA, and ParA colocalizes with chromosomal DNA only when ParB is depleted. The subcellular localization of ParB suggests a single ParB-parS complex localized at the edge of the nucleoid, next to a polar ParA cluster, with a second ParB-parS complex migrating after the replication of parS takes place to the opposite nucleoid edge, next to the other polar ParA cluster.

  4. Radon decay products and 10-1100 nm aerosol particles in Postojna Cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezek, M.; Gregorič, A.; Vaupotič, J.

    2013-03-01

    At the lowest point along the tourist route in Postojna Cave, the activity concentration of radon (222Rn) decay products and the number concentration and size distribution of aerosol particles in the size range of 10-1100 nm were monitored, with the focus on the unattached fraction (fun) of radon decay products (RnDPs), a key parameter in radon dosimetry. The total number concentration of aerosols during visits in summer was lower (700 cm-3) than in winter (2800 cm-3), and was dominated by 50 nm particles (related to the attached RnDPs) in winter. This explains the higher fun values in summer (0.75) and the lower winter measurement (0.04) and, consequently, DCFD values of 43.6 and 13.1 mSv WLM-1 respectively for the calculated dose conversion factors. The difference is caused by an enhanced inflow of fresh outside air, driven in winter by the higher air temperature in the cave compared to outside, resulting in the introduction of outside aerosol particles into the cave.

  5. 45 CFR 400.56 - Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Structure. 400.56 Section 400.56 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND... § 400.56 Structure. (a) States may choose to enter into a partnership agreement with local resettlement...

  6. 15 CFR 700.3 - Priority ratings and rated orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Priority ratings and rated orders. 700.3 Section 700.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE...

  7. 15 CFR 700.73 - Notification of failure to comply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of failure to comply. 700.73 Section 700.73 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE...

  8. 13 CFR 120.700 - What is the Microloan Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to Intermediaries and other qualified nonprofit entities to be used for marketing, management, and... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is the Microloan Program? 120.700 Section 120.700 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS...

  9. 29 CFR 99.400 - Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Responsibilities. 99.400 Section 99.400 Labor Office of the... Pass-through Entities § 99.400 Responsibilities. (a) Cognizant agency for audit responsibilities... the report submission due date required by § 99.320(a). The cognizant agency for audit may grant...

  10. 13 CFR 400.105 - Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Staff. 400.105 Section 400.105... Board Procedures § 400.105 Staff. (a) Executive Director. The Executive Director of the Board advises... with respect to the administration of the Board's actions, directs the activities of the staff, and...

  11. Comparative study of optical and scintillation properties of YVO4, (Lu0.5Y0.5)VO4, and LuVO4 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yanagida, Takayuki; Yokota, Yuui; Chani, Valery; Kochurikhin, Vladimir V.; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Optical and scintillation properties of YVO 4 , (Lu 0.5 Y 0.5 )VO 4 , and LuVO 4 single crystals grown by the Czochralski (CZ) method with RF heating system are compared. All vanadate crystals show high transmittance (∼80%) in the 400-900 nm wavelength range. In both photo- and radio-luminescence spectra, intense peak around 400-500 nm, which was ascribed to the transition from triplet state of VO 4 3- , was clearly observed. The main decay time component was about 38 μs (YVO 4 ), 18 μs ((Lu 0.5 Y 0.5 )VO 4 ), and 17 μs (LuVO 4 ) under 340 nm excitation. The scintillation light yields of YVO 4 , (Lu 0.5 Y 0.5 )VO 4 , and LuVO 4 crystals (obtained from the 137 Cs excited pulse height spectra) were evaluated to be about 11,200, 10,700, and 10,300 ph/MeV, respectively.

  12. 46 CFR 115.700 - Permission for repairs and alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... replacement in kind, of electrical wiring, fuel lines, tanks, boilers and other pressure vessels, and steering... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permission for repairs and alterations. 115.700 Section... AND CERTIFICATION Repairs and Alterations § 115.700 Permission for repairs and alterations. (a...

  13. 46 CFR 176.700 - Permission for repairs and alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... repair or replacement, other than replacement in kind, of electrical wiring, fuel lines, tanks, boilers... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permission for repairs and alterations. 176.700 Section... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Repairs and Alterations § 176.700 Permission for...

  14. 12 CFR 411.400 - Penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Penalties. 411.400 Section 411.400 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Penalties and Enforcement § 411.400 Penalties. (a) Any person who makes an expenditure prohibited herein shall be subject to a...

  15. UV/PAR radiations and DOM properties in surface coastal waters of the Canadian shelf of the Beaufort Sea during summer 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Para, J.; Charrière, B.; Matsuoka, A.; Miller, W. L.; Rontani, J. F.; Sempéré, R.

    2012-11-01

    Water masses from the Beaufort Sea in the Arctic Ocean were evaluated for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and optical characteristics including UV and PAR diffuse attenuation (Kd), and chromophoric and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (CDOM and FDOM) as part of the MALINA field campaign (30 July to 27 August). Even with relatively low mean daily solar radiation incident on the sea surface (0.12 ± 0.03, 8.46 ± 1.64 and 18.09 ± 4.20 kJ m-2 for UV-B (305 nm), UV-A (380 nm) and PAR, respectively), we report significant light penetration with 10% irradiance depths (Z10% (λ)) reaching 9.5 m for 340 nm (UV-A) radiation in the Eastern sector and 4.5 m in the Mackenzie River influenced area (Western sector). Spectral absorption coefficients (aCDOM (350 nm) (m-1)) were significantly correlated to both diffuse attenuation coefficients (Kd) in the UV-A and UV-B and to DOC concentrations. This indicates CDOM as the dominant attenuator of UV solar radiation and suggests its use as an optical proxy for DOC concentrations in this region. Extrapolating CDOM to DOC relationships, we estimate that ~ 16% of the DOC in the Mackenzie River does not absorb radiation at 350 nm. DOC and CDOM discharges by the Mackenzie River during the MALINA Cruise are estimated as ~ 0.22 TgC and 0.18 TgC, respectively. Three dissolved fluorescent components (C1-C3) were identified by fluorescence Excitation/Emission Matrix Spectroscopy (EEMS) and PARAFAC analysis. Our results showed an in-situ biological component (C1) that co-dominated with a terrestrial humic-like component (C2) in the Mackenzie Delta sector, whereas the protein-like (C3) component dominated in the saltiest waters of the North East sector.

  16. 15 CFR 700.11 - Priority ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Industrial Priorities § 700.11 Priority ratings. (a) Levels of...

  17. 15 CFR 700.14 - Preferential scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Industrial Priorities § 700.14 Preferential scheduling. (a) A...

  18. Separating the FN400 and N400 potentials across recognition memory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stróżak, Paweł; Abedzadeh, Delora; Curran, Tim

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing debate as to whether frontally distributed FN400 potentials reflect familiarity-based recognition or are functionally identical to centro-parietal N400 reflecting semantic processing. We conducted two experiments in which event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with semantic priming and recognition were recorded, either when priming was embedded within a recognition test (Experiment 1), or when these two phases were separated (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, we observed 300–500 ms differences between primed and unprimed old words as well as differences between old and new primed words, but these two effects did not differ topographically and both showed midline central maxima. In Experiment 2, the N400 for priming was recorded exclusively during encoding and again showed a midline central distribution. The ERP component of recognition was only found for unrelated words (not primed previously during encoding), and also showed a midline central maximum, but, in addition, was present in the left frontal area of the scalp. Conversely, the priming effect was absent in the left frontal cluster. This pattern of results indicate that FN400 and N400 potentials share similar neural generators; but when priming and recognition are not confounded, these potentials do not entirely overlap in terms of topographical distribution and presumably reflect functionally distinct processes. PMID:26776478

  19. Analysis of ParB-centromere interactions by multiplex SPR imaging reveals specific patterns for binding ParB in six centromeres of Burkholderiales chromosomes and plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillet, Flavien; Passot, Fanny Marie; Pasta, Franck; Anton Leberre, Véronique; Bouet, Jean-Yves

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial centromeres-also called parS, are cis-acting DNA sequences which, together with the proteins ParA and ParB, are involved in the segregation of chromosomes and plasmids. The specific binding of ParB to parS nucleates the assembly of a large ParB/DNA complex from which ParA-the motor protein, segregates the sister replicons. Closely related families of partition systems, called Bsr, were identified on the chromosomes and large plasmids of the multi-chromosomal bacterium Burkholderia cenocepacia and other species from the order Burkholeriales. The centromeres of the Bsr partition families are 16 bp palindromes, displaying similar base compositions, notably a central CG dinucleotide. Despite centromeres bind the cognate ParB with a narrow specificity, weak ParB-parS non cognate interactions were nevertheless detected between few Bsr partition systems of replicons not belonging to the same genome. These observations suggested that Bsr partition systems could have a common ancestry but that evolution mostly erased the possibilities of cross-reactions between them, in particular to prevent replicon incompatibility. To detect novel similarities between Bsr partition systems, we have analyzed the binding of six Bsr parS sequences and a wide collection of modified derivatives, to their cognate ParB. The study was carried out by Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging (SPRi) mulitplex analysis enabling a systematic survey of each nucleotide position within the centromere. We found that in each parS some positions could be changed while maintaining binding to ParB. Each centromere displays its own pattern of changes, but some positions are shared more or less widely. In addition from these changes we could speculate evolutionary links between these centromeres.

  20. La pelade par plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre l’épidémiologie, la pathogenèse, l’histologie et l’approche clinique au diagnostic de la pelade par plaques. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant la pathogenèse, le diagnostic et le pronostic de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme de perte pileuse auto-immune dont la prévalence durant une vie est d’environ 2 %. Des antécédents personnels ou familiaux de troubles auto-immuns concomitants, comme le vitiligo ou une maladie de la thyroïde, peuvent être observés dans un petit sous-groupe de patients. Le diagnostic peut souvent être posé de manière clinique en se fondant sur la perte de cheveux non cicatricielle et circulaire caractéristique, accompagnée de cheveux en « point d’exclamation » en périphérie chez ceux dont le problème en est aux premiers stades. Le diagnostic des cas plus complexes ou des présentations inhabituelles peut être facilité par une biopsie et un examen histologique. Le pronostic varie largement et de mauvais résultats sont associés à une apparition à un âge précoce, une perte importante, la variante ophiasis, des changements aux ongles, des antécédents familiaux ou des troubles auto-immuns concomitants. Conclusion La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte de cheveux périodiquement observée en soins primaires. Les médecins de famille sont bien placés pour identifier la pelade par plaques, déterminer la gravité de la maladie et poser le diagnostic différentiel approprié. De plus, ils sont en mesure de renseigner leurs patients à propos de l’évolution clinique de la maladie ainsi que du pronostic général selon le sous-type de patients.

  1. 15 CFR 700.21 - Application for priority rating authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... allocations authorities. (e) Commerce will inform the Department of Energy of the results of its analysis. If... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application for priority rating authority. 700.21 Section 700.21 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign...

  2. 28 CFR 700.24 - Security of systems of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security of systems of records. 700.24... Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 700.24 Security of systems of records. (a) The Office Administrator or Security Officer shall be responsible for issuing regulations governing the security of systems...

  3. Keratometric alterations following the 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless pars plana vitrectomy versus the conventional pars plana vitrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citirik, Mehmet; Batman, Cosar; Bicer, Tolga; Zilelioglu, Orhan

    2009-09-01

    To assess the alterations in keratometric astigmatism following the 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless pars plana vitrectomy versus the conventional pars plana vitrectomy. Sixteen consecutive patients were enrolled into the study. Conventional vitrectomy was applied to eight of the cases and 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy was performed in eight patients. Keratometry was performed before and after the surgery. In the 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless pars plana vitrectomy group, statistically significant changes were not observed in the corneal curvature in any post-operative follow-up measurement (p > 0.05); whereas in the conventional pars plana vitrectomy group, statistically significant changes were observed in the first postoperative day (p = 0.01) and first postoperative month (p = 0.03). We noted that these changes returned to baseline in three months (p = 0.26). Both 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless and conventional pars plana vitrectomy are effective surgical modalities for selected diseases of the posterior segment. Surgical procedures are critical for the visual rehabilitation of the patients. The post-operative corneal astigmatism of the vitrectomised eyes can be accurately determined at least two months post-operatively.

  4. Centromere pairing by a plasmid-encoded type I ParB protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringgaard, Simon; Löwe, Jan; Gerdes, Kenn

    2007-01-01

    The par2 locus of Escherichia coli plasmid pB171 encodes two trans-acting proteins, ParA and ParB, and two cis-acting sites, parC1 and parC2, to which ParB binds cooperatively. ParA is related to MinD and oscillates in helical structures and thereby positions ParB/parC-carrying plasmids regularly......, hence identifying the N terminus of ParB as a requirement for ParB-mediated centromere pairing. These observations suggest that centromere pairing is an important intermediate step in plasmid partitioning mediated by the common type I loci....

  5. Dosage du mercure dans le gaz naturel par absorption atomique sans flammes Mercury Titration in Natural Gas by Flameless Atomic Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Villa F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente la méthode mise au point par l'Institut Français du Pétrole pour déterminer par absorption atomique sans flamme, les traces de mercure métallique contenu dans un gaz naturel. La méthode d'analyse nécessite une extraction du mercure soit sous forme d'ion mercurique en faisant passer le gaz dans une solution oxydante, soit sous forme d'amalgame avec de l'or ou de l'argent. Le premier mode opératoire s'applique aux échantillons dont la concentration en mercure est supérieure à I ttg/Nm3, le second pour des concentrations inférieures à 5 pg/Nm3. Les seuils de détection sont respectivement 10 ng (en solution et 0,3 ng (en amalgame. La répétabilité pour 100 ng de mercure (en amalgame est de ± 7% pour une probabilité de.95 %. En conclusion, dans un échantillon de gaz naturel, compte tenu du volume des prélèvements effectués, il est possible de détecter des concentrations de l'ordre du nanogramme de mercure par mètre cube de gaz. This article describes the method developed by IFP using flameless atomic absorption to determine metallic mercury traces in a natural gas. The analyst method requires a mercury extraction either in the form of mercuric ions by making the gas pass through an oxidizing solution or in the form of an amalgam with gold or silver. The former operating method applies ta samples having a mercury concentration greater than I !ag/Nm3, and the latter for concentrations smaller than 5 (-Lg/Nm3. Detection thresholds are respectively 10 ng (in solution and 0.3 ng (in amalgam. The repeatability for 100 ng of mercury (in amalgam is ± 7 % with a probability of 95%. To conclude, in a sample of natural gas, considering the volume of the samples taken, it is possible ta detect concentrations in the vicinity of one nanogrom of mercury per cubic meter of gas.

  6. 45 CFR 400.118 - Case planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Case planning. 400.118 Section 400.118 Public... Services § 400.118 Case planning. (a) A State, or its designee under § 400.117, must develop and implement... services. (b) Case planning for unaccompanied minors must, at a minimum, address the following elements: (1...

  7. 15 CFR 700.81 - Appeals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE... Economic Security under § 700.80, may appeal to the Assistant Secretary for Export Administration, U.S... Office of the Assistant Secretary for Export Administration, Bureau of Industry and Security, U.S...

  8. Analysis of ParB-centromere interactions by multiplex SPR imaging reveals specific patterns for binding ParB in six centromeres of Burkholderiales chromosomes and plasmids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavien Pillet

    Full Text Available Bacterial centromeres-also called parS, are cis-acting DNA sequences which, together with the proteins ParA and ParB, are involved in the segregation of chromosomes and plasmids. The specific binding of ParB to parS nucleates the assembly of a large ParB/DNA complex from which ParA-the motor protein, segregates the sister replicons. Closely related families of partition systems, called Bsr, were identified on the chromosomes and large plasmids of the multi-chromosomal bacterium Burkholderia cenocepacia and other species from the order Burkholeriales. The centromeres of the Bsr partition families are 16 bp palindromes, displaying similar base compositions, notably a central CG dinucleotide. Despite centromeres bind the cognate ParB with a narrow specificity, weak ParB-parS non cognate interactions were nevertheless detected between few Bsr partition systems of replicons not belonging to the same genome. These observations suggested that Bsr partition systems could have a common ancestry but that evolution mostly erased the possibilities of cross-reactions between them, in particular to prevent replicon incompatibility. To detect novel similarities between Bsr partition systems, we have analyzed the binding of six Bsr parS sequences and a wide collection of modified derivatives, to their cognate ParB. The study was carried out by Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging (SPRi mulitplex analysis enabling a systematic survey of each nucleotide position within the centromere. We found that in each parS some positions could be changed while maintaining binding to ParB. Each centromere displays its own pattern of changes, but some positions are shared more or less widely. In addition from these changes we could speculate evolutionary links between these centromeres.

  9. Luminescent properties of Europium(III) nitrate with 1,10-phenantroline and cinnamic acid in light - Transforming polymer materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinovskaya, I. V.; Zadorozhnaya, A. N.

    2018-04-01

    Influence of cinnamic acid on the luminescent properties of the europium(III) nitrate with 1,10-phenantroline in a polymer materials was studied. It was shown that combined use of these rare earth complexes leads to intense luminescence in the 400-700 nm region. Samples containing polymer europium nitrate with 1,10-phenantroline and cinnamic acid at a molar ratio of 1:2,0 had the maximum luminescence intensity and photostability.

  10. CFD analysis of PAR performance as function of inlet design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kweonha; Khor, Chong Lee

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The new concept of PAR (passive autocatalytic recombiner) was proposed and analyzed. • Guidance wall was added at the bottom of PAR to enhance the flow rate through the catalyst. • The new concept of PAR was proved to have a better hydrogen removal performance. - Abstract: Passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) is very useful hydrogen mitigation measurement. It is widely implemented in the current and advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). The design of the PARs should be optimized for the specific use under severe accident scenarios. Several techniques and innovations have been fused into the PAR, as an effort to increase its efficiency of hydrogen mitigation. This study proposes different concepts of PAR, which applied some changes to the honeycomb catalyst PAR made by the Korea Nuclear Technology (KNT) Inc. Two slices of plate are added to the bottom of PAR model, which intended to act as a reflection wall and promote the gas flow into PAR. Hydrogen volume fraction was given 4 vol. % which tested by KNT to investigate the performance of PAR in different direction gas flow conditions to see maximum hydrogen recombination rate. The new concept of PAR was proved to have a better hydrogen removal performance compared to the original honeycomb catalyst PAR.

  11. CFD analysis of PAR performance as function of inlet design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kweonha, E-mail: khpark@kmou.ac.kr [Division of Mechanical and Energy systems Engineering, Korea Maritime University, Dongsam-dong, Yeongdo-gu, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Khor, Chong Lee, E-mail: itachi_829@hotmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Maritime University (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • The new concept of PAR (passive autocatalytic recombiner) was proposed and analyzed. • Guidance wall was added at the bottom of PAR to enhance the flow rate through the catalyst. • The new concept of PAR was proved to have a better hydrogen removal performance. - Abstract: Passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) is very useful hydrogen mitigation measurement. It is widely implemented in the current and advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). The design of the PARs should be optimized for the specific use under severe accident scenarios. Several techniques and innovations have been fused into the PAR, as an effort to increase its efficiency of hydrogen mitigation. This study proposes different concepts of PAR, which applied some changes to the honeycomb catalyst PAR made by the Korea Nuclear Technology (KNT) Inc. Two slices of plate are added to the bottom of PAR model, which intended to act as a reflection wall and promote the gas flow into PAR. Hydrogen volume fraction was given 4 vol. % which tested by KNT to investigate the performance of PAR in different direction gas flow conditions to see maximum hydrogen recombination rate. The new concept of PAR was proved to have a better hydrogen removal performance compared to the original honeycomb catalyst PAR.

  12. Color-converted remote phosphor prototype of a multiwavelength excitable borosilicate glass for white light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Hua; Qiu Kun; Song Jun; Wang Da-Jian; Liu Ji-Wen

    2012-01-01

    We report a unique red light-emitting Eu-doped borosilicate glass to convert color for warm white light-emitting diodes. This glass can be excited from 394 nm-peaked near ultraviolet light, 466 nm-peaked blue light, to 534 nm-peaked green light to emit the desired red light with an excellent transmission in the wavelength range of 400700 nm which makes this glass suitable for color conversion without a great cost of luminous power loss. In particular, when assembling this glass for commercial white light-emitting diodes, the tested results show that the color rendering index is improved to 84 with a loss of luminous power by 12 percent at average, making this variety of glass promising for inorganic “remote-phosphor” color conversion

  13. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond

  14. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

  15. 7 CFR 51.700 - Discoloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 51.700 Discoloration. Discoloration means russeting of light shade of golden brown caused by rust..., provided no discoloration caused by melanose or other means may affect the appearance of the fruit to a... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...

  16. SOLAR VARIABILITY FROM 240 TO 1750 nm IN TERMS OF FACULAE BRIGHTENING AND SUNSPOT DARKENING FROM SCIAMACHY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagaran, J.; Weber, M.; Burrows, J.

    2009-01-01

    The change of spectral decomposition of the total radiative output on various timescales of solar magnetic activity is of large interest to terrestrial and solar-stellar atmosphere studies. Starting in 2002, SCIAMACHY was the first satellite instrument to observe daily solar spectral irradiance (SSI) continuously from 230 nm (UV) to 1750 nm (near-infrared; near-IR). In order to address the question of how much UV, visible (vis), and IR spectral regions change on 27 day and 11 year timescales, we parameterize short-term SSI variations in terms of faculae brightening (Mg II index) and sunspot darkening (photometric sunspot index) proxies. Although spectral variations above 300 nm are below 1% and, therefore, well below the accuracy of absolute radiometric calibration, relative accuracy for short-term changes is shown to be in the per mill range. This enables us to derive short-term spectral irradiance variations from the UV to the near-IR. During Halloween solar storm in 2003 with a record high sunspot area, we observe a reduction of 0.3% in the near-IR to 0.5% in the vis and near-UV. This is consistent with a 0.4% reduction in total solar irradiance (TSI). Over an entire 11 year solar cycle, SSI variability covering simultaneously the UV, vis, and IR spectral regions have not been directly observed so far. Using variations of solar proxies over solar cycle 23, solar cycle spectral variations have been estimated using scaling factors that best matched short-term variations of SCIAMACHY. In the 300-400 nm region, which strongly contributes to TSI solar cycle change, a contribution of 34% is derived from SCIAMACHY observations, which is lower than the reported values from SUSIM satellite data and the empirical SATIRE model. The total UV contribution (below 400 nm) to TSI solar cycle variations is estimated to be 55%.

  17. White light Z-scan measurements of ultrafast optical nonlinearity in reduced graphene oxide nanosheets in the 400700nm region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perumbilavil, Sreekanth; Sankar, Pranitha; Priya Rose, T.; Philip, Reji

    2015-01-01

    Wavelength dispersion of optical power limiting is an important factor to be considered while designing potential optical limiters for laser safety applications. We report the observation of broadband, ultrafast optical limiting in reduced graphene oxide (rGO), measured by a single open aperture Z-scan using a white light continuum (WLC) source. WLC Z-scan is fast when the nonlinearity is to be measured over broad wavelength ranges, and it obviates the need for an ultrafast tunable laser making it cost-economic compared to conventional Z-scan. The nonlinearity arises from nondegenerate two-photon absorption, owing mostly to the crystallinity and extended π conjugation of rGO

  18. Three-dimensional Finite Elements Method simulation of Total Ionizing Dose in 22 nm bulk nFinFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzikyriakou, Eleni, E-mail: ec3g12@soton.ac.uk; Potter, Kenneth; Redman-White, William; De Groot, C.H.

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Simulation of Total Ionizing Dose using the Finite Elements Method. • Carrier generation, transport and trapping in the oxide. • Application in three-dimensional bulk FinFET model of 22 nm node. • Examination of trapped charge in the Shallow Trench Isolation. • Trapped charge dependency of parasitic transistor current. - Abstract: Finite Elements Method simulation of Total Ionizing Dose effects on 22 nm bulk Fin Field Effect Transistor (FinFET) devices using the commercial software Synopsys Sentaurus TCAD is presented. The simulation parameters are extracted by calibrating the charge trapping model to experimental results on 400 nm SiO{sub 2} capacitors irradiated under zero bias. The FinFET device characteristics are calibrated to the Intel 22 nm bulk technology. Irradiation simulations of the transistor performed with all terminals unbiased reveal increased hardness up to a total dose of 1 MRad(SiO{sub 2}).

  19. Concerning the dynamic instability of actin homolog ParM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, David; Yamamoto, Akihiro; Iwasa, Mitsusada; Narita, Akihiro; Maeda, Kayo; Maeda, Yuichiro

    2007-01-01

    Using in vitro TIRF- and electron-microscopy, we reinvestigated the dynamics of native ParM, a prokaryotic DNA segregation protein and actin homolog. In contrast to a previous study, which used a cysteine ParM mutant, we find that the polymerization process of wild type ATP-ParM filaments consists of a polymerization phase and a subsequent steady state phase, which is dynamically unstable, like that of microtubules. We find that the apparent bidirectional polymerization of ParM, is not due to the intrinsic nature of this filament, but results from ParM forming randomly oriented bundles in the presence of crowding agents. Our results imply, that in the bacterium, ParM filaments spontaneously form bipolar bundles. Due to their intrinsic dynamic instability, ParM bundles can efficiently 'search' the cytoplasmic lumen for DNA, bind it equally well at the bipolar ends and segregate it approximately symmetrically, by the insertion of ParM subunits at either end

  20. First-in-human uPAR PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; Skovgaard, Dorthe; Brandt-Larsen, Malene

    2015-01-01

    A first-in-human clinical trial with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in patients with breast, prostate and bladder cancer, is described. uPAR is expressed in many types of human cancers and the expression is predictive...... for targeted molecular imaging with PET. The safety, pharmacokinetic, biodistribution profile and radiation dosimetry after a single intravenous dose of (64)Cu-DOTA-AE105 were assessed by serial PET and computed tomography (CT) in 4 prostate, 3 breast and 3 bladder cancer patients. Safety assessment...... of invasion, metastasis and indicates poor prognosis. uPAR PET imaging therefore holds promise to be a new and innovative method for improved cancer diagnosis, staging and individual risk stratification. The uPAR specific peptide AE105 was conjugated to the macrocyclic chelator DOTA and labeled with (64)Cu...

