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Sample records for paprika

  1. Microbiological quality of Argentinian paprika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo González, María G; Romero, Stella M; Arjona, Mila; Larumbe, Ada G; Vaamonde, Graciela

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of paprika produced in Catamarca, Argentina. Microbiological analyses were carried out for the enumeration of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms, yeasts and molds, and the detection of Salmonella in samples obtained from different local producers during three consecutive years. The mycobiota was identified paying special attention to the mycotoxigenic molds. Standard plate counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria ranged from 2.7×10 5 to 3.7×10 7 CFU/g. Coliform counts ranged from <10 to 8.1×10 4 CFU/g. Salmonella was not detected in any of the samples tested. Fungal counts (including yeasts and molds) ranged between 2×10 2 and 1.9×10 5 CFU/g. These results showed a high level of microbial contamination, exceeding in several samples the maximum limits set in international food regulations. The study of the mycobiota demonstrated that Aspergillus was the predominant genus and Aspergillus niger (potential producer of ochratoxin A) the most frequently isolated species, followed by Aspergillus flavus (potential producer of aflatoxins). Other species of potential toxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus westerdijkiae, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium commune, Penicillium expansum and Alternaria tenuissima species group were encountered as part of the mycobiota of the paprika samples indicating a risk of mycotoxin contamination. A. westerdijkiae was isolated for the first time in Argentina. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects on egg yolk colour of paprika or paprika combined with marigold flower extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Saito

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available COLOR-UP® and COLOR-UP YELLOW-S® were fed to a total of 144 twenty-five-week-old Charoen Pokphand brown laying hens to investigate whether yellow xanthophylls present in marigold flowers in combination with red xanthophylls from paprika fruit can further enhance egg yolk colour. The birds were randomly assigned to three groups: yellow corn basal diet control group (17.50 CP, 2750 kcal/kg ME; the 0.1% dietary paprika group; and the 0.1% dietary paprika plus 0.1% marigold group. Each group contained four replicates with 12 birds. Egg quality was recorded weekly from 25 to 28 weeks of age. Parameters did not show any difference except for egg yolk colour. Egg yolk colour scores were greater in the paprika group than in the control group (11.47 vs. 8.64; P<0.05. Egg yolk colour scores of the paprika plus marigold group (12.17 were higher than those of the paprika group (P<0.05. Compared with the control, mean lightness value decreased in the paprika plus marigold group (P<0.05, suggesting a deep egg yolk colour in this group. Redness, yellowness, and chroma were improved in both experimental groups (P<0.05. The spectral reflectance wavelength of egg yolk from the experimental groups increased between 600 and 700 nm, suggesting improved chroma. These results indicate that yellow xanthophylls from marigold flower extract (COLOR-UP YELLOW-S® in combination with red xanthophylls present in paprika (COLOR-UP® can further enhance egg yolk colour and chroma.

  3. Effects on egg yolk colour of paprika or paprika combined with marigold flower extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Komori

    Full Text Available COLOR-UP® and COLOR-UP YELLOW-S® were fed to a total of 144 twenty-five-week-old Charoen Pokphand brown laying hens to investigate whether yellow xanthophylls present in marigold flowers in combination with red xanthophylls from paprika fruit can further enhance egg yolk colour. The birds were randomly assigned to three groups: yellow corn basal diet control group (17.50 CP, 2750 kcal/kg ME; the 0.1% dietary paprika group; and the 0.1% dietary paprika plus 0.1% marigold group. Each group contained four replicates with 12 birds. Egg quality was recorded weekly from 25 to 28 weeks of age. Parameters did not show any difference except for egg yolk colour. Egg yolk colour scores were greater in the paprika group than in the control group (11.47 vs 8.64; P<0.05. Egg yolk colour scores of the paprika plus marigold group (12.17 were higher than those of the paprika group (P<0.05. Compared with the control, mean lightness value decreased in the paprika plus marigold group (P<0.05, suggesting a deep egg yolk colour in this group. Redness, yellowness and chroma were improved in both experimental groups (P<0.05. The spectral reflectance wavelength of egg yolk from the experimental groups increased between 600 and 700 nm, suggesting improved chroma. These results indicate that yellow xanthophylls from marigold flower extract (COLOR-UP YELLOW-S® in combination with red xanthophylls present in paprika (COLOR-UP® can further enhance egg yolk colour and chroma.

  4. Vruchtzetting paprika spel van vraag en aanbod

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, L.F.M.; Heuvelink, E.

    2005-01-01

    Voor een goede productie bij paprika is niet het aantal bloemen, maar het aantal gezette vruchten de beperkende factor. De zetting wordt vooral bepaald door de beschikbaarheid van assimilaten. Die beschikbaarheid wordt bepaald door de aanmaak van deze suikers en de vraag ernaar van al gezette

  5. Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants of miniature paprika

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-10

    May 10, 2010 ... products, Capsicum spp. shows high levels of cross pollination ... Composition of a nutrient solution used for the culture of miniature paprika in the greenhouse. ... Yellow' were obtained from Seminis Korea Inc. Seeds were.

  6. Moeilijk te sturen met groeilicht: drie belichtingssystemen onderzocht bij paprika

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijger, H.; Hogendonk, L.

    2005-01-01

    De stuurbaarheid van paprika is moeilijk zonder buitenlicht, maar ook mét groeilicht. De productieverschillen tussen de drie verschillende belichtingssystemen zijn minimaal. Bij het systeem dat de meeste kilo's geeft, de vaste belichting, zijn de kosten het laagst.

  7. Pengaruh Waktu Pemberian Pupuk Mikoriza Terhadap Pertumbuhan Dan Hasil Tanaman Paprika (Capsicum Annum Var Grossum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Milla, Yulius Ndara; Widnyana, I Ketut; Pandawani, Ni Putu

    2016-01-01

    Paprika (Capsicum annum var grossum L.) adalah tumbuhan penghasil buah yang berasa manis dan sedikit pedas dari suku terong-terongan atau Solanaceae. Sama dengan jenis cabai lainnya. Paprika memiliki nilai jual yang bagus, permintaan pasar akan sayuran ini juga terus meningkat, terutama permintaan dari banyak restoran dan hotel berkembang di Bali. Kenyataan ini bisa dimanfaatkan dengan mengembangkan budidaya tanaman paprika untuk memasok kebutuhan pasar akan paprika yang kian hari kian me...

  8. Thermoluminescent characteristics of oregano and paprika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Z, E.; Furetta, C.; Teuffer Z, C. [ICN-UNAM, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Melendrez, R.; Barboza F, M. [Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 5-88, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Kitis, G. [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54006 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2005-07-01

    The poly minerals from oregano and paprika were selected according to different sizes, i.e 10, 53, 74, 149 {mu}m, and they were exposed to ionizing gamma radiation in the range of doses 0.5-45 kGy. The glow curves from these spices show an abroad TL band, centered around 150 C and by XRD analysis shows a mono mineral composition mainly quartz and feldspar, including albite, ortose and clay. The fading behavior was related to the quartz, feldspar and calcite TL properties and shown the stability of the traps associated to the defects generated by irradiation in the samples. The tendency of the TL integrated was increased with the grain size for oregano and can be related to the different energy values associated to the activation energy of the traps in the monominerals. The glow curve TL from poly minerals was analyzed and it is possible to use the dosimetric property of the poly minerals from spices for detect irradiated foodstuffs. (Author)

  9. Thermoluminescent characteristics of oregano and paprika

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Z, E.; Furetta, C.; Teuffer Z, C.; Melendrez, R.; Barboza F, M.; Kitis, G.

    2005-01-01

    The poly minerals from oregano and paprika were selected according to different sizes, i.e 10, 53, 74, 149 μm, and they were exposed to ionizing gamma radiation in the range of doses 0.5-45 kGy. The glow curves from these spices show an abroad TL band, centered around 150 C and by XRD analysis shows a mono mineral composition mainly quartz and feldspar, including albite, ortose and clay. The fading behavior was related to the quartz, feldspar and calcite TL properties and shown the stability of the traps associated to the defects generated by irradiation in the samples. The tendency of the TL integrated was increased with the grain size for oregano and can be related to the different energy values associated to the activation energy of the traps in the monominerals. The glow curve TL from poly minerals was analyzed and it is possible to use the dosimetric property of the poly minerals from spices for detect irradiated foodstuffs. (Author)

  10. Sensory evaluation of irradiated powered paprika (Capsicum Annum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penna, E.W. de; Alfaro, R.; Mandiola, C.; Rubio, T.

    1990-01-01

    Spices are usually contaminated with microorganisms from soil. Its industrial use may lead to fermentation and/or putrefaction problems affecting the quality of elaborated product. Different dosis of gamma radiation upon the initial microflora were studied, specially on the genus Rhizopus, main contaminant of powered paprika. A 5 kGy dosis was chosen and its effect on the sensory quality and pungency, through the Scoville index, was studied. Our results showed no changes either on the organoleptic characters of powered paprika, nor on the pungency. An increase in the pungent taste was observed on 65% of the studied products. (author)

  11. Quality characteristics of Moroccan sweet paprika (Capsicum annuum L. at different sampling times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima Zaki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available "La Niora" is a red pepper variety cultivated in Tadla Region (Morocco which is used for manufacturing paprika after sun drying. The paprika quality (nutritional, chemical and microbiological was evaluated immediately after milling, from September to December. Sampling time mainly affected paprika color and the total capsaicinoid and vitamin C contents. The commercial quality was acceptable and no aflatoxins were found, but the microbial load sometimes exceeded permitted levels.

  12. PERAMALAN PERMINTAAN KOMODITI PAPRIKA (CAPSICUM ANNUM DI PT BIMANDIRI AGRO SEDAYA, LEMBANG

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    Puji Rahmawati Nurcahyani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available PT Bimandiri Agro Sedaya is a non- manufacturing company ( services which operate in the field of trade as a supplier of fresh vegetables to retail. In December 2013, the fulfillment of the demand of red paprika, yellow paprika dan green paprika are 70,09 %; 70,24 %, 73,95 % respectively, so we need a method of accurately forecasting demand to estimate the demand of paprika early. The data is demand of red, yellow and green paprika commodities during September to December 2013. The results of pattern data analysis by least squares method and autocorrelation function shows that data have stationery pattern so used moving average method, single exponential smoothing and ARIMA. The result of MSE shows ARIMA metohd has the lowest MSE value for whole paprika. ARIMA method for red paprika, yellow paprika and green paprika are ARIMA (1,1,2 with MSE of 434,7;ARIMA (2,1,3 with MSE of 164,4 and ARIMA (1,0,1 with MSE of 321,9 respectively

  13. Investigation of free radicals in paprika with the ESR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kispeter, J.; Szabo, I.; Horvath, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The ESR method is the one of the most successfully applied method among the physical methods for the identification of radiation or ionising treatment of foods. The identification of free radicals having short and long lifetimes is the base of the measurement. The quantitative determination makes possible the determination of the absorbed dose deriving from 60 Co radiation treatment. It has to be noted that the treatment of the foods with ionising radiation and other treatments (milling, frying, baking) and the oxidative process result free radicals in paprika samples as a function of absorbed radiation dose (2.5; 5 and 10 kGy) on the different particle size and on storage time. The intensities of the samples given after each of the seven stages of the paprika milling increased till the fifth stage corresponding to the effect of a 2 kGy absorbed dose. After conditioning and increasing the water content by 5-8% the ESR intensity shows significant lowering. This value characterises the ESR intensity of not irradiated sample. As an effect of the irradiation the ESR intensities increased along with the increase of the absorbed dose. The samples having lower particle size are more sensible for the identification of the irradiation. Evaluating the art of the decline we concluded that there are free radicals having short and long shelf lifetimes in paprika samples at the same time

  14. Change of surface colour parameters during storage of paprika (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belović Miona M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The change of paprika surface colour during three years of storage was monitored by measuring CIEL*a*b* colour parameters once a year. Ten commercial and three branded paprika samples, originating from Hungary, Austria and Serbia, were stored in original packaging at ambient temperature in dark during the storage period. The colour of paprika powder was measured by Chroma Meter CR-400 (Konica Minolta, Japan, using attachment for granular materials CR-A50. Directly measured colour parameters were CIE L* (lightness, a* (+a* = redness, -a* = greenness, b* (+b* = yellowness, -b* = blueness and dominant wavelength (DWL, while derived colour parameters were chroma (C*, hue angle (h°, and total colour change (ΔE. Paprika samples had similar granulation, and therefore it was concluded that it did not influence the colour reflection. The change of reflected colour of paprika powder during storage can be characterized by increase of CIE L* and b* colour values and decrease of a* colour value. Therefore, chroma values remained almost unchanged, while hue angle showed shift in spectrum from red-orange to orange-yellow, similarly to dominant wavelength. The paprika samples changed their colour most rapidly during the first year of storage, except the branded paprika from Serbia. Commercial paprika samples from Serbian market changed their colour more rapidly comparing to other investigated samples.

  15. Changes induced in spice paprika powder by treatment with ionizing radiation and saturated steam[Food conservation; Spice paprika; Rheology; Colorimetry; Free radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kispeter, J. E-mail: kispeter@szef.u-szeged.hu; Bajusz-Kabok, K.; Fekete, M.; Szabo, G.; Fodor, E.; Pali, T. E-mail: tpali@nucleus.szbk.u-szeged.hu

    2003-12-01

    The changes in spice paprika powder induced by ionizing radiation, saturated steam (SS) and their combination were studied as a function of the absorbed radiation dose and the storage time. The SS treatment lead to a decrease in color content (lightening) after 12 weeks of storage, together with the persistence of free radicals and viscosity changes for a longer period. The results suggest that ionizing radiation is a more advantageous method as concerns preservation of the quality of spice paprika.

  16. Comparison of Environment Impact between Conventional and Cold Chain Management System in Paprika Distribution Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eidelweijs A Putri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pasir Langu village in Cisarua, West Java, is the largest central production area of paprika in Indonesia. On average, for every 200 kilograms of paprika produced, there is rejection amounting to 3 kilograms. This resulted in money loss for wholesalers and wastes. In one year, this amount can be approximately 11.7 million Indonesian rupiahs. Recently, paprika wholesalers in Pasir Langu village recently are developing cold chain management system to maintain quality of paprika so that number of rejection can be reduced. The objective of this study is to compare environmental impacts between conventional and cold chain management system in paprika distribution process using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology and propose Photovoltaic (PV system in paprika distribution process. The result implies that the cold chain system produces more CO2 emission compared to conventional system. However, due to the promotion of PV system, the emission would be reduced. For future research, it is necessary to reduce CO2 emission from transportation process since this process is biggest contributor of CO2 emission at whole distribution process. Keywords: LCA, environmentally friendly distribution, paprika,cold chain, PV system

  17. Effect of ground paprika and its oleoresin on marinated chicken breast meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokanović Marija R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The still-marinating process is a simplified technology used to tenderize and to improve the flavour, colour and juiciness of meat products. The effects of marinade type, addition of ground paprika (P or paprika oleoresin (O, on the instrumental and sensory properties of cooked marinated chicken fillets were investigated. It was observed that marinade uptake was greater (P > 0.05 for the fillets marinated with paprika oleoresin. Cooking loss was lowest for experimental group O, and signifycantly lower (P<0.05 comparing to control group. Determined L

  18. The effect of storage on the colour of paprika powders with added oleoresin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth Zs. H.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural food colours is preferred to that of arti­ficial dyestuffs for modern alimentary purposes. Paprika is a spice plant grown and consumed in considerable quantities worldwide and also used as a natural food colour, so the colouring power of powders is very important. The colour of paprika powder is highly relevant too because the consumer concludes its colouring power based on its colour. The colouring power of paprika powders is directly determined by the quality and quantity of the colouring agent of paprika. The paprika oleoresin, that is an oil soluble extract from the fruits of Capsicum Annum Linn or Capsicum Frutescens, is suitable to raise the colour agent content of paprika powders. We investigated how the colour and the characteristics of paprika powder samples with added oleoresin change in the course of storage. The colour agent content of 7 different quality powders was increased with 7-75% using oleoresin. The initial colour agent content of samples changed between 41 and 169 ASTA units. The powders were made from Chinese, Peruvian, and Hungarian paprika. Colour measurements were performed with a HunterLab MiniScan colour-measuring instrument. The CIELab colour system was used for colour characterization. The colour agent content and the colour coordinates of samples were measured throughout 9 months. The decrease of colour agent con­tent varied between 22 and 51 percent, while the average reduction was 33 percent. The quantity of added oleoresin did not influence the colour agent content decrease significantly.

  19. Changes induced in spice paprika powder by treatment with ionizing radiation and saturated steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kispeter, J.; Bajusz-Kabok, K.; Fekete, M.; Szabo, G.; Fodor, E.; Pali, T.

    2003-01-01

    The changes in spice paprika powder induced by ionizing radiation, saturated steam (SS) and their combination were studied as a function of the absorbed radiation dose and the storage time. The SS treatment lead to a decrease in color content (lightening) after 12 weeks of storage, together with the persistence of free radicals and viscosity changes for a longer period. The results suggest that ionizing radiation is a more advantageous method as concerns preservation of the quality of spice paprika

  20. Determination of Cl, K, Rb, Zn, Se and Hg in paprika by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimian-Teherani, D; Tehrani, N [Oesterreichische Studiengesellschaft fuer Atomenergie G.m.b.H., Seibersdorf. Forschungszentrum; Kiss, I [Kozponti Elelmiszeripari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary)

    1979-10-30

    Various samples of Hungarian spice paprika (powdered) were analysed for their Cl, K, Rb and Zn content. Samples of paprika both with and without seeds were studied. The values are reported in ppm (dry weight). Statistical analyses showed significant differences in the trace element contents of most cultivars. In the majority of the cases the increase in the seed content of the samples tended to reduce their trace element content except for Zn.

  1. Accumulation and distribution of elements in plants (paprika)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimian-Teherani, D.; Altmann, H.; Wallisch, G. (Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf G.m.b.H. Inst. fuer Biologie); Kiss, I. (Koezponti Elelmiszeripari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary)); Kapeller, K. (Zoeldsegtermesztesi Kutatointezet, Kalocsa (Hungary). Paprikakutato Allomas)

    1983-01-01

    Various samples of Hungarian paprika plant (leaf, stem, root, fruit with 20% seeds, fruit without seeds) and corresponding soils were analyzed for their Br, As, K, Mn, Cr content by neutron activation analysis and for Hg by flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. The statistical analysis showed no significant differences in the content of trace elements (Br, As, Zn, Hg, Mn) in leaves, stems and roots. The content of K in stems and leaves decreased significantly in general after three months. The content of Cr in roots and stems increased significantly after three months. In most cases, the increase of the seed content of the samples tended to reduce their K, Mn, Br contents, but Zn, As, Cr, Hg contents remained unchanged.

  2. Assessment Of Biochemical Effects Of Irradiated Red Paprika On The Growing Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-SHENNAWY, H.M.; EL-NEILY, H.F.G.; HAMZA, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    The spices have tradition use due to their flavours, enhancement characteristics and medicinal properties. The rising prevalence of chronic diseases worldwide and the corresponding rise in health care costs is propelling interest among researchers and the public for multiple health benefits that related to these food items. The aim of present study was to investigate the slowing down the effects of long term ground paprika feeding on the functional changes in plasma of rats. Thirty six male rats were equally and randomly categorized into six groups. Animals were fed the experimental diets as follow: control diet (casein), high fat diet (HFD), HFD plus 2% raw red paprika, HFD plus irradiated red paprika at doses 10 or 15 or 20 kGy during the experimental period (6 weeks). The results obtained revealed that the fed on HFD significantly increased the body weight gain, liver weights, total protein, globulin, cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL-C levels. The results obtained revealed that feeding rats on diet containing either 2% raw or irradiated red paprika (w/w) induced a significant decrease in the above mentioned parameters. There was a non-significant difference between non-irradiated and irradiated red paprika and casein diet in liver enzymes AST and ALT and AST/ALT ratio, as well as albumin, haemoglobin, PCV, organs weight (spleen, kidneys, lungs and testis). The results pointed out the promising role of both raw and irradiated red paprika as a natural product to minimize the oxidative tissue damage and hyperlipidemia. The result induced that there is not any adverse effect of using ionizing radiation to decontaminate paprika on their bioactive substance.

  3. EDIBLE COATING BERBASIS PATI SAGU DENGAN PENAMBAHAN ANTIMIKROBA MINYAK SEREH PADA PAPRIKA: PREFERENSI KONSUMEN DAN MUTU VITAMIN C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widaningrum Widaningrum

    2015-05-01

    vitamin C pada paprika dengan perlakuan 0,4% minyak sereh pada suhu 8°C pada hari penyimpanan ke-27 masih tetap tinggi yaitu 1,5 mg/100g. Kata kunci: Paprika, edible coating, preferensi konsumen, vitamin C

  4. A Wireless Sensor Network-Based Ubiquitous Paprika Growth Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghwan Hwang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN technology can facilitate advances in productivity, safety and human quality of life through its applications in various industries. In particular, the application of WSN technology to the agricultural area, which is labor-intensive compared to other industries, and in addition is typically lacking in IT technology applications, adds value and can increase the agricultural productivity. This study attempts to establish a ubiquitous agricultural environment and improve the productivity of farms that grow paprika by suggesting a ‘Ubiquitous Paprika Greenhouse Management System’ using WSN technology. The proposed system can collect and monitor information related to the growth environment of crops outside and inside paprika greenhouses by installing WSN sensors and monitoring images captured by CCTV cameras. In addition, the system provides a paprika greenhouse environment control facility for manual and automatic control from a distance, improves the convenience and productivity of users, and facilitates an optimized environment to grow paprika based on the growth environment data acquired by operating the system.

  5. A Wireless Sensor Network-Based Ubiquitous Paprika Growth Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jeonghwan; Shin, Changsun; Yoe, Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technology can facilitate advances in productivity, safety and human quality of life through its applications in various industries. In particular, the application of WSN technology to the agricultural area, which is labor-intensive compared to other industries, and in addition is typically lacking in IT technology applications, adds value and can increase the agricultural productivity. This study attempts to establish a ubiquitous agricultural environment and improve the productivity of farms that grow paprika by suggesting a ‘Ubiquitous Paprika Greenhouse Management System’ using WSN technology. The proposed system can collect and monitor information related to the growth environment of crops outside and inside paprika greenhouses by installing WSN sensors and monitoring images captured by CCTV cameras. In addition, the system provides a paprika greenhouse environment control facility for manual and automatic control from a distance, improves the convenience and productivity of users, and facilitates an optimized environment to grow paprika based on the growth environment data acquired by operating the system. PMID:22163543

  6. Characteristics and composition of watermelon, pumpkin, and paprika seed oils and flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Adawy, T A; Taha, K M

    2001-03-01

    The nutritional quality and functional properties of paprika seed flour and seed kernel flours of pumpkin and watermelon were studied, as were the characteristics and structure of their seed oils. Paprika seed and seed kernels of pumpkin and watermelon were rich in oil and protein. All flour samples contained considerable amounts of P, K, Mg, Mn, and Ca. Paprika seed flour was superior to watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours in content of lysine and total essential amino acids. Oil samples had high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids with linoleic and oleic acids as the major acids. All oil samples fractionated into seven classes including triglycerides as a major lipid class. Data obtained for the oils' characteristics compare well with those of other edible oils. Antinutritional compounds such as stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid, and tannins were detected in all flours. Pumpkin seed kernel flour had higher values of chemical score, essential amino acid index, and in vitro protein digestibility than the other flours examined. The first limiting amino acid was lysine for both watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours, but it was leucine in paprika seed flour. Protein solubility index, water and fat absorption capacities, emulsification properties, and foam stability were excellent in watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours and fairly good in paprika seed flour. Flour samples could be potentially added to food systems such as bakery products and ground meat formulations not only as a nutrient supplement but also as a functional agent in these formulations.

  7. Color compensation in nitrite-reduced meat batters incorporating paprika or tomato paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bázan-Lugo, Eduardo; García-Martínez, Ignacio; Alfaro-Rodríguez, Rosa Hayde; Totosaus, Alfonso

    2012-06-01

    Nitrite is a key ingredient the manufacture of meat products, forming a stable pink color characteristic of cured products, retarding the development of rancidity and off-odors and flavors during storage, and preventing microbial growth. The negative aspects of nitrite and the demands for healthy foods result in the need to reduce nitrite in cured meat products. Paprika or tomato has been employed as natural pigments in meat products. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of incorporating paprika powder or tomato paste on the texture, rancidity and instrumental and sensory color compensation in nitrite-reduced meat batters. Addition of tomato paste improved moisture content, resulting in harder but less cohesive samples as compared to control and paprika-containing meat batters. Color characteristics of reduced nitrite samples obtained higher a* red coloration (8.9 for paprika and 7.7-8.0 for tomato paste), as compared to control samples (5.65). Instrumental color was low in control samples, with high values for tomato paste and paprika samples. Nonetheless, tomato paste used to compensate color in nitrite-reduced meat batters was ranked closer to the control sample in sensory evaluation. Color characteristics-instrumental and sensory-in these kinds of meat products were enhanced by the addition of 2.5-3.0% of tomato paste, presenting results close to the non-reduced nitrite control. Similarly, antioxidant components of tomato paste or paprika reduced lipid oxidation. Nitrite reduction from 150 to 100 ppm could be achieved employing tomato paste as a natural pigment to improve color and texture. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Determination of trace and heavy metals in paprika and soil by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimian-Teherani, D; Altmann, H; Wallisch, G [Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf G.m.b.H. Inst. fuer Biologie; Kiss, I [Koezponti Elelmiszeripari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary); Kapeller, K [Zoeldsegtermesztesi Kutatointezet, Kalocsa (Hungary). Paprikakutato Allomas

    1983-01-01

    Various samples of Hungarian spice paprika plant (treated with Wuxal) and corresponding soils were analyzed for their Fe, Cr, Zn, Co, Br, As, K, Mn and La (only in soil samples) and Hg contents. Statistical analysis showed significant differences in the trace element contents between most cultivars and soils. There is a higher amount of trace elements in samples treated with Wuxal than in controls with the exception of As. Mostly the same situation is observed in samples of soil as in paprika. The only exception is the non-significant difference in the case of Fe and Co. Differences in mercury content of treated and untreated paprika samples were not significant.

  9. Quantitative analysis of Sudan dye adulteration in paprika powder using FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of Sudan dye used illegally for coloring in food stuffs has become a point of food safety concern, especially in paprika- and chili-containing food products. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been extensively used as an analytical method for quality control and safety m...

