Why get vaccinated?HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with cause ... at http://www.cdc.gov/hpv. HPV Vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and ...
... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women HPV (human papillomavirus) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Español In Chamorro In Urdu In Vietnamese HPV (human papillomavirus) is a sexually transmitted virus. It is ...
Gallegos-Bolaños, Jazbet; Rivera-Domínguez, Jessica Alejandra; Presno-Bernal, José Miguel; Cervantes-Villagrana, Rodolfo Daniel
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with the genesis of cervical carcinoma. The co-infection among HPV genotypes is frequent, but the clinical significance is controversial; in Mexico, the prevalence and pattern of co-infection differ depending on the geographic area of study. We analyzed the mono- and co-infection prevalence of multiple HPV genotypes, as well as preferential interactions among them in a Mexico City sample population. This study was designed as a retrospective cohort study. Cervical cytology samples from 1163 women and 166 urethral scraping samples of men were analyzed between 2010 and 2012. The detection of HPV infection was performed using the hybrid capture and the genotyping was by PCR (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 30, 31, 33, 35, 45, 51, and 52). 36% of women were HPV-positive and the most prevalent genotypes were HPV 51, 52, 16, and 33 (42, 38, 37, and 34%, respectively). The prevalence of co-infection was higher (75.37%) than mono-infection in women HPV positives. All genotypes were co-infected with HPV 16, but the co-infection with 51-52 genotypes was the most frequent combination in all cases. The co-infection was very common; each HPV genotype showed different preferences for co-infection with other genotypes, HPV 51-52 co-infection was the most frequent. The HPV 16, 33, 51 and 52 were the most prevalent and are a public health concern to the Mexican population.
Baloch, Zulqarnain; Yasmeen, Nafeesa; Li, Yuanyue; Zhang, Wenhui; Lu, Hongyu; Wu, Xiaomei; Xia, Xueshan; Yang, Shihua
BACKGROUND It is important to understand the knowledge that various groups of a population have about cervical cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) and their attitudes toward HPV vaccination, as it will ultimately influence their decision-making for or against the acceptability of vaccines and other preventive methods. This study was designed to determine the level of knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer, HPV, and the HPV vaccine among Chinese women in Yunnan province. MATERIAL AND METHODS A survey was conducted in Yunnan province by the Laboratory of Molecular Virology in collaboration with the Yunnan First People's Hospital in Feb 2015. A total of 388 women were recruited and asked to participate in a questionnaire-based interview that collected information related to their awareness and knowledge about: (1) cervical cancer, (2) HPV and HPV vaccine and willingness to have their children receive vaccination, and (3) demographic characteristics. RESULTS A total of 388 HPV-positive women were included; 300/388 (73.3%) were Han, and 88/388 (22.7%) were other ethnicities. Overall, 204/388 (52.6%) of the women were aware of cervical cancer, with a significant difference between Han women and women of other ethnic groups (168/388, 56.0% and 36/88, 40.9%; P=0.015). Overall, 26.5% of the women were aware of the role of HPV in cervical cancer; 29.0% of the Han women and 18.2% of women of other ethnic groups were aware of this role of HPV (P=0.05). The knowledge that HPV infection leads to cervical cancer was higher among Han women (29.0%) compared to women of other ethnicities (18.2%). Knowledge about the HPV vaccine was very low in all ethnic groups, but the Han women were more willing to allow their children to be vaccinated before they become sexually active. A similar difference has also been found in women from various regions. CONCLUSIONS Although level of awareness and knowledge about cervical cancer was moderate, knowledge and awareness of HPV and the HPV
Louvanto, Karolina; Syrjänen, Kari J.; Rintala, Marjut A. M.; Grénman, Seija E.; Syrjänen, Stina M.
The majority of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in young women are transient, but whether the clearance differs among different HPV genotypes and the different factors predicting genotype-specific clearance are partly unknown. In the Finnish Family HPV Study, 131 of 252 women (mean age, 25.5 years) cleared their infection during the prospective follow-up of 6 years (median, 62.4 months; range, 1.6 to 94.5 months). Cervical scrapings collected at each visit were tested for 24 lo...
Schabath, Matthew B; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmerón, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Giuliano, Anna R
The influence of smoking on the natural history of HPV infection in men is not well understood. Smoking could influence the incidence and persistence of HPV infections by suppressing local immune function, increased cellular proliferation, upregulated proinflammatory factors, or induced host DNA damage resulting in increased susceptibility to infection. The purpose of this analysis is to assess prevalent HPV infections by smoking status in men, and to determine baseline risk of HPV infection associated with smoking. The HPV in Men (HIM) study is a multinational prospective study of the natural history of HPV infections in men. Samples from the coronal sulcus, glans penis, shaft, and scrotum were combined for HPV DNA testing. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between smoking and any-, oncogenic-, and nononcogenic HPV infections. Our analyses revealed that current smoking was associated with an increased risk of any HPV infection (OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.01-1.41) and oncogenic HPV infection (OR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.05-1.47). However, the association between smoking and any HPV infection (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 1.05-1.73) and oncogenic HPV infection (OR = 1.46; 95% CI: 1.11-1.92) was only evident among men reporting fewer lifetime sexual partners. These results suggest that current smokers with the fewest number of sexual partners are associated with an increased risk for oncogenic HPV infection. The relationship between smoking and HPV infection remains understudied in men; these data shed new light on the interplay between smoking, sexual activity, and risk of HPV infection.
Full Text Available ... sq how to do kids infect kids links & resources M.O.V.E. parents for prevention ... go to GETVAXED.ORG cme Immunizations HPV (Human Papillomavirus) One family's struggles with HPV We provide ...
Schabath, Matthew B; Thompson, Zachary J; Egan, Kathleen M; Torres, B Nelson; Nguyen, Anthony; Papenfuss, Mary R; Abrahamsen, Martha E; Giuliano, Anna R
Moderate alcohol consumption can impair host defence against viral infections. The objective of this cross-sectional analysis was to assess the association between alcohol intake and prevalent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among US men enrolled in the HPV in Men (HIM) study using quantitative alcohol intake measured from a Food Frequency Questionnaire. The HIM study is a prospective, multinational study of the natural history of HPV infection. For this report, we restricted our analyses to men from the US cohort (N = 1313). Samples from the corona of glans penis, penile shaft and scrotum were combined for HPV DNA testing. Self-reported alcohol intake was quantified by grams of alcohol intake per day. Multivariable prevalence ratios (mPRs) were used to assess the association between alcohol intake and HPV infections. Prevalent infections were significantly higher among men in the highest quartile of alcohol intake and multivariable models revealed that the highest quartile of alcohol intake was associated with significantly increased risks for any (mPR = 1.13; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.27) HPV types and oncogenic (mPR = 1.35; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.68) HPV types. The fourth quartile of alcohol intake was associated with elevated risks for prevalent HPV infection across all strata of number of sexual partners and among never-smokers and current smokers, but not among former smokers. These results demonstrate that high intake of alcohol is associated with an increased risk for prevalent HPV infections among men. The biological role that alcohol plays in genital HPV infection remains understudied and limited epidemiological data exist, especially among men. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Lin, Jing; Chen, Lanting; Qiu, Xuemin; Zhang, Na; Guo, Qiting; Wang, Yan; Wang, Mingyan; Gober, Hans-Jürgen; Li, Dajin; Wang, Ling
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are common and generally harmless, but persistent infections can bring health problems like cancer and genital warts. For the uninfected group, HPV vaccines provide safe and effective protection, but they're type-restricted and expensive. For those infected, so far there have been a handful of treatments for HPV-associated benign or malignant diseases, traditional Chinese medicine being one of them. This systematic review focuses on the application of traditional Chinese medicine in HPV infection and related diseases on the basis of clinical findings. Moreover it covers compositions and mechanisms based on in vitro laboratory methods and animal models. Traditional Chinese medicine improves clinical index in the treatment of cervical cancer and genital warts; the mechanisms behind the effectiveness might be the regulation of cell apoptosis, viral gene transcription and translation, cell signal transduction pathways, and immune function.
Pamnani, Shitaldas J; Nyitray, Alan G; Abrahamsen, Martha; Rollison, Dana E; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Huang, Yangxin; Borenstein, Amy; Giuliano, Anna R
The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of sequential acquisition of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection following a type-specific genital HPV infection for the 9-valent vaccine HPV types and investigate factors associated with sequential infection among men who have sex with women (MSW). Genital and anal specimens were available for 1348 MSW participants, and HPV genotypes were detected using the Roche Linear Array assay. Sequential risk of anal HPV infection was assessed using hazard ratios (HRs) among men with prior genital infection, compared with men with no prior genital infection, in individual HPV type and grouped HPV analyses. In individual analyses, men with prior HPV 16 genital infections had a significantly higher risk of subsequent anal HPV 16 infections (HR, 4.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41-15.23). In grouped analyses, a significantly higher risk of sequential type-specific anal HPV infections was observed for any of the 9 types (adjusted HR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.32-5.99), high-risk types (adjusted HR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.26, 5.55), and low-risk types (adjusted HR, 5.89; 95% CI, 1.29, 27.01). MSW with prior genital HPV infections had a higher risk of a subsequent type-specific anal infection. The higher risk was not explained by sexual intercourse with female partners. Autoinoculation is a possible mechanism for the observed association. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Branković, Ivan; Verdonk, Petra; Klinge, Ineke
Our aim is to provide a state-of-the-art overview of knowledge on sex (biological) and gender (sociocultural) aspects of Human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer for educational purposes. Considerable disparities exist in cervical cancer incidences between different subgroups of women. We provide an outline on the crucial issues and debates based on the recent literature published in leading gender medicine journals. Intersectionality was applied in order to help categorise the knowledge. Key terms (HPV, cervical cancer) were screened in Gender Medicine, Journal of Women's Health and Women & Health from January 2005-June 2012. Additional searches were conducted for topics insufficiently mentioned, such as HPV vaccination of boys. In total, 71 publications were included (56 original papers, four reviews, six reports, three commentaries, one editorial and one policy statement). Research reveals complexity in the way various subgroups of women adhere to cervical screening. Less educated women, older women, uninsured women, homeless women, migrant women facing language barriers, women who have sex with women and obese women participate in Pap smears less frequently. A series of barriers can act to impede decisions to vaccinate against HPV. Both male and female controlled preventive methods and treatment measures should be developed in order to tackle HPV infection and different strategies are needed for different subgroups. A substantial discussion and research on alternative methods of prevention was and is lacking. In future research, sex and gender aspects of HPV-related diseases of boys and men as well as subgroup differences in HPV risk need to be addressed.
Ngabo, Fidele; Franceschi, Silvia; Baussano, Iacopo; Umulisa, M Chantal; Snijders, Peter J F; Uyterlinde, Anne M; Lazzarato, Fulvio; Tenet, Vanessa; Gatera, Maurice; Binagwaho, Agnes; Clifford, Gary M
Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in Rwanda that, in 2011, became the first African country to implement a national vaccination programme against human papillomavirus (HPV). To provide a robust baseline for future evaluations of vaccine effectiveness, cervical cell specimens were obtained from 2508 women aged 18-69 years from the general population in Kigali, Rwanda, during 2013/14. 20 % of women were HIV-positive. Samples were used for liquid-based cytology and HPV testing (44 types) with GP5+/6+ PCR. HPV prevalence was 34 %, being highest (54 %) in women ≤19 years and decreasing to 20 % at age ≥50. Prevalence of high risk (HR) HPV and cytological abnormalities was 22 and 11 % respectively (including 2 % with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, HSIL) decreasing with age. Age-standardised prevalence of HR HPV was 22 % (or 19 % among HIV-negative women), and HPV16 was the most common type. Prevalence of HPV and cytological abnormalities were significantly higher in HIV-positive than HIV-negative women, and the difference increased with age. Other significant risk factors for HPV positivity in multivariate analyses were high lifetime number of sexual partners, receiving cash for sex, and being a farmer. 40 % of women with HSIL were infected with HPV16/18 and there was no significant difference between HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. This study confirms Rwanda to be a setting of high prevalence of HPV and cervical disease that is worsened by HIV. These data will serve as a robust baseline for future evaluations of HPV vaccine programme effectiveness.
Alberts, Catharina Johanna; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Papenfuss, Mary R.; da Silva, Roberto José Carvalho; Villa, Luisa Lina; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Nyitray, Alan G.; Giuliano, Anna R.
Background: Studies in women indicate that some sexually transmitted infections promote human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence and carcinogenesis. Little is known about this association in men; therefore, we assessed whether Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection and herpes simplex virus type 2
Clifford, Gary M.; Tully, Stephen; Franceschi, Silvia
Abstract Background. Data on the relative carcinogenic potential of human papillomavirus (HPV) types among women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (WHIV) are needed to inform prevention programs for this population. Methods. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis of high-risk HPV-type distribution in 19883 HIV-positive women was performed. The women, from 86 studies worldwide, included 11739 with normal cytological findings; 1784 with atypical squamous cells of undete...
Scherpenisse, Mirte; Schepp, Rutger M.; Mollers, Madelief; Mooij, Sofie H.; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.
We compared the measurement of human papillomavirus (HPV)-specific serum antibody levels with the virus-like-particle multiplex immunoassay (VLP-MIA), competitive Luminex immunoassay (cLIA), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) L1-based MIA. Using a large panel of serum samples, these assays showed
Brankovic, I; Verdonk, P.; Klinge, I.
Background: Our aim is to provide a state-of-the-art overview of knowledge on sex (biological) and gender (sociocultural) aspects of Human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer for educational purposes. Considerable disparities exist in cervical cancer incidences between different subgroups of
King, Eleanor M; Gilson, Richard; Beddows, Simon; Soldan, Kate; Panwar, Kavita; Young, Carmel; Jit, Mark; Edmunds, W John; Sonnenberg, Pam
Objectives To estimate the prevalence of oral detectable human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) attending a sexual health clinic in London and concordance with anogenital HPV infection. Such data are important to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of oral HPV and the potential use of vaccines to prevent oropharyngeal cancers. Methods Paired oral rinse samples and anogenital samples were available from 151 HIV-negative MSM within a larger cross-sectional survey. All samples were tested in parallel for 21 types of HPV DNA using an in-house assay. Results The median age of participants was 30 (IQR 25–35). The prevalence of any oral HPV and of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) was 13.7% (n=21; 95% CI 8.7 to 20.2) and 5.9% (n=9; 95% CI 2.7 to 10.9) compared with 64.9% (n=98; 95% CI 56.7 to 72.5) and 34.4% (n=52; 95% CI 26.9 to 42.6) in any anogenital sample, respectively. The prevalence of types prevented by the bivalent (HPV16/18), quadrivalent (HPV6/11/16/18) and nonavalent (HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) vaccines was 1.3% (95% CI 0.2 to 4.7), 2.6% (95% CI 0.7 to 6.6) and 4.6% (95% CI 1.9 to 9.3), respectively. There was no concordance between HPV genotypes detected in oral and anogenital sites. Conclusions HR-HPV DNA, including HPV 16/18, was detected in oral specimens from HIV-negative MSM attending sexual health clinics, suggesting a potential role for vaccination, but is far less common than anogenital infection. How this relates to the risk and natural history of HPV-related head and neck cancers warrants further study. Lack of concordance with anogenital infection also suggests that oral HPV infection should be considered separately when estimating potential vaccine impact. PMID:25887283
Tully, Stephen; Franceschi, Silvia
Abstract Background. Data on the relative carcinogenic potential of human papillomavirus (HPV) types among women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (WHIV) are needed to inform prevention programs for this population. Methods. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis of high-risk HPV-type distribution in 19883 HIV-positive women was performed. The women, from 86 studies worldwide, included 11739 with normal cytological findings; 1784 with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS); 2173 with low-grade and 1282 with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) diagnosed cytologically; 1198 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN1), 456 with CIN2, and 455 with CIN3 diagnosed histologically; and 796 with invasive cervical cancers (ICCs). A large proportion of WHIV, and almost all with ICCs, were from Africa. Results. In Africa, HPV 16 accounted for 13% of HPV-positive WHIV with normal cytological findings, but this proportion increased through ASCUS, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, CIN1, and CIN2 (18%–25%), up to 41%–47% for CIN3 and ICCs. Only HPV 16, HPV 18, and HPV 45 accounted for a greater proportion of HPV infections in ICCs compared with normal cytological findings (ICC:normal ratios, 3.68, 2.47, and 2.55, respectively). Other high-risk types accounted for important proportions of low- and/or high-grade lesions, but their contribution dropped in ICCs, with ICC:normal ratios in Africa ranging from 0.79 for HPV 33 down to 0.38 for HPV 56. Findings for HPV 16 and HPV 18 in Europe/North America, Asia, and Latin America were compatible with those from Africa. Conclusions. HPV 16 and HPV 18 in particular, but also HPV 45, at least in Africa, warrant special attention in WHIV. Broad consistency of findings with those in HIV-uninfected population would suggest that the risk stratification offered by partial HPV genotyping tests also have relevance for HIV-positive women. PMID:28199532
Joel M. Palefsky
Full Text Available While much is known about the natural history of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV infection and its consequences, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer, relatively little is known about the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and diseases in men. In part this reflects difficulties in penile sampling and visual assessment of penile lesions. Anal HPV infection and disease also remain poorly understood. Although HPV is transmitted sexually and infects the genitals of both sexes, the cervix remains biologically more vulnerable to malignant transformation than does the penis or anus in men. An understanding of male HPV infection is therefore important in terms of reducing transmission of HPV to women and improving women's health. However, it is also important due to the burden of disease in men, who may develop both penile and anal cancer, particularly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Improved sampling techniques of the male genitalia and cohort studies in progress should provide important information on the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and disease in men, including risk factors for HPV acquisition and transmission. The impact of HPV vaccination in women on male anogenital HPV infection will also need to be assessed.
Ingles, Donna J; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Messina, Jane A; Stoler, Mark H; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J; Abrahamsen, Martha; Sirak, Bradley A; O'Keefe, Michael T; Papenfuss, Mary; Gage, Christine; Carvalho da Silva, Roberto; Gonzalez Sosa, Rossana; Rojas Juarez, Oscar; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R
Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes external genital lesions (EGLs) in men, including condyloma and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN). We sought to determine the incidence of pathologically confirmed EGLs, by lesion type, among men in different age groups and to evaluate the HPV types that were associated with EGL development. HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study participants who contributed ≥2 visits from 2009-2013 were included in the biopsy cohort. Genotyping by an HPV line-probe assay was performed on all pathologically confirmed EGLs. Age-specific analyses were conducted for incident EGLs, with Kaplan-Meier estimation of cumulative incidence. This biopsy cohort included 2754 men (median follow-up duration, 12.4 months [interquartile range, 6.9-19.2 months]). EGLs (n = 377) were pathologically confirmed in 228 men, 198 of whom had incident EGLs. The cumulative incidence of any EGL was highest among men <45 years old and, for condyloma, decreased significantly over time with age. The genotype-specific incidence of EGL varied by pathological diagnoses, with high- and low-risk genotypes found in 15.6% and 73.2% of EGLs, respectively. Condyloma primarily contained HPV 6 or 11. While PeIN lesions primarily contained HPV 16, 1 PeIN III lesion was positive for HPV 6 only. Low- and high-risk HPV genotypes contribute to the EGL burden. Men remain susceptible to HPV-related EGLs throughout the life span, making it necessary to ensure the longevity of immune protection against the most common causative HPV genotypes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Methods: A total of 600 consecutively selected women aged 30-74 yr with persistent vaginal discharge, intermenstrual/postcoital bleeding or unhealthy cervix underwent conventional Pap smear, Hybrid Capture 2® (HC2 testing for HPV and CT DNA and colposcopy, with directed biopsy of all lesions. Results: HPV DNA was positive in 108 (18.0% women, CT DNA in 29 (4.8% women. HPV/CT co-infection was observed in only four (0.7% women. Of the 127 (21.2% women with Pap >ASCUS, 60 (47.2% were HPV positive and four (3.1% were CT positive. Of the 41 women with CIN1 lesions, 11 (26.8% were HPV positive, while two were CT positive. Of the 46 women with CIN2+ on histopathology, 41 (89.1% were HPV positive, two (4.3% were CT positive and one was positive for both. The risk of CIN2+ disease was significantly increased (P35 yr, higher parity, use of oral contraceptives or smoking did not show any significant association with HPV or abnormal histopathology. Parity >5 was the only risk factor positivity associated with CT infection (P<0.05. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed that CT infection was not significantly associated with CIN, and most of its risk factors, including HPV infection, in symptomatic women. Longitudinal studies with carefully selected study sample would be able to answer these questions.
... factors for developing them, such as taking oral contraceptives . A safety review of Gardasil in Denmark and ... and venous thromboembolic adverse events after immunisation of adolescent girls with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in Denmark ...
Kim, Byoung Gie; Lee, Eui Don; Zin, Yong Jae
This study was performed to determine the frequency of viral integration and viral load in women with positive HPV type 16 infection, and showing normal findings, CIN, and cervical cancer. Total 75 (normal, 15; CIN I, 20; CIN III, 20; cervical cancer, 20) cervical swab specimens were used. HPV detection, typing, and viral load was determined by PCR method. Seventy of 75 (93.3%) of cervical swab specimens showed same results with hybrid capture assay and PCR method for detecting HPV DNA. HPV type 16 DNA was identified more frequently with progression from normal to cervical cancer (normal, 13 %; CIN I, 15%; CIN III, 40 %; cervical cancer, 55 %). The frequency of HPV type 16 DNA integration also increased with grade of the lesion (normal, 0 %; CIN I, 33 %; CIN III, 87 %; cervical cancer, 91 %) suggesting most of HPV type 16 present as integration forms in the cells. In addition, high-level of HPV 16 viral load also was found more frequently in CIN III and cervical cancer (normal, 0 %; CIN I, 0 %; CIN III, 87 %; cervical cancer, 100 %). These results suggest that viral integration and high-level of viral load may play an important role in cervical carcinogenesis. (author). 13 refs., 5 figs
Full Text Available ... GETVAXED print ads go to GETVAXED.ORG cme Immunizations HPV (Human Papillomavirus) One family's struggles with HPV ... not possible without a visit to your doctor. Immunizations stop disease from spreading. Check with your family ...
Rebolj, Matejka; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte M
The APTIMA Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Assay detects E6/E7 mRNA from 14 human papillomavirus genotypes. Horizon was a population-based split-sample study among well-screened women, with an aim to compare APTIMA, Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), and liquid-based cytology (LBC) using SurePath samples. APTIMA...
Luttmer, Roosmarijn; Dijkstra, Maaike G.; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Jordanova, Ekaterina S.; King, Audrey J.; Pronk, Divera T. M.; Foresta, Carlo; Garolla, Andrea; Hompes, Peter G. A.; Berkhof, Johannes; Bleeker, Maaike C. G.; Doorbar, John; Heideman, Daniëlle A. M.; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.
To study the source of human papillomavirus (HPV) in semen. Observational study (CCMO-NL3248800010). Academic hospital-based laboratory. Healthy male volunteers (n = 213). One penile scrape and three semen samples were obtained per participant for HPV-DNA testing by both GP5+/6+ polymerase chain
Phusingha, Pensiri; Ekalaksananan, Tipaya; Vatanasapt, Patravoot; Loyha, Kulchaya; Promthet, Supannee; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Patarapadungkit, Natcha; Chuerduangphui, Jureeporn; Pientong, Chamsai
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an independent risk factor for development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). This study aimed to investigate the role of HPV infection and the trend in percentage of HPV-associated OSCC over a 5-year period in northeastern Thailand. In this case-control study, 91 exfoliated oral cell samples and 80 lesion cell samples from OSCC cases and exfoliated oral cells from 100 age/gender-matched controls were collected. HPV infection was investigated by PCR using GP5+/GP6+ primers followed by HPV genotyping using reverse line blot hybridization. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to evaluate HPV oncogene transcription. Temporal trends of HPV infection were evaluated in archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) OSCC tissues using in situ hybridization. HPV DNA was found in 17.5% (14/80) of lesion samples from OSCC cases and 29.7% (27/91) of exfoliated oral cell samples from the same cases. These values were significantly higher than in exfoliated oral cell samples from controls (13%, 13/100). HPV-16 was the genotype most frequently found in OSCC cases (92.8%, 13/14 infected cases). Interestingly, HPV oncogene mRNA expression was detected and correlated with OSCC cases (P cases were positive for HPV E6/E7 mRNA expression. There was a trend of increasing percentage of HPV-associated OSCC from 2005 to 2010. This was especially so for females with well-differentiated tumors in specific tongue sub-sites. We suggest that HPV infection plays an important role in oral carcinogenesis in northeastern Thailand. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types targeted by the quadrivalent HPV vaccine has declined by nearly two-thirds among teenage girls since HPV vaccination was recommended in the United States.
... is taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv.html . CDC review information for HPV (Human Papillomavirus) ...
Chuerduangphui, Jureeporn; Pientong, Chamsai; Swangphon, Piyawut; Luanratanakorn, Sanguanchoke; Sangkomkamhang, Ussanee; Tungsiriwattana, Thumwadee; Kleebkaow, Pilaiwan; Burassakarn, Ati; Ekalaksananan, Tipaya
Human papillomavirus (HPV) E2 and L1 proteins are expressed in cervical cells during the lytic stage of infection. Overexpression of p16 INK4A is a biomarker of HPV-associated cervical neoplasia. This study investigated antibodies to HPV16 E2, HPV16 L1, and p16 INK4A in sera from women with no squamous intraepithelial lesion (No-SIL) of the cervix, low-grade SIL, high-grade SIL, and cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). HPV DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Anti-E2, -L1, and -p16 INK4A antibodies in sera were determined by western blot. Among 116 samples, 69 (60%) were HPV DNA-positive. Percentages seropositive for anti-E2, -L1, and -p16 INK4A antibodies were 39.6, 22.4, and 23.3%, respectively. Anti-E2 antibody was significantly correlated with HPV DNA-positive cases. Eighty-seven women (75%) were regarded as infected with HPV, having at least one positive result from HPV DNA, L1, or E2 antibody. Antibody to p16 INK4A was associated with HPV infection (odds = 5.444, 95% CI 1.203-24.629, P = 0.028) and precancerous cervical lesions (odds = 5.132, 95% CI 1.604-16.415, P = 0.006). Interestingly, the concurrent detection of anti-E2 and -p16 INK4A antibodies was significantly associated with HPV infection (odds = 1.382, 95% CI 1.228-1.555, P = 0.044). These antibodies might be good candidate biomarkers for monitoring HPV-associated cervical lesion development to cancer.
Full Text Available Abstract Background HPV burden is a predictor for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer. The natural history of HPV load in young women being recently exposed to HPV is described in this paper. Methods A total of 636 female university students were followed for 2 years. Cervical specimens with HPV-16, -18, -31, or -45 DNA by consensus PCR were further evaluated with type-specific and β-globin real-time PCR assays. Proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR of infection clearance. Generalized estimating equations assessed whether HPV loads was predictive of HPV infection at the subsequent visit. Results HPV loads were consistently higher among women Conclusions The association between HPV load and persistence is not uniform across high-risk genital genotypes. HPV-16 integration was only rarely demonstrated in young women.
This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) bivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.
This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) nonavalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.
This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.
Full Text Available ... getvaxed about GETVAXED print ads go to GETVAXED.ORG cme Immunizations HPV (Human Papillomavirus) One family's struggles ... free-of-charge. Branded videos contain the "PKIDs.ORG" end slate; unbranded videos are provided for organizations ...
... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause serious health problems, including ... 6348 Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov TOP
Christian Chigozie Makwe
Conclusion: The knowledge of and the perceived susceptibility to HPV infection and HPV-related diseases among female students in the University of Lagos were generally low. The need for a well-designed HPV-educational program to bridge the knowledge gap cannot be overemphasized.
Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Kreimer, Aimée R; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William; O'Keefe, Michael T; Ingles, Donna J; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R
Persistent infection with oral HPV16 is believed to drive the development of most oropharyngeal cancers. However, patterns of oral HPV16 persistence remain understudied, particularly among HIV-negative individuals. Oral HPV16 persistence was evaluated among 1,626 participants of the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study. Twenty-three oral HPV16-positive men who provided an oral gargle sample on ≥2 study visits were included in the analysis. Archived oral samples from all follow-up visits were tested for HPV16 using Linear Array and INNO-LiPA detection methods. Persistence was evaluated using consecutive HPV16-positive visits held approximately 6 months apart and using the Kaplan-Meier method. Oral HPV16-positive men were aged 18 to 64 years [median, 36 years; interquartile range (IQR), 25-42] and were followed for a median of 44.4 months (IQR, 29.9-49.5). Of 13 incident infections, 4 (30.8%) persisted ≥12 months, 1 (10.0%) persisted ≥24 months, and none persisted ≥36 months [median infection duration, 7.3 months; 95% confidence interval (CI), 6.4-NA)]. Of 10 prevalent infections, 9 (90.0%) persisted ≥12 months, 8 (80.0%) persisted ≥24 months, 4 (57.1%) persisted ≥36 months, and 2 (40.0%) persisted ≥48 months (median infection duration, NA). Twelve-month persistence of incident infections increased significantly with age (Ptrend = 0.028). Prevalent oral HPV16 infections in men persisted longer than newly acquired infections, and persistence appeared to increase with age. These findings may explain the high prevalence of oral HPV observed at older ages. Understanding oral HPV16 persistence will aid in the identification of men at high-risk of developing HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
Tanzi, Elisabetta; Amendola, Antonella; Bianchi, Silvia; Fasolo, M Michela; Beretta, Rosangela; Pariani, Elena; Zappa, Alessandra; Frati, Elena; Orlando, Giovanna
A cross-sectional study was carried out to improve the state of evidence regarding the spectrum of HPV types and HPV-16 LCR variants circulating among men and women infected with HIV-1 in Italy. This study, conducted in 518 HIV-positive subjects (346 males and 172 females), showed a high prevalence of HPV anal infections (88.7%) in men and of cervical infections (65.1%) in women. A wide spectrum of HPV genotypes has been observed, as both single and multiple infections. Low-risk HPV types 6, 11 and 61 were frequently detected. HPV-16 was the prevalent high-risk type. Fourteen different HPV-16 LCR variants were found. Ten belonged to the European lineage (78.7% were detected in Italian subjects and 21.3% in foreign-born, all homo/bisexual men), two to the Asiatic lineage and two to the African-2 lineage. This study underlines the great genotypic heterogeneity characterizing anal and cervical HPV infections and the marked polymorphism of the predominant HPV-16 in this high-risk population in Italy.
Bussu, Francesco, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Institute of Otolaryngology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Roma (Italy); Sali, Michela [Institute of Microbiology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Roma (Italy); Gallus, Roberto [Institute of Otolaryngology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Roma (Italy); Petrone, Gianluigi; Zannoni, Gian Franco [Institute of Histopathology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Roma (Italy); Autorino, Rosa; Dinapoli, Nicola [Institute of Radiotherapy, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Roma (Italy); Santangelo, Rosaria [Institute of Microbiology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Roma (Italy); Vellone, Valerio Gaetano [Institute of Histopathology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Roma (Italy); Graziani, Cristina [Institute of Otolaryngology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Roma (Italy); Miccichè, Francesco [Institute of Radiotherapy, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Roma (Italy); Almadori, Giovanni; Galli, Jacopo [Institute of Otolaryngology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Roma (Italy); Delogu, Giovanni; Sanguinetti, Maurizio [Institute of Microbiology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Roma (Italy); Rindi, Guido [Institute of Histopathology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Roma (Italy); and others
Purpose: Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 infection is associated with oropharyngeal carcinogenesis and is likely the cause of the reported increase in disease incidence. We evaluated the prevalence of HPV infection and the reliability of different diagnostic tools using primary tumor samples from a cohort of 50 patients. Methods and Materials: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor samples were collected from all 50 consecutive primary oropharyngeal SCC patients who were enrolled in the study; fresh tumor samples were available in 22 cases. NucliSENS EasyQ HPVv1 was used for RNA, and Digene Hybrid Capture-2(HC2) was used for DNA detection. p16 Expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in FPPE specimens. Results: Based on the DNA detection assay on FFPE samples, the frequency of high-risk HPV infection was 32%. The agreement rate between HPV RNA and HPV DNA detection in fresh samples was 100%. The agreement rate between p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the detection of HPV DNA in the FFPE samples was fair but not excellent (κ = 0.618). HPV DNA detection was highly significant, as measured by disease-specific survival and determined using a Wilcoxon test (P=.001). p16 IHC also exhibited a prognostic value but with a lower statistical significance (P=.0475). The detection of HPV DNA, but not p16 IHC, was also significantly correlated with locoregional control (P=.0461). Conclusion: Diagnostic methods based on the detection of HPV nucleic acids appear to be more reliable and objective because they do not require reading by a trained histopathologist. Furthermore, the detection of HPV DNA exhibits an improved correlation with survival, and therefore appears definitely more reliable than p16 IHC for routine use in clinical practice.
Pérez-Caraballo, Aixa M; Suarez, Erick; Unger, Elizabeth R; Palefsky, Joel M; Panicker, Gitika; Ortiz, Ana Patricia
It is unknown if human papillomavirus (HPV) serum antibody responses vary by anatomic site of infection. We aimed to assess the seroprevalence for HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 in association with HPV DNA detection in different anatomic sites among women. This cross sectional population-based study analyzed data from 524 women aged 16-64 years living in the San Juan metropolitan area of Puerto Rico (PR). Questionnaires were used to assess demographic and lifestyle variables, while anogenital and blood samples were collected for HPV analysis. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the adjusted prevalence odds ratio (POR) in order to determine the association between HPV DNA infection status in the cervix and anus and serum antibody status, controlling for different potential confounders. Overall, 46.9% of women had detectable antibodies to one or more types whereas 8.7% had HPV DNA for one or more of these types detected in cervix (4.0%) or anus (6.5%). Women with cervical HPV detection tended to be more HPV seropositive than women without cervical detection (adjusted POR (95%CI): 2.41 (0.90, 6.47), p=0.078); however the type-specific association between cervical DNA and serum antibodies was only significant for HPV 18 (adjusted POR (95% CI): 5.9 (1.03, 33.98)). No significant association was detected between anal HPV and seropositivity (p>0.10). Differences in the anatomic site of infection could influence seroconversion, however, longitudinal studies will be required for further evaluation. This information will be instrumental in advancing knowledge of immune mechanisms involved in anatomic site response.
Bussu, Francesco; Sali, Michela; Gallus, Roberto; Petrone, Gianluigi; Zannoni, Gian Franco; Autorino, Rosa; Dinapoli, Nicola; Santangelo, Rosaria; Vellone, Valerio Gaetano; Graziani, Cristina; Miccichè, Francesco; Almadori, Giovanni; Galli, Jacopo; Delogu, Giovanni; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Rindi, Guido
Purpose: Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 infection is associated with oropharyngeal carcinogenesis and is likely the cause of the reported increase in disease incidence. We evaluated the prevalence of HPV infection and the reliability of different diagnostic tools using primary tumor samples from a cohort of 50 patients. Methods and Materials: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor samples were collected from all 50 consecutive primary oropharyngeal SCC patients who were enrolled in the study; fresh tumor samples were available in 22 cases. NucliSENS EasyQ HPVv1 was used for RNA, and Digene Hybrid Capture-2(HC2) was used for DNA detection. p16 Expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in FPPE specimens. Results: Based on the DNA detection assay on FFPE samples, the frequency of high-risk HPV infection was 32%. The agreement rate between HPV RNA and HPV DNA detection in fresh samples was 100%. The agreement rate between p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the detection of HPV DNA in the FFPE samples was fair but not excellent (κ = 0.618). HPV DNA detection was highly significant, as measured by disease-specific survival and determined using a Wilcoxon test (P=.001). p16 IHC also exhibited a prognostic value but with a lower statistical significance (P=.0475). The detection of HPV DNA, but not p16 IHC, was also significantly correlated with locoregional control (P=.0461). Conclusion: Diagnostic methods based on the detection of HPV nucleic acids appear to be more reliable and objective because they do not require reading by a trained histopathologist. Furthermore, the detection of HPV DNA exhibits an improved correlation with survival, and therefore appears definitely more reliable than p16 IHC for routine use in clinical practice
Longuet, M; Beaudenon, S; Orth, G
The genomes of two novel human papillomavirus (HPV) types, HPV68 and HPV70, were cloned from a low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and a vulvar papilloma, respectively, and partially sequenced. Both types are related to HPV39, a potentially oncogenic virus. HPV68 and HPV70 were also detected in genital intraepithelial neoplasia from three patients and one patient, respectively. Comparison with sequence data in the literature indicates that the subgenomic ME180-HPV DNA fragment, clone...
Hedau, Suresh; Mir, Mohammad Muzaffar; Chakraborty, Sekhar; Singh, Y Mohan; Kumar, Rakesh; Somasundaram, Kumaravel; Bharti, Alok C; Das, Bhudev C; Kumar, Umesh; Hussain, Showket; Shukla, Shirish; Pande, Shailja; Jain, Neeraj; Tyagi, Abhishek; Deshpande, Trivikram; Bhat, Dilafroze
Two clinically relevant high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) types 16 and 18 are etiologically associated with the development of cervical carcinoma and are also reported to be present in many other carcinomas in extra-genital organ sites. Presence of HPV has been reported in breast carcinoma which is the second most common cancer in India and is showing a fast rising trend in urban population. The two early genes E6 and E7 of HPV type 16 have been shown to immortalize breast epithelial cells in vitro, but the role of HPV infection in breast carcinogenesis is highly controversial. Present study has therefore been undertaken to analyze the prevalence of HPV infection in both breast cancer tissues and blood samples from a large number of Indian women with breast cancer from different geographic regions. The presence of all mucosal HPVs and the most common high-risk HPV types 16 and 18 DNA was detected by two different PCR methods - (i) conventional PCR assays using consensus primers (MY09/11, or GP5+/GP6+) or HPV16 E6/E7 primers and (ii) highly sensitive Real-Time PCR. A total of 228 biopsies and corresponding 142 blood samples collected prospectively from 252 patients from four different regions of India with significant socio-cultural, ethnic and demographic variations were tested. All biopsies and blood samples of breast cancer patients tested by PCR methods did not show positivity for HPV DNA sequences in conventional PCRs either by MY09/11 or by GP5+/GP6+/HPV16 E6/E7 primers. Further testing of these samples by real time PCR also failed to detect HPV DNA sequences. Lack of detection of HPV DNA either in the tumor or in the blood DNA of breast cancer patients by both conventional and real time PCR does not support a role of genital HPV in the pathogenesis of breast cancer in Indian women
Depuydt, Christophe E; Jonckheere, Jef; Berth, Mario; Salembier, Geert M; Vereecken, Annie J; Bogers, Johannes J
Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is strongly associated with the development of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or cancer. Not all persistent infections lead to cancer. Viral load measured at a single time-point is a poor predictor of the natural history of HPV infections. However the profile of viral load evolution over time could distinguish nonprogressive from progressive (carcinogenic) infections. A retrospective natural history study was set up using a Belgian laboratory database including more than 800,000 liquid cytology specimens. All samples were submitted to qPCR identifying E6/E7 genes of 18 HPV types. Viral load changes over time were assessed by the linear regression slope. Database search identified 261 untreated women with persistent type-specific HPV DNA detected (270 infections) in at least three of the last smears for a average period of 3.2 years. Using the coefficient of determination (R²) infections could be subdivided in a latency group (n = 143; R² < 0.85) and a regressing group (n = 127; R² ≥ 0.85). In (≥3) serial viral load measurements, serial transient infections with latency is characterized by a nonlinear limited difference in decrease or increase of type-specific viral load (R² < 0.85 and slopes between 2 measurements 0.0010 and −0.0010 HPV copies/cell per day) over a longer period of time (1553 days), whereas regression of a clonal cell population is characterized by a linear (R² ≥ 0.85) decrease (−0.0033 HPV copies/cell per day) over a shorter period of time (708 days; P < 0.001). Using serial HPV type-specific viral load measurements we could for the first time identify regressing CIN2 and CIN3 lesions. Evolution of the viral load is an objective measurable indicator of the natural history of HPV infections and could be used for future triage in HPV-based cervical screening programs
Singh Y Mohan
Full Text Available Abstract Background Two clinically relevant high-risk HPV (HR-HPV types 16 and 18 are etiologically associated with the development of cervical carcinoma and are also reported to be present in many other carcinomas in extra-genital organ sites. Presence of HPV has been reported in breast carcinoma which is the second most common cancer in India and is showing a fast rising trend in urban population. The two early genes E6 and E7 of HPV type 16 have been shown to immortalize breast epithelial cells in vitro, but the role of HPV infection in breast carcinogenesis is highly controversial. Present study has therefore been undertaken to analyze the prevalence of HPV infection in both breast cancer tissues and blood samples from a large number of Indian women with breast cancer from different geographic regions. Methods The presence of all mucosal HPVs and the most common high-risk HPV types 16 and 18 DNA was detected by two different PCR methods - (i conventional PCR assays using consensus primers (MY09/11, or GP5+/GP6+ or HPV16 E6/E7 primers and (ii highly sensitive Real-Time PCR. A total of 228 biopsies and corresponding 142 blood samples collected prospectively from 252 patients from four different regions of India with significant socio-cultural, ethnic and demographic variations were tested. Results All biopsies and blood samples of breast cancer patients tested by PCR methods did not show positivity for HPV DNA sequences in conventional PCRs either by MY09/11 or by GP5+/GP6+/HPV16 E6/E7 primers. Further testing of these samples by real time PCR also failed to detect HPV DNA sequences. Conclusions Lack of detection of HPV DNA either in the tumor or in the blood DNA of breast cancer patients by both conventional and real time PCR does not support a role of genital HPV in the pathogenesis of breast cancer in Indian women.
Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV infection is the leading cause of cancer mortality among women worldwide. The molecular understanding of HPV proteins has significant connotation for understanding their intrusion in the host and designing novel protein vaccines and anti-viral agents, etc. Genomic, proteomic, structural, and disease-related information on HPV is available on the web; yet, with trivial annotations and more so, it is not well customized for data analysis, host-pathogen interaction, strain-disease association, drug designing, and sequence analysis, etc. We attempted to design an online reserve with comprehensive information on HPV for the end users desiring the same. The Human Papillomavirus Proteome Database (hpvPDB domiciles proteomic and genomic information on 150 HPV strains sequenced to date. Simultaneous easy expandability and retrieval of the strain-specific data, with a provision for sequence analysis and exploration potential of predicted structures, and easy access for curation and annotation through a range of search options at one platform are a few of its important features. Affluent information in this reserve could be of help for researchers involved in structural virology, cancer research, drug discovery, and vaccine design.
Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections and has been implicated in over 70% of cases of cervical cancer. This study assessed the knowledge of HPV infection and acceptability of HPV vaccination among nursing students in Benin City. Methodology: A ...
Toft, Lars; Tolstrup, Martin; Müller, Martin
(®) (HPV-16/18, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, GSK) and Gardasil(®) (HPV-6/11/16/18, Merck) have demonstrated partial cross-protection against certain oncogenic non-vaccine HPV-types. Currently, there are no available data on vaccine-induced cross-protection in men and little is known about cross......-reactive immunity after HPV-vaccination of HIV-infected individuals. In an investigator-initiated trial, we randomized 91 HIV-positive men and women to receive vaccination with Cervarix(®) or Gardasil(®). The HPV-DNA status of the participants was determined with pcr before and after immunization. Cross...
Conclusion: A literature review revealed that this was a rare case of combined ABC–SCC associated with HPV 31 infection. In this case, the ABC component did not affect the tumor stage because it was confined to the cervix. However, we must avoid overestimating the clinical stage because the ABC component is thought to be a benign lesion.
Ferris, Daron G; Waller, Jennifer L; Miller, Jeremiah; Patel, Pratik; Price, George A; Jackson, Lanier; Wilson, Courtesia
To determine correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptance for men. A convenience sample of men aged 18 to 45 years read a one-page information sheet about HPV and the HPV vaccine, then completed a 29-item questionnaire. chi(2) tests were used to determine whether differences in demographic, sexual, and vaccine-related variables existed between levels of wanting the HPV vaccine. Positive correlates of HPV vaccine acceptance included higher education (P acceptance of the HPV vaccine by men.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An increasing incidence of anal cancer among men, especially men who have sex with men (MSM suggests a need to better understand anal human papillomavirus (HPV infection among this group. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM in Shenzhen, China. Blood was collected for HIV serological testing and syphilis serological screening, and anal swabs were collected for HPV genotyping. Difference of HPV prevalence between HIV seropositive and HIV seronegative MSM was assessed by chi-square test. Factors associated with anal canal HPV infection were assessed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 408 MSM were recruited. HIV and HPV prevalence were 6.9% and 36.4%, respectively. HPV was detected in the anal canal in 71.4% of the HIV-positive MSM and in 33.8% of the HIV-negative MSM (P<0.001. Oncogenic types were seen more often in anal specimens of HIV-positive MSM than in specimens of HIV-negative MSM (P = 0.001. The HPV genotypes detected most frequently were HPV06 (8.2%, HPV16 (7.2%, HPV11 (6.4%, HPV18 (4.7%, HPV58 (4.7%, and HPV52 (4.2%. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, HIV positive MSM had a higher burden of HPV infection, especially oncogenic HPV infection. HPV types 52 and 58 were as popular as those types designed for the currently available vaccine (HPV6, 11, 16, 18.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the arrival of multi-valent HPV vaccines, it is more and more important to have a better understanding of the relationship between vaccination and screening programmes. This review aimed to: (1 collect published evidence on the cost-effectiveness profile of different HPV prevention strategies and, in particular, those combining vaccination with changes in screening practices; (2 explore the cost-effectiveness of alternative preventive strategies based on screening and vaccination. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted in order to identify the relevant studies regarding the cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies against HPV infection. Analysis comparing the modelling approaches between studies was made along with an assessment of the magnitude of impact of several factors on the cost-effectiveness of different screening strategies. Results A total of 18 papers were quantitatively summarised within the narrative. A high degree of heterogeneity was found in terms of how HPV prevention strategies have been assessed in terms of their economic and epidemiological impact, with variation in screening practice and valence of HPV vaccination found to have large implications in terms of cost-effectiveness. Conclusions This review demonstrated synergies between screening and vaccination. New prevention strategies involving multi-valence vaccination, HPV DNA test screening, delayed commencement and frequency of screening could be implemented in the future. Strategies implemented in the future should be chosen with care, and informed knowledge of the potential impact of all possible prevention strategies. Highlighted in this review is the difficulty in assessing multiple strategies. Appropriate modelling techniques will need to be utilised to assess the most cost-effective strategies.
The impact of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV; types 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle vaccine on infection and disease due to oncogenic nonvaccine HPV types in generally HPV-naive women aged 16-26 years
Brown, Darron R; Kjaer, Susanne K; Sigurdsson, Kristján
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-6/11/16/18 vaccine reduces the risk of HPV-6/11/16/18-related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1-3 or adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS). Here, its impact on CIN1-3/AIS associated with nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types was evaluated. METHODS: We enrolled 17......,622 women aged 16-26 years. All underwent cervicovaginal sampling and Pap testing at regular intervals for up to 4 years. HPV genotyping was performed for biopsy samples, and histological diagnoses were determined by a pathology panel. Analyses were conducted among subjects who were negative for 14 HPV...... types on day 1. Prespecified analyses included infection of 6 months' duration and CIN1-3/AIS due to the 2 and 5 most common HPV types in cervical cancer after HPV types 16 and 18, as well as all tested nonvaccine types. RESULTS: Vaccination reduced the incidence of HPV-31/45 infection by 40.3% (95...
Kocjan, Boštjan; Poljak, Mario; Oštrbenk, Anja
Introduction: HPV-52 is one of the most frequent human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes causing significant cervical pathology. The most widely used HPV genotyping assay, the Roche Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Linear Array), is unable to identify HPV- 52 status in samples containing HPV-33, HPV-35, and/or HPV-58. Methods: Linear Array HPV-52 analytical specificity was established by testing 100 specimens reactive with the Linear Array HPV- 33/35/52/58 cross-reactive probe, but not with the...
Comparison of two commercial assays for detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical scrape specimens: validation of the Roche AMPLICOR HPV test as a means to screen for HPV genotypes associated with a higher risk of cervical disorders.
Ham, M.A.P.C. van; Bakkers, J.M.J.E.; Harbers, G.; Quint, W.G.V.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Melchers, W.J.G.
Certain high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) types are a necessary cause for the development of cervical disorders. Women with persistent HR HPV infections have an increased risk of developing high-grade cervical lesions, compared with those who have no or low-risk HPV infections. Therefore,
Full Text Available ... immunizations current news Flu's Gonna Lose hepatitis a & b vaccines im/sq how to do kids infect ... vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus shingles ...
Marlow, Laura A V; Wardle, Jane; Waller, Jo; Grant, Nina
Background With the introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and vaccination in the UK, health professionals will start to receive questions about the virus from their patients. This study aimed to identify the key questions about HPV that British women will ask when considering having an HPV test or vaccination. Methods Face-to-face interviews were carried out with 21 women to discover what they wanted to know about HPV. A thematic framework approach was used to analyse the data and identify key themes in women's HPV knowledge requirements. Results Women's questions about HPV fell into six areas: identity (e.g. What are the symptoms?), cause (e.g. How do you get HPV?), timeline (e.g. How long does it last?), consequences (e.g. Does it always cause cervical cancer?) and control-cure (e.g. Can you prevent infection?). In addition, they asked procedural questions about testing and vaccination (e.g. Where do I get an HPV test?). These mapped well onto the dimensions identified in Leventhal's description of lay models of illness, called the 'Common Sense Model' (CSM). Discussion and conclusions These results indicated that the majority of the questions women asked about HPV fitted well into the CSM, which therefore provides a structure for women's information needs. The findings could help health professionals understand what questions they may be expected to answer. Framing educational materials using the CSM themes may also help health educators achieve a good fit with what the public want to know. PMID:19126314
Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Viscidi, Raphael P; Torres, B Nelson; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William; Abrahamsen, Martha; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Villa, Luisa L; Kreimer, Aimée R; Giuliano, Anna R
The role of antibody-mediated immunity in preventing newly acquired oral human papillomavirus (HPV) is not well understood. Among 1618 men participating in the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study, we evaluated oral rinses for HPV DNA and baseline sera for HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18 L1 antibodies. Thirty percent of men (486) were seropositive for ≥1 HPV type, and 25 men developed incident oral HPV infection (HPV-6 was detected in 7, HPV-11 in 0, HPV-16 in 17, and HPV-18 in 1). Cox models revealed that men with circulating antibodies to HPV-6, -11, -16, or -18 were not less likely to acquire type-specific oral HPV than men without antibodies (hazard ratio for the risk of acquiring HPV-6, -11, -16, or -18, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, .56-4.76). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail email@example.com.
Vasiljevic, Natasa; Hazard, Kristina; Eliasson, Linda
Two novel human papillomaviruses (HPVs), HPV93 and HPV96, with genomes of 7450 and 7438 bp, respectively, are described. The L1 open reading frame of HPV93 showed highest identity to HPV24 (79%) and that of HPV96 had highest identity to HPV92 (71%). Real-time PCR for HPV92, 93 and 96 on stripped ...... per 45 cells to one copy per 10,000 cells. The E7 proteins of HPV92, 93 and 96 were found to bind the retinoblastoma protein (pRb). These results suggest a possible role for these HPV types in skin carcinogenesis that deserves further study....
Full Text Available Abstract Background Genital Human papilloma virus (HPV is one of the most commonly diagnosed Sexually Transmitted Infection (STIs in men and women. Knowledge about HPV infection among men is limited. This study aims to determine correlates of adequate knowledge of HPV infection among men who attend an STI clinic in Puerto Rico. Methods A cross-sectional study of 206 men was conducted at an STI clinic in San Juan, PR. Adequate knowledge was defined as a score of at least 70% of correct responses among those men who reported having ever heard of HPV. Variables that achieved statistical significance in the bivariate analysis (p Results Although 52.5% of men reported having heard of HPV infection before the survey, only 29.3% of this sub-group had an adequate knowledge of HPV. Most men did not know that HPV is a risk factor for anal (38.7%, penile (50.0% and oral (72.6% cancer. Factors associated with adequate knowledge of HPV in age-adjusted models were being men who have sex with men (MSM (OR=2.6;95%CI=1.1-6.1, self-report of genital warts (OR=3.2;95%CI=1.3-7.9 and herpes (OR=7.4;95% CI=2.2-25.1. MSM was marginally associated with adequate knowledge (OR=2.3;95% CI=0.9-5.9 and self-report of herpes remained significantly associated (OR=5.0;95%CI=1.3-18.4 in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusions Awareness and knowledge of HPV was very low in this group of men. Interventions to increase knowledge and awareness in this group are necessary to promote preventive practices for HPV-related cancers in high-risk groups.
Else, Elizabeth A.; Swoyer, Ryan; Zhang, Yuhua; Taddeo, Frank J.; Bryan, Janine T.; Lawson, John; Van Hyfte, Inez; Roberts, Christine C.
Real-time type-specific multiplex human papillomavirus (HPV) PCR assays were developed to detect HPV DNA in samples collected for the efficacy determination of the quadrivalent HPV (type 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine (Gardasil). Additional multiplex (L1, E6, and E7 open reading frame [ORF]) or duplex (E6 and E7 ORF) HPV PCR assays were developed to detect high-risk HPV types, including HPV type 31 (HPV31), HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV51, HPV52, HPV56, HPV58, and H...
Villa Luisa Lina
Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is the second cause of cancer-related deaths in women, the higher incidence being observed in developing countries. Infection with oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV is considered the major risk factor for the development of malignancies in the uterine cervix. However, HPV is considered to be a necessary but not sufficient cause for cervical cancer and, therefore, other factors contribute to the carcinogenic process, both present in the environment and from the host. Studies performed in animals, and more recently in humans, indicate that vaccination against the capsid proteins of the virus can prevent efficiently from infection. Furthermore, therapeutic vaccines are under investigation aiming the regression of papillomavirus induced tumors. The scientific basis for the development of papillomavirus vaccines and present status of clinical trials will be addressed in this chapter.
Mooij, Sofie H.; Landén, Olivia; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; de Melker, Hester E.; Xiridou, Maria; van Eeden, Arne; Heijman, Titia; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.
We assessed human papillomavirus (HPV) seroconversion following anal and penile HPV infection in HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). MSM aged ≥18 years were recruited in Amsterdam, the Netherlands (2010-2011), and followed up semiannually. Antibodies against 7 high-risk
Konstanze D. Scheffer
Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPV are non-enveloped DNA tumor viruses that infect skin and mucosa. The most oncogenic subtype, HPV16, causes various types of cancer, including cervical, anal, and head and neck cancers. During the multistep process of infection, numerous host proteins are required for the delivery of virus genetic information into the nucleus of target cells. Over the last two decades, many host-cell proteins such as heparan sulfate proteoglycans, integrins, growth factor receptors, actin and the tetraspanin CD151 have been described to be involved in the process of infectious entry of HPV16. Tetraspanins have the ability to organize membrane microdomains and to directly influence the function of associated molecules, including binding of receptors to their ligands, receptor oligomerization and signal transduction. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on CD151, and CD151-associated partners during HPV infection and discuss the underlying mechanisms.
Full Text Available Common cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV types induce skin warts, whereas species beta HPV are implicated, together with UV-radiation, in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC in immunosuppressed patients. Licensed HPV vaccines contain virus-like particles (VLP self-assembled from L1 major capsid proteins that provide type-restricted protection against mucosal HPV infections causing cervical and other ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal carcinomas and warts (condylomas, but do not target heterologous HPV. Experimental papillomavirus vaccines have been designed based on L2 minor capsid proteins that contain type-common neutralization epitopes, to broaden protection to heterologous mucosal and cutaneous HPV types. Repetitive display of the HPV16 L2 cross-neutralization epitope RG1 (amino acids (aa 17-36 on the surface of HPV16 L1 VLP has greatly enhanced immunogenicity of the L2 peptide. To more directly target cutaneous HPV, L1 fusion proteins were designed that incorporate the RG1 homolog of beta HPV17, the beta HPV5 L2 peptide aa53-72, or the common cutaneous HPV4 RG1 homolog, inserted into DE surface loops of HPV1, 5, 16 or 18 L1 VLP scaffolds. Baculovirus expressed chimeric proteins self-assembled into VLP and VLP-raised NZW rabbit immune sera were evaluated by ELISA and L1- and L2-based pseudovirion (PsV neutralizing assays, including 12 novel beta PsV types. Chimeric VLP displaying the HPV17 RG1 epitope, but not the HPV5L2 aa53-72 epitope, induced cross-neutralizing humoral immune responses to beta HPV. In vivo cross-protection was evaluated by passive serum transfer in a murine PsV challenge model. Immune sera to HPV16L1-17RG1 VLP (cross- protected against beta HPV5/20/24/38/96/16 (but not type 76, while antisera to HPV5L1-17RG1 VLP cross-protected against HPV20/24/96 only, and sera to HPV1L1-4RG1 VLP cross-protected against HPV4 challenge. In conclusion, RG1-based VLP are promising next generation vaccine candidates to target
Rajiah, Kingston; Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Fang Num, Kelly Sze; How Koh, Raymond Chee
Background: The objective of this study is to determine the influence of dental students’ knowledge and attitude regarding human papillomavirus infection of cervical cancer on willingness to pay for vaccination. Basic research design: A convenience sampling method was used. The minimal sample size of 136 was calculated using the Raosoft calculator with a 5 % margin of error and 95% confidence level. Participants: The study population were all final year dental students from the School of Dentistry. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to measure knowledge levels and attitudes regarding human papillomavirus vaccination. Contingent valuation was conducted for willingness to pay for vaccination. Main outcome measures: The Center for Disease Control and Prevention has stated that human papillomavirus are associated with oropharynx cancer and the American Dental Association insist on expanding public awareness of the oncogenic potential of some HPV infections. Thus, as future dental practitioners, dental students should be aware of human papillomavirus and their links with cancer and the benefits of vaccination. Results: Knowledge on HPV and cervical cancer did not impact on attitudes towards vaccines. However, significant correlation existed between knowledge and willingness to pay for vaccination. Conclusions: Dental students’ knowledge on HPV and cervical cancer has no influence on their attitude towards HPV vaccines. However, their willingness to pay for HPV vaccination is influenced by their knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV vaccination. Creative Commons Attribution License
Anna R. Giuliano
Full Text Available Background: Protection from naturally acquired human papillomavirus (HPV antibodies may influence HPV infection across the lifespan. This study describes seroconversion rates following genital, anal, and oral HPV 6/11/16/18 infections in men and examines differences by HPV type and anatomic site. Methods: Men with HPV 6/11/16/18 infections who were seronegative for those genotypes at the time of DNA detection were selected from the HPV Infection in Men (HIM Study. Sera specimens collected ≤36 months after detection were analyzed for HPV 6/11/16/18 antibodies using a virus-like particle-based ELISA. Time to seroconversion was separately assessed for each anatomic site, stratified by HPV type. Results: Seroconversion to ≥1 HPV type (6/11/16/18 in this sub-cohort (N=384 varied by anatomic site, with 6.3%, 18.9%, and 0.0% seroconverting following anal, genital, and oral HPV infection, respectively. Regardless of anatomic site, seroconversion was highest for HPV 6 (19.3%. Overall, seroconversion was highest following anal HPV 6 infection (69.2%. HPV persistence was the only factor found to influence seroconversion. Conclusions: Low seroconversion rates following HPV infection leave men susceptible to recurrent infections that can progress to HPV-related cancers. This emphasizes the need for HPV vaccination in men to ensure immune protection against new HPV infections and subsequent disease. Keywords: HPV, Men, Seroconversion, HPV antibodies, Human papillomavirus
Ragonnaud, Emeline; Andersson, Anne-Marie C; Mariya, Silmi
Currently available prophylactic vaccines have no therapeutic efficacy for preexisting human papillomavirus (HPVs) infections, do not target all oncogenic HPVs and are insufficient to eliminate the burden of HPV induced cancer. We aim to develop an alternative HPV vaccine which is broadly effective...