  1. Lunar mare TiO2 abundances estimated from UV/Vis reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Robinson, Mark S.; Lawrence, Samuel J.; Denevi, Brett W.; Hapke, Bruce; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Hiesinger, Harald

    2017-11-01

    The visible (400-700 nm) and near-infrared (700-2800 nm) reflectance of the lunar regolith is dominantly controlled by variations in the abundance of plagioclase, iron-bearing silicate minerals, opaque minerals (e.g., ilmenite), and maturation products (e.g., agglutinate glass, radiation-produced rims on soil grains, and Fe-metal). The same materials control reflectance into the near-UV (250-400 nm) with varying degrees of importance. A key difference is that while ilmenite is spectrally neutral in the visible to near-infrared, it exhibits a diagnostic upturn in reflectance in the near-UV, at wavelengths shorter than about 450 nm. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide Angle Camera (WAC) filters were specifically designed to take advantage of this spectral feature to enable more accurate mapping of ilmenite within mare soils than previously possible. Using the reflectance measured at 321 and 415 nm during 62 months of repeated near-global WAC observations, first we found a linear correlation between the TiO2 contents of the lunar soil samples and the 321/415 nm ratio of each sample return site. We then used the coefficients from the linear regression and the near-global WAC multispectral mosaic to derive a new TiO2 map. The average TiO2 content is 3.9 wt% for the 17 major maria. The highest TiO2 values were found in Mare Tranquillitatis (∼12.6 wt%) and Oceanus Procellarum (∼11.6 wt%). Regions contaminated by highland ejecta, lunar swirls, and the low-TiO2 maria (e.g., Mare Frigoris, the northeastern units of Mare Imbrium) exhibit very low TiO2 values (2.6 Ga), whereas only medium to high TiO2 values (average = 6.8 wt%, minimum = 4.5 wt%) are found for younger mare units (<2.6 Ga).

  2. uPAR as anti-cancer target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ida K; Illemann, Martin; Thurison, Tine

    2011-01-01

    , and a potential diagnostic and predictive impact of the different uPAR forms has been reported. Hence, pericellular proteolysis seems to be a suitable target for anti-cancer therapy and numerous approaches have been pursued. Targeting of this process may be achieved by preventing the binding of uPA to u...... using mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against mouse uPA or uPAR. These reagents will target uPA and uPAR in both stromal cells and cancer cells, and their therapeutic potential can now be assessed in syngenic mouse cancer models....

  3. Raman spectra and cross sections of ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, and sulfur dioxide toxic gases in the fingerprint region 400 1400 cm 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-24

    Raman spectra and cross sections of ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, and sulfur dioxide toxic gases in the fingerprint region 400...1400 cm‐1 R. L. Aggarwal, L. W. Farrar, S. Di Cecca, and T. H. Jeys MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA 02420‐9108 Raman spectra of...region 400‐1400 cm‐1. A relatively compact (< 2’x2’x2’), sensitive, 532 nm 10 W CW Raman system with double‐pass

  4. Raman Spectra and Cross Sections of Ammonia, Chlorine, Hydrogen Sulfide, Phosgene, and Sulfur Dioxide Toxic Gases in the Fingerprint Region 400-1400 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-14

    Raman spectra and cross sections of ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, and sulfur dioxide toxic gases in the fingerprint region 400...1400 cm‐1 R. L. Aggarwal, L. W. Farrar, S. Di Cecca, and T. H. Jeys MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA 02420‐9108 Raman spectra of...region 400‐1400 cm‐1. A relatively compact (< 2’x2’x2’), sensitive, 532 nm 10 W CW Raman system with double‐pass

  5. 25 CFR 700.119 - Establishment of fair market value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Establishment of fair market value. 700.119 Section 700... value. (a) General. The Commission shall establish the amount of fair market value to be offered to the... recommendations as to the fair market value of the habitations and/or improvements; or (2) The fair market value...

  6. Protease-activated receptor (PAR2, but not PAR1, is involved in collateral formation and anti-inflammatory monocyte polarization in a mouse hind limb ischemia model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa G van den Hengel

    Full Text Available AIMS: In collateral development (i.e. arteriogenesis, mononuclear cells are important and exist as a heterogeneous population consisting of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory/repair-associated cells. Protease-activated receptor (PAR1 and PAR2 are G-protein-coupled receptors that are both expressed by mononuclear cells and are involved in pro-inflammatory reactions, while PAR2 also plays a role in repair-associated responses. Here, we investigated the physiological role of PAR1 and PAR2 in arteriogenesis in a murine hind limb ischemia model. METHODS AND RESULTS: PAR1-deficient (PAR1-/-, PAR2-deficient (PAR2-/- and wild-type (WT mice underwent femoral artery ligation. Laser Doppler measurements revealed reduced post-ischemic blood flow recovery in PAR2-/- hind limbs when compared to WT, while PAR1-/- mice were not affected. Upon ischemia, reduced numbers of smooth muscle actin (SMA-positive collaterals and CD31-positive capillaries were found in PAR2-/- mice when compared to WT mice, whereas these parameters in PAR1-/- mice did not differ from WT mice. The pool of circulating repair-associated (Ly6C-low monocytes and the number of repair-associated (CD206-positive macrophages surrounding collaterals in the hind limbs were increased in WT and PAR1-/- mice, but unaffected in PAR2-/- mice. The number of repair-associated macrophages in PAR2-/- hind limbs correlated with CD11b- and CD115-expression on the circulating monocytes in these animals, suggesting that monocyte extravasation and M-CSF-dependent differentiation into repair-associated cells are hampered. CONCLUSION: PAR2, but not PAR1, is involved in arteriogenesis and promotes the repair-associated response in ischemic tissues. Therefore, PAR2 potentially forms a new pro-arteriogenic target in coronary artery disease (CAD patients.

  7. 13 CFR 127.700 - What penalties may be imposed under this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What penalties may be imposed under this part? 127.700 Section 127.700 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT ASSISTANCE PROCEDURES Penalties § 127.700 What penalties may...

  8. Fatigue and creep cracking of nickel alloys for 700 C steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Granacher, J.; Thoma, A.; Roesler, J.; Del Genovese, D.

    2001-01-01

    Four materials of the types Inconel 706 (two heat treatment states), Inconel 617, and Waspaloy were tested as shaft materials for 700 to 720 C steam turbines. At an extrapolation time ratio of 10, Waspaloy was expected to have the highest creep strength (about 270 MPa at 700 C), with values of about 140 MPa at 700 C for Inconel 617. A preliminary evaluation of the 700 C creep rupture tests showed the highest creep rupture resistance for Inconel 617, followed by Waspaloy and Inconel 706 [de

  9. Apoplejía pituitaria con parálisis del III par craneal: Reporte de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Pinto Valdivia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el caso de un varón de 65 años de edad, sin antecedentes patológicos de importancia, que acudió a emergencia del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia por presentar cefalea intensa y ptosis palpebral izquierda. El examen físico mostró parálisis aislada del III par craneal izquierdo. Los análisis de laboratorio mostraron hiponatremia e hipopituitarismo y la resonancia magnética nuclear un adenoma pituitario con áreas de hemorragia e invasión de los senos cavernosos. El tratamiento incluyó glucocorticoides y descompresión quirúrgica transesfenoidal. La anatomía patológica confirmó el diagnóstico de infarto hemorrágico de un adenoma pituitario. El paciente fue dado de alta con terapia sustitutiva de levotiroxina y prednisona. La ptosis palpebral izquierda se recuperó en forma parcial. La apoplejía pituitaria es un síndrome clínico producido por un proceso expansivo dentro de la silla turca, secundario a hemorragia o infarto de un adenoma pituitario, que se caracteriza por cefalea, déficit visual, oftalmoplejía y alteración del nivel de conciencia. Este proceso expansivo puede comprimir los pares craneales en los senos cavernosos, produciendo diferentes grados de parálisis de los músculos oculomotores. La parálisis aislada del III par craneal es rara.(Rev Med Hered 2011;22:186-189.

  10. Copenhagen uPAR prostate cancer (CuPCa) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Solvej; Berg, Kasper D; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) plays a central role during cancer invasion by facilitating pericellular proteolysis. We initiated the prospective 'Copenhagen uPAR Prostate Cancer' study to investigate the significance of uPAR levels in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. METHODS...

  11. Light Conditions Affect the Measurement of Oceanic Bacterial Production via Leucine Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán, Xosé Anxelu G.; Massana, Ramon; Gasol, Josep M.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of irradiance in the range of 400 to 700 nm or photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on bacterial heterotrophic production estimated by the incorporation of 3H-leucine (referred to herein as Leu) was investigated in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea and in a coastal North Atlantic site, with Leu uptake rates ranging over 3 orders of magnitude. We performed in situ incubations under natural irradiance levels of Mediterranean samples taken from five depths around solar noon and compared them to incubations in the dark. In two of the three stations large differences were found between light and dark uptake rates for the surfacemost samples, with dark values being on average 133 and 109% higher than in situ ones. Data obtained in coastal North Atlantic waters confirmed that dark enclosure may increase Leu uptake rates more than threefold. To explain these differences, on-board experiments of Leu uptake versus irradiance were performed with Mediterranean samples from depths of 5 and 40 m. Incubations under a gradient of 12 to 1,731 μmol of photons m−2 s−1 evidenced a significant increase in incorporation rates with increasing PAR in most of the experiments, with dark-incubated samples departing from this pattern. These results were not attributed to inhibition of Leu uptake in the light but to enhanced bacterial response when transferred to dark conditions. The ratio of dark to light uptake rates increased as dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations decreased, suggesting that bacterial nutrient deficiency was overcome by some process occurring only in the dark bottles. PMID:11525969

  12. Carotenoids quench evolution of excited species in epidermis exposed to UV-B (290-320 nm) light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews-Roth, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Reactions involving singlet oxygen and other free radicals have been identified in epidermis containing either exogenous or endogenous photosensitizers, soaked in a singlet oxygen/free radical trap, and then exposed to visible or UV-A (320-400 nm) light. Such reactions can be quenched by the presence of the carotenoid pigments β-carotene and canthaxanthin which accumulate in epidermis after oral administration. It is reported that the carotenoid pigments β-carotene, canthaxanthin and phytoene accumulating in epidermis can also quench to some degree those photochemical reactions involving singlet oxygen and free radicals that occur when epidermis is exposed to the sunburn spectrum of light (UV-B, 290-320 nm). (author)

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Abundances in the local region. II. F, G, and K dwarfs (Luck+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, R. E.

    2017-06-01

    The McDonald Observatory 2.1m Telescope and Sandiford Cassegrain Echelle Spectrograph provided much of the observational data for this study. High-resolution spectra were obtained during numerous observing runs, from 1996 to 2010. The spectra cover a continuous wavelength range from about 484 to 700nm, with a resolving power of about 60000. The wavelength range used demands two separate observations--one centered at about 520nm, and the other at about 630nm. Typical S/N values per pixel for the spectra are more than 150. Spectra of 57 dwarfs were obtained using the Hobby-Eberly telescope and High-Resolution Spectrograph. The spectra have a resolution of 30000, spanning the wavelength range of 400 to 785nm. They also have very high signal-to-noise ratios, >300 per resolution element in numerous cases. The last set of spectra were obtained from the ELODIE Archive (Moultaka et al. 2004PASP..116..693M). These spectra are fully processed, including order co-addition, and have a continuous wavelength span of 400 to 680nm and a resolution of 42000. The ELODIE spectra utilized here all have S/N>75 per pixel. (6 data files).

  14. Recombination in the human Pseudoautosomal region PAR1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali G Hinch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The pseudoautosomal region (PAR is a short region of homology between the mammalian X and Y chromosomes, which has undergone rapid evolution. A crossover in the PAR is essential for the proper disjunction of X and Y chromosomes in male meiosis, and PAR deletion results in male sterility. This leads the human PAR with the obligatory crossover, PAR1, to having an exceptionally high male crossover rate, which is 17-fold higher than the genome-wide average. However, the mechanism by which this obligatory crossover occurs remains unknown, as does the fine-scale positioning of crossovers across this region. Recent research in mice has suggested that crossovers in PAR may be mediated independently of the protein PRDM9, which localises virtually all crossovers in the autosomes. To investigate recombination in this region, we construct the most fine-scale genetic map containing directly observed crossovers to date using African-American pedigrees. We leverage recombination rates inferred from the breakdown of linkage disequilibrium in human populations and investigate the signatures of DNA evolution due to recombination. Further, we identify direct PRDM9 binding sites using ChIP-seq in human cells. Using these independent lines of evidence, we show that, in contrast with mouse, PRDM9 does localise peaks of recombination in the human PAR1. We find that recombination is a far more rapid and intense driver of sequence evolution in PAR1 than it is on the autosomes. We also show that PAR1 hotspot activities differ significantly among human populations. Finally, we find evidence that PAR1 hotspot positions have changed between human and chimpanzee, with no evidence of sharing among the hottest hotspots. We anticipate that the genetic maps built and validated in this work will aid research on this vital and fascinating region of the genome.

  15. Radon decay products and 10–1100 nm aerosol particles in Postojna Cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bezek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available At the lowest point along the tourist route in Postojna Cave, the activity concentration of radon (222Rn decay products and the number concentration and size distribution of aerosol particles in the size range of 10–1100 nm were monitored, with the focus on the unattached fraction (fun of radon decay products (RnDPs, a key parameter in radon dosimetry. The total number concentration of aerosols during visits in summer was lower (700 cm−3 than in winter (2800 cm−3, and was dominated by 50 nm particles (related to the attached RnDPs in winter. This explains the higher fun values in summer (0.75 and the lower winter measurement (0.04 and, consequently, DCFD values of 43.6 and 13.1 mSv WLM−1 respectively for the calculated dose conversion factors. The difference is caused by an enhanced inflow of fresh outside air, driven in winter by the higher air temperature in the cave compared to outside, resulting in the introduction of outside aerosol particles into the cave.

  16. Plasma suPAR is lowered by smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Ladelund, Steen; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a stable inflammatory biomarker. In patients, suPAR is a marker of disease presence, severity and prognosis. In the general population, suPAR is predictive of disease development, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease a...

  17. 2D Vis/NIR correlation spectroscopy of cooked chicken meats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongliang; Chen, Yud-Ren; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2000-03-01

    Cooking of chicken meats was investigated by the generalized two-dimensional visible/near-infrared (2D Vis/NIR) correlation spectroscopy. Synchronous and asynchronous spectra in the 400-700 nm visible region suggested that the 445 and 560 nm bands be ascribed to deoxymyoglobin and oxymyoglobin, and at least one of the 475, 520, and 585 nm bands is assignable to the denatured species (metmyoglobin). The asynchronous 2D NIR correlation spectrum showed that CH bands change their spectral intensities before the OH/NH groups during the cooking process, indicating that CH fractions are easily oxidized and degraded. In addition, strong correlation peaks were observed correlating the bands in the visible and NIR spectral regions.

  18. Black tungsten nitride as a metallic photocatalyst for overall water splitting operable at up to 765 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu Lei; Li, Yu Hang; Wang, Xue Lu; Chen, Ai Ping; Yang, Hua Gui [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Nie, Ting; Gong, Xue Qing [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Centre for Computational Chemistry and Research Institute of Industrial Catalysis, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Zheng, Li Rong [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2017-06-19

    Semiconductor photocatalysts are hardly employed for overall water splitting beyond 700 nm, which is due to both thermodynamic aspects and activation barriers. Metallic materials as photocatalysts are known to overcome this limitation through interband transitions for creating electron-hole pairs; however, the application of metallic photocatalysts for overall water splitting has never been fulfilled. Black tungsten nitride is now employed as a metallic photocatalyst for overall water splitting at wavelengths of up to 765 nm. Experimental and theoretical results together confirm that metallic properties play a substantial role in exhibiting photocatalytic activity under red-light irradiation for tungsten nitride. This work represents the first red-light responsive photocatalyst for overall water splitting, and may open a promising venue in searching of metallic materials as efficient photocatalysts for solar energy utilization. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Interactive effects of vertical mixing, nutrients and ultraviolet radiation: in situ photosynthetic responses of phytoplankton from high mountain lakes in Southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbling, E. W.; Carrillo, P.; Medina-Sánchez, J. M.; Durán, C.; Herrera, G.; Villar-Argaiz, M.; Villafañe, V. E.

    2013-02-01

    Global change, together with human activities, has resulted in increasing amounts of organic material (including nutrients) that water bodies receive. This input further attenuates the penetration of solar radiation, leading to the view that opaque lakes are more "protected" from solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) than clear ones. Vertical mixing, however, complicates this view as cells are exposed to fluctuating radiation regimes, for which the effects have, in general, been neglected. Furthermore, the combined impacts of mixing, together with those of UVR and nutrient inputs are virtually unknown. In this study, we carried out complex in situ experiments in three high mountain lakes of Spain (Lake Enol in the National Park Picos de Europa, Asturias, and lakes Las Yeguas and La Caldera in the National Park Sierra Nevada, Granada), used as model ecosystems to evaluate the joint impact of these climate change variables. The main goal of this study was to address the question of how short-term pulses of nutrient inputs, together with vertical mixing and increased UVR fluxes modify the photosynthetic responses of phytoplankton. The experimentation consisted in all possible combinations of the following treatments: (a) solar radiation: UVR + PAR (280-700 nm) versus PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) alone (400-700 nm); (b) nutrient addition (phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N)): ambient versus addition (P to reach to a final concentration of 30 μg P L-1, and N to reach N:P molar ratio of 31); and (c) mixing: mixed (one rotation from surface to 3 m depth (speed of 1 m 4 min-1, total of 10 cycles)) versus static. Our findings suggest that under ambient nutrient conditions there is a synergistic effect between vertical mixing and UVR, increasing phytoplankton photosynthetic inhibition and excretion of organic carbon (EOC) from opaque lakes as compared to algae that received constant mean irradiance within the epilimnion. The opposite occurs in clear lakes where

  20. Interactive effects of vertical mixing, nutrients and ultraviolet radiation: in situ photosynthetic responses of phytoplankton from high mountain lakes in Southern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. W. Helbling

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Global change, together with human activities, has resulted in increasing amounts of organic material (including nutrients that water bodies receive. This input further attenuates the penetration of solar radiation, leading to the view that opaque lakes are more "protected" from solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR than clear ones. Vertical mixing, however, complicates this view as cells are exposed to fluctuating radiation regimes, for which the effects have, in general, been neglected. Furthermore, the combined impacts of mixing, together with those of UVR and nutrient inputs are virtually unknown. In this study, we carried out complex in situ experiments in three high mountain lakes of Spain (Lake Enol in the National Park Picos de Europa, Asturias, and lakes Las Yeguas and La Caldera in the National Park Sierra Nevada, Granada, used as model ecosystems to evaluate the joint impact of these climate change variables. The main goal of this study was to address the question of how short-term pulses of nutrient inputs, together with vertical mixing and increased UVR fluxes modify the photosynthetic responses of phytoplankton. The experimentation consisted in all possible combinations of the following treatments: (a solar radiation: UVR + PAR (280–700 nm versus PAR (photosynthetically active radiation alone (400700 nm; (b nutrient addition (phosphorus (P and nitrogen (N: ambient versus addition (P to reach to a final concentration of 30 μg P L−1, and N to reach N:P molar ratio of 31; and (c mixing: mixed (one rotation from surface to 3 m depth (speed of 1 m 4 min−1, total of 10 cycles versus static. Our findings suggest that under ambient nutrient conditions there is a synergistic effect between vertical mixing and UVR, increasing phytoplankton photosynthetic inhibition and excretion of organic carbon (EOC from opaque lakes as compared to algae that received constant mean irradiance within the epilimnion. The

  1. Caracterización espectral y mineralógica de los suelos del valle del río Cauca por espectroscopía visible e infrarroja (400 - 2.500 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastidas Obando Ernesto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Las librerías espectrales se utilizan para identificar diferentes
    tipos de suelo a partir de análisis espectrales que caracterizan su
    composición mineralógica y química. Los objetivos del presente
    trabajo consistieron en determinar si existen diferencias en el
    perfil espectral de los suelos del valle geográfico del río Cauca
    a nivel de subgrupo taxonómico; y cuantificar en sus perfiles
    espectrales la abundancia de minerales arcillosos. Por medio
    de un análisis de conglomerados se seleccionaron las muestras
    más homogéneas de cada subgrupo taxonómico para construir
    el perfil espectral de cada uno de ellos. El modelo linear spectral
    unmixing se utilizó para determinar las concentraciones de
    minerales arcillosos. A nivel de subgrupo taxonómico se observaron
    diferencias en la magnitud de los perfiles espectrales, así
    como en sus longitudes de onda a los 1.400, 1.900 y 2.200 nm.
    El modelo utilizado permite caracterizar de manera objetiva las
    concentraciones de minerales arcillosos de cada suelo a partir
    de su perfil espectral.

  2. High-power circulator test results at 350 and 700 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, W.; Bradley, J.T.; Rees, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    The high-power RF systems for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) program require high-power circulators at 350 MHz and 700 MHz to protect 1 MW Continuous Wave (CW) klystrons from reflected power. The 350 MHz circulator is based on the CERN, EXF, and APS designs and has performed very well. The 700 MHz circulator is a new design. Prototype 700 MHz circulators have been high-power tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The first of these circulators has satisfied performance requirements. The circulator requirements, results from the testing, and lessons learned from this development are presented and discussed

  3. 20 CFR 410.700 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Rules for the Review of Denied and Pending Claims Under the Black Lung Benefits Reform Act (BLBRA) of 1977 § 410.700 Background. (a) The Black Lung Benefits Reform Act of 1977 broadens... establish entitlement to black lung benefits. Section 435 of the Black Lung Benefits Reform Act of 1977...

  4. 28 CFR 700.22 - Request for accounting of record disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... disclosures. (a) An individual may request the Office to provide him with an accounting of those other... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Request for accounting of record disclosures. 700.22 Section 700.22 Judicial Administration OFFICE OF INDEPENDENT COUNSEL PRODUCTION OR...

  5. The inflammatory marker suPAR after cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rundgren, Malin; Lyngbaek, Stig; Fisker, Helle

    2015-01-01

    . This pilot study aimed at investigating suPAR levels in relation to outcome after CA and mild induced hypothermia. METHODS: suPAR levels were measured at 6, 36, and 72 hours in patients treated with hypothermia after CA. suPAR levels were analyzed in relation to survival after 6 months. Receiver operating...

  6. Preretinal partial pressure of oxygen gradients before and after experimental pars plana vitrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Ioannis K; Pournaras, Jean-Antoine C; Stangos, Alexandros N; Pournaras, Constantin J

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate preretinal partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) gradients before and after experimental pars plana vitrectomy. Arteriolar, venous, and intervascular preretinal PO2 gradients were recorded in 7 minipigs during slow withdrawal of oxygen-sensitive microelectrodes (10-μm tip diameter) from the vitreoretinal interface to 2 mm into the vitreous cavity. Recordings were repeated after pars plana vitrectomy and balanced salt solution (BSS) intraocular perfusion. Arteriolar, venous, and intervascular preretinal PO2 at the vitreoretinal interface were 62.3 ± 13.8, 22.5 ± 3.3, and 17.0 ± 7.5 mmHg, respectively, before vitrectomy; 97.7 ± 19.9, 40.0 ± 21.9, and 56.3 ± 28.4 mmHg, respectively, immediately after vitrectomy; and 59.0 ± 27.4, 25.2 ± 3.0, and 21.5 ± 4.5 mmHg, respectively, 2½ hours after interruption of BSS perfusion. PO2 2 mm from the vitreoretinal interface was 28.4 ± 3.6 mmHg before vitrectomy; 151.8 ± 4.5 mmHg immediately after vitrectomy; and 34.8 ± 4.1 mmHg 2½ hours after interruption of BSS perfusion. PO2 gradients were still present after vitrectomy, with the same patterns as before vitrectomy. Preretinal PO2 gradients are not eliminated after pars plana vitrectomy. During BSS perfusion, vitreous cavity PO2 is very high. Interruption of BSS perfusion evokes progressive equilibration of vitreous cavity PO2 with concomitant progressive return of preretinal PO2 gradients to their previtrectomy patterns. This indicates that preretinal diffusion of oxygen is not altered after vitrectomy. The beneficial effect of vitrectomy in ischemic retinal diseases or macular edema may be related to other mechanisms, such as increased oxygen convection currents or removal of growth factors and cytokines secreted in the vitreous.

  7. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723... RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New Lands become infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or have...

  8. 25 CFR 700.727 - Impoundment and disposal of unauthorized livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Impoundment and disposal of unauthorized livestock. 700... RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.727 Impoundment and disposal of unauthorized livestock. Unauthorized livestock within any range unit of the New Lands which are not removed therefrom within the...

  9. 48 CFR 9904.400 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.400 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.400 [Reserved] ...