  10. A comparative study of infrared and microwave heating for microbial decontamination of paprika powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovisa eEliasson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is currently a need in developing new decontamination technologies for spices due to limitations of existing technologies, mainly regarding their effects on spices’ sensory quality. In the search of new decontamination solutions, it is of interest to compare different technologies, to provide the industry with knowledge for taking decisions concerning appropriate decontamination technologies for spices. The present study compares infrared and microwave decontamination of naturally contaminated paprika powder after adjustment of water activity to 0.88. Infrared respectively microwave heating was applied to quickly heat up paprika powder to 98°C, after which the paprika sample was transferred to a conventional oven set at 98°C to keep the temperature constant during a holding time up to 20 min. In the present experimental set-up microwave treatment at 98°C for 20 min resulted in a reduction of 4.8 log units of the total number of mesophilic bacteria, while the infrared treatment showed a 1 log unit lower reduction for the corresponding temperature and treatment time. Microwave and infrared heating created different temperature profiles and moisture distribution within the paprika sample during the heating up part of the process, which is likely to have influenced the decontamination efficiency. The results of this study are used to discuss the difficulties in comparing two thermal technologies on equal conditions due to differences in their heating mechanisms.

  11. Effects of irrigation moisture regimes on yield and quality of paprika ( Capsicum annuum L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shongwe, Victor D.; Magongo, Bekani N.; Masarirambi, Michael T.; Manyatsi, Absalom M.

    Although paprika ( Capsicum annuum L) is not widely grown in Swaziland it is becoming increasingly popular as a spice and food colourant. It is a crop that requires irrigation at specific stages of growth as this affects not only the yield but most importantly the quality of the crop. Yield of paprika has been found to increase with relative increase in moisture whereas the quality of fruits has not followed the same trend. The objective of this study was to find the effect of varying irrigation water regimes on the yield and quality of paprika at uniform fertiliser levels. The study was carried out in the 2006/2007 cropping season at the Luyengo campus of the University of Swaziland in a greenhouse. A randomised complete block design was used with four water treatments (0.40, 0.60, 0.80, and 1.00 × Field Capacity). Parameters measured included leaf number per plant, plant height, chlorophyll content, canopy size, leaf width, leaf length, stem girth, dry mass, fresh mass, fruit length, and brix content. There were significant ( P < 0.05) increases in leaf number, plant height, chlorophyll content, canopy size, fresh and dry mass tops and fruit length at the highest moisture level (1.00 × FC) followed by the second highest regime (0.80 × FC) whilst the lower water regimes resulted in lower increases in each of the parameters. Leaf area index did not differ significantly across all treatments. In increasing order the treatments 0.80 × FC and 1.00 × FC gave higher yields but in decreasing order lower brix and thus subsequent lower paprika quality. It is recommended that growers who are aiming for optimum yield and high quality of paprika may use the 0.8 × FC treatment when irrigating.

  12. Microbial inactivation of paprika by a high-temperature short-X time treatment. Influence on color properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almela, Luis; Nieto-Sandoval, José M; Fernández López, José A

    2002-03-13

    High-temperature short-time (HTST) treatments have been used to destroy the bioburden of paprika. With this in mind, we have designed a device to treat samples of paprika with a gas whose temperature, pressure, and composition can be selected. Temperatures and treatment times ranged from 130 to 170 degrees C and 4 to 6 s, respectively. The survival of the most commonly found microorganisms in paprika and any alteration in extractable and superficial color were examined. Data showed that the optimum HTST conditions were 145 degrees C, 1.5 kg/cm2 of overpressure, 6 s operation time, and a thermal fluid of saturated steam. No microbial growth was detected during storage after thermal treatment. To minimize the color losses, treated (HTST) paprika samples should be kept under refrigeration.

  13. Optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy technique-based immunosensor development for aflatoxin B1 determination in spice paprika samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majer-Baranyi, Krisztina; Zalán, Zsolt; Mörtl, Mária; Juracsek, Judit; Szendrő, István; Székács, András; Adányi, Nóra

    2016-11-15

    Optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS) technique has been applied to label-free detection of aflatoxin B1 in a competitive immunoassay format, with the aim to compare the analytical goodness of the developed OWLS immunosenor with HPLC and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods for the detection of aflatoxin in spice paprika matrix. We have also assessed applicability of the QuEChERS method prior to ELISA measurements, and the results were compared to those obtained by traditional solvent extraction followed by immunoaffinity clean-up. The AFB1 content of sixty commercial spice paprika samples from different countries were measured with the developed and optimized OWLS immunosensor. Comparing the results from the indirect immunosensor to that obtained by HPLC or ELISA provided excellent correlation (with regression coefficients above 0.94) indicating that the competitive OWLS immunosensor has a potential for quick determination of aflatoxin B1 in paprika samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Synergistic effect of the combined treatment with gamma irradiation and sodium dichloroisocyanurate to control gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) on paprika

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Minchul; Jung, Koo; Lee, Kwang-Youll; Jeong, Je-Yong; Lee, Ju-Woon; Park, Hae-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) is one of the most major fungal pathogens in paprika. Generally, gamma irradiation over 1 kGy is effective for the control of fungal pathogens; however, a significant change in fruit quality (physical properties) on paprika was shown from gamma irradiation at over 0.6 kGy (p<0.05). Therefore, in this study, the synergistic disinfection effect of the combined treatment with gamma irradiation and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) was investigated to reduce the gamma irradiation dose. In an artificial inoculation experiment of B. cinerea isolated from naturally-infected postharvest paprika, fungal symptoms were observed in the stem and exocarp of paprika after conidial inoculation. From the sensitivity of gamma irradiation and NaDCC, B. cinerea conidia were fully inactivated by 4 kGy of gamma irradiation (D 10 value 0.99 kGy), and were fully inactivated by 50 ppm NaDCC treatment. The fungal symptoms were not detected by the dose-dependent gamma irradiation (>4 kGy) and NaDCC (>50 ppm). As a result of the combined treatment of gamma irradiation and NaDCC, the D 10 value was significantly reduced by 1.06, 0.88, 0.77, and 0.58 kGy (p<0.05). Moreover, fungal symptoms were more significantly reduced in combined treatment groups (gamma irradiation and NaDCC) than single treatment groups (gamma irradiation or NaDCC). These results suggest that combined treatment with irradiation and NaDCC treatment can be applied to preserve quality of postharvest paprika or other fruits. - Highlights: • Paprikas were treated with irradiation and NaDCC to control gray mold. • We confirmed that the combined treatment was synergistically affected. • The treatment can contribute to a reduction of postharvest losses caused by fungi. • This combined treatment can also reduce the doses of irradiation

  15. Distribution of trace and minor elements in Hungarian spice paprika plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sziklai, I L; Oerdoegh, M; Szabo, E; Molnar, E

    1988-06-01

    Detailed investigations were carried out to study the distribution of trace and minor elements in different parts (fruit, seed and rib, peduncle, stem, leaf, root) of ripe Hungarian spice paprika plants. Two varieties were analyzed for their Cl, Co, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sc, V and Zn content by non-destructive neutron activation analysis. The results showed that the iron contents of the samples were much higher than those of the other trace elements. For trace elements Co, Fe, Mn, Sc, V and Zn a considerable enrichment was observed in the leaf, while the Rb and K, Na, Mg showed accumulation mainly in the peduncle. (author) 8 refs.; 3 tabs.

  16. Effectiveness of ethylene oxide and gamma irradiation on the microbiological population of three types of paprika

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, S.L.; Gimenez, J.L.; Sanchez, F.M.; Romojaro, F.

    1986-01-01

    The effectiveness of ethylene oxide and the gamma irradiation sterilizing treatments on the microbiological population was studied in three types of Spanish paprika, stored in a cold chamber (4 0 C) and at room temperature (16-38.8 0 C) over an experimental period of 285 days. The controlled microorganisms were: mesophilic aerobes, coliforms, sulfite reducing anaerobes, yeasts, molds, and Salmonella. The presence of aflatoxins was also studied. The results showed that both sterilizing treatments reduced the microbiological population to below the permissible levels recommended by the International Commission on Microbiological Specification for Food. Nevertheless, it was interesting that the gamma irradiation treatment was more effective

  17. The transfer of natural Rhodamine B contamination from raw paprika fruit to capsicum oleoresin during the extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Naiying; Gao, Wei; Lian, Yunhe; Du, Jingjing; Tie, Xiaowei

    2017-12-15

    Occurrence of Rhodamine B (RhB) contamination in paprika caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process has been reported. It may transfer during the process of active compounds extraction, and eventually exist in final products. Herein, the re-distribution of RhB during the extraction process was assessed in terms of RhB contents, as well as mass, color value and capsaicinoids yield of each process. Results revealed that natural RhB contamination at 0.55-1.11µg/kg originated from raw paprika fruit then transferred with the extraction proceeded. About 95.5% of RhB was found in red oleoresin. After separation of red oleoresin, 91.6% of RhB was remained in capsicum oleoresin, only 3.7% in paprika red. These results were consistent with total capsaicinoids recovery of each product. The RhB levels in edible capsicum oleoresin in our present study at 0.01-0.34µg/kg did not exceed the legal limits established by the European Union. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Microbiological and physicochemical characterization of dry-cured Halal goat meat. Effect of salting time and addition of olive oil and paprika covering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherroud, Sanâa; Cachaldora, Aida; Fonseca, Sonia; Laglaoui, Amin; Carballo, Javier; Franco, Inmaculada

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this work was to define a simple technological process for dry-cured Halal goat meat elaboration. The aims of this study were to analyze physicochemical parameters and to enumerate the microbial population at the end of the different manufacturing processes (two salting times and the addition of olive oil and paprika covering) on 36 units of meat product. A total of 532 strains were isolated from several selective culture media and then identified using classical and molecular methods. In general, salt effect and the addition of olive oil and paprika were significant for all the studied microbial groups as well as on NaCl content and water activity. Molecular analysis proves that staphylococci, especially Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus equorum, were the most common naturally occurring microbiota. The best manufacturing process would be obtained with a longer salting time and the addition of the olive oil and paprika covering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Changes in the carotenoid metabolism of capsicum fruits during application of modelized slow drying process for paprika production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Mínguez-Mosquera, María Isabel

    2004-02-11

    A temperature profile simulating the traditional slow drying process of red pepper fruits, which is conducted in La Vera region (Spain) for paprika production, was developed. Carotenoid and ascorbic acid content, as well as moisture of fruits, were monitored during the slow drying process designed. Data obtained suggested that the evolution of carotenoid concentration, the main quality trait for paprika, directly depend on the physical conditions imposed. During the drying process, three different stages could be observed in relation to the carotenoids. The first stage corresponds to a physiological adaptation to the new imposed conditions that implied a decrease (ca. 20%) in the carotenoid content during the first 24 h. After that short period and during 5 days, a second stage was noticed, recovering the biosynthetic (carotenogenic) capability of the fruits, which denotes an accommodation of the fruits to the new environmental conditions. During the following 48 h (third stage) a sharp increase in the carotenoid content was observed. This last phenomenon seems to be related with an oxidative-thermal stress, which took place during the first stage, inducing a carotenogenesis similar to that occurring in over-ripening fruits. Results demonstrate that a fine control of the temperature and moisture content would help to positively modulate carotenogenesis and minimize catabolism, making it possible to adjust the drying process to the ripeness stage of fruits with the aim of improving carotenoid retention and therefore quality of the resulting product. In the case of ascorbic acid, data demonstrated that this compound is very sensitive to the drying process, with a decrease of about 76% during the first 24 h and remaining only at trace levels during the rest of the process. Therefore, no antioxidant role should be expected from ascorbic acid during the whole process and in the corresponding final product (paprika), despite that red pepper fruit is well-known to be rich

  20. The effect of gamma irradiation on some carotenoid compounds of paprika

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachariev, Gy.; Kiss, I.

    1983-01-01

    Highly purified crystalline carotenoids (capsanthin, capsorubin, cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin) were isolated from the pericarp of ripen paprika. The carotenoids were irradiated in a 60 Co source in benzene and aqueous solutions to study their radiolysis. In 100 μM benzene solutions at a dose of 0.91 kGy the following G-values were determined: beta-carotene 0.51, capsanthin 0.44, capsorubin 0.41, zeaxanthin 0.32, cryptoxanthin 0.15. In water at a 0.30 kGy dose (0.91 kGy is very destructive) the obtained G-values were: capsanthin 2.57, capsorubin: 2.31, zeaxanthin 2.34, beta-carotene 1.75, crytpoxanthin 1.54. Ascorbic acid reduced the radiolysis of carotenoids in water. 100 μM benzene solutions of capsanthin and zeaxanthin were irradiated at 1.2 kGy and 1.5 kGy doses, resp. The irradiated solutions were column-chromatographed and the separated bands were investigated by spectrophotometric and chemical methods. It was established that 40% of the capsanthin and 56% of the cryptoxanthin was decomposed to UV absorbing, not yet identified compounds. The remainder consisted in 69-72% of the original all-trans carotenoids. Among the radiation products cis-trans isomers and monoepoxy derivatives of the respective carotenoids could be identified. These amounted only to 0.3-2.2% of the all-trans carotenoids that survived the damage of irradiation. (author)

  1. The polyphenolics and carbohydrates as indicators of botanical and geographical origin of Serbian autochthonous clones of red spice paprika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrić, Sanja Ž; Gašić, Uroš M; Dramićanin, Aleksandra M; Ćirić, Ivanka Ž; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka M; Popović-Đorđević, Jelena B; Momirović, Nebojša M; Tešić, Živoslav Lj

    2017-02-15

    Spice peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) var. Lemeška and Lakošnička paprika were investigated to evaluate their polyphenolic and carbohydrate profiles and antioxidant activity. A total of forty-nine polyphenolics were identified using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to LTQ OrbiTrap mass analyzer. Twenty-five of them were quantified using available standards, while the other compounds were confirmed by exact mass search of their deprotonated molecule [M-H](-) and its MS(4) fragmentation. Thirteen carbohydrates were quantified using high-performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD). Radical scavenging activity (RSA) ranged from 17.32 to 48.34mmol TE (Trolox equivalent)/kg DW (dry weight) and total phenolics content (TPC) was ranged between 7.03 and 14.92g GAE (gallic acid equivalents)/kg DW. To our best knowledge, five polyphenolic compounds were for the first time tentatively identified in paprika: 5-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid, luteolin 7-O-(2″-O-pentosyl-4″-O-hexosyl)hexoside, quercetin 3-O-(2″-O-hexosyl)rhamnoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-[6″-O-(5-hydroxyferuloyl)hexoside]-7-O-rhamnoside, and luteolin 7-O-[2″-O-(5'″-O-sinapoyl)pentosyl-6″-O-malonyl]hexoside. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of different ripening conditions on pigments of pepper for paprika production at green stage of maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevrešan, Žarko S; Mastilović, Jasna S; Mandić, Anamarija I; Torbica, Aleksandra M

    2013-09-25

    The content and composition of pigments and CIELab color properties in fruits ripened in the field were compared with those obtained in ground paprika produced from green pepper fruits after postharvest ripening for 15 days in a greenhouse under different conditions. Obtained data for pigment content, composition, and esterification rate have shown that the processes of pigment biosynthesis in fruits ripened under greenhouse conditions are different from those occurring in fruits naturally matured in the field: the red/yellow pigment ratio (3:1) in greenhouse-ripened fruits is much higher than in naturally ripened pepper in breaker (1:1) and also in faint red (2:1) ripening stages from the field. Additionally, during the postharvest ripening of green pepper in the greenhouse esterification processes are less expressed than during the ripening of the fruits in the field. Postharvest ripening under natural daylight resulted in higher content of red pigments, followed by higher ASTA value.

  3. Estimating 3D Leaf and Stem Shape of Nursery Paprika Plants by a Novel Multi-Camera Photography System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For plant breeding and growth monitoring, accurate measurements of plant structure parameters are very crucial. We have, therefore, developed a high efficiency Multi-Camera Photography (MCP system combining Multi-View Stereovision (MVS with the Structure from Motion (SfM algorithm. In this paper, we measured six variables of nursery paprika plants and investigated the accuracy of 3D models reconstructed from photos taken by four lens types at four different positions. The results demonstrated that error between the estimated and measured values was small, and the root-mean-square errors (RMSE for leaf width/length and stem height/diameter were 1.65 mm (R2 = 0.98 and 0.57 mm (R2 = 0.99, respectively. The accuracies of the 3D model reconstruction of leaf and stem by a 28-mm lens at the first and third camera positions were the highest, and the number of reconstructed fine-scale 3D model shape surfaces of leaf and stem is the most. The results confirmed the practicability of our new method for the reconstruction of fine-scale plant model and accurate estimation of the plant parameters. They also displayed that our system is a good system for capturing high-resolution 3D images of nursery plants with high efficiency.

  4. Estimating 3D Leaf and Stem Shape of Nursery Paprika Plants by a Novel Multi-Camera Photography System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Teng, Poching; Shimizu, Yo; Hosoi, Fumiki; Omasa, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    For plant breeding and growth monitoring, accurate measurements of plant structure parameters are very crucial. We have, therefore, developed a high efficiency Multi-Camera Photography (MCP) system combining Multi-View Stereovision (MVS) with the Structure from Motion (SfM) algorithm. In this paper, we measured six variables of nursery paprika plants and investigated the accuracy of 3D models reconstructed from photos taken by four lens types at four different positions. The results demonstrated that error between the estimated and measured values was small, and the root-mean-square errors (RMSE) for leaf width/length and stem height/diameter were 1.65 mm (R2 = 0.98) and 0.57 mm (R2 = 0.99), respectively. The accuracies of the 3D model reconstruction of leaf and stem by a 28-mm lens at the first and third camera positions were the highest, and the number of reconstructed fine-scale 3D model shape surfaces of leaf and stem is the most. The results confirmed the practicability of our new method for the reconstruction of fine-scale plant model and accurate estimation of the plant parameters. They also displayed that our system is a good system for capturing high-resolution 3D images of nursery plants with high efficiency. PMID:27314348

  5. Investigation of induced changes after treatment with ionizing radiation and saturated steam in the case of paprika

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kispeter, J.; Bajusz-Kabok, K.; Fekete, M.; Szabo, G.; Fodor, E.; Pali, T.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Beside conventional food preservation methods, such new physical methods are also applied as ionising radiation, high hydrostatic pressure, high-tension gradient, fluctuating strong magnetic field as well as treatments with high-pressure saturated steam and microwaves. Since radiation treatment is the best known, it can be regarded as a basic method in comparative tests. In our work the preservation-induced changes were investigated for paprika griests of various origin and quality (different dyestuff contents). Samples were treated with ionising radiation, high-pressure saturated steam (140 deg C, 30 s) or with combinations of these. The changes were followed as a function of absorbed dose (2, 5, 7.5, 10 kGy) and storage time (0, 1, 2, 4, 12 weeks) using colour measurements, rheological and ESR methods. Our results are summarised as follows: (1) The treatment with high-pressure saturated steam is equivalent to that of 5 kGy absorbed γ-doses. Significant changes in dyestuff contents and surface colours can't be detected immediately after treatments. After storage of 12 weeks, decomposition of dyestuffs and changes in surface colours in samples treated with saturated steam are 20% greater than in control. Radiation results in a slight (few %) dyestuff decomposition and colour change (i.e. discolouration). (2) Rheological characteristics were changed in both treatments (apparent viscosities were increased) during storage. This is a reversible and permanent change in the case of treatments with ionising radiation and with high-pressure saturated steam, respectively. (3) Changes induced by microwave treatment are in accordance with rheological changes. (4) Treatment with saturated steam results in a decrease in the cellulose free radical content. The decrease is inversely proportional to dyestuff contents. (5) Decrease of cellulose radical concentration with the storage time is of exponential-like character. Radicals disappear at

  6. Determination of Sudan I in paprika powder by molecularly imprinted polymers-thin layer chromatography-surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fang; Hu, Yaxi; Chen, Da; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Grant, Edward; Lu, Xiaonan

    2015-10-01

    Sudan I is a carcinogenic and mutagenic azo-compound that has been utilized as a common adulterant in spice and spice blends to impart a desirable red color to foods. A novel biosensor combining molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), thin layer chromatography (TLC) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) could determine Sudan I levels in paprika powder to 1 ppm (or 2 ng/spot). Sudan I spiked paprika extracts (spiking levels: 0, 1, 5, 10, 40, 70 and 100 ppm) were prepared. Sudan I imprinted polymers were synthesized by employing the interaction between Sudan I (template) and methacrylic acid (functional monomer), followed by washing to remove Sudan I leaving the Sudan I-binding sites exposed. MIPs were used as a stationary phase for TLC and could selectively retain Sudan I at the original spot with little interference. A gold colloid SERS substrate could enhance Raman intensity for Sudan I in this MIP-TLC system. Principal component analysis plot and partial least squares regression (R(2)=0.978) models were constructed and a linear regression model (R(2)=0.983) correlated spiking levels (5, 10, 40, 70 and 100 ppm) with the peak intensities (721 cm(-1)) of Sudan I SERS spectra. Both separation (30-40s) and detection (1s or 0.1s) were extremely fast by using both commercial bench-top and custom made portable Raman spectrometers. This biosensor can be applied as a rapid, low-cost and reliable tool for screening Sudan I adulteration in foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Carotenoid content of the varieties Jaranda and Jariza (Capsicumannuum L.) and response during the industrial slow drying and grinding steps in paprika processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez-Mosquera, M I; Pérez-Gálvez, A; Garrido-Fernández, J

    2000-07-01

    Fruits of the pepper varieties Jaranda and Jariza (Capsicum annuum L. ) ripen as a group, enabling a single harvesting, showed a uniform carotenoid content that is high enough (7.9 g/kg) for the production of paprika. The drying system at mild temperature showed that fruits with moisture content of 85-88% generated a dry product with carotenoid content equal to or higher than the initial one. Those high moisture levels allowed the fruits to have a longer period of metabolic activity, increasing the yellow fraction, the red fraction, or both as a function of what biosynthetic process was predominant. This fact indicates under-ripeness of the fruits in the drying step. The results obtained allow us to establish that both varieties, Jaranda and Jariza, fit the dehydration process employed, yielding a dry fruit with carotenoid concentration similar to that the initial one. During the grinding step of the dry fruit, the heat generated by the hammers of the mill caused degradation of the yellow fraction, while the red fraction is maintained. The ripeness state of the harvested fruits and the appropriateness or severity of the processing steps are indicated by the ratio of red to yellow (R/Y) and/or red to total (R/T) pigments, since fluctuations in both fractions and in total pigments are reflected in and monitored by these parameters.

  8. Funcionalidade da oleoresina de páprica microencapsulada em goma-arábica e amido de arroz/gelatina Functionality of microencapsulated paprika oleoresin in arabic gum and rice starch/gelatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Barbosa Santos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a funcionalidade da oleoresina de páprica microencapsulada em goma-arábica e amido de arroz/gelatina, incorporada nos sistemas-modelo bolo e gel de gelatina. Avaliou-se a cor por meio de medida instrumental e aceitação sensorial por atributos de aparência e aceitação global. O pigmento encapsulado solubilizou-se, tingiu e se distribuiu uniformemente nos bolos, os quais apresentaram boa aceitação global. Nos géis, a goma apresentou desempenho superior ao amido/gelatina quanto à aparência, porém, todos os tratamentos obtiveram baixa aceitação global. A presença da oleoresina microencapsulada não interferiu negativamente no sabor, aroma ou textura dos sistemas analisados.The objective of this work was to evaluate the functionality of microencapsulated paprika oleoresin in arabic gum and rice starch/gelatin incorporated into the model systems: cake and gelatin gel. The systems were evaluated by instrumental color and consumer test based on the appearance and global acceptance attributes. The encapsulated pigment successfully dyed the cakes as well as was uniformly distributed into the products, showing good sensory acceptance. In the gels, a superior performance was obtained when using arabic gum, however all treatments applied for gels showed low global sensory acceptance. The presence of microencapsulated paprika oleoresin had no negative effect on taste, flavor or texture of analyzed systems.

  9. Desenvolvimento de massa alimentícia fresca funcional com a adição de isolado protéico de soja e polidextrose utilizando páprica como corante Development of functional fresh food adding soy protein isolate and polidextrose using paprika as coloring agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Maria Paucar-Menacho

    2008-12-01

    áprica foram de 3,5, 8,0 e 1,5%, respectivamente.The trend of the current consumer is to use foods that are easy to prepare and that besides having nutritional quality provide health benefits. In this work, fresh food with functional characteristics was developed incorporating Soy Protein Isolate (SPI and polidextrose using paprika as the coloring agent. The consumption of IPS could contribute to decrease cholesterol levels while polidextrose, acting as a fiber, could promote the reduction of risk of colon cancer. The optimization of the formulation was carried out using a 23 complete factorial design considering independent variables the following contents: i SPI; ii polidextrose; and iii paprika. The effects of these variables on the quality of the food were evaluated through physical-chemical characteristics (color and cooking test, instrumental texture, and sensory analysis. Regarding the physical parameters, instrumental color of the raw pasta was affected only by the addition of paprika. The parameters cooking time (2.5 minutes, increase in mass (1.40 to 1.64%, and loss of solids (3.80 to 5.56% were not influenced by the ingredients used. Elasticity (instrumental texture parameter was reduced with the increase of polidextrose. Regarding sensory analysis of the raw food, an increase in the addition of SPI and a reduction in the addition of polidextrose positively affected global acceptance and purchase intention. An increases in SPI and paprika increased color acceptance. Regarding sensory analysis of the cooked food, SPI had a positive effect on texture while polidextrose and paprika negatively affected this parameter. Nevertheless, the ingredients used did not influence purchase intention of the cooked food. The ideal percentages of polidextrose, soy protein isolate, and paprika were 3.5, 8.0, and 1.5%, respectively.

  10. Desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais, alimentadas com dietas contendo sorgo e páprica em substituição ao milho = Performance and egg quality of laying hens fed with sorghum and paprika based diets to replace the corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarier de Oliveira Moreno

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Para estudar o efeito da substituição do milho pelo sorgo, com ou sem a adição do pigmento natural, páprica, na ração de poedeiras comerciais, 160 poedeiras Hy-Line W36, (47 semanas de idade, distribuídas ao acaso, em duas aves por gaiola de 25 cm, divididas em cinco tratamentos com quatro repetições de oito aves cada, foram utilizadas. A ração controle foi à base de milho e farelo de soja e as demais substituíram o milho pelo sorgo, de baixo tanino, na proporção de 50 ou 100%. A páprica, quando adicionada, foi em 500 g t-1 e 1.000 g t-1 para os níveis de sorgo de 50 e 100%, respectivamente. A substituição do milho por sorgo não afetou o desempenho na postura, mas reduziu a pigmentação da gema. A coloração da gema, com a adição do pigmento natural, em ambas dosagens, foisuperior ao controle, porém a dosagem de 1.000 g t-1 reduziu a postura.This study aimed to investigate the effect of the substitution of the corn for sorghum, with or without supplementation of paprika, asnatural pigment, in the diets of laying hens. The experiment was conducted with 160 Hy-Line W36 layer hens (47 weeks of age, kept in cages of 25 cm, distributed in a completely randomized design, with eight birds and four replications. The control diet was on a cornand soybean meal base and the other diets had 50 or 100% of substitution of corn by sorghum, low tannin. The paprika, when supplemented, was added in 500 g t-1 or 1,000 g t-1. to the ration of low or high sorghum levels, respectively. The substitution of the cornby sorghum did not affect the performance of laying hens, but decreased the yolk pigmentation. When the natural pigment was added, in both dosages, the yolk pigmentation was higher than that obtained from the control diet, but the level of 1,000 g t-1. reduced theperformance of layers.