Ferris, Daron G; Samakoses, Rudiwilai; Block, Stanley L
OBJECTIVES: We describe the final 10-year data for the long-term follow-up study of the 4-valent human papillomavirus (4vHPV) vaccine in preadolescents and adolescents. METHODS: In the base study (V501-018), 1661 sexually inactive boys and girls received the 4vHPV vaccine (early vaccination group...... assessed. Effectiveness was estimated by calculating the incidence rate of the primary endpoints (HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18-related disease or persistent infection). RESULTS: For HPV types 6, 11, and 16, 89% to 96% of subjects remained seropositive through 10-years postvaccination. The preadolescents had...... 38% to 65% higher geometric mean titers at month 7, which remained 16% to 42% higher at 10 years compared with adolescents. No cases of HPV type 6, 11, 16, and 18-related diseases were observed. Ten subjects had a persistent infection of ≥6 months duration with vaccine-type HPV and 2 subjects had...
Degarege, Abraham; Krupp, Karl; Fennie, Kristopher; Li, Tan; Stephens, Dionne P; Marlow, Laura A V; Srinivas, Vijaya; Arun, Anjali; Madhivanan, Purnima
The aim of this study was to compare the parental attitudes and beliefs about HPV, cervical cancer and HPV vaccine between urban and rural areas, India. Cross sectional SETTING: Mysore, India PARTICIPANTS: Parents of school going adolescent girls INTERVENTION: Parents completed a self-administered questionnaire MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: : Attitudes and beliefs about HPV, cervical cancer and HPV vaccine RESULTS: A total of 1609 parents from urban (n=778) and rural (n=831) areas participated in this study. Majority of the parents had never heard about HPV (73.6%), did not know that their daughters could get an HPV infection (62.7%) or cervical cancer (64.1%) in the future, and believed that HPV vaccine was not effective (67.1%). Parents living in the urban area were more likely to believe that HPV infection (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] 2.69; 95%CI:1.43, 5.06) and cervical cancer (aOR 2.68; 95%CI:1.83, 3.91) could cause serious health problems than those living in the rural area. The odds of agreeing that HPV vaccination will make girls sexually active was lower among urban than rural parents (aOR 0.55; 95%CI:0.33, 0.94). There was no significant difference among parents in the urban and rural areas in their beliefs about susceptibility of their daughter to HPV infection or cervical cancer, and beliefs about the safety and ability of HPV vaccine to protect cervical cancer. Rural parents might be reluctant to recommend behaviors that can help prevent HPV infection and cervical cancer such as HPV vaccination for their daughters. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Wood, N H; Khammissa, R A G; Chikte, U M E; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J; Feller, L
There are more than 120 types of low-risk and high-risk human papillomaviruses, all of which are epitheliotropic. HPV infection may be latent, or active in a subclinical form or a symptomatic form, the latter manifesting as benign or malignant neoplasms. In basal cells with non-productive HPV infection some early HPV proteins are expressed independently of cell maturation: the productive cycle of HPV replication depends upon specific cellular factors of the maturation of the infected keratinocytes. In HPV-mediated oncogenesis, the combined pathobiological effects of E6 and E7 oncoproteins of high-risk HPV culminate in cellular genomic instability and transformation of persistently infected cells, that progress to the development of a malignant phenotype. In this article we provide insights into the stages of HPV infection, and into the viral genomic organization and replicative cycle.
Pastrana, Diana V.; Buck, Christopher B.; Pang, Y.-Y. S.; Thompson, Cynthia D.; Castle, Philip E.; FitzGerald, Peter C.; Krueger Kjaer, Susanne; Lowy, Douglas R.; Schiller, John T.
Sensitive high-throughput neutralization assays, based upon pseudoviruses carrying a secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter gene, were developed and validated for human papillomavirus (HPV)16, HPV18, and bovine papillomavirus 1 (BPV1). SEAP pseudoviruses were produced by transient transfection of codon-modified papillomavirus structural genes into an SV40 T antigen expressing line derived from 293 cells, yielding sufficient pseudovirus from one flask for thousands of titrations. In a 96-well plate format, in this initial characterization, the assay was reproducible and appears to be as sensitive as, but more specific than, a standard papillomavirus-like particle (VLP)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The neutralization assay detected type-specific HPV16 or HPV18 neutralizing antibodies (titers of 160-10240) in sera of the majority of a group of women infected with the corresponding HPV type, but not in virgin women. Sera from HPV16 VLP vaccinees had high anti-HPV16 neutralizing titers (mean: 45000; range: 5120-163840), but no anti-HPV18 neutralizing activity. The SEAP pseudovirus-based neutralization assay should be a practical method for quantifying potentially protective antibody responses in HPV natural history and prophylactic vaccine studies
Setiawan, Didik; Luttjeboer, Jos; Pouwels, Koen B.; Wilschut, Jan C.; Postma, Maarten J.
Cervical cancer is a serious public-health problem in Asian countries. Since human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main risk factor for cervical cancer, HPV vaccination is considered a promising strategy to prevent cervical cancer. However, comprehensive immunogenicity and safety information
Full Text Available Adolescents who are sexually active have the highest rates of prevalent and incident HPV infection rates with over 50–80% having infections within 2–3 years of initiating intercourse. These high rates reflect sexual behavior and biologic vulnerability. Most infections are transient in nature and cause no cytologic abnormality. However, a small number of adolescents will not clear the infection. Persistence of HPV is strongly linked to the development of high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (HSIL and invasive cancer. The HSIL detected, however, does not appear to progress rapidly to invasive cancer. Understanding the natural history of HPV in adolescents has shed light into optional treatment strategies which include watchful observation of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and low grade (LSIL. The association between age of first intercourse and invasive cancer cannot be ignored. Consequently, initiating screening at appropriate times in this vulnerable group is essential. In addition, with the advent of the HPV vaccine, vaccination prior to the onset of sexual activity is critical since most infections occur within a short time frame post initiation.
McLaughlin-Drubin, Margaret E.; Wilson, Susan; Mullikin, Brian; Suzich, JoAnn; Meyers, Craig
The organotypic (raft) culture system has allowed the study of the entire differentiation-dependent life cycle of human papillomaviruses (HPVs), including virion morphogenesis. We introduced linearized HPV45 genomic DNA into primary keratinocytes, where it recircularized and maintained episomally at a range of 10-50 copies of HPV genomic DNA. Following epithelial stratification and differentiation in organotypic culture, virion morphogenesis occurred. HPV45 virions were purified from raft cultures and were able to infect keratinocytes in vitro. By testing a panel of HPV VLP antisera, we were able to demonstrate that the infection was neutralized not only with human HPV45 VLP-specific antiserum, but also with human HPV18 VLP-specific antiserum, demonstrating serological cross-reactivity between HPV18 and HPV45
Krawczyk, Andrea; Stephenson, Ellen; Perez, Samara; Lau, Elsa; Rosberger, Zeev
Background: The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was recently approved for men. To effectively tailor HPV education efforts toward men, it is important to understand what men know about HPV and how this knowledge relates to their decision to receive the vaccine. This study examines how objective HPV knowledge, objective HPV vaccine knowledge,…
Rietbergen, M.M.; Braakhuis, B.J.M.; Moukhtari, N.; Bloemena, E.; Brink, A.; Sie, D.; Ylstra, B.; Baatenburg de Jong, R.J.; Snijders, P.J.F.; Brakenhoff, R.H.; Leemans, C.R.
Background Patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs) have a better prognosis than patients with HPV-negative OPSCCs. Important factors contributing to this better prognosis are relatively low numbers of local/regional recurrences (LRRs) and
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are a group of related viruses. They can cause warts on different parts of your body. There are ... cancer. There are two categories of sexually-transmitted HPV. Low-risk HPV can cause genital warts. High- ...
... is taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine - Gardasil® Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv-gardasil.html . CDC review information for HPV Gardasil® ...
... is taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Cervarix® Vaccine Information Statement: www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv-cervarix.html . CDC review information for HPV Cervarix® ...
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of the mouth and oropharynx can be acquired by a variety of sexual and social forms of transmission. HPV-16 genotype is present in many oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomata. It has an essential aetiologic role in the development of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in a subset of subjects who are typically younger, are more engaged with high-risk sexual behaviour, have higher HPV-16 serum antibody titer, use less tobacco and have better survival rates than in subjects with HPV-cytonegative oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. In this subset of subjects the HPV-cytopositive carcinomatous cells have a distinct molecular profile. In contrast to HPV-cytopositive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, the causal association between HPV-16 and other high-risk HPV genotypes and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa is weak, and the nature of the association is unclear. It is likely that routine administration of HPV vaccination against high-risk HPV genotypes before the start of sexual activity will bring about a reduction in the incidence of HPV-mediated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. This article focuses on aspects of HPV infection of the mouth and the oropharynx with emphasis on the link between HPV and squamous cell carcinoma, and on the limitations of the available diagnostic tests in identifying a cause-and-effect relationship of HPV with squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth and oropharynx. PMID:20633288
Full Text Available The human papillomavirus (HPV is a sexually transmitted infection common among men and women across all geographic and socioeconomic subgroups worldwide. Recent evidence suggests that HPV infection may affect fertility and alter the efficacy of assisted reproductive technologies. In men, HPV infection can affect sperm parameters, specifically motility. HPV-infected sperm can transmit viral DNA to oocytes, which may be expressed in the developing blastocyst. HPV can increase trophoblastic apoptosis and reduce the endometrial implantation of trophoblastic cells, thus increasing the theoretical risk of miscarriage. Vertical transmission of HPV during pregnancy may be involved in the pathophysiology of preterm rupture of membranes and spontaneous preterm birth. In patients undergoing intrauterine insemination for idiopathic infertility, HPV infection confers a lower pregnancy rate. In contrast, the evidence regarding any detrimental impact of HPV infection on IVF outcomes is inconclusive. It has been suggested that vaccination could potentially counter HPV-related sperm impairment, trophoblastic apoptosis, and spontaneous miscarriages; however, these conclusions are based on in vitro studies rather than large-scale epidemiological studies. Improvement in the understanding of HPV sperm infection mechanisms and HPV transmission into the oocyte and developing blastocyst may help explain idiopathic causes of infertility and miscarriage.
Bogani, Giorgio; Martinelli, Fabio; Ditto, Antonino; Taverna, Francesca; Lombardo, Claudia; Signorelli, Mauro; Chiappa, Valentina; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Fontanella, Caterina; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Borghi, Chiara; Recalcati, Dario; Indini, Alice; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco
High-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (vaginal HSIL) represents an uncommon entity. Here, we sought to identify predictors for recurrence and risk factor for developing genital cancers after primary treatment for vaginal HSIL. Data of consecutive 5104 women who had human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test were searched for identify women with histological confirmed vaginal HSIL. Disease-free interval and the risk of developing HPV-related gynecological cancers were assessed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard models. Overall, 77 patients were included. After a mean (SD) follow-up of 69.3 (33.0) months, 11 (14%) and 4 (5%) patients experienced vaginal HSIL recurrence and the occurrence of HPV-related gynecological cancers, respectively. Via multivariate analysis factors predicting for vaginal HSIL recurrence were infection from HPV31 at diagnosis (HR: 5.0 (95%CI:1.17, 21.3); p=0.03) and persistence of HPV infection after treatment (HR: 7.0 (95%CI:1.54, 31.6); p=0.01). Additionally, patients who had LASER ablation experienced a trend toward a lower risk of recurrence in comparison to medical treatment (HR: 0.20 (95%CI:0.03, 1.09); p=0.06). Considering the occurrence of HPV-related gynecological cancers, we observed that no factors independently correlated with this risk; while, a trend towards higher risk was observed for women with HIV infection (HR:16.4 (95%CI:0.90, 300.1); p=0.06) and persistence of HPV infection (HR: 13.3 (95%CI:0.76, 230.2); p=0.07). Patients affected by vaginal HSIL experienced a relatively high risk of recurrence. Persistence of HPV after treatment and pretreatment HPV-31 infection predicts for high-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia recurrence. Further investigations are warranted in order to corroborate our data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hastings, Tessa J; Hohmann, Lindsey A; McFarland, Stuart J; Teeter, Benjamin S; Westrick, Salisa C
Use of non-traditional settings such as community pharmacies has been suggested to increase human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake and completion rates. The objectives of this study were to explore HPV vaccination services and strategies employed by pharmacies to increase HPV vaccine uptake, pharmacists' attitudes towards the HPV vaccine, and pharmacists' perceived barriers to providing HPV vaccination services in community pharmacies. A pre-piloted mail survey was sent to 350 randomly selected community pharmacies in Alabama in 2014. Measures included types of vaccines administered and marketing/recommendation strategies, pharmacists' attitudes towards the HPV vaccine, and perceived system and parental barriers. Data analysis largely took the form of descriptive statistics. 154 pharmacists completed the survey (response rate = 44%). The majority believed vaccination is the best protection against cervical cancer (85.3%), HPV is a serious threat to health for girls (78.8%) and boys (55.6%), and children should not wait until they are sexually active to be vaccinated (80.1%). Perceived system barriers included insufficient patient demand (56.5%), insurance plans not covering vaccination cost (54.8%), and vaccine expiration before use (54.1%). Respondents also perceived parents to have inadequate education and understanding about HPV infection (86.6%) and vaccine safety (78.7%). Pharmacists have positive perceptions regarding the HPV vaccine. Barriers related to system factors and perceived parental concerns must be overcome to increase pharmacist involvement in HPV vaccinations.
Poljak, Mario; Kocjan, Boštjan J; Oštrbenk, Anja; Seme, Katja
Commercial molecular tests for human papillomaviruses (HPV) are invaluable diagnostic tools in cervical carcinoma screening and management of women with cervical precancerous lesions as well as important research tools for epidemiological studies, vaccine development, and implementation and monitoring of vaccination programs. In this third inventory of commercial HPV tests, we identified 193 distinct commercial HPV tests and at least 127 test variants available on the market in 2015, which represents a 54% and 79% increase in the number of distinct HPV tests and variants, respectively, in comparison to our last inventory performed in 2012. Identified HPV tests were provisionally divided into eight main groups and several subgroups. Among the 193 commercial HPV tests, all but two target alpha-HPV types only. Although the number of commercial HPV tests with at least one published study in peer-reviewed literature has increased significantly in the last three years, several published performance evaluations are still not in line with agreed-upon standards in the HPV community. Manufacturers should invest greater effort into evaluating their products and publishing validation/evaluation results in peer-reviewed journals. To achieve this, more clinically oriented external quality-control panels and initiatives are required. For evaluating the analytical performance of the entire range of HPV tests currently on the market, more diverse and reliable external quality-control programs based on international standards for all important HPV types are indispensable. The performance of a wider range of HPV tests must be promptly evaluated on a variety of alternative clinical specimens. In addition, more complete HPV assays containing validated sample-extraction protocols and appropriate internal controls are urgently needed. Provision of a broader range of automated systems allowing large-scale HPV testing as well as the development of reliable, rapid, and affordable molecular
Rusan, M; Klug, T E; Henriksen, J J; Bonde, J H; Fuursted, K; Ovesen, T
The incidence of tonsillar carcinomas associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection has increased dramatically over the last three decades. In fact, currently in Scandinavia, HPV-associated cases account for over 80 % of tonsillar carcinoma cases. Yet, the epidemiology and natural history of tonsillar HPV infections remains poorly characterized. Our aim was to characterize such infections in the Danish population in tumor-free tonsillar tissue. Unlike previous studies, we considered both palatine tonsils. We examined both tonsils from 80 patients with peritonsillar abscess (n = 25) or chronic tonsillar disease (n = 55). HPV was detected by nested PCR with PGMY 09/11 and GP5+/GP6+L1 consensus primers, and typed by sequencing. Samples were also analyzed using a higher-throughput method, the CLART HPV 2 Clinical Array Assay. The overall prevalence of HPV tonsillar infection was 1.25 % (1/80, 95 % CI 0.03-6.77 %) by nested PCR, and 0 % by CLART HPV2 Clinical Array. The HPV-positive patient was a 16-year-old female with recurrent tonsillitis and tonsillar hypertrophy. The type detected was HPV6. HPV was not detected in the contralateral tonsil of this patient. Compared to cervical HPV infections in Denmark, tonsillar HPV infections are 10- to 15-fold less frequent. In the HPV-positive patient in this study, HPV was detected in only one of the tonsils. This raises the possibility that prior studies may underestimate the prevalence of HPV infections, as they do not consider both palatine tonsils.
Lee, Sin Hang; Vigliotti, Jessica S.; Vigliotti, Veronica S.; Jones, William
The newly gained knowledge of the viral etiology in cervical carcinogenesis has prompted industrial interests in developing virology-based tools for cervical cancer prevention. Due to the long incubation period from viral infection to developing an invasive cancer, a process whose outcome is influenced by numerous life-style and genetic factors, the true efficacy of the genotype-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in cervical cancer prevention cannot be determined for another 30 years. Most HPV DNA test kits designed to replace the traditional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for precancer detection lack the analytical sensitivity and specificity to comprehensively detect all potentially carcinogenic HPVs and to perform reliable genotyping. The authors implemented the classic nested PCR and Sanger DNA-sequencing technology for routine HPV testing. The results showed a true negative HPV PCR invariably indicates the absence of precancerous cells in the cytology samples. However, 80.5% of single positive HPV-16 tests and 97.3% of single positive HPV-18 tests were associated with a negative or a largely self-reversible Pap cytology. Routine sensitive and reliable HPV type-specific or perhaps even variant-specific methods are needed to address the issues of persistence of HPV infection if a virology-based primary cervical screen is used to replace the Pap cytology screening paradigm
Lee, Sin Hang, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Vigliotti, Jessica S.; Vigliotti, Veronica S.; Jones, William [Department of Pathology, Milford Hospital, 300 Seaside Ave., Milford, CT 06460 (United States)
The newly gained knowledge of the viral etiology in cervical carcinogenesis has prompted industrial interests in developing virology-based tools for cervical cancer prevention. Due to the long incubation period from viral infection to developing an invasive cancer, a process whose outcome is influenced by numerous life-style and genetic factors, the true efficacy of the genotype-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in cervical cancer prevention cannot be determined for another 30 years. Most HPV DNA test kits designed to replace the traditional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for precancer detection lack the analytical sensitivity and specificity to comprehensively detect all potentially carcinogenic HPVs and to perform reliable genotyping. The authors implemented the classic nested PCR and Sanger DNA-sequencing technology for routine HPV testing. The results showed a true negative HPV PCR invariably indicates the absence of precancerous cells in the cytology samples. However, 80.5% of single positive HPV-16 tests and 97.3% of single positive HPV-18 tests were associated with a negative or a largely self-reversible Pap cytology. Routine sensitive and reliable HPV type-specific or perhaps even variant-specific methods are needed to address the issues of persistence of HPV infection if a virology-based primary cervical screen is used to replace the Pap cytology screening paradigm.
Abate Assefa Bashaw
Full Text Available High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV infect basal keratinocytes, where in some individuals they evade host immune responses and persist. Persistent HR-HPV infection of the cervix causes precancerous neoplasia that can eventuate in cervical cancer. Dendritic cells (DCs are efficient in priming/cross-priming antigen-specific T cells and generating antiviral and antitumor cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. However, HR-HPV have adopted various immunosuppressive strategies, with modulation of DC function crucial to escape from the host adaptive immune response. HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins alter recruitment and localization of epidermal DCs, while soluble regulatory factors derived from HPV-induced hyperplastic epithelium change DC development and influence initiation of specific cellular immune responses. This review focuses on current evidence for HR-HPV manipulation of antigen presentation in dendritic cells and escape from host immunity.
Giuliano, Anna R; Viscidi, Raphael; Torres, B Nelson; Ingles, Donna J; Sudenga, Staci L; Villa, Luisa L; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Abrahamsen, Martha; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmeron, Jorge; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo
Protection from naturally acquired human papillomavirus (HPV) antibodies may influence HPV infection across the lifespan. This study describes seroconversion rates following genital, anal, and oral HPV 6/11/16/18 infections in men and examines differences by HPV type and anatomic site. Men with HPV 6/11/16/18 infections who were seronegative for those genotypes at the time of DNA detection were selected from the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study. Sera specimens collected ≤36 months after detection were analyzed for HPV 6/11/16/18 antibodies using a virus-like particle-based ELISA. Time to seroconversion was separately assessed for each anatomic site, stratified by HPV type. Seroconversion to ≥1 HPV type (6/11/16/18) in this sub-cohort (N=384) varied by anatomic site, with 6.3, 18.9, and 0.0% seroconverting following anal, genital, and oral HPV infection, respectively. Regardless of anatomic site, seroconversion was highest for HPV 6 (19.3%). Overall, seroconversion was highest following anal HPV 6 infection (69.2%). HPV persistence was the only factor found to influence seroconversion. Low seroconversion rates following HPV infection leave men susceptible to recurrent infections that can progress to HPV-related cancers. This emphasizes the need for HPV vaccination in men to ensure immune protection against new HPV infections and subsequent disease.
Kagie, M. J.; Kenter, G. G.; Zomerdijk-Nooijen, Y.; Hermans, J.; Schuuring, E.; Timmers, P. J.; Trimbos, J. B.; Fleuren, G. J.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in various vulvar lesions. METHODS: HPV infection using consensus primer-PCR was studied in 66 patients with vulvar carcinoma and in the synchronous epithelial lesions. RESULTS: HPV infection was present in 13/66
Kjær, Susanne K; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk
Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer. It has been suggested that information about high-risk HPV type-specific infection might make cervical cancer screening more effective. Persistent HPV infection...
Full Text Available Abstract Background High grade HPV infections and persistence are the strongest risk factors for cervical cancer. Nevertheless other genital microorganisms may be involved in the progression of HPV associated lesions. Methods Cervical samples were collected to search for human Papillomavirus (HPV, bacteria and yeast infections in gynaecologic outpatients. HPV typing was carried out by PCR and sequencing on cervical brush specimens. Chlamydia trachomatis was identified by strand displacement amplification (SDA and the other microorganisms were detected by conventional methods. Results In this cross-sectional study on 857 enrolled outpatients, statistical analyses revealed a significant association of HPV with C. trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum (at high density detection, whereas no correlation was found between HPV infection and bacterial vaginosis, Streptococcus agalactiae, yeasts, Trichomonas vaginalis and U. urealyticum. Mycoplasma hominis was isolated only in a few cases both in HPV positive and negative women and no patient was infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Conclusion Although bacterial vaginosis was not significantly associated with HPV, it was more common among the HPV positive women. A significant association between HPV and C. trachomatis was found and interestingly also with U. urealyticum but only at a high colonization rate. These data suggest that it may be important to screen for the simultaneous presence of different microorganisms which may have synergistic pathological effects.
Dailey, Phokeng M; Krieger, Janice L
The current study uses a multiple goal theoretical perspective to explore how Somali immigrant families living in Ohio, USA, make decisions regarding whether to vaccinate their children against human papillomavirus (HPV)-a leading cause of cervical cancer. A focus was placed on the communication goals of parents in HPV vaccine discussions with their child and health care provider. Semi-structured interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Key themes are the implications of the vaccine for early sexual activity, confusion between HPV and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), the perception that the HPV vaccine is unnecessary, uncertainty about the vaccine's efficacy and side effects, avoidance of parent-child communication about the vaccine, and a preference for framing the vaccine as a health promotion behavior. Framing the threat of HPV in the context of initiation of sexual activity, uncertainty regarding vaccine efficacy, and anticipated regret account for the inconsistency in HPV vaccine uptake among Somali parents. Clinicians should consider talking about HPV as a distal versus an immediate threat and HPV vaccine uptake as a health-promotion behavior rather than a sexually transmitted infection prevention behavior.
Chorny, Joseph A; Frye, Teresa C; Fisher, Beth L; Remmers, Carol L
The primary high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) assays in the United States are the cobas (Roche) and the Aptima (Hologic). The cobas assay detects hrHPV by DNA analysis while the Aptima detects messenger RNA (mRNA) oncogenic transcripts. As the Aptima assay identifies oncogenic expression, it should have a lower rate of hrHPV and genotype detection. The Kaiser Permanente Regional Reference Laboratory in Denver, Colorado changed its hrHPV assay from the cobas to the Aptima assay. The rates of hrHPV detection and genotyping were compared over successive six-month periods. The overall hrHPV detection rates by the two platforms were similar (9.5% versus 9.1%) and not statistically different. For genotyping, the HPV 16 rate by the cobas was 1.6% and by the Aptima it was 1.1%. These differences were statistically different with the Aptima detecting nearly one-third less HPV 16 infections. With the HPV 18 and HPV 18/45, there was a slightly higher detection rate of HPV 18/45 by the Aptima platform (0.5% versus 0.9%) and this was statistically significant. While HPV 16 represents a low percentage of hrHPV infections, it was detected significantly less by the Aptima assay compared to the cobas assay. This has been previously reported, although not highlighted. Given the test methodologies, one would expect the Aptima to detect less HPV 16. This difference appears to be mainly due to a significantly increased number of non-oncogenic HPV 16 infections detected by the cobas test as there were no differences in HPV 16 detection rates in the high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions indicating that the two tests have similar sensitivities for oncogenic HPV 16. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ferris, Daron G; Samakoses, Rudiwilai; Block, Stanley L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Restrepo, Jaime Alberto; Mehlsen, Jesper; Chatterjee, Archana; Iversen, Ole-Erik; Joshi, Amita; Chu, Jian-Li; Krick, Andrea Likos; Saah, Alfred; Das, Rituparna
We describe the final 10-year data for the long-term follow-up study of the 4-valent human papillomavirus (4vHPV) vaccine in preadolescents and adolescents. In the base study (V501-018), 1661 sexually inactive boys and girls received the 4vHPV vaccine (early vaccination group [EVG], managed for 9.9 years) or a placebo at day 1, month 2, and month 6. Thereafter, at month 30, the placebo group (catch-up vaccination group [CVG], managed for 7.4 years) received the 4vHPV vaccine by using the same dosing schedule. Long-term anti-HPV type 6, 11, 16, and 18 immune responses were assessed. Effectiveness was estimated by calculating the incidence rate of the primary endpoints (HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18-related disease or persistent infection). For HPV types 6, 11, and 16, 89% to 96% of subjects remained seropositive through 10-years postvaccination. The preadolescents had 38% to 65% higher geometric mean titers at month 7, which remained 16% to 42% higher at 10 years compared with adolescents. No cases of HPV type 6, 11, 16, and 18-related diseases were observed. Ten subjects had a persistent infection of ≥6 months duration with vaccine-type HPV and 2 subjects had persistent infection for ≥12 months. No new serious adverse events were reported through 10 years. A 3-dose regimen of the 4vHPV vaccine was immunogenic, clinically effective, and generally well tolerated in preadolescents and adolescents during 10 years of follow-up. These long-term findings support efforts to vaccinate this population against HPV before exposure. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
This cross-sectional study describes the age-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cytological abnormalities among this urban and peri-urban population. Method. Over the period March 2009 - September 2011, 1 524 women attending public sector primary healthcare clinics were invited to
Arora, Shelly; Ramachandra, Srinivas Sulugodu; Squier, Christopher
Scientific literature suggests that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may be associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, knowledge regarding HPV-OSCC link among oral health professionals (OHP) has been insufficient. So, the aim of this study was to assess the knowledge about HPV associated OSCC among OHP working in dental faculties in Malaysia. Ethical committee of the University approved this study. A validated, pre-tested questionnaire was sent electronically to 224 OHP. Questionnaire collected information regarding demography, knowledge about HPV-OSCC link, HPV vaccine, and willingness to educate patients about HPV OSCC link among the participants of this cross-sectional study. Data collected was analysed using "Stata/IC-13" and was summarised using descriptive statistics like frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation. Out of 179 participants, around 39% of the participant's opined virus was not a causative factor for OSCC. Around, 44% replied posterior portion of the tongue/oro-pharynx was the commonest site for HPV related OSCC, whereas 29% replied that lateral border of the tongue was the common site for HPV related OSCC. Forty one percent educated patients regarding HPV infection being a causative factor for OSCC. HPV vaccine can prevent OSCC was stated by 70% OHP. Only 12% were aware of the availability of HPV vaccine in Malaysia. Majority (99%), agreed that there is a need to offer continuing education programmes to dentists highlighting advances and preventive strategies in the fight against OSCC. Substantial increase in awareness is required among OHP regarding HPV-OSCC link.
Full Text Available ... news labs links & resources hpv overview why vaccinate posters buttons and banners videos someone you love flu ... such thing as stomach flu pregnancy and flu posters meningitis overview why vaccinate CDC and meningitis Stiletto ...
Full Text Available ... freed meet keri russell posters grand article rich media video/audio pneumonia tb overview links & resources families ... hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus shingles media room Flu's Gonna Lose M.O.V.E. ...
Gemigniani, Franco; Hernández-Losa, Javier; Ferrer, Berta; García-Patos, Vicente
Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck's disease is a rare, benign and asymptomatic mucosal proliferation associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, mainly with genotypes 13 and 32. We report a florid case of FEH in an 11-year-old Haitian girl with systemic lupus erythematosus receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Cryotherapy was previously performed on numerous occasions with no results. We decided to prescribe a non-invasive and more comfortable treatment. A combination of topical retinoid and imiquimod cream was well tolerated and led to an important improvement. The evidence of infection by HPV-16 detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, prompted us to prescribe the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (types 6, 11,16 and 18). Subsequent PCR sequencing with generic primers GP5-GP6 and further BLAST comparative analysis confirmed that genomic viral sequence in our case truly corresponded with HPV-32. This molecular misdiagnosis can be explained by the similarity between genomic sequences of both HPV-16 and -32 genotypes. At the 1-year follow up, we observed total clinical improvement and no recurrences of the disease. Complete healing in this case may correspond to a potential action of topical retinoid, imiquimod and the cross-protection mechanism of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.
Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are the etiological agents of several genital cancers, including cancer of the uterine cervix. The detection of HPV infection in genital samples may increase the sensitivity of primary and secondary screenings of cervical cancer. HPV testing may also improve the specificity of screening programs, resulting in the avoidance of overtreatment and cost savings for confirmatory procedures. The major determinants of clinical progression of HPV infection include persistence of HPV infection, involvement of high-risk HPV types, high HPV viral load, integration of viral DNA and presence of several potential cofactors. Signal amplification HPV-DNA detection techniques (Hybrid Capture II, Digene Corporation, USA are standardized, commercially available, and capable of detecting several high-risk HPV types. They also increase the sensitivity of screening for high-grade lesions in combination with cytology. The sensitivity of these techniques to detect high-grade lesions is higher than that of cytology, but the referral rate for colposcopy is greater. These techniques are approved for the triage to colposcopy of women with cervical smears interpreted as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. Triage and screening for cervical cancer using HPV will probably be restricted to women aged 30 years or older because of the high prevalence of infection in younger women. Amplification techniques are ideal for epidemiological studies because they minimize the misclassification of HPV infection status. These techniques can detect low HPV burden infections. Consensus primers amplify most genital types in one reaction, and the reverse hybridization of amplicons with type-specific probes allows for the typing of HPV-positive samples. Consensus PCR assays are currently under evaluation for diagnostic purposes. HPV testing is currently implemented for the clinical management of women.
Most human papillomaviruses cause inapparent infections, subtly affecting epithelial homeostasis, to ensure genome persistence in the epithelial basal layer. As with conspicuous papillomas, these self-limiting lesions shed viral particles to ensure population level maintenance and depend on a balance between viral gene expression, immune cell stimulation and immune surveillance for persistence. The complex immune evasion strategies, characteristic of high-risk HPV types, also allow the deregulated viral gene expression that underlies neoplasia. Neoplasia occurs at particular epithelial sites where vulnerable cells such as the reserve or cuboidal cells of the cervical transformation zone are found. Beta papillomavirus infection can also predispose an individual with immune deficiencies to the development of cancers. The host control of HPV infections thus involves local interactions between keratinocytes and the adaptive immune response. Effective immune detection and surveillance limits overt disease, leading to HPV persistence as productive microlesions or in a true latent state. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Jones, Georden; Perez, Samara; Huta, Veronika; Rosberger, Zeev; Lebel, Sophie
Objective: The goals of the present study are (1) to identify sociodemographic and psychosocial predictors of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related stigma and (2) to examine the relationship between HPV-related stigma in predicting HPV vaccine decision-making among college males. Participants: Six hundred and eighty college males aged 18--26 from 3…
Hampras, Shalaka S.; Reed, Rhianna A.; Bezalel, Spencer; Cameron, Michael; Cherpelis, Basil; Fenske, Neil; Sondak, Vernon K.; Messina, Jane; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik; Rollison, Dana E.
The role of cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the development of subsequent cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is unknown. Pathologically confirmed cases of SCC (n = 150) enrolled in a previously conducted case-control study were included in a retrospective cohort study to examine the association of cutaneous HPV at the time of SCC diagnosis with the risk of subsequent SCC development. Data on HPV seropositivity, HPV DNA in eyebrow hairs (EB) and SCC tumors were available...
Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are DNA viruses associated with major human cancers. As such there is a strong interest in developing new means, such as vaccines and microbicides, to prevent HPV infections. Developing the latter requires a better understanding of the infectious life cycle of HPVs. The HPV infectious life cycle is closely linked to the differentiation state of the stratified epithelium it infects, with progeny virus only made in the terminally differentiating suprabasal compartment. It has long been recognized that HPV must first establish its infection within the basal layer of stratified epithelium, but why this is the case has not been understood. In part this restriction might reflect specificity of expression of entry receptors. However, this hypothesis could not fully explain the differentiation restriction of HPV infection, since many cell types can be infected with HPVs in monolayer cell culture. Here, we used chemical biology approaches to reveal that cell cycle progression through mitosis is critical for HPV infection. Using infectious HPV16 particles containing the intact viral genome, G1-synchronized human keratinocytes as hosts, and early viral gene expression as a readout for infection, we learned that the recipient cell must enter M phase (mitosis for HPV infection to take place. Late M phase inhibitors had no effect on infection, whereas G1, S, G2, and early M phase cell cycle inhibitors efficiently prevented infection. We conclude that host cells need to pass through early prophase for successful onset of transcription of the HPV encapsidated genes. These findings provide one reason why HPVs initially establish infections in the basal compartment of stratified epithelia. Only this compartment of the epithelium contains cells progressing through the cell cycle, and therefore it is only in these cells that HPVs can establish their infection. By defining a major condition for cell susceptibility to HPV infection, these
Castle, Philip E; Pierz, Amanda; Stoler, Mark H
There remains uncertainty about the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in causing small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNC) and large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNC) of the cervix. To clarify the role of HPV in the development of SCNC and LCNC, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses. PubMed and Embase were searched to initially identify 143 articles published on or before June 1, 2017. Studies were limited to methods that tested for HPV in the cancer tissue directly to minimize misattribution. Thirty-two studies with 403 SCNC and 9 studies of 45 LCNC were included in the analysis. For SCNC, 85% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]=71%-94%) were HPV positive, 78% (95%CI=64%-90%) were HPV16 and/or HPV18 positive, 51% (95%CI=39%-64%) were singly HPV18 positive, and 10% (95%CI=4%-19%) were singly HPV16 positive. In a subset of 5 SCNC studies (75 cases), 93% were positive for p16 INK4a by immunohistochemistry and 100% were HPV positive. For LCNC, 88% (95%CI=72%-99%) were HPV positive, 86% (95%CI=70%-98%) were positive for HPV16 or HPV18, 30% were singly HPV18 positive (95%CI=4%-60%), and 29% (95%CI=2%-64%) were singly HPV16 positive. In conclusion, most SCNC and LCNC are caused by HPV, primarily HPV18 and HPV16. Therefore, most if not all SCNC and LCNC will be prevented by currently available prophylactic HPV vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bell, Maria C.; Schmidt-Grimminger, Delf; Patrick, Sarah; Ryschon, Tim; Linz, Laurie; Chauhan, Subhash C.
Objectives Cervical cancer is the leading gynecological malignancy worldwide, and the incidence of this disease is very high in American Indian women. Infection with the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for more than 95% of cervical squamous carcinomas. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to analyze oncogenic HPV infections in American Indian women residing in the Northern Plains. Methods Cervical samples were collected from 287 women attending a Northern Plains American Indian reservation outpatient clinic. DNA was extracted from the cervical samples and HPV specific DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the L1 consensus primer sets. The PCR products were hybridized with the Roche HPV Line Blot assay for HPV genotyping to detect 27 different low and high-risk HPV genotypes. The chi-square test was performed for statistical analysis of the HPV infection and cytology diagnosis data. Results Of the total 287 patients, 61 women (21.25%) tested positive for HPV infection. Among all HPV-positive women, 41 (67.2%) were infected with high-risk HPV types. Of the HPV infected women, 41% presented with multiple HPV genotypes. Additionally, of the women infected with oncogenic HPV types, 20 (48.7%) were infected with HPV 16 and 18 and the remaining 21 (51.3%) were infected with other oncogenic types (i.e., HPV59, 39, 73). Women infected with oncogenic HPV types had significantly higher (p=0.001) abnormal Papanicolaou smear tests (Pap test) compared to women who were either HPV negative or positive for non-oncogenic HPV types. The incidence of HPV infection was inversely correlated (pIndian women residing on Northern Plains Reservations. In addition, a significant proportion of the oncogenic HPV infections were other than HPV16 and 18. PMID:17659767
Hebnes, Julie Buchholt; Munk, Christian; Nøhr, Bugge; Nielsen, Ann; Jørgensen, Hans Ole; Iftner, Thomas; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger
It is crucial to understand the epidemiology and natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in both men and women, to prevent the increasing HPV-related disease burden in men. Data on HPV prevalence among men in the general population are limited. In this cross-sectional population-based study, we aimed to estimate genital HPV infection prevalence in Danish men using 2 different test methods. Penile swab samples from 2460 male employees and conscripts at military barracks in Denmark were tested for HPV DNA with the hybrid capture 2 (HC2) method, and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, Inno-LiPA. The overall and age- and type-specific prevalence of HPV infection with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated, and the correlation between the 2 assays was assessed. The overall HPV prevalence was 22.2% (95% CI, 20.6-23.9) in the HC2 test and 41.8% (95% CI, 39.9-43.8) with PCR. Of the PCR-positive samples, 50.9% were negative in the HC2 test. Of 183 PCR-positive samples that could not be genotyped (HPVX), 88.0% (95% CI, 83.2-92.7) were HC2 negative. The most prevalent types were HPV-51, HPV-16, HPV-66, HPV-53, and HPV-6. The prevalence of high-risk and low-risk HPV peaked among men aged 20 to 29 years, whereas the HPVX prevalence increased with age. Human papillomavirus is highly prevalent in the general male population of Denmark, with HPV-16 and HPV-51 being the most prevalent. Polymerase chain reaction detects twice as many positive samples as HC2 but includes HPVX, possibly representing cutaneous HPV types found on normal genital skin.
Jensen, Kirsten E; Thomsen, Louise T; Schmiedel, Sven
Some studies suggest that Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) enhances cervical carcinogenesis; however, a possible confounding effect of persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was not addressed. We examined the potential role of CT infection in the development of subsequent cervical intraepithel...... intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) in women with prevalent HPV infection and in a subgroup of women with persistent HPV infection.......Some studies suggest that Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) enhances cervical carcinogenesis; however, a possible confounding effect of persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was not addressed. We examined the potential role of CT infection in the development of subsequent cervical...
Full Text Available ... thimerosal vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus shingles media room Flu's Gonna Lose M.O.V.E. newsfeeds PSAs publications infectious disease workshop pediatric hepatitis report someone you know has hbv/hcv standard ...
Full Text Available ... immunizations about immunizations current news Flu's Gonna Lose hepatitis a & b vaccines im/sq how to do kids ... abcs of mmr & dtp thimerosal vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus ...
Full Text Available ... and meningitis Stiletto and Extremus posters videos mono pertussis Silence the Sounds of Pertussis Acalla los Sonidos de la Tos Ferina AAP ... a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus shingles media room Flu's ...
Full Text Available [b]introduction[/b]. Human Papillomavirus (HPV is a group of DNA viruses which is an etiological factor of many benign and malignant diseases of the upper respiratory tract mucosa, female genital tract and the skin. HPV infection is considered a sexually-transmitted infection, but can also be transmitted by non-sexual routes, including perinatal vertical transmission, physical contact, iatrogenic infection and autoinoculation. Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP in children is connected with HPV infection transmitted vertically from mother to child during the passage of the foetus through an infected birth canal. [b]objective. [/b]The aim of this study was to establish the level of Human Papillomaviruses carrier state in upper respiratory tract mucosa in healthy pre-school children, and to identify potential risk factors for HPV infection. [b]materials and method[/b]. After obtaining consent from their parents, 97 pre-school children were examined – 51 girls and 46 boys between the ages of 3 – 5 years; average age – 4 years and 5 months. 68 children were urban dwellers and 29 came from a rural environment. A questionnaire with detailed history was taken including parents’ and child`s personal data, as well as perinatal risk factors in pregnancy. Socio-demographic information was also obtained, including the standard of living, and chosen environmental factors. Routine ENT examination was performed. Exfoliated oral squamous cells were collected from swabs and analysed for the presence of DNA papillomaviruses by polymerase chain reaction. [b]results.[/b] The presence of HPV in the respiratory tract in children was detected in 19.6% cases. ‘High oncogenic potential’ HPVs, such as HPV-16 and HPV-18, were not observed in squamous cell mucosa of the respiratory tract in the children. No significant differences were observed between the HPV carrier state in urban and rural inhabitants.
Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Bianchi, Silvia; Frati, Elena Rosanna; Zotti, Carla Maria; Lai, Piero Luigi; Domnich, Alexander; Colzani, Daniela; Gasparini, Roberto; Tanzi, Elisabetta
Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and human papillomavirus (HPV) are the two main sexually transmitted infections; however, epidemiological data on Ct prevalence and Ct/HPV co-infection in Italy are scant. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of Ct infection and Ct/HPV co-infection in young HPV-unvaccinated females with normal cytology, and placed particular attention on the possible association between Ct-DNA positivity and different HPV infecting genotypes. Five hundred 66 healthy females aged 16-26 years without cervical lesions, previously assessed for HPV infection (HPV-DNA prevalence: 18.2%), were tested for Ct-DNA. The overall prevalence of Ct was 5.8% (95% CI: 4.2-8.1), while Ct/HPV co-infection was recorded in 2.7% (95% CI: 1.6-4.3) of subjects. Compared with HPV-DNA-negative females, HPV-DNA positive subjects had significantly (P < 0.001) higher odds of being infected with Ct (odds ratio of 4.20, 95% CI: 2.01-8.71). Both Ct and Ct/HPV infections were much more prevalent in under 18-year-olds than in older women. Subjects positive for single high-risk HPV genotypes and various multiple HPV infections had higher odds of being Ct-DNA positive. Our findings confirm that HPV and Ct infections are very common among asymptomatic young Italian females. This underlines the urgent need for nationwide Ct screening programs and reinforcement of sexual health education, which would be the most important public health strategies, since no Ct vaccines are currently available.
Roč. 52, 1-2 (2006), s. 45-46 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR7807; GA MZd(CZ) NR8004; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/04/0492; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500520605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : HPV * tumour vaccines Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.387, year: 2006
Full Text Available Approximately 2 million new cancer cases are attributed to infectious agents each year worldwide. Vaccines for the hepatitis B virus (HBV, a risk factor of hepatocellular cancer, and human papillomavirus (HPV, a risk factor of cervical cancer, are considered major successes in clinical chemoprevention of cancer. In Taiwan, the first evidence of cancer prevention through vaccinations was provided by HBV vaccination data in infants. The Taiwanese HBV vaccination program has since become a model immunization schedule for newborns worldwide. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV is generally accepted as prerequisite for cervical cancer diagnosis; however, cervical cancer is a rare complication of HPV infections. This is due to the fact that such infections tend to be transient. The safety and efficacy of both available HPV quadrivalent vaccine and bivalent vaccine are not in doubt at the present time. Until a human cytomegalovirus (CMV vaccine becomes available, simple hygienic practices, such as hand washing, can prevent CMV infection both before and during pregnancy. Each country should establish her official guidelines regarding which vaccines should be used to treat various conditions, the target population (i.e., universal or limited to a selected population, and the immunization schedules. After a vaccine is recommended, decisions regarding reimbursement by the public health care fund are evaluated. The guidelines become part of the immunization schedule, which is updated annually and published in the official bulletin. In conclusion, both HBV and HPV vaccines are considered major successes in the chemoprevention of cancer.
Mbaye, El Hadji Seydou; Gheit, Tarik; Dem, Ahmadou; McKay-Chopin, Sandrine; Toure-Kane, Ndeye Coumba; Mboup, Souleymane; Tommasino, Massimo; Sylla, Bakary S; Boye, Cheikh Saad Bouh
Cervical cancer is the most frequent cancer among women in Senegal. However, there are few data concerning the human papillomavirus (HPV) types inducing neoplasia and cervical cancers and their prevalence in the general population of Senegal. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of HPV infection in Senegalese women aged 18 years and older in Dakar Region and three other regions. Cervical samples were collected from 498 women aged 18-80 years (mean, 42.1 years) in Dakar Region. Also, 438 samples were collected from three other regions: Thiès, Saint-Louis, and Louga. The samples were screened for 21 HPV genotypes using an HPV type-specific E7 PCR bead-based multiplex genotyping assay (TS-MPG). The prevalence of high risk (HR)-HPV in Dakar Region was 17.4%. HPV 52 (3.2%) was the most prevalent HPV type, followed by HPV 31 (3.0%) and HPV 16, 45, and 53 (all 2.8%). In the Thiès, Saint-Louis, and Louga Regions, the prevalence of HR-HPV was 23.2%, 13.1%, and 19.4%, respectively. The study revealed the specificity of HPV prevalence in Dakar Region and other regions of Senegal. The observed patterns show some differences compared with other regions of the world. These findings raise the possibility that, in addition to HPV 16 and HPV 18, other HPV types should be considered for a vaccination program in Senegal. However, additional studies to determine the HPV type distribution in cervical cancer specimens in Senegal are required to further corroborate this hypothesis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Herrera-Goepfert, Roberto; Vela-Chávez, Teresa; Carrillo-García, Adela; Lizano-Soberón, Marcela; Amador-Molina, Alfredo; Oñate-Ocaña, Luis F; Hallmann, Rita Sotelo-Regil
Metaplastic carcinoma, an uncommon subtype of breast cancer, is part of the spectrum of basal-like, triple receptor-negative breast carcinomas. The present study examined 20 surgical specimens of metaplastic breast carcinomas, for the presence of high-risk Human papillomavirus (HPV), which is suspected to be a potential carcinogenic agent for breast carcinoma. Mastectomy specimens from patients harboring metaplastic breast carcinoma, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), and who attended the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia in Mexico City, were retrieved from the files of the Department of Pathology accumulated during a 16-year period (1995–2008). Demographic and clinical information was obtained from patients’ medical records. DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumors and HPV type-specific amplification was performed by means of Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Quantitative Real-time (RT) PCR was conducted in HPV positive cases. Statistically, the association of continuous or categorical variables with HPV status was tested by the Student t, the Chi square, or Fisher’s exact tests, as appropriate. High-risk HPV DNA was detected in eight (40%) of 20 metaplastic breast carcinomas: seven (87.5%) HPV-16 and one (12.5%) HPV-18. Mean age of patients with HPV-positive cases was 49 years (range 24–72 years), the same as for HPV-negative cases (range, 30–73 years). There were not striking differences between HPV + and HPV– metaplastic carcinomas regarding clinical findings. Nearly all cases were negative for estrogen, progesterone and Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), but positive for Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). High-risk HPV has been strongly associated with conventional breast carcinomas, although the subtle mechanism of neoplastic transformation is poorly understood. In Mexican patients, the prevalence of HPV infection among metaplastic breast carcinomas is higher than in non-metaplastic ones
Sudenga, Staci L; Ingles, Donna J; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J; Messina, Jane L; Stoler, Mark H; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R
Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes two types of external genital lesions (EGLs) in men: genital warts (condyloma) and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN). The purpose of this study was to describe genital HPV progression to a histopathologically confirmed HPV-related EGL. A prospective analysis nested within the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study was conducted among 3033 men. At each visit, visually distinct EGLs were biopsied; the biopsy specimens were subjected to pathologic evaluation and categorized by pathologic diagnoses. Genital swabs and biopsies were used to identify HPV types using the Linear Array genotyping method for swabs and INNO-LiPA for biopsy specimens. EGL incidence was determined among 1788 HPV-positive men, and cumulative incidence rates at 6, 12, and 24 mo were estimated. The proportion of HPV infections that progressed to EGL was also calculated, along with median time to EGL development. Among 1788 HPV-positive men, 92 developed an incident EGL during follow-up (9 PeIN and 86 condyloma). During the first 12 mo of follow-up, 16% of men with a genital HPV 6 infection developed an HPV 6-positive condyloma, and 22% of genital HPV 11 infections progressed to an HPV 11-positive condyloma. During the first 12 mo of follow-up, 0.5% of men with a genital HPV 16 infection developed an HPV 16-positive PeIN. Although we expected PeIN to be a rare event, the sample size for PeIN (n=10) limited the types of analyses that could be performed. Most EGLs develop following infection with HPV 6, 11, or 16, all of which could be prevented with the 4-valent HPV vaccine. In this study, we looked at genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections that can cause lesions in men. The HPV that we detected within the lesions could be prevented by a vaccine. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jiang, Shan; Dong, Yong
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common cancer worldwide. Besides tobacco use and alcohol consumption, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has also been identified as a risk factor for OSCC recently. The OSCC incidence has increased in recent years, especially among younger women. The purpose of this article is to review clinical and epidemiological studies on the association between HPV infection and OSCCs, and the efficacy of HPV vaccine, so as to provide possible policy implications for preventing HPV-positive OSCC. It is necessary to review the present related body of knowledge to determine whether the association between HPV infection and OSCC has been thoroughly studied. The study was based on literature review. Studies were identified using electronic databases including MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, etc. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were based on consultation from a panel of experts in this area and carefully designed. Based on a systematic review of literatures, HPV infection is a possible cause for the incidence of HPV-positive OSCCs. The prevalence of HPV infection possibly contributed to the increasing trends of HPV-positive OSCCs. Oral HPV infection is a form of HPV transmission. Oral sex behaviors and open-mouthed kissing are probably reasons for oral HPV infection. We also have some epidemiological evidences proving that HPV vaccine provides a possible solution for preventing oral HPV infection. Increased awareness of HPV-positive OSCCs is essential due to the severity of this problem. Biological and epidemiological data regarding the link between sexual behavior and HPV-associated cancers indicate a probable connection, although definitive data are needed. Future studies are needed to investigate the mechanisms of how HPV infection causes HPV-positive OSCCs, whether HPV vaccine provides a prevention for OSCCs, and other important issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chang Hun Lee
Full Text Available Little is known about the epidemiology on human papillomavirus (HPV infection among HIV-infected men in Korea. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors associated with anal HPV infection among HIV-infected men in Korea.A single-center cross-sectional study was conducted with HIV-infected men in Korea. Participants completed a detailed sexual behavior risk factor questionnaire. Anal samples were collected for cytology and HPV genotyping. Factors associated with anal HPV infection were assessed using multivariable logistic regression, stratifying by sexual behaviour.A total of 201 HIV-infected men were included in the study: 133 were from men who have sex with men (MSM and 68 from men who have sex with women (MSW. Any anal HPV infection was detected in 82.7% of HIV-infected MSM and in 51.5% of HIV- infected MSW (P < 0.001. High-risk HPV (HR-HPV prevalence was higher among MSM (47.4% than MSW (25.0%; P = 0.002. The HR-HPV types identified most frequently were HPV 16 (11%, HPV 18 (9.9%, and HPV 58 (5% in MSM, and HPV 58(11% and HPV 16 (8.9% in MSW. Prevalence of any HPV types in 9-valent vaccine types was higher among MSM than MSW (47.4% vs 22.1%. P = 0.001. Abnormal anal cytology was more commonly detected in MSM than MSW (42.9% vs.19.1%, P < 0.001. In HIV-infected MSM, higher number of lifetime male sex partners was significantly associated with any anal HPV infection, but age was a significant risk factor associated with anal HR-HPV infection.Anal HPV infection was highly prevalent in HIV-infected MSM in Korea, and also commonly found in HIV-infected MSW. In HIV-infected MSM, the significant risk factor for being infected with any HPV infection was lifetime number of male sexual partners, and with anal oncogenic HPV infection was age.
García-Espinosa, Benjamín; Moro-Rodríguez, Ernesto; Álvarez-Fernández, Emilio
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution and co-infection occurrence was studied in cervical specimens from the city of Madrid (Spain), as a contribution to the knowledge of Human Papillomavirus genotype distribution and prevalence of carcinogenic HPV types in cervical lesions in Spain. A total of 533 abnormal specimens, from the Hospital General Universitario “Gregorio Marañón” of Madrid, were studied. These included 19 benign lesions, 349 cervical intraepithelial neoplasias 1 (CIN1), 158 CIN2-3 and 7 invasive cervical carcinomas (ICC). HPV genotyping was performed using PCR and tube array hybridization. We detected 20 different HPV types: 13 carcinogenic high-risk HPV types (HR-HPVs), 2 probably carcinogenic high-risk HPV types (PHR-HPVs) and 5 carcinogenic low-risk HPV types (LR-HPVs). The most frequent HPV genotypes found in all specimens were HPV16 (26.0%), 31 (10.7%) and 58 (8.0%). HPV 18 was only detected in 5.0%. Co-infections were found in 30.7% of CIN 1 and 18.4% cases of CIN2-3. The highest percentage of HR HPVs was found in those specimens with a CIN2-3 lesion (93.7%). As our study shows the current tetravalent vaccine could be effective in our geographical area for preventing all the invasive cervical carcinomas. In addition, upon the estimates of the important presence of other HR-HPV types – such as 31, 58, 33 and 52 – in different preneoplasic lesions the effectiveness of HPV vaccination in our geographical area, and others with similar genotype distribution, should be limited
Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix (SCCC is one of the leading causes of death in developing countries. Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV is the major risk factor to develop malignant lesions in the cervix. Polymorphisms of the MHC and p53 genes seem to influence the outcome of HPV infection and progression to SCCC, although controversial data have been reported. MHC are highly polymorphic genes that encode molecules involved in antigen presentation, playing a key role in immune regulation, while p53 is a tumor suppressor gene that regulates cell proliferation. The HPV E6 protein from high-risk types binds p53 and mediates its degradation by the ubiquitin pathway. The role of these polymorphisms in genetic susceptibility to HPV infection and to SCCC remains under investigation.
Tjiong, M. Y.; Out, T. A.; ter Schegget, J.; Burger, M. P.; van der Vange, N.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of cervical neoplasia. Considering the morbidity and mortality of cervical cancer, infection with HPV can be regarded as a worldwide problem, especially in developing countries. Currently, many studies
Liu, Ying; Lu, Zheming; Xu, Ruiping; Ke, Yang
Integration of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA into the host genome can be a driver mutation in cervical carcinoma. Identification of HPV integration at base resolution has been a longstanding technical challenge, largely due to sensitivity masking by HPV in episomes or concatenated forms. The aim was to enhance the understanding of the precise localization of HPV integration sites using an innovative strategy. Using HPV capture technology combined with next generation sequencing, HPV prevalence and the exact integration sites of the HPV DNA in 47 primary cervical cancer samples and 2 cell lines were investigated. A total of 117 unique HPV integration sites were identified, including HPV16 (n = 101), HPV18 (n = 7), and HPV58 (n = 9). We observed that the HPV16 integration sites were broadly located across the whole viral genome. In addition, either single or multiple integration events could occur frequently for HPV16, ranging from 1 to 19 per sample. The viral integration sites were distributed across almost all the chromosomes, except chromosome 22. All the cervical cancer cases harboring more than four HPV16 integration sites showed clinical diagnosis of stage III carcinoma. A significant enrichment of overlapping nucleotides shared between the human genome and HPV genome at integration breakpoints was observed, indicating that it may play an important role in the HPV integration process. The results expand on knowledge from previous findings on HPV16 and HPV18 integration sites and allow a better understanding of the molecular basis of the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma.