  10. Mechanical Properties of Domestic T700 Grade Carbon Fibers/QY9611 BMI Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Guoli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The morphologies,surface energies and surface chemical properties of the domestic T700 grade carbon fiber and the T700S carbon fiber were characterized by using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM, inverse gas chromatography(IGC and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPSrespectively.The mechanical properties of the two carbon fibers/QY9611 composites were also discussed. The results indicate that the surface properties of carbon fibers have an important influence on the interfacial properties of composites. The interfacial properties of domestic T700 grade carbon fibers/QY9611 composite at room temperature/dry conditions are superior to T700S/QY9611 composite. The toughness of domestic T700 grade carbon fibers/QY9611composite is outstanding as well. The value of CAI has reached the level of foreign advanced composite IM7/5250-4. After hydrothermal treatment,the interfacial strength of domestic T700 grade carbon fibers/QY9611 composite is equal to that of T700S/QY9611 composite. It shows that domestic T700 grade carbon fibers/QY9611 composite has good hydrothermal-resistant properties.

  11. IR sensitivity enhancement of CMOS Image Sensor with diffractive light trapping pixels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokogawa, Sozo; Oshiyama, Itaru; Ikeda, Harumi; Ebiko, Yoshiki; Hirano, Tomoyuki; Saito, Suguru; Oinoue, Takashi; Hagimoto, Yoshiya; Iwamoto, Hayato

    2017-06-19

    We report on the IR sensitivity enhancement of back-illuminated CMOS Image Sensor (BI-CIS) with 2-dimensional diffractive inverted pyramid array structure (IPA) on crystalline silicon (c-Si) and deep trench isolation (DTI). FDTD simulations of semi-infinite thick c-Si having 2D IPAs on its surface whose pitches over 400nm shows more than 30% improvement of light absorption at λ = 850 nm and the maximum enhancement of 43% with the 540 nm pitch at the wavelength is confirmed. A prototype BI-CIS sample with pixel size of 1.2 μm square containing 400nm pitch IPAs shows 80% sensitivity enhancement at λ = 850 nm compared to the reference sample with flat surface. This is due to diffraction with the IPA and total reflection at the pixel boundary. The NIR images taken by the demo camera equip with a C-mount lens show 75% sensitivity enhancement in the λ = 700-1200 nm wavelength range with negligible spatial resolution degradation. Light trapping CIS pixel technology promises to improve NIR sensitivity and appears to be applicable to many different image sensor applications including security camera, personal authentication, and range finding Time-of-Flight camera with IR illuminations.

  12. 32 CFR 700.325 - The Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Installations and Environment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Installations and Environment). 700.325 Section 700.325 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... Assistants § 700.325 The Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Installations and Environment). The Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Installations and Environment) is responsible for: (a) Policy relating to Navy...

  13. Parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos do surubim do Iguaçu (Steindachneridion melanodermatum criados em tanques-rede

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Zaminhan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available O surubim do Iguaçu (S. melanodermatum é o maior pimelodídeo do Rio Iguaçu, podendo atingir até 15,0 kg e 70,0 cm de comprimento. Porém, escassos são os estudos sobre sua fisiologia principalmente em relação às características hematológicas e bioquímicas da espécie, que são fundamentais por contribuírem na compreensão fisiológica, filogenética e o estado de saúde dos peixes. Dentro desse intuito, o presente trabalho avaliou as características hematológicas e bioquímicas do Surubim do Iguaçu cultivados em tanques – rede. Determinou-se os seguintes parâmetros: concentração de hemoglobina, percentual de hematócrito, contagem de eritrócitos, volume corpuscular médio (VCM, hemoglobina corpuscular média (HCM, concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM. Para os parâmetros bioquímicos determinou–se: glicose plasmática, proteínas totais, colesterol total e triglicerídeos. Os parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos observados no surubim do Iguaçu S. melanodermatum  fornecem valores sanguíneos que poderão servir de comparação, para mesma espécie em outras situações de cultivo.

  14. Laser ablation of nanoscale particles with 193 nm light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J H; Lucas, D; Koshland, C P

    2007-01-01

    Laser interaction with nanoscale particles is distinct and different from laser-bulk material interaction, where a hot plasma is normally created. Here, we review our studies on 193 nm laser ablation of various nanoscale particles including NaCl, soot, polystyrene, and gold. The 20 ns laser beam with fluences up to 0.3 J/cm 2 irradiates nanoparticles in a gas stream at laser repetition rates from 10 to 100 Hz. The particle size distributions before and after irradiation are measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and particle morphology is examined with electron microscopy. All the nanomaterials studied exhibit a similar disintegration pattern and similar particle formation characteristics. No broadband emission associated with particle heating or optical breakdown is observed. The nanoparticles formed after irradiation have a smaller mean diameter and an order of magnitude higher number concentration with a more spherical shape compared to the original particles. We use the photon-atom ratio (PAR) to interpret the laser-particle interaction energetics

  15. It's quicker "Par Avignon"!

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    For a few years, the CERN Library has been receiving books from the University of Hanover sent via Avignon, at least that's what it says on the envelope. Such a detour would mean that parcels were travelling 720 km more than the distance separating Geneva and Hanover, which would be a very strange state of affairs. The explanation lies in a spelling mistake. The sender has been stamping parcels with a stamp that says "Par Avignon prioritaire" (first-class via Avignon) instead of "Par Avion prioritaire" (First Class Air Mail), a source of much amusement to the librarians!

  16. 45 CFR 400.119 - Interstate movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interstate movement. 400.119 Section 400.119... Services § 400.119 Interstate movement. After the initial placement of an unaccompanied minor, the same procedures that govern the movement of nonrefugee foster cases to other States apply to the movement of...

  17. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan amount. 400.202 Section 400.202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed...

  18. 13 CFR 400.204 - Loan terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan terms. 400.204 Section 400.204 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.204 Loan terms. (a) All loans guaranteed under the Program shall be...

  19. Effect of ultraviolet radiation (300-400 nanometers) on polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerman, S.

    1983-01-01

    Polypropylene discs and shavings were exposed to simulated ambient ultraviolet (UV) radiation (lambda 300-400 nm) for a period equivalent to at least two years of wear within the eye, assuming the eye to be exposed to ambient UV radiation for four hours per day at 1 mW/cm2. The polypropylene and the incubation media were measured by several forms of optical spectroscopy, and there was no photochemical change in either. Where polypropylene discs were exposed to a very high level of UV radiation (greater than 500 W/cm2), they became brittle and discolored within five to ten days. This level of exposure, however, was equivalent to a total of over 20 million joules/cm2, which is at least one million times levels for expected ambient UV exposure to polypropylene within the eye

  20. Early-stage ordering in in-situ annealed Fe51Pt49 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, S.N.; Chen, S.K.; Chin, T.S.; Hsu, Y.W.; Huang, H.W.; Yuan, F.T.; Lee, H.Y.; Liao, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    We evidenced an early-stage ordering (ESO) in Fe 51 Pt 49 film before the appearance of superlattice diffraction (long-range-order, LRO) using 40-nm-thick films prepared by magnetron sputtering onto quartz substrate. The appearance of L1 0 phase for samples deposited at substrate temperatures (T s ) 400 deg. C and higher was verified by X-ray diffraction. Surface roughness of Fe 51 Pt 49 films, obtained via X-ray specular reflectivity with computational fitting, increases from 3.8 to 11 A as T s is increased from 25 to 275 deg. C. As further increase of T s to 375 deg. C, the roughness drops to 3.2 A and then increases again to 38 A with T s up to 700 deg. C. Measurement on residual strain demonstrates that it is initially compressive at T s s up to 700 deg. C corresponding to LRO transformation. Local atomic rearrangement is observed for samples deposited at T s >250 deg. C by using extended X-ray absorption fine structure. Coercivity of films increases from 10 to 460 Oe as T s increase from 25 to 375 deg. C (ESO) and then from 460 to 10,700 Oe with T s 375-700 deg. C (normal LRO). The worked out quantitative estimation of ESO engages with that of LRO before T s 400 deg. C.

  1. Serum suPAR in patients with FSGS: trash or treasure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Rutger J H; Deegens, Jeroen K J; Wetzels, Jack F M

    2013-07-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) has important functions in cell migration. uPAR can be shed from the cell membrane resulting in soluble uPAR (suPAR). Further cleavage gives rise to shorter fragments with largely unknown functions. Recent studies have demonstrated that both overexpression of uPAR on podocytes and the administration of suPAR cause proteinuria in mice. The common pathogenic mechanism involves the activation of podocyte β3-integrin. Increased activation of β3-integrin is also observed in patients with focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). These observations form the basis for the hypothesis that suPAR may be the circulating factor causing FSGS. A recent study fosters this idea by demonstrating increased suPAR levels in the serum of patients with FSGS and reporting an association with recurrence after transplantation and response to plasmapheresis. However, this study was heavily biased, and subsequent studies have given conflicting results. Although the experimental work is very suggestive, at present there is no proof that any known human suPAR fragment causes FSGS in humans. We therefore suggest that the measurement of suPAR using currently available assays has absolutely no value at the present time in decision-making in routine clinical practice.

  2. Proteinase-Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1 regulates leukemic stem cell functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Bäumer

    Full Text Available External signals that are mediated by specific receptors determine stem cell fate. The thrombin receptor PAR1 plays an important role in haemostasis, thrombosis and vascular biology, but also in tumor biology and angiogenesis. Its expression and function in hematopoietic stem cells is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed expression and function of PAR1 in primary hematopoietic cells and their leukemic counterparts. AML patients' blast cells expressed much lower levels of PAR1 mRNA and protein than CD34+ progenitor cells. Constitutive Par1-deficiency in adult mice did not affect engraftment or stem cell potential of hematopoietic cells. To model an AML with Par1-deficiency, we retrovirally introduced the oncogene MLL-AF9 in wild type and Par1-/- hematopoietic progenitor cells. Par1-deficiency did not alter initial leukemia development. However, the loss of Par1 enhanced leukemic stem cell function in vitro and in vivo. Re-expression of PAR1 in Par1-/- leukemic stem cells delayed leukemogenesis in vivo. These data indicate that Par1 contributes to leukemic stem cell maintenance.

  3. Proteinase-Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) regulates leukemic stem cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäumer, Nicole; Krause, Annika; Köhler, Gabriele; Lettermann, Stephanie; Evers, Georg; Hascher, Antje; Bäumer, Sebastian; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Tickenbrock, Lara

    2014-01-01

    External signals that are mediated by specific receptors determine stem cell fate. The thrombin receptor PAR1 plays an important role in haemostasis, thrombosis and vascular biology, but also in tumor biology and angiogenesis. Its expression and function in hematopoietic stem cells is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed expression and function of PAR1 in primary hematopoietic cells and their leukemic counterparts. AML patients' blast cells expressed much lower levels of PAR1 mRNA and protein than CD34+ progenitor cells. Constitutive Par1-deficiency in adult mice did not affect engraftment or stem cell potential of hematopoietic cells. To model an AML with Par1-deficiency, we retrovirally introduced the oncogene MLL-AF9 in wild type and Par1-/- hematopoietic progenitor cells. Par1-deficiency did not alter initial leukemia development. However, the loss of Par1 enhanced leukemic stem cell function in vitro and in vivo. Re-expression of PAR1 in Par1-/- leukemic stem cells delayed leukemogenesis in vivo. These data indicate that Par1 contributes to leukemic stem cell maintenance.

  4. 46 CFR 181.400 - Where required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Where required. 181.400 Section 181.400 Shipping COAST... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fixed Fire Extinguishing and Detecting Systems § 181.400 Where required. (a) The... cubic meters (6,000 cubic feet); (2) A pre-engineered fixed gas fire extinguishing system must be in...

  5. Serum suPAR in patients with FSGS: trash or treasure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, R.J.H.; Deegens, J.K.J.; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) has important functions in cell migration. uPAR can be shed from the cell membrane resulting in soluble uPAR (suPAR). Further cleavage gives rise to shorter fragments with largely unknown functions. Recent studies have demonstrated that both

  6. Picosecond transient backward stimulated Raman scattering and pumping of femtosecond dye lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivo, Steven M.; Spears, Kenneth G.; Sipior, Jeffrey

    1995-02-01

    We report studies of transient, backward stimulated, Raman scattering (TBSRS) in solvents with a 10 Hz, 27 ps, 532 nm pump laser. The TBSRS effect was used to create pulses at 545 nm and 630 nm with durations of 2-3 ps and 5-10 μJ of energy. The duration, energy and fluctuations of the Raman pulse were studied as a function of pump energy and focal parameters. A 5 μJ Raman pulse was amplified in either a Raman amplifier or two stage dye amplifier to 1 mJ levels. A 545 nm pulse of 3 ps duration was generated in CCl 4 and was then used to pump a short cavity dye laser (SCDL). The SCDL oscillator and a 5 stage dye amplifier provided a pulse of 700 fs and 400 μJ that was tunable near 590 nm.

  7. Tensile properties and microstructure of helium-injected and reactor-irradiated V-20 Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, M.P.; Bloom, E.E.; Horak, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Mechanical properties and microstructure of vanadium-20% titanium were examined following helium-injection and reactor irradiation. Helium was injected at ambient temperature to concentrations of 90 and 200 at. ppM; neutron irradiation was at 400, 575, 625, and 700 0 C to fluence of 3 x 10 26 n/m 2 , E > 0.1 MeV. Cavities representing negligible volume swelling were observed in all helium-injected specimens. Degradation of mechanical properties, especially loss of ductility due to helium, occurred at temperatures of 625 and 700 0 C. The levels of helium produced in the fusion spectrum can be expected to alter the response of vanadium alloys from that observed in fast reactor irradiations

  8. Low-loss compact multilayer silicon nitride platform for 3D photonic integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Kuanping; Pathak, Shibnath; Guan, Binbin; Liu, Guangyao; Yoo, S J B

    2015-08-10

    We design, fabricate, and demonstrate a silicon nitride (Si(3)N(4)) multilayer platform optimized for low-loss and compact multilayer photonic integrated circuits. The designed platform, with 200 nm thick waveguide core and 700 nm interlayer gap, is compatible for active thermal tuning and applicable to realizing compact photonic devices such as arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs). We achieve ultra-low loss vertical couplers with 0.01 dB coupling loss, multilayer crossing loss of 0.167 dB at 90° crossing angle, 50 μm bending radius, 100 × 2 μm(2) footprint, lateral misalignment tolerance up to 400 nm, and less than -52 dB interlayer crosstalk at 1550 nm wavelength. Based on the designed platform, we demonstrate a 27 × 32 × 2 multilayer star coupler.

  9. Plasmonic rainbow rings induced by white radial polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tzu-Hsiang; Chung, Yi-Kuan; Li, Jie-En; Tien, Chung-Hao

    2012-04-01

    This Letter presents a scheme to embed both angular/spectral surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in a unique far-field rainbow feature by tightly focusing (effective NA=1.45) a polychromatic radially polarized beam on an Au (20 nm)/SiO2 (500 nm)/Au (20 nm) sandwich structure. Without the need for angular or spectral scanning, the virtual spectral probe snapshots a wide operation range (n=1-1.42; λ=400-700 nm) of SPR excitation in a locally nanosized region. Combined with the high-speed spectral analysis, a proof-of-concept scenario was given by monitoring the NaCl liquid concentration change in real time. The proposed scheme will certainly has a promising impact on the development of objective-based SPR sensor and biometric studies due to its rapidity and versatility.

  10. 7 CFR 400.129 - Salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salary offset. 400.129 Section 400.129 Agriculture... Years § 400.129 Salary offset. (a) Debt collection by salary offset is feasible if: the cost to the Government of collection by salary offset does not exceed the amount of the debt; there are no legal...

  11. Accouchement par forceps: indications et pronostic materno-foetal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'accouchement par voie basse, peut être parfois compromis par des facteurs maternels, foetaux ou materno-foetaux nécessitant des moyens thérapeutiques comme le forceps pour achever l'accouchement par voie naturelle. Le forceps, une méthode qui n'est pas sans risque pour la mère et le nouveau-né. Nous avons ...

  12. 700 bar hydrogen cylinder design, testing and certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, M.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Light weight and high pressure cylinders for compressed hydrogen storage are essential components for fuel cell vehicles. Storage volume and mass are two key considerations. Current on-board hydrogen storage systems are based on a maximum pressure of 350 bar. While 350 bar systems are excellent solutions for many applications, some situations required higher storage densities due to space restrictions. As a result significant research and development work has been expended by cylinder manufacturers, systems providers, testing agencies and automotive manufacturers to develop 700 bar systems to reduce storage volume. Dynetek Industries Ltd has proactively developed a range of 700 bar storage cylinders based on a seamless aluminum liner over wrapped with a carbon fiber composite. This paper presents the challenges and processes involved in the design, testing and certification of the Dynetek Industries Ltd 700 bar cylinder. The paper also provides reasoning for further volume and mass optimization of compressed hydrogen cylinders by incorporating realistic cylinder usage parameters into standards. In particular the overly conservative fill life requirement for cylinders will be examined. (author)

  13. 46 CFR 118.400 - Where required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Where required. 118.400 Section 118.400 Shipping COAST... Extinguishing and Detecting Systems § 118.400 Where required. (a) The following spaces must be equipped with a... unoccupied space with a gross volume of not more than 170 cubic meters (6,000 cubic feet); (2) A pre...

  14. Synthesis of 2.5 nm colloidal iridium nanoparticles with strong surface enhanced Raman scattering activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Malin; Zhao, Yuan; Wang, Chan; Song, Qijun

    2016-01-01

    Colloidal iridium nanoparticles (IrNPs) were synthesized through an environmentally friendly approach by using trisodium citrate as the capping molecule in an aqueous medium. The resulting colloidal IrNPs have a typical diameter of 2.5 nm and display absorption bands at 250, 400 and 600 nm. They possess uniform morphology, good dispersibility, excellent stability in water, and exhibit strong surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity with an enhancement factor (EF) of 3.5 × 10 5 at the 1512 cm -1 peak when using Rhodamine 6G as the probe molecule. The excellent SERS performance of the IrNPs was exemplarily applied to the determination of the industrial colorant Sudan Red I. The peak intensity of the Raman band at 1236 cm -1 is linearly related to the concentration of Sudan Red I which can be determined by SERS in the 2 nM to 8 μM concentration range with a limit of detection as low as 0.6 nM. In our perception, this strong SERS activity of the IrNPs has a large potential in the SERS-based quantitation of various chemical substances. (author)

  15. Organic, cross-linking, and shape-stabilized solar thermal energy storage materials: A reversible phase transition driven by broadband visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yunming; Tang, Bingtao; Zhang, Shufen

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Organic shape-stabilized solar thermal energy storage materials (OCSPCMs) with broadband harvesting for visible light were obtained by crosslinking and color matching, which provided a new platform for improving the efficiency of solar radiation utilization. - Highlights: • Novel phase change materials (OCSPCMs) were obtained by crosslinking and color matching. • The η of the OCSPCM was higher than 0.74 (visible light from 400 nm to 700 nm). • The phase change latent heats of the OCSPCMs were more than 120 J/g. • The OCSPCM has excellent form-stable effect during phase change process. - Abstract: Broadband visible sunlight usage and shape-stabilized effect were achieved using organic, cross-linking, and shape-stabilized phase-changed materials (OCSPCMs) with broadband visible light absorption, which were obtained by cross-linking reticulation and color matching (yellow, red, and blue) according to solar irradiation energy density. The obtained OCSPCMs exhibited excellent form-stable phase-change energy storage and broadband visible light-harvesting. Under broadband irradiation (from 400 nm to 700 nm), the light-to-heat conversion and the thermal energy storage efficiency (η > 0.74) of the OCSPCMs were significantly improved upon solar irradiation by color matching compared with those of OCSPCMs with single-band selective absorption of visible light (yellow, red, or blue). Differential scanning calorimetric results indicated that the phase change temperatures and latent heats of OCSPCMs ranged from 32.6 °C to 60.2 °C and from 120.1 J/g to 132.7 J/g, respectively. The novel materials show a reversible (more than 200 cycles) phase transition via ON/OFF switching of visible light irradiation

  16. 7 CFR 3052.400 - Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibilities. 3052.400 Section 3052.400 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Federal Agencies...

  17. Comparative study of optical and scintillation properties of YVO{sub 4}, (Lu{sub 0.5}Y{sub 0.5})VO{sub 4}, and LuVO{sub 4} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Yutaka, E-mail: fuji-you@tagen.tohoku.ac.j [IMRAM, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Yanagida, Takayuki; Yokota, Yuui; Chani, Valery [IMRAM, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kochurikhin, Vladimir V. [General Physics Institute, 38 Vavilov Street, 119991, Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation); Yoshikawa, Akira [IMRAM, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); NICHe, Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2011-04-11

    Optical and scintillation properties of YVO{sub 4}, (Lu{sub 0.5}Y{sub 0.5})VO{sub 4}, and LuVO{sub 4} single crystals grown by the Czochralski (CZ) method with RF heating system are compared. All vanadate crystals show high transmittance ({approx}80%) in the 400-900 nm wavelength range. In both photo- and radio-luminescence spectra, intense peak around 400-500 nm, which was ascribed to the transition from triplet state of VO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, was clearly observed. The main decay time component was about 38 {mu}s (YVO{sub 4}), 18 {mu}s ((Lu{sub 0.5}Y{sub 0.5})VO{sub 4}), and 17 {mu}s (LuVO{sub 4}) under 340 nm excitation. The scintillation light yields of YVO{sub 4}, (Lu{sub 0.5}Y{sub 0.5})VO{sub 4}, and LuVO{sub 4} crystals (obtained from the {sup 137}Cs excited pulse height spectra) were evaluated to be about 11,200, 10,700, and 10,300 ph/MeV, respectively.

  18. Alterations of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis in the continuous industrial par frying of breaded chicken snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Rezende Ferreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical alterations in palm oil during continuous industrial par frying of breaded chicken snacks were evaluated using a pseudo first-order kinetic model. The acidity index, refractive index, concentration of polar compounds, viscosity, color, and absorbance (232 and 268 nm of 238 samples of the frying oil collected during 26 days of production were analyzed. For all of the analyses, the results of the oil were below the limits recommended for oil disposal, indicating that the processing conditions were safe and that under these experimental conditions the oil remained suitable for frying. The linear regressions were significant for refractive index, content of polar compounds, and lightness (L*. The content of polar compounds was determined using a cooking oil tester, and it had the best fit to the proposed model and can be used as an effective index for monitoring palm oil during the continuous par frying of breaded chicken snacks. The high turnover rate of the oil was important for maintaining the oil in good running conditions.

  19. 7 CFR 735.400 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 735.400 Section 735.400 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Administration. This subpart sets forth the regulations under which DACO may authorize one or more electronic...

  20. Protease-Activated Receptor 4 (PAR4): A Promising Target for Antiplatelet Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rwibasira Rudinga, Gamariel; Khan, Ghulam Jilany; Kong, Yi

    2018-02-14

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are currently among the leading causes of death worldwide. Platelet aggregation is a key cellular component of arterial thrombi and major cause of CVDs. Protease-activated receptors (PARs), including PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, fall within a subfamily of seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Human platelets express PAR1 and PAR4, which contribute to the signaling transduction processes. In association with CVDs, PAR4 not only contributes to platelet activation but also is a modulator of cellular responses that serve as hallmarks of inflammation. Although several antiplatelet drugs are available on the market, they have many side effects that limit their use. Emerging evidence shows that PAR4 targeting is a safer strategy for preventing thrombosis and consequently may improve the overall cardiac safety profile. Our present review summarizes the PAR4 structural characteristics, activation mechanism, role in the pathophysiology of diseases and understanding the association of PAR4 targeting for improved cardiac protection. Conclusively, this review highlights the importance of PAR4 antagonists and its potential utility in different CVDs.

  1. The surface defect-related electroluminescence from the ZnO microwire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Meng; Zhao Dongxu; Yao Bin; Li Binghui; Zhang Zhenzhong; Shan Chongxin; Shen Dezhen, E-mail: dxzhao2000@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130021 (China)

    2011-02-23

    Surface defect-related electroluminescence (EL) was realized from a single ZnO microwire-based metal-semiconductor-metal structure on a glass substrate. ZnO microwires were successfully fabricated using a simple chemical vapour deposition approach. Schottky contacts were detected between Au electrodes and the ZnO microwire. The EL spectrum showed a broad emission band covering the visible range from 400 to 700 nm. The possible EL emission mechanism is discussed in detail in this paper.

  2. Variation de la composition de nanoparticules de 1-10 nm obtenues par séparation de phase dans un verre de silice

    OpenAIRE

    Blanc , W; Francois-Saint-Cyr , H; Martin , I; Lecoustumer , P; Hombourger , C; R. Neuville , D.; Larson , D.J.; Prosa , T.J.; Guillermier , C

    2014-01-01

    National audience; Les verres contenant des nanoparticules ont de nombreuses applications industrielles, notamment grâce à leurs excellentes propriétés thermo-mécaniques [1]. Ils présentent aussi un intérêt pour les propriétés optiques. En effet, l'encapsulation d'ions luminescents (ions de terre rare par exemple) dans des nanoparticules entraînent de nouvelles propriétés de luminescence qui n'existeraient pas dans le verre hôte (bande d'émission élargie, efficacité quantique augmentée, etc) ...

  3. One-Pot Silver Nanoring Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drogat, Nicolas; Granet, Robert; Sol, Vincent; Krausz, Pierre

    2010-03-01

    Silver colloidal nanorings have been synthesized by reducing silver ions with NaBH4 in trisodium citrate buffers. pH increase, by addition of NaOH, was used to speed up reduction reaction. The UV-vis absorption spectra of resulting silver nanorings showed two peaks accounting for transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon resonance, at ≈400 nm, and between 600 and 700 nm, respectively. The shapes of these silver nanoparticles (nanorings) depended on AgNO3/NaBH4 ratio, pH and reaction temperature. Particles were analysed by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. A reaction pathway is proposed to explain silver nanoring formation.