  11. Desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais, alimentadas com dietas contendo sorgo e páprica em substituição ao milho - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i2.220 Performance and egg quality of laying hens fed with sorghum and paprika based diets to replace the corn - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i2.220

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Cordeiro Gadelha

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Para estudar o efeito da substituição do milho pelo sorgo, com ou sem a adição do pigmento natural, páprica, na ração de poedeiras comerciais, 160 poedeiras Hy-Line W36, (47 semanas de idade, distribuídas ao acaso, em duas aves por gaiola de 25 cm, divididas em cinco tratamentos com quatro repetições de oito aves cada, foram utilizadas. A ração controle foi à base de milho e farelo de soja e as demais substituíram o milho pelo sorgo, de baixo tanino, na proporção de 50 ou 100%. A páprica, quando adicionada, foi em 500 g t-1 e 1.000 g t-1 para os níveis de sorgo de 50 e 100%, respectivamente. A substituição do milho por sorgo não afetou o desempenho na postura, mas reduziu a pigmentação da gema. A coloração da gema, com a adição do pigmento natural, em ambas dosagens, foi superior ao controle, porém a dosagem de 1.000 g t-1 reduziu a postura.This study aimed to investigate the effect of the substitution of the corn for sorghum, with or without supplementation of paprika, as natural pigment, in the diets of laying hens. The experiment was conducted with 160 Hy- Line W36 layer hens (47 weeks of age, kept in cages of 25 cm, distributed in a completely randomized design, with eight birds and four replications. The control diet was on a corn and soybean meal base and the other diets had 50 or 100% of substitution of corn by sorghum, low tannin. The paprika, when supplemented, was added in 500 g t-1 or 1,000 g t-1. to the ration of low or high sorghum levels, respectively. The substitution of the corn by sorghum did not affect the performance of laying hens, but decreased the yolk pigmentation. When the natural pigment was added, in both dosages, the yolk pigmentation was higher than that obtained from the control diet, but the level of 1,000 g t-1. reduced the performance of layers.

  12. Effecten van de voorbewerking op het gehalte aan inhoudsstoffen paprika

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanholt, van L.; Elderen, van C.

    1998-01-01

    Het chemisch laboratorium werkte het afgelopen jaar een analysemethode uit voor het bepalen van vitamine-C in paprikavruchten (Aanholt, 1997). Met de wetenschap voor ogen dat vitamine-C zeer snel op verschillende manieren afgebroken kan worden, werd besloten tot een enigermate afwijkende methode van

  13. Geschikte onderstammen voor biologisch geteelde komkommers, tomaten en paprika's in relatie tot wortelknobbelaaltjes (Meloidogyne spp.) - Resultaten onderzoek 2006-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, J.; Slooten, van M.A.; Wurff, van der A.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    During 5 years, Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture did research to find a rootstock with high resistance against the most important root knot nematodes or Meloidogyne species in greenhouses in the Netherlands, M. incognita, M. hapla and M. javanica. Rootstocks should combine resistance with good

  14. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the lipid composition of spices: sweet noble paprika, black pepper and nutmeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biacs, P A; Gruiz, K [Budapesti Mueszaki Egyetem (Hungary). Mezoegazdasagi Kemiai Technologiai Tanszek

    1980-01-01

    The effect of irradiation upon the chemical constituents of spices has not been widely studied so far. Radiolysis products from lipids have not received sufficient attention in the past, though it had been shown that the degradation products in irradiated spices were not very different from those treated by acceptable processing methods. Though there was no doubt that highly toxic products could arise from the irradiation of these comp nents, in order to explore certain areas it was necessary to provide some additional data.

  15. Met goede hygiëne en vochtbeheersing Erwinia in paprika te lijf (onderzoek van Jantineke Hofland-Zijlstra en Rozemarijn de Vries)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arkesteijn, M.; Hofland-Zijlstra, J.D.; Vries, de R.S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Zomer 2010 had een groot aantal paprikabedrijven verspreid over het hele land last van Erwinia vruchtrot. Waar komt Erwinia vandaan en wat is er tegen te doen? Met deze vragen gingen onderzoekers Jantineke Hofland- Zijlstra en Rozemarijn de Vries aan de slag. Hygiëne, een goede vochtbeheersing en

  16. Energiezuinige teeltsturing bij paprika : proof of principle : testen van dynamische optimalisatie als methode om doelgerichte sturing van de teelt te combineren met energiebesparing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, F.; Zwart, de H.F.; Henten, van E.J.; Gelder, de A.; Hemming, J.; Bontsema, J.; Lagas, P.; Mark, van der C.

    2009-01-01

    De noodzaak om efficiënt met energie om te gaan en de uitstoot van CO2 te beperken, wordt niet alleen door de maatschappij aan de sector opgelegd, maar komt ook voort uit economische noodzaak. In verschillende proeven is aangetoond dat winst valt te behalen door af te wijken van de gangbare

  17. Chemiluminescence measurement of cinnamon-, curry-, red pepper- and milk powder as a method to identify ionizing radiation treatment. Die Messung der Chemilumineszenz von Zimt-, Curry-, Paprika- und Milchpulver als Nachweis einer Behandlung mit ionisierenden Strahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boegl, W; Heide, L

    1983-11-01

    The findings may be summarized as follows: significant differences in the dose response relationship of the different foodstuffs were found; the chemiluminescence intensity of different foodstuffs irradiated at equal dose levels may vary considerably; in some cases there might be evidence of radiation treatment even 2 months afterwards; after heating, the irradiated foodstuffs showed reduced chemiluminescence intensity. In some cases it is, however, possible to identify previous irradiation of a foodstuff; if irradiated foodstuffs are treated with water vapor, the radicals will react with the water so as to preclude the identification of previous irradiation; UV-irradiation will result in a drastic increase in luminescence intensity, at least in some cases and air oxidation may also increase the luminescence intensity, especially in fatty foodstuffs.

  18. Improving the determination of irradiation efficacy by the identification of surviving bacteria from irradiated spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshikawa, Tomihiko; Matsushima, Masako; Hironiwa, Takayuki; Takekawa, Tetsuya; Miyahara, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    The identification of the surviving bacteria isolated from 5 kinds of irradiated spices (all-spice, oregano, sage, paprika and black pepper) was carried out to know whether these bacteria were marker organisms to determine the efficacy of the irradiation treatment. Except in paprika, B.megaterium was detected. In allspice, paprika and black pepper B.pumilus was detected. B.cereus was detected in allspice, oregano and black pepper. Gram negative bacteria such as Methylobacterium and Enterobacter genus were also detected in oregano, sage and paprika. These bacteria were strongly resistant to radiation, and can be used as marker organisms for the determination of the efficacy of the irradiation treatment of spices. (author)

  19. 75 FR 12723 - Notice of Meeting of the National Organic Standards Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ...); Paprika color--dried powder and vegetable oil extract (CAS 68917-78-2); Pumpkin juice color (pigment CAS...; Calcium carbonate; Calcium chloride; Carageenan; Dairy cultures; Diatomaceous earth; Enzymes; Flavors...

  20. Vudu v tjomnom kinozale / Nikolai Karajev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karajev, Nikolai, 1978-

    2007-01-01

    PÖFFi animafilmide festivali "Animated Dreams" ja Nukufilmi 50. juubeli külalised konverentsil "Voodoo hing" olid Pjotr Sapegin, Peter Lord, Kihachiro Kawamoto. Ka Satoshi Koni täispikast animafilmist "Paprika" ja auhinnatud filmidest

  1. Shaking the Salt Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lean meat Almond extract: Puddings, fruits Basil: Fish, lamb, lean ground meats, stews, salads, soups, sauces, fish cocktails Bay leaves: Lean ... apples, fruit salads, carrots, cauliflower, squash, potatoes, veal, lamb Mustard ... stews, vegetables, salads, soups Paprika: Lean meats, fish, soups, ...

  2. Effect of irradiation dose on sensory characteristics and microbiological contamination of chosen seasonings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, E.; Wasowicz, E.; Zawirska-Wojtasiak, R.; Czaczyk, K.; Trojanowska, K.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation (3, 5, 10 kGy) on sensory characteristics, volatiles constituents and microbiological contamination of several seasonings were studied. The dose of 3 kGy reduced microflora effectively, and did not cause evident changes in aroma. Complete sterilization, however, required 7 or 10 kGy particularly in the case of paprika. Such doses substantially changed the smell and taste of seasonings. Is some of them (paprika, mustard, coriander) the total volatiles content increased after radiation

  3. El proceso tradicional de elaboración del pimentón de Murcia y sus posibles innovaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escarabajal, David

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional method of Spanish paprika processing in the Murcia Region is under the official category Denomination of Origin “Paprika of Murcia”. The process consists basically in manual harvesting the fruit in full ripe stage, drying, removing the peduncle and seeds, hammer and stone milling for crushing and grinding, transmission, mixing and granulating, sterilization, packaging and refrigerated storage. The details about the paprika processing operations are reported. In a second part the main control points of paprika processing, paprika quality traits and risks are also mentioned. The innovations proposed for paprika processing and unit operations in the literature include application of hygienic food processing design, paprika processing in a nitrogen flow, heat pretreatments before grinding or applied to shredded pepper, high hydrostatic pressure or high intensity electrical field pulse, irradiation, osmotic dehydration, lyophilization, mixing and coating, and modified atmosphere packaging. The traditional method of Spanish paprika processing in the Murcia Region is under the official category Denomination of Origin “Paprika of Murcia”. The process consists basically in manual harvesting the fruit in full ripe  stage, drying, removing the peduncle and seeds, hammer and stone milling for crushing and grinding, transmission, mixing and granulating, sterilization, packaging and refrigerated storage. The details about the paprika processing operations are reported. In a second part the main control points of paprika processing, paprika quality traits and risks are also mentioned. The innovations proposed for paprika processing and unit operations in the literature include application of hygienic food processing design, paprika processing in a nitrogen flow, heat pretreatments before grinding or applied to shredded pepper, high hydrostatic pressure or high intensity electrical field pulse, irradiation, osmotic dehydration

  4. Detection of irradiated spice in blend of irradiated and un-irradiated spices using thermoluminescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Michiko; Yamazaki, Masao; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Todoriki, Setsuko; Miyahara, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    Five blended spice sample were prepared by mixing irradiated and un-irradiated black pepper and paprika at different ratios. Blended black pepper containing 2%(w/w) of 5.4 kGy-irradiated black pepper showed no maximum at glow1. Irradiated black pepper samples, mixed to 5 or 10%(w/w), were identified as 'irradiated' or 'partially irradiated' or 'un-irradiated'. All samples with un-irradiated pepper up to 20%(w/w) were identified as irradiated'. In the case 5.0 kGy-irradiated paprika were mixed with un-irradiated paprika up to 5%(w/w), all samples were identified as irradiated'. The glow1 curves of samples, including irradiated paprika at 0.2%(w/w) or higher, exhibited a maximum between 150 and 250degC. The results suggest the existence of different critical mixing ratio for the detection of irradiation among each spices. Temperature range for integration of the TL glow intensity were compared between 70-400degC and approximate 150-250degC, and revealed that the latter temperature range was determined based on the measurement of TLD100. Although TL glow ratio in 150-250degC was lower than that of 70-400degC range, identification of irradiation was not affected. Treatment of un-irradiated black pepper and paprika with ultraviolet rays had no effect on the detection of irradiation. (author)

  5. 21 CFR 172.140 - Ethoxyquin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... used as an antioxidant for preservation of color in the production of chili powder, paprika, and ground... or on the uncooked fat of meat from animals except poultry. 3 parts per million in or on the uncooked liver and fat of poultry. 0.5 part per million in or on the uncooked muscle meat of animals. 0.5 part...

  6. Contact allergy to spices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Van den Akker Th. (W.); I.D. Roesyanto-Mahadi (I.); A.W. van Toorenenbergen (Albert); Th. van Joost (Theo)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractA group of 103 patients suspected of contact allergy was tested with the European standard series, wood tars and spices; paprika, cinnamon, laurel, celery seed, nutmeg, curry, black pepper, cloves, while pepper, coriander, cacao and garlic. 32 patients (Group I) were selected on the

  7. Identification of irradiation treatment in processed food. Pt. 2. Evaluation of a SPE-method for analyzing irradiation induced hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, M.; Ammon, J.; Berg, H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with a solid phase extraction (SPE) method for the isolation of irradiation induced hydrocarbons which can replace the column chromatography described in the paragraph 35 LMBG (German Food Law) procedure L06.00-37. Using this new method, only a tenth of solvents and column material is necessary. The SPE method was a good as LC-LC-GC/FID or LC-LC-GC/MS in analyzing new or complex matrices like paprika or salmon. Additionally, it is fast, cheap and easy to perform. As far as we know, the detection of irradiation traetment in paprika powder by analyzing irradiation induced hydrocarbons has not been described before. The new method is a good alternative for the commonly used thermoluminescence procedure. (orig.) [de

  8. Spectrophotometric analysis of irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josimovic, L; Cudina, I

    1987-01-01

    Seven different spices (thyme, cinnamon, coriander, caraway, pimento, paprika, black pepper) were treated by gamma radiation at an absorbed dose of 10 kGy, and the effect on chemical quality was determined. The effects of this dose were assessed by spectrophotometric analysis of some water-soluble constituents of spices (carbohydrates; carbonyl compounds) and on the content of water-insoluble steam-volatile oils. The colour of paprika and the content of piperine in pepper held in different packaging materials were measured in unirradiated and irradiated samples as a function of storage time. In all cases irradiation does not bring about any distinct qualitative or quantitative chemical changes based on spectrophotometric analysis of spice extracts.

  9. Experiences of radiostimulation in small-plot fields. Experiments in 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannonhalmi, K.

    1979-01-01

    In 1978 radiostimulation experiments were conducted on a total of 18 ha, using 41 varieties of 13 plant species. This paper deals with some aspects of the work in relation to maize, carrots, paprika for spice and cucumbers. According to the observations the importance of gamma irradiating isotopes with different energy spectra exceeded that of dose intensity in the case of maize. In some hybrids yield response was obtained with 137 Cs gamma treatment, in others with 60 Co gamma treatment. Carrot yield exhibited an unambiguous and considerable increase by the influence of irradiation. The changes in the growing season and crop yield of paprika for spice were dependent on the variety. The two cucumber varieties studied responded differently to irradiation. Early and increased yield was obtained for the Buda gherkins. The Nimbus variety exhibited no stimulation effect. The addition of gibberellic acid resulted in larger yield for the Nimbus variety while no response was obtained with the Buda gherkin variety. (author)

  10. Festival Euroopa südames / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2004-01-01

    Karlovy Vary festivalist. Kuldgloobuse sai itaallaste Andrea ja Antonio Frazzi "Lastelugu" ("Certi bambini"), parima režii preemia sai hispaanlane Xavier Bermudez ("Leon ja Olvido"), naiskõrvalosa preemia anti Karen Lise Mynsterile ( taanlase Paprika Steeni "Tagajärjed"). Ka ungari filmist "Pärast eelmist päeva" (režii Attila Janisch), prantsuse "Kooripoisid" (režii Christophe Barratier), india "Vihmamantel" (režii Rituparno Ghosh), vene "Minu kasuvend Frankenstein" (Valeri Todorovski)

  11. A Computer System for Menu Evaluation and Related Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-01

    C00500 606000 ROAST BEEF BAKED HAM CREAM «RAVY PAPRIKA BUTTERED POTATOES LYONNAISE CARROTS CAULIFLOWER AU «RATIN SIMMERED BLACKEYE PEAS BUTTERED...002930 H00230 602000 60*000 C00500 608000 608500 PEA SOUP CRACKERS PORK CHOP SUEY TURKEY POT PIE OSBRIEN POTATOES STEAMED RICE BUTTERED... potatoes ) and finally by recipe portion cost (for 100 portions) from high to low. The recipe portion costs in each major category (1-9

  12. Učinak začina i različitih biljaka na preživljavanje i rast bakterije Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    OpenAIRE

    Filipović, Ivana; Zdolec, Nevijo; Dobranić, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the antibacterial activity of a total of 16 spices at a final concentration of 2.5 % against V. parahaemolyticus at two different temperatures, 5 and 37 ºC, was tested. Anise seed, chili, cloves, cinnamon, coriander seed, cumin, curry, garlic, ginger, oregano, paprika, black and white pepper, rosemary, thyme and turmeric, were collected from a retail store from the same producer. Prior to antibacterial screening, the spices were analyzed using standard microbiological procedure...

  13. Kvargli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the results of organoleptic characteristics, chemical and microbiological analysis of kvargli, types of autochthonous cheese from Bjelovar whose traditional processing method is still in use in wide area of north-west Croatia, and neighbouring countries Slovenia and Hungary although under different names, are presented. The name «kvargli» as well as other names for similar type of cheeses is explained. The name is closely linked to raw materials used for cheese making. Organoleptic, chemical and microbiological analyses were performed on 14 cheese samples collected in period from 18th october till 13th december 2003. Besides regular the most of kvargli are characterised by cones shape varying in diameter, heights and mass. Kvargli with paprika addition are usually grey-pinkish in colour from external, while those without paprika have pale grey colour. On cut the colour is pinkish with noticeable white grains throughout the cut area. Cheeses without paprika are white in colour on cut. The body of cheese is usually fragile, with pleasant smoke and slightly sour flavour and taste. By its fat content in the dry matter (< 14.99%, more then half of kvargli belong to law-fat cheeses group, while by its water content (=58.52% they belong to semi-hard cheeses. Certain number of analysed cheeses showed pronounced sourness and saltness (=2.43%. The most common organisms of microbiological contamination where enterobacteria, including E. coli, yeasts and moulds.

  14. The susceptibility of dental plaque bacteria to the herbs included in Longo Vital®

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T.; Fiehn, N. E.; Østergaard, E.

    1996-01-01

    Longo Vital® herbal tablets have been shown to have a protective effect against periodontal bone loss in rats. This may be ascribed either to a previously demonstrated immuno-stimulatory effect of the tablets, to an antimicrobial effect of the herbs or to a combination of both. In the present study...... the in vitro susceptibility of 12 dental plaque bacteria to six individual herbs included in Longo Vital® was determined by a broth dilution method. Paprika, rosemary leaves and peppermint inhibited two thirds of the tested bacteria at 2.8-45 mg/ml, 0.75-12 mg/ml and 3-24 mg/ml corresponding to 0.8-12.5 per...... cent, 1.6-25 per cent and 12.5-100 per cent of the recommended daily dose, respectively. A combination of paprika and rosemary leaves tested towards five susceptible bacteria revealed a decreased inhibitory effect on two of these bacteria, especially of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans to paprika...

  15. Combined Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Heat Treatment on Microflora of Spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, I.; Farkas, J. [Central Food Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary)

    1981-09-15

    The radiation sensitivity of the aerobic bacterial flora was similar both in the ground paprika and the whole black pepper (D{sub 10} values calculated from the exponential survival curves were 1.44 and 1.29 kGy, respectively). The survival rates of the microflora of non-irradiated samples were compared with those of the 1.6-4 kGy irradiated samples as a function of the heating time at various temperature levels, applied to aqueous suspensions of spices. The mesophilic aerobic bacterial flora of black pepper proved to be more heat-resistant than that of paprika powder. The heat resistance of the surviving microflora of irradiated spices was significantly decreased. The heat sensitization effect tended to increase as the radiation dose increased. The heat sensitization by irradiation was greater in the case of the more heat resistant microflora of black pepper. The heat sensitization quotient at 90 Degree-Sign C (i.e. the ratio of the 90% destruction time for unirradiated versus irradiated samples) was approximately 4 for paprika and 9 for black pepper at the 4-kGy dose level. (author)

  16. Effects of irradiation upon spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    ESR studies were performed on untreated and irradiated samples of paprika powder, ground black pepper, and a spice mixture of the following composition: paprika, 55%; black pepper, 14%; allspice, 9%; coriander, 9%; marjoram, 7%; cumin, 4%; and nutmeg, 2%. Gamma radiation doses from 0.5 to 5 Mrad were applied. In the case of paprika samples, the effect of moisture content on the formation and disappearance of radiation-induced free radicals was also investigated. Shortly after irradiation (on the day of radiation treatment) high amounts of free radicals were detected in irradiated spice samples but they diminished upon storage. After a period of 3 months the ESR signals of the irradiated samples approximated those of the controls. The free radicals found in unirradiated ground spices did not disappear during a storage period as long as one year. The formation and disappearance of radiation-induced free radicals were found to be strongly affected by the moisture content of samples. If a sample of low moisture content containing a high free radical concentration after irradiation was placed in an atmosphere of higher moisture content, the free radicals decayed rapidly.

  17. Combined effect of gamma irradiation and heat treatment on microflora of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, I.; Farkas, J.

    1981-01-01

    The radiation sensitivity of the aerobic bacterial flora was similar both in the ground paprika and the whole black pepper (D 10 values calculated from the exponential survival curves were 1.44 and 1.29 kGy, respectively). The survival rates of the microflora of non-irradiated samples were compared with those of the 1.6-4 kGy irradiated samples as a function of the heating time at various temperature levels, applied to aqueous suspensions of spices. The mesophilic aerobic bacterial flora of black pepper proved to be more heat-resistant than that of paprika powder. The heat resistance of the surviving microflora of irradiated spices was significantly decreased. The heat sensitization effect tended to increase as the radiation dose increased. The heat sensitization by irradiation was greater in the case of the more heat-resistant microflora of black pepper. The heat sensitization quotient at 90 0 C (i.e. the ratio of the 90% destruction time for unirradiated versus irradiated samples) was approximately 4 for paprika and 9 for black pepper at the 4-kGy dose level. (author)

  18. The use of irradiated ingredients in food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, I.; Zachariev, G.; Farkas, J.; Szabad, J.; Toth-Pesti, K.

    1978-01-01

    The microbe-count reducing effects of gamma radiation and of ethylene oxide were compared in ground paprika and dried onion flakes. It was established that the commercially applied ethylene oxide gas treatment has the same bactericidal effect (2-3 log cycles reduction of the total viable bacterial count) as a 5kGy radiation dose. However, ethylene oxide treatment of paprika was practically ineffective in relation to the mould count, while irradiation with 5kGy destroyed the moulds very effectively. The colour and pigment content of paprika powder were not diminished by this radiation dose. A dry mixture intended for use in canned luncheon meat was treated with 5kGy. The canned meat product produced with the radiation-decontaminated ingredients was microbiologically stable even when heat-sterilized by a sterilization equivalent of F 0 =1.1. Considering the organoleptic features and microbiological safety, a heat treatment of about F 0 =3 is suggested when using irradiated ingredients. This is about the half of the F 0 value generally proposed for completely stable canned meat products. Besides the saving of energy, a good quality can be achieved by using radiation-decontaminated ingredients. (author)

  19. Reliable screening of various foodstuffs with respect to their irradiation status: A comparative study of different analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Jae-Jun; Akram, Kashif; Kwak, Ji-Young; Jeong, Mi-Seon; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Cost-effective and time-efficient analytical techniques are required to screen large food lots in accordance to their irradiation status. Gamma-irradiated (0–10 kGy) cinnamon, red pepper, black pepper, and fresh paprika were investigated using photostimulated luminescence (PSL), direct epifluorescent filter technique/the aerobic plate count (DEFT/APC), and electronic-nose (e-nose) analyses. The screening results were also confirmed with thermoluminescence analysis. PSL analysis discriminated between irradiated (positive, >5000 PCs) and non-irradiated (negative, <700 PCs) cinnamon and red peppers. Black pepper had intermediate results (700–5000 PCs), while paprika had low sensitivity (negative results) upon irradiation. The DEFT/APC technique also showed clear screening results through the changes in microbial profiles, where the best results were found in paprika, followed by red pepper and cinnamon. E-nose analysis showed a dose-dependent discrimination in volatile profiles upon irradiation through principal component analysis. These methods can be used considering their potential applications for the screening analysis of irradiated foods. - Highlights: • Detection of irradiated food is important to enforce the applied regulations. • Gamma-irradiated spices were investigated to confirm their irradiation status. • Screening techniques such as PSL, DEFT/APC, and E-nose were tested. • Specificity and potential applications of screening techniques were evaluated. • The screening results were confirmed by promising thermoluminescence technique

  20. Estimating Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameters Using the Joint Fraunhofer Line Depth and Laser-Induced Saturation Pulse (FLD-LISP Method in Different Plant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parinaz Rahimzadeh-Bajgiran

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive evaluation of the recently developed Fraunhofer line depth (FLD and laser-induced saturation pulse (FLD-LISP method was conducted to measure chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF parameters of the quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ, and the photosystem II-based electron transport rate (ETR in three plant species including paprika (C3 plant, maize (C4 plant, and pachira (C3 plant. First, the relationships between photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD and ChlF parameters retrieved using FLD-LISP and the pulse amplitude-modulated (PAM methods were analyzed for all three species. Then the relationships between ChlF parameters measured using FLD-LISP and PAM were evaluated for the plants in different growth stages of leaves from mature to aging conditions. The relationships of ChlF parameters/PPFD were similar in both FLD-LISP and PAM methods in all plant species. ΦPSII showed a linear relationship with PPFD in all three species whereas NPQ was found to be linearly related to PPFD in paprika and maize, but not for pachira. The ETR/PPFD relationship was nonlinear with increasing values observed for PPFDs lower than about 800 μmol m−2 s−1 for paprika, lower than about 1200 μmol m−2 s−1 for maize, and lower than about 800 μmol m−2 s−1 for pachira. The ΦPSII, NPQ, and ETR of both the FLD-LISP and PAM methods were very well correlated (R2 = 0.89, RMSE = 0.05, (R2 = 0.86, RMSE = 0.44, and (R2 = 0.88, RMSE = 24.69, respectively, for all plants. Therefore, the FLD-LISP method can be recommended as a robust technique for the estimation of ChlF parameters.

  1. Food authenticity studies via multi-elemental and isotopic pattern using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katona, R.; Brunner, M.; Abranko, L.; Prohaska, T.; Stefanka, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The aim of our study has been the development of an analytical method based on Sr isotope and elemental fingerprint analysis for discriminating food samples from different geographical origin. Several types of foods were involved in the investigation representing different stages of food processing such as pulverized spicy paprika (sparsely processed food product) and wine samples (processed product). Independent inorganic mass spectrometric techniques like ICP-SFMS, ICP-CCMS, and MC-ICPMS were used for method validation and investigation of the geographical origin. The advantage and limitations of the developed methods are discussed critically. (author)

  2. Investigation of the chemical composition-changes in horticultural plants as a function of x-ray stimulation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.S.; Tejeda, M.A.J.