Christopher B Buck
Full Text Available Certain sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV types are causally associated with the development of cervical cancer. Our recent development of high-titer HPV pseudoviruses has made it possible to perform high-throughput in vitro screens to identify HPV infection inhibitors. Comparison of a variety of compounds revealed that carrageenan, a type of sulfated polysaccharide extracted from red algae, is an extremely potent infection inhibitor for a broad range of sexually transmitted HPVs. Although carrageenan can inhibit herpes simplex viruses and some strains of HIV in vitro, genital HPVs are about a thousand-fold more susceptible, with 50% inhibitory doses in the low ng/ml range. Carrageenan acts primarily by preventing the binding of HPV virions to cells. This finding is consistent with the fact that carrageenan resembles heparan sulfate, an HPV cell-attachment factor. However, carrageenan is three orders of magnitude more potent than heparin, a form of cell-free heparan sulfate that has been regarded as a highly effective model HPV inhibitor. Carrageenan can also block HPV infection through a second, postattachment heparan sulfate-independent effect. Carrageenan is in widespread commercial use as a thickener in a variety of cosmetic and food products, ranging from sexual lubricants to infant feeding formulas. Some of these products block HPV infectivity in vitro, even when diluted a million-fold. Clinical trials are needed to determine whether carrageenan-based products are effective as topical microbicides against genital HPVs.
Brand, Toni M; Hartmann, Stefan; Bhola, Neil E; Peyser, Noah D; Li, Hua; Zeng, Yan; Isaacson Wechsler, Erin; Ranall, Max V; Bandyopadhyay, Sourav; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar; LaVallee, Theresa M; Jordan, Richard C K; Johnson, Daniel E; Grandis, Jennifer R
Purpose: Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 plays an etiologic role in a growing subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), where viral expression of the E6 and E7 oncoproteins is necessary for tumor growth and maintenance. Although patients with HPV + tumors have a more favorable prognosis, there are currently no HPV-selective therapies. Recent studies identified differential receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) profiles in HPV + versus HPV - tumors. One such RTK, HER3, is overexpressed and interacts with phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) in HPV + tumors. Therefore, we investigated the role of HPV oncoproteins in regulating HER3-mediated signaling and determined whether HER3 could be a molecular target in HPV + HNSCC. Experimental Design: HER3 was investigated as a molecular target in HPV + HNSCC using established cell lines, patient-derived xenografts (PDX), and human tumor specimens. A mechanistic link between HPV and HER3 was examined by augmenting E6 and E7 expression levels in HNSCC cell lines. The dependency of HPV + and HPV - HNSCC models on HER3 was evaluated with anti-HER3 siRNAs and the clinical stage anti-HER3 monoclonal antibody KTN3379. Results: HER3 was overexpressed in HPV + HNSCC, where it was associated with worse overall survival in patients with pharyngeal cancer. Further investigation indicated that E6 and E7 regulated HER3 protein expression and downstream PI3K pathway signaling. Targeting HER3 with siRNAs or KTN3379 significantly inhibited the growth of HPV + cell lines and PDXs. Conclusions: This study uncovers a direct relationship between HPV infection and HER3 in HNSCC and provides a rationale for the clinical evaluation of targeted HER3 therapy for the treatment of HPV + patients. Clin Cancer Res; 23(12); 3072-83. ©2016 AACR . ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.
Hastings, Tessa J.; Hohmann, Lindsey A.; McFarland, Stuart J.; Teeter, Benjamin S.; Westrick, Salisa C.
Use of non-traditional settings such as community pharmacies has been suggested to increase human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake and completion rates. The objectives of this study were to explore HPV vaccination services and strategies employed by pharmacies to increase HPV vaccine uptake, pharmacists’ attitudes towards the HPV vaccine, and pharmacists’ perceived barriers to providing HPV vaccination services in community pharmacies. A pre-piloted mail survey was sent to 350 randomly...
Demarco, Maria; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Hyun, Noorie; Castle, Philip E; He, Xin; Dallal, Cher M; Chen, Jie; Gage, Julia C; Befano, Brian; Fetterman, Barbara; Lorey, Thomas; Poitras, Nancy; Raine-Bennett, Tina R; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Schiffman, Mark
As cervical cancer screening shifts from cytology to human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, a major question is the clinical value of identifying individual HPV types. We aimed to validate Onclarity (Becton Dickinson Diagnostics, Sparks, MD), a nine-channel HPV test recently approved by the FDA, by assessing (i) the association of Onclarity types/channels with precancer/cancer; (ii) HPV type/channel agreement between the results of Onclarity and cobas (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, CA), another FDA-approved test; and (iii) Onclarity typing for all types/channels compared to typing results from a research assay (linear array [LA]; Roche). We compared Onclarity to histopathology, cobas, and LA. We tested a stratified random sample ( n = 9,701) of discarded routine clinical specimens that had tested positive by Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2; Qiagen, Germantown, MD). A subset had already been tested by cobas and LA ( n = 1,965). Cervical histopathology was ascertained from electronic health records. Hierarchical Onclarity channels showed a significant linear association with histological severity. Onclarity and cobas had excellent agreement on partial typing of HPV16, HPV18, and the other 12 types as a pool (sample-weighted kappa value of 0.83); cobas was slightly more sensitive for HPV18 and slightly less sensitive for the pooled high-risk types. Typing by Onclarity showed excellent agreement with types and groups of types identified by LA (kappa values from 0.80 for HPV39/68/35 to 0.97 for HPV16). Onclarity typing results corresponded well to histopathology and to an already validated HPV DNA test and could provide additional clinical typing if such discrimination is determined to be clinically desirable. This is a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Foreign copyrights may apply.
Rohde, Rebecca L; Adjei Boakye, Eric; Christopher, Kara M; Geneus, Christian J; Walker, Ronald J; Varvares, Mark A; Osazuwa-Peters, Nosayaba
There exists a significant gap in vaccine coverage of the human papillomavirus (HPV) among college-aged students. This study assessed sexual risk-taking behavior among university students and analyzed predictors of HPV vaccine initiation and completion in this population. Data (n = 746) were from an anonymous online, cross-sectional survey distributed to university students, between the ages of 19-26 years, at a private Midwestern university. Both chi-square and multivariable logistics regression models estimated the association between sociodemographic characteristics and sexual risk factors (including number of vaginal sexual partners, number of oral sexual partners, initiation of oral sex, and initiation of vaginal sex), with HPV vaccine initiation and completion. A significant number of participants (40%) had not received a single dose of the HPV vaccine series. Of those who initiated the series, more than half (51%) did not achieve completion. Additionally, a greater number of participants have had multiple (4 or more) oral sexual partners than vaginal sexual partners (25.7% vs. 20.3%). After adjusting for covariates, it was found that sexual risk factors were not significantly associated with HPV vaccine initiation or completion. HPV vaccine initiation and completion rates are suboptimal among university students. High levels of sexual-risk taking behaviors associated with HPV infection persist, yet are not significant predictors of HPV vaccine behaviors in this age group. To increase uptake among 18-26-year-old students, future public health interventions should focus on HPV vaccine education and uptake across the entire population, irrespective of sexual risk profile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Klosky, James L.; Favaro, Brianne; Peck, Kelly R.; Simmons, Jessica L.; Russell, Kathryn M.; Green, Daniel M.; Hudson, Melissa M.
Purpose Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted infection and the cause of cervical and other cancers. Vaccination is available to protect against genital HPV and is recommended for individuals aged 9-26 years. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of HPV vaccination among childhood cancer survivors and to identify factors associated with vaccine outcomes. Methods Young adult females with (n = 114; M age =21.18 years, SD =2.48) and without (n = 98; M age = 20.65 years, SD = 2.29) a childhood cancer history completed surveys querying HPV vaccination initiation/completion, as well as sociodemographic, medical, and health belief factors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for vaccine outcomes. Results Among survivors, 38.6% (44/114) and 26.3% (30/114) initiated or completed vaccination compared to 44.9% (44/98) and 28.6% (28/98) among controls, respectively. In the combined survivor/control group, physician recommendation (OR = 11.24, 95% CI, 3.15 – 40.14), and familial HPV communication (OR = 7.28, 95% CI, 1.89 – 28.05) associated with vaccine initiation. Perceptions of vaccine benefit associated with vaccine completion (OR = 10.55, 95% CI, 1.59 – 69.92), whereas perceptions of HPV-related severity associated with non-completion (OR = 0.14, 95% CI, 0.03 – 0.71). Conclusion Despite their increased risk for HPV-related complication, a minority of childhood cancer survivors have initiated or completed HPV vaccination. Modifiable factors associating with vaccine outcomes were identified. Implications HPV vaccination is a useful tool for cancer prevention in survivorship, and interventions to increase vaccine uptake are warranted. PMID:26572902
Zhao, R; Zhang, W Y; Wu, M H; Zhang, S W; Pan, J; Zhu, L; Zhang, Y P; Li, H; Gu, Y S; Liu, X Z
Background: No recent data exist on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Beijing, People's Republic of China. Materials and method We interviewed and examined a representative, randomly selected sample of 5552 sexually active women aged 25–54 years. Cervical cell samples were analysed for HPV DNA by a MY09/11-based PCR assay. Results: Human papillomavirus prevalence was 6.7% overall and 4.8% among women without cervical abnormalities. Of the 21 subtypes identified, HPV16 was the commonest type (2.6% overall; 39.1% of HPV-positive women), followed by HPV 58 (1.0%), 33 (0.8%), 43 (0.7%) and 56 (0.7%). High-risk HPV types predominated in all age groups. Human papillomavirus prevalence was highest in young to middle-aged women. Marital status, number of husband's sexual partners, age at sexual debut and nulligravidity were all associated with being HPV positive. Conclusions: In our survey, HPV 16, HPV 58 and HPV 33 were the most prevalent HPV types in Beijing, indicating the potential for the prophylactic HPV 16/18 vaccine in China. PMID:19862002
Tabora, N.; Zelaya, A.; Bakkers, J.; Melchers, W.J.; Ferrera, A.
Sexually transmitted infections are a serious health problem in Honduras. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are major causes of sexually transmitted diseases. To determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HPV in young women, 100 female university students in Honduras were
Eklund, Carina; Forslund, Ola; Wallin, Keng-Ling; Dillner, Joakim
Accurate and internationally comparable human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA detection and typing services are essential for HPV vaccine research and surveillance. This study assessed the proficiency of different HPV typing services offered routinely in laboratories worldwide. The HPV Laboratory Network (LabNet) has designed international proficiency panels that can be regularly issued. The HPV genotyping proficiency panels of 2013 and 2014 contained 43 and 41 coded samples, respectively, composed of purified plasmids of sixteen HPV types (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68a and 68b) and 3 extraction controls. Proficient typing was defined as detection in both single and multiple infections of 50 International Units of HPV 16 and HPV 18 and 500 genome equivalents for the other 14 HPV types, with at least 97% specificity. Ninety-six laboratories submitted 136 datasets in 2013 and 121 laboratories submitted 148 datasets in 2014. Thirty-four different HPV genotyping assays were used, notably Linear Array, HPV Direct Flow-chip, GenoFlow HPV array, Anyplex HPV 28, Inno-LiPa, and PGMY-CHUV assays. A trend towards increased sensitivity and specificity was observed. In 2013, 59 data sets (44%) were 100% proficient compared to 86 data sets (59%) in 2014. This is a definite improvement compared to the first proficiency panel, issued in 2008, when only 19 data sets (26%) were fully proficient. The regularly issued global proficiency program has documented an ongoing worldwide improvement in comparability and reliability of HPV genotyping services. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available ... kids infect kids labs links & resources milk thistle pediatric hepatitis report someone you know has hbv/hcv ... morrow scholarship links & resources listservs need more help? pediatric hepatitis report infection protection bioterrorism five second rule ...
Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan
Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers.
Ralph-Sydney Mboumba Bouassa
Full Text Available High-risk (HR human papillomavirus (HPV infection remains a great concern in relation to African men who have sex with men (MSM, especially those infected with HIV. The prevalence of HR-HPV and associated risk factors was estimated in a cross-sectional observational study covering MSM living in Bangui, Central African Republic.MSM receiving care at the Centre National de Référence des Infections Sexuellement Transmissibles et de la Thérapie Antirétrovirale, Bangui, were included. HIV serostatus and socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics were collected. HPV DNA was detected and genotyped on anal swabs using Anyplex™ II HPV28 test (Seegene, South Korea, and HSV DNA by in-house real-time PCR. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine risk factors associated with HPV outcomes.42 MSM (mean age, 23.2 years; range, 14-39 including 69.1% HIV-1-positive and 30.9% HIV-negative were prospectively enrolled. The prevalence of anal HPV was 69.1%, including 82.7% of HR-HPV which were multiple in 52.0%. The most prevalent genotypes were HPV-35, HPV-58, HPV-59 and HPV-31. While, HPV-16 and HPV-18 were present in a minority of samples. Multiple HR-HPV infection was more frequent in HIV-positive MSM (41.4% with 2.7 genotypes per anal samples than in HIV-negative (7.7% with 1.5 genotypes per anal samples. HPV types included in the prophylactic Gardasil-9® vaccine were detected in 68.9% of specimens and HPV-58 was the most frequently detected. MSM infected by HPV-16 and HPV-18 were all infected by HIV-1. Few anal swabs (11.9% contained HSV-2 DNA without relationship with HPV detection. Condomless receptive anal intercourse was the main risk factor to being infected with any type of HPV and condomless insertive anal intercourse was significantly less associated with HPV contamination than receptive anal intercourse (Odd ratio = 0.02.MSM in Bangui are at-risk of HIV and HR-HPV anal infections. The unusual distribution of HPV-35 as
Bosch, F. Xavier; Broker, Thomas R.; Forman, David; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Gillison, Maura L.; Doorbar, John; Stern, Peter L.; Stanley, Margaret; Arbyn, Marc; Poljak, Mario; Cuzick, Jack; Castle, Philip E.; Schiller, John T.; Markowitz, Lauri E.; Fisher, William A.; Canfell, Karen; Denny, Lynette A.; Franco, Eduardo L.; Steben, Marc; Kane, Mark A.; Schiffman, Mark; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Castellsagué, Xavier; Kim, Jane J.; Brotons, Maria; Alemany, Laia; Albero, Ginesa; Diaz, Mireia; de Sanjosé, Silvia
Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable to HPV infection, with substantially higher incidence and mortality rates seen in developing versus developed countries. In recent years, we have gained tremendous knowledge about HPVs and their interactions with host cells, tissues and the immune system; have validated and implemented strategies for safe and efficacious prophylactic vaccination against HPV infections; have developed increasingly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tools for HPV detection for use in cervical cancer screening; and have substantially increased global awareness of HPV and its many associated diseases in women, men, and children. While these achievements exemplify the success of biomedical research in generating important public health interventions, they also generate new and daunting challenges: costs of HPV prevention and medical care, the implementation of what is technically possible, socio-political resistance to prevention opportunities, and the very wide ranges of national economic capabilities and health care systems. Gains and challenges faced in the quest for comprehensive control of HPV infection and HPV-related cancers and other disease are summarized in this review. The information presented may be viewed in terms of a reframed paradigm of prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases that will include strategic combinations of at least four major components: 1) routine introduction of HPV vaccines to women in all countries, 2) extension and simplification of
Wang Robert C
Full Text Available Abstract Background The human papillomaviruses (HPV are a large family of non-enveloped DNA viruses, mainly associated with cervical cancers. Recent epidemiologic evidence has suggested that HPV may be an independent risk factor for oropharyngeal cancers. Evidence now suggests HPV may modulate the malignancy process in some tobacco- and alcohol-induced oropharynx tumors, but might also be the primary oncogenic factor for inducing carcinogenesis among some non-smokers. More evidence, however, is needed regarding oral HPV prevalence among healthy adults to estimate risk. The goal of this study was to perform an HPV screening of normal healthy adults to assess oral HPV prevalence. Methods Healthy adult patients at a US dental school were selected to participate in this pilot study. DNA was isolated from saliva samples and screened for high-risk HPV strains HPV16 and HPV18 and further processed using qPCR for quantification and to confirm analytical sensitivity and specificity. Results Chi-square analysis revealed the patient sample was representative of the general clinic population with respect to gender, race and age (p Conclusions The successful recruitment and screening of healthy adult patients revealed HPV16, but not HPV18, was present in a small subset. These results provide new information about oral HPV status, which may help to contextualize results from other studies that demonstrate oral cancer rates have risen in the US among both females and minorities and in some geographic areas that are not solely explained by rates of tobacco and alcohol use. The results of this study may be of significant value to further our understanding of oral health and disease risk, as well as to help design future studies exploring the role of other factors that influence oral HPV exposure, as well as the short- and long-term consequences of oral HPV infection.
Hsu, Yu-Yun; Wang, Wei-Ming; Fetzer, Susan Jane; Cheng, Ya-Min; Hsu, Keng-Fu
The aim of this study was to examine the psychosocial adjustment trajectory, focusing on psychological distress, sexual relationships and health care information, as well as factors which have an impact on adjustment on receiving a positive diagnosis of human papillomavirus infection. Human papillomavirus is a common sexually transmitted infection in females. To date, knowledge of the longitudinal psychosocial response to the diagnosis of human papillomavirus is limited. A prospective longitudinal design was conducted with a convenience sample. Women aged 20-65 years old were followed at one, 6 and 12 months after a diagnosis of HPV. Participants completed measures of initial emotional distress and followed-up psychosocial adjustment. A mixed-effects model was applied to analyze the longitudinal changes in psychosocial adjustment. Seventy human papillomavirus positive women participated in the study with nearly 20% of the women reporting emotional distress during their first visit. Mixed-effects model analyses showed that a trajectory of psychosocial adjustment in health care orientation, sexual relationship and psychosocial distress occur from one to 6 months after HPV diagnosis. However, a declining trend from 6-12 months was significant in health care orientation. Initial emotional distress was associated with changes in psychological adjustment. Psychosocial adjustment to human papillomavirus was worse at one month compared with 6 and 12 months after diagnosis. Healthcare providers should offer health information and psychosocial support to women according to their disease progression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Leonora Maciel de Souza Vianna
Full Text Available Background The number of oropharyngeal lesions caused by HPV (Human papillomavirus has been increasing worldwide in the past years. In spite of the clinical relevance of HPV infection in the anogenital tract of HIV-positive patients, the relevance of oropharynx HPV infection in these patients is not clear. The aim of the present study was to detect HPV infection, and clinical and cytological changes in the oropharynx of HIV-positive patients. Methods Samples collected from the oropharynx of 100 HIV-positive patients were subjected to hybrid capture (HC, conventional and liquid-based cytology. Clinical data were also collected to investigate the relation with HPV status. Results High and low-risk types of HPV were present in 8% and 16.7% of the total sample. The mean ± sd (maximum-minimum of the relative ratio light unit (RLU/cutoff (CO was 2.94 ± 2.58 (1.09–7.87 and 1.61 ± 0.65 (1.07–2.8 for high- and low-risk-HPV, respectively. By cytology, dysplasia was not detected, but atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US were diagnosed in two samples. No clinical change, suggestive of dysplasia/cancer, was detected. Conclusion Our study was able to detect and characterize HPV infection by hybrid capture, which may represent a good tool for screening and follow-up of HPV in the studied population. The frequency and viral load of HPV were low. Neither clinical nor cytological changes suggestive of dysplasia/neoplasia were observed in oropharynx of HIV-positive patients.
Full Text Available Background In Canada, two vaccines that have demonstrated high efficacy against infection with human papillomavirus (HPV types −16 and −18 are available. The HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine provides protection against genital warts (GW while the HPV-16/18 vaccine may provide better protection against other oncogenic HPV types. In this analysis, the estimated clinical and economic benefit of each of these vaccines was compared in the Canadian setting. Methods A Markov model of the natural history of HPV infection among women, cervical cancer (CC and GW was used to estimate the impact of vaccinating a cohort of 100,000 12-year-old females on lifetime outcomes and healthcare system costs (no indirect benefit in males included. A budget impact model was used to estimate the impact of each vaccine by province. Results In the base case, vaccination with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was predicted to prevent 48 additional CC cases, and 16 additional CC deaths, while vaccination with the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine was predicted to prevent 6,933 additional GW cases. Vaccination with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was estimated to save 1 additional discounted quality adjusted life year (QALY at an overall lower lifetime cost to the healthcare system compared to the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (assuming vaccine price parity. In sensitivity analyses, the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine was associated with greater QALYs saved when the cross-protection efficacy of the HPV-16/18 vaccine was reduced, or the burden of GW due to HPV-6/11 was increased. In most scenarios with price parity, the lifetime healthcare cost of the strategy with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was predicted to be lower than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine. In the probabilistic sensitivity analyses, the HPV-16/18 vaccine provided more QALY benefit than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine in 49.2% of scenarios, with lower relative lifetime costs in 83.5% of scenarios. Conclusions Overall, the predicted lifetime healthcare costs and QALYs saved by
Tu, Yu-Ching; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Lin, Yi-Jung; Chan, Te-Fu
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a frequent cause of sexually transmitted infection worldwide, and has a key role in the etiology of cervical cancer. Young people are the most vulnerable age group for acquiring HPV infection, but this particular age group in Taiwan knows little about it. This study investigated Taiwanese adolescent women's knowledge of HPV and factors associated with intention to use condoms for reducing HPV-related diseases among adolescent women. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used, and a convenience sample of 384 adolescent women aged 15 to 16 years in Southern Taiwan was recruited. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and analyzed with descriptive statistics, t-test or ANOVA, and multiple regression analysis. Only 26.6% of the participants were aware of HPV. The percentage of correct answers for knowledge about HPV was 35.4%. Factors associated with intention to use condoms for HPV prevention were discussion of sexual issues, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and HPV knowledge. These variables accounted for 55.8% of the variance in scores for intention to use condoms for HPV prevention. These findings could be used in future HPV prevention education and campaigns. Future intervention programs might be particularly focused on insufficient HPV knowledge among adolescent females.
Clifford, Gary M.; de Vuyst, Hugo; Tenet, Vanessa; Plummer, Martyn; Tully, Stephen; Franceschi, Silvia
Objectives: HIV infection is known to worsen the outcome of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and may do so differentially by HPV type. Design: Twenty-one studies were included in a meta-analysis of invasive cervical cancers (ICC) among women infected with HIV in Africa. Method: Type-specific HPV DNA prevalence was compared with data from a similar meta-analysis of HIV-negative ICC using prevalence ratios (PR). Results: HPV detection was similar in 770 HIV-positive (91.2%) and 384...
Full Text Available ... infect kids links & resources M.O.V.E. parents for prevention publications schedules & records support statements vaccine ... to replace the advice of the physician who cares for your child. All medical advice and information ...
Full Text Available ... vaccinate posters buttons and banners videos someone you love flu overview nasal spray flu caccine CDC surveillance ... pediatric hepatitis report infection protection bioterrorism five second rule germs handwashing why handwashing is important handwashing cartoon ...
Full Text Available ... injection tips kids infect kids labs links & resources milk thistle pediatric hepatitis report someone you know has ... advice nurse ask the experts back-to-school health clinical trials disclosing to kids estate planning find ...
Full Text Available ... find a doctor find health information helpful articles antibiotics colds fevers injection tips sports travel in health travel tips janis morrow scholarship links & resources listservs need more help? pediatric hepatitis report infection protection bioterrorism five second ...
Full Text Available ... information helpful articles antibiotics colds fevers injection tips sports travel in health travel tips janis morrow scholarship ... kids infect kids links & resources M.O.V.E. parents for prevention publications schedules & records support statements ...
Full Text Available ... kids infect kids links & resources M.O.V.E. parents for prevention publications schedules & records support statements ... media room Flu's Gonna Lose M.O.V.E. newsfeeds PSAs publications infectious disease workshop pediatric hepatitis ...
Full Text Available ... kids labs links & resources milk thistle pediatric hepatitis report someone you know has hbv/hcv herpes overview ... links & resources listservs need more help? pediatric hepatitis report infection protection bioterrorism five second rule germs handwashing ...
Full Text Available ... green make a difference slide show diseases cmv hepatitis overview current news glossary injection tips kids infect kids labs links & resources milk thistle pediatric hepatitis report someone you know has hbv/hcv herpes ...
Full Text Available ... spray flu caccine CDC surveillance flu FAQ flu vaccine does not cause flu no such thing as ... current news Flu's Gonna Lose hepatitis a & b vaccines im/sq how to do kids infect kids ...
Full Text Available ... kids estate planning find a doctor find health information helpful articles antibiotics colds fevers injection tips sports travel in health travel tips janis morrow scholarship links & resources listservs need more help? pediatric hepatitis report infection protection bioterrorism ...
Full Text Available ... to do kids infect kids links & resources M.O.V.E. parents for prevention publications schedules & records ... rotavirus shingles media room Flu's Gonna Lose M.O.V.E. newsfeeds PSAs publications infectious disease workshop ...
Full Text Available ... cmv hepatitis overview current news glossary injection tips kids infect kids labs links & resources milk thistle pediatric hepatitis report ... overview links & resources families advocacy about civil rights kids' rights sample school policies school letter someone you ...
Patricia Caseiro Silverio
Full Text Available Porokeratoma is a rare, relatively newly described and still unclear entity. Here, we describe the case of a 52-year-old male patient who presented with four well-defined, verrucous and hyperkeratotic lesions. Microscopically, one of the lesions showed acanthopapillomatosis overlying compact orthokeratosis. Prominent broad and confluent cornoid lamellae were present, with no granular layer and some dyskeratotic keratinocytes. PCR sequencing and in situ hybridization revealed the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV type 16 in the lesion. The association of porokeratoma and HPV infection has not previously been reported.
S. A. Tonon
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence and potential risk factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV cervical infection among women residing in a region of northeastern Argentina with a high incidence of cervical cancer.
Stoian, M; Repanovici, R; Corniţescu, F
A number of 66 specimens from female cervical lesions were examined for infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, and 18 by nucleic acid hybridization in dot-blot techniques and 35 sera were tested by the immunodot-blot technique, in order to detect the presence of anti E4 and E7 HPV protein antibodies. The findings were compared with the histologic diagnosis. Fifty-six per cent of specimens contained HPV DNA sequences. In 47% of specimens from cervical carcinoma, HPV 11 was detected in 4 cases, HPV 16 in 21 cases, and HPV 18 in 7 cases. Serum antibodies against HPV 16 E4 and HPV 16 E7 occurred in all the cases of uterine carcinoma, in 4 of 10 cases of CIN I-II, and in 3 of 5 sera obtained from apparently healthy women. The analysis of risk factors disclosed the early onset of sexual activity, a relatively high number of births and abortions before the age of 22 years, the use of oral oestroprogestative contraceptive agents, the presence in anamnesis of genital infections with bacterial flora--Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma, etc. Our results showed that HPV typing by nucleic acid hybridization was useful for differentiating low- from high-risk cervical lesions and also tried to elucidate the risk factors associated with HPV infections and progression to malignancy.
Jit, Mark; Gay, Nigel; Soldan, Kate; Hong Choi, Yoon; Edmunds, William John
A Markov model was constructed in order to estimate type-specific rates of cervical lesion progression and regression in women with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). The model was fitted to age- and type-specific data regarding the HPV DNA and cytological status of women undergoing cervical screening in a recent screening trial, as well as cervical cancer incidence. It incorporates different assumptions about the way lesions regress, the accuracy of cytological screening, the specificity of HPV DNA testing, and the age-specific prevalence of HPV infection. Combinations of assumptions generate 162 scenarios for squamous cell carcinomas and 54 scenarios for adenocarcinomas. Simulating an unscreened cohort of women infected with high-risk HPV indicates that the probability of an infection continuing to persist and to develop into invasive cancer depends on the length of time it has already persisted. The scenarios and parameter sets that produce the best fit to available epidemiological data provide a basis for modeling the natural history of HPV infection and disease.
Bienkowska-Haba, Malgorzata; Patel, Hetalkumar D; Sapp, Martin
Following attachment to primary receptor heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) particles undergo conformational changes affecting the major and minor capsid proteins, L1 and L2, respectively. This results in exposure of the L2 N-terminus, transfer to uptake receptors, and infectious internalization. Here, we report that target cell cyclophilins, peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases, are required for efficient HPV16 infection. Cell surface cyclophilin B (CyPB) facilitates conformational changes in capsid proteins, resulting in exposure of the L2 N-terminus. Inhibition of CyPB blocked HPV16 infection by inducing noninfectious internalization. Mutation of a putative CyP binding site present in HPV16 L2 yielded exposed L2 N-terminus in the absence of active CyP and bypassed the need for cell surface CyPB. However, this mutant was still sensitive to CyP inhibition and required CyP for completion of infection, probably after internalization. Taken together, these data suggest that CyP is required during two distinct steps of HPV16 infection. Identification of cell surface CyPB will facilitate the study of the complex events preceding internalization and adds a putative drug target for prevention of HPV-induced diseases.
Full Text Available Following attachment to primary receptor heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG, human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 particles undergo conformational changes affecting the major and minor capsid proteins, L1 and L2, respectively. This results in exposure of the L2 N-terminus, transfer to uptake receptors, and infectious internalization. Here, we report that target cell cyclophilins, peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases, are required for efficient HPV16 infection. Cell surface cyclophilin B (CyPB facilitates conformational changes in capsid proteins, resulting in exposure of the L2 N-terminus. Inhibition of CyPB blocked HPV16 infection by inducing noninfectious internalization. Mutation of a putative CyP binding site present in HPV16 L2 yielded exposed L2 N-terminus in the absence of active CyP and bypassed the need for cell surface CyPB. However, this mutant was still sensitive to CyP inhibition and required CyP for completion of infection, probably after internalization. Taken together, these data suggest that CyP is required during two distinct steps of HPV16 infection. Identification of cell surface CyPB will facilitate the study of the complex events preceding internalization and adds a putative drug target for prevention of HPV-induced diseases.
Cho, GeumJoon; Min, Kyung-Jin; Hong, Hye-Ri; Kim, SuhngWook; Hong, Jin-Hwa; Lee, Jae-Kwan; Oh, Min-Jeong; Kim, HaiJoong
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is known to be more prevalent in spontaneous abortions than in elective terminations of pregnancy. More recently, placental infection with HPV was shown to be associated with spontaneous preterm delivery. However, no study has evaluated the prevalence of HPV infection in pregnant Korean females and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 311 females who gave birth at Korea University Medical Center. Our sample included 45 preterm deliveries, 50 cases of premature rupture of the membranes (PROM), 21 preeclampsia cases, and 8 gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) patients. We used the Hybrid Capture II system to detect high-risk (HR)-HPV infection at six weeks postpartum. The prevalence of HR-HPV infection was 14.1%. Women with HR-HPV infection had a higher incidence of PROM than those without HR-HPV. HR-HPV infection was associated with an increased risk of PROM (OR, 2.380; 95% CI, 1.103-5.134). The prevalence of preterm delivery, preeclampsia, or GDM was not different between the two groups. We observed a high prevalence of HR-HPV infection in pregnant women. Moreover, HR-HPV infection was associated with a risk of PROM at term. Further studies are needed to evaluate mechanisms by which HR-HPV infection induces PROM.
Rositch, Anne F.; Koshiol, Jill; Hudgens, Michael; Razzaghi, Hilda; Backes, Danielle M.; Pimenta, Jeanne M.; Franco, Eduardo L.; Poole, Charles; Smith, Jennifer S.
Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection is the strongest risk factor for high-grade cervical precancer. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of HPV persistence patterns worldwide. Medline and ISI Web of Science were searched through January 1, 2010 for articles estimating HPV persistence or duration of detection. Descriptive and meta-regression techniques were used to summarize variability and the influence of study definitions and characteristics on duration and persistence of cervical HPV infections in women. Among 86 studies providing data on over 100,000 women, 73% defined persistence as HPV positivity at a minimum of two time points. Persistence varied notably across studies and was largely mediated by study region and HPV type, with HPV-16, 31, 33 and 52 being most persistent. Weighted median duration of any-HPV detection was 9.8 months. HR-HPV (9.3 months) persisted longer than low-risk HPV (8.4 months), and HPV-16 (12.4 months) persisted longer than HPV-18 (9.8 months). Among populations of HPV positive women with normal cytology, the median duration of any-HPV detection was 11.5 and HR-HPV detection was10.9 months. In conclusion, we estimated that approximately half of HPV infections persist past 6–12 months. Repeat HPV testing at 12 month intervals could identify women at increased risk of high-grade cervical precancer due to persistent HPV infections. PMID:22961444
Katki, Hormuzd A.; Cheung, Li C.; Fetterman, Barbara; Castle, Philip E.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari
New cervical cancer screening guidelines in the US and many European countries recommend that women get tested for human papillomavirus (HPV). To inform decisions about screening intervals, we calculate the increase in precancer/cancer risk per year of continued HPV infection. However, both time to onset of precancer/cancer and time to HPV clearance are interval-censored, and onset of precancer/cancer strongly informatively censors HPV clearance. We analyze this bivariate informatively interv...
Keita, N; Clifford, G M; Koulibaly, M; Douno, K; Kabba, I; Haba, M; Sylla, B S; van Kemenade, F J; Snijders, P J F; Meijer, C J L M; Franceschi, S
Cervical cancer incidence in western Africa is among the highest in the world. To investigate human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Guinea, we obtained cervical specimens from 831 women aged 18-64 years from the general population of the capital Conakry and from 77 locally diagnosed invasive cervical cancers (ICC). Human papillomavirus was detected using a GP5+/6+ PCR-based assay. Among the general population, the prevalence of cervical abnormalities was 2.6% by visual inspection and 9.5% by liquid-based cytology. Fourteen of 15 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were visual inspection-negative. Human papillomavirus prevalence was 50.8% (32.1% for high-risk types) and relatively constant across all age groups. Being single or reporting > or =3 sexual partners was significantly associated with HPV positivity. HPV16 was the most common type, both among the general population (7.3%) and, notably in ICC (48.6%). HPV45 (18.6%) and HPV18 (14.3%), the next most common types in ICC, were also more common in ICC than in HPV-positive women with normal cytology from the general population. The heavy burden of HPV infection and severe cervical lesions in Guinean women calls for new effective interventions. Sixty-three per cent of cervical cancers are theoretically preventable by HPV16/18 vaccines in Guinea; perhaps more if some cross-protection exists with HPV45.
Rahman, Shams; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Rollison, Dana E; Wang, Wei; Waterboer, Tim; Michel, Angelika; Pawlita, Michael; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano Ponce, Eduardo; Borenstein, Amy R; Giuliano, Anna R
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Recently a 9-valent HPV (9vHPV) prophylactic vaccine was licensed. Seroprevalence prior to vaccine dissemination is needed for monitoring vaccine effectiveness over time. Few studies have assessed the seroprevalence of 9vHPV types in men. To investigate the seroprevalence of 9vHPV vaccine types and associated risk factors among men residing in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Six hundred men were randomly selected from the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study. Archived serum specimens collected at enrollment were tested for antibodies against nine HPV types (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58) using a glutathione S-transferase (GST) L1-based multiplex serologic assay. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and sexual behavior data at enrollment were collected through a questionnaire. Binomial proportions were used to estimate seroprevalence and logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with seropositivity of type-specific and grouped (i.e. 9vHPV, high-risk 9vHPV, low risk 9vHPV, and five-additional) HPV types. Overall, 28.3% of men were seropositive for at least one of the 9vHPV vaccine types, 14.0% for at least one of the seven high-risk types (16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58) and 11.2% for at least one of the five high-risk types (31, 33, 45, 52 and 58) not included in the quadrivalent HPV vaccine, and 17.4% for at least one of the low-risk types (6/11). In multivariate analyses, odds ratios adjusted (AOR) for country of residence, age, marital status, smoking, number of anal sex lifetime partners, compared to men with no anal sex lifetime partners, men with ≥2 partners were more likely to be seropositive for grouped HPV [(9vHPV: AOR 2.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40-4.54), (high-risk 9vHPV: AOR 2.18; 95%CI: 1.05-4.50) and (low-risk 9vHPV: AOR 2.12; 95%CI: 1.12-4.03)], and individual HPV types 6, 16, 33 and 58 with AORs ranging from 2.19 to 7
Full Text Available Purpose: To assess whether HPV 16 originally detected in adolescent women can be redetected in adulthood. Methods: A convenience sample of 27 adult women with known HPV 16 detection during adolescence was assessed for HPV 16 redetection. A comparison of the long control region (LCR DNA sequences was performed on some of the original and redetected HPV 16 isolates. Results: Median age at reenrollment was 27.5 years (interquartile range of 26.7–29.6. Reenrollment occurred six years on average after the original HPV 16 detection. Eleven of 27 women had HPV 16 redetected. Some of these HPV 16 infections had apparently cleared during adolescence. LCR sequencing was successful in paired isolates from 6 women; in 5 of 6 cases the redetected HPV 16 isolates were identical to those detected during adolescence, Conclusions: HPV 16 may be episodically detected in young women, even over long time periods. HPV 16 redetection with identical LCR sequences suggests low-level persistent infection rather than true clearance, although newly acquired infection with an identical HPV 16 isolate cannot be excluded. However, this study suggests that a new HPV 16-positive test in a clinical setting may not indicate a new infection. Keywords: Human papillomavirus (HPV, Redetection, Latency, Long control region, Sequencing
Muñoz, Nubia; Kjaer, Susanne K; Sigurdsson, Kristján
The impact of the prophylactic vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, and 18 (HPV6/11/16/18) on all HPV-associated genital disease was investigated in a population that approximates sexually naive women in that they were "negative to 14 HPV types" and in a mixed population of...
van Aar, Fleur; Mooij, Sofie H.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Stolte, Ineke G.; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; Verhagen, Dominique W. M.; King, Audrey J.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.
Anal and penile high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with anogenital cancer, which is especially common in HIV-infected MSM. We assessed HPV prevalence and determinants in MSM. Analysis of baseline data from a prospective cohort study. MSM aged 18 years or older were
F. Xavier Bosch
Full Text Available Cervical cancer has been recognized as a rare outcome of a common Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI. The etiologic association is restricted to a limited number of viral types of the family of the Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs. The association is causal in nature and under optimal testing systems, HPV DNA can be identified in all specimens of invasive cervical cancer. As a consequence, it has been claimed that HPV infection is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The evidence is consistent worldwide and implies both the Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC, the adenocarcinomas and the vast majority (i.e. > 95% of the immediate precursors, namely High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HSIL/Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3 (CIN3/Carcinoma in situ. Co-factors that modify the risk among HPV DNA positive women include the use of oral contraceptives (OC for five or more years, smoking, high parity (five or more full term pregnancies and previous exposure to other sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT and Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2. Women exposed to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV are at high risk for HPV infection, HPV DNA persistency and progression of HPV lesions to cervical cancer.
Szentirmay, Zoltán; Veleczki, Zsuzsa; Kásler, Miklós
Persistent infection of human papillomavirus is known to cause cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cancer in the cervix uteri and other HPV-associated cancers in different localization. Based on epidemiological and biological data, principally the high risk HPV is responsible for development of cervical these cancers. However, we have no information about the frequently distribution of different HPV types and what is the correlation between the HPV types and cytological diagnosis in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). In this paper, we are going to present new data involving incidence and mortality of HPV-associated cancers during the period of 2009-2015 in Hungary. We are also going to investigate the correlation of cervical cytological diagnosis and HPV typing, and the preventive effect of HPV vaccination. The epidemiological data spring from the National Cancer Registry. HPV typing was performed by Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test. Simultaneous cytological diagnosis and HPV typing was carried out on 2048 cytological samples collected in period of 2009-2016. According to the epidemiologic data, the most frequently occurring HPV-associated cancer is the laryngeal carcinoma in man, and the cervical cancer in woman in Hungary. During the 2009-2015 time intervals, the frequency distribution of head and neck cancers was not changed in man, but the incidence of tongue root squamous cell carcinomas was gradually increasing in woman. We have defined the clinical significance of single and simultaneously multiple HPV infection and have investigated the correlation of the HPV frequency distribution and cytological diagnosis in CIN. It was found that in the cytological negativity of probably/possibly carcinogen pHR-HPV group classified by IACR was much more frequent as in HR-HPV group (56% versus 47%). The presence of simultaneous multiplex HPV infection betokens an increased cancer risk. According to the international publications, the ratio of HPV16 just twice as
Full Text Available José Veríssimo Fernandes,1 Josélio Maria Galvão de Araújo,1 Thales Allyrio Araújo de Medeiros Fernandes21Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Infectious Diseases and Cancer, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil; 2Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Rio Grande do Norte State, Mossoró, BrazilAbstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the most common causes of sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. It has been proposed that the great majority of women and men have been infected with HPV at least once during their lifetime. HPV infection is associated with a variety of clinical conditions, ranging from benign lesions to cervical cancer. In most cases, the infection is transient, where most of the individuals are healing, eliminating the virus without the presence of any clinical manifestation. Actually, more than 120 HPV types have been cataloged, of which approximately 40 can infect the mucosa of the anogenital tract and are collectively known as mucosal HPV, which are classified based on their oncogenic potential as either low- or high-risk HPV types. The low-risk HPV type causes benign hyperproliferative lesions or genital warts, with a very limited tendency for malignant progression, while the high-risk HPV type is strongly associated with premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. The HPV cycle initiates when the virus gains access to undifferentiated cells of the basement membrane of the squamous columnar junction epithelium of the ectocervix, after these regions are exposed to mechanical or chemical trauma. The basal cells in the transformation zone retain the ability to differentiate, a property required for virion production. Cervical infection with high-risk HPV typically lasts from 12 to 18 months and in most cases is cleared spontaneously. However, in some women the immune response is insufficient to eliminate the virus, resulting in a persistent, long-term infection that may progress to a
Sadorra, Mark; LaMere, Brandon J.; Kail, Randi; Aldrich, Carrie; Kinney, Walter; Fetterman, Barbara; Lorey, Thomas; Schiffman, Mark; Castle, Philip E.
The cobas human papillomavirus (HPV) test (cobas) was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and identifies HPV16 and HPV18 separately as well as detecting a pool of 11 HR-HPV genotypes (HPV31, -33, -35, -39, -45, -51, -52, -56, -58, -59, -68) and also HPV66. We compared cobas, Linear Array (LA), and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) assays for detection of carcinogenic HPV DNA, and cobas and LA for detection of HPV16 and HPV18 DNA, among the first 1,852 women enrolled in the HPV Persistence and Progression Cohort (PaP Cohort) study. Specimens were tested by all 3 assays 1 year after an HC2-positive result. In 1,824 specimens with cobas results, cobas had an 85.9% agreement with HC2 and 91.0% agreement with LA for carcinogenic HPV detection. When results between cobas and HC2 disagreed, cobas tended to call more women HPV positive (P < 0.01). Categorizing cobas and LA results hierarchically according to cancer risk (HPV16, HPV18, other carcinogenic HPV genotypes, or carcinogen negative), there was a 90% agreement for all categories of HPV (n = 1,824). We found good agreement between the two U.S. FDA-approved HPV tests, with discrepancies between the two assays due to specific characteristics of the individual assays. Additional studies are needed to compare HC2 and cobas for detecting and predicting CIN3 to understand the clinical implications of the discrepant test results between the two tests. PMID:22075592
de Vuyst, Hugo; Tenet, Vanessa; Plummer, Martyn; Tully, Stephen; Franceschi, Silvia
Objectives: HIV infection is known to worsen the outcome of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and may do so differentially by HPV type. Design: Twenty-one studies were included in a meta-analysis of invasive cervical cancers (ICC) among women infected with HIV in Africa. Method: Type-specific HPV DNA prevalence was compared with data from a similar meta-analysis of HIV-negative ICC using prevalence ratios (PR). Results: HPV detection was similar in 770 HIV-positive (91.2%) and 3846 HIV-negative (89.6%) ICC, but HIV-positive ICC harbored significantly more multiple HPV infections (PR = 1.75, 95% confidence intervals: 1.18 to 2.58), which were significantly more prevalent in ICC tested from cells than from biopsies. HPV16 was the most frequently detected type in HIV-positive ICC (42.5%), followed by HPV18 (22.2%), HPV45 (14.4%), and HPV35 (7.1%). Nevertheless, HIV-positive ICC were significantly less frequently infected with HPV16 than HIV-negative ICC (PR = 0.88, 95% confidence intervals: 0.79 to 0.99). Other high-risk types were significantly more prevalent in HIV-positive ICC, but only for HPV18 was there a significantly higher prevalence of both single and multiple infections in HIV-positive ICC. Increases for other high-risk types were primarily accounted for by multiple infections. The proportion of HPV-positive ICC estimated attributable to HPV16/18 (71.8% in HIV positive, 73.4% in HIV negative) or HPV16/18/31/33/45/52/58 (88.8%, 89.5%) was not affected by HIV. Conclusions: HIV alters the relative carcinogenicity of HPV types, but prophylactic HPV16/18 vaccines may nevertheless prevent a similar proportion of ICC, irrespective of HIV infection. PMID:27331659
Gazzaz, Faten S; Mosli, Hisham A
To explore the possibility of finding human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the prostate tissue of a cohort of Saudi men presenting with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or prostate cancer. A cohort study on prospectively collected tissue samples was conducted at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from March 2007 to December 2008 on a total of 56 male patients, age range 50-93 years (average 68), diagnosed as having BPH or prostate cancer. The HPV DNA hybridization by hybrid capture 2 technology was performed on prostate biopsies of these patients to detect 18 types of HPV infection, and differentiate between 2 HPV DNA groups, the low-risk types, and the high/intermediate risk types.The tissues of all the prostatic biopsies were negative for HPV DNA. Our results, using the hybridization test, indicate that it is unlikely that HPV-16 or HPV-18, or the other tested subtypes, enhance the risk of prostate cancer. (author)
Whitehead, Mark; Öhlschläger, Peter; Almajhdi, Fahad N; Alloza, Leonor; Marzábal, Pablo; Meyers, Ann E; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the causative agents of cervical cancer in women, which results in over 250 000 deaths per year. Presently there are two prophylactic vaccines on the market, protecting against the two most common high-risk HPV types 16 and 18. These vaccines remain very expensive and are not generally affordable in developing countries where they are needed most. Additionally, there remains a need to treat women that are already infected with HPV, and who have high-grade lesions or cervical cancer. In this paper, we characterize the immunogenicity of a therapeutic vaccine that targets the E7 protein of the most prevalent high-risk HPV - type 16 – the gene which has previously been shown to be effective in DNA vaccine trials in mice. The synthetic shuffled HPV-16 E7 (16E7SH) has lost its transforming properties but retains all naturally-occurring CTL epitopes. This was genetically fused to Zera®, a self-assembly domain of the maize γ-zein able to induce the accumulation of recombinant proteins into protein bodies (PBs), within the endoplasmic reticulum in a number of expression systems. High-level expression of the HPV 16E7SH protein fused to Zera® in plants was achieved, and the protein bodies could be easily and cost-effectively purified. Immune responses comparable to the 16E7SH DNA vaccine were demonstrated in the murine model, with the protein vaccine successfully inducing a specific humoral as well as cell mediated immune response, and mediating tumour regression. The fusion of 16E7SH to the Zera® peptide was found to enhance the immune responses, presumably by means of a more efficient antigen presentation via the protein bodies. Interestingly, simply mixing the free PBs and 16E7SH also enhanced immune responses, indicating an adjuvant activity for the Zera® PBs
van der Weele, Pascal; Meijer, Chris J L M; King, Audrey J
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a strongly conserved DNA virus, high-risk types of which can cause cervical cancer in persistent infections. The most common type found in HPV-attributable cancer is HPV16, which can be subdivided into four lineages (A to D) with different carcinogenic properties. Studies have shown HPV16 sequence diversity in different geographical areas, but only limited information is available regarding HPV16 diversity within a population, especially at the whole-genome level. We analyzed HPV16 major variant diversity and conservation in persistent infections and performed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) comparison between persistent and clearing infections. Materials were obtained in the Netherlands from a cohort study with longitudinal follow-up for up to 3 years. Our analysis shows a remarkably large variant diversity in the population. Whole-genome sequences were obtained for 57 persistent and 59 clearing HPV16 infections, resulting in 109 unique variants. Interestingly, persistent infections were completely conserved through time. One reinfection event was identified where the initial and follow-up samples clustered differently. Non-A1/A2 variants seemed to clear preferentially ( P = 0.02). Our analysis shows that population-wide HPV16 sequence diversity is very large. In persistent infections, the HPV16 sequence was fully conserved. Sequencing can identify HPV16 reinfections, although occurrence is rare. SNP comparison identified no strongly acting effect of the viral genome affecting HPV16 infection clearance or persistence in up to 3 years of follow-up. These findings suggest the progression of an early HPV16 infection could be host related. IMPORTANCE Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) is the predominant type found in cervical cancer. Progression of initial infection to cervical cancer has been linked to sequence properties; however, knowledge of variants circulating in European populations, especially with longitudinal follow-up, is
Glick, Sara Nelson; Feng, Qinghua; Popov, Viorica; Koutsky, Laura A; Golden, Matthew R
There are few published estimates of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection rates among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). We estimated incidence and prevalence of type-specific anal HPV infection using clinician-collected anal swabs for HPV DNA testing obtained during a 1-year prospective study of 94 YMSM (mean age, 21 years) in Seattle. Seventy percent of YMSM had any HPV infection detected during the study, and HPV-16 and/or -18 were detected in 37%. The incidence rate for any new HPV infection was 38.5 per 1000 person-months and 15.3 per 1000 person-months for HPV-16/18; 19% had persistent HPV-16/18 infection. No participant tested positive for all 4 HPV types in the quadrivalent vaccine. The number of lifetime male receptive anal sex partners was significantly associated with HPV infection. The prevalence of HPV-16/18 was 6% among YMSM with a history of 1 receptive anal sex partner and 31% among YMSM with ≥ 2 partners. Although the high prevalence of HPV among YMSM highlights the desirability of vaccinating all boys as a strategy to avert the morbidity of HPV infection, most YMSM appear to remain naive to either HPV-16 or -18 well into their sexual lives and would benefit from HPV immunization.
Shalaka S. Hampras
Full Text Available The role of cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV infection in the development of subsequent cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is unknown. Pathologically confirmed cases of SCC (n=150 enrolled in a previously conducted case-control study were included in a retrospective cohort study to examine the association of cutaneous HPV at the time of SCC diagnosis with the risk of subsequent SCC development. Data on HPV seropositivity, HPV DNA in eyebrow hairs (EB and SCC tumors were available from the parent study. Incidence of subsequent SCC was estimated using person-years of follow up. Cox Proportional Hazards ratios were estimated to evaluate the associations of both, HPV seropositivity and HPV DNA positivity with subsequent SCC. The five year cumulative incidence of subsequent SCC was 72%. Seropositivity to cutaneous HPV was not associated with the risk of subsequent SCC (HR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.41–1.67. Any beta HPV infection in EB was associated with reduced risk (HR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.11–0.78 of subsequent SCC among cases who were positive for beta HPV DNA in tumor tissue. Infection with beta HPV type 2 (HR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.12–0.86 in EB was associated with reduced risk of subsequent SCC among HPV DNA positive SCCs. In conclusion, beta HPV infection was inversely associated with the risk of subsequent SCC.
Sam Soto, Selene; de la Peña y Carranza, Alejandro Ortiz; Plascencia, Josefina Lira
Infection with human papillomavirus has increased dramatically in recent years. The highest prevalence rates are among adolescents and young women, reflecting changes in sexual behavior associated with biological factors in adolescent development. Adolescents who begin sexual activity early are at greater risk of precursor lesions and cervical cancer. There are adolescents with special circumstances, where no early decision should be delayed cervical cytology and in whom it is important to initiate consultations and periodic reviews with a preventive approach. Cervical cancer can be avoided when the diagnosis and treatment of precursor lesions is early. Despite efforts at sex education based on "safe sex" with the correct use of condoms has not been able to reduce the incidence of infections with human papillomavirus in adolescents. While better than nothing, condom use is not 100% reliable. Studies show that consistent and correct use provides protection against the human papillomavirus only 70%. In Mexico, reported an overall ratio of actual use of condoms from 24.6%. It is clear that the physician who provides care for adolescents plays a fundamental role in sex education. The key to future prevention of cervical cancer and its precursor lesions could be the vaccination.
Eldridge, Ronald C; Pawlita, Michael; Wilson, Lauren; Castle, Philip E; Waterboer, Tim; Gravitt, Patti E; Schiffman, Mark; Wentzensen, Nicolas
Smoking is an established risk factor for a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection advancing to cervical precancer and cancer, but its role earlier in the natural history is less clear. Smoking is inversely associated with possessing HPV antibodies from a past infection suggesting that smoking may influence acquiring subsequent infections. In a cohort of 1976 U.S. women, we evaluate whether reduced antibodies to HPV-16 is a mechanism for smoking's role on acquiring a subsequent HPV-16 infection, through the analytic technique of causal mediation analysis. We posit a causal model and estimate two counterfactually defined effects: a smoking impaired antibody-mediated indirect effect and a nonmediated direct effect representing all other potential mechanisms of smoking. Compared to never smokers, current smokers had increased odds of HPV-16 infection by the antibody-mediated indirect effect (odds ratio [OR] = 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11, 1.73); the estimated direct effect was very imprecise (OR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.26-1.13). We observed a stronger estimated indirect effect among women who smoked at least half a pack of cigarettes daily (OR = 1.61, 95% CI, 1.27-2.15) than among women who smoked less than that threshold (OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 0.94-1.44). This is the first study to directly test the mechanism underlying smoking as an HPV cofactor. The results support current smoking as a risk factor earlier in the natural history of HPV and are consistent with the hypothesis that smoking increases the risk of a subsequent infection by reducing immunity. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Donadi Eduardo Antonio
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To evaluate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV types, and risk factors for HPV positivity across cervix, vagina and anus, we conducted a study among 138 women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Goal Compare the prevalence of different HPV types and the risk factors for HPV positivity in three sites. Results The most frequently detected HPV types in all sites were, in decreasing order, HPV16, 53, 18, 61 and 81. Agreement between the cervix and vagina was good (kappa 0.60 – 0.80 for HPV16 and 53 and excellent (Kappa > 0.80 for HPV18 and 61. HPV positivity was inversely associated with age for all combinations including the anal site. Conclusion In HIV positive women, HPV18 is the most spread HPV type found in combinations of anal and genital sites. The relationship of anal to genital infection has implications for the development of anal malignancies. Thus, the efficacy of the current HPV vaccine may be considered not only for the cervix, but also for prevention of HPV18 anal infection among immunossuppressed individuals.
Schäfer, Georgia; Kabanda, Siti; Rooyen, Beverly van; Marušič, Martina Bergant; Banks, Lawrence; Parker, M Iqbal
Several human cancers are known to be associated with inflammation and/or viral infections. However, the influence of tumour-related inflammation on viral uptake is largely unknown. In this study we used oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) as a model system since this type of cancer is associated with chronic irritation, inflammation and viral infections. Although still debated, the most important viral infection seems to be with Human Papillomavirus (HPV). The present study focused on a possible correlation between inflammation, OSCC development and the influence of HPV infection. A total of 114 OSCC biopsies and corresponding normal tissue were collected at Groote Schuur Hospital and Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa), that were subjected to RNA and DNA isolation. RNA samples were analysed by quantitative Light Cycler RT-PCR for the expression of selected genes involved in inflammation and infection, while conventional PCR was performed on the DNA samples to assess the presence of integrated viral DNA. Further, an in vitro infection assay using HPV pseudovirions was established to study the influence of inflammation on viral infectivity using selected cell lines. HPV DNA was found in about 9% of OSCC patients, comprising predominantly the oncogenic type HPV18. The inflammatory markers IL6 and IL8 as well as the potential HPV receptor ITGA6 were significantly elevated while IL12A was downregulated in the tumour tissues. However, none of these genes were expressed in a virus-dependent manner. When inflammation was mimicked with various inflammatory stimulants such as benzo-α-pyrene, lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan in oesophageal epithelial cell lines in vitro, HPV18 pseudovirion uptake was enhanced only in the benzo-α-pyrene treated cells. Interestingly, HPV pseudovirion infectivity was independent of the presence of the ITGA6 receptor on the surface of the tested cells. This study showed that although the carcinogen benzo
Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is the most common newly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Although the majority of sexually active adults will be infected with HPV at least once in their lives, it is sexually active women less than 25 years of age who consistently have the highest rates of infection. Besides youth and gender, common risk factors for HPV infection and clinical sequelae of infection include high number of sexual partners and coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis or herpes simplex virus. Most HPV infections are cleared by the immune system and do not result in clinical complications. Clinical sequelae in cases of low-risk HPV infection consist of genital warts, and clinical manifestations of high-risk HPV infection include abnormal Pap test results, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL, and cervical cancer. LSIL, HSIL, and cervical cancer carry significant morbidity and/or mortality; genital warts and abnormal Pap test results are often significant sources of psychosocial distress. Currently, there are neither effective means of preventing HPV transmission nor cures for clinical manifestations: infection can only be prevented via complete sexual abstinence, while treatment for clinical sequelae such as genital warts and cytologic abnormalities consists of removing the problematic cells and watching for recurrence; this method consumes significant health care resources and is costly. New prophylactic HPV vaccines promise to dramatically reduce the incidence of HPV infection, genital warts, and cytologic abnormalities.
Lehr, Elizabeth; Brown, Darron R.