  4. 32 CFR 700.846 - Status of logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Officers Afloat § 700.846 Status of logs. The deck log, the engineering log, the compass record, the bearing hooks, the engineer's bell book, and any records generated by automated data logging equipment...

  5. 24 CFR 700.135 - Professional assessment committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... this section, shall recommend services appropriate to the functional abilities and needs of each...)(A) and (B). PAC members are subject to the conflict of interest provisions in section 700.175(b). (2...

  6. 12 CFR 263.400 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 263.400 Section 263.400 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RULES OF PRACTICE FOR HEARINGS Removal, Suspension, and Debarment of Accountants From Performing Audit Services...

  7. Dust Explosion Characteristics of Agglomerated 35 nm and 100 nm Aluminum Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chun Wu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the experiment, nanoparticles of 35 nm Al and 100 nm Al powders, respectively, formed particles with average sizes of 161 nm and 167 nm in agglomeration. The characteristics of dust cloud explosions with the two powder sizes, 35 nm and 100 nm, revealed considerable differences, as shown here: (dp/dtmax-35 nm = 1254 bar/s, (dp/dtmax-100 nm = 1105 bar/s; Pmax-35 nm = 7.5 bar, Pmax-100 nm = 12.3 bar, and MEC-35 nm = 40 g/m3, MEC-100 nm = 50 g/m3. The reason of Pmax-35 nm value is smaller than Pmax-100 nm may be due to agglomeration. From an analysis of the explosive residue, the study found that nanoparticles of 35 nm Al powder became filamentous strands after an explosion, where most of 100 nm Al nanoparticles maintained a spherical structure, This may be because the initial melting temperature of 35 nm Al is 435.71°C, while that for 100 nm Al is 523.58°C, higher by 87.87°C. This study discovered that explosive property between the 35 nm Al and 100 nm Al powders after agglomeration were different.

  8. 25 CFR 700.513 - Business dealings on behalf of the government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business dealings on behalf of the government. 700.513... RELOCATION PROCEDURES Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.513 Business dealings on behalf of the... the Commission. Employees shall observe courtesy, consideration and promptness in dealing with clients...

  9. 31 CFR 700.9 - Photographs for news, advertising, or commercial purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Photographs for news, advertising, or commercial purposes. 700.9 Section 700.9 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... Photographs for news, advertising, or commercial purposes. Photographs for news, advertising, or commercial...

  10. 15 CFR 700.30 - Priorities and allocations in a national emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Priorities and allocations in a national emergency. 700.30 Section 700.30 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY...

  11. 15 CFR 700.4 - Priorities and allocations in a national emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Priorities and allocations in a national emergency. 700.4 Section 700.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY...

  12. 15 CFR 700.92 - Applicability of this regulation and official actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability of this regulation and official actions. 700.92 Section 700.92 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY...

  13. Plasticity of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloys; Plasticite des alliages ferritiques renforces par dispersion d`oxydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakine, C

    1994-07-05

    The object of this work is to study the plasticity mechanisms of two oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloys, DT and DY. Microstructural characterisation has been performed on DT and DY alloys by optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. These materials, strengthened by an oxide dispersion, contain an intermetallic {chi} phase precipitated on grain boundaries. The {chi} phase, stable up to 900 deg, can be dissolved into the matrix by heat treatment beyond 1 000 deg. Between 20 and 700 deg, according to tensile tests, the DY alloy which is strengthened by a fine dispersion of yttria particles is more resistant and less ductile than DT alloy, strengthened by titanium oxides. Tensile tests performed at room temperature, in the chamber of a SEM, have shown that micro-cracking of the {chi} phase coincides with the first stage of the macroscopic yielding. The cavities initiated by the {chi} phase micro-cracking induce a ductile fracture of the matrix. A dynamic strain ageing mechanism has been observed around 400 deg, which is attributed to the Mo contribution. Between 20 and 700 deg, comparison of tensile properties of alloys with or without {chi} phase has shown that the intermetallic phase has a detrimental effect on the ductility, but has no influence on the mechanical strength. Creep tests have been performed between 500 and 700 deg. Thermally activated plasticity mechanisms are observed in this temperature range. The {chi} phase, which is always micro-cracked after tensile testing, is not damaged after creep testing below a critical stress. This behaviour is explained by the influence of strain rate through the competition between strain hardening and relaxation of the matrix. (author).

  14. Influence of deposition temperature on the structural and morphological properties of Be3N2 thin films grown by reactive laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chale-Lara, F.; Farias, M.H.; De la Cruz, W.; Zapata-Torres, M.

    2010-01-01

    Be 3 N 2 thin films have been grown on Si(1 1 1) substrates using the pulsed laser deposition method at different substrate temperatures: room temperature (RT), 200 deg. C, 400 deg. C, 600 deg. C and 700 deg. C. Additionally, two samples were deposited at RT and were annealed after deposition in situ at 600 deg. C and 700 deg. C. In order to obtain the stoichiometry of the samples, they have been characterized in situ by X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS). The influence of the substrate temperature on the morphological and structural properties of the films was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that all prepared films presented the Be 3 N 2 stoichiometry. Formation of whiskers with diameters of 100-200 nm appears at the surface of the films prepared with a substrate temperature of 600 deg. C or 700 deg. C. However, the samples grown at RT and annealed at 600 deg. C or 700 deg. C do not show whiskers on the surface. The average root mean square (RMS) roughness and the average grain size of the samples grown with respect the substrate temperature is presented. The films grown with a substrate temperature between the room temperature to 400 deg. C, and the sample annealed in situ at 600 deg. C were amorphous; while the αBe 3 N 2 phase was presented on the samples with a substrate temperature of 600 deg. C, 700 deg. C and that deposited with the substrate at RT and annealed in situ at 700 deg. C.

  15. 21 CFR 700.15 - Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients in cosmetic products. 700.15 Section 700.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.15 Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products. (a...

  16. 21 CFR 700.16 - Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... zirconium. 700.16 Section 700.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... cosmetic products containing zirconium. (a) Zirconium-containing complexes have been used as an ingredient... indicates that certain zirconium compounds have caused human skin granulomas and toxic effects in the lungs...

  17. 25 CFR 700.509 - Duties of the designated agency ethics official.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duties of the designated agency ethics official. 700.509... RELOCATION PROCEDURES Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.509 Duties of the designated agency ethics official. The Designated Agency Ethics Official shall coordinate and manage the agency's ethics program...

  18. PAR1 activation affects the neurotrophic properties of Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Elena; Fabrizi, Cinzia; Somma, Francesca; Correani, Virginia; Maras, Bruno; Schininà, Maria Eugenia; Ciraci, Viviana; Artico, Marco; Fornai, Francesco; Fumagalli, Lorenzo

    2017-03-01

    Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is the prototypic member of a family of four G-protein-coupled receptors that signal in response to extracellular proteases. In the peripheral nervous system, the expression and/or the role of PARs are still poorly investigated. High PAR1 mRNA expression was found in the rat dorsal root ganglia and the signal intensity of PAR1 mRNA increased in response to sciatic nerve transection. In the sciatic nerve, functional PAR1 receptor was reported at the level of non-compacted Schwann cell myelin microvilli of the nodes of Ranvier. Schwann cells are the principal population of glial cells of the peripheral nervous system which myelinate axons playing an important role during axonal regeneration and remyelination. The present study was undertaken in order to determine if the activation of PAR1 affects the neurotrophic properties of Schwann cells. Our results suggest that the stimulation of PAR1 could potentiate the Schwann cell ability to favour nerve regeneration. In fact, the conditioned medium obtained from Schwann cell cultures challenged with a specific PAR1 activating peptide (PAR1 AP) displays increased neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties with respect to the culture medium from untreated Schwann cells. The proteomic analysis of secreted proteins in untreated and PAR1 AP-treated Schwann cells allowed the identification of factors differentially expressed in the two samples. Some of them (such as macrophage migration inhibitory factor, matrix metalloproteinase-2, decorin, syndecan 4, complement C1r subcomponent, angiogenic factor with G patch and FHA domains 1) appear to be transcriptionally regulated after PAR1 AP treatment as shown by RT-PCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Protease-Activated Receptor 4 (PAR4: A Promising Target for Antiplatelet Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamariel Rwibasira Rudinga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are currently among the leading causes of death worldwide. Platelet aggregation is a key cellular component of arterial thrombi and major cause of CVDs. Protease-activated receptors (PARs, including PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, fall within a subfamily of seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR. Human platelets express PAR1 and PAR4, which contribute to the signaling transduction processes. In association with CVDs, PAR4 not only contributes to platelet activation but also is a modulator of cellular responses that serve as hallmarks of inflammation. Although several antiplatelet drugs are available on the market, they have many side effects that limit their use. Emerging evidence shows that PAR4 targeting is a safer strategy for preventing thrombosis and consequently may improve the overall cardiac safety profile. Our present review summarizes the PAR4 structural characteristics, activation mechanism, role in the pathophysiology of diseases and understanding the association of PAR4 targeting for improved cardiac protection. Conclusively, this review highlights the importance of PAR4 antagonists and its potential utility in different CVDs.

  20. 7 CFR 400.90 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Agency. RMA or FCIC, including the RO, FAOB or any other division within the Agency with decision making... the responsibility by the Agency of making a decision on a request for administrative review by the... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 400.90 Section 400.90 Agriculture...

  1. 47 CFR 90.1408 - Organization and structure of the 700 MHz public/private partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Organization and structure of the 700 MHz public/private partnership. 90.1408 Section 90.1408 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Partnership § 90.1408 Organization and structure of the 700 MHz public/private partnership. (a) The Upper 700...

  2. 47 CFR 27.1308 - Organization and structure of the 700 MHz public/private partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Organization and structure of the 700 MHz public/private partnership. 27.1308 Section 27.1308 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Partnership § 27.1308 Organization and structure of the 700 MHz public/private partnership. (a) The Upper 700...

  3. 21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.19 Section 700.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.19 Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products. (a) Methylene chloride has been used...

  4. Vote par sondage uniforme incorruptible

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchard , Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Introduit en 2012 par David Chaum, le vote par sondage uniforme (random-sample voting) est un protocole de vote basé sur un choix d'une sous-population représentative , permettant de limiter les coûts tout en ayant de nombreux avantages, principalement lorsqu'il est couplé a d'autres techniques comme ThreeBallot. Nous analysons un problème de corruptibilité potentielle où les votants peuvent vendre leur vote au plus offrant et proposons une variation du protocole reméd...

  5. The double par locus of virulence factor pB171: DNA segregation is correlated with oscillation of ParA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebersbach, G; Gerdes, K; Charbon, Gitte Ebersbach

    2001-01-01

    Prokaryotic plasmids and chromosomes encode partitioning (par) loci that segregate DNA to daughter cells before cell division. Recent database analyses showed that almost all known par loci encode an ATPase and a DNA-binding protein, and one or more cis-acting regions where the proteins act. All...

  6. 13 CFR 400.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose. 400.1 Section 400.1 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM..., Chapter 1 of Public Law 106-51, 113 Stat. 252, as amended by section 734 of Public Law 106-102, 113 Stat...

  7. 47 CFR 400.5 - Approval and award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval and award. 400.5 Section 400.5 Telecommunication NATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, AND NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION E-911 GRANT PROGRAM § 400.5 Approval...

  8. 47 CFR 400.3 - Who may apply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may apply. 400.3 Section 400.3 Telecommunication NATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, AND NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION E-911 GRANT PROGRAM § 400.3 Who may...

  9. The role of pars flaccida in human middle ear sound transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aritomo, H; Goode, R L; Gonzalez, J

    1988-04-01

    The role of the pars flaccida in middle ear sound transmission was studied with the use of twelve otoscopically normal, fresh, human temporal bones. Peak-to-peak umbo displacement in response to a constant sound pressure level at the tympanic membrane was measured with a noncontacting video measuring system capable of repeatable measurements down to 0.2 micron. Measurements were made before and after pars flaccida modifications at 18 frequencies between 100 and 4000 Hz. Four pars flaccida modifications were studied: (1) acoustic insulation of the pars flaccida to the ear canal with a silicone rubber baffle, (2) stiffening the pars flaccida with cyanoacrylate cement, (3) decreasing the tension of the pars flaccida with a nonperforating incision, and (4) perforation of the pars flaccida. All of the modifications (except the perforation) had a minimal effect on umbo displacement; this seems to imply that the pars flaccida has a minor acoustic role in human beings.

  10. 400 Area/Fast Flux Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 400 Area at Hanford is home primarily to the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), a DOE-owned, formerly operating, 400-megawatt (thermal) liquid-metal (sodium)-cooled...

  11. MOVPE growth and characterization of (In,Ga)N quantum structures for laser diodes emitting at 440 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Veit

    2011-04-18

    The presented work describes the metal organic vapor phase epitaxy and characterization of nitride-based quantum structures which are used in laser heterostructures emitting in the wavelength range between 400 nm and 440 nm. Aiming at current injection and optically pumped laser structures with low threshold current or respectively threshold power densities, the device properties were correlated with the material properties of the indium gallium nitride (InGaN) active region. Furthermore, the influence of the active region and waveguide heterostructure layout on the material gain as well as the modal gain was investigated. In order to understand the InGaN growth process and the formation of structural imperfections, 15 nm-100 nm thick InGaN single layers were deposited on gallium nitride (GaN) on sapphire substrates and analyzed subsequently. It turned out that the spiral pattern of the growth edges around screw dislocations, threading from the substrate to the growth surface, and the formation of additional V-shaped surface defects are the main cause for the deterioration of the crystal perfection of the InGaN. As a result of the transition from a layer-by-layer to a 3D growth regime stable facets with preferred indium incorporation are formed that increase the lateral variation of the indium mole fraction in the layer. The higher indium incorporation at the facets is explained by dynamical elasticity theory and proven by the growth and characterization of InGaN layers on differently oriented GaN. The material properties of the InGaN quantum wells were correlated with laser device properties using 400 nm laser structures: In the case of thin quantum wells the 3D growth results in a lateral variation of the band gap due to variations of the indium mole fraction and the well width. Systematical investigations of laser structures with different band gap fluctuations show an increase of the threshold power density as the lateral variation of the band gap increases. It

  12. Study of transformations by annealing of the body. Centred cubic {gamma} phase of uranium-molybdenum alloys; Etude des transformations par revenu de la phase {gamma} cubique centree des alliages uranium-molybdene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikailoff, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-06-15

    By annealing at different temperatures, we have studied the transformations of the body centred cubic {gamma} phase for two alloys containing 6 and 10 per cent molybdenum by weight respectively. There is a return to the equilibrium state by formation of the stable {alpha} orthorhombic and {epsilon} ordered tetragonal phases, following two types of reaction: - pearlite transformation by nucleation and growth from the grain boundaries, preponderant when the annealing takes place at temperature above 400 deg. C, and identical for the two types of alloys. This reaction has already been studied by numerous authors, who have constructed the corresponding TTT curves, - transformation inside the grains of the quenched solid solution when annealing takes place at 400 deg. C or below: 6 per cent alloy - precipitation of fine a phase particles, followed by progressive ordering of the solid solution enriched in molybdenum, 10 per cent alloy - formation of small ordered regions and then a fine a phase precipitate. In the course of this work we have paid particular attention to the study of intragranular reactions after low-temperature annealing, the reactions involved in this case not having been explained up to the present. The {gamma} phase transformation has been studied by means of three techniques: micrography - microhardness tests - X-ray diffraction. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie les transformations par revenu a differentes temperatures, de la phase {gamma} cubique centree des alliages U-Mo trempes, pour deux alliages a 6 et a 10 pour cent de molybdene en poids. Il y a retour a l'etat d'equilibre par formation des phases stables {alpha} orthorhombique et quadratique ordonnee, suivant deux types de reactions: - transformation perlitique par germination et croissance a partir des joints de grains, preponderante lorsque le recuit a lieu a temperature superieure a 400 deg. C, et identique pour les deux types d'alliages. Cette reaction a deja ete etudiee par de nombreux

  13. 7 CFR 400.117 - Determination of delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of delinquency. 400.117 Section 400.117 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION... Succeeding Crop Years § 400.117 Determination of delinquency. Prior to disclosing information about a debt to...

  14. Synthesis and Luminescence Properties of Blue Na(Sr0.97-xCa(x))PO4:0.03Eu2+ Phosphors for White Light Emitting Diode Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakeem, D A; Park, K

    2015-07-01

    The crystal structure and luminescence properties of Na(Sr0.97-xCax)PO4:0.03Eu2+ (0 phosphors were studied, depending on the Ca2+ concentration. All the Na(Sr0.97-xCax)PO4:0.03Eu2+ phosphors had a hexagonal crystal structure. The excitation spectra of the prepared phosphors showed a broad band ranging from 250 to 420 nm, which arises due to the 4f-5d transitions of Eu2+ ions. Upon the excitation of 334 nm wavelength, the emission spectra showed a broad blue band ranging from 400 to 700 nm peaking at 450 nm. Among the prepared phosphors, the Na(Sr0.72Ca0.25)PO4:0.03Eu2+ showed the strongest emission intensity and could be applied as a blue emitting phosphor for UV-based w-LEDs.

  15. Movement and equipositioning of plasmids by ParA filament disassembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringgaard, Simon; van Zon, Jeroen; Howard, Martin

    2009-01-01

    , plasmids consistently migrate behind disassembling ParA cytoskeletal structures, suggesting that ParA filaments pull plasmids by depolymerization. The perpetual cycles of ParA assembly and disassembly result in continuous relocation of plasmids, which, on time averaging, results in equidistribution...

  16. PAR-1 contributes to the innate immune response during viral infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniak, Silvio; Owens, A. Phillip; Baunacke, Martin; Williams, Julie C.; Lee, Rebecca D.; Weithäuser, Alice; Sheridan, Patricia A.; Malz, Ronny; Luyendyk, James P.; Esserman, Denise A.; Trejo, JoAnn; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Blaxall, Burns C.; Pawlinski, Rafal; Beck, Melinda A.; Rauch, Ursula; Mackman, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Coagulation is a host defense system that limits the spread of pathogens. Coagulation proteases, such as thrombin, also activate cells by cleaving PARs. In this study, we analyzed the role of PAR-1 in coxsackievirus B3–induced (CVB3-induced) myocarditis and influenza A infection. CVB3-infected Par1–/– mice expressed reduced levels of IFN-β and CXCL10 during the early phase of infection compared with Par1+/+ mice that resulted in higher viral loads and cardiac injury at day 8 after infection. Inhibition of either tissue factor or thrombin in WT mice also significantly increased CVB3 levels in the heart and cardiac injury compared with controls. BM transplantation experiments demonstrated that PAR-1 in nonhematopoietic cells protected mice from CVB3 infection. Transgenic mice overexpressing PAR-1 in cardiomyocytes had reduced CVB3-induced myocarditis. We found that cooperative signaling between PAR-1 and TLR3 in mouse cardiac fibroblasts enhanced activation of p38 and induction of IFN-β and CXCL10 expression. Par1–/– mice also had decreased CXCL10 expression and increased viral levels in the lung after influenza A infection compared with Par1+/+ mice. Our results indicate that the tissue factor/thrombin/PAR-1 pathway enhances IFN-β expression and contributes to the innate immune response during single-stranded RNA viral infection. PMID:23391721

  17. High-power 355 nm ultraviolet lasers operating at ultrahigh repetition rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H; Liu, Q; Yan, P; Gong, M

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, we demonstrate a novel 355 nm ultraviolet (UV) laser operating at ultrahigh repetition rate from 300 kHz to 1 MHz. The hybrid fiber-MOPA–bulk amplifiers based IR source exhibits a high average power of 105 W with near-diffraction-limited beam quality, narrow linewidth and high polarization extinction ratio. Two-cascaded LBO crystals are employed for high efficiency frequency tripling, and a maximum 43.7 W of average UV power is achieved at 400 kHz, corresponding to a conversion efficiency as high as 41.6%. The pulse duration of the UV pulse can be tuned from 5 to 10 ns with good pulse peak stability (better than 2.2% (RMS)). (letter)

  18. Bilateral optic neuropathy and intraretinal deposits after pars plana vitrectomy in amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossetti Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathological examination of material from a nonextensive pars plana vitrectomy (PPV in the right eye provided a diagnosis of nonfamilial amyloidosis in a 68-year-old woman, who presented with bilateral glass wool-like vitreous opacities. Genetic testing revealed a Tyr114Cys mutation in the transthyretin gene. Six months after PPV, perimetry showed intense constriction with a temporal island and central scotoma in the right eye. An extensive PPV was performed in the left eye. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography evidenced bilateral epimacular amyloid deposits and unreported reflective spots within the inner retina. One year later, visual acuity had decreased to 20/400 in the left eye, with mild vitreous opacity, pale cupped optic disc and inferior altitudinal field defect. Bilateral diurnal intraocular pressure, transiently increased after PPV, never exceeded 16 mmHg with medication. Our patient presented optic nerve blood supply impairment, due to amyloidosis, which caused optic atrophy. Epiretinal and intraretinal deposit detection could aid in diagnosing patients with suspected amyloidosis.

  19. Étude des dommages induits dans l'ADN par irradiation laser X-UV à 21.2 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassou, K.; Ros, D.; Kazamias, S.; Klisnick, A.; Jamelot, G.; Guilbaud, O.; Rus, B.; Kozlová, M.; Polan, J.; Präg, A. R.; Stupka, M.; Eot-Houllier, G.; Sage, E.; Begusová, M.; Stísová, V.; Du Penhoat, M.-A. H.; Touati, A.; Chétioui, A.

    2005-06-01

    We report the preliminary result of the application of the collisional Ne-like soft x-ray laser as radiation source to induce DNA damage. The goal of this experiment was a test bed study of the damage yields induced by soft x-ray radiation in dried plasmid DNA sample. The saturated Ne-like soft x-ray laser available at the PALS facility, delivering several millijoules in a single 100 ps pulse at 21.2 nm was used to irradiate two different plasmids: pSP189 and pBS. The study is centered on the dose effect leading to single and double strand break in DNA.

  20. Light Penetration and Light-Intensity in Sandy Marine-Sediments Measured with Irradiance and Scalar Irradiance Fiberoptic Microprobes Rid A-1977-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    KUHL, M.; LASSEN, C.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1994-01-01

    Fiber-optic microprobes for determining irradiance and scalar irradiance were used for light measurements in sandy sediments of different particle size. Intense scattering caused a maximum integral light intensity [photon scalar irradiance, E0(400 to 700 rim) and E0(700 to 880 nm)] at the sediment...... diffuse. Our results demonstrate the importance of measuring scalar irradiance when the role of light in photobiological processes in sediments, e.g. microbenthic photosynthesis, is investigated....... surface ranging from 180 % of incident collimated light in the coarsest sediment (250 to 500 mum grain size) up to 280 % in the finest sediment ( 1 mm in the coarsest sediments. Below 1 mm, light was attenuated exponentially with depth in all sediments. Light attenuation coefficients decreased...

  1. FABRICATION, MORPHOLOGICAL AND OPTOELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF ANTIMONY ON POROUS SILICON AS MSM PHOTODETECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Hadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on the fabrication and characterization of MSM photodetector. We investigated the surface morphological and the structural properties of the porous silicon by optical microscopy, atomic force microscope (AFM and X-ray diffraction. The metal–semiconductor–metal photodetector were fabricated by using Sb as Schottky contact metal.The junction exhibits good rectification ratio of 105 at bias of 2V. A large photocurrent to dark-current contrast ratio higher than 55 orders of magnitude and low dark currents below 0.89 nA .High   responsivity of 0.225A/W at 400 nm and 0.15 A/W at 400 and 700nm were observed at an operating bias of less than -2 V, corresponding quantum efficiency of 70% and 26% respectively. The lifetimes are evaluated using OCVD method and the carrier life time is 100 μs. The results show that Sb on porous silicon (PS structures will act as good candidates for making highly efficient photodiodes.

  2. Impact of Ge4+ Ion as Structural Dopant of Ti4+ in Anatase: Crystallographic Translation, Photocatalytic Behavior, and Efficiency under UV and VIS Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Štengl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanometric particles of germanium-doped TiO2 were prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of TiOSO4 and GeCl4 in an aqueous solution using urea as the precipitation agent. Structural evolution during heating of these starting Ge-Ti oxide powders was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD and high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction (HTXRD. The morphology and microstructure changes were monitored by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Raman and infrared spectroscopy (IR, specific surface area (BET, and porosity determination (BJH. The photocatalytic activity of all samples was determined by decomposition of Orange II dye under irradiation at 365 nm and 400nm. Moderate doping with concentration upto value 2.05 wt.% positively influences azo dye degradation under UV and Vis light. Further improvement cannot be achieved by higher Ge doping. Effect of the annealing (200, 400, and 700°C on photocatalysis and other properties has been assessed.

  3. FABRICATION, MORPHOLOGICAL AND OPTOELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF ANTIMONY ON POROUS SILICON AS MSM PHOTODETECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Hadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on the fabrication and characterization of MSM photodetector. We investigated the surface morphological and the structural properties of the porous silicon by optical microscopy, atomic force microscope (AFM and X-ray diffraction. The metal–semiconductor–metal photodetector were fabricated by using Sb as Schottky contact metal.The junction exhibits good rectification ratio of 105 at bias of 2V. A large photocurrent to dark-current contrast ratio higher than 55 orders of magnitude and low dark currents below 0.89 nA .High responsivity of 0.225A/W at 400 nm and 0.15 A/W at 400 and 700nm were observed at an operating bias of less than -2 V, corresponding quantum efficiency of 70% and 26% respectively. The lifetimes are evaluated using OCVD method and the carrier life time is 100 μs. The results show that Sb on porous silicon (PS structures will act as good candidates for making highly efficient photodiodes.