    1989-01-01

    In the low dose experiments of radish, lettuce, tomato, paprika, pea and bean the presowing stimulation does not influence the chemical parameters (e.g. protein, fat, fibre, ash, macro and trace elements) of the edible parts of the plants. Stimulation has a favourable effect on vitamin C content of the horticultural vegetables. The irradiation of the seeds was performed using 5-15 Gy dose and a mobile X-ray generator, GIGANT-18, with dose of 2 Gy/min. (author) 11 refs.; 3 tabs

  3. JPRS Report: Supplement, East Europe, Recent Legislaton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-15

    metals and their alloys 24-11 Alumina 24-21-2 Unalloyed aluminum blocks and billets 24-21-300 Unalloyed pure aluminum blocks 24-21-400 Rolled...scrap of 24-22-100 Remelted alloyed aluminum blocks 24-22-2 Alloyed aluminum blocks and billets 24-22-300 Alloyed pure aluminum blocks 24-22...Cabbages 92-12-010 Carrots 92-13 Onions 92-15 Squash, pumpkins 92-16 Legumes 92-17 Tomatoes, paprika, egg plant 92-18 Other produce (sweet corn

  4. Sterilization of ground spices by electron beams irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashigiwa, Masayuki; Nakachi, Ayako; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    Each ground spice (Black Pepper, Turmeric, Ginger, Paprika and Basil), which was packaged into polyethylene film, was irradiated by electron beams at 5 different levels: 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy. Bacteriological tests for total bacterial count were carried out on spices before and after irradiation, but the tests for microfiora were carried out only before irradiation. Total bacterial count decreased in proportion to the level of electron beams. But the decreasing rate for Turmeric, Ginger and Basil was lower compared with that of other spices. The reason seems that rate of contamination by B. pumilus, which is thought as radiation resistant bacteria, was higher on these spices. (author)

  5. Sterilization of ground spices by electron beams irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashigiwa, Masayuki; Nakachi, Ayako; Kobayashi, Hiroshi [K. Kobayashi and Co., Ltd., Kako, Hyogo (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Each ground spice (Black Pepper, Turmeric, Ginger, Paprika and Basil), which was packaged into polyethylene film, was irradiated by electron beams at 5 different levels: 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy. Bacteriological tests for total bacterial count were carried out on spices before and after irradiation, but the tests for microfiora were carried out only before irradiation. Total bacterial count decreased in proportion to the level of electron beams. But the decreasing rate for Turmeric, Ginger and Basil was lower compared with that of other spices. The reason seems that rate of contamination by B. pumilus, which is thought as radiation resistant bacteria, was higher on these spices. (author)

  6. Seed-borne viruses detected on farm-retained seeds from smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe, Burkina Faso, Bangladesh and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manyangarirwa, W.; Sibiya, J.; Mortensen, C A Nieves Paulino

    2010-01-01

    The smallholder farming sector in much of the developing world relies on the use of farm-retained seed. The availability of good quality disease free seed is important in enhancing food security but seed-borne viruses can be a major problem on farm-retained seed. Seeds of tomato (Lycopersicon...... electron microscopy, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and biological assays. Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) was detected in 36% of tomato samples and in 8% of paprika samples using indicator Nicotiana tabacum cultivars Xanthinc and White Burley. Some 43% of cowpea samples were infected with Cowpea...

  7. Genotoxicity test of irradiated spice mixture by dominant lethal test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barna, J

    1986-03-01

    Dominant lethal test (DLT) was performed in Sprague Dawley male rats prefed with 25% irradiated spice mixture which was composed of 55% non-pungent ground paprika, 14% black pepper, 9% allspice, 9% coriander, 7% marjoram, 4% cumin, 2% nutmeg. Microbial count of the spice mixture was reduced with 15 kGy from a sup(60)Co source. Control groups received spice-free or untreated spice diet or were administered to cyclophosphamide i.p., respectively. DTL parameters altered significantly in the latter group but neither untreated nor irradiated spice mixture proved to be germ cell mutagens. 24 refs.; 8 figs.

  8. Reduction of the number of germs in spices by radappertization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beczner, Laszlone; Kiss, Istvan

    1983-01-01

    The sterilization by fumigation with ethylene oxide and propylene oxide of ground paprika and spice mixtures used in preserves and meat industry was compared with the radappertization of the same spices. The number of germs including that of spores and moulds was determined. It can be established that irradiation with ionizing radiation (5 kGy) has the same effect on the reduction of the number of germs as sterilization by ethylene oxide. In addition, the side effects of sterilization can be avoided. (V.N.)

  9. Thermal analysis of spices decontaminated by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varsanyi, I; Farkas, J [Koezponti Elelmiszeripari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary); Liptay, G; Petrik-Brandt, E [Budapesti Mueszaki Egyetem (Hungary)

    1979-01-01

    The cell-count-reducing effect of ionizing radiations is well known. To reduce microbiological contamination in the most frequently used spices, ground paprika, black pepper and a mixture of seven spices, a radiation dose of 1.5 Mrad (15 kGy) was applied. The aim of the investigation was to find out whether this dose caused significant changes in the spices which could be detected by thermal analysis. The results unambiguously show that the applied dose does not cause significant changes detectable by thermal analysis. This finding supports earlier experiences according to which no structural changes, disadvantageously influencing utilization of radiation treated spices, are caused by similar or smaller doses.

  10. Comparison of electron-irradiation and gamma-irradiation as a decontamination treatment of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru; Todoriki, Setsuko; Mamun.

    1993-01-01

    Electron-irradiation at 10 kGy decontaminated all the eight kinds of spices (black pepper, white pepper, nutmeg, red pepper, parsley, paprika, laurel and onion powder) to the microbial levels lower than 10 2 /g. Similar sterilization effects by the irradiation were observed on heat-resistant bacterial spores. The 10 kGy irradiation did not significantly affect the contents of essential oils and colors of the spices. These results indicate that electron-irradiation at 10 kGy effectively decontaminates spices without notable adverse effect on the qualities. The disinfecting effect of electron beams on spices was smaller than that of gamma-rays. (author)

  11. Radurization of spices by irradiation in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Gil, M.; Rodriguez, M.; Prieto, E.; Pino, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the research results that prove the technical feasibility according to the hygiene conditions existing in Cuba for irradiating different spices. The results show both the possibility and and the benefit of using a one irradiation application to these products. One global average doses of 5 KGy was enough for decontaminating black pepper, paprika, cumin, must meg and oregano without affecting either their chemical components or the quality of their taste. Sausages manufactured with irradiated spices did not irradiating spices is much higher that of fumigation, et has many important social and economic advantages

  12. Mycotoxins, pesticides and toxic metals in commercial spices and herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholds, Ingars; Pugajeva, Iveta; Bavrins, Konstantins; Kuckovska, Galina; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2017-03-01

    A total of 300 samples representing six condiments (black pepper, basil, oregano, nutmeg, paprika, and thyme) were analysed for 11 mycotoxins, 134 pesticides and 4 heavy metals by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Mycotoxins were detected in 4%, 10% and 30% of all nutmeg, basil and thyme samples, respectively. The residues of 24 pesticides were detected in 59% of the analysed condiments. The maximum residue levels of pesticides were exceeded in 10% of oregano and 46% of thyme samples. A risk assessment of heavy metals was performed, indicating daily intake levels far below the tolerable intake levels.

  13. Comparative analysis of spices decontaminated by ethylene oxide or gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Andrassy, E.

    1988-01-01

    A comparison was made between the microbiological efficacy of ethylene oxide treatment (800 g T gas per m 3 at 22 deg C for 6 h) and irradiation with 4 or 8 kGy gamma radiation and between their respective effects on the volatile oil content of black pepper, the sensory characteristics of ground black pepper, ground paprika, onion powder and garlic powder and the water uptake of the latter two seasonings. The study showed radiation treatment to be competitive with ethylene oxide treatment from the point of view of microbiological efficacy as well as in maintaining the quality characteristics of seasoning. (author) 53 refs.; 7 figs.; 3 tabs

  14. Identification of irradiated foods using the thermoluminescence apparatus TOLEDO - Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Van Thuan; Pham Quang Vinh; Dang Thanh Luong; Pham Quang Dien

    1990-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) method based on TOLEDO apparatus has been carried out, firstly in Vietnam, for identification of some irradiated dry food: paprika, pepper, curry and green beans. The TL effect of irradiation with dose 0.8 Mrad is greater than the effect of unirradiated samples at least by one order. The TOLEDO was proved to be able to determine TL intensity as function of absorbed dose and post-irradiation storage time. The measurement procedure is rapid and simple, that expect to be used as a standard control method of irradiated food. (author). 6 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  15. PENGUJIAN NETRALISASI SIFAT REAKTIF BUMBU DALAM GARAM BERYODIUM DENGAN BAHAN TAMBAHAN MAKANAN

    OpenAIRE

    Suryana Purawisastra; Mien Karmini

    2012-01-01

    THE NEUTRALIZE EXAMINATION OF THE SPICES REACTIVITY IN THE IODIZED SALT BY THE ADDITIVE OF THE FOOD ADDITIVES.Background: The potassiumiodate of the iodized salt in the mixture with some spices is bind in the form of the compounds, which are not available for the determination of the iodine by the chemical method. This is due to the reactivity of susbtances contained inspices, such as capsaicin in the chilli, and piperine in the paprika, which are responsible for the spiciness of the spices. ...

  16. Detection of irradiated components in flavour blends composed of non-irradiated species herbs and vegetable seasonings by thermoluminescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malec-Czechowska, K.; Stachowicz, W.

    2003-01-01

    The results of experiments on the detection of irradiated component in commercial flavour blends composed of a mixture of non-irradiated spices, herbs and seasonings are presented. A method based on the thermoluminescence measurements on silicate materials isolated from blends has been adapted. It has been proved that by applying of this technique it is possible to detect 0.95% by weight of paprika, irradiated with a dose of 7 kGy, which was a minor component of non-irradiated flavour blends. (author)

  17. Meat and Fish Entree Item Production Guides Prepared for Walter Reed Army Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-01

    diced Salt 0.41 Vinegar, cider 0.32 Sugar, granulated 0.27 Paprika 0.13 Garlic, dehydrated 0.05 granular Pepper, black, ground 0!01 ARROZ CON...table pans. ARROZ CON POI.l.O Ingredients Percent Pounds Grans Procedure TarALs 100.00 2$708 NarES: 1. Reheating: Reheat in a convection oven at...yield from raw weigpt-~to cooked edible (boned) meat. Edible weight of chicken equals 12 lb {5443 g). 68 ARROZ CON POLLO Meat 1. Bacon - NSN

  18. Comercialización de semillas (variedades e híbridos importadas de pimentón Capsicum annuum L en Colombia en el periodo enero 1990-agosto 1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lema Nuñez Rosario M.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available

    All the companies that produce varieties of paprika are North American, and due to the strong economic force of 4 or 5, dominate the market. These oligopolies diferenciate the seeds in quality, brand and packaging and in this way restrict other new companies entering the market. Reputable brands of quality (Petoseed, Asgrow and Rogers NK are the sole producers of hybrid seeds. The difference in price of befween the hybrid paprika seed and the Californian wonder type is substantial. The Californian Wonder is a type of seed produced by multinational Petossed priced at $ 2'600.000 (kilo-70:4 times greater in price. The multinational receive a profitable margin 60 times greater and a detailed margin 65 times greater. 77% of the demand for the variety of paprika is found in Californian Wonder (62% and Keyston Resistant Giant (15% planted in Santander del Sur, Antioquia, Cundinamarca, Tolima and Valle del Cauca. The paprika hybrids (Pacific have only been utilised in the Valle region.

     

    Las variedades e híbridos de pimentón sólo representaron e11.5% del volumen total (648. 000 kilos y el 3.25 %  del valor de las importaciones de semillas de hortalizas. Las empresas productoras son norteamericanas y por la alta concentración del mercado en 4 ó 5 empresas, son oligopolios, al igual que los distribuidores exclusivos. Estos oligopolios diferencian las semillas en forma real (calidad y no real (marca, color del empaque y en esta forma impiden la entrada de nuevas empresas. Las marcas de reconocida calidad -Petoseed, Asgrow y Rogers NK, son las únicas que producen semilla híbrida para el mercado Colombiano. La diferencia en precios de la semilla híbrida con relación a la Variedad California Wonder es mayor (70.4 veces, respecto al precio recibido por la multinacional Petoseed ($2'600.000/kilo. El mayorista consigue un margen diferencial 60 veces más alto y el margen del detallista es 65 veces mayor. El 77 % de la demanda por

  19. Generalized System of Preferences: Background and Renewal Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-26

    means of reconciling two widely divergent economic perspectives of trade equity that arose during early negotiations on the General Agreement on Tariffs...multilateral trade, while lesser-developed countries believed that equal treatment of unequal trading partners did not constitute equity and called for...5,820,529 0.11% Peru 0904202000 3 cents per kg Paprika, fruit of the genus capsicum, dried or crushed or ground $25,586 $44,306 57.75% 7801100000 2.5% on the

  20. Study on detection of electron beam irradiated food by ESR spectroscopy and comparison of the ESR spectrum of electron beams and γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Weiming; Ha Yiming; Wang Feng

    2012-01-01

    The study was conducted to detect electron beam irradiated food by ESR spectroscopy. The white pepper powder, paprika powder, cumin powder and pistachios were used as test materials to study the feature changes of ESR spectrum and the relationship between ESR intensity and irradiation dose in different doses, the shape variation of ESR spectrum in γ-rays and electron beams in the same sample was also compared. The results showed that the ESR spectrum of 4 kinds of irradiated samples was obviously different before and after irradiation, the intensity of ESR signal increased with the increasing of the absorbed dose. The dose above 432 Gy could be detected in white pepper powder and pistachios, the dose above 875 Gy could be detected in paprika powder and cumin powder. The ESR intensity of all samples decreased during the storage time (200 d), even after 200 days the ESR method could also be used to detect whether or not the samples have been irradiated. The same dosage of y-rays and electron beams has no significant influence on the shape of ESR spectrum, however, the difference of irradiation mechanism caused slight impact on ESR intensity. The results could provide the technical basis for the application of ESR method in detecting electron beam irradiated food. (authors)

  1. Study on detection of electron beam irradiated food by ESR spectroscopy and comparison of the ESR spectrum of electron beams and γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Weiming; Ha Yiming; Wang Feng

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to detect electron beam irradiated food by ESR spectroscopy. The white pepper powder, paprika powder, cumin powder and pistachios were used as test materials to study the feature changes of ESR spectrum and the relationship between ESR intensity and irradiation dose in different doses, the shape variation of ESR spectrum in γ-rays and electron beams in the same sample was also compared. The results showed that the ESR spectrum of 4 kinds of irradiated samples was obviously different before and after irradiation, the intensity of ESR signal increased with the increasing of the absorbed dose. The dose above 432 Gy could be detected in white pepper powder and pistachios, the dose above 875 Gy could be detected in paprika powder and cumin powder. The ESR intensity of all samples decreased during the storage time (200 d), even after 200 days the ESR method could also be used to detect whether or not the samples have been irradiated. The same dosage of γ-rays and electron beams has no significant influence on the shape of ESR spectrum, however, the difference of irradiation mechanism caused slight impact on ESR intensity. The results could provide the technical basis for the application of ESR method in detecting electron beam irradiated food. (authors)

  2. Towards SERS based applications in food analytics: Lipophilic sensor layers for the detection of Sudan III in food matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, Martin; Patze, Sophie [Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Abbe Center of Photonics, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena (Germany); Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT) Jena, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Bocklitz, Thomas [Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Abbe Center of Photonics, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena (Germany); Weber, Karina [Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Abbe Center of Photonics, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena (Germany); Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT) Jena, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Cialla-May, Dana, E-mail: dana.cialla-may@uni-jena.de [Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Abbe Center of Photonics, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena (Germany); Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT) Jena, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Popp, Jürgen [Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Abbe Center of Photonics, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena (Germany); Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT) Jena, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany)

    2015-02-20

    Highlights: • A lipophilic sensor layer was applied to enzymatically grown SERS substrates. • Sudan III molecules could be detected in presence of water-insoluble competitors. • The carcinogenic food dye Sudan III was detected in a relevant concentration range. • Multivariate statistics allows quantitative measurements of Sudan III. • Sudan III contaminations were successfully detected out of spiked paprika powder. - Abstract: Food safety is a topic of great importance for our society which places high demands on analytical methods. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) meets the requirements for a rapid, sensitive and specific detection technique. The fact that metallic colloids, one of the most often used SERS substrates, are usually prepared in aqueous solution makes the detection of water-insoluble substances challenging. In this paper we present a SERS based approach for the detection of water-insoluble molecules by applying a hydrophobic surface modification onto the surface of enzymatic generated silver nanoparticles. By this approach the detection of the illegal water-insoluble food dyes, such as Sudan III in presence of riboflavin, as water-soluble competitor, is possible. Moreover, we demonstrate the usability of this kind of SERS substrates for determination of Sudan III out of spiked paprika extracts.

  3. Towards SERS based applications in food analytics: Lipophilic sensor layers for the detection of Sudan III in food matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, Martin; Patze, Sophie; Bocklitz, Thomas; Weber, Karina; Cialla-May, Dana; Popp, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A lipophilic sensor layer was applied to enzymatically grown SERS substrates. • Sudan III molecules could be detected in presence of water-insoluble competitors. • The carcinogenic food dye Sudan III was detected in a relevant concentration range. • Multivariate statistics allows quantitative measurements of Sudan III. • Sudan III contaminations were successfully detected out of spiked paprika powder. - Abstract: Food safety is a topic of great importance for our society which places high demands on analytical methods. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) meets the requirements for a rapid, sensitive and specific detection technique. The fact that metallic colloids, one of the most often used SERS substrates, are usually prepared in aqueous solution makes the detection of water-insoluble substances challenging. In this paper we present a SERS based approach for the detection of water-insoluble molecules by applying a hydrophobic surface modification onto the surface of enzymatic generated silver nanoparticles. By this approach the detection of the illegal water-insoluble food dyes, such as Sudan III in presence of riboflavin, as water-soluble competitor, is possible. Moreover, we demonstrate the usability of this kind of SERS substrates for determination of Sudan III out of spiked paprika extracts

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECT OF SUDAN I-IV: ADSORPTION BEHAVIORS AND POTENTIAL RISK ON SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudan dyes (Table 1 [1], a class of synthetic azo dyes and classified as category 3 carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer[2], have been received considerable attention all over the world, especially in the past decade, which are found to be non-authorized and illegally added into food products, such as chili-, curry-, curcuma- and palm oil-containing foodstuffs, meats, spice mix, as well as feedstuffs and feed poultry, to enhance or maintain the appearance due to their intensive color and low price[3,4]. In addition, they are extensively applied in industrial and scientific areas, such as oils, textiles, plastics, waxes, inks, films, cosmetic products, shoe and floor polishing, and spirit varnishing[5-7]. Obviously, there exist a variety of potential sources for environmental contamination by Sudan dyes, thus threatening human health and the safety of ecosystems. It is reported that sub parts per billion levels of Sudan dyes were present in paprika fruits during the vegetation process, particularly, Sudan I existed in almost all samples, including paprika fruits, soils and agronomic materials from some fields in China[8],the levels in soils were significantly elevated by vegetation treatments, and pesticides and fertilizers constitute the major source of Sudan I contamination[9]. Till now, the investigation on contaminative behavior and environmental effects is rarely involved, and biogeochemical cycles of Sudan dyes are rarely concerned either.

  5. Cine club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cine club

    2017-01-01

    Wednesday 15 February 2017 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber Waking Life Directed by Richard Linklater USA, 2001, 99 minutes This is the story of a boy who has a dream that he can float, but unless he holds on, he will drift away into the sky. Even when he is grown up, this idea recurs. After a strange accident, he walks through what may be a dream, flowing in and out of scenarios and encountering various characters. People he meets discuss science, philosophy and the life of dreaming and waking, and the protagonist gradually becomes alarmed that he cannot awake from this confusing dream adventure. Original version English; French subtitles Wednesday 22 February 2017 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber Paprika Directed by Satoshi Kon Japan, 2006, 90 minutes When a machine that allows therapists to enter their patients' dreams is stolen, all Hell breaks loose. Only a young female therapist, Paprika, can stop it. Original version Japanese; English subtitles Save

  6. Development of a microbiological irradiation detection method for spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshikawa, T.; Takekawa, T.; Miyahara, M.

    2009-01-01

    In order to judge whether certain spices had been irradiated or not, we examined the possibility of developing a method based on the microbiological examination of spices. We used the total bacteria count in conjunction with the ratio of B. megaterium and B. cereus to the total bacteria count. The examination results of 6 kinds of spices with or without irradiation (black pepper, white pepper, coriander, paprika, ginger and turmeric), were as follows. Total bacteria counts over 10E5 CFU/g indicated that the samples were 'unirradiated'. When the total bacteria count was less than 10E5 CFU/g, and the ratio of B. megaterium and B. cereus to the total count was more than 30%, a history of irradiation of the samples was indicated. When ratios of B. megaterium and B. cereus were less than 30% and the total bacteria count was also less than 10E5 CFU/g, 'uncertainty' of irradiation was indicated. In this case, it would be possible to confirm whether spices were 'unirradiated' or 'irradiated' by using another detection method. This detection method was applicable to other spices except for paprika. The samples judged as 'irradiated' by using this detection method, surely proved to have a history of irradiation treatment

  7. Detection of irradiated foods with the photo-stimulated luminescence technique. Selection of a glass fiber filter for evaluating the performance of the PSL detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Yamazaki, Masao; Goto, Michiko

    2008-01-01

    The PSL method is useful as a screening technique of irradiated foods to support efficient uses of TL analysis. Recently, there has been the growing need for the system check or calibration using the standard materials with spread of domestically -produced PSL detector. In this research, we characterized the PSL of several types of glass fiber filters and compared the cumulate photon counts of a selected filter of them (GA-100) with those of the SUERC paprika standard for PSL measurements. GA-100 filter showed a linear relationship between cumulate photon counts and irradiation doses, and the cumulate photon counts in the first 2 months after gamma rays irradiation (261Gy) were markedly decreased and reduced to about 5000 counts (the upper threshold of PSL) after 4 months. However, further long-term storage and dose increase was necessary to produce the filter with more adequate PSI property as a standard material. Light exposure (630Lux) within 3 minutes to GA-100 had little effect on the cumulate photon counts. GA-100 showed relatively less variation in cumulate photon counts compared with the paprika standard in a series of studies. (author)

  8. Contract farming risks: A quantitative assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkins M Kabungo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to identify the key risks facing each of the stakeholders in the export-focused paprika value chain in Zambia. Although a deterministic cost-benefit analysis indicated that this outgrower scheme would have a very satisfactory net present value (NPV, a Monte Carlo analysis using an integrated financial–economic–stakeholder model identifies a number of risk variables that could make this system unsustainable. The major risks include the variability of the real exchange rate in Zambia; the international price of paprika; and the farm yield rates. This analysis points out that irrigation systems are very important for both stabilising and increasing yields. The analysis also shows the limitations of loan financing for such outgrower arrangements when at the sector level it is difficult or even impossible to mitigate the risks from real exchange rate movements and changes in international commodity prices. This micro-level analysis shows how critical real exchange rate management policies are in achieving sustainability of such export-oriented value chains.

  9. Determination of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in processed food and complex lipid matrices. A new solid phase extraction (SPE) method for detection of irradiated components in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, M.; Ammon, J.; Berg, H.

    1997-01-01

    Detection of irradiated components in processed food with complex lipid matrices can be affected by two problems. First, the processed food may contain only a small amount of the irradiated component, and the radiation-induced hydrocarbons may be diluted throughout the lipid matrix of the whole food. Second, in complex lipid matrices, the detection of prior irradiation is often disturbed by fat-associated compounds. In these cases, common solid phase extraction (SPE) Florisil clean-up alone is inadequate in the detection of prior irradiation. Subsequent SPE argentation chromatography of the Florisil eluate allows the measurement of small amounts of irradiated lipid-containing ingredients in processed food as well as the detection of prior irradiation in complex lipid matrices such as paprika and chilli. SPE argetation chromatography is the first method available for the selective enrichment of radiation-specific hydrocarbons from even complex lipid matrices, thus enabling the detection of irradiation does as low as 0.025 kGy. Furthermore, by using radiation-induced hydrocarbons in the detection of prior irradiation of paprika and chilli powder, a second independent method, the first being measurement of thermoluminescence, is available for the analysis of these matrices. Such analysis could be achieved by using this highly sensitive, cheap and easy to perform combined SPE Florisil/argentation chromatography method, without the need for sophisticated techniques like SFE-GC/MS or LC-GC/MS, so that highly sensitive detection of prior irradiation colud be performed in almost every laboratory

  10. Microbial contamination of spices used in production of meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Klimešová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There was investigated microbial quality of spices used in production of meat products (black pepper, allspice, coriander, juniper, cumin, cinnamon, badian, mustard, bay leaf, paprika, rosemary, garlic, ginger, thyme, cardamom. The spices were analysed on the presence of total count of mesophilic, thermoresistant and coliforming microorganisms, Staphylococcus aureus, methicilin resistant S. aureus (MRSA, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis and moulds. For the detection of fungal contamination was used agar with glucose, yeast extract and oxytetracyklin and dichloran-glycerol agar. The cultivation was performed at 25 ±1°C for 5 - 7 days. The microscopic method was used for species identification. The aflatoxin presence was confirmed by ELISA test in all of tested spices and was performed in ppb (pars per billion = μg/kg. TCM ranged from 200 to 5600000 cfu/g, TRM from 20 to 90000 cfu/g and coliforming bacteria from 30 to 3200 cfu/g. B. cereus was present in juniper, mustard, bay leaf, thyme and cardamom (32%, while B. licheniformis was confirmed in 58% of cases (allspice, pepper, ground juniper, badian, bay leaf, paprika, garlic, thyme and cardamom. S. aureus was detected in whole coriander, cinnamon, badian and mustard but only in law number (30, 40, 20 and 10 cfu/g respectively. No strains S. aureus was identified as MRSA. The presence of Salmonella spp. and E. coli was not confirmed. The fungal contamination was found in 14 spices and the their count varied from 0 to 1550 cfu/g. There were confirmed the presence of Aspergillus flavus (allspice whole and ground, black pepper whole and ground, whole coriander, ground cumin, ground bay leaf, Aspergillus niger (allspice whole and ground, black pepper ground, ground juniper, cumin ground, bay leaf ground, ground rosemary, ground thyme, Penicillium glaucum (allspice whole and ground, whole juniper, whole cinnamon, Penicillium claviforme (whole black pepper

  11. Determination of human pathogen profiles in food by quality assured microbial assays. Proceedings of a final Research Coordination Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-01-15

    This publication includes the results of a Coordinated Research Project (CRP). Major food microbial contaminants were identified in some of the main foods exported in the international food market. Thousands of samples in a wide variety of foods were selected to be studied during different points of the food chain: meat (chicken, beef and pork), seafood (shellfish such as shrimp, prawns, scampi, squid, and lobsters, and different types of fish such as salmon, cuttle fish, rohu, fin herring, catfish, milkfish, and tilapia), spices (pepper, paprika), frozen vegetables (asparagus, peas and corn) and other products (coconut and dairy products). The analysis included pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella spp. (several serotypes), Escherichia coli, E. coli 0157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus cereus, Vibrio choleare, Vibrio parahaemolitycus and Yersinia enterolítica. This publication includes data that may be used to conduct better risk assessments on food by importing as well as exporting countries.