Infection of the genital tract with human papillomaviruses (HPVs) leads to proliferative and dysplastic epithelial lesions. The mechanisms used by the virus to escape the infected keratinocyte are not well understood. Infection of keratinocytes with HPV does not cause lysis, the mechanism used by many viruses to release newly formed virions. For HPV 11, a type associated with a low risk of neoplastic disease, the cornified cell envelope (CCE) of infected keratinocytes is thin and fragile, and transcription of loricrin, the major CCE protein, is reduced. The effects of high-risk HPV infection on components of the CCE have not been previously reported. HPV 59, an oncogenic genital type related to HPV types 18 and 45 was identified in a condylomata acuminata lesion. An extract of this lesion was used to infect human foreskin fragments, which were grown in athymic mice as xenografts. Continued propagation using extracts of xenografts permitted growth of additional HPV 59-infected xenografts. CCEs purified from HPV 59-infected xenografts displayed subtle morphologic abnormalities compared to those derived from uninfected xenografts. HPV 59-infected xenografts revealed dysplastic-appearing cells with mitotic figures. Detection of loricrin, involucrin, and cytokeratin 10 was reduced in HPV 59-infected epithelium, while small proline-rich protein 3 (SPR3) was increased. Reduction in loricrin was most apparent in regions of epithelium containing abundant HPV 59 DNA. Compared to uninfected epithelium, loricrin transcription was decreased in HPV 59-infected epithelium. We conclude that HPV 59 shares with HPV 11 the ability to alter CCE components and to specifically reduce transcription of the loricrin gene. Because loricrin is the major CCE protein, a reduction in this component could alter the physical properties of the CCE, thus facilitating virion release
Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Doorbar, John; Kawaguchi, Shohei; Kobori, Yoshitomo; Nakashima, Takao; Shimamura, Masayoshi; Maeda, Yuji; Miyagi, Tohru; Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Kadono, Yoshifumi; Konaka, Hiroyuki; Mizokami, Atsushi; Koh, Eitetsu; Namiki, Mikio
The status of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in urothelial inverted papilloma was examined in the present study. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues from eight cases of inverted papilloma of the bladder were studied. The presence of HPV-DNA was examined by modified GP5/6+PCR using archival tissue sections by microdissection. HPV genotype was determined with a Hybri-Max HPV genotyping kit. Immunohistochemical analysis for p16-INK4a, mcm7, HPV-E4, and L1, and in situ hybridization for the HPV genome were performed. HPV was detected in seven of eight cases (87.5%) of inverted papilloma. Three cases were diagnosed as inverted papilloma with atypia, while the remaining five were typical cases. HPV-18 was detected in two cases, including one inverted papilloma with atypia, and HPV-16 was detected in four cases, including one inverted papilloma with atypia. Multiple HPV type infection was detected in one typical case and one atypical case. High-risk HPV was present in all HPV-positive cases. Cellular proteins, p16-INK4a and mcm7, which are surrogate markers for HPV-E7 expression, were detected in all HPV-positive cases, and their levels were higher in inverted papilloma with atypia than in typical cases. In contrast, HPV-E4 and L1, which are markers for HPV propagation, were observed in some parts of the typical inverted papilloma tissue. High-risk HPV infection may be one of the causes of urothelial inverted papilloma, and inverted papilloma with atypia may have malignant potential. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
van Santen, D.K.
The research described in this thesis aimed to increase our understanding of the incidence, disease progression and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and co-infections in key populations. Chapter 1 contains an overview
Depuydt, C E; Beert, J; Bosmans, E; Salembier, G
In the natural history of HPV infections, the HPV virions can induce two different pathways, namely the infec- tious virion producing pathway and the clonal transforming pathway. An overview is given of the burden that is associated with HPV infections that can both lead to cervical cancer and/or temporal subfertility. That HPV infections cause serious global health burden due to HPV-associated cancers is common knowledge, but that it is also responsible for a substantial part of idiopathic subfertility is greatly underestimated. The bulk of the detected HPV DNA whether in men or women is however infectious from origin. Because the dissociation between HPV viruses and HPV virions or infection and disease remains difficult for clinicians as well as for HPV detection, we propose a review of the different effects caused by the two different HPV virion induced pathways, and highlight the mechanisms that are responsible for causing transient subfertility and cancer.
Vu, Lan Thi Hoang
The two currently licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are highly efficacious in preventing cervical pre-cancers related to HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18. Before implementing a large-scale HPV vaccine campaign in Viet Nam, information about the prevalence of infection with the HPV vaccine types is required. This study was done in Can Tho, the province with the highest prevalence of cervical cancer in the south of Viet Nam, to explore the distribution of other high-risk types of HPV among married women in this province. The study employed a cross-sectional design with multistage sampling. A total of 1000 participants were randomly selected, interviewed and given gynaecological examinations. HPV infection status and HPV genotyping test were completed for all participants. A broad spectrum of HPV types was reported in this study. The prevalence of cases infected with HPV 16 and/or 18 was 7%; the prevalence of cases infected with other high-risk HPV types was 6%. The highest prevalence for single and multiple infections, as well as for high-risk infections, was reported for the youngest age group (less than 30 years). While it is relevant to implement an HPV vaccine campaign in Viet Nam due to the high prevalence of infection with HPV 16 and/or 18, it is important to note that one can be infected with multiple types of HPV. Vaccination does not protect against all types of high-risk HPV. Future vaccine campaigns should openly disclose this information to women receiving vaccines.
Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Ma, Yifei; Jonte, Janet; Miller-Benningfield, Susanna; Hanson, Evelyn; Jay, Julie; Godwin de Medina, Cheryl; Farhat, Sepideh; Clayton, Lisa; Shiboski, Stephen
Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are common in young women, the rate of and risk for repeated new infections are not well documented. We examined the rate of and risks for new HPV detection in young women. We used data from an ongoing study of HPV, initiated in 1990. Sexually active women ages 12 to 22 years were eligible. Interviews on behaviors and HPV testing were done at 4-month intervals; sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing was annual or if symptomatic. Starting with first HPV detection, time to the next (second) visit (event) with detection of new HPV types, and then the second event to time to third event was calculated. Risks were determined using Cox proportional hazard model. Sixty-nine percent of 1,125 women had a second event, and of those with a second event, 63% had a third event by 3 years, respectively. Women with HPV persistence from initial visit to second event [hazard ratio (HR) = 4.51 (3.78-5.37)], an STI [HR = 1.47 (1.00-2.17)], bacterial vaginosis [HR = 1.60 (1.07-2.39)], and number of new sex partners [HR = 1.10 (1.05-1.15 per partner/mo)] were independent associations for HPV. Risks for third event were similar. This study documents the repeated nature of HPV infections in young women and their association with sexual risk behaviors. This finding underscores the lack of clinical utility of HPV testing in young women. Further studies are needed to examine host factors that lead to HPV acquisition and persistence. (c)2010 AACR.
Full Text Available There has been no population-based study on human papillomavirus (HPV prevalence or its genotypes in Bangladesh; a country eligible for GAVI funding for HPV vaccine.We used baseline survey data of a prospective cohort study that was conducted in one urban and one rural area of Bangladesh. A total of 997 urban and 905 rural married women, aged 13 to 64 years, were enrolled in the baseline during July-December, 2011. Information was collected on socio-demographic characteristics and potential risk factors for HPV infection followed by gynecological examination and collection of endocervical samples using the cervical cytobrush (Digene cervical sampler. HPV DNA testing was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR using a consensus primer set.Prevalence of any HPV infection was 7.7% with no significant difference between urban and rural women. Most common high-risk genotypes were HPV16, HPV66, HPV18, HPV45, HPV31 and HPV53. Urban women working as housemaids or garment workers were at higher risk of any HPV infection (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.13-4.11 compared to housewives. Rural women whose husband lived overseas were almost two times more likely to have any HPV infection (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.05-3.55 compared to women whose husbands lived with them.The prevalence of HPV infection among Bangladeshi women is similar to other regions of Asia. However, type-specific patterns are different. The study findings will inform the formulation of HPV vaccination policies in Bangladesh, monitoring the impact of vaccination programmes, and the identification of target populations for screening.
Full Text Available High prevalence and mortality rates of cervical cancer create an imperative need to clarify the uniqueness of HPV (Human Papillomavirus infection, which serves as the key causative factor in cervical malignancies. Understanding the immunological details and the microenvironment of the infection can be a useful tool for the development of novel therapeutic interventions. Chronic infection and progression to carcinogenesis are sustained by immortalization potential of HPV, evasion techniques, and alterations in the microenvironment of the lesion. Inside the lesion, Toll-like receptors expression becomes irregular; Langerhans cells fail to present the antigens efficiently, tumor-associated macrophages aggregate resulting in an unsuccessful immune response by the host. HPV products also downregulate the expression of microenvironment components which are necessary for natural-killer cells response and antigen presentation to cytotoxic cells. Additionally HPV promotes T-helper cell 2 (Th2 and T-regulatory cell phenotypes and reduces Th1 phenotype, leading to suppression of cellular immunity and lesion progression to cancer. Humoral response after natural infection is inefficient, and neutralizing antibodies are not adequate in many women. Utilizing this knowledge, new endeavors, such as therapeutic vaccination, aim to stimulate cellular immune response against the virus and alter the milieu of the lesion.
Carlson, John Andrew; Rady, Peter; Kadam, Pooja; He, Qin; Simonette, Rebecca; Tyring, Stephen
Elephantiasis is considered a cutaneous region of immune deficiency with cobblestone-like surface caused by a wart-like eruption. Verrucosis is a diffuse human papillomavirus (HPV) infection linked to immunodeficiency disorders. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of HPV infection in lymphedema and its pathogenic role in elephantiasis. A retrospective case-control study was performed examining lymphedematous skin and controls of peritumoral normal skin. HPV infection was evaluated at the DNA, protein, and histopathologic levels by polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and light microscopy, respectively. Overall, 540 HPV DNAs were detected in 120 of 122 cutaneous samples (median 4 HPV DNAs per sample, range 0-9). Compared with controls, no differences existed in type or number of HPVs identified. Instead, a diverse spectrum of HPV-related histopathologies were evident, likely reflecting the multiplicity of HPV genotypes detected. Most notably, increasing histopathologic lymphedema stage significantly correlated with markers of productive HPV infection such as altered keratohyaline granules and HPV L1 capsid expression. Limitations of this study are the absence of normal skin controls not associated with neoplasia or subclinical lymphedema, and lack of assessment of HPV copy number per keratinocyte infected. In conclusion, productive HPV infection, not HPV type or numbers detected, distinguished lymphedematous skin from controls. These findings support the theory that lymphedema creates a region of depressed immunity that permits productive HPV infection, manifested clinically by diffuse papillomatosis, characteristic of elephantiasis.
Munoz, Marina; Camargo, Milena; Soto-De Leon, Sara C.; Sanchez, Ricardo; Parra, Diana; Pineda, Andrea C.; Sussmann, Otto; Perez-Prados, Antonio; Patarroyo, Manuel E.; Patarroyo, Manuel A.
Infection, coinfection and type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) distribution was evaluated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women from paired cervical and urine samples. Paired cervical and urine samples (n = 204) were taken from HIV-positive women for identifying HPV-DNA presence by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with three generic primer sets (GP5+/6+, MY09/11 and pU1M/2R). HPV-positive samples were typed for six high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45 and -58) and two low-risk (LR-HPV) (HPV-6/11) types. Agreement between paired sample results and diagnostic performance was evaluated. HPV infection prevalence was 70.6% in cervical and 63.2% in urine samples. HPV-16 was the most prevalent HPV type in both types of sample (66.7% in cervical samples and 62.0% in urine) followed by HPV-31(47.2%) in cervical samples and HPV-58 (35.7%) in urine samples. There was 55.4% coinfection (infection by more than one type of HPV) in cervical samples and 40.2% in urine samples. Abnormal Papanicolau smears were observed in 25.3% of the women, presenting significant association with HPV-DNA being identified in urine samples. There was poor agreement of cervical and urine sample results in generic and type-specific detection of HPV. Urine samples provided the best diagnosis when taking cytological findings as reference. In conclusion including urine samples could be a good strategy for ensuring adherence to screening programs aimed at reducing the impact of cervical cancer, since this sample is easy to obtain and showed good diagnostic performance. PMID:23418581
Lee, Peter W H; Kwan, Tracy T C; Tam, Kar Fai; Chan, Karen K L; Young, Phyllis M C; Lo, Sue S T; Cheung, Annie N Y; Ngan, Hextan Y S
To assess the knowledge and beliefs on cervical cancer and HPV infection and to evaluate the acceptability of HPV vaccination among Chinese women. Seven focus groups were conducted with ethnic Chinese women aged 18-25 (n=20), 26-35 (n=13), and 36 and above (n=16) in a community women's health clinic in Hong Kong in 2006. The discussions were audio taped, transcribed and analyzed. Recurrent themes related to cervical cancer, HPV infection and vaccination were highlighted. Diverse conceptions on likely causes of cervical cancer were noted, covering biological, psychological, environmental, lifestyle and sexual factors. Most women had not heard of HPV and its mode of transmission. The participants had difficulties understanding and accepting the linkage between cervical cancer and the sexually transmitted HPV infection. HPV infection was seen as personally stigmatizing with significant adverse impact on self-esteem and significant relationships. Participants favored HPV vaccination both for themselves and their teenage daughters if authoritative endorsement was provided. Inadequate knowledge and misconceptions on cervical cancer and HPV were common. Most participants welcomed and favored having HPV vaccination. Apart from promoting HPV vaccination, cervical cancer prevention should also include strategies to promote knowledge and minimize the stigmatizing effect of a sexually transmitted HPV infection.
Rosen, Brian J; Walter, Leora; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrerra, Lilia; Gravitt, Patti E; Marks, Morgan A
The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) associated head and neck cancers (HNCs) have been increasing in Peru. However, the burden of oral HPV infection in Peru has not been assessed. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of oral HPV infection in a population-based sample from males and females from Lima, Peru. Between January 2010 and June 2011, a population-based sample of 1099 individuals between the ages of 10 and 85 from a low-income neighbourhood in Lima, Peru was identified through random household sampling. Information on demographic, sexual behaviours, reproductive factors and oral hygiene were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Oral rinse specimens were collected from each participant, and these specimens were genotyped using the Roche Linear Array assay. ORs were used to assess differences in the prevalence of any oral HPV and any high-risk oral HPV infection by demographic factors, sexual practices and oral hygiene among individuals 15+ years of age. The prevalence of any HPV and any high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) was 6.8% and 2.0%, respectively. The three most common types were HPV 55 (3.4%), HPV 6 (1.5%) and HPV 16 (1.1%). Male sex (aOR, 2.21; 95% CI 1.22 to 4.03) was associated with any HPV infection after adjustment. The prevalence of oral HPV in this study was similar to estimates observed in the USA. Higher prevalence of oral infections in males was consistent with a male predominance of HPV-associated HNCs and may signal a sex-specific aetiology in the natural history of infection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Zhao, Ren-Wu; Guo, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Ru-Xin
A growing number of molecular epidemiological studies have been conducted to evaluate the association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the malignancy of sinonasal inverted papilloma (SNIP). However, the results remain inconclusive. Here, a meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively assess this association. Case-control studies investigating SNIP tissues for presence of HPV DNA were identified. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by the Mantel-Haenszel method. An assessment of publication bias and sensitivity analysis were also performed. We calculated a pooled OR of 2.16 (95% CI=1.46-3.21, P<0.001) without statistically significant heterogeneity or publication bias. Stratification by HPV type showed a stronger association for patients with high-risk HPV (hrHPV) types, HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-16/18 infection (OR=8.8 [95% CI: 4.73-16.38], 8.04 [95% CI: 3.34-19.39], 18.57 [95% CI: 4.56-75.70], and 26.24 [4.35-158.47], respectively). When only using PCR studies, pooled ORs for patients with hrHPV, HPV-16, and HPV18 infection still reached statistical significance. However, Egger's test reflected significant publication bias in the HPV-16 sub-analysis (P=0.06), and the adjusted OR was no longer statistically significant (OR=1.65, 95%CI: 0.58-4.63). These results suggest that HPV infection, especially hrHPV (HPV-18), is significantly associated with malignant SNIP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available There is considerable data to support a central role for human papillomavirus (HPV in the etiology of cervical cancer. More than a 100 HPV types have been described, and 40 have been isolated from benign and malignant genital lesions. Consequently, there is strong motivation to evaluate HPV testing for cervical cancer screening. Few studies concerning the natural history of HPV infection have been conducted in the state of Rio de Janeiro. We determined the prevalence of HPV types in female genital lesions by using Hybrid Capture Assay (HCA and we retrospectively analyzed the course of HPV infection. Our sample included 788 women attended at Laboratórios Sérgio Franco. The average age of the participants was 29.6 years. HPV prevalence and cytological diagnosis were determined. The overall prevalence of HPV DNA in the study group was 50.1% (395/788, ranging from 25% (NORMAL to 100% in high-grade intraepithelial lesions (HSIL. High risk HPV was found in 12% inflammatory, 58.3% HPV, 63.2% LSIL and 100% HSIL. A retrospective analysis of 78 patients showed that 22 presented persistent lesions, 2 had progressive lesions, 4 had regressive lesions, 13 showed latent infections, 18 were transiently infected and 19 were submitted to curative treatment. No cases of cancer were registered in this population, which can afford private medical care and regular follow-up exams. We suggest that HCA be used in specific cases involving persistent and recurrent lesions.
João Cesar Frizzo Burlamaqui
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection is the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease worldwide. One of the barriers to the implementation of prevention programs against the disease is the limited knowledge possessed by most populations regarding the virus and its possible consequences. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of Brazilian college students on transmission, clinical manifestations, and diseases correlated with HPV, highlighting the poor knowledge of a very common infection. Methods: A total of 194 students answered a questionnaire about transmission, clinical features and the possible consequences of persistent HPV infection. The questionnaire was self-applied under the supervision of the authors. Results: The clinical manifestations of HPV infection were not clear to most students. Incorrect assumptions of the clinical manifestations of HPV infection included: bleeding (25%, pain (37% and rashes (22%. Twelve per cent of respondents did not recognize warts as an HPV-related disease. Regarding potential consequences of persistent infection, students did not recognize a relationship between HPV and laryngeal carcinoma (80.9%, pharyngeal carcinoma (78.9%, anal carcinoma (73.2%, vulvar carcinoma (65.4% and vaginal carcinoma (54.6%. Large portions of the population evaluated were unaware of modes of HPV transmission beyond genital contact. Conclusion: Knowledge of HPV by the population evaluated in this study is partial and fragmented. Lack of knowledge may contribute to the further spread of the disease. Public health policies for education and guidance of the population should be implemented in Brazil.
Hernandez, Alexandra L; Karthik, Rajiv; Sivasubramanian, Murugesan; Raghavendran, Anantharam; Gnanamony, Manu; Lensing, Shelly; Lee, Jeannette Y; Kannangai, Rajesh; Abraham, Priya; Mathai, Dilip; Palefsky, Joel M
India has a large population of HIV-positive individuals, including men who have sex with men (MSM), and the incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers is high. In developed countries, HIV-positive MSM exhibit the highest prevalence of anal HPV infection and incidence of anal cancer. Little is known about anal HPV infection in HIV-positive Indian MSM. We evaluated 300 HIV-positive MSM from 2 cities in India. Men were tested for anal HPV infection using L1-HPV DNA polymerase chain reaction with probes specific for 29 types and a mixture of 10 additional types. CD4 level and plasma HIV viral load were measured. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire including a sexual history. The prevalence of anal HPV was 95% (95% confidence interval: 91% to 97%). The 3 most common types were HPV 35 (20%), HPV 16 (13%), and HPV 6/11 (13%). History of taking antiretroviral medications decreased risk of anal HPV 16 infection [relative risk (RR): 0.6 (0.4-1.0)]. Having an increased number of vaginal sex partners lowered risk of any anal HPV infection. Ever having receptive sex increased risk of any anal HPV [RR: 1.2 (1.1-1.4)] and anal HPV 16 [RR: 6.5 (1.8-107)]. Almost all Indian HIV-positive MSM had anal HPV infection. The prevalence of HPV 16 was lower and the prevalence of other oncogenic HPV types was higher than in similar populations in North America and Europe. Vaccine-based prevention strategies for HPV infection in India should consider potential differences in HPV type distribution among HIV-infected MSM when designing interventions.
Full Text Available We analyzed the immunohistochemical pattern of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR in cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs in correlation with L1 HPV capsid protein, in order to determine the relationship between EGFR expression and the infection status of human papillomavirus (HPV. The study included 40 cases, 24 LSIL (low grade SIL (CIN1, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 16 HSIL (high grade SIL (6 cases of CIN2 and 10 cases of CIN3. The immunoexpression of L1 HPV protein was assessed on conventional cervico-vaginal smears and EGFR was immunohistochemically evaluated on the corresponding cervical biopsies. The HPV L1 capsid protein was expressed in 45.83% of LSIL and 25% of HSIL. EGFR was overexpressed in 62,4% of HSIL (58,4% CIN2 and 41,6% CIN3 and 37,6% LSIL. The immunoexpression of L1 HPV has clinical application in the progression assessment of the cervical precancerous lesions without a correlation to the grade of the cervical SIL. EGFR is expressed by all proliferating squamous epithelial cells, thus corresponding with the grade of SIL. The evaluation of EGFR status, correlated with L1 HPV protein expression, can provide useful data of progression risk of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions
Full Text Available Introduction: Essential precondition for the development of cervical cancer is a persistent human papillomavirus (HPV infection. The majority - approximately 70% - of cervical carcinomas is caused by two high-risk HPV types (16 and 18. Recently, two vaccines have been approved to the German market with the potential to induce protection against HPV 16 and HPV 18 among additional low-risk virus types. Objectives: To analyse whether HPV vaccination is effective with regard to the reduction of cervical cancer and precursors of cervical carcinoma (CIN, respectively? Does HPV vaccination represent a cost-effective alternative or supplement to present screening practice? Are there any differences concerning cost-effectiveness between the two available vaccines? Should HPV vaccination be recommended from a health economic point of view? If so, which recommendations can be conveyed with respect to a (reorganization of the German vaccination strategy? Which ethical, social and legal implications have to be considered? Methods: Based on a systematic literature review, randomized controlled trials (RCT looking at the effectiveness of HPV vaccination for the prevention of cervical carcinoma and its precursors - cervical intraepithelial neoplasia - have been identified. In addition, health economic models were identified to address the health economic research questions. Quality assessment of medical and economic literature was assured by application of general assessment standards for the systematic and critical appraisal of scientific studies. Results: Vaccine efficacy in prevention of CIN 2 or higher lesions in HPV 16 or HPV 18 negative women, who received all vaccination doses, ranges between 98% and 100%. Side effects of the vaccination are mainly associated with injection site reactions (redness, turgor, pain. No significant differences concerning serious complications between the vaccination- and the placebo-groups were reported. Results of base case
Romero-Morelos, Pablo; Bandala, Cindy; Jiménez-Tenorio, Julián; Valdespino-Zavala, Mariana; Rodríguez-Esquivel, Miriam; Gama-Ríos, Reyna Anaid; Bandera, Artfy; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Mónica; Taniguchi, Keiko; Marrero-Rodríguez, Daniel; López-Romero, Ricardo; Ramón-Gallegos, Eva; Salcedo, Mauricio
Cervical cancer is an important health problem in our country. It is known that there are several risk factors for this neoplasm, and it has been suggested that cervical microbiome alterations could play a role in the development and progress of cancer. Bacterial vaginosis associated bacteria such as Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis has been suggested as potential risk factor for cervical lesions and cervical cancer. DNA from 177 cervical scraping samples was studied: 104 belonged to women without cytological or colposcopic alterations and 73 samples from precursor lesions with previous human papillomavirus (HPV) infection history. All samples were screened for Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis and HPV by PCR. High HPV prevalence was found in precursor samples, and 30% of samples without lesions were positive for HPV. Virtually all samples contained sequences of both bacteria, and interestingly, there was not HPV association observed; these results could suggest that these microorganisms could be part of the cervical microbiome in Mexican population. The results obtained indicate that the bacteria analysed could be part of normal biome in Mexican women, suggesting a potential reconsideration of the pathogen role of these microorganisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Chu, Tang-Yuan; Chang, Ying-Cheng; Ding, Dah-Ching
Cervicovaginal secretions (CVSs) are reported to protect against human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Although vaginal douching is known to clear both viral inoculants and CVSs, its effect on CVSs in women with HPV infection is unknown. The in vitro HPV pseudovirus infection system was used to test the protective activity of CVSs against HPV infection in samples collected before and after vaginal douching. To simulate different time points of vaginal douching in relation to viral exposure, the cell CVS reconstitute was washed after different viral exposure durations. In the CVSs of premenopausal and postmenopausal women who did not perform douching, the CVSs inhibited HPV infection by 56.7 ± 1.8% and 53.6 ± 2.5%, respectively; in women who had performed douching, the CVSs inhibited HPV infection by only 31.2 ± 7.1%, which was significantly lower (p infection existed for up to 8 hours after HPV exposure, and cell washing increased the clearance to up to 82-93% of the infectious load. This study confirms the protective activity of CVSs against HPV infection regardless of age. In this in vitro study, the net effect of douching was found to be beneficial. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Betiol, J.; Villa, L.L.; Sichero, L.
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is considered to be a distinct clinical entity with better prognosis than the classical tobacco- and alcohol-associated tumors. The increasing incidence of this neoplasia during the last decades highlights the need to better understand the role of HPV in the development of these cancers. Although the proportion of HNSCC attributed to HPV varies considerably according to anatomical site, overall approximately 25% of all HNSCC are HPV-DNA positive, and HPV-16 is by far the most prevalent type. In this review we discuss the existing evidence for a causal association between HPV infection and HNSCC at diverse anatomical head and neck subsites. PMID:23532264
Crosignani, Piergiorgio; De Stefani, Antonella; Fara, Gaetano Maria; Isidori, Andrea M; Lenzi, Andrea; Liverani, Carlo Antonio; Lombardi, Alberto; Mennini, Francesco Saverio; Palu?, Giorgio; Pecorelli, Sergio; Peracino, Andrea P; Signorelli, Carlo; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo
Background The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is generally recognized to be the direct cause of cervical cancer. The development of effective anti-HPV vaccines, included in the portfolio of recommended vaccinations for any given community, led to the consolidation in many countries of immunization programs to prevent HPV-related cervical cancers. In recent years, increasing evidence in epidemiology and molecular biology have supported the oncogenic role of HPV in the development of other neoplasm...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the recent years, dramatic increases in HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM have been observed in China. Human papillomavirus (HPV infection related anal cancer is more common among HIV-infected MSM as compared to the general population. However, HPV infection and anal cytology has been rarely studied in HIV-infected MSM in China. METHODS: HIV-infected MSM in Beijing, China were invited to participate in this study between January and April 2011. Anal swabs were collected for examining cytology and HPV genotypes. RESULTS: Ninety-five eligible participants with complete questionnaire and laboratory data were included in the analyses. Thirty six of them (37.9% showed abnormal anal cytology as follows: atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US in 19 (20.0%, atypical squamous cells but cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H in 1 (1.1%, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL in 15 (15.8%, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL in 1 (1.1%. HPV6 (20.0%, HPV16 (10.9%, HPV56 (10.9%, HPV52 (9.1% and HPV39 (9.1% were observed most frequently among those with normal anal cytology, while different distribution was found in the ones with abnormal anal cytology as HPV6 (19.4%, HPV16 (19.4%, HPV45 (16.7%, HPV52 (16.7% and HPV18 (11.1%. In addition, HPV16, HPV45, HPV52 and HPV18 were the most frequent high-risk types in patients with abnormal anal cytology. HPV multiplicity was found to be significantly related to the prevalence of abnormal anal cytology (p for trend = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: High prevalence of HPV infection and abnormal anal cytology was observed among HIV-infected MSM in China. Infection of multiple HPV types or high-risk types was found to be associated with an increased risk of abnormal anal cytology.
Zhang, Zhihui; Qian, Han-Zhu; Ruan, Yuhua; Zhou, Feng; Gao, Cong; Li, Mufei; Jin, Qi; Gao, Lei
Background In the recent years, dramatic increases in HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been observed in China. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection related anal cancer is more common among HIV-infected MSM as compared to the general population. However, HPV infection and anal cytology has been rarely studied in HIV-infected MSM in China. Methods HIV-infected MSM in Beijing, China were invited to participate in this study between January and April 2011. Anal swabs were collected for examining cytology and HPV genotypes. Results Ninety-five eligible participants with complete questionnaire and laboratory data were included in the analyses. Thirty six of them (37.9%) showed abnormal anal cytology as follows: atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) in 19 (20.0%), atypical squamous cells but cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H) in 1 (1.1%), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) in 15 (15.8%), and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) in 1 (1.1%). HPV6 (20.0%), HPV16 (10.9%), HPV56 (10.9%), HPV52 (9.1%) and HPV39 (9.1%) were observed most frequently among those with normal anal cytology, while different distribution was found in the ones with abnormal anal cytology as HPV6 (19.4%), HPV16 (19.4%), HPV45 (16.7%), HPV52 (16.7%) and HPV18 (11.1%). In addition, HPV16, HPV45, HPV52 and HPV18 were the most frequent high-risk types in patients with abnormal anal cytology. HPV multiplicity was found to be significantly related to the prevalence of abnormal anal cytology (p for trend = 0.04). Conclusions High prevalence of HPV infection and abnormal anal cytology was observed among HIV-infected MSM in China. Infection of multiple HPV types or high-risk types was found to be associated with an increased risk of abnormal anal cytology. PMID:22558293
Stefan Miladinov Kovachev
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the correlation between cases of human papillomavirus (HPV+/− infection of the uterine cervix revealed through HPV typing and cytological results from Papanicolaou (Pap-stained cervical smears. Cervical smears of 421 Bulgarian women attending routine gynaecological examinations during the three-year study period were stained by the Pap technique and classified by the Bethesda system. GenoFlow HPV Array Test Kit was used to analyse the HPV status in the collected cervical samples. The results showed that, of the 421 women, 177 (42% were HPV(+ and 244 (58% were HPV(−; 334 (79.3% Pap smears were with normal morphology and 87 (20.7% had high/low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL/HSIL changes. Of the 87 women with LSIL/HSIL changes, 54% (47/87 were HPV(− and 46% (40/87 were HPV(+. There was no statistically significant correlation between the HPV(+ status and the cytological LSIL/HSIL findings (P > 0.05. Koilocytes were found in 30.4% (128/421 of the samples. Of the 128 women with koilocytosis, 59.4% (76/128 were HPV(− and 40.6% (52/128 were HPV(+. There was no significant correlation (P > 0.05 between the presence of koilocytes in cervical smears and HPV infection. Our results suggest that HPV infection is frequent even in women with negative Pap-smear results, and polymerase chain reaction seems to be the only reliable test to diagnose this infection. However, the results from this study cannot be considered to fully support the replacement of cytology and colposcopy examination in cervical cancer screening with HPV genotyping tests only.
Full Text Available Introduction : Genital human papillomavirus (HPV infections are essentials factors in the development of cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus vaccines can contribute to reducing the high incidence of this disease, provided that this form of prophylaxis is commonly accepted. Participation in vaccinations is restricted by the belief that their implementation and consequent feeling of safety will reduce women’s participation in other forms of cervical carcinoma prophylaxis and will encourage them to be sexually promiscuous. Aim of the research study : To determine the awareness of cervical carcinoma prophylaxis among young women vaccinated against HPV by comparing them with a group of unvaccinated women. Material and methods: The survey covered a group of 210 young women in the age range 18 to 20 years, who were vaccinated against HPV. Within the framework of comparison, the survey covered a group of 255 young HPV-unvaccinated women, adequately selected in respect of age and education. Results: The HPVvaccinated women declared participation in medical check-ups and cytological tests no less frequently than the unvaccinated women. In both groups, the usage of condoms, sexual partners hygiene, monogamy and smoking abstinence were determined as behaviours limiting the occurrence of cervical carcinoma. Conclusions: Awareness of the application of supplementary prophylaxis of cervical carcinoma was high among the HPV vaccinated woman and did not differ from the unvaccinated woman’s awareness. Young women did not show a tendency for promiscuous behaviours, and were more likely touse condoms in the prevention of cervical carcinoma than were the unvaccinated woman.
Siddiqa, Abida; Massimi, Paola; Pim, David; Broniarczyk, Justyna; Banks, Lawrence
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection involves complex interactions with the endocytic transport machinery, which ultimately facilitates the entry of the incoming viral genomes into the trans -Golgi network (TGN) and their subsequent nuclear entry during mitosis. The endosomal pathway is a highly dynamic intracellular transport system, which consists of vesicular compartments and tubular extensions, although it is currently unclear whether incoming viruses specifically alter the endocytic machinery. In this study, using MICAL-L1 as a marker for tubulating endosomes, we show that incoming HPV-16 virions induce a profound alteration in global levels of endocytic tubulation. In addition, we also show a critical requirement for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-anchored protein VAP in this process. VAP plays an essential role in actin nucleation and endosome-to-Golgi transport. Indeed, the loss of VAP results in a dramatic decrease in the level of endosomal tubulation induced by incoming HPV-16 virions. This is also accompanied by a marked reduction in virus infectivity. In VAP knockdown cells, we see that the defect in virus trafficking occurs after capsid disassembly but prior to localization at the trans -Golgi network, with the incoming virion-transduced DNA accumulating in Vps29/TGN46-positive hybrid vesicles. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that infection with HPV-16 virions induces marked alterations of endocytic transport pathways, some of which are VAP dependent and required for the endosome-to-Golgi transport of the incoming viral L2/DNA complex. IMPORTANCE Human papillomavirus infectious entry involves multiple interactions with the endocytic transport machinery. In this study, we show that incoming HPV-16 virions induce a dramatic increase in endocytic tubulation. This tubulation requires ER-associated VAP, which plays a critical role in ensuring the delivery of cargoes from the endocytic compartments to the trans -Golgi network. Indeed, the loss of
Ko, Kiwoong; Yu, Shinae; Lee, Eun Hee; Park, Hyosoon; Woo, Hee-Yeon; Kwon, Min-Jung
Various assays for detecting high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) have been introduced recently, including the Abbott RealTime High-Risk HPV assay. We sought to compare the performance of Abbott PCR to Hybrid Capture 2 for the detection of HR HPV. A total of 941 cervical swab specimens were obtained. We submitted all specimens for HR HPV detection with HC2 and Abbott PCR, and then additionally analyzed discordant and concordant positive results using restriction fragment mass polymorphism (RFMP) genotyping analysis. HC2 detected one of 13 HR HPV types in 12.3% (116/941) of cases, while Abbott PCR detected one of 14 detectable HR HPV types in 12.9% (121/941) of cases. The overall agreement rate was 97.3% with a kappa coefficient of 0.879. Discordant results between these two assays were observed in 25 cases. HC2 showed a sensitivity of 90.0% and specificity of 95.9%, while Abbott PCR showed a sensitivity of 98.0% and specificity of 96.8% when using RFMP results as the gold standard. For HPV 16/18 detection, Abbott PCR showed 95.8%/88.9% sensitivity and 99.2%/99.8% specificity, respectively. The overall coinfection rate between HPV 16, 18 and non-16/18 was 9.9% (12/121) in Abbott PCR analysis. Considering its high agreement rate with HC2, higher sensitivity/specificity compared to HC2, and ability to differentiate HPV 16/18 from other HPV types, Abbott PCR could be a reliable laboratory testing method for the screening of HPV infections. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.
Bauman, Jessica; Wirth, Lori
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is now considered a major causative agent in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OP-SCC). The incidence of HPV+ OP-SCC is increasing dramatically, is higher in men, and is now more common than cervical cancer in the United States. HPV+ OPSCCs usually present as locally advanced, stage IV cancers, requiring intensive treatment with surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation that can cause tremendous morbidity. HPV vaccination is predicted to prevent HPV+ OP-SCC because over 90% are caused by vaccine-type HPV. However, current vaccination rates are not yet high enough to be effective at preventing HPV-associated malignancies at a population level. PMID:27132327
Woodham, Andrew W; Taylor, Julia R; Jimenez, Andrew I; Skeate, Joseph G; Schmidt, Thomas; Brand, Heike E; Da Silva, Diane M; Kast, W Martin
High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection leads to the development of several human cancers that cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. HPV type 16 (HPV16) is the most common of the cancer-causing genotypes and gains entry to the basal cells of the epithelium through a non-canonical endocytic pathway that involves the annexin A2/S100A10 heterotetramer (A2t). A2t is composed of two annexin A2 monomers bound to an S100A10 dimer and this interaction is a potential target to block HPV16 infection. Here, recently identified small molecule inhibitors of A2t (A2ti) were investigated for their ability to prevent HPV16 infection in vitro. A2ti were added to HeLa cells in increasing concentrations prior to the addition of HPV16. Cytotoxicity was evaluated via trypan blue exclusion. HPV16 pseudovirion infection and fluorescently labelled HPV16 capsid internalization was measured with flow cytometry. A2ti blocked HPV16 infection by 100% without substantial cellular toxicity or reduction in cell growth. Furthermore, A2ti blocked HPV16 entry into epithelial cells by 65%, indicating that the observed inhibition of HPV16 infection is in part due to a block in entry and that non-infectious entry may occur in the absence of A2t binding. These results demonstrate that targeting A2t may be an effective strategy to prevent HPV16 infection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Sunghee; Lee, Heetae; Song, Yun-Mi; Lee, Kayoung; Han, Min Ji; Sung, Joohon; Ko, GwangPyo
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most important causative agent of cervical cancers worldwide. However, our understanding of how the vaginal microbiota might be associated with HPV infection is limited. In addition, the influence of human genetic and physiological factors on the vaginal microbiota is unclear. Studies on twins and their families provide the ideal settings to investigate the complicated nature of human microbiota. This study investigated the vaginal microbiota of 68 HPV-infected or uninfected female twins and their families using 454-pyrosequencing analysis targeting the variable region (V2-V3) of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Analysis of the vaginal microbiota from both premenopausal women and HPV-discordant twins indicated that HPV-positive women had significantly higher microbial diversity with a lower proportion of Lactobacillus spp. than HPV-negative women. Fusobacteria, including Sneathia spp., were identified as a possible microbiological marker associated with HPV infection. The vaginal microbiotas of twin pairs were significantly more similar to each other than to those from unrelated individuals. In addition, there were marked significant differences from those of their mother, possibly due to differences in menopausal status. Postmenopausal women had a lower proportion of Lactobacillus spp. and a significantly higher microbiota diversity. This study indicated that HPV infection was associated with the composition of the vaginal microbiota, which is influenced by multiple host factors such as genetics and menopause. The potential biological markers identified in this study could provide insight into HPV pathogenesis and may represent biological targets for diagnostics.
José E. Levi
Full Text Available HIV-infected women from São Paulo city were enrolled in a cross-sectional study on Human Papillomavirus (HPV and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN prevalence and their association with laboratory markers of AIDS, namely HIV viral load and CD4+ cell counts. A cervical specimen was collected and submitted to Hybrid Capture, a test for HPV viral load determination. HPV-DNA was detected in 173 of 265 women (64.5%. Twenty (7.5% women were infected by one or more low-risk viruses, 89 (33% by one or more high-risk viruses, and 64 (24% harbored at least one HPV type from each risk group. Abnormal smears were observed in 19% of the patients, though there were no invasive carcinomas. Severely immunosuppressed patients (CD4/µL <100 were at the greatest risk of having a cytological abnormality and a high high-risk HPV viral load.
Levi José E.
Full Text Available HIV-infected women from São Paulo city were enrolled in a cross-sectional study on Human Papillomavirus (HPV and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN prevalence and their association with laboratory markers of AIDS, namely HIV viral load and CD4+ cell counts. A cervical specimen was collected and submitted to Hybrid Capture, a test for HPV viral load determination. HPV-DNA was detected in 173 of 265 women (64.5%. Twenty (7.5% women were infected by one or more low-risk viruses, 89 (33% by one or more high-risk viruses, and 64 (24% harbored at least one HPV type from each risk group. Abnormal smears were observed in 19% of the patients, though there were no invasive carcinomas. Severely immunosuppressed patients (CD4/µL <100 were at the greatest risk of having a cytological abnormality and a high high-risk HPV viral load.
Smith, Leah M; Kaufman, Jay S; Strumpf, Erin C; Lévesque, Linda E
Suboptimal human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage in some jurisdictions is partly attributed to fears that vaccination may increase risky sexual behaviour. We assessed the effect of HPV vaccination on clinical indicators of sexual behaviour among adolescent girls in Ontario. Using Ontario's administrative health databases, we identified a population-based cohort of girls in grade 8 in the 2 years before (2005/06 and 2006/07) and after (2007/08 and 2008/09) implementation of Ontario's grade 8 HPV vaccination program. For each girl, we then obtained data on vaccine receipt in grades 8 and 9 and data on indicators of sexual behaviour (pregnancy and non-HPV-related sexually transmitted infections) in grades 10-12. Using a quasi-experimental method known as regression discontinuity, we estimated, for each outcome, the risk difference (RD) and relative risk (RR) attributable to vaccination and to program eligibility. The cohort comprised 260 493 girls, of whom 131 781 were ineligible for the program and 128 712 were eligible. We identified 15 441 (5.9%) cases of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection and found no evidence that vaccination increased the risk of this composite outcome: RD per 1000 girls -0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI] -10.71 to 9.49) and RR 0.96 (95% CI 0.81 to 1.14). Similarly, we found no discernible effect of program eligibility: RD per 1000 girls -0.25 (95% CI -4.35 to 3.85) and RR 0.99 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.06). The findings were similar when outcomes were assessed separately. We present strong evidence that HPV vaccination does not have any significant effect on clinical indicators of sexual behaviour among adolescent girls. These results suggest that concerns over increased promiscuity following HPV vaccination are unwarranted and should not deter from vaccinating at a young age. © 2015 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.
Full Text Available Benign and malignant salivary gland tumours are clinically heterogeneous and show different histology. Little is known about the role of human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, and human papillomavirus (HPV infection in salivary gland neoplasms. We investigated the presence of the three viruses in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples in a cohort of 200 different salivary gland tumours. We performed EBV-LMP-1 and HHV-8 and p16 immunohistochemistry, a specific chip based hybridization assay for detection and typing of HPV and a chromogenic in situ hybridization for EBV analysis. Only one case, a polymorphic low-grade carcinoma, showed HHV-8 expression and one lymphoepithelial carcinoma was infected by EBV. In 17 cases (9% moderate or strong nuclear and cytoplasmic p16 expression was detected. The HPV type was investigated in all of these cases and additionally in 8 Warthin’s tumours. In 19 cases HPV type 16 was detected, mostly in Warthin’s tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma NOS. We concluded that HHV-8 infection and EBV infection are not associated with salivary gland cancer, but HPV infection may play a role in these tumour entities.
In SA, two vaccines (HPV quadrivalent (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) vaccine, recombinant (Gardasil) and HPV bivalent (types 16 and 18) vaccine, recombinant (Cervarix)) are currently registered for the prevention of HPV-related disease. In the past, there have been significant challenges to achieving high coverage and uptake ...
Kovachev, Stefan; Slavov, Victor; Slavova, Kremena
This aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections among women (aged 15-55 years) in four of the biggest cities and regions in Bulgaria (viz., Sofia, Plovdiv, Varna, and Burgas), as well as in two other smaller cities (viz., Pleven and Vidin). Furthermore, study aimed to identify the prevalence of the 12 high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) genotypes in 2012, and to predict the benefits of a future national vaccination campaign for 12-year-old girls in Bulgaria. This HPV genotypes prevalence study covered 2,331,341 women from these cities and regions, representing 61.7% of the female population of Bulgaria. DNA-sorb-AM nucleic acid extraction kit was used to analyze the HPV status in cervical samples collected during a 4-year period (2008-2011) from 1,120 women aged 15-55 years (divided into four age groups) who had visited 47 gynecological clinics across the study sites. HR-HPV infections were confirmed in 435 (38.8%) of the women examined. The remaining 685 (61.2%) women were found to be HR-HPV negative. The most common genotype in all 435 infected women was HPV16, which was found in 200 women (46%), followed by HPV56 in 86 women (19.8%), HPV31 in 53 women (12.2%), and HPV33 in 50 women (11.5%). This is the first study to have established the prevalence of HR-HPV infections in the larger Bulgarian regions and cities (including the capital), and to have drawn attention to the unusually high proportion of the different HR-HPV genotypes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The problem of diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases caused by human papilloma virus (HPV, in recent years has become more urgent, not only for physicians, scientists, but also for patients. This is due to the high contagiousness of HPV, its prevalence and, of course, proved oncogenicity. Creation and introduction of preventive vaccines against the most common HPV types played a definite role in the global health, and, of course, raised the attention of doctors and the public to human papillomavirus infection and associated diseases. At the same time propaganda against vaccination blocks the widespread adoption of this disease prevention in our country. In this paper, we introduce the American experience of monitoring vaccination adverse events.Key words: human papillomavirus infection, prevention, vaccination, adverse events, monitoring, children.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of the ras genes or association with human papillomavirus infection have been extensively studied in colorectal cancer. However, the correlation between K-ras mutations and HPV in colorectal cancer has not been investigated yet. In this study we aimed to investigate the presence of K-ras mutations and their correlation with HPV infection in colon cancer. Methods K-ras mutations were analyzed by a mutagenic PCR assay and digestion with specific restriction enzymes to distinguish the wild-type and mutant codons. HPV infection was analyzed by PCR amplification and hybridization with specific probes by Southern blotting. Stattistical analyses were performed by the chi-square and Fisher's exact tests Results HPV gene fragments were detected in 43 tumors and 17 normal tissue samples. HPV 18 was the prevalent type in the tumor tissue. A mutation at codon 12 of the K-ras gene was present in 31 patients. 56% of the HPV-positive tumors also harbored a K-ras mutation. Codon 13 mutations were not observed. These data indicate that infection with high risk HPV types and mutational activation of the K-ras gene are frequent events in colorectal carcinogenesis. Conclusion Our findings suggest that mutational activation of the K-ras gene is a common event in colon carcinogenesis and that HPV infection may represent an important factor in the development of the premalignant lesions leading to the neoplastic phenotype.
Comar, Manola; Monasta, Lorenzo; Zanotta, Nunzia; Vecchi Brumatti, Liza; Ricci, Giuseppe; Zauli, Giorgio
Although human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection, there are very scant data about the influence of this virus on the in vitro fertilization outcome. To assess the presence of HPV in the cervico-vaginal fluid in relationship to the in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome and to the concentration of selected cytokines, known to affect embryo implantation and gestation: granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). Cervico-vaginal samples were collected on the day of oocyte pick-up from 82 women. Vaginas were flushed with 50 mL of sterile water and 3 mL of fluid was collected. Twelve women (15%) were positive for HPV. Interestingly, among HPV(+) women live birth rate was about half of the rate in HPV(-) women, although the differences were not statistically significant due to the low number of cases. Cervico-vaginal samples of a sub-group of 29 (8 HPV(+) and 21 HPV(-)) women were analyzed for GM-CSF and G-CSF by ELISA. GM-CSF but not G-CSF was significantly lower in the cervico-vaginal fluid of HPV(+) than in HPV(-) women. Since GM-CSF plays an important role during pregnancy, the reduced levels of GM-CSF in the cervico-vaginal fluid of HPV(+) women might contribute to explain the reduced live birth rate observed in HPV(+) women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chen, Hui-Chi; Schiffman, Mark; Lin, Ching-Yu; Pan, Mei-Hung; You, San-Lin; Chuang, Li-Chung; Hsieh, Chang-Yao; Liaw, Kai-Li; Hsing, Ann W; Chen, Chien-Jen
Human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence is the pivotal event in cervical carcinogenesis. We followed a large-scale community-based cohort for 16 years to investigate the role of genotype-specific HPV persistence in predicting cervical cancer including invasive and in situ carcinoma. At the baseline examination in 1991-1992, 11,923 participants (aged 30-65 years) consented to HPV testing and cytology; 6923 participants were reexamined in 1993-1995. For HPV testing, we used a polymerase chain reaction-based assay that detected 39 HPV types. Women who developed cervical cancer were identified from cancer and death registries. Cumulative risks for developing cervical cancer among infected and persistently infected women were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Of 10,123 women who were initially cytologically normal, 68 developed cervical cancer. The 16-year cumulative risks of subsequent cervical cancer for women with HPV16, HPV58 (without HPV16), or other carcinogenic HPV types (without HPV16 or HPV58) were 13.5%, 10.3%, and 4.0%, respectively, compared with 0.26% for HPV-negative women. Women with type-specific persistence of any carcinogenic HPV had greatly increased risk compared with women who were HPV-negative at both visits (hazard ratio = 75.4, 95% confidence interval = 31.8 to 178.9). The cumulative cervical cancer risks following persistent carcinogenic HPV infections increased with age: The risks were 5.5%, 14.4%, and 18.1% for women aged 30-44 years, 45-54 years, and 55 years and older, respectively. However, newly acquired infections were associated with a low risk of cervical cancer regardless of age. HPV negativity was associated with a very low long-term risk of cervical cancer. Persistent detection of HPV among cytologically normal women greatly increased risk. Thus, it is useful to perform repeated HPV testing following an initial positive test.
Nuovo, Gerard J; Wu, Xin; Volinia, Stefano; Yan, Fengting; di Leva, Gianpiero; Chin, Nena; Nicol, Alcina F; Jiang, Jinmai; Otterson, Gregory; Schmittgen, Thomas D; Croce, Carlo
Infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV) is a cause of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer. microRNA (miRNA) in situ analysis of the transformation zone epithelia, the site of initial cervical HPV infection, showed that miRNAs let-7c, -99a, 26a, and 125b were the most abundantly expressed. In situ testing of CIN 1 showed a dramatic reduction in miR-125b expression in the koilocytes, the cytologic marker of productive HPV infection. A marked reduction in miR-125b was likewise observed in the HPV-infected cells of the condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris, and epidermodysplasia verruciformis. Reverse transcriptase in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed that the pre-miRNA 125b was present in the koilocyte, suggesting direct inactivation of the mature miRNA. HEK cells transfected with only the antimiR-125b showed perinuclear halos equivalent to HPV-infected koilocytes. NIH 3T3 cells transfected with the HPV 16 full-length genome and mimetic miR-125b showed a marked reduction in viral DNA and protein synthesis by quantitative PCR and in situ-based analyses, respectively (P=0.002). Alternatively, cotransfection with anti-miR-125b and HPV 16 markedly increased HPV DNA (P=0.002). Sequence analyses showed strong homology between L2 of different HPV genotypes and miR-125b. Transfection with HPV 16 L2 resulted in a marked reduction in miR-125b levels in the NIH 3T3 cells. HPV L2-induced inactivation of miR-125b is associated with the classic cytologic changes of the koilocyte, and the exogenous application of mimetic miR-125b markedly inhibits HPV DNA synthesis.
Mariana Goveia Melo RIBEIRO
Full Text Available Abstract The role of human papillomavirus (HPV in oral carcinogenesis is still controversial as detection rates of the virus in oral cavity reported in the literature varies greatly. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of HPV infection and its genotypes in patients with oral lesions at the Ambulatory of Oral Diagnosis of the Federal University of Sergipe, Brazil. Material and Methods We conducted a molecular study with 21 patients (15 females aged from two to 83 years with clinically detectable oral lesions. Samples were collected through exfoliation of lesions and HPV-DNA was identified using MY09/11 and GP5+/6+ primers. Genotyping was performed by multiplex PCR. Results Benign, premalignant and malignant lesions were diagnosed by histopathology. HPV was detected in 17 samples. Of these, HPV-6 was detected in 10 samples, HPV-18 in four and HPV-16 in one sample. When samples were categorized by lesion types, HPV was detected in two papilloma cases (2/3, five carcinomas (5/6, one hyperplasia (1/1 and nine dysplasia cases (9/11. Conclusion Unlike other studies in the literature, we reported high occurrence of HPV in oral lesions. Further studies are required to enhance the comprehension of natural history of oral lesions.
Dareng, E O; Ma, B; Famooto, A O; Adebamowo, S N; Offiong, R A; Olaniyan, O; Dakum, P S; Wheeler, C M; Fadrosh, D; Yang, H; Gajer, P; Brotman, R M; Ravel, J; Adebamowo, C A
In this study, we evaluated the association between high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) and the vaginal microbiome. Participants were recruited in Nigeria between April and August 2012. Vaginal bacterial composition was characterized by deep sequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA gene fragments (V4) on Illumina MiSeq and HPV was identified using the Roche Linear Array® HPV genotyping test. We used exact logistic regression models to evaluate the association between community state types (CSTs) of vaginal microbiota and hrHPV infection, weighted UniFrac distances to compare the vaginal microbiota of individuals with prevalent hrHPV to those without prevalent hrHPV infection, and the Linear Discriminant Analysis effect size (LEfSe) algorithm to characterize bacteria associated with prevalent hrHPV infection. We observed four CSTs: CST IV-B with a low relative abundance of Lactobacillus spp. in 50% of participants; CST III (dominated by L. iners) in 39·2%; CST I (dominated by L. crispatus) in 7·9%; and CST VI (dominated by proteobacteria) in 2·9% of participants. LEfSe analysis suggested an association between prevalent hrHPV infection and a decreased abundance of Lactobacillus sp. with increased abundance of anaerobes particularly of the genera Prevotella and Leptotrichia in HIV-negative women (P < 0·05). These results are hypothesis generating and further studies are required.
Cotton, Sarah; Brown, Robert E; Nugent, Elizabeth K; Robazetti, Sonia C; Berens, Pamela D; Smith, Judith A
To assess the consistency between human papillomavirus (HPV) mRNA testing in women with a history of previous HPV infections diagnosed by HPV DNA assay and the potential effects on follow-up HPV screening. This was a quality improvement study that used data from a pathology laboratory software database reviewed from November 2014 to June 2016 to identify female patients aged 30 years or older with greater than one HPV-positive result, including one or more HPV mRNA assay results and one or more documented HPV DNA assay results for comparison. Previous correlative cytology and colposcopic histopathology were also documented. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' cervical cancer screening guidelines were used to compare potential differences in follow-up recommendations. Four hundred twenty-five charts for female patients 30 years of age or older were identified with one or more prior high-risk HPV infections by DNA assay. There was a 69.3% difference in HPV mRNA results compared with previous HPV DNA-positive results. There was a potential change in follow-up for 71.7% of patients with one prior high-risk-HPV-positive result and 60.0% of patients with two or more prior high-risk HPV-positive results. There were 231 colposcopy reports evaluated in this study. Of these, 62 (26.8%) were abnormal colposcopy reports, including 45 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, 15 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and two cancers. Twenty-five (40.3%) abnormal colposcopy findings were in patients with a history of at least than two prior HPV DNA-positive results and a report of currently being HPV-negative with the mRNA assay. The HPV mRNA assays are less sensitive for detection of latent HPV infections compared with HPV DNA assays. Based on these data and the potential change in follow-up care, the HPV mRNA assay should not be used for a primary screening tool for cervical cancer. Many pathology laboratories have shifted to using the HPV mRNA assay
Katz, Mira L; Oldach, Benjamin R; Goodwin, Jennifer; Reiter, Paul L; Ruffin, Mack T; Paskett, Electra D
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates do not meet the Healthy People 2020 objective of 80% coverage among adolescent females. We describe the development and initial feedback about an HPV vaccine comic book for young adolescents. The comic book is one component of a multilevel intervention to improve HPV vaccination rates among adolescents. Parents suggested and provided input into the development of a HPV vaccine comic book. Following the development of the comic book, we conducted a pilot study to obtain initial feedback about the comic book among parents (n = 20) and their adolescents ages 9 to 14 (n = 17) recruited from a community-based organization. Parents completed a pre-post test including items addressing HPV knowledge, HPV vaccine attitudes, and about the content of the comic book. Adolescents completed a brief interview after reading the comic book. After reading the comic book, HPV knowledge improved (2.7 to 4.6 correct answers on a 0-5 scale; p book's content was acceptable and adolescents liked the story, found it easy to read, and thought the comic book was a good way to learn about being healthy. Parents provided valuable information in the development of a theoretically-based comic book and the comic book appears to be an acceptable format for providing HPV vaccine information to adolescents. Future research will include the comic book in an intervention study to improve HPV vaccination rates.
Alhamlan, F S; Khayat, H H; Ramisetty-Mikler, S; Al-Muammar, T A; Tulbah, A M; Al-Badawi, I A; Kurdi, W I; Tulbah, M I; Alkhenizan, A A; Hussain, A N; Ahmed, M; Al-Ahdal, M N
To determine the prevalence and the sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behavior risk factors for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in a hospital-based cohort of women in Saudi Arabia. Cervical specimens and questionnaire data were collected from women attending clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Cervical specimens were examined for abnormal cytology using a standard Pap test and for the presence of HPV-DNA using PCR and reverse line blot hybridization tests. Approximately 73% of the 400 women tested were Saudi nationals. Nearly 50% were under 40 years old (range 22-80 years, mean±standard deviation 41.20±10.43 years). Approximately 17% of the women were HPV-positive. The most commonly detected HPV types were HPV-18 (34%) and HPV-16 (19%), with multiple infections detected in 10% of positive specimens. Multivariate analyses revealed that smoking and multiple partners were significant risk factors for HPV infection (pSaudi women. However, a high prevalence of HPV infection was found, with smoking and multiple partners as significant risk factors, in this hospital-based cohort of predominantly Saudi women. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Correnti, Maria; Medina, Francisco; Cavazza, María Eugenia; Rennola, Antonieta; Avila, Maira; Fernándes, Andreína
Cervical cancer is an important cause of mortality among women in developing countries, especially in the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region. Infection with high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as the primary cause of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of HR-HPV genotypes in low-grade and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, HSIL) and cervical carcinoma (CC) among Venezuelan women. Subjects with histopathological diagnosis of LSIL, HSIL, and CC (LSIL=200; HSIL=100; CC=150) were enrolled in the study after obtaining informed consent. Biopsy samples of these subjects were analyzed to determine the lesion type. HPV detection and typing was done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse hybridization. HPV type specific prevalence was determined in subjects with single and multiple infections. HPV DNA was detected in 68%, 95%, and 98.7% of LSIL, HSIL, and CC cases, respectively. HR-HPV and low-risk oncogenic HPV (LR-HPV) was observed in 66.9%/11.8% of LSIL cases, 87.3%/3.2% of HSIL cases, and 91.2%/0.7% of CC cases. HPV types -16/-18 (65%) were the most common high-risk HPV types observed, followed by types -52, -33, -45, and -31. Cervical cancer burden in Venezuelan women is substantial. HPV types -16/-18 were the most common types prevalent among Venezuelan women followed by types -52, -33, -45, and -31 (prevalence, ~90.1%). The results of this study provide baseline information on the HPV type distribution, which may facilitate the development of a cervical cancer prevention and control program in Venezuela. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Constantinidis, Theocharis; Constantinidis, Theodoros C.