  4. Microstructural, structural and optical properties of nanoparticles of PbO-CrO3 pigment synthesized by a soft route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Araújo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available PbCrO4 and Pb2CrO5 particles were synthesized by the polymeric precursor method. Structural and microstructural properties of the particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy with field emission gun, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy techniques. The diffuse reflectance technique was employed to study the optical properties in the 400-700 nm range. The optical bandgap of the samples was obtained indirectly. Colorimetric coordinates L*, a*, b* were calculated for the pigment powders as a function of the heat treatment (400-700 ºC. The powders displayed colors ranging from green to red. X-ray diffraction patterns showed the presence of monoclinic PbCrO4 phase in green samples, while red powders had a monoclinic Pb2CrO5 phase structure. The Raman spectra of the PbCrO4 and Pb2CrO5 powders were in good agreement with those reported in the literature. The synthesized compounds can be used as green and red pigments with high thermal stability.

  5. 15 CFR 700.15 - Extension of priority ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Industrial Priorities § 700.15 Extension of priority ratings. (a...

  6. 15 CFR 700.20 - Use of priority ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Industrial Priorities for Energy Programs § 700.20 Use of...

  7. Peptide-Based Optical uPAR Imaging for Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Karina; Christensen, Anders; Persson, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Near infrared intra-operative optical imaging is an emerging technique with clear implications for improved cancer surgery by enabling a more distinct delineation of the tumor margins during resection. This modality has the potential to increase the number of patients having a curative radical...... tumor resection. In the present study, a new uPAR-targeted fluorescent probe was developed and the in vivo applicability was evaluated in a human xenograft mouse model. Most human carcinomas express high level of uPAR in the tumor-stromal interface of invasive lesions and uPAR is therefore considered...... an ideal target for intra-operative imaging. Conjugation of the flourophor indocyanine green (ICG) to the uPAR agonist (AE105) provides an optical imaging ligand with sufficiently high receptor affinity to allow for a specific receptor targeting in vivo. For in vivo testing, human glioblastoma xenograft...

  8. 22 CFR 208.700 - When may the suspending official issue a suspension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When may the suspending official issue a suspension? 208.700 Section 208.700 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE...) through (d); and (c) Immediate action is necessary to protect the public interest. ...

  9. Contribution to the study of corrosion of zirconium and zircaloy-2 in superheated steam at 400 deg C (105 kg /cm{sup 2}); Contribution a l'etude de la corrosion du zirconium et du zircaloy-2 dans la vapeur d'eau surchauffee a 400 deg C (105 kg /cm{sup 2})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coriou, H; Gauduchau, J; Grall, L; Hure, J; Pelras, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    The corrosion kinetics of zircaloy-2 in water and steam at temperatures between 300 deg. C and 400 deg. C are represented by a curve sharply divided into two stages separated by a so-called transition point. After a first period of decreasing corrosion rate there follows a second period with much faster kinetics in which the speed is constant. After carrying out a methodical study of the corrosion of 'zircaloy-2 in the form of sheets and tubes. We have demonstrated, at 400 deg. C in steam, a systematic anomaly which appears at the transition point. The curve presents three quite distinct points; after the first period a fast corrosion is observed, followed by a third period at a slower speed. This leads us to believe that there may be not a single point but a transition zone, separating two types of kinetic behaviour and corresponding to modifications in the properties of the oxide layer. After this readjustment period a new corrosion law is established, lasting a considerable time, the corrosion speed being slower than that indicated so far. A study of the morphology of the oxide films which develop under these conditions has demonstrated the special part played by mechanical, physical and metallurgical factors in the case of zirconium. Deep penetration of oxide can thus show up on the inner wall of hammer-hardened tubes. Simultaneously a very considerable hydride formation occurs in the metal. (author) [French] La cinetique de corrosion du zircaloy-2 dans l'eau et la vapeur a des temperatures comprises entre 300 et 400 deg. C est representee par une courbe a deux periodes separees par un point singulier appele point de transition. A une premiere periode a vitesse de corrosion decroissante, succede une deuxieme periode a cinetique beaucoup plus rapide dont la vitesse est constante. Apres une etude systematique de la corrosion du zircaloy-2 sous forme de toles et de tubes, nous avons mis en evidence a 400 deg. C, dans la vapeur, une anomalie systematique qui se

  10. 15 CFR 700.10 - Delegation of authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Industrial Priorities § 700.10 Delegation of authority. (a) The... respect to industrial resources have been delegated to the Secretary of Commerce under Executive Order...

  11. French 400 kV network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelissier, R

    1965-11-01

    A 400 kV transmission network has been constructed to carry hydroelectric power from the Alps and the Massif Central to Paris at peak hours and to carry power in the reverse direction in off-peak hours. A double circuit-ring at 400 kV encircling the Paris region is also nearing completion. Measures have to be taken to counter the very high short-circuit currents in such a network. A 730 kV network will eventually become necessary. The consequent multiplicity of transmission voltages will give rise to further problems. Collaboration with neighboring countries is envisaged. The problems of stability and synchronization posed by the new system are described and solutions suggested. The new circuit-breaking requirements are discussed, and details of tower design for 400 kV and 730 kV are given.

  12. 15 CFR 700.17 - Use of rated orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Industrial Priorities § 700.17 Use of rated orders. (a) A person...

  13. Dynamic Filament Formation by a Divergent Bacterial Actin-Like ParM Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Brzoska

    Full Text Available Actin-like proteins (Alps are a diverse family of proteins whose genes are abundant in the chromosomes and mobile genetic elements of many bacteria. The low-copy-number staphylococcal multiresistance plasmid pSK41 encodes ParM, an Alp involved in efficient plasmid partitioning. pSK41 ParM has previously been shown to form filaments in vitro that are structurally dissimilar to those formed by other bacterial Alps. The mechanistic implications of these differences are not known. In order to gain insights into the properties and behavior of the pSK41 ParM Alp in vivo, we reconstituted the parMRC system in the ectopic rod-shaped host, E. coli, which is larger and more genetically amenable than the native host, Staphylococcus aureus. Fluorescence microscopy showed a functional fusion protein, ParM-YFP, formed straight filaments in vivo when expressed in isolation. Strikingly, however, in the presence of ParR and parC, ParM-YFP adopted a dramatically different structure, instead forming axial curved filaments. Time-lapse imaging and selective photobleaching experiments revealed that, in the presence of all components of the parMRC system, ParM-YFP filaments were dynamic in nature. Finally, molecular dissection of the parMRC operon revealed that all components of the system are essential for the generation of dynamic filaments.

  14. Preparation of 1-pyrenebutyric acid and pyrene submicron dots by laser-induced molecular micro-jet implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pihosh, Y.; Goto, M.; Kasahara, A.; Tosa, M.

    2009-01-01

    Pyrene and 1-pyrenebuturic acid molecules were deposited on glass and copper substrates with the formation of submicron dots by laser-induced molecular micro-jet implantation through polar and non-polar liquid layers. The size of the smallest 1-pyrenebuturic acid molecules dots prepared on a glass substrate by implantation through water and diiodomethane was estimated to be about 400 nm and 300 nm at laser fluences of 235 J/cm 2 and 326 J/cm 2 , respectively. The fluorescence and the Raman spectra showed that the implanted 1-pyrenebutyric acid molecules did not decompose during the implantation process. The smallest size of a pyrene dot was 700 nm at the laser fluence of 378 J/cm 2 . However, the pyrene dots could be formed only by implantation through a water layer.

  15. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. 173.400 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.400 Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a...

  16. First (18)F-labeled ligand for PET imaging of uPAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; Liu, Hongguang; Madsen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is overexpressed in human prostate cancer and uPAR has been found to be associated with metastatic disease and poor prognosis. AE105 is a small linear peptide with high binding affinity to uPAR. We synthesized an N-terminal NOTA......-conjugated version (NOTA-AE105) for development of the first (18)F-labeled uPAR positron-emission-tomography PET ligand using the Al(18)F radiolabeling method. In this study, the potential of (18)F-AlF-NOTA-AE105 to specifically target uPAR-positive prostate tumors was investigated....

  17. 25 CFR 700.541 - Fraud or false statement in a Government matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud or false statement in a Government matter. 700.541... RELOCATION PROCEDURES Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.541 Fraud or false statement in a Government..., applications for employment, personnel security forms, requests for travel reimbursement, client certification...

  18. Narrative Identities and the Plebiscite in Pará: An Analysis of the Front Pages for O Liberal and Diário do Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alda Cristina Silva da Costa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available On December 11, 2011, a plebiscite was held in Pará proposing to create two separatist states, Carajás and Tapajós, out of the state of Pará. The public voted against both projects. This article analyzes the narrative identities found on the front pages of O Liberal and Diário do Pará newspapers about the plebiscite in Pará. Depth Hermeneutics (DH, as proposed by Thompson (2011, was used as the methodological reference. DH emphasizes the object of analysis as a meaningful symbolic construction requiring interpretation. Narrative analysis, as proposed by Motta (2007, was the main research technique used to highlight the movement of construction of journalistic (discursive characters. The narrative identities built by the two newspapers showed that both were against the creation of the new states, but for very different reasons. The flag of Pará was the main object used to induce the idea of unity. Em 11 de dezembro de 2011, o plebiscito no Pará propôs a criação dos estados de Carajás e de Tapajós a partir da divisão do estado do Pará. O resultado da consulta pública foi negativo aos dois projetos. O artigo analisa as identidades narrativas constituídas pelas primeiras páginas dos jornais O Liberal e Diário do Pará sobre o plebiscito no Pará. Utilizou-se como referencial metodológico a Hermenêutica em Profundidade (HP, proposta por Thompson (2011. A HP evidencia o fato de que o objeto de análise é uma construção simbólica significativa, que exige uma interpretação. Como principal técnica de pesquisa, a análise narrativa, proposta por Motta (2007, com ênfase no movimento de construção de personagens jornalísticas (discursivas. As identidades narrativas construídas pelos dois jornais indicaram que ambos eram contrários à criação dos novos estados, porém por motivos divergentes. A bandeira do Pará foi o principal elemento utilizado para evocar a ideia de unidade. En 11 de diciembre de 2011, el plebiscito en

  19. Limnological database for Par Pond: 1959 to 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilly, L.J.

    1981-03-01

    A limnological database for Par Pond, a cooling reservoir for hot reactor effluent water at the Savannah River Plant, is described. The data are derived from a combination of research and monitoring efforts on Par Pond since 1959. The approximately 24,000-byte database provides water quality, primary productivity, and flow data from a number of different stations, depths, and times during the 22-year history of the Par Pond impoundment. The data have been organized to permit an interpretation of the effects of twenty years of cooling system operations on the structure and function of an aquatic ecosystem

  20. Magneto-electroluminescence effects in the single-layer organic light-emitting devices with macrocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-T. Pham

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Magneto-electroluminescence (MEL effects are observed in single-layer organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs comprising only macrocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs. The fluorescence devices were prepared using synthesized MAHs, namely, [n]cyclo-meta-phenylene ([n]CMP, n = 5, 6. The MEL ratio of the resulting OLED is 1%–2% in the spectral wavelength range of 400-500 nm, whereas it becomes negative (−1.5% to −2% in the range from 650 to 700 nm. The possible physical origins of the sign change in the MEL are discussed. This wavelength-dependent sign change in the MEL ratio could be a unique function for future single-layer OLEDs capable of magnetic-field-induced color changes.

  1. Magneto-electroluminescence effects in the single-layer organic light-emitting devices with macrocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, S.-T.; Ikemoto, K.; Suzuki, K. Z.; Izumi, T.; Taka, H.; Kita, H.; Sato, S.; Isobe, H.; Mizukami, S.

    2018-02-01

    Magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) effects are observed in single-layer organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) comprising only macrocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs). The fluorescence devices were prepared using synthesized MAHs, namely, [n]cyclo-meta-phenylene ([n]CMP, n = 5, 6). The MEL ratio of the resulting OLED is 1%-2% in the spectral wavelength range of 400-500 nm, whereas it becomes negative (-1.5% to -2%) in the range from 650 to 700 nm. The possible physical origins of the sign change in the MEL are discussed. This wavelength-dependent sign change in the MEL ratio could be a unique function for future single-layer OLEDs capable of magnetic-field-induced color changes.

  2. One-Pot Silver Nanoring Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drogat Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Silver colloidal nanorings have been synthesized by reducing silver ions with NaBH4 in trisodium citrate buffers. pH increase, by addition of NaOH, was used to speed up reduction reaction. The UV–vis absorption spectra of resulting silver nanorings showed two peaks accounting for transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon resonance, at ≈400 nm, and between 600 and 700 nm, respectively. The shapes of these silver nanoparticles (nanorings depended on AgNO3/NaBH4 ratio, pH and reaction temperature. Particles were analysed by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. A reaction pathway is proposed to explain silver nanoring formation.

  3. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in acute care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line Jee Hartmann; Ladelund, Steen; Haupt, Thomas Huneck

    2016-01-01

    for age, sex, Charlson score and C reactive protein. Area under the curve for receiver operating characteristics curve analysis of suPAR for 30-day mortality was 0.84 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.86). Furthermore, in the entire cohort, women had slightly higher suPAR compared with men, and suPAR was associated...

  4. 48 CFR 3.700 - Scope of subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Voiding and Rescinding Contracts 3.700 Scope of... for bribery, conflict of interest, disclosure or receipt of contractor bid or proposal information or source selection information in exchange for a thing of value or to give anyone a competitive advantage...

  5. Influence of deposition temperature on the structural and morphological properties of Be{sub 3}N{sub 2} thin films grown by reactive laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chale-Lara, F., E-mail: fabio_chale@yahoo.com.mx [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Apartado Postal 2681, Ensenada, Baja California, C.P. 22860 (Mexico); Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 14, Ensenada CP 22860, Baja California (Mexico); Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-IPN, Unidad Altamira, Km. 14.5 Carretera Tampico-Puerto Industrial, Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Farias, M.H.; De la Cruz, W. [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 14, Ensenada CP 22860, Baja California (Mexico); Zapata-Torres, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, Del. Miguel Hidalgo, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-01

    Be{sub 3}N{sub 2} thin films have been grown on Si(1 1 1) substrates using the pulsed laser deposition method at different substrate temperatures: room temperature (RT), 200 deg. C, 400 deg. C, 600 deg. C and 700 deg. C. Additionally, two samples were deposited at RT and were annealed after deposition in situ at 600 deg. C and 700 deg. C. In order to obtain the stoichiometry of the samples, they have been characterized in situ by X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS). The influence of the substrate temperature on the morphological and structural properties of the films was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that all prepared films presented the Be{sub 3}N{sub 2} stoichiometry. Formation of whiskers with diameters of 100-200 nm appears at the surface of the films prepared with a substrate temperature of 600 deg. C or 700 deg. C. However, the samples grown at RT and annealed at 600 deg. C or 700 deg. C do not show whiskers on the surface. The average root mean square (RMS) roughness and the average grain size of the samples grown with respect the substrate temperature is presented. The films grown with a substrate temperature between the room temperature to 400 deg. C, and the sample annealed in situ at 600 deg. C were amorphous; while the {alpha}Be{sub 3}N{sub 2} phase was presented on the samples with a substrate temperature of 600 deg. C, 700 deg. C and that deposited with the substrate at RT and annealed in situ at 700 deg. C.

  6. Mathematical simulation of the amplification of 1790-nm laser radiation in a nuclear-excited He - Ar plasma containing nanoclusters of uranium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosarev, V. A.; Kuznetsova, E. E.

    2014-02-01

    The possibility of applying dusty active media in nuclearpumped lasers has been considered. The amplification of 1790-nm radiation in a nuclear-excited dusty He - Ar plasma is studied by mathematical simulation. The influence of nanoclusters on the component composition of the medium and the kinetics of the processes occurring in it is analysed using a specially developed kinetic model, including 72 components and more than 400 reactions. An analysis of the results indicates that amplification can in principle be implemented in an active laser He - Ar medium containing 10-nm nanoclusters of metallic uranium and uranium dioxide.

  7. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD Zone Operations and...

  8. 45 CFR 400.154 - Employability services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Employability assessment services, including aptitude and skills testing. (c) On-the job training, when such... driver education and training when provided as part of an individual employability plan. (f) Skills... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employability services. 400.154 Section 400.154...

  9. "Calibration" system for spectral measurements and its experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchkouskaya, Sviatlana I.; Katkovsky, Leonid V.; Belyaev, Boris I.; Malyshev, Vladislav B.

    2017-04-01

    "Calibration" system has been developed at A. N. Sevchenko Research Institute of Applied Physical Problems of the Belarusian State University. It was designed for measuring the characteristics of spectral reflectance of all types of natural surfaces (test sites) in ground conditions or on board of aircraft carriers and has the following components: - Photospectroradiometr (PhSR) of high resolution with a range of 400-900 nm, equipped with a digital time-lapse video system; - Two-channel modular spectroradiometer (TMS) with a range of 400-900 nm, designed for simultaneous measurements of reflected light brightness of the underlying surface and the incident radiation from the upper hemisphere; - Two portable spectroradiometers (PSR-700 and PSR-1300) with a spectral range 800-1500 nm; 1200-2500 nm; - Scanning solar spectropolarimeter (SSP-600) with a range of 350-950 nm for measurements of direct sunlight and scattered by the atmosphere at different angles; "Calibration" system provides spectral resolution of 5.2 nm in a range of 400-900 nm, 10 nm in a range of 800-1500 nm and 15 nm in a range of 1200-2500 nm. Measurements of the optical characteristics of solar radiation (for determining parameters of the atmosphere) and that of underlying surface are synchronous. There is also a set of special nozzles for measurements of spectral brightness coefficients, polarization characteristics and spectral albedo. Spectra and images are geotagged to the navigation data (time, GPS). For the measurements of spectral reflection dependencies within "Monitoring-SG" framework expeditions to the Kuril Islands, Kursk aerospace test site and Kamchatka Peninsula were conducted in 2015 and 2016. The spectra of different underlying surfaces have been obtained: soils, plants and water objects, sedimentary and volcanic rocks. These surveys are a valuable material for further researches and selection of test facilities for flight calibration of space imaging systems. Information obtained

  10. Intact and cleaved uPAR forms: diagnostic and prognostic value in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, M.G.; Lund, I.K.; Hoyer-Hansen, G.

    2008-01-01

    identified in tissue and body fluids. It is well-established, that the total amount of all uPAR forms is a strong prognostic marker in different types of cancer. Using immunoassays, measuring the individual uPAR forms, has revealed that the cleaved uPAR forms are even stronger prognostic markers and have...... diagnostic utility. This review will focus on the mechanism of uPAR cleavage and the functional consequences, as well as the clinical applicability of cleaved uPAR forms Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  11. S tudies on the phase transitions and properties of tungsten (VI oxide nanoparticles by X - Ray diffraction (XRD and thermal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Abdullah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten (VI oxide, WO3nanoparticles were synthesized by colloidal gas aphrons(CGAs technique.The resultant WO3nanoparticleswere characterized by thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA and X-Ray diffraction (XRD measurements in order to determine the phase transitions, the crystallinity and the size of theWO3nanoparticles. As a comparison, transmission electron microscope (TEM was used to investigate the size of the WO3nanoparticles. The result from XRD and DTA show that the formation of polymorphsWO3nanoparticles have the following sequence: orthorhombic (b-WO3®monoclinic (g-WO3 ®triclinic (d-WO3 ®monoclinic (e-WO3 with respect to the calcination temperature of 400, 500, 600 and 700°C. No diffraction peaks were found in the X-Ray diffraction measurements for the sample heat treated at 300°C (as-prepared, suggesting that an amorphous structure was obtained at this temperature whereas the crystallinity had been obtained by the other samples of theWO3nanoparticles at the calcination temperatures of 400, 500, 600 and 700°C. It is also found that the X-Ray diffraction measurements produced an average diameter of (30 ±5, (50 ±5, (150 ±10 and (200 ±10 nm at calcination temperatures of 400, 500, 600 and 700°C respectively by using Debye-Scherrer formula. The TG curve revealed that the WO3nanoparticles is purely anhydrous since the weight loss is insignificant (0.3 –1.4 % from 30 until 600°C for the WO3nanoparticles calcined at 400°C. Finally, the composition and the purity of the WO3nanoparticleshave been examined by X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. Theresults indicate no significant changes to the composition and the purity of the WO3nanoparticle produced due to the temperature variations

  12. Luminescent hybrid materials based on (8-hydroxyquinoline)-substituted metal-organic complexes and lead-borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Olga B.; Anurova, Maria O.; Akkuzina, Alina A.; Saifutyarov, Rasim R.; Ermolaeva, Ekaterina V.; Avetisov, Roman I.; Khomyakov, Andrew V.; Taydakov, Ilya V.; Avetissov, Igor Ch.

    2017-07-01

    Novel luminescent organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on 8-hydroxyquinoline metal complexes (Liq, Kq, Naq, Rbq, Mgq2, Srq2, Znq2, Scq3, Alq3, Gaq3, and Inq3) have been synthesized by a high temperature exchange reaction with 80PbF2-20B2O3 inorganic low-melting glass. The mechanical and optical properties, transmission spectra, emission an excitation photoluminescence, and luminescence kinetic of hybrid materials were studied. All hybrid materials showed a wide luminescence band in the range 400-700 nm.

  13. Interacción de la radiación electromagnética. Segregación espectral y espacial de cultivos frente a malas hierbas todos ellos pertenecientes al género Brassica.

    OpenAIRE

    Barreiro Elorza, Pilar; Ross, D.; Kennedy, D.; Glasbey, C.; Ruiz-Altisent, Margarita

    1998-01-01

    La interacción de la radiación electromagnética, denominada luz si abarca el rango visible por el ojo humano (400-700nm), da lugar a un espectro específico para cada objeto animado o inanimado. En el ámbito agrario, la reflectancia espectral de los productos agrícolas tanto en el rango visible como en el infrarrojo ha sido ampliamente estudiada (algunos ejemplos se encuentran recogidos en las referencias 1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 10 & II de la bibliografía).

  14. Polymers for organic photovoltaics based on 1,5-bis(2-hexyldecyloxy)-naphthalene, thiophene, and benzothiadiazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Jon Eggert; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Krebs, Frederik C

    2011-01-01

    Two new conjugated polymers consisting of the donors 1,5-bis(2-hexyldecyloxy)naphthalene, thiophene, or bithiophene and the acceptor benzothiadiazole has been synthesized and their optical and photovoltaic properties have been characterized. The two polymers were compared with earlier synthesized...... and characterized polymers containing benzene instead of naphthalene. The two polymers absorb light in the visible spectrum (400 to 700 nm). The naphthalene containing polymers had blueshifted absorption spectra compared to the benzene containing polymers and also higher band gaps. In photovoltaic devices...

  15. Three-dimensional studies of the 700 MWe steam generator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, B.; Pietralik, J.

    2006-01-01

    The next stage in the Indian nuclear power programme envisions building 700 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR) units. This involves up-rating of all the plant equipment including the reactor, steam generators (SGs), turbo-generator, major pumps, etc. The SG used in the current generation of 540 MWe IPHWRs, is a mushroom type, inverted U-tube, natural-circulation SG. The 700 MWe SG is of the same type and has the same tube bundle design and the same heat transfer area. The tube diameter, tube pitch, and outer diameter of the SG sections are the same as for the 540 MWe SG. The geometry of the feedwater header, the flow restrictor in the downcomer and the flow distribution plate are different in the two designs. The changes were required due to a 26% increase in steam flow rate while maintaining the same circulation ratio. This paper describes the design of the 700 MWe SG and a thermalhydraulic analysis using a one-dimensional, in-house code and a three-dimensional code called THIRST developed by AECL. The codes were validated against the 540 MWe SG data. The analysis was made for the 700 MWe SG for two versions: with and without integral preheater. The results of the THIRST runs were used for a flow-induced vibration analysis. The results of the flow-induced vibration analysis show that the vibrations are not excessive. (author)

  16. Effects of light and pressure on photosynthesis in two seagrasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, S.; Waisel, Y.

    1982-07-01

    Photosynthetic responses to light and pressure (up to 4 atm) were measured for two seagrass species abundant in the Gulf of Eilat (Red Sea). In Halophila stipulacea (Forssk.) Aschers. pressure had no effect on net photosynthetic rates. In both species, light saturation was reached at 300 ..mu..E (400-700 nm) m/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ and the compensation point was at 20-40 ..mu..E (499-700 nm) m/sup -2/ s/sup -1/. Comparing these results to in situ light measurements, neither species should be light limited to a depth of about 15 m, and Halophila stipulacea should reach compensation light intensities at about 50 m. The latter depth corresponds well to the natural depth penetration of this species. Halodule uninervis is never found deeper than 5 m in the Gulf of Eilat, and it appears that pressure rather than light is one of the factors limiting the depth penetration of this species. The differential pressure response of the two species may be related to aspects of leaf morphology and gas diffusion.

  17. Scale dependence of absorption of photosynthetically active radiation in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asner, G.P.; Wessman, C.A.; Archer, S.