  12. The characteristics of rapid detection of irradiated foods by photostimulated luminescence (PSL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Yamazaki, Masao; Mizuno, Hiroaki; Goto, Michiko; Hagiwara, Shoji; Todoriki, Setsuko; Honda, Katsunori

    2007-01-01

    The Photostimulated luminescence (PSL) method offered a rapid, convenient and sensitive way for detecting irradiated food. We developed a new PSL system with the tree classification modes for identifying irradiated foods. The present study reports the changes of the signal intensities and the typical decay curves of PSL for irradiated the powdered leaf products and several kinds of silicate minerals under dark storage. Any of powdered leaf products under dark storage at 4-50degC showed the typical decay curves of PSL even after 5 months, and irradiated paprika and yellow ocher could be still identify after heat-treatment at 120degC. PSL intensities of silicate minerals increased with the increase of radiation dose and show a linear relationship up to a about 1 kGy, but varied among silicate minerals. (author)

  13. The decrease of microbial charge in some spices by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, Mariana; Ferdes, Ovidiu

    2008-01-01

    The radiations of primary interest in food preservation are ionizing radiations; the use of electron accelerators offers certain advantages like high efficiency and flexibility in the choice of surface and depth treatments for a variety of food items. The paper presents the influence of ionising radiation on the microbial content in different spices: nutmeg, paprika, savory, ginger and oregano. The electron beam irradiation at doses within the range of 1-10 kGy reduced the values of CFU/g of total counts of aerobic germs and also of yeasts and moulds in these food products. The D 10 and D L for each sample were determined from the inactivation curves. For each food item the D L values for total aerobic microflora are higher than the corresponding D L values for fungi. In conclusion, values doses of 10 kGy are sufficient to reduce the microbial load of these spices under the values permitted by law. (authors)

  14. Some possibilities of the application of ionizing irradiation in the canning industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, I.

    1993-01-01

    The spoilage of canned food products is often caused by spores of heat resistant bacteria that get into the product with contaminated additives such as spices. Stronger heat treatment leads to undesirable changes in taste and/or colour. Author applied ionizing irradiation to spice paprika and dried onion. The effect of 5 kGy irradiation equalled or surpassed that of the hazardous ethylene-oxyde. The treatment had no significant effect on pigment content. In addition irradiation increased the heat and salt sensitivity of bacteria spores. By using irradiated additives Fo=3 heat load was satisfactory instead of the usual Fo=4-5. The shorter heat treatment improved the quality of the finished product and allowed 10 increase in capacity

  15. Surface deposition of iodine on some agricultural plants in laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stano, V.

    1990-01-01

    The surface (primary) deposition of nuclides on the above-ground parts of plants was studied. Iodine retention coefficients were measured in laboratory conditions for maize, peas, spinach, lettuce and paprika grown in loose soil taken in the Kecerovce locality. The results confirmed the assumption that the surface deposition of iodine is closely related to the morphological and physiological properties of the plants, although the substrate on which the plants are grown plays an appreciable role as well (the biomass production is higher for plants grown in loose soil than for those grown in aqueous nutrient solutions). The assumption that the above-ground parts retain iodine in higher quantities than the generative organs do was also proved. In the crops the retention of iodine was markedly differentiated in dependence on their overall consistency or on the structure of the surface cuticle layers. (author). 1 tab., 10 refs

  16. Separation and quantitation of colour pigments of chili powder (Capsicum frutescens) by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cserháti, T; Forgács, E; Morais, M H; Mota, T; Ramos, A

    2000-10-27

    The performance of reversed-phase thin-layer (RP-TLC) and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was compared for the separation and determination of the colour pigments of chili (Capsicum frutescens) powder using a wide variety of eluent systems. No separation of pigments was achieved in RP-TLC, however, it was established that tetrahydrofuran shows an unusually high solvent strength. RP-HPLC using water-methanol-acetonitrile gradient elution separated the chili pigments in many fractions. Diode array detection (DAD) indicated that yellow pigments are eluted earlier than the red ones and chili powder contains more yellow pigments than common paprika powders. It was established that the very different absorption spectra of pigments make the use of DAD necessary.

  17. Total antioxidant capacity of commonly used fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Mobasher Ali; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Sharif, Muhammad Junaid Hassan; Rauf, Khalid; Mahmood, Wajahat; Khan, Ikarmullah; Abbas, Ghulam

    2017-11-01

    The current study was aimed at investigating the total antioxidant activity (TAC) of various fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices habitat in Pakistan. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay was used to measure the TAC of various extracts (aqueous, ethanolic and aqueous-ethanolic). Following is the potency order for fruits (guava >strawberry >Pomegranate >apple >kinnow >melon >lemon >banana), vegetables (spinach >Cabbage (Purple) >Jalapeno >Radish >Brinjal >Bell Pepper >Lettuce >Carrot >Cabbage (White) >Onion >Potato >Tomato >Cucumber) and herbs/spices (clove >Rosemary >Thyme >Oregano >Cinnamon >Cumin >Kalonji >Paprika >Neem (Flower) >Fennel >Black Cardamom >Turmeric >Coriander >Ginger >Garlic). In conclusion, the guava, spinach and clove provide the best natural dietary option for treatment / prevention of oxidative stress and thus could alleviate several associated ailments.

  18. Some possibilities of the application of ionizing irradiation in the canning industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, I. [Kerteszeti es Elelmiszerip, Egyet., Budapest (Hungary)

    1993-07-01

    The spoilage of canned food products is often caused by spores of heat resistant bacteria that get into the product with contaminated additives such as spices. Stronger heat treatment leads to undesirable changes in taste and/or colour. Author applied ionizing irradiation to spice paprika and dried onion. The effect of 5 kGy irradiation equalled or surpassed that of the hazardous ethylene-oxyde. The treatment had no significant effect on pigment content. In addition irradiation increased the heat and salt sensitivity of bacteria spores. By using irradiated additives Fo=3 heat load was satisfactory instead of the usual Fo=4-5. The shorter heat treatment improved the quality of the finished product and allowed 10 increase in capacity.

  19. Effects of irradiation and fumigation on the antioxidative properties of some spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruppu, D.P.; Schmidt, K.; Farkas, J.; Langerak, D.I; Duren, M.D.A. van

    1985-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation (5.6 kGy) and ethylene oxide fumigation on the antioxidative activity of marjoram, nutmeg, paprika and black pepper were investigated. Sunflower oil in water emulsion (1:1), dark, at 30 deg C, lard, dark, at 40 deg C, lard, illuminated, at 50 deg C, and lard, dark, at 50 deg C were the substrates utilized for the investigation. Oxidation of the substrates in the presence of 0.2% (by weight) of spices were followed by the determination of peroxide value (PO) and free fatty acide value (FFA). No significant effect of irradiation on the antioxidant activities of spices was revealed. Fumigated marjoram tended to be less antioxidative in lard kept in dark storage at 60 deg C than the non-treated or irradiated spice. Marjoram and nutmeg lost their antioxidant properties in the presence of light. This loss, however, was not influenced by the irradiation or fumigation treatments. (author)

  20. Thermal analysis of spices decontaminated by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varsanyi, I.; Farkas, J.; Liptay, G.; Petrik-Brandt, E.

    1979-01-01

    The cell-count-reducing effect of ionizing radiations is well known. To reduce microbiological contamination in the most frequently used spices, ground paprika, black pepper and a mixture of seven spices, a radiation dose of 1.5 Mrad (15 kGy) was applied. The aim of the investigation was to find out whether this dose caused significant changes in the spices which could be detected by thermal analysis. The results unambiguously show that the applied dose does not cause significant changes detectable by thermal analysis. This finding supports earlier experiences according to which no structural changes, disadvantageously influencing utilization of radiation treated spices, are caused by similar or smaller doses. (author)

  1. Irradiation of spices produced in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kairiyama, E.; Narvaiz, P.; Lescano, G.; Kaupert, N.L.

    1988-01-01

    Some spices produced in Argentina ground red pepper, anise, fennel, laurel, paprika, Cayenne pepper, cumin (seed), and mayoram (leaves and flowers), were irradiated to inactivate microbial lead, without causing significant chemical or sensory alterations. They were packed in polyethylene bags of 100 m thickness, and irradiated at the 60 Co semi-industrial facility of the Ezeiza Atomic Center, with doses of 7 and 10 kGy, and dose rate of 93.87 Gy/min. Dosimetric data were evaluated with potassium nitrate. Control and irradiated samples were stored at room temperature. Chemical analysis were performed to verify the Argentine Alimentary Codex specifications: water content; essence; total ash; ash insoluble in acid; alcoholic, volatile ether and non-volatile ether extracts; starch; and crude fiber. Besides, colour and volatile substances were analyzed. No differences were found between control and irradiated samples, with the exception of an increase in the total amount of volatiles released by irradiated spices, and a slight colour loss in mayoram. Microbiological determinations consisted of aerobic plate count, yeasts and moulds, coliform bacteria, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, mesophilic and thermophilic sporeformers, enterococci and Clostridium perfringens. Microbial load in control samples oscillated between 10 3 and 10 6 microorganisms per gram, and was inhibited with 10 kGy to undetectable level. With 7 kGy, survivors were still detected in: cumin, anise, laurel, red pepper, fennel and paprika. So, the purpose of this work was accomplished with the dose of 10 kGy. Great improvement on the quality of those products which being stored at room temperature are consumed in the raw state, would be attained. (Author) [es

  2. Sensory Characterization and Consumer Preference Mapping of Fresh Sausages Manufactured with Goat and Sheep Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulos, Kátia; Rodrigues, Sandra; Oliveira, António Filipe; Leite, Ana; Pereira, Etelvina; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The main objective of this study was the sensory characterization, by a taste and a consumers' panel, of fresh sausages from 140 culled goats and 140 culled ewes. Species and type of preparation effects were studied. All data were previously analyzed by analysis of variance. Taste panel data were analyzed by a Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA). Consumers' panel data were analyzed by Preference Mapping. The 1st 2 factors explained 88.22% of total variation in GPA. Different sausages samples were perfectly differentiated by assessors. Goat sausages have been considered harder, more fibrous, and less juicy than sheep sausages. The panelists observed that sheep sausages without paprika had greater intensity of flavor, tasted spicy, and had an off-odor, while goat sausages with paprika were considered sweeter. Consumers' panel did not show any preference for the different types of sausages. This means that all types of sausages can have market opportunity. The present study was a result of a project in co-promotion between 2 breeder associations, an industry unit and a research center. Results indicated that the meat from animals out of quality commercial brands could be useful as processed meat in a product with consumer acceptability. Also these new meat products brought diversity to meat industry to reach new markets and originating 2 new meat brands recorded at INPI (Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial—Natl. Industrial Property Inst.) with the numbers of 489664 and 489662 of National Brands of sheep and goat meat, respectively. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Fine mapping of the genic male-sterile ms 1 gene in Capsicum annuum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyumi; Choi, Doil; Lee, Jundae

    2018-01-01

    The genomic region cosegregating with the genic male-sterile ms 1 gene of Capsicum annuum L. was delimited to a region of 869.9 kb on chromosome 5 through fine mapping analysis. A strong candidate gene, CA05g06780, a homolog of the Arabidopsis MALE STERILITY 1 gene that controls pollen development, was identified in this region. Genic male sterility caused by the ms 1 gene has been used for the economically efficient production of massive hybrid seeds in paprika (Capsicum annuum L.), a colored bell-type sweet pepper. Previously, a CAPS marker, PmsM1-CAPS, located about 2-3 cM from the ms 1 locus, was reported. In this study, we constructed a fine map near the ms 1 locus using high-resolution melting (HRM) markers in an F 2 population consisting of 1118 individual plants, which segregated into 867 male-fertile and 251 male-sterile plants. A total of 12 HRM markers linked to the ms 1 locus were developed from 53 primer sets targeting intraspecific SNPs derived by comparing genome-wide sequences obtained by next-generation resequencing analysis. Using this approach, we narrowed down the region cosegregating with the ms 1 gene to 869.9 kb of sequence. Gene prediction analysis revealed 11 open reading frames in this region. A strong candidate gene, CA05g06780, was identified; this gene is a homolog of the Arabidopsis MALE STERILITY 1 (MS1) gene, which encodes a PHD-type transcription factor that regulates pollen and tapetum development. Sequence comparison analysis suggested that the CA05g06780 gene is the strongest candidate for the ms 1 gene of paprika. To summarize, we developed a cosegregated marker, 32187928-HRM, for marker-assisted selection and identified a strong candidate for the ms 1 gene.

  4. Detection methods of irradiated foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponta, C C; Cutrubinis, M; Georgescu, R [IRASM Center, Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, PO Box MG-6, RO-077125 Magurele-Bucharest (Romania); Mihai, R [Life and Environmental Physics Department, Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, PO Box MG-6, RO-077125 Magurele-Bucharest (Romania); Secu, M [National Institute of Materials Physics, Bucharest (Romania)

    2005-07-01

    food is marketed as irradiated or if irradiated goods are sold without the appropriate labeling, then detection tests should be able to prove the authenticity of the product. For the moment in Romania there is not any food control laboratory able to detect irradiated foodstuffs. The Technological Irradiation Department coordinates and co finances a research project aimed to establish the first Laboratory of Irradiated Foodstuffs Detection. The detection methods studied in this project are the ESR methods (for cellulose EN 1787/2000, bone EN 1786/1996 and crystalline sugar EN 13708/2003), the TL method (EN 1788/2001), the PSL method (EN 13751/2002) and the DNA Comet Assay method (EN 13784/2001). The above detection methods will be applied on various foodstuffs such: garlic, onion, potatoes, rice, beans, wheat, maize, pistachio, sunflower seeds, raisins, figs, strawberries, chicken, beef, fish, pepper, paprika, thyme, laurel and mushrooms. As an example of the application of a detection method there are presented the ESR spectra of irradiated and nonirradiated paprika acquired according to ESR detection method for irradiated foodstuffs containing cellulose. First of all it can be noticed that the intensity of the signal of cellulose is much higher for the irradiated sample than that for the nonirradiated one and second that appear two radiation specific signals symmetrical to the cellulose signal. These two radiation specific signals prove the irradiation treatment of paprika. (author)

  5. The use of electron spin resonance spectroscopy for the detection of irradiated shellfish and spices; Elektronenspinresonanz-spektroskopische Untersuchungen zur Identifizierung bestrahlter Krustentiere und Gewuerze: Durchfuehrung eines Ringversuches an Nordseekrabben, Kaisergranat und Paprikapulver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helle, N. [Inst. fuer Sozialmedizin und Epidemiologie des Bundesgesundheitsamtes, Berlin (Germany); Linke, B. [Inst. fuer Sozialmedizin und Epidemiologie des Bundesgesundheitsamtes, Berlin (Germany); Boegl, K.W. [Inst. fuer Sozialmedizin und Epidemiologie des Bundesgesundheitsamtes, Berlin (Germany); Schreiber, G.A. [Inst. fuer Sozialmedizin und Epidemiologie des Bundesgesundheitsamtes, Berlin (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    A multilateral study on common shrimps, Norway lobster and paprika powder. The use of ESR spectroscopy in shellfish and some types of spice for the detection of previous irradiation is possible even on a routine basis. The radicals producing the specific ESR signals observed could at least in part be identified (CO{sup 2} radicals in shellfish, cellulose radicals in paprica) and the overall rate of correct classifications was seen to be very high for this multicentre study. The multicentre study has further been able to prove that previous reservations about ESR as a method of detection are no longer justified. The authors hold that there is no reason in principle why ESR should not be on the list of officially recommended methods for the examination of shellfish and spices according to paragraph35 LMBG. Nevertheless, the two groups of food at issue here need to be investigated in more detail in a number of further research projects, some of which are mentioned in the following: - investigations on further species of shellfish so as to obtain a broad range of spectra for routine controls; - structural identification of radiation-specific radicals generated in addition to the CO{sup 2} radical; - investigations into the influences of origin, time of fishing and stage of development on the ESR spectra of fishes; - examinations of further spices; - elucidation of links between cellulose contents and radical concentration. (orig./vhe) [Deutsch] Die Identifizierung bestrahlter Krustentiere und einiger bestrahlter Gewuerze mit Hilfe der ESR-Spektroskopie ist auch in der Routine moeglich. Die fuer die beobachteten spezifischen ESR-Signale verantwortlichen Radikale konnten zumindest teilweise identifiziert werden (CO{sup 2-} - Radikal bei Krustentieren, Cellulose-Radikal bei Paprika) und im Ringversuch wurde eine sehr hohe Quote richtiger Identifizierungen erreicht. Der Ringversuch hat zudem bewiesen, dass die bisher zur ESR-Methode geaeusserten prinzipiellen Bedenken

  6. Pigmentantes naturais em rações à base de sorgo para codornas japonesas em postura Natural pigments on sorghum-based rations for laying Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolpho Marlon Antoniol de Moura

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada para avaliar os efeitos do uso de pigmentantes naturais e extratos de marigold e páprica em rações à base de sorgo para codornas japonesas. Foram utilizadas 180 codornas japonesas (Coturnix japonica, com 98 dias de idade, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, composto por cinco tratamentos e seis repetições com seis aves cada. O experimento foi dividido em seis períodos de quatro dias, totalizando 24 dias. Foram analisados o desempenho produtivo e a qualidade dos ovos das codornas. A cor da gema foi avaliada a cada quatro dias durante 24 dias pelo método do escore colorimétrico DSM. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre o desempenho e a qualidade dos ovos das codornas, à exceção da cor da gema. O extrato de marigold proporcionou escore colorimétrico da gema equivalente ao das aves alimentadas com milho. A suplementação associada dos extratos de marigold e páprica proporcionou maior escore colorimétrico e em menor tempo. A utilização de pigmentantes naturais deve ser analisada considerando o escore colorimétrico que se deseja obter e o custo da suplementação de cada fonte comercial.The objective was to evaluate the effects of natural pigments from marigold extract and paprika to Japanese quails fed sorghum-based diets. One hundred and eight Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica, with 98 days of age were distributed in a complete randomized design in a split plot arrangement, with five treatments and six replicates of six birds each. The experiment was divided into six periods of four days each, totaling 24 days. Parameters productive performance and quail egg quality were evaluated. Yolk color was evaluated every 4 days for 24 days by the DSM colorimetric score method. There was no effect of experimental diets on performance or quality of quail egg, except for egg yolk color. The extract of marigold promoted yolk color scores equivalent to those

  7. Effect of fiber source on cell wall digestibility and rate of passage in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J; Carabaño, R; de Blas, J C

    1999-04-01

    The influence of fiber source on fiber digestion and mean retention time was investigated. Six fibrous feedstuffs with wide differences in chemical composition and particle size were selected: paprika meal, olive leaves, alfalfa hay, soybean hulls, sodium hydroxide-treated barley straw, and sunflower hulls. Six diets were formulated to contain one of these ingredients as the sole source of fiber. To avoid nutrient imbalances, fiber sources were supplemented with different proportions of a concentrate free of fiber based on soy protein isolate, wheat flour, lard, and a vitamin and mineral mix to obtain diets containing at least 18.5% CP and 5% starch. Fecal apparent digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSPd) and its monomers, NDF, NDF-ADL, and ADF-ADL, were determined using four New Zealand White x California growing rabbits per diet. Total, ileorectal, and cecal mean retention times (tMRT, i-rMRT, and cMRT, respectively) were determined for diets based on paprika meal, olive leaves, soybean hulls, and sunflower hulls in 16 does (four per diet) fitted with T-cannulas at the terminal ileum. In both trials, DMI was negatively correlated with the proportion of fine particles (FP: 1.25 mm) (P lignification of NDF, considering lignin as the difference between ADL and acid detergent cutin, was only included as the third variable for the model of NDF digestibility. Digestibility of NSP was positively correlated with those of NDF, NDF-ADL, and ADF-ADL (r = .82, .87 and .85, respectively, P < .001); the latter was also highly correlated with the digestibility of the glucose included in the NSP fraction (r = .86; P < .001). Cecal mean retention time accounted for 63% of average tMRT, for most of the variability in tMRT (r = .99; P < .001), and was positively related to NSPd (r = .89; P < .001). From these results, we conclude that particle size is a major factor affecting fiber digestion efficiency, rate of passage, and feed intake in rabbits.

  8. Computational design and fabrication of core-shell magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of rhodamine 6G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jin; Xie, Jie; Deng, Jian; Fang, Xiangfang; Zhao, Haiqing; Qian, Duo; Wang, Hongjuan

    2016-06-01

    A novel core-shell magnetic nano-adsorbent with surface molecularly imprinted polymer coating was fabricated and then applied to dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction followed by determination of rhodamine 6G using high-performance liquid chromatography. The molecularly imprinted polymer coating was prepared by copolymerization of dopamine and m-aminophenylboronic acid (functional monomers), in the presence of rhodamine 6G (template). The selection of the suitable functional monomers was based on the interaction between different monomers and the template using the density functional theory. The ratios of the monomers to template were further optimized by an OA9 (3(4) ) orthogonal array design. The binding performances of the adsorbent were evaluated by static, kinetic, and selective adsorption experiments. The results reveal that the adsorbent possesses remarkable affinity and binding specificity for rhodamine 6G because of the enhanced Lewis acid-base interaction between the B(Ш) embedded in the imprinted cavities and the template. The nano-adsorbent was successfully applied to dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography for the trace determination of rhodamine 6G in samples with a detection limit of 2.7 nmol/L. Spiked recoveries ranged from 93.0-99.1, 89.5-92.7, and 86.9-105% in river water, matrimony vine and paprika samples, respectively, with relative standard deviations of less than 4.3%. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Heavy Metal Contents in Spices from Markets in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huremović, J.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Spices are some of the most common foods in the human diet around the world. Spices are dried parts of plants used often as diet components to improve aroma and acceptability of food. The aim of this work was to determine the contents of seven heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in spices available at local markets in Sarajevo. Metal concentrations in six spice samples (black pepper (Piper nigrum, basil (Ocimum basilicum, oregano (Oreganum vulgaris, paprika (Capsicum annuum, parsley (Petroselinum crispum and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The content of chromium and nickel in all samples was below 5 mg kg-1 . Copper levels were in the range of 2.36-19.47 mg kg-1 , iron 6.80-785.56 mg kg-1 , manganese 6.14-59.36 mg kg-1 , lead 0.74-20.35 and zinc 6.93-85.44 mg kg-1 . These results were in agreement with other published data except in the case of Pb which content was slightly higher. Daily intake of different metals was calculated and compared with the MRL values given by ATSDR (2013. The content of lead in most of the samples was above the maximum permitted concentrations recommended by WHO and national regulations of Bosnia and Herzegovina.  

  10. The use of electron spin resonance spectroscopy for the detection of irradiated shellfish and spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helle, N.; Linke, B.; Boegl, K.W.; Schreiber, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    A multilateral study on common shrimps, Norway lobster and paprika powder. The use of ESR spectroscopy in shellfish and some types of spice for the detection of previous irradiation is possible even on a routine basis. The radicals producing the specific ESR signals observed could at least in part be identified (CO 2 radicals in shellfish, cellulose radicals in paprica) and the overall rate of correct classifications was seen to be very high for this multicentre study. The multicentre study has further been able to prove that previous reservations about ESR as a method of detection are no longer justified. The authors hold that there is no reason in principle why ESR should not be on the list of officially recommended methods for the examination of shellfish and spices according to paragraph35 LMBG. Nevertheless, the two groups of food at issue here need to be investigated in more detail in a number of further research projects, some of which are mentioned in the following: -investigations on further species of shellfish so as to obtain a broad range of spectra for routine controls; - structural identification of radiation-specific radicals generated in addition to the CO 2 radical; - investigations into the influences of origin, time of fishing and stage of development on the ESR spectra of fishes; - examinations of further spices; - elucidation of links between cellulose contents and radical concentration. (orig./vhe) [de

  11. Effects of Different Spices Used in Production of Fermented Sausages on Growth of and Curvacin A Production by Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verluyten, Jurgen; Leroy, Frédéric; de Vuyst, Luc

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174, a fermented sausage isolate, produces the listericidal bacteriocin curvacin A. The effect of different spices relevant for the production of fermented sausages was investigated in vitro through laboratory fermentations with a meat simulation medium and an imposed pH profile relevant for Belgian-type fermented sausages. The influence on the growth characteristics and especially on the kinetics of curvacin A production with L. curvatus LTH 1174 was evaluated. Pepper, nutmeg, rosemary, mace, and garlic all decreased the maximum specific growth rate, while paprika was the only spice that increased it. The effect on the lag phase was minor except for nutmeg and especially for garlic, which increased it, yet garlic was stimulatory for biomass production. The maximum attainable biomass concentration (Xmax) was severely decreased by the addition of 0.40% (wt/vol) nutmeg, while 0.35% (wt/vol) garlic or 0.80% (wt/vol) white pepper increased Xmax. Nutmeg decreased both growth and bacteriocin production considerably. Garlic was the only spice enhancing specific bacteriocin production, resulting in higher bacteriocin activity in the cell-free culture supernatant. Finally, lactic acid production was stimulated by the addition of pepper, and this was not due to the manganese present because an amount of manganese that was not growth limiting was added to the growth medium. Addition of spices to the sausage mixture is clearly a factor that will influence the effectiveness of bacteriocinogenic starter cultures in fermented-sausage manufacturing. PMID:15294818

  12. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and a food contaminant with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for seven food additives (advantame; glucoamylase from Trichoderma reesei expressed in Trichoderma reesei; glycerol ester of gum rosin; glycerol ester of tall oil rosin; glycerol ester of wood rosin; nisin; and octenyl succinic acid modified gum arabic) and an assessment of dietary exposure to cadmium from cocoa and cocoa products. Specifications for the following food additives were revised: annatto extracts (solvent-extracted bixin and solvent-extracted norbixin); Benzoe tonkinensis; food additives containing aluminium and/or silicon; mineral oil (medium viscosity); modified starches; paprika extract; phosphates (analytical methods for the determination of phosphorus and revision of specifications); 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; potassium aluminium silicate; and potassium aluminium silicate-based pearlescent pigments. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of the food additives and contaminant considered.