Objectives The objective of the present study is to assess the performance of a high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) DNA test with individual HPV-16/HPV-18 genotyping as a method for primary cervical cancer screening compared with liquid-based cytology (LBC) in a population of Greek women taking part in routine cervical cancer screening. Methods The study, conducted by the “HEllenic Real life Multicentric cErvical Screening” (HERMES) study group, involved the recruitment of 4,009 women, aged 25–55, who took part in routine cervical screening at nine Gynecology Departments in Greece. At first visit cervical specimens were collected for LBC and HPV testing using the Roche Cobas 4800 system. Women found positive for either cytology or HPV were referred for colposcopy, whereas women negative for both tests will be retested after three years. The study is ongoing and the results of the first screening round are reported herein. Results Valid results for cytology and HPV testing were obtained for 3,993 women. The overall prevalence of HR-HPV was 12.7%, of HPV-16 2.7% and of HPV-18 1.4%. Of those referred for colposcopy, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) was detected in 41 women (1.07%). At the threshold of CIN2+, cytology [atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or worse] and HPV testing showed a sensitivity of 53.7% and 100% respectively, without change between age groups. Cytology and HPV testing showed specificity of 96.8% and 90.3% respectively, which was increased in older women (≥30) in comparison to younger ones (25–29). Genotyping for HPV16/18 had similar accuracy to cytology for the detection of CIN2+ (sensitivity: 58.5%; specificity 97.5%) as well as for triage to colposcopy (sensitivity: 58.5% vs 53.7% for cytology). Conclusion HPV testing has much better sensitivity than cytology to identify high-grade cervical lesions with slightly lower specificity. HPV testing with individual HPV-16/HPV-18
Bansal, Anshuma; Singh, Mini P; Rai, Bhavana
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is linked with several cancers such as cancer cervix, vagina, vulva, head and neck, anal, and penile carcinomas. Although there is a proven association of HPV with these cancers, questions regarding HPV testing, vaccination, and treatment of HPV-related cancers continue to remain unanswered. The present article provides an overview of the HPV-associated cancers.
Full Text Available PurposeTo investigate the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV infection and prostatitis-related symptoms.Materials and MethodsAll young heterosexual patients with prostatitis-related symptoms attending the same Center from January 2005 to December 2010 were eligible for this case-control study. Sexually active asymptomatic men were considered as the control group. All subjects underwent clinical examination, Meares-Stamey test and DNA-HPV test. Patients with prostatitis-related symptoms and asymptomatic men were compared in terms of HPV prevalence. Moreover, multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to determine the association between HPV infection and prostatitis-related symptoms.ResultsOverall, 814 out of 2,938 patients (27.7% and 292 out of 1,081 controls (27.0% proved positive to HPV. The HPV genotype distribution was as follows: HR-HPV 478 (43.3%, PHR-HPV 77 (6.9%, LR-HPV 187 (16.9% and PNG-HPV 364 (32.9%. The most common HPV genotypes were: 6, 11, 16, 26, 51, 53 and 81. No difference was found between the two groups in terms of HPV infection (OR 1.03; 95% CI 0.88-1.22; p = 0.66. We noted a statistically significant increase in HPV infection over the period 2005 to 2010 (p < 0.001 in both groups. Moreover, we found a statistically significant increase in HPV 16 frequency from 2005 to 2010 (p = 0.002.ConclusionsThis study highlights that prostatitis-like symptoms are unrelated to HPV infection. Secondary, we highlight the high prevalence of asymptomatic HPV infection among young heterosexual men.
Khoury, Ruby; Sauter, Sharon; Butsch Kovacic, Melinda; Nelson, Adam S.; Myers, Kasiani C.; Mehta, Parinda A.; Davies, Stella M.; Wells, Susanne I.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections cause a significant proportion of cancers worldwide, predominantly squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the mucosas and skin. High-risk HPV types are associated with SCCs of the anogenital and oropharyngeal tract. HPV oncogene activities and the biology of SCCs have been intensely studied in laboratory models and humans. What remains largely unknown are host tissue and immune-related factors that determine an individual’s susceptibility to infection and/or carcinogenesis. Such susceptibility factors could serve to identify those at greatest risk and spark individually tailored HPV and SCC prevention efforts. Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited DNA repair disorder that is in part characterized by extreme susceptibility to SCCs. An increased prevalence of HPV has been reported in affected individuals, and molecular and functional connections between FA, SCC, and HPV were established in laboratory models. However, the presence of HPV in some human FA tumors is controversial, and the extent of the etiological connections remains to be established. Herein, we discuss cellular, immunological, and phenotypic features of FA, placed into the context of HPV pathogenesis. The goal is to highlight this orphan disease as a unique model system to uncover host genetic and molecular HPV features, as well as SCC susceptibility factors. PMID:29361695
Full Text Available This article takes a critical look at the pros and cons of human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines. There is enough evidence to suggest that the prophylactic vaccines are efficacious in preventing various benign and malignant conditions (including cervical cancers caused by HPV. Even though the vaccine is costly, hypothetical analysis has shown that HPV vaccination will be cost effective in the long run. Therapeutic HPV vaccines used to treat established disease are still undergoing evaluation in clinical studies, and results seem to be encouraging. Although several countries have started mandatory vaccination programs with the prophylactic HPV vaccines, conservatives have voiced concerns regarding the moral impact of such vaccination programs.
Al-Waiz, M.; Al-Saadi, Rabab N.; Al-Saadi, Zahida A.; Al-Rawi, Faiza A.
A prospective study to investigate a group of Iraqi woman with proved genital vulval warts, to seek evidence of human papillomavirus infection in apparently normal looking cervixes and to investigate the natural history of infection. From December 1997 to August 1998, 20 women with vulval warts were enrolled along with 20 aged-matched control cases without warts. Their ages ranged between 19-48 years with a mean of 30.4 years, (+/- standard deviation = 2.3) for patients and 18-48 years with a mean of 29.7 (+/- standard deviation = 2.7) for the control group. General and gynecological examinations were carried out. Cervical swabs for associated genital infection, papilloma smears, speculoscopy and directed punch biopsies were carried out to detect subclinical human papillomavirus infections of the cervix and associated intraepithelial neoplasm. Cytology results showed that 11 (55%) of patients had evidence of cervical infection by human papillomavirus, 6 (30%) showed mild dysplastic changes, 3 (15%) showed moderate dysplastic changes, whilst 2 (10%) showed no dysplastic changes. Speculoscopy and acetowhitening was positive in 11 (55%) and collated histological results showed evidence of human papillomavirus infection in 9 patients (45%). As for the control group one case (5%) had evidence of human papillomavirus infection. Subclinical human papillomavirus infection is more common than was previously thought among Iraqi women. It may appear alone or in association with vulval or exophytic cervical warts, or both, and may be more common than the clinically obvious disease. Speculoscopy as an adjunctive method to colposcopy was found to be a simple and an easy to perform technique. Its combination with cytology gave relatively good results when it was used as a triage instrument, and may have a more promising performance in the future. (author)
Skeate, Joseph G; Porras, Tania B; Woodham, Andrew W; Jang, Julie K; Taylor, Julia R; Brand, Heike E; Kelly, Thomas J; Jung, Jae U; Da Silva, Diane M; Yuan, Weiming; Kast, W Martin
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) was originally implicated in the aetiology of cervical cancer, and although high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is now the accepted causative agent, the epidemiological link between HSV and HPV-associated cancers persists. The annexin A2 heterotetramer (A2t) has been shown to mediate infectious HPV type 16 (HPV16) uptake by human keratinocytes, and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), an endogenous A2t ligand, inhibits HPV16 uptake and infection. Interestingly, HSV infection induces a sustained downregulation of SLPI in epithelial cells, which we hypothesized promotes HPV16 infection through A2t. Here, we show that in vitro infection of human keratinocytes with HSV-1 or HSV-2, but not with an HSV-1 ICP4 deletion mutant that does not downregulate SLPI, leads to a >70% reduction of SLPI mRNA and a >60% decrease in secreted SLPI protein. Consequently, we observed a significant increase in the uptake of HPV16 virus-like particles and gene transduction by HPV16 pseudovirions (two- and 2.5-fold, respectively) in HSV-1- and HSV-2-infected human keratinocyte cell cultures compared with uninfected cells, whereas exogenously added SLPI reversed this effect. Using a SiMPull (single-molecule pulldown) assay, we demonstrated that endogenously secreted SLPI interacts with A2t on epithelial cells in an autocrine/paracrine manner. These results suggested that ongoing HSV infection and resultant downregulation of local levels of SLPI may impart a greater susceptibility for keratinocytes to HPV16 infection through the host cell receptor A2t, providing a mechanism that may, in part, provide an explanation for the aetiological link between HSV and HPV-associated cancers.
Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are etiological agents of cervical cancer. In the absence of Pap smear alterations, high-risk HPV DNA can be detected in cervical samples. The prevalence of papillomavirus infection and their genotype distribution varies greatly across populations. The aims of this study were: i to assess the prevalences of HPV genotypes in people living in Eastern Sicily (Italy and the frequency of HPV multiple infections; ii to evaluate the association between HPV genotypes and cervical lesions in order to improve the epidemiological knowledge useful for monitoring or treating infected women. Nested PCR and reverse dot/blot hybridization were used for the detection and typing of HPV DNA in 315 women who had had an abnormal PAP-smear. HPV DNA test was positive in 70.5% cases; the prevalence was 50% in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, 80.8% in low grade-, and 76.2% in high grade-squamous intraepithelial lesion (H-SIL. The genotype distribution showed a predominance of HPV-16 (56.7% followed by HPV-18 (12.2%, HPV-31 (9.5% and HPV-6 (9.5%. Multiple infections were detected in 35.1% of the infected patients. High frequency of positive results for HPV was confirmed and, even in case of ASCUS, patients should be taken into account for genotyping. Our data indicate that multiple infections are consistent in women with low-grade lesions while they are less frequent in women with H-SIL. This could reinforce the theory of the multi-stage cancer model, by which one HPV type becomes predominant along with the progression of cervical lesion severity.
Nyitray, Alan G; Smith, Dan'elle; Villa, Luisa; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Abrahamsen, Martha; Papenfuss, Mary; Giuliano, Anna R
Although the primary cause of anal cancer is human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the anal canal, little attention has been paid to the epidemiology of anal HPV infection in men who have sex with women (MSW). Exfoliated cells from the anal canal of 902 MSW in Brazil (São Paulo), Mexico (Cuernavaca), and the United States (Tampa) were tested for HPV DNA. The prevalence of HPV infection in the anal canal (12.0%) was similar among MSW in each city (P=.77), whereas 7.0% had infection with oncogenic types. Men in Tampa had a 4-fold higher prevalence of infection with HPV type 16 (HPV-16) than that among men in São Paulo or Cuernavaca (PMen who have a larger lifetime number of female sex partners, who are in a sexual relationship of men were most likely to have an anal HPV infection.
Sargent, A; Bailey, A; Almonte, M; Turner, A; Thomson, C; Peto, J; Desai, M; Mather, J; Moss, S; Roberts, C; Kitchener, H C
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes cervical cancer and premalignant dysplasia. Type-specific HPV prevalence data provide a basis for assessing the impact of HPV vaccination programmes on cervical cytology. We report high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) type-specific prevalence data in relation to cervical cytology for 24 510 women (age range: 20–64; mean age 40.2 years) recruited into the ARTISTIC trial, which is being conducted within the routine NHS Cervical Screening Programme in Greater Manchester. The most common HR-HPV types were HPV16, 18, 31, 51 and 52, which accounted for 60% of all HR-HPV types detected. There was a marked decline in the prevalence of HR-HPV infection with age, but the proportion due to each HPV type did not vary greatly with age. Multiple infections were common below the age of 30 years but less so between age 30 and 64 years. Catch-up vaccination of this sexually active cohort would be expected to reduce the number of women with moderate or worse cytology by 45%, but the number with borderline or mild cytology would fall by only 7%, giving an overall reduction of 12% in the number of women with abnormal cytology and 27% in the number with any HR-HPV infection. In the absence of broader cross-protection, the large majority of low-grade and many high-grade abnormalities may still occur in sexually active vaccinated women. PMID:18392052
Prevalence and Incidence of Anal and Cervical High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types covered by Current HPV Vaccines among HIV-Infected Women in the Study to Understand the Natural History of HIV/AIDS in the Era of Effective Therapy (The SUN Study).
Kojic, Erna Milunka; Conley, Lois; Bush, Tim; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Unger, Elizabeth R; Henry, Keith; Hammer, John; Escota, Gerome; Darragh, Teresa M; Palefsky, Joel M; Brooks, John T; Patel, Pragna
Nonavalent (9v) human papilloma virus vaccine targets high-risk (HR)-HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58, and low-risk 6, 11. We examined prevalence, incidence, and clearance of anal and cervical HR-HPV in HIV-infected women. From 2004-2006, the SUN Study enrolled 167 women from four US cities. Anal and cervical specimens were collected annually for cytology and identification of 37 HPV types; 14 HR include: 9v 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58; non-9v 35, 39, 51, 56, 59, 66, 68. Baseline characteristics of 126 women included: median age 38 years; 57% non-Hispanic black; 67% HIV RNA HPV prevalence at anus and cervix was 90% and 83%; for 9v HR-HPV types, 67% and 51%; non-9v HR-HPV, 54% and 29%, respectively. 9v and non-9v HR-HPV incidence rates/100 person-years were similar (10.4 vs 9.5: 8.5 vs 8.3, respectively); 9v clearance rates were 42% and 61%; non-9v 46% and 59%, in anus and cervix, respectively. Anal HR-HPV prevalence was higher than cervical with lower clearance; incidence was similar. Although prevalence of non-9v HR-HPV was substantial, 9v HR-HPV types were generally more prevalent. These findings support use of nonavalent vaccine in HIV-infected women. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Hansen, Bo T; Kjær, Susanne K; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Liaw, Kai-Li; Jensen, Kirsten E; Thomsen, Louise T; Munk, Christian; Nygård, Mari
To assess whether recipients and non-recipients of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine subsequently differ in terms of sexual risk taking behaviour. Cross-sectional survey. Sequential analyses constructed from self-reported age at vaccination, age at first intercourse and age at response. A random selection of women aged 18-46 years living in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 2011-2012, eligible for opportunistic or organized catch-up HPV vaccination. A total of 3805 women reported to have received the HPV vaccine and 40,247 reported not to have received it. Among vaccinees, 1539 received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut, of which 476 and 1063 were eligible for organized catch-up and opportunistic vaccination, respectively. Self-reported sexual behaviour, compared by hazard ratios and odds ratios for women who received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut versus women who did not receive the HPV vaccine. HPV vaccination did not result in younger age at first intercourse. Women who received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut did not have more sexual partners than did non-vaccinees. Non-use of contraception during first intercourse was more common among non-vaccinees than among HPV vaccinees. The results were similar for organized catch-up and opportunistic vaccinees. Women who received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut did not subsequently engage more in sexual risk taking behaviour than women who did not receive the HPV vaccine. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Joshi, Smita; Muwonge, Richard; Esmy, Pulikottil Okkuru; Basu, Partha; Prabhu, Priya; Bhatla, Neerja; Nene, Bhagwan M; Shaw, Janmesh; Poli, Usha Rani Reddy; Verma, Yogesh; Zomawia, Eric; Pimple, Sharmila; Tommasino, Massimo; Pawlita, Michael; Gheit, Tarik; Waterboer, Tim; Sehr, Peter; Pillai, Madhavan Radhakrishna
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is a major strategy for preventing cervical and other ano-genital cancers. Worldwide HPV vaccination introduction and coverage will be facilitated if a single dose of vaccine is as effective as two or three doses or demonstrates significant protective effect compared to 'no vaccination'. In a multi-centre cluster randomized trial of two vs three doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccination (Gardasil™) in India, suspension of the vaccination due to events unrelated to the study led to per protocol and partial vaccination of unmarried 10-18 year old girls leading to four study groups, two by design and two by default. They were followed up for the primary outcomes of immunogenicity in terms of L1 genotype-specific binding antibody titres, neutralising antibody titres, and antibody avidity for the vaccine-targeted HPV types and HPV infections. Analysis was per actual number of vaccine doses received. This study is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN98283094; and with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00923702. Of the 17,729 vaccinated girls, 4348 (25%) received three doses on days 1, 60, 180 or later, 4979 (28%) received two doses on days 1 and 180 or later, 3452 (19%) received two doses on days 1 and 60, and 4950 (28%) received one dose. One dose recipients demonstrated a robust and sustained immune response against HPV 16 and 18, albeit inferior to that of 3- or 2-doses and the antibody levels were stable over a 4 year period. The frequencies of cumulative incident and persistent HPV 16 and 18 infections up to 7 years of follow-up were similar and uniformly low in all the vaccinated study groups; the frequency of HPV 16 and 18 infections were significantly higher in unvaccinated age-matched control women than among vaccine recipients. The frequency of vaccine non-targeted HPV types was similar in the vaccinated groups but higher in the unvaccinated control women. Our results indicate that a single dose of quadrivalent HPV
Thomsen, Louise T; Nygård, Mari; Stensen, Signe
-2005 (prevaccination survey, n=54 079, response rate 71.3%). Correlates of HPV awareness in the postvaccination survey were assessed by logistic regression. In all countries and age groups, awareness of HPV increased from the prevaccination to the postvaccination survey. In the postvaccination survey, HPV awareness......: odds ratio (OR)=0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42-0.48], being a virgin (vs. nonvirgins: OR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.66-0.83), never having used condoms (vs. ever: OR=0.62, 95% CI: 0.56-0.67), nonuse of contraception at first intercourse (vs. use: OR=0.83, 95% CI: 0.79-0.88) and daily smoking (vs. never......: OR=0.86, 95% CI: 0.80-0.92). HPV awareness in Scandinavia has increased since the introduction of HPV vaccination. However, 24-38% of Scandinavian women still have never heard of HPV. Future information efforts should target groups with low HPV awareness....
Differences in incidence and co-occurrence of vaccine and nonvaccine human papillomavirus types in Finnish population before human papillomavirus mass vaccination suggest competitive advantage for HPV33.
Merikukka, Marko; Kaasila, Marjo; Namujju, Proscovia B; Palmroth, Johanna; Kirnbauer, Reinhard; Paavonen, Jorma; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Lehtinen, Matti
To understand likelihood of type replacement after vaccination against the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types, we evaluated competition of the seven most common genital HPV types in a population sample of unvaccinated, fertile-aged Finnish women. First trimester sera from two consecutive pregnancies were retrieved from 3,183 Finnish women (mean age, 23.1 years) of whom 42.3% had antibodies to at least one HPV type (6/11/16/18/31/33/45) at the baseline. Antibody positivity to more than one HPV types by the second pregnancy was common among the baseline HPV seropositives. However, compared to baseline HPV-seronegative women, significantly increased incidence rate ratios (IRRs), indicating an increased risk to seroconvert for another HPV type, were consistently noted only for HPV33 among baseline HPV16 or HPV18 antibody (ab)-positive women: HPV(16ab only) (→) (16&33ab) IRR 2.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-5.4] and HPV(18ab only) (→) (18&33ab) IRR 2.5 (95% CI 1.1-6.0), irrespectively of the presence of antibodies to other HPV types at baseline: HPV(16ab) (→) (16&33ab) IRR 3.2 (95% CI 2.0-5.2) and HPV(18ab) (→) (18&33ab) IRR 3.6 (95% CI 2.1-5.9). Our findings suggest a possible competitive advantage for HPV33 over other genital HPV types in the unvaccinated population. HPV33 should be monitored for type replacement after HPV mass vaccination. Copyright © 2010 UICC.
Lin, Hai; Lin, Dong; Xiong, Xi-Sheng
The purpose of this study was to investigate roles of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and stathmin in sinonasal inverted papilloma (SNIP). HPV DNA detection was performed by the fluorescence-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Stathmin protein expression was investigated by the immunohistochemistry method and mRNA expression of stathmin, Kif2a, and cyclin D1 were assessed by real-time PCR in SNIP and control subjects. The positive rate of HPV DNA detected in SNIP was about 53.6% (15 of 28). Recurrent cases showed a higher rate of HPV infection compared with initial cases and higher Krouse stage (T3 + T4) cases showed higher rate of HPV infection than lower Krouse stage (T1 + T2) cases. Stronger expression of stathmin, Kif2a, and cyclin D1 were observed in SNIP, especially HPV(+) SNIP. HPV infection was closely associated with recurrence and progression of SNIP. Stathmin is a valuable prognostic marker and could be considered as a therapeutic target in patients with SNIP. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV and 15 species that cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs in negative cytology. In addition, we compared the diagnostic performance of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR with widely available techniques used to detect HPV. Methods We recruited 235 women of reproductive age who had negative cytology findings in a liquid-based cervical smear. STIs were identified by multiplex PCR, and HPV genotypes by multiplex PCR, hybrid capture 2, and DNA microaray; discordant results were analyzed by direct sequencing. Results Approximately 96.6% of patients with negative cytology results were positive for pathogens that cause STIs. The pathogens most frequently detected were Gardnerella vaginalis, Ureaplasma urealyticum. The incidence of HPV in negative cytology was 23.3%. Low-risk HPV infection was significantly correlated with Chalmaydia trachomatis, and high-risk HPV infection was significantly correlated with Group β streptococcus. The analytical sensitivities of the multiplex PCR and DNA microarray were higher than 80%, and the analytical specificity was nearly 100% for all tests. Conclusions Multiplex PCR yielded results that most of patients with negative cytology were positive for pathogens that cause STIs, and were more similar to that of DNA microarray, than that of hybrid capture 2 in terms of analytical sensitivity and prediction value of HPV infection.
De Vuyst, Hugo; Alemany, Laia; Lacey, Charles; Chibwesha, Carla J.; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant; Banura, Cecily; Denny, Lynette; Parham, Groesbeck P.
Despite the scarcity of high quality cancer registries and lack of reliable mortality data, it is clear that human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated diseases, particularly cervical cancer, are major causes of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Cervical cancer incidence rates in SSA are the highest in the world and the disease is the most common cause of cancer death among women in the region. The high incidence of cervical cancer is a consequence of the inability of most countries to either initiate or sustain cervical cancer prevention services. In addition, it appears that the prevalence of HPV in women with normal cytology is higher than in more developed areas of the world, at an average of 24%. There is, however, significant regional variation in SSA, with the highest incidence of HPV infection and cervical cancer found in Eastern and Western Africa. It is expected that, due to aging and growth of the population, but also to lack of access to appropriate prevention services and the concomitant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates in SSA will rise over the next 20 years. HPV16 and 18 are the most common genotypes in cervical cancer in SSA, although other carcinogenic HPV types, such as HPV45 and 35, are also relatively more frequent compared with other world regions. Data on other HPV-related anogenital cancers including those of the vulva, vagina, anus, and penis, are limited. Genital warts are common and associated with HPV types 6 and 11. HIV infection increases incidence and prevalence of all HPV-associated diseases. Sociocultural determinants of HPV-related disease, as well as the impact of forces that result in social destabilization, demand further study. Strategies to reduce the excessive burden of HPV-related diseases in SSA include age-appropriate prophylactic HPV vaccination, cervical cancer prevention services for women of the reproductive
Qu Yuan; Gao Li; Yi Junlin; Huang Xiaodong; Luo Jingwei; Zhang Shiping; Wang Kai; Xu Guozhen
Objective: To investigate the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection/p16 expression and radiotherapy prognosis in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and the prognostic value of p16 in OSCC patients treated with radiotherapy. Methods: Tissue samples were collected from 42 patients newly diagnosed with OSCC in our hospital from January 1999 to December 2008. PCR was performed to detect HPV DNA, and p16 expression was measured by immunohistochemistry. The chi-square test was used to compare the local/regional control rate (CR) between HPV (+)/p16 (+) patients and HPV (-)/p16 (-) patients after radical radiotherapy and evaluate the association between HPV infection and p16 expression; the Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate overall survival (OS), and the log-rank test was used for survival difference analysis. Results: The follow-up rate was 100%.The HPV infection rate was 19%, and the positive rate of p16 was 43%. In patients who received radical radiotherapy, the local CR for HPV (+) patients was 100%, versus 54% for HPV (-) patients (P =0.026); the local CR for p16 (+) patients was 92%, versus 44% for p16 (-) patients (P=0.006); the locoregional CR for p16(-) patients was 69%, versus 22% for p16 (-) patients (P=0.009). For high-risk patients, HPV infection was significantly associated with p16 expression (P=0.000). The 3-year OS rates for p16 (+) and p16 (-) patients were 91% and 2 6 %, respectively (P=0.001). Conclusions: The p16 expression is closely associated with HPV infection in OSCC patients, and it is expected to become one of the prognostic markers in OSCC patients treated with radiotherapy. (authors)
AJRH Managing Editor
assessed girls' knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV vaccine, and their acceptance of future vaccination of ... studies involve parents and young adults. The ... vaccine was delivered during the routine Child ... and attitudes about the vaccine.
Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV infection contributes to most cases of cervical cancer, and HPV genotypes exhibit different distributions according to geographic region. This study evaluates the prevalence of HPV infection in Hetian Prefecture, Xinjiang, and establishes risk factors associated with high-risk HPV (HR-HPV genotypes in this region. In this cross-sectional, population-based study, 883 healthy women 15-54 years of age were enrolled. All participants completed a questionnaire regarding sociocultural and sexual activity characteristics. Visual inspections with acetic acid, colposcopies and biopsies were performed using the Preventive Oncology International microbiopsy protocol for pathological diagnosis. Cervical epithelial tissue specimens were collected and tested for HPV using linear array assays. According to the results of HR-HPV infection status, individuals infected with HR-HPV were classified into one group, and the remaining individuals were classified into the control group. The risk factors for HR-HPF infection were analyzed. The participants included 66 women (7.47% with HR-HPV, 10 women (1.13% with low-risk HPV, and 14 women (1.59% with HPV of unknown risk. The five most prevalent types of HR-HPV were HPV-16 (0.31%, HPV-51 (0.08%, HPV-31 (0.07%, HPV-58 (0.07%, and HPV-39 (0.06%. Vulvovaginal ulcers and vulvovaginal inflammation were found in 190 participants (21.52% and 256 participants (28.99%, respectively. The HR-HPV and control groups significantly differed with respect to age at first marriage, number of marriages, and the presence of vulvovaginal ulcers and vulvovaginal inflammation (p<0.05. Based on this study, an immunization strategy targeting HPV-16 should be prioritized in Hetian Prefecture. These findings contribute to the understanding of HPV infection.
de Jong, Annemieke; van der Hulst, Jeanette M.; Kenter, Gemma G.; Drijfhout, Jan Wouter; Franken, Kees L. M. C.; Vermeij, Pieter; Offringa, Rienk; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.; Melief, Cornelis J. M.
The majority of cervical cancers are caused by human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16). Cervical cancer is associated with an ineffective host immune response against the HPV16 oncoproteins, characterized by the lack of the strong E6-specific T-helper type 1 (Th1) immunity that is generally present in
A morphological protocol and guide-list on uterine cervix cytology associated to Papillomavirus infection Padronização da análise de critérios citomorfológicos de lesões associadas à infecção pelo HPV
Luzia Setuko Umeda Yamamoto
Full Text Available The present study was designed to further assess the validity of the cytological description of morphological lesions said to be related to Papillomavirus (HPV infections in senior women. The casuistic comprised 196 cervical smears from a group of women with no clinical or morphological evidence of neoplasia, collected simultaneously with samples submitted to detection of HPV DNA by PCR in a previous study. Three experienced cytologists studied each slide in two different conditions, with an interval of 20 months between them. The first approach was performed under routine laboratory standards, whereas the second was guided by a list of 16 well-defined parameters indicative of HPV-related cytological lesions. When suspicious cases of HPV-related alterations were grouped with positive cases, they showed on average: sensitivity of 25.5%, specificity of 84.4% and positive predictive value (PPV of 26.8%. When suspicious cases were grouped with negative cases, sensitivity decreased, whereas specificity and PPV increased, as expected. In the second reading, which followed a "guide-list", a decrease in sensitivity was observed, contrasting with a sharp increase of positive predictive value. Among the 16 cytomorphological criteria tested, "koilocytosis", "mild koilocytosis" and "condylomatous parabasal cells" yielded the best predictive value for HPV DNA detection by PCR. In conclusion, despite the low sensitivity, cytopathologic assessment of cervico-vaginal smears leads to a highly specific diagnosis of HPV infection in menopausal women, with PPV of 91.0% when directed by a guide-list of well-defined morphologic criteria.O presente estudo analisou aspectos relacionados ao valor da citologia cervical na identificação de alterações cito-morfológicas relacionadas à infecção por Papilomavírus humano (HPV em mulheres com idades avançadas. A casuística compreendeu 196 amostras cérvico-vaginais provenientes de uma população de mulheres sem evid
Human papillomavirus, or HPV, is a virus that can cause certain cancers and is the most commonly sexually transmitted infection in the U.S. In this podcast, Dr. Laura Viens discusses the importance of getting vaccinated against HPV.
Human papillomavirus, or HPV, is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the U.S. and is associated with almost 39,000 cancers each year. This podcast discusses the importance of getting the HPV vaccine.
Yar, Denis Dekugmen; Salifu, Samson Pandam; Darko, Samuel Nkansah; Annan, Augustina Angelina; Gyimah, Akosua Adumea; Buabeng, Kwame Ohene; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis
The objective of this study is to describe the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women living with HIV and non-infected women in Ghana. A case-control study was conducted involving 107 women living with HIV aged between 18 and 59 years (cases) and 100 non-HIV-infected apparently healthy women (controls) who were recruited from the Kumasi South Hospital, from July to December, 2014. Cervicovaginal swabs were taken from study participants to characterise 28 high- and low-risk HPV genotypes using a multiplex real-time PCR. The overall mean age for the participants was 40.10 ± 9.76 years. The prevalence of high-risk (hr)-HPV genotypes was significantly higher among the cases than the controls (77.4% vs. 41.6%, P < 0.0001). Overall, HPV 58 and 54 were the most predominant high-risk (18.8%) and low-risk (15.0%) genotypes detected. The two most common hr-HPV genotype isolates were 58 (18.8%) and 35 (15.9%) with 58 being the most prevalent among age group 35-44 years compared with hr-HPV 16, 18, 35 and 45, found predominantly among 18-34 age group. Significant variations exist in HPV genotypes among HIV-infected and uninfected women. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Human Papillomavirus (HPV is the main risk factor for cervical cancers and is associated with close to 36% of oropharyngeal cancers. There is increasing evidence that oral HPV transmission is related to sexual behavior but to our knowledge studies that involve women who have sex with women have not been performed. We examined the prevalence of oral HPV according to sexual behavior among a population-based sample of 118 women and have made some inferences of possible predictors of oral HPV infection. Women were categorized as heterosexual (history of vaginal sex and/or oral sex with males only, n = 75, bisexual (history of vaginal sex and oral sex with females, n = 32 and other (no history of vaginal sex but oral sex with females [homosexuals], virgins and women with incomplete sexual exposure data, n = 11 The prevalence of oral HPV infection was 12/118 (10.2% for the overall study population and was not significantly different between heterosexual and bisexual women (10.7% (8/75 vs. 12.5% (4/32, p = 0.784. There was no oral HPV detected among homosexual women, virgins or among women where sexual exposure was unknown. Never smokers were more likely to be oral HPV+ compared to former smokers (Adjusted Odds Ratio (Adj OR = 0.1, 95% CI, 0.0–1.1 and there was no difference in risk between never smokers and current smokers (Adj OR = 0.7, 95% CI, 0.1–4.6. Twenty-five percent (3/12 of oral HPV+ women had a history of HPV and/or genital warts compared to 9% (10/106 of oral HPV-women (p = 0.104. For the women with a history of vaginal sex (n = 110, oral HPV status was statistically significantly different according to oral sex exposure (p = 0.039. A higher proportion of oral HPV-positive women reported that they had no history of oral sex exposure compared to oral HPV-negative women (4/12, 33% vs. 7/98, 8%. The prevalence of cervical HPV infection did not vary between heterosexuals and bisexuals (35.7% (25/70 vs. 35.5% (11/31, p-value 0.411 and for
Clarke, Megan A; Gradissimo, Ana; Schiffman, Mark; Lam, Jessica; Sollecito, Christopher C; Fetterman, Barbara; Lorey, Thomas; Poitras, Nancy; Raine-Bennett, Tina R; Castle, Philip E; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Burk, Robert D
Purpose: Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA methylation testing is a promising triage option for women testing HPV positive during cervical cancer screening. However, the extent to which methylation indicates precancer for all 12 carcinogenic HPV types has not been evaluated. Experimental Design: In this nested case-control study, we tested up to 30 cases of precancer [cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3)/adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS)] and 30 normal controls for each carcinogenic type (single infections with 16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59). Next-generation bisulfite sequencing was performed on CpG sites within the L1 and L2 genes. We calculated differences in methylation, ORs, and AUC. Using a fixed sensitivity of 80%, we evaluated the specificity and the risk of CIN3/AIS for best performing CpG sites, and compared the performance of an explorative multi-type methylation assay with current triage strategies. Results: Methylation was positively associated with CIN3/AIS across all 12 types. AUCs for the top sites ranged from 0.71 (HPV51 and HPV56) to 0.86 (HPV18). A combined 12-type methylation assay had the highest Youden index (0.46), compared with cytology (0.31) and a 5-type methylation assay, including only previously described types (0.26). The 12-type methylation assay had higher sensitivity (80% vs. 76.6%) and lower test positivity compared with cytology (38.5% vs. 48.7%). The risk of CIN3/AIS was highest for methylation positives and lowest for cytology or HPV16/18 positives. Conclusions: HPV DNA methylation is a general phenomenon marking the transition from HPV infection to precancer for all 12 carcinogenic types. Development of a combined multitype methylation assay may serve as a triage test for HPV-positive women. Clin Cancer Res; 24(9); 2194-202. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.
Fang, L.; Ward, M.G.; Welsh, P.A.; Budgeon, L.R.; Neely, E.B.; Howett, M.K.
Recent epidemiological studies have found that women infected with both herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 or HPV-18 are at greater risk of developing cervical carcinoma compared to women infected with only one virus. However, it remains unclear if HSV-2 is a cofactor for cervical cancer or if HPV and HSV-2 interact in any way. We have studied the effect of HSV-2 infection on HPV-11 gene expression in an in vitro double-infection assay. HPV transcripts were down-regulated in response to HSV-2 infection. Two HSV-2 vhs mutants failed to reduce HPV-16 E1-circumflexE4 transcripts. We also studied the effect of HSV-2 infection on preexisting experimental papillomas in a vaginal epithelial xenograft model. Doubly infected grafts demonstrated papillomatous transformation and the classical cytopathic effect from HSV-2 infection. HPV and HSV DNA signals were mutually exclusive. These studies may have therapeutic applications for HPV infections and related neoplasms
Gao, Weijiao; Weng, Jinlong; Gao, Yunong; Chen, Xiaochi
The female genital tract is an important bacterial habitat of the human body, and vaginal microbiota plays a crucial role in vaginal health. The alteration of vaginal microbiota affects millions of women annually, and is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes, including human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. However, previous studies have primarily focused on the association between bacterial vaginosis and HPV infection. Little is known about the composition of vaginal microbial communities involved in HPV acquisition. The present study was performed to investigate whether HPV infection was associated with the diversity and composition of vaginal microbiota. A total of 70 healthy women (32 HPV-negative and 38 HPV-positive) with normal cervical cytology were enrolled in this study. Culture-independent polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to measure the diversity and composition of vaginal microbiota of all subjects. We found significantly greater biological diversity in the vaginal microbiota of HPV-positive women (p vaginal microbiota from the two groups had different profiles. Our study is the first systematic evaluation of an association between vaginal microbiota and HPV infection, and we have demonstrated that compared with HPV-negative women, the bacterial diversity of HPV-positive women is more complex and the composition of vaginal microbiota is different.
Weinberg, Adriana; Huang, Sharon; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Saah, Afred; Levin, Myron J
To determine the magnitude and persistence of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV)16 and HPV18 B-cell and T-cell memory after three or four doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccine (QHPV) in HIV-infected children. Seventy-four HIV-infected children immunized with four doses and 23 with three doses of QHPV had HPV16 and HPV18 IgG B-cell and IFNγ and IL2 T-cell ELISPOT performed at 2, 3.5 and 4-5 years after the last dose. HPV16 and HPV18 T-cell responses were similar in both treatment groups, with higher responses to HPV16 vs. HPV18. These HPV T-cell responses correlated with HIV disease characteristics at the study visits. Global T-cell function declined over time as measured by nonspecific mitogenic stimulation. B-cell memory was similar across treatment groups and HPV genotypes. There was a decline in HPV-specific B-cell memory over time that reached statistical significance for HPV16 in the four-dose group. B-cell and T-cell memory did not significantly differ after either three or four doses of QHPV in HIV-infected children. The clinical consequences of decreasing global T-cell function and HPV B-cell memory over time in HIV-infected children requires further investigation.
Mee Young Chung
Full Text Available The accurate genotyping of human papillomavirus (HPV is clinically important because the oncogenic potential of HPV is dependent on specific genotypes. Here, we described the development of a bead-based multiplex HPV genotyping (MPG method which is able to detect 20 types of HPV (15 high-risk HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68 and 5 low-risk HPV types 6, 11, 40, 55, 70 and evaluated its accuracy with sequencing. A total of 890 clinical samples were studied. Among these samples, 484 were HPV positive and 406 were HPV negative by consensus primer (PGMY09/11 directed PCR. The genotyping of 484 HPV positive samples was carried out by the bead-based MPG method. The accuracy was 93.5% (95% CI, 91.0-96.0, 80.1% (95% CI, 72.3-87.9 for single and multiple infections, respectively, while a complete type mismatch was observed only in one sample. The MPG method indiscriminately detected dysplasia of several cytological grades including 71.8% (95% CI, 61.5-82.3 of ASCUS (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and more specific for high grade lesions. For women with HSIL (high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and SCC diagnosis, 32 women showed a PPV (positive predictive value of 77.3% (95% CI, 64.8-89.8. Among women >40 years of age, 22 women with histological cervical cancer lesions showed a PPV of 88% (95% CI, 75.3-100. Of the highest risk HPV types including HPV-16, 18 and 31 positive women of the same age groups, 34 women with histological cervical cancer lesions showed a PPV of 77.3% (95% CI, 65.0-89.6. Taken together, the bead-based MPG method could successfully detect high-grade lesions and high-risk HPV types with a high degree of accuracy in clinical samples.
The purpose of this study was to examine human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV vaccine knowledge, attitudes, and uptake in college students and to identify factors associated with vaccination status utilizing the Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM). The sample included 383 undergraduates from a public university who participated in February and March 2015. Students were emailed an anonymous online survey assessing knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions related to HPV and HPV vaccination, as well as their stage in the PAPM regarding vaccination completion. Significantly more females (47.3%) than males (15.8%) were vaccinated. While most students had basic knowledge of HPV, they had low perceptions of their susceptibility to contract HPV. Most unvaccinated students were in the early stages of decision-making related to vaccination. Campus health centers have an opportunity to increase HPV vaccination rates. This study indicates that students need prompts from providers, as well as education regarding susceptibility to HPV. PMID:28786994
Bustamam, A.; Aldila, D.; Fatimah, Arimbi, M. D.
One of the most widely used clustering method, since it has advantage on its robustness, is Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) method. This paper discusses the application of SOM method on Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA which is the main cause of cervical cancer disease, the most dangerous cancer in developing countries. We use 18 types of HPV DNA-based on the newest complete genome. By using open-source-based program R, clustering process can separate 18 types of HPV into two different clusters. There are two types of HPV in the first cluster while 16 others in the second cluster. The analyzing result of 18 types HPV based on the malignancy of the virus (the difficultness to cure). Two of HPV types the first cluster can be classified as tame HPV, while 16 others in the second cluster are classified as vicious HPV.
Aziz, Hafsa; Iqbal, Huma; Mahmood, Humera; Fatima, Shazia; Faheem, Mohammad; Sattar, Areej Abdul; Tabassum, Sobia; Napper, Sanum; Batool, Syeda; Rasheed, Nuzhat
Globally, cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women and the seventh most common cancer overall, accounting for an estimated 300 000 annual deaths. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the second most common cause of cervical cancer worldwide. HPV screening is not a common practice in Pakistan. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV and HPV types in women with a normal cytology of the cervix living in the upper and lower regions of Punjab, Pakistan, and to analyze the risk factors for HPV in this region. PCR analysis was performed for 1011 female patients with a normal cytology of the cervix from various districts of Punjab Province, Pakistan. Risk factors for the acquisition of HPV were studied. High-risk HPV types (HPV16 and HPV18) were detected using the Abbott Real Time HR HPV test. To determine the genotype, partial L1 region sequences of HPV-positive samples were subjected to sequencing using MY/09/MY11 primers, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed using CLC software. The study found a 4.74% prevalence of HPV, with the most frequent HPV type found being the low-risk HPV6 (in 25% of infected individuals), followed by HPV55 (22.9%), HPV11 (20.8%), and high-risk types HPV45 (12.5%), HPV33 (8.33%), HPV18 (6.25%), and HPV16 (4.16%). Phylogenetic analysis of all HPV types in this study showed 80-99% nucleotide identity with types related to the same species. The sequences were clustered with China, India, Mexico, Iran, Slovenia, and Germany, showing the diversity in origin of the various genotypes prevalent in Pakistan. In this population with a normal cervical cytology, the prevalence of high-risk HPV types was very low. The major prevalent HPV genotype in Punjab Province of Pakistan was the low-risk HPV type 6, followed by HPV type 55. Sequencing of the partial L1 region suggested that the region was highly conserved in all reported sequences. This study highlights the need to conduct robust epidemiological studies in the region
Jensen, Kirsten Egebjerg; Schmiedel, Sven; Frederiksen, Kirsten
were also conducted. Hazard ratios (HRs) for a diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse/high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse (CIN3+) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in the 2 groups. RESULTS: Among high-risk HPV positive women......BACKGROUND: Smoking has been associated with cervical cancer. We examined whether smoking increases the risk for high-grade cervical lesions in women with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. METHODS: In a population-based cohort study, 8,656 women underwent a structured interview......, and subsequently cervical cells were obtained for HPV DNA testing. Women with high-risk HPV infection and no prevalent cervical disease at baseline (n=1,353) were followed through the Pathology Data Bank for cervical lesions for up to 13 years. Separate analyses of women with persistent high-risk HPV infection...
Chesson, Harrell W; Laprise, Jean-François; Brisson, Marc; Markowitz, Lauri E
We estimated the potential impact and cost-effectiveness of providing 3-doses of nonavalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (9vHPV) to females aged 13-18 years who had previously completed a series of quadrivalent HPV vaccine (4vHPV), a strategy we refer to as "additional 9vHPV vaccination." We used 2 distinct models: (1) the simplified model, which is among the most basic of the published dynamic HPV models, and (2) the US HPV-ADVISE model, a complex, stochastic, individual-based transmission-dynamic model. When assuming no 4vHPV cross-protection, the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained by additional 9vHPV vaccination was $146 200 in the simplified model and $108 200 in the US HPV-ADVISE model ($191 800 when assuming 4vHPV cross-protection). In 1-way sensitivity analyses in the scenario of no 4vHPV cross-protection, the simplified model results ranged from $70 300 to $182 000, and the US HPV-ADVISE model results ranged from $97 600 to $118 900. The average cost per QALY gained by additional 9vHPV vaccination exceeded $100 000 in both models. However, the results varied considerably in sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. Additional 9vHPV vaccination is likely not as efficient as many other potential HPV vaccination strategies, such as increasing primary 9vHPV vaccine coverage. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Tung, Iris L. Y.; Machalek, Dorothy A.; Garland, Suzanne M.
Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination targets high-risk HPV16/18 that cause 70% of all cancers of the cervix. In Australia there is a fully-funded, school-based National HPV Vaccination Program which has achieved vaccine initiation rate of 82% among age-eligible females. Improving HPV vaccination rates is important in the prevention of morbidity and mortality associated with HPV-related disease. This study aimed to identify factors and barriers associated with uptake of the HPV vaccine in the Australian Program. Methods Between 2011 and 2014, females aged 18–25 years, living in Victoria, Australia who were offered HPV vaccination between 2007 and 2009 as part of the National HPV Vaccination Program, living in Victoria, Australia were recruited into a a young women’s study examining effectiveness of the Australian National HPV Vaccination Program. Overall, 668 participants completed the recruitment survey, which collected data of participants’ demographics and HPV knowledge. In 2015 these participants were invited to complete an additional supplementary survey on parental demographics and attitudes towards vaccinations. Results In 2015, 417 participants completed the supplementary survey (62% response rate). Overall, 19% of participants were unvaccinated. In multivariate analyses, HPV vaccination was significantly associated with their being born in Australia (pvaccinations (pparents being main decision-makers for participants’ HPV vaccination (pHPV non-vaccination was parental concern about vaccine safety (43%). Compared with HPV-vaccinated participants, those unvaccinated were significantly more likely to be opposed to all vaccines, including HPV vaccines (pvaccinating their own children with all vaccines (p = 0.033), including HPV vaccines (pHPV vaccine acceptance. Conclusions Attitudes towards general health, vaccinations in general, as well as HPV vaccines are important in HPV vaccine uptake. Long-term monitoring of the knowledge, attitude
Trottier, Helen; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Coutlée, François; Monnier, Patricia; Laporte, Louise; Niyibizi, Joseph; Carceller, Ana-Maria; Fraser, William D; Brassard, Paul; Lacroix, Jacques; Francoeur, Diane; Bédard, Marie-Josée; Girard, Isabelle; Audibert, François
Perinatal route of transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV) has been demonstrated in several small studies. We designed a large prospective cohort study (HERITAGE) to better understand perinatal HPV. The objective of this article is to present the study design and preliminary data. In the first phase of the study, we recruited 167 women in Montreal, Canada, during the first trimester of pregnancy. An additional 850 are currently being recruited in the ongoing phase. Cervicovaginal samples were obtained from mothers in the first trimester and tested for HPV DNA from 36 mucosal genotypes (and repeated in the third trimester for HPV-positive mothers). Placental samples were also taken for HPV DNA testing. Conjunctival, oral, pharyngeal and genital samples were collected for HPV DNA testing in children of HPV-positive mothers at every 3-6 months from birth until 2 years of age. Blood samples were collected in mother and children for HPV serology testing. We found a high prevalence of HPV in pregnant women (45%[95%CI:37-53%]) and in placentas (14%[8-21%]). The proportion of HPV positivity (any site) among children at birth/3-months was 11%[5-22%]. HPV was detected in children in multiple sites including the conjunctiva (5%[10-14%]). The ongoing HERITAGE cohort will help provide a better understanding of perinatal HPV. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Background. Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted viral disease in the world. HPV infection of the genital epithelium is associated with genital warts and malignancies of the lower genital tract. Objectives. To describe the distribution, phenotypic appearance and HPV type ...
Moreira, Edson Duarte; Giuliano, Anna R; Palefsky, Joel; Flores, Carlos Aranda; Goldstone, Stephen; Ferris, Daron; Hillman, Richard J; Moi, Harald; Stoler, Mark H; Marshall, Brooke; Vuocolo, Scott; Guris, Dalya; Haupt, Richard M
In this analysis, we examine the incidence and clearance of external genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among heterosexual males aged 16-24 years. A total of 1732 males aged 16-24 years old in the placebo arm of a quadrivalent HPV vaccine trial were included in this analysis. Participants were enrolled from 18 countries in Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Europe, Latin America, and North America. Subjects underwent anogenital examinations and sampling of the penis, scrotum, and perineal/perianal regions. The incidence rate of any HPV DNA genotype 6, 11, 16, and/or 18 detection was 9.0 cases per 100 person-years. Rates of HPV DNA detection were highest in men from Africa. Median time to clearance of HPV genotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18 DNA was 6.1, 6.1, 7.7, and 6.2 months, respectively. Median time to clearance of persistently detected HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 DNA was 6.7, 3.2, 9.2, and 4.7 months, respectively. The study results suggest that the acquisition of HPV 6, 11, 16, and/or 18 in males is common and that many of these so-called infections are subsequently cleared, similar to findings for women. Nevertheless, given the high rate of HPV detection among young men, HPV vaccination of males may reduce infection in men and reduce the overall burden of HPV-associated disease in the community. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Most human papillomavirus (HPV) antiviral strategies have focused upon inhibiting viral DNA replication, but it is increasingly apparent that viral DNA levels can be chemically controlled by approaches that promote its instability. HPVs and other DNA viruses have a tenuous relationship with their hosts. They must replicate and hide from the DNA damage response (DDR) and innate immune systems, which serve to protect cells from foreign or "non-self" DNA, and yet they draft these same systems to support their life cycles. DNA binding antiviral agents promoting massive viral DNA instability and elimination are reviewed. Mechanistic studies of these agents have identified genetic antiviral enhancers and repressors, antiviral sensitizers, and host cell elements that protect and stabilize HPV genomes. Viral DNA degradation appears to be an important means of controlling HPV DNA levels in some cases, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. These findings may prove useful not only for understanding viral DNA persistence but also in devising future antiviral strategies.
Abdalla, George Kemil; Fajardo, Emanuella Francisco; Gomes, Bruno Belmonte Martinelli; Bianco, Thiago Mantello; Salge, Ana Karina Marques; Carvalho, Eduardo Elias Vieira de; Dos Reis, Marlize Moura; Abrahão, Dayana Pousa Siqueira; Abdalla, Douglas Reis
Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV), belonging to the Papovavirida family, is the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease (STD) agent worldwide. In Brazil, it is estimated that there are 3-6 million people infected with HPV. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of young male students about penis cancer related to HPV infection. Methods: This exploratory and quantitative study was conducted to analyze answers of 242 male students attending a private college located in Uberaba city, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, during 2015. Results: Most of the 242 participants (88.8%) affirmed having started sexual life very early, the majority (79.3%) were currently married and 69.8% had a single sexual partner. Regardless of their knowledge about HPV virus and its relationship with penis cancer, our data showed a general lack of awareness of the participants. Conclusion: Our results suggest that despite efforts to propagate information about HPV infection and its relation to penis cancer, the level of knowledge of students is low. Because of that, it is important to improve the information spread by media, emphasizing prevention and treatment of HPV infection in men. Creative Commons Attribution License
Abdalla, George Kemil; Fajardo, Emanuella Francisco; Gomes, Bruno Belmonte Martinelli; Bianco, Thiago Mantello; Salge, Ana Karina Marques; de Carvalho, Eduardo Elias Vieira; Reis, Marlize Moura Dos; Abrahão, Dayana Pousa Siqueira; Abdalla, Douglas Reis
Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV), belonging to the Papovavirida family, is the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease (STD) agent worldwide. In Brazil, it is estimated that there are 3-6 million people infected with HPV. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of young male students about penis cancer related to HPV infection. Methods: This exploratory and quantitative study was conducted to analyze answers of 242 male students attending a private college located in Uberaba city, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, during 2015. Results: Most of the 242 participants (88.8%) affirmed having started sexual life very early, the majority (79.3%) were currently married and 69.8% had a single sexual partner. Regardless of their knowledge about HPV virus and its relationship with penis cancer, our data showed a general lack of awareness of the participants. Conclusion: Our results suggest that despite efforts to propagate information about HPV infection and its relation to penis cancer, the level of knowledge of students is low. Because of that, it is important to improve the information spread by media, emphasizing prevention and treatment of HPV infection in men. PMID:28612588
Hajjaj, Aida A.; Senok, Abiola C.; Al-Mahmeed, Ali E.; Botta, Giuseppe A.; Issa, Abdulla A.; Arzes, Alessandra
To investigate the occurrence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the associated risk factors in Bahrain's female population. This study was carried out between March to December 2004, which includes cervical scrapings for Pap smear and HPV-DNA testing using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, obtained from 100 women attending the Gynecology Clinic at Salmaniya Medical Center and Sheikh Sabah Health Center in the Kingdom of Bahrain. We distributed questionnaires that include the sociodemographic data as well as information on risk factors such as smoking, parity, and the contraceptive used. Eleven women (11%) with normal cytology were HPV-positive. The RFLP analysis detected HPV-types 16, 18, 45, 62 and 53. Positive women were significantly older (43.3+-10.1 years) than negatives (36.5+-9.9 years; p=0.04), however, there was no difference in age of first sexual contact (positive: 18.1+-5.7 years versus negative: 20.6 +- 4.4 years). Polygamy, smoking and hormonal contraception was not identified as risk factors, but positive women showed higher parity. In this study on HPV infection in Behrain, the 11% positivity with high risk HPV types, in the presence of normal cytology suggests that in addition to the cervical cancer screening program, offer of HPV testing deserves consideration. (author)
Candice Y Johnson
Full Text Available Women testing positive for human papillomavirus (HPV infection experience increased levels of anxiety that have been attributed to fears of stigmatization and developing cervical cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between HPV infection and anxiety in women who were unaware they had been tested specifically for HPV, to determine if any anxiety experienced by HPV-positive women could be due to causes other than learning of test results.This study was nested within a randomised controlled trial of management of women with abnormal cervical cytology conducted in the United Kingdom with recruitment between 1999 and 2002. At baseline, prior to having a sample taken for HPV testing, the results of which were not disclosed, women were assessed for anxiety using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and asked about fears of developing cervical cancer ("cancer worries"; this assessment was repeated at 12, 18, 24, and 30 months of follow-up. Logistic regression and generalized estimating equations were used for the cross-sectional (baseline and longitudinal analyses, respectively.Among the 2842 participants, there was no association between HPV status and anxiety among white women. Among non-white women, however, anxiety was less common among HPV-positive than HPV-negative women (adjusted odds ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.22 to 0.77. Among non-smokers, cancer worry was more common in HPV-positive than HPV-negative women; the opposite association was observed among ex-smokers.Associations between HPV status and anxiety may be explained by factors other than learning of test results and may vary by ethnicity and lifestyle factors.
Remes, Olivia; Smith, Leah M; Alvarado-Llano, Beatriz E; Colley, Lindsey; Lévesque, Linda E
Studies on the determinants of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine use have generally focused on individual-level characteristics, despite the potentially important influence of regional-level characteristics. Therefore, we undertook a population-based, retrospective cohort study to identify individual- and regional-level determinants of HPV vaccine refusal (non-receipt) in Ontario's (Canada) Grade 8 HPV Immunization Program. Ontario's administrative health and immunization databases were used to identify girls eligible for free HPV vaccination in 2007-2011 and to ascertain individual-level characteristics of cohort members (socio-demographics, vaccination history, health care utilization, medical history). The social and material characteristics of the girl's region (health unit) were derived from the 2006 Canadian Census. Generalized estimating equations (binomial distribution, logit link) were used to estimate the population-average effects of individual- and regional-level characteristics on HPV vaccine refusal. Our cohort consisted of 144,047 girls, 49.3% of whom refused HPV vaccination. Factors associated with refusal included a previous diagnosis of Down's syndrome (OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.16-1.63) or autism (OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.34-1.90), few physician visits (OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.35-1.55), and previous refusal of mandatory (OR = 2.23, 95% CI 2.07-2.40) and optional (OR = 3.96, 95% CI 3.87-4.05) vaccines. Refusal was highest among the lowest and highest income levels. Finally, a previous diagnosis of obesity and living in an area of high deprivation were associated with lower refusal (OR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.83-0.92 and OR = 0.82 95%, CI 0.79-0.86, respectively). Studies on HPV vaccine determinants should consider regional-level factors. Efforts to increase HPV vaccine acceptance should include vulnerable populations (such as girls of low income) and girls with limited contact with the healthcare system.
Haupt, Richard M; Wheeler, Cosette M; Brown, Darron R
The impact of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine on development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2-3 or adenocarcinoma in situ (CIN2-3/AIS) in women with ongoing HPV16 or 18 infections prevaccination is reported. Seventeen thousand six-hundred and twenty-two women aged 16-26 were.......9). These data suggest HPV vaccination neither reduces nor enhances progression to HPV16/18-related high grade cervical lesions, and cervical cytology screening and corresponding management should continue as per local recommendations. Ultimately, population-based surveillance of vaccinated individuals beyond...
Cunningham-Erves, Jennifer; Talbott, Laura L.
The disease burden of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) among females and its associated sequelae have been widely studied by social and behavioral science researchers and medical professionals. Approved for administration to males as young as nine years old, the vaccination of males continues to spark much debate when older age groups are brought…
Full Text Available To investigate the prevalence, genotypes, and prognostic values of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and human papillomavirus (HPV infections in Japanese patients with different types of head and neck cancer (HNC.HPV and EBV DNA, EBV genotypes and LMP-1 variants, and HPV mRNA expression were detected by PCR from fresh-frozen HNC samples. HPV genotypes were determined by direct sequencing, and EBV encoded RNA (EBER was examined by in situ hybridization.Of the 209 HNC patients, 63 (30.1% had HPV infection, and HPV-16 was the most common subtype (86.9%. HPV E6/E7 mRNA expression was found in 23 of 60 (38.3% HPV DNA-positive cases detected. The site of highest prevalence of HPV was the oropharynx (45.9%. Among 146 (69.9% HNCs in which EBV DNA was identified, 107 (73.3% and 27 (18.5% contained types A and B, respectively, and 124 (84.9% showed the existence of del-LMP-1. However, only 13 (6.2% HNCs were positive for EBER, 12 (92.3% of which derived from the nasopharynx. Co-infection of HPV and EBER was found in only 1.0% of HNCs and 10.0% of NPCs. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed significantly better disease-specific and overall survival in the HPV DNA+/mRNA+ oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPC patients than in the other OPC patients (P = 0.027 and 0.017, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that stage T1-3 (P = 0.002 and HPV mRNA-positive status (P = 0.061 independently predicted better disease-specific survival. No significant difference in disease-specific survival was found between the EBER-positive and -negative NPC patients (P = 0.155.Our findings indicate that co-infection with HPV and EBV is rare in HNC. Oropharyngeal SCC with active HPV infection was related to a highly favorable outcome, while EBV status was not prognostic in the NPC cohort.