    1998-01-01

    The fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by plant canopies (fAPAR) is a critical biophysical variable for extrapolating ecophysiological measurements from the leaf to landscape scale. Quantification of fAPAR determinants at the landscape level is needed to improve the interpretation of remote sensing data, to facilitate its use in constraining ecosystem process models, and to improve synoptic-scale links between carbon and nutrient cycles. Most canopy radiation budget studies have focused on light attenuation in plant canopies, with little regard for the importance of the scale-dependent biophysical and structural factors (e.g., leaf and stem optical properties, leaf and stem area, and extent of vegetation structural types) that ultimately determine fAPAR at canopy and landscape scales. Most studies have also assumed that nonphotosynthetic vegetation (litter and stems) contributes little to fAPAR. Using a combined field measurement and radiative transfer modeling approach, we quantified (a) the relative role of the leaf-, canopy-, and landscape-level factors that determine fAPAR in terrestrial ecosystems and (b) the magnitude of PAR absorption by grass litter and woody plant stems. Variability in full spectral-range (400–2500 nm) reflectance/transmittance and PAR (400700 nm) absorption at the level of individual leaf, stem, and litter samples was quantified for a wide array of broadleaf arborescent and grass species along a 900-km north–south Texas savanna transect. Among woody growth forms, leaf reflectance and transmittance spectra were statistically comparable between populations, species within a genus, and functional types (deciduous vs. evergreen, legume vs. nonlegume). Within the grass life-form, spectral properties were statistically comparable between species and C 3 /C 4 physiologies. We found that tissue-level PAR absorption among species, genera, functional groups, and growth forms and between climatologically diverse regions

  18. Novel bluish white-emitting CdBaP{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor for near-UV white-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derbel, Mouna [Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, National School of Engineers of Sfax, University of Sfax, BPW 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Mbarek, Aïcha, E-mail: mbarekaicha@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, National School of Engineers of Sfax, University of Sfax, BPW 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Chadeyron, Geneviève [Clermont Université, ENSCCF, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Fourati, Mohieddine [Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, National School of Engineers of Sfax, University of Sfax, BPW 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Zambon, Daniel [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Mahiou, Rachid [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6296, ICCF, BP 80026, F-63171 Aubiere (France)

    2016-08-15

    A new bluish white-emitting phosphor based on a phosphate host matrix, CdBaP{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Eu{sup 2+}, was prepared by a conventional solid-state reaction method. The photoluminescence properties were investigated in both ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) regions. The band-gaps of Eu-doped CdBaP{sub 2}O{sub 7} powders can be tuned in the ranges of 2.26–2 eV. The Eu{sup 2+}-doped CdBaP{sub 2}O{sub 7} phosphor was efficiently excited at wavelengths of 250–400 nm, which is suitable for the blue emission band for near-UV light-emitting-diode (LED) chips (360–400 nm) and red emission peaks up to 700 nm. CdBaP{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Eu{sup 2+} displays two different luminescence centers, which were suggested to Ba{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} sites in the host. The dependence of luminescence intensity on temperatures was measured. The chromaticity coordinates and activation energy for thermal quenching were reported. The phosphor shows a good thermal stability on temperature quenching.

  19. A Bipolar Spindle of Antiparallel ParM Filaments Drives Bacterial Plasmid Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gayathri, P; Fujii, T; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    the spindle between ParRC complexes on sister plasmids. Using a combination of structural work and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we show that ParRC bound and could accelerate growth at only one end of polar ParM filaments, mechanistically resembling eukaryotic formins. The architecture...... of ParM filaments enabled two ParRC-bound filaments to associate in an antiparallel orientation, forming a bipolar spindle. The spindle elongated as a bundle of at least two antiparallel filaments, thereby pushing two plasmid clusters toward the poles....

  20. 49 CFR 179.400-11 - Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding. 179.400-11 Section 179.400-11...-11 Welding. (a) Except for closure of openings and a maximum of two circumferential closing joints in... subchapter). (d) Each welding procedure, welder, and fabricator must be approved. [Amdt. 179-32, 48 FR 27708...

  1. PAR-2 expression in the gingival crevicular fluid reflects chronic periodontitis severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique FUKUSHIMA

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent studies investigating protease-activated receptor type 2 (PAR-2 suggest an association between the receptor and periodontal inflammation. It is known that gingipain, a bacterial protease secreted by the important periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis can activate PAR-2. Previous studies by our group found that PAR-2 is overexpressed in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of patients with moderate chronic periodontitis (MP. The present study aimed at evaluating whether PAR-2 expression is associated with chronic periodontitis severity. GCF samples and clinical parameters, including plaque and bleeding on probing indices, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level, were collected from the control group (n = 19 at baseline, and from MP patients (n = 19 and severe chronic periodontitis (SP (n = 19 patients before and 6 weeks after periodontal non-surgical treatment. PAR-2 and gingipain messenger RNA (mRNA in the GCF of 4 periodontal sites per patient were evaluated by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR. PAR-2 and gingipain expressions were greater in periodontitis patients than in control group patients. In addition, the SP group presented increased PAR-2 and gingipain mRNA levels, compared with the MP group. Furthermore, periodontal treatment significantly reduced (p <0.05 PAR-2 expression in patients with periodontitis. In conclusion, PAR-2 is associated with chronic periodontitis severity and with gingipain levels in the periodontal pocket, thus suggesting that PAR-2 expression in the GCF reflects the severity of destruction during periodontal infection.

  2. Structures of actin-like ParM filaments show architecture of plasmid-segregating spindles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharat, Tanmay A M; Murshudov, Garib N; Sachse, Carsten; Löwe, Jan

    2015-07-02

    Active segregation of Escherichia coli low-copy-number plasmid R1 involves formation of a bipolar spindle made of left-handed double-helical actin-like ParM filaments. ParR links the filaments with centromeric parC plasmid DNA, while facilitating the addition of subunits to ParM filaments. Growing ParMRC spindles push sister plasmids to the cell poles. Here, using modern electron cryomicroscopy methods, we investigate the structures and arrangements of ParM filaments in vitro and in cells, revealing at near-atomic resolution how subunits and filaments come together to produce the simplest known mitotic machinery. To understand the mechanism of dynamic instability, we determine structures of ParM filaments in different nucleotide states. The structure of filaments bound to the ATP analogue AMPPNP is determined at 4.3 Å resolution and refined. The ParM filament structure shows strong longitudinal interfaces and weaker lateral interactions. Also using electron cryomicroscopy, we reconstruct ParM doublets forming antiparallel spindles. Finally, with whole-cell electron cryotomography, we show that doublets are abundant in bacterial cells containing low-copy-number plasmids with the ParMRC locus, leading to an asynchronous model of R1 plasmid segregation.

  3. ECHAUFFEMENT ET EVOLUTION STRUCTURALE D’UN ACIER XC 42 LORS D’UN ESSAI DE TORSION A 700 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R BENSAHA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail a pour but de montrer qu'il est possible d’apprécier la température et de développer un modèle simple de calcul de la recrudescence de la température en cours de déformation pour un acier XC 42 à une température d'essai  de 700°C et pour deux vitesses de déformation généralisées différentes de 5s-1 et 30s-1.                 Cette étude prend en considération, d'une part l'enthalpie  du changement de phase a®g  qui se libère au cours de la déformation dans l'intervalle de température A1-A3, et d'autre part, des mécanismes thermiquement activées (restauration et recristallisation dynamique mis en jeu lors de la déformation du matériau. Comme nos essais étaient pratiqués à la température de 700°C, proche de celle du point de transformation A1, les structures obtenues après trempe rapide montrent bien que pendant la déformation le matériau a subi la transformation de phase a®g, provoquée par l'auto échauffement de l'acier XC42. Le degré d'austénitisation est donc fonction de l'auto échauffement du matériau qui, à grande vitesse de déformation (227°C, est plus important qu'à faible vitesse (142°C.

  4. 22 CFR 146.400 - Education programs or activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.400 Education programs or activities... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Education programs or activities. 146.400 Section 146.400 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX...

  5. Par and IR reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance of four crop canopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanjura, D.F.; Hatfield, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Reflectance, transmittance and absorptance of electromagnetic radiation by cotton, soybeans, grain sorghum, and sunflower was measured at three growth stages in two wavebands (PAR: 0.4 to 0.7 pun and IR: 0.7 to 1.1 yim). As leaf area increased in each crop there were increases in IR reflectance and PAR absorptance and decreases in PAR reflectance and both PAR and IR transmittance. IR radiation was concentrated at the soil surface between rows by reflectance from the sides of canopies when crop cover was less than 80%. Across all crops one parameter, leaf overlap index, explained 81 and 71% of the PAR reflectance and another, crop cover, explained 86 and 94% of IR reflectance from rows and interrows, respectively. Attenuation of PAR radiation through the canopies of cotton and sunflower was similar (K = 0.62 and 0.67) but different from that of soybeans and grain sorghum (K = 0.46 and 0.43) which were the same

  6. Épidémiologie de l'intoxication par envenimation chez les enfants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: L'intoxication par envenimation est l'ensemble des manifestations locales et générales induites par la pénétration dans l'organisme d'une substance toxique produite par un animal venimeux. Le but de notre travail était d'étudier les signes cliniques des intoxications par envenimation chez les enfants de 0 à 15 ...

  7. Thermally stable dexsil-400 glass capillary columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Olerich, G.

    1980-01-01

    The factors affecting efficiency, thermal stability, and reproducibility of Dexsil-400 glass capillary columns for gas chromatography in general, and for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particular were investigated. Columns were drawn from Kimble KG-6 (soda-lime) glass or Kimox (borosilicate) glass. All silylation was carried out at 200 0 C. Columns were coated according to the static method. Freshly prepared, degassed solutions of Dexsil-400 in pentane or methylene chloride were used. Thermal stability of the Dexsil 400 columns with respect to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were tested. Column-to-column variability is a function of each step in the fabrication of the columns. The degree of etching, extent of silylation, and stationary phase film thickness must be carefully controlled. The variability in two Dexsil-400 capillary column prepared by etching, silylation with solution of hexa methyl disilazone (HMDS), and static coating is shown and also indicates the excellent selectivity of Dexsil-400 for the separation of alkylated aromatic compounds. The wide temperature range of Dexsil-400 and the high efficiency of the capillary columns also allow the analysis of complex mixtures with minimal prefractionation. Direct injection of a coal liquefaction product is given. Analysis by GC/MS indicated the presence of parent PAHs, alkylated PAHs, nitrogen and sulfur heterocycles, and their alkylated derivatives. 4 figures

  8. 24 CFR 700.120 - Eligible supportive services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section 802(k)(16) and in section 700.105. (c) Meal services shall meet the following guidelines: (1) Type... requirements of conditions such as diabetes and hypertension. Grantees should attempt to meet the dietary needs... minimum daily dietary allowances as established by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of...

  9. PARs for combustible gas control in advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosler, J.; Sliter, G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress being made in the United States to introduce passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) technology as a cost-effective alternative to electric recombiners for controlling combustible gas produced in postulated accidents in both future Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) and certain U. S. operating nuclear plants. PARs catalytically recombine hydrogen and oxygen, gradually producing heat and water vapor. They have no moving parts and are self-starting and self-feeding, even under relatively cold and wet containment conditions. Buoyancy of the hot gases they create sets up natural convective flow that promotes mixing of combustible gases in a containment. In a non-inerted ALWR containment, two approaches each employing a combination of PARs and igniters are being considered to control hydrogen in design basis and severe accidents. In pre-inerted ALWRs, PARs alone control radiolytic oxygen produced in either accident type. The paper also discusses regulatory feedback regarding these combustible gas control approaches and describes a test program being conducted by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Electricite de France (EdF) to supplement the existing PAR test database with performance data under conditions of interest to U.S. plants. Preliminary findings from the EPRI/EdF PAR model test program are included. Successful completion of this test program and confirmatory tests being sponsored by the U. S. NRC are expected to pave the way for use of PARs in ALWRs and operating plants. (author)

  10. Brulure par Plaque de Bistouri Electrique: a Propos de Quatre Cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khales, A.; Achbouk, A.; Belmir, R.; Cherkab, L.; Ennouhi, M.A.; Ababou, K.; Ihrai, H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary La brûlure par plaque de bistouri électrique est un accident rare mais grave par la profondeur de la lésion et par sa localisation, surtout quand qu’elle survient dans un contexte chirurgical dont le vécu reste difficile de la part du malade et du chirurgien. Cette brûlure bien que imprévisible reste grave par la profondeur et la localisation de la brûlure et par sa survenue dans un contexte opératoire, chez des patients malades. La prise en charge de la brûlure doit se faire en milieu spécialisé. La prévention reste le seul moyen d’éviter ce type d’accident. PMID:21991216

  11. 12 CFR 1805.700 - Evaluation and selection-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 1805.700 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Evaluation and Selection of Applications... Applicants that vary by institution type, total asset size, stage of organizational development, markets...

  12. 7 CFR 400.710 - Preemption and premium taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preemption and premium taxation. 400.710 Section 400... of Policies and Rates of Premium § 400.710 Preemption and premium taxation. A policy or plan of insurance that is approved by the Board for FCIC reinsurance is preempted from state and local taxation. ...

  13. HIF evaluation of In-Situ Aqua TROLL 400

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Evan F.

    2017-10-18

    The In-Situ Aqua TROLL 400 (Aqua TROLL 400) was tested at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF) against known standards over the Aqua TROLL 400’s operating temperature to verify the manufacturer’s stated accuracy specifications and the USGS recommendations for pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and specific conductance (SC). The Aqua TROLL 400 manufacturer’s specifications are within the USGS recommendations for all parameters tested, except for DO, which is outside the USGS recommendation at DO concentrations of 8.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L) and higher. The Aqua TROLL 400 was compliant with Serial Digital Interface at 1200 baud (SDI-12) version 1.3. During laboratory testing of pH, the Aqua TROLL 400 sonde met the U.S. Geological Survey “National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data” (NFM) recommendations for pH at all values tested, except at 4 degrees Celsius (°C) at pH 9.395 and pH 3.998. The Aqua TROLL 400 met the manufacturer specifications for pH at all values tested, except for pH buffers 3.998, 9.395, and 10.245 at 4 °C; pH 2.990 and 3.998 at 15 °C; and pH 3.040 at 40 °C. The Aqua TROLL 400 met the NFM recommendations at 93.7 percent of the SC values tested and met the manufacturer’s accuracy specifications at 56.3 percent of the SC values tested. During the laboratory testing for DO, the Aqua TROLL 400 met the manufacturer specifications, except at 5.55 mg/L, and met the NFM recommendations at all concentrations tested. An Aqua TROLL 400 was field tested at USGS Station 02492620, National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL) Station, Mississippi, on the Pearl River for 6 weeks and showed good agreement with the well-maintained site sonde data for pH, DO, temperature, and SC.

  14. Mechanical properties of modified low cobalt powder metallurgy Udimet 700 type alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harf, Fredric H.

    1989-01-01

    Eight superalloys derived from Udimet 700 were prepared by powder metallurgy, hot isostatically pressed, heat treated and their tensile and creep rupture properties determined. Several of these alloys displayed properties superior to those of Udimet 700 similarly prepared, in one case exceeding the creep rupture life tenfold. Filter clogging by extracted gamma prime, its measurement and significance are discussed in an appendix.

  15. Elusloom lennukiga puhkusele / Inge Parring

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Parring, Inge

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 1. okt. lk. 13. Air Cargo Estonia/ACE Logisticsi müügijuht Inge Parring tutvustab elusloomade transpordivõimalusi. Vt. samas: Loomade transportimiseks vajalikud dokumendid

  16. Aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films grown on various substrates using facing target sputtering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwa-Min; Lee, Chang Hyun; Shon, Sun Young; Kim, Bong Hwan

    2017-11-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films were fabricated on various substrates, such as glass, polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), at room temperature using a facing target sputtering (FTS) system with hetero ZnO and Al2O3 targets, and their electrical and optical properties were investigated. The AZO film on glass exhibited compressive stress while the films on the plastic substrates showed tensile stress. These stresses negatively affected the crystalline quality of the AZO films, and it is suggested that the poor crystalline quality of the films may be related to the neutral Al-based defect complexes formed in the films; these complexes act as neutral impurity scattering centers. AZO films with good optoelectronic properties could be formed on the glass and plastic substrates by the FTS technique using the hetero targets. The AZO films deposited on the glass, PEN, and PET substrates showed very low resistivities, of 5.0 × 10-4 Ω cm, 7.0 × 10-4 Ω cm, and 7.4 × 10-4 Ω cm, respectively. Further, the figure merit of the AZO film formed on the PEN substrate in the visible range (400-700 nm) was significantly higher than that of the AZO film on PET and similar to that of the AZO film on glass. Finally, the average transmittances of the films in the visible range (400-700 nm) were 83.16% (on glass), 76.3% (on PEN), and 78.16% (on PET).

  17. Visible light induced changes in the immune response through an eye-brain mechanism (photoneuroimmunology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J E

    1995-07-01

    The immune system is susceptible to a variety of stresses. Recent work in neuroimmunology has begun to define how mood alteration, stress, the seasons, and daily rhythms can have a profound effect on immune response through hormonal modifications. Central to these factors may be light through an eye-brain hormonal modulation. In adult primates, only visible light (400-700 nm) is received by the retina. This photic energy is then transduced and delivered to the visual cortex and by an alternative pathway to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The SCN is a part of the hypothalamic region in the brain believed to direct circadian rhythm. Visible light exposure also modulates the pituitary and pineal gland which leads to neuroendocrine changes. Melatonin, norepinephrine and acetylcholine decrease with light activation, while cortisol, serotonin, gaba and dopamine levels increase. The synthesis of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in rat SCN has been shown to be modified by light. These induced neuroendocrine changes can lead to alterations in mood and circadian rhythm. All of these neuroendocrine changes can lead to immune modulation. An alternative pathway for immune modulation by light is through the skin. Visible light (400-700 nm) can penetrate epidermal and dermal layers of the skin and may directly interact with circulating lymphocytes to modulate immune function. However, even in the presence of phototoxic agents such as eosin and rose bengal, visible light did not produce suppression of contact hypersensitivity with suppresser cells. In contrast to visible light, in vivo exposure to UV-B (280-320 nm) and UV-A (320-400 nm) radiation can only alter normal human immune function by a skin mediated response. Each UV subgroup (B, A) induces an immunosuppressive response but by differing mechanisms involving the regulation of differing interleukins and growth factors. Some effects observed in humans are

  18. suPAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of biomarkers that can promptly predict unfavourable outcome of critically illness is an emerging necessity taking into consideration the need for early intervention, the shortage of available beds in intensive care units and the considerable cost of hospitalisation. The most...... promising biomarker is soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR). Three studies in large populations of critically ill patients and patients admitted to the emergency department have shown that concentrations >12ng/mL can safely predict unfavourable outcome. This review presents...

  19. Urine suPAR levels compared with plasma suPAR levels as predictors of post-consultation mortality risk among individuals assumed to be TB-negative: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabna, Paulo; Andersen, Andreas; Wejse, Christian

    2010-01-01

    -suPAR was measured using a commercial ELISA (suPARnostic®). We found that U-suPAR carried significant prognostic information on mortality for HIV-infected subjects with an area under the ROC curve of 0.75. For HIV-negative individuals, little or no prognostic effect was observed. However, in both HIV positives...... and negatives, the predictive effect of U-suPAR was found to be inferior to that of P-suPAR....

  20. Brésil : La contamination par le mercure en Amazonie | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    11 janv. 2011 ... En tentant de déceler la source de la contamination de l'Amazone par le ... par Jean-Rémy Davy Guimaraes de l'Université fédérale de Rio de Janeiro ... ces mattes est circonscrite par la conservation et la restauration en rive.

  1. Développement de procédés de gravure plasma innovants pour les technologies sub-14 nm par couplage de la lithographie conventionnelle avec l'approche auto-alignée par copolymère à blocs

    OpenAIRE

    Bézard , Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Shrinking transistor’s dimensions below 14 nm is so expensive that lower-cost complementary techniquessuch as Directed Self-Assembly (DSA) combined with 193 nm-lithography are currently beingdeveloped. Either organized as trenches for the FinFET’s fin or vertical cylinders for contact holes(which is our case study), Polystyrene-b-polymethylmetacrylate (PS-b-PMMA) is a well-studied blockcopolymer but introduces challenging etching issues due to the chemical similarities between the PS andPMMA ...

  2. 45 CFR 400.83 - Mediation and fair hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mediation and fair hearings. 400.83 Section 400.83... Employment § 400.83 Mediation and fair hearings. (a) Mediation—(1) Public/private RCA program. The State must ensure that a mediation period prior to imposition of sanctions is provided to refugees by local...

  3. Síntese de MgAl2O4 por combustão assistida por micro-ondas: influência dos parâmetros de síntese na formação e na estrutura cristalina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. B. A. Medeiros

    Full Text Available Resumo Nos últimos anos a técnica de combustão assistida por micro-ondas vem recebendo uma atenção especial, por ser uma técnica rápida, de baixo custo e de fácil manuseio, que permite obter materiais com boa homogeneidade química. O aluminato de magnésio (MgAl2O4 é um dos mais bem conhecidos materiais cerâmicos devido às suas excelentes propriedades, como alto ponto de fusão, elevada resistência mecânica em altas temperaturas, boa resistência ao choque térmico e resistência a ácidos e bases. O propósito deste trabalho é avaliar a influência da razão combustível/oxidante (Rco, temperatura de calcinação (Tcal e da potência do micro-ondas (Pmic na formação e na estrutura cristalina do MgAl2O4. Para realizar a reação de combustão foram utilizadas três potências (450, 675 e 900 W e três razões combustível/oxidante (0,8:1, 1:1 e 1,2:1. O material foi calcinado em três temperaturas (700, 800 e 900 ºC e foram realizadas análises de difração de raios X e microscopia eletrônica por varredura. Um planejamento fatorial 23 foi utilizado para avaliar a influência da Rco, Tcal e Pmic nos parâmetros como a cristalinidade e o tamanho de cristalito. Os resultados mostram que para os MgAl2O4 sintetizados com Rco maiores que 1:1 e Pmic menores que 675 W são obtidos tamanhos de cristalito entre 10 e 20 nm quando calcinados a 700 e 800 ºC. Com relação ao grau de cristalinidade, somente a Tcal exerce uma influência significativa.

  4. Power scaling of laser diode pumped Pr3+:LiYF4 cw lasers: efficient laser operation at 522.6 nm, 545.9 nm, 607.2 nm, and 639.5 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gün, Teoman; Metz, Philip; Huber, Günter

    2011-03-15

    We report efficient cw laser operation of laser diode pumped Pr(3+)-doped LiYF4 crystals in the visible spectral region. Using two InGaN laser diodes emitting at λ(P)=443.9 nm with maximum output power of 1 W each and a 2.9-mm-long crystal with a doping concentration of 0.5%, output powers of 938 mW, 418 mW, 384 mW, and 773 mW were achieved for the laser wavelengths 639.5 nm, 607.2 nm, 545.9 nm, and 522.6 nm, respectively. The maximum absorbed pump powers were approximately 1.5 W, resulting in slope efficiencies of 63.6%, 32.0%, 52.1%, and 61.5%, as well as electro-optical efficiencies of 9.4%, 4.2%, 3.8%, and 7.7%, respectively. Within these experiments, laser diode-pumped laser action at 545.9 nm was demonstrated for what is believed to be the first time.

  5. 15 CFR 700.12 - Elements of a rated order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Industrial Priorities § 700.12 Elements of a rated order. Each...

  6. 7 CFR 400.306 - Spouses and minor children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spouses and minor children. 400.306 Section 400.306... Regulations for the 1991 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.306 Spouses and minor children. (a) The spouse and minor children of an individual are considered to be the same as the individual for purposes of this...

  7. New apparatus with high radiation energy between 320 to 460 nm: physical description and dermatological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutzhas, M.F.; Holzle, E.; Hofmann, C.; Plewig, G.

    1981-01-01

    A new apparatus (UVASUN 5000) is presented with high radiation energy between 320 to 460 nm. The radiator is a specially developed source for high uv-A intensity, housing a quartz bulb with a mixture of argon, mercury and metal-halides. The uv-A energy in the range of 320 to 400 nm is about 84% of the total radiation energy. Effects of very high doses of uv-A on human skin were studied. Following single uv-A applications the minimal tanning dose uv-A (MTD) and the immediate pigment darkening (IPD) dose of uv-A were established. Repeated exposure to this uv-A delivering system yields long lasting dark brown skin pigmentation without any clinical or histological signs of sunburn (uv-B) damage, epidermal hyperplasia or thickening of the stratum corneum. Minimal therapeutic results were seen in the phototherapy of vitiligo and inflammatory acne

  8. Combined effects of blue light and supplemental far-red light and effects of increasing red light with constant far-red light on growth of kidney bean [Phaseolus vulgaris] under mixtures of narrow-band light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, H.; Shoji, K.

    2000-01-01

    Increasing blue light and decreasing R: FR with supplementary far-red light affect morphogenesis, dry matter production and dry matter partitioning to leaves, stems and roots. In this study, the combined effects of the two spectral treatments were examined in kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown under the mixture of four different narrow-band light sources. In addition, because the leaf and stem growth are accelerated by increasing red light (600-700 nm) in proportion to far-red light (700-800 nm) while keeping R : FR constant, this study was conducted to determine whether red light or far-red light causes the acceleration of growth. Increasing blue light (400-500 nm) and decreasing R : FR only interacted on stem extension. The results illustrated with figures suggest that blue light amplifies or attenuates the acceleration of stem extension caused by decreasing R : FR. On the other hand, increasing red light with constant far-red light had no influence on leaf expansion or stem extension while R : FR increased. Because the acceleration of leaf and stem growth is caused by increasing either far-red light or both red and far-red light in our environmental conditions, the stimulative effects on leaves and stems seem to require increases in far-red light rather than red light

  9. Electron microscope study of vacancy clusters produced by quenching in magnesium; Etude par microscopie electronique des amas de lacunes crees par trempe dans le magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, V; Espinasse, J; Mairy, C; Hillairet, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Vacancy clustering in quenched magnesium has been studied by transmission electron microscopy. The nature of the vacancy loops observed, seems to depend essentially on the impurity content of the metal; this effect can be attributed to a variation of the stacking fault energy of magnesium due to impurities. (authors) [French] On a etudie par microscopie electronique en transmission les defauts crees par trempe dans le magnesium. Un effet considerable des impuretes du metal sur la nature des boucles obtenues par condensation de lacunes a ete mis en evidence; cet effet semble s'expliquer de facon satisfaisante par un abaissement de l'energie de faute d'empilement du magnesium du aux impuretes. (auteur)

  10. The Processing of Causal and Hierarchical Relations in Semantic Memory as Revealed by N400 and Frontal Negativity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuling Liang

    Full Text Available Most current studies investigating semantic memory have focused on associative (ring-emerald or taxonomic relations (bird-sparrow. Little is known about the question of how causal relations (virus-epidemic are stored and accessed in semantic memory. The goal of this study was to examine the processing of causally related, general associatively related and hierarchically related word pairs when participants were required to evaluate whether pairs of words were related in any way. The ERP data showed that the N400 amplitude (200-500 ms elicited by unrelated related words was more negative than all related words. Furthermore, the late frontal distributed negativity (500-700 ms elicited by causally related words was smaller than hierarchically related words, but not for general associated words. These results suggested the processing of causal relations and hierarchical relations in semantic memory recruited different degrees of cognitive resources, especially for role binding.