  13. Extracción con CO2 supercrítico de oleorresina y otras fracciones de pimentón dulce y picante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Trujillo, J. Pablo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Paprika extraction by supercritical CO2 (ESCO2 dependson sample pretreatment (milling, pelletization, the static ordynamic conditions of the pressure, temperature, extraction time, solvent flow and density, the steps of the extractions, or the use of cosolvents. The best conditions according to the literature are prepelletizing samples and extracting at 40 °C in two steps: 13,8-15 MPa for aroma volatiles and β-carotene, followed by 40 MPa for other carotenoids (capsorubin,capsanthine, zeaxanthine, and β-cryptoxanthine. In general, supercritical CO2 extract better the capsaicinoids andtocopherols than the red xanthophylls. To extractcapsaicinoids, 32-40 MPa y 40-55 °C have been used, and for chlorophyll pigments in some cultivars and stages of maturity 36 MPa and 45 °C. For tocopherols, 20 MPa and 55 °C or the above conditions have been advised. Depending on the raw paprika composition and the optimum conditions used for the extraction, the yields are variable: 5,2-17,4% (total, 2-3%carotenoids, 0,7–8,6% capsaicinoids in pungent oleoresin and 370-400 μg tocopherols • g-1 oleoresin (mainly the atocopherolisomer. The recovery of the compounds ofinterest by fractionation and optimization of the raw materialand extraction process is 90-100%. Ethanol, water and aceticacid are used as cosolvents to extract capsaicinoids, and forβ-carotene the 2,2-dimethoxypropane or ESCO2 plus adsorption in silica gel. The ESCO2 allows extracting anoleoresin free from paprika contaminants. The main hazards and critical control point are derived from the high pressure of the CO2, the homogeneity of the solute distribution depending on the previous pretreatments, and the variability of the results in pigment composition compared with that obtained by means of conventional extraction, as well as the difficult to reproduce laboratory results to an industrial scale. The innovations in paprika ESCO2 extract are the aromatized extracts

  14. [Biological contamination by micromycetes in dried Boletus edulis: research of aflatoxin B1, B2 G1, G2 and ochratoxin A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorini, C; Rossetti, F; Palazzoni, S; Comodo, N; Bonaccorsi, G

    2008-01-01

    Aim of this survey is to identify those filamentous fungi which parasite Boletus edulis and its group and check the potential presence of secondary metabolites, specifically aflatoxin B1, total aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, in order to assess the risk to consumers' health. Forty samples of dried Boletus edulis, collected by two food industries which distribute the product in many Italian regions, have been analysed. The sampling plan has been conducted from November 2005 to March 2006, collecting 50 g from each commercial category of dried Boletus edulis available in the factory at the time of sampling. All the samples have been tested by visual macroscopic and stereoscopic assays; for some samples--those referred to commercial category presumably at higher risk--we have performed cultural assays as well, typization of isolated micromycetes, extraction and quantification of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. Mycotoxin detection has been made by HPLC, using the UNI EN 14123 and UNI EN 14132 standard methods, respectively applied to aflatoxins determination in peanuts, pistachios, figs and paprika and to ochratoxin A in barley and coffee. Non pathogenic micromycetes, common in food products, have been frequently observed in cultural assays, while Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger have been found in some samples. However the concentration of aflatoxins was always under the quantification limit. The survey confirm that, if the cold chain is kept throughout the process and the distribution, Boletus edulis and analogue mycetes are not a favourable substratum for the growth and the development of moulds.

  15. Effects of irradiation and fumigation on the antioxidative properties of some spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuruppu, D P; Schmidt, K; Farkas, J; Langerak, D I; Duren, M D.A. van

    1985-12-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation (5.6 kGy) and ethylene oxide fumigation on the antioxidative activity of marjoram, nutmeg, paprika and black pepper were investigated. Sunflower oil in water emulsion (1:1), dark, at 30 deg C, lard, dark, at 40 deg C, lard, illuminated, at 50 deg C, and lard, dark, at 50 deg C were the substrates utilized for the investigation. Oxidation of the substrates in the presence of 0.2% (by weight) of spices were followed by the determination of peroxide value (PO) and free fatty acid value (FFA). No significant effect of irradiation on the antioxidant activities of spices was revealed. Fumigated marjoram tended to be less antioxidative in lard kept in dark storage at 60 deg C than the non-treated or irradiated spice. Marjoram and nutmeg lost their antioxidant properties in the presence of light. This loss, however, was not influenced by the irradiation or fumigation treatments. 13 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

  16. Evaluation of possible mutagenecity of irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J; Andrassy, E [Koezponti Elelmiszeripari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary); Incze, K [Orszagos Husipari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary)

    1981-01-01

    As a part of the program of the wholesomeness testing of iradiated spices, investigations were carried out on the possible mutagenicity of ground paprika, black pepper and a spice mixture untreated or radiation-treated at 5, 15 and 45 kGy dose levels, respectively. Studies were performed using the Salmonella/microsome test of various extracts of spices and an in vivo assay of urine metabolites from rats fed with a diet containing spices. Urine was collected after 6 days of spice-containing diets. The indicator organisms were histidine auxotrophic Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 1538, TA 98 and TA 100. Investigations were performed within 14 days subsequent to the radiation treatment of spices and after a 90-day storage of the irradiated spices, resp. Known mutagenic substances (aflatoxin B/sub 1/, streptozotocin, ..cap alpha..-naphthylamine and sodium azide) served as positive controls in the mutagenicity tests. Neither the samples of the spice extracts nor the urine samples induced a significant increase in the frequency of revertants in the Salmonella test system.

  17. Bacterial flora of spices and its control by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zawahry, Y.A.; Youssef, Y.A.; Awny, N.M.; Hussein, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    The bacterial contamination was tested in 26 samples of spices. Chili, allspice and paprika were the most contaminated spices by bacteria. Five bacterial genera were isolated, namely bacillus, staphylococcus, streptococcus, micrococcus, and coccobacillus, all being gram-positive. Most isolates have been related to the genus bacillus. The bacterial isolates were identified as B. alvei, B. circulans, B. megaterium, B. pasteurii, B. pumilus, B. thuringiensis, B. sphaericus, B. incertaesedis, Micrococcus luteus, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus sp. and coccobacillus sp. Irradiation of spices led to a significant decrease in the bacterial count of all samples. The dose required to inhibit completely the natural bacterial flora was 25 KGY. The most radioresistant isolates were staphylococcus aureus and micrococcus luteus which were subjected to sublethal doses of 15 and 20 KGY respectively. The dose response curves of the 2 most radioresistant isolates showed simple exponential relationship. The D 10-value of S. aureus and M. luteus were 0.9 and 1.1 KGY, respectively. The effect of storage period on the bacterial load of, as well as, the antibacterial activity of the tested spices were investigated. (author)

  18. Bacterial flora of spices and its control by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Zawahry, Y A; Youssef, Y A; Awny, N M; Hussein, H A

    1985-01-01

    The bacterial contamination was tested in 26 samples of spices. Chili, allspice and paprika were the most contaminated spices by bacteria. Five bacterial genera were isolated, namely bacillus, staphylococcus, streptococcus, micrococcus, and coccobacillus, all being gram-positive. Most isolates have been related to the genus bacillus. The bacterial isolates were identified as B. alvei, B. circulans, B. megaterium, B. pasteurii, B. pumilus, B. thuringiensis, B. sphaericus, B. incertaesedis, Micrococcus luteus, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus sp. and coccobacillus sp. Irradiation of spices led to a significant decrease in the bacterial count of all samples. The dose required to inhibit completely the natural bacterial flora was 25 KGY. The most radioresistant isolates were staphylococcus aureus and micrococcus luteus which were subjected to sublethal doses of 15 and 20 KGY respectively. The dose response curves of the 2 most radioresistant isolates showed simple exponential relationship. The D 10-value of S. aureus and M. luteus were 0.9 and 1.1 KGY, respectively. The effect of storage period on the bacterial load of, as well as, the antibacterial activity of the tested spices were investigated.

  19. Evaluation of identification methods of irradiated spices and dehydrated vegetables in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, D.M.L.; Del Mastro, N.L.

    1998-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. This paper deals with the use of analytical methods to determine whether imported or for export Brazilian spices and dehydrated vegetables were irradiated. Viscosimetry, thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR) were used for the identification of some irradiated products: black pepper, white pepper, cinnamon, nutmeg, garlic, cumin, oregano, celery, paprika and coriander. Viscosimetry was performed in suspensions of irradiated spices and dehydrated vegetables which had been gellified by heat. Thermoluminescence (TL) is based on the transference of electrons to an excited state by radiation with emission of light when the electrons are thermally stimulated. The thermoluminescent signal of spices can be explained by the presence of mineral grains adhering on the surface of the samples. Free radicals produced by irradiation of spices were analyzed by electron spin resonance (EPR) signals. The results of this study lead to the conclusion that viscosimetry, thermoluminescence and electron spin resonance are analytical methods that can be use to detect whether spices and dehydrated vegetables were irradiated, specially when a combination of different methods was used

  20. Detection irradiated shallot (Allium Cepa) and spices using technique of Photo Stimulated Luminescence (PSL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Azianti Abd Rashid

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of Photo Stimulated Luminescence (PSL) in detecting the food that has been irradiated qualitatively and quantitatively. The samples used were onions (Allium Cepa) and spices. The shallots which are from India and Thailand was irradiated using Gamma Cell at dose of 0 kGy, 0.2 kGy, 0.4 kGy and 1.0. While for the spices, there were 10 types of spices used such as powder of paprika, parsley, turmeric, tarragon, coriander, mint leaves, basil, rosemary flower, chives and herbs mixture which was irradiated at the dose of 0 kGy and 8.7 kGy respectively. The result shows that the PSL method could differentiate samples which are irradiated and not irradiated. Even though the PSL value increases proportionally to the radiation dose, the relationship between these two means are not that clearly clarified and needed to be studied furthermore.(author)

  1. Evaluation of possible mutagenecity of irradiated spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Andrassy, E.; Incze, K.

    1981-01-01

    As a part of the program of the wholesomeness testing of iradiated spices, investigations were carried out on the possible mutagenicity of ground paprika, black pepper and a spice mixture untreated or radiation-treated at 5, 15 and 45 kGy dose levels, respectively. Studies were performed using the Salmonella/microsome test of various extracts of spices and an in vivo assay of urine metabolites from rats fed with a diet containing spices. Urine was collected after 6 days of spice-containing diets. The indicator organisms were histidine auxotrophic Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 1538, TA 98 and TA 100. Investigations were performed within 14 days subsequent to the radiation treatment of spices and after a 90-day storage of the irradiated spices, resp. Known mutagenic substances (aflatoxin B 1 , streptozotocin, α-naphthylamine and sodium azide) served as positive controls in the mutagenicity tests. Neither the samples of the spice extracts nor the urine samples induced a significant increase in the frequency of revertants in the Salmonella test system. (author)

  2. A laboratory investigation of colour changes in two contemporary resin composites on exposure to spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, H Z; Berekally, T L; Richards, L C

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate colour stability upon exposure to spices of a nano-filled and a micro-hybrid resin composite finished either with Sof-Lex™ discs (SLD) or against plastic strips (PS). Forty cylindrical specimens of 3 mm thickness were fabricated from Filtek Supreme XT ™ (FS) and Gradia Direct X™ (GD). The top surface of each specimen was polished with SLD while the bottom surface was finished against PS. All samples were immersed in staining solutions (0.1% weight turmeric, paprika and tamarind) and distilled water at 37 °C. Colour after 0, 24, 72 and 168 hours of immersion was recorded with a reflection spectrophotometer using CIE L*a*b* parameters and the results were statistically analysed with repeated measures of ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests. Among all the staining solutions tested, the highest colour deviation was obtained in the turmeric group. FS finished against PS showed significantly more colour changes compared to specimens polished with SLD, while GD finished against PS were found to be more resistant to colour changes. Within the limitations of this study all the spices tested have the potential to stain resin composites with turmeric causing the most significant discolouration. Micro-hybrid and nano-filled resin composites appeared to respond differently to staining by spices when either finished with PS or polished with SLD. © 2013 Australian Dental Association.

  3. Effects of different spices used in production of fermented sausages on growth of and curvacin A production by Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verluyten, Jurgen; Leroy, Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc

    2004-08-01

    Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174, a fermented sausage isolate, produces the listericidal bacteriocin curvacin A. The effect of different spices relevant for the production of fermented sausages was investigated in vitro through laboratory fermentations with a meat simulation medium and an imposed pH profile relevant for Belgian-type fermented sausages. The influence on the growth characteristics and especially on the kinetics of curvacin A production with L. curvatus LTH 1174 was evaluated. Pepper, nutmeg, rosemary, mace, and garlic all decreased the maximum specific growth rate, while paprika was the only spice that increased it. The effect on the lag phase was minor except for nutmeg and especially for garlic, which increased it, yet garlic was stimulatory for biomass production. The maximum attainable biomass concentration (X(max)) was severely decreased by the addition of 0.40% (wt/vol) nutmeg, while 0.35% (wt/vol) garlic or 0.80% (wt/vol) white pepper increased X(max). Nutmeg decreased both growth and bacteriocin production considerably. Garlic was the only spice enhancing specific bacteriocin production, resulting in higher bacteriocin activity in the cell-free culture supernatant. Finally, lactic acid production was stimulated by the addition of pepper, and this was not due to the manganese present because an amount of manganese that was not growth limiting was added to the growth medium. Addition of spices to the sausage mixture is clearly a factor that will influence the effectiveness of bacteriocinogenic starter cultures in fermented-sausage manufacturing.

  4. The effect of spices and manganese on meat starter culture activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coventry, M J; Hickey, M W

    1993-01-01

    Three species, two proprietary spice blends and six starter preparations used in commercial salami manufacture were analysed for manganese and magnesium content. A mettwurst spices blend showed the highest levels of manganese (0·77 ppm expressed as effective product level assuming a 1% spice content) while mild and hot paprika and milano blend contained levels of manganese 1 4 - 1 3 lower. Magnesium levels for spices ranged from 3·14 to 25·81 ppm. Only two of the six meat starter cultures showed high levels of manganese (7·77 and 16·12 ppm as effective product level based on inoculation rate) while magnesium levels for all starter cultures did not exceed 0·37 ppm. The pH of salami products made with starter cultures containing no added manganese lagged behind that of products made with added mangenese (5 ppm) by 0·2 pH units at 48 h. The effect of manganese ions on the fermentation rate of starter bacteria was studied further in a salami model system, in the absence and presence of added spices. The mettwurst blend produced greatest stimulation and the milano the least. A level of 1·2 ppm of added manganese was sufficient to achieve an optimal (spices tested in the salami model system. Copyright © 1993. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Analysis of growth behavior of survived microorganisms from decontaminated spices within meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Ishikawa, Etsuko; Hoshina, Miyuki; Tomii, Enami; Koike, Kazuko; Ukai, Mitsuko

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the condition of microbial growth recovery from the damage of killing stresses such as heating and 60 Co-gamma irradiation especially within the processed meat products. Black pepper powder treated by each process in which less than 1000 microbial loads was enumerated by aerobic counts was mixed with minced sausage and incubated at 30degC for several days. Outgrowth of microorganism was monitored according to the procedure described by Japanese Food Hygiene Law. Sausage samples containing the treated black pepper powder showed the similar microbial growth from less than 1000 CFU/g of the sample to approximately the order of 10 9 CPU/g of the sample during the incubation at 30degC, irrespective of gamma-irradiation or superheated-steam treatment. There were no significant differences between gamma-irradiation and superheated-steam treatment in outgrowth of the surviving microorganisms when the treated black pepper or sage was mixed and pulverized with sausage. In case paprika, growth delay of the super-steamed survivors was observed within 1 day after incubation. (author)

  6. Absence of evidence or evidence of absence? A transfer and depletion study of Sudan I in eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piątkowska, Marta; Jedziniak, Piotr; Olejnik, Małgorzata; Żmudzki, Jan; Posyniak, Andrzej

    2018-01-15

    Sudan I is a carcinogenic industrial azo-dye, forbidden for use in food. However, it has been detected in food on several occasions, such as in paprika, used in animal husbandry to enhance egg yolk colour. Therefore, an animal experiment was designed to simulate the transfer of Sudan I to eggs after its unintentional administration to laying hens. A group of laying hens (n=18) received feed contaminated with Sudan I at the raising concentrations: 0.45mg/kg, 4.97mg/kg and 42.1mg/kg. Residues of Sudan I were detected in egg yolks (0.29±0.03µg/kg, mean±SD) only after the administration of the feed contaminated with the dye at the highest concentration. The determined concentrations were much lower than expected based on the compound's lipophilicity. In conclusion, the transfer of Sudan I to eggs was limited and strongly dependent on its concentration in feed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of. gamma. -irradiated spices by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchiyama, Sadao; Kawamura, Yoko; Saito, Yukio (National Inst. of Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-12-01

    The electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry spectra of white (WP), black (BP) and red (Capsicum annuum L. var. frutescerns L., RP) peppers each had a principal signal with a g-value of 2.0043, and the intensities of the principal signals were increased not only by {gamma}-irradiation but also by heating. Irradiated RP also showed a minor signal -30G from the principal one, and the intensity of the minor signal increased linearly with increasing dose from 10 to 50 kGy. Since the minor signal was observed in RP irradiated at 10 kGy and stored for one year, but did not appear either after heating or after exposure to this signal is unique to {gamma}-irradiated RP and should therefore be useful for the identification of {gamma}-irradiated spices of Capsicum genus, such as paprika and chili pepper. The computer simulation of the ESR spectra suggested that the minor signal should be assigned to methyl radical and the principal signal mainly to a combination of phenoxyl and peroxyl radicals. Such minor signals were found in {gamma}-irradiated allspice and cinnamon among 10 kinds of other spices. (author).

  8. Identification of γ-irradiated spices by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Sadao; Kawamura, Yoko; Saito, Yukio

    1990-01-01

    The electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry spectra of white (WP), black (BP) and red (Capsicum annuum L. var. frutescerns L., RP) peppers each had a principal signal with a g-value of 2.0043, and the intensities of the principal signals were increased not only by γ-irradiation but also by heating. Irradiated RP also showed a minor signal -30G from the principal one, and the intensity of the minor signal increased linearly with increasing dose from 10 to 50 kGy. Since the minor signal was observed in RP irradiated at 10 kGy and stored for one year, but did not appear either after heating or after exposure to this signal is unique to γ-irradiated RP and should therefore be useful for the identification of γ-irradiated spices of Capsicum genus, such as paprika and chili pepper. The computer simulation of the ESR spectra suggested that the minor signal should be assigned to methyl radical and the principal signal mainly to a combination of phenoxyl and peroxyl radicals. Such minor signals were found in γ-irradiated allspice and cinnamon among 10 kinds of other spices. (author)

  9. Interlaboratory tests to identify irradiation treatment of various foods via gas chromatographic detection of hydrocarbons, ESR spectroscopy and TL analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, G.A.; Helle, N.; Schulzki, G.; Linke, B.; Spiegelberg, A.; Mager, M.; Boegl, K.W. [BgVV - Federal Inst. for Health Protection of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine, Berlin (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons (HC) and 2-alkylcyclobutanones, the ESR spectroscopic detection of radiation-specific radicals and the thermoluminescence (TL) analysis of silicate mineral are the most important methods for identification of irradiated foods. After successful performance in interlaboratory studies on meat products, fish, spices, herbs and shells of nuts, all or some of these methods have been approved by national authorities in Germany and the United Kingdom. Recently, draft European Standards have been elaborated for approval by member states of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). Several research laboratories have shown that these methods can be applied to various foods not yet tested in collaborative studies. However, for an effective application in food control it is necessary to prove their suitability in interlaboratory studies. Therefore, in 1993/94, various interlaboratory tests were organised by the BgVV. In an ESR spectroscopic test, shrimps and paprika powder were examined. Shrimps were also the subject of examination in a TL test. Finally, GC detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in the fat fraction of foods was used in another test to identify irradiated Camembert, avocado, papaya and mango. In the following paper, results of the interlaboratory tests are summarised. Detailed reports are published by this institute. (author).

  10. Effect of fiber source on cecal fermentation and nitrogen recycled through cecotrophy in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J; Carabaño, R; Pérez-Alba, L; de Blas, J C

    2000-03-01

    The influence of fiber source on fiber digestion in rabbits was investigated. Six fibrous feedstuffs with wide differences in chemical composition and particle size were selected: paprika meal, olive leaves, alfalfa hay, soybean hulls, sodium hydroxide-treated barley straw, and sunflower hulls. Six diets were formulated to contain one of these ingredients as the sole source of fiber. To avoid nutrient imbalances, fiber sources were supplemented with different proportions of a fiber-free concentrate, based on soy protein isolate, wheat flour, lard, and a vitamin and mineral mix, to obtain diets containing at least 3% nitrogen and 5% starch. Daily soft feces excretion, and its NDF, and total and microbial nitrogen content were determined in 60 fattening rabbits (10 per diet). Seven days after the last cecotrophy control, the same animals were used to determine weight of stomach, cecum and their contents, and cecal fermentation traits (pH, VFA and ammonia concentrations, and buffer properties of cecal contents). Stepwise regression analysis showed a positive effect (P 1.25 mm). Degree of lignification of NDF decreased total nitrogen concentration in soft feces and cecal VFA concentration (P lignification of NDF, and base-buffering capacity of dry cecal contents (r = -.52, -.37, and -.49, respectively). From these results, we conclude that pectic constituent concentration, degree of lignification of NDF, and particle size are the variables that best characterize the influence of the source of fiber on soft feces excretion and cecal fermentation traits in rabbits.

  11. Investigation of the effectiveness of standard materials used to the performance evaluation of the PSL detectors for irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Nakagawa, Seiko; Goto, Michiko; Yamazaki, Masao

    2009-01-01

    Six different minerals (dolomite, bentonite, montmorillonite, kaolin, talc, activated clay), gloss sheets for laser(LP) and ink-Jet printer(IP), and four types of glass fiber filters (GA-100, GB-100R, GD-120, GF/C) have been investigated for availability as the standard material for maintenance and calibration of photostimulated luminescence (PSL) detectors for irradiated foods. Montmorillonite applied to a paper disc had an adequate PSL intensity caused by natural radiation in comparison with other minerals, but the stability of the PSL was affected by light exposure in the manufacturing process. The PSL intensity of IP was drastically decreased one day after irradiation but LP had an adequate PSL intensity with the exception of high level background counts just after irradiation. The glass fiber filters, except for GF/C, differed little in PSL intensities between the upper and under side, but compression in the filter caused fluctuation in the PSL intensity. Changes in PSL intensities of LP and GA-100 with time differences after irradiation were further studied. The cumulate photon counts were markedly decreased in the first two months for GA-100, and in the first month for LP after irradiation. GA-100 showed relatively less variation in cumulate photon counts compared with LP and the paprika standard in a series of studies. (author)

  12. Interlaboratory tests to identify irradiation treatment of various foods via gas chromatographic detection of hydrocarbons, ESR spectroscopy and TL analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, G.A.; Helle, N.; Schulzki, G.; Linke, B.; Spiegelberg, A.; Mager, M.; Boegl, K.W.

    1996-01-01

    The gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons (HC) and 2-alkylcyclobutanones, the ESR spectroscopic detection of radiation-specific radicals and the thermoluminescence (TL) analysis of silicate mineral are the most important methods for identification of irradiated foods. After successful performance in interlaboratory studies on meat products, fish, spices, herbs and shells of nuts, all or some of these methods have been approved by national authorities in Germany and the United Kingdom. Recently, draft European Standards have been elaborated for approval by member states of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). Several research laboratories have shown that these methods can be applied to various foods not yet tested in collaborative studies. However, for an effective application in food control it is necessary to prove their suitability in interlaboratory studies. Therefore, in 1993/94, various interlaboratory tests were organised by the BgVV. In an ESR spectroscopic test, shrimps and paprika powder were examined. Shrimps were also the subject of examination in a TL test. Finally, GC detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in the fat fraction of foods was used in another test to identify irradiated Camembert, avocado, papaya and mango. In the following paper, results of the interlaboratory tests are summarised. Detailed reports are published by this institute. (author)

  13. Role of PPARγ in the nutritional and pharmacological actions of carotenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao WE

    2016-04-01

    molecular mechanisms underlying retinoic acid effects on adipose-tissue biology and the development of adiposity remain poorly understood. Adiposity can be affected by retinoids through long-lasting effects at critical developmental stages. Retinol saturase increases PPARγ-transcriptional activity and adipocyte differentiation. Other carotenoids that have been reported to suppress adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation in the main via modulation of PPARγ and PPARγ-target genes include astaxanthin, bixin, norbixin, β-cryptoxanthin, fucoxanthin and its metabolites, lycopene, apo-10’-lycopenoic acid, siphonaxanthin, and neoxanthin, except paprika pigments. Lutein, lycopene, and paprika carotenoids reduce proinflammatory cytokine levels by an induction of PPARγ in immune tissues and cells. Lycopene, apo-10’-lycopenoic acid, and astaxanthin might prevent atherosclerosis through modifying cholesterol metabolism via increasing PPARγ expression in macrophages. Keywords: carotenoids, PPARγ, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, antiatherosclerosis

  14. 2016 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism criteria for minimal, moderate, and major clinical response in adult dermatomyositis and polymyositis: An International Myositis Assessment and Clinical Studies Group/Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation Collaborative Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Rohit; Rider, Lisa G; Ruperto, Nicolino; Bayat, Nastaran; Erman, Brian; Feldman, Brian M; Oddis, Chester V; Amato, Anthony A; Chinoy, Hector; Cooper, Robert G; Dastmalchi, Maryam; Fiorentino, David; Isenberg, David; Katz, James D; Mammen, Andrew; de Visser, Marianne; Ytterberg, Steven R; Lundberg, Ingrid E; Chung, Lorinda; Danko, Katalin; García-De la Torre, Ignacio; Song, Yeong Wook; Villa, Luca; Rinaldi, Mariangela; Rockette, Howard; Lachenbruch, Peter A; Miller, Frederick W; Vencovsky, Jiri

    2017-05-01

    To develop response criteria for adult dermatomyositis (DM) and polymyositis (PM). Expert surveys, logistic regression, and conjoint analysis were used to develop 287 definitions using core set measures. Myositis experts rated greater improvement among multiple pairwise scenarios in conjoint analysis surveys, where different levels of improvement in 2 core set measures were presented. The PAPRIKA (Potentially All Pairwise Rankings of All Possible Alternatives) method determined the relative weights of core set measures and conjoint analysis definitions. The performance characteristics of the definitions were evaluated on patient profiles using expert consensus (gold standard) and were validated using data from a clinical trial. The nominal group technique was used to reach consensus. Consensus was reached for a conjoint analysis-based continuous model using absolute per cent change in core set measures (physician, patient, and extramuscular global activity, muscle strength, Health Assessment Questionnaire, and muscle enzyme levels). A total improvement score (range 0-100), determined by summing scores for each core set measure, was based on improvement in and relative weight of each core set measure. Thresholds for minimal, moderate, and major improvement were ≥20, ≥40, and ≥60 points in the total improvement score. The same criteria were chosen for juvenile DM, with different improvement thresholds. Sensitivity and specificity in DM/PM patient cohorts were 85% and 92%, 90% and 96%, and 92% and 98% for minimal, moderate, and major improvement, respectively. Definitions were validated in the clinical trial analysis for differentiating the physician rating of improvement (p<0.001). The response criteria for adult DM/PM consisted of the conjoint analysis model based on absolute per cent change in 6 core set measures, with thresholds for minimal, moderate, and major improvement. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  15. The 2010 Pakistan floods: high-resolution simulations with the WRF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterbo, Francesca; Parodi, Antonio; Molini, Luca; Provenzale, Antonello; von Hardenberg, Jost; Palazzi, Elisa

    2013-04-01

    Estimating current and future water resources in high mountain regions with complex orography is a difficult but crucial task. In particular, the French-Italian project PAPRIKA is focused on two specific regions in the Hindu-Kush -- Himalaya -- Karakorum (HKKH)region: the Shigar basin in Pakistan, at the feet of K2, and the Khumbu valley in Nepal, at the feet of Mount Everest. In this framework, we use the WRF model to simulate precipitation and meteorological conditions with high resolution in areas with extreme orographic slopes, comparing the model output with station and satellite data. Once validated the model, we shall run a set of three future time-slices at very high spatial resolution, in the periods 2046-2050, 2071-2075 and 2096-2100, nested in different climate change scenarios (EXtreme PREcipitation and Hydrological climate Scenario Simulations -EXPRESS-Hydro project). As a prelude to this study, here we discuss the simulation of specific, high-intensity rainfall events in this area. In this paper we focus on the 2010 Pakistan floods which began in late July 2010, producing heavy monsoon rains in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, Punjab and Balochistan regions of Pakistan and affecting the Indus River basin. Approximately one-fifth of Pakistan's total land area was underwater, with a death toll of about 2000 people. This event has been simulated with the WRF model (version 3.3.) in cloud-permitting mode (d01 14 km and d02 3.5 km): different convective closures and microphysics parameterization have been used. A deeper understanding of the processes responsible for this event has been gained through comparison with rainfall depth observations, radiosounding data and geostationary/polar satellite images.