Full Text Available Background and objectives: Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Human papillomavirus (HPV is known to be associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and cancer. The objective of the present study was to determine the rate of HPV infection among the Bangladeshi women with different grades of CIN and cancer. Methods: Women aged 20 to 55 years, diagnosed as a case of chronic cervicits, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN or invasive cancer by Papanicolaou (Pap smear and colposcopy directed biopsy were enrolled in the study. High and intermediate risk oncogenic HPV were detected in cervical samples by real time PCR (rt-PCR. Results: Seventy two women with chronic cervicitis and different grades of CIN were included in the study. Out of 72 cases, 28 (38.9% and 44 (61.1% had chronic cervicitis and CIN respectively. Overall, the HPV infection rate was 43.1% (95% CI= 32%-54% among the study population. CIN cases had significantly high (p<0.01 HPV infection (78.6%; 95% CI=60%-89% compared to cases with chronic cervicitis (18.2%; 95% CI=11.1%-34.5%. Women between the age of 20-30 years had the highest positive rate (50.0% followed by 31-40 years age group (43.6%. All CIN grade 2 and 3 had HPV infection. Conclusion: The study showed that HPV was strongly associated with different grades of CIN. Specific HPV types should be determined to find out the most prevalent HPV types among the Bangladeshi women with CIN and cervical cancers. IMC J Med Sci 2016; 10(1: 29-32
Sudenga, Staci L; Torres, B Nelson; Silva, Roberto; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Abrahamsen, Martha; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Salmeron, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Giuliano, Anna R
Background: Male genital human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and incidence has been reported to vary by geographical location. Our objective was to assess the natural history of genital HPV by country among men with a median of 48 months of follow-up. Methods: Men ages 18-70 years were recruited from United States ( n = 1,326), Mexico ( n = 1,349), and Brazil ( n = 1,410). Genital specimens were collected every 6 months and HPV genotyping identified 37 HPV genotypes. Prevalence of HPV was compared between the three countries using the Fisher exact test. Incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The median time to HPV clearance among men with an incident infection was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The prevalence and incidence of the genital HPV types known to cause disease in males (HPV 16 and 6) was significantly higher among men from Brazil than men from Mexico. Prevalence and incidence of those genital HPV types in the United States varied between being comparable with those of Mexico or Brazil. Although genital HPV16 duration was significantly longer in Brazil ( P = 0.04) compared with Mexico and the United States, HPV6 duration was shortest in Brazil ( P = 0.03) compared with Mexico and the United States. Conclusions: Men in Brazil and Mexico often have similar, if not higher prevalence of HPV compared with men from the United States. Impact: Currently, there is no routine screening for genital HPV among males and while HPV is common in men, and most naturally clear the infection, a proportion of men do develop HPV-related diseases. Men may benefit from gender-neutral vaccine policies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(7); 1043-52. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Major histocompatibility complex class II deficiency, also referred to as bare lymphocyte syndrome is a rare primary Immunodeficiency disorder characterized by a profondly deficient human leukocyte antigen class II expression and a lack of cellular and humoral immune responses to foreign antigens. Clinical manifestations include extreme susceptibility to viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. The infections begin in the first year of life and involve usually the respiratory system and the gastrointestinal tract. Severe malabsorption with failure to thrive ensues, often leading to death in early childhood. Bone marrow transplantation is the curative treatment. Case reports Here we report two cases with a late outcome MHC class II deficiency. They had a long term history of recurrent bronchopulmonary and gastrointestinal infections. Bone marrow transplantation could not be performed because no compatible donor had been identified. At the age of 12 years, they developed oral papillomatous lesions related to HPV (human papillomavirus. The diagnosis of HPV infection was done by histological examination. HPV typing performed on the tissue obtained at biopsy showed HPV type 6. The lesions were partially removed after two months of laser treatment. Conclusions Viral infections are common in patients with MHC class II and remain the main cause of death. Besides warts caused by HPV infection do not exhibit a propensity for malignant transformation; they can cause great psychosocial morbidity.
Yi Xin Li
Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major burden of public health and healthcare worldwide. Microbiota has been suggested in promoting chronic inflammation in the intestine which, in turn, promotes tumor development. This study focuses on possible correlations of human papillomavirus (HPV infection with proinflammatory Stat3 signaling activities and the resulting levels of its downstream proinflammatory cytokine IL-17 in CRC patients.HPV was examined using HPV Genotyping Chip technology and constitutively active Stat3 (p-Stat3 and IL-17 levels were tested using immunohistochemistry (IHC in paraffin-embedded cancerous and adjacent normal tissues (ANT from a cohort of 95 CRC patients. Correlation analyses were performed between HPV infection and clinicopathological characteristics, Stat3 activities and IL-17 levels among these CRC patients.Three major findings were observed: (1 HPV infection existed in a high rate of CRC cases (48.4%, 46/95, of which 45 cases (45/46, 97.8% were high-risk HPV16-positive and only one case was HPV53-positive. (2 HPV infection correlated with poorer clinical stages (III+IV of CRC. (3 HPV infection strongly correlated with both constitutively higher Stat3 activities (P<0.01 and higher IL-17 levels (P<0.01 only in CRC tissues but not in ANT tissues.HPV infection is common in CRC patients suggesting potentially preventive effectiveness of HPV vaccination among high-risk young individuals. We have for the first time revealed a tri-lateral relationship among HPV infection, constitutive Stat3 activity and IL-17 level, whose collaborative act may orchestrate a proinflammatory microenvironment in the colorectum that, in turn, may promote carcinogenesis and possibly facilitate progression of CRC.
Sampson, Joshua N; Hildesheim, Allan; Herrero, Rolando; Gonzalez, Paula; Kreimer, Aimee R; Gail, Mitchell H
Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality in women worldwide. Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 cause about 70% of all cervical cancers. Clinical trials have demonstrated that three doses of either commercially available HPV vaccine, Cervarix ® or Gardasil ®, prevent most new HPV 16/18 infections and associated precancerous lesions. Based on evidence of immunological non-inferiority, 2-dose regimens have been licensed for adolescents in the United States, European Union, and elsewhere. However, if a single dose were effective, vaccine costs would be reduced substantially and the logistics of vaccination would be greatly simplified, enabling vaccination programs in developing countries. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Agencia Costarricense de Investigaciones Biomédicas (ACIB) are conducting, with support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), a large 24,000 girl study to evaluate the efficacy of a 1-dose regimen. The first component of the study is a four-year non-inferiority trial comparing 1- to 2-dose regimens of the two licensed vaccines. The second component is an observational study that estimates the vaccine efficacy (VE) of each regimen by comparing the HPV infection rates in the trial arms to those in a contemporaneous survey group of unvaccinated girls. In this paper, we describe the design and statistical analysis for this study. We explain the advantage of defining non-inferiority on the absolute risk scale when the expected event rate is near 0 and, given this definition, suggest an approach to account for missing clinic visits. We then describe the problem of estimating VE in the absence of a randomized placebo arm and offer our solution. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Louvanto, Karolina; Roger, Michel; Faucher, Marie-Claude; Syrjänen, Kari; Grenman, Seija; Syrjänen, Stina
Role of host factors in transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV)-infection from mother to her offspring is not known. Our aim was to study whether human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G allele concordance among the mother-child pairs could facilitate vertical transmission of HPV, because HLA-G may contribute to immune tolerance in pregnancy. Altogether, 310 mother-child pairs were included from the Finnish Family HPV study. Overall, nine different HLA-G alleles were identified. The HLA-G genotype concordance of G ∗ 01:01:01/01:04:01 increased the risk of high risk (HR)-HPV genotype positivity in cord blood and infant's oral mucosa. The mother-child concordance of G ∗ 01:01:02/01:01:02 increased the risk of oral HPV positivity with HR-HPV genotypes both in the mother and offspring; OR 2.45 (95%CI 1.24-4.85). Discordant HLA-G allele for G ∗ 01:04:01 and for G ∗ 01:06 was significantly associated with infant's oral low risk (LR)-HPV at birth, OR 3.07 (95%CI 1.01-9.36) and OR 5.19 (95%CI 1.22-22.03), respectively. HLA-G had no association with HPV genotype-specific concordance between the mother and child at birth nor influence on perinatal HPV status of the child. Taken together, our results show that HLA-G molecules have a role in predicting the newborn's likelihood for oral HPV infection at birth. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sally N. Adebamowo
Full Text Available BackgroundThe prevalence, persistence, and multiplicity of human papillomavirus (HPV infection appears different comparing HIV-positive to HIV-negative women. In this study, we examined prevalent, persistent, and multiple low- and high-risk cervical HPV infections in HIV-negative and HIV-positive women.MethodsWe studied 1,020 women involved in a study of HPV infection using SPF25/LiPA10. Two study visits were scheduled, at enrollment and 6 months afterward. At each study visit, research nurses used a cervical brush to collect samples of exfoliated cervical cells from the cervical os, from all the study participants. Exact logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between HIV and HPV infections.ResultsThe mean (SD age of the study participants was 38 (8 years, 56% were HIV-negative and 44% were HIV-positive. Among HIV-negative women at baseline, single low-risk HPV (lrHPV infections occurred in 12%; multiple lrHPV in 2%; single high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV infections in 9%, and multiple hrHPV infections in 2%. Single lrHPV infections were persistent in 6%, but there was no persistent multiple lrHPV infections. Single hrHPV infections were persistent in 4% while multiple hrHPV infections were persistent in 0.3%. Among HIV-positive women at baseline, single lrHPV infections occurred in 19%, multiple lrHPV in 6%, single hrHPV infections in 17%, and multiple hrHPV infections occurred in 12%. Single lrHPV infections were persistent in 9%, multiple lrHPV infections in 0.6%, single hrHPV infections in 13%, while multiple hrHPV were persistent in 3%. Prevalent, persistent, and multiple infections were more common in HIV-positive women, compared to HIV-negative women. In multivariate models adjusted for age, marital status, socioeconomic status, age at sexual initiation, and douching, the odds ratios comparing HIV-positive to HIV-negative women, were 2.09 (95% CI 1.47–2.97, p < 0.001 for prevalent lrHPV, 1.26 (95% CI
Full Text Available Frequency of cervical cancer related to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV has increased remarkably in less-developed countries. Hence, applying capable diagnostic methods is urgently needed, as is having a therapeutic strategy as an effective step for cervical cancer prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of various multi-type HPV infection patterns and their possible rising incidence in women with genital infections.This descriptive study was conducted on women who attended referral clinical laboratories in Tehran for genital infections from January 2012 until December 2013. A total of 1387 archival cervical scraping and lesion specimens were collected from referred women. HPV genotyping was performed using approved HPV commercial diagnostic technologies with either INNO-LiPA HPV or Geno Array Test kits.HPV was positive in 563 cases (40.59% with mean age of 32.35 ± 9.96. Single, multiple HPV genotypes and untypable cases were detected in 398 (70.69%, 160 (28.42% and 5 (0.89% cases, respectively. Multiple HPV infections were detected in 92 (57.5%, 42 (26.2%, 17 (10.6% and 9 (5.7% cases as two, three, four and five or more genotypes, respectively. The prevalence of 32 HPV genotypes was determined one by one. Seventeen HPV genotypes were identified in 95.78% of all positive infections. Five dominant genotypes, HPV6, 16, 53, 11 and 31, were identified in a total of 52.35%of the HPV positive cases.In the present study, we were able to evaluate the rate of multiple HPV types in genital infections. Nevertheless, it is necessary to evaluate the role of the dominant HPV low-risk types and the new probably high-risk genotypes, such as HPV53, in the increasing incidences of genital infections. Keywords: Multiple HPV Types, Incidence, Genital infection, Cervical cancer, Iran
Chang, J T-C; Kuo, T-F; Chen, Y-J; Chiu, C-C; Lu, Y-C; Li, H-F; Shen, C-R; Cheng, A-J
Infection with high-risk types (type 16 or type 18) of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) increases a patient's risk of cervical cancer. Given the importance of the cervix and the severe side effects resulting from traditional cancer therapies, this study aimed to achieve targeted inhibition of viral oncogenes in tumor cells using small interfering RNAs (siRNA). To accomplish this, we developed nine siRNAs against either the E6 or E7 genes of HPV-16 or HPV-18 in several combinations, yielding siRN...
Moss, Jennifer L; Gilkey, Melissa B; Rimer, Barbara K; Brewer, Noel T
Healthcare providers may vary their communications with different patients, which could give rise to differences in vaccination coverage. We examined demographic disparities in parental report of collaborative provider communication and implications for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Participants were 4,124 parents who completed the National Immunization Survey-Teen about daughters ages 13-17. We analyzed disparities in collaborative communication (mutual information exchange, deliberation, and decision) and whether they mediated the relationship between demographic characteristics and HPV vaccine initiation. Half of parents (53%) in the survey reported collaborative communication. Poor, less educated, Spanish-speaking, Southern, and rural parents, and parents of non-privately insured and Hispanic adolescents, were least likely to report collaborative communication (all pcommunication accounted for geographic variation in HPV vaccination, specifically, the higher rates of uptake in the Northeast versus the South (mediation z=2.31, pcommunication showed widespread disparities, being least common among underserved groups. Collaborative communication helped account for differences-and lack of differences-in HPV vaccination among some subgroups of adolescent girls. Leveraging patient-provider communication, especially for underserved demographic groups, could improve HPV vaccination coverage.
Kepka, Deanna; Warner, Echo L; Kinney, Anita Y; Spigarelli, Michael G; Mooney, Kathi
Latinas have the highest incidence of cervical cancer, yet Latino parents/guardians' knowledge about and willingness to have their children receive the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is unknown. Latino parents/guardians (N = 67) of children aged 11-17 were recruited from two community organizations to complete a survey, including HPV vaccine knowledge, child's uptake, demographic characteristics, and acculturation. Descriptive statistics and correlates of parents' HPV knowledge and uptake were calculated using Chi square tests and multivariable logistic regression. Receipt of at least one dose of the HPV vaccine was moderate for daughters (49.1%) and low for sons (23.4%). Parents/guardians reported limited knowledge as the main barrier to vaccine receipt. Among parents/guardians with vaccinated daughters, 92.6% did not know the vaccine requires three doses. Adjusting for income, low-acculturated parents were more likely than high-acculturated parents to report inadequate information (OR 8.59, 95% CI 2.11-34.92). Interventions addressing low knowledge and children's uptake of the HPV vaccine are needed among Latino parents/guardians.
Woodham, Andrew W; Da Silva, Diane M; Skeate, Joseph G; Raff, Adam B; Ambroso, Mark R; Brand, Heike E; Isas, J Mario; Langen, Ralf; Kast, W Martin
Mucosotropic, high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) are sexually transmitted viruses that are causally associated with the development of cervical cancer. The most common high-risk genotype, HPV16, is an obligatory intracellular virus that must gain entry into host epithelial cells and deliver its double stranded DNA to the nucleus. HPV capsid proteins play a vital role in these steps. Despite the critical nature of these capsid protein-host cell interactions, the precise cellular components necessary for HPV16 infection of epithelial cells remains unknown. Several neutralizing epitopes have been identified for the HPV16 L2 minor capsid protein that can inhibit infection after initial attachment of the virus to the cell surface, which suggests an L2-specific secondary receptor or cofactor is required for infection, but so far no specific L2-receptor has been identified. Here, we demonstrate that the annexin A2 heterotetramer (A2t) contributes to HPV16 infection and co-immunoprecipitates with HPV16 particles on the surface of epithelial cells in an L2-dependent manner. Inhibiting A2t with an endogenous annexin A2 ligand, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), or with an annexin A2 antibody significantly reduces HPV16 infection. With electron paramagnetic resonance, we demonstrate that a previously identified neutralizing epitope of L2 (aa 108-120) specifically interacts with the S100A10 subunit of A2t. Additionally, mutation of this L2 region significantly reduces binding to A2t and HPV16 pseudovirus infection. Furthermore, downregulation of A2t with shRNA significantly decreases capsid internalization and infection by HPV16. Taken together, these findings indicate that A2t contributes to HPV16 internalization and infection of epithelial cells and this interaction is dependent on the presence of the L2 minor capsid protein.
Andrew W Woodham
Full Text Available Mucosotropic, high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV are sexually transmitted viruses that are causally associated with the development of cervical cancer. The most common high-risk genotype, HPV16, is an obligatory intracellular virus that must gain entry into host epithelial cells and deliver its double stranded DNA to the nucleus. HPV capsid proteins play a vital role in these steps. Despite the critical nature of these capsid protein-host cell interactions, the precise cellular components necessary for HPV16 infection of epithelial cells remains unknown. Several neutralizing epitopes have been identified for the HPV16 L2 minor capsid protein that can inhibit infection after initial attachment of the virus to the cell surface, which suggests an L2-specific secondary receptor or cofactor is required for infection, but so far no specific L2-receptor has been identified. Here, we demonstrate that the annexin A2 heterotetramer (A2t contributes to HPV16 infection and co-immunoprecipitates with HPV16 particles on the surface of epithelial cells in an L2-dependent manner. Inhibiting A2t with an endogenous annexin A2 ligand, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI, or with an annexin A2 antibody significantly reduces HPV16 infection. With electron paramagnetic resonance, we demonstrate that a previously identified neutralizing epitope of L2 (aa 108-120 specifically interacts with the S100A10 subunit of A2t. Additionally, mutation of this L2 region significantly reduces binding to A2t and HPV16 pseudovirus infection. Furthermore, downregulation of A2t with shRNA significantly decreases capsid internalization and infection by HPV16. Taken together, these findings indicate that A2t contributes to HPV16 internalization and infection of epithelial cells and this interaction is dependent on the presence of the L2 minor capsid protein.
Buckley, Niall; Huber, Ashley; Lo, Yungtai; Castle, Philip E.; Kemal, Kimdar; Burk, Robert D.; Strickler, Howard D.; Einstein, Mark H.; Young, Mary; Anastos, Kathryn; Herold, Betsy C.
Problem High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is prevalent in HIV-infected women and may be associated with mucosal changes that promote HIV replication. Method of Study Innate immune molecules, antimicrobial activity, HIV RNA, and HPV DNA genotypes were measured in a cross-sectional study of 128 HIV-infected women categorized into HPV-16 (n=8), other HR-HPV (n=41), and non-HR-HPV controls (n=79). Results Compared to controls, HR-HPV groups had higher plasma viral loads (p=0.004), lower CD4 cells (p=0.02), more genital tract HIV RNA (p=0.03), greater number of different HPV types (p<0.001), higher cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) IL-1α (p=0.03) and human beta defensin 2 (HBD2) (p=0.049), and less anti-HIVBal activity (p=0.03). HPV-16 remained significantly associated with higher HBD2 (p=0.03), higher IL-1α (p=0.009), and lower anti-HIVBaL activity (p=0.03) compared to controls after adjusting for plasma viral load and CD4 T cell count. Conclusion HR-HPV is associated with mucosal changes in HIV-infected women that could adversely impact genital tract health. PMID:26685115
Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to be widely accepted by users, the implementation of a new health intervention requires them to be adequately informed about its clinical importance, benefits and risks. The aim of this study was to provide data on the knowledge of Italian adolescents and parents concerning human papillomavirus (HPV infection and its prevention in order to allow the development of adequate training programmes. Methods Between 2 May and 15 June 2008, we made a cross-sectional survey of 863 high school students and 2,331 parents of middle and high school students using two anonymously completed questionnaires covering the knowledge of HPV infection and related diseases, and attitudes to vaccinations. The approached schools were a convenience sample of the schools of the greater Milan area, Northern Italy. Results More mothers than fathers were aware that HPV infection could concern their children (58% vs 53%; p = 0.004 and were favourable towards vaccinating their children against HPV (68% vs 65%; p = 0.03; among the students, more females than males were aware that HPV infection could concern themselves (45% vs 26%; p vs 40%; p Conclusions Both students and parents seem to underestimate the likelihood of HPV infection, and this is associated with a lower propensity for vaccination. This is an important indication for future training programmes concerning HPV prevention designed to increase the acceptance of HPV vaccine in families.
Taylor, Sylvia; Bunge, Eveline; Bakker, Marina; Castellsagué, Xavier
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines were designed to prevent cervical cancer in women and their provision remains a major public health need. However, HPV is also a major cause of non-cervical anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers and the potential benefit of vaccination likely extends beyond cervical cancer. A systematic literature search of PubMed (1995-2014) identified publications assessing the incidence, persistence, and clearance of non-cervical anogenital/oral HPV infections. Comparability with cervical HPV was assessed by identifying articles assessing the same or similar populations. Available data suggest high incidence rates of non-cervical HPV infection in men and women, with HPV-16 predominating in all sites. The incidence of high risk HPV per 100 person-years ranged from 11.4 to 72.9 for penile infections, 6.7-47.9 at other male genital sites, and 4.4-36.7 and 5.3-23.4 for anal infections in men and women, respectively. The incidence per 100 person-years of oral infection with any HPV type ranged from 5.7 to 6.7 in men and 6.8-39.6 in women. Within the limitations of the data, there was a general pattern of higher incidence and clearance of non-cervical genital HPV infections, compared to cervical infections. HIV status, circumcision, number of sex partners and partner HPV status significantly influenced high-risk HPV incidence/clearance at male anogenital sites. Few studies assessed risk factors for oral HPV. Parallels appear to exist between the epidemiology of cervical and non-cervical HPV infections in terms of incidence, HPV-type distribution, and risk factors for infection. Available data suggest that non-cervical genital HPV infections may occur more frequently, with higher clearance rates, than cervical infections. More extensive studies could provide useful information for estimating vaccine impact, the wider cost-benefit of HPV vaccination, and guiding vaccination policy. Not applicable, as systematic review of the literature.
Dhar, J Patricia; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Dhar, Renee; Magee, Ardella; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J
To determine if natural human papillomavirus (HPV) infection would induce an anamnestic response to quadrivalent (qHPV) vaccine in women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Thirty four women (19-50 years) with mild to moderate and minimally active or inactive SLE received standard qHPV vaccine. Neutralizing antibody titers to HPV 6, 11, 16 and18 were evaluated pre- and post- vaccine using HPV competitive Luminex Immunoassay. For each HPV type, logistic regressions were performed to explore the relationship between a positive titer at baseline with their final geometric mean titer and with the rise in titer. Fisher's Exact Test was used to assess the association of at least one positive HPV antibody test at baseline and history of abnormal pap. History of abnormal pap smear/cervical neoplasia occurred in 52.9%. Baseline anti HPV antibody titers: 21% = negative for all 4 HPV types, 79% = positive for ≥1 of the HPV types. Statistical analysis showed: those with a history of abnormal pap smear/cervical neoplasia were likely to have a positive anti-HPV antibody result pre-vaccine to ≥ 1 of the 4 types, p = 0.035 Fisher's Exact Test. In general, HPV exposed women showed higher post vaccine GMTs than HPV unexposed women with higher point estimates. However, when examining the rise in titers using logistic regression, there was no evidence of an anamnestic response. Prior HPV infection and cervical neoplasia in SLE are linked with no anamnestic response to HPV vaccine. This supports not checking HPV-antibodies pre-vaccine. Women with SLE should be vaccinated for HPV.
Winer, Rachel L; Gonzales, Angela A; Noonan, Carolyn J; Cherne, Stephen L; Buchwald, Dedra S
We evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of self-sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and calculated the prevalence of and risk factors for high-risk (hr) HPV infections in a community-based sample of American Indian women. To this end, we recruited 329 Hopi women aged 21-65 years to self-collect vaginal samples for hrHPV testing. Samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction for 14 hrHPV genotypes. We used Chi square tests to identify correlates of preference for clinician Pap testing versus HPV self-sampling, and age-adjusted Poisson regression to evaluate correlates of hrHPV prevalence. We found that satisfaction with HPV self-sampling was high, with 96 % of women reporting that the sample was easy to collect and 87 % reporting no discomfort. The majority (62 %) indicated that they preferred HPV self-sampling to receiving a Pap test from a clinician. Preference for Pap testing over HPV self-sampling was positively associated with adherence to Pap screening and employment outside the home. All samples evaluated were satisfactory for HPV testing, and 22 % were positive for hrHPV. HrHPV prevalence peaked in the late 20 s and declined with increasing age. HrHPV positivity was inversely associated with having children living the household. In conclusion, HPV self-sampling is feasible and acceptable to Hopi women, and could be effective in increasing rates of cervical cancer screening in Hopi communities. HrHPV prevalence was similar to estimates in the general United States population.
Clarke, Megan A; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Gage, Julia C; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Wacholder, Sholom; Burk, Robert; Schiffman, Mark
Vaginal pH is related to genital tract inflammation and changes in the bacterial flora, both suggested cofactors for persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. To evaluate the relationship between vaginal pH and HPV, we analyzed data from our large population-based study in Guanacaste, Costa Rica. We examined vaginal pH and the risk of HPV infection, cytological abnormalities, and C. trachomatis infection. Our study included 9,165 women aged 18-97 at enrollment with a total of 28,915 visits (mean length of follow-up = 3.4 years). Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the relationship between vaginal pH and HPV infection (both overall and single versus multiple types) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), the cytomorphic manifestation of HPV infection. The relationship between enrollment vaginal pH and C. trachomatis infection was assessed by logistic regression. Results were stratified by age at visit. Detection of HPV was positively associated with vaginal pH, mainly in women vaginal pH was associated with 30% greater risk of infection with multiple HPV types and with LSIL, predominantly in women younger than 35 and 65+ years of age. Detection of C. trachomatis DNA was associated with increased vaginal pH in women vaginal pH in a more complex assessment of hormonal changes and the cervicovaginal microbiome as they relate to the natural history of cervical neoplasia.
Wang, Zhen; Xia, Rong-Hui; Ye, Dong-Xia; Li, Jiang
Objectives To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, p53 expression, and TP53 mutations in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) and determine their utility as prognostic predictors in a primarily eastern Chinese population. Methods The HPV infection status was tested via p16INK4A immunohistochemistry and validated using PCR, reverse blot hybridization and in situ hybridization (ISH) in 188 OPSCC samples. p53 expression levels and TP...
Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is the most common viral infection of the reproductive tract, affecting both men and women. High-risk oncogenic types are responsible for almost 90% of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers including cervical cancer. Some of the HPV “early” genes, particularly E6 and E7, are known to act as oncogenes that promote tumour growth and malignant transformation. Most notably, HPV-16 E7 interacts with the tumour suppressor protein pRb, promoting its degradation, leading to cell cycle dysregulation in infected cells. We have previously shown that an RNA aptamer (termed A2 selectively binds to HPV16 E7 and is able to induce apoptosis in HPV16-transformed cervical carcinoma cell lines (SiHa through reduction of E7 levels. In this study, we investigated the effects of the A2 aptamer on E7 localisation in order to define its effects on E7 activity. We demonstrate for the first time that E7 localised to the plasma membrane. In addition, we show that A2 enhanced E7 localisation in the ER and that the A2-mediated reduction of E7 was not associated with proteasomal degradation. These data suggest that A2 perturbs normal E7 trafficking through promoting E7 ER retention.
Sanner, Karin; Wikström, Ingrid; Gustavsson, Inger; Wilander, Erik; Lindberg, Julia Hedlund; Gyllensten, Ulf; Olovsson, Matts
Self-sampling for HPV as part of primary screening is a well-tolerated method for women not attending organized Pap smear screening and could increase coverage of cervical cancer screening. To investigate if the prevalence of HR-HPV varies from day to day in infected women and if one single sample is reliable for detecting an ongoing infection. This is a prospective cohort study on 12 premenopausal and 13 postmenopausal women performing daily self-sampling for HR-HPV testing. They were all HR-HPV-positive 1-3 months ago. Postmenopausal women were sampled for 28 days and premenopausal women sampled during bleeding-free days in one menstrual cycle. A possible difference in viral load between the estrogen-dominated proliferative phase and the progesterone-dominated secretory phase was analyzed. Consistent results throughout the sampling period were observed for 19 women, with either a daily presence of HPV (14 women) or no HPV at all during the sampling period (5 women). Of 607 samples from 25 women, 596 were consistently positive or negative for HPV during the sampling period and 11 were inconsistent (2%). There was no difference in HPV copy number between the estrogen dominated proliferative or progesterone dominated secretory menstrual cycle phases. The major finding was a high degree of consistency concerning HR-HPV positivity and negativity of HR-HPV in vaginal fluid during a sustained period of daily self-sampling. It does not appear to matter whether the sample is collected in the proliferative or secretory phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vozenin, M.C.; Lord, H.K.; Deutsch, E.; Vozenin, M.C.; Hartl, D.
HPV infection is associated with most squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the uterine cervix and many head and neck SCC. While recent understanding of the mechanisms of HPV-induced carcinogenesis has lead to the development of prophylactic vaccines, the principal modality of treatment is radiotherapy and despite concurrent chemotherapy, outcomes remain suboptimal. Improving the radiotherapeutic index thus remains an important challenge as well as defining predictive assays for treatment outcome of HPV-related tumours. Therefore elucidating the influence of the HPV virus on tumour radiosensitivity is of major interest due to the prevalence of HPV-related tumours worldwide and due to evidence that head and neck HPV-tumours have markedly different clinical outcomes compared to non-HPV-related tumours. This difference may allow for different treatment strategies to be developed. The present review aims to summarize the current understanding of radiosensitivity and HPV-related tumour biology in order to subsequently develop new approaches to enhance the therapeutic index. This review also emphasizes the relevance of E6 and E7 onco-proteins to tumour cell response to radiotherapy suggesting that specific targeted approaches such as concomitant modulation of additional pathways using targeted therapies should offer new therapeutic avenues. (authors)
Syrjänen, Kari J
Apart from cancers of the lower female genital tract, human papillomaviruses (HPV) are associated with a large number of benign, premalignant and malignant lesions at different anatomic sites in both genders. Malignant tumours and their precursors are usually attributed to the oncogenic (high-risk, HR) HPV types, whereas benign lesions (mostly papillomas) are ascribed to the low-risk (LR) HPV types, most notably HPV6 and HPV11. To date, the main interest has been focused on HR-HPV types and their associated pathology, and much less attention has been paid to the lesions caused by the LR-HPV types. The recent licensing of an effective prophylactic vaccine against the 2 most important LR-HPV types (HPV6 and HPV11) has resulted in considerably increased interest in these LR-HPV types as well. This author recently conducted a systematic survey of the annual disease burden due to HPV6/11 infections in Finland. As a rational continuation, the present survey was conducted to estimate the annual disease burden due to HPV16 and HPV18 infections in our country. Together, these 2 documents form the foundation for calculations of the annual costs needed to treat the diseases caused by these 2 most common LR and HR HPV types. Similar to HPV6/11, accurate estimates of disease burden are also mandatory for all modelling of the cost-effectiveness of prophylactic HPV16/18 vaccines. In the first step, the published HPV literature was used to create a list of benign, premalignant and malignant lesions associated with this virus at different anatomic sites. The GLOBOCAN 2004 (IARC; International Agency for Research on Cancer) database was used to derive the global numbers of incident cases for each of these malignancies in 2002, and the Finnish Cancer Registry (FCR) website was used to obtain these numbers for Finland (y 2005). The evidence linking HPV to each individual tumour category was classified as: (1) established, (2) emerging, and (3) controversial. All published evidence was
Tonon, Sergio Andrés; Picconi, María Alejandra; Zinovich, Jorge Bruno; Nardari, Wanda; Mampaey, Mariana; Badano, Inés; Di Lello, Federico; Galuppo, Juan Antonio; Alonio, Lidia Virginia; Teyssie, Angélica Rita
To evaluate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) cervical infection in women from the South American Guarani Indian tribe located in the rain forest of Misiones, north-eastern Argentina; a region with a high incidence of cervical carcinoma. A cross-sectional cytological and HPV screening of sexually active Guarani women from nine Indian settlements was conducted. Demographic data, information about sexual behavior, and gynaecological history were recorded. Fresh cervical specimens from 239 patients were collected, of which 207 were included in this study. Cytology and microbiological detection were carried out by the Papanicolaou and Gram stain methods, respectively. HPV detection and typing were analyzed by PCR and RFLP. Pap smears in 96% of all patients showed an inflammatory pattern. A possible etiologic agent was found in 58% of cases: 52% Trichomonas vaginalis, 35% Gardnerella vaginalis and 13% Candida sp. Seven cases had cytological changes compatible with Low Grade Intraepithelial Lesion (LGSIL), one with High Grade Intraepithelial Lesion (HGSIL) and one in situ cervical cancer. The prevalence for generic HPV infection was 64% (133/207). Genotyping gave a 26% prevalence for HPV types 16/18, 13% for types 6/11 and 30% for other types, with nine mixed infections. This work reports for the first time the prevalence of cervical HPV infection in Guarani women. Nearly all Guarani women had some grade of cervical disease. Generic HPV infection prevalence was elevated (64%), with predominance of high risk types 16/18. A large variety of viral types was detected, including high to intermediate risk types not found previously in the region.
Ambühl, Lea M.M.; Leonhard, Anne K.; Widen Zakhary, Carina
INTRODUCTION: Recently, an association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and both spontaneous abortion and spontaneous preterm delivery was suggested. However, the reported HPV prevalence in pregnant women varies considerably and reliable conclusions are difficult. We aimed to investig......INTRODUCTION: Recently, an association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and both spontaneous abortion and spontaneous preterm delivery was suggested. However, the reported HPV prevalence in pregnant women varies considerably and reliable conclusions are difficult. We aimed...... (n=103), spontaneous preterm delivery (n=69), elective abortion (n=54), and spontaneous abortion (n=44). Moreover, HPV cellular target was identified by the use of in situ hybridization. RESULTS: HPV prevalence in placental tissue was 8.7% in full-term deliveries, 8.8% in spontaneous preterm...... deliveries, 10.9% in spontaneous abortions, and 20.4% in elective abortions. 12 different HPV-types were detected and placental HPV infection was associated to a disease history of cervical cancer. HPV DNA was identified in trophoblast cells, cells of the placental villi mesenchyme including Hofbauer cells...
Recent research suggests that health surveillance experiences like clinical trial participation might have unanticipated social consequences. I investigate how evangelical Christians participating in longitudinal, observational sexual health research incorporate that long-term medical surveillance into their religious practice. This exploratory research focuses on Mexican Cristianos' participation in the Cuernavaca arm of the multinational 'Human Papillomavirus in Men' ('HIM') study, which tested men for the common and usually asymptomatic sexually transmitted infection human papillomavirus (HPV) over time. I draw on interviews with heterosexual male research participants and their female partners throughout their medical research involvement, and data from church-based participant observation, to understand how couples framed the HIM study as an arena for performing piety. I argue that evangelical understandings of piety as moral practice encouraged participants to view long-term sexual health surveillance as assistance for living out the health, gender, and marital behaviors promoted by their congregations. This finding suggests that health research designers and ethics committees should consider the health and social outcomes of research participants' agentive incorporation of religious observance into study protocols.
León, David Cantu de; Montiel, Delia Pérez; Nemcova, Jana; Mykyskova, Iva; Turcios, Elmer; Villavicencio, Verónica; Cetina, Lucely; Coronel, Alberto; Hes, Ondraj
Breast cancer is one of the main health problems in developed countries, occupying first place in mortality in women. It is well-known that there are risk factors associated with breast cancer development. Nonetheless, in 50–80% of cases known risk factors have not been identified, this has generated the attempt to identify new factors related with this neoplasia as viral infections. The aim of this work is investigate the prevalence of HPV DNA in patients with breast lesions at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia de Mexico. Fifty-one cases of breast cancer were selected from the files of the institute and compared by age and tumor size with 43 cases of non malignant breast lesions (fibroadenoma, fibrocystic disease and phyllodes tumor). Paraffin embedded specimens were selected, HPV DNA was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced for different types of HPV in case of positivity for HPV-DNA. Descriptive analysis of clinical and pathological variables was performed and comparisons between positive and negative cases was done. All patients were mexican, mean age was 53.3, median age of menarche was 13 and median tumor size 9 cms. Cervicovaginal cytology was performed to all patients, 1 patient (1.9%) of cancer group had HPV and none in the other group, no cases were diagnosed with cervical dysplasia. In the group of carcinomas 36 (70.5%) were negative and 15 (29.4%) were positive to HPV-DNA, 10(66.6%) were positive for HPV 16, 3(20%) for HPV 18, two cases (13.4%) were positive for both. In the group of benign conditions all were negative to HPV-DNA. Presence of HPV in breast cancer in our group of cases is high in comparison to other authors; larger numbers of cases need to be analyzed in order to establish the exact role of this virus in the pathogenesis of breast cancer
Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the main health problems in developed countries, occupying first place in mortality in women. It is well-known that there are risk factors associated with breast cancer development. Nonetheless, in 50–80% of cases known risk factors have not been identified, this has generated the attempt to identify new factors related with this neoplasia as viral infections. The aim of this work is investigate the prevalence of HPV DNA in patients with breast lesions at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia de Mexico. Methods Fifty-one cases of breast cancer were selected from the files of the institute and compared by age and tumor size with 43 cases of non malignant breast lesions (fibroadenoma, fibrocystic disease and phyllodes tumor. Paraffin embedded specimens were selected, HPV DNA was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequenced for different types of HPV in case of positivity for HPV-DNA. Descriptive analysis of clinical and pathological variables was performed and comparisons between positive and negative cases was done. Results All patients were mexican, mean age was 53.3, median age of menarche was 13 and median tumor size 9 cms. Cervicovaginal cytology was performed to all patients, 1 patient (1.9% of cancer group had HPV and none in the other group, no cases were diagnosed with cervical dysplasia. In the group of carcinomas 36 (70.5% were negative and 15 (29.4% were positive to HPV-DNA, 10(66.6% were positive for HPV 16, 3(20% for HPV 18, two cases (13.4% were positive for both. In the group of benign conditions all were negative to HPV-DNA. Conclusion Presence of HPV in breast cancer in our group of cases is high in comparison to other authors; larger numbers of cases need to be analyzed in order to establish the exact role of this virus in the pathogenesis of breast cancer.
Spartz, Helena; Lehr, Elizabeth; Zhang, Benyue; Roman, Ann; Brown, Darron R
Studies of changes in the virus and host cell upon progression from human papillomavirus (HPV) episomal infection to integration are critical to understanding HPV-related malignant transformation. However, there exist only a few in vitro models of both productive HPV infection and neoplastic progression on the same host background. We recently described a unique foreskin keratinocyte cell line (ERIN 59) that contains HPV 59 (a close relative of HPV 18). Early passages of ERIN 59 cells (passages 9-13) contained approximately 50 copies of episomes/cell, were feeder cell-dependent, and could be induced to differentiate and produce infectious virus in a simple culture system. We now report that late passage cells (passages greater than 50) were morphologically different from early passage cells, were feeder cell independent, and did not differentiate or produce virus. These late passage cells contained HPV in an integrated form. An integration-derived oncogene transcript was expressed in late passage cells. The E2 open reading frame was interrupted in this transcript at nucleotide 3351. Despite a lower viral genome copy number in late passage ERIN 59 cells, expression of E6/E7 oncogene transcripts was similar to early passage cells. We conclude that ERIN 59 cells are a valuable cell line representing a model of progression from HPV 59 episomal infection and virus production to HPV 59 integration and associated oncogenic transformation on the same host background.
Full Text Available Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV infection, particularly multiple HPV types, is recognized as a necessary cause of anal cancer. However, a limited number of studies have reported the prevalence of anal HPV infection in Asia. We determined the prevalence, genotypes, and risk factors for anal HPV infection in Japanese HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM, heterosexual men, and women.This cross-sectional study included 421 HIV-positive patients. At enrollment, we collected data on smoking, alcohol, co-morbidities, drugs, CD4 cell counts, HIV RNA levels, highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART duration, sexually transmitted infections (STIs, and serological screening (syphilis, hepatitis B virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, Entamoeba histolytica. Anal swabs were collected for oncogenic HPV genotyping.Oncogenic HPV rate was 75.9% in MSM, 20.6% in heterosexual men, and 19.2% in women. HPV 16/18 types were detected in 34.9% of MSM, 17.7% of heterosexual men, and 11.5% of women. Multiple oncogenic HPV (≥2 oncogenic types rate was 54.6% in MSM, 8.8% in heterosexual men, and 0% in women. In univariate analysis, younger age, male sex, MSM, CD4 50,000, no administration of HAART, and having ≥2 sexually transmitted infections (STIs were significantly associated with oncogenic HPV infection, whereas higher smoking index and corticosteroid use were marginally associated with oncogenic HPV infection. In multivariate analysis, younger age (OR, 0.98 [0.96-0.99], MSM (OR, 5.85 [2.33-14.71], CD4 <100 (OR, 2.24 [1.00-5.01], and having ≥2 STIs (OR, 2.81 [1.72-4.61] were independently associated with oncogenic HPV infection. These 4 variables were also significant risk factors for multiple oncogenic HPV infection.Among Japanese HIV-infected patients, approximately two-thirds of MSM, one-fifth of heterosexual men, and one-fifth of women have anal oncogenic HPV infection. Younger age, MSM, ≥2 STIs, and immunosuppression confer a higher risk of
Schwarz, Tino F; Kocken, Mariëlle; Petäjä, Tiina
and CVS samples were collected from a subset of women aged 10-65 years (N=350) at pre-specified time-points from 7 to 36 months post-vaccination. Anti-HPV-16/18 antibody levels in serum and CVS were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pearson correlation coefficients between serum and CVS...... in serum were substantially higher at all time-points than those in a control group of women who had cleared a natural HPV infection in another trial. In women with detectable antibodies in both serum and CVS, good correlation was seen between HPV-16/18 antibody levels at all time-points (Pearson......This pooled analysis of data from four Phase III clinical trials was undertaken to assess the correlation between levels of anti-human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 antibodies in serum and cervicovaginal secretions (CVS) in girls and women vaccinated with the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine. Serum...
Full Text Available High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV infections are the cause of nearly all cases of cervical cancer. Although the detection of HPV DNA has proved useful in cervical diagnosis, it does not necessarily predict disease presence or severity, and cannot conclusively identify the causative type when multiple HPVs are present. Such limitations may be addressed using complementary approaches such as cytology, laser capture microscopy, and/or the use of infection biomarkers. One such infection biomarker is the HPV E4 protein, which is expressed at high level in cells that are supporting (or have supported viral genome amplification. Its distribution in lesions has suggested a role in disease staging. Here we have examined whether type-specific E4 antibodies may also allow the identification and/or confirmation of causal HPV-type. To do this, type-specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against three E4 proteins (HPV-16, -18, and -58 were generated and validated by ELISA and western blotting, and by immunohistochemistry (IHC staining of epithelial rafts containing these individual HPV types. Type-specific detection of HPV and its associated disease was subsequently examined using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical intra-epithelial neoplasias (CIN, (n = 247 and normal controls (n = 28. All koilocytotic CIN1 lesions showed type-specific E4 expression of their respective HPV types. Differences were noted amongst E4 expression patterns in CIN3. HPV-18 E4 was not detected in any of the 6 HPV-18 DNA-positive CIN3 lesions examined, whereas in HPV-16 and -58 CIN3, 28/37 (76% and 5/9 (55.6% expressed E4 respectively, usually in regions of epithelial differentiation. Our results demonstrate that type-specific E4 antibodies can be used to help establish causality, as may be required when multiple HPV types are detected. The unique characteristics of the E4 biomarker suggest a role in diagnosis and patient management particularly when used in combination.
Full Text Available Background & objectives: India has the third highest burden of HIV and highest number of cervical cancer in the world. A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence and types of human papillomavirus (HPV infection, and the factors associated with HPV infection and abnormal cervical cytology in HIV-positive women attending the Antiretroviral Therapy (ART Centre in a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. Methods: We screened 216 HIV- positive women with Papanicolau smear cytology and HPV testing. HPV DNA was detected by using consensus primers followed by sequencing. Results: Of the 216 HIV-positive women screened, 58 (26.85% were HPV-positive; 56 (25.9% were of high-risk (HR HPV type. The most prevalent HPV type was HPV-16 (7.9%; non 16 and 18 HPV types were present in 17.6 per cent patients. Age ≤ 35 yr [(OR, 2.56 (1.26-5.19], illiteracy [OR, 2.30 (1.19-4.46], rural residence [OR, 3.99 (1.27-12.56] and CD4 ≤350/µl [OR, 2.46 (1.26-4.83] were associated with increased risk of acquisition of HPV. One hundred thirty nine (74.33% patients had normal/ negative for intraepithelial lesions (NILM cytology, three (1.60% had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, 32 (17.11% had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, 10 (5.35% had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL and three (1.60% had carcinoma cervix. WHO clinical Stage III and IV [OR, 2.83 (1.07-7.49] and CD4 ≤350/µl [OR, 2.84 (1.30-6.20] were risk factors for abnormal cytology. Interpretation &conclusions: Our study showed 26.85 per cent HPV positivity in HIV infected women in this region, with HPV-16 as the commonest genotype. Abnormal cervical cytology was seen in about 25 per cent women. Regular Pap smear screening as recommended by the National AIDS Control Organization will help in early detection of cervical abnormalities in HIV- positive women.
Chakravarty, Jaya; Chourasia, Ankita; Thakur, Minaxi; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Sundar, Shyam; Agrawal, Nisha Rani
India has the third highest burden of HIV and highest number of cervical cancer in the world. A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence and types of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and the factors associated with HPV infection and abnormal cervical cytology in HIV-positive women attending the Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Centre in a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. We screened 216 HIV- positive women with Papanicolau smear cytology and HPV testing. HPV DNA was detected by using consensus primers followed by sequencing. Of the 216 HIV-positive women screened, 58 (26.85%) were HPV-positive; 56 (25.9%) were of high-risk (HR) HPV type. The most prevalent HPV type was HPV-16 (7.9%); non 16 and 18 HPV types were present in 17.6 per cent patients. Age ≤ 35 yr [(OR), 2.56 (1.26-5.19)], illiteracy [OR, 2.30 (1.19-4.46)], rural residence [OR, 3.99 (1.27-12.56)] and CD4 ≤ 350/µl [OR, 2.46 (1.26-4.83)] were associated with increased risk of acquisition of HPV. One hundred thirty nine (74.33%) patients had normal/ negative for intraepithelial lesions (NILM) cytology, three (1.60%) had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 32 (17.11%) had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 10 (5.35%) had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and three (1.60%) had carcinoma cervix. WHO clinical Stage III and IV [OR, 2.83 (1.07-7.49)] and CD4 ≤ 350/µl [OR, 2.84 (1.30-6.20)] were risk factors for abnormal cytology. Our study showed 26.85 per cent HPV positivity in HIV infected women in this region, with HPV-16 as the commonest genotype. Abnormal cervical cytology was seen in about 25 per cent women. Regular Pap smear screening as recommended by the National AIDS Control Organization will help in early detection of cervical abnormalities in HIV- positive women.
Ruge, S; Felding, C; Skouby, S O
In a randomized study, we have evaluated the treatment of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) lesions by CO2 laser vaporization. Fifty patients with abnormal Papanicolaou smears and histological evidence of cervical HPV infection associated or not with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade...... I were randomized to either a treatment or a control group. The cervical swabs were obtained every 3 months in both groups and examined for HPV type 16 DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. After a follow-up period of 12 months no significant differences were found between the laser treatment...... in their cervical smears at 12 months' follow-up was identical in the two groups, supporting the hypothesis that HPV is a persistent infection during which the virus is widespread in the vaginal epithelium....
Tay, Sun Kuie; Oon, Lynette Lin Ean
This study reports the prevalence and risk factors of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in healthy women in Singapore. Demography, education, sexual and reproductive history and cigarette smoking habits were obtained from a cross-sectional population of healthy women and girls aged above 12 years of age. Cervical or vaginal cytology samples were investigated for 37 known anogenital HPV subtypes using the linear array PCR method. Chi square statistics were used to test for associations of individual epidemiological factors with HPV infection. Independent risk factors were identified with binomial logistic regression analysis. Of 891 subjects, the prevalence of HPV infection was 9.31% (83/891 women) for any-type HPV and 5.05% (46/891 women) for the high-risk HPV (hrHPV). Of 30 HPV subtypes detected, the most prevalent genotypes in descending order of frequency were subtypes 51, 16, 52, 58 and 66 for hrHPV and subtypes 62, 61, 84, 72 and 53 for the low-risk HPV. This frequency distribution of HPV subtypes was different from reports from other countries within Asia. Forty-six virgins studied tested negative for HPV infection. Significant independent risk factors for any-type HPV infection were multiple sexual partners (adjusted OR 1.4) and low (≤6 years) educational level (adjusted OR 4.0). The distribution of HPV subtypes in healthy women varies between different countries within Asia. In Singapore, the prevalence of HPV infection was 9.31% and was related to penetrative sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners and low educational level. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Rusan, M; Klug, Tejs Ehlers; Henriksen, Jens-Jacob Mølby
tonsillar disease (n = 55). HPV was detected by nested PCR with PGMY 09/11 and GP5+/GP6+L1 consensus primers, and typed by sequencing. Samples were also analyzed using a higher-throughput method, the CLART HPV 2 Clinical Array Assay. The overall prevalence of HPV tonsillar infection was 1.25 % (1/80, 95...... % CI 0.03-6.77 %) by nested PCR, and 0 % by CLART HPV2 Clinical Array. The HPV-positive patient was a 16-year-old female with recurrent tonsillitis and tonsillar hypertrophy. The type detected was HPV6. HPV was not detected in the contralateral tonsil of this patient. Compared to cervical HPV...
Fontenot, Holly B.; Collins Fantasia, Heidi; Charyk, Anna; Sutherland, Melissa A.
Objective: To examine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates, including initiation and completion of the vaccine series, and barriers to vaccination in a sample of male college students. Participants: Male students between the ages of 18 and 25 who reported being currently or previously sexually active (N = 735). Methods: A cross-sectional…
Thatte, Jayashree; Banks, Lawrence
The human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 oncoproteins recruit the cellular ubiquitin ligase E6AP/UBE3A to target cellular substrates for proteasome-mediated degradation, and one consequence of this activity is the E6 stimulation of E6AP autoubiquitination and degradation. Recent studies identified an autism-linked mutation within E6AP at T485, which was identified as a protein kinase A phosphoacceptor site and which could directly regulate E6AP ubiquitin ligase activity. In this study, we have analyzed how T485-mediated regulation of E6AP might affect E6 targeting of some of its known substrates. We show that modulation of T485 has no effect on the ability of E6 to direct either p53 or Dlg for degradation. Furthermore, T485 regulation has no effect on HPV-16 or HPV-31 E6-induced autodegradation of E6AP but does affect HPV-18 E6-induced autodegradation of E6AP. In cells derived from cervical cancers, we find low levels of both phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated E6AP in the nucleus. However, ablation of E6 results in a dramatic accumulation of phospho-E6AP in the cytoplasm, whereas nonphosphorylated E6AP accumulates primarily in the nucleus. Interestingly, E6AP phosphorylation at T485 confers association with 14-3-3 proteins, and this interaction seems to be important, in part, for the ability of E6 to recruit phospho-E6AP into the nucleus. These results demonstrate that HPV E6 overrides the normal phosphoregulation of E6AP, both in terms of its enzymatic activity and its subcellular distribution. IMPORTANCE Recent reports demonstrate the importance of phosphoregulation of E6AP for its normal enzymatic activity. Here, we show that HPV E6 is capable of overriding this regulation and can promote degradation of p53 and Dlg regardless of the phosphorylation status of E6AP. Furthermore, E6 interaction with E6AP also significantly alters how E6AP is subject to autodegradation and suggests that this is not a simple stimulation of an already-existing activity but rather a
Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections world-wide. Low-risk HPV-types are associated with genital warts. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV-types is associated with genital cancers. Smoking and HIV infection have consistently been associated with longer duration of HPV infection and risk for genital cancer. There is an increasing incidence of anal cancers, and a close association with HPV infection has been demonstrated. Receptive anal sex and HIV-positive status are associated with a high risk for anal cancer. Two HPV vaccines are now available and offer protection from infection by the HPV-types included in the vaccine. This benefit is maximally seen in young women who were uninfected prior to vaccination.
Bansal, Devendra; Elmi, Asha A; Skariah, Sini; Haddad, Pascale; Abu-Raddad, Laith J; Al Hamadi, Aysha H; Mohamed-Nady, Nady; Affifi, Nahla M; Ghedira, Randa; Hassen, Elham; Al-Thani, Asma A J; Al-Ansari, Afaf A H M; Sultan, Ali A
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection is the major cause of cervical cancer worldwide. With limited data available on HPV prevalence in the Arab countries, this study aimed to identify the prevalence and genotypic distribution of HPV in the State of Qatar. 3008 cervical samples, exclusively of women with Arabic origin residing in Qatar were collected from the Women's Hospital and Primary Health Care Corporation in Doha, State of Qatar. HPV DNA detection was done using GP5+/6+ primers based real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay followed by the usage of HPV type specific primers based RT- PCR reactions and Sanger sequencing for genotype identification. Similar prevalence rates of HPV infection was identified in both Qatari and non-Qatari women at 6.2% and 5.9% respectively. HPV prevalence rate of 5.8% and 18.4% was identified in women with normal cytology and in women with abnormal cytology respectively. HPV 81, 11 and 16, in decreasing order were the most commonly identified genotypes. HPV 81 was the most frequent low-risk genotype among women with both normal (74.0%) and abnormal (33.3%) cytology. HPV 16 (4.6%) was identified as the predominant high-risk HPV genotype among women with normal cytology and HPV 16, HPV 18, and HPV 56 (22.2% each) were the most common identified high-risk genotypes in women with abnormal cytology. The overall HPV prevalence in Arab women in Qatar was identified as 6.1% with an increased HPV prevalence seen in women with abnormal cytology results and no significant trends seen with age. In contrast to Western countries, we report a varied genotypic profile of HPV with a high prevalence of low-risk HPV genotype 81 among the Arab women residing in Qatar.
Villagómez-Ortíz, Vicente José; Paz-Delgadillo, Diana Estela; Marino-Martínez, Iván; Ceseñas-Falcón, Luis Ángel; Sandoval-de la Fuente, Anabel; Reyes-Escobedo, Alfonso
Cancer of the head and neck comprises a group of neoplasms that share a similar anatomical origin. Most originate from the epithelium of the aerodigestive tract and 90% correspond to squamous cell carcinoma. In the last 15 years, an increase in the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma induced by human papillomavirus (HPV) has been seen, mainly types 16 and 18, which are the most frequent found in cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx, and types 6 and 11 in laryngeal cancer. There are reports in the literature that show HPV as the leading cause of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Determine the prevalence of infection with high-risk HPV in patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx and larynx. An observational, cross-sectional, descriptive, unblinded study was performed. Prevalence of HPV infection was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in DNA samples from tumour tissue of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx and larynx. Typing was subsequently performed in HPV positive samples in order to detect types 18, 16, 11 and 6, using custom primers. A total of 45 patients were included. The association between laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and HPV was established in two patients, which represented an overall prevalence of 4.4% in our population, and 10% for laringeal tumours. There is a low prevalence of HPV infection in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx and larynx, in our population. Prospective studies on younger patients could provide more information. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Liu, Erin Y.; Smith, Leah M.; Ellis, Anne K.; Whitaker, Heather; Law, Barbara; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Farrington, Paddy
BACKGROUND: Despite demonstrated effectiveness in real-world settings, concerns persist regarding the safety of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV4) vaccine. We sought to assess the risk of autoimmune disorders following HPV4 vaccination among grade 8 girls eligible for Ontario’s school-based HPV vaccination program. METHODS: We undertook a population-based retrospective cohort study using Ontario’s administrative health and vaccination databases from 2007 to 2013. The self-controlled case series method was used to compare the rate of a composite end point of autoimmune disorders diagnosed during days 7–60 post-vaccination (“exposed” follow-up) to that at any other time (“unexposed”). The analysis was repeated to assess the effect of a history of immune-mediated diseases and time since vaccination. We also conducted an exploratory analysis of individual autoimmune disorders. Rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional Poisson regression, adjusted for age, seasonality, concomitant vaccinations and infections. RESULTS: The study cohort consisted of 290 939 girls aged 12–17 years who were eligible for vaccination between 2007 and 2013. There was no significant risk for developing an autoimmune disorder following HPV4 vaccination (n = 681; rate ratio 1.12, 95% CI 0.85–1.47), and the association was unchanged by a history of immune-mediated disorders and time since vaccination. Exploratory analyses of individual autoimmune disorders found no significant risks, including for Bell palsy (n = 65; rate ratio 1.73, 95% CI 0.77–3.89), optic neuritis (n = 67; rate ratio 1.57, 95% CI 0.74–3.33) and Graves disease (n = 47; rate ratio 1.55, 95% CI 0.92–2.63). INTERPRETATION: We did not observe an increased risk of autoimmune disorders following HPV4 vaccination among teenaged girls. These findings should reassure parents and health care providers. PMID:29807937
Vriend, Henrike J; Boot, Hein J; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Rossen, John
BACKGROUND: Baseline genotype-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence rates and associated risk factors per gender enable future assessment of the impact of vaccination on HPV dynamics. METHODS: Before the start of national HPV vaccination for girls, data were collected cross-sectionally in
Berchtold, André; Michaud, Pierre-André; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise; Surís, Joan-Carles
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted infection of particular interest because of its high prevalence rate and strong causal association with cervical cancer. Two prophylactic vaccines have been developed and different countries have made or will soon make recommendations for the vaccination of girls. Even if there is a consensus to recommend a vaccination before the beginning of sexual activity, there are, however, large discrepancies between countries concerning the perceived usefulness of a catch-up procedure and of boosters. The main objective of this article is to simulate the impact on different vaccination policies upon the mid- and long-term HPV 16/18 age-specific infection rates. We developed an epidemiological model based on the susceptible-infective-recovered approach using Swiss data. The mid- and long-term impact of different vaccination scenarios was then compared. The generalization of a catch-up procedure is always beneficial, whatever its extent. Moreover, pending on the length of the protection offered by the vaccine, boosters will also be very useful. To be really effective, a vaccination campaign against HPV infection should at least include a catch-up to early reach a drop in HPV 16/18 prevalence, and maybe boosters. Otherwise, the protection insured for women in their 20s could be lower than expected, resulting in higher risks to later develop cervical cancer.
King, Eleanor M; Oomeer, Soonita; Gilson, Richard; Copas, Andrew; Beddows, Simon; Soldan, Kate; Jit, Mark; Edmunds, W John; Sonnenberg, Pam
The epidemiology of oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) differs from anogenital HPV infection. The impact of HPV vaccination has, to date, largely focussed on anogenital outcomes. Vaccination of MSM in the UK has been recommended and, if implemented, baseline estimates of oral HPV prevalence will be useful. We searched Medline, Embase and psycINFO databases for studies reporting prevalence, incidence, and clearance of oral HPV infection in MSM. We performed a random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression on prevalence estimates and summarised within-study risk factors for oral HPV DNA detection and incidence/clearance rates. We also performed a meta-analysis of the effect of MSM on oral HPV prevalence compared to heterosexual men. 26 publications were identified. The pooled prevalence of oral HPV16 from twelve estimates was 3.0% (95%CI 0.5-5.5) in HIV-negative and 4.7% (95%CI 2.1-7.3) in HIV-positive MSM. Median age of study participants explained 38% of heterogeneity (p<0.01) in HPV prevalence estimates (pooled = 17% and 29% in HIV-negative and HIV-positive, respectively; 22 estimates). Nine studies compared MSM to heterosexual men and found no difference in oral HPV prevalence (pooled OR 1.07 (95%CI 0.65-1.74)). The clearance rate was higher than incidence within studies. Type-specific concordance between oral and anogenital sites was rare. There was substantial heterogeneity between estimates of oral HPV prevalence in MSM populations that was partly explained by HIV status and median age.