  11. ParABS Systems of the Four Replicons of Burkholderia cenocepacia: New Chromosome Centromeres Confer Partition Specificity†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubarry, Nelly; Pasta, Franck; Lane, David

    2006-01-01

    Most bacterial chromosomes carry an analogue of the parABS systems that govern plasmid partition, but their role in chromosome partition is ambiguous. parABS systems might be particularly important for orderly segregation of multipartite genomes, where their role may thus be easier to evaluate. We have characterized parABS systems in Burkholderia cenocepacia, whose genome comprises three chromosomes and one low-copy-number plasmid. A single parAB locus and a set of ParB-binding (parS) centromere sites are located near the origin of each replicon. ParA and ParB of the longest chromosome are phylogenetically similar to analogues in other multichromosome and monochromosome bacteria but are distinct from those of smaller chromosomes. The latter form subgroups that correspond to the taxa of their hosts, indicating evolution from plasmids. The parS sites on the smaller chromosomes and the plasmid are similar to the “universal” parS of the main chromosome but with a sequence specific to their replicon. In an Escherichia coli plasmid stabilization test, each parAB exhibits partition activity only with the parS of its own replicon. Hence, parABS function is based on the independent partition of individual chromosomes rather than on a single communal system or network of interacting systems. Stabilization by the smaller chromosome and plasmid systems was enhanced by mutation of parS sites and a promoter internal to their parAB operons, suggesting autoregulatory mechanisms. The small chromosome ParBs were found to silence transcription, a property relevant to autoregulation. PMID:16452432

  12. 25 CFR 700.241 - Request for records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... which the requester is willing to pay. Requesters are notified that under § 700.251, the failure to..., both on the envelope and on the face of the request, with the legend “FREEDOM OF INFORMATION REQUEST.” The failure of a request to bear such a legend will not disqualify a request from processing under the...

  13. 24 CFR 700.150 - Program participant fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... receiving more than one meal per day, seven days per week, shall be reasonable and shall equal between 10... 700.145(a). Each program participant shall pay CHSP fees as stated in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this... paragraph (d)(1) of this section shall be in an amount equal to 10 percent of the adjusted income of the...

  14. COSMO OIL is the series station of 700 store reduction; Kosumo, keiretsu kyuyujo 700 ten sakugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    Past petroleum each sale company accelerates the reduction of the franchise gas station. 700 stores in which COSMO OIL corresponds to whole 11% further than the end the preceding fiscal year including the transfer to other company by the 99 fiscal year end are reduced. In this other, Idemitsu Kosan also reduces 600 stores which correspond to whole 9%. As the profit deteriorates in prolonging sale competition, and as the unprofitability store can not be maintained, be. (translated by NEDO)

  15. 45 CFR 2516.700 - What matching funds are required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Funding Requirements § 2516.700 What matching funds... for that share through State sources, local sources, or Federal sources (other than funds made...

  16. PAR-2 expression in the gingival crevicular fluid reflects chronic periodontitis severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Henrique; Alves, Vanessa Tubero Euzebio; Carvalho, Verônica Franco de; Ambrósio, Lucas Macedo Batitucci; Eichler, Rosangela Aparecida Dos Santos; Carvalho, Maria Helena Catelli de; Saraiva, Luciana; Holzhausen, Marinella

    2017-01-26

    Recent studies investigating protease-activated receptor type 2 (PAR-2) suggest an association between the receptor and periodontal inflammation. It is known that gingipain, a bacterial protease secreted by the important periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis can activate PAR-2. Previous studies by our group found that PAR-2 is overexpressed in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with moderate chronic periodontitis (MP). The present study aimed at evaluating whether PAR-2 expression is associated with chronic periodontitis severity. GCF samples and clinical parameters, including plaque and bleeding on probing indices, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level, were collected from the control group (n = 19) at baseline, and from MP patients (n = 19) and severe chronic periodontitis (SP) (n = 19) patients before and 6 weeks after periodontal non-surgical treatment. PAR-2 and gingipain messenger RNA (mRNA) in the GCF of 4 periodontal sites per patient were evaluated by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR). PAR-2 and gingipain expressions were greater in periodontitis patients than in control group patients. In addition, the SP group presented increased PAR-2 and gingipain mRNA levels, compared with the MP group. Furthermore, periodontal treatment significantly reduced (p periodontitis. In conclusion, PAR-2 is associated with chronic periodontitis severity and with gingipain levels in the periodontal pocket, thus suggesting that PAR-2 expression in the GCF reflects the severity of destruction during periodontal infection.

  17. Low band gap polymers based on 1,4-dialkoxybenzene, thiophene, bithiophene donors and the benzothiadiazole acceptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Jon Eggert; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    Four new copolymers of 1,4-dialkoxybenzene, thiophene, bithiophene and benzothiadiazole have been prepared and investigated for optical properties and in photovoltaic devices. The structures were chosen to show the effect of successively introducing an acceptor moiety, longer alkoxy side chains...... and finally, substituting thiophene for bithiophene. The absorption spectra and IPCE showed that these are low band gap polymers that can harvest light in the visible spectrum (400 to 700 nm) and that photoelectrons are generated in the whole range. The photovoltaic devices produced short circuit current...

  18. Influence of the reactor irradiation on the radiation-optical features of the PbWO4:La scintillation crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashurov, M.Kh.; Ismoilov, Sh.Kh.; Khatamov, K.; Gasanov, Eh.M.; Rustamov, I.R.

    2001-01-01

    Within an International LHC project the lead tungstates (PbWO 4 ) scintillation crystals radiation stability activated by La ions was carried out. In the 400-700 nm length range the transmission spectra were measured on the different parts of the standard PbWO 4 :La crystals. The spectra were measured before and after irradiation by both fast neutrons and γ-radiation. On the base of obtained data the contribution of γ-quanta and neutrons in the radiation-induced losses value of optical radiation in the active media of the electromagnetic colorimeter was estimated

  19. What determines the complex kinetics of stomatal conductance under blueless PAR in Festuca arundinacea? Subsequent effects on leaf transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillot, Romain; Frak, Ela; Combes, Didier; Durand, Jean-Louis; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J

    2010-06-01

    Light quality and, in particular, its content of blue light is involved in plant functioning and morphogenesis. Blue light variation frequently occurs within a stand as shaded zones are characterized by a simultaneous decrease of PAR and blue light levels which both affect plant functioning, for example, gas exchange. However, little is known about the effects of low blue light itself on gas exchange. The aims of the present study were (i) to characterize stomatal behaviour in Festuca arundinacea leaves through leaf gas exchange measurements in response to a sudden reduction in blue light, and (ii) to test the putative role of Ci on blue light gas exchange responses. An infrared gas analyser (IRGA) was used with light transmission filters to study stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration (Tr), assimilation (A), and intercellular concentration of CO(2) (Ci) responses to blueless PAR (1.80 mumol m(-2) s(-1)). The results were compared with those obtained under a neutral filter supplying a similar photosynthetic efficiency to the blueless PAR filter. It was shown that the reduction of blue light triggered a drastic and instantaneous decrease of gs by 43.2% and of Tr by 40.0%, but a gradual stomatal reopening began 20 min after the start of the low blue light treatment, thus leading to new steady-states. This new stomatal equilibrium was supposed to be related to Ci. The results were confirmed in more developed plants although they exhibited delayed and less marked responses. It is concluded that stomatal responses to blue light could play a key role in photomorphogenetic mechanisms through their effect on transpiration.

  20. Estudio de bioequivalencia del ibuprofeno genérico 400mg tabletas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia Villalva-Rojas

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la biodisponibilidad de dos formulaciones de ibuprofeno 400mg tabletas, para establecer si el medicamento multifuente (genérico es bioequivalente al de referencia (Motrin® 400mg. Materiales y métodos. Se diseñó un estudio abierto, randomizado, cruzado, dos periodos, con siete días de lavado, con 12 voluntarios sanos de ambos sexos, entre 21 y 48 años, quienes ingirieron una tableta del medicamento genérico o de referencia, según randomización, con 200mL de agua. Luego de ingerir el medicamento se colectó 4mL de sangre por voluntario para la cuantificación plasmática de ibuprofeno. Las muestras de plasma se analizaron por cromatografía líquida acoplada al espectrofotómetro de masas (LC-MS/MS con ionización electrospray ión negativo, aplicando monitoreo de reacción selectiva. La bioequivalencia se determinó con los parámetros farmacocinéticos de área bajo la curva AUC(0-t, AUC(0-∞ y concentración máxima (Cmax. Resultados. Según análisis estadístico, se encontraron: AUCmultifuente(0-t = 86,85 (μg*h/ mL, AUCRef.(0-t= 81,20 (μg*h/mL, AUCmultifuente(0-∞= 88,67 (μg*h/mL, AUCRef.(0-∞= 82,83(μg*h/mL, Cmαxmultifuente = 17,70 ug/mL, CmαxRef. =18,09 μg/mL, con rango de 0,93-1,24 para AUC(0-t, 0,93-1,24 para AUC(0-∞ y 0,81-1,19 para Cmax. Conclusión. Los valores encontrados de ibuprofeno están dentro de los requisitos de la OMS y la FDA, para establecer bioequivalencia (0,80-1,25, demostrándose que el ibuprofeno genérico es bioequivalente al de referencia en velocidad y cantidad de ibuprofeno absorbido en el organismo.

  1. Kinetic study of the alkaline metals oxidation by dry oxygen; Etude cinetique de l'oxydation des metaux alcalins par l'oxygene sec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touzain, Ph [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-06-15

    The oxidation of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium and sodium-potassium alloys by dry oxygen is studied at several temperatures and in the oxygen pressure range 40 to 400 mmHg. One distinguishes three different oxidation behaviours (inflammation, ignition and slow combustion) whose zones are precised in function of the temperature. The slow oxidation kinetic laws, the composition of oxides and the motive of oxides colorations are determined. At least, the experimental data are construed theoretically. (author) [French] L'oxydation du lithium, du sodium, du potassium, du rubidium, du cesium et des alliages sodium-potassium par l'oxygene sec est etudiee a diverses temperatures et a des pressions comprises entre 40 et 400 mmHg d'oxygene. On distingue trois processus d'oxydation differents (l'inflammation, l'ignition et la combustion lente) dont les domaines en fonction de la temperature sont precises. Les lois cinetiques d'oxydation lente, la nature des oxydes formes ainsi que les causes des colorations de ces oxydes sont determinees. Enfin les resultats obtenus sont interpretes theoriquement. (auteur)

  2. Molecular mechanism of bundle formation by the bacterial actin ParM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, David, E-mail: dpopp@imcb.a-star.edu.sg [ERATO ' Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 61 Biopolis Drive, Proteos, 138673 Singapore (Singapore); Narita, Akihiro [ERATO ' Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Nagoya University Graduate School of Science, Structural Biology Research Center and Division of Biological Sciences, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Iwasa, Mitsusada [ERATO ' Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Maeda, Yuichiro [ERATO ' Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Nagoya University Graduate School of Science, Structural Biology Research Center and Division of Biological Sciences, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Robinson, Robert C. [Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 61 Biopolis Drive, Proteos, 138673 Singapore (Singapore)

    2010-01-22

    The actin homolog ParM plays a microtubule-like role in segregating DNA prior to bacterial cell division. Fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy have shown that ParM forms filament bundles between separating DNA plasmids in vivo. Given the lack of ParM bundling proteins it remains unknown how ParM bundles form at the molecular level. Here we show using time-lapse TIRF microscopy, under in vitro molecular crowding conditions, that ParM-bundle formation consists of two distinct phases. At the onset of polymerization bundle thickness and shape are determined in the form of nuclei of short helically disordered filaments arranged in a liquid-like lattice. These nuclei then undergo an elongation phase whereby they rapidly increase in length. At steady state, ParM bundles fuse into one single large aggregate. This behavior had been predicted by theory but has not been observed for any other cytomotive biopolymer, including F-actin. We employed electron micrographs of ParM rafts, which are 2-D analogs of 3-D bundles, to identify the main molecular interfilament contacts within these suprastructures. The interface between filaments is similar for both parallel and anti-parallel orientations and the distribution of filament polarity is random within a bundle. We suggest that the interfilament interactions are not due to the interactions of specific residues but rather to long-range, counter ion mediated, electrostatic attractive forces. A randomly oriented bundle ensures that the assembly is rigid and that DNA may be captured with equal efficiency at both ends of the bundle via the ParR binding protein.

  3. High power diode lasers emitting from 639 nm to 690 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, L.; Grimshaw, M.; DeVito, M.; Kanskar, M.; Dong, W.; Guan, X.; Zhang, S.; Patterson, J.; Dickerson, P.; Kennedy, K.; Li, S.; Haden, J.; Martinsen, R.

    2014-03-01

    There is increasing market demand for high power reliable red lasers for display and cinema applications. Due to the fundamental material system limit at this wavelength range, red diode lasers have lower efficiency and are more temperature sensitive, compared to 790-980 nm diode lasers. In terms of reliability, red lasers are also more sensitive to catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD) due to the higher photon energy. Thus developing higher power-reliable red lasers is very challenging. This paper will present nLIGHT's released red products from 639 nm to 690nm, with established high performance and long-term reliability. These single emitter diode lasers can work as stand-alone singleemitter units or efficiently integrate into our compact, passively-cooled Pearl™ fiber-coupled module architectures for higher output power and improved reliability. In order to further improve power and reliability, new chip optimizations have been focused on improving epitaxial design/growth, chip configuration/processing and optical facet passivation. Initial optimization has demonstrated promising results for 639 nm diode lasers to be reliably rated at 1.5 W and 690nm diode lasers to be reliably rated at 4.0 W. Accelerated life-test has started and further design optimization are underway.

  4. 32 CFR 700.880 - Duties of the prospective commanding officer of a ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duties of the prospective commanding officer of a ship. 700.880 Section 700.880 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS The Commanding Officer Special...

  5. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- October survey descriptive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-11-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this late October survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maiden cane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  6. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- September survey descriptive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this mid-September survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys during the late growing seasons of 1995, and throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  7. Improved Satellite-based Photosysnthetically Active Radiation (PAR) for Air Quality Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour Biazar, A.; McNider, R. T.; Cohan, D. S.; White, A.; Zhang, R.; Dornblaser, B.; Doty, K.; Wu, Y.; Estes, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    One of the challenges in understanding the air quality over forested regions has been the uncertainties in estimating the biogenic hydrocarbon emissions. Biogenic volatile organic compounds, BVOCs, play a critical role in atmospheric chemistry, particularly in ozone and particulate matter (PM) formation. In southeastern United States, BVOCs (mostly as isoprene) are the dominant summertime source of reactive hydrocarbon. Despite significant efforts in improving BVOC estimates, the errors in emission inventories remain a concern. Since BVOC emissions are particularly sensitive to the available photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), model errors in PAR result in large errors in emission estimates. Thus, utilization of satellite observations to estimate PAR can help in reducing emission uncertainties. Satellite-based PAR estimates rely on the technique used to derive insolation from satellite visible brightness measurements. In this study we evaluate several insolation products against surface pyranometer observations and offer a bias correction to generate a more accurate PAR product. The improved PAR product is then used in biogenic emission estimates. The improved biogenic emission estimates are compared to the emission inventories over Texas and used in air quality simulation over the period of August-September 2013 (NASA's Discover-AQ field campaign). A series of sensitivity simulations will be performed and evaluated against Discover-AQ observations to test the impact of satellite-derived PAR on air quality simulations.

  8. Continuous Active Sonar for Undersea Vehicles Final Report: Input of Factor Graphs into the Detection, Classification, and Localization Chain and Continuous Active SONAR in Undersea Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-31

    determined unambiguously. 9 8 7 ~6 >-, (1l Q) 5 0 Q) E 4 f- 3 2 LFM Signal Transmitted 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 BOO 900 Frequency (Hz...200 300 400 500 600 700 BOO 900 1000 Time Ste.p (s) Figure 30: Plot of the difference ofthe velocity of the object being tracked/rom the velocities...0 0 _J 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 BOO 900 1000 Time Step (s) Figure 31 Plot of the difference of the location of the object

  9. Evolution of Flux Mapping System (FMS) from 540 MWe to 700 MWe Indian PHWR: design perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonavani, Manojkumar; Kelkar, M.G.; Singhvi, P.K.; Roy, S.; Ingle, V.J.

    2013-01-01

    The Flux Mapping System (FMS) of 700 MWe PHWR computes a detailed flux/power distribution of the reactor core using modal synthesis method and is also generate setback on different parameters by monitoring thermal neutron flux at more than 100 points inside the reactor core. These types of setbacks are introduced first time in Indian PHWRs. The paper brings out the Evolution of Flux Mapping System (FMS) from 540 MWe to 700 MWe and the overall design philosophy. The paper emphasizes on comparisons between 540 MWe and 700 MWe design, considerations for architectural design and setbacks for 700 MWe. (author)

  10. Visible to near-IR fluorescence from single-digit detonation nanodiamonds: excitation wavelength and pH dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reineck, Philipp; Lau, Desmond W M; Wilson, Emma R; Nunn, Nicholas; Shenderova, Olga A; Gibson, Brant C

    2018-02-06

    Detonation nanodiamonds are of vital significance to many areas of science and technology. However, their fluorescence properties have rarely been explored for applications and remain poorly understood. We demonstrate significant fluorescence from the visible to near-infrared spectral regions from deaggregated, single-digit detonation nanodiamonds dispersed in water produced via post-synthesis oxidation. The excitation wavelength dependence of this fluorescence is analyzed in the spectral region from 400nm to 700nm as well as the particles' absorption characteristics. We report a strong pH dependence of the fluorescence and compare our results to the pH dependent fluorescence of aromatic hydrocarbons. Our results significantly contribute to the current understanding of the fluorescence of carbon-based nanomaterials in general and detonation nanodiamonds in particular.

  11. Design and optimization of a volume-phase holographic grating for simultaneous use with red, green, and blue light using unpolarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamat, Adoum H; Narducci, Frank A; Schwiegerling, James

    2016-03-01

    Volume-phase holographic (VPH) gratings have been designed for use in many areas of science and technology, such as optical communication, optical imaging, and astronomy. In this paper, the design of a volume-phase holographic grating, simultaneously optimized to operate in the red, green, and blue wavelengths, is presented along with a study of its fabrication tolerances. The grating is optimized to produce 98% efficiency at λ=532  nm and at least 75% efficiency in the region between 400 and 700 nm, when the incident light is unpolarized. The optimization is done for recording in dichromated gelatin with a thickness of 12 μm, an average refractive index of 1.5, and a refractive index modulation of 0.022.

  12. Properties of SrBi2Nb2O9 thin films on Pt-coated Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, R.E.; Navarro, P.O.; Martin, V. del C.; Fernandez, L.M.; Sylvester, G.; Retuert, P.J.; Gramsch, E.

    2002-01-01

    SrBi 2 Nb 2 O 9 powders and thin films, on Pt-coated Si, were synthesised by the sol-gel method. Three-layer thin films appear homogeneous down to the 100 nm scale, polycrystalline in the tetragonal Aurivillius phase, at a average thickness of 40 nm per layer. The index of refraction at the center of the visible range increases with the sintering temperature from roughly 2.1 (at 400 Centigrade) to 2.5 (at 700 Centigrade). The expression n 2 -1 increases linearly with the relative density of the thin films, in similar fashion as previous studies in PbTiO 3 thin films. The dielectric constant in quasistatic and high frequency (1 MHz) modes, is between 160 and 230. (Author)

  13. Electrocortical N400 Effects of Semantic Satiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Ströberg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic satiation is characterised by the subjective and temporary loss of meaning after high repetition of a prime word. To study the nature of this effect, previous electroencephalography (EEG research recorded the N400, an ERP component that is sensitive to violations of semantic context. The N400 is characterised by a relative negativity to words that are unrelated vs. related to the semantic context. The semantic satiation hypothesis predicts that the N400 should decrease with high repetition. However, previous findings have been inconsistent. Because of these inconsistent findings and the shortcomings of previous research, we used a modified design that minimises confounding effects from non-semantic processes. We recorded 64-channel EEG and analysed the N400 in a semantic priming task in which the primes were repeated 3 or 30 times. Critically, we separated low and high repetition trials and excluded response trials. Further, we varied the physical features (letter case and format of consecutive primes to minimise confounding effects from perceptual habituation. For centrofrontal electrodes, the N400 was reduced after 30 repetitions (vs. 3 repetitions. Explorative source reconstructions suggested that activity decreased after 30 repetitions in bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, the right posterior section of the superior and middle temporal gyrus, right supramarginal gyrus, bilateral lateral occipital cortex, and bilateral lateral orbitofrontal cortex. These areas overlap broadly with those typically involved in the N400, namely middle temporal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus. The results support the semantic rather than the perceptual nature of the satiation effect.

  14. Radiological environmental monitoring with LiF-700-H dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarnichia, E.; Levanon, I.; Andres, P.; Miani, C.; Ramirez, S.

    2011-10-01

    Since 2008 a radiological environmental monitoring with LiF-700-H has been carried out as a result of increasing the Ra-6 research reactor core power. The information obtained is used to evaluate and to quantify analytically the air kerma rate, the fading and the associated uncertainty by developing software tools (deconvolution and uncertainty algorithms). LiF-700-H dosemeters were chosen because of their high sensitivity to low air kerma rates. They show a very good stability and a negligible fading for two-month working periods. The air kerma rate detection limit (based on the 3σ criterion) during these working periods is about 0.4 n Gy/h. Air kerma rates of about 70 n Gy/h are measured with this detection limit. Following the Nist guidelines, an algorithm was developed in order to find the associated uncertainty. It considers several aspects, such as the source activity decay, distance source-dosemeter during the calibration procedure, irradiation time, calibration factor, dosemeter readout, dosemeter sensitivity, TLD reader stability and fading. The associated uncertainty is found to be about 25% for a 95% confidence interval (k = 2.025), which can be considered acceptable when taking into account the very low air kerma rates estimated. The LiF-700-H response to different energies and its relationship with climate changes over the calendar year are planned as future tasks. (Author)

  15. Dimethyl sulfoxyde diethyl fumarate solution for high dose dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kassiri, H.; Kattan, M.; Daher, Y.

    2007-06-01

    Dosimetric characterization of diethyl fumarate DEF in dimethyl sulfoxyde DMSO solution has been studied spectrophotometrically for possible application at high dose radiation dosimetry in the range (0-225 kGy). The absorption spectra of irradiated solution showed broad absorption bands between (325-400 nm) with a shoulder at 332 nm. The absorption increases as the dose is increased. Absorbance at 332 nm were measured and plotted against absorbed dose. Linear relationship and good response were found between absorbed dose and absorbance of 20% DEF concentration in the range (0-225 kGy) at the wave length, and linearity up to 250 kGy of absorbance at 332 nm .Good dose rate independence was observed in the range (14-33 kGy/h). The effect of post irradiation storage in darkness and indirect daylight conditions were not found to influence the absorption up to 700 h after irradiation. The effect of irradiation temperature within the range (0 to 60 centigrade degree) on the dosimetry performance was discussed.(author)

  16. 1950-nm diode laser-assisted microanastomoses (LAMA): an innovative surgical tool for hand surgery emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclère, Franck Marie; Schoofs, Michel; Vogt, Peter; Casoli, Vincent; Mordon, Serge

    2015-05-01

    Based on previous observations, the 1950-nm diode laser seems to be an ideal wavelength for laser microvascular anastomoses. The data presented here, part of a larger ongoing study, assess its use in emergency hand surgery. Between 2011 and 2014, 11 patients were operated on for hand trauma with laser-assisted microanastomoses (LAMA) and prospectively analysed. LAMA was performed with a 1950-nm diode laser after placement of equidistant stitches. For vessel size laser parameters were used: spot size 400 μm, five spots for each wall, power 125 mW, and arterial/venous fluence 100/90 J/cm(2) (spot duration 1/0.9 s). Mean operating time for arterial and venous microanastomoses was 7.3 ± 1.4 and 8.7 ± 1.0 min, respectively. Three anastomoses required a secondary laser application. Arterial and venous patency rates were 100 % at the time of surgery. The success rate for the 11 procedures assessed clinically and with the Doppler was 100 %. The technique is compared to the current literature. The 1950-nm LAMA is a reliable tool with excellent results in emergency hand surgery. The system is very compact and transportable for utilization in the emergency operating room.

  17. SAFARI 2000 PAR Measurements, Kalahari Transect, Botswana, Wet Season 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ceptometer data from a Decagon AccuPAR (Model PAR-80) were collected at four sites in Botswana during the SAFARI 2000 Kalahari Transect Wet Season Campaign (March,...