  16. ALOKASI PASOKAN BERDASARKAN PRODUK UNGGULAN UNTUK RANTAI PASOK SAYURAN SEGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimin Marimin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of artificial inteligent by using fuzzy logic can be one of way to handle supply chain situation in uncertainty environment. It was widely concern to study a supply chain using fuzzy logic that most needed. Ain of the study was apply fuzzy logic in determination of supply allocation for superior product in vegetables supply chain. Models was developed in three sub models. First was determination vegetables types that superior by using pareto technique and exponential compaarison method (MPE. Second was expert system to determine supply needed and finally was optimizing supply allocation using fuzzy multi-objective linear programming. The model was applied in a vegetables agroindustry that superior product selected was red paprica. Analysis againts model behaviour is conducted for pesimistic and optimistic scenarios. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penerapan kecerdasan buatan dengan logika fuzzy bisa menjadi salah satu cara untuk mengatasi situasi rantai pasok dalam lingkungan ketidakpastian. Perhatian yang lebih luas untuk pembahasan rantai pasok menggunakan teknik fuzzy masih sangat dibutuhkan. Studi ini bertujuan menerapkan logika fuzzy dalam penentuan alokasi pasokan untuk produk unggulan pada rantai pasok agroindustri sayuran. Model yang terdiri dari tiga sub model. Sub model pertama adalah penentuan jenis sayuran yang diunggulkan menggunakan kombinasi teknik pareto dan metode perbandingan eksponensial (MPE. Sub model kedua adalah sistem pakar untuk menentukan kebutuhan pasokan menggunakan logika fuzzy. Sub model ketiga adalah optimasi alokasi pasokan menggunakan programa linear obyektif majemuk fuzzy. Model yang dibangun kemudian diterapkan pada sebuah perusahaan agroindustri sayuran dengan produk unggulan terpilih adalah paprika merah. Analisis terhadap prilaku model juga dilakukan untuk skenario pesimis dan optimis. Kata kunci: fuzzy, sistem pakar, MPE, obyektif majemuk, sayuran

  17. Studies on Development of Space Kimchi Using Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Seok; Park, Jin Kyu; Park, Jae Nam

    2007-04-01

    Kimchi is Korean traditional fermented vegetable, it was known to one of health food through the world 5 sorts and to one of culture bequest of 100 kinds. In this study, it was conducted to development of Korean space food. Object of the study is development of food processed technology for long term storage and stability of supply at severe environment such as space, desert, deep sea. Irradiation technology is cold sterilization method, and it is able to fusion with the other food manufacturing and additives using method. Therefore, this study can offer to basic information for development of Korean space food. Side by side, it was expected that preceding results were able to wide utilization extension such as export of cured fermentation food. This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effects of additives (A), N2-packaging (N 2 ), mild heating at 60 .deg. C (HT) and gamma irradiation of 25 kGy (IR) at frozen state (F) on the shelf stability and quality of Kimchi during storage at 35 .deg. C for 30 days. Briefly, combination treatment of heat and irradiation was considered as the effective method to improve the shelf-stability of Kimchi. However, sensory quality was decreased. After all, irradiation was conducted at Kimchi samples for quality maintenance after gas exchange packaging method such as N 2 -packaging, quick freezing(-70 .deg. C). Therefore, the combination treatment was effected to insurance of shelf-life and satisfaction of quality. But other methods needed for inhibition deterioration of texture. Calcium lactate and vitamin C were added at Kimchi for prevention of softening, oleoresin paprika and artificial Kimchi flavor were added for improvement of sensory quality decreased by severe sterilization

  18. A functional food: a traditional Tarhana fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merih KIVANÇ

    Full Text Available Abstract White wheat flour, concentrated full fat yoghurt, tomato paste, onion, red and green paprika, and mint and salt are used in the preparation of Tarhana. During the 7-day Tarhana fermentation period, the acidity increased from 1.10% to 3.25%, the pH decreased from 5.22 to 4.13, and the moisture decreased from 70.12% to 26.15%. The chemical composition of the Tarhana at the end of fermentation was determined as: moisture 9.55%, protein 12.05%, total ash 5.65%, salt 5.65%, and fat 4.88%. During the fermentation, the lactic acid bacteria count of increased from 1.32 X 102 to 4.20 X 104 CFU/g, the total mesophilic aerobe bacteria count increased from 1.75 X 101 to 2.28 X 102 CFU/g, the yeast count increased from 3.45 X 10 1 to 2.40 X 105 CFU/g, the mould count from 1.55 X 10 1 to 2.45 X 104 CFU/g, in the content of Tarhana dough. It was observed that Lactococcus lactis spp. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus durans, Pediococcus spp., Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis and Lactobacillus paracasei bacteria played a role during the fermentation of Tarhana dough. Kluyveromyces marxianus, Yarrowia lipolytica, Pichia membranaefaciens, Pichia mexicana, Pichia angusta, Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida sorboxylosa, Candida fluviatilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified during the Tarhana fermentation.

  19. Influencia del secado lento a baja temperatura en el contenido carotenoide de dos variedades de pimiento (Capsicum annuum L.. Balance biosintético y/o degradativo en función de las condiciones de procesado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minguez-Mosquera, M. I.

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of drying process at low temperature of two varieties of pepper for paprika (Capsicum annuum L. cv Jaranda and Jariza according to the traditional techniques of La Vera region is carried out controlling simultaneously the characteristics of the fruits before and after of the dehydration process and the conditions used. Correspondences have been found between the initial moisture of the fruits, the drying parameters (temperature and time, and the increase and/or loss (including its corresponding quantity in carotenoid pigment content. The favorable conditions to produce a pigment content increase, that indicates the existence of a biosynthetic process, are those including a healthy raw material with high moisture values and temperature of dried moderate - low (50 ºC without extending unnecessarily the dehydration time (just to obtain the adequate texture for the grinding.Se realiza un estudio del proceso de secado de dos variedades de pimiento pimentonero (Capsicum annuum L. cv Jaranda y cv Jariza efectuado a baja temperatura según las técnicas tradicionales de la comarca de La Vera. El control de las características de los frutos antes y después del procesado y de las condiciones de deshidratación en seis procesos de secado han permitido establecer una correspondencia entre la humedad inicial de los frutos, los parámetros de secado (temperatura y tiempo, y la ganancia y/o pérdida (y su correspondiente cuantía en el contenido inicial de pigmentos carotenoides. Las condiciones favorables a una ganancia en pigmentos (que indica la existencia de un proceso biosintético son aquellas en las que se parte de frutos sanos, con altos valores de humedad, temperatura de secado moderada - baja (menor de 50 ºC y sin extender innecesariamente el tiempo de procesado (sólo hasta conseguir la textura adecuada para la molienda.

  20. Calibration and testing of a Raman hyperspectral imaging system to reveal powdered food adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohumi, Santosh; Lee, Hoonsoo; Kim, Moon S; Qin, Jianwei; Kandpal, Lalit Mohan; Bae, Hyungjin; Rahman, Anisur; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2018-01-01

    The potential adulteration of foodstuffs has led to increasing concern regarding food safety and security, in particular for powdered food products where cheap ground materials or hazardous chemicals can be added to increase the quantity of powder or to obtain the desired aesthetic quality. Due to the resulting potential health threat to consumers, the development of a fast, label-free, and non-invasive technique for the detection of adulteration over a wide range of food products is necessary. We therefore report the development of a rapid Raman hyperspectral imaging technique for the detection of food adulteration and for authenticity analysis. The Raman hyperspectral imaging system comprises of a custom designed laser illumination system, sensing module, and a software interface. Laser illumination system generates a 785 nm laser line of high power, and the Gaussian like intensity distribution of laser beam is shaped by incorporating an engineered diffuser. The sensing module utilize Rayleigh filters, imaging spectrometer, and detector for collection of the Raman scattering signals along the laser line. A custom-built software to acquire Raman hyperspectral images which also facilitate the real time visualization of Raman chemical images of scanned samples. The developed system was employed for the simultaneous detection of Sudan dye and Congo red dye adulteration in paprika powder, and benzoyl peroxide and alloxan monohydrate adulteration in wheat flour at six different concentrations (w/w) from 0.05 to 1%. The collected Raman imaging data of the adulterated samples were analyzed to visualize and detect the adulterant concentrations by generating a binary image for each individual adulterant material. The results obtained based on the Raman chemical images of adulterants showed a strong correlation (R>0.98) between added and pixel based calculated concentration of adulterant materials. This developed Raman imaging system thus, can be considered as a powerful

  1. Prophage lambda induction (Inductest) of blood of rats fed irradiated spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Andrassy, E.

    1981-01-01

    Lysogenic Escherichia coli K12 strains Nos. GY 5023: envA uvr + (lambda) and GY 5027: envA uvrB (lambda) were used as test organisms and E.coli strain No. GY 4015 as the indicator to investigate prophage induction (Inductest) of blood samples of CFY rats fed with black pepper and spice mixture treated with gamma radiation. The dose levels applied for the irradiation of spices were 0.5 and 15 kGy. In the rat feed, the applied concentration of ground black pepper was 3.5%, and that of the spice mixture (: mild paprika, black pepper, allspice, coriander, marjoram, cumin and nutmeg) was 25%. Blood samples were taken for prophage induction after six days' feeding with the tested diet. Tests with pepper were performed both within two weaks after irradiation and again after 90 days of storage following irradiation, while with the spice mixture, Inductest was performed with the blood of rats fed with a spice mixture irradiated 90 days before the start of the feeding test. Neither the blood of rats fed with irradiated pepper nor that of rats fed with irradiated spice mixture did increase, to a statistically significant degree, the occurrence of prophage induction as compared with blood samples of rats fed with a diet containing untreated spices or with commercial rat feed. In agreement with earlier microbial mutagenicity tests performed with extracts of irradiated spices and urine of rats fed with irradiated spices, neither did the present results indicate that spices irradiated with 5 and 15 kGy or their metabolites would be of DNA-modofying potential. (author)

  2. [Characterization and nutritional value of a food artisan: the meat pie of Murcia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Cano, Domingo; Pérez-Llamas, Francisca; López-Jiménez, José Ángel; González-Silvera, Daniel; Frutos, Maria José; Zamora, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    The main aims of this study are to describe the characteristics of the meat pie, a typical product of the regional gastronomy of Murcia and to determine its nutritional and energy values, fatty acid profile and fat quality. There were studied 24 samples of Murcia's meat pie from the six best-selling retail establishments in this Region (four units per establishment).The moisture, protein, fat, carbohydrates, fibre and minerals, contents and the energy value, fatty acid profile and fat quality were analyzed using the Official Analysis Methods of Foods. All analyses were performed by triplicate. The average weight of this product was 192.3 ± 11.8 g, with three differentiated parts (base, filling and pastry lid). All ingredients were natural raw materials: wheat flour, lard, ground beef, sliced boiled egg and chorizo, water and spices (salt, pepper, garlic, paprika and nutmeg). Most of its organoleptic attributes are due to the type and amount of fat or lard. The combination of the other ingredients and the particular formulation of the spices are also responsible of other attributes. Due to its protein content (11.0%), this meat pie can replace other meat dishes, and be incorporated into a balanced diet. However, it is necessary to take into account its fat and energy contents (17.3 g and 317 kcal/100 g, respectively). Unlike many common pastry products, it contains no trans fatty acids. The results of the research show that the studied product remains, at present, an artisan food, and offer reliable information that it is representative of the energy and nutritional values of the Murcia's meat pie, a typical product of the gastronomy of the Region of Murcia. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. Low-angle X-ray scattering properties of irradiated spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, A.P.G.; Braz, D.; Barroso, R.C.; Lopes, R.T.

    2007-01-01

    The scattering of X-rays at low angles (LAXS) is a technique dominated by the coherent scattering process. One characteristic observation of low-angle coherent scattering is the so-called molecular interference effect, being characterized by the presence of one or more peaks in the forward direction of scattering. In the present study, LAXS profiles from five different spices are carefully measured in order to establish characteristic scattering signatures. Samples of Ceylon cinnamon, cumin, nutmeg, paprika and black pepper were bought in local market in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The LAXS patterns were obtained using a Shimadzu DRX 6000 diffractometer in reflection geometry. Coherent scattering patterns are measured for the samples for θ=5-35 o . The data were collected in 0.05 o increments every 3 s. In order to evaluate the possible molecular structure changes caused to the irradiation procedure, the signatures obtained for control (non-irradiated) spices were compared with spice samples irradiated with different doses varying from 3 to 40 kGy. The LAXS patterns of all samples were obtained after 30, 60, 90, 120 days to evaluate the effect of storage period. Scattering profiles from spices irradiated with different irradiation doses were obtained and the results compared. For each spice, there is no considerable deviation in shape in function of the irradiation dose. It indicates that the molecular structure of each analyzed spices is preserved considering the dose range chosen. The results show that the molecular structure was found to be stable during storage at the ambient temperature for up to 4 months

  4. Prophage lambda induction (Inductest) of blood of rats fed irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J; Andrassy, E [Koezponti Elelmiszeripari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary)

    1981-01-01

    Lysogenic Escherichia coli K12 strains Nos. GY 5023: envA uvr/sup +/ (lambda) and GY 5027: envA uvrB (lambda) were used as test organisms and E.coli strain No. GY 4015 as the indicator to investigate prophage induction (Inductest) of blood samples of CFY rats fed with black pepper and spice mixture treated with gamma radiation. The dose levels applied for the irradiation of spices were 0.5 and 15 kGy. In the rat feed, the applied concentration of ground black pepper was 3.5%, and that of the spice mixture (: mild paprika, black pepper, allspice, coriander, marjoram, cumin and nutmeg) was 25%. Blood samples were taken for prophage induction after six days' feeding with the tested diet. Tests with pepper were performed both within two weaks after irradiation and again after 90 days of storage following irradiation, while with the spice mixture, Inductest was performed with the blood of rats fed with a spice mixture irradiated 90 days before the start of the feeding test. Neither the blood of rats fed with irradiated pepper nor that of rats fed with irradiated spice mixture did increase, to a statistically significant degree, the occurrence of prophage induction as compared with blood samples of rats fed with a diet containing untreated spices or with commercial rat feed. In agreement with earlier microbial mutagenicity tests performed with extracts of irradiated spices and urine of rats fed with irradiated spices, neither did the present results indicate that spices irradiated with 5 and 15 kGy or their metabolites would be of DNA-modofying potential.

  5. SERS-based application in food analytics (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cialla-May, Dana; Radu, Andreea; Jahn, Martin; Weber, Karina; Popp, Jürgen

    2017-02-01

    To establish detection schemes in life science applications, specific and sensitive methods allowing for fast detection times are required. Due to the interaction of molecules with strong electromagnetic fields excited at metallic nanostructures, the molecular fingerprint specific Raman spectrum is increased by several orders of magnitude. This effect is described as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and became a very powerful analytical tool in many fields of application. Within this presentation, we will introduce innovative bottom-up strategies to prepare SERS-active nanostructures coated with a lipophilic sensor layer. To do so, the food colorant Sudan III, an indirect carcinogen substance found in chili powder, palm oil or spice mixtures, is detected quantitatively in the background of the competitor riboflavin as well as paprika powder extracts. The SERS-based detection of azorubine (E122) in commercial available beverages with different complexity (e.g. sugar content, alcohol concentration) illustrates the strong potential of SERS as a qualitative as well as semiquantitative prescan method in food analytics. Here, a good agreement between the estimated concentration employing SERS as well as the gold standard technique HPLC, a highly laborious method, is found. Finally, SERS is applied to detect vitamin B2 and B12 in cereals as well as the estimate the ratio of lycopene and β-carotene in tomatoes. Acknowledgement: Funding the projects "QuantiSERS" and "Jenaer Biochip Initiative 2.0" within the framework "InnoProfile Transfer - Unternehmen Region" the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany (BMBF) is gratefully acknowledged.

  6. Method development and determination of Neonicotinoid and carbamate pesticide residues in vegetable and fruit matrix by HPLC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Tien Dat; Duong Van Dong; Ta Thi Tuyet Nhung; Nguyen Thanh Nhan; Nguyen Thi Hong Tham; Dang Trung Tin

    2017-01-01

    In this work a chemometric approach to positive electrospray ionization (ESI) optimization for the simultaneous determination of the cyromazine, carbendazim, methomyl, imidacloprid and thiophanate methyl in vegetable samples by liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry (LC-MS) has been developed. The effects of the operational parameters such as mobile phase modifier concentrations, mobile phase flow rate, column temperature, drying gas flow rate, sampling speed, percentage of formic acid/water at first stage and percentage of formic acid/water at second stage were evaluated by the 2 8-3 fractional factorial experimental design using Design Expert software 7.0. The best experimental conditions observed were 0.06% formic acid/water and 0.13% formic acid/acetonitril; 0.13 mL/min of mobile phase; 28°C column temperature; 13.6 L/min drying gas flow rate; 11 µL/sec sampling speed; and 77% v/v of 0.06% formic acid/water at first stage, 5% v/v of 0.06% formic acid/water at second stage. Throughout the last decade many official multiresidue methods were implemented for pesticide analysis. In this study, the citrate-buffered of QuEChERS was tested. Primary secondary amine and C18 were studied as the extra sorbent for cleanup step. The matrices were spinach, onion, egg plant, paprika, ginger, okras and mango. Recoveries ranged from 82.0-89.0% except for cyromazine that got 35.1% to 37.2% of recovery values. The method detection limit (MDL) ranged from 0.01-0.03 mg/kg. The values of intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy were ≤ 9.8 and ≤ 10.3, respectively. These values were within the acceptable ranges. Therefore, it was concluded that the method could produce reproducible and accurate results. (author)

  7. Horizontal and Vertical Networks for Innovation in the Traditional Food Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Gellynck

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The locus of innovation is not the individual firm anymore but increasingly the network in which the firm is embedded. Hence, in this paper innovation is investigated in the broader context of networks and applied to the traditional food sector. Networking refers to a process of identifying and acting on complementary interests with or without formal means of cooperation and plays an important role for the diffusion and adoption of innovations, because they increase the flow of information. Two main types of networks exist. Vertical networks relate to cooperation of partners belonging to the same chain. Meanwhile, horizontal networks refer to coopereation among firms which are primarily competitors. Data were collected during focus groups and in-depths interviews in three European contries: Belgium, Hungary, and Italy.In each country, data are collected from retailers/wholesalers, food manufacturers and suppliers in the beer, hard and half hard cheese, ham, sausage, or white paprika chain. In the investigated countries both vertical and horizontal networks exist. However, the intensity of using the network differs. On the one hand vertical networks are well developed based on quality assurance schemes and traceability, though these networks often face difficulties due to high lack of trust. On the other hand, horizontal networks are well developed when a producer consortium is involved. However, these networks can be inhibited through strong competition. The partners in traditional food networks focus mainly on innovation related to product characteristics such as new size, form and packaging without changing the traditional character of the product. The main barriers for innovation in the traditional food networks are the lack of understanding the benefits of networking activities for innovation, the lack of trust, the lack of knowledge of appropriate methods and skills, and the lack of financial and physical resources. Our study points out

  8. Influence of food condiments on the formation of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in cooked chicken and determination by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Rizwan

    2015-01-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are known to be suspected human carcinogens produced by high-temperature cooking of protein-rich foods such as meat and fish. In the present study, the influence of numerous food condiments on the formation of HCAs in cooked chicken was investigated. Chicken samples were subjected to pan-frying under controlled temperature. The levels of HCAs DMIP, MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, PhIP, harman and norharman were found to be between 0.93 and 27.52 ng g(-1), whereas IQ, MeIQ, AαC, MeAαC, Trp-P-1 and Trp-P-2 were found either below the limit of quantification or not detected in the control sample. Nevertheless, for samples cooked using food condiments, the amounts of HCAs (DMIP, MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx and PhIP) were between 0.14 and 19.57 ng g(-1); harman and norharman were detected at higher concentrations up to 17.77 ng g(-1) while IQ and MeIQ were at levels below the limit of quantification; and AαC, MeAαC, Trp-P-1 and Trp-P-2 were not detected in any of the samples. The outcomes revealed that the formation of HCAs (except harman and norharman) diminished after the addition of food condiments. Edible oil contributed to the highest levels of HCA formation, followed by garlic, paprika, pepper and tomato.

  9. Induced mutagenesis as a breeding strategy for improvement of Solanaceous vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Masaharu; Ojiewo, Christopher O.

    2008-01-01

    The Solanaceae are a cosmopolitan family containing many essential vegetables and fruits such as potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.), eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), paprika, chillies, green and red peppers (Capsicum annuum L.), jasmine nightshade (Solanum jasminoides Paxt.), winter cherry (Solanum pseudocapsicum L.), and Cape gooseberry, ornamentals such as Petunia, Schizanthus, and Lycium species, and medicinal plants such as bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara L.) and Solanum viarum Dun., both used as sources of corticosteroids. It also contains tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) - one of the most harmful yet economically important plants in the world - together with many other plants of both poisonous and medicinal value such as belladonna (Atropa belladona L.), stramonium (Datura stramonium L.), black henbane (Hyoscyamus niger L.), and African nightshade (Solanum villosum). Composed of approximately 90 genera and between 2000 and 3000 species, the family is widely distributed throughout the tropical and temperate regions of the world, with centers of diversity occurring in Central and South America, Australia, and Africa (EDMONDS 1978; SYMON 1981; D'ARCY 1991). Work to develop new varieties of improved solanaceous crops started more than 2 centuries ago. This paper reviews some of the recent developments in various aspects of varietal improvement of solanaceous vegetables through mutation breeding. Mutational work reported here includes the alteration of plant reproductive or vegetative growth and the development of locally adapted cultivars and popular breeding lines, or the induction of novel alleles. The potential for direct application of the mutants as new improved cultivars, their use in cross-breeding schemes, and their application in, for example, marker technology in genetic research are discussed. Specific examples of novel mutants developed in our laboratory that have the potential for application in improving solanaceous fruits

  10. Studies on Development of Space Kimchi Using Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Seok; Park, Jin Kyu; Park, Jae Nam

    2007-04-15

    Kimchi is Korean traditional fermented vegetable, it was known to one of health food through the world 5 sorts and to one of culture bequest of 100 kinds. In this study, it was conducted to development of Korean space food. Object of the study is development of food processed technology for long term storage and stability of supply at severe environment such as space, desert, deep sea. Irradiation technology is cold sterilization method, and it is able to fusion with the other food manufacturing and additives using method. Therefore, this study can offer to basic information for development of Korean space food. Side by side, it was expected that preceding results were able to wide utilization extension such as export of cured fermentation food. This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effects of additives (A), N2-packaging (N{sub 2}), mild heating at 60 .deg. C (HT) and gamma irradiation of 25 kGy (IR) at frozen state (F) on the shelf stability and quality of Kimchi during storage at 35 .deg. C for 30 days. Briefly, combination treatment of heat and irradiation was considered as the effective method to improve the shelf-stability of Kimchi. However, sensory quality was decreased. After all, irradiation was conducted at Kimchi samples for quality maintenance after gas exchange packaging method such as N{sub 2}-packaging, quick freezing(-70 .deg. C). Therefore, the combination treatment was effected to insurance of shelf-life and satisfaction of quality. But other methods needed for inhibition deterioration of texture. Calcium lactate and vitamin C were added at Kimchi for prevention of softening, oleoresin paprika and artificial Kimchi flavor were added for improvement of sensory quality decreased by severe sterilization.

  11. A coupled groundwater-flow-modelling and vulnerability-mapping methodology for karstic terrain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavouri, Konstantina P.; Karatzas, George P.; Plagnes, Valérie

    2017-08-01

    A coupled groundwater-flow-modelling and vulnerability-mapping methodology for the management of karst aquifers with spatial variability is developed. The methodology takes into consideration the duality of flow and recharge in karst and introduces a simple method to integrate the effect of temporal storage in the unsaturated zone. In order to investigate the applicability of the developed methodology, simulation results are validated against available field measurement data. The criteria maps from the PaPRIKa vulnerability-mapping method are used to document the groundwater flow model. The FEFLOW model is employed for the simulation of the saturated zone of Palaikastro-Chochlakies karst aquifer, in the island of Crete, Greece, for the hydrological years 2010-2012. The simulated water table reproduces typical karst characteristics, such as steep slopes and preferred drain axes, and is in good agreement with field observations. Selected calculated error indicators—Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), root mean squared error (RMSE) and model efficiency (E')—are within acceptable value ranges. Results indicate that different storage processes take place in different parts of the aquifer. The north-central part seems to be more sensitive to diffuse recharge, while the southern part is affected primarily by precipitation events. Sensitivity analysis is performed on the parameters of hydraulic conductivity and specific yield. The methodology is used to estimate the feasibility of artificial aquifer recharge (AAR) at the study area. Based on the developed methodology, guidelines were provided for the selection of the appropriate AAR scenario that has positive impact on the water table.