Götz, Carolin; Drecoll, Enken; Straub, Melanie; Bissinger, Oliver; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Kolk, Andreas
Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are often divided by their aetiology. Noxae associated collectives are compared with the human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated group, whereas different localisations of oral (OSCC) and oropharyngeal (OPSCC) squamous cell carcinomas are mostly discussed as one single group. Our aim was to show that classification by aetiology is not appropriate for OSCC. HPV DNA was detected by PCR in 7 (3.47%) patients, and we identified 12 (5.94%) positive (+) cases by p16INK4a immunostaining. Only 4 (1.98%) of the p16INK4a+ cases were + for HPV using PCR. Our homogenous collective of OSCC allowed us to compare HPV+ and HPV negative (-) patients without creating bias for tumour localisation, age, gender or tumour stage. After testing OSCC samples for HPV positivity, we compared the results of two commonly used HPV detection methods, p16INK4a immunostaining and HPV DNA-related PCR, on 202 OSCC patients. HPV subtypes were determined with an HPV LCD Array Kit. Clinicopathological features of the patients were analysed, and the disease specific survival rates (DSS) for HPV+ and HPV- patients were obtained. p16INK4a immunostaining is a not a reliable HPV detection method for OSCC. Positive p16INK4a immunostaining did not agree with + results from PCR of HPV DNA. Furthermore, the influence of HPV-related oncogenic transformation in OSCC is overestimated. The significance of HPV infection remains clinically unclear, and its influence on survival rates is not relevant to OSCC cases.
Sara Soto-De Leon
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection with multiple types of human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the main risk factors associated with the development of cervical lesions. In this study, cervical samples collected from 1,810 women with diverse sociocultural backgrounds, who attended to their cervical screening program in different geographical regions of Colombia, were examined for the presence of cervical lesions and HPV by Papanicolau testing and DNA PCR detection, respectively. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The negative binomial distribution model used in this study showed differences between the observed and expected values within some risk factor categories analyzed. Particularly in the case of single infection and coinfection with more than 4 HPV types, observed frequencies were smaller than expected, while the number of women infected with 2 to 4 viral types were higher than expected. Data analysis according to a negative binomial regression showed an increase in the risk of acquiring more HPV types in women who were of indigenous ethnicity (+37.8%, while this risk decreased in women who had given birth more than 4 times (-31.1%, or were of mestizo (-24.6% or black (-40.9% ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: According to a theoretical probability distribution, the observed number of women having either a single infection or more than 4 viral types was smaller than expected, while for those infected with 2-4 HPV types it was larger than expected. Taking into account that this study showed a higher HPV coinfection rate in the indigenous ethnicity, the role of underlying factors should be assessed in detail in future studies.
Bigman, Cabral A; Cappella, Joseph N; Hornik, Robert C
To experimentally test whether presenting logically equivalent, but differently valenced effectiveness information (i.e. attribute framing) affects perceived effectiveness of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, vaccine-related intentions and policy opinions. A survey-based experiment (N=334) was fielded in August and September 2007 as part of a larger ongoing web-enabled monthly survey, the Annenberg National Health Communication Survey. Participants were randomly assigned to read a short passage about the HPV vaccine that framed vaccine effectiveness information in one of five ways. Afterward, they rated the vaccine and related opinion questions. Main statistical methods included ANOVA and t-tests. On average, respondents exposed to positive framing (70% effective) rated the HPV vaccine as more effective and were more supportive of vaccine mandate policy than those exposed to the negative frame (30% ineffective) or the control frame. Mixed valence frames showed some evidence for order effects; phrasing that ended by emphasizing vaccine ineffectiveness showed similar vaccine ratings to the negative frame. The experiment finds that logically equivalent information about vaccine effectiveness not only influences perceived effectiveness, but can in some cases influence support for policies mandating vaccine use. These framing effects should be considered when designing messages. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bigman, Cabral A.; Cappella, Joseph N.; Hornik, Robert C.
Objectives To experimentally test whether presenting logically equivalent, but differently valenced effectiveness information (i.e. attribute framing) affects perceived effectiveness of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, vaccine related intentions and policy opinions. Method A survey-based experiment (N= 334) was fielded in August and September 2007 as part of a larger ongoing web-enabled monthly survey, the Annenberg National Health Communication Survey. Participants were randomly assigned to read a short passage about the HPV vaccine that framed vaccine effectiveness information in one of five ways. Afterward, they rated the vaccine and related opinion questions. Main statistical methods included ANOVA and t-tests. Results On average, respondents exposed to positive framing (70% effective) rated the HPV vaccine as more effective and were more supportive of vaccine mandate policy than those exposed to the negative frame (30% ineffective) or the control frame. Mixed valence frames showed some evidence for order effects; phrasing that ended by emphasizing vaccine ineffectiveness showed similar vaccine ratings to the negative frame. Conclusions The experiment finds that logically equivalent information about vaccine effectiveness not only influences perceived effectiveness, but can in some cases influence support for policies mandating vaccine use. Practice implications These framing effects should be considered when designing messages. PMID:20851560
Full Text Available Most human papillomavirus (HPV antiviral strategies have focused upon inhibiting viral DNA replication, but it is increasingly apparent that viral DNA levels can be chemically controlled by approaches that promote its instability. HPVs and other DNA viruses have a tenuous relationship with their hosts. They must replicate and hide from the DNA damage response (DDR and innate immune systems, which serve to protect cells from foreign or "non-self" DNA, and yet they draft these same systems to support their life cycles. DNA binding antiviral agents promoting massive viral DNA instability and elimination are reviewed. Mechanistic studies of these agents have identified genetic antiviral enhancers and repressors, antiviral sensitizers, and host cell elements that protect and stabilize HPV genomes. Viral DNA degradation appears to be an important means of controlling HPV DNA levels in some cases, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. These findings may prove useful not only for understanding viral DNA persistence but also in devising future antiviral strategies.
Dr. Phil Castle, an intramural research scientist at the National Institutes of Health, talks about the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, and cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers.
Okodo, Mitsuaki; Okayama, Kaori; Fukui, Tadasi; Shiina, Natsuko; Caniz, Timothy; Yabusaki, Hiromi; Fujii, Masahiko
Purpose: Binucleation is a reactive cellular change (RCC) in Pap smears due to Candida infection. However, the origin of these binucleated cells as RCCs remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine binucleation in patients negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) and infected with Candida and those infected with high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) and to clarify the origin of the binucleated cells. Methods: A total of 115 endocervical swab specimens with a combined diagnosis of NILM, Candida infection, and RCCs were used for this study. Pap smears were used to identify binucleated cells and then separate them into two groups, compression-positive and compression-negative. In addition, hr-HPV was detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a specific primer on the DNA extracted from the remaining residual cytology specimens. To make the hr-HPV-infected binucleated cells visible, an in situ PCR assay was performed on the Pap smear. Result: Of the 115 specimens, 69.6% contained binucleated cells, 26 (32.5%) showed only the compressed form, 35 (43.8%) showed only the non-compressed form, and 19 showed both the compressed and non-compressed forms of binucleated cells. Also, 34 specimens (29.6%) were positive for hr-HPV. The sensitivity and specificity of compression-positive binucleated cells were 91.2% and 82.7% (p compression-negative group (p = 0.156). Also, 34 cases with hr-HPV contained 99 compression-positive and 24 compression-negative cells. The hr-HPV-positive cells accounted for 68 (68.7%) of the 99 compression-positive and 2 (8.3%) of the 24 compression-negative binucleated cells as determined by an in situ PCR assay for hr-HPV. The relationship between compression and hr-HPV was statistically significant (p Compression-positive binucleated cells may be present as a result of hr-HPV infection and not RCC, which is caused due to inflammation in NILM cases infected with Candida. Creative Commons Attribution License
High rates of HPV infection have been observed in men from sub-Saharan Africa where HIV prevalence is high. HIV infection increases HPV prevalence, incidence and persistence and is strongly associated with the development of anogenital warts and anal, penile and head and neck cancers in men. Despite increasing ...
Seth, Puja; Wingood, Gina M; Diclemente, Ralph J; Crosby, Richard A; Salazar, Laura F; Rose, Eve S; Sales, Jessica M
An important policy question is whether high-risk populations can be identified and prioritised for human papillomavirus (HPV) immunisation. Data collection included an audio computer-assisted survey interview and testing of Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and HPV among 295 African-American adolescent females. The results indicated that 43.1% tested positive for HPV. Logistic regression analyses indicated that HPV prevalence was not associated with other sexually transmissible infections (prevalence ratio (PR)=0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.51-1.41), unprotected vaginal sex (PR=1.04, 95% CI=0.56-1.92), having sex with an older male partner (PR=1.12, 95% CI=0.64-1.96), and having a casual partner (PR=0.89, 95% CI=0.54-1.48). Additionally, t-tests indicated that HPV prevalence was not associated with frequency of vaginal sex (t=0.17, P=0.87), protected sex (t=-0.16, P=0.87), number of recent (t=0.40, P=0.69) or lifetime (t=1.45, P=0.15) sexual partners. However, those testing positive for HPV were younger (t=1.97, P=0.05) and reported current use of birth control pills (PR=2.38, 95% CI=1.00-5.63). It may not be possible to identify those with elevated risk of HPV acquisition. Thus, HPV vaccination, regardless of risk indicators, may be the most efficacious public health strategy.
Serour, Y; Bendahmane, M; Abbou Baker, F; Medles, M; Moueddene, B; Kraiba, R
Persistent high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) infection is associated with a greater risk of cervical cancer. Statistical data on the prevalence of HR-HPV infections in the Algerian population is lacking. We conducted a prospective study of 300 women aged between 25 and 50 years, screened for cervical cancer from 2012 to 2015 in Sidi Bel Abbès, a western region of Algeria. We aimed to assess the reliability of the repeated use of the HC II test (three longitudinal HPV tests 9 months apart from each other) in diagnosing the persistence of HR-HPV infection. The prevalence of HR-HPV infection was 7.33% and infected women were aged 37.9±3years. For 90.9% of HR-HPV-positive patients, the infection persisted for a mean of 18.5months [95% CI: 16.9-22.1months]. Among these patients, 55.55% developed CIN1 and 11.11% developed CIN2. The sensitivity of the HC II test was 81.74% [95% CI: 71.3-89.6] and its positive predictive value associated with abnormal cervical biopsy was 27.49% [95% CI: 16.0-33.33]. Repeating the HC II test is a good predictor for identifying women at high risk of cervical cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Investigation of the prevalence and risk factors of human papillomavirus (HPV infection is the basis for developing prophylactic strategies against cervical cancer, especially for young women. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of HPV infection among a cohort of sexually active young French women eligible for catch-up vaccination. Between 1997 and 2007, 2163 women aged 15–23 years attending consultations at the department of gynecology in the Hospital of Besançon (France were screened for high risk HPV (HR HPV infection. Risk factors were investigated through a questionnaire sent to all participants in 2010. HPV DNA was detected by HC2 and Probe Set assays. The overall prevalence for HR HPV and HPV16, 18 and/or HPV45 was 44.6% (95% CI, 42.5–46.7% and 19% (95% CI, 17.3–20.7%, respectively. The response rate to the questionnaire was 22.6%. The prevalence of independent risk factors (age older than 19, smoking, and oral contraception for HPV 16/18/45 infection in this population was less than 20%. Based on this study, HPV vaccination should be offered not only to teenage girls, but also to young women, regardless of their sexual activity.
Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the state of human papillomavirus (HPV infection in patients with cervical cancer in the Uyghur population in China and to identify miRNA as biomarker for cervical cancer and HPV infection. We also performed genotyping to determine the variation in the types of HPV. Using microRNA (miRNA microarray technology, differential miRNA expression between HPV-infected cervical cancer and uninfected normal cervical tissues was determined; the microarray results were verified by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR using 20 samples of both the tissues. The infection rate of HPV in patients with cervical cancer was 96.7% (29 of 30, and the main subtype identified was HPV16 (29 of 29. HPV16 integration assay demonstrated that the majority of infectious cases were of the integrated form (26 of 29. Analysis of 140 miRNAs demonstrated greater than two-fold change in miRNA expression in HPV-infected cervical cancer tissue as compared to that in uninfected cervical tissue. The qRT-PCR analysis verified that the expression of miR-15a-5p, miR-17-5p, miR-20a-5p, miR-21-5p, miR-96, miR-106b-5p, and miR-3653 was higher, while the expression of miR-497-5p was lower in cancer tissues than in normal tissues. The results demonstrate significant changes in miRNA expression in cervical cancer tissues associated with HPV infection as compared to that in normal tissues. These molecular markers may be useful for an early diagnosis and prognosis of cervical cancer in specific human populations.
Olesen, Tina Bech; Svahn, Malene Frøsig; Faber, Mette Tuxen
HPV is a common sexually transmitted infection and is considered to be a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The anatomical proximity to the cervix has led researchers to investigate whether Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has a role in the etiology of endometrial cancer.......HPV is a common sexually transmitted infection and is considered to be a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The anatomical proximity to the cervix has led researchers to investigate whether Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has a role in the etiology of endometrial cancer....
Song, Dan; Li, Hong; Li, Haibo; Dai, Jianrong
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is widely known as a cause of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. The mechanisms involved have been studied by numerous studies. The integration of the virus genome into the host cells results in the abnormal regulation of cell cycle control. HPV can also induce immune evasion of the infected cells, which enable the virus to be undetectable for long periods of time. The induction of immunotolerance of the host's immune system by the persistent infection of HPV is one of the most important mechanisms for cervical lesions. The present review elaborates on the roles of several types of immune cells, such as macrophages and natural killer cells, which are classified as innate immune cells, and dendritic cells (DCs), cluster of differentiation (CD)4 + /CD8 + T cells and regulatory T cells, which are classified as adaptive immune cells. HPV infection could effect the differentiation of these immune cells in a unique way, resulting in the host's immune tolerance to the infection. The immune system modifications induced by HPV infection include tumor-associated macrophage differentiation, a compromised cellular immune response, an abnormal imbalance between type 1 T-helper cells (Th1) and Th2 cells, regulatory T cell infiltration, and downregulated DC activation and maturation. To date, numerous types of preventative vaccines have been created to slow down carcinogenesis. Immune response activation-based therapeutic vaccine is becoming more and more attractive for the treatment of HPV-associated diseases.
Pietrzak, Bronislawa; Mazanowska, Natalia; Ekiel, Alicja M; Durlik, Magdalena; Martirosian, Gayane; Wielgos, Mirosław; Kaminski, Pawel
Immunosuppressive therapy protects the transplanted organ but predisposes the recipient to chronic infections and malignancies. Transplant patients are at risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer resulting from an impaired immune response in the case of primary infection or of reactivation of a latent infection with human papillomavirus of high oncogenic potential (HR-HPV). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HR-HPV cervical infections and CIN in 60 female kidney graft recipients of reproductive age in comparison to that in healthy controls. Cervical swabs were analyzed for the presence of HR-HPV DNA. HR-HPV-positive women remained under strict observation and were re-examined after 24 months for the presence of transforming HR-HPV infection by testing for HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA. All the HR-HPV-positive patients were scheduled for further diagnostic tests including exfoliative cytology, colposcopy and cervical biopsy. The prevalence of HR-HPV did not differ significantly between the study group and the healthy controls (18% vs 25%, p = 0.37). There was no correlation between HR-HPV presence and the immunosuppresive regimen, underlying disease, graft function or time interval from transplantation. A higher prevalence of HR-HPV was observed in females who had had ≥ 2 sexual partners in the past. Among HR-HPV-positive patients, two cases of CIN2+ were diagnosed in each group. In the course of follow-up, transforming HR-HPV infections were detected in two kidney recipients and in one healthy female. Histologic examination confirmed another two cases of CIN2+ developing in the cervical canal. Female kidney graft recipients of reproductive age are as exposed to HR-HPV infection as are healthy individuals. Tests detecting the presence of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA offer a novel diagnostic opportunity in those patients, especially in those cases where lesions have developed in the cervical canal.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunosuppressive therapy protects the transplanted organ but predisposes the recipient to chronic infections and malignancies. Transplant patients are at risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and cervical cancer resulting from an impaired immune response in the case of primary infection or of reactivation of a latent infection with human papillomavirus of high oncogenic potential (HR-HPV. Methods The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HR-HPV cervical infections and CIN in 60 female kidney graft recipients of reproductive age in comparison to that in healthy controls. Cervical swabs were analyzed for the presence of HR-HPV DNA. HR-HPV-positive women remained under strict observation and were re-examined after 24 months for the presence of transforming HR-HPV infection by testing for HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA. All the HR-HPV-positive patients were scheduled for further diagnostic tests including exfoliative cytology, colposcopy and cervical biopsy. Results The prevalence of HR-HPV did not differ significantly between the study group and the healthy controls (18% vs 25%, p = 0.37. There was no correlation between HR-HPV presence and the immunosuppresive regimen, underlying disease, graft function or time interval from transplantation. A higher prevalence of HR-HPV was observed in females who had had ≥2 sexual partners in the past. Among HR-HPV-positive patients, two cases of CIN2+ were diagnosed in each group. In the course of follow-up, transforming HR-HPV infections were detected in two kidney recipients and in one healthy female. Histologic examination confirmed another two cases of CIN2+ developing in the cervical canal. Conclusions Female kidney graft recipients of reproductive age are as exposed to HR-HPV infection as are healthy individuals. Tests detecting the presence of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA offer a novel diagnostic opportunity in those patients, especially in those cases where lesions have
Kofoed, Kristian; Sand, Carsten; Forslund, Ola
Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a leading cause of anogenital malignancies and a role of HPV in the aetiology of oro-pharyngeal cancers has been demonstrated. The frequency of oral HPV infection in patients with genital warts and the association between concomitant...
Parkin, D Maxwell; Almonte, Maribel; Bruni, Laia; Clifford, Gary; Curado, Maria-Paula; Piñeros, Marion
We present the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers (cancers of the cervix, anogenital region, oral cavity and pharynx) in terms of incidence and mortality, for the countries of the Latin America and Caribbean region. The region is a high-risk area for cancer of the cervix and, although incidence has declined since the 1960s, projected demographic changes imply that the actual burden of new cases will increase by more than 75% in the next 20 years, while the average and at diagnosis will increase. Approximately 65% of cervical cancer cases and 50% of the high risk lesions are associated with HPV-16 and 18. Incidence rates of other HPV-related cancers are significantly lower. The paper also describes the estimated impact of genital warts and the limited data available on the occurrence of HPV infections of the upper aerodigestive tract in the region.
benefit in preventing the development of these cancers in HIV-positive men, ... sexually transmitted infection (STI) affecting ..... age, smoking, receptive anal intercourse .... in HPV-infected circumcised men may help to explain the protective.
Кристина Владимировна Марочко
Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide. About 99 % of cervical cancer is caused by persistent infection with high-risk types of HPV. It can take over 10 years from the time of an initial human papillomavirus infection until a cervical cancer. In most cases, HPV infections are transient and go away within 1 year. There is evidence that cell mediated immune responses of the host, both systemic and local, are important determinants of the course of infection, thus, it is reasonable to use immunocorrective therapy. Many studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of interferon alpha in complex therapy of HPV infection. The aim – to determine the efficacy of interferon alpha-2b in reducing the viral load of high-risk HPV among infected women of reproductive age. Materials and methods. 60 high-risk HPV positive women were included in the study. Qualitative and quantitative determination of high-risk HPV (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 was carried out by PCR in real time. Patients were randomized into two groups: group 1 (n = 30 received alfa-interferon in the form of rectal suppositories; group 2 (n = 30 did not receive the drug. Control study was conducted 1 month later. The average age in group 1 was 31,7 ± 1,6 years, in group 2 – 35,0 ± 1,6 years (p = 0,08. In group 1 monoinfection diagnosed in 72,4 % of cases, mixed infection in 27,6 % of cases in group 2 – at 64,3 % and 35,7 %, respectively. Results. The average viral load was 3,5 ± 0,2 Lg (HPV on 105 cells in group 1 and 3,4 ± 0,3 in group 2 (p = 0,473. Сlinically significant viral load dominated in group 1 (41,4 %, insignificant viral load was dominated in group 2 (42,9 %. After 1 month the average viral load was 1,9 ± 0,3 Lg (HPV on 105 cells in group 1 and 2,8 ± 0,4 Lg in group 2 (р = 0,04. There were statistically significant difference in both groups before and after 1 month (p < 0
Ana Patricia Ortiz
Full Text Available Introduction: Research on the association between periodontitis and oral human papilloma virus (HPV infection is inconsistent. The cross-sectional association of severe periodontitis with oral HPV infection was investigated in a sample of Hispanic adults. Methods: Data from the 2014–2016 San Juan Overweight Adults Longitudinal Study (n = 740 was analyzed. Periodontitis assessment and self-collection of oral HPV samples followed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey methodology. Periodontitis was defined using the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention/American Academy of Periodontology definition. HPV typing was performed using polymerase chain reaction. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results: 5.7% of participants had oral HPV infection and 20.3% had severe periodontitis. Adults with severe periodontitis had higher odds of oral HPV infection than those with none/mild disease (OR=2.9, 95% CI: 1.0–8.4, p < 0.05 in multivariable analysis. Adults with clinical attachment loss≥ 7 mm and pocket depth PD≥ 6 mm had 2- to 3-fold higher odds of HPV infection. Conclusions: Severe periodontitis was positively associated to oral HPV infection. Longitudinal evaluation of periodontal inflammation's role in acquisition and persistence of oral HPV infection is needed, as periodontitis screening could identify individuals at increased risk of HPV-related oral malignancies. Keywords: Periodontitis, Oral HPV, Hispanics, Adults, Oral health, Puerto Rico
Full Text Available The human beta defensin 1 (hBD-1 antimicrobial peptide is a member of the innate immune system known to act in the first line of defence against microorganisms, including viruses such as human papillomavirus (HPV. In this study, five functional polymorphisms (namely g-52G>A, g-44C>G and g-20G>A in the 5’UTR and c.*5G>A and c.*87A>G in the 3’UTR in the DEFB1 gene encoding for hBD-1 were analysed to investigate the possible involvement of these genetic variants in susceptibility to HPV infection and in the development of HPV-associated lesions in a population of Brazilian women. The DEFB1 g-52G>A and c.*5G>A single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and the GCAAA haplotype showed associations with HPV-negative status; in particular, the c.*5G>A SNP was significantly associated after multiple test corrections. These findings suggest a possible role for the constitutively expressed beta defensin-1 peptide as a natural defence against HPV in the genital tract mucosa.
Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV causes about 1.6% of the roughly 1.6 million new cancer cases that are diagnosed in the United States each year. Despite the proven safety and efficacy of currently available vaccines, HPV remains the most common sexually transmitted infection. Underlying the high prevalence of HPV infection is the poor adherence to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC recommendation that all 11-12 year old males and females be vaccinated. In fact, only about 38% and 14% of eligible females and males respectively, receive the complete, three-dose immunization.Many factors are associated with missed HPV vaccination opportunities, including race, age, family income and patient education, resulting in widespread disparities in vaccination rates and related health outcomes. Beyond patient circumstance, however, research indicates that the rigor and consistency of recommendation by primary care providers also plays a significant role in uptake of HPV immunization. Health disparities data are of vital importance to HPV vaccination campaigns because they can provide insight into how to address current problems and allocate limited resources where they are most needed. Furthermore, even modest gains in populations with low vaccination rates may yield great benefits because HPV immunization has been shown to provide herd immunity, indirect protection for non-immunized individuals achieved by limiting the spread of an infectious agent through a population. HPV vaccination campaigns face the challenge of stagnant HPV immunization rates, which are increasing slowly overall but remain far below target levels. Furthermore, gains in immunization are not equal across all groups and vaccination rates are strikingly disparate across the federal poverty level. To achieve the greatest impact, public health campaigns should focus on improving vaccination coverage where it is weakest. In addition to demographics, socioeconomic factors and attitudes of
Lamos, Cristina; Mihaljevic, Charlotte; Aulmann, Sebastian; Bruckner, Thomas; Domschke, Christoph; Wallwiener, Markus; Paringer, Carmen; Fluhr, Herbert; Schott, Sarah; Dinkic, Christine; Brucker, Janina; Golatta, Michael; Gensthaler, Lisa; Eichbaum, Michael; Sohn, Christof; Rom, Joachim
Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) is a pre-malignant lesion, potentially leading to vaginal cancer. It is a rare disease, representing less than 1% of all intraepithelial neoplasia of the female genital tract. Similar to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), there are three different grades of VAIN. VAIN 1 is also known as a low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), whereas VAIN 2 and VAIN 3 both represent high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). Risk factors for the development of VAIN are similar to those for cervical neoplasia, i.e. promiscuity, starting sexual activity at an early age, tobacco consumption and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). However, compared to other intraepithelial neoplasia such as CIN or VIN (vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia), there still is little understanding about the natural course of VAIN and its capacity for pro- or regression. Furthermore, there is controversial data about the HPV detection rate in VAIN lesions. 67 patients with histologically confirmed VAIN, who were diagnosed between 2003 and 2011 at the University Women´s Hospital of Heidelberg Germany, were included in this study. The biopsies of all participating patients were subjected to HPV genotyping. GP-E6/E7 Nested Multiplex PCR (NMPCR) was used to identify and genotype HPV. Eighteen pairs of type-specific nested PCR primers were assessed to detect the following "high-risk" HPV genotypes: 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66 and 68, as well as the "low-risk" genotypes 6/11, 42, 43 and 44. The data was analyzed with the software SAS (Statistical Analysis System). All 67 cases were eligible for DNA analysis. The median age was 53 years. The largest group with 53% (n = 36) was formed by women, who were first diagnosed with VAIN between the age of 41 to 60 years. 50% (n = 37) of the patients presented a VAIN in the upper 1/3 of the vagina. 58 (87%) were diagnosed with HSIL (VAIN). The median age in patients with LSIL
Jensen, K E; Schmiedel, S; Norrild, B
BACKGROUND:Several environmental factors have been associated with increased risks for cervical cancer. We examined whether reproductive history, contraceptive use, or sexual behaviour increase the risk for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) among women with persistent...... human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.METHODS:A population-based cohort of women participated in a personal interview and underwent a gynaecological examination at which cervical specimens were obtained for HPV DNA testing. Follow-up information (~13 years) on cervical lesions was obtained from...
Full Text Available Os papilomavírus humanos (HPV de alto risco estão fortemente relacionados à etiologia do carcinoma espinocelular (CEC anogenital e suas lesões precursoras. O HPV-16 é o tipo mais freqüente, estando presente em até 87% dos CEC do canal anal HPV-positivo. Apesar de ser relativamente raro, vem sendo cada vez mais diagnosticado, nas últimas décadas, sobretudo em indivíduos do sexo masculino. A incidência é ainda mais elevada nos grupos considerados de risco, particularmente, os homens e as mulheres HIV-positivo e os homens que fazem sexo com homens (HSH. Grande parte das pesquisas direcionadas à infecção anal pelo HPV e sua relação com neoplasia intraepitelial-anal (NIA e com o carcinoma esteve focada nos grupos de risco. Pouco interesse vem sendo destinado à investigação dos homens heterossexuais. Estudos epidemiológicos da prevalência da infecção pelo HPV em homens, mostraram que os heterossexuais masculinos apresentavam infecção anal pelo HPV em até 12%. As Sociedades médicas e os especialistas recomendam o rastreamento dos portadores de imunodepressão e dos HSH com citologia do raspado do canal anal. Entretanto, até o momento, não há recomendação de rastreamento para homens que fazem sexo com mulheres.The oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV are straightly associated with anogenital cancer and dysplasia. The HPV-16 is the most common type, isolated in 87% of the HPV-positive anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Despite being a rare tumor, the incidence of SCC has increased in the last decades, especially in males. Incidence is particularly high amongst men who have sex with men (MSM and among HIV infected men and women. For decades anogenital HPV researches have largely focused risk groups. Poor interest was intended to men who have sex with women (MSW. Prevalence studies of HPV infection in MSW have demonstrated that anal infection was identified in as far as 12%. Medical societies and specialists recommend anal
Bedoya-Pilozo, Cesar H; Medina Magües, Lex G; Espinosa-García, Maylen; Sánchez, Martha; Parrales Valdiviezo, Johanna V; Molina, Denisse; Ibarra, María A; Quimis-Ponce, María; España, Karool; Párraga Macias, Karla E; Cajas Flores, Nancy V; Orlando, Solon A; Robalino Penaherrera, Jorge A; Chedraui, Peter; Escobar, Saul; Loja Chango, Rita D; Ramirez-Morán, Cecibel; Espinoza-Caicedo, Jasson; Sánchez-Giler, Sunny; Limia, Celia M; Alemán, Yoan; Soto, Yudira; Kouri, Vivian; Culasso, Andrés C A; Badano, Inés
The aim of the present study was to gather information regarding the molecular epidemiology of Human papillomavirus (HPV) and related risk factors in a group of women with low- and high-grade cervical lesions and cancer from the coastal region of Ecuador. In addition, we studied the evolution of HPV variants from the most prevalent types and provided a temporal framework for their emergence, which may help to trace the source of dissemination within the region. We analyzed 166 samples, including 57 CIN1, 95 CIN2/3 and 14 cancer cases. HPV detection and typing was done by PCR-sequencing (MY09/MY11). HPV variants and estimation of the time to most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) was assessed through phylogeny and coalescence analysis. HPV DNA was found in 54.4% of CIN1, 74.7% of CIN2/3 and 78.6% of cancer samples. HPV16 (38.9%) and HPV58 (19.5%) were the most prevalent types. Risk factors for the development of cervical lesions/cancer were the following: three or more pregnancies (OR=4.3), HPV infection (OR=3.7 for high-risk types; OR=3.5 for HPV16), among others. With regard to HPV evolution, HPV16 isolates belonged to lineages A (69%) and D (31%) whereas HPV58 isolates belonged only to lineage A. The period of emergence of HPV16 was in association with human populations (tMRCA=91052 years for HPV16A and 27000 years for HPV16D), whereas HPV58A preceded Homo sapiens evolution (322257 years). This study provides novel data on HPV epidemiology and evolution in Ecuador, which will be fundamental in the vaccine era. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Camporiondo, Maria Pia; Farchi, Francesca; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Denaro, Aurelia; Gallone, Domenica; Maracchioni, Fabio; Favalli, Cartesio; Ciotti, Marco
Several pathogens can be transmitted sexually and are an important cause of morbidity among sexually active women. The aim of the study was to detect the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), Mycoplasma hominis (MH), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), and Ureaplasma parvum (UP) in a group of 309 healthy women enrolled at the San Camillo - Forlanini hospital of Rome by using two multiplex real-time PCR assays based on TOCE® technology. The women's ages ranged from 34 to 60 years, median 49 [IQR 45-54]. Of the 309 women tested, HPV DNA was detected in 77/309 (24.9%) patients. Of these, 44 (14.2%) harboured a single infection while 33 (10.7%) were infected by multiple genotypes. Prevalence of HPV infection was highest among females aged 40-50 years (15.2%). Of the other pathogens sought, CT, MG and NG were not detected while positive results were found for MH (12/309, 3.9%), TV (4/309, 1.3%), UP (89/309, 28.8%) and UU (14/309, 4.5%). Co-infections were as follows: 5 MH/HPV, 4 TV/HPV, 34 UP/HPV and 9 UU/HPV. In HPV-positive women, the probability of being infected by UP and UU was 2.5 (p=0.00045) and 6 fold higher (p=0.0016) than in HPV-negative women. The study supports the use of multiplex real-time PCR assays in a routine diagnostic setting. The high sensitivity and specificity of these assays along with the simultaneous detection of the most common sexually transmitted pathogens confers an advantage with respect to more obsolete methods reducing costs and time to diagnosis.
Alberts, C. J.; Vos, R. A.; Borgdorff, H.; Vermeulen, W.; van Bergen, J.; Bruisten, S. M.; Geerlings, S. E.; Snijder, M. B.; van Houdt, R.; Morré, S. A.; de Vries, H. J. C.; van de Wijgert, J. H. H. M.; Prins, M. [= Maria; Schim van der Loeff, M. F.
In the Netherlands the incidence of cervical cancer is higher among ethnic minority populations compared with the general Dutch population. We investigated the prevalence of, and risk factors associated with, vaginal high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection in women of six different
Niyibizi, Joseph; Zanré, Nadège; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Trottier, Helen
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most prevalent genital infection, especially in young women of reproductive age. In vitro and animal model experiments provide compelling evidence of the harmful effect of HPV on pregnancy outcomes, but results from epidemiologic studies are inconclusive. We aim to determine the strength of the relationship between adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO) and HPV infection and assess its consistency across studies, by systematically reviewing the literature. The search strategy has been developed on the basis of the PICOS framework: Population (pregnant women); Exposure (HVP infection confirmed by HPV testing); Comparator (pregnant women without HPV infection); Outcomes (miscarriage, spontaneous preterm birth, low birth weight, preterm premature rupture of membranes, pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders and intrauterine growth restriction) and Study design (observational studies). We will search three information sources: (1) electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and EBM Reviews databases); (2) Grey literature (Google Scholar and Web of Science conference proceedings); and (3) citing and cited articles of included studies. Two reviewers (JN, NZ) will independently and in duplicate screen identified articles, select eligible studies, and extract data. Discrepancies will be resolved by consensus and otherwise by discussion with the other authors (MHM, HT). Quality of included studies will be assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. We will narratively synthesize extracted data whether meta-analysis is conducted or not. Meta-analysis of each outcome will be performed, and where appropriate, an average measure of association will be computed. We will use the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to assess and grade the strength of confidence in cumulative estimate. Comprehensive and high-quality evidence of a negative
Wilson Winstons Muhwezi
Full Text Available The Ministry of Health in Uganda in collaboration with the Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in 2008-2009 vaccinated approximately 10,000 girls with the bivalent humanpapilloma virus (HPV vaccine. We assessed parent's knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow son(s to receive HPV vaccines in future through a cross-sectional survey of secondary school boys aged 10-23 years in 4 districts. 377 questionnaires were distributed per district and 870 were used in analysis. Parents that had ever heard about cervical cancer and HPV vaccines; those who would allow daughter(s to be given the vaccine and those who thought that HPV infection was associated with genital warts were more willing to allow son(s to receive the HPV vaccine. Unwilling parents considered HPV vaccination of boys unimportant (p = 0.003, believed that only females should receive the vaccine (p = 0.006, thought their son(s couldn't contract HPV (p = 0.010, didn't know about HPV sexual transmissibility (p = 0.002, knew that males could not acquire HPV (p = 0.000 and never believed that the HPV vaccines could protect against HPV (p = 0.000. Acceptance of HPV vaccination of daughters and likelihood of recommending HPV vaccines to son(s of friends and relatives predicted parental willingness to allow sons to receive HPV vaccines. Probable HPV vaccination of boys is a viable complement to that of girls. Successfulness of HPV vaccination relies on parental acceptability and sustained sensitization about usefulness of HPV vaccines even for boys is vital.
Strojan, Primož; Zadnik, Vesna; Šifrer, Robert; Lanišnik, Boštjan; Didanović, Vojislav; Jereb, Sara; Poljak, Mario; Kocjan, Boštjan J; Gale, Nina
An increase in the incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) was observed in several population-based registries and has been attributed to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. In the present study, we aimed to assess the contribution of HPV infection to the burden of mucosal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in Slovenia. For this purpose, data from the nationwide Cancer Registry of Slovenia for cases diagnosed between 1983 and 2009 were analyzed to determine time trends of age-adjusted incidence rates and survival in terms of annual percentage change (APC) for HNSCC in potentially HPV-related and HPV-unrelated sites. In addition, determination of p16 protein, HPV DNA and E6/E7 mRNA was performed in a cohort of OPSCC patients identified from the prospective database for the years 2007-2008. In total, 2,862 cases of HNSCC in potentially HPV-related sites and 7,006 cases in potentially HPV-unrelated sites were identified with decreased incidence observed over the time period in both groups (-0.58; 95 % CI -1.28 to -0.13 and -0.90; 95 % CI -1.23 to -0.57). Regardless of the group, incidence trends for both genders showed a significant decrease in men and increase in women. In a cohort of 99 OPSCC patients diagnosed between 2007 and 2008, 20 (20.2 %) patients had HPV positive tumors and exhibited a superior outcome compared to HPV-negative patients. In conclusion, results of the epidemiologic and histopathologic study confirmed that HPV infection had no major impact on the incidence trends in the Slovenian patients with HNSCC and, specifically, OPSCC during the studied period.
Kahn, Jessica A.; Widdice, Lea E.; Ding, Lili; Huang, Bin; Brown, Darron R.; Franco, Eduardo L.; Bernstein, David I.
Background. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine effectiveness and herd protection are not well established in community settings. Our objective was to determine trends in vaccine-type HPV in young women during the 8 years after vaccine introduction, to assess changes in HPV prevalence and characterize herd protection in a community. Methods. We recruited 3 samples of sexually experienced, 13–26-year-old adolescent girls and young women (hereafter women; N = 1180) from 2006–2014: before widespread vaccine introduction (wave 1) and 3 (wave 2) and 7 (wave 3) years after vaccine introduction. We determined the prevalence of vaccine-type HPV (HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18) among all, vaccinated, and unvaccinated women at waves 1, 2, and 3, adjusted for differences in participant characteristics, then examined whether changes in HPV prevalence were significant using inverse propensity score–weighted logistic regression. Results. Vaccination rates increased from 0% to 71.3% across the 3 waves. Adjusted vaccine-type HPV prevalence changed from 34.8% to 8.7% (75.0% decline) in all women, from 34.9% to 3.2% (90.8% decline) in vaccinated women, and from 32.5% to 22.0% (32.3% decline) in unvaccinated women. Among vaccinated participants, vaccine-type HPV prevalence decreased significantly from wave 1 to wave 2 (adjusted odds ratio, 0.21; 95% confidence interval, .13–.34) and from wave 1 to wave 3 (0.06; .03–.13). The same decreases were also significant among unvaccinated participants (adjusted odds ratios, 0.44; [95% confidence interval, .27–.71] and 0.59; [.35–.98], respectively). Conclusions. The prevalence of vaccine-type HPV decreased >90% in vaccinated women, demonstrating high effectiveness in a community setting, and >30% in unvaccinated women, providing evidence of herd protection. PMID:27655996
Full Text Available The incidence of lower genital tract infections in China has been increasing in recent years. The link between high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs remains unclear.From March to October 2014, gynecological examinations and questionnaires were conducted on 1218 married women. Cervical secretions and vaginal swab specimens were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU, yeast, clue cells and HR-HPV.Laboratory results were available for 1195 of 1218 married women. HR-HPV was detected in 7.0% of participants. Forty-seven percent of women had lower genital tract infections (LGTIs. UU was the most common infection (35.5%, followed by bacterial vaginosis (BV (10.5%, yeast infection (3.7%, CT (2.2%, and Trichomonas vaginalis (1.7%. BV was associated with an increased risk of HR- HPV (P < 0.0001; odds ratio, 3.0 [95% CI, 1.7-5.4]. There was a strong correlation between abnormal cervical cytology and HR-HPV infection (P < 0.0001.The prevalence of LGTIs in Beijing is at a high level. It is clinically important to screen for the simultaneous presence of pathogens that cause co-infections with HR-HPV.
Muñoz-Santos, C; Pigem, R; Alsina, M
Human papillomavirus infection is very common. In this article, we review the latest developments in the treatment of lesions caused by this virus, with a particular focus on anogenital warts. Sinecatechins and new imiquimod formulations are among the most significant new developments. Others include photodynamic therapy and intralesional immunotherapy, but there is insufficient evidence to recommend their routine use. Finally, while therapeutic vaccines and inhibitory molecules appear to hold great promise, they are still in the early phases of investigation. More studies are needed, and these should have similar designs, larger samples, and sufficiently long follow-up periods to enable the direct comparison of the short-term and long-term effectiveness of different treatment options. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) in women with normal cervical cytology and with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia I to III(CIN) or carcinoma of the cervix in Okinawa, Japan. METHODS: We investigated HPV DNA in 4,078 subjects with cytologically normal cervices, 279 subjects with CIN, and 383 subjects with cervical cancer in Okinawa Prefecture in Japan. The presence of HPV DNA was also compared among generations. HPV DNA was both det...
Cacilda Tezelli Junqueira Padovani
Full Text Available Introduction The progression of human papillomavirus (HPV infection in the anogenital tract has been associated with the involvement of cells with regulatory properties. Evidence has shown that glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR is an important surface molecule for the characterization of these cells and proposes that GITR ligand may constitute a rational treatment for many cancer types. We aimed to detect the presence of GITR and CD25 in cervical stroma cells with and without pathological changes or HPV infection to better understand the immune response in the infected tissue microenvironment. Methods We subjected 49 paraffin-embedded cervical tissue samples to HPV DNA detection and histopathological analysis, and subsequently immunohistochemistry to detect GITR and CD25 in lymphocytes. Results We observed that 76.9% of all samples with high GITR expression were HPV-positive regardless of histopathological findings. High GITR expression (77.8% was predominant in samples with ≥1,000 RLU/PCB. Of the HPV-positive samples negative for intraepithelial lesion and malignancy, 62.5% had high GITR expression. High GITR expression was observed in both carcinoma and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL samples (p = 0.16. CD25 was present in great quantities in all samples. Conclusions The predominance of high GITR expression in samples with high viral load that were classified as HSIL and carcinoma suggests that GITR+ cells can exhibit regulatory properties and may contribute to the progression of HPV-induced cervical neoplasia, emphasizing the importance of GITR as a potential target for immune therapy of cervical cancer and as a disease evolution biomarker.
Cíntia Tereza Lima Ferraro
Full Text Available Os papilomavírus humanos (HPVs pertencem à família Papillomaviridae e seu ciclo de vida é diretamente ligado à diferenciação das células epiteliais do hospedeiro. Possuem seis genes que se expressam precocemente e dois genes que se expressam tardiamente, sendo denominados respectivamente E (early e L (late. O ácido desoxirribonucleico (DNA viral dentro da célula do hospedeiro pode assumir duas formas: epissomal e integrada. O HPV tem como alvo as células basais de epitélios escamosos, em particular da área genital, onde está associado ao carcinoma da cérvice uterina. Na boca, o HPV está associado a papiloma escamoso oral, condiloma acuminado, verruga vulgar e hiperplasia epitelial focal. Entretanto, seu papel na carcinogênese oral é ainda controverso, sendo também identificado como agente etiológico de alguns carcinomas de células escamosas de cabeça e pescoço. A infecção pelo HPV pode agir sinergicamente com agentes carcinogênicos, como o tabaco e o álcool. Pelo menos 150 subtipos diferentes de HPV já foram identificados, sendo que 25 têm sido detectados em lesões orais. Considerando a relevância do tema para a melhor compreensão da infecção oral pelo HPV, o objetivo desta atualização é rever os aspectos relevantes da biologia do HPV, com ênfase na relação HPV-ceratinócitos, e a importância dos dados clínicos e histopatológicos na definição diagnóstica das lesões orais possivelmente associadas ao HPV.Papillomaviruses belong to the family Papillomaviridae and their life cycle is directly linked to the differentiation of host epithelial cells. They have six genes that are expressed earlier and two genes that are expressed later in their life cycle, named respectively E (early and L (late. Host cell viral DNA can take two forms: episomal and integrated. The human papillomavirus (HPV targets the basal cells of squamous epithelia, particularly from the genital area, which is associated with uterine
Marek, E; Dergez, T; Bozsa, S; Gocze, K; Rebek-Nagy, G; Kricskovics, A; Kiss, I; Ember, I; Gocze, P
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections both in male and female adults in Hungary. A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was completed by 785 college students and parents between January and May, 2009. The results were analysed by gender and age. Participants' knowledge about HPV and HPV-associated conditions was relatively incomplete. One-third of the respondents had never heard about HPV prior to the survey. Almost half of the respondents (42%) thought that the only sexual way of spreading HPV was vaginal intercourse, while the role of skin-to-skin contact was disregarded (6%). More than one-third of the participants (38%) believed that condoms give full protection from HPV infection. Encouragingly, the majority of respondents (64%) were open to further information about sexually transmitted diseases. The most trusted sources of information were health professionals. When talking about children, parents attributed the major role in delivering information about sexually transmitted diseases to schools. Primary prevention through carefully planned educational programmes may further raise the awareness about HPV-associated conditions, thus reducing the comparatively high mortality of cervical carcinoma in Hungary. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Clinical progress of human papillomavirus genotypes and their persistent infection in subjects with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance cytology: Statistical and latent Dirichlet allocation analysis
Kim, Yee Suk; Lee, Sungin; Zong, Nansu; Kahng, Jimin
The present study aimed to investigate differences in prognosis based on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, persistent infection and genotype variations for patients exhibiting atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) in their initial Papanicolaou (PAP) test results. A latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA)-based tool was developed that may offer a facilitated means of communication to be employed during patient-doctor consultations. The present study assessed 491 patients (139 HPV-positive and 352 HPV-negative cases) with a PAP test result of ASCUS with a follow-up period ≥2 years. Patients underwent PAP and HPV DNA chip tests between January 2006 and January 2009. The HPV-positive subjects were followed up with at least 2 instances of PAP and HPV DNA chip tests. The most common genotypes observed were HPV-16 (25.9%, 36/139), HPV-52 (14.4%, 20/139), HPV-58 (13.7%, 19/139), HPV-56 (11.5%, 16/139), HPV-51 (9.4%, 13/139) and HPV-18 (8.6%, 12/139). A total of 33.3% (12/36) patients positive for HPV-16 had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)2 or a worse result, which was significantly higher than the prevalence of CIN2 of 1.8% (8/455) in patients negative for HPV-16 (Paged ≥51 years (38.7%) than in those aged ≤50 years (20.4%; P=0.036). Progression from persistent infection to CIN2 or worse (19/34, 55.9%) was higher than clearance (0/105, 0.0%; Page and long infection period with a clinical progression of CIN2 or worse. Therefore, LDA results may be presented as explanatory evidence during time-constrained patient-doctor consultations in order to deliver information regarding the patient's status. PMID:28587376
Full Text Available Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV is characterized by persistent cutaneous lesions caused by a specific group of related human papillomavirus genotypes (EV-HPVs in otherwise healthy individuals. Autosomal recessive (AR EVER1 and EVER2 deficiencies account for two thirds of known cases of EV. AR RHOH deficiency has recently been described in two siblings with EV-HPV infections as well as other infectious and tumoral manifestations. We report here the whole-exome based discovery of AR MST1 deficiency in a 19-year-old patient with a T-cell deficiency associated with EV-HPV, bacterial and fungal infections. MST1 deficiency has recently been described in seven patients from three unrelated kindreds with profound T-cell deficiency and various viral and bacterial infections. The patient was also homozygous for a rare ERCC3 variation. Our findings broaden the clinical range of infections seen in MST1 deficiency and provide a new genetic etiology of susceptibility to EV-HPV infections. Together with the recent discovery of RHOH deficiency, they suggest that T cells are involved in the control of EV-HPVs, at least in some individuals.
Lockwood-Rayermann, Suzy; McIntyre, Susan J.
Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) causes 99.7% of all cervical cancers. HPV Types 16 and 18 are responsible for approximately 77% of cases, and peak prevalence occurs in females younger than 25 years of age. The recent implementation of HPV vaccination provides females with the opportunity to prevent infection. School nurses are advocates of…
Full Text Available Ruxing Xi,1 Xiaozhi Zhang,1 Xin Chen,1 Shupei Pan,1 Beina Hui,1 Li Zhang,1 Shenbo Fu,1 Xiaolong Li,2 Xuanwei Zhang,1 Tuotuo Gong,1 Jia Guo,1 Shaomin Che1 1Department of Radiotherapy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiao Tong University, 2Department of Radiotherapy, The People’s Liberation Army 323 Hospital, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China Background: Previous studies indicate that human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16 infection plays a pivotal role in the etiology of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. We aim to detect the influence of HPV16 infection on ESCC patient prognosis. Patients and methods: Immunohistochemical staining for HPV16 E6 oncoprotein, the low-affinity p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K was performed on 103 archived surgical specimens from patients with ESCC and 54 control samples from patients with benign esophageal tumor or inflammatory lesions. All patients were from the Shaan Xi Province, People’s Republic of China. Results: HPV16 E6 expression was significantly higher in the ESCC group (P<0.05. HPV16 E6 expression was significantly higher in men than in women (P<0.05. p75NTR expression was higher in those aged >56 years (P<0.05. PI3K expression was higher in those with a more advanced histopathological grade (P<0.05. There was a positive correlation between HPV16 E6 and p75NTR expression (r=0.547, P<0.001 and between p75NTR and PI3K expression (r=0.364, P<0.001. In 100 evaluable patients, the 5-year overall survival (OS rate was 11%. In patients with ESCC, HPV16 E6 and PI3K expression were negatively correlated with the 3-year OS (P<0.05, 5-year OS (P<0.05, and progression-free survival (P<0.05. Conclusion: HPV16 infection likely contributes to the etiology of ESCC patients in Shaan Xi, People’s Republic of China. HPV16 infection status and PI3K expression levels could be useful for predicting prognosis in patients with ESCC. Keywords: low-affinity p75
Brogaard, Kim Agerholm; Munk, Christian; Iftner, Thomas
" observed among older women. Recent sexual partners were a strong determinant of HPV appearance irrespective of age. Lifetime number of sexual partners was a significant risk factor for HPV appearance among older women, even after adjustment for recent sexual behavior. In addition, menopause was associated...... in older women using multiple logistic regression. For comparison, a younger cohort of women examined under identical study settings was included. This prospective cohort study comprised 1,577 older women (age 40-50 at enrolment) and 2,920 women aged 22-32. Participants were interviewed and underwent...... with a non-significantly increased risk of HPV appearance at follow-up. In conclusion, appearance of HPV in previously HPV-negative older women may be due to both recent sexual behavior and previous exposure that is, reactivation of a latent HPV infection....
Castellsagué, Xavier; Naud, Paulo; Chow, Song-Nan; Wheeler, Cosette M; Germar, Maria Julieta V; Lehtinen, Matti; Paavonen, Jorma; Jaisamrarn, Unnop; Garland, Suzanne M; Salmerón, Jorge; Apter, Dan; Kitchener, Henry; Teixeira, Julio C; Skinner, S Rachel; Limson, Genara; Szarewski, Anne; Romanowski, Barbara; Aoki, Fred Y; Schwarz, Tino F; Poppe, Willy A J; Bosch, F Xavier; de Carvalho, Newton S; Peters, Klaus; Tjalma, Wiebren A A; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Raillard, Alice; Descamps, Dominique; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary; Rosillon, Dominique; Baril, Laurence
We examined risk of newly detected human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical abnormalities in relation to HPV type 16/18 antibody levels at enrollment in PATRICIA (Papilloma Trial Against Cancer in Young Adults; NCT00122681). Using Poisson regression, we compared risk of newly detected infection and cervical abnormalities associated with HPV-16/18 between seronegative vs seropositive women (15-25 years) in the control arm (DNA negative at baseline for the corresponding HPV type [HPV-16: n = 8193; HPV-18: n = 8463]). High titers of naturally acquired HPV-16 antibodies and/or linear trend for increasing antibody levels were significantly associated with lower risk of incident and persistent infection, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or greater (ASCUS+), and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 1/2 or greater (CIN1+, CIN2+). For HPV-18, although seropositivity was associated with lower risk of ASCUS+ and CIN1+, no association between naturally acquired antibodies and infection was demonstrated. Naturally acquired HPV-16 antibody levels of 371 (95% confidence interval [CI], 242-794), 204 (95% CI, 129-480), and 480 (95% CI, 250-5756) EU/mL were associated with 90% reduction of incident infection, 6-month persistent infection, and ASCUS+, respectively. Naturally acquired antibodies to HPV-16, and to a lesser extent HPV-18, are associated with some reduced risk of subsequent infection and cervical abnormalities associated with the same HPV type. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The need to review cervical cancer prevention strategies has been triggered by the availability of new prevention tools linked to human papillomavirus (HPV: vaccines and screening tests. To consider these innovations, information on HPV type distribution and natural history is necessary. This is a five-year follow-up study of gynecological high-risk (HR HPV infection among a Chilean population-based cohort of women. Findings A population-based random sample of 969 women from Santiago, Chile aged 17 years or older was enrolled in 2001 and revisited in 2006. At both visits they answered a survey on demographics and sexual history and provided a cervical sample for HPV DNA detection (GP5+/6+ primer-mediated PCR and Reverse line blot genotyping. Follow-up was completed by 576 (59.4% women; 45 (4.6% refused participation; most losses to follow-up were women who were unreachable, no longer eligible or had missing samples. HR-HPV prevalence increased by 43%. Incidence was highest in women 70 (0%; it was three times higher among women HR-HPV positive versus HPV negative at baseline (25.5% and 8.3%; OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.8-8.0. Type-specific persistence was 35.3%; it increased with age, from 0% in women 70. An enrollment Pap result ASCUS or worse was the only risk factor for being HR-HPV positive at both visits. Conclusions HR-HPV prevalence increased in the study population. All HR-HPV infections in women 30 years.
Wei, Feixue; Li, Mingqiang; Wu, Xin; Yin, Kai; Lan, Jian; Sheng, Wei; Guo, Meng; Huang, Shoujie; Wang, Ying; Li, Yanping; Li, Rongcheng; Su, Yingying; Wu, Ting; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ningshao
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the pathogenesis of anogenital cancers and genital warts in both men and women, whereas there is a scarcity of large studies focused on HPV prevalence in different anogenital sites of both sexes in the same population. From May to July 2014, 2,309 men and 2,378 women aged 18-55 were enrolled from communities in Liuzhou, China. Penis/glans penis/coronary sulcus (PGC) and perianal/anal canal (PA) specimens of men, and vaginal (VA), vulvar (VU) and PA specimens of women, were collected and genotyped for HPV. The prevalence of any HPV tested in PGC and PA samples from men and VA, VU and PA samples from women was 10.8%, 3.8%, 14.2%, 13.3% and 8.4%, respectively. The concordance of VA and VU was highest (kappa = 0.74), followed by VU and PA (0.44), VA and PA (0.38) and PGC and PA (0.14). Besides sex behavior, ever having used a towel supplied by a hotel was a risk factor for both external genital and PA HPV infection. Our data indicated that women were more of a major reservoir for oncogenic HPV infection of both genital sites and PA sites than was men. In both sexes, the genital sites were more likely than PA sites to harbor HPV infection. The concordance rates of HPV infection between genital sites and PA infection were poor. © 2017 UICC.
Andrew Kampikaho Turiho
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination on adolescent girls' knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccine, perception of sexual risk and intentions for sexual debut. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in Ibanda and Mbarara districts. Data was collected using a standardized self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences computer software. Univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses were conducted with significance level set at p < .05. Results showed that HPV vaccination was associated with being knowledgeable (Crude OR: 5.26, CI: 2.32-11.93; p = 0.000. Vaccination against HPV did not predict perception of sexual risk. Knowledge was low (only 87/385 or 22.6% of vaccinated girls were knowledgeable, but predicted perception of a high sexual risk (Adjusted OR: 3.12, CI: 1.37-3.63; p = 0.008. HPV vaccination, knowledge and perceived sexual risk did not predict sexual behaviour intentions. High parental communication was associated with adolescent attitudes that support postponement of sexual debut in both bivariate and multiple regression analyses. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that HPV vaccination is not likely to encourage adolescent sexual activity. Influence of knowledge on sexual behaviour intentions was not definitively explained. Prospective cohort studies were proposed to address the emerging questions.
Dela Cruz, May Rose Isnec; Tsark, Jo Ann Umilani; Chen, John Jiangtian; Albright, Cheryl Lynn; Braun, Kathryn Lenzner
The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine can prevent cervical and other cancers. Unfortunately, according to the National Immunization Survey-Teen 2014 data, completion of the HPV vaccine was only 38 % for 13- to 17-year-old girls and 31 % for 13- to17-year-old boys in the USA, and prevalence was similar in Hawai'i. Parents' acceptability of the HPV vaccine is critical for the vaccine uptake, and this can be increased by educational materials and interventions. However, HPV materials are not widely distributed in Hawai'i. The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify HPV vaccination barriers, motivators, and brochure preferences among parents of teens in multicultural Hawai'i. Twenty parents were interviewed in person or by telephone. Four major themes emerged: (1) the physician is critical in the decision to vaccinate, (2) parental perception of the child's sexual activity guides the timing of their willingness to vaccinate, (3) HPV health education materials should be provided and discussed by the physician, and (4) parents would prefer an educational brochure that features local faces and testimonials, includes an immunization chart, and addresses barriers to vaccination. These findings informed the development of HPV health education materials tailored to Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Hawai'i.