  18. Lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugg, William G.; Lewis, Mark; Juette, Arne; Cahir, John G.; Toms, Andoni P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures. In this retrospective case-control study we compare the angle of lumbar lordosis and the angle of the S1 vertebral endplate (as a measure of pelvic tilt) in patients with bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with age- and sex-matched control cases with normal MRI examinations of the lumbar spine. Twenty-nine cases of bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with matched control-cases were identified on MRI (16 male, 13 female, age 9-63 years). The angle of lordosis was measured between the inferior L4 and superior S1 vertebral endplates on a standing lateral lumbar spine radiograph for both groups. The mean angle of lordosis about the L5 vertebra was 36.9 (SD = 6.5 ) in the pars interarticularis fracture group, and 30.1 (SD = 6.4 ) in the control group. The difference between the two groups was significant (mean difference 6.8 , Student's t test: P < 0.001). The mean angle of sacral tilt measured was 122.2 (SD = 10.16 ) for controls and 136.4 (SD = 10.86 ) for patients with pars defects. The difference in the means of 14.2 was statistically significantly different (P < 0.0001). Sacral tilt represented by a steeply angled superior endplate of S1 is associated with a significantly increased angle of lordosis, between L4 and S1, and pars fractures at L5. Steep angulation of the first sacral vertebral segment maybe the predisposing biomechanical factor that leads to pincer-like impingement of the pars interarticularis and then spondylolysis. (orig.)

  19. Lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures: a case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugg, William G; Lewis, Mark; Juette, Arne; Cahir, John G; Toms, Andoni P [Cotman Centre, Norwich Radiology Academy, Norwich, Norfolk (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures. In this retrospective case-control study we compare the angle of lumbar lordosis and the angle of the S1 vertebral endplate (as a measure of pelvic tilt) in patients with bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with age- and sex-matched control cases with normal MRI examinations of the lumbar spine. Twenty-nine cases of bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with matched control-cases were identified on MRI (16 male, 13 female, age 9-63 years). The angle of lordosis was measured between the inferior L4 and superior S1 vertebral endplates on a standing lateral lumbar spine radiograph for both groups. The mean angle of lordosis about the L5 vertebra was 36.9 (SD = 6.5 ) in the pars interarticularis fracture group, and 30.1 (SD = 6.4 ) in the control group. The difference between the two groups was significant (mean difference 6.8 , Student's t test: P < 0.001). The mean angle of sacral tilt measured was 122.2 (SD = 10.16 ) for controls and 136.4 (SD = 10.86 ) for patients with pars defects. The difference in the means of 14.2 was statistically significantly different (P < 0.0001). Sacral tilt represented by a steeply angled superior endplate of S1 is associated with a significantly increased angle of lordosis, between L4 and S1, and pars fractures at L5. Steep angulation of the first sacral vertebral segment maybe the predisposing biomechanical factor that leads to pincer-like impingement of the pars interarticularis and then spondylolysis. (orig.)

  20. Lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures: a case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugg, William G.; Lewis, Mark; Juette, Arne; Cahir, John G.; Toms, Andoni P. [Cotman Centre, Norwich Radiology Academy, Norwich, Norfolk (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures. In this retrospective case-control study we compare the angle of lumbar lordosis and the angle of the S1 vertebral endplate (as a measure of pelvic tilt) in patients with bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with age- and sex-matched control cases with normal MRI examinations of the lumbar spine. Twenty-nine cases of bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with matched control-cases were identified on MRI (16 male, 13 female, age 9-63 years). The angle of lordosis was measured between the inferior L4 and superior S1 vertebral endplates on a standing lateral lumbar spine radiograph for both groups. The mean angle of lordosis about the L5 vertebra was 36.9 (SD = 6.5 ) in the pars interarticularis fracture group, and 30.1 (SD = 6.4 ) in the control group. The difference between the two groups was significant (mean difference 6.8 , Student's t test: P < 0.001). The mean angle of sacral tilt measured was 122.2 (SD = 10.16 ) for controls and 136.4 (SD = 10.86 ) for patients with pars defects. The difference in the means of 14.2 was statistically significantly different (P < 0.0001). Sacral tilt represented by a steeply angled superior endplate of S1 is associated with a significantly increased angle of lordosis, between L4 and S1, and pars fractures at L5. Steep angulation of the first sacral vertebral segment maybe the predisposing biomechanical factor that leads to pincer-like impingement of the pars interarticularis and then spondylolysis. (orig.)

  1. Croissance epitaxiale de GaAs sur substrats de Ge par epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Simon

    La situation energetique et les enjeux environnementaux auxquels la societe est confrontee entrainent un interet grandissant pour la production d'electricite a partir de l'energie solaire. Parmi les technologies actuellement disponibles, la filiere du photovoltaique a concentrateur solaire (CPV pour concentrator photovoltaics) possede un rendement superieur et mi potentiel interessant a condition que ses couts de production soient competitifs. La methode d'epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques (CBE pour chemical beam epitaxy) possede plusieurs caracteristiques qui la rendent interessante pour la production a grande echelle de cellules photovoltaiques a jonctions multiples a base de semi-conducteurs III-V. Ce type de cellule possede la meilleure efficacite atteinte a ce jour et est utilise sur les satellites et les systemes photovoltaiques a concentrateur solaire (CPV) les plus efficaces. Une des principales forces de la technique CBE se trouve dans son potentiel d'efficacite d'utilisation des materiaux source qui est superieur a celui de la technique d'epitaxie qui est couramment utilisee pour la production a grande echelle de ces cellules. Ce memoire de maitrise presente les travaux effectues dans le but d'evaluer le potentiel de la technique CBE pour realiser la croissance de couches de GaAs sur des substrats de Ge. Cette croissance constitue la premiere etape de fabrication de nombreux modeles de cellules solaires a haute performance decrites plus haut. La realisation de ce projet a necessite le developpement d'un procede de preparation de surface pour les substrats de germanium, la realisation de nombreuses sceances de croissance epitaxiale et la caracterisation des materiaux obtenus par microscopie optique, microscopie a force atomique (AFM), diffraction des rayons-X a haute resolution (HRXRD), microscopie electronique a transmission (TEM), photoluminescence a basse temperature (LTPL) et spectrometrie de masse des ions secondaires (SIMS). Les experiences ont permis

  2. 68Ga-labeling and in vivo evaluation of a uPAR binding DOTA- and NODAGA-conjugated peptide for PET imaging of invasive cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; Madsen, Jacob; Østergaard, Søren

    2012-01-01

    , uPAR binding affinity and cell uptake were determined. To characterize the in vivo properties, dynamic microPET imaging was carried out in nude mice bearing human glioma U87MG tumor xenograft. RESULTS: In vitro experiments revealed uPAR binding affinities in the lower nM range for both conjugated......-AE105-NH(2) was observed. Good stability in phosphate-buffered saline and mouse plasma was observed. High cell uptake was found for both tracers in U87MG tumor cells. Dynamic microPET imaging demonstrated good tumor-to-background ratio for both tracers. Tumor uptake was 2.1% ID/g and 1.3% ID/g 30 min...... positron emission tomography (PET) in human cancer xenograft mice models. Here we introduce (68)Ga-DOTA-AE105-NH(2) and (68)Ga-NODAGA-AE105-NH(2) and evaluate their imaging properties using small-animal PET. METHODS: Synthesis of DOTA-AE105-NH(2) and NODAGA-AE105-NH(2) was based on solid-phase peptide...

  3. ParTIES: a toolbox for Paramecium interspersed DNA elimination studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denby Wilkes, Cyril; Arnaiz, Olivier; Sperling, Linda

    2016-02-15

    Developmental DNA elimination occurs in a wide variety of multicellular organisms, but ciliates are the only single-celled eukaryotes in which this phenomenon has been reported. Despite considerable interest in ciliates as models for DNA elimination, no standard methods for identification and characterization of the eliminated sequences are currently available. We present the Paramecium Toolbox for Interspersed DNA Elimination Studies (ParTIES), designed for Paramecium species, that (i) identifies eliminated sequences, (ii) measures their presence in a sequencing sample and (iii) detects rare elimination polymorphisms. ParTIES is multi-threaded Perl software available at https://github.com/oarnaiz/ParTIES. ParTIES is distributed under the GNU General Public Licence v3. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products...

  5. Effect of simvastatin and ezetimibe on suPAR levels and outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodges, Gethin W; Bang, Casper N; Forman, Julie L

    2018-01-01

    -lowering therapy also lowers suPAR levels is unknown. METHODS: We investigated whether treatment with Simvastatin 40 mg and Ezetimibe 10 mg lowered plasma suPAR levels in 1838 patients with mild-moderate, asymptomatic aortic stenosis, included in the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study, using...... and Ezetimibe treatment impeded the progression of the time-related increase in plasma suPAR levels. Year-1 suPAR was associated with all-cause mortality, MCE, and AVE irrespective of baseline levels (SEAS study: NCT00092677)....... cardiovascular events (MCE) composed of ischemic cardiovascular events (ICE) and aortic valve related events (AVE). RESULTS: After 4.3 years of follow-up, suPAR levels had increased by 9.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.0%-11.5%) in the placebo group, but only by 4.1% (1.9%-6.2%) in the group with lipid...

  6. 45 CFR 400.115 - Establishing legal responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Establishing legal responsibility. 400.115 Section... Child Welfare Services § 400.115 Establishing legal responsibility. (a) A State must ensure that legal responsibility is established, including legal custody and/or guardianship, as appropriate, in accordance with...

  7. Corrosion of metallic materials by uranium hexafluoride at high temperatures (1963); Corrosion de materiaux metalliques par l'hexafluorure d'uranium a haute temperature (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlois, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The corrosion of the following metals or alloys by UF{sub 6}: nickel, monel, Inconel, gold, platinum, stainless steel, is studied in the temperature range from 300 to 1000 deg. C. The test method, designed to avoid heating the apparatus containing the corrosive fluid to a high temperature, consists in using threadlike samples heated by the Joule effect, the rest of the apparatus being maintained close to room temperature. This technique makes it possible also to determine continuously the penetration of the corrosion by measuring the electrical resistance of the sample with a double Thomson bridge. A series of rapid comparison tests shows that stainless steel, precious metals and Inconel are attacked far too rapidly to be used above 500 deg. C; only monel and especially nickel appear capable of resisting at high temperatures. The detailed examination of the behaviour of nickel shows that the metallic fluoride is volatilized and that this influences the corrosion rate. It shows also the existence of a temperature zone situated between 550 and 700 deg. C in which occurs A strong intergranular corrosion the cause of which appears to be the presence of impurities in the metal. (author) [French] La corrosion par l'UF{sub 6} des metaux ou alliages suivants: lickel, monel, inconel, or, platine, acier inoxydable, est etudiee dans le un domaine de temperature compris entre 300 et 1000 deg. C. La methode d'essai, destinee a eviter le chauffage de l'enceinte contenant le fluide corrosif a temperature elevee, consiste a utiliser des eprouvettes filiformes, echauffees par effet Joule, le reste de l'appareillage etant maintenu a une temperature proche de l'ambiance. Cette technique permet en outre de determiner en continu la penetration de la corrosion, par mesure de la resistance electrique de l'eprouvette, au moyen d'un pont double de Thomson. Une serie d'essais comparatifs, assez sommaires, montre que l'acier inoxydable, les metaux precieux et l'inconel sont attaques beaucoup

  8. Paracrine Apoptotic Effect of p53 Mediated by Tumor Suppressor Par-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravshan Burikhanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The guardian of the genome, p53, is often mutated in cancer and may contribute to therapeutic resistance. Given that p53 is intact and functional in normal tissues, we harnessed its potential to inhibit the growth of p53-deficient cancer cells. Specific activation of p53 in normal fibroblasts selectively induced apoptosis in p53-deficient cancer cells. This paracrine effect was mediated by p53-dependent secretion of the tumor suppressor Par-4. Accordingly, the activation of p53 in normal mice, but not p53−/− or Par-4−/− mice, caused systemic elevation of Par-4, which induced apoptosis of p53-deficient tumor cells. Mechanistically, p53 induced Par-4 secretion by suppressing the expression of its binding partner, UACA, which sequesters Par-4. Thus, normal cells can be empowered by p53 activation to induce Par-4 secretion for the inhibition of therapy-resistant tumors.

  9. Plasmonic spectral tunability of conductive ternary nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassavetis, S.; Patsalas, P., E-mail: ppats@physics.auth.gr [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Bellas, D. V.; Lidorikis, E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Abadias, G. [Institut Pprime, Département Physique et Mécanique des Matériaux, Université de Poitiers-CNRS-ENSMA, 86962 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope (France)

    2016-06-27

    Conductive binary transition metal nitrides, such as TiN and ZrN, have emerged as a category of promising alternative plasmonic materials. In this work, we show that ternary transition metal nitrides such as Ti{sub x}Ta{sub 1−x}N, Ti{sub x}Zr{sub 1−x}N, Ti{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N, and Zr{sub x}Ta{sub 1−x}N share the important plasmonic features with their binary counterparts, while having the additional asset of the exceptional spectral tunability in the entire visible (400700nm) and UVA (315–400nm) spectral ranges depending on their net valence electrons. In particular, we demonstrate that such ternary nitrides can exhibit maximum field enhancement factors comparable with gold in the aforementioned broadband range. We also critically evaluate the structural features that affect the quality factor of the plasmon resonance and we provide rules of thumb for the selection and growth of materials for nitride plasmonics.

  10. Efficacy and safety of the pars plana clip in the Ahmed valve device inserted via the pars plana in patients with refractory glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Diaz-Llopis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Manuel Diaz-Llopis1,2,3, David Salom1,3, Salvador García-Delpech1,2,3, Patricia Udaondo1,3, Jose Maria Millan3,5, J Fernando Arevalo61Department of Ophthalmology, La Fe University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; 2Department of Ophthalmology of the Valencia University, Valencia, Spain; 3Biomedical Network Research Centre on Rare Diseases (CIBERER, Valencia, Spain; 4Catholic University San Vicente Martir, Valencia, Spain; 5Department of Genetics, La Fe University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; 6Clinica Oftalmologica Centro Caracas, Retina and VItreous Service, Caracas, DC, VenezuelaPurpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the pars plana clip (PPC in the Ahmed valve tube inserted via the pars plana in patients with secondary refractory glaucomas.Methods: Prospective and interventional case series that included 10 patients with secondary refractory glaucoma. The pars plana vitrectomy and the implant of the modified tube were performed during the same surgery. Control of intraocular pressure (IOP and the development of intra- and postoperative complications were evaluated during the follow-up.Results: Follow-up time was twelve months in all the patients. Control of IOP was achieved in 90% of patients, and 70% needed no antiglaucoma treatment. The complications that occurred were transient hypotony in three cases, choroidal detachment in two cases, and one case of intraocular hemorrhage. No case of tube extrusion or tube kink was observed.Conclusions: Our data suggests that implantation of the Ahmed tube modified with the PPC via the pars plana is safe and effective in patients with secondary refractory glaucomas. Keywords: pars plana clip, Ahmed valve, refractory glaucoma, pars plana vitrectomy

  11. 13 CFR 400.100 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... authorities and organizational structure, the means and rules by which the Board takes actions, and procedures... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose and scope. 400.100 Section 400.100 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE...

  12. Scanning Study of 700 Livers Evaluation of Existing Diagnostic Procedures; Etude Scintigraphique de 700 Foies (Evaluation des Procedures Actuelles de Diagnostic); Issledovanie pecheni 700 bol'nykh s pomoshch'yu skennirovaniya; Exploracion Hepatica de 700 Pacientes (Evaluacion de los Metodos Actuales De Diagnostico); Exploracion Hepatica de 700 Pacientes (Evaluacion de los Metodos Actuales de Diagnostico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerniak, P. [Radium and Isotope Institute, Government Hospital, Tel-Hashomer (Israel)

    1964-10-15

    satisfactory; (4) Cytostatic agents may be temporarily effective in some diffuse hepatic lesions; (5) A rescanned suspected lesion may reappear as a space-occupying lesion or disappear. Thus the time of scanning may affect the diagnosis. Conclusions: (1) Liver scanning can be considered as a very useful method for clinical, morphological and topographical diagnosis in hepatopathology; and (2) The results may be improved by (a) advanced instrumentation and the use of stereoscanning techniques and (b) good collaboration between the internists and surgeons. (author) [French] On a examine les foies de 700 malades (etude clinique, analyses en laboratoire, examens radiographiques, explorations scintigraphiques). Onacontinuea les malades apres ces examens; on a pu avoir la confirmation objective du diagnostic dans la plupart des cas et evaluer les resultats de la campagne. Pour la scintigraphie du foie, on a utilise l'or-198, le rose bengale marque avec {sup 131}I et le polyvinylpyrrolidone egalement marque avec {sup 131}I. On a applique, non seulement la methode classique, mais aussi des methodes particulieres comme l'exploration stereographique dans deux plans ou trois plans et l'emploi combine de l'or-198 et du rose bengale marque a l'iode-131 pour determiner les coefficients relatifs de fixation de ces radioisotopes dans le foie. Les sujets avaient ete repartis en huit groupes cliniques aux fins de compilation et devaluation des resultats du diagnostic, qui sont presentes succinctement dans le memoire. Chaque groupe clinique a ete analyse separement. Par exemple, on a detecte une lesion en volume dans 95% des 65 cas d'echinococcose. La radiographie a permis de constater des calcifications dans 35% seulement de ces cas, mais aussi dans 14% des autres cas de maladies hepatiques. Les reactions de Weinberg et Casoni ont ete positives dans 64% des cas d'echinococcose, mais aussi dans 22% des autres cas. En ce qui concerne le cancer du foie, on a detecte une lesion en volume

  13. Read-through transcript from NM23-H1 into the neighboring NM23-H2 gene encodes a novel protein, NM23-LV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentijn, Linda J.; Koster, Jan; Versteeg, Rogier

    2006-01-01

    NM23-H1 and NM23-H2 are neighboring genes on chromosome 17q. They encode nucleoside diphosphate kinases that have additional roles in signal transduction, transcription, and apoptosis. NM23-H1 expression is a strong marker for prognosis and metastatic behavior in many tumor types. A new

  14. Effects of solar PAR and UV radiation on tropical biofouling communities

    KAUST Repository

    Dobretsov, SV

    2010-03-08

    We investigated the effect of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on the development of tropical micro- and macrofouling communities for 30 d. The experimental design involved 3 treatments: full spectrum (PAR+UVR), PAR only, and minimal light (reduced PAR and UVR). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis demonstrated that different light conditions resulted in the formation of highly different microbial communities. The lowest densities of bacteria were found under the full spectrum treatment, while the lowest densities of diatoms were found in the minimal light treatment. Macrofouling communities consisted of 13 species and differed among light treatments. In the presence of UVR, communities had low species diversity, evenness, and richness, while in minimal light and PAR treatments, communities had high species diversity, evenness, and richness. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis revealed that the tubeworm Hydroides elegans, the alga Ulva (Enteromorpha) sp., and the bivalve Perna viridis were the species responsible for most of the dissimilarities in macrofouling communities among treatments. While densities of H. elegans were similar in the PAR and minimal light treatments, this polychaete had higher growth rates under minimal light conditions. We conclude that UVR and PAR directly control the development of shallow micro- and macrofouling communities by inhibiting the recruitment and growth of sensitive species and promoting the growth of resistant species, but also that these forms of solar radiation influence the surface cues available to competent larvae by altering the development of the microbial community.

  15. Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS): Latent subgroups detected by k-means clustering analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyejoo; Malaspina, Dolores; Ahn, Hongshik; Perrin, Mary; Opler, Mark G; Kleinhaus, Karine; Harlap, Susan; Goetz, Raymond; Antonius, Daniel

    2011-05-01

    Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS) has been proposed as a subgroup of schizophrenia with distinct etiology, pathophysiology and symptoms. This study uses a k-means clustering analysis approach to generate hypotheses about differences between PARS and other cases of schizophrenia. We studied PARS (operationally defined as not having any family history of schizophrenia among first and second-degree relatives and fathers' age at birth ≥ 35 years) in a series of schizophrenia cases recruited from a research unit. Data were available on demographic variables, symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale; PANSS), cognitive tests (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised; WAIS-R) and olfaction (University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test; UPSIT). We conducted a series of k-means clustering analyses to identify clusters of cases containing high concentrations of PARS. Two analyses generated clusters with high concentrations of PARS cases. The first analysis (N=136; PARS=34) revealed a cluster containing 83% PARS cases, in which the patients showed a significant discrepancy between verbal and performance intelligence. The mean paternal and maternal ages were 41 and 33, respectively. The second analysis (N=123; PARS=30) revealed a cluster containing 71% PARS cases, of which 93% were females; the mean age of onset of psychosis, at 17.2, was significantly early. These results strengthen the evidence that PARS cases differ from other patients with schizophrenia. Hypothesis-generating findings suggest that features of PARS may include a discrepancy between verbal and performance intelligence, and in females, an early age of onset. These findings provide a rationale for separating these phenotypes from others in future clinical, genetic and pathophysiologic studies of schizophrenia and in considering responses to treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 13 CFR 127.400 - What is an eligibility examination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is an eligibility examination? 127.400 Section 127.400 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT ASSISTANCE PROCEDURES Eligibility Examinations § 127.400 What is an eligibility...

  17. First principles study on the interfacial properties of NM/graphdiyne (NM = Pd, Pt, Rh and Ir): The implications for NM growing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Zhansheng; Li, Shuo; Lv, Peng [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); He, Chaozheng, E-mail: hecz2013@nynu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Normal University, Nanyang 473061 (China); Ma, Dongwei [School of Physics, Anyang Normal University, Anyang 455000 (China); Yang, Zongxian, E-mail: yzx@henannu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Nano Functional Materials and Applications, Kaifeng (China)

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The NM adatoms belong to embedded adsorption in 18C-hexagon of GDY. • The Rh and Ir/GDY can be applied to single metal catalysts or sensors. • A simple linear relationship between E{sub e-ads} and E{sub b} is presented. • The linear relationship can be used in the noble metal modified GDY. - Abstract: Based on the dispersion-corrected density functional calculations (DFT-D), we systematically studied the adsorption of noble metals (NM), Pd, Pt, Rh and Ir, on graphdiyne (GDY). We present a systematic study on the geometry, embedded adsorption energy and electronic structure of four different adatoms adsorbed on the GDY. The strong interaction between the NM adatoms and the GDY substrate is found with the NM embedded in the 18C-hexagon of the GDY. We investigated the mobility of the NM adatoms on the GDY, and found that the mobility barrier energy increases along with the increasing of the embedded adsorption energy. We present the NM adatoms growth of high concentrations on the GDY. Upon the analysis of the electronic structure and the frontier molecular orbitals, Rh and Ir adatoms of low concentrations (about 1.37 at%) on the GDY have the potential to be applied as single metal catalysts or gas molecule sensors.

  18. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- June survey descriptive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-06-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the shoreline aquatic plant communities in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level, indicated that much of the original plant communities and the intermediate shoreline communities present on the exposed sediments have been lost. The extensive old-field and emergent marsh communities that were present on the exposed shoreline during the drawdown have been flooded and much of the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities have not had sufficient time for re-establishment. The shoreline does, however, have extensive beds of maidencane which extend from the shoreline margin to areas as deep as 2 and perhaps 3 meters. Scattered individual plants of lotus and watershield are common and may indicate likely directions of future wetland development in Par Pond. In addition, within isolated coves, which apparently received ground water seepage and/or stream surface flows during the period of the Par Pond draw down, extensive beds of waterlilies and spike rush are common. Invasion of willow and red maple occurred along the lake shoreline as well. Although not absent from this survey, evidence of the extensive redevelopment of the large cattail and eel grass beds was not observed in this first survey of Par Pond. Future surveys during the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997 along with the evaluation of satellite date to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond are planned

  19. Comparison of 193 nm and 308 nm laser liquid printing by shadowgraphy imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palla-Papavlu, A., E-mail: apalla@nipne.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, Magurele, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Shaw-Stewart, J. [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Laboratory for Functional Polymers, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Paul Scherrer Institute, General Energy Research Department, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Mattle, T. [Paul Scherrer Institute, General Energy Research Department, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Dinca, V. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, Magurele, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Lippert, T.; Wokaun, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute, General Energy Research Department, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, Magurele, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-08-01

    Over the last years laser-induced forward transfer has emerged as a versatile and powerful tool for engineering surfaces with active compounds. Soft, easily damageable materials can be transferred using a triazene polymer as a sacrificial layer which acts as a pressure generator and at the same time protects the material from direct laser irradiation. To understand and optimize the transfer process of biomolecules in liquid solution by using an intermediate triazene polymer photosensitive layer, shadowgraphy imaging is carried out. Two laser systems i.e. an ArF laser operating at 193 nm and a XeCl laser operating at 308 nm are applied for the transfer. Solutions with 50% v/v glycerol concentration are prepared and the influence of the triazene polymer sacrificial layer thickness (60 nm) on the deposits is studied. The shadowgraphy images reveal a pronounced difference between laser-induced forward transfer using 193 nm or 308 nm, i.e. very different shapes of the ejected liquid.

  20. Compact corner-pumped Nd:YAG/YAG composite slab 1319 nm/1338 nm laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H; Gong, M; Wushouer, X; Gao, S

    2010-01-01

    A corner-pumped type is a new pumping type in the diode-pumped solid-state lasers, which has the advantages of high pump efficiency and favorable pump uniformity. A corner-pumped Nd:YAG/YAG composite slab continuous-wave 1319 nm/1338 nm dual-wavelength laser is first demonstrated in this paper. When the cavity length is 25 mm, the maximal output power is up to 7.62 W with a slope efficiency of 16.6% and an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 17%. The corresponding spectral line widths of 1319 nm laser and 1338 nm laser are 0.11 and 0.1 nm, respectively. The short-term instability of the output power is better than 1% when the pumping power is 39.5 W. The experimental results show that a corner-pumped type is a kind of feasible schedules in the design of diode-pumped solid-state 1.3 μm lasers with low or medium output powers