  12. Efecto del follaje de Tagetes minutasobre la nodulación radicular de Meloidogyne incognitaen Capsicum annuum, en invernadero Effect of the foliage of Tagetes minutaon Meloidogyne incognitaroot-galling on Capsicum annuumin a greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Nélida Murga-Gutiérrez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó el efecto del follaje del “huacatay” Tagetes minutasobre la nodulación radicular producida por el nematodo Meloidogyne incognitaque parasita el “pimiento páprika” Capsicum annuumcultivado en invernadero, con la finalidad de obtener una alternativa de control de este nematodo. Se utilizaron tres grupos experimentales y un testigo, con 12 macetas cada uno, las cuales contenían suelo y arena estériles (1:1. A este substrato se adicionó el follaje de T. minutaal 20, 35 y 50% (v/v según grupo experimental, y el testigo no recibió esta enmienda. En cada maceta se sembró una plántula de C. annuum, y a la semana postsiembra se inoculó 5000 huevos de M. incognita.A las ocho semanas, se evaluaron los nódulos en sus raíces. Todas las plantas presentaron nódulos; aunque, en aquellas de los grupos experimentales el número de éstos fue menor que en las plantas testigo, con diferencia estadística significativa (p 0,05. Se concluye que el follaje de T. minutaadicionado como enmienda orgánica al 20, 35 y 50% al suelo de cultivo de plantas de C. annuum limita la nodulación radicular ocasionada por M. incognita. Lo cual sugiere su uso potencial en el control de este nematodo.The effect of the foliage of Tagetes minuta"huacatay" on Meloidogyne incognitaroot-galling on Capsicum annuum"paprika pepper" cultured in a greenhouse was researched, to obtain a control strategy for this nema-tode. Three experimental groups and one control with 12 pots each were used, which contained sterilized soil and sand (1:1. To this substrate was added cut foliage of T. minutaat 20, 35 and 50% (v/v according to the experimental group, and the control group remained without this amendment. In each pot a seedling of C. annuum was sown, and one week post-seeding was inoculated with 5000 eggs of M. incognita. Eight weeks later the root galling was evaluated. All the plants had root galling; although the number of galls in plants of the experimental

  13. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  14. Gamma irradiation of medicinally important plants and the enhancement of secondary metabolite production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardhan, P Vivek; Shukla, Lata I

    2017-09-01

    The profitable production of some important plant-based secondary metabolites (ginsenosides, saponins, camptothecin, shikonins etc.) in vitro by gamma irradiation is a current area of interest. We reviewed different types of secondary metabolites, their mode of synthesis and effect of γ-radiation on their yield for different plants, organs and in vitro cultures (callus, suspension, hairy root). Special effort has been made to review the biochemical mechanisms underlying the increase in secondary metabolites. A comparison of yield improvement with biotic and abiotic stresses was made. Phenolic compounds increase with γ-irradiation in whole plants/plant parts; psoralen content in the common herb babchi (Psoralea corylifolia) was increased as high as 32-fold with γ-irradiation of seeds at 20 kGy. The capsaicinoids, a phenolic compound increased about 10% with 10 kGy in paprika (Capsicum annum L.). The in vitro studies show all the three types of secondary metabolites are reported to increase with γ-irradiation. Stevioside, total phenolic and flavonoids content were slightly increased in 15 Gy-treated callus cultures of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bert.). In terpenoids, total saponin and ginsenosides content were increased 1.4- and 1.8-fold, respectively, with 100 Gy for wild ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) hairy root cultures. In alkaloids, camptothecin yield increased as high as 20-fold with 20 Gy in callus cultures of ghanera (Nothapodytes foetida). Shikonins increased up to 4-fold with 16 Gy in suspension cultures of purple gromwell (Lithospermum erythrorhizon S.). The enzymes associated with secondary metabolite production were increased with γ-irradiation of 20 Gy; namely, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) for phenolics, chalcone synthase (CHS) for flavonoids, squalene synthase (SS), squalene epoxidase (SE) and oxidosqualene cyclases (OSC) for ginsenosides and PHB (p-hydroxylbenzoic acid) geranyl transferase for shikonins. An increase in secondary

  15. Prevalence of Salmonella in 11 Spices Offered for Sale from Retail Establishments and in Imported Shipments Offered for Entry to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guodong; Hu, Lijun; Pouillot, Régis; Tatavarthy, Aparna; Doren, Jane M Van; Kleinmeier, Daria; Ziobro, George C; Melka, David; Wang, Hua; Brown, Eric W; Strain, Errol; Bunning, Vincent K; Musser, Steven M; Hammack, Thomas S

    2017-10-04

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration conducted a survey to evaluate Salmonella prevalence and aerobic plate counts in packaged (dried) spices offered for sale at retail establishments in the United States. The study included 7,250 retail samples of 11 spice types that were collected during November 2013 to September 2014 and October 2014 to March 2015. No Salmonella-positive samples (based on analysis of 125 g) were found among retail samples of cumin seed (whole or ground), sesame seed (whole, not roasted or toasted, and not black), and white pepper (ground or cracked), for prevalence estimates of 0.00% with 95% Clopper and Pearson's confidence intervals of 0.00 to 0.67%, 0.00 to 0.70%, and 0.00 to 0.63%, respectively. Salmonella prevalence estimates (confidence intervals) for the other eight spice types were 0.19% (0.0048 to 1.1%) for basil leaf (whole, ground, crushed, or flakes), 0.24% (0.049 to 0.69%) for black pepper (whole, ground, or cracked), 0.56% (0.11 to 1.6%) for coriander seed (ground), 0.19% (0.0049 to 1.1%) for curry powder (ground mixture of spices), 0.49% (0.10 to 1.4%) for dehydrated garlic (powder, granules, or flakes), 0.15% (0.0038 to 0.83%) for oregano leaf (whole, ground, crushed, or flakes), 0.25% (0.03 to 0.88%) for paprika (ground or cracked), and 0.64% (0.17 to 1.6%) for red pepper (hot red pepper, e.g., chili, cayenne; ground, cracked, crushed, or flakes). Salmonella isolates were serotyped, and genomes were sequenced. Samples of these same 11 spice types were also examined from shipments of imported spices offered for entry to the United States from 1 October 2011 to 30 September 2015. Salmonella prevalence estimates (based on analysis of two 375-g composite samples) for shipments of imported spices were 1.7 to 18%. The Salmonella prevalence estimates for spices offered for sale at retail establishments for all of the spice types except dehydrated garlic and basil were significantly lower than estimates for shipments of imported spice

  16. Is supraglacial debris actually playing a role in driving the Karakoram Anomaly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minora, Umberto; Mayer, Christoph; Bocchiola, Daniele; D'Agata, Carlo; Maragno, Davide; Lambrecht, Astrid; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Smiraglia, Claudio; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina

    2014-05-01

    carried out under the umbrella of the PAPRIKA project funded and managed by EvK2CNR Committee. The authors are also grateful to the SEED project (funded by the Pakistani and Italian Governments and managed by EvK2CNR).

  17. Effects of culinary spices and psychological stress on postprandial lipemia and lipase activity: results of a randomized crossover study and in vitro experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, Cindy E; West, Sheila G; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Lambert, Joshua D; Gaugler, Trent L; Teeter, Danette L; Sauder, Katherine A; Gu, Yeyi; Glisan, Shannon L; Skulas-Ray, Ann C

    2015-01-16

    Data suggest that culinary spices are a potent, low-calorie modality for improving physiological responses to high fat meals. In a pilot study (N = 6 healthy adults), we showed that a meal containing a high antioxidant spice blend attenuated postprandial lipemia by 30% compared to a low spice meal. Our goal was to confirm this effect in a larger sample and to consider the influence of acute psychological stress on fat metabolism. Further, we used in vitro methods to evaluate the inhibitory effect of spices on digestive enzymes. In a 2 x 2, randomized, 4-period crossover design, we compared the effects of 14.5 g spices (black pepper, cinnamon, cloves, garlic, ginger, oregano, paprika, rosemary, and turmeric) vs. placebo incorporated into a high fat meal (1000 kcal, 45 g fat), followed by psychological stress (Trier Social Stress Test) vs. rest on postprandial metabolism in 20 healthy but overweight adults. Blood was sampled at baseline and at 105, 140, 180, and 210 minutes for analysis of triglycerides, glucose, and insulin. Additional in vitro analyses examined the effect of the spice blend and constituent spices on the activity of pancreatic lipase (PL) and secreted phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂). Mixed models were used to model the effects of spices and stress (SAS v9.3). Serum triglycerides, glucose and insulin were elevated following the meal (p Spices reduced post-meal triglycerides by 31% when the meal was followed by the rest condition (p = 0.048), but this effect was not present during stress. There was no effect of the spice blend on glucose or insulin; however, acute stress significantly increased both of these measures (p spice blend and several of the individual spices dose-dependently inhibited PL and PLA2 activity in vitro. Inclusion of spices may attenuate postprandial lipemia via inhibition of PL and PLA₂. However, the impact of psychological stress negates any influence of the spice blend on triglycerides, and further, increases blood

  18. Influence of speciation on the radionuclide uptake of plants; Einfluss der Speziation auf die Radionuklidaufnahme von Pflanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawussi, Frank

    2017-01-25

    The bioavailability for plants and uptake of radionuclides depend on various factors. The knowledge of the chemical and physical processes serves as basis for the transfer to different plant parts and finally for the estimation of the ingestion dose after consumption by man. Within the scope of the present work, the uptake of radionuclides was investigated in pea plants (Pisum sativum), paprika plants (Capsicum annuum) and potato plants (Solanum tuberosum) at low concentration (10{sup -5} to 10{sup -7} mol l{sup -1} for uranium and 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -9} mol l{sup -1} for plutonium) in hydroponic solution. Particular attention was paid to the speciation of radionuclides within the solution which was measured by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS), capillary electrophoresis coupled to inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry (CE-ICP-MS), and theoretically calculated by the speciation code PHREEQC. The speciation, the solubility and therefore the plant availability of radionuclides mainly depend on the pH value and the redox potential of the solution. These parameters were monitored regularly. During the contamination period, the redox potential did not chance significantly. In contrast, the pH value showed characteristic changes depending on plants species. Especially in case of potato plants, the dissolved radionuclide fraction correlated with the changes of the pH value. In the plant roots, high amounts of radionuclides (10% to 50% of the added total quantity) were measured. Besides the uptake in the roots, the radionuclides can also adsorb to the exterior root surface. The transfer factor, which describes the Pu uptake ratio from the nutrient solution into the plant parts (dry mass), showed for the potato tubers values between 0.03 and 0.80 (Bq kg{sup -1}/ Bq l{sup -1}), depending on the initial Pu concentration. In addition of the complexing agent EDTA in solution (10{sup -4} mol l{sup -1}), the plutonium uptake increases up to 58

  19. Capsicum--production, technology, chemistry, and quality. Part IV. Evaluation of quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, V S; Rajalakshmi, D; Chand, N

    1987-01-01

    Capsicum fruits are popular worldwide and are used in the cuisines of both the developing and the developed countries. With its different varieties, forms, and uses, the spice capsicum contributes to the entire gamut of sensory experience--color as finely ground paprika powder or extract in sausages, goulash, cheese, and snacks; both pungency and color as the many varieties of chillies used in Mexican, African, Indian, and southeast Asian cuisines; color, aroma, and mild pungency as the fresh green chillies used in many of the growing countries; and appearance, color, aroma, and texture as fresh fruit in salads and as a pickled and canned product. In three earlier parts in this series, the varieties, cultivation, and primary processing; the processed products, world production, and trade; and the chemistry of the color, aroma, and pungency stimuli have been reviewed. In this part, the evaluation of quality through instrumental determination of the causal components and the sensory evaluation of color, aroma, and pungency are discussed. Several methods for quantitative determination of the stimuli and the sensory evaluation of the responses to the stimuli are reviewed. The problems of sensory evaluation of color, aroma, and pungency, the dominant attributes for validation of the instrumentally determined values for carotenoids, volatiles, or particular fractions, and total and individual capsaicinoids are specifically discussed. Summarized details of selected instrumental methods for evaluating the stimuli, which are either validated by correlation to sensorily perceived responses or to adopted standards, are given along with representative data obtained for discussing the adequacy and reliability of the methods. Pungency as a specific gustatory perception and the many methods proposed to evaluate this quality are discussed. A recommended objective procedure for obtaining reproducible values is discussed, and a method for relating different panel results is shown

  20. Prediction of future hydrological regimes in poorly gauged high altitude basins: the case study of the upper Indus, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bocchiola

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the mountain regions of the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Himalaya (HKH the "third polar ice cap" of our planet, glaciers play the role of "water towers" by providing significant amount of melt water, especially in the dry season, essential for agriculture, drinking purposes, and hydropower production. Recently, most glaciers in the HKH have been retreating and losing mass, mainly due to significant regional warming, thus calling for assessment of future water resources availability for populations down slope. However, hydrology of these high altitude catchments is poorly studied and little understood. Most such catchments are poorly gauged, thus posing major issues in flow prediction therein, and representing in fact typical grounds of application of PUB concepts, where simple and portable hydrological modeling based upon scarce data amount is necessary for water budget estimation, and prediction under climate change conditions. In this preliminarily study, future (2060 hydrological flows in a particular watershed (Shigar river at Shigar, ca. 7000 km2, nested within the upper Indus basin and fed by seasonal melt from major glaciers, are investigated.

    The study is carried out under the umbrella of the SHARE-Paprika project, aiming at evaluating the impact of climate change upon hydrology of the upper Indus river. We set up a minimal hydrological model, tuned against a short series of observed ground climatic data from a number of stations in the area, in situ measured ice ablation data, and remotely sensed snow cover data. The future, locally adjusted, precipitation and temperature fields for the reference decade 2050–2059 from CCSM3 model, available within the IPCC's panel, are then fed to the hydrological model. We adopt four different glaciers' cover scenarios, to test sensitivity to decreased glacierized areas. The projected flow duration curves, and some selected flow descriptors are evaluated. The uncertainty of

  1. Survey of insect fauna from plants medicinal, aromatic and seasoning and disinfestation by the process of radiation; Levantamento da entomofauna de plantas medicinais, aromaticas e condimentares e desinfestacao pelo processo de irradiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Fabricio Caldeira

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to survey the insect fauna associated with medicinal plants, aromatic dehydrated and seasoning trade in Sao Paulo city, using different doses of gamma radiation with the aim of disinfestation of the material and determine the lethal dose of gamma radiation on Sphaericus gibboides. From April to May 2011 were collected in 10 establishments the following sample materials: Melissa officinalis L. (Lemongrass), Mentha piperita L. (Mint), Ocimum basilicum L. (Basil), Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Rosemary), Thymus vulgaris L. (Thyme), Senna alexandrina Mill (senna), Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander), Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss (salsa) and Pimpinella anisum L. (Fennel), Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC. (Gorse), Chamomilla recutita L. (= M. recutita L.) (chamomile), Laurus nobilis L. (Blonde) (Lauraceae); Capsicum annuum L. (Sweet paprika), Bixa orellana L. (Spice) (Bixaceae) and Peumus boldus Molina (Boldo). The first screening showed that all the tested materials did not show the presence of adult insects. After 45 days 940 adult insects were found and larvae from eggs. The substrates analyzed Chamomilla recutita showed the highest rate of infestation, with 70,6%. Pelmus boldus, Laurus nobilis, Chamomilla recutita and Capsicum annuum, had the highest species diversity. Baccharis trimera, Bixa orellana, Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare and Coriandrum sativum showed no infestation. The species was Lasioderma serricorne the insect with the largest number of individuals found (936), higher percentage of infestation in different materials (62.5%) and lots, and highest occurrence (68,75%) materials (M. piperita, S. alexandrian, P. anisum, Chamomilla recutita, P. crispum, L. nobilis, C. sativum, C. annuum, O. basilicum, P. boldus and T. vulgaris). The following materials were selected for testing disinfestation by irradiation process: Bixa orellana, Capsicum annuum, Cassia angustifolia, Coriandrum sativum, Mentha

  2. Evaluation of a integral systems greenhouse - solar dryer for small growers; Evaluacion de un sistema integral invernadero - secadero solar para pequenos productores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Victor O; Iriarte, Adolfo A [INENCO, Universidad Nacional de Catamarca, Catamarca (Argentina); Carabajal, Dante; Sabadzija, Gabriela; Tomalino, Luis [E.E.A. INTA, Catamarca, Catamarca (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    Due to poor yielding capacity in the province of Catamarca, Argentina, it is necessary to improve solar drying systems in order to have a better quality final product. It is also essential to divide the costs of infrastructure with other complementary activities because of the need to make drying methods profitable. The system proposed in this work is a dryer-greenhouse with a double purposed macrotunnel greenhouse: during Winter it is used as a yielding system, and in Summer it is prepared to fulfill the functions of a solar dryer. The crops evaluated in winter were: small vegetable marrow (Curcubita maxima L), melon (Cucumis melo), ad cucumber (Cucuis sativus). Crop cycle, harvest time and tield in Kg/m were determined for each species. The assessment of the dryer was made using pepper for paprika observation of the thermal behavior of the product during drying and its final quality. The product obtained had a very good quality in color, taste and aroma with a classification of extra quality according to the Argentine Nutritional Code and the 7541 ISO Standard. Drying time decreased considerably compared to that observed in open air drying, 1995, 1996 and 1997 campaigns were economically assessed, and an evaluation of investments in five years was also conducted obtaining a positive VAN and a TIR above the cost of the best alternative for money expenditure. This integrated system is valid alternative in a sustainable production for small growers. [Spanish] Debido a las caracteristicas productivas de la Provincia de Catamarca Argentina, es necesario optimizar los procesos del secado solar teniendo en cuenta la calidad final del producto. Ademas, debido a la necesidad de rentabilizar los metodos de secado, imprescindible repartir los costos de infraestructura con otro tipo de actividad complementaria. El sistema propuesto en este trabajo es un invernadero secadero que utiliza un invernadero macrotunel que cumple una doble funcion, durante el invierno se usa como

  3. STUDI PENINGKATAN KINERJA MANAJEMEN RANTAI PASOK SAYURAN DATARAN TINGGI DI JAWA BARAT Study of Performance Improvement for Highland Vegetables Supply Chain Management in West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alim Setiawan S

    2012-05-01

    Model pengukuran kinerja sangat diperlukan sebagai alat untuk peningkatan kinerja rantai pasok sayuran dataran tinggi di Jawa Barat. Pengukuran kinerja dapat mendukung perencanaan tujuan, evaluasi kinerja, perumusan kebijakan strategik, taktis dan operasional rantai pasok. Studi ini dilaksanakan dengan pendekatan sistem yang didukung dengan Teknik/Metode Perbandingan Eksponensial (MPE untuk menyeleksi komoditi prioritas, kombinasi teknik SCOR dan Fuzzy AHP digunakan untuk merancang metrik pengukuran kinerja, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA untuk pen- gukuran kinerja individu anggota rantai pasok dan analisis SWOT untuk merumuskan strategi peningkatan kinerja ran- tai pasok. Hasil MPE menunjukkan bahwa 3 (tiga komoditas yang diunggulkan adalah Paprika, Lettuce dan Brokoli. Kombinasi SCOR - Fuzzy AHP menghasilkan bobot metrik kinerja rantai pasok: kinerja pengiriman (0,111, Kesesua- ian dengan standar kualitas (0,299, kinerja pemenuhan pesanan (0,182, waktu tunggu pesanan (0.068, pemenuhan siklus pesanan (0,080, fleksibilitas rantai pasok (0,052, biaya manajemen rantai pasok (0,086, siklus pembayaran tunai (0,080, dan stok harian (0.048. Pengukuran kinerja rantai pasok komoditi lettuce dengan teknik DEA menun- jukkan bahwa kinerja efisiensi petani belum mencapai 100 %. Kinerja efisiensi perusahaan pada kasus komoditi lettuce dan sayuran segar potong telah mencapai 100%. Analisa SWOT merekomendasikan strategi untuk peningkatan kinerja rantai pasok lettuce sebagai berikut: 1 penggunaan teknologi hidroponik dan pengurangan penggunaan pestisida, 2 optimasi penjadwalan penanaman dan pemanenan dengan memperhatikan iklim, 3  peningkatan fleksibilitas dalam pemenuhan pesanan, dan 4 penerapan standar manajemen penjaminan kualitas untuk menjamin konsistensi kualitas produk dan penerimaan produk oleh konsumen.

  4. Survey of insect fauna from plants medicinal, aromatic and seasoning and disinfestation by the process of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Fabricio Caldeira

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to survey the insect fauna associated with medicinal plants, aromatic dehydrated and seasoning trade in Sao Paulo city, using different doses of gamma radiation with the aim of disinfestation of the material and determine the lethal dose of gamma radiation on Sphaericus gibboides. From April to May 2011 were collected in 10 establishments the following sample materials: Melissa officinalis L. (Lemongrass), Mentha piperita L. (Mint), Ocimum basilicum L. (Basil), Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Rosemary), Thymus vulgaris L. (Thyme), Senna alexandrina Mill (senna), Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander), Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss (salsa) and Pimpinella anisum L. (Fennel), Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC. (Gorse), Chamomilla recutita L. (= M. recutita L.) (chamomile), Laurus nobilis L. (Blonde) (Lauraceae); Capsicum annuum L. (Sweet paprika), Bixa orellana L. (Spice) (Bixaceae) and Peumus boldus Molina (Boldo). The first screening showed that all the tested materials did not show the presence of adult insects. After 45 days 940 adult insects were found and larvae from eggs. The substrates analyzed Chamomilla recutita showed the highest rate of infestation, with 70,6%. Pelmus boldus, Laurus nobilis, Chamomilla recutita and Capsicum annuum, had the highest species diversity. Baccharis trimera, Bixa orellana, Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare and Coriandrum sativum showed no infestation. The species was Lasioderma serricorne the insect with the largest number of individuals found (936), higher percentage of infestation in different materials (62.5%) and lots, and highest occurrence (68,75%) materials (M. piperita, S. alexandrian, P. anisum, Chamomilla recutita, P. crispum, L. nobilis, C. sativum, C. annuum, O. basilicum, P. boldus and T. vulgaris). The following materials were selected for testing disinfestation by irradiation process: Bixa orellana, Capsicum annuum, Cassia angustifolia, Coriandrum sativum, Mentha

  5. PENGUJIAN NETRALISASI SIFAT REAKTIF BUMBU DALAM GARAM BERYODIUM DENGAN BAHAN TAMBAHAN MAKANAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryana Purawisastra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available THE NEUTRALIZE EXAMINATION OF THE SPICES REACTIVITY IN THE IODIZED SALT BY THE ADDITIVE OF THE FOOD ADDITIVES.Background: The potassiumiodate of the iodized salt in the mixture with some spices is bind in the form of the compounds, which are not available for the determination of the iodine by the chemical method. This is due to the reactivity of susbtances contained inspices, such as capsaicin in the chilli, and piperine in the paprika, which are responsible for the spiciness of the spices. Although ithasn't been studied, the configuration of the potassiumiodate in the spices is probably also not available for the human consumption. Where as the supplementation of iodized salt to recover the iodine deficiency is effective. The food additives mostly are the chemical substances, which have properties to keep or increase the quality of food.Objectives: The study was performed to investigate the effect of food additives to the reactivity of spices to the potassiumiodate of iodized salt.Material and Methods: The food additive was added to the iodized salt, and then mixed with the spice. Dissolved by the water incertain volume, filtered, and then determined the potassiumiodate content of the filtrate by the Yodometric method. The potassiumiodate content of the filtrate was compared with the potassiumiodate content of the salt. The result of percent comparisonis the recovery of potassiumiodate when mixed with food additive and spice. The recovery of potassiumiodate was done for the different potassiumiodate content of iodized salt. The study was using CaCO3, KH2P04, MgS04, Na2C03, NaHP04, K-citrate, benzoat acid, dan Na-benzoat as food additives, and the red chilli, hot chilli, pepper and coriander.Results: The reactivity of the pepper and coriander to the potassiumiodate of the iodized salt could be netralized by the addition of CaCO3, KH2P04, MgS04, Na2CO3, NaHP04, K-citrate, benzoic acid, dan Na-benzoic. But for the red chilli and hot chilli were

  6. Mapping distribution and thickness of supraglacial debris in the Central Karakoram National Park: main features and implications to model glacier meltwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minora, Umberto; Mayer, Christoph; Bocchiola, Daniele; D'Agata, Carlo; Maragno, Davide; Lambrecht, Astrid; Vuillermoz, Elisa; smiraglia, claudio; diolaiuti, guglielmina

    2014-05-01

    and surface rock temperatures acquired in the study area since the ablation season 2004 (see Mihalcea et al., 2006; 2008b). A mean debris thickness of ca. 5.6 cm was found, probably greater than the local "critical value" (sensu Mattson et al., 1993). Moreover, our field data indicate a local critical value of about 5 cm, above which supraglacial debris thickness would lower ice melt rates compared to that of bare ice (Mihalcea et al., 2006). These findings suggest that in the CKNP area the abundant and extensive debris coverage may result in an actual reduction of buried ice melt. Moreover, Minora et al. (2013) reported quite stable conditions of glaciers in the CKNP area in the time window 2001-2011. This glacier behavior is consistent with the largely known "Karakoram Anomaly" (Hewitt, 2005) and requires further investigations. Among other possible important factors driving such a unique glacier trend, debris depth and distribution have to be considered. This work was carried out under the umbrella of the PAPRIKA project funded and managed by EvK2CNR Committee. The authors are also grateful to the SEED project (funded by the Pakistani and Italian Governments and managed by EvK2CNR).

  7. Contributions to multiple element speciation in vegetable plants: Studies on the type of bonding of numerous elements, particularly zinc and cadmium; Beitraege zur Multielement-Speziation in pflanzlichen Lebensmitteln: Studien zur Bindungsform zahlreicher Elemente unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung von Zink und Cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, K.

    1997-03-01

    handelsueblichen - pflanzlichen Lebensmitteln nach Zellaufschluss bestimmt. Untersucht wurden Avocado, Bananen, Blumenkohl, Chicoree, Chinakohl, Dill, Eissalat (2 Proben), Endiviensalat, Feldsalat, Gurken, Kohlrabi, Kopfsalat, Mangold, Moehren, Paprika, Porree, Rettich, Rotkohl, Schnittsalat, Sellerie (2 Proben), Spinat, Topinambur, Weisskohl und Wurzelpetersilie. Der Zellaufschluss erfolgte durch eine Behandlung des Pflanzenmaterials mit einem elektrischen Dispergiergeraet (Ultra-Turrax) in Pufferloesung (liquid shearing). Durch nachfolgende Zentrifugation wurden die Homogenate in Ueberstaende (Cytosole) und Pellets aufgetrennt. Der Zellaufschluss der Pflanzen durch Verreiben mit Quarzsand nach Gefriertrocknung (solid shearing) ergab Blindwertprobleme bei einigen Elementen und war technisch umstaendlicher. In den untersuchten pflanzlichen Lebensmittel konnten im Durchschnitt mindestens 50% von Zn, Cd, Cu, Rb und K durch den Zellaufschluss durch Ultra-Turrax-Behandlung in Loesung ueberfuehrt werden. In vielen Faellen lag der cytosolbuertige Anteil dieser 5 Elemente bei>70%. Bei Zn und Cd war das Verhalten staerker pflanzenabhaengig als bei Zu, Rb und K. Alle 5 Elemente sind einer weiteren Speziation durch klassische Methoden damit zu einem grossen Anteil zugaenglich. Mn, Ca und besonders Fe und Sr waren durchschnittlich zum groessten Anteil an feste Zellbestandteile gebunden. Bei Ca und besonders Mn und Sr war das Loeslichkeitsverhalten jedoch sehr heterogen. Bei einigen Pflanzen betrug z.B. die Cytosolbuertigkeit von Mn und Sr ca. 90%, so dass in diesen Faellen eine umfassende Speziation ebenfalls moeglich ist. (orig./AJ)