Hendry, Maggie; Lewis, Ruth; Clements, Alison; Damery, Sarah; Wilkinson, Clare
Two human papillomavirus vaccines were licenced in 2006/2007 for cervical cancer prevention. National vaccination programmes for schoolgirls were subsequently introduced in some European countries, North America and Australia. To understand factors influencing vaccine uptake and to inform the development of appropriate UK educational materials, we aimed to synthesise evidence of girls' and parents' information needs, views and preferences regarding HPV vaccination. Systematic review and mixed method synthesis of qualitative and survey data. Twelve electronic databases; bibliographies of included studies 1980 to August 2011. Two reviewers independently screened papers and appraised study quality. Studies were synthesised collaboratively using framework methods for qualitative data, and survey results integrated where they supported, contrasted or added to the themes identified. Twenty-eight qualitative studies and 44 surveys were included. Where vaccination was offered, uptake was high. Intention to decline was related to a preference for vaccinating later to avoid appearing to condone early sexual activity, concerns about vaccine safety and low perception of risk of HPV infection. Knowledge was poor and there were many misconceptions; participants tried to assess the potential benefits and harms of vaccination but struggled to interpret limited information about HPV in the context of existing knowledge about sexually transmitted infections and cancer. Conclusion Many girls and their parents have limited understanding to an extent that impinges on their ability to make informed choices about HPV vaccination and could impact on future uptake of cervical screening. This is a considerable challenge to those who design and provide information, but getting the messages right for this programme could help in developing patient information about other HPV related cancers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Howard, Natasha; Kabakama, Severin; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Griffiths, Ulla K.; Feletto, Marta; Burchett, Helen E. D.; LaMontagne, D. Scott; Watson-Jones, Deborah
Objective To synthesise lessons learnt and determinants of success from human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine demonstration projects and national programmes in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs). Methods Interviews were conducted with 56 key informants. A systematic literature review identified 2936 abstracts from five databases; after screening 61 full texts were included. Unpublished literature, including evaluation reports, was solicited from country representatives; 188 documents were received. A data extraction tool and interview topic guide outlining key areas of inquiry were informed by World Health Organization guidelines for new vaccine introduction. Results were synthesised thematically. Results Data were analysed from 12 national programmes and 66 demonstration projects in 46 countries. Among demonstration projects, 30 were supported by the GARDASIL® Access Program, 20 by Gavi, four by PATH and 12 by other means. School-based vaccine delivery supplemented with health facility-based delivery for out-of-school girls attained high coverage. There were limited data on facility-only strategies and little evaluation of strategies to reach out-of-school girls. Early engagement of teachers as partners in social mobilisation, consent, vaccination day coordination, follow-up of non-completers and adverse events was considered invaluable. Micro-planning using school/ facility registers most effectively enumerated target populations; other estimates proved inaccurate, leading to vaccine under- or over-estimation. Refresher training on adverse events and safe injection procedures was usually necessary. Conclusion Considerable experience in HPV vaccine delivery in LAMICs is available. Lessons are generally consistent across countries and dissemination of these could improve HPV vaccine introduction. PMID:28575074
Full Text Available An association between immune-mediated diseases and cervical pre-malignant and malignant lesions is described, having the human papillomavirus (HPV infection a causal role. Related studies have been generally focused on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients, but relatively to other diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA, Sjögren's syndrome (SS and systemic sclerosis (SSc, data has not been systematically evaluated. We conducted a systematic review analysis of the literature in PubMed, including articles published until March of 2015, in patients with RA, SS, SLE and SSc, to evaluate the frequency of HPV infection, cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer, and associated factors, with particular interest on the role of glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive treatment. Moreover, safety and efficacy of HPV vaccines in these patients was investigated. Of 476 articles identified, 27 were finally included. The studies showed an increased prevalence of cervical dysplasia and cancer, with the HPV infection being an important associated factor, in particular in SLE patients. The data relatively to other rheumatic diseases was very scarse, but an increased prevalence of smear abnormalities was also found in RA. Patients exposed to glucocorticoids and to long-term immunosuppression, particularly cyclophosphamide, have increased risk of presenting more pre-malignant lesions than the general population. The available vaccines seem to be generally safe and immunogenic in the short- period evaluation, but long-term follow-up is required to evaluate the impact of the vaccine in the protection against HPV infection and occurrence of high-grade cervical lesions.
Oldach, Benjamin R.; Katz, Mira L.
Public health departments (n=48) serving the 32 counties of Ohio Appalachia were contacted to determine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine availability and to assess patient and parental attitudes, perceived barriers, and decisional differences about vaccination for male and female adolescents. Nurses or nursing supervisors in 46 of 48 health departments agreed to participate with 45 (97.8%) reporting that HPV vaccines were available for males and females. HPV vaccination barriers reported mo...
Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho; Okello, Elialilia Sarikieli; Muhwezi, Wilson Winstons; Katahoire, Anne Ruhweza
Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has been perceived in diverse ways some of which encourage its uptake while others could potentially deter its acceptability. This study explored community member?s perceptions about HPV vaccination in Ibanda district and the implications of the perceptions for acceptability of HPV vaccination. The study was conducted following initial vaccination of adolescent schoolgirls in the district between 2008 and 2011. Methods This qualitative study e...
... Against HPV Print en español Vacuna contra el virus del papiloma humano (VPH) What Is HPV and Why Is It a Problem? Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) . HPV is the virus that causes genital warts . Besides genital warts, an ...
Manga, Mohammed Mohammed; Fowotade, Adeola; Abdullahi, Yusuf Mohammed; El-Nafaty, Aliyu Usman; Adamu, Danladi Bojude; Pindiga, Hamidu Umar; Bakare, Rasheed Ajani; Osoba, Abimbola Olu
Sub-Saharan countries including Nigeria have the highest burden of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the world. Most studies on HPV surveillance in Nigeria were done in the southern part of the country. Geographical and socio-cultural diversity of Nigeria makes these data unlikely to be universally representative for the entire country. Northern Nigeria especially the North-East carries a higher prevalence of cervical cancer and many of its risk factors. The region may be harbouring a higher prevalence of HPV infection with a possibility of different genotypic distribution. This study was carried out to determine the burden and confirm the predominant HPV genotypes among women presenting for cervical cancer screening at the Federal Teaching Hospital Gombe (FTHG), North-eastern, Nigeria. The study was an observational hospital based cross sectional study among women who presented for cervical cancer screening in FTHG. A total of 209 consenting women were tested for cervical HPV infection using PCR. DNA sequencing was carried out on positive samples to determine the prevalent HPV genotypes. The prevalence of cervical HPV infection among the participants with mean age of 39.6 ± 10.4 years was 48.1 %. The five most predominant genotypes were 18, 16, 33, 31 and 35, with prevalence of 44.7 %, 13.2 %, 7.9 %, 5.3 % and 5.3 % respectively. Other genotypes observed were 38, 45, 56, 58, 82 and KC5. Multiple HPV infections were detected among 7.9 % of participants. Risk factors such as level of education (X (2) = 15.897; p = 0.007), age at sexual debut (X (2) = 6.916; p = 0.009), parity (X (2) = 23.767; p = 0.000), number of life time sexual partners (X (2) = 7.805; p = 0.005), age at first pregnancy (X (2) = 10.554; p = 0.005) and history of other malignancies (X (2) = 7.325; p = 0.007) were found to have a statistically significant association with HPV infection. This study identified a high burden of HPV
Durham, David P.; Poolman, Eric M.; Ibuka, Yoko; Townsend, Jeffrey P.; Galvani , Alison P.
Background. The degree of cross-immunity between human papillomavirus (HPV) types is fundamental both to the epidemiological dynamics of HPV and to the impact of HPV vaccination. Epidemiological data on HPV infections has been repeatedly interpreted as inconsistent with cross-immunity.
Kiatpongsan, Sorapop; Kim, Jane J
Current prophylactic vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) target two of the most oncogenic types, HPV-16 and -18, which contribute to roughly 70% of cervical cancers worldwide. Second-generation HPV vaccines include a 9-valent vaccine, which targets five additional oncogenic HPV types (i.e., 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58) that contribute to another 15-30% of cervical cancer cases. The objective of this study was to determine a range of vaccine costs for which the 9-valent vaccine would be cost-effective in comparison to the current vaccines in two less developed countries (i.e., Kenya and Uganda). The analysis was performed using a natural history disease simulation model of HPV and cervical cancer. The mathematical model simulates individual women from an early age and tracks health events and resource use as they transition through clinically-relevant health states over their lifetime. Epidemiological data on HPV prevalence and cancer incidence were used to adapt the model to Kenya and Uganda. Health benefit, or effectiveness, from HPV vaccination was measured in terms of life expectancy, and costs were measured in international dollars (I$). The incremental cost of the 9-valent vaccine included the added cost of the vaccine counterbalanced by costs averted from additional cancer cases prevented. All future costs and health benefits were discounted at an annual rate of 3% in the base case analysis. We conducted sensitivity analyses to investigate how infection with multiple HPV types, unidentifiable HPV types in cancer cases, and cross-protection against non-vaccine types could affect the potential cost range of the 9-valent vaccine. In the base case analysis in Kenya, we found that vaccination with the 9-valent vaccine was very cost-effective (i.e., had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio below per-capita GDP), compared to the current vaccines provided the added cost of the 9-valent vaccine did not exceed I$9.7 per vaccinated girl. To be considered very cost
Costa-Lira, E; Jacinto, A H V L; Silva, L M; Napoleão, P F R; Barbosa-Filho, R A A; Cruz, G J S; Astolfi-Filho, S; Borborema-Santos, C M
Sexually transmitted infections are an important cause of morbidity among sexually active women worldwide, and have been implicated as cofactors in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. We investigated the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), and accessed the diversity of HPV in women with normal and abnormal cytology in Manaus, Brazil. We used polymerase chain reaction and HPV genotyping by direct sequencing. The chi-square test was used to calculate the absolute and relative frequencies of the categorical variables, and Fisher's test was used when P TV and CT DNA were 18.04 and 9.02% in the normal group, respectively. The percentages of HPV/TV and HPV/CT coinfection were 12.5% each in women with normal cytology. These findings improve our understanding of HPV, CT, and TV, and the distribution of HPV types, which may be relevant to vaccination strategies for protecting women from the north of Brazil from cervical cancers and precancerous lesions.
Full Text Available Despite high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV infection and cervical cancer in Indian women, no study has been done in tribal populations whose socio-sexual lifestyle is different. Therefore, HPV screening has been carried out in pre-adolescent, adolescent and young adult tribal girls using self-collected urine samples.20-35 ml self-collected midstream urine samples were obtained from a total of 2278 healthy tribal girls (9-25 years comprising pre-adolescent, adolescent and young adults from three Indian states: Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. β-globin positive 2034 samples were employed for HPV detection and genotyping.The overall prevalence of HPV infection in tribal girls was 12.9% (262/2034. More than 65% (172/262 of them were infected with HR-HPV types of which HPV16 was the most predominant type (54%. Young adult girls aged 18-25 years showed a significantly higher prevalence of HPV infection (19.2%; OR = 3.36; 95% CI 2.97-6.34, P<0.001 as compared to that in adolescent (11.4%; OR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.20-2.76, P<0.01 or pre-adolescent girls (6.6%.This is a first study showing significantly a very high prevalence of HPV infection in adolescent and young adult tribal girls possibly due to different socio-sexual behavior, indicating a serious health concern for Indian tribal women.
Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Mooij, Sofie H.; Richel, Oliver; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Prins, Jan M.
HIV infection is one of the strongest risk factors for anal squamous cell cancer (ASCC). Most ASCC are caused by HPV, and most HPV-associated ASCC are caused by HPV-16. Anal HPV infections are very common in men who have sex with men (MSM), and nearly universal among HIV-infected MSM. High-grade
Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.; Stout, Natasha K.; Salomon, Joshua A.; Kuntz, Karen M.; Goldie, Sue J.
Background The availability of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing and vaccination against HPV types 16 and 18 (HPV-16,18) motivates questions about the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention in the United States for unvaccinated older women and for girls eligible for vaccination. Methods An empirically calibrated model was used to assess the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), lifetime costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (2004 US dollars per QALY) of screening, vaccination of preadolescent girls, and vaccination combined with screening. Screening varied by initiation age (18, 21, or 25 years), interval (every 1, 2, 3, or 5 years), and test (HPV DNA testing of cervical specimens or cytologic evaluation of cervical cells with a Pap test). Testing strategies included: 1) cytology followed by HPV DNA testing for equivocal cytologic results (cytology with HPV test triage); 2) HPV DNA testing followed by cytology for positive HPV DNA results (HPV test with cytology triage); and 3) combined HPV DNA testing and cytology. Strategies were permitted to switch once at age 25, 30, or 35 years. Results For unvaccinated women, triennial cytology with HPV test triage, beginning by age 21 years and switching to HPV testing with cytology triage at age 30 years, cost $78 000 per QALY compared with the next best strategy. For girls vaccinated before age 12 years, this same strategy, beginning at age 25 years and switching at age 35 years, cost $41 000 per QALY with screening every 5 years and $188 000 per QALY screening triennially, each compared with the next best strategy. These strategies were more effective and cost-effective than screening women of all ages with cytology alone or cytology with HPV triage annually or biennially. Conclusions For both vaccinated and unvaccinated women, age-based screening by use of HPV DNA testing as a triage test for equivocal results in younger women and as a primary screening test in older women is expected to be more
Longubuco, Carlos Eduardo Gama; dos Reis, Helena Lucia Barroso; Cavalcante, Fernanda Sampaio; de Pinho, Carla Renata Petillo; Oliveira, Nathalia Silva; Nicol, Alcina Frederica; Zamolyi, Renata Quintella; Ferreira, Dennis de Carvalho
Voice dysfunction or dysphonia may be associated with several clinical conditions. Among these, laryngeal human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced lesions should be considered as a possible causative factor. We report a case of dysphonia in a patient presenting with an HPV laryngeal lesion. We also discuss the clinical features of the disease, its histopathological findings, and treatment and rigorous follow-up. We report a case of laryngeal papilloma in a 29-year-old, Afro-descendant, male patient with dysphonia. He was a non-smoker and was not a drug user. Videolaryngostroboscopy revealed signs suggestive of pharyngolaryngeal reflux. The right vocal fold presented with a papillomatous aspect in the posterior third, which underwent excision. Histopathological examination showed a nodular lesion of the right vocal fold, conclusive of squamous papilloma with absence of malignancy. Patients presenting with persistent voice dysfunction or dysphonia should be investigated for possible laryngeal HPV infection. Diagnostic confirmation by HPV genotyping is important for follow-up of potential recurrence.
Jose M Rios-Yuil
Full Text Available Background: Information is scarce about the presence of molecular alterations related to human papillomavirus (HPV infection in squamous cell carcinomas of the genital skin and about the effect of this infection in the number of Langerhans cells present in these tumors. Aims: To determine the presence of HPV in genital skin squamous cell carcinomas and to see the relationship between HPV infection and changes in the expression of Ki-67 antigen (Ki-67, p53 protein (p53, retinoblastoma protein (pRb and E-cadherin and to alterations in Langerhans cell density, if any. Methods: A descriptive, comparative, retrospective and cross-sectional study was performed with all the cases diagnosed as squamous cell carcinomas of the genital skin at the Dermatopathology Service from 2001 to 2011. The diagnosis was verified by histopathological examination. The presence of HPV was examined using chromogenic in situ hybridization, and protein expression was studied via immunohistochemical analysis. Results: The 34 cases studied were verified as squamous cell carcinomas and 44.1% were HPV positive. The degree of expression of pRb was 17.50% ±14.11% (mean ± SD in HPV-positive cases and 29.74% ±20.38% in HPV-negative cases (P = 0.0236. The degree of expression of Ki-67 was 47.67% ±30.64% in HPV-positive cases and 29.87% ±15.95% in HPV-negative cases (P = 0.0273. Conclusion: HPV infection was related to lower pRb expression and higher Ki-67 expression in comparison with HPV negative samples. We could not find a relationship between HPV infection and the degree of expression of p53 and E-cadherin or with Langerhans cell density.
Bui, Thanh Cong; Tran, Ly Thi-Hai; Markham, Christine M; Huynh, Thuy Thi-Thu; Tran, Loi Thi; Pham, Vy Thi-Tuong; Tran, Quan Minh; Hoang, Ngoc Hieu; Hwang, Lu-Yu; Sturgis, Erich Madison
This study aimed to examine the relationships among self-reported oral health, oral hygiene practices, and oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Convenience and referral sampling methods were used in a clinic-based setting to recruit 126 women aged 18-45 years between August and October 2013. Behavioral factors were self-reported. Oral-rinse samples were tested for HPV DNA of 2 low-risk and 13 high-risk genotypes. A higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with poorer self-rated overall oral health (P = .001), reported oral lesions or problems in the past year (P = .001), and reported a tooth loss not because of injury (P = .001). Higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was also associated with two measures of oral hygiene: lower frequencies of toothbrushing per day (P = .047) and gargling without toothbrushing (P = .037). After adjusting for other factors in multivariable logistic regression models, poorer self-rated overall oral health remained statistically associated with oral HPV infection (P = .042); yet the frequency of tooth-brushing per day did not (P = .704). Results corroborate the association between self-reported poor oral health and oral HPV infection. The effect of oral hygiene on oral HPV infection remains inconclusive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Human papillomavirus 16 E2-, E6- and E7-specific T-cell responses in children and their mothers who developed incident cervical intraepithelial neoplasia during a 14-year follow-up of the Finnish Family HPV cohort.
Koskimaa, Hanna-Mari; Paaso, Anna E; Welters, Marij J P; Grénman, Seija E; Syrjänen, Kari J; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Syrjänen, Stina M
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has traditionally been regarded as a sexually transmitted disease (STD), but recent evidence implicates that an infected mother can transmit HPV to her newborn during pregnancy, at delivery, perinatal period or later. Given the lack of any studies on HPV-specific immune responses in children, we conducted HPV16-specific cell-mediated immune (CMI) monitoring of the mother-child pairs with known oral and genital HPV follow-up (FU) data since the delivery. In the Finnish Family HPV Study, 10 out of 331 mothers developed incident cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) during their 14-year FU. Our hypothesis according to the common dogma is that there is no HPV16 specific immune response in offspring of the CIN mother as she/he has not started the sexual life yet. We used overlapping 30-35 mer peptides covering the entire HPV16 E2, E6 and E7 protein sequences. Assays for lymphocyte proliferation capacity, cytokine production and HPV16-specific Foxp3 + CD25 + CD4+ regulatory T-cells were performed. HPV16-specific proliferative T-cell responses were broader in children than in their mothers. Nine of 10 children had responses against both E2 peptide pools compared to only 4 of the 10 mothers. Six of the 10 children and only 2 mothers displayed reactivity to E6 and/or E7. The cytokine levels of IL-2 (p = 0.023) and IL-5 (p = 0.028) induced by all peptide pools, were also higher among children than their mothers. The children of the mothers with incident CIN3 had significantly higher IFN-γ (p = 0.032) and TNF-α (p = 0.008) levels than other children. Our study is the first to show that also children could have HPV-specific immunity. These data indicate that the children have circulating HPV16-specific memory T-cells which might have been induced by previous HPV16 exposure or ongoing HPV 16 infection.
Full Text Available Context: Oral and pharyngeal cancer, grouped together, is the sixth most common cancer in the world. In the past few years, human papillomavirus (HPV infection has been suggested as a risk factor for oral cancer apart from traditional risk factors such as smoking, tobacco, and alcohol consumption. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine HPV status of the tumors using polymerase chain reaction (HPV-DNA PCR and p16 immunostaining and to correlate p16 overexpression as an indicator of HPV-associated oral dysplasia and carcinoma. Settings and Design: A prospective study was conducted in fifty cases of suspected oral cancer. Materials and Methods: PCR Amplification of extracted HPV-DNA was done for HPV-DNA status in fresh tissue of suspected oral cancer cases. Histomorphological features of the cases were analyzed, and p16 immunohistochemistry was performed on the same specimen after making paraffin blocks to study p16 overexpression. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test was used to analyze the differences between discrete variables. Results: 5/6 (83.3% HPV-DNA-positive cases were positive for p16 expression, whereas 26/44 (59.09% p16-positive cases which were negative for HPV-DNA. Sensitivity and specificity of p16 as a surrogate marker for HPV-DNA were found to be 83.3% and 40%, respectively. Conclusions: p16 immunostaining is a good first-line assay for eliminating HPV-negative cases from additional analysis, but other causes of p16 overexpression in oral tumorigenesis related to tobacco consumption in keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma needs to be explored further.
López, Jacqueline; Ruíz, Graciela; Organista-Nava, Jorge; Gariglio, Patricio; García-Carrancá, Alejandro
Different rate of development of productive infections (as low grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias), or high grade lesions and cervical malignant tumors associated with infections of the Transformation zone (TZ) by High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV), could suggest that different epithelial host target cells could exist. If there is more than one target cell, their differential infection by HR-HPV may play a central role in the development of cervical cancer. Recently, the concept that cancer might arise from a rare population of cells with stem cell-like properties has received support in several solid tumors, including cervical cancer (CC). According to the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis, CC can now be considered a disease in which stem cells of the TZ are converted to cervical cancer stem cells by the interplay between HR-HPV viral oncogenes and cellular alterations that are thought to be finally responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. Current studies of CSC could provide novel insights regarding tumor initiation and progression, their relation with viral proteins and interplay with the tumor micro-environment. This review will focus on the biology of cervical cancer stem cells, which might contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for cervical tumor development. PMID:23341858
Nicol, Alcina F; Pirmez, Claude; Pires, Andréa Rodrigues Cordovil; Souza, Simone R de; Nuovo, Gerard J; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Tristão, Aparecida; Russomano, Fabio B; Velasque, Luciane; Silva, José R Lapa e
The oncoproteins of human papillomavirus (HPVs) directly effect cell-cycle control. We hypothesize that regulatory and cell cycle protein expression might be additionally modified in the cervix of HIV/HPV co-infected women. We analyzed the expression of Rb, p27, VEGF and Elf-1 transcriptor factor by immunohistochemistry in 163 paraffin-embeded cervical samples using Tissue Micro-Array (TMA) and correlated this to HIV-1 and HPV infection. HIV/HPV co-infection was associated with a significant increase in expression (p < 0.001) of VEGF and p27 in both low and high grade CIN when compared to the cervices of women infected by HPV alone. Decreased Rb expression was evident with increased CIN grade in the cervices of women infected with HPV alone (p = 0.003 average of cells/mm 2 in CIN I: 17.9, CIN II/III: 4.8, and tumor 3.9). Rb expression increased 3-fold for both low and high grade CIN with HPV/HIV-1 co-infection compared to HPV infection alone but did not reach statistical significance. There was a significant increase in Elf-1 expression in HPV+/HIV- women with CIN II/III and tumor (average of cells/mm 2 in CIN I: 63.8; CIN II/III: 115.7 and tumor: 112.0, p = 0.005), in comparison to controls. Co-infection of HPV and HIV leads to significant increase in the VEGF and p27 expression when compared to HPV+/HIV-negative infection that could facilitate viral persistence and invasive tumor development
Nicol, Alcina F; Pires, Andréa Rodrigues Cordovil; de Souza, Simone R; Nuovo, Gerard J; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Tristão, Aparecida; Russomano, Fabio B; Velasque, Luciane; Lapa e Silva, José R; Pirmez, Claude
The oncoproteins of human papillomavirus (HPVs) directly effect cell-cycle control. We hypothesize that regulatory and cell cycle protein expression might be additionally modified in the cervix of HIV/HPV co-infected women. We analyzed the expression of Rb, p27, VEGF and Elf-1 transcriptor factor by immunohistochemistry in 163 paraffin-embeded cervical samples using Tissue Micro-Array (TMA) and correlated this to HIV-1 and HPV infection. HIV/HPV co-infection was associated with a significant increase in expression (p < 0.001) of VEGF and p27 in both low and high grade CIN when compared to the cervices of women infected by HPV alone. Decreased Rb expression was evident with increased CIN grade in the cervices of women infected with HPV alone (p = 0.003 average of cells/mm2 in CIN I: 17.9, CIN II/III: 4.8, and tumor 3.9). Rb expression increased 3-fold for both low and high grade CIN with HPV/HIV-1 co-infection compared to HPV infection alone but did not reach statistical significance. There was a significant increase in Elf-1 expression in HPV+/HIV- women with CIN II/III and tumor (average of cells/mm2 in CIN I: 63.8; CIN II/III: 115.7 and tumor: 112.0, p = 0.005), in comparison to controls. Co-infection of HPV and HIV leads to significant increase in the VEGF and p27 expression when compared to HPV+/HIV-negative infection that could facilitate viral persistence and invasive tumor development.
Alsbeih, Ghazi A; Al-Harbi, Najla M; Bin Judia, Sara S; Khoja, Hatim A; Shoukri, Mohamed M; Tulbah, Asma M
Cervical cancer is a predominantly human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven disease worldwide. However, its incidence is unexplainably low in western Asia, including Saudi Arabia. Using this paradigm, we investigated the role of HPV infection rate and host genetic predisposition in TP53 G72C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) presumed to affect cancer incidence. Patients treated between 1990 and 2012 were reviewed, and a series of 232 invasive cervical cancer cases were studied and compared with 313 matched controls without cancer. SNP was genotyped by way of direct sequencing. HPV linear array analysis was used to detect and genotype HPV in tumor samples. The incidence of cervical cancer revealed bimodal peaks at 42.5 years, with a slighter rebound at 60.8 years. Among all cases, 77% were HPV-positive and 16 HPV genotypes were detected-mostly genotypes 16 (75%) and 18 (9%)-with no difference by age, histology, or geographical region. Although the TP53 G72C genotype was not associated with overall cervical cancer risk, it was significantly associated with HPV positivity (odds ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-0.90; P = .016). Furthermore, the variant C allele was significantly overtransmitted in the population (P Cervical cancer incidence displays bimodal curve peaking at a young age with secondary rebound at older age. The combination of relative low HPV infection and variant TP53 72C allele overtransmission provide a plausible explanation for the low incidence of cervical cancer in our population. Therefore, HPV screening and host SNP genotyping may provide more relevant biomarkers to gauge the risk of developing cervical cancer. Cancer 2017;123:2459-66. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.
Whelan, Noella W; Steenbeek, Audrey; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Scott, Jeffrey; Smith, Bruce; D'Angelo-Scott, Holly
Nova Scotia has the highest rate of cervical cancer in Canada, and most of these cases are attributed to the Human Papillomavirus (HPV). In 2007, Gardasil(®) was approved and implemented in a successful school-based HPV immunization program. Little is known, however, which strategies (if any) used within a school-based program help to improve vaccine uptake. A retrospective, exploratory correlation study was conducted to examine the relationship between school-based strategies and uptake of HPV vaccine. Data was analyzed through Logistic regression, using PASW Statistics 17 (formerly SPSS 17). HPV vaccine initiation was significantly associated with Public Health Nurses providing reminder calls for: consent return (p=0.017) and missed school clinic (p=0.004); HPV education to teachers (pNurse being assigned to a school (p=0.025). These findings can be used to help guide school-based immunization programs for optimal uptake of the HPV vaccine among the student population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available HPV is classified into high-risk and low-risk types depending on its probability of leading to tumorigenesis. Many studies have shown that HPV infection, especially the infection caused by the high-risk type, is always related to prostate cancer, bladder cancer, penile cancer, testicular cancer, and other urinary system tumors. However, previous studies differed in sexual openness and racial genetic susceptibility of the study object, sample size, and experimental methods. Hence, the correlation between high-risk HPV infection and urinary system tumors remains controversial. The early open reading frame of the HPV genome is composed of E1–E7, among which E6 and E7 are the key transfer proteins. The combination of these proteins with oncogene and anti-oncogene may be one of the mechanisms leading to tumorigenesis.
Wang, Zhen; Xia, Rong-Hui; Ye, Dong-Xia; Li, Jiang
To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, p53 expression, and TP53 mutations in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) and determine their utility as prognostic predictors in a primarily eastern Chinese population. The HPV infection status was tested via p16INK4A immunohistochemistry and validated using PCR, reverse blot hybridization and in situ hybridization (ISH) in 188 OPSCC samples. p53 expression levels and TP53 gene mutations were assessed through immunohistochemistry and sequencing, respectively. Clinicopathological characteristics and follow-up information were collected. Overall survival was estimated using the Log-rank test. Overall, 22 of the 188 OPSCC samples were associated with HPV infection. HPV16 was identified in all 22 samples, whereas no samples were positive for HPV18. All 22 HPV-associated OPSCC samples were p53 negative and lacked TP53 mutations. HPV16 positivity, female patients, non-smokers, and patients with histological grade I and stage N0 diseases showed better overall survival (p = 0.009, 0.003, 0.048, 0.009, and 0.004, respectively). No significant differences in overall survival between smoking and non-smoking patients were observed in the HPV-associated OPSCC group. Patients without mutations in TP53 exons 5-8 had better prognoses (p = 0.031) among the 43 sequenced specimens. Multivariate analysis indicated that HPV16 infection status (p = 0.011), histological grade (p = 0.017), and N stage (p = 0.019) were independent prognostic factors for patients with OPSCC. Distinct from the situation in Europe and America, for the patients with OPSCC in this study, HPV16 infection was relatively low, although it was still the most important independent prognostic predictor for the disease. In addition to the high smoking and drinking rate in this population, HPV16 infection and TP53 dysfunction appear to be two distinct pathogens for OPSCC patients in the eastern Chinese population.
Näsman, Anders; Nordfors, Cecilia; Grün, Nathalie; Munck-Wikland, Eva; Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Marklund, Linda; Lindquist, David; Dalianis, Tina
Patients with human papillomavirus DNA positive (HPV DNA +) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) have better clinical outcome than those with HPV DNA negative (HPV DNA −) OSCC upon intensive oncological treatment. All HPV DNA + OSCC patients may not require intensive treatment, however, but before potentially deintensifying treatment, additional predictive markers are needed. Here, we examined HPV, p16 INK4a , and CD44 in OSCC in correlation to clinical outcome. Pretreatment tumors from 290 OSCC patients, the majority not receiving chemotherapy, were analyzed for HPV DNA by Luminex and for p16 INK4a and CD44 by immunohistochemistry. 225/290 (78%) tumors were HPV DNA + and 211/290 (73%) overexpressed p16 INK4a , which correlated to presence of HPV (P < 0.0001). Presence of HPV DNA, absent/weak CD44 intensity staining correlated to favorable 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) by univariate and multivariate analysis, and likewise for p16 INK4a by univariate analysis. Upon stratification for HPV, HPV DNA + OSCC with absent/weak CD44 intensity presented the significantly best 3-year DFS and OS, with >95% 3-year DFS and OS. Furthermore, in HPV DNA + OSCC, p16 INK4a + overexpression correlated to a favorable 3-year OS. In conclusion, patients with HPV DNA + and absent/weak CD44 intensity OSCC presented the best survival and this marker combination could possibly be used for selecting patients for tailored deintensified treatment in prospective clinical trials. Absence of/weak CD44 or presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA was shown as a favorable prognostic factors in tonsillar and tongue base cancer. Moreover, patients with the combination of absence of/weak CD44 and presence of HPV DNA presented a very favorable outcome. Therefore, we suggest that this marker combination could potentially be used to single out patients with a high survival that could benefit from a de-escalated oncological treatment
Samuel K. Campos
Full Text Available Since 2012, our understanding of human papillomavirus (HPV subcellular trafficking has undergone a drastic paradigm shift. Work from multiple laboratories has revealed that HPV has evolved a unique means to deliver its viral genome (vDNA to the cell nucleus, relying on myriad host cell proteins and processes. The major breakthrough finding from these recent endeavors has been the realization of L2-dependent utilization of cellular sorting factors for the retrograde transport of vDNA away from degradative endo/lysosomal compartments to the Golgi, prior to mitosis-dependent nuclear accumulation of L2/vDNA. An overview of current models of HPV entry, subcellular trafficking, and the role of L2 during initial infection is provided below, highlighting unresolved questions and gaps in knowledge.
Joura, Elmar A.; Ault, Kevin A.; Bosch, F. Xavier
BACKGROUND: We estimated the prevalence and incidence of 14 human papillomavirus (HPV) types (6/11/16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59) in cervicovaginal swabs, and the attribution of these HPV types in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), using predefined...
Feng, Rui Mei; Hu, Shang Ying; Zhao, Fang Hui; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Xun; Wallach, Asya Izraelit; Qiao, You Lin
We performed a pooled analysis to examine cigarette smoking and household passive smoke exposure in relation to the risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ (CIN2+). Data were pooled from 12 cross-sectional studies for cervical cancer screenings from 10 provinces of China in 1999-2007. A total of 16,422 women were analyzed, along with 2,392 high-risk-HPV (hr-HPV) positive women and 381 CIN2+ cases. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression models controlling for sexual and non-sexual confounding factors. There was an excess risk between active smoking and hr-HPV infection and CIN2+. Adjusted OR for ever smokers vs. never smokers was 1.45 (95% CI=1.10-1.91), for hr-HPV infection and 1.89 (95% CI=1.03-3.44), for CIN2+. Passive smoking had a slightly increased risk on the hr-HPV infection with adjusted OR 1.11 (1.00-1.24), but no statistical association was observed between passive smoke exposure and CIN2+. Compared with the neither active nor passive smokers, both active and passive smokers had a 1.57-fold (95% CI=1.14-2.15) increased risk of HPV infection and a 1.99-fold (95% CI=1.02-3.88) risk of CIN2+. Our large multi-center cross-sectional study found active smoking could increase the risk of overall hr-HPV infection and CIN2+ adjusted by passive smoking and other factors. Passive smoking mildly increased the risk of HPV infection but not the CIN2+. An interaction existed between passive tobacco exposure and active smoking for hr-HPV infection and the CIN2+. Copyright © 2017. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology
Rousseau, Marie-Noelle Didelot; Costes, Valérie; Konate, Issouf; Nagot, Nicolas; Foulongne, Vincent; Ouedraogo, Abdoulaye; Van de Perre, Philippe; Mayaud, Philippe; Segondy, Michel
The relationships between human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV 16) viral load, HPV 16 integration status, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) status, and cervical cytology were studied among women enrolled in a cohort of female sex workers in Burkina Faso. The study focused on 24 HPV 16-infected women. The HPV 16 viral load in cervical samples was determined by real-time PCR. Integration ratio was estimated as the ratio between E2 and E6 genes DNA copy numbers. Integrated HPV16 viral load was defined as the product of HPV 16 viral load by the integration ratio. High HPV 16 viral load and high integration ratio were more frequent among women with squamous intraepithelial lesions compared with women with normal cytology (33% vs. 11%, and 33% vs. 0%, respectively), and among women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions compared with women without high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (50% vs. 17%, and 50% vs. 11%, respectively). High HPV 16 DNA load, but not high integration ratio, was also more frequent among HIV-1-positive women (39% vs. 9%; and 23% vs. 18%, respectively). The absence of statistical significance of these differences might be explained by the small study sample size. High-integrated HPV 16 DNA load was significantly associated with the presence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (50% vs. 5%, P = 0.03) in univariate and multivariate analysis (adjusted odds-ratio: 19.05; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-328.3, P = 0.03), but not with HIV-1 or other high-risk HPV types (HR-HPV). Integrated HPV 16 DNA load may be considered as a useful marker of high-grade cervical lesions in HPV 16-infected women. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs comprise more than 180 genotypes. HPV infection is mainly diagnosed by molecular methods. The aim of our study was to review the main molecular methods used to diagnose HPV infection, underscoring their characteristics. Several methods have been developed for molecular diagnosis of Papilloma infection, such as those based on PCR technique. Another commercial non-PCR based diagnostic method is Hybrid Capture test; it is the only commercially available HPV DNA detection test approved by the FDA. Several Authors have suggested that viral load and E6/E7 transcripts could be used as surrogate markers of persistent HPV infection, being more specific predictors of progressive disease than the simple presence of HPV DNA. Validating clinical sensitivity and specificity of each technique and improving the interpretation of the results are essential; consequently, there is a clear need for well characterized international quality control panels to compare the various diagnostic methods. HPV DNA testing could be useful both as a primary screening test, alone or in combination with a Pap smear, for the early detection of cervical cancer precursors, and as triage test to select women with minor cytological abnormalities who will need further follow-up and to predict possible treatment failure in women with diagnosed high-grade intraepithelial lesions who have undergone excisional therapy. In the next future surveillance for HPV infections, based on these molecular methods, could represent an important step for the development of primary and secondary prophylactic interventions, such as new vaccines targeted to genotypes who might replace those previously prevalent.
Fernanda Nahoum Carestiato
Full Text Available SUMMARY High-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV infection is necessary but not sufficient for cervical cancer development. Recently, P16INK4A gene silencing through hypermethylation has been proposed as an important cofactor in cervical carcinogenesis due to its tumor suppressor function. We aimed to investigate P16INK4A methylation status in normal and neoplastic epithelia and evaluate an association with HPV infection and genotype. This cross-sectional study was performed with 141 cervical samples from patients attending Hospital Moncorvo Filho, Rio de Janeiro. HPV detection and genotyping were performed through PCR and P16INK4A methylation by nested-methylation specific PCR (MSP. HPV frequency was 62.4% (88/141. The most common HPV were HPV16 (37%, HPV18 (16.3% and HPV33/45(15.2%. An upward trend was observed concerning P16INK4A methylation and lesion degree: normal epithelia (10.7%, low grade lesions (22.9%, high grade (57.1% and carcinoma (93.1% (p < 0.0001. A multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate an association between methylation, age, tobacco exposure, HPV infection and genotyping. A correlation was found concerning methylation with HPV infection (p < 0.0001, hr-HPV (p = 0.01, HSIL (p < 0.0007 and malignant lesions (p < 0.0001. Since viral infection and epigenetic alterations are related to cervical carcinoma, we suggest that P16INK4A methylation profile maybe thoroughly investigated as a biomarker to identify patients at risk of cancer.
Wang, Rong; Guo, Xiao-lei; Wisman, G. Bea A.; Schuuring, Ed; Wang, Wen-feng; Zeng, Zheng-yu; Zhu, Hong; Wu, Shang-wei
Background: Type-specific high-risk HPV (hrHPV) infection is related to cervical carcinogenesis. The prevalence of hrHPV infection varies geographically, which might reflect the epidemiological characteristics of cervical cancer among different populations. To establish a foundation for HPV-based
Zhang, Ting; Xu, Yufei; Qiao, Liang; Wang, Youchun; Wu, Xueling; Fan, Dongsheng; Peng, Qinglin; Xu, Xuemei
Both Human Papillomavirus (HPV) type 16/18 bivalent vaccine and type 16/18/6/11 quadrivalent vaccine have been proved to be safe and effective, and licensed for public use. However, these two vaccines do not quite match the distribution of HPV types in China, Southeast Asia and Latin America, where HPV 58 is highly prevalent. Here we produced three types of virus-like particles (VLPs) in baculovirus expression system, formulated a trivalent vaccine containing HPV 16, 18, and 58 L1 VLPs and examined its in vitro neutralizing titers. This vaccine could induce high level and long-term humoral immunity against the component types. But immune interference was observed when comparing type specific neutralizing antibody levels induced by trivalent vaccine to those by corresponding monovalent vaccines. This kind of interference would become more obvious when formulating more types of VLPs into multivalent vaccines, but could be greatly overcome by decreasing the antigen dosage and adding a proper adjuvant. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVE: To assess Human Papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution among men ages 18 years and older recruited from three different countries utilizing a common protocol for sampling HPV detection, and to evaluate whether HPV detection differs by age and country. MATERIAL AD METHODS: The study protocol includes a pre-enrollment run-in visit, a baseline (enrollment) visit, and nine additional visits after enrollment scheduled six months apart. For this analysis, the first 1160 men who completed...
Hechter, Rulin C; Chao, Chun; Sy, Lina S; Ackerson, Bradley K; Slezak, Jeff M; Sidell, Margo A; Jacobsen, Steven J
We examined whether maternal utilization of preventive care and history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) predicted quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4) uptake among adolescent boys 1 year following the recommendation for permissive use of HPV4 for males. We linked maternal information with electronic health records of 254 489 boys aged 9 to 17 years who enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Southern California health plan from October 21, 2009, through December 21, 2010. We used multivariable Poisson regression with robust error variance to examine whether HPV4 initiation was associated with maternal uptake of influenza vaccine, Papanicolaou (Pap) screening, and history of STIs. We identified a modest but statistically significant association between initiation of HPV4 series and maternal receipt of influenza vaccine (rate ratio [RR] = 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07, 1.26) and Pap screening (RR = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.26). Boys whose mothers had a history of genital warts were more likely to initiate HPV4 (RR = 1.47; 95% CI = 0.93, 2.34), although the association did not reach statistical significance (P = .1). Maternal utilization of preventive care and history of genital warts may influence HPV4 uptake among adolescent boys. The important role of maternal health characteristics and health behaviors needs be considered in intervention efforts to increase vaccine uptake among boys.
Senba, Masachika; Mori, Naoki
Human papillomavirus (HPV) has developed strategies to escape eradication by innate and adaptive immunity. Immune response evasion has been considered an important aspect of HPV persistence, which is the main contributing factor leading to HPV-related cancers. HPV-induced cancers expressing viral oncogenes E6 and E7 are potentially recognized by the immune system. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules are patrolled by natural killer cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes, respectively. This system of recognition is a main target for the strategies of immune evasion deployed by viruses. The viral immune evasion proteins constitute useful tools to block defined stages of the MHC class I presentation pathway, and in this way HPV avoids the host immune response. The long latency period from initial infection to persistence signifies that HPV evolves mechanisms to escape the immune response. It has now been established that there are oncogenic mechanisms by which E7 binds to and degrades tumor suppressor Rb, while E6 binds to and inactivates tumor suppressor p53. Therefore, interaction of p53 and pRb proteins can give rise to an increased immortalization and genomic instability. Overexpression of NF-κB in cervical and penile cancers suggests that NF-κB activation is a key modulator in driving chronic inflammation to cancer. HPV oncogene-mediated suppression of NF-κB activity contributes to HPV escape from the immune system. This review focuses on the diverse mechanisms of the virus immune evasion with HPV that leads to chronic inflammation and cancer.
Full Text Available Clinical diagnostics of HPV infection is based on analytically andclinically validated assays for qualitative detection of HPV DNAfrom high risk genotypes. New generation of HPV DNA assayscombines qualitative detection of 12 high-risk HPV genotypeswith HPV-16 and HPV-18 genotyping. New generation of HPVmolecular assays designed to increase clinical specificity of moleculartesting is based on detection of mRNA for E6 and E7.
Sally N. Adebamowo
Full Text Available BackgroundRecent studies have suggested that the vaginal microenvironment plays a role in persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV infection and thus cervical carcinogenesis. Furthermore, it has been shown that some mycoplasmas are efficient methylators and may facilitate carcinogenesis through methylation of hrHPV and cervical somatic cells. We examined associations between prevalence and persistence of Mycoplasma spp. in the vaginal microbiota, and prevalent as well as persistent hrHPV infections.MethodsWe examined 194 Nigerian women who were tested for hrHPV infection using SPF25/LiPA10 and we identified Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis in their vaginal microbiota established by sequencing the V3–V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. We defined the prevalence of M. genitalium, M. hominis, and hrHPV based on positive result of baseline tests, while persistence was defined as positive results from two consecutive tests. We used exact logistic regression models to estimate associations between Mycoplasma spp. and hrHPV infections.ResultsThe mean (SD age of the study participants was 38 (8 years, 71% were HIV positive, 30% M. genitalium positive, 45% M. hominis positive, and 40% hrHPV positive at baseline. At follow-up, 16% of the women remained positive for M. genitalium, 30% for M. hominis, and 31% for hrHPV. There was a significant association between persistent M. hominis and persistent hrHPV (OR 8.78, 95% CI 1.49–51.6, p 0.01. Women who were positive for HIV and had persistent M. hominis had threefold increase in the odds of having persistent hrHPV infection (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.31–8.74, p 0.008, compared to women who were negative for both.ConclusionWe found significant association between persistent M. hominis in the vaginal microbiota and persistent hrHPV in this study, but we could not rule out reverse causation. Our findings need to be replicated in larger, longitudinal studies and if confirmed
Nearly all sexually active men and women will get infected with the human papillomavirus, or HPV, at some point in their lives. HPV can lead to serious health problems later in life, including certain cancers in both men and women. Since 2006, a vaccine has been available that protects against the most frequent cancer-causing types of HPV. In this podcast, Shannon Stokley discusses the importance of getting the HPV vaccine.
Linares, Lourdes Oriana; Shankar, Viswanathan; Diaz, Angela; Nucci-Sack, Anne; Strickler, Howard D.; Peake, Ken; Weiss, Jocelyn; Burk, Robert D.; Schlecht, Nicolas F.
Objective This study investigated the association of cervical Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection with cumulative psychosocial risk reflecting family disadvantage, psychological distress, and unhealthy life style. Methods The sample (N=745) was comprised of sexually-active female adolescent patients (12-19 years), primarily ethnic minorities, enrolled in a free HPV vaccination program. Subjects completed questionnaires and provided cervical swabs for HPV DNA testing. Unweighted and weighted Principal Component Analyses (PCA) for categorical data were used to derive multi-systemic psychosocial risk indices using nine indicators: low socioeconomic status, lack of adult involvement, not attending high-school/college, history of treatment for depression/anxiety, antisocial/delinquent behavior, number of recent sexual partners, use of alcohol, use of drugs, and dependency risk for alcohol/drugs. The association between cervical HPV (any-type, high risk-types, vaccine-types) assayed by polymerase chain reaction and self-reported number of psychosocial risk indicators was estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Results Subjects had a median of three psychosocial risk indicators. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed associations with unweighted and weighted number of psychosocial indicators for HPV any-type (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.2 ); with the strongest associations between weighted drug/alcohol use, drug/alcohol dependency risk, and antisocial/delinquent behavior and detection of HPV vaccine-types (aOR=1.5; 95%CI: 1.1-2.0) independent of number of recent sexual partners and vaccine dose (0-3). Conclusion Increased HPV infections including HPV vaccine-types were associated with greater number of psychosocial risk indicators even after controlling for demographics, sexual behavior, history of chlamydia, and vaccine dose. PMID:25985216
Villota, Claudio; Campos, América; Vidaurre, Soledad; Oliveira-Cruz, Luciana; Boccardo, Enrique; Burzio, Verónica A.; Varas, Manuel; Villegas, Jaime; Villa, Luisa L.; Valenzuela, Pablo D. T.; Socías, Miguel; Roberts, Sally; Burzio, Luis O.
The study of RNA and DNA oncogenic viruses has proved invaluable in the discovery of key cellular pathways that are rendered dysfunctional during cancer progression. An example is high risk human papillomavirus (HPV), the etiological agent of cervical cancer. The role of HPV oncogenes in cellular immortalization and transformation has been extensively investigated. We reported the differential expression of a family of human mitochondrial non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) between normal and cancer cells. Normal cells express a sense mitochondrial ncRNA (SncmtRNA) that seems to be required for cell proliferation and two antisense transcripts (ASncmtRNAs). In contrast, the ASncmtRNAs are down-regulated in cancer cells. To shed some light on the mechanisms that trigger down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs, we studied human keratinocytes (HFK) immortalized with HPV. Here we show that immortalization of HFK with HPV-16 or 18 causes down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs and induces the expression of a new sense transcript named SncmtRNA-2. Transduction of HFK with both E6 and E7 is sufficient to induce expression of SncmtRNA-2. Moreover, E2 oncogene is involved in down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs. Knockdown of E2 in immortalized cells reestablishes in a reversible manner the expression of the ASncmtRNAs, suggesting that endogenous cellular factors(s) could play functions analogous to E2 during non-HPV-induced oncogenesis. PMID:22539350
Villota, Claudio; Campos, América; Vidaurre, Soledad; Oliveira-Cruz, Luciana; Boccardo, Enrique; Burzio, Verónica A; Varas, Manuel; Villegas, Jaime; Villa, Luisa L; Valenzuela, Pablo D T; Socías, Miguel; Roberts, Sally; Burzio, Luis O
The study of RNA and DNA oncogenic viruses has proved invaluable in the discovery of key cellular pathways that are rendered dysfunctional during cancer progression. An example is high risk human papillomavirus (HPV), the etiological agent of cervical cancer. The role of HPV oncogenes in cellular immortalization and transformation has been extensively investigated. We reported the differential expression of a family of human mitochondrial non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) between normal and cancer cells. Normal cells express a sense mitochondrial ncRNA (SncmtRNA) that seems to be required for cell proliferation and two antisense transcripts (ASncmtRNAs). In contrast, the ASncmtRNAs are down-regulated in cancer cells. To shed some light on the mechanisms that trigger down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs, we studied human keratinocytes (HFK) immortalized with HPV. Here we show that immortalization of HFK with HPV-16 or 18 causes down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs and induces the expression of a new sense transcript named SncmtRNA-2. Transduction of HFK with both E6 and E7 is sufficient to induce expression of SncmtRNA-2. Moreover, E2 oncogene is involved in down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs. Knockdown of E2 in immortalized cells reestablishes in a reversible manner the expression of the ASncmtRNAs, suggesting that endogenous cellular factors(s) could play functions analogous to E2 during non-HPV-induced oncogenesis.
Full Text Available Sumanth Gandra, Aline Azar, Mireya WessolosskyDivision of Infectious Disease and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USABackground: Although anal high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV infection and anal cytological abnormalities are highly prevalent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM, there are insufficient data on these abnormalities among HIV-infected heterosexual men (HSM and women. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of anal HR-HPV, cytological abnormalities, and performance of these screening tests in detecting high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN2+ among our cohort of HIV-infected MSM and non-MSM (HSM and women.Methods: A single-center, retrospective cohort study was conducted with HIV-infected individuals who underwent anal cancer screening with anal cytology and HR-HPV testing from January 2011 to January 31, 2013.Results: Screening of 221 HIV-infected individuals for both HR-HPV and anal cytology showed the presence of HR-HPV in 54% (abnormal anal cytology 48% of MSM, 28% (abnormal anal cytology 28% of HSM, and 27% (abnormal anal cytology 34% of women. Among 117 (53% individuals with abnormal results (HR-HPV-positive and/or cytology was atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or above, 67 underwent high resolution anoscopy. Of these 67 individuals, 22 individuals had AIN2+ (17 MSM, four women, and one HSM. HR-HPV correlated better with AIN2+ than with anal cytology on biopsy in both MSM (r=0.29 versus r=0.10; P=0.05 versus P=0.49 and non-MSM (r=0.36 versus r=-0.34; P=0.08 versus P=0.09.Conclusion: Given the presence of AIN2+ in screened HIV-infected HSM and women, routine anal cancer screening in all HIV-infected individuals should be considered. HR-HPV merits further evaluation for anal cancer screening among non-MSM.Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, anal human papillomavirus, heterosexual men, women, anal cancer
Linares, Lourdes Oriana; Shankar, Viswanathan; Diaz, Angela; Nucci-Sack, Anne; Strickler, Howard D; Peake, Ken; Weiss, Jocelyn; Burk, Robert D; Schlecht, Nicolas F
This study investigated the association of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection with cumulative psychosocial risk reflecting family disadvantage, psychological distress, and unhealthy lifestyle. The sample (N = 745) comprised sexually active female adolescent patients (12-19 yr), primarily ethnic minorities, enrolled in a free HPV vaccination program. Subjects completed questionnaires and provided cervical swabs for HPV DNA testing. Unweighted and weighted principal component analyses for categorical data were used to derive multisystemic psychosocial risk indices using 9 indicators: low socioeconomic status, lack of adult involvement, not attending high school/college, history of treatment for depression/anxiety, antisocial/delinquent behavior, number of recent sexual partners, use of alcohol, use of drugs, and dependency risk for alcohol/drugs. The association between cervical HPV (any type, high-risk types, vaccine types) assayed by polymerase chain reaction and self-reported number of psychosocial risk indicators was estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Subjects had a median of 3 psychosocial risk indicators. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed associations with unweighted and weighted number of psychosocial indicators for HPV any type (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-1.2), with the strongest associations between weighted drug/alcohol use, drug/alcohol dependency risk, and antisocial/delinquent behavior and detection of HPV vaccine types (aOR = 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.0) independent of number of recent sexual partners and vaccine dose (0-3). Increased HPV infections including HPV vaccine types were associated with greater number of psychosocial risk indicators even after controlling for demographics, sexual behavior, history of chlamydia, and vaccine dose.
Sichero, Laura; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Ferreira, Silvaneide; Sobrinho, João S; Luiza Baggio, Maria; Galan, Lenice; Silva, Roberto C; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R; Villa, Luisa L
The HPV infection in men (HIM) study examines the natural history of genital HPV infection in men. Genotyping methods used in this study identify 37 α-HPV types; however, the viral type could not be identified in approximately 22% of male genital specimens that were HPV PCR positive. Our aim was to genotype HPV-unclassified specimens by sequencing PGMY09/11, GP5+/6+ or FAP59/64 PCR products. Using this approach we were able to detect 86 unique HPV types among 508 of 931 specimens analyzed. We report for the first time the presence of a broad range of α-, β- and γ-HPV at the male genitals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Iftner, Thomas; Germ, Liesje; Swoyer, Ryan
methods has not been well characterized. Clinically, cytology is used to establish possible HPV infection. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of HPV multiplex PCR assays compared to those of the testing scheme of the Hybrid Capture II (HCII) assay followed by an HPV PCR/line hybridization assay...... (HCII-LiPA v2). SurePath residual samples were split into two aliquots. One aliquot was subjected to HCII testing followed by DNA extraction and LiPA v2 genotyping. The second aliquot was shipped to a second laboratory, where DNA was extracted and HPV multiplex PCR testing was performed. Comparisons...... were evaluated for 15 HPV types common in both assays. A slightly higher proportion of samples tested positive by the HPV multiplex PCR than by the HCII-LiPA v2 assay. The sensitivities of the multiplex PCR assay relative to those of the HCII-LiPA v2 assay for HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, for example...
Han, Chi-Son; Ferris, Daron G; Waller, Jennifer; Tharp, Philip; Walter, Jessica; Allmond, Lynn
The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the knowledge and attitudes toward human papillomavirus (HPV), HPV vaccine, Pap tests, and cervical cancer among US and Peruvian women. A convenience sample of 275 US women in Augusta, GA, and 702 Peruvian women living in or near Cusco, Peru, completed 22- or 21-item questionnaires, respectively. These questionnaires determined their knowledge about HPV, the HPV vaccine, Pap tests, and cervical cancer. Simple logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between location and language on the correct responses. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. US Spanish- (OR = 0.02), Quechua- (OR = 0.05), and Peru Spanish-speaking women (OR = 0.03) were significantly less likely to know that HPV causes cervical cancer compared with US non-Spanish-speaking women. US Spanish- (OR = 10.61, OR = 5.74), Quechua- (OR = 11.08, OR = 9.89), and Peru Spanish-speaking women (OR = 17.25, 14.43) were significantly more likely to be embarrassed and afraid, respectively, to get a Pap test compared with US non-Spanish-speaking women. US Spanish- (OR = 0.11), Quechua- (OR = 0.14), and Peru Spanish-speaking women (OR = 0.11) women were significantly less likely to know the HPV vaccine is safe and effective compared with US non-Spanish-speaking women. Education must be implemented to address serious misconceptions and worrisome attitudes toward Pap tests and the HPV vaccine to decrease the rate of cervical cancer in Peru and US Spanish-speaking women.
Skinner, S Rachel; Davies, Cristyn; Cooper, Spring; Stoney, Tanya; Marshall, Helen; Jones, Jane; Collins, Joanne; Hutton, Heidi; Parrella, Adriana; Zimet, Gregory; Regan, David G; Whyte, Patti; Brotherton, Julia M L; Richmond, Peter; McCaffrey, Kirsten; Garland, Suzanne M; Leask, Julie; Kang, Melissa; Braunack-Mayer, Annette; Kaldor, John; McGeechan, Kevin
The National Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Program in Australia commenced in 2007 for females and in 2013 for males, using the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (HPV 6,11,16,18). Thus far, we have demonstrated very substantial reductions in genital warts and in the prevalence of HPV among young Australian women, providing early evidence for the success of this public health initiative. Australia has a long history of school-based vaccination programs for adolescents, with comparatively high coverage. However, it is not clear what factors promote success in a school vaccination program. The HPV.edu study aims to examine: 1) student knowledge about HPV vaccination; 2) psycho-social outcomes and 3) vaccination uptake. HPV.edu is a cluster randomised trial of a complex intervention in schools aiming to recruit 40 schools with year-8 enrolments above 100 students (approximately 4400 students). The schools will be stratified by Government, Catholic, and Independent sectors and geographical location, with up to 20 schools recruited in each of two states, Western Australia (WA) and South Australia (SA), and randomly allocated to intervention or control (usual practice). Intervention schools will receive the complex intervention which includes an adolescent intervention (education and distraction); a decisional support tool for parents and adolescents and logistical strategies (consent form returns strategies, in-school mop-up vaccination and vaccination-day guidelines). Careful process evaluation including an embedded qualitative evaluation will be undertaken to explore in depth possible mechanisms for any observed effect of the intervention on primary and secondary outcomes. This study is the first to evaluate the relative effectiveness of various strategies to promote best practice in school-based vaccination against HPV. The study aims to improve vaccination-related psychosocial outcomes, including adolescent knowledge and attitudes, decision-making involvement, self
Dobec, Marinko; Bannwart, Fridolin; Kaeppeli, Franz; Cassinotti, Pascal
There is a need for reliable, automated high throughput HPV detection and genotyping methods for pre- and post-prophylactic vaccine intervention analyses. To optimize the linear array (LA) HPV genotyping test (Roche Diagnostics, Rotkreuz) in regard to possible automation steps for the routine laboratory diagnosis of HPV infections and to analyze the HPV genotype distribution in cervical specimens of women without cytological abnormalities in Switzerland. 680 cervical cell specimens with normal cytology, obtained from women undergoing routine cervical screening by liquid-based Pap smear, were analyzed by the LA HPV genotyping test for HPV-DNA. The automation of the LA HPV genotyping test resulted in a total hands-on time reduction of 255 min (from 480 to 225 min; 53%). Any of 37 HPV genotypes were detected in 117 (17.2%) and high-risk (HR) HPV in 55 (8.1%) of 680 women with normal cytology. The highest prevalence of any HPV (28.1%) and HR-HPV (15.1%) was observed in age-group 21-30 and showed a continuous decrease in older age-groups. The most common HR-HPV genotypes were HPV-16 (12%), HPV-31 (9.4%), HPV-52 (6%), HPV-51 (5.1%), HPV-45 (4.3%), HPV-58 (4.3%) and HPV-59 (4.3%). The optimization and automation of the LA HPV genotyping test makes it suited for high throughput HPV detection and typing. The epidemiological data provides information about distribution of HPV genotypes in women without cytological abnormalities in Switzerland and may be important for determining the future impact of vaccines and potential changes in the country's epidemiological HPV profile.
Liu, Na; Wang, Jiayi; Lei, Lei; Li, Yanzhong; Zhou, Min; Dan, Hongxia; Zeng, Xin; Chen, Qianming
Human papillomavirus infection can cause a variety of benign or malignant oral lesions, and the various genotypes can cause distinct types of lesions. To our best knowledge, there has been no report of 2 different human papillomavirus-related oral lesions in different oral sites in the same patient before. This paper reported a patient with 2 different oral lesions which were clinically and histologically in accord with focal epithelial hyperplasia and oral papilloma, respectively. Using DNA extracted from these 2 different lesions, tissue blocks were tested for presence of human papillomavirus followed by specific polymerase chain reaction testing for 6, 11, 13, 16, 18